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1

Heavy Metal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the advantages, both functional and economic, of using a standing-seam metal roof in both new roof installations and reroofing projects of educational facilities. Structural versus non-structural standing-seam roofs are described as are the types of insulation that can be added and roof finishes used. (GR)|

Shoemaker, W. Lee

1998-01-01

2

Mutagenicity of heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

Certain heavy metals are required, as trace elements for normal cellular functions. However, heavy metals are toxic to cells once their levels exceed their low physiological values. The toxicity of heavy metals on microorganisms, and on animals has been well-documented. These interactions may induce the alteration of the primary as well as secondary structures of the DNA and result in mutation(s). The present communication reports the results in determining the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of ten heavy metals commonly found in polluted areas by using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test.

Wong, P.K.

1988-04-01

3

Hazards of heavy metal contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. These metals have been extensively studied and their effects on human health regularly reviewed by international bodies such as the WHO. Heavy metals have been used by humans for thousands of years. Although several adverse health effects of heavy metals have

Lars Järup

2003-01-01

4

Heavy metal removal with lignin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing discharges of toxic heavy metals and the concomitant environmental damage has resulted in stringent standards for effluent disposal. Techno?economic limitations of conventional metal removal methods dictate the development of alternate, inexpensive techniques to meet the discharge criteria. Heavy metal removal with lignin, a multifunctional group polymer easily recovered from pulp and paper industry waste, appears to be a potential

K. V. R. Verma; T. Swaminathan; P. V. R. Subrahmanyam

1990-01-01

5

Microorganisms and heavy metal toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental and microbiological factors that can influence heavy metal toxicity are discussed with a view to understanding the mechanisms of microbial metal tolerance. It is apparent that metal toxicity can be heavily influenced by environmental conditions. Binding of metals to organic materials, precipitation, complexation, and ionic interactions are all important phenomena that must be considered carefully in laboratory and

Geoffrey M. Gadd; Alan J. Griffiths

1977-01-01

6

Heavy Metal Pumps in Plants  

SciTech Connect

The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of these plants to help clean up toxic metals from soils. A rate limiting step is using plant for bioremediation is the normally poor capacity of plants to concentrate toxic metals. Our interest in metal ion transport systems includes those for essential mineral nutrients such as molybdenum, copper, iron, manganese, as well as toxic metals such as cerium, mercury, cesium, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Understanding the pathways by which toxic metals accumulate in plants will enable the engineering of plants to exclude toxic metals and create healthier food sources, or to extract toxic metals from the soil as a strategy to clean up polluted lands and water.

Harper, J.F.

2000-10-01

7

Soil testing for heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil testing for metal contaminants is a continually evolving process aimed at improving the assessment of environmental and human health hazards associated with heavy metals in soils and plants. A number of challenges present themselves before accurate, reliable and precise contaminant hazard assessment criteria for soils and plants can be made. These include: sampling, extraction and analytical obstacles associated with

M. J. McLaughlin; B. A. Zarcinas; D. P. Stevens; N. Cook

2000-01-01

8

Biosorption of heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only within the past decade has the potential of metal biosorption by biomass materials been well established. For economic reasons, of particular interest are abundant biomass types generated as a waste byproduct of large-scale industrial fermentations or certain metal-binding algae found in large quantities in the sea. These biomass types serve as a basis for newly developed metal biosorption processes

B. Volesky; Z. R. Holant

1995-01-01

9

The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide problem through disturbing the normal functions of rivers and lakes. Sediment, as the largest storage and resources of heavy metal, plays a rather important role in metal transformations. This paper provides a review on the geochemical forms, affecting factors and remediation technologies of heavy metal in sediment. The in situ remediation of sediment

Jian-feng Peng; Yong-hui Song; Peng Yuan; Xiao-yu Cui; Guang-lei Qiu

2009-01-01

10

The Monitoring of Heavy Metals in Fruits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper proposes some possibilities for heavy metals monitoring in fruits. The heavy metals concentrations have been determinated by AA spectrometry and electrochemical methods: i = f(E) voltammetry and selective ion electrode determinations with a Thermo Orion 710A+ apparatus. The determination of heavy metals concentration in fruits is very important to be known because they both represent a natural and

M. N. Stefanut; I. David; Z. Stanoiev; C. Macarie

11

Heavy metals in Organic milk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic agriculture addresses the public demand to reduce environmental pollution of agricultural production. These methods\\u000a are used to minimize pollution of air, soil and water, although they cannot ensure that products are completely free of residues,\\u000a because of general environmental pollution FAO, 2000. Most heavy metals do not undergo biological or chemical degradation\\u000a and may remain in the soil for

Jelena Zagorska; Daina K?rklina

12

Accumulation of heavy metals in freshwater molluscs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals in the aquatic environment have to date come mainly from naturally occurring geochemical materials. However, this has been enhanced by human activity such as gold mining in the case of heavy metal pollution in Sg Sarawak Kanan. The high suspended solid loads in the river have quite efficiently removed most soluble metals from the water and trapped them

S Lau; M Mohamed; A Tan Chi Yen; S Su'ut

1998-01-01

13

Industrial hygiene of selected heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

The industrial hygiene of heavy metals consists of recognition, evaluation, and control of exposures in the occupational environment. Several of these metals have been in use since ancient times. Reports of health effects and poisonings from overexposures also have a long history. This report discusses the industrial hygiene of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium, mercury, and manganese.

Woodring, J.L.

1993-08-01

14

The Heavy Metal Subculture and Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Assessed relationship between heavy metal music and suicide with data on heavy metal magazine subscriptions and youth suicide in 50 states. Found that, controlling for other predictors of suicide, greater strength of metal subculture, higher youth suicide rate, suggests that music perhaps nurtures suicidal tendencies already present in…

Stack, Steven; And Others

1994-01-01

15

Leachability of heavy metals from solidified sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solidified sludge undergoes progressive depletion of the alkalinity materials under natural weathering condition and releases\\u000a out of heavy metals. The leaching of heavy metals from solidified sewage sludge was studied by acid neutralization capacity\\u000a (ANC) test and flow-through leaching test. The results of ANC test showed that heavy metals release at high concentration\\u000a when the pH of extract lowers than

HuYuan Zhang; Bao Wang; XingLing Dong; Lei Feng; ZhiMing Fan

2009-01-01

16

Heavy metals in Antarctic organisms  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate levels of essential (zinc and copper) and non-essential (mercury and cadmium) heavy metals, 34 species of organisms from different areas close to the Antarctic Peninsula were analysed. These included algae, filter-feeders, omnivorous invertebrates and vertebrates. Mercury was not detected, while cadmium was found in the majority of organisms analysed (detection limit was 0.05 ppm for both metals). The highest cadmium concentration was observed in the starfish Odontaster validus. Anthozoans, sipunculids and nudibranchs showed maximum levels of zinc, while the highest copper level was found in the gastropod Trophon brevispira. Mercury and cadmium levels in fishes were below the detection limit. Concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in birds were highest in liver followed by muscle and eggs. Cadmium and mercury levels in muscle of southern elephant seals were above the detection limit, whereas in Antarctic fur seals they were below it. The objective of the study was to gather baseline information for metals in Antarctic Ocean biota that may be needed to detect, measure and monitor future environmental changes. 46 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

Moreno, J.E.A. de; Moreno, V.J. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (Argentina); Gerpe, M.S.; Vodopivez, C. [Instituto Antartico Argentino, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

1997-02-01

17

FINAL REPORT. HEAVY METAL PUMPS IN PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of t...

18

Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidal Risk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Studied differentiating characteristics of youth who prefer heavy metal music, worship music, and use music for vicarious release. Data for 275 secondary school students suggest that heavy metal music preference and worshipping is not related to suicidal risk when controlling for other suicide factors. Discusses findings in the context of…

Lacourse, Eric; Claes, Michel; Villeneuve, Martine

2001-01-01

19

Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)|

Stack, Steven

1998-01-01

20

Effect of heavy metals on soil fungi  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fungi constitute a high proportion of the microbial biomass in soil.Being widespread in soil their large surface-to-volume ratio and high metabolic activity, fungi can contribute significantly to heavy metal dynamics in soil. At neutral pH heavy metals in soils tend to be immobilized to precipitation and/or absorption to cation exchange sites of clay minerals. In the acidic soils, metals are more mobile and enter food webs easier. Microbial production of acids and chelating agents can mobilize to toxic metals. Mobilization is often by uptake and intracellular accumulation of the heavy metlas, and in this way, the bioavailability of metals towards other organisms can be more reduced. Fungi were isolated from soils from Upper Silesia in Poland and belonged to widespread genera: Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Trichoderma. Fungi from different taxonomic groups differ greatly in their tolerance to heavy metals. This could be related to their wall structure and chemistry as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics of fungi. Localization of metals in fungal cells was studied using electron microscopy analysis. Metal biosorption in the cell wall can be complex as melanin granules. Fungal vacuoles have an important role in the regulation of the cytosolic concentration of metal ions, and may contribute to heavy metal tolerance.In polluted soils with heavy metals, fungal species composition can be changed and their physiological activity can be changed, too.

Sosak-?widerska, Bo?ena

2010-05-01

21

Resistance of environmental bacteria to heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria were isolated from different naturally polluted environments. Metal-resistant bacteria were selected and minimal inhibitory concentrations of heavy metals (MICs) for each isolate were determined. In addition, the mobility of the most important metallic cations (Cu, Zn, Cr, Cd, Co, Hg) was evaluated by comparing results obtained by two tests of toxicity in solid and liquid media. Results of the

A. Hassen; N. Saidi; M. Cherif; A. Boudabous

1998-01-01

22

Heavy metal contamination from geothermal sources.  

PubMed

Liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs, which contain saline fluids at high temperatures and pressures, have a significant potential for contamination of the environment by heavy metals. The design of the power conversion cycle in a liquid-dominated geothermal plant is a key factor in determining the impact of the installation. Reinjection of the fluid into the reservoir minimizes heavy metal effluents but is routinely practiced at few installations. Binary power cycles with reinjection would provide even cleaner systems but are not yet ready for commercial application. Vapor-dominated systems, which contain superheated steam, have less potential for contamination but are relatively uncommon. Field data on heavy metal effluents from geothermal plants are sparse and confounded by contributions from "natural" sources such as geysers and hot springs which often exist nearby. Insofar as geothermal power supplies are destined to multiply, much work is required on their environmental effects including those caused by heavy metals. PMID:1227849

Sabadell, J E; Axtmann, R C

1975-12-01

23

DECONTAMINATION OF HEAVY METALS WITH BACTERIA  

EPA Science Inventory

OBJECTIVES: To discover, improve, understand the mechanisms and use naturally occurring bacteria to decontiminate in situ heavy metals from the soils, sediments and waters to protect human health and the environment. ABSTRACT: Our laboratory (Vesper et al. ...

24

Removal of heavy metals from waste streams  

SciTech Connect

A method for removing heavy metals from effluent water is described comprising performing sequentially the following steps: (a) adding from 7-333 ppm of an anionic surfactant to the effluent water to provide coagulatable heavy metal ion; (b) adjusting the effluent water pH to within the range of 8 to 10, (c) providing from 10-200 ppm of a cationic coagulant to coagulate the heavy metal ion, (d) providing from 0.3 to 5.0 ppm of a polymeric flocculant whereby a heavy metal containing floc is formed for removal from the effluent water, and, (e) then removing the floc from the effluent water, wherein the anionic surfactant is sodium lauryl ether sulfate. The cationic coagulant is selected from the group consisting of diallyl dimethylammonium chloride polymer, epichlorohydrin dimethylamine polymer, ethylene amine polymer, polyaluminum chloride, and alum; and the flocculant is an acrylamide/sodium acrylate copolymer having an RSV greater than 23.

Spence, M.D.; Kozaruk, J.M.; Melvin, M.; Gardocki, S.M.

1988-07-19

25

Heavy metals and living systems: An overview  

PubMed Central

Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in accumulation of metals in plant parts having secondary metabolites, which is responsible for a particular pharmacological activity. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Molecular understanding of plant metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications also, the long term effects of which might not be yet known.

Singh, Reena; Gautam, Neetu; Mishra, Anurag; Gupta, Rajiv

2011-01-01

26

Mechanisms of heavy metal-induced autoimmunity.  

PubMed

Chemical exposure can trigger or accelerate the development of autoimmune manifestations. Although heavy metals are elementary chemical structures, they can have profound and complex effects on the immune system. In genetically susceptible mice or rats, administration of subtoxic doses of mercury induces both the production of highly specific autoantibodies and a polyclonal activation of the immune system. We review in this article some of the mechanisms by which heavy metal exposure can lead to autoimmunity. PMID:15829271

Rowley, Benjamin; Monestier, Marc

2005-05-01

27

Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States))

1991-02-01

28

Bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals and related trace elements  

SciTech Connect

A literature review of bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals is presented. The most common heavy metals studied were Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Sn, Hg, and Pb. The studies dealt with heavy metals in the environment, bioconcentration, toxicity, and detoxification of heavy metals. (JMT)

Murphy, C.B.; Speigel, S.J.

1983-06-01

29

Simultaneous removal of nitrate and heavy metals by iron metal*  

PubMed Central

Great attention should be paid now to simultaneously removing common pollutants, especially inorganic pollutants such as nitrate and heavy metals, as individual removal has been investigated extensively. Removing common pollutants simultaneously by iron metal is a very effective alternative method. Near neutral pH, heavy metals, such as copper and nickel, can be removed rapidly by iron metal, while nitrate removal very much slower than that of copper and nickel, and copper can accelerate nitrate removal when both are removed simultaneously. Even a little amount of copper can enhance nitrate removal efficiently. Different mechanisms of these contaminants removal by iron metal were also discussed.

Hao, Zhi-wei; Xu, Xin-hua; Jin, Jian; He, Ping; Liu, Yong; Wang, Da-hui

2005-01-01

30

Accumulation of heavy metals in freshwater molluscs.  

PubMed

Heavy metals in the aquatic environment have to date come mainly from naturally occurring geochemical materials. However, this has been enhanced by human activity such as gold mining in the case of heavy metal pollution in Sg Sarawak Kanan. The high suspended solid loads in the river have quite efficiently removed most soluble metals from the water and trapped them in the bottom sediment. Three freshwater mollusc species were collected at the point source of the heavy metal pollutants and analysed for the heavy metal contents in their tissues and shells. Two of the mollusc species (Brotia costula and Melanoides tuberculata) are purely freshwater species while the Clithon sp. nr retropictus is able to survive in fresh and brackish water environments. The Brotia costula and the Clithon sp. are the edible species which are sold in the market. Accumulation of As, Cu, Fe, Se and Zn in all the three mollusc species were determined and the level of As in the tissues of Brotia costula and the Clithon sp. was much higher than the permissible level for human consumption. The mollusc species also demonstrated different preferences for the uptake of different metals. Variations in the heavy metal contents in the shell and tissues of the same species were also observed. PMID:9646520

Lau, S; Mohamed, M; Yen, A T; Su'ut, S

1998-06-18

31

Histochemical demonstration of heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three steps of the sulphide silver method have been examined: 1) Transformation of metals to metal sulphides; 2) Fixation and embedding or freezing of the tissue for sectioning; and 3) Deposition of metallic silver on the metal sulphides in a physical developer. Based on the results, a revised method is described and discussed. It is particularly important 1) To

G. Danscher

1981-01-01

32

Biological treatment of heavy metals contaminated waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precipitation of metals with biologically produced H2S by Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB) in Permeable Reactive Barriers (PRB) has been proposed as a technology for the treatment of heavy metals contaminated waters. The aim of the work was the comparison between a selected reactive mixture containing organic matter for SRB and other electron donors, such as ethanol, glucose and polysaccharides.

Cruz Viggi Carolina; Pagnanelli Francesca; Cibati Alessio; Berteletti Cecilia; Toro Luigi

33

Advances in the biosorption of heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosorption of heavy metals by certain types of non-living biomass is a highly cost-effective new alternative for the decontamination of metal-containing effluents. Our understanding of the mechanisms of metal biosorption now allows the process to be scaled up and used in field applications, with packed-bed sorption columns being perhaps the most efficient for this purpose. Regenerating the biosorbents increases

David Kratochvil; Bohumil Volesky

1998-01-01

34

The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment.  

PubMed

Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide problem through disturbing the normal functions of rivers and lakes. Sediment, as the largest storage and resources of heavy metal, plays a rather important role in metal transformations. This paper provides a review on the geochemical forms, affecting factors and remediation technologies of heavy metal in sediment. The in situ remediation of sediment aims at increasing the stabilization of some metals such as the mobile and the exchangeable fractions; whereas, the ex situ remediation mainly aims at removing those potentially mobile metals, such as the Mn-oxides and the organic matter (OM) fraction. The pH and OM can directly change metals distribution in sediment; however oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), mainly through changing the pH values, indirectly alters metals distribution. Mainly ascribed to their simple operation mode, low costs and fast remediation effects, in situ remediation technologies, especially being fit for slight pollution sediment, are applied widely. However, for avoiding metal secondary pollution from sediment release, ex situ remediation should be the hot point in future research. PMID:18547718

Peng, Jian-Feng; Song, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Qiu, Guang-Lei

2008-04-24

35

Accumulative phases for heavy metals in limnic sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from mechanical concentrates of recent sediments indicate that clay minerals, clay-rich aggregates and heavy minerals are the major carriers of heavy metals in detrital sediment fractions. Hydrous Fe\\/Mn oxides and carbonates and sulfides, in their specific environments, are the predominant accumulative phases for heavy metals in autochthonous fractions. Sequential chemical extraction techniques permit the estimation of characteristic heavy metal

Ulrich Förstner

1982-01-01

36

Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

Alissa, Eman M.; Ferns, Gordon A.

2011-01-01

37

Design consideration for tungsten heavy metal  

SciTech Connect

Tungsten was rarely known to industry before 1909 when it was utilized as electric wire filament in the incandescent lamp. Up to 1927, tungsten was mainly employed in the manufacture of tool steels. In 1935, the first tungsten heavy metal pseudoalloys were produced by utilizing the powder metallurgy process of liquid-phase sintering. Tungsten is now the most economical material available for applications requiring the use of a high-density material. Some of the applications of tungsten heavy metal are related to aircraft counter-weights and missile ballast. A large increase in the tungsten provided by Canada and additional output from Mexico will make North America self-sufficient with respect to its needs for tungsten starting in 1985. Attention is given to heavy metal metallurgy, tungsten heavy metal alloy systems, and physical properties. In connection with the design of objects consisting of tungsten heavy metal, aspects of linear shrinkage have to be considered along with material density variations, and the maximum material condition concept.

Maurer, W.E.

1982-01-01

38

Community Heavy Metal Exposure, San Francisco, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metals are natural elements that generally occur in minute concentrations in the earth's crust. While some of these elements, in small quantities, are vital to life, most are harmful in larger doses. Various industrial and agricultural processes can result in dangerously high concentrations of heavy metals in our environment. Consequently, humans can be exposed to unsafe levels of these elements via the air we breathe, the water and food we consume, and the many products we use. During a two week study we collected numerous samples of sediments, water, food, and household items from around the San Francisco Bay Area that represent industrial, agricultural, and urban/residential settings. We analyzed these samples for Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As). Our goal was to examine the extent of our exposure to heavy metals in our daily lives. We discovered that many of the common foods and materials in our lives have become contaminated with unhealthy concentrations of these metals. Of our food samples, many exceeded the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) set for each metal. Meats (fish, chicken, and beef) had higher amounts of each metal than did non-meat items. Heavy metals were also prevalent in varying concentrations in the environment. While many of our samples exceeded the EPA's Sediment Screening Level (SSL) for As, only two other samples surpassed the SSL set for Pb, and zero of our samples exceeded the SSL for Hg. Because of the serious health effects that can result from over-exposure to heavy metals, the information obtained in this study should be used to influence our future dietary and recreational habits.

Chavez, A.; Devine, M.; Ho, T.; Zapata, I.; Bissell, M.; Neiss, J.

2008-12-01

39

Heavy metals bioremediation of soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Historical emissions of old nonferrous factories lead to large geographical areas of metals-contaminated sites. At least 50\\u000a sites in Europe are contaminated with metals like Zn, Cd, Cu, and Pb. Several methods, based on granular differentiation,\\u000a were developed to reduce the metals content. However, the obtained cleaned soil is just sand. Methods based on chemical leaching\\u000a or extraction or on

L. Diels; M. De Smet; L. Hooyberghs; P. Corbisier

1999-01-01

40

Concentrations and Distribution of Heavy Metals in South Taihu Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

The South Taihu Lake receive localized metal pollution from the factories nearby. The aim of this study was to find out the heavy metal accumulation in South Taihu Lake. Concentration of some heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd) were determined in sediments samples. Heavy metal levels were analyzed by ICP. Concentrations varied significantly from different sampling sites. The

Binghong Cheng; Yanling Qiu; Li Li; Zhiliang Zhu; Jiang Chen; Xiaohong Yang; Yuxin Yao

2010-01-01

41

Contamination of environment with heavy metals emitted from automotives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest has arisen in heavy-metal contamination of the environment, mostly because of potential hazards to the health of animals and human (directly and\\/or indirectly). High levels of heavy metals in soil, plants, and the atmosphere are often related to industries, highways, chemical dumping, impure chemical fertilizers, and pesticides containing metals. An important source of heavy metals, especially lead, is from

A FALAHIARDAKANI

1984-01-01

42

Phytoremediation of heavy metals by Eichhornia crassipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eichhornia crassipes was tested for its ability to bioconcentrate 8 toxic metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) commonly found in wastewater\\u000a from industries. Young plants of equal size were grown hydroponically and amended with 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, and 5.0\\u000a mM of each heavy metal individually for 21 days. The test plant had the lowest

Victor J. Odjegba; Ishola O. Fasidi

2007-01-01

43

Response: Heavy metal kids are kids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jon Trzcinski discusses rock music, in general, and heavy metal music, in particular, as expressing youthful rebellion in an idiom informed by the artistic and social conventions of the day. Placing this discussion in an historical context, he considers adult concerns about this music in terms both collective and personal. In one direction, he describes the older generation's impersonal outrage

Helen Q. Kivnick

1992-01-01

44

Heavy Metals and Related Trace Elements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents a literature review of heavy metals and related trace elements in the environment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) trace treatment in natural water and in sediments; and (2) bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace elements. A list of 466 references is presented. (HM)|

Leland, Harry V.; And Others

1978-01-01

45

Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

Pickett, J.B.

1990-06-25

46

Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed`s Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering & Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

Pickett, J.B.

1990-06-25

47

Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidal Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study probes the differentiating characteristics (family relationships, social–psychological attitudes, drug use, and suicidal risk) of youth who prefer heavy metal (HM) music, worship music, and use music for vicarious release. Data analysis was based on a sample of 275 secondary school students between the ages of 14 and 18. Logistic regressions revealed that HM music preference and worshipping is

Eric Lacourse; Michel Claes; Martine Villeneuve

2001-01-01

48

Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidal Risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study probes the differentiating characteristics (family relationships, social- psychological attitudes, drug use, and suicidal risk) of youth who prefer heavy metal (HM) music, worship music, and use music for vicarious release. Data analysis was based on a sample of 275 secondary school students between the ages of 14 and 18. Logistic regressions revealed that HM music preference and worshipping

Eric Lacourse; Michel Claes; Martine Villeneuve

2001-01-01

49

Heavy metal biosorption sites in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger is capable of removing heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and copper from aqueous solutions. The role played by various functional groups in the cell wall of A. niger in biosorption of lead, cadmium and copper was investigated. The biomass was subjected to chemical treatments to modify the functional groups, carboxyl, amino and phosphate, to study their role

Anoop Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

1997-01-01

50

Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed`s Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering & Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

1990-01-01

51

Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

1990-01-01

52

Biosensors for the Detection of Heavy Metal Ions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phytochelatins, metallothioneins and glutathione are under investigation as biological components for the development of biosensors for heavy metal ion detection in aqueous solutions. These peptides/proteins selectively bind heavy metal ions by thiolate c...

R. Hilpert F. Binder M. H. Zenk

1989-01-01

53

Seedling growth and heavy metal accumulation of candidate woody ...  

Treesearch

Description: Selecting plant species that can overcome harsh soil and microclimatic ... indicate that the study species can tolerate the heavy metal concentrations and other ... We estimate that plants can stabilize 222%of various heavy metals ...

54

Disposal of Heavy Metal Waste Sludges in Ceramic Products.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report gives the results of a laboratory investigation of the feasibility of incorporating heavy metal waste sludges into ceramic products. Samples were fabricated by combining heavy metal waste sludges with bricks, roof tile, or vitrified clay pipe. ...

T. D. Wolfe

1990-01-01

55

Heavy metal mining using microbes.  

PubMed

The use of acidiphilic, chemolithotrophic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microbes in processes to recover metals from certain types of copper, uranium, and gold-bearing minerals or mineral concentrates is now well established. During these processes insoluble metal sulfides are oxidized to soluble metal sulfates. Mineral decomposition is believed to be mostly due to chemical attack by ferric iron, with the main role of the microorganisms being to reoxidize the resultant ferrous iron back to ferric iron. Currently operating industrial biomining processes have used bacteria that grow optimally from ambient to 50 degrees C, but thermophilic microbes have been isolated that have the potential to enable mineral biooxidation to be carried out at temperatures of 80 degrees C or higher. The development of higher-temperature processes will extend the variety of minerals that can be commercially processed. PMID:12142493

Rawlings, Douglas E

2002-01-30

56

Bacterial sorption of heavy metals.  

PubMed Central

Four bacteria, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were examined for the ability to remove Ag+, Cd2+, Cu2+, and La3+ from solution by batch equilibration methods. Cd and Cu sorption over the concentration range 0.001 to 1 mM was described by Freundlich isotherms. At 1 mM concentrations of both Cd2+ and Cu2+, P. aeruginosa and B. cereus were the most and least efficient at metal removal, respectively. Freundlich K constants indicated that E. coli was most efficient at Cd2+ removal and B. subtilis removed the most Cu2+. Removal of Ag+ from solution by bacteria was very efficient; an average of 89% of the total Ag+ was removed from the 1 mM solution, while only 12, 29, and 27% of the total Cd2+, Cu2+, and La3+, respectively, were sorbed from 1 mM solutions. Electron microscopy indicated that La3+ accumulated at the cell surface as needlelike, crystalline precipitates. Silver precipitated as discrete colloidal aggregates at the cell surface and occasionally in the cytoplasm. Neither Cd2+ nor Cu2+ provided enough electron scattering to identify the location of sorption. The affinity series for bacterial removal of these metals decreased in the order Ag greater than La greater than Cu greater than Cd. The results indicate that bacterial cells are capable of binding large quantities of different metals. Adsorption equations may be useful for describing bacterium-metal interactions with metals such as Cd and Cu; however, this approach may not be adequate when precipitation of metals occurs. Images

Mullen, M D; Wolf, D C; Ferris, F G; Beveridge, T J; Flemming, C A; Bailey, G W

1989-01-01

57

Minor heavy metal: A review on occupational and environmental intoxication  

PubMed Central

Heavy metal is widely used in industries and presents as a problematic environmental pollution. Some heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, are well described for their occupational and environmental intoxication whereas the other minor heavy metals are less concerned. In this article, the author will present the details of occupational and environmental minor heavy metal intoxication. This review focuses mainly on aluminum, tin, copper, manganese, chromium, cadmium and nickel.

Wiwanitkit, Viroj

2008-01-01

58

Removal of heavy metals from wastewater effluents by biosorptive flotation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for new technologies to remove hazardous metals from wastewaters has focused attention on the metal binding abilities of different biological materials. Various biomaterials have shown promise as sorbents to remove heavy metals from water. Several advantages of peat moss for such applications include its abundance, low cost, and high metal capacity. Consequently, the adsorption of heavy metals from

C. Aldrich; D. Feng

2000-01-01

59

How composting affects heavy metal content  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes ways in which a properly conducted composting process can alter the chemical forms of heavy metals and consequently the quality of the compost. This process is of particular interest in the Italian policy of waste management due to the low level of organic matter in Italian agricultural soils. Results of the studies show that the proper process of compost maturation seems to increase the concentrations of humic acids with respect to those of fulvic acids. These variations in the quantity and quality of humic substances influence the speciation of heavy metals with a large part of the metals complexed and reaching the soil in a less mobile form. The distribution of copper, cadmium, zinc, nickel, lead and chromium among humic fractions is compared in two composting procedures.

Canarutto, S.; Petruzzelli, G.; Lubrano, L.; Guidi, G.V.

1991-06-01

60

Heavy metal kids: Are they dancing with the devil?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of heavy metal music with young people has grown dramatically; among adults, concerns about its influence have also grown. It is alleged that heavy metal promotes violence, suicide, satanism, and the occult. An examination of adult reaction to rock and roll in the Fifties and Sixties and the diverse messages of heavy metal put such concerns in a

Jon Trzcinski

1992-01-01

61

Heavy metals in avian eggshells: Another excretion method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Birds can rid their bodies of heavy metals through both excretion and deposition in feathers, and females can also eliminate heavy metals in the contents of their eggs. In this paper the levels of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, selenium, manganese, chromium) in the contents and shells of eggs of roseate terns (Sterna dougallii,) and herring gulls (Larus argentatus) nesting

Joanna Burger

1994-01-01

62

Heavy metal removal from wastewater in fluidized bed reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An innovative process for removing heavy metals including Cu, Ni and Zn from industrial wastewater has been developed. The new technology was based on inducing the nucleated precipitation of heavy metals on the sand surface in a fluidized bed reactor. The results showed that pH had a great effect on heavy metal removal efficiency and the optimum pH was about

Ping Zhou; Ju-Chang Huang; Alfred W. F Li; Shirly Wei

1999-01-01

63

Heavy-metal distribution in various types of soil aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

125 Many regions of the world being heavily polluted, the geochemical cycles of heavy metals in the biosphere are considerably affected by anthropogenic factors. Studies and assessment of environmental pollution with heavy metals have become an integral part of environmental protection problems. In this context, soil is of great interest as a deposition medium [1]. The behavior of heavy metals

G. N. Fedotov; G. G. Omel’yanyuk; O. N. Bystrova; E. A. Martynkina; V. V. Gulevskaya; M. V. Nikulina

2008-01-01

64

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

Forgy, David

2012-01-01

65

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

Forgy, David

2012-01-01

66

Innovative coprecipitation technique for removing heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this study was to develop such a novel technology capable of precipitating and removing toxic metals from wastewater without simultaneously removing the organic suspended and settleable solids. To achieve this, an upflow-expanded sand bed was used with lime feed to foster coprecipitation of metals, calcium carbonate, and calcium hydroxyapatite on the sand grains. The experimental work of this study consisted of evaluating the feasibility of the proposed technology for removing toxic heavy metals at four different pH's: 10.5, 10.0, 9.5, and 9.0. Six metals were selected: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). In addition to evaluations of the metal removals, the reductions of total phosphorous (P), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), and volatile suspended solids (VSS) were also studied.

Huang, J.C. (Univ. of Missouri-Rolla); McCole, P.M.; Breuer, R.K.

1982-01-01

67

[Effects of heavy metals pollution on paddy soil aggregates composition and heavy metals distribution].  

PubMed

Topsoil samples were collected from a polluted and an adjacent non-polluted paddy field in the Taihu Lake region of China. Different particle size fractions of soil aggregates were separated by low-energy dispersion procedure, and their mass composition and Pb, Cd, Hg, and As concentrations were determined. Under heavy metals pollution, the mass composition of sand-sized fractions reduced, while that of clay-sized fractions increased. The concentrations of test metals in different particle size fractions differed, with the highest in < 0.002 mm fraction, followed by in 2-0.2 mm fraction. In 0.02-0.002 mm and 0.2-0.02 mm fractions, all the test metals were relatively deficient, with an enrichment index of 0.56-0.96. The present study showed that the aggregation of fine particles could be depressed by heavy metals pollution, which in turn, led to a relative increase in the mass composition of fine particles and the associated allocation of heavy metals in weakly aggregated silt particles, and further, increased the risks of heavy metals translocation from polluted farmland into water and atmosphere. Further studies should be made on the impacts of heavy metals pollution on soil biophysical and biochemical processes and related mechanisms. PMID:20136020

Zhang, Liang-Yun; Li, Lian-Qing; Pan, Gen-Xing; Cui, Li-Qiang; Li, Hong-Lei; Wu, Xiao-Yan; Shao, Jie-Qi

2009-11-01

68

Heavy metals and the origin of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The functional value of heavy metals in proto-cells was immense and involved critical roles in catalysis of molecular synthesis, translation, electrical neutrality and conduction, energy capture, cross-linking and precipitation (stabilizers of protective cell walls), and to a limited extent, osmotic pressure control. Metals must have modulated the evolutionary choices of the types of building blocks, such as ribose sugars as a constituent of RNA, or the the chirality and enantiopurity of many biomolecules. The formation of an enclosing membrane led to intracellular prokaryotic life (believed to have originated in an anaerobic environment) and much enhanced control over primary metabolism, the uptake and incorporation of heavy metals and the management of biomolecules (especially RNA, DNA and proteins) that were formed. Cells of the most primitive organisms (archaebacteria) reveal complex mechanisms designed specifically to deal with selective pressures from metal-containing environments including intra- and extra-cellular sequestration, exclusion by cell wall barrier, removal through active efflux pumps, enzymatic detoxification, and reduction in sensitivity of cellular targets to metal ions. Adaptation to metals using a variety of chromosomal, and transposon and plasmid-mediated systems began early in the evolution of life on Earth. Recent studies, however, show that the roles played by many heavy metals have changed over time. Divalent lead, for instance, has relinquished its unique catalytic role in the conversion of carbohydrates into ribose in the prebiotic world. The putative elements that dominated the primordial biochemistry were V, Mo, W, Co, Fe(II) and Ni; with the development of oxygenated atmosphere, these elements gave way to Zn, Cu and Fe(Ill) in their metabolic functions.

Nriagu, J.

2003-05-01

69

Bacterial sorption of heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

Four bacteria, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were examined for the ability to remove Ag{sup +}, Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and La{sup 3+} from solution by batch equilibration methods. Cd and Cu sorption over the concentration range 0.001 to 1 mM was described by Freundlich isotherms. At 1 mM concentrations of both Cd{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+}, P. aeruginosa and B. cereus were the most and least efficient at metal removal, respectively. Freundlich K constants indicated that E. coli was most efficient at Cd{sup 2+} removal and B. subtilis removed the most Cu{sup 2+}. Removal of Ag{sup +} from solution by bacteria was very efficient; an average of 89% of the total Ag{sup +} was removed from the 1 mM solution, whereas only 12, 29, and 27% of the total Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and La{sup 3+}, respectively, were sorbed from 1 mM solutions. Electron microscopy indicated that La{sup 3+} accumulated at the cell surface as needlelike, crystalline precipitates. Silver precipitated as discrete colloidal aggregates at the cell surface and occasionally in the cytoplasma. The results indicate that bacterial cells are capable of binding large quantities of different metals.

Mullen, M.D.; Wolf, D.C.; Ferris, F.G.; Beveridge, T.J.; Flemming, C.A.

1989-01-01

70

Heavy metals in the lower Mississippi River  

SciTech Connect

The potential of the water in the Mississippi River in south Louisiana to result in drinking water that exceeds the EPA standards for some heavy metals was studied, using analyses of the river water obtained regularly by the Louisiana Division of Water Pollution Control. Between 1978 and 1983, river water concentrations at individual sampling sites exceeded the drinking water standards 1 to 3 percent of the time for cadmium, chromium and copper; 7 to 9 percent of the time for arsenic and lead; and 18 percent of the time for mercury. Correlations of heavy metals versus total suspended solids (TSS) suggest that arsenic, cadmium and chromium are carried predominantly by the TSS and should be removed in the usual water treatment steps of coagulation followed by settling and/or filtration. Copper and lead appear to be carried, at least partly, in dissolved form, while additional data are needed in the case of mercury.

Newchurch, E.J.; Kahwa, I.A.

1984-01-01

71

Accumulative phases for heavy metals in limnic sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from mechanical concentrates of recent sediments indicate that clay minerals, clay-rich aggregates and heavy minerals\\u000a are the major carriers of heavy metals in detrital sediment fractions. Hydrous Fe\\/Mn oxides and carbonates and sulfides, in\\u000a their specific environments, are the predominant accumulative phases for heavy metals in autochthonous fractions. Sequential\\u000a chemical extraction techniques permit the estimation of characteristic heavy metal

Ulrich Förstner

1982-01-01

72

Remediation of heavy metal contaminated solid wastes using agglomeration techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process has been developed for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated, fine textured; solid wastes so that the treated material will meet EPA's TCLP and Total Extractable Metal Limits. The process involves the formation of strong aggregates using dry agglomeration methods. Remediation is achieved either by incorporating metal fixation agents into the agglomerates, or by leaching of heavy metal

A. Majid; S. Argue

2001-01-01

73

Cellular mechanisms for heavy metal detoxification and tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals such as Cu and Zn are essential for normal plant growth, although elevated concentra- tions of both essential and non-essential metals can result in growth inhibition and toxicity symptoms. Plants possess a range of potential cellular mech- anisms that may be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals and thus tolerance to metal stress. These include roles for

J. L. Hall

2002-01-01

74

Biomonitoring of heavy metal availability in the marine environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biomonitors can be used to establish geographical and\\/or temporal variations in the bioavailabilities of heavy metals in the marine environment, offering time-integrated measures of those portions of the total ambient metal load that are of direct ecotoxicological relevance. Heavy metal biomonitors need to conform to certain required characteristics, not least being metal accumulators. Use of a suite of biomonitors allows

Philip S. Rainbow

1995-01-01

75

Heavy metals in carabids (Coleoptera, Carabidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) are one of the most studied soil groups in relation to heavy metal (HM) accumulation and use for bioindication of environmental pollution. Accumulation of Zn and Cu in carabid beetles was species-, sex- and trophic group-specific. No differences were found in HM contents between omnivorous and carnivorous species. The use of carabid beetles as indicators of HM accumulation appears to be rather limited.

Butovsky, Ruslan O.

2011-01-01

76

Control of Heavy Metals in Emission Streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals are elements that are located in the periodic table from groups III to VI and periods 4 or greater. The elements\\u000a have high atomic weight greater than sodium and high specific gravity (i.e., usually greater than 5.0 g\\/cm3). In addition, the elements have high thermal conductivity and are characterized by malleability and ductility. There are\\u000a 65 elements listed

L. Yu Lin; Thomas C. Ho

77

Heavy metal movement in metal-contaminated soil profiles  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metal movement in soil profiles is a major environmental concern because even slow transport through the soil may eventually lead to deterioration of groundwater quality. In this study, three metal-contaminated soil (Fuquay, Dothan, and Clarendon) were selected from cropland were a high-metal flue dust had been applied annually for 6 years to raise soil pH, with application ending 4 years before sampling. One uncontaminated soil (Tifton) from the same physiographic area was also sampled as a control. Soil samples were collected in 15-cm increments from the surface to 105 cm in depth. Total contents of Zn, Cd, and Pb in the soils samples were determined. To better understand metal movement in relation to metal fractions in the soil profile, soil samples were also extracted sequentially for exchangeable (EXC), organic matter (OM), Mn oxide (MNO), amorphous Fe oxide (AFEO), crystalline Fe oxide (CFEO), and residual (RES) fractions. 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Li, Zhenbin; Shuman, L.M. [Univ. of Georgia, Griffin, GA (United States)

1996-10-01

78

Partitioning of heavy metals in contaminated soils  

SciTech Connect

Three soils and a sediment which had undergone massive prior additions of heavy metals were sequentially extracted so that Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn could be partitioned into five operationally defined geochemical fractions: exchangeable, bound to carbonates, bound to Fe-Mn oxides, bound to organic matter, and residual. The highest amount of Cd (ca. 37%) was found in the exchangeable fraction, and Cu was the only metal significantly associated with the organic fraction. The Fe-Mn oxide fraction contained 23, 24, 26 and 39%, and the residual fractions 15, 34, 55, and 14%, of the Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn respectively. The following hazard order may be proposed for these highly contaminated materials: Cd > Zn > Cu > Ni. Bio-Gel P-2 was used to separate Cu-organic complexes from inorganic-Cu. Continuous elution with 0.03 ..mu..g ml/sup -1/ Cu, Cd, and Zn in 50 mM KCl prevented adsorption of metals by the gel and subsequent dissociation of labile metal-organic complexes. Overestimates of exchangeable Cd, Cu, and Zn can result from anion complexation and formation of soluble metal-organic complexes. Two soils, contaminated with heavy metals, were extracted with 1.0 M MgCl/sub 2/, Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, and Mg(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 2/. Gel chromatography was used to quantify the amounts of inorganic and organically complexed metals. MgCl/sub 2/ and Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/ extraction overestimated the truly exchangeable Cd and Zn. 1.0 M Mg(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ provided a good estimate of truly exchangeable Cd and Zn and of water soluble Cu. Extraction with this solution may be a good measure of potential environmental hazard.

Hickey, M.G.

1982-01-01

79

Cocoa shells for heavy metal removal from acidic solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of economic and efficient processes for the removal of heavy metals present in acidic effluents from industrial sources or decontamination technologies has become a priority. The purpose of this work was to study the efficiency with which cocoa shells remove heavy metals from acidic solutions (pH 2) and to investigate how the composition of these solutions influences heavy

N. Meunier; J. Laroulandie; J. F. Blais; R. D. Tyagi

2003-01-01

80

Heavy metals in the environment: Volume 2  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains half the proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment, held in New Orleans, Louisiana, September 15-18, 1987. The papers are arranged in the order of presentation at the conference, beginning with the plenary session and ranging across diverse topics from neurotoxicity to marine chemistry. The major conference themes included analytical chemistry and speciation; human health; atmospheric, marine, and freshwater chemistry; sediments and soils; neurotoxicity of lead; forest cycling and effects; microbial interactions; metal tolerance; industrial wastes; and treatment technology. Because of the recent increase in research on acidic deposition and hazardous waste storage, new sessions have been added on acidity and metal interactions in forests, aluminum biogeochemistry, waste treatment and storage, and chemical kinetics and speciation. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

Lindberg, S.E.; Hutchinson, T.C. (eds.)

1987-01-01

81

Heavy metals in the environment: Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This volume contains half the proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Heavy Metals in the Environment, held in New Orleans, Louisiana, September 15-18, 1987. The papers are arranged in the order of presentation at the conference, beginning with the plenary session and ranging across diverse topics from neurotoxicity to marine chemistry. The major conference themes included analytical chemistry and speciation; human health; atmospheric, marine, and freshwater chemistry; sediments and soils; neurotoxicity of lead; forest cycling and effects; microbial interactions; metal tolerance; industrial wastes; and treatment technology. Because of the recent increase in research on acidic deposition and hazardous waste storage, new sessions have been added on acidity and metal interactions in forests, aluminum biogeochemistry, waste treatment and storage, and chemical kinetics and speciation. Individual papers are processed separately for the data base.

Lindberg, S.E.; Hutchinson, T.C. (eds.)

1987-01-01

82

Magnetotactic bacteria: promising biosorbents for heavy metals.  

PubMed

Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), which can orient and migrate along a magnetic line of force due to intracellular nanosized magnetosomes, have been a subject of research in the medical field, in dating environmental changes, and in environmental remediation. This paper reviews the recent development of MTB as biosorbents for heavy metals. Ultrastructures and taxis of MTB are investigated. Adsorptions in systems of unitary and binary ions are highlighted, as well as adsorption conditions (temperature, pH value, biomass concentration, and pretreatments). The separation and desorption of MTB in magnetic separators are also discussed. A green method to produce metal nanoparticles is provided, and an energy-efficient way to recover precious metals is put forward during biosorption. PMID:22763846

Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yanzong; Ding, Xiaohui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Gang; Peng, Hong

2012-07-05

83

Peats and ferrites for heavy metal removal  

SciTech Connect

Peat is a relatively inexpensive material which processes a native cation exchange capacity. Efforts to utilize peat have been hampered by its low permeability to water and its tendency to severely leach in water at pH>6. These disadvantages have been significantly minimized by treating the peat with concentrated sulfuric acid. The acid treatment also increases the cation exchange capacity of the peat. Results of both column batch studies of the modified peat for use as an actinide adsorbent will be presented. Ferrites are mixed valence iron compounds having metal sorptive and magnetic properties. A naturally occurring ferrite material is magnetite. We have studied activation techniques to give magnetite a high capacity for removing heavy metals and actinides from aqueous process waste solutions. The solution can then be magnetically filtered to removal magnetite sorbed metals from solution. results of the experiments will be described. 18 refs.

Navratil, J.D.

1986-01-01

84

Contamination of environment with heavy metals emitted from automotives  

SciTech Connect

Interest has arisen in heavy-metal contamination of the environment, mostly because of potential hazards to the health of animals and human (directly and/or indirectly). High levels of heavy metals in soil, plants, and the atmosphere are often related to industries, highways, chemical dumping, impure chemical fertilizers, and pesticides containing metals. An important source of heavy metals, especially lead, is from the combustion of leaded gasoline used for transportation. Other heavy metals associated with transportation include nickel, which is also added to gasoline and is contained in engine parts, zinc, and cadmium from tires, lubricating oils, and galvanized parts such as fuel tanks.

Falahi-Ardakani, A.

1984-04-01

85

Ion exchange extraction of heavy metals from wastewater sludges.  

PubMed

Heavy metals are common contaminants of some industrial wastewater. They find their way to municipal wastewaters due to industrial discharges into the sewerage system or through household chemicals. The most common heavy metals found in wastewaters are lead, copper, nickel, cadmium, zinc, mercury, arsenic, and chromium. Such metals are toxic and pose serious threats to the environment and public health. In recent years, the ion exchange process has been increasingly used for the removal of heavy metals or the recovery of precious metals. It is a versatile separation process with the potential for broad applications in the water and wastewater treatment field. This article summarizes the results obtained from a laboratory study on the removal of heavy metals from municipal wastewater sludges obtained from Ardhiya plant in Kuwait. Data on heavy metal content of the wastewater and sludge samples collected from the plant are presented. The results obtained from laboratory experiments using a commercially available ion exchange resin to remove heavy metals from sludge were discussed. A technique was developed to solubilize such heavy metals from the sludge for subsequent treatment by the ion exchange process. The results showed high efficiency of extraction, almost 99.9%, of heavy metals in the concentration range bound in wastewater effluents and sludges. Selective removal of heavy metals from a contaminated wastewater/sludge combines the benefits of being economically prudent and providing the possibility of reuse/recycle of the treated wastewater effluents and sludges. PMID:15027828

Al-Enezi, G; Hamoda, M F; Fawzi, N

2004-01-01

86

Short-term uptake of heavy metals by periphyton algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utilization of periphyton activity for the removal of heavy metals from enriched small streams has been examined. By means of short-term batch laboratory experiments the courses of metal uptake have been studied. For uptake study naturally growing periphyton community and periphytic filamentous algae Cladophora glomerata and Oedogonium rivulare have been used. Uptakes of nine heavy metals — Pb, Cd,

Jan Vymazal

1984-01-01

87

Micellar-Enhanced Ultrafiltration of Heavy Metals Using Lecithin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional treatment methods for removal of heavy metals from metal finishing operations are usually energy-intensive and costly. Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) with synthetic surfactants is a recently developed technique which can remove heavy metals and other small molecular weight ions from wastestreams at relatively lower costs and without a phase change. Lecithin, a natural, inexpensive, nontoxic, and biodegradable surfactant exhibits emulsifying

S. Ahmadi; L. K. Tseng; B. Batchelor; S. S. Koseoglu

1994-01-01

88

Adsorption of heavy metal ions on soils and soils constituents  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article focuses on adsorption of heavy metal ions on soils and soils constituents such as clay minerals, metal (hydr)oxides, and soil organic matter. Empirical and mechanistic model approaches for heavy metal adsorption and parameter determination in such models have been reviewed. Sorption mechanisms in soils, the influence of surface functional groups and surface complexation as well as parameters influencing

Heike B Bradl

2004-01-01

89

BIOALGA reactor: preliminary studies for heavy metals removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microalgae have a high affinity for polyvalent metals, for that reason they could be used to reduce the concentration of heavy metals present in water and wastewater. In the present work an evaluation of a rotary biofilm reactor for algae immobilization (BIOALGA) with the subject of heavy metal removal was investigated. The BIOALGA reactor consisted of a pilot scale model

L Travieso; A Pellón; F Ben??tez; E Sánchez; R Borja; N O’Farrill; P Weiland

2002-01-01

90

Heavy metal pumps in plants. 1998 annual progress report  

SciTech Connect

'The purpose of the proposed DOE research is to determine the function of AMA1, a novel heavy metal pump identified in a model plant system, Arabidopsis. Heavy metal pumps belong to a superfamily of P-type ATPases which include the plasma membrane Na/K-ATPase in animals and the plasma membrane H + ATPase in plants and fungi. Heavy metal pumps have been implicated in heavy metal resistance (e.g., cadmium) and regulation of essential micronutrients (e.g., copper). Although several heavy metal pumps have now been identified in plants, their isoform specific functions have not been investigated. The results suggest that AMA1 is a molydenum uptake pump. The authors are exploring the possibility to engineer the ion specificity of these pumps to take up other heavy metals from the soil. This report summarizes work after 2 years of a 3 year project.'

Harper, J.F.

1998-06-01

91

DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METALS IN CONTAMINATED RIVER SEDIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment was collected from the Ell-Ren River for analysis, to assess the influence of geochemical components in the sediment on remobilization of heavy metals into pore water and on distribution of each heavy metal in five geochemical phases (exchangeable, carbonates, Mn-oxides, Fe-oxides, and organic matters (OM)) in the sediment. Average distribution coefficients, the ratio of heavy metal in pore water

Li-Jyur Tsai; Kuang Chung Yu; Ju-Sheng Huang; Shien-Tsong Ho

2002-01-01

92

Perspective on Phytoremediation for Improving Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem and has its negative potential impact on human health\\u000a and agriculture. Phytoremediation strategies with appropriate heavy metal-adapted rhizobacteria (for example, mycorrhizae)\\u000a have received more and more attention. Some plants possess a range of potential mechanisms that may be involved in the detoxification\\u000a of heavy metals, and they manage to survive

Hong-Bo Shao; Li-Ye Chu; Fu-Tai Ni; Dong-Gang Guo; Hua Li; Wei-Xiang Li

93

Study of heavy metals in some environmental samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fuels like coal and rubber are frequently used for brick burning. However, both coal and rubber contain heavy metals. These\\u000a heavy metals may elutriate in the wake of fly ash or may adsorb or absorb in the product. The present work deals with the\\u000a analysis of heavy metals in some samples collected from brick burning industries located in the vicinity

Imtiaz Ahmad; Haroon Rashid; Zia Ur Rehman

2009-01-01

94

Photoluminescent graphene oxide microarray for multiplex heavy metal ion analysis.  

PubMed

An aptamer-linked graphene oxide (GO) microarray is synthesized for multiplex heavy metal ion detection. Fluorescent nanosized GO sheets are micropatterned, and specific aptamers targeting Ag(+) and Hg(2+) are immobilized on the GO array. Upon capture of the target heavy metal ions, electron transfer occurs between the GO (donors) and the heavy metal ions (acceptors), leading to fluorescence quenching of the GO. PMID:23606642

Liu, Fei; Ha, Hyun Dong; Han, Dong Ju; Seo, Tae Seok

2013-04-19

95

Heavy metals in bottled natural spring water.  

PubMed

New regulations regarding the presence of contaminants in bottled water went into effect in California in January 2009. These requirements include testing, reporting, and notification to regulate the presence of heavy metals in bottled natural spring water sold in California. In the study described in this article, six sources of bottled natural spring water were purchased and analyzed for silver, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc. All of these metals except beryllium, mercury, and thallium were detected in at least one of the bottled natural spring water sources. No concentrations were above either federal or California maximum contaminant levels but arsenic concentrations exceeded California public health goals in all six sources. Improving the California notification requirements for bottled water contaminants would result in a process more similar to the notification process for tap water and would result in better-informed consumers. PMID:21667718

Sullivan, Michael J; Leavey, Shannon

2011-06-01

96

Injury by heavy metals in Escherichia coli  

SciTech Connect

The aim of the present study on the effects of sublethal concentrations of metals on the growth and recovery of E. coli, is to throw light on some of the aspects of the viability and recovery of E. coli as well as changes in its cell enzymatic activity when exposed to sublethal concentrations of heavy metals. Total dehydrogenase was used since it is a measure of bacterial activity closely related to energetic metabolic systems and ..beta..-galactosidase as a typical inducible enzyme in E. coli. E. coli was chosen as the test organism, both on account of its importance in public health (sanitary indicators) and for the information available (biochemical and genetic properties) on it.

Cenci, G.; Morozzi, G.; Caldini, G.

1985-02-01

97

Removal of dissolved heavy metals and radionuclides by microbial spores  

SciTech Connect

Microbial systems have been shown to remove specific heavy metals from contaminated aqueous waste to levels acceptable to EPA for environmental release. However, systems capable of removing a variety of heavy metals from aqueous waste to environmentally acceptable levels remain to be reported. The present studies were performed to determine the specificity of spores of the bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the adsorption of dissolved metals and radionuclides from aqueous waste. The spores effectively adsorbed eight heavy metals from a prepared metal mix and from a plating rinse waste to EPA acceptable levels for waste water. These results suggest that spores have multiple binding sites for the adsorption of heavy metals. Spores were also effective in adsorbing the radionuclides {sup 85}strontium and {sup 197}cesium. The presence of multiple sites in spores for the adsorption of heavy metals and radionuclides makes this biosorbent a good candidate for the treatment of aqueous wastes associated with the plating and nuclear industries. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

Revis, N.W.; Hadden, C.T.; Edenborn, H. [and others

1997-11-01

98

Removal of heavy metals from water with forest based materials  

Treesearch

2, paper no. 206. ... The development of filters to clean our water supply is big business. ... pollution, water quality management, heavy metals, metal ions, absorption and adsorption, filters, filtration, wood utilization, adsorption, carboxyl groups.

99

Genetic manipulation of a cyanobacterium for heavy metal detoxivication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Increasing heavy metal contamination of soil and water has produced a need for economical and effective methods to reduce toxic buildup of these materials. Biological systems use metallothionein proteins to sequester such metals as Cu, Cd, and Zn. Studies...

P. McCormick G. Cannon S. Heinhorst

1995-01-01

100

Uncommon heavy metals, metalloids and their plant toxicity: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals still represent a group of dangerous pollutants, to which close attention is paid. Many heavy metals are essential\\u000a as important constituents of pigments and enzymes, mainly zinc, nickel and copper. However, all metals, especially cadmium,\\u000a lead, mercury and copper, are toxic at high concentration because of disrupting enzyme functions, replacing essential metals\\u000a in pigments or producing reactive oxygen

Petr Babula; Vojtech Adam; Radka Opatrilova; Josef Zehnalek; Ladislav Havel; Rene Kizek

2008-01-01

101

Toxic Heavy Metals: Materials Cycle Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term ecological sustainability is incompatible with an open materials cycle. The toxic heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, uranium/plutonium, zinc) exemplify the problem. These metals are being mobilized and dispersed into the environment by industrial activity at a rate far higher than by natural processes. Apart from losses to the environment resulting from mine wastes and primary processing, many of these metals are utilized in products that are inherently dissipative. Examples of such uses include fuels, lubricants, solvents, fire retardants, stabilizers, flocculants, pigments, biocides, and preservatives. To close the materials cycle, it will be necessary to accomplish two things. The first is to ban or otherwise discourage (e.g., by means of high severance taxes on virgin materials) dissipative uses of the above type. The second is to increase the efficiency of recycling of those materials that are not replaceable in principle. Here, also, economic instruments (such as returnable deposits) can be effective in some cases. A systems view of the problem is essential to assess the cost and effectiveness of alternative strategies.

Ayres, Robert U.

1992-02-01

102

Strategies of heavy metal uptake by three plant species growing near a metal smelter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some higher plant species have developed heavy metal tolerance strategies which enable them to survive and reproduce in highly metal-contaminated soils. We have investigated such heavy metal uptake and accumulation strategies of two absolute metallophyte species (Armeria maritima ssp. halleri and Cardaminopsis halleri) and one pseudometallophyte (Agrostis tenuis) growing near a former metal smelter. Samples of plant parts and soil

H Dahmani-Muller; F van Oort; B Gélie; M Balabane

2000-01-01

103

BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS BY LITTORAL AND PELAGIC MARINE ORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Marine organisms appear to be useful indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment. In order to test this concept, research was performed to determine the levels of heavy metals in selected indicator organisms. Several approaches were used. The first was to select...

104

Balance of heavy metals in the Volga River delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of many years of geochemical research of aquatic landscapes are presented. Data on the average annual and seasonal concentrations of heavy metals in water and suspended sediments are given. Factors of migration and accumulation of elements in aquatic landscapes are discussed. Masses of heavy metals annually incoming and accumulated in the Volga River delta were calculated.

Kur'yakova, A. N.

2011-08-01

105

Engineering Plant-Microbe Symbiosis for Rhizoremediation of Heavy Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of plants for rehabilitation of heavy-metal-contaminated environments is an emerging area of interest because it provides an ecologically sound and safe method for restoration and remediation. Although a number of plant species are capable of hyperaccumulation of heavy metals, the technology is not applicable for remediating sites with multiple contaminants. A clever solution is to combine the advantages

Cindy H. Wu; Thomas K. Wood; Ashok Mulchandani; Wilfred Chen

2006-01-01

106

Heavy Metal Music and Reckless Behavior among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fifty-four male and 30 female adolescents who like heavy metal music were compared on various outcome variables to 56 male and 105 female peers who do not like it. Those who like heavy metal report a wider range of reckless behavior than those who do not like it. (SLD)|

Arnett, Jeffrey

1991-01-01

107

Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidality: An Empirical Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Investigates the relationship between preference for heavy metal music and vulnerability to suicide among high school students. Results indicate that preference for heavy metal music among adolescents may be sign of increased suicidal vulnerability, but also suggests that the source of the problem may lie more in personal and familial…

Scheel, Karen R.; Westefeld, John S.

1999-01-01

108

Heavy metal pumps in plants. 1997 annual progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Plants have been proposed as a bioremediation tool to help remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated land and water. However, little is known about how plants take up heavy metals from the soil and transport them to different parts of the plant. An impo...

J. F. Harper

1997-01-01

109

Magnetic Process for Removing Heavy Metals from Water Employing Magnetites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process for removing heavy metals from water is provided. The process includes the steps of introducing magnetite to a quantity of water containing heavy metal. The magnetite is mixed with the water such that at least a portion of, and preferably the ma...

F. C. Prenger D. D. Hill

2003-01-01

110

Heavy metal uptake by marsh plants in hydroponic solution cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eight marsh plants were grown in chemically controlled hydroponic solutions containing three concentrations of heavy metals to evaluate the ability of each plant species to take up and accumulate heavy metals. The marsh plants studited were Cyperus esculentus, Scirpus validus, Spartina patens, Scirpus robustus, Distichiis spicata, Triglochin maritima, Spartina alterniflora, and Spartina foliosa. These species represented freshwater, brackish water, and

C. R. Lee; T. C. Sturgis; M. C. Landin

1981-01-01

111

Heavy metal pumps in plants. 1998 annual progress report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the proposed DOE research is to determine the function of AMA1, a novel heavy metal pump identified in a model plant system, Arabidopsis. Heavy metal pumps belong to a superfamily of P-type ATPases which include the plasma membrane Na/K-ATP...

J. F. Harper

1998-01-01

112

STAINING OF TISSUE SECTIONS FOR ELECTRON MICROSCOPY WITH HEAVY METALS  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABS>Heavy metals may be incorporated from solution into tissue sections ; for electron microscopy. The resulting increase in density of the tissue ; provides greatly enhanced contrast with minimal distortion. Relative densities ; of various structures are found to depend on the heavy metal ions present and on ; the conditions of staining. Certain hitherto unobserved details are revealed and

M. L. Watson

1958-01-01

113

Ultrasound to decontaminate heavy metals in dredged sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediments contaminated with heavy metals due to past disposal practices threaten the environment and require remediation. This study was an attempt to develop a technology to decontaminate heavy metals in dredged sediments using ultrasound coupled with vacuum pressure. A set of laboratory scale experiments were conducted using dredged sediments obtained from New York\\/New Jersey harbor. This sediment sample is considered

Jay N Meegoda; Ruvini Perera

2001-01-01

114

Sedimentary record of heavy metal pollution in Lake Erie  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three cores, one kilometer apart, from each of seven locations along Lake Erie were analyzed for heavy metals and dated by 210 Pb techniques. The sedimentary record of anthropogenic inputs of heavy metals parallels the increasing intensity of cultural activity in the lake basin. On the average, pollution sources annually contribute 0.4 g of Cd, 12 g of Cu, 12

J. O. Nriagu; A. L. W. Kemp; H. K. T. Wong; N. Harper

1979-01-01

115

Interaction of carboxymethylchitosan and heavy metals in cement media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of an etherified chitosan, carboxymethylchitosan (CMCH), when added to cement mortars doped with heavy metals, was assessed. In the presence of heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Zn) strong modifications of the fresh-state properties were evaluated. The addition of the polymer was seen to be useful in minimising some of these modifications, as those related to the setting time. A

M. Lasheras-Zubiate; I. Navarro-Blasco; J. I. Álvarez; J. M. Fernández

2011-01-01

116

Reuse of heavy metal-containing sludges in cement production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of the replacement of raw material for cement production by heavy metal-containing sludge from surface finishing and electroplating industries was investigated. The effect of heavy metal content in the cement raw mix on the crystalline formation in cement production was also examined by XRD analyses. It was found that both sludges were applicable for the replacement of raw

Pai-Haung Shih; Juu-En Chang; Hsing-Cheng Lu; Li-Choung Chiang

2005-01-01

117

Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification\\/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always

A. T. Lima; Lisbeth M. Ottosen; Alexandra B. Ribeiro

118

Heavy metal bioaccumulation in lichens from Macedonia in northern Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on lichens as biological monitoring indicators is described. The concentration of Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd in lichens from polluted and unpolluted areas of Greece were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after acid digestion. The levels of the heavy metals in the tissues of different species are discussed. Although bioaccumulation of heavy metals depends on the degree of pollution

T. Sawidis; M. K. Chettri; G. A. Zachariadis; J. A. Stratis; M. R. D. Seaward

1995-01-01

119

Botanical plants could rid soil of heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new technology that is now emerging holds promise of revolutionizing the remediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals. Called phytoremediation, it would use green plants to remove the metals. Plants take up the metals in their roots and translocate them to their shoots, which are harvested, burned in a kiln, and the metals recovered and recycled. The challenge is

1993-01-01

120

Selective assay for heavy metal toxicity using a fluorogenic substrate  

SciTech Connect

Chromogenic substrates have been generally used in enzymatic assays for the specific determination of heavy metal toxicity. A toxicity assay based on the specific inhibition of {beta}-galactosidase by heavy metals and using a fluorogenic substrate was evaluated for its sensitivity to heavy metals and organic toxicants. The toxicity assay, FluoroMetPLATE, was specific for heavy metals and was more sensitive than the widely used Microtox assay. Except for lead, the assay displayed sensitivity similar to that of the 48-h acute Ceriodaphnia dubia assay. Monitoring of industrial samples showed that the FluoroMetPLATE assay gave similar results as the daphnid toxicity assay for 22 of 29 samples. For the remaining samples, for which there was no agreement between the two tests, it was found that the toxicity was mostly due to organic toxicants, confirming the specificity of FluoroMetPLATE for heavy metal toxicity.

Jung, K.; Bitton, G.; Koopman, B. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Sciences

1996-05-01

121

Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewaters: a review.  

PubMed

Heavy metal pollution has become one of the most serious environmental problems today. The treatment of heavy metals is of special concern due to their recalcitrance and persistence in the environment. In recent years, various methods for heavy metal removal from wastewater have been extensively studied. This paper reviews the current methods that have been used to treat heavy metal wastewater and evaluates these techniques. These technologies include chemical precipitation, ion-exchange, adsorption, membrane filtration, coagulation-flocculation, flotation and electrochemical methods. About 185 published studies (1988-2010) are reviewed in this paper. It is evident from the literature survey articles that ion-exchange, adsorption and membrane filtration are the most frequently studied for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. PMID:21138785

Fu, Fenglian; Wang, Qi

2010-12-08

122

Plant productivity and heavy metal contamination  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the potential for use of composts from green waste and from municipal solid wastes for agricultural use in Italy. The accumulation of heavy metals in compost-amended soils and crops was evaluated and the influence of these composts on plant productivity was studied. Green compost was obtained from vegetable organic residues; municipal solid waste derived compost was obtained from the aerobic biostabilization of a mixture of the organic biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge. The two composts had good chemical characteristics and their use caused no pollution to soil and plants. The overall fertilizing effect was higher for green compost even though green compost and municipal solid waste derived compost had similar contents of primary elements of fertility.

Guidi, G.V.; Petruzzelli, G.; Vallini, G.; Pera, A.

1990-06-01

123

Fate and effects of heavy metals on the Arkansas river  

SciTech Connect

The project examined fate and effects of heavy metals on biological communities in the upper Arkansas River Basin. The principal objectives of the research were: (1) to measure the impact of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) on benthic invertebrate communities in the Arkansas River; (2) to delineate zones of high impact, moderate impact, and recovery based on the distribution and abundance of these organisms; (3) to examine seasonal variation in effects of metals on benthic communities; (4) to examine the potential transfer of heavy metals from benthic invertebrates to brown trout, Salmo trutta.

Clements, W.H.

1991-12-15

124

Current levels of heavy metal pollution in Africa.  

PubMed

Studies of environmental pollution in Africa indicate that toxic metal pollution has reached unprecedented levels over the past decade. Human exposure to toxic metals has become a major health risk on the continent and is the subject of increasing attention from national and international environmentalists. This paper reviews data from the past decade on environmental pollution in Africa and highlights countries where most heavy metal pollutions have been reported. Characteristics of heavy metal pollution in North, West, East and Southern regions of Africa have been described, as have major sources of pollution in the different regions. This review summarizes the sites where most of the heavy metal pollution has been reported in Africa and, where applicable, presents reported levels of pollution in different environmental compartments in the context of internationally acceptable limits. Contaminations in fish and food animals as well as impacts of heavy metal pollution on humans are also described. PMID:20519853

Yabe, John; Ishizuka, Mayuni; Umemura, Takashi

2010-06-01

125

Heavy Metal Content in Plants from Family Lamiaceae Cultivated in an Industrially Polluted Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), and clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), cultivated at selected distances from a heavy metal pollution source (the Non-Ferrous Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria) were examined for heavy metal accumulation. The content of heavy metals in the roots, stems, leaves, and inflorescences, plus the heavy metal concentration in the essential oils obtained

V. Angelova; K. Ivanov; R. Ivanova

2006-01-01

126

Heavy metals in sediment cores from a NW Spain estuary  

SciTech Connect

Core samples have been used to describe the chronology of heavy metal inputs to aquatic systems. Metal concentration profiles have been investigated to detect pollution, to establish when the polluting event started, and to quantify its magnitude relative to [open quotes]precivilization[close quotes] background values. Less frequently, and mainly in studies of coastal systems, the heavy metal nonresidual fraction has been measured to estimate the portion of trace metals potentially available for the biota or remobilization processes, and to assist in identifying the origin of metal inputs. This work is part of a wider study of metal concentrations in organisms and superficial sediments from a small estuary in NW Spain. The aims of this research were to detect any potential pollutant input to the sediments of the estuary, and to establish the influence of postdepositional redistribution on the heavy metal concentrations of oxidized surface sediments. 17 refs., 1 fig.

Barreiro, R.; Real, C.; Carballeira, A. (Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain))

1994-09-01

127

Bioinformatic analysis of the metal-binding protein families and heavy metal resistance amongst cyanobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyanobacteria are often used as an indicator of the presence and level of pollutants in the environment. They have been especially recognized for their ability to identify contamination of heavy metals. Class II metallothioneins (MTs), usually found in cyanobacteria, are low molecular weight metal-binding proteins and may be required for heavy metal tolerance. It would be important to examine the

Tin-Chun Chu; Lee H Lee; Shankar Srinivasan

2005-01-01

128

Kinetics of Desorption of Heavy Metals from Polluted Soils: Influence of Soil Type and Metal Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of desorption of heavy metal ions (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) from the surface (0–15 cm) samples of an acidic soil (Inceptisol) and a neutral soil (Mollisol) spiked with inorganic salts of these metals or through an acidic sludge were studied by the column method. The rate of desorption of soil applied heavy metals was initially rapid and gradually

Geeta Kandpal; P. C. Srivastava; Bali Ram

2005-01-01

129

Variegate porphyria and heavy metal poisoning from ingestion of "moonshine".  

PubMed

A patient with cavitary tuberculosis, hepatic cirrhosis, bullous skin lesions over sun-exposed surfaces, disorientation, and a chronic, as well as recent, history of illicit alcohol consumption was found to have acute variegate porphyria by characteristic fecal and urinary porphyrin studies. Elevated levels of lead and arsenic were found in serum and urine without evidence of heavy metal storage in hair and liver. We suspect that the variegate porphyria was precipitated by the ingestion of heavy metals contained in illicit alcohol. In a patient with disorientation, bullous skin lesions, and a history of illicit alcohol ingestion, one must consider heavy metal intoxication and secondary porphyrin abnormalities. PMID:6879266

Hughes, G S; Davis, L

1983-08-01

130

Effects of heavy metals on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus thuringiensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosorption of the heavy metals most frequently found in polluted environments by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus thuringiensis was studied. The effects of these metals on bacterial growth, quantity of dry cells, ammonium assimilation, pigment production, and protein synthesis were investigated. At lower concentrations than the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), the metals partially limited bacterial growth and caused an inhibition

A. Hassen; N. Saidi; M. Cherif; A. Boudabous

1998-01-01

131

Effect of heavy metals on peppermint and cornmint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils and air is one of the most severe ecological problems on a world scale and in Bulgaria in particular. The biggest sources of pollution in Bulgaria are some non-ferrous metals smelters, such as the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (NFMC) near Plovdiv, situated on very fertile soils. Vegetable, arable and animal production in this area results

Valcho D. Zheljazkov; Niels E. Nielsen

1996-01-01

132

Adsorption of Heavy Metals in Industrial Wastewater by Magnetic Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is of great concern because of their toxic impact to living species and environments. Removal of metal ions from industrial effluent using nano-particles is an area of extensive research. This study collected wastewaters and effluents from 11 industrial companies in tanning, electronic plating, printed circuit board manufacturing, semi-conductor, and metal surface treatment industry and studied

Y. Tu; C. You

2010-01-01

133

Bioavailability of heavy metals and decontamination of soils by plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioavailability of heavy metals in metal-contaminated soils depends on physical, chemical and biological factors. Physical (structure, penetrability) and chemical factors (Eh, pH, speciation, concentration) give the framework in which biological factors can modify the metal availability by release of oxygen, protons, and organic acids and by association with mycorrhizal fungi. With these conditions in mind, the possibilities of the use

W. H. O. Ernst

1996-01-01

134

Heavy Metals in Marine Pollution Perspective-A Mini Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic inputs of pollutants such as heavy metals into the marine environment have increased their levels to large extents within past a few decades. These pollutants tend to accumulate in the bottom sediments. As a result, ecosystems such as seaports or other industrialized coastal areas that have chronic inputs of metals have highly contaminated sediments. This characteristic has led to concerns over the ecological effects that may be associated with sediment quality. Of particular concern are toxic effects and the potential for bioaccumulation of metals in biota exposed to the sediments. The availability of heavy metals to the biomass of a polluted region is the prime concern both in terms of the prediction of the effects of metal pollution on an ecosystem and in terms of possible human health risks. With growing interest on environmental issues, several intriguing questions related to heavy metals are often raised. This review addresses the basic concepts, sources, speciation, mode of action, levels, analytical measurement, bioavailability, bioaccumulation, biological role and toxicity of heavy metals in the marine environment. Lead, Cadmium, Zinc, Copper, Manganese, Iron, Mercury, Arsenic and Barium are selected because these metals are common and are often at measurable levels in marine samples. An attempt has been made to answer the queries presented by the environmentalists working on various aspects of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment

Ansari, T. M.; Marr, I. L.; Tariq, N.

135

Adsorption behavior of heavy metals on biomaterials.  

PubMed

We have investigated adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) at pH 2-6.7 onto the biomaterials chitosan, coffee, green tea, tea, yuzu, aloe, and Japanese coarse tea, and onto the inorganic adsorbents, activated carbon and zeolite. High adsorptive capabilities were observed for all of the biomaterials at pH 4 and 6.7. In the adsorption of Cd(II), blend coffee, tea, green tea, and coarse tea have comparable loading capacities to activated carbon and zeolite. Although activated carbon, zeolite, and chitosan are utilized in a variety of fields such as wastewater treatment, chemical and metallurgical engineering, and analytical chemistry, these adsorbents are costly. On the other hand, processing of the test biomaterials was inexpensive, and all the biomaterials except for chitosan were able to adsorb large amounts of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions after a convenient pretreatment of washing with water followed by drying. The high adsorption capability of the biomaterials prepared from plant materials is promising in the development of a novel, low-cost adsorbent. From these results, it is concluded that heavy metal removal using biomaterials would be an effective method for the economic treatment of wastewater. The proposed adsorption method was applied to the determination of amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in water samples. PMID:15373400

Minamisawa, Mayumi; Minamisawa, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shoichiro; Takai, Nobuharu

2004-09-01

136

Contamination of Polish national parks with heavy metals.  

PubMed

The paper presents results of screening analysis of all Polish national parks (23) contamination with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn on the basis of a three-level characteristic of heavy metal presence in Norway spruce stands: accumulation on the needle surface, concentration of heavy metals in spruce needles and concentration of bioavailable heavy metals in the soil. Based on the obtained results, the classification of forest ecosystem hazard in national parks with heavy metals was made using synthetic indicators. It was found out that Babiogórski, Magurski, Ojcowski and Gorcza?ski National Parks, located in the southern part of the country, were the most polluted with heavy metals. It is probably due to a higher industrial activity in this part of Poland and the transboundary transport of air pollutants. A little lower level of pollution was observed in Kampinoski National Park located in the middle of the country. The concentration of heavy metals found in needles from national parks does not seem to be harmful for the health status of the trees. Statistically significant correlation between all parameters, which was found for cadmium--the most mobile of the analysed elements--shows that this metal can be proposed as a marker to reflect present effect of industrial emission on forests. PMID:21842164

Staszewski, Tomasz; ?ukasik, W?odzimierz; Kubiesa, Piotr

2011-08-13

137

Heavy metals testing in active pharmaceutical ingredients: an alternate approach.  

PubMed

The principle of the pharmacopoeial heavy metals test is detection and estimation of the metallic impurities colored by sulfide ion by comparison against lead standard. The test suffers from a loss of analytes upon ashing and from having varied responses for various metals. An inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for estimating 23 metals in active pharmaceutical ingredients is being proposed. The method covers the metals listed in USP, Ph. Eur and EMEA guidance on "Residues of Metal Catalysts or Metal Reagents". PMID:20187573

Raghuram, P; Soma Raju, I V; Sriramulu, J

2010-01-01

138

NMR microscopy of heavy metal absorption in calcium alginate beads  

SciTech Connect

In recent years, heavy metal uptake by biopolymer gels, such as Cal-Alginate or chitosan, has been studied by various methods. This is of interest because such materials might be an alternative to synthetical ion-exchange resins in the treatment of industrial waste waters. Most of the work done in this field consisted of studies of equilibrium absorption of different heavy metal ions with dependence on various experimental parameters. In some publications, the kinetics of absorption were studied, too. However, no experiments on the spatial distribution of heavy metals during the absorption process are known to us. Using Cu as an example, it is demonstrated in this article that NMR microscopy is an appropriate tool for such studies. By the method presented here, it is possible to monitor the spatial distribution of heavy metal ions with a time resolution of about 5 min and a spatial resolution of 100 {mu}m or even better. 14 refs., 10 figs.

Nestle, N.; Kimmich, R. [Universitaet Ulm (Germany)

1996-01-01

139

View of interior detail; in kitchen; builtiniron and heavy metal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of interior detail; in kitchen; built-in-iron and heavy metal clock. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters P, Walnut Avenue, northwest corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

140

Lethal Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Tissue of Earthworms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This toxicological research report addresses lethal concentrations of heavy metals in tissue of earthworms. We have presented the work in progress in the first interim report to improve 1) ecotoxicological test, 2) field procedures and 3) standardization ...

A. Rida J. Y. Gal M. B. Bouche P. Brun

1987-01-01

141

Heavy Metals Removal Using Adsorption and Nanofiltration Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of some heavy metals Cu (II), Cd(II), Mn(II), Pb(II) As(III), and As(V) from water solution using absorption and nanofiltration membrane techniques is presented. The influence of temperature, sorbent mass, solution pH, flow rate and sorbent chemical modification in the adsorption process are discussed. Among the listed sorbents the best performers for higher initial heavy metal concentration are: montmorillonite,

Badriya Al-Rashdi; Chris Somerfield; Nidal Hilal

2011-01-01

142

Natural radionuclides and heavy metals in bottled water in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural radionuclides and heavy metals in bottled waters of the major brands in Greece were measured. Gross alpha- and beta-activities were evaluated first; subsequently 226Ra was measured by alpha spectroscopy. Tritium and uranium activities were assessed with liquid scintillation counting. Heavy metals were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy following pre-concentration. A correlation of activity concentrations with the chemical parameters of

D. Karamanis; K. Stamoulis; K. G. Ioannides

2007-01-01

143

Heavy metal bioaccumulation and toxicity with special reference to microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals were reviewed with special reference to microalgae, the key component of\\u000a the food web in aquatic ecosystems. Heavy metals enter algal cells either by means of active transport or by endocytosis through\\u000a chelating proteins and affect various physiological and biochemical processes of the algae. The toxicity primarily results\\u000a from their binding to the

K. K. I. U. Arunakumara; Xuecheng Zhang

2008-01-01

144

Removal of heavy metals using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to develop technologies that can remove toxic heavy metal ions found in wastewaters. Microorganisms are known to remove heavy metal ions from water. In this study the potential of the fungus Aspergillus niger to remove lead, cadmium, copper and nickel ions was evaluated. A. niger biomass pretreated by boiling in 0.1N NaOH solution for 15 min

Anoop Kapoor; T Viraraghavan; D. Roy Cullimore

1999-01-01

145

Heavy Metals Removal in a Horizontal Rotating Tubular Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mixed microbial culture was isolated from heavy metal-contaminated ground soils located inside iron, vinyl and cement factory\\u000a area. Isolated mixed microbial culture was used for the heavy metal ions (Fe2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+) removal process in horizontal rotating tubular bioreactor (HRTB). In this research, the effect of bioreactor process parameters\\u000a on the bioprocess dynamics in the HRTB was studied.

Ton?i Rezi?; Michaela Zeiner; Božidar Šantek; Sr?an Novak

2011-01-01

146

Isolation and characterization of a heavy metal-resistant Burkholderia sp. from heavy metal-contaminated paddy field soil and its potential in promoting plant growth and heavy metal accumulation in metal-polluted soil.  

PubMed

A heavy metal-resistant bacterial strain was isolated from heavy metal-contaminated soils and identified as Burkholderia sp. J62 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The heavy metal- and antibiotic resistance, heavy metal solubilization of the isolate were investigated. The isolate was also evaluated for promoting plant growth and Pb and Cd uptakes of the plants from heavy metal-contaminated soils in pot experiments. The isolate was found to exhibit different multiple heavy metal and antibiotic resistance characteristics. Atomic absorption spectrometer analysis showed increased bacterial solubilization of lead and cadmium in solution culture and in soils. The isolate produced indole acetic acid, siderophore and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase. The isolate also solubilized inorganic phosphate. Inoculation with the isolate was found to significantly (p<0.05) increase the biomass of maize and tomato plants. Increase in tissue Pb and Cd contents varied from 38% to 192% and from 5% to 191% in inoculated plants growing in heavy metal-contaminated soils compared to the uninoculated control, respectively. These results show that heavy metal-solubilizing and plant growth promoting bacteria are important for plant growth and heavy metal uptake which may provide a new microbial enhanced-phytoremediation of metal-polluted soils. PMID:18348897

Jiang, Chun-yu; Sheng, Xia-fang; Qian, Meng; Wang, Qing-ya

2008-03-17

147

Calcium Disodium EDTA Chelation Suppositories: A Novel Approach for Removing Heavy Metal Toxins in Clinical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals accumulate in various tissues and are associated with increases in today's biggest killers: cardiovascular disease and cancer. Reducing these heavy metals from the body has been a challenge to modern day medicine. With the advent of intravenous EDTA chelation, it was possible to remove heavy metals, but this invasive method of heavy metal removal is burdensome and expensive.

Rita Ellithorpe; Tony Jimenez; Brett Jacques; Robert Settineri; Larry Clapp; Garth L. Nicolson

148

Process for Removal of Heavy-Metal Ions from Waste Water (Japanese Patent).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process for removal of heavy-metal ions from waste water is characterized by the fact that a waste water containing heavy-metal ions is brought into contact with active ferrite to adsorb the heavy-metal ions, followed by desorption of the heavy-metal io...

S. Goto T. Nagura

1983-01-01

149

Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding  

SciTech Connect

Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead results in severe health hazards including prenatal and developmental defects. The deleterious effects of heavy metal ions have hitherto been attributed to their interactions with specific, particularly susceptible native proteins. Here, we report an as yet undescribed mode of heavy metal toxicity. Cd{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} proved to inhibit very efficiently the spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured proteins by forming high-affinity multidentate complexes with thiol and other functional groups (IC{sub 50} in the nanomolar range). With similar efficacy, the heavy metal ions inhibited the chaperone-assisted refolding of chemically denatured and heat-denatured proteins. Thus, the toxic effects of heavy metal ions may result as well from their interaction with the more readily accessible functional groups of proteins in nascent and other non-native form. The toxic scope of heavy metals seems to be substantially larger than assumed so far.

Sharma, Sandeep K. [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Goloubinoff, Pierre [Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Christen, Philipp [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: christen@bioc.uzh.ch

2008-07-25

150

Content of some heavy metals in soil and corn grain  

SciTech Connect

In an attempt to find causes for lower than expected corn (Zea mays L.) production along the bottomlands of the Green and Pond Rivers in western Kentucky, corn fields were sampled for soil and corn grain to determine heavy metal content. Samples from sixteen carefully selected fields were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni content. Yield of corn was not related to either soil or grain content of these heavy metals. There was also not relationship between soil pH and heavy metal accumulation by grain or heavy metal accumulation by grain and soil and Ni were within the range of values reported in the literature for uncontaminated soils. However, soil content of Cd was near or above the upper end of the ranges reported in the literature, even on control samples taken upstream from sites of potential heavy metal pollution. Karnak soils (fine, montmorillonitic, nonacid, mesic Vertic Haplaquepts), which are high in montmorillonitic clay content and have high cation exchange capacities, had higher Cd content than the other soils sampled. Except for two sites, grain Cd content was similar to values reported in the literature. Corn yields were found to be generally lower on Karnak soils than on other soils, raising the possibility that observed lower than expected yields are related to the poor physical characteristics of these soils rather than heavy metal pollutants in floodwaters. 8 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

Wells, K.L. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (United States)); Henson, G.; Kelley, G. (McLean and Hopkins Counties, KY (United States))

1993-01-01

151

Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration of heavy metals using lecithin  

SciTech Connect

Conventional treatment methods for removal of heavy metals from metal finishing operations are usually energy-intensive and costly. Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) with synthetic surfactants is a recently developed technique which can remove heavy metals and other small molecular weight ions from wastestreams at relatively lower costs and without a phase change. Lecithin, a natural, inexpensive, nontoxic, and biodegradable surfactant exhibits emulsifying characteristics which can be used in a MEUF. The binding of various lecithins to cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc - in a mixture and individually - was studied using a continuous diafiltration method. This technique uses small volumes of toxic waters and produces an entire isotherm with just one experiment. In the presence of all five heavy metals, the lecithin in this study showed the following affinity: Cu > Cd [approximately] Zn > Ni. In experiments when only one metal was present, lecithin exhibited the following affinity: Ni > Cu [approximately] Zn > Cd. Lead was not bound significantly in either scenario.

Ahmadi, S.; Tseng, L.K.; Batchelor, B.; Koseoglu, S.S. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1994-12-01

152

Phytoremediation of heavy metals--concepts and applications.  

PubMed

The mobilization of heavy metals by man through extraction from ores and processing for different applications has led to the release of these elements into the environment. Since heavy metals are nonbiodegradable, they accumulate in the environment and subsequently contaminate the food chain. This contamination poses a risk to environmental and human health. Some heavy metals are carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and endocrine disruptors while others cause neurological and behavioral changes especially in children. Thus remediation of heavy metal pollution deserves due attention. Different physical and chemical methods used for this purpose suffer from serious limitations like high cost, intensive labor, alteration of soil properties and disturbance of soil native microflora. In contrast, phytoremediation is a better solution to the problem. Phytoremediation is the use of plants and associated soil microbes to reduce the concentrations or toxic effects of contaminants in the environments. It is a relatively recent technology and is perceived as cost-effective, efficient, novel, eco-friendly, and solar-driven technology with good public acceptance. Phytoremediation is an area of active current research. New efficient metal hyperaccumulators are being explored for applications in phytoremediation and phytomining. Molecular tools are being used to better understand the mechanisms of metal uptake, translocation, sequestration and tolerance in plants. This review article comprehensively discusses the background, concepts and future trends in phytoremediation of heavy metals. PMID:23466085

Ali, Hazrat; Khan, Ezzat; Sajad, Muhammad Anwar

2013-03-07

153

Dietary intake of heavy metals in Bombay city, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn have been estimated in air particulates, water and food samples collected from different suburbs in Bombay during 1991–1994. The concentrations of these metals are translated into intake rates through inhalation and ingestion pathways. Results indicate the highest concentration of Pb and Cu are in pulses (green gram), Cd in

R. M. Tripathi; R. Raghunath; T. M. Krishnamoorthy

1997-01-01

154

Analysis of heavy metal emission data from municipal waste combustion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals contained in municipal solid waste (MSW), after combustion in modern waste-to-energy facilities, are collected in bottom and fly ash, only a small quantity being discharged from the stack as particulate or vapor. These metals are found to be broadly distributed throughout the constituents, limiting the potential for reducing them by targeting specific components. The many factors which determine

Floyd Hasselriis; Anthony Licata

1996-01-01

155

Modelling heavy metal and phosphorus balances for farming systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accounting for agricultural activities such as P fertilization in regional models of heavy metal accumulation provides suitable sustainable management strategies to reduce nutrient surpluses and metal inputs in agricultural soils. Using the balance model PROTERRA-S, we assessed the phosphorus (P), cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) flux balances in agricultural soils of a rural region in Switzerland for different farm types

A. N. Keller; R. Schulin

2003-01-01

156

Accumulation of heavy metals by aquatic mosses. 2: Rhynchostegium riparioides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was made of general ecology and metal accumulation in the widespread aquatic moss Rhynchostegium riparioides, (Hedw.) C. Jens. with a view to developing the use of this species as a monitor of heavy metal pollution. In order to establish a data bank for statistical analysis, samples of water and moss were taken within a 6-week period from 105

J. D. Wehr; B. A. Whitton

1983-01-01

157

HEAVY METAL DISTRIBUTION IN SEWAGE SLUDGE-TREATED SOIL PROFILES  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work we studied the total content of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn) in a soil treated with different sewage sludges and the distribution of these metals in the soil profile (0-50 cm) as a func- tion of the type and dose of sludge added, of the residence time of the sludge in the soil,

M. J. Sánchez-Martín; M. García-Delgado; L. F. Lorenzo; M. Sánchez-Camazano

158

The electric field gradient in heavy rare earth metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of the electric field gradient in heavy rare earth metals have been evaluated from experimental hyperfine interaction data. In addition, the magnetic hyperfine fields are analyzed. In the metals the effective radial integrals r-3>4f of the magnetic and quadrupole hyperfine interaction are reduced at most by 10% compared with the free ion values. The electric field gradients due to

J. Pelzl; Fachbereich Physik

1972-01-01

159

Heavy Metal Contents of Fly Ashes from Selected Biomass Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, heavy metal levels in selected fly ash samples of various biomass types (municipal solid waste, hazelnut shell, wheat straw, olive husk, walnut shell, almond shell, sunflower shell, and beech wood) were determined. The concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cd, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Sn, Sb, Se, V, Mo, and As metals were determined in the fly ash

Ayhan Demirba?

2005-01-01

160

Selective solubilization of heavy metals in torrential river sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of a research on heavy metals contents in torrential river sediments, two size fractions of a contaminated sample was submitted to a selected method for determining the presence of metals i) exchangeable (ammonium acetate), ii) associated to carbonates (acetic acid), iii) to pyrites?organic matter (hydrogen peroxide) and iv) to Fe?Mn oxides (hydroxylamine) or v) remaining in the

E. Ruiz; F. Romero; G. Besga

1991-01-01

161

Separation of Toxic Heavy Metals by Sulfide Precipitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulfide precipitation with Na2S is found to be highly effective to obtain a high degree of separation of heavy metal cations (Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb) and of the oxyanions of arsenic and selenium from complex wastewaters. The metal separation characteristics are evaluated with a dilute synthetic mixture and with an actual copper smelting plant wastewater. The overall separation of

D. Bhattacharyya; A. B. Jumawan Jr; R. B. Grieves

1979-01-01

162

Heavy Metals Competing with Iron under Conditions Involving Phytoremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals polluting the environment influence adsorption, uptake and translocation of iron in plants. Toxic metals are usually retained in the roots and there is little accumulation in the shoot, and plants suffer from different levels of stress due in many occasions to insufficient iron supply. However, there are certain plant species or varieties that can accumulate over a thousand

Ferenc Fodor

163

Nematodes as bioindicators of soil degradation due to heavy metals.  

PubMed

The effect of distance from a heavy metal pollution source on the soil nematode community was investigated on four sampling sites along an 4 km transect originating at the Kovohuty a.s. Krompachy (pollution source). The soil nematode communities were exposed to heavy metal influence directly and through soil properties changes. We quantified the relative effects of total and mobile fraction of metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn) on soil ecosystem using the nematode community structure (trophic and c-p groups,) and ecological indices (Richness of genera, H', MI2-5, etc.). Pollution effects on the community structure of soil free living nematodes was found to be the highest near the pollution source, with relatively low population density and domination of insensitive taxa. A decrease in heavy metals contents along the transect was linked with an increase in complexity of nematode community. The majority of used indices (MI2-5, SI, H') negatively correlated (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) with heavy metals content and were sensitive to soil ecosystem disturbance. Contamination by heavy metals has negatively affected the soil environment, which resulted in nematode community structure and ecological indices changes. Results showed that the free-living nematodes are useful tools for bioindication of contamination and could be used as an alternative to the common approaches based on chemical methods. PMID:22923372

Šalamún, Peter; Ren?o, Marek; Kucanová, Eva; Brázová, Tímea; Papajová, Ingrid; Miklisová, Dana; Hanzelová, Vladimíra

2012-08-26

164

Phytotoxicity and heavy metals speciation of stabilised sewage sludges.  

PubMed

The presence of heavy metals in the sludges produced in wastewater treatment restricts plants growth and hence their use for agricultural purposes. This study looks at different types of sludges (aerobic, anaerobic, unstabilised and sludge from a waste stabilisation pond) and compares the distribution of the heavy metals that they contain according to the treatment that they have undergone. The sewage sludges were subjected to chemical characterisation and phytotoxicity testing (in absence of substrate) to provide a preliminary assessment of their suitability for land application. In addition, the total quantity of metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ca, K, Fe, Mg, Ni, Na, Pb and Zn) was determined. The Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) method for heavy metal speciation was followed. It was confirmed that the total concentration of heavy metals did not exceed the limits set out by European legislation and that the stabilisation treatment undergone by the sludges strongly influenced the heavy metal distribution and the phases to which they were associated. The sludge extracts did not exert any significant adverse effect on the relative seed germination (RSG) of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) or cress (Lepidium sativum L.), although the reduction in germination index (GI) indicates that some characteristics existed did have an adverse effect on root growth. PMID:15120869

Fuentes, Ana; Lloréns, Mercedes; Sáez, José; Aguilar, Maria Isabel; Ortuño, Juan F; Meseguer, Victor F

2004-05-20

165

Study of heavy metals in some environmental samples.  

PubMed

Fuels like coal and rubber are frequently used for brick burning. However, both coal and rubber contain heavy metals. These heavy metals may elutriate in the wake of fly ash or may adsorb or absorb in the product. The present work deals with the analysis of heavy metals in some samples collected from brick burning industries located in the vicinity of a metropolitan city, Peshawar, Pakistan. Samples from raw clay, product, chimney scale and fossil fuel & rubber were collected and leached with acid mixture. The leachates were concentrated and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for the determination of chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and antimony (Sb). It was observed that heavy metals are present in clay, brick and chimney scale. However, significant amount of these metals was observed in chimney scale. It is inferred that such emanations laden with heavy metals are accompanying the stack gases which are being dumped in to the environment. In order to avoid environmental problems, strict environmental regulations shall be enforced and a constant check on these emanations to the environment must be made to ensure clean air act. PMID:18853266

Ahmad, Imtiaz; Rashid, Haroon; Rehman, Zia Ur

2008-10-14

166

Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution the tropics  

SciTech Connect

The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this plant is stronger in the roots than in the floating shoots. Metallothionein-like compounds have been found from roots of this species after cadmium exposure. The purpose of this investigation was to study the possibilities of using roots of water hyacinth as a biological indicator of metal pollution in tropical aquatic ecosystems.

Gonzalez, H.; Otero, M. (Institute of Transport Investigations, Havana (Cuba)); Lodenius, M. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

1989-12-01

167

Molecular Indicators of Soil Humification and Interaction with Heavy Metals  

SciTech Connect

For stabilization of heavy metals at contaminated sites, interaction of soil organic matter (SOM) with heavy metal ions is critically important for long-term sustainability, a factor that is poorly understood at the molecular level. Using 13C- and 15N-labeled soil humates (HS), we investigated the turnover of five organic amendments (celluose, wheat straw, pine shavings, chitin and bone meal) in relation to heavy metal ion leaching in soil column experiments. The labeled molecular substructures in HS were examined by multinuclear 2-D NMR and pyrolysis GC-MS while the element profile in the leachates was analyzed by ICP-MS. Preliminary analysis revealed that peptidic and polysaccharidic structures were highly enriched, which suggests their microbial origin. Cd(II) leaching was significantly attenuated with humification of lignocellulosic materials. Correlation of 13C and 15N turnovers of HS substructures to metal leaching is underway.

Fan, Teresa W.-M.; Higashi, Richard M.; Cassel, Teresa; Green, Peter; Lane, Andrew N.

2003-03-26

168

Chemical precipitation of heavy metals from acid mine drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1,3-benzenediamidoethanethiol dianion (BDET, known commercially as MetX) has been developed to selectively and irreversibly bind soft heavy metals from aqueous solution. In the present study BDET was found to remove >90% of several toxic or problematic metals from AMD samples taken from an abandoned mine in Pikeville, Kentucky. The concentrations of metals such as iron, may be reduced at

Matthew M Matlock; Brock S Howerton; David A Atwood

2002-01-01

169

Heavy metals on tidal flats in the Yangtze Estuary, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five short cores were used to examine heavy metals on tidal flats in the Yangtze Estuary, China. Statistically insignificant\\u000a trends in lead-210 and most metals with core depth are primarily due to high sedimentation rates. Metal contents are correlated\\u000a with percent aluminum, which reflects the clay contents in the sediment, and they are also affected by proximity to sewage\\u000a outlets

Z. Chen; R. Kostaschuk; M. Yang

2001-01-01

170

Competitive adsorption behavior of heavy metals on kaolinite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polluted and contaminated soils can often contain more than one heavy metal species. It is possible that the behavior of a particular metal species in a soil system will be affected by the presence of other metals. In this study we have investigated the adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) onto kaolinite in single- and multi-element systems as a

Prashant Srivastava; Balwant Singh; Michael Angove

2005-01-01

171

Comparison of Heavy Metal Adsorptions by Thai Kaolin and Ballclay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption characteristics of heavy metals: cadmium(II), chromium(III), copper(II), nickel(II), lead(II), and zinc(II) ions by kaolin (kaolinite) and ballclay (illite) from Thailand were studied. This research was focussed on the pH, adsorption isotherms of single-metal solutions at 30–60 °C by batch experiments, and on ion selectivityin mixed and binary combination solutions. It was found that, except Ni, metal adsorption increased

V. Chantawong; N. W. Harvey; V. N. Bashkin

2003-01-01

172

Heavy metal bioaccumulation and toxicity with special reference to microalgae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals were reviewed with special reference to microalgae, the key component of the food web in aquatic ecosystems. Heavy metals enter algal cells either by means of active transport or by endocytosis through chelating proteins and affect various physiological and biochemical processes of the algae. The toxicity primarily results from their binding to the sulphydryl groups in proteins or disrupting protein structure or displacing essential elements. Metals can break the oxidative balance of the algae, inducing antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The amount of oxidized proteins and lipids in the algal cells thus indicates the severity of the stress. Algal tolerance to heavy metal is highly dependent upon the defense response against the probable oxidative damages. Production of binding factors and proteins, exclusion of metals from cells by ion-selective transporters and excretion or compartmentalization have been suggested with regard to reducing heavy metal toxicity. However, a comprehensive description on the mechanisms underlining metal toxicity of microalgae and gaining tolerance is yet to be elaborated.

Arunakumara, K. K. I. U.; Zhang, Xuecheng

2008-02-01

173

Studies on the indicator for heavy metal contamination in environments (1) heavy metal contents of hair, nail and moustache  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Zn, and Mn) contents of the samples from 10 males were followed throughout a year. The values were characteristic of the individuals, and some correlations between the contents of different metals were shown.

Nishihara, T.; Watabe, K.; Ichikawa, T.; Kondo, M.; Fujii, M.

1985-01-01

174

Gill ATPase activity in Procambarus clarkii as an indicator of heavy metal pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lake Albufera and the surrounding rice field waters are subjected to very heavy loads of sewage and toxic industrial residues, including heavy metals, from the many urban and waste waters of this area. The American red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii have a high resistance to toxic effects of heavy metals. The sublethal effects of heavy metals on gills of fish and

A. Torreblanca; J. Del Ramo; J. Díaz-Mayans

1989-01-01

175

Effect of heavy metals on germination of seeds  

PubMed Central

With the expansion of the world population, the environmental pollution and toxicity by chemicals raises concern. Rapid industrialization and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of pollutants such as pesticides, petroleum products, acids and heavy metals in the natural resources like soil, water and air thus degrading not only the quality of the environment, but also affecting both plants and animals. Heavy metals including lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt, chromium and mercury are important environmental pollutants that cause toxic effects to plants; thus, lessening productivity and posing dangerous threats to the agro-ecosystems. They act as stress to plants and affect the plant physiology. In this review, we have summarized the effects of heavy metals on seeds of different plants affecting the germination process. Although reports exist on mechanisms by which the heavy metals act as stress and how plants have learnt to overcome, the future scope of this review remains in excavating the signaling mechanisms in germinating seeds in response to heavy metal stress.

Sethy, Sunil Kumar; Ghosh, Shyamasree

2013-01-01

176

Heavy metal mobility in biosolids-amended glaciated soils.  

PubMed

The mobility of heavy metals from one-time application of biosolids (i.e., compost, pellet, and cement kiln dust stabilized biosolids) onto glaciated soils (Paxton soil) was studied because previous work on metal leachate characteristics from different biosolids is limited for glaciated soils. Two types of batch tests were performed: first, a pH-edge adsorption study to evaluate the effect of pH on heavy metal adsorption to Paxton soil and, second, a pH-edge leaching study to evaluate the effect of pH on the leaching potential of heavy metals from biosolids-amended Paxton soil. Finally, a semicontinuous soil column study was performed to assess the mobility of heavy metals from biosolids-amended Paxton soil. The pH-edge leaching results showed that the leaching potential of heavy metals was lower with the compost product. Desorption concentrations for arsenic, chromium, and lead were found to be greatest in the cement kiln dust stabilized product whereas cadmium, copper, and nickel were present at the greatest concentrations in the pellets. The total organic carbon results measured during the pH-edge leaching study indicated that there is a minimum leachable concentration in the pH range of 4 to 5 for all three biosolids. Overall, the column studies indicated that heavy metals were not readily leached from the three biosolids-amended Paxton soils. The results from this study suggest that a one-time land application of these biosolids will not adversely affect groundwater quality. PMID:11558307

Nikolaidis, N P; Chheda, P

177

Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: A review.  

PubMed

Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit. PMID:24084375

Wang, Shuai-Long; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Sun, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jin-Ling; Li, Hua-Bin

2013-09-29

178

Separation Characteristics of Heavy Metal Compounds by Hot Gas Cleaning System  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this research is the basic study for the development of separation technology of heavy metal compounds from hot flue gas. While the hot flue gas containing heavy metals from a melting furnace of industrial waste passes through the high temperature dust collector which can be varied the operating temperature. The heavy metals can be separated due to different boiling point of each heavy metal. On the basis of this concept, the concentration of heavy metals in the flue gas were sampled and measured at inlet, outlet of the ceramic filter housing in the actual industrial waste processing system. Speciation of heavy metals in collected ashes was clarified by separating heavy metals according to compounds using their elution characteristics. Moreover, equilibrium analysis was performed to determine the effect of temperature, flue gases conditions on heavy metals speciation, and it was compared with experimental data. From these results, we discussed about separation performance of heavy metal compounds by hot gas cleaning.

Sakano, T.; Kanaoka, C.; Furuuchi, M.; Yang, K-S.; Hata, M.

2002-09-20

179

Community responses of aquatic insects to heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

Community level toxicity tests were conducted in outdoor experimental streams to examine the responses of aquatic insects to heavy metals. Introduced substrates (plastic trays filled with small cobble) were colonized at several locations in a river impacted by heavy metals. After 30 d, 4delta trays from an upstream control site were transferred to 12 outdoor experimental streams. Each stream was randomly assigned to one of three treatments: control, low metals, and high metals. Two trays were removed from each stream after 4 and 10 d exposure. Community structure on these trays was compared to field data collected from control and impacted sites. Macroinvertebrate density and number of taxa were reduced in both treated streams and at impacted field sites. Owing to differences in relative sensitivity to metals, the percent composition of dominant taxa also varied among treatments.

Clements, W.H.; Cherry, D.S.; Cairns, J.

1987-07-01

180

Interaction of carboxymethylchitosan and heavy metals in cement media.  

PubMed

The performance of an etherified chitosan, carboxymethylchitosan (CMCH), when added to cement mortars doped with heavy metals, was assessed. In the presence of heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Zn) strong modifications of the fresh-state properties were evaluated. The addition of the polymer was seen to be useful in minimising some of these modifications, as those related to the setting time. A competitive mechanism for adsorption between the oxoanionic form of the metals and the carboxylate groups of the chitosan derivative was established. Studies on the metal chelating ability of the polymer and leaching from the hardened specimens showed scarce complexation under alkaline conditions, pointing to physical entrapment based on metal adsorption. However, significant chelation of metals was proved at near-neutral pH, suggesting the potential usefulness of the polymer as an agent for removing heavy metals from polluted waters and subsequently immobilizing them in cement mortars. Leaching tests carried out on polymer-metal complex-bearing samples showed a reduction in the amount of released Pb and Zn. PMID:21872984

Lasheras-Zubiate, M; Navarro-Blasco, I; Alvarez, J I; Fernández, J M

2011-08-05

181

Heavy metal pollution in Japanese seabirds.  

PubMed

It is reported that seabirds accumulate high levels of metals, prompting concerns regarding poisoning. The present study investigated the accumulation patterns of metals in tissues among four species of seabirds (Fratercula corniculata, Uria lomvia, Puffinus tenuirostris, and Fulmarus glacialis). Furthermore, we focused on Slaty-backed Gulls, which accumulated high levels of cadmium and mercury, and compared the areal differences. Geographic variation of metal levels could also contribute to differences in metal accumulation levels in these bird species. Therefore, the concentrations of metals in seabirds are considered to reflect their habitat. There are differences in the accumulation pattern among the seabird species. The high accumulation of metals could affect seabirds even if they do not show any symptoms. PMID:23631160

Ishii, Chihiro; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Suzuki, Yuya; Watanuki, Yutaka; Watanabe, Yuji; Fukuwaka, Masa-aki; Yohannes, Yared B; Kawai, Yusuke K; Ishizuka, Mayumi

2013-02-01

182

Heavy metals as indicators for an integrated environmental monitoring system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metals are typical micropollutants emitted by incineration processes and they were chosen as Environmental Indicator in order to assess the effects of the activity of a medium-size Italian Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator in the vicinity. An Integrated Environmental Monitoring System was applied: after the recognition of maximum deposition areas, by a dispersion model, many different environmental samples were collected in many sites around the plant. The data referring to wet and dry deposition and superficial soil are here reported. Heavy metal contents in them were measured, and compared to heavy metal fluxes emitted from plant stacks. A statistical data analysis showed some interesting correlation, in particular between contaminant pattern in emission and in soil samples.

Morselli, L.; Bartoli, M.; Passarini, F.; Bernard, E.; Brighetti, A.

2003-05-01

183

Trace organic and heavy metal pollutants in the Mississippi River  

SciTech Connect

A study was conducted to characterize and measure organic and heavy metal pollutants in the Mississippi River. Water samples were collected along the entire length of the river, and were screened for semivolatile organics by capillary GC and for heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Four water samples were further examined for semivolatile organics by capillary GC/MS. Eight heavy metals and more than sixty distinct organic chemicals were identified including alkylbenzenes, various halogenated organics, five herbicides or derivates, plasticizers, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), saturated hydrocarbons, and three miscellaneous organics. All organic compounds were detected at the parts-per-trillion (pptr) level. In spite of the limited nature of the sampling effort, the large number of data derived from this study suggests the need for a more rigorous monitoring of the river for a wide spectrum of chemical pollutants.

DeLeon, I.R.; Byrne, C.J.; Peuler, E.A.; Antoine, S.R.; Schaeffer, J.; Murphy, R.C.

1986-01-01

184

Heavy metals in canned tuna from Italian markets.  

PubMed

Fish is a good source of nutrients for humans but can pose a risk to human health because of the possible presence of some xenobiotics such as heavy metals and persistent organic contaminants. Constant monitoring is needed to minimize health risks and ensure product quality and consumer safety. The aim of the present study was to use atomic absorption spectrometry to determine the concentrations of some heavy metals (Hg, Pb, and Cd) in tuna packaged in different kinds of packages (cans or glass) in various countries (Italy and elsewhere). Concentrations of Cd and Hg were within the limits set by European Commission Regulation (EC) No 1881/2006 and in many samples were below the detection limit. Pb concentrations exceeded European limits in 9.8% of the analyzed samples. These results are reassuring in terms of food safety but highlighted the need to constantly monitor the concentrations of heavy metals in fish products that could endanger consumer health. PMID:23433389

Russo, R; Lo Voi, A; De Simone, A; Serpe, F P; Anastasio, A; Pepe, T; Cacace, D; Severino, L

2013-02-01

185

Heavy metals in the soil-crop system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on the bulk contents of heavy metals in polluted soils are not quite suitable to judge the ecological situation in an agrocenosis. According to the results of model experiments with artificial contamination of soil, the flux of zinc and lead from the starting point (from a medium loamy leached chernozem) to the final point (wheat grains) sharply decreases. It is possible to obtain an ecologically pure (uncontaminated) grain yield even on a strongly contaminated soil due to the buffering capacity of the latter and due to the self-protective capacity of agricultural crops. The ecological potential of the soil-crop system is formed mostly at the expense of the buffering capacity of soil to heavy metals; the barrier function of plants is less significant. It is argued that the existing ecological standards based on the total contents of heavy metals in soil are of little use for predicting the quality of crops.

Il'in, V. B.

2007-09-01

186

Baker's yeast assay procedure for testing heavy metal toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is microorganism which is commercially available and sold as packaged dry pellets in any food store at low cost. Studies have been undertaken on the effects of organic xenobiotics as well as heavy metals on yeast metabolism. This type of study has been generally useful in examining the mechanism(s) of chemical toxicity. However, a rapid and quantitative toxicity test using S. cerevisiae as the test organism has not been developed. The purpose of this study was to develop a toxicity assay for heavy metals, using commercial dry yeast as the test microorganism. This rapid and simple procedure is based on the reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) to INT-formazan by the yeast electron transport system. The scoring of active cells following exposure to heavy metals was undertaken according to the MINT (malachite green-INT) method developed by Bitton and Koopman.

Bitton, G.; Koopman, B.; Wang, H.D.

1984-01-01

187

Heavy metals intake by cultured mushrooms growing in model system.  

PubMed

Micro element and heavy metal contents of mushrooms were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). It was seen an increase in the heavy metal contents (except Cu and Zn) of the mushrooms until the second dose. A decrease was seen in heavy metal intake of the mushroom in the application of the third dose. The highest accumulation occurred from the upper soils treated with the second dose. Amounts of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn, which were accumulated in the mushroom after the application of this dose, were detected as 5.7, 23.1, 75.7, 62.8 and 99.3 ppm, respectively. PMID:23591676

Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Dursun, Nesim; Al Juhaimi, Fahad Y

2013-04-17

188

Bacterial Community Structure and Function along a Heavy Metal Gradient.  

PubMed

The response of the planktonic, sediment, and epilithic bacterial communities to increasing concentrations of heavy metals was determined in a polluted river. None of the communities demonstrated a pollution-related effect on bacterial numbers (viable and total), heterotrophic activity, resistance to Pb or Cu, or species diversity as determined by either the Shannon-Wiener diversity index or rarefaction. The lack of correlation between concentrations of heavy metals and resistance in the sediment bacterial community was investigated and found to be due at least in part to the high pH of the river water and the resultant reduction in heavy metal toxicity. The three different communities demonstrated characteristic profiles based on the relative abundances of bacterial strains grouped according to functional similarities. PMID:16347991

Dean-Ross, Deborah; Mills, Aaron L

1989-08-01

189

Bacterial community structure and function along a heavy metal gradient  

SciTech Connect

The response to the planktonic, sediment, and epilithic bacterial communities to increasing concentrations of heavy metals was determined in a polluted river. None of the communities demonstrated a pollution-related effect on bacterial numbers (viable and total), heterotrophic activity, resistance to Pb or Cu, or species diversity as determined by either the Shannon-Wiener diversity index or rarefaction. The lack of correlation between concentrations of heavy metals and resistance in the sediment bacterial community was investigated and found to be due at least in part to the high pH of the river water and the resultant reduction in heavy metal toxicity. The three different communities demonstrated characteristic profiles based on the relative abundances of bacterial strains grouped according to functional similarities.

Dean-Ross, D. (Indiana Univ.-Purdue Univ., Fort Wayne (USA)); Mills, A.L. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (USA))

1989-08-01

190

Multiscale analysis of heavy metal contents in Spanish agricultural topsoils.  

PubMed

This study characterized and mapped the spatial variability patterns of seven topsoil heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn, Hg and Cd) within the Ebro river basin (9.3 million ha) by Multivariate Factorial Kriging. The variograms and cross-variograms of heavy metal concentrations showed the presence of multiscale variation that was modeled using three variogram models with ranges of 20km (short-range), 100km (medium-range) and 225km (long-range). Our results indicate that the heavy metal concentration is influenced by bedrock composition and dynamics at all the spatial scales, while human activities have a notorious effect only at the short- and medium-range scale of variation. Sources of Cu, Pb and Zn (and secondary Cd) are associated with agricultural practices (at the short-range scale of variation), whereas Hg variation at the short- and medium-range scale of variation is related to atmospheric deposition. PMID:17904195

Rodríguez, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Grau, José Manuel; Gil, Luis; López-Arias, Manuel

2007-09-27

191

Bacterial resistance to heavy metals and metalloids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacteria have evolved various types of resistance mechanisms to toxic metals and metalloids including mercury, cadmium\\/zinc,\\u000a copper\\/silver and arsenic\\/antimony. Active efflux of the metal is a frequently utilized stratagem, lowering the intracellular\\u000a concentration to subtoxic levels. Reduction to a less toxic form or to a form recognized by an efflux system also occurs.\\u000a Sequestration of metals has also been observed.

Barry P. Rosen

1996-01-01

192

Heavy Metals in Blue Mussels ( Mytilus edulis ) in the Bergen Harbor Area, Western Norway  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal discharges to the marine environment are of great concern all over the world. Both essential (e.g., Fe, Zn, Cu) and non essential (e.g., Hg, Cd, Pb) metals are toxic to living organism when subjected to high concentration. Many heavy metals accumulate in organisms and some also accumulate in the food chain. The anthropogenic heavy metal outlets can in

V. Andersen; A. Maage; P. J. Johannessen

1996-01-01

193

Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated land by trees—a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the potential for using trees for the phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated land. It considers the following aspects: metal tolerance in trees, heavy metal uptake by trees grown on contaminated substrates, heavy metal compartmentalisation within trees, phytoremediation using trees and the phytoremediation potential of willow (Salix spp.).

I. D. Pulford; C. Watson

2003-01-01

194

Heavy metal removal from wastewater and leachate co-treatment sludge by sulfur oxidizing bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal concentration in sludge is one of the major obstacles for the application of sludge on land. There are various methods for the removal of heavy metals in sludge. Using sulfur oxidizing bacteria for microbiological removal of heavy metals from sludges is an outstanding option because of high metal solubilization rates and the low cost. In this study, bioleaching

L. C. Aralp; A. Erdincler; T. T. Onay

2001-01-01

195

Heavy Metals in the Environment-Historical Trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

These six metals, commonly classified as heavy metals, are a subset of a larger group of trace elements that occur in low concentration in the Earth's crust. These heavy metals were mined extensively for use in the twentieth century Industrial Society. Nriagu (1988a) estimated that between 0.5 (Cd) and 310 (Cu) million metric tons of these metals were mined and ultimately deposited in the biosphere. In many instances, the inputs of these metals from anthropogenic sources exceed the contributions from natural sources (weathering, volcanic eruptions, forest fires) by several times ( Adriano, 1986). In this chapter, heavy metals (elements having densities greater than 5) and trace elements (elements present in the lithosphere in concentrations less than 0.1%) are considered synonymous.It has been observed in the past that the rate of emission of these trace metals into the atmosphere is low due to their low volatility. However, with the advent of large-scale metal mining and smelting as well as fossil-fuel combustion in the twentieth century, the emission rate of these metals has increased dramatically. As most of these emissions are released into the atmosphere where the mammals live and breathe, we see a great increase in the occurrence of health problems such as lead (Pb) poisoning, cadmium (Cd) Itai-itai disease, chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni) carcinogenesis.In this chapter, the author has attempted to present a synopsis of the importance of these metals in the hydrocycle, their natural and anthropogenic emissions into the environment, their prevalent geochemical form incorporated into lacustrine sediments, and their time-trend distributions in watersheds that have been impacted by urbanization, mining and smelting, and other anthropogenic activities. These time trends are reconstructed from major-minor-trace-element distributions in age-dated sediment cores, mainly from reservoirs where the mass sedimentation rates (MSRs) are orders of magnitude greater than those in natural lakes, the consequences of which tend to preserve the heavy-metal signatures and minimize the metal diagenesis (Callender, 2000). This chapter focuses mainly on the heavy metals in the terrestrial and freshwater environments whilst the environmental chemistry of trace metals in the marine environment is discussed in Volume 6, Chapter 3 of the Treatise on Geochemistry.The data presented in Table 2, Table 3, Table 4 and Table 5 are updated as much as possible, with many of the references postdate the late 1980s. Notable exceptions are riverine particulate matter chemistry ( Table 2), some references in Table 3, and references concerning the geochemical properties of the six heavy metals discussed in this chapter. There appears to be no recent publication that updates the worldwide average for riverine particulate matter trace metal chemistry ( Martin and Whitfield, 1981; Martin and Windom, 1991). This is supported by the fact that two recent references ( Li, 2000; Chester, 2000) concerning marine chemistry still refer to this 1981 publication. As for references in Table 3, there is a very limited data available concerning the pathways of heavy-metal transport to lakes. Some of the important works have been considered and reviewed in this chapter. In addition, the analytical chemistry of the sedimentary materials has changed little over the past 30 years until the advent and use of inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) in the late 1990s. Extensive works concerning the geochemical properties of heavy metals have been published during the past 40 years and to the author's knowledge these have survived the test of time.

Callender, E.

2003-12-01

196

Heavy metals in natural waters: applied monitoring and impact assessment  

SciTech Connect

An attempt has been made to review a large amount of environmental data on eight common heavy metals. The chemistry, uptake and toxicity of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc are presented. With this information, it is possible to assess their impact in aquatic systems. A review is also provided on the status and likely value of current methods used in monitoring and impact assessment. Information is included on environmental chemistry, the pollution-ecology of algae, invertebrates and fish, and on aquatic toxicology, genetic toxicology, and the pathology of fishes and invertebrates in relation to heavy metals.

Moore, J.W.; Ramamoorthy, S.

1984-01-01

197

Crystallographic phases in heavy rare earth metals under megabar pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments aimed at understanding the crystallographic phases of heavy rare earth metals were carried out in a diamond anvil cell at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. Heavy rare earth metals dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er) and thulium (Tm) were compressed to multi-megabar pressures. The rare earth crystal sequence hcp?Sm-type?dhcp?distorted-fcc (dfcc) is observed in all four elements. Upon further compression, a structural transformation to a monoclinic C2/m phase has been observed. We summarize the results from these experiments and present Rietveld structural refinements on high pressure phases for the specific case of dysprosium.

Samudrala, G. K.; Vohra, Y. K.

2012-07-01

198

PHYTOEXTRACTION OF HEAVY METALS WITH HYPERACCUMULATOR PLANTS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

When soils contain metals at high enough levels to comprise risk thru food-chain or soil ingestion, some methods must be applied to alleviate the risk, or the land use must be constrained. One approach to remediate risks from some metals is phytoextraction using hyperaccumulator plants. These remark...

199

Micelle exclusion chromatography of heavy-metal cations  

SciTech Connect

Micelle exclusion chromatography, wherein a micellar mobile phase and a size exclusion column are utilized for ionic separation, was applied to the separation of heavy-metal cations. Usefulness of simple micelle exclusion chromatography was limited by the poor resolution of metal cations, but addition of complexing agents in the sodium dodecyl sulfate eluent made possible the simultaneous separation of many divalent and trivalent transition- and rare-earth-metal cations. Additionally, the chromatographic retention behavior was used to calculate partition coefficients of metal ions between micelles and the bulk solution and between the imbibed solution and the stationary phase.

Okada, T.

1988-10-01

200

Toxicity assessment of heavy metal mixtures by Lemna minor L.  

PubMed

The discharge of untreated electroplating wastewaters directly into the environment is a certain source of heavy metals in surface waters. Even though heavy metal discharge is regulated by environmental laws many small-scale electroplating facilities do not apply adequate protective measures. Electroplating wastewaters contain large amounts of various heavy metals (the composition depending on the facility) and the pH value often bellow 2. Such pollution diminishes the biodiversity of aquatic ecosystems and also endangers human health. The aim of our study was to observe/measure the toxic effects induced by a mixture of seven heavy metals on a bioindicator species Lemna minor L. Since artificial laboratory metal mixtures cannot entirely predict behaviour of metal mixtures nor provide us with informations relating to the specific conditions in the realistic environment we have used an actual electroplating wastewater sample discharged from a small electroplating facility. In order to obtain three more samples with the same composition of heavy metals but at different concentrations, the original electroplating wastewater sample has undergone a purification process. The purification process used was developed by Orescanin et al. [Orescanin V, Mikeli? L, Luli? S, Nad K, Rubci? M, Pavlovi? G. Purification of electroplating wastewaters utilizing waste by-product ferrous sulphate and wood fly ash. J Environ Sci Health A 2004; 39 (9): 2437-2446.] in order to remove the heavy metals and adjust the pH value to acceptable values for discharge into the environment. Studies involving plants and multielemental waters are very rare because of the difficulty in explaining interactions of the combined toxicities. Regardless of the complexity in interpretation, Lemna bioassay can be efficiently used to assess combined effects of multimetal samples. Such realistic samples should not be avoided because they can provide us with a wide range of information which can help explain many different interactions of metals on plant growth and metabolism. In this study we have primarily evaluated classical toxicity endpoints (relative growth rate, Nfronds/Ncolonies ratio, dry to fresh weight ratio and frond area) and measured guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) activity as early indicator of oxidative stress. Also, we have measured metal accumulation in plants treated with waste ash water sample with EDXRF analysis and have used toxic unit (TU) approach to predict which metal will contribute the most to the general toxicity of the tested samples. PMID:17610935

Horvat, Tea; Vidakovi?-Cifrek, Zeljka; Orescanin, Visnja; Tkalec, Mirta; Pevalek-Kozlina, Branka

2007-07-05

201

Coal burning leaves toxic heavy metal legacy in the Arctic.  

PubMed

Toxic heavy metals emitted by industrial activities in the midlatitudes are transported through the atmosphere and deposited in the polar regions; bioconcentration and biomagnification in the food chain mean that even low levels of atmospheric deposition may threaten human health and Arctic ecosystems. Little is known about sources and long-term trends of most heavy metals before approximately 1980, when modern measurements began, although heavy-metal pollution in the Arctic was widespread during recent decades. Lacking detailed, long-term measurements until now, ecologists, health researchers, and policy makers generally have assumed that contamination was highest during the 1960s and 1970s peak of industrial activity in North America and Europe. We present continuous 1772-2003 monthly and annually averaged deposition records for highly toxic thallium, cadmium, and lead from a Greenland ice core showing that atmospheric deposition was much higher than expected in the early 20th century, with tenfold increases from preindustrial levels by the early 1900s that were two to five times higher than during recent decades. Tracer measurements indicate that coal burning in North America and Europe was the likely source of these metals in the Arctic after 1860. Although these results show that heavy-metal pollution in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic is substantially lower today than a century ago, contamination of other sectors may be increasing because of the rapid coal-driven growth of Asian economies. PMID:18711138

McConnell, Joseph R; Edwards, Ross

2008-08-18

202

Heavy metal characterization of circulating fluidized bed derived biomass ash.  

PubMed

Although the direct combustion of biomass for energy that applies circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology is steadily expanding worldwide, only few studies have conducted an environmental assessment of biomass ash thus far. Therefore, this study aims to integrate information on the environmental effects of biomass ash. We investigated the concentration of heavy metal in biomass ash samples (bottom ash, cyclone ash, and filter ash) derived from a CFB boiler that combusted agricultural and forest residues at a biomass power plant (2×12 MW) in China. Ash samples were gathered for the digestion and leaching test. The heavy metal content in the solution and the leachate was studied via an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 mercury analyzer. Measurements for the chemical composition, particle size distribution, and the surface morphology were carried out. Most of the metals in cyclone ash particles were enriched, whereas Ti and Hg were enriched in filter ash. Residence time contributed most to heavy metal enrichment. Under HJ/T 300 conditions, the heavy metals showed serious leaching characteristics. Under EN 12457-2 conditions, leaching behavior was hardly detected. PMID:22840499

Li, Lianming; Yu, Chunjiang; Bai, Jisong; Wang, Qinhui; Luo, Zhongyang

2012-07-16

203

Coal burning leaves toxic heavy metal legacy in the Arctic  

SciTech Connect

Toxic heavy metals emitted by industrial activities in the midlatitudes are transported through the atmosphere and deposited in the polar regions; bioconcentration and biomagnification in the food chain mean that even low levels of atmospheric deposition may threaten human health and Arctic ecosystems. Little is known about sources and long-term trends of most heavy metals before approximate to 1980, when modern measurements began, although heavy-metal pollution in the Arctic was widespread during recent decades. Lacking detailed, long-term measurements until now, ecologists, health researchers, and policy makers generally have assumed that contamination was highest during the 1960s and 1970s peak of industrial activity in North America and Europe. We present continuous 1772-2003 monthly and annually averaged deposition records for highly toxic thallium, cadmium, and lead from a Greenland ice core showing that atmospheric deposition was much higher than expected in the early 20th century, with tenfold increases from preindustrial levels by the early 1900s that were two to five times higher than during recent decades. Tracer measurements indicate that coal burning in North America and Europe was the likely source of these metals in the Arctic after 1860. Although these results show that heavy-metal pollution in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic is substantially lower today than a century ago, contamination of other sectors may be increasing because of the rapid coal-driven growth of Asian economies.

McConnell, J.R.; Edwards, R. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

2008-08-26

204

Susceptibility of Halobacteria to Heavy Metals  

PubMed Central

Sixty-eight halobacteria, including both culture collection strains and fresh isolates from widely differing geographical areas, were tested for susceptibility to arsenate, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc ions by an agar dilution technique. The culture collection strains showed different susceptibilities, clustering into five groups. Halobacterium mediterranei and Halobacterium volcanii were the most metal tolerant, whereas Haloarcula californiae and Haloarcula sinaiiensis had the highest susceptibilities of the culture collection strains. Different patterns of metal susceptibility were found for all the halobacteria tested, and there was a uniform susceptibility to mercury and silver. All strains tested were multiply metal tolerant.

Nieto, J. J.; Ventosa, A.; Ruiz-Berraquero, F.

1987-01-01

205

Control of heavy metals during incineration using activated carbon fibers.  

PubMed

Activated carbon fibers (ACFs) were applied to control heavy metals in incineration flue gas. Three heavy metal species (Cr, Cd and Pb), three ACFs, various adsorption temperatures (150, 250 and 300 degrees C) and weights of ACFs were experimentally determined. The results indicated that the effects of the type of ACF and the weight of the ACFs on the solid-state Cr removal were insignificant. The extent of solid-state Cd and Pb removal was related to the knitting structure of ACFs and the physical characteristic of the metals. The removal efficiencies of the solid-state and gaseous metals at various reaction temperature followed the order 250>150>300 degrees C and 300>250>150 degrees C, respectively. PMID:17011121

Liu, Zhen Shu

2006-08-30

206

Heavy Metal Bioavailability and Bioaccessibility in Soil  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter considers the use of a variety of approaches to assess either the bioavailability or the bioaccessibility of metals in soil. The bioavailability of metals from soils is considered with respect to a series of single-extraction methods, including the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), acetic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ammonium nitrate, calcium chloride and sodium nitrate. Then, a procedure for the recovery of metals using a three-stage sequential extraction protocol is described. Two alternate approaches for assessing the environmental health risk to humans by undertaking in vitro gastrointestinal extraction (also known as the physiologically based extraction test, PBET) are considered. Finally, two acid digestion protocols that allow the pseudo-total metal content of samples to be assessed are provided.

Dean, John Richard

207

Heavy metals distribution in Jamaica Bay sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ninety-two sediment samples collected at 53 stations in Jamaica Bay from November 1970 to October 1973 were analyzed for Pb, Cr, V, Cu, Cd, Zn, Ni, Co, and percent organic carbon (ORC). Selected samples were analyzed for Hg. The concentrations of all metals correlate with each other and with organic carbon. Vanadium, cobalt, and nickel stand out as a separate component and are enriched relative to other metals in areas affected by petroliferous pollution. The metal concentrations are strongly influenced by the strength of tidal currents and proximity to pollution sources. Amount of rainfall and/or season affects metal concentrations in Grassy Bay (a deep restricted body of water within Jamaica Bay).

Ramondetta, Paul J.; Harris, William H.

1978-05-01

208

Speciation of heavy metals in landfill-leachate polluted groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anaerobic leachate polluted groundwater samples were collected downgradient of a Danish landfill. The groundwater samples were spiked with heavy metals at concentrations within the range of metal concentrations found in landfill leachates (100?g Cdl?1, 500?g Nil?1, 1000?g Znl?1, 1000?g Cul?1 and 1000?g Pbl?1) and divided under anaerobic conditions into colloidal (screen-filtration and cross-flow ultrafiltration), organic (anion-exchange) and dissolved inorganic species

Dorthe LÆrke Jensen; Anna Ledin; Thomas H Christensen

1999-01-01

209

Heavy metal accumulation by bacteria and other microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bacteria, and other microorganisms, exhibit a number of metabolism-dependent and-independent processes or the uptake and accumulation of heavy metals and radionuclides. The removal of such harmful substances from effluents and waste waters by microbe-based technologies may provide an alternative or additional means of metal\\/radionuclide recovery for economic reasons and\\/or environmental protection. Both living and dead cells as well as

G. M. Gadd

1990-01-01

210

Heavy metal detoxification in higher plants - a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of heavy-metal-complexing peptides was isolated from plants and plant suspension cultures. The structure of these peptides was established as (?-glutamic acid-cysteine)n-glycine (n=2–11) [(?-Glu-Cys)n-Gly]. These peptides appear upon induction of plants with metals of the transition and main groups (Ib-Va, Z=29?83) of the periodic table of elements. These peptides, called phytochelatins (PC), are induced in all autotrophic plants so

Meinhart H. Zenk

1996-01-01

211

Characterization of disposable optical sensors for heavy metal determination.  

PubMed

This paper presents the development, characterization and quality control of analytical methods based on the use of disposable optical sensors for determination of heavy metals. Chromogenic reagents such as 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol, (2-pyridylazo)resorcinol, Zincon, Ferrozine, and Chromazurol S were used to develop optical sensors of heavy metal ions found as contaminants in pharmaceutical substances and products, such as Zn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), and Fe(III). The chromogenic reagents were immobilized in polymeric membranes by spin-coating from cocktails containing all reagents needed. The methods were prevalidated using a comprehensive quality control strategy based on a system of mathematical/statistical testing and diagnosis of each prevalidation step. This system involved characterization of analytical groups; checking of two limiting groups; testing of data homogeneity; recognition of outliers; and determination of analytical functions, limiting values, precision and accuracy. The prevalidation strategy demonstrated the reliability of the proposed method and pointed out some limitations. Combining the optical sensors with multicomponent linear regression allowed simultaneous determination of multiple metals in synthetic mixtures with different compositions. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical amounts of heavy metals in the mixtures was obtained for the majority of sensors and metals. Even better agreement was obtained between the experimental and theoretical total amounts of metals in the mixtures. The proposed analytical methods were successfully applied to the determination of zinc in pharmaceutical preparations of insulin and the determination of metal mixtures in a commercial nasal spray of isotonic seawater. The reliable and sensitive individual optical sensors developed in this study may be useful for designing a multimembrane optical tongue that with appropriate further optimization can be used for screening heavy metals in various matrices. PMID:22608424

Vukovi?, Jadranka; Avidad, María Ariza; Capitán-Vallvey, Luis Fermín

2012-03-08

212

Heavy Metals Remediation of Water Using Plants and Lignocellulosic Agrowastes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metals in the environment arise from natural sources or directly or indirectly from human activities such as rapid industrialization,\\u000a urbanization, and anthropogenic sources, threatening the environment and human health (Nriagu 1979). Mining and metallurgical activities produce wastewaters that can be considered as the major source of heavy metal contamination\\u000a of natural waters (Schalcsha and Ahumada 1998; Reddad et al. 2002a).

K. K. Krishnani; S. Ayyappan

213

Chelate-Assisted Heavy Metal Movement Through the Root Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chelating agents are added to soil as a means to mobilize heavy metals for plant uptake during phytoremediation. Yet almost no studies follow the displacement of heavy metals through the vadose zone following solubilization with chelating agents. The objective of this work was to determine the movement of heavy metals through the soil profile and their absorption by barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in a soil amended with biosolids and in the presence of a chelating agent (EDTA). Twelve columns 75 cm in height and 17 in diameter were packed with a Haynie very fine sandy loam (coarse-silty, mixed, calcareous, mesic Mollic Udifluvents) and watered with liquid biosolids applied at the surface at a rate of 120 kg N/ha. Three weeks after plants germinated, soil was irrigated with a solution of the disodium salt of EDTA added at a rate of 0.5 g/kg soil. Four treatments were imposed: columns with no plants and no EDTA; columns with no plants plus EDTA; columns with plants and no EDTA; and columns with plants and EDTA. Columns were watered intensively for 35 days until two pore volumes of water had been added, and the leachates were collected daily. With or without plants, columns with EDTA had lower total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, and Pb in the surface 20 cm than columns without EDTA. Concentrations of the heavy metals in this layer were not afffected by the presence of roots. Iron in leachate was followed as an indicator metal for movement to groundwater. No iron appeared in the leachate without EDTA, either in the columns with plants or without plants. The peak concentration of iron in the leachate occurred three days earlier in the columns without plants and EDTA compared to the columns with plants and EDTA. The results indicated the importance of vegetation on retarding heavy metal leaching to groundwater during chelate-facilitated phytoremediation.

Kirkham, M.; Madrid, F.; Liphadzi, M. S.

2001-12-01

214

Use of cestodes as indicator of heavy-metal pollution.  

PubMed

Thirty snakehead fish, Channa micropeltes (Cuvier, 1831) were collected at Lake Kenyir, Malaysia. Muscle, liver, intestine and kidney tissues were removed from each fish and the intestine was opened to reveal cestodes. In order to assess the concentration of heavy metal in the environment, samples of water in the surface layer and sediment were also collected. Tissues were digested and the concentrations of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipment. The results demonstrated that the cestode Senga parva (Fernando and Furtado, 1964) from fish hosts accumulated some heavy metals to a greater extent than the water and some fish tissues, but less than the sediment. In three (Pb, Zn and Mn) of the five elements measured, cestodes accumulated the highest metal concentrations, and in remaining two (Cu and Cd), the second highest metal accumulation was recorded in the cestodes when compared to host tissues. Therefore, the present study indicated that Senga parva accumulated metals and might have potential as a bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution. PMID:23146722

Yen Nhi, Tran Thi; Mohd Shazili, Noor Azhar; Shaharom-Harrison, Faizah

2012-11-09

215

Heavy metal contamination in the Delhi segment of Yamuna basin.  

PubMed

Concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Pb, Cr, Hg and As) in the waters of River Yamuna and in the soil of agricultural fields along its course in Delhi are reported from 13 sites, spread through the Delhi stretch of Yamuna, starting from the Wazirabad barrage till the Okhla barrage. Varying concentration of heavy metals was found. Peaks were observed in samples collected downstream of Wazirabad and Okhla barrage, indicating the anthropogenic nature of the contamination. The Wazirabad section of the river receives wastewater from Najafgarh and its supplementary drains, whereas the Shahdara drain releases its pollution load upstream of the Okhla barrage. Average heavy metal concentration at different locations in the river water varied in the order of Fe>Cr>Mn>Zn>Pb>Cu>Ni>Hg>As>Cd. The river basin soil shows higher level of contamination with lesser variation than the water samples among sampling locations, thereby suggesting deposition over long periods of time through the processes of adsorption and absorption. The average heavy metal concentration at different locations in soil varied in the order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Pb>Ni>Hg>Cu>As>Cd. PMID:21505769

Sehgal, Meena; Garg, Ankur; Suresh, R; Dagar, Priya

2011-04-20

216

Heavy metal linkages with mineral, organic and living soil compartments  

Microsoft Academic Search

For soil ecotoxicological assessment, we can observe lethal effects (on organism as presence or absence) or sublethal effects due to bioconcentrations of contaminants in organisms. This paper deals with the analysis of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and Ca: (i) in soils, by three chemical extraction techniques; (ii) in earthworm tissues; (iii) the relationships

Abdul Motalib M. Abdul Rida; Marcel B. Bouché

1997-01-01

217

Mapping heavy metals in polluted soil by disjunctive kriging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soil of some 50 km2 aroun the town of Weinfelden in north-east Switzerland has been sampled and analysed to estimate and map the concentrations of heavy metals before an incinerator for the canton's waste is built. Given that the estimates are subject to error, the probabilities that true values exceed the maximum tolerable concentrations of the Swiss federal guide

B. von Steiger; R. Webster; R. Schulin; R. Lehmann

1996-01-01

218

Chemical methods and phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chemical amendments (calcium carbonate (CC), steel sludge (SS) and furnace slag (FS)) on the growth and uptake of cadmium (Cd) by wetland rice, Chinese cabbage and wheat grown in a red soil contaminated with Cd were investigated using a pot experiment. The phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil with vetiver grass was also studied in a field

H. M Chen; C. R Zheng; C Tu; Z. G Shen

2000-01-01

219

Screening Capsicum chinense fruits for heavy metals bioaccumulation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Elevated concentrations of heavy metals in edible plants could expose consumers to excessive levels of potentially hazardous chemicals. Sixty-three accessions (genotypes) of Capsicum chinense Jacq, collected from 8 countries of origin, were grown in a silty-loam soil under field conditions. At matur...

220

Adolescents and Heavy Metal Music: From the Mouths of Metalheads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Attitudes and characteristics of adolescents who like heavy metal music (HMM) were explored in a study of 52 adolescents (largely White males) who liked HMM and 123 who did not in suburban Atlanta (Georgia). HMM is discussed as a reflection of, rather than a cause of, adolescent alienation. (SLD)|

Arnett, Jeffrey

1991-01-01

221

Separation of heavy metals from soils using air classification technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of various activities such as weapons or ordance testing, soils at US Department of Energy and naval facilities are contaminated with heavy metals such as uranium or lead. Previous soil cleanup work has indicated that physical separation methods are likely candidates for success. For example, plutonium was successfully removed during the Johnston Atoll cleanup using a mineral jig system.

M. E. Nelson; M. J. Harper; D. S. Gilmore; V. Subramania

1993-01-01

222

Impact of heavy metals and PCBs on marine picoplankton.  

PubMed

Synergistic/antagonistic effects of multiple contaminants in marine environments are almost completely unexplored. In the present study, we investigated the effects of heavy metals (Zn and Pb) and PCBs on picoplankton abundance, biomass, cell size distribution, and bacterial C production. Natural picoplankton assemblages were exposed to heavy metals (Zn or Pb), organic contaminants (PCBs, Aroclor 1260), and to a mixture of different contaminants. The results of the present study indicate that Zn addition stimulated heterotrophic growth, whereas Pb has a negative impact on heterotrophic picoplankton, particularly significant in the first 24 h. Heavy metals had no effects on the autotrophic component. The addition of Aroclor 1260 had a significant impact on abundance, biomass, and cell size of autotrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton, and reduced significantly bacterial secondary production. Three weeks after PCB treatment, heterotrophic bacteria displayed a clear resilience, both in terms of abundance and biomass, reaching values comparable to those of the controls, but not in terms of bacterial C production. Our results indicate that picoplankton can be sensitive indicators of impact determined by heavy metals and PCBs in coastal marine systems. PMID:17091498

Caroppo, Carmela; Stabili, Loredana; Aresta, Michele; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Danovaro, Roberto

2006-12-01

223

Heavy metal resistant strains are widespread along Streptomyces phylogeny.  

PubMed

The genus Streptomyces comprises a group of bacteria species with high economic importance. Several of these species are employed at industrial scale for the production of useful compounds. Other characteristic found in different strains within this genus is their capability to tolerate high level of substances toxic for humans, heavy metals among them. Although several studies have been conducted in different species of the genus in order to disentangle the mechanisms associated to heavy metal resistance, little is known about how they have evolved along Streptomyces phylogeny. In this study we built the largest Streptomyces phylogeny generated up to date comprising six genes, 113 species of Streptomyces and 27 outgroups. The parsimony-based phylogenetic analysis indicated that (i) Streptomyces is monophyletic and (ii) it appears as sister clade of a group formed by Kitasatospora and Streptacidiphilus species, both genera also monophyletic. Streptomyces strains resistant to heavy metals are not confined to a single lineage but widespread along Streptomyces phylogeny. Our result in combination with genomic, physiological and biochemical data suggest that the resistance to heavy metals originated several times and by different mechanisms in Streptomyces history. PMID:23247041

Alvarez, Analía; Catalano, Santiago A; Amoroso, María Julia

2012-12-13

224

Using biopolymers to remove heavy metals from soil and water  

SciTech Connect

Chemical remediation of soil may involve the use of harsh chemicals that generate waste streams, which may adversely affect the soil's integrity and ability to support vegetation. This article reviews the potential use of benign reagents, such as biopolymers, to extract heavy metals. The biopolymers discussed are chitin and chitosan, modified starch, cellulose, and polymer-containing algae. (Copyright (c) Remediation 1994.)

Krishnamurthy, S.; Frederick, R.M.

1993-11-19

225

Heavy metals pollution in the environment of Kathmandu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nepal situated on the lap of mighty Himalayas is now threatened by heavy metals pollution in her atmosphere, land and river system. The indigenious technology of Nepal heavily depends on the use of mercury in gold plating technique. The mercury vapours are released to the atmosphere, when gold-amalgam smeared untesils and idols are strongly heated. Absence of control mechanism to collect mercury vapours has not only polluted atmosphere but it has also caused health hazard to the workers working in the poorly ventilated workshop. The craftsmen and articians have been victim of mercury poisoining. Another heavy metal that has caused atmospheric pollution in Nepal is lead. The lead containing gasoline used in greater amount in vehicles has released more and more lead in the from of exhaust gas into the atmosphere. The atmospheric pollution has been more acute in Nepal due to the use of lead gasoline in used vehicles. Likewise the river system of the urban areas of Nepal is polluted by heavy metals like cadmium, lead salt, ferrous salt, etc. The effulents of battery industries, leather factories, dye factories are directly dumped into the river system of urban areas. This has killed many aquatic animals of rivers. Thus Nepal is facing the problem of heavy metals pollution in her environnent.

Shrestha, H. D.

2003-05-01

226

Heavy Metals Contamination of Table Salt Consumed in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are the most important heavy metals which may cause health risks following consumption of contaminated foods. Table salt is one the mostly used food additive with unique place in food consumption. Although purified table salt is expected to have lower level of contamination, some Iranians still prefer to use rock salt. Use of rock salt

Abdol Majid Cheraghali; Farzad Kobarfard

2010-01-01

227

CONCENTRATION OF NINE HEAVY METALS IN SUEZ CANAL WATERS, EGYPT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of nine heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Co, Fe and Mn) in waters of the Suez Canal and in the nearby waters was measured seasonally during 1997 - 1998 in their dissolved (D) and particulate (P) forms. The results revealed that the northern part of the canal (at Port Said) recorded higher concentrations for most

EL SAMRA; ABD EL-AZIM

2005-01-01

228

Toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs in Asian herbal medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asian herbal medicines are currently used by large sections of the population. Because they are not regulated as medicines and are freely available to everyone, serious safety concerns might be associated with these herbal medicines. In this article, evidence suggesting that some Asian herbal medicines contain toxic heavy metals or undeclared prescription drugs is reviewed. In particular, Indian and Chinese

Edzard Ernst

2002-01-01

229

Heavy metals in natural waters: applied monitoring and impact assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt has been made to review a large amount of environmental data on eight common heavy metals. The chemistry, uptake and toxicity of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, and zinc are presented. With this information, it is possible to assess their impact in aquatic systems. A review is also provided on the status and likely value of

J. W. Moore; S. Ramamoorthy

1984-01-01

230

Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current state of the art regarding the use of chelating agents to extract heavy metal contaminants has been addressed. Results are presented for treatability studies conducted as worst-case and representative soils from Aberdeen Proving Ground's J-Field for extraction of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The particle size distribution characteristics of the soils determined from hydrometer tests are

Robert W Peters

1999-01-01

231

Carboxylation of scleroglucan for controlled crosslinking by heavy metal ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Samples of carboxylated scleroglucan, sclerox, with a degree of carboxylation in the side-chains varying from 10 to 50% were made in order to investigate the potential of using carboxylation as a means to control subsequent gelation by heavy metal ions. The storage and loss moduli of aqueous solutions of sclerox samples as a function of time were determined at T

Bjørn T. Stokke; Arnljot Elgsaeter; Olav Smidsrød; Bjørn E. Christensen

1995-01-01

232

HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION IN MANURE ON WISCONSIN DAIRY FARMS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Excessive heavy metal concentrations jeopardize the good functioning of soils and may contaminate crops and pose health risks to both livestock and humans. Wisconsin has the largest numbers of dairy operations in the US, with the majority producing most of their own feed, and recycling manure throug...

233

Heavy Metal Transfer from Alkaline Soil to Forage Crops  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Paso del Norte region along the Texas, U.S.-Mexico border, both rural and urban border communities are exposed to heavy metals from industry, copper smelting, combustion of petroleum products, and the reclamation of wastewaters for agricultural use (Fig. 1). The objectives of this study were to: i) investigate the chemistry of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and lead

Naomi Waissman Assadian; George Di Giovanni; Juan Pedro Margez Flores; Esaul Jaramillo Lopez

234

Critical loads of heavy metals for European forest soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, concern has arisen about the impact of the dispersion of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in Europe. Therefore, a study (ESQUAD) was initiated to assess critical loads and steady state concentrations of cadmium, copper and lead and lindane and benzo(a)pyrene for European forest soils and the North sea. This study was carried out by five Dutch research institutes.

G. J. Reinds; J. Bril; W. de Vries; J. E. Groenenberg; A. Breeuwsma

1995-01-01

235

Baker's yeast assay procedure for testing heavy metal toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is microorganism which is commercially available and sold as packaged dry pellets in any food store at low cost. Studies have been undertaken on the effects of organic xenobiotics as well as heavy metals on yeast metabolism. This type of study has been generally useful in examining the mechanism(s) of chemical toxicity. However, a rapid and

Gabriel Bitton; Ben Koopman; Hsien-Deng Wang

1984-01-01

236

The effects of fire temperatures on water soluble heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fire ash are majority composed by base cations, however the mineralized organic matter, led also available to transport a higher quantity of heavy metals that potentially could increase a toxicity in soil and water resources. The amount availability of these elements depend on the environment were the fire took place, burning temperature and combusted tree specie. The soil and water

P. Pereira; X. Ubeda; D. A. Martin

2009-01-01

237

Electrochemical Removal of Heavy Metals from Acid Mine Drainage.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Laboratory and field studies were conducted to determine the economics of ferrous iron oxidation in a cell containing a bed of conductive particles in the space between the cathode and the anode. The effects of the process on other heavy metals present in...

N. B. Franco R. A. Balouskus

1974-01-01

238

HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION IN THE TAIMYR PENINSULA, SIBERIAN ARCTIC  

EPA Science Inventory

The Taimyr Peninsula is directly north of the world's largest heavy metal smelting complex (Norilsk, Russia). Despite this proximity, there has been little research to examine the extent of contamination of the Taimyr Peninsula, primarily because of the remoteness of this area. W...

239

Bacterial community structure and function along a heavy metal gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

The response to the planktonic, sediment, and epilithic bacterial communities to increasing concentrations of heavy metals was determined in a polluted river. None of the communities demonstrated a pollution-related effect on bacterial numbers (viable and total), heterotrophic activity, resistance to Pb or Cu, or species diversity as determined by either the Shannon-Wiener diversity index or rarefaction. The lack of correlation

D. Dean-Ross; A. L. Mills

1989-01-01

240

Partitioning of heavy metals in surface Black Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bulk heavy metal (Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb) distributions and their chemical partitioning, together with TOC and carbonate data, were studied in oxic to anoxic surface sediments (0–2 cm) obtained at 18 stations throughout the Black Sea. TOC and carbonate contents, and available hydrographic data, indicate biogenic organic matter produced in shallower waters is transported and

N. Kiratli; M. Ergin

1996-01-01

241

Heavy Metals Leaching from Fluorescent Lamps Physicochemical Treatment Residuals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Waste generated during the process of physicochemical treatment of fluorescent lamps contains relatively high quantities of heavy metals. Physicochemical treatment is employed with the aim to concentrate toxic substances present in the lamps. This study attempts to evaluate the leaching properties of treatment residuals. Waste of a similar composition has been not fully researched yet, thus the limited data are

Inga Urnie; Gintaras Denafas

242

Heavy metal content of black teas from south India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tea is the most popular beverage in the world. Since tea contains several essential nutrients, drinking of tea is considered beneficial for human health. The presence of heavy metals in trace level in tea has received special attention because they are directly related to health. A basket survey was conducted in the tea districts of south India to generate a

Subbiah Seenivasan; Natarajan Manikandan; Narayanan Nair Muraleedharan; Rajagopal Selvasundaram

2008-01-01

243

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in terrestrial invertebrates.  

PubMed

In this literature study, accumulation data of metals in terrestrial invertebrates were collected and compared (Arthropoda and Lumbricidae). Based on total soil concentrations and body concentrations, regression equations were calculated for each metal (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) and each taxonomic group. We also tried to find out whether or not accumulation levels of metals in Lumbricidae are representative for all of the studied terrestrial invertebrates. Taxonomic groups could be ordered according to the extent of metal accumulation. Significant differences in accumulation levels of a factor 2-12 were found between taxonomic groups. Overall, metal concentrations were high in Isopoda and low in Coleoptera. The concentrations in Lumbricidae were in between. It should be kept in mind that the data for Lumbricidae were mainly derived from laboratory experiments, while the data for other groups were derived from field studies. The internal Pb, Cd and Cu concentration increased with the soil concentration for most taxonomic groups in the order Pb > Cd > Cu. Body concentrations of Zn were quite constant over a range of soil concentrations. The differences in accumulation level between taxonomic groups show the relevance of including detailed information on feeding behaviour in risk assessment for invertebrate-eating animals. PMID:11428146

Heikens, A; Peijnenburg, W J; Hendriks, A J

2001-01-01

244

Engineering Assessment of Hot-Acid Treatment of Municipal Sludge for Heavy Metals Removal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hot-acid method for treating sludge was developed by the Walden Division of Abcor, Inc., to remove heavy metals from municipal wastewater sludge. Investigations by Walden have demonstrated the degrees to which heavy metals are solubilized. Sulfuric ac...

1982-01-01

245

Estimation of Heavy Metal Concentration in FBR Reprocessing Solvent Streams by Density Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of density measurement to heavy metal monitoring in the solvent phase is described, including practical experience gained during three fast reactor fuel reprocessing campaigns. An experimental algorithm relating heavy metal concentration a...

M. L. Brown D. J. Savage

1986-01-01

246

Deposition of heavy metals in a Mediterranean climate area  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Deposition samples were collected and analyzed for selected heavy metals in Izmir, Turkey on different days in October 2003 June 2004. A water surface sampler was used to collect dry deposition and rainwater samples to represent the wet deposition during the rainy period of the year. Heavy metal concentrations and fluxes of both dry and wet deposition forms were determined. Dry and wet deposition samples were filtered and both filters and filtrates were analyzed for Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Zn. Heavy metals were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry with a graphite furnace except for zinc which was analyzed by using a flame technique. In wet deposition samples the average total heavy metal concentrations for Cr, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni were found as 17.2 ± 8.6, 3.1 ± 1.6, 7.0 ± 4.1, 19.7 ± 25.0, 186.4 ± 225.5, 7.4 ± 2.6 ?g l- 1. These concentrations were generally higher than the values previously measured at different sites around the world. Dry and wet deposition fluxes in total (suspended + dissolved) forms indicate that both dry and wet deposition fluxes were appreciably higher in Izmir than elsewhere. Heavy metal deposition fluxes in dry and wet forms were compared to find the importance of the atmospheric cleansing mechanisms and evaluated by taking into consideration climatic conditions existing in the study area. Wet deposition rates are found to be more significant than the dry deposition rates on a daily basis. However, dry deposition is more important than wet deposition throughout the study period.

Muezzinoglu, Aysen; Cizmecioglu, Sibel Cukurluoglu

2006-07-01

247

Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops*  

PubMed Central

Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals enter the human body mainly through two routes namely: inhalation and ingestion, ingestion being the main route of exposure to these elements in human population. Heavy metals intake by human populations through food chain has been reported in many countries. Soil threshold for heavy metal toxicity is an important factor affecting soil environmental capacity of heavy metal and determines heavy metal cumulative loading limits. For soil-plant system, heavy metal toxicity threshold is the highest permissible content in the soil (total or bioavailable concentration) that does not pose any phytotoxic effects or heavy metals in the edible parts of the crops does not exceed food hygiene standards. Factors affecting the thresholds of dietary toxicity of heavy metal in soil-crop system include: soil type which includes soil pH, organic matter content, clay mineral and other soil chemical and biochemical properties; and crop species or cultivars regulated by genetic basis for heavy metal transport and accumulation in plants. In addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-microbes play important roles in regulating heavy metal movement from soil to the edible parts of crops. Agronomic practices such as fertilizer and water managements as well as crop rotation system can affect bioavailability and crop accumulation of heavy metals, thus influencing the thresholds for assessing dietary toxicity of heavy metals in the food chain. This paper reviews the phytotoxic effects and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and food crops and assesses soil heavy metal thresholds for potential dietary toxicity.

Islam, Ejaz ul; Yang, Xiao-e; He, Zhen-li; Mahmood, Qaisar

2007-01-01

248

Disposable cuvette test for enzymatic determination of heavy metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on an optical cuvette test for total heavy metals based on the inhibition of the enzyme urease by metals ions including silver(I), mercury(II), copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II), and cadmium(II). The enzymatic action is monitored using an optical ammonia transducer deposited on the wall of a disposable cuvette. This results in a rapid and inexpensive single-shot device for heavy metal sensing. A solution of urease and buffer is placed in the cuvette with the ammonium sensor membrane fixed on one of its walls. Enzymatic action starts after addition of a defined quantity of urea. This is indicated by the increase in the absorption of the ammonia sensor membrane whose color changes from yellow to blue. The slop of the increase in signal is the information for the un-inhibited reaction. After several minutes,the sample (containing the heavy metal) is added to the cuvette. Heavy metal ions inhibit the enzyme (by binding to the sulfhydryl groups) and cause a decrease in the slope. The ratio of slopes of un-inhibited and inhibited reactions is a direct parameter for detecting and calculating total heavy metals. The optimum pH was a trade-off between optimum enzyme activity (pH 7 at 25 degree(s)C) and the relative signal change of the ammonia-sensor (highest at pH 8). pH 7.5 was found to be optimal. The system was calibrated at optimized activities of urease (1.5 (mu) ) and an optimized urea concentration (0.5 mmol). Heavy metals inhibit in the following order: Ag(I) > Hg(II) > Cu(II) >> Ni(II) > Co(II) > Cd(II) > Fe(III) > Pb(II), Zn(II). The following concentrations that cause 50% inhibition were found: Ag(I) (0.1 ppm), Hg(II) (0.5 ppm), Cu(II) (0.5 ppm), Ni(II) (7 ppm), Co(II) (30 ppm), Cd(II) (95 ppm), Fe(III) (50 ppm), Zn(II) (85 ppm) and Pb(II) (210 ppm). We also studied the inhibitory effect of combinations of metal ions, the influence of ionic strength, and the effect of incubation time.

Wolfbeis, Otto S.; Preininger, Claudia

1995-10-01

249

Heavy metal pollution abatement using rock phosphate mineral.  

PubMed

The low-grade rock phosphate of Jhabua, Madhya Pradesh (India), was investigated for its possible application in the removal of lead, copper, zinc and cobalt ions from aqueous solutions. Effects of contact time, amount of adsorbent and initial concentration of metal ions were studied. Adsorption of heavy metal ions was found to follow the order: Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Co2+. The probable mechanism of metal ions removal by rock phosphate was found to be by its dissolutions followed by subsequent precipitation. PMID:16229891

Saxena, Sona; D'Souza, S F

2005-10-17

250

Removal of insoluble heavy metal sulfides from water.  

PubMed

The necessity of heavy metal removal from wastewater has led to increasing interest in absorbents. We have developed a new approach to obtain high metal adsorption capacity by precipitating metal sulfides with sodium sulfide on the surface of bentonite and adhere them to the absorbent. This method allowed to remove approximately 90% of cadmium as CdS from 10(-4)-10(-6) M CdCl2 solutions. Additional reactions are related to the removal of excess sodium sulfide by the release of hydrogen sulfide and oxidation to sulfur using carbogen gas (5% CO2, 95% O2) followed by aeration. PMID:16297963

Banfalvi, Gaspar

2005-11-17

251

Two-stage anaerobic digestion enables heavy metal removal.  

PubMed

To fully exploit the environmental benefits of the biogas process, the digestate should be recycled as biofertiliser to agriculture. This practice can however be jeopardized by the presence of unwanted compounds such as heavy metals in the digestate. By using two-stage digestion, where the first stage includes hydrolysis/acidification and liquefaction of the substrate, heavy metals can be transferred to the leachate. From the leachate, metals can then be removed by adsorption. In this study, up to 70% of the Ni, 40% of the Zn and 25% of the Cd present in maize was removed when the leachate from hydrolysis was circulated over a macroporous polyacrylamide column for 6 days. For Cu and Pb, the mobilization in the hydrolytic stage was lower which resulted in a low removal. A more efficient two-stage process with improved substrate hydrolysis would give lower pH and/or longer periods with low pH in the hydrolytic stage. This is likely to increase metal mobilisation, and would open up for an excellent opportunity of heavy metal removal. PMID:18359995

Selling, Robert; Håkansson, Torbjörn; Björnsson, Lovisa

2008-01-01

252

Nutrients and heavy metals distribution in thermally treated pig manure.  

PubMed

Ash from pig manure treated by combustion and thermal gasification was characterized and compared in terms of nutrient, i.e., potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and heavy metal, i.e., cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) contents. Total nutrient and metal concentrations were measured using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. Acid (HNO3, H2SO4) and water-extractable concentrations were also measured both in non-classified ash and in selected ash particle size fractions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry and colorimetric spectrometry. Results indicate that ash from gasified manure contained more water-extractable K in comparison with combusted manure whereas the opposite was the case with respect to P. Heavy metals Ni, Cr and Cd were present in higher concentrations in the fine particle size fractions (< 30 microm of particle diameter), whereas K, P, Zn and Cu exhibited higher concentrations in the coarser particle size fractions (> 30 microm). PMID:18727326

Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Stoholm, Peder; Pind, Niels; Laursen, Jens

2008-08-01

253

Analysis of heavy metals in slag from one municipal solid waste incinerator in Shanghai  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to develop a methodology for analysis of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) slag. It performed analysis of composition of heavy metals, leaching toxicity, leaching behavior as a function of pH and specification distribution of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn. It was found that content of heavy metals followed the decreasing sequence of Zn >

Zhang Haiying; Qi Jingyu

2010-01-01

254

Mobility of heavy metals associated with the natural weathering of coal mine spoils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of chemical mobility of heavy metals is fundamental to understanding their toxicity, bioavailability, and geochemical behavior. In this paper, two different methods, i.e. mineralogical means and sequential extractions, were employed to analyze the total contents, existing states, and chemical forms of heavy metals in coal mine spoils. The results demonstrate that the mobility of heavy metals in coal mine

Zhi Dang; Congqiang Liu; Martin J Haigh

2002-01-01

255

Heavy metals in medicinal and fodder plants of the negev desert  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentrations of heavy metals (zinc, copper, iron, manganese, cadmium, lead and nickel) were measured in 51 desert plants, of which 42 are considered medicinal, three fodder and six common plant species. Accumulation of certain heavy metals in some plant species was 2 ? 260?fold higher than the available heavy metal content of the soil of the Negev desert.The highest

P. Sathiyamoorthy; P. Van Damme; M. Oven

1997-01-01

256

The accumulation of heavy metals in the submerged plant ( Elodea nuttallii )  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several species of submerged plants grow in flowing water of polluted urban rivers in Japan. The measurement of heavy metals content in the submerged plants are suitable for a criterion to estimate the average heavy metals concentration in water. DIETZ (1972) reported enrichment of heavy metals in six submerged plants collected from the Ruhr river (Germany). He found that the

M. Nakada; K. Fukaya; S. Takeshita; Y. Wada

1979-01-01

257

Influence of light on chlorophyll. A content of blue-green algae treated with heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of heavy metals is manifested in multifarious forms. Factors like illumination influence the inhibitory effect of heavy metals on chlorophyll metabolism and photosynthetic activities. The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of light on the chlorophyll A (Chl A) content of blue green algae. This is in continuation of heavy metal toxicity and accumulation studies on cyanobacteria reported earlier.

Azeez, P.A.; Banerjee, D.K.

1987-06-01

258

Evaluating heavy metal contents in nine composts using four digestion methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The production and application of compost potentially contaminate the environment with heavy metals. The heavy metal contents of composts must be exactly determined. Therefore, this study aims to understand the heavy metal contents in composts, using different digestion methods and to recommend the most appropriate digestion method making this measurement. Nine composts from different sources, including swine manure, poultry litter,

Zeng-Yei Hseu

2004-01-01

259

Removal of heavy metals occurring in the washing water of flue gas purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals are toxic for humans and the environment. Therefore it is important to limit the emission of these heavy metals in air, water and soil. An aqueous solution of sodium trimercapto-triazine, commercially supplied under the name TMT-15, is currently used for the removal of heavy metals occurring in the washing water from flue gas purification at the incineration plant

Bjorge Decostere; Joel Hogie; Pascal Dejans; Stijn W. H. Van Hulle

2009-01-01

260

Effect of organic acid on heavy metals removal from sewage sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of different organic acid on heavy metals removal from sludge was investigated. It indicated that the inhibition of various organic acids on heavy metals removal was substantially discrepant. To different heavy metals, the sensitivity of effect extent was followed as Pb>Cu>Zn. The organic acid with two carbonyls had no negative effect on the growth of sulfur- oxidizing bacteria.

Shaohui Zhang; Yumei Hua

2011-01-01

261

Mineral materials as feasible amendments to stabilize heavy metals in polluted urban soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four minerals, agricultural limestone (AL), rock phosphate (RP), palygorskite (PG), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), were evaluated by means of chemical fractions of heavy metals in soils and concentrations of heavy metals in leachates from columns to determine their ability to stabilize heavy metals in polluted urban soils. Two urban soils (calcareous soil and acidic soil) polluted with cadmium, copper,

Mingkui Zhang; Jincheng Pu

2011-01-01

262

Heavy Metal Phytoremediation from Aquatic Ecosystems with Special Reference to Macrophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid pace of industrialization and urbanization has given birth to heavy metal pollution. Heavy metals are one of the most hazardous contaminants that may be present in the aquatic environment. It derives its origin from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystem poses a serious threat to aquatic biodiversity, and drinking contaminated water poses severe

Prabhat Kumar Rai

2009-01-01

263

Soil Contamination and Plant Uptake of Heavy Metals at Polluted Sites in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigated heavy metal contamination in soils and plants at polluted sites in China including some with heavy industries, metal mining, smelting and untreated wastewater irrigation areas. We report our main findings in this paper. The concentrations of heavy metals, including Cd and Zn, in the soils at the investigated sites were above the background levels, and generally exceeded the

Qing-Ren Wang; Yan-Shan Cui; Xiu-Mei Liu; Yi-Ting Dong; Peter Christie

2003-01-01

264

Cyanobacteria as a biosorbent of heavy metals in sewage water.  

PubMed

The effect of sewage water on some physiological activities of cyanobacteria was studied. Metal-tolerant cyanobacterium (Nostoc linckia) and metal-sensitive (Nostoc rivularis) were grown at three levels of sewage water (25, 50 and 75%). The growth rate showed significant stimulation in low and moderate levels (50% for N. linckia and 25% for N. rivularis). Not only the number of cells was elevated but also, the time required to reach the exponential and the stationary phases was reduced. Also, low levels of sewage water increased chl.a content, photosynthetic O(2)-evolution, respiration and protein content. Similarly, heterocyst frequency as well as nitrogenase activity were increased in cyanobacteria grown at low and moderate levels (25 and 50% sewage). On the other hand, the high level of waste (75%) reduced growth and metabolic activities of the two species. N. linckia accumulated about 30-fold of Zn and ten-fold of Cd than those of growth medium (50% sewage water). Also, N. rivularis accumulated about ten-fold of Zn and two-fold of Cd. The distribution of Cd and Zn in cells were investigated. About 65-60% of Cd or Zn were found in pellets (sediment) as insoluble form in the two species. The soluble form (cytosolic fraction) after being fractionated on sephadex G-(75-100) revealed two peaks with molecular weights of 70-75 and 40-45 kDa. These peaks were in coincidence with Cd and Zn maxima. Nostoc rivulais showed more sensitivity to heavy metals than N. linckia, and accumulated less amount of metal-binding proteins. Nostoc linckia seems to be tolerant to heavy metals (Zn and Cd) and is able to accumulate this metal by adsorption on the pellets (cell surface) and/or through sequestration via metal-binding protein. Therefore it can be recommended it to be employed in the purification of waste contaminated with these heavy metals. PMID:10867368

El-Enany; Issa

2000-01-01

265

Environmental health implications of heavy metal pollution from car tires.  

PubMed

This paper reviews the potential for environmental pollution by heavy metals from the disposal of used car tires and describes laboratory work and field research exploring the magnitude of the problem. The metals considered here are cadmium, lead, and zinc; their respective mean concentrations for ten makes of tires used in the United Kingdom ranged from 0-3.0, 8.1-22.3, and 2524-6012 ppm. The metals were extracted from tires by simulated acid-rain solutions (pH 2.5); zinc concentrations of the leachate ranged from 169-463 ppm, but cadmium and lead concentrations were negligible. A significant increase in surface soil concentrations of all three metals was measured with increasing proximity to a tire dump in West London. The respective mean concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in soil at the base of the dump were 22, 1160, and 1235 ppm, indicating contamination by each metal. PMID:9085433

Horner, J M

266

Concentration and speciation of heavy metals during water hyacinth composting.  

PubMed

The Tessier sequential extraction method was employed to investigate the changes in heavy metals speciation (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr) during water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) composting. Results showed that, the contents of total metals concentration were increased during the composting process. The largest proportion of metals was found in the residual fraction which was in more stable form and is consequently considered unavailable for plant uptake. Reducible and oxidizable fractions of Ni, Pb and Cd were not found in all trials during water hyacinth composting. The concentrations of Cu and Cd were very low comparative to the other metals, but the percentage of exchangeable and carbonate fractions were similar as other metals. From this study it can be concluded that the appropriate proportion of cattle manure addition (Trial 4) significantly reduced the mobile and easily available fractions (exchangeable and carbonate fractions) during the composting process. PMID:22989643

Singh, Jiwan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

2012-08-23

267

Characterization of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust.  

PubMed

Tire dust is a significant pollutant, especially as a source of zinc in the urban environment. This study characterizes the morphology and chemical composition of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust and traffic-related materials (brake dust, yellow paint, and tire tread) as measured by a field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX). In 60 samples of tire dust, we detected 2288 heavy metal particles, which we classified into four groups using cluster analysis according to the following typical elements: cluster 1: Fe, cluster 2: Cr/Pb, cluster 3: multiple elements (Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Pb), cluster 4: ZnO. According to their morphologies and chemical compositions, the possible sources of each cluster were as follows: (1) brake dust (particles rich in Fe and with trace Cu, Sb, and Ba), (2) yellow paint (CrPbO(4) particles), (3) brake dust (particulate Ti, Fe, Cu, Sb, Zr, and Ba) and heavy minerals (Y, Zr, La, and Ce), (4) tire tread (zinc oxide). When the chemical composition of tire dust was compared to that of tire tread, the tire dust was found to have greater concentrations of heavy metal elements as well as mineral or asphalt pavement material characterized by Al, Si, and Ca. We conclude that tire dust consists not only of the debris from tire wear but also of assimilated heavy metal particles emitted from road traffic materials such as brake lining and road paint. PMID:15337346

Adachi, Kouji; Tainosho, Yoshiaki

2004-10-01

268

SULFIDE PRECIPITATION OF NICKEL AND OTHER HEAVY METALS FROM SINGLE- AND MULTI-METAL SYSTEMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Precipitation behavior of heavy metals (Ni, Co, Cd, Cu, and Zn) was studied extensively in single- and multi-metal systems. Kinetic studies showed that NiS oxidation (as a function of pH, oxygen, and reaction time) caused the dissolution of NiS. CoS precipitation would require hi...

269

Removal of dissolved heavy metals from acid rock drainage using iron metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and microbial activity of corroding iron metal is examined in the acid rock drainage (ARD) resulting from pyrite oxidation to determine the effectiveness in neutralizing the ARD and reducing the load of dissolved heavy metals. ARD from Berkeley Pit, MT, is treated with iron in batch reactors and columns containing iron granules. Iron, in acidic solution, hydrolyzes water

Tamara E. Shokes; G. Moeller

1999-01-01

270

Heavy metals removal by sand filters inoculated with metal sorbing and precipitating bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Large volumes of wastewater containing metals such as Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ni or Co are mainly treated by precipitation processes. However, waters treated in such ways do not always meet regulatory standards. And in many cases, ecotaxes must be paid on the heavy metals load in the discharged water. Therefore, a second polishing treatment is often necessary. In

L. Diels; P. H. Spaans; S. Van Roy; L. Hooyberghs; A. Ryngaert; H. Wouters; E. Walter; J. Winters; L. Macaskie; J. Finlay; B. Pernfuss; H. Woebking; T. Pümpel; M. Tsezos

2003-01-01

271

Heavy metals in Ratnapura alluvial gem sediments, Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The valuable gems in Sri Lanka are found from the sedimentary gem deposits in Ratnapura District, which are found as alluvial deposits some are about >50 m deep. Gem bearing gravel layer is taken out from the mine, washed by panning to recover the gem minerals in the heavy mineral fraction, is a common practice in the gem mining area. Gem bearing sediment layer is associated with different heavy minerals in which different trace metals as Co, Cr, Cu, Al, Zr, Pb and As also can be present. During panning, the sediment is washed away and the heavy metals attached to the sediments are released into the environment. Hence we studied the lability and bioavailability of arsenic and other heavy metals from the gem sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 15 small scale gem mines (3 soil layers- top, gem mineral layer and layer below gem bearing gravel layer), air dried and sieved to obtain <63?m fraction. Bioavailable, exchangeable and residual fractions were 0.01M CaCl2, 1M NaOAc, pH 8.2 and microwave digestion using HF, HNO3 and HClO4. Filtered samples were analyzed for As, Co, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Fe using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GBC 933AA). Total digestion results in different layers indicated that heavy metals show an increasing pattern with depth. About 4 gem bearing gravel layers were consist of high concentrations of Ni (>150 mg/kg), Cu (>150 mg/kg), Pb (>400 mg/kg), Zn (>600 mg/kg) and Co ions (>100 mg/kg). Arsenite in the gem sediments were low and recorded as <5mg/kg. Total arsenic analysis is under investigation. Highest concentrations for bioavailable and exchangeable (leach to water) metals were Fe>Co>Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu>Pb. Sediments from few gem pits showed considerably high concentrations of metals analyzed. In some places Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn reported high in bioavailable fractions 70, 25, 20, 10 mg/kg respectively. Mobilization of these metals may increase due to changes in the pH and the presence of other ions in the environment. High concentrations of toxic metals in exchangeable and bioavailable fractions indicate the risk on plant and animals as well as the open water bodies and groundwater sources.

Vithanage, M. S.; Hettiarachchi, J. K.; Rajapaksha, A. U.; Wijesekara, H.; Hewawasam, T.

2011-12-01

272

Utilization of pulp and paper industrial wastes to remove heavy metals from metal finishing wastewater.  

PubMed

Two pulp and paper industrial wastes, lime mud (LM) and recovery boiler ash (RB), have low moisture contents, low heavy metal contaminations and contain various carbonate compounds which contribute to a high pH. Metal finishing wastewater (MF-WW) has a low pH, high levels of TDS and high contaminations from Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. The heavy metals from MF-WW were removed by sorption and precipitation mechanisms. LM gave better results in removing heavy metals from MF-WW than RB. At a reaction time of 45min, the maximum removal efficiencies for Cr (93%) and Cu (99%) were obtained at 110gL(-1) of LM, but at 80gL(-1) for Pb (96%) and Zn (99%). Treatment with LM gives a higher sludge volume than with RB. However, the leachability of heavy metals from LM is lower. Leachability of heavy metals in the sediment for all selected treatment conditions is within government standards. PMID:19501952

Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Sreesai, Siranee

2009-06-06

273

Bacterial sorption of heavy metals. [Bacillus cereus  

SciTech Connect

Four bacteria, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were examined for the ability to remove Ag{sup +}, Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and La{sup 3+} from solution by batch equilibration methods. Cd and Cu sorption over the concentration range 0.001 to 1 mM was described by Freundlich isotherms. At 1 mM concentrations of both Cd{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+}, P. aeruginosa and B. cereus were the most and least efficient at metal removal, respectively. Freundlich K constants indicated that E. coli was most efficient at Cd{sup 2+} removal and B. subtilis removed the most Cu{sup 2+}. Removal of Ag{sup +} from solution by bacteria was very efficient; an average of 89% of the total Ag{sup +} was removed from the 1 mM solution, while only 12, 29, and 27% of the total Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and La{sup 3+}, respectively, were sorbed from 1 mM solutions. Electron microscopy indicated that La{sup 3+} accumulated at the cell surface as needlelike, crystalline precipitates. Silver precipitated as discrete colloidal aggregates at the cell surface and occasionally in the cytoplasm. Neither Cd{sup 2+} nor Cu{sup 2+} provided enough electron scattering to identify the location of sorption. The affinity series for bacterial removal of these metals decreased in the order Ag > La > Cu > Cd. The results indicate that bacterial cells are capable of binding large quantities of different metals.

Mullen, M.D.; Wolf, D.C. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (USA)); Ferris, F.G.; Beveridge, T.J.; Flemming, C.A. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)); Bailey, G.W. (Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA (USA))

1989-12-01

274

Use of Power Plant Ash to Remove and Solidify Heavy Metals from a Metal-finishing Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

This laboratory-scale study investigated initially the potential of heavy metal removal from a metal-finishing wastewater\\u000a using fly and bottom ash from a power plant as coagulants. It was found that the maximum heavy metal content in the ash–sludge\\u000a mix was obtained at a fly ash-to-bottom ash ratio of 1.5:1 and a stirring time of 3 h, which resulted in heavy metal

P. Fongsatitkul; P. Elefsiniotis; N. Khuhasawan; R. Jindal

2009-01-01

275

Long-term effects of heavy metals on aquatic plants  

SciTech Connect

In long-term experiments lasting up to 73 days the effect of rather low levels of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium on the growth and metal uptake was studied by investigating four aquatic plant species: Elodea nuttallii, Callitriche plataycarpa, Spirodela polyrhiza and Lemma gibba. Except Elodea, which was already very sensitive to 5 ..mu..mol Cu 1/sup -1/, no differentiation in growth or mortality could be detected depending on species or elements. There was a clear differentiation between the uptake levels of the heavy metals with regard to the plant species, resulting in a higher heavy metal content in the submerged species in comparison to the floating ones. For zinc, lead and cadmium, an equal ratio was detected between the concentration in the medium and in the plant tissue independent of the plant species. The involvement of roots in element absorption by aquatic plants and the possibility of using aquatic plants as indicators of heavy metal pollution in Dutch waters are discussed.

van der Werff, M.; Pruyt, M.J.

1982-01-01

276

Competitive adsorption of dyes and heavy metals on zeolitic structures.  

PubMed

The adsorption of Acid blue 25, basic blue 9, basic violet 3, Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions has been studied in single and dye-metal binary solutions using two mineral materials: Clinoptilolite (CL) and ER (Erionite). These zeolites were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy; potentiometric titration and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K to obtain their textural parameters. Results indicated that ER has an acidic character and a high specific surface (401 m(2) g(-1)) in contrast with the zeolite CL (21 m(2) g(-1)). Surprisingly, the removal of dyes was very similar for the two zeolites and they showed a considerable selectivity by the basic dyes in comparison with the acid dyes. In the case of heavy metals, ER was more effective in the adsorption process showing a selectivity of: Pb(2+) > Ni(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cd(2+). In the multicomponent adsorption experiments an antagonistic effect was observed in the removal of basic dyes and heavy metals. Particularly, the adsorbed amount of basic violet 3 decreased more significantly when the heavy metals are presents in contrast with the basic blue 9. PMID:23321372

Hernández-Montoya, V; Pérez-Cruz, M A; Mendoza-Castillo, D I; Moreno-Virgen, M R; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A

2013-01-12

277

Immobilization of heavy metals and phenol on altered bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect

This article evaluates adsorption ability of the altered bituminous coals to remove heavy metals and/or phenol from aqueous solutions. As for heavy metals, copper (II), cadmium (II) and lead (II) cations were used. In addition to phenol, cyclohexanol and 2-cyclohexen-1-ol were also examined. Adsorption experiments were conducted in the batch mode at room temperature and at pH 3 and 5. To characterize the texture of coal samples, adsorption isotherms of nitrogen at - 196{sup o}C, enthalpies of the immersion in water, and pH values in aqueous dispersions were measured. Coal hydrogen aromaticities were evaluated from the infrared spectrometric examinations (DRIFTS). Based on the investigations performed, cation exchange was confirmed as the principal mechanism to immobilize heavy metallic ions on coals. However, apart from carboxylic groups, other functionalities (hydroxyl groups) were found to be involved in the adsorption process. During adsorption of phenol, {pi}-{pi} interactions between {pi}-electrons of phenol and aromatic rings of coal proved to play the important role; however, no distinct correlation between adsorption capacities for phenol and hydrogen aromaticities of the coal was found. Probable involvement of oxygenated surface groups in the immobilization of phenol on coal was deduced. As a result, for waste water treatment, oxidative altered bituminous coal can be recommended as a suitable precursor, with the largest immobilization capacities both for metallic ions and phenol, as found in the studied samples.

Taraba, B.; Marsalek, R. [Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Chemistry

2007-07-01

278

Analysis of heavy-metal-stressed plants by fluorescence imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chlorophyll fluorescence has been widely applied as a non-invasive technique for the in vivo analysis of plant stress. In this work, the two-dimensional image analysis of the fluorescence signal was used to evaluate the physiological status of heavy metal stressed leaves, based on their photosynthetic capacity. Chlorophyll fluorescence (greater than 650 nm) emission of control and heavy metal treated plants registered at different times during the blue light illumination of the leaves show abnormal patterns of non- homogeneous spatial distribution of the fluorescence emission from metal-treated plants. This is correlated to an altered photosynthetic functionality in different parts of the leaves. Quantitative evaluation of the photosynthetic activity can be made on data extracted after simple arithmetical pixel-point processing of fluorescence images taken at different time during the illumination process. The altered fluorescence emission was observed in absence of other visual symptoms that could testify problems at the level of the photosynthetic apparatus. This indicates that chlorophyll fluorescence imaging is a suitable tool for the early, pre-visual detection of plant stress also in the case of heavy metal stress.

Valcke, Roland L.; Ciscato, Massimo; Heisel, Francine; Miehe, Joseph-Albert; Sowinska, Malgorzata

1999-05-01

279

Perspectives of plant-associated microbes in heavy metal phytoremediation.  

PubMed

"Phytoremediation" know-how to do-how is rapidly expanding and is being commercialized by harnessing the phyto-microbial diversity. This technology employs biodiversity to remove/contain pollutants from the air, soil and water. In recent years, there has been a considerable knowledge explosion in understanding plant-microbes-heavy metals interactions. Novel applications of plant-associated microbes have opened up promising areas of research in the field of phytoremediation technology. Various metabolites (e.g., 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, organic acids, etc.) produced by plant-associated microbes (e.g., plant growth promoting bacteria, mycorrhizae) have been proposed to be involved in many biogeochemical processes operating in the rhizosphere. The salient functions include nutrient acquisition, cell elongation, metal detoxification and alleviation of biotic/abiotic stress in plants. Rhizosphere microbes accelerate metal mobility, or immobilization. Plants and associated microbes release inorganic and organic compounds possessing acidifying, chelating and/or reductive power. These functions are implicated to play an essential role in plant metal uptake. Overall the plant-associated beneficial microbes enhance the efficiency of phytoremediation process directly by altering the metal accumulation in plant tissues and indirectly by promoting the shoot and root biomass production. The present work aims to provide a comprehensive review of some of the promising processes mediated by plant-associated microbes and to illustrate how such processes influence heavy metal uptake through various biogeochemical processes including translocation, transformation, chelation, immobilization, solubilization, precipitation, volatilization and complexation of heavy metals ultimately facilitating phytoremediation. PMID:22580219

Rajkumar, M; Sandhya, S; Prasad, M N V; Freitas, H

2012-05-09

280

Bioremediation of toxic heavy metals using acidothermophilic autotrophes.  

PubMed

Investigations were carried out to isolate microbial strains from soil, mud and water samples from metallurgically polluted environment for bioremediation of toxic heavy metals. As a result of primary and secondary screening various 72 acidothermophilic autotrophic microbes were isolated and adapted for metal tolerance and biosorption potentiality. The multi-metal tolerance was developed with higher gradient of concentrations of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Hg, Li, Mo, Pb, Sn and Zn. The isolates were checked for their biosolubilization ability with copper containing metal sulfide ores. In case of chalcopyrite 85.82% and in covellite as high as 97.5% copper solubilization occurred in presence of 10(-3) M multi-heavy metals on fifth day at 55 degrees C and pH 2.5. Chemical analyses were carried out by inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) for metal absorption. The selected highly potential isolate (ATh-14) showed maximum adsorption of Ag 73%, followed by Pb 35%, Zn 34%, As 19%, Ni 15% and Cr 9% in chalcopyrite. PMID:16324838

Umrania, Valentina V

2005-12-01

281

Heavy metals distribution in sediments of Nador lagoon (Morocco)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nador lagoon is a paralic system, located North-East of Morocco. At the present time this ecosystem undergoes an anthropic stress induced by urban, industrial and agricultural releases, and also by fishery activity which enriches this ecosystem in organic and inorganic wastes. A geochemical study has been undertaken, first to define the areas contaminated by heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr and V), and second to caracterize the different mineral phases, which trap these elements. Sediment samples were collected on twenty-eight stations scattered all over the lagoon, and each core (30 cm) was subdivided in two horizons (surface and depth). Mineralogical analyses as well as major and trace elements analyses were performed on surface and deep sediments. The results on major element analyses (Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, P) show an enrichment in halite and phosphates in the surface sediments. This highlights on one hand, low water exchange rates between the lagoon and the Mediterranean sea, and on the other hand, an increase in organic releases related to the urban, agricultural and fishery activities. The highest concentrations in inorganic micro-pollutant were recorded N-E of the lagoon and close to Nador city. With reference to the geochemical background, it can be concluded that there is a slight contamination in heavy metals. Moreover, enrichment factor calculations (EF) for heavy metals point out an increase in metal elements as following: Zn>Co>Cr>V>Cu. Sequential extractions were performed to determine the behaviour of these micro-pollutants. Thus, it was shown that carbonates, oxides and phosphates are the preferential mineral phases for trapping these heavy metals.

Bloundi, K.; Duplay, J.

2003-04-01

282

Bioremediation of heavy metals in liquid media through fungi isolated from contaminated sources.  

PubMed

Wastewater particularly from electroplating, paint, leather, metal and tanning industries contain enormous amount of heavy metals. Microorganisms including fungi have been reported to exclude heavy metals from wastewater through bioaccumulation and biosorption at low cost and in eco-friendly way. An attempt was, therefore, made to isolate fungi from sites contaminated with heavy metals for higher tolerance and removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Seventy-six fungal isolates tolerant to heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were isolated from sewage, sludge and industrial effluents containing heavy metals. Four fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspegillus awamori, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride) also were included in this study. The majority of the fungal isolates were able to tolerate up to 400 ppm concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. The most heavy metal tolerant fungi were studied for removal of heavy metals from liquid media at 50 ppm concentration. Results indicated removal of substantial amount of heavy metals by some of the fungi. With respect to Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni, maximum uptake of 59.67, 16.25, 0.55, and 0.55 mg/g was observed by fungi Pb3 (Aspergillus terreus), Trichoderma viride, Cr8 (Trichoderma longibrachiatum), and isolate Ni27 (A. niger) respectively. This indicated the potential of these fungi as biosorbent for removal of heavy metals from wastewater and industrial effluents containing higher concentration of heavy metals. PMID:23024411

Joshi, P K; Swarup, Anand; Maheshwari, Sonu; Kumar, Raman; Singh, Namita

2011-01-25

283

Release of heavy metals from Tunisian traditional earthenware.  

PubMed

Lead and other heavy metals are found to leach from the glazes of some Tunisian glazed earthenware in concentrations high enough to constitute a serious health hazard. When yellow/green and white/green colored mugs available on the Tunisian market were filled with acetic acid solutions, concentrations of up to 51 microg lead per ml of leachate were measured. The values greatly exceed the limit allowed by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for a 24-h leaching test. The use of a traditional milk derivative (leben) widely consumed as a beverage in Tunisia as a leaching agent shows that amounts as high as 1407 microg of lead is ingested per mug of milk derivative consumed. The use of such utensils may constitute a serious health hazard to the Tunisian consumer. Stringent regulations and controls are therefore required to protect the consumer against lead and other heavy metals of non-occupational origin. PMID:12453733

Belgaied, J-E

2003-01-01

284

Ultrastructural alterations in ciliated protozoa under heavy metal exposure.  

PubMed

Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the ultrastructural changes induced by exposure to Cd or Zn in three species of ciliated protozoa: Colpoda steinii, Cyrtolophosis elongata and Drepanomonas revoluta. The main cytoplasmic alterations were partial mitochondrial degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolisation, accumulation of membranous debris and autophagosome formation. At the nuclear level we detected nucleolar fusion in the macronucleus, and micronuclear membrane modifications. We compared these modifications with those coinciding with ciliate encystment (a differentiation process induced by environmental nutritional stress) and with changes in eukaryotic cells treated with staurosporine, a potent protein kinase inhibitor considered to be an apoptosis inducer. Exposure to heavy metals also coincided with the appearance of electron-dense accumulations in the cytoplasm, which might be related to metallothionein-mediated detoxification. The results are compared with previously reported data from ciliates and microalgae treated with heavy metals. PMID:15774308

Martín-González, Ana; Borniquel, Sara; Díaz, Silvia; Ortega, Ruth; Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos

2005-02-01

285

Role of soil rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils*  

PubMed Central

Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem and has its negative impact on human health and agriculture. Rhizosphere, as an important interface of soil and plant, plays a significant role in phytoremediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals, in which, microbial populations are known to affect heavy metal mobility and availability to the plant through release of chelating agents, acidification, phosphate solubilization and redox changes, and therefore, have potential to enhance phytoremediation processes. Phytoremediation strategies with appropriate heavy metal-adapted rhizobacteria have received more and more attention. This article paper reviews some recent advances in effect and significance of rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. There is also a need to improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the transfer and mobilization of heavy metals by rhizobacteria and to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from rhizosphere of plants growing on heavy metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programmes.

Jing, Yan-de; He, Zhen-li; Yang, Xiao-e

2007-01-01

286

Salinity-heavy metal interactions as evaluated by soil extraction and plant analysis  

SciTech Connect

Both heavy metal pollution and saline water irrigation are increasing in the dry areas, especially in developing countries. The effects of soil and water salinity on the transfer of heavy metals to crops are, however, not well understood. The uptake of Zn, Cu and Cd from a polluted desert soil from the north west of Egypt was therefore evaluated in pot experiments with maize, irrigated either with NaCl or with NaCl + CaCl{sub 2} solutions. NaCl accelerated root mortality and increased both the concentration of heavy metals in soil saturation extract and their uptake of heavy metals differently. While the solubility of heavy metals was enhanced by CaCl{sub 2}, both root mortality and the uptake of heavy metals were depressed. It was concluded that salinity of irrigation water affects heavy metal uptake at least partly by modifying root functions. 12 refs., 4 tabs.

Helal, H.M.; Haque, S.A.; Ramadan, A.B.; Schnug, E. [Institute of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Braunschweig (Germany)

1996-12-31

287

Crab shell for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution.  

PubMed

The ability of crab shell to remove heavy metals from aqueous solution was evaluated by comparing with that of several sorbents (cation exchange resin, zeolite, granular activated carbon, powdered activated carbon). All experiments were conducted using several heavy metal ion solutions (Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr). The orders of heavy metal removal capacity and initial heavy metal removal rate were found as crab shell > cation exchange resin > zeolite > powdered activated carbon>granular activated carbon. Therefore, crab shell is satisfactory as a good biosorbent for the heavy metal removal. The study indicates that the removal of these heavy metals is selective, with Pb and Cr being removed in preference to Cd and Cu. The sorption equilibrium of heavy metal ions on sorbents was modeled on the applications of Langmuir and Freundlich. PMID:11561614

An, H K; Park, B Y; Kim, D S

2001-10-01

288

A preliminary model for predicting heavy metal contaminant loading from an urban catchment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The toxicity of heavy metals to biota in urban catchments has been regarded as a very important non-point source pollution issue. Numerous studies on heavy metal pollution in urban receiving waters have found that metal transport by surface runoff is closely correlated to the partitioning of the metal forms between dissolved and particulate phases, where sediment plays an important role

Yi Yuan; Ken Hall; Carolyn Oldham

2001-01-01

289

Geochemical indices allow estimation of heavy metal background concentrations in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Defining background concentrations for heavy metals in soils is essential for recognizing and managing soil pollution. However, background concentrations of metals in soils can vary naturally by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, many soils have also been subject to unquantifiable anthropogenic inputs of metals, in some cases, for centuries. Hence determination of heavy metal background concentrations in soils has to

R. E. Hamon; M. J. McLaughlin; R. J. Gilkes; A. W. Rate; B. Zarcinas; A. Robertson; G. Cozens; N. Radford; L. Bettenay

2004-01-01

290

Speciation of heavy metals during co-composting of sewage sludge with lime  

Microsoft Academic Search

During composting the humification of organic matter will have a significant effect on the physicochemical form of existence of heavy metals. Therefore the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of co-composting sewage sludge with lime on heavy metal speciation and the changes in DTPA extractable metals. Metal speciation was conducted to evaluate the redistribution of Cu, Mn, Ni,

J. W. C. Wong; A. Selvam

2006-01-01

291

Bioleaching of Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings by Aspergillus fumigatus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioleaching experiment was conducted for the removal of heavy metals from mine tailings. A fungal strain was isolated from the gold mine tailings and it has been identified as Aspergillus fumigatus based on its 18S rDNA analysis. Bioleaching using A. fumigatus was carried out in bioleaching step processes (one-step and two-step) at various tailings concentrations (1%, 2%, 4%, and

Bahi Jalili Seh-Bardan; Radziah Othman; Samsuri Ab Wahid; Aminudin Husin; Fardin Sadegh-Zadeh

2012-01-01

292

Protection of iron powder by heavy-metal azelates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conclusions 1.A method is proposed for protecting iron powder against atmospheric corrosion by impregnating it with lead, zinc, calcium or barium azelate.2.It was established that the protective effect of heavy-metal azelates is due to their hydrophobizing effect.3.Treatment of iron powder with azelates improves the distribution of its grain sizes by reducing the content of the fine fractions.4.Under the same test

A. P. Brynza; N. A. Kormshchikova

1966-01-01

293

Plants Under Heavy Metal Stress in Saline Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is devoted to an important yet poorly studied topic, investigations of plant responses to heavy metals (HMs) in\\u000a salinized environments. It embraces information obtained mainly during the last decade. Specific features of the actions of\\u000a NaCl and HMs on plants from various ecological groups are considered. The patterns of HM accumulation and organ specificity\\u000a under saline conditions are

Valentina Kholodova; Kirill Volkov; Vladimir Kuznetsov

294

Constitutive modelling of a tungsten heavy metal alloy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamic mechanical behaviour of a tungsten heavy metal alloy (WHA) with potential use as a kinetic energy penetrator is investigated. Mechanical properties related to tensile loading are measured at strain rates up to 400 s^{-1} and at temperatures from 20 ^{circ}C to about 500 ^{circ}C. From the experimental data parameters for the constitutive equations developed by Johnson and Cook

P. Skoglund

2003-01-01

295

Chemical changes in heavy metals in the leachates from Technosols.  

PubMed

A 2 month long column study was conducted to evaluate the mobility of heavy metals eluting from Technosols constituted from sewage sludges (aerobic or anaerobic) (as controls) or a mixture of different types of sewage sludges with green foundry sand (FS) or/and Linz-Donowitz slag (LD). The organic and inorganic wastes were mixed at a ratio of 56:44 (w/w). The mixtures and the controls were moistened to field capacity before adding them to the polypropylene columns (4.5 cm wide and 14 cm long). During the 8-week experimental period, the columns were watered, twice a week, with 100 mL of deionised water. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr) in the leachates were determined periodically. The concentrations of all the heavy metals were generally higher in the leachates from the Technosols containing anaerobic sewage sludge as a component. The concentration of Cu was strongly dependent on pH and was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the most alkaline leachates (pH>10) than in the other leachates. More Zn was mobilized in the most acidic leachates (pH<6) than in other leachates. The concentration of Ni in 80% of the leachates exceeded the EU drinking water limit for Ni (0.02 mgL(-1)). The concentrations of Pb were lower in the Technosols containing FS. The concentrations of Cd in the leachates from Technosols containing the conditioners were relatively high, while concentrations of Cr were higher in the controls. As far as the potential toxicity of heavy metals is concerned, the combination of aerobic sludge, inorganic conditioners able to buffer the pH to around neutrality, and reactive aluminosilicates, can be regarded as suitable choice for formulating Technosols from wastes. PMID:19580987

Yao, F X; Macías, F; Virgel, S; Blanco, F; Jiang, X; Camps Arbestain, M

2009-07-05

296

Synthesis and heavy metal immobilization behaviors of slag based geopolymer.  

PubMed

In this paper, two aspects of studies are carried out: (1) synthesis of geopolymer by using slag and metakaolin; (2) immobilization behaviors of slag based geopolymer in a presence of Pb and Cu ions. As for the synthesis of slag based geopolymer, four different slag content (10%, 30%, 50%, 70%) and three types of curing regimes (standard curing, steam curing and autoclave curing) are investigated to obtain the optimum synthesis condition based on the compressive and flexural strength. The testing results showed that geopolymer mortar containing 50% slag that is synthesized at steam curing (80 degrees C for 8h), exhibits higher mechanical strengths. The compressive and flexural strengths of slag based geopolymer mortar are 75.2 MPa and 10.1 MPa, respectively. Additionally, Infrared (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques are used to characterize the microstructure of the slag based geopolymer paste. IR spectra show that the absorptive band at 1086 cm(-1) shifts to lower wave number around 1007 cm(-1), and some six-coordinated Als transforms into four-coordination during the synthesis of slag based geopolymer paste. The resulting slag based geopolymeric products are X-ray amorphous materials. SEM observation shows that it is possible to have geopolymeric gel and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel forming simultaneously within slag based geopolymer paste. As for immobilization of heavy metals, the leaching tests are employed to investigate the immobilization behaviors of the slag based geopolymer mortar synthesized under the above optimum condition. The leaching tests show that slag based geopolymer mortar can effectively immobilize Cu and Pb heavy metal ions, and the immobilization efficiency reach 98.5% greater when heavy metals are incorporated in the slag geopolymeric matrix in the range of 0.1-0.3%. The Pb exhibits better immobilization efficiency than the Cu in the case of large dosages of heavy metals. PMID:17034943

Yunsheng, Zhang; Wei, Sun; Qianli, Chen; Lin, Chen

2006-09-16

297

Sorption of heavy metals on blast furnace sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the use of sludge, a by-product of the steel industry, as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents was carried out. Gases produced in the blast furnace were washed and led towards a Dorr thickener where the sludge was obtained as a suspension. The sorption of Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ on

A. López-Delgado; C. Pérez; F. A. López

1998-01-01

298

Heavy metal poisoning: the effects of cadmium on the kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is known to be a widespread environmental contaminant and a potential toxin that may adversely\\u000a affect human health. Exposure is largely via the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts; important non-industrial sources\\u000a of exposure are cigarette smoke and food (from contaminated soil and water). The kidney is the main organ affected by chronic\\u000a Cd exposure and toxicity.

Nikhil JohriGregory Jacquillet; Grégory Jacquillet; Robert Unwin

2010-01-01

299

Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals  

DOEpatents

Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

2009-01-06

300

Heavy Metal Distribution in Some Wild Birds from Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study presents concentrations of heavy metals (manganese, zinc, lead, and cadmium) in tissues in six orders of Korean\\u000a wild birds (n = 37), 2000–2002. Zinc, manganese, lead, and cadmium concentrations in all tissues were highest in ancient murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus). Essential elements in Korean wild birds were within the normal range for wild birds and are maintained there by a normal

Jungsoo Kim; Ju-Ryul Shin; Tae-Hoe Koo

2009-01-01

301

Effects of Heavy Metals on Soil Enzyme Activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pollution of the soil with heavy metals is one of the worst legacies of our intensive agricultural–industrial activities,\\u000a and it negatively affects various characteristics of the soil, including soil enzyme activities. Soil enzymes are natural\\u000a molecules that catalyze soil microbial reactions and mainly originate from microorganisms and plants. Since enzyme activities\\u000a play fundamental roles in soil chemical and biological

Ayten Karaca; Sema Camci Cetin; Oguz Can Turgay; Ridvan Kizilkaya

302

Studies of channel sediments contaminated with organics and heavy metals.  

PubMed

The paper discusses the geo-environmental studies carried out to revitalise a silted up channel in Guanabara Bay. A dredging operation has been planned to remove about 1.5 million cubic meters of contaminated sediment. Investigations were performed to characterise the sediment in terms of its physical and chemical properties and to evaluate the presence of heavy metals and organic compounds, particularly polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons PAH. Finally, dredging and disposal schemes are briefly outlined based on measured contamination levels. PMID:15177724

Barbosa, Maria Claudia; de Almeida, Márcio de Souza Soares; Mariz, Digna Faria; de Almeida, José Luis Duarte Silva Serzedelo

2004-07-01

303

Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

2011-03-15

304

Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman; Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

2011-03-29

305

Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

2011-05-03

306

Sensing of Heavy Metals Using Caenorhabditis elegans DNA Microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Previously we reported that the possibility of sensing of chemical substances using gene expression patterns analyzed,by DNA microarray using Caenorhabditis elegans( C. elegans) as a sensor (Matsuno et al., 2002, 2006). In this study, we evaluated sensitivity and selectivity of above system using a customized,DNA microarray ,for heavy ,metal responded ,genes. The results showed,that this system ,showed ,high sensitivity and

Nobuaki TOMINAGA; Tetsuya MATSUNO; Shinya KOHRA; Koji ARIZONO

307

Modified SBA15 mesoporous silica for heavy metal ions remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

N-Propylsalicylaldimino-functionalized SBA-15 mesoporous silica was prepared, characterized and used as an adsorbent for heavy metal ions. The organic–inorganic hybrid material was obtained using successive grafting procedures of SBA-15 silica with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane and salicylaldehyde, respectively. For comparison an amorphous silica gel was functionalized using the same procedure. The structure and physicochemical properties of the materials were characterized by means of elemental

Mihaela Mureseanu; Aurora Reiss; Ioan Stefanescu; Elena David; Viorica Parvulescu; Gilbert Renard; Vasile Hulea

2008-01-01

308

Heavy metal binding mechanisms in cement-based waste materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field and laboratory experiments were carried out to elucidate the geochemical and hydrological mechanisms that are important to understand the binding mechanisms of heavy metals in landfills with cement based waste materials. The focus of the work was on Zn(II), firstly in sorption experiments with calcium-silicate-hydrate, and secondly as a component in the leachate from a field lysimeter experiment. The

Christian Ludwig; Felix Ziegler; C. Annette Johnson

1997-01-01

309

Electrokinetic Separation of Heavy Metals from Wastewater Treatment Sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the study, a preliminary experiment on the removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewater sludge was carried out to evaluate the feasibility of electrokinetic separation. Four different types of processing fluid—tap water, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid (CA), and 0.1 M nitric acid—were tested. EDTA was found to be the most effective agent within the set of chemicals tested for

Seon-Young Park; Geun-Yong Park; Do-Hyung Kim; Jung-Seok Yang; Kitae Baek

2010-01-01

310

Extractabilities of heavy metals in chemically-fixed sewage sludges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chemically-fixed sewage sludges, including lime-treated sludge (LS), lime–sodium silicate-treated sludge (LSS), cement-treated sludge (CS), and cement–sodium silicate-treated sludge (CSS), were produced from sewage sludge by bench processes using lime, cement, and sodium silicate as additives. The extractabilities of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cr, and Zn) in these chemically-fixed sludges were studied using sequential extraction and single extraction. For comparative objectives,

Ping-Chin Hsiau; Shang-Lien Lo

1998-01-01

311

Stabilization of heavy metals in sewage sludge composting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigated the stabilization of heavy metals in a sewage sludge composting process using kaoline addition. The results indicate that the temperature increased rapidly to the thermophilic phase (>55°C) at day 1. The additives enhanced the rate of biodegradation and microbial activity during the co- composting process. The changes in pH (ranging from 8 to 8.5) and electrical conductivity

K.-Y. Chiang; S.-D. Yoi; H. N. Lin; K.-S. Wang

312

Characterization of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tire dust is a significant pollutant, especially as a source of zinc in the urban environment. This study characterizes the morphology and chemical composition of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust and traffic-related materials (brake dust, yellow paint, and tire tread) as measured by a field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM\\/EDX). In

Kouji Adachi; Yoshiaki Tainosho

2004-01-01

313

Heavy metal doping of CdTe crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

CdTe crystals doped with several heavy metals (Hg, Tl, Pb, and Bi) in the concentration range of 1017-1018 at\\/cm3 have been grown by the vertical Bridgman method. The structural quality and uniformity of the crystals was verified by chemical determination of etch pits density and by X-ray rocking curves. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was employed for evaluating the dopant

E. Saucedo; L. Fornaro; N. V. Sochinskii; A. Cuna; V. Corregidor; D. Granados; E. Dieguez

2004-01-01

314

Understanding molecular mechanisms for improving phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils.  

PubMed

Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem with a negative potential impact on human health and agriculture. Rhizosphere, as an important interface of soil and plants, plays a significant role in phytoremediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals, in which, microbial populations are known to affect heavy metal mobility and availability to the plant through release of chelating agents, acidification, phosphate solubilization and redox changes, and therefore, have potential to enhance phytoremediation processes. Phytoremediation strategies with appropriate heavy metal-adapted rhizobacteria or mycorrhizas have received more and more attention. In addition, some plants possess a range of potential mechanisms that may be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals, and they manage to survive under metal stresses. High tolerance to heavy metal toxicity could rely either on reduced uptake or increased plant internal sequestration, which is manifested by an interaction between a genotype and its environment.A coordinated network of molecular processes provides plants with multiple metal-detoxifying mechanisms and repair capabilities. The growing application of molecular genetic technologies has led to an increased understanding of mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance/accumulation in plants and, subsequently, many transgenic plants with increased heavy metal resistance, as well as increased uptake of heavy metals, have been developed for the purpose of phytoremediation. This article reviews advantages, possible mechanisms, current status and future direction of phytoremediation for heavy-metal-contaminated soils. PMID:19821782

Hong-Bo, Shao; Li-Ye, Chu; Cheng-Jiang, Ruan; Hua, Li; Dong-Gang, Guo; Wei-Xiang, Li

2010-03-01

315

Heavy metals in an urban watershed in southeastern Michigan.  

PubMed

The occurrence of heavy metals in the soil was measured over a period of several years to determine background concentrations in a heavily urbanized watershed in southeastern Michigan. A spatially dispersed sample was collected to capture the inherent variability of the soils and historic land use. The analysis focused on 14 metals (antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, thallium, and zinc) that are part of the USEPA's list of the 129 most common pollutants. Metal concentrations were measured at three depths: near-surface (<0.5 m), shallow subsurface (0.5-10 m), and depths greater than 10 m across six soil units in glacial terrain. Additional analyses assessed the metal concentrations in each depth profile across three general land use categories: residential, commercial, and industrial. Metal concentrations were the highest in the near-surface with Pb present at concentrations averaging 15.5 times that of background in industrial areas and approximately 16 times background in residential areas. Cadmium, Hg, and Zn were also present in surface soils at levels of several times that of background. The highest concentrations of each of these metals were present in the clay-rich soils located in the eastern, more urbanized and industrialized part of the watershed. Metals detected at elevated concentrations decreased in concentration with increasing depth and distance from the urbanized and industrialized center of the watershed. Statistically significant differences in the concentrations of heavy metals were also noted between the land use categories, with Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn observed within industrial areas at mean concentrations several times greater than background levels. PMID:14964371

Murray, Kent S; Rogers, Daniel T; Kaufman, Martin M

316

Water Purification Using Functional Nanomaterials: Sequestering Toxic Heavy Metals  

SciTech Connect

Water, and water quality, are issues of critical importance to the future of humankind. Our water supply has been contaminated by a wide variety of industrial, military and natural sources. There is a serious need for technologies to remove toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the world’s water supplies. Surfactant templated synthesis of mesoporous ceramics provides a versatile foundation upon which to create high efficiency environmental sorbents. These nanoporous ceramics condense a huge amount of surface area into a very small volume. These mesoporous architectures can be subsequently functionalized through molecular self-assembly. These functional mesoporous materials offer significant capabilities in terms of removal of heavy metals and radionuclides from groundwater and other liquid media. They are highly efficient sorbents, whose interfacial chemistry can be fine-tuned to selectively sequester a specific target species, such as heavy metals, tetrahedral oxometallate anions and radionuclides. Their rigid, open pore structure allows for rapid, efficient sorption kinetics. This manuscript provides an overview of the design, synthesis and performance of the sorbent materials.

Fryxell, Glen E.

2008-02-01

317

Transgenerational Adaptation to Heavy Metal Salts in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Exposure to abiotic and biotic stress results in changes in plant physiology and triggers genomic instability. Recent reports suggest that the progeny of stressed plants also exhibit changes in genome stability, stress tolerance, and methylation. Here we analyzed whether exposure to Ni2+, Cd2+, and Cu2+ salts leads to transgenerational changes in homologous recombination frequency and stress tolerance. We found that the immediate progeny of stressed plants exhibited an increased rate of recombination. However, when the progeny of stressed plants was propagated without stress, recombination reverted to normal levels. Exposure of plants to heavy metals for five consecutive generations (S1–S5) resulted in recombination frequency being maintained at a high level. Skipping stress following two to three generations of propagation with 50?mM Ni2+ or Cd2+ did not decrease the recombination frequency, suggesting plant acclimation to upregulated recombination. Analysis of the progeny of plants exposed to Cu2+ and Ni2+ indicated higher stress tolerance to the heavy metal parental plants were exposed to. Tolerance was higher in plants propagated with stress for three to five generations, which resulted in longer roots than plants propagated on heavy metals for only one to two generations. Tolerance was also more prominent upon exposure to a higher concentration of salts. The progeny of stressed plants were also more tolerant to NaCl and methyl methane sulfonate.

Rahavi, Mohammad Reza; Migicovsky, Zoe; Titov, Viktor; Kovalchuk, Igor

2011-01-01

318

Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.  

PubMed

Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. PMID:20656104

Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

2010-05-31

319

Thermal treatment of metal-enriched biomass produced from heavy metal phytoextraction.  

PubMed

Phytoextraction is an environmentally sound method for cleaning up sites that are contaminated with toxic heavy metals. However, the method has been questioned because it produces a biomass-rich secondary waste containing the extracted metals. Therefore, further treatment of this biomass is necessary. In this study, we investigated whether thermal treatment could be a feasible option for evaporatively separating metals from the plant residues. We used a laboratory scale reactor designed to simulate the volatilization behavior of heavy metals in a grate furnace. The evaporation of alkali and heavy metals from plant samples was investigated online, using a thermo-desorption spectrometer (TDS). Experiments were performed in the temperature range of 25-950 degrees C with leaves of the Cd and Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens and of the high biomass plant Salix viminalis (willow), both grown on contaminated soils. Gasification (i.e., pyrolysis), which occurs under reducing conditions, was a better method than incineration under oxidizing conditions to increase volatilization and, hence subsequently recovery, of Cd and Zn from plants. It would also allow the recycling of the bottom ash as fertilizer. Thus, our investigations confirmed that incineration (or co-incineration) is a viable option for the treatment of the heavy metal-enriched plants. PMID:15926590

Keller, Catherine; Ludwig, Christian; Davoli, Frédéric; Wochele, Jörg

2005-05-01

320

Acid mine drainage and heavy metal contamination in groundwater of metal sulfide mine at arid territory (BS mine, Western Australia)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The issues of acid mine drainage (AMD) and heavy metals contamination in the metal sulfide mine in the arid district were explored, through studying the acidification and the heavy metals distribution and evolution of groundwater in the black swan (BS) nickel sulfide mine (Western Australia). The groundwater samples were collected from the drilling holes situated in the vicinity of tailings

Liang-qi LEI; Ci-an SONG; Xiang-li XIE; Yan-hong LI; Fei WANG

2010-01-01

321

Application of Kaolin for Control of Heavy Metals in Anaerobic Sludge Digestion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six laboratory-scale anaerobic digesters were used to evaluate the potential of kaolin addition for the control of heavy metal toxicity. Adsorption isotherms were obtained for the kaolin-metal system in solutions of the individual metals, nickel, copper, ...

W. H. Cross P. M. Rossello

1983-01-01

322

Chitosan removes toxic heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the removal of heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke using chitosan. Chitosan of various deacetylation degrees and molecular weights were manually added to cigarette filters in different dosages. The mainstream smoke particulate matter was collected by a Cambridge filter pad, digested by a microwave digestor, and then analyzed for contents of heavy metal ions, including As(III/V), Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The results showed that chitosan had a removal effect on Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II). Of these, the percent removal of Ni(II) was elevated with an increasing dosage of chitosan. Chitosan of a high deace tylation degree exhibited good binding performance toward Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), though with poor efficiency for Pb(II). Except As(III/V), all the tested metal ions showed similar tendencies in the growing contents with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Nonetheless, the percent removal of Cr(III/VI) peaked with a chitosan molecular weight of 200 kDa, followed by a dramatic decrease with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Generally, chitosan had different removal effects on four out of five tested metal ions, and the percent removal of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II) was approximately 55%, 45%, 50%, and 16%, respectively. In a word, chitosan used in cigarette filter can remove toxic heavy metal ions in the mainstream smoke, improve cigarette safety, and reduce the harm to smokers.

Zhou, Wen; Xu, Ying; Wang, Dongfeng; Zhou, Shilu

2013-09-01

323

Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Consumption of food crops contaminated with heavy metals is a major food chain route for human exposure. We studied the health risks of heavy metals in contaminated food crops irrigated with wastewater. Results indicate that there is a substantial buildup of heavy metals in wastewater-irrigated soils, collected from Beijing, China. Heavy metal concentrations in plants grown in wastewater-irrigated soils were

S. Khan; Q. Cao; Y. M. Zheng; Y. Z. Huang; Y. G. Zhu

2008-01-01

324

Heavy metals in sludge from the sewage treatment plant of Rio de Janeiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The final disposal of sewage sludge on soils as a compost for agriculture increases heavy metal contamination in soils. This demands controlled use to avoid hazardous situations. This work measures the heavy metals content in sludge and its potential as a fertilizer in agriculture. Samples were collected from the Penha urban sewage plant, the largest in Rio de Janeiro. Heavy

Tomaz Langenbach; Wolfgang Pfeifer; Luiz Rodrigues Freire; Michele Sarpa; Sueli Paim

1994-01-01

325

Removal of dissolved heavy metals from acid rock drainage using iron metal  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and microbial activity of corroding iron metal is examined in the acid rock drainage (ARD) resulting from pyrite oxidation to determine the effectiveness in neutralizing the ARD and reducing the load of dissolved heavy metals. ARD from Berkeley Pit, MT, is treated with iron in batch reactors and columns containing iron granules. Iron, in acidic solution, hydrolyzes water producing hydride and hydroxide ion resulting in a concomitant increase in pH and decrease in redox potential. The dissolved metals in ARD are removed by several mechanisms. Copper and cadmium cement onto the surface of the iron as zerovalent metals. Hydroxide forming metals such as aluminum, zinc, and nickel form complexes with iron and other metals precipitating from solution as the pH rises. Metalloids such as arsenic and antimony coprecipitate with iron. As metals precipitate from solution, various other mechanisms including coprecipitation, sorption, and ion exchange also enhance removal of metals from solution. Corroding iron also creates a reducing environment supportive for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) growth. Increases in SRB populations of 5,000-fold are observed in iron metal treated ARD solutions. Although the biological process is slow, sulfidogenesis is an additional pathway to further stabilize heavy metal precipitates.

Shokes, T.E.; Moeller, G. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

1999-01-15

326

Broom fibre PRB for heavy metals groundwater remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil contamination by heavy metal and, though it, of groundwater represent a serious alteration of original geochemical levels owing to various human activities as: particular industrial processes and their non-correct treatment emission, urban traffic, use of phytosanitary product and mineral fertilizer. Heavy metals are genotoxic contaminants who can be found by environmental matrix analysis or by examination of the genetic damage inducted, after exposition, to sentry organism. In this last case we use a relative quantitation of the gene expression monitoring the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism hepatopancreas's gene of the organism used by bioindicator. This test is based on consideration that the hepatopancreas is the first internal organ affected by heavy metals or any other pollutant that the organism is exposed. In this work, the organism used by bioindicator to evalutate the pollutant contamination of waste water is Danio rerio (Zebrafish) that is a little tropical fish of 2-3 cm, native on asiatic south-east rivers. This organism has a large use in scientific field because its genoma is almost completely mapped and, above all, because the congenital gene cause in human, if it was mutated in zebrafish, similar damage or almost similar mutation that happens in human being so you can develop a dose - response curve. To do this, after prepared a cadmium solution with a concentration 10 times the Italian normative limit, the organisms have been put in the aquarium to recreate the optimal condition to survival of zebrafish observed by continuous monitoring by web-cam. After one month exposition, that we took little by little sample fish to analyzing, for different exposition time, the hepatopancreas's fish. First results shows considerable variation of the gene expression by interested gene in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism compared to control, highlighting the mutagenity caused by heavy metals on Danio rerio's hepatopancreas and, mutatis mutandis, also in human being. One of the most interesting techniques applied in contaminated aquifer by heavy metals is the PRBs (Troisi et al., 2002; Calvin et al., 2006), in particular broom fibers PRB (Troisi et al., 2008). The first results highlight an optimum removal capacity for contaminants underlined from following removal percentage: 98.01% (Cd), 99.95% (Cu), 97.35% (Pb) and 99.53% (Zn). A fundamental parameter for PRB design is the decay coefficient who indicates the removal capacity (degradation, transformation, adsorption/absorption, mass transport, etc.). This parameter has been determined for four heavy metals: Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) carrying out column tests. Besides, for real use of broom fibers PRB same tests have been performed, using flow cells, to estimate a relation between hydraulic conductivity of fiber and its density. References Chien C. C., H. I. Inyang and L.G. Everett (2006). Barrier Systems for Environmental Contaminant Containment and Treatment. Taylor and Francis Group eds. Troisi S., C. Fallico, S. Straface S. e L. Mazzuca. (2008). Biodreni per la bonifica di siti contaminati realizzati con fibre naturali liberiane ad elevato sviluppo superficiale. CS2008A00018. Università della Calabria. Troisi S, E. Migliari and S. Straface (2002). Soil and groundwater contamination by heavy metals in the industrial area of Crotone. Third International Conference Risk Analysis III. Sintra, Ed. by C.A. Brebbia. WIT Press.

Molinari, A.; Troisi, S.; Fallico, C.; Paparella, A.; Straface, S.

2009-04-01

327

Leaching of heavy metals in acid mine drainage.  

PubMed

Acid mine drainage is one of the most serious environmental problems that the coal and metal mining industry is currently facing. The generation of low pH drainage enhances the dissolution of heavy metals in water. The samples used in this research originated from three pits at mine dumps. In a study reported in this paper, three types of tests; namely static test, kinetic test and column test were conducted to estimate acid generation and acid neutralization reaction rates, and to predict the solubility of metals and their release rates. Static test showed that all samples had a pH of net acid generation (NAG pH) <4, a net acid producing potential (NAPP) >10 kg H2SO4tonne(-1), and a S-content >3%, which can be classified as a high acid-forming capacity. Simulated runoff in the column tests was equivalent to 5-year average rainfall in Indonesia, the resultant leachates showed acidic behaviour (pH < 3.5). Based on the results, it was found that high mobilization of heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) takes place under strong acidic conditions (pH approximately equal 2). PMID:16634228

Saria, Lana; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Miyawaki, Kentaro

2006-04-01

328

Water-soluble organophosphorus reagents for mineralization of heavy metals.  

SciTech Connect

In this report, we have described the principal stages of a two-step process for the in-situ stabilization of actinide ions in the environment. The combination of cation exchange and mineralization appears likely to provide a long-term solution to environments contaminated with heavy metals. Relying on a naturally occurring sequestering agent has obvious potential advantages from a regulatory standpoint. There are additional aspects of this technology requiring further elucidation, including the demonstration of the effect of these treatment protocols on the geohydrology of soil columns, further examination of the influence of humates and other colloidal species on cation uptake, and microbiological studies of phytate hydrolysis. We have learned during the course of this investigation that phytic acid is potentially available in large quantities. In the US alone, phytic acid is produced at an annual rate of several hundred thousand metric tons as a byproduct of fermentation processes (11). This material presently is not isolated for use. Instead, most of the insoluble phyate (as phytin) is being recycled along with the other solid fermentation residues for animal feed. This material is in fact considered undesirable in animal feed. The details of possible separation processes for phytate from these residues would have to be worked out before this untapped resource would be available for application to heavy metal sequestration. The results described emphasize the behavior of actinide and trivalent lanthanide metal ions, as these species are of primary interest to the Department of Energy for the cleanup of the former nuclear weapons production complex. While the specific demonstration includes this limited selection of metal ions, the technique should be readily applicable to any class of metal ions that form insoluble phosphate compounds under appropriate conditions. Further, though this demonstration has been conducted in the pH 5-8 range, it is conceivable that the basic concepts would apply equally well for the stabilization of waste metals in mill tailings piles, wherein conditions can be moderately acidic.

Nash, K. L.

1999-02-26

329

Heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions by activated phosphate rock.  

PubMed

The use of natural adsorbent such as phosphate rock to replace expensive imported synthetic adsorbent is particularly appropriate for developing countries such as Tunisia. In this study, the removal characteristics of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc ions from aqueous solution by activated phosphate rock were investigated under various operating variables like contact time, solution pH, initial metal concentration and temperature. The kinetic and the sorption process of these metal ions were compared for phosphate rock (PR) and activated phosphate rock (APR). To accomplish this objective we have: (a) characterized both (PR) and (APR) using different techniques (XRD, IR) and analyses (EDAX, BET-N(2)); and, (b) qualified and quantified the interaction of Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) with these sorbents through batch experiments. Initial uptake of these metal ions increases with time up to 1h for (PR) and 2h for (APR), after then, it reaches equilibrium. The maximum sorption obtained for (PR) and (APR) is between pH 2 and 3 for Pb(2+) and 4 and 6 for Cd(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). The effect of temperature has been carried out at 10, 20 and 40 degrees C. The data obtained from sorption isotherms of metal ions at different temperatures fit to linear form of Langmuir sorption equation. The heat of sorption (DeltaH degrees), free energy (DeltaG degrees) and change in entropy (DeltaS degrees) were calculated. They show that sorption of Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) on (PR) and (APR) an endothermic process. These findings are significant for future using of (APR) for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater under realistic competitive conditions in terms of initial heavy metals, concentrations and pH. PMID:18242833

Elouear, Z; Bouzid, J; Boujelben, N; Feki, M; Jamoussi, F; Montiel, A

2007-12-23

330

Heavy metal concentrations in edible barnacles exposed to natural contamination.  

PubMed

The giant barnacle Megabalanus azoricus is a popular seafood in the Azores. It is mainly caught in coastal environments and sold for domestic human consumption. This species is a filter feeder and can be used as a biomonitor of trace metal bioavailabilities. To investigate consumption safety, the concentrations of 10 trace metals - As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr and Zn - were evaluated in 3 body tissues of M. azoricus from 3 sites on 2 islands. There were no significant differences between the metal loads of the barnacles from the different sites. However, the concentrations of the total trace metal loads revealed significant differences among the tissues (cirrus, muscles and ovaries). The concentrations of some metals in the body were not within the safety levels for consumers, based on the allowable standard levels for crustaceans issued by the European Union and of legislations in several countries. Alarming levels of As and Cd were found. Considering the absence of heavy industry in the region, a non-anthropogenic volcanic source was assumed to be the reason for the observed metal levels. Barnacles, in particular M. azoricus, seem to be useful as bioindicators in this peculiar environment. PMID:23380032

Dionísio, M; Costa, A; Rodrigues, A

2013-02-04

331

Heavy metal status of sediment in river Cauvery, Karnataka.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research work was to appraise extent of heavy metals in sediment and the degree to which its quality tainted seasonally and spatially in river Cauvery. In this study, heavy metals such as Fe, Zn, Ni, Mn, Pb, Cu, Co, Cd and Cr were analysed in sediments. Results were compared with sediment quality guidelines from various derived criteria. Twenty-five sampling points were selected based on geographical proximity of agricultural fields and industrial discharges; river-tributary confluence points; settlements located along the river bank; ritual and recreational activities. Sampling was done for the period of 3 years (2007 to 2009). Digestion of the samples was done by microwave-assisted digestion technique. Analysis was carried out using flame furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and results are expressed in micrograms per gram. The mean concentration of Fe (11144 ?g/g) followed by Mn (1763.3 ?g/g), Zn (93.1 ?g/g), Cr (389 ?g/g), Ni (27.7 ?g/g), Cu (11.2 ?g/g), Pb (4.3 ?g/g), Co (1.9 ?g/g) and Cd (1.3 ?g/g) remained within the levels of sediment quality guidelines. Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis (CA) were employed to better comprehend the controlling factors of sediment quality and spatial homogeneity among the stations. The sediment geo-accumulation index (I(geo)) showed maximum value of Cd (2.69) and least value of Mn (-1.44). The geo-accumulation class (I(geo) class) was in the sequence as follows: Cd>Zn>Pb>Cr>Cu>Co>Ni>Fe>Mn. Negative total geo-accumulation indices (I(tot)) revealed that mean concentration of heavy metals in the river bed sediment are lower than their respective shale values. The statistical analysis of inter-metallic relationship revealed the high degree of correlation among the metals indicated their identical behaviour during transport. This study concludes that insignificant geo-accumulation with metals except Cd (moderate contamination), Pb and Zn (slight contamination) principally in downstream stretch may perhaps deteriorate the sediment quality due to intensification anthropogenic influences. It also proves that extent of existing metal concentrations in sediments of river Cauvery in Karnataka not exceeded the toxic limit, and there is no peril to the aquatic life. PMID:21437596

Venkatesha Raju, K; Somashekar, R K; Prakash, K L

2011-03-25

332

Effect of heavy metal-solubilizing microorganisms on zinc and cadmium extractions from heavy metal contaminated soil with Tricholoma lobynsis.  

PubMed

The macrofungus, Tricholoma lobynsis, was chosen to remedy Zn-Cd-Pb contaminated soil. To enhance its metal-extracting efficiency, two heavy metal resistant microbes M6 and K1 were applied owing to their excellent abilities to solubilize heavy metal salts. The two isolated microbial strains could also produce indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore and solubilize inorganic phosphate, but neither of them showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase activity. The strains M6 and K1 were identified as Serratia marcescens and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa based on 16S rDNA and ITS sequence analysis respectively. Pot experiment showed that spraying to T. lobynsis-inoculated soil with M6 and K1 respectively could increase total Cd accumulations of this mushroom by 216 and 61%, and Zn by 153 and 49% compared to the uninoculated control. Pb accumulation however, was too low (<1 mg kg(-1)) to be determined. The results illustrated that special microbes and macrofungi can work together to remedy polluted soil as plant and plant growth promoting microbes do, probably because of excellent metal-accumulating abilities of macrofungi and IAA-siderophore production, phosphate solubilization abilities of the assisted-microbes. This kind of macrofungi-microbe interaction can be developed into a novel bioremediation strategy. PMID:22806805

Ji, Ling-yun; Zhang, Wei-wei; Yu, Dong; Cao, Yan-ru; Xu, Heng

2011-06-21

333

Heavy Metals in River Sediments (Regnitz, Central Franconia) as a Function of Sediment Parameters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following subjects are discussed: The pollutant concentrations in sediments of the Regnitz river, the Dechsendorf lake, and high water sediments, the time variation of the heavy metal concentrations in the regions of investigation, the local heavy met...

F. Heravi

1984-01-01

334

Heavy metals in urban soils of the Granada city (Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban soils (Anthrosols, Technosols, and the remaining natural patches) are essential components of the city ecosystems influencing the quality of life for people. Unfortunately, because of the high concentration of matter and energy that occurs in any city, these soils might accumulate potentially toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds, pathogens, pharmaceuticals, and soluble salts. Contamination by heavy metals has been considered especially dangerous because they can affect human health via inhalation of dust, ingestion, or skin contact with soils. Children are the more exposed citizens in gardens and parks. Accordingly, our objective was to analyze the content of heavy metals in soils of the two most emblematic, extensive, and visited landscaped areas of the Granada city (Salón Garden, which dates back to 1612, and Federico García Lorca Park, opened since 1993) for assessing the health hazard. Using a composite sampling of 20-30 points chosen at random, we collected the upper soil (10 cm) of five representative plots for each landscaped area. We determined soil characteristics by routine procedures and metal elements using ICP-mass. From high to low concentration we found Mn, Ba, Pb, Zn, V, Sn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sb, Y, As, Sc, Co, Th, Au, U, Mo, Be, Bi, Tl, Cd, and In; the first 10 metals ranging between 478 and 22 ppm. Mn, Ba, and other trace elements were strongly correlated with soil properties suggesting the inheritance as a possible source of metal variation, especially in the soils of younger Park, where the materials used to build gardens in the five sampled plots seemed to be more variable (carbonates: 10-40%, clay: 18-26%, pH: 7.6-7.9, organic matter: 3-7%, free iron 0.5-1.1%). The content of many other metals measured in the sampled plots, however, were independent of soil material and management. On the other hand, compared to agricultural and native soils of the surroundings, our urban soils had obviously greater content in organic matter and nutrients as a result of the garden management, but was unexpected the abundance of heavy metals of urban provenance. Especially the concentration in Pb (83-322 ppm) and Cu (37-48 ppm), common in the city fumes, was higher in the urban soils. Considering the total content of metals, the soils of Salón Gardens also had 200 ppm (45% in Pb) more than those of Federico García Lorca Park, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05) in Zn, Cd, and Pb, which could be explained by a longer metal accumulation time. In addition, it was noted that the Pb content in the ancient garden substantially increased from the inner parts (154 ppm) to the periphery (322 ppm) near streets with car traffic. This is noteworthy because the five Salón plots had soils extremely homogeneous (carbonates: 24-25%, clay: 18-19%, pH: 7.6-7.7, organic matter: 3-4%, free iron 0.6-0.7%). Despite this seeming soil contamination in Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Cd from urban sources, there were no toxic levels according to European legislation and consequently, there should be no health risk.

Delgado, Gabriel; Sánchez-Marañón, Manuel; Bech, Jaume; Sartini, Alessandra; Martín-García, Juan Manuel; Delgado, Rafael

2013-04-01

335

[Spatial variability of farmland heavy metals contents in Qianan City].  

PubMed

By the methods of geostatistics and GIS, this paper studied the spatial variability of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr As, Hg, Cd and Pb contents in the farmland topsoil (0 -20 cm) of Qianan City, Hebei Province. The results showed that the average contents of test metals were under the secondary standard of environmental quality standard for soil (GB 15618-1995), and belonged to moderate variability. The theoretical models of semi-variance of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr and As contents fitted exponential models, and their spatial correlations were strongly spatial dependence; while the theoretical models of Hg and Cd contents fitted spherical models, and their spatial correlations were moderately spatial dependence. The Pb content had pure nugget effect, and was weakly spatial dependence. In whole research scale, Pb content had lasting variability, while the other seven heavy metals contents had the spatial variability mainly caused by their spatial correlation parts. The ranges of heavy metals spatial correlations were about 11 km to 20 km. The Kriging' s interpolation of Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Hg, As and Cd contents showed that their contents were higher in northern mountainous area, but lower in mid basin. PMID:17066710

Wang, Bo; Wang, Yuanzhong; Li, Dongmei; Gao, Yunfeng; Mao, Renzhao

2006-08-01

336

Diffuse sources of heavy metals in the Rhine basin.  

PubMed

An estimate of diffuse sources of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, Ni) in the Rhine catchment stressed the urban storm water discharges in the German part and drainage flow in the Dutch part as the most important pathways. Additional sources are erosion and, to a far lesser extent, atmospheric deposition on open water areas. All other pathways were of minor importance. Meanwhile, after reduction of the point sources by between 72-95%, the diffuse sources dominate the total emissions. For several metals the anthropogenic diffuse sources amounted to 40-80%, the point sources to 15-40% and the geogeneous sources to 5-40%. The estimated inputs sufficiently agreed with the loads of the river Rhine. For the estimation, mean values were used for the water masses and the substance concentrations of the different hydrological pathways. It is recommended to undertake further studies on diffuse sources of heavy metals in urban areas and on the possibilities to improve urban storm water management. The calculation methods and the recommendations of the International Commission for the Protection of the Rhine (ICPR) are explained in detail. PMID:11724493

Mohaupt, V; Sieber, U; van den Roovaart, J; Verstappen, C G; Langenfeld, F; Braun, M

2001-01-01

337

Acute toxicity of heavy metals towards freshwater ciliated protists.  

PubMed

The acute toxicity of five heavy metals to four species of freshwater ciliates (Colpidium colpoda, Dexiotricha granulosa, Euplotes aediculatus, and Halteria grandinella) was examined in laboratory tests. After exposing the ciliates to soluble compound of cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, and nickel at several selected concentrations, the mortality rate was registered and the LC50 values (with 95% confidence intervals) were calculated. Large differences appeared in sensitivities of the four species to the metals. H. grandinella showed the highest sensitivity for cadmium (0.07 mg l(-1), LC50) and lead (0.12 mg l(-1), LC50), whilst E. aediculatus showed the highest sensitivity for nickel (0.03 mg l(-1), LC50). The comparison with data obtained with other species indicate that Halteria grandinella and Euplotes aediculatus are excellent and convenient bioindicator for evaluating the toxicity of waters and wastewaters polluted by heavy metals. The short time (24 h) and simplicity of the test procedure enable this test to be used in laboratory studies. PMID:16198032

Madoni, Paolo; Romeo, Maria Giuseppa

2005-09-28

338

Biomonitoring of heavy metals in fish from the Danube River.  

PubMed

The Croatian part of the Danube River extends over 188 km and comprises 58 % of the country's overall area used for commercial freshwater fishing. To date, the heavy metal contamination of fish in the Croatian part of the Danube has not been studied. The main purpose of this study was to determine heavy metal levels in muscle tissue of sampled fish species and to analyze the measured values according to feeding habits of particular groups. Lead ranged from 0.015 ?g(-1) dry weight in planktivorous to 0.039 ?g(-1) dry weight in herbivorous fish, cadmium from 0.013 ?g(-1) dry weight in herbivorous to 0.018 ?g(-1) dry weight in piscivorous fish, mercury from 0.191 ?g(-1) dry weight in omnivorous to 0.441 ?g(-1) dry weight in planktivorous fish and arsenic from 0.018 ?g(-1) dry weight in planktivorous to 0.039 ?g(-1) dry weight in omnivorous fish. Among the analyzed metals in muscle tissue of sampled fish, only mercury exceeded the maximal level (0.5 mg kg(-1)) permitted according to the national and EU regulations determining maximum levels for certain contaminants in foodstuffs, indicating a hazard for consumers of fish from the Danube River. PMID:22527460

Zrn?i?, Snježana; Orai?, Dražen; ?aleta, Marko; Mihaljevi?, Željko; Zanella, Davor; Bilandži?, Nina

2012-04-25

339

Distribution and plant availability of heavy metals in different particle-size fractions of soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of heavy metals and their availability to plants were studied with respect to the particle-size fractions of soil. Soil samples with a range of chemical and physical properties were collected from 10 different rural regions of China. Extractable heavy metals (Ni, Co, Cu and Pb) in the soils using different extractants are compared with the metal contents in

Jin Qian; Xiao-quan Shan; Zi-jian Wang; Qiang Tu

1996-01-01

340

Aquatic macrophytes potential for the simultaneous removal of heavy metals (Buenos Aires, Argentina)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal removal from water has been approached by using different technologies. Phytotechnologies, with an increasing development during the last two decades, involve using plants for metal removal. Three autochthonous floating macrophytes, common in pampean shallow lakes (Argentina), Pista stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia and Lemna minor were used in laboratory experiences for the simultaneously removal of several heavy metals (Fe, Cu,

Patricia Miretzky; Andrea Saralegui; Alicia Fernández Cirelli

2004-01-01

341

Biomarkers of Renal Effects in Children and Adults with Low Environmental Exposure to Heavy Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The health effects of chronic exposure to heavy metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury are widely documented, yet few data exist about the renal impact of low environmental exposure to these metals, particularly in children. The aim of this study was to assess renal parameters in children and adults living in an environment known for its past heavy metal

Claire de Burbure; Jean-Pierre Buchet; Alfred Bernard; Ariane Leroyer; Catherine Nisse; Jean-Marie Haguenoer; Enrico Bergamaschi; Antonio Mutti

2003-01-01

342

Fungal biosorption – an alternative to meet the challenges of heavy metal pollution in aqueous solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of heavy metal from the environment, especially wastewater, is now shifting from the use of conventional methods to the use of biosorption, which may be defined as the binding and concentration of selected heavy metal ions or other molecules on to certain biological material. Although most biosorption research concerns metal and related pollutants, including radionuclides, the term is

Rajesh Dhankhar; Anju Hooda

2011-01-01

343

A study on heavy metal partitioning in sediments from Poyang Lake in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partitioning of heavy metals in sediment from Poyang Lake, the largest freshwater lake in China, was studied. The majority of the heavy metals, copper, lead and zinc, were found to be bound to the organic matter and iron oxide phases. The distribution of the metals among the different geochemical phases in sediments was controlled by the abundance of the

Jingsheng Chen; Lin Dong; Baoshan Deng

1989-01-01

344

BIOAVAILABILITY AND SAFETY ISSUES OF HEAVY METALS IN PADDY SOIL-RICE CONTINUUM IN KOREA  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is an increasing concern over heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils and the successive translocation of metals to rice in Korea. Rice is one of the most important crops in the country. Thus, it is very important to monitor the status and trend of heavy metal contamination in paddy soils and rice periodically. It is also important to verify

Won-Il Kim; Jae E. Yang; Goo-Bok Jung; Byung-Jun Park; Sang-Won Park; Jin-Kyoung Kim; Oh-Kyung Kwon; Gab-Hee Ryu

345

Influence of temperature and salinity on heavy metal uptake by submersed plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Submersed plants can be useful in reducing heavy metal concentrations in stormwater, since they can accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in their shoots. To investigate the effects of water temperature and salinity on the metal uptake of two submersed plant species, Elodea canadensis (Michx.) and Potamogeton natans (L.), these plants were grown in the presence of Cu, Zn, Cd,

Å. Fritioff; L. Kautsky; M. Greger

2005-01-01

346

Heavy metal contamination of river Yamuna, Haryana, India: Assessment by Metal Enrichment Factor of the Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration of Heavy Metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni) in water, plants and sediments of river Yamuna flowing in Haryana through Delhi are reported here selecting 14 stations covering the upstream and downstream sites of major industrial complexes of the State. Some important characteristics of river water and sediments (pH, EC, Cl?, SO32?, and PO43? in water and sediments, COD of

A. Kaushik; Ankur Kansal; Santosh; Meena; Shiv Kumari; C. P. Kaushik

2009-01-01

347

Monitoring of metallic micronutrients and heavy metals in herbs, spices and medicinal plants from Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal, aromatic and spice plants grown in different regions of Austria were monitored as to their Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn contents. Since the plants were grown under common field conditions, the essential elements were within the usual ranges for plant material. The contamination level with the toxic heavy metals, Pb and Cd, can be classified as normally

Remigius Chizzola; Hanneliese Michitsch; Chlodwig Franz

2003-01-01

348

Criteria of the technogenic nature of heavy metals and metalloids in soils: A review of publications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Both routine statistical methods (the compliance of the heavy metal content with the exponent or ruling out abnormally high values of heavy metal concentrations in the Gaussian distribution) and new geostatistics based approaches are used as the criteria of the technogenic nature of heavy metals. Methods are being developed that take into consideration the marker element content (Al) in soil profiles. The geochemical criteria of the technogenic character are based on the statistical relationship between the content of the particular heavy metal (or metalloid) and its principal mineral phase carrier in the background soils, as well as on the disturbance of this relationship upon soil pollution. The chemical criteria are based on the different solubility of natural and technogenic heavy metals by reagents. A procedure of the quantitative assessment of the origin of technogenic lead depending on its isotopic composition is developed. The magnetic criteria of the technogenic nature of heavy metals are based on their association with technogenic magnetite.

Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.

2009-09-01

349

Heavy metal pollution and assessment in the tidal flat sediments of Haizhou Bay, China.  

PubMed

The heavy metal inventory and the ecological risk of the tidal flat sediments in Haizhou Bay were investigated. Results show that the average concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments exceeded the environment background values of Jiangsu Province coastal soil, suggesting that the surface sediments were mainly polluted by heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn). In addition, the profiles of heavy metals fluxes can reflect the socio-economic development of Lianyungang City, and heavy metals inputs were attributed to anthropogenic activities. Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were mainly present in the non-bioavailable residual form in surface sediments, whereas Cd and Mn were predominantly in the highly mobile acid soluble and reducible fractions. The ecological risk of the polluted sediments stemmed mainly from Cd and Pb. According to the Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), however, the adverse biological effects caused by the heavy metals occasionally occurred in tidal flat. PMID:23820195

Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Fan; Ding, Yingjun; Gao, Jinrong; Chen, Jing; Yan, Hongqiang; Shao, Wei

2013-06-30

350

Role of Sulfate and S-Rich Compounds in Heavy Metal Tolerance and Accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants can withstand the potentially toxic effects exerted by a number of heavy metals through exclusion, which consists in\\u000a restricted metal transport into plant tissues, or accumulation of metals, accompanied by the development of concomitant internal\\u000a tolerance mechanisms. Plant tolerance and accumulation to heavy metals are known to be related to sulfur assimilation. The\\u000a presence of metals can differently modulate

Michela Schiavon; Mario Malagoli

351

Heavy metals inhibit limb regeneration in horseshoe crab larvae  

PubMed

We studied the effects of heavy metals on the regeneration of walking legs in horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus). The second walking leg was amputated in embryos (stage 20 and 21) and first instar (trilobite) larvae, and the length and morphology of the regenerated appendage was observed after molting to the second instar stage. Regeneration following continuous exposure to TBT (0. 001-100 mg/L), mercury (0.001-100 mg/L), cadmium (0.01-100 mg/L), chromium (0.1-100 mg/L), lead (0.1-100 mg/L), and copper (1-100 mg/L) was measured relative to regeneration in seawater. Although regeneration was incomplete in controls, treatment with heavy metals led to smaller and/or malformed legs. The impacts of heavy metals on survival, molting, and regeneration of horseshoe crab larvae were ranked as follows: organotin > Hg > Cd > Cr > Zn > Pb >== Cu. Cu and Pb did not inhibit regeneration, even at 100 mg/L. TBT, Hg, Cd, Cr, and Zn inhibited the regeneration of appendages, although first instar larvae successfully molted into second instars even after treatment. Regeneration was comparable to seawater controls in less than 2.5 mg/L Zn. In 5.0 and 10.0 mg/L Zn, regeneration was inhibited and the length of regenerated appendages remained shorter in all second instars. Larvae treated with 10 mg/L Zn for 1-week intervals during the molt cycle showed similar patterns of regeneration. The regeneration of claws was not all or none, and formation of the claw was proportional to the length of regenerated appendages. Limb regeneration in horseshoe crab larvae may be a useful model system for the study of pollutant impacts. PMID:9732477

Itow; Igarashi; Botton; Loveland

1998-10-01

352

Accumulation rates of airborne heavy metals in wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accumulation rates of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) retained in wetland sediments in northwest Indiana-downwind of the Chicago-Gary-Hammond industrial area-are quantified to assess anthropogenic influences on atmospheric fluxes. Metal concentrations for 22 sediment cores are determined by ICP-AES after ashing and strong acid extraction. Relations between organic content and metal concentrations at depth are used to separate natural and anthropogenic sources. Accumulation rates over the lifetime of the wetlands (???4500 years) have averaged 0.2 (Cd), 1.4 (Cu), 1.7 (Cr), 13.4 (Mn), 4.8 (Pb), and 18.7 (Zn) mg m-2 y-1. Rates for the last 100 years have increased on average by factors of 6 (Cd), 8 (Cu), 10 (Mn), 15 (Pb), and 30 (Zn), remaining effectively constant for Cr. Where the wetlands have been drained, metals have been lost from the sediments, owing to changes in organic content and local hydrochemistry (exposure to acidic rainfall). Sediment-based accumulation rates at the undrained sites are higher, though generally consistent, with measured and modeled atmospheric fluxes documented by short-term studies conducted over the last three decades. The fraction of the total metals in the wetlands estimated to be of anthropogenic origin ranges from approximately 3% for Cr, up to approximately 35% for Pb, and 70% for Zn. This historic legacy of contamination must be considered in land management decisions, particularly when wetlands are drained.

Souch, C. J.; Filippelli, G. M.; Dollar, N.; Perkins, S.; Mastalerz, M.

2002-01-01

353

Using semivariogram scaled to the sample design of heavy metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "sampling intensity" issue is of important application to precision agriculture. About 80%-85 % of the total error in precision in agriculture results from the field sampling preceding the application of fertilizers and corrective practices. The spatial sampling design used to characterize the spatial variability of soil attributes is crucial to science studies. The sample planning for interpolation of a regionalized variable may use several criteria, which could be best selected from the estimated semivariogram from a previously established grid. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the semivariogram scaled to improve the sample design of heavy metals in an experimental plot. The study area surface is 6 ha and is located at Castro Ribeiras de Lea, Lugo, Spain. The geographical coordinates of the study area are: latitude 43° 09 '49''N and longitude 7° 29' 47''W, with average elevation of 410 m and average slope of 2 %. The mean annual temperature is 11.2 °C and mean annual rainfall is 930 mm (data 1961-1990). The soil is classified with Cambisol and the parent material are sediments from tertiary and quaternary. Heavy metals were initially sampled at 40 points randomly distributed in the study area. The heavy metals analyzed in this study were: Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni. Data were initially analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The scaled semivariogram was built with the aim of setting a single theoretical semivariogram all elements studied. Subsequently, the software SANOS was used to determine the sampling optimization of new sampling points of the heavy metals. The spatial variability analysis of the studied elements using the scaled semivariogram showed the existence of a relationship between the spatial variability of these elements. The gaussian model was adjusted for Pb, Cd and Ni, and spherical models for the Cu element. The semivariogram scaled theoretical adjusted to elements in four study was Gaussian, with a value range of 70 m, and this value range intermediate values found for the individual semivariograms. The scaled semivariogram and programs of simulation of sampling points based on the parameters of the semivariogram can be used to assist soil management.

Medeiros Bezerra, Joel; Machado Siqueira, Glécio; Dafonte Dafonte, Jorge; Vidal Vazquez, Eva; Paz González, Antonio

2013-04-01

354

Immobilization of heavy metals by calcium sulfoaluminate cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of calcium sulfoaluminate cement containing 20% and 30% phosphogypsum, respectively, were investigated for their ability in hazardous waste stabilization. Fourteen series of pastes were prepared, each containing the following soluble salt: NaâCrOâ.4HâO; NaâCrâOâ.2HâO; CrClâ.6HâO; Pb(NOâ)â; Zn(NOâ)â.6HâO; ZnSOâ.7HâO; and CdClâ.5H2O. The level of pollution was 0.069 mol of heavy metal per Kg of cement. The study has been carried

S. Peysson; J.. Pera; M. Chabannet

2005-01-01

355

Criteria of the technogenic nature of heavy metals and metalloids in soils: A review of publications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both routine statistical methods (the compliance of the heavy metal content with the exponent or ruling out abnormally high\\u000a values of heavy metal concentrations in the Gaussian distribution) and new geostatistics based approaches are used as the\\u000a criteria of the technogenic nature of heavy metals. Methods are being developed that take into consideration the marker element\\u000a content (Al) in soil

Yu. N. Vodyanitskii; Dokuchaev Soil

2009-01-01

356

Adsorption Behaviors of Heavy Metal Ions by Steel Slag-An Industrial Solidwaste  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch experiments were carried out to investigate heavy metal ions adsorption properties of steel slag, the results showed that steel slag could be used as an effective adsorbent to removal heavy metals such as Cr3+,Cu2+,Pb2+and Zn2+ from the aqueous solution. For the heavy metal Cr3+, the removal yield increased with increasing contact time and reached the equilibrium state within lh;

Sheng-Yu Liu; Jin Gao; Bin Qu; Yi-jin Yang

2009-01-01

357

Selective Separation and Determination of Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Cr) Speciation Forms from Hortic Antrosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speciation, inter-phases distribution and biodisponibility of heavy metals in soils represent one of main problem of environmental geochemistry and agro-chemistry. This problem is very important in case of hortic antrosols (soils from glasshouses) for the elimination of agricultural products (fruits, vegetables) contamination with heavy metals. In soils from glass houses, the speciation and inter-phases distribution processes of heavy metals

D. Bulgariu; L. Bulgariu

2009-01-01

358

Abundance and diversity of Archaea in heavy-metal-contaminated soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact of heavy-metal contamination on archaean communities was studied in soils amended with sewage sludge contaminated with heavy metals to varying extents. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed a decrease in the percentage of Archaea from 1.3% {+-} 0.3% of 4â²,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained cells in untreated soil to below the detection limit in soils amended with heavy metals. A comparison of the

RUTH-ANNE SANDAA; O. Enger; VIGDIS TORSVIK

1999-01-01

359

Correlations between heavy metals and organic carbon extracted by dry oxidation procedure in urban roadside soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The organic fraction in soils has a significant influence on heavy metal transport. In this study, the organic carbon content\\u000a was measured by dry oxidation procedure from 21 Xuzhou urban roadside soils to assess the relationships between the concentrations\\u000a of heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cr) and the amount of organic carbon. The anthropogenic heavy metals (e.g. Pb, Cu,

Xue Song Wang

2008-01-01

360

Effect of heavy metal pollution on mycorrhizal colonization and function: physiological, ecological and applied aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of heavy metals in soil have an adverse effect on micro-organisms and microbial processes. Among soil\\u000a microorganisms, mycorrhizal fungi are the only ones providing a direct link between soil and roots, and can therefore be of\\u000a great importance in heavy metal availability and toxicity to plants. This review discusses various aspects of the interactions\\u000a between heavy metals and

C. Leyval; K. Turnau; K. Haselwandter

1997-01-01

361

Immobilisation of heavy metal in cement-based solidification\\/stabilisation: A review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal-bearing waste usually needs solidification\\/stabilization (s\\/s) prior to landfill to lower the leaching rate. Cement is the most adaptable binder currently available for the immobilisation of heavy metals. The selection of cements and operating parameters depends upon an understanding of chemistry of the system. This paper discusses interactions of heavy metals and cement phases in the solidification\\/stabilisation process. It

Q. Y. Chen; M. Tyrer; C. D. Hills; X. M. Yang; P. Carey

2009-01-01

362

Handheld colorimeter for determination of heavy metal concentrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A portable instrument that measures heavy metal concentration from a colorimetric sensor array is presented. The use of eight sensing membranes, placed on a plastic support, allows to obtain the hue component of the HSV colour space of each one in order to determinate the concentration of metals present in a solution. The developed microcontroller-based system captures, in an ambient light environment, an image of the sensor array using an integrated micro-camera and shows the picture in a touch micro-LCD screen which acts as user interface. After image-processing of the regions of interest selected by the user, colour and concentration information are displayed on the screen.

López Ruiz, N.; Ariza, M.; Martínez Olmos, A.; Vukovic, J.; Palma, A. J.; Capitan-Vallvey, L. F.

2011-08-01

363

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the wolf spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae).  

PubMed

Previous studies have proposed that Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Lycosidae) can be used as a biological indicator of heavy metal contamination in soil. In this study, we estimated the bioaccumulation levels and the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in adult female P. astrigera collected from various field sites according to heavy metal content gradient and broods. The relationship between heavy metal content in the soil and that in spiders was different depending on the heavy metals and the broods. However, heavy metal content in P. astrigera increased with increasing heavy metal content in the soil. While the heavy metal content in the soil was in the order of Zn > Pb > Cu > Cd, its content in P. astrigera was in the order Zn > Cu > Cd > Pb. The BCF for Cd in both of the broods was distinctly higher than those of the other heavy metals evaluated. These results indicate that P. astrigera may be useful as a biological indicator of Cd soil contamination. PMID:21544498

Jung, Myung-Pyo; Lee, Joon-Ho

2011-05-05

364

[Evaluation on environmental quality of heavy metals in agricultural soils of Shanghai].  

PubMed

Contents of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Hg and As) in agricultural surface soils from Shanghai were analyzed. Different evaluation methods and assessment standards of heavy metals were also used for comparison. In addition, inverse distance interpolation (IDW) method was also applied to study the spatial variability of heavy metals pollution, based on GIS. The results show that mean concentrations of heavy metals in soils all exceeded their corresponding natural-background values, except for As. Compared mean concentrations of heavy metals with the National Standard, the soils were not contaminated. All the determined heavy metals excluding Pb in some regions, however, exceeded the critical values of national soil quality standard. Additionally, it is indicated that most of cropland soils were good, and the ratio of good soil, certified soil and disqualified soil were 71.4%, 94.9% and 5.1%, respectively. Most of the disqualified soils, which distributed in Jiading and Pudong, however, have been urbanized and covered with buildings and factories. Moreover, the soil quality was influenced by different heavy metals at different levels, thus the regional differentiation of soil pollution was obvious. Zn, Cd and Hg were the dominant elements causing soil heavy metal pollution in the study area. Furthermore, it was found there was a close relationship between the urban distribution and heavy metal pollution of the soils. Therefore, it is concluded that with the expanding of urbanization, a new polluted area may appear. PMID:18613516

Meng, Fei; Liu, Min; Shi, Tong-guang

2008-02-01

365

Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500.degree. C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

Gay, Eddie C. (Park Forest, IL)

1995-01-01

366

Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500{degree}C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li-Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

Gay, E.C.

1993-12-23

367

Effects of extracting reagents and metal speciation on the removal of heavy metal contaminated soils by chemical extraction.  

PubMed

Chelating agents and acids were evaluated for removing heavy metals from contaminated soils. Two soils, latosols soil and sandatone-shale alluvial soil, artificially contaminated with Cu, Zn, and Pb were investigated. The removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, and Pb from both soils for various chelating agents and acids followed the descending order EDTA > DTPA > Citric Acid > HCl. Heavy metals were associated in latosols soil with 34, 40, and 33% in the exchangeable fraction for Cu, Zn, and Pb, respectively. However, heavy metals were associated in sandatone-shale alluvial soil in stronger adsorbed forms with 40, 55, and 42% in the Fe-Mn oxides fraction for Cu, Zn, and Pb, respectively. Effect of EDTA concentration on the removal efficiency of heavy metals was examined for a wide range of 1 x 10(-4) to 5 x 10(-2) M. When EDTA concentration was low in the range from 1 x 10(-4) to 1 x 10(-3) M, the removal efficiencies of all the heavy metals from latosols soil were higher than those from sandatone-shale alluvial soil. The higher removal efficiencies of heavy metals observed in latosols soil than those in sandatone-shale alluvial soil is proved due to that the heavy metals in latosols soil were associated in weaker adsorption forms than heavy metals associated in sandatone-shale alluvial soil. PMID:15137694

Lee, Chun-Shu; Kao, Ming-Muh

2004-01-01

368

Heavy metals processing near-net-forming summary progress report  

SciTech Connect

This study utilized a converging-diverging nozzle to spray-form an alloy having a weight percent composition of 49.6% iron, 49.6% tungsten, and 0.8% carbon into samples for analysis. The alloy was a surrogate that displayed metallurgical characteristics similar to the alloys used in the heavy metals processing industry. US DOE facilities are evaluating advanced technologies which can simplify component fabrication, reduce handling steps, and minimize final machining. The goal of producing net-shaped components can be approached from several directions. In spray forming, molten metal is converted by a nozzle into a plume of fine droplets which quickly cool in flight and solidify against a substrate. The near-final dimension product that is formed receives additional benefits from rapid solidification. This single-step processing approach would aid the heavy metals industry by streamlining fabrication, improving production yields, and minimizing the generation of processing wastes. This Program effort provided a large selection of as-sprayed specimens. These samples were sprayed with gas-to-metal mass ratios ranging from 0.8:1 to 4:1. Samples targeted for analysis were produced from different spray conditions. Metallography on some samples revealed areas that were fully dense and homogeneous at 5,000X. These areas averaged grain sizes of 1 micron diameter. Other samples when viewed at 2,000X were highly segregated in the 10 micron diameter range. Deposit efficiencies of greater than 90% were demonstrated using the untailored spray system. Discharge gases were analyzed and two categories of particles were identified. One category of particle had a chemical composition characteristic of the alloy being sprayed and the second type of particle had a chemical composition characteristic of the ceramics used in the spray system component fabrication. Particles ranged in size from 0.07 to 3 microns in diameter. 8 refs., 67 figs., 20 tabs.

Watson, L.D. [Custom Spray Technologies, Inc., Rigby, ID (United States); Thompson, J.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1994-09-01

369

Sources of heavy metals in urban wastewater in Stockholm.  

PubMed

The sources of heavy metals to a wastewater treatment plant was investigated. Sources can be actual goods, e.g. runoff from roofs, wear of tires, food, or activities, e.g. large enterprises, car washes. The sources were identified by knowing the metals content in various goods and the emissions from goods to sewage or stormwater. The sources of sewage water and stormwater were categorized to enable comparison with other research and measurements. The categories were households, drainage water, businesses, pipe sediment (all transported in sewage water), atmospheric deposition, traffic, building materials and pipe sediment (transported in stormwater). Results show that it was possible to track the sources of heavy metals for some metals such as Cu and Zn (110 and 100% found, respectively) as well as Ni and Hg (70% found). Other metals sources are still poorly understood or underestimated (Cd 60%, Pb 50%, Cr 20% known). The largest sources of Cu were tap water and roofs. For Zn the largest sources were galvanized material and car washes. In the case of Ni, the largest sources were chemicals used in the WTP and drinking water itself. And finally, for Hg the most dominant emission source was the amalgam in teeth. For Pb, Cr and Cd, where sources were more poorly understood, the largest contributors for all were car washes. Estimated results of sources from this study were compared with previously done measurements. The comparison shows that measured contribution from households is higher than that estimated (except Hg), leading to the conclusion that the sources of sewage water from households are still poorly understood or that known sources are underestimated. In the case of stormwater, the estimated contributions are rather well in agreement with measured contributions, although uncertainties are large for both estimations and measurements. Existing pipe sediments in the plumbing system, which release Hg and Pb, could be one explanation for the missing amount of these metals. Large enterprises were found to make a very small contribution, 4% or less for all metals studied. Smaller enterprises (with the exception of car washes) have been shown to make a small contribution in another city; the contribution in this case study is still unknown. PMID:12449334

Sörme, L; Lagerkvist, R

2002-10-21

370

Mussel Shell Evaluation as Bioindicator For Heavy Metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, in Brazil, it has appeared a new and unusual ``plague'' in lazer and commercial fishing. It is caused by the parasitic larval phase of certain native bivalve mollusks of fresh water known as ``Naiades'' and its involves the presence of big bivalve of fresh water, mainly Anodontites trapesialis, in the tanks and dams of the fish creation. These bivalve mollusks belong to the Unionoida Order, Mycetopodidae Family. The objective of the present work was to analyze the shells of these mollusks to verify the possibility of use as bioindicators for heavy metals in freshwater. The mollusks shells were collected in a commercial fishing at Londrina-PR. A qualitative analysis was made to determine the chemical composition of the shells and verify a possible correlation with existent heavy metals in the aquatic environment. In the inner part of the shells were identified the elements Ca, P, Fe, Mn and Sr and in the outer part were identified Ca, P, Fe, Mn, Sr and Cu. The Ca ratio of the outer part by inner part of the analyzed shells is around of 1, as expected, because Ca is the main compound of mollusks shells. The ratio of P, Fe, Mn, and Sr to the Ca were constant in all analyzed shells, being close to 0.015. The ratio Cu/Ca varied among the shells, showing that this mollusk is sensitive to concentration of this element in the aquatic environment.

Andrello, Avacir Casanova; Lopes, Fábio; Galva~O, Tiago Dutra

2010-05-01

371

[Immobilization of heavy metal Pb2+ with geopolymer].  

PubMed

A series of geopolymers were synthesized by mixing metakaolinite, water glass, sodium hydroxide and water, and the lead ion solidification experiments were performed with the geopolymer. Then, the immobilization efficiency was characterized by monitoring the leaching concentration and compressive strength of solidified products. Additionally, the structure and properties of the solidified products were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Furthermore, based on the analysis of immobilization efficiency, microstructure and mineral structure, the difference between geopolymer and cement on the performance of immobilizing heavy metals was discussed. The results of lead ion immobilization experiments showed that over 99.7% of heavy metal was captured by the geopolymer as the doping concentration of lead ion was less than 3%. Meanwhile, the compressive strength of the solidified product ranged from 40 MPa to 50 MPa. Furthermore, by using the same Pb2+ concentration, the geopolymer showed higher compressive strength and lower leaching concentration compared to the cement. Because lead ion participated in constitution of structure of geopolymer, or Pb2+ was adsorbed by the aluminium ions on the geopolymeric skeleton and held in geopolymer. However, cement mainly solidified lead ion by physical encapsulation and adsorption mechanism. Therefore, both from the compressive strength and leaching concentration and from the microstructure characterization as well as the mechanism of the geopolymerization reaction, the geopolymer has more advantages in immobilizing Pb2+ than the cement. PMID:21780604

Jin, Man-tong; Jin, Zan-fang; Huang, Cai-ju

2011-05-01

372

Mutagenic activity of heavy metals in soils of wayside slopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The genotoxic properties of soils polluted with heavy metals were studied on two wayside slopes covered with trees in the city of Voronezh. The nucleolar test in cells of the apical meristem of Zebrina pendula Schnizl. roots was used. The genotoxic effect of the soils was revealed according to the increased number of 2-and 3-nucleolar cells (from 41 to 54% and from 19 to 23% in the upper part of the first and second slopes, respectively; in the control, their number was 18 and 7%). The mean number of nucleoli per cell increased from 1.7 to 1.95 in the experiment and 1.31 in the control. The increased vehicle emissions, especially when cars go up the slopes (mainly in the upper and middle parts), correlated with the elevated heavy metal (Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn) contents in the soil. The mutagenic substances may be removed to the Voronezh Reservoir, where they may be accumulated in some living organisms.

Fedorova, A. I.; Kalaev, V. N.; Prosvirina, Yu. G.; Goryainova, S. A.

2007-08-01

373

Modelling heavy metal fluxes from traffic into the environment.  

PubMed

A new method is presented which allows emissions of traffic into the environment to be described as a function of road distance. The method distinguishes different types of emissions (runoff, spray and drift), which are determined by measurements and mass balances of a specified road section. The measurement of two-dimensional pollutant concentrations in the road shoulder is an important part of the method. In a case study performed at Burgdorf, Switzerland, the method was applied to the determination of the spatial distribution of heavy metal emissions. The results show that between 36 and 65% of the heavy metals Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn are present in runoff and spray and between 35 and 64% are dispersed diffusely in the environment (defined as drift). The runoff infiltrates into the vegetated road shoulder up to a distance of approx. 1 m from the road. The distribution of spray shows a maximum at 1 m and decreases steadily up to a distance of 5 m. This information can serve as a basis for the quantitative evaluation of road-runoff treatment scenarios. Although the results of the Burgdorf study are case-specific, several general guidelines for the reduction of traffic-related emissions can be derived from it. PMID:17671666

Steiner, Michele; Boller, Markus; Schulz, Thorsten; Pronk, Wouter

2007-06-13

374

Assessing fly ash treatment: remediation and stabilization of heavy metals.  

PubMed

Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. PMID:21167631

Lima, A T; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

2010-12-17

375

Trace metals in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens  

SciTech Connect

Fe, Ni, and V are considered trace impurities in heavy crude oils and tar sand bitumens. In order to understand the importance of these metals, we have examined several properties: (1) bulk metals levels, (2) distribution in separated fractions, (3) size behavior in feeds and during processing, (4) speciation as a function of size, and (5) correlations with rheological properties. Some of the results of these studies show: (1) V and Ni have roughly bimodal size distributions, (2) groupings were seen based on location, size distribution, and Ni/V ratio of the sample, (3) Fe profiles are distinctively different, having a unimodal distribution with a maximum at relatively large molecular size, (4) Fe concentrations in the tar sand bitumens suggest possible fines solubilization in some cases, (5) SARA separated fractions show possible correlations of metals with asphaltene properties suggesting secondary and tertiary structure interactions, and (6) ICP-MS examination for soluble ultra-trace metal impurities show the possibility of unexpected elements such as U, Th, Mo, and others at concentrations in the ppB to ppM range. 39 refs., 13 figs., 5 tabs.

Reynolds, J.G.

1990-11-28

376

Quantum critical points and novel phases in heavy fermion metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum criticality arises from competing interactions of correlated systems that favor rivaling ground states. It not only influences physical properties over a wide temperature and parameter ranges, but also gives rise to a plethora of new quantum phases. Magnetic heavy fermion metals represent a prototype system in this context, and have in particular provided the setting to study local quantum criticality that involves not only order-parameter fluctuations but also a Kondo breakdown [1]. Surprisingly, recent theoretical and experimental developments have revealed some unusual phases proximate to the heavy-fermion quantum critical points, thereby opening up an entirely new frontier on the relationship between quantum criticality and novel phases [1]. I will summarize the relevant recent experiments [2] and discuss them within the framework of a global phase diagram that was put forward several years ago [3] and has recently been discussed more extensively [4,5]. Our theoretical studies emphasize the interplay between two effects. One is the Kondo screening and its breakdown, and the other is the fluctuations in the quantum magnetism of local moments alone. The insights gained from these studies of the well-defined quantum criticality in heavy fermions may have broader relevance. Such implications will be discussed, in particular on the interplay between metallic antiferromagnetism, electronic localization and unconventional superconductivity. [4pt] [1] Q. Si and F. Steglich, Science 329, 1161 (2010).[0pt] [2] S. Friedemann et al., Nature Phys. 5, 465 (2009);[0pt] J. Custers et al., PRL 104, 186402 (2010).[0pt] [3] Q. Si, Physica B 378, 23 (2006); S. J. Yamamoto and Q. Si, PRL 99, 016401 (2007).[0pt] [4] Q. Si, Phys. Status Solidi B247, 631 (2010); S. J. Yamamoto and Q. Si, J. Low Temp. Phys. 161, 233 (2010).[0pt] [5] P. Coleman and A. H. Nevidomskyy, J. Low Temp. Phys. 161, 182 (2010).

Si, Qimiao

2011-03-01

377

Carcinogenicity and Immunotoxicity of Embedded Depleted Uranium and Heavy-Metal Tugsten Alloy in Rodents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates the carcinogenic and imunotoxic potential of embedded fragments of depleted uranium (DU) and a heavy-metal tungsten alloy (WA). Male Fischer 344 rats are surgically implanted with pellets of DU, WA, tantalum (inert metal, negative ...

J. F. Kalinich

2004-01-01

378

Carcinogenicity and Immunotoxicity of Embedded Depleted Uranium and Heavy-Metal Tungsten Alloy in Rodents.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study investigates the carcinogenic and immunotoxic potential of embedded fragments of depleted uranium (DU) and a heavy-metal tungsten alloy (WA). Male Fisher 344 rats were surgically implanted with pellets of DU, WA, tantalum (inert metal, negative...

J. F. Kalinich A. C. Miller D. E. McClain

2005-01-01

379

TREATMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN STORMWATER USING WET POND AND WETLAND MESOCOSMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban stormwater runoff is a significant source of suspended sediments and associated contaminants, including heavy metals, to receiving waterways. These metals are either dissolved or bound to particulates (coarse - >75 µm; fine particulates - ...

380

Metallothionein and Heavy Metals in Brown Trout ( Salmo trutta) and European Eel ( Anguilla anguilla): A Comparative Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The levels and the cellular distribution of heavy metals, and the extent by which the metals binds to metallothionein (MT) in brown trout (Salmo trutta) and European eel (Anguilla anguilla), were analyzed in order to assess the natural conditions of MT and heavy metals in these two fish species. There were no differences in heavy metals and MT concentrations between

A. R. Linde; S. Sánchez-Galán; D. Klein; E. Garc??a-Vázquez; K. H. Summer

1999-01-01

381

Studies on Microbial Heavy Metal Retention from Uranium Mine Drainage Water with Special Emphasis on Rare Earth Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial heavy metal retention was studied using seepage water sampled from a former uranium mining site in Eastern Thuringia, Germany. The seepage water has a low pH and contains high concentrations of metals, including uranium, rare earth elements (REE), and other heavy metals. Microbial influence on sorption and\\/or active uptake of heavy metals was studied using REE patterns. Incubation of

D. Merten; E. Kothe; G. Büchel

2004-01-01

382

Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts  

DOEpatents

A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption process, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gases from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or passivating the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

Gangwal, S.; Jothimurugesan, K.

1999-07-27

383

Near-shore distribution of heavy metals in the Albanian part of Lake Ohrid.  

PubMed

The heavy metal contamination in Lake Ohrid, a lake shared between Albania and Macedonia, was studied. Lake Ohrid is believed to be one of the oldest lakes in the world, with a large variety of endemic species. Different anthropogenic pressures, especially heavy metal influxes from mining activities, might have influenced the fragile equilibrium of the lake ecosystem. Heavy metal concentrations in water, sediment, emergent vegetation, and fish were investigated at selected sites of the lake and a study of the heavy metals in five tributaries was conducted. The lake surface water was found to have low levels of heavy metals, but sediments contained very high levels mostly near river mouths and mineral dump areas with concentrations reaching 1,501 mg/kg for Ni, 576 mg/kg for Cr, 116.8 mg/kg for Co and 64.8 g/kg for Fe. Sequential extraction of metals demonstrates that heavy metals in the sediment are mainly present in the residual fraction varying from 75% to 95% in different sites. High heavy metal levels (400 mg/kg Ni, 89 mg/kg Cr, and 39 mg/kg Co) were found in plants (stem of Phragmites australis), but heavy metals could not be detected in fish tissue (gill, muscle, and liver of Salmo letnica and Salmothymus ohridanus). PMID:21541777

Malaj, Egina; Rousseau, Diederik P L; Du Laing, Gijs; Lens, Piet N L

2011-05-04

384

Bioremediation of soluble heavy metals with recombinant Caulobacter crescentus  

PubMed Central

To achieve one-step separation of heavy metal ions from contaminated water, we have developed a novel bioremediation technology based on self-immobilization of the Caulobacter crescentus recombinant strain JS4022/p723-6H, which overexpresses hexahistidine peptide on the surface of the bacterial cells and serves as a whole-cell adsorbent for dissolved heavy metals. Biofilms formed by JS4022/p723-6H are effective at retaining cadmium from bacterial growth media or environmental water samples. Here we provide additional experiment data discussing the application potential of this new technology. Supplementation of calcium to the growth media produced robust JS4022/p723-6H cells by alleviating their sensitivity to chelators. After growth in the presence of 0.3% CaCl2·2H2O, double the amount of JS4022/p723-6H cells survived the treatment with 2 mM EDTA. Free cells of JS4022/p723-6H effectively sequestered 51% of the total cadmium from a Lake Erie water sample at pH 5.4, compared to 37% retrieved by the control strain. Similar levels of adsorption were observed at pH 4.2 as well. Cells of JS4022/p723-6H were tolerant of acid treatment for 90 min at pH ?1.1 or 120 min at pH ?2.5, which provides an avenue for the convenient regeneration of the bacterial cells metal-binding capacity with acidic solutions. Designs of possible bioreactors and an operation system are also presented.

Lei, Yu; Patel, Jigar

2010-01-01

385

Study of canal sediments contaminated with heavy metals: fungal versus bacterial bioleaching techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filamentous fungi and lithotrophic bacteria were used to leach heavy metals from dredged sediments in semi?pilot scale air?lift bioreactors. A preliminary physico?chemical characterization of the sediments comprising a sequential extraction study revealed their high metallic contamination and a predominant association of the metals with sulphides and organic matter. The mobility of heavy metals from sediments was ranked by decreasing order

Nada Sabra; Tayssir Hamieh

2011-01-01

386

Native Australian species are effective in extracting multiple heavy metals from biosolids.  

PubMed

Selecting native plant species with characteristics suitable for extraction of heavy metals may have multiple advantages over non-native plants. Six Australian perennial woody plant species and one willow were grown in a pot trial in heavy metal-contaminated biosolids and a potting mix. The plants were harvested after fourteen months and above-ground parts were analysed for heavy metal concentrations and total metal contents. All native species were capable of growing in biosolids and extracted heavy metals to varying degrees. No single species was able to accumulate heavy metals at particularly high levels and metal extraction depended upon the bioavailability of the metal in the substrate. Metal extraction efficiency was driven by biomass accumulation, with the species extracting the most metals also having the greatest biomass yield. The study demonstrated that Grevillea robusta, Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus polybractea, and E. cladocalyx have the greatest potential as phytoextractor species in the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated biosolids. Species survival and growth were the main determinants of metal extraction efficiency and these traits will be important for future screening of native species. PMID:23819263

Mok, Hoi-Fei; Majumder, Ramaprasad; Laidlaw, W Scott; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Arndt, Stefan K

2013-01-01

387

Characterization of a Novel Plant Promoter Specifically Induced by Heavy Metal and Identification of the Promoter Regions Conferring Heavy Metal Responsiveness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) stress-related gene number 2 (PvSR2) gene responds to heavy metals but not to other forms of environmental stresses. To elucidate its heavy metal-regulatory mechanism at the transcriptional level, we isolated and characterized the promoter region (21623\\/148) of PvSR2. Deletions from the 5# end revealed that a sequence between 2222 and 2147 relative to the transcriptional start

Xiaoting Qi; Yuxiu Zhang; Tuanyao Chai

2006-01-01

388

[Heavy metal]-Chlorophylls Formed in Vivo During Heavy Metal Stress and Degradation Products Formed During Digestion, Extraction and Storage of Plant Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter discusses the occurrence, properties and relevance of chlorophyll (Chl) degradation products that are formed\\u000a either in vivo in heavy metal-stressed plants or by digestion of algae in marine invertebrates, or that are formed during extraction or processing of dead plant material. The in vivo substitution of the central Mg2+ ion of chlorophyll by heavy metals constitutes an important

Hendrik Küpper; Frithjof C. Küpper; Martin Spiller

389

Magnetic properties of alluvial soils polluted with heavy metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic properties of soils, reflecting mineralogy, concentration and grain-size distribution of Fe-oxides, proved to be useful tool in assessing the soil properties in terms of various environmental conditions. Measurement of soil magnetic properties presents a convenient method to investigate the natural environmental changes in soils as well as the anthropogenic pollution of soils with several risk elements. The effect of fluvial pollution with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn on magnetic soil properties was studied on highly contaminated alluvial soils from the mining/smelting district (P?íbram; CZ) using a combination of magnetic and geochemical methods. The basic soil characteristics, the content of heavy metals, oxalate, and dithionite extractable iron were determined in selected soil samples. Soil profiles were sampled using HUMAX soil corer and the magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ, further detailed magnetic analyses of selected distinct layers were carried out. Two types of variations of magnetic properties in soil profiles were observed corresponding to indentified soil types (Fluvisols, and Gleyic Fluvisols). Significantly higher values of topsoil magnetic susceptibility compared to underlying soil are accompanied with high concentration of heavy metals. Sequential extraction analysis proved the binding of Pb, Zn and Cd in Fe and Mn oxides. Concentration and size-dependent parameters (anhysteretic and isothermal magnetization) were measured on bulk samples in terms of assessing the origin of magnetic components. The results enabled to distinguish clearly topsoil layers enhanced with heavy metals from subsoil samples. The dominance of particles with pseudo-single domain behavior in topsoil and paramagnetic/antiferromagnetic contribution in subsoil were observed. These measurements were verified with room temperature hysteresis measurement carried out on bulk samples and magnetic extracts. Thermomagnetic analysis of magnetic susceptibility measured on magnetic extracts indicated the presence of magnetite/maghemite in the uppermost layers, and strong mineralogical transformation of iron oxyhydroxides during heating. Magnetic techniques give valuable information about the soil Fe oxides, which are useful for investigation of the environmental effects in soil. Key words: magnetic methods, Fe oxides, pollution, alluvial soils.

Dlouha, S.; Petrovsky, E.; Boruvka, L.; Kapicka, A.; Grison, H.

2012-04-01

390

Inducibility of a molecular bioreporter system by heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

The authors have developed a molecular bioreporter model for detecting an invertebrate response to heavy metals in streams. The bioreporter system, pMt2-luc, utilizes a Drosophila melanogaster metallothionein promoter to regulate luciferase expression in stably transformed mosquito cells.The LucC5 clone, which was isolated from pMt2-luc transformed, hygromycin-resistant C6/36 (Aedes albopictus) cells, demonstrated a 12-fold increase in luciferase-specific activity 48 h after exposure to 13 ppm copper (Cu). In addition to Cu, exposure of LucC5 cells to 19 ppm lead (Pb) or 3 ppm mercury (Hg) for 48 h induced luciferase expression threefold and fourfold, respectively. Exposures of up to 30 ppm arsenic (As), 8 ppm cadmium (Cd), 7 ppm chromium (Cr), or 5 ppm nickel (Ni) had no effect on luciferase induction. LucC5 cells exposed to metal mixtures of 13 ppm Cu and 19 ppm Pb yielded an additive response with a 14-fold increase in luciferase expression. When organic chemicals such as phenol (3 ppm) were mixed with 13 ppm Cu, 19 ppm Pb, or 3 ppm Hg a significant reduction in luciferase activity was noted. Additionally, atomic absorption spectroscopy suggested that two of the metals, Cu and Pb, show marked differences in accumulation within the LucC5 cell line.

Klimowski, L.; Rayms-Keller, A.; Olson, K.E.; Yang, R.S.H.; Tessari, J.; Carlson, J.; Beaty, B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

1996-02-01

391

Cross talk of heat shock and heavy metal regulatory pathways.  

PubMed

Heavy metals induce transcription of human genes including those coding for metallothionein and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70). It has been suggested that these processes are mediated by metal-activated transcription factors, MTF-1 and HSF1, respectively, and are independent of each other. We raised an antibody against human MTF-1 which efficiently supershifts the protein-DNA complex formed by MTF-1 and its cognate binding sequence, MRE. We discovered that this antibody could also supershift complexes formed by HSF1 and its recognition sequence HSE, which suggested the involvement of MTF-1 in these complexes. This supershift was observed for HSF1/HSE complexes induced by Zn, Cd, Ag, and heat shock. Furthermore, overexpression of MTF-1 in HeLa cells markedly reduced metal-induced transcription from the hsp70-1 gene promoter which depends on HSF1. These data indicate that MTF-1 represses HSF1-mediated transcription probably through a direct protein-protein interaction, suggesting a cross talk of two lines of stress-responsive regulatory pathways. PMID:16460681

Uenishi, Rie; Gong, Pengfei; Suzuki, Kaoru; Koizumi, Shinji

2006-01-25

392

Heavy metal contamination in the seaweeds of the Venice lagoon.  

PubMed

The concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, As) were determined in seven seaweeds of environmental and commercial relevance (Ulva rigida C. Ag., Gracilaria gracilis (Stackhouse) Steentoft, L. Irvine and Farnham, Porphyra leucosticta Thuret, Grateloupia doryphora (Montagne) Howe., Undaria pinnatifida (Harv.) Suringar, Fucus virsoides J. Agardh, Cystoseira barbata (Good. et Wood.) Ag.) collected in four sampling sites in the lagoon of Venice, in spring and autumn 1999. Metals were extracted using hot concentrated acids in a Microwave Digestion Rotor and analysed by absorption spectrophotometry using a flame mode for Fe and Zn and a graphite furnace for Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni and As. High contamination levels, especially for Pb, were detected in Ulva and to a lesser extent in Gracilaria. Brown seaweeds, especially Cystoseira was highly contaminated by As. The least contaminated genera with all metals except As were Porphyra and Undaria. A concentration decrease for Zn and Cd was observed from the inner parts of the central lagoon, close to the industrial district, towards the lagoon openings to the sea. PMID:11999620

Caliceti, M; Argese, E; Sfriso, A; Pavoni, B

2002-04-01

393

Distribution and contamination of heavy metals in surface sediments of the South Yellow Sea.  

PubMed

The distributions, annual sedimentation and atmospheric deposition flux of heavy metals have been studied in sediments of the South Yellow Sea (SYS), in order to evaluate their levels and pollution status. The higher concentrations of heavy metals were generally found in the central part of the SYS, which may be associated with the organic matters due to their high affinity to the metals. According to the calculated enrichment factor (EF) of the studied metals, Cd in the sediments posed a high risk to local environments, while Mn, Hg, Pb and Zn were at moderate risk levels. Sedimentation fluxes study in the SYS showed that most heavy metals were deposited in the Chinese offshore. Annual dry deposition flux of these metals indicated that the particulate heavy metals deposition via atmosphere also play an important role in biogeochemical cycles in the SYS. PMID:22906733

Yuan, Huamao; Song, Jinming; Li, Xuegang; Li, Ning; Duan, Liqin

2012-08-18

394

A Pyoverdin Siderophore Produced By Pseudomonas aeruginosa CHL-004 Binds Lead And Other Heavy Metals  

EPA Science Inventory

Heavy metal pollution in soils, sediments and wastewater poses a significant environmental and public health threat due to toxicity and the potential for bioaccumulation in both plant and animal tissues. Remediation of heavy metals in soils and sediments using solely physical or...

395

A Pyoverdin Siderophore Produced By Pseudomonas aeruginosa CHL-004 Binds Lead And Other Heavy Metals - (Poster)  

EPA Science Inventory

Heavy metal pollution in soils, sediments and wastewater poses a significant environmental and public health threat due to toxicity and the potential for bioaccumulation in both plant and animal tissues. Remediation of heavy metals in soils and sediments using solely physical or...

396

Mechanisms of Heavy Metal Sequestration in Soils: Plant-Microbe Interactions and Organic Matter Aging.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

For stabilization of heavy metals at contaminated sites, the three way interaction among soil organic matter (OM)-microbes-plants, and their effect on heavy metal binding is critically important for long-term sustainability, a factor that is poorly unders...

T. W. M. Fan R. M. Higashi D. Crowley

2004-01-01

397

The use of vetiver grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides) in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent research has shown that phytoextraction approaches often require soil amendments, such as the application of EDTA, to increase the bioavailability of heavy metals in soils. However, EDTA and EDTA–heavy metal complexes can be toxic to plants and soil microorganisms and may leach into groundwater, causing further environmental pollution. In the present study, vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) was studied for

Yahua Chen; Zhenguo Shen; Xiangdong Li

2004-01-01

398

Environmental Pollution Studies in an Underdeveloped Country: (1) Heavy Metal Pollution in Ibadan, Nigeria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews research studies related to the monitoring of trace heavy metals in environmental samples such as plants, water, soils, and other natural resources in the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. Research results indicate a significant increase in toxic heavy metal levels has occurred, implying the need for environmental education. (Contains 31…

Onianwa, P. C.

1993-01-01

399

Evaluation of Drosophila melanogaster as an alternative animal for studying the neurotoxicity of heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals cause irreversible neurobehavioral damage in many developing mammals, but the mechanisms of this damage are unknown. The influence of three heavy metal compounds, triethyllead chloride, lead acetate and cadmium chloride, on lethality, development, behavior and learning was studied using the fruit fly,Drosophila melanogaster. This animal was used because it allows hundreds of subjects to be assayed very easily

Jonathan M. Akins; Joyce A. Schroeder; Danny L. Browert; H. Vasken Aposhian

1992-01-01

400

Seasonal Variation in Heavy Metals Concentration in Road Side Soil of District Haridwar, Uttarakhand (India)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of physicochemical properties and concentration of the heavy metals in road side soil of Haridwar city in India was carried out during the three different seasons of a year. Soil samples were collected from six sites with varying traffic volume and driving style (stop vs. constant speed) and analyzed for five heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni). Their

Prakash Chandra Joshi; Mahadev Semwal; Namita Joshi

2011-01-01

401

Biosorption of protons and heavy metals onto olive pomace: Modelling of competition effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal biosorption onto solid wastes from olive oil production plants, olive pomace, has been investigated. Acid–base properties of the active sites of olive pomace were determined by potentiometric titrations and represented by a continuous model accounting for two main kinds of active sites. Competition among protons and heavy metals in solution was considered by performing biosorption tests at different

Francesca Pagnanelli; Sara Mainelli; Simona De Angelis; Luigi Toro

2005-01-01

402

Small mammal - heavy metal interactions in contaminated floodplains : bioturbation and accumulation in periodically flooded environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

A better understanding of interactions between biota and contaminants in floodplains is needed as it is uncertain whether ecological rehabilitation of floodplains is possible at the current contaminant levels. This study investigates where and when contacts between small mammals (voles, mice, shrews and moles) and heavy metal contaminants take place. The impact of bioturbation on the fate of heavy metals,

Sander Wijnhoven

2007-01-01

403

Heavy metals and metalloids in sediments from the Llobregat basin, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of heavy metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb and Zn) in sediments from the River Llobregat and its tributaries (Anoia and Cardener) was studied. Samples collected at 17 locations during four different periods were analysed by ICP-MS. The heavy metal enrichment at some sites along the rivers reflects the effects of agricultural activities,

J. M. Casas; H. Rosas; M. Solé; C. Lao

2003-01-01

404

Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination in urban dusts of Xi'an, Central China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Though there are many studies of heavy metal contaminations of urban dusts in developed countries, little attention has been paid to this kind of study in developing countries, including China. Therefore, a series of investigations were performed to provide heavy metal signatures of urban dusts and to evaluate potential sources in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province. Sixty-five samples of urban dusts were

Han Yongming; Du Peixuan; Cao Junji; Eric S. Posmentier

2006-01-01

405

Retention of heavy metals from blast-furnace dedusting sludges by a clayey subsoil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The suitability of a clay (Upper Liassic) as barrier for a heavy metal disposal site had been investigated by analysing the subsoil of an approximately 40 yr old blast-furnace dust dump on this clay. Concentration profiles show that the heavy metals (mainly Zn and Pb) have been retained by sorption processes in the upper 5 to 10 cm below the

Jean-Frank Wagner

1991-01-01

406

Heavy Metals in Surface Sediments from Mangrove Zone in Zhangjiang River Estuary, South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb) in surface sediments from 18 sites were examined in Zhangjiang Estuary Mangrove National Natural Reserve (ZEMNNR), which is the largest natural mangrove forest north of the Tropic of Cancer in China. The ranges of heavy metals expressed in mug\\/g sediment dry weight were as follows: Cr (48.14

Minggang Cai; Yun Wanga; Canrong Qiu; Jing Lin; Bihua Qian; Shuiying Huang; Jionghui Sun; Xiaoyan Liu; Xiaomeng Li; Shaozhou Xie; Bozhou Fang

2009-01-01

407

Effects of Listening to Heavy Metal Music on College Women: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students are typically very identified with popular music and spend many hours listening to their music of preference. To investigate the effects of heavy metal music, we compared the responses of 18 female undergraduate college students to a baseline silence condition (A) and a heavy metal music condition (B). Dependent measures included:…

Becknell, Milton E.; Firmin, Michael W.; Hwang, Chi-en; Fleetwood, David M.; Tate, Kristie L.; Schwab, Gregory D.

2008-01-01

408

Influence of heavy metals and 4-nonylphenol on reproductive function in fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Many industrial and agricultural chemicals (including heavy metals and alkylphenols) present in the environment have adverse effects on the reproductive function in fish. Three studies were conducted to assess toxicity of these chemicals towards reproduction of freshwater fish. It was shown that heavy metals added to the diets accumulate in brain tissue of carp, and this accumulation results in

Grzegorz Dietrich; Jan Glogowski; Krystyna Demska-Zak??; Ewa Dr?g-Kozak; Jan Sionkowski; Piotr Epler; Beata Sarosiek

409

Physiological Functions of Nitric Oxide in Sedum Alfredii Hance under Complex Heavy Metals Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals contamination is a major environmental issue, and phytoremediation is a promising, environmentally friendly alternative to conventional cleanup techniques for heavy metal contaminated sites. This paper is intended to explore the physiological functions of nitric oxide (NO) in the signaling pathways as well as defense responses in Sedum Alfredii Hance, a new zinc (Zn) promising hyperaccumulating plant species for

Xiao-ling Zhang; Youqiong Cai; Qiao Yang; Wuzhong Ni; Yunhua Hui; Huijuan Yu

2009-01-01

410

Heavy Metal Contamination from Electronic Waste Recycling at Guiyu, Southeastern China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Th is study evaluated the eff ect of electronic waste (e-waste) recycling activities at a regional center, Guiyu, Guangdong, China on heavy metal pollution in the surrounding waterway system. Surface water and sediment collected from the Lianjiang River and its tributaries were analyzed for concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, Cd, Hg, and As. Spatially, heavy metals in water and sediment

Yan Guo; Changjiang Huang; Hong Zhang; Qiaoxiang Dong

2009-01-01

411

pH influence on sorption characteristics of heavy metal in the vadose zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sorption is an important process in the modelling and prediction of the movement of heavy metals in unsaturated clay barriers. This experimental study investigates the effect of pH changes in the acidic range on the sorption characteristics of heavy metals such as: lead, copper and zinc in an unsaturated soil. A series of one-dimensional coupled solute and moisture leaching column

M Elzahabi; R. N Yong

2001-01-01

412

Acidification of Harbor Sediment and Removal of Heavy Metals Induced by Water Splitting in Electrodialytic Remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Harbor sediments are often contaminated with heavy metals, which can be removed by electrodialytic remediation. Water splitting at the anion exchange membrane in contact with the contaminated material in electrodialytic remediation is highly important for the removal of heavy metals. Here it was investigated how acidification caused by water splitting at the anion exchange membrane during electrodialytic remediation of contaminated

Gunvor M. Nystroem; Lisbeth M. Ottosen; Arne Villumsen

2005-01-01

413

Heavy Metals Content of Commercial Inorganic Fertilizers Used in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years much concern has been given to toxic heavy metals which enter the human food chain. Application of inorganic fertilizers is considered one of the potential routes of such entry. In this work 74 samples of commercial fertilizers marketed in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia were analyzed for their heavy metal concentrations. Fertilizer samples included 20 samples of

A. S. Modaihsh; M. S. Al-Swailem; M. O. Mahjoub

414

Investigation of the binding of heavy metals in thermally treated residues from waste incineration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of thermal treatment (sintering, vitrification) enables the inertization of heavy metals in residues of waste against leaching. In this work thermally treated fly ash is leached in a six step sequential extraction procedure that enables the description of the binding and with that of the inertization of heavy metals. It is shown that, regarding the energetic factor, sintering

P. Wunsch; C. Greilinger; D. Bieniek; A. Kettrup

1996-01-01

415

[Application of ICP-MS to detecting ten kinds of heavy metals in KCl fertilizer].  

PubMed

With the rapid development of society, more and more attention has been focused on environmental safety, especially on the pollutions of heavy metals, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants and deleterious microorganism. Heavy metals are difficult to metabolize in human body are quite harmful, so research on the pollution of heavy metals is increasingly important. There are many pollution sources of heavy metals, including waste residue, waste water and exhaust gas from industry and automobile, and garbage from human life. The contents of 10 kinds of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl and Pb) in potassium fertilizer (KCl) from Russia were analyzed by ICP-MS. The results showed that potassium fertilizer (KCl) contained less heavy metals than organic-inorganic compound fertilizer; the content of heavy metals Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl and Pb is 0.00, 65.54, 238.85, 190.60, 0.98, 14.98, 2.97, 10.04, 1.28 and 97.42 ng x g(-1), respectively, which accords with the correlative standards. All the data showed that if potassium fertilizer (KCl) is manufactured through normal channel, the content of heavy metals should be little and safe. PMID:19123423

Rui, Yu-kui; Shen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Fu-suo; Yan, Yun; Jing, Jing-ying; Meng, Qing-feng

2008-10-01

416

Environmental relevance of heavy metal-substituted chlorophylls using the example of water plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Following experiments which studied the substitution of the central ion of isolated chlorophylls by heavy metal ions in vitro, in vivo experiments with submersed water plants were carried out. It was discovered that the substitution of the central atom of chlorophyll, magnesium, by heavy metals (mercury, copper, cad- mium, nickel, zinc, lead) in vivo is an important damage mechanism in

Hendrik Küpper; Frithjof Kiipper; Martin Spiller

1996-01-01

417

Genome of Cupriavidus sp. HMR-1, a Heavy Metal-Resistant Bacterium  

PubMed Central

Cupriavidus sp. HMR-1 was isolated from a heavy metal-enriched culture of activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant in Hong Kong. Here, we release the HMR-1 genome to provide basic genetic characteristics for a better understanding of its multiple heavy metal resistance properties.

Li, Li-Guan; Cai, Lin

2013-01-01

418

Adsorption of heavy metals by green algae and ground rice hulls  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research demonstrates the applicability of low cost, readily available alternate adsorbents to remove and recover toxic heavy metals from water. Heavy metal ion adsorption has been investigated using two different adsorbing biomasses, algae and rice hulls. Algal biomass adsorption studies were conducted with: As, Cd, Co, Cr, Pb, Ni and Zn, and rice hull biomass adsorption studies were conducted

Dipak Roy; Paul N. Greenlaw; Barbara S. Shane

1993-01-01

419

The influence of baking fuel on residues of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in bread  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of fuel type used to bake bread on the spectrum and concentrations of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in baked bread was assessed. Bread samples were collected from different bakeries operated by either electricity, solar, mazot or solid waste and their residue content of PAHs and heavy metals was assessed. The total concentration of PAHs detected

Mohamed Tawfic Ahmed; El-Sayed Abdel Hadi; S El Samahy; K Youssof

2000-01-01

420

Bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals and related trace elements. [Review (96 references)  

SciTech Connect

This article reviews the experimental data on heavy metals in the aquatic environment and their biological effects on aquatic ecosystems. Arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, mercury, zinc, selenium, and cobalt were discussed. In addition, the concepts of bioconcentration and detoxification of heavy metals were described. (KRM)

Murphy, C.B. Jr.

1981-06-01

421

Development of protein based bioremediation and drugs for heavy metal toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Structural studies were performed on several proteins of the bacterial detoxification system. These proteins are responsible for binding (MerP) and transport of heavy metals, including mercury, across membranes. The structural information obtained from NMR experiments provides insight into the selectivity and sequestration processes towards heavy metal toxins.

Opella, Stanley J.

2001-09-18

422

PCB And Heavy Metal Soil Remediation, Former Boat Yard, South Dartmouth, Massachusetts  

Microsoft Academic Search

PCB and Heavy Metal Soil Remediation, Former Boat Yard, South Dartmouth Massachusetts. Michael E. Martin & Marc J. Richards, Tighe & Bond Consulting Engineers. Heavy metals have been added to marine paint for more than 100-years to protect boats from biological, chemical and physical degradation. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were added to marine paint starting in the 1940’s to give the

Michael E. Martin; Marc J. Richards

2010-01-01

423

Effects of Listening to Heavy Metal Music on College Women: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|College students are typically very identified with popular music and spend many hours listening to their music of preference. To investigate the effects of heavy metal music, we compared the responses of 18 female undergraduate college students to a baseline silence condition (A) and a heavy metal music condition (B). Dependent measures…

Becknell, Milton E.; Firmin, Michael W.; Hwang, Chi-en; Fleetwood, David M.; Tate, Kristie L.; Schwab, Gregory D.

2008-01-01

424

A review of potentially low-cost sorbents for heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of low-cost sorbents has been investigated as a replacement for current costly methods of removing heavy metals from solution. Natural materials or waste products from certain industries with a high capacity for heavy metals can be obtained, employed, and disposed of with little cost. Modification of the sorbents can also improve adsorption capacity. In this review, an extensive

Susan E. Bailey; Trudy J. Olin; R. Mark Bricka; D. Dean Adrian

1999-01-01

425

Studies on the accumulation of heavy metal elements in biological systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The selective accumulation of heavy metal ions byChlorella regularis was investigated. The amounts of heavy metal ions taken up byChlorella cells decreases in the following order:\\u000a$$\\\\begin{gathered} UO_2^{2 + } \\\\gg Cu^{2 + } \\\\gg Zn^{2 + } \\\\gtrsim Ba^{2 + } \\\\bar \\\\sim Mn^{2 + } \\\\gtrsim Co^{2 + } \\\\bar \\\\sim Cd^{2 + } \\\\hfill \\\\\\\\ \\\\gtrsim

Akira Nakajima; Takao Horikoshi; Takashi Sakaguchi

1981-01-01

426

Plant responses to abiotic stresses: heavy metal-induced oxidative stress and protection by mycorrhization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review is to assess the mode of action and role of antioxidants as protection from heavy metal stress in roots, mycorrhizal fungi and mycor- rhizae. Based on their chemical and physical proper- ties three different molecular mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity can be distinguished: (a) production of reactive oxygen species by autoxidation and Fenton reaction; this

Andres Schutzendubel; Andrea Polle

2002-01-01

427

Heavy metals as markers for assessing environmental pollution from chemical warehouse and plastics fires  

Microsoft Academic Search

Case histories of large, accidental fires are presented to illustrate that heavy metals may be used as markers to assess the extent of localized environmental contamination resulting from fires. Due to the complexity of fire chemistry with respect to organic pollutants, determination of organic pollutants in the environment following a fire would be time consuming and expensive. Using heavy metals

Andrew A. Meharg; Michael C. French

1995-01-01

428

Heavy metals balance in Polish and Dutch agronomy: Actual state and previsions for the future  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the state of agro-ecosystem contamination with heavy metals in relation to the level of agricultural development. For this, the Polish and Dutch agricultural situations were compared. The intensive animal and vegetable production observed in the Netherlands over the past 20–30 years was found to substantially contribute to the heavy metal input of these systems. Agriculture in Poland

Jacek Dach; Dick Starmans

2005-01-01

429

Laboratory study on the survival of water hyacinth under several conditions of heavy metal concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the survival and behaviour of water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] under varying conditions of heavy metal concentrations, groups of the plants were grown in different media (distilled water, Nile water, wastewater and different concentrations of heavy metals). Simultaneously, blank experiments were carried out for comparison. Visual changes in the plants observed during each experiment were noted. The

M. E Soltan; M. N Rashed

2003-01-01

430

Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this

Humberto Gonzalez; Martin Lodenius; Mirta Otero

1989-01-01

431

Speciation of heavy metals in marine sediments vs their bioaccumulation by mussels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Total contents and speciation of selected heavy metals, including Al, Fe, Co, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, were measured in sediment samples and mussels Mya arenaria and Astarte borealis collected in the Horsund Fjord off Spitsbergen (Norwegian Sea) and the Bay of Gdansk (Baltic Sea). The investigation aimed at revealing differences in the accumulation pattern of heavy metals in mussels

J. Pempkowiak; A. Sikora; E. Biernacka

1999-01-01

432

Sensitivity of freshwater pulmonate snails, Lymnaea luteola L., to heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current alarm of the impacts of metal pollution on living organisms has received much attention with the tragedy of Minimata and later Niigata, in Japan. Although there has been a great deal of the concern about the acute and chronic toxicities of heavy metals to freshwater fishes and crustaceans but little information is available on the effects of heavy

B. S. Khangarot; P. K. Ray

1988-01-01

433

Serum heavy metals and hemoglobin related compounds in Saudi Arabia firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous materials including heavy metals, aldehydes, hydrogen chloride, dichlorofluoromethane and some particulates. Many of these materials have been implicated in the triggering of several diseases. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of fire smoke exposure on serum heavy metals and possible affection on iron functions compounds

Abdulrahman L Al-Malki

2009-01-01

434

Heavy Metals in the Cement Industry: A Look at Volatile Cycles and Simple Mitigation Techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cement producers using hazardous waste fuels have monitored heavy metals emissions for some time now. Due to recent changes in environmental regulations, emissions of heavy metals, specifically mercury, have become a subject of greater concern in plants that do not use hazardous waste. This paper provides a review of the recent attempt to limit mercury emissions and discusses the practical

P. Paone

2008-01-01

435

Leaching behavior of heavy metals from municipal solid wastes incineration (MSWI) fly ash used in concrete  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, surface leaching toxicity and successive leaching concentration of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash-cement hardened pastes were studied. And, the relationships between leaching concentrations of heavy metals and leaching time were also discussed. Experimental results showed that immobilization effect of cement on MSWI fly ash is good. Even if MSWI

Hui-Sheng Shi; Li-Li Kan

2009-01-01

436

Investigations for Heavy Metals and POPs Emission Inventory Improvement in Belarus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission fluxes assessment acts as starting point of air pollution interpretation. The paper presents results of a 7-years activity on identification and estimation of heavy metals and POPs emission sources in Belarus, most of which are poorly inventoried. Methodology based on sources testing and emission factors has been used. The following heavy metals emission sources have been evaluated: stationary fuel

S. Kakareka; T. Kukharchyk

2003-01-01

437

Harmless Treatment Method for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Simulative Wastewater by Inducing Crystallization  

Microsoft Academic Search

A harmless treatment process for the removal of heavy metals was studied in a fluidized bed reactor by inducing crystallization of heavy metals on the surface of silica sand. The removal efficiency of Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ and Zn 2+ all achieved about 99.99% in different concentration ranges. Further harmless treatment of the nucleated precipitation by acid hydrolysis or

Jie Sun; Qifeng Tian; Nansheng Deng

2011-01-01

438

Sedimentary Records of Heavy Metal Pollution in Fuxian Lake, Yunnan Province, China: Intensity, History, and Sources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focused on the concentration change of heavy metals of sediment cores in heavily polluted north area and less polluted middle area of Fuxian Lake in Southwest China. On the basis of the analysis of Cu, Ni, Ti, V, Pb, Cd, and Zn concentration-depth profiles, the pollution history of heavy metals was studied using 137cesium (137Cs) dating. The sources

Hai-Ao ZENG; Jing-Lu WU

2009-01-01

439

Baseline values for heavy metals in agricultural soils in an European Mediterranean region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Baseline values for heavy metals were proposed in Alicante (Spain), a representative agricultural area of the European Mediterranean region, as a basis to identify and assess soil contamination processes at regional level. Fifty-four agricultural plots were sampled and heavy metals concentrations were analysed for nine elements (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by atomic absorption spectrometry

Carolina Micó; Mónica Peris; Luis Recatalá; Juan Sánchez

2007-01-01

440

Risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in shrimp farming in Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong  

Microsoft Academic Search

An ecological survey was carried out to determine the sediment concentrations of nutrients and heavy metals and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in fish and shrimp including tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus×O. nilotica), grey mullet (Mugil cephalus), gei wai shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) and caridean shrimp (Macrobrachium nipponensis) in the traditional tidal shrimp ponds (gei wais) of Mai Po Nature Reserve, Hong Kong. The

K. C. Cheung; M. H. Wong

2006-01-01

441

Microbial cellulose decomposition in soils from a rifle range contaminated with heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the effects of heavy metals on microbial decomposition of cellulose in heavy metal-contaminated soils using a cotton strip assay. The assay is a measure of the potential of soil microorganisms to decompose the plant polymer, cellulose. Cellulolytic activity in soil was assessed by determining the reduction in tensile strength of the buried

I Chew; J. P Obbard; R. R Stanforth

2001-01-01

442

Influence of selector technology on heavy metal removal by activated sludge: Secondary effects of selector technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is to compare the ability of metal removal between an aerobic selector activated sludge system and a conventional CSTR system. Metal biosorption by sludge harvested from experimental systems was determined by a series of batch experiments. Heavy metals studied in this research were zinc, cadmium and nickel. Results of experimental data revealed that metal biosorption

Ming-Chien Su; Daniel K. Cha; Paul R. Anderson

1995-01-01

443

Vaporization of heavy metals during thermal treatment of model solid waste in a fluidized bed incinerator.  

PubMed

This paper investigated the volatilization behavior of heavy metals during thermal treatment of model solid waste in a fluidized bed reactor. Four metal chlorides (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) were chosen as metal sources. The influence of redox conditions, water and mineral matrice on heavy metal volatilization was investigated. In general, Cd shows significant vaporization especially when HCl was injected, while Cu and Pb vaporize moderately and Zn vaporization is negligible. Increasing oxygen concentration can lower heavy metal vaporization. Heavy metal interactions with the mineral matter can result in the formation of stable metallic species thus playing a negative effect on their behavior. However, HCl can promote the heavy metal release by preventing the formation of stable metallic species. The chemical sorption (either physical or chemical) inside the pores, coupled with the internal diffusion of gaseous metal species, may also control the vaporization process. With SO(2) injected, Cd and Pb show a higher volatility as a result of SO(2) reducing characteristics. From the analysis, the subsequent order of heavy metal volatility can be found: Cd>Cu?Pb?Zn. PMID:22264859

Yu, Jie; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng; Qiu, Jianrong

2012-01-20

444

Progress in the remediation of hazardous heavy metal-polluted soils by natural zeolite.  

PubMed

Hazardous heavy metal pollution of soils is an increasingly urgent problem all over the world. The zeolite as a natural amendment has been studied extensively for the remediation of hazardous heavy metal-polluted soils with recycling. But its theory and application dose are not fully clear. This paper reviews the related aspects of theory and application progress for the remediation of hazardous heavy metal-polluted soils by natural zeolite, with special emphasis on single/co-remediation. Based on the comments on hazardous heavy metal behavior characteristics in leaching and rhizosphere and remediation with zeolite for heavy metal-polluted soils, it indicated that the research of rhizosphere should be strengthened. Theory of remediation with natural zeolite could make breakthroughs due to the investigation on synthetic zeolite. Co-remediation with natural zeolite may be applied and studied with more prospect and sustainable recycling. PMID:19464110

Shi, Wei-yu; Shao, Hong-bo; Li, Hua; Shao, Ming-an; Du, Sheng

2009-05-04

445

Hydration and solidification of hazardous wastes containing heavy metals using modified cementitious materials  

SciTech Connect

Three cementitious materials were used to investigate solidifying and stabilizing hazardous wastes containing heavy metals. The cementitious materials were ordinary Portland cement (OPC), clinker kiln dust (CKD) modified OPC, and CKD and quick setting agent (QSA) modified OPC. High alkalis in CKD accelerated the setting and hydration of cement, and QSA influenced quick setting and increased compressive strength of cement. For the solidification and stabilization of heavy metals in the steel industry, dust high alkali CKD modified cement reduced heavy metals leached from the waste form and increased compressive strength of the waste form. The CKD and QSA modified cement presented the least amount of heavy metals leached and the highest compressive strength due to a large number of formation of hydrates, and most effective stabilization of hazardous wastes containing multi-heavy metals.

Park, C.K.

2000-03-01

446

Bioleaching of heavy metal from woody biochar using Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and activation for adsorption.  

PubMed

A woody biochar which was the byproduct of gasification of sawdust was treated with bioleaching by Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. After bioleaching, most heavy metal was removed from biochar. Leaching efficiency of heavy metal was efficient in a wide pulp density range from 1% to 10% (w/v) and decreased only a little with the increase in pulp density. It made application of biochar free of heavy metal risk. Benefitting from the improvement in functional group composition and pore structure after bioleaching, adsorption capacity of biochar to methylene blue and heavy metal was enhanced greatly. Adsorption of methylene blue could be described by pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir equation and the enhancement was mainly caused by the modification of physical character of biochar. Adsorption of heavy metal could be described by Freundlich equation and was mainly determined by chemical character of biochar. PMID:23978608

Wang, Buyun; Li, Cuiping; Liang, Hui

2013-08-14

447

Portable X-Ray, K-Edge Heavy Metal Detector  

SciTech Connect

The X-Ray, K-Edge Heavy Metal Detection System was designed and built by Ames Laboratory and the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation at Iowa State University. The system uses a C-frame inspection head with an X-ray tube mounted on one side of the frame and an imaging unit and a high purity germanium detector on the other side. the inspection head is portable and can be easily positioned around ventilation ducts and pipes up to 36 inches in diameter. Wide angle and narrow beam X-ray shots are used to identify the type of holdup material and the amount of the contaminant. Precise assay data can be obtained within minutes of the interrogation. A profile of the containerized holdup material and a permanent record of the measurement are immediately available.

Fricke, V.

1999-10-25

448

Heavy metal levels in fish from coastal waters of Uruguay.  

PubMed

Copper, mercury, and zinc levels were determined in muscle and liver (N = 163) of seven fish species caught in coastal waters off Montevideo and Piriapolis (control site): Odontesthes spp., Mugil platanus, Micropogonias furnieri, Urophycis brasiliensis, Cynoscion guatucupa, Menticirrhus americanus, and Mustelus schmitti. The local population commonly uses these species for consumption. Heavy metal concentrations determined in this study were generally below those obtained for fish caught in Argentinean and Brazilian coastal waters, with some exceptions in the case of mercury and zinc. Based on copper, mercury, and zinc levels in muscle tissue, we conclude that the fish studied here are acceptable for human consumption. Nevertheless, it is recommended not to consume the fish liver (up to 466 microg Zn g(-1) dry weight in liver) nor large specimens of the investigated species. Regional programs involving the neighboring countries should be established to assess the fisheries resources and potential risks for human health. PMID:15883670

Viana, F; Huertas, R; Danulat, E

2005-03-28

449

Immobilization of heavy metals by calcium sulfoaluminate cement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two types of calcium sulfoaluminate cement containing 20% and 30% phosphogypsum, respectively, were investigated for their ability in hazardous waste stabilization. Fourteen series of pastes were prepared, each containing the following soluble salt: Na2CrO4·4H2O; Na2Cr2O7·2H2O; CrCl3·6H2O; Pb(NO3)2; Zn(NO3)2·6H2O; ZnSO4·7H2O; and CdCl2·5H2O. The level of pollution was 0.069 mol of heavy metal per Kg of cement.The study has been carried out

S. Peysson; J. Péra; M. Chabannet

2005-01-01

450

Induction of temperate cyanophage AS-1 by heavy metal - copper  

PubMed Central

Background It has been reported that some marine cyanophage are temperate and can be induced from a lysogenic phase to a lytic phase by different agents such as heavy metals. However, to date no significant reports have focused on the temperate nature of freshwater cyanophage/cyanobacteria. Previous experiments with cyanophage AS-1 and cyanobacteria Anacystis nidulans have provided some evidence that AS-1 may have a lysogenic life cycle in addition to the characterized lytic cycle. Results In this study, the possible temperate A. nidulans was treated with different concentrations of heavy metal-copper. CuSO4 with concentrations of 3.1 × 10-3 M, 3.1 × 10-4 M, 3.1 × 10-5 M and 3.1 × 10-6 M were used to detect the induction of AS-1 from A. nidulans. The population of the host, unicellular cyanobacteria Anacystis nidulans, was monitored by direct count and turbidity while the amount of virus produced was derived from plaque forming units (PFU) by a direct plating method. The ratio of AS-1 release from A. nidulans was also determined. From these results it appears that AS-1 lysogenic phage can be induced by copper at concentrations from 3.1 × 10-6 M to 3.1 × 10-4 M. Maximal phage induction occurred at 6 hours after addition of copper, with an optimal concentration of 3.1 × 10-6 M. Conclusion Cu2+ is a significant inducer for lysogenic cyanobacterial cells and consequently would be a potential control agent in the cyanobacteria population in fresh water ecosystems.

Lee, Lee H; Lui, Doris; Platner, Patricia J; Hsu, Shi-Fang; Chu, Tin-Chun; Gaynor, John J; Vega, Quinn C; Lustigman, Bonnie K

2006-01-01

451

Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metal signature in the Dongjiang River Basin in southeastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cr, Pb, As, Cu, Ni, Hg, Cd) have been measured in water and bottom sediment for the main stream of the Dongjiang River Basin, where is the word's most populous (40,000,000 people) and highly economic development region over decades. While the enrichment of heavy metals in the sediment indicates a strong historical pollution, the heavy metal concentrations in water reflect a concurrent anthropogenic influence. Multiple 87 samples were taken from the tributaries of the river network to investigate the characteristics of heavy metal pollutants within the catchment. Different multivariate statistical techniques are combined to analyse the spatial pattern and the origin of, and the land-use effects on heavy metal pollutants. First, a clear regional similarity of the pollutants is exhibited by cluster analysis (CA), and no longitudinal accumulation along the river can be observed. Then, principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to group the different heavy metals according to their variability at different sites. The first principal component (PC) containing Cr, Mn, Ni and Cu shows the feature of point sources, whereas the second PC loaded with Zn and Cd is probably derived from non-point sources. It also implied the particular favorite conveyances and processes from sources to sediments for Hg within the third PC. In the last step, redundant analysis (RDA) is used to correlate environmental variables (e.g. land use types, physiochemical properties including PH, DOC, DO, TSS) to heavy metal pollutants. The correlation of different heavy metals with different physiochemical properties reveals the anthropogenic impacts on the water quality. Land use types exhibits the highest relevance to heavy metal pollution, i.e., intensive industrial areas shows aggravated pollution, whereas areas with mainly forest and agriculture are rarely polluted by heavy metals.

Ding, Z.

2011-12-01

452

Immobilisation of heavy metal in cement-based solidification/stabilisation: a review.  

PubMed

Heavy metal-bearing waste usually needs solidification/stabilization (s/s) prior to landfill to lower the leaching rate. Cement is the most adaptable binder currently available for the immobilisation of heavy metals. The selection of cements and operating parameters depends upon an understanding of chemistry of the system. This paper discusses interactions of heavy metals and cement phases in the solidification/stabilisation process. It provides a clarification of heavy metal effects on cement hydration. According to the decomposition rate of minerals, heavy metals accelerate the hydration of tricalcium silicate (C3S) and Portland cement, although they retard the precipitation of portlandite due to the reduction of pH resulted from hydrolyses of heavy metal ions. The chemical mechanism relevant to the accelerating effect of heavy metals is considered to be H+ attacks on cement phases and the precipitation of calcium heavy metal double hydroxides, which consumes calcium ions and then promotes the decomposition of C3S. In this work, molecular models of calcium silicate hydrate gel are presented based on the examination of 29Si solid-state magic angle spinning/nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS/NMR). This paper also reviews immobilisation mechanisms of heavy metals in hydrated cement matrices, focusing on the sorption, precipitation and chemical incorporation of cement hydration products. It is concluded that further research on the phase development during cement hydration in the presence of heavy metals and thermodynamic modelling is needed to improve effectiveness of cement-based s/s and extend this waste management technique. PMID:18367391

Chen, Q Y; Tyrer, M; Hills, C D; Yang, X M; Carey, P

2008-03-25

453

Immobilisation of heavy metal in cement-based solidification/stabilisation: A review  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metal-bearing waste usually needs solidification/stabilization (s/s) prior to landfill to lower the leaching rate. Cement is the most adaptable binder currently available for the immobilisation of heavy metals. The selection of cements and operating parameters depends upon an understanding of chemistry of the system. This paper discusses interactions of heavy metals and cement phases in the solidification/stabilisation process. It provides a clarification of heavy metal effects on cement hydration. According to the decomposition rate of minerals, heavy metals accelerate the hydration of tricalcium silicate (C{sub 3}S) and Portland cement, although they retard the precipitation of portlandite due to the reduction of pH resulted from hydrolyses of heavy metal ions. The chemical mechanism relevant to the accelerating effect of heavy metals is considered to be H{sup +} attacks on cement phases and the precipitation of calcium heavy metal double hydroxides, which consumes calcium ions and then promotes the decomposition of C{sub 3}S. In this work, molecular models of calcium silicate hydrate gel are presented based on the examination of {sup 29}Si solid-state magic angle spinning/nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS/NMR). This paper also reviews immobilisation mechanisms of heavy metals in hydrated cement matrices, focusing on the sorption, precipitation and chemical incorporation of cement hydration products. It is concluded that further research on the phase development during cement hydration in the presence of heavy metals and thermodynamic modelling is needed to improve effectiveness of cement-based s/s and extend this waste management technique.

Chen, Q.Y. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China)], E-mail: qychen@dhu.edu.cn; Tyrer, M. [Department of Materials, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London SW7 4AZ (United Kingdom); Hills, C.D. [Centre for Contaminated Land Remediation, Medway School of Science, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB (United Kingdom); Yang, X.M. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China); Carey, P. [Centre for Contaminated Land Remediation, Medway School of Science, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB (United Kingdom)

2009-01-15

454

Regional ecotoxicological hazards associated with anthropogenic enrichment of heavy metals.  

PubMed

Regional geochemical data of heavy metals are commonly used for environmental risk assessment and management. Often these data are based on so-called total concentrations, whereas the exposure to the mobile or reactive fraction of these elements finally determines whether the exposed ecosystem is at risk and to which extent. The objective of our research was to develop a wider applicable method for quantitative hazard assessment of soil metal contamination attributable to the activity of man, based on and illustrated with data from the Netherlands. Since chemical availability (0.43 M HNO3 extractable concentrations) of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn appeared strongly related to the estimated anthropogenic enrichment, we used these concentrations to assess the hazard of human-induced enrichment of these metals. We expressed the enrichment hazard using the toxic pressure concept, which estimates the fraction of biological species (varying between 0 and 1) potentially affected due to the level of exposure to single metals or their local mixtures. This is done using logistic (enrichment) concentration/response models parameterized with ecotoxicological effect data from toxicity tests and mixture models. Hazards varied from very low toxic pressures (lower than 0.01) to (most often) toxic pressure less than 0.05, whereby the latter relates to the so-called 95%-protection criterion used in some soil protection legislations. In rare cases, the toxic pressure exceeded the value of 0.05, to an upper limit of 0.054 for Cd. The rank order of metal enrichment hazards suggests that Cd enrichment induces the largest hazard increase. There are limited (rank order) differences in enrichment hazards between soil types. Comparing the judgement of soils based on soil screening levels and based on toxic pressure of anthropogenic Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn enrichments, the soil screening values appear to more conservative. This exemplifies the use of soil screening values as a method to note regulatory concern, but not always indicating an actual hazard or risk. When screening values are exceeded, refined hazard insights can be obtained, as illustrated in this paper. This provides a more refined insight in the ecotoxic implications of human-induced metal enrichments in soils, as refined basis for risk management decisions. PMID:21424771

Spijker, J; Mol, G; Posthuma, L

2011-03-22

455

Assessment of toxic heavy metals in urban lake sediments as related to urban stressor and bioavailability.  

PubMed

A suite of heavy metals was monitored at sediments and overlying water in three urban lakes located in Seoul, Korea during spring season 2006. Metals measured were zinc, arsenic, chromium, copper, nickel, and cadmium. All metal concentrations in urban lake sediments were much higher than those in natural lake sediments. Elevated metal levels in urban lake sediments are associated with urban runoff, including street dust polluted by heavy metals. Metals in sediments from urban lakes were extracted with a weak electrolyte solution (0.1 M Ca(NO(3))(2)) to predict the toxicity of metals. Among the six heavy metals studied, Cu was the most extractable, followed by Ni and Zn. Ca(NO(3))(2)-extractable metal recoveries has a good relationship with metal toxicity based on Chironomus riparius bioassay. This study showed that urban stressors such as vehicle emissions could increase the concentration of heavy metals in urban lake sediments. In addition, there is a positive relationship between sediment toxicity by using C. riparius bioassay and Ca(NO(3))(2)-extractability of heavy metals from sediments. PMID:20054710

Baek, Yong-Wook; An, Youn-Joo

2010-01-07

456

Geochemical indices allow estimation of heavy metal background concentrations in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Defining background concentrations for heavy metals in soils is essential for recognizing and managing soil pollution. However, background concentrations of metals in soils can vary naturally by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, many soils have also been subject to unquantifiable anthropogenic inputs of metals, in some cases, for centuries. Hence determination of heavy metal background concentrations in soils has to date been fraught with difficulty. Here we demonstrate that there are associations between the background heavy metal and Fe or Mn contents in soils which appear to be consistent for seven important heavy metals of environmental concern. The relationships are remarkably independent of both soil type and climatic setting. These observations provide the basis for a series of general equations from which it is proposed Southeast Asian including Australian, and possibly worldwide background concentrations for As, Cr, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in soils can be derived.

Hamon, R. E.; McLaughlin, M. J.; Gilkes, R. J.; Rate, A. W.; Zarcinas, B.; Robertson, A.; Cozens, G.; Radford, N.; Bettenay, L.

2004-03-01

457

Heavy metals in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from Marmara sea, Turkey.  

PubMed

Marmara Sea is one of the main catching areas of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) in Turkey, and a significant portion of the harvest has been exported mainly to European countries. In this study, Zn, Cu, Cd, Hg, and Pb in mussels from ten catching areas in Marmara Sea were analyzed to investigate health risks associated with consuming mussels. Mercury was not detected (<0.15 ppb) in any of the samples. The highest concentrations of Cu and Cd were 3.473 and 0.740 mg kg(-1) (wet weight, WW), respectively, well below the maximum permissible levels. All samples contained Zn higher than 50 mg kg(-1), while Pb was above the limits in the samples from stations 1, 4, 6, and 8. Mussels from Marmara Sea are safe regarding Cu, Cd, and Hg but may contain Zn and Pb above the permissible limits. However, metal contents of mussels from Marmara Sea are mostly lower than those of the regions in other areas of the world. It was concluded that Marmara Sea has a potential of being a safe source of mussels if industrial inputs somewhat reduced and controlled. Concentrations of heavy metals in mussels must be monitored comprehensively and periodically with respect to the consumer health. PMID:20490711

Mol, Suhendan; Alakavuk, Didem Uçok

2010-05-21

458

Reduction of Heavy Metals by Cytochrome c(3)  

SciTech Connect

We report on reduction and precipitation of Se(VI), Pb(II), CU(II), U(VI), Mo(VI), and Cr(VI) in water by cytochrome c{sub 3} isolated from Desulfomicrobium baczdatum [strain 9974]. The tetraheme protein cytochrome c{sub 3} was reduced by sodium dithionite. Redox reactions were monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy of cytochrome c{sub 3}. Analytical electron microscopy work showed that Se(VI), Pb(II), and CU(II) were reduced to the metallic state, U(W) and Mo(W) to U(IV) and Mo(IV), respectively, and Cr(VI) probably to Cr(III). U(IV) and Mo(W) precipitated as oxides and Cr(III) as an amorphous hydroxide. Cytochrome c{sub 3} was used repeatedly in the same solution without loosing its effectiveness. The results suggest usage of cytochrome c{sub 3} to develop innovative and environmentally benign methods to remove heavy metals from waste- and groundwater.

ABDELOUAS,A.; GONG,W.L.; LUTZE,W.; NUTTALL,E.H.; SPRAGUE,F.; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.; STRIETELMEIER,B.A.; FRANCO,R.; MOURA,I.; MOURA,J.J.G.

2000-01-18

459

Hollow fiber solvent extraction removal of toxic heavy metals from aqueous waste streams  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study is concerned with the applications of the immobilized interface-based techniques to reversible chemical complexation-based solvent extraction of toxic heavy metals from industrial wastewaters using microporous hydrophobic hollow fiber (MHF) modules. Toxic heavy metals studied were copper and chromium(VI). Each metal was individually removed in separate once-through experiments from a synthetic wastewater by organic extractants flowing in the shell-side

Chang H. Yun; Ravi Prasad; Asim K. Guha; Kamalesh K. Sirkar

1993-01-01

460

Recovery of biosolids-applied heavy metals sixteen years after application  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known of the long-term fate of biosolids-applied heavy metals in soil. The objective of this study was to quantify percent recovery of biosolids-applied heavy metals i a well-drained soil. Three annual applications of biosolids resulted in cumulative biosolids loadings of 0, 60, 120, and 180 Mg ha⁻¹. Cumulative metal loadings for the 180 Mg ha⁻¹ biosolids rate were

J. J. Sloan; R. H. Dowdy; M. S. Dolan

1998-01-01

461

Phytochelatins: The Principal Heavy-Metal Complexing Peptides of Higher Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of novel heavy-metal complexing peptides was isolated from plant cell suspension cultures; the structure of the peptides was established as (gamma -glutamic acid-cysteine)n-glycine (n = 3 to 7). These peptides appear upon induction of plant cells with heavy metals and represent the principal metal-binding activities in the cells. The name phytochelatin is proposed for this new class of

Erwin Grill; Ernst-L. Winnacker; Meinhart H. Zenk

1985-01-01

462

Heavy metal cation retention by unconventional sorbents (red muds and fly ashes)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Toxic heavy metals, i.e. copper (II), lead (II) and cadmium (II), can be removed from water by metallurgical solid wastes, i.e. bauxite waste red muds and coal fly ashes acting as sorbents. These heavy-metal-loaded solid wastes may then be solidified by adding cement to a durable concrete mass assuring their safe disposal. Thus, toxic metals in water have been removed

Re?at Apak; Esma Tütem; Mehmet Hügül; Jülide Hizal

1998-01-01

463

Microbial Communities in Long-Term Heavy Metal Contaminated Ombrotrophic Peats  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of heavy metals are known to be toxic to many soil organisms. The effects of long-term exposure to lower\\u000a levels of metals on the soil microbial community are, however, less well understood. The southern Pennines of the U.K. are\\u000a characterised by expanses of ombrotrophic peat soils that have experienced deposition of high levels of heavy metals since\\u000a the

Patricia E. Linton; Laura Shotbolt; Andrew D. Thomas

2007-01-01

464

Heavy metal binding fractions in the sediments of the Godavari estuary, East Coast of India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sequential chemical extraction was used to study the operationally determined chemical forms of five heavy me