Sample records for heavy metal mthm

  1. Heavy Metal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, W. Lee

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the advantages, both functional and economic, of using a standing-seam metal roof in both new roof installations and reroofing projects of educational facilities. Structural versus non-structural standing-seam roofs are described as are the types of insulation that can be added and roof finishes used. (GR)

  2. Mutagenicity of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.K.

    1988-04-01

    Certain heavy metals are required, as trace elements for normal cellular functions. However, heavy metals are toxic to cells once their levels exceed their low physiological values. The toxicity of heavy metals on microorganisms, and on animals has been well-documented. These interactions may induce the alteration of the primary as well as secondary structures of the DNA and result in mutation(s). The present communication reports the results in determining the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of ten heavy metals commonly found in polluted areas by using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test.

  3. Biosensors for heavy metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neelam Verma; Minni Singh

    2005-01-01

    A biosensor is an analytical device that consists of an immobilized biocomponent in conjunction with a transducer, and represents a synergistic combination of biotechnology and microelectronics. This review summarizes the use of biosensors for detecting and quantifying heavy metal ions. Heavy metal contamination is of serious concern to human health since these substances are non-biodegradable and retained by the ecological

  4. Hazards of heavy metal contamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars Järup

    2003-01-01

    The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. These metals have been extensively studied and their effects on human health regularly reviewed by international bodies such as the WHO. Heavy metals have been used by humans for thousands of years. Although several adverse health effects of heavy metals have

  5. Microbial heavy-metal resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. H. Nies

    1999-01-01

    We are just beginning to understand the metabolism of heavy metals and to use their metabolic functions in biotechnology,\\u000a although heavy metals comprise the major part of the elements in the periodic table. Because they can form complex compounds,\\u000a some heavy metal ions are essential trace elements, but, essential or not, most heavy metals are toxic at higher concentrations.\\u000a This

  6. STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE HEAVY METAL SALTS (selected)

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    12.1 STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE for HEAVY METAL SALTS (selected) Location(s): ___________________________________________________ Chemical(s): heavy metal salts: acetates, chlorides, sulfates, nitrates, anhydrides, oxides, hydroxides procedures. Specific instructions: All solids and liquids containing heavy metals must be disposed

  7. Disorders of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Woimant, France; Trocello, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals and trace elements play an important role in relation to the physiology and pathology of the nervous system. Neurologic diseases related to disorders of metabolism of copper and iron are reviewed. Copper disorders are divided into two classes: ATP7A- or ATP7B-related inherited copper transport disorders (Menkes disease, occipital horn syndrome, ATP7A-related distal motor neuropathy, and Wilson disease) and acquired diseases associated with copper deficiency or copper excess. Iron brain disorders are divided into genetic neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA, neuroferritinopathy, and aceruloplasminemia), genetic systemic iron accumulation with neurologic features (hemochromatosis), and acquired diseases associated with iron excess (superficial siderosis) or iron deficiency (restless leg syndrome). The main features of cadmium, lead, aluminum, mercury, and manganese toxicity are summarized. PMID:24365357

  8. Heavy Metal Pumps in Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.F.

    2000-10-01

    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of these plants to help clean up toxic metals from soils. A rate limiting step is using plant for bioremediation is the normally poor capacity of plants to concentrate toxic metals. Our interest in metal ion transport systems includes those for essential mineral nutrients such as molybdenum, copper, iron, manganese, as well as toxic metals such as cerium, mercury, cesium, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Understanding the pathways by which toxic metals accumulate in plants will enable the engineering of plants to exclude toxic metals and create healthier food sources, or to extract toxic metals from the soil as a strategy to clean up polluted lands and water.

  9. Heavy metal stabilization in municipal solid waste incineration flyash using heavy metal chelating agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiang Jianguo; Wang Jun; Xu Xin; Wang Wei; Deng Zhou; Zhang Yan

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metal chemical stabilization with synthesized heavy metal chelating agent was assessed for flyash from municipal solid waste incinerator. Flyash can contain heavy metals (e.g. Pb, Cd) which can leach. A new kind of heavy metal chelating agent showed more attractive competition than inorganic chemicals in stabilizing flyash. The synthesizing method of this kind of heavy metal chelating agent was

  10. The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian-feng Peng; Yong-hui Song; Peng Yuan; Xiao-yu Cui; Guang-lei Qiu

    2009-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide problem through disturbing the normal functions of rivers and lakes. Sediment, as the largest storage and resources of heavy metal, plays a rather important role in metal transformations. This paper provides a review on the geochemical forms, affecting factors and remediation technologies of heavy metal in sediment. The in situ remediation of sediment

  11. Heavy metals in Antarctic organisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. A. de Moreno; M. S. Gerpe; V. J. Moreno; C. Vodopivez

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate levels of essential (zinc and copper) and non-essential (mercury and cadmium) heavy metals, 34 species of organisms\\u000a from different areas close to the Antarctic Peninsula were analysed. These included algae, filter-feeders, omnivorous invertebrates\\u000a and vertebrates. Mercury was not detected, while cadmium was found in the majority of organisms analysed (detection limit\\u000a was 0.05?ppm for both metals). The highest

  12. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY); Branthaver, Jan F. (Laramie, WY)

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  13. Treatability of Stormwater Heavy Metals

    E-print Network

    Clark, Shirley E.

    Capacities for Different Media CEC (meq/100 g) Peat Moss 22 Compost 19 Activated Carbon 5.4 Zeolite 6)Characteristics and treatability 2)Chemical treatment 3)Media filtration and grass swales3)Media filtration detailed laboratory and field tests for they control of stormwater heavy metals by media filtration

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhiza and heavy metal tolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Hildebrandt; Marjana Regvar; Hermann Bothe

    2007-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have repeatedly been demonstrated to alleviate heavy metal stress of plants. The current manuscript summarizes results obtained to date on the colonization of plants by AMF in heavy metal soils, the depositions of heavy metals in plant and fungal structures and the potential to use AMF-plant combinations in phytoremediation, with emphasis on pennycresses (Thlaspi ssp.). The

  15. Phycoremediation of heavy metals using transgenic microalgae.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Sathish; Siripornadulsil, Surasak; Falcao, Vanessa; Torres, Moacir; Colepicolo, Pio; Sayre, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Microalgae account for most of the biologically sequestered trace metals in aquatic environments. Their ability to adsorb and metabolize trace metals is associated with their large surface:volume ratios, the presence of high-affinity, metal-binding groups on their cell surfaces, and efficient metal uptake and storage systems. Microalgae may bind up to 10% of their biomass as metals. In addition to essential trace metals required for metabolism, microalgae can efficiently sequester toxic heavy metals. Toxic heavy metals often compete with essential trace metals for binding to and uptake into cells. Recently, transgenic approaches have been developed to further enhance the heavy metal specificity and binding capacity of microalgae with the objective of using these microalgae for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated wastewaters and sediments. These transgenic strategies have included the over expression of enzymes whose metabolic products ameliorate the effects of heavy metal-induced stress, and the expression of high-affinity, heavy metal binding proteins on the surface and in the cytoplasm of transgenic cells. The most effective strategies have substantially reduced the toxicity of heavy metals allowing transgenic cells to grow at wild-type rates in the presence of lethal concentrations of heavy metals. In addition, the metal binding capacity of transgenic algae has been increased five-fold relative to wild-type cells. Recently, fluorescent heavy metal biosensors have been developed for expression in transgenic Chlamydomonas. These fluorescent biosensor strains can be used for the detection and quantification of bioavailable heavy metals in aquatic environments. The use of transgenic microalgae to monitor and remediate heavy metals in aquatic environments is not without risk, however. Strategies to prevent the release of live microalgae having enhanced metal binding properties are described. PMID:18161494

  16. Heavy metal fates in laboratory bioretention systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xueli Sun; Allen P. Davis

    2007-01-01

    Key to managing heavy metals in bioretention is to understand their fates in bioretention facilities. In this study, pot prototypes filled with bioretention media were built to simulate the conditions of natural growth of plants. Synthetic runoff with different heavy metal loadings (copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc) was periodically applied. Metal accumulations in tissues of grasses –Panicum virgatum, Kentucky-31, and

  17. Heavy metals in Antarctic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.E.A. de; Moreno, V.J. [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (Argentina); Gerpe, M.S.; Vodopivez, C. [Instituto Antartico Argentino, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate levels of essential (zinc and copper) and non-essential (mercury and cadmium) heavy metals, 34 species of organisms from different areas close to the Antarctic Peninsula were analysed. These included algae, filter-feeders, omnivorous invertebrates and vertebrates. Mercury was not detected, while cadmium was found in the majority of organisms analysed (detection limit was 0.05 ppm for both metals). The highest cadmium concentration was observed in the starfish Odontaster validus. Anthozoans, sipunculids and nudibranchs showed maximum levels of zinc, while the highest copper level was found in the gastropod Trophon brevispira. Mercury and cadmium levels in fishes were below the detection limit. Concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in birds were highest in liver followed by muscle and eggs. Cadmium and mercury levels in muscle of southern elephant seals were above the detection limit, whereas in Antarctic fur seals they were below it. The objective of the study was to gather baseline information for metals in Antarctic Ocean biota that may be needed to detect, measure and monitor future environmental changes. 46 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Estimation of heavy metals in drinking water and development of heavy metal pollution index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Venkata Mohan; P. Nithila; S. Jayarama Reddy

    1996-01-01

    Four heavy metals (Copper, Cadmium, Lead and Zinc) are monitored in drinking water at twelve important residential areas using DPASV Technique. The results indicate the water to free of heavy metal pollution. The data monitored have been used to compute Heavy metal pollution index (HPI) using weighted arithmetic mean method and the proposed Pollution Index (HPI) seems to be applicable

  19. Heavy metal uptake of Geosiphon pyriforme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheloske, Stefan; Maetz, Mischa; Schüßler, Arthur

    2001-07-01

    Geosiphon pyriforme represents the only known endosymbiosis between a fungus, belonging to the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae). Therefore we use Geosiphon as a model system for the widespread AM symbiosis and try to answer some basic questions regarding heavy metal uptake or resistance of AM fungi. We present quantitative micro-PIXE measurements of a set of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Tl, Pb) taken up by Geosiphon-cells. The uptake is studied as a function of the metal concentration in the nutrient solution and of the time Geosiphon spent in the heavy metal enriched medium. The measured heavy metal concentrations range from several ppm to some hundred ppm. Also the influence of the heavy metal uptake on the nutrition transfer of other elements will be discussed.

  20. Heavy metal oxide glasses as active materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas R. MacFarlane; Peter J. Newman; Ruth Plathe; David J. Booth

    1999-01-01

    The solubility of rare earths at a level of 0.5 mol% in traditional heavy metal oxide glasses based on bismuth, lead and gallium is limited to the largest cations Pr, Nd and Sm. Within the families of these oxide glasses, a higher level of doping was achieved in this work with a heavy metal oxide glass containing germanium as a

  1. Heavy Metal Humor: Reconsidering Carnival in Heavy Metal Culture

    E-print Network

    Powell, Gary Botts

    2013-06-05

    ’ work to modern-day metal culture, Powell draw parallels to between Bakhtin’s carnivalesque theory and metal culture with two different, exemplary “humorous” metal performances, GWAR and Anal Cunt. Powell chooses “humorous” metal groups because...

  2. Chemistry 330 / Study Guide 217 Toxic Heavy Metals

    E-print Network

    Short, Daniel

    Chemistry 330 / Study Guide 217 Unit 7 Toxic Heavy Metals Overview In ancient Rome wine was stored. Metals--especially heavy metals--pose a unique environmental pollution problem. Heavy metals After completing this section, you should be able to 1. explain the difference between a heavy metal

  3. Heavy metal contamination from geothermal sources.

    PubMed Central

    Sabadell, J E; Axtmann, R C

    1975-01-01

    Liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs, which contain saline fluids at high temperatures and pressures, have a significant potential for contamination of the environment by heavy metals. The design of the power conversion cycle in a liquid-dominated geothermal plant is a key factor in determining the impact of the installation. Reinjection of the fluid into the reservoir minimizes heavy metal effluents but is routinely practiced at few installations. Binary power cycles with reinjection would provide even cleaner systems but are not yet ready for commercial application. Vapor-dominated systems, which contain superheated steam, have less potential for contamination but are relatively uncommon. Field data on heavy metal effluents from geothermal plants are sparse and confounded by contributions from "natural" sources such as geysers and hot springs which often exist nearby. Insofar as geothermal power supplies are destined to multiply, much work is required on their environmental effects including those caused by heavy metals. PMID:1227849

  4. Removal of heavy metals from waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, M.D.; Kozaruk, J.M.; Melvin, M.; Gardocki, S.M.

    1988-07-19

    A method for removing heavy metals from effluent water is described comprising performing sequentially the following steps: (a) adding from 7-333 ppm of an anionic surfactant to the effluent water to provide coagulatable heavy metal ion; (b) adjusting the effluent water pH to within the range of 8 to 10, (c) providing from 10-200 ppm of a cationic coagulant to coagulate the heavy metal ion, (d) providing from 0.3 to 5.0 ppm of a polymeric flocculant whereby a heavy metal containing floc is formed for removal from the effluent water, and, (e) then removing the floc from the effluent water, wherein the anionic surfactant is sodium lauryl ether sulfate. The cationic coagulant is selected from the group consisting of diallyl dimethylammonium chloride polymer, epichlorohydrin dimethylamine polymer, ethylene amine polymer, polyaluminum chloride, and alum; and the flocculant is an acrylamide/sodium acrylate copolymer having an RSV greater than 23.

  5. Heavy metals and living systems: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Reena; Gautam, Neetu; Mishra, Anurag; Gupta, Rajiv

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in accumulation of metals in plant parts having secondary metabolites, which is responsible for a particular pharmacological activity. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Molecular understanding of plant metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications also, the long term effects of which might not be yet known. PMID:21713085

  6. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  7. Experimental perspectives on heavy electron metals

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, Z.; Ott, H.R.; Aeppli, G.

    1987-01-01

    We motivate the description of heavy electron metals in terms of concepts from the Kondo problem. These concepts are used to discuss magnetism and superconductivity in heavy electron systems. Particular attention is given to what we view as the principal outstanding questions in this field and direction in which the field is developing. This will include consideration of the differences between Ce and U heavy electron compounds, as well as the occurrence of very small ordered magnetic moments. 26 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Heavy Metal Removal by Microbial Biosorbents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dae Haeng Cho; Eui Yong Kim; Yung-Tse Hung

    \\u000a Conventional methods for heavy metal removal are precipitation, coagulation, reduction, ion exchange, evaporation, and membrane\\u000a processes. This chapter describes the use of microbial biosorbents in removing heavy metals. Environmental factors, mechanisms,\\u000a and isotherms of biosorption were discussed. Biosorption kinetics includes pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich\\u000a kinetics model.

  9. Detection of Heavy Metal Ions Based on Quantum Point Contacts

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yanchao

    Detection of Heavy Metal Ions Based on Quantum Point Contacts Vasanth Rajagopalan, Salah Boussaad. The ability to detect trace amounts of metal ions is important because of the toxicity of heavy metal ions on many living organisms and the consequence of heavy metal ions not being biodegradable. To date, heavy

  10. Heavy Metal Tolerance Robert S. Boyd, Nishanta Rajakaruna

    E-print Network

    Rajakaruna, Nishanta

    Heavy Metal Tolerance Robert S. Boyd, Nishanta Rajakaruna Introduction The operation of biological processes (creating stress). Some heavy metals have important physiological roles, but high doses of these essential heavy metals or exposure to other heavy metals that lack physiological roles in organisms may

  11. Histochemical demonstration of heavy metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Danscher

    1981-01-01

    The three steps of the sulphide silver method have been examined: 1) Transformation of metals to metal sulphides; 2) Fixation and embedding or freezing of the tissue for sectioning; and 3) Deposition of metallic silver on the metal sulphides in a physical developer. Based on the results, a revised method is described and discussed. It is particularly important 1) To

  12. ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS IN STORMWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater sampling for colloidal and dissolved metals and organic carbon has been initiated at six outfalls draining locally-designated, nonindustrial land uses in Monmouth County, NJ. Of the heavy metals, only Cu and Zn were found in all samples, mostly in dissolved form. Large...

  13. Passivating heavy metals in carbo-metallic oil conversion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hettinger; W. P. Jr

    1984-01-01

    A process for economically converting carbo-metallic oils to lighter products. The carbo-metallic oils contain 650° F. plus material which is characterized by a carbon residue on pyrolysis of at least about 1 and a nickel equivalents of heavy metals content of at least about 4 parts per million. This process comprises flowing the carbo-metallic oil together with particulate cracking catalyst

  14. Removal of heavy metals from biowaste: modelling of heavy metal behaviour and development of removal technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Veeken

    1998-01-01

    In the Netherlands, recycling of solid organic waste streams as compost only becomes possible if the compost complies with the heavy metals standards of the BOOM decree. This dissertation focuses on the removal of heavy metals from biowaste, i.e. the source separated organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Biowaste is referred to as an organic waste stream but surprisingly it

  15. Heavy metal monitoring in sea turtles using eggs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruya Sakai; Hideki Ichihashi; Hiroyuki Suganuma; Ryo Tatsukawa

    1995-01-01

    Heavy metals in the muscles, livers, kidneys and eggs of loggerhead turtles and green sea turtles were analysed to develop a non-killing method of heavy metal monitoring using eggs. Heavy metal concentrations were higher in the liver and kidney than in the muscle and eggs of loggerhead turtles. Within an egg, yolk contained the highest concentrations and burdens of heavy

  16. Heavy metal contaminants in yerberia shop products.

    PubMed

    Levine, Michael; Mihalic, Jason; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; French, Robert N E; Brooks, Daniel E

    2013-03-01

    Complementary and alternative medications, including the use of herbal medications, have become quite popular in the USA. Yerberias are found throughout the southwest and specialize in selling Hispanic herbal products. The products sold in these stores are not regulated by any governmental agency. Previous reports have found Ayurvedic medications contain high levels of lead, mercury, and arsenic. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of heavy metal contaminants sold at Yerberia stores in the southwest. Yerberias in the Phoenix, Arizona area were identified via search of an on-line search engine using the words "Yerberia Phoenix." Every second store was selected, and products were purchased using a standard script. The products were subsequently analyzed for mercury, lead, and arsenic. The main outcome is the prevalence of heavy metal content in over-the-counter "cold" medications purchased at a Yerberia. Twenty-two samples were purchased. One product contained pure camphor (2-camphone) and was subsequently not further analyzed. Of the 21 samples analyzed, lead was found in 4/21 (19.4 %). Arsenic and mercury were in 1/21 (4.8 %) each. Because two samples contained two heavy metals, the total prevalence of heavy metals was 4/21 (19.4). Heavy metal contaminants are commonly encountered in over-the-counter herbal "cold" medications purchased at Yerberias in the southwest. PMID:22562238

  17. HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION IN VEGETABLES AND THEIR CONTROL IN CHINA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ZE-YI ZHOU; YAO-PO FAN; MIN-JIAN WANG

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the extent of heavy metal contamination in Chinese vegetables. Increasing amounts of heavy metals are discharged into the environment in China. Metals such as cadmium and lead have become major contaminants, as well as chromium and mercury to a lesser degree. Factors influencing heavy metal contamination in vegetables and their control in China are analyzed and discussed.

  18. Tunable Biopolymers for Heavy Metal Removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan Kostal; Ashok Mulchandani; Wilfred Chen

    2001-01-01

    Tunable biopolymers were synthesized for the removal of heavy metals from dilute waste streams. Protein-protein interaction was tailored specifically into tunable, metal-binding biopolymers using elastin-like polypeptides composed of either one or two hexahistidine clusters. These tunable biopolymers retained the functionality of the elastin domain, undergoing a reversible phase transition above the transition temperature. Aggregation could be tuned within a wide

  19. Heavy metal detoxification in eukaryotic microalgae.

    PubMed

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Peña-Castro, Julián Mario; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2006-06-01

    Microalgae are aquatic organisms possessing molecular mechanisms that allow them to discriminate non-essential heavy metals from those essential ones for their growth. The different detoxification processes executed by algae are reviewed with special emphasis on those involving the peptides metallothioneins, mainly the post transcriptionally synthesized class III metallothioneins or phytochelatins. Also, the features that make microalgae suitable organisms technologies specially to treat water that is heavily polluted with metals is discussed. PMID:16405948

  20. Microwave enhanced stabilization of heavy metal sludge.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ching-Hong; Lo, Shang-Lien; Chiueh, Pei-Te; Kuan, Wen-Hui; Chen, Ching-Lung

    2007-01-01

    A microwave process can be utilized to stabilize the copper ions in heavy metal sludge. The effects of microwave processing on stabilization of heavy metal sludge were studied as a function of additive, power, process time, reaction atmosphere, cooling gas, organic substance, and temperature. Copper leach resistance increased with addition of aluminum metal powder, with increased microwave power, increased processing time, and using a gaseous environment of nitrogen for processing and air for cooling [N2/air]. The organic in the sludge affected stabilization, whether or not the organic smoldered. During heating in conventional ovens, exothermic oxidation of the organic resulted in sludge temperatures of about 500 degrees C for oven control temperatures of 200-500 degrees C. After microwave heating dried the sludge, the sludge temperature rose to 500 degrees C. The reaction between copper ions and metal aluminum in the dried sludge should be regarded as a solid phase reaction. Adding aluminum metal powder and reaction temperature were the key parameters in stabilizing copper in the heavy metal sludge, whether heated by microwave radiation or conventional oven. The mass balance indicates insignificant volatization of the copper during heating. PMID:16863678

  1. ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS IN STORMWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling has been undertaken to determine the concentrations of heavy metals, both particle-associated and dissolved, in stormwater from several storm sewer outfalls in Monmouth County, NJ. This project is ongoing in concert with coordinated studies of pathogen and nutrient input...

  2. Heavy metal tolerance in metal hyperaccumulator plant, Salvinia natans.

    PubMed

    Dhir, B; Srivastava, S

    2013-06-01

    Metal tolerance capacity of Salvinia natans, a metal hyperaccumulator, was evaluated. Plants were exposed to 10, 30 and 50 mg L?¹ of Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Cu, Pb, and Ni. Plant biomass, photosynthetic efficiency, quantum yield, photochemical quenching, electron transport rate and elemental (%C, H and N) constitution remained unaffected in Salvinia exposed to 30 mg L?¹ of heavy metals, except for Cu and Zn exposed plants, where significant reductions were noted in some of the measured parameters. However, a significant decline was noted in most of the measured parameters in plants exposed to 50 mg L?¹ of metal concentration. Results suggest that Salvinia has fairly high levels of tolerance to all the metals tested, but the level of tolerance varied from metal to metal. PMID:23553503

  3. Minor heavy metal: A review on occupational and environmental intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal is widely used in industries and presents as a problematic environmental pollution. Some heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, are well described for their occupational and environmental intoxication whereas the other minor heavy metals are less concerned. In this article, the author will present the details of occupational and environmental minor heavy metal intoxication. This review focuses mainly on aluminum, tin, copper, manganese, chromium, cadmium and nickel. PMID:20040969

  4. Heavy metal research in lacustrine sediment: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhigang Yao; Pu Gao

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals are released into environment from a wide range of natural and anthropogenic sources. Aquatic ecosystems are\\u000a normally at the receiving end and in many cases, with lakes as intermediaries. Lacustrine sediments are important sinks for\\u000a heavy metals and play a significant role in enrichment and remobilization of heavy metals in aquatic systems. Therefore, characteristics\\u000a of heavy metal in

  5. Process for precipitating heavy metals from wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Hallberg, R.O.

    1982-10-19

    A process is given for precipitating heavy metals from wastewater containing sulfate ions by treatment of the water with sulfate-reducing bacteria. Said bacteria will reduce the sulfate ions to hydrogen sulfide which in its turn will precipitate the metal ions in the form of metal sulfides. According to the invention the bacteria are cultured in one or more culturing vessels in the presence of a nutritive solution and a portion of the wastewater, and the resulting aqueous solution containing hydrogen sulfide produced by the bacteria is introduced into a precipitation vessel together with the remaining major portion of the wastewater.

  6. Heavy metals in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, G.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, University Park, PA (United States); Fosmire, G.J. [Dept. of Nutrition, University Park, PA (United States); Bellis, E.D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    Concentration (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) in soil and wildlife at the Palmerton zinc smelter site in eastern Pennsylvania were determined 6 yr after zinc smelting was terminated in 1980. Levels of the four metals were higher in litter (01 and 02 horizon) than in soil (A1 horizon), and the metals were at or near levels when the smelters were still in operation. Levels of metals in sod weft highest at sites close to the smelters and decreased as distances from the smelters increased. The relation of decreasing amounts of metals in body tissues with increasing distance from the smelters also held true for amphibians and mammals. An exception to this relation was higher level of Cu in red-lacked salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) captured {approx}17 km downwind than those captured {approx}12 km downwind. Levels of Zn, Pb, and Co in liver, kidney, and muscle tissue of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were not different (P >0.05) among sites. Cadmium in kidneys in white-footed mice exceeded 10 mg&& which is reportedly considered an indication of environmental contamination. Levels of Cd in kidneys and liver of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at Palmerton were five times higher than those for white-tailed deer collected 180 km southwest of Palmerton in southcentral Pennsylvania. The abnormal amounts of metals in the tissues of terrestrial vertebrates, and the absence or low abundance of wildlife at Palmerton indicated that ecological processes within 5 km of the smelters were markedly influenced 6 yr after zinc smelting was discontinued. 41 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Biomonitoring Atmospheric Heavy Metals with Lichens: Theory and Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Garty

    2001-01-01

    Recent records of environmental contamination noted a moderate decrease of SO2 pollution, whereas the burden of atmospheric heavy metals is still considerable. The present review refers to the entrapment, uptake, and accumulation of heavy metals by lichen thalli, made apparent by parameters of lichen vitality and stress. The particulate nature of airborne heavy metals is made evident by parameters referring

  8. Heavy metal uptake capacities of common marine macro algal biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiming Yu; Jose T Matheickal; Pinghe Yin; Pairat Kaewsarn

    1999-01-01

    Biosorption of heavy metals is an effective technology for the treatment of industrial waste waters. The uptake capacities of the biomass of a group of nine marine macro algae for heavy metal ions (cadmium, copper and lead) were evaluated. Equilibrium isotherms for each biomass–heavy metal system were obtained from batch adsorption experiments. The maximum uptake capacities of the biomass ranged

  9. Heavy metal contaminants in inorganic and organic fertilizers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Mortvedt

    1995-01-01

    Commercial phosphate (P) fertilizers contain small amounts of heavy-metal contaminants which were minor constituents in phosphate rock (PR). Animal manures and sewage sludges (biosolids) are the main organic fertilizers and the latter also may contain heavy-metal contaminants. Heavy metals in biosolids may be found in the inorganic form or may be organically complexed, which could affect their chemical reactions in

  10. A Fuzzy Model of Heavy Metal Loadings in Marine Environment

    E-print Network

    Kuncheva, Ludmila I.

    A Fuzzy Model of Heavy Metal Loadings in Marine Environment L.I. Kuncheva1 , J. Wrench2 , L.C. Jain model of the loadings of heavy metals for two coastal areas of the Irish Sea (Liverpool Bay, Morecambe Bay, heavy metal concentrations, index of spa- tial distribution, spatial data analysis. 1

  11. Heavy Metal Contamination of Roadside Soils of Northern England

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KHALID FAROOQ AKBAR; WILIAM H. G. HALE; ALISTAIR D. HEADLEY; MOHAMMAD ATHAR

    Environmental pollution of heavy metals from automobiles has attained much attention in the recent past. The present research was conducted to study heavy metal contamination in roadside soils of northern England. Roadside soil samples were collected from 35 sites in some counties of northern England and analysed for four heavy metals (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc). Their concentrations and distributions in

  12. Heavy metals in avian eggshells: Another excretion method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna Burger

    1994-01-01

    Birds can rid their bodies of heavy metals through both excretion and deposition in feathers, and females can also eliminate heavy metals in the contents of their eggs. In this paper the levels of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury, selenium, manganese, chromium) in the contents and shells of eggs of roseate terns (Sterna dougallii,) and herring gulls (Larus argentatus) nesting

  13. Differential responses of sweetpotato peroxidases to heavy metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yun-Hee Kim; Haeng-Soon Lee; Sang-Soo Kwak

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of damage in plants exposed to different types of environmental stress, including heavy metals. Accumulation of heavy metals in plants can disrupt many cellular functions and plant growth. To assess the contribution of oxidative stress to heavy metal toxicity in plants, young sweetpotato plants (Ipomoea batatas) were treated with increasing concentrations of

  14. Tons of Heavy Metals in Mill Creek Sediments Heather Freeman

    E-print Network

    Maynard, J. Barry

    Tons of Heavy Metals in Mill Creek Sediments Heather Freeman 8/30/99 Geology Department Advisors: Dr. Kees DeJong Dr. Barry Manyard Dr. David Nash #12;Tons of heavy metals in Mill Creek sediments Heavy metals may accumulate in the sediment of rivers or creeks. Precipitation results in urban runoff

  15. REVIEW ARTICLE Heavy Metal Pollutants and Chemical Ecology: Exploring

    E-print Network

    Boyd, Robert S.

    REVIEW ARTICLE Heavy Metal Pollutants and Chemical Ecology: Exploring New Frontiers Robert S. Boyd January 2010 # Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010 Abstract Heavy metals are an important class, as these may have harmful ecological outcomes. For example, recent explora- tions of heavy metals in freshwater

  16. Adsorption of heavy metals from wastewater with waste activated sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study is the investigation of the adsorption of heavy metals from wastewater with waste activated sludge (WAS) so as to increase the operational flexibility of activated sludge processes for the shock loading problems of heavy metals. By contacting the raw wastewater with WAS, before it entered the activated sludge process unit, some heavy metals in the

  17. Chemometric interpretation of heavy metal patterns in soils worldwide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Biljana Škrbi?; Nataša ?uriši?-Mladenovi?

    2010-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on data sets containing levels of six heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr) in soils from different parts of the world in order to investigate the information captured in the global heavy metal patterns. Data used in this study consisted of the heavy metal contents determined in 23 soil samples from and

  18. Heavy metal fates in laboratory bioretention systems.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xueli; Davis, Allen P

    2007-01-01

    Key to managing heavy metals in bioretention is to understand their fates in bioretention facilities. In this study, pot prototypes filled with bioretention media were built to simulate the conditions of natural growth of plants. Synthetic runoff with different heavy metal loadings (copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc) was periodically applied. Metal accumulations in tissues of grasses -Panicum virgatum, Kentucky-31, and Bromus ciliatus, were investigated after 230d of growth and multiple runoff treatment events. After 183d of periodic runoff application, the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd with low and high loadings had the same trends in the plant tissues, Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd, following the trend of the input metal concentrations. The fates of input metals were 88-97% captured in soil media, 2.0-11.6% not captured by bioretention media, and 0.5-3.3% accumulated in plants. Compared to the metals retained by the soil, the percentages of input metals taken up by plants were relatively low due to the low plant biomass produced in this study. Greater biomass density would be required for the vegetation to have a valuable impact in prolonging the lifetime of a bioretention cell. PMID:17005239

  19. Innovative coprecipitation technique for removing heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.C. (Univ. of Missouri-Rolla); McCole, P.M.; Breuer, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop such a novel technology capable of precipitating and removing toxic metals from wastewater without simultaneously removing the organic suspended and settleable solids. To achieve this, an upflow-expanded sand bed was used with lime feed to foster coprecipitation of metals, calcium carbonate, and calcium hydroxyapatite on the sand grains. The experimental work of this study consisted of evaluating the feasibility of the proposed technology for removing toxic heavy metals at four different pH's: 10.5, 10.0, 9.5, and 9.0. Six metals were selected: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). In addition to evaluations of the metal removals, the reductions of total phosphorous (P), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), and volatile suspended solids (VSS) were also studied.

  20. Heavy metal removal from a multi-metal solution and wastewater by Salvinia natans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhupinder Dhir; Sheela Srivastava

    2011-01-01

    Salvinia showed capacity to accumulate and hence remove more than one heavy metal from multi-metal solutions, though efficiency for heavy metal uptake varied for each metal present in different combinations. The pattern of heavy metal accumulation was confirmed by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) analysis. There was a gradual decrease in heavy metal content in the wastewater samples when fresh biomass

  1. Functional Expression of a Bacterial Heavy Metal Transporter in Arabidopsis Enhances Resistance to and Decreases Uptake of Heavy Metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joohyun Lee; Hyunju Bae; Jeeyon Jeong; Jae-Yun Lee; Young-Yell Yang; Inhwan Hwang; Enrico Martinoia; Youngsook Lee

    2003-01-01

    Large parts of agricultural soil are contaminated with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). Although most environments are not heavily contaminated, the low levels observed nonetheless pose a high risk of heavy metal accumulation in the food chain. Therefore, approaches to develop plants with reduced heavy metal uptake are important. Recently, many transgenic plants with increased heavy metal resistance and uptake

  2. Bacterial sorption of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, M.D.; Wolf, D.C.; Ferris, F.G.; Beveridge, T.J.; Flemming, C.A.

    1989-01-01

    Four bacteria, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were examined for the ability to remove Ag{sup +}, Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and La{sup 3+} from solution by batch equilibration methods. Cd and Cu sorption over the concentration range 0.001 to 1 mM was described by Freundlich isotherms. At 1 mM concentrations of both Cd{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+}, P. aeruginosa and B. cereus were the most and least efficient at metal removal, respectively. Freundlich K constants indicated that E. coli was most efficient at Cd{sup 2+} removal and B. subtilis removed the most Cu{sup 2+}. Removal of Ag{sup +} from solution by bacteria was very efficient; an average of 89% of the total Ag{sup +} was removed from the 1 mM solution, whereas only 12, 29, and 27% of the total Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and La{sup 3+}, respectively, were sorbed from 1 mM solutions. Electron microscopy indicated that La{sup 3+} accumulated at the cell surface as needlelike, crystalline precipitates. Silver precipitated as discrete colloidal aggregates at the cell surface and occasionally in the cytoplasma. The results indicate that bacterial cells are capable of binding large quantities of different metals.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a heavy metal-resistant Burkholderia sp. from heavy metal-contaminated paddy field soil and its potential in promoting plant growth and heavy metal accumulation in metal-polluted soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-yu Jiang; Xia-fang Sheng; Meng Qian; Qing-ya Wang

    2008-01-01

    A heavy metal-resistant bacterial strain was isolated from heavy metal-contaminated soils and identified as Burkholderia sp. J62 based on the 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The heavy metal- and antibiotic resistance, heavy metal solubilization of the isolate were investigated. The isolate was also evaluated for promoting plant growth and Pb and Cd uptakes of the plants from heavy metal-contaminated soils

  4. Heavy Metal Removal Potential of Dried Salvinia Biomass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhupinder Dhir; Sekh A. Nasim; P. Sharmila; P. Pardha Saradhi

    2009-01-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate heavy metal adsorption capacity of Salvinia. Batch experiments showed that dry plant biomass possess good potential to adsorb heavy metals such as Ni, Co, Cr, Fe, and Cd. The metal adsorption increased with increase in initial metal concentration. The data obtained fitted well with Freundlich equilibrium isotherm. Further characterization of plant biomass showed presence

  5. Biomonitoring of heavy metal availability in the marine environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip S. Rainbow

    1995-01-01

    Biomonitors can be used to establish geographical and\\/or temporal variations in the bioavailabilities of heavy metals in the marine environment, offering time-integrated measures of those portions of the total ambient metal load that are of direct ecotoxicological relevance. Heavy metal biomonitors need to conform to certain required characteristics, not least being metal accumulators. Use of a suite of biomonitors allows

  6. Gold Nanoparticle-Based Sensing of "Spectroscopically Silent" Heavy Metal

    E-print Network

    Letters Gold Nanoparticle-Based Sensing of "Spectroscopically Silent" Heavy Metal Ions Youngjin Kim of aqueous heavy metal ions, including toxic metals such as lead, cadmium, and mercury, is described. Functionalized gold nanoparticles are aggregated in solution in the presence of divalent metal ions by an ion

  7. Cellular mechanisms for heavy metal detoxification and tolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Hall

    2002-01-01

    Heavy metals such as Cu and Zn are essential for normal plant growth, although elevated concentra- tions of both essential and non-essential metals can result in growth inhibition and toxicity symptoms. Plants possess a range of potential cellular mech- anisms that may be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals and thus tolerance to metal stress. These include roles for

  8. Quantum Criticality in Heavy Fermion Metals

    E-print Network

    Philipp Gegenwart; Qimiao Si; Frank Steglich

    2008-01-31

    Quantum criticality describes the collective fluctuations of matter undergoing a second-order phase transition at zero temperature. Heavy fermion metals have in recent years emerged as prototypical systems to study quantum critical points. There have been considerable efforts, both experimental and theoretical, which use these magnetic systems to address problems that are central to the broad understanding of strongly correlated quantum matter. Here, we summarize some of the basic issues, including i) the extent to which the quantum criticality in heavy fermion metals goes beyond the standard theory of order-parameter fluctuations, ii) the nature of the Kondo effect in the quantum critical regime, iii) the non-Fermi liquid phenomena that accompany quantum criticality, and iv) the interplay between quantum criticality and unconventional superconductivity.

  9. Remediation of Heavy Metal Contaminated Tropical Land

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Preeti Saxena; Neelam Misra

    Since the Industrial Revolution, human activities have resulted into the eventual release of huge amounts of chemicals (organic\\/inorganic)\\u000a into the tropical environment, either deliberately for agricultural and industrial purposes, or accidentally through the mishandling\\u000a of chemicals. The release of heavy metals into the terrestrial ecosystem is a major problem. The tropical ecosystem is the\\u000a largest in the world, and has

  10. Heavy metals in carabids (Coleoptera, Carabidae).

    PubMed

    Butovsky, Ruslan O

    2011-01-01

    Carabid beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) are one of the most studied soil groups in relation to heavy metal (HM) accumulation and use for bioindication of environmental pollution. Accumulation of Zn and Cu in carabid beetles was species-, sex- and trophic group-specific. No differences were found in HM contents between omnivorous and carnivorous species. The use of carabid beetles as indicators of HM accumulation appears to be rather limited. PMID:21738414

  11. Evaluation of estrogenicity of major heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Choe, Suck-Young; Kim, So-Jung; Kim, Hae-Gyoung; Lee, Ji Ho; Choi, Younghee; Lee, Hun; Kim, Yangho

    2003-08-01

    We have employed an estrogen receptor dependent transcriptional expression assay and E-Screen assay systems to evaluate the estrogenicity of various heavy metals and their species. Using the former, the following estrogenicity ranking was measured: bis(tri-n-butyltin)>cadmium chloride>antimony chloride>barium chloride=chromium chloride>lithium hydroxide>sodium selenate=lead acetate>stannous chloride. Using the latter, the following estrogenicity ranking was measured: bis(tri-n-butyltin)>cadmium chloride>antimony chloride>lithium hydroxide>barium chloride>sodium selenate>chromium chloride. Especially, bis(tri-n-butyltin), cadmium chloride, antimony chloride, lithium hydroxide, barium chloride, and chromium chloride showed estrogenicity in both assay systems. Recent studies suggesting that bis(tri-n-butyltin), cadmium chloride, and lithium hydroxide have estrogenicities are compatible with the present findings. Furthermore, our studies are the first to suggest that antimony, barium, chromium may be estrogenic. A range of estrogenicity was observed for different species of the same heavy metal. The results demonstrate that an estrogen receptor dependent transcriptional expression assay and the E-Screen assay systems could serve as a useful method to assess the estrogenicity of heavy metals. PMID:12873394

  12. Material Removes Heavy Metal Ions From Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W.; Hill, Carol; Savino, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    New high capacity ion-exchange polymer material removes toxic metal cations from contaminated water. Offers several advantages. High sensitivities for such heavy metals as lead, cadmium, and copper and capable of reducing concentrations in aqueous solutions to parts-per-billion range. Removes cations even when calcium present. Material made into variety of forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As result, adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water, usually hard wherever found, whether in wastewater-treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or homes. Another important feature that adsorbed metals easily reclaimed by either destructive or nondestructive process. Other tests show ion-exchange polymer made inexpensively; easy to use; strong, flexible, not easily torn; and chemically stable in storage, in aqueous solutions, and in acidic or basic solution.

  13. Heavy metals in common foodstuff: Daily intake

    SciTech Connect

    Tsoumbaris, P.; Tsoukali-Papadopoulou, H. (Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece))

    1994-07-01

    Lately, toxic effects of some heavy metals (Pb, Cd) as well as desirable ones of some others (Ni, Mn, Zn) have been a field of thorough investigation. The main way of human body fortification in metals is through foodchain depending on the kind and quantity of the consumed food, according to dietary habits. The purpose of this study is the calculation of metals daily intake through common foodstuff of Greek inhabitants. The calculation is based on results from quantitative analysis of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn in common foodstuff from the market of the city of Thessaloniki. The daily food consumption data is derived from three sources: (a) answers to a questionnaire distributed to families of the city of Thessaloniki, (b) nutrition data provided by the Agricultural Bank of Greece and (c) nutrition data according to international bibliography.

  14. Contamination of environment with heavy metals emitted from automotives

    SciTech Connect

    Falahi-Ardakani, A.

    1984-04-01

    Interest has arisen in heavy-metal contamination of the environment, mostly because of potential hazards to the health of animals and human (directly and/or indirectly). High levels of heavy metals in soil, plants, and the atmosphere are often related to industries, highways, chemical dumping, impure chemical fertilizers, and pesticides containing metals. An important source of heavy metals, especially lead, is from the combustion of leaded gasoline used for transportation. Other heavy metals associated with transportation include nickel, which is also added to gasoline and is contained in engine parts, zinc, and cadmium from tires, lubricating oils, and galvanized parts such as fuel tanks.

  15. Facultative hyperaccumulation of heavy metals and metalloids.

    PubMed

    Pollard, A Joseph; Reeves, Roger D; Baker, Alan J M

    2014-03-01

    Approximately 500 species of plants are known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals and metalloids. The majority are obligate metallophytes, species that are restricted to metalliferous soils. However, a smaller but increasing list of plants are "facultative hyperaccumulators" that hyperaccumulate heavy metals when occurring on metalliferous soils, yet also occur commonly on normal, non-metalliferous soils. This paper reviews the biology of facultative hyperaccumulators and the opportunities they provide for ecological and evolutionary research. The existence of facultative hyperaccumulator populations across a wide edaphic range allows intraspecific comparisons of tolerance and uptake physiology. This approach has been used to study zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation by Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri, and it will be instructive to make similar comparisons on species that are distributed even more abundantly on normal soil. Over 90% of known hyperaccumulators occur on serpentine (ultramafic) soil and accumulate nickel, yet there have paradoxically been few experimental studies of facultative nickel hyperaccumulation. Several hypotheses suggested to explain the evolution of hyperaccumulation seem unlikely when most populations of a species occur on normal soil, where plants cannot hyperaccumulate due to low metal availability. In such species, it may be that hyperaccumulation is an ancestral phylogenetic trait or an anomalous manifestation of physiological mechanisms evolved on normal soils, and may or may not have direct adaptive benefits. PMID:24467891

  16. Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, C.; Ribeiro, A.; Ottosen, L.

    2003-05-01

    Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in what concerns heavy metals. Treatment of the flue gas in air pollution control equipment plays an important role and the basic processes to accomplish this are explained. Fly ash from a semi-dry flue gas treatment system is characterized regarding its physical-chemical properties: pH, solubility, chemical composition, and leaching, amongst others. Results indicate a high alkalinity and the presence of large amounts of calcium, chlorides, sulfates, carbonates, sodium and potassium. Metal concentrations in fly ash are: 6,2g/kg for zinc, 2,4g/kg for lead, 1,7g/kg for iron, and 7,9g/kg for magnesium. Copper, manganese, chromium and cadmium are also present with 546, 338, 104 and 91mg/kg of fly ash, respectively. These results are extremely important in subsequent studies on the treatment of fly ash.

  17. Heavy metal pumps in plants. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.F.

    1998-06-01

    'The purpose of the proposed DOE research is to determine the function of AMA1, a novel heavy metal pump identified in a model plant system, Arabidopsis. Heavy metal pumps belong to a superfamily of P-type ATPases which include the plasma membrane Na/K-ATPase in animals and the plasma membrane H + ATPase in plants and fungi. Heavy metal pumps have been implicated in heavy metal resistance (e.g., cadmium) and regulation of essential micronutrients (e.g., copper). Although several heavy metal pumps have now been identified in plants, their isoform specific functions have not been investigated. The results suggest that AMA1 is a molydenum uptake pump. The authors are exploring the possibility to engineer the ion specificity of these pumps to take up other heavy metals from the soil. This report summarizes work after 2 years of a 3 year project.'

  18. Hyperaccumulators, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and stress of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Miransari, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Use of plants, with hyperaccumulating ability or in association with soil microbes including the symbiotic fungi, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), are among the most common biological methods of treating heavy metals in soil. Both hyperaccumulating plants and AM fungi have some unique abilities, which make them suitable to treat heavy metals. Hyperaccumulator plants have some genes, being expressed at the time of heavy metal pollution, and can accordingly localize high concentration of heavy metals to their tissues, without showing the toxicity symptoms. A key solution to the issue of heavy metal pollution may be the proper integration of hyperaccumulator plants and AM fungi. The interactions between the soil microbes and the host plant can also be important for the treatment of soils polluted with heavy metals. PMID:21557996

  19. Determination of heavy metals by isotachophoresis.

    PubMed

    Everaerts, F M; Verheggen, T P; Reijenga, J C; Aben, G V; Gebauer, P; Bocek, P

    1985-02-22

    The suitability of isotachophoresis for the analysis of metals in, e.g., environmental samples was studied. In a cationic operational system the heavy metals Fe, Cu, Ni, Cd, Co, Zn, Pb and Mn were simultaneously determined. The separation was achieved through complex formation with one of the counter ions, hydroxyisobutyric acid. The other counter ion was acetic acid, the leading ion was 0.02 M potassium or sodium (pH 4.1) and the terminator was H+. The analysis time was 15 min at 60 microA in a 0.2 mm I.D. capillary. Aqueous samples containing ppm and ppb amounts were enriched on a cation exchanger with an extremely low affinity for sodium (Chelex 100). Good recovery, linearity, precision and accuracy were obtained even down to the ppb range. Although the sensitivity of the method is not greater than that of some of the more established methods for the individual metals, a great advantage of isotachophoresis is the simultaneous determination of the metals, with equal response factors. An example is given of the determination of metals, including aluminium, in serum. PMID:4030933

  20. REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM ELECTROPLATING WASTEWATER BY FERRITISATION

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chompoonut Chaiyaraksa; Chatporn Klaikeow

    A laboratory scale reactor was designed for the purification of synthetic heavy metals containing wastewater and electroplating wastewater. The optimum conditions for ferritisation of heavy metal cations were studied with respect to the ratio of M 2+ concentration used to treat wastewater containing two and three heavy metal cations was 100-200 mg.l-1 higher than the Fe2+ concentration used to treat

  1. Reduction of heavy metal load in food chain: technology assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anita Singh; Sheo Mohan Prasad

    Industrialization and urbanization activities lead to extensive environmental problems and one of the most challenging problems\\u000a is heavy metal contamination. Heavy metal is responsible for causing adverse effect on human health through food chain contamination.\\u000a To minimize the effect, different methods are being used for decreasing heavy metal load into the food chain. Most of the\\u000a traditional methods are either

  2. Perspective on Phytoremediation for Improving Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-Bo Shao; Li-Ye Chu; Fu-Tai Ni; Dong-Gang Guo; Hua Li; Wei-Xiang Li

    \\u000a Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem and has its negative potential impact on human health\\u000a and agriculture. Phytoremediation strategies with appropriate heavy metal-adapted rhizobacteria (for example, mycorrhizae)\\u000a have received more and more attention. Some plants possess a range of potential mechanisms that may be involved in the detoxification\\u000a of heavy metals, and they manage to survive

  3. Heavy metal effects on soil populations and heavy metal tolerance of Rhizobium meliloti , nodulation, and growth of alfalfa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Angle; R. L. Chaney

    1991-01-01

    Effects of heavy metals on rhizobia and the symbiotic association with leguminous hosts are currently unclear. To investigate this problem, we examined Rhizobium meliloti (microsymbiont) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) (macrosymbiont) collected from soils contaminated with varying concentrations of heavy metals (varying distances from a Zn smelter operating 90 yr.). Soil populations of R. meliloti were not correlated with metal concentrations

  4. Removal of dissolved heavy metals and radionuclides by microbial spores

    SciTech Connect

    Revis, N.W.; Hadden, C.T.; Edenborn, H. [and others

    1997-11-01

    Microbial systems have been shown to remove specific heavy metals from contaminated aqueous waste to levels acceptable to EPA for environmental release. However, systems capable of removing a variety of heavy metals from aqueous waste to environmentally acceptable levels remain to be reported. The present studies were performed to determine the specificity of spores of the bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the adsorption of dissolved metals and radionuclides from aqueous waste. The spores effectively adsorbed eight heavy metals from a prepared metal mix and from a plating rinse waste to EPA acceptable levels for waste water. These results suggest that spores have multiple binding sites for the adsorption of heavy metals. Spores were also effective in adsorbing the radionuclides {sup 85}strontium and {sup 197}cesium. The presence of multiple sites in spores for the adsorption of heavy metals and radionuclides makes this biosorbent a good candidate for the treatment of aqueous wastes associated with the plating and nuclear industries. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

  5. Combined Effects of Heavy Metal Ions on Bacteria and the Determination of Heavy Metals by Bioassay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Tumanov; P. A. Krest'yaninov

    2004-01-01

    In the framework of the development of bioassay, a procedure was developed for studying the combined effects of heavy metal ions on bacteria. The bacterium Bacillus subtilis niger was proposed as an analytical indicator. A universal calculation system was developed that allows one to obtain and analyze functional models of toxicity and the combined effects of toxicants. Models for the

  6. MELIMEX, an experimental heavy metal pollution study: Oligochaetes and chironomid larvae in heavy metal loaded and control limno-corrals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claude Lang; Barbara Lang-Dobler

    1979-01-01

    In two limno-corrals loaded with heavy metals the density of tubificid worms and chironomid larvae was higher than in the\\u000a control. The better oxygen conditions observed in the heavy metal loaded corrals might explain this discrepancy. The higher\\u000a oxygen concentration at the sediment-water interface was due to lower organic sedimentation, consequence of the primary production\\u000a reduced by heavy metals. In

  7. Cloning of a Heavy-Metal-Binding Protein Derived from Activated-Sludge Microorganisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Sano; Ken Myojo; Tatsuo Omura

    2006-01-01

    Water pollution with anthropogenic heavy metals has been reported throughout the world (9, 19). Although heavy metal removal in water and wastewater treatment processes is crucial to protect the water environment from heavy metal pollution, conventional physicochemical procedures for heavy metal re- moval have several disadvantages in processing a large volume of polluted water. Heavy metal removal technologies such as

  8. Heavy metal distribution in the Godavari River basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biksham, G.; Subramanian, V.; Ramanathan, A. L.; van Grieken, R.

    1991-03-01

    Suspended and bed sediments collected from the entire region of the Godavari River basin were analyzed for Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. There are pronounced temporal and spatial variations in the heavy metal distributions. The concentrations of heavy metals in the suspended sediments are significantly higher than the bed sediments. Throughout the basin heavy metals are enriched in the finer fractions (<2 µm) of the bed sediments. The average heavymetal composition of the sediments is higher when compared to the average Indian river sediments. Heavy-metal concentration in the two shallow cores collected shows, to some extent, the influence of urbanization. When compared to the other tropical Indian rivers such as the Krishna, the Godavari appears to be a significant contributor of heavy metals to the Bay of Bengal. Considering the enormous sediment load of the Godavari River—170 million tons/yr, the heavy metal fluxes to the Bay of Bengal is very significant. Except for the Pranhita, other tributaries of the Godavari do not contribute significant loads of heavy metals. All the metals show high correlation among themselves and the correlation is more pronounced in suspended sediments than in the bed sediments. The heavy-metal distribution, fractionation, and its relationship with total suspended sediments and depth in various parts of the basin are discussed in detail.

  9. Heavy metal removal potential of dried Salvinia biomass.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Bhupinder; Nasim, Sekh A; Sharmila, P; Saradhi, P Pardha

    2010-02-01

    Investigations were carried out to evaluate heavy metal adsorption capacity of Salvinia. Batch experiments showed that dry plant biomass possess good potential to adsorb heavy metals such as Ni, Co, Cr, Fe, and Cd. The metal adsorption increased with increase in initial metal concentration. The data obtained fitted well with Freundlich equilibrium isotherm. Further characterization of plant biomass showed presence of both acidic and basic surface functionalities that might facilitate binding of metal ions. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of plant biomass suggested involvement of carbonyl (C=O), carboxyl (-COO), and hydroxyl (-OH) groups in binding heavy metals to plant biomass. The studies establish S. natans as an effective biosorbent for removing heavy metals from wastewater and further emphasize biomass utilization in wastewater treatment technologies. PMID:20734611

  10. Toxic Heavy Metals: Materials Cycle Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Robert U.

    1992-02-01

    Long-term ecological sustainability is incompatible with an open materials cycle. The toxic heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, uranium/plutonium, zinc) exemplify the problem. These metals are being mobilized and dispersed into the environment by industrial activity at a rate far higher than by natural processes. Apart from losses to the environment resulting from mine wastes and primary processing, many of these metals are utilized in products that are inherently dissipative. Examples of such uses include fuels, lubricants, solvents, fire retardants, stabilizers, flocculants, pigments, biocides, and preservatives. To close the materials cycle, it will be necessary to accomplish two things. The first is to ban or otherwise discourage (e.g., by means of high severance taxes on virgin materials) dissipative uses of the above type. The second is to increase the efficiency of recycling of those materials that are not replaceable in principle. Here, also, economic instruments (such as returnable deposits) can be effective in some cases. A systems view of the problem is essential to assess the cost and effectiveness of alternative strategies.

  11. Toxic heavy metals: materials cycle optimization.

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, R U

    1992-01-01

    Long-term ecological sustainability is incompatible with an open materials cycle. The toxic heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, uranium/plutonium, zinc) exemplify the problem. These metals are being mobilized and dispersed into the environment by industrial activity at a rate far higher than by natural processes. Apart from losses to the environment resulting from mine wastes and primary processing, many of these metals are utilized in products that are inherently dissipative. Examples of such uses include fuels, lubricants, solvents, fire retardants, stabilizers, flocculants, pigments, biocides, and preservatives. To close the materials cycle, it will be necessary to accomplish two things. The first is to ban or otherwise discourage (e.g., by means of high severance taxes on virgin materials) dissipative uses of the above type. The second is to increase the efficiency of recycling of those materials that are not replaceable in principle. Here, also, economic instruments (such as returnable deposits) can be effective in some cases. A systems view of the problem is essential to assess the cost and effectiveness of alternative strategies. PMID:11607259

  12. Heavy Metals Toxicity and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tchounwou, Paul B; Yedjou, Clement G; Patlolla, Anita K; Sutton, Dwayne J

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals are naturally occurring elements that have a high atomic weight and a density at least 5 times greater than that of water. Their multiple industrial, domestic, agricultural, medical and technological applications have led to their wide distribution in the environment; raising concerns over their potential effects on human health and the environment. Their toxicity depends on several factors including the dose, route of exposure, and chemical species, as well as the age, gender, genetics, and nutritional status of exposed individuals. Because of their high degree of toxicity, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury rank among the priority metals that are of public health significance. These metallic elements are considered systemic toxicants that are known to induce multiple organ damage, even at lower levels of exposure. They are also classified as human carcinogens (known or probable) according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This review provides an analysis of their environmental occurrence, production and use, potential for human exposure, and molecular mechanisms of toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. PMID:22945569

  13. Heavy metal geochemistry of the Pontchartrain-Maurepas estuarine complex

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Flowers; W. C. Isphording

    1990-01-01

    The Pontchartrain-Maurepas estuarine complex has become the focus of an intense debate concerning hydraulic shell dredging and its effects. Besides disrupting the benthic community, it has been alleged by the opponents of shell dredging that the mining process releases harmful concentrations of heavy metals into the water column. Bottom sediment heavy metal data combined with ion-site partitioning analyses provide a

  14. Estimation of heavy metal transformations in municipal solid waste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Flyhammar

    1997-01-01

    The behaviour of heavy metals bound to municipal solid waste (MSW) and exposed to 2 decades of anaerobic waste stabilization processes have been estimated. Heavy metal solid forms in a waste degradation residue have been compared with a reconstructed waste similar to that initially disposed of in 1973. The initial waste was composed of a mixture of shredded MSW (95%

  15. Heavy Metal Resistance of Biofilm and Planktonic Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gail M. Teitzel; Matthew R. Parsek

    2003-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effects of the heavy metals copper, lead, and zinc on biofilm and planktonic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A rotating-disk biofilm reactor was used to generate biofilm and free- swimming cultures to test their relative levels of resistance to heavy metals. It was determined that biofilms were anywhere from 2 to 600 times more resistant to

  16. BIOTESTING OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION IN THE SOIL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    György FÜLEKY; Szilvia BARNA

    2008-01-01

    Biotesting of heavy metal pollution in the soil. Chemical pollution of the environment increases sharply globally, and one of the most significant indicator of this increasing pollution is the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil. In mobile forms they can enter the food chain, damaging the environment seriously and posing a risk to human health. The subject of this

  17. Heavy metal uptake by marsh plants in hydroponic solution cultures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Lee; T. C. Sturgis; M. C. Landin

    1981-01-01

    Eight marsh plants were grown in chemically controlled hydroponic solutions containing three concentrations of heavy metals to evaluate the ability of each plant species to take up and accumulate heavy metals. The marsh plants studited were Cyperus esculentus, Scirpus validus, Spartina patens, Scirpus robustus, Distichiis spicata, Triglochin maritima, Spartina alterniflora, and Spartina foliosa. These species represented freshwater, brackish water, and

  18. The Relationship between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kalantari A; Bina B; Loloee M. MSc

    Background: Heavy metals and PAHs in flue gas have received considerable attention in recent years due to their mutagenic or carcinogenic properties. PAHs are products of incomplete combustion of carbonaceous compounds at high temperatures. Heavy metals are released into the ambient air from the same sources as those earlier mentioned for PAHs. The present study was carried out to investigate

  19. HEAVY METAL TOXICITY OF RIVER RAVI AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Javed; S. Hayat

    1999-01-01

    The assessment of river water quality has been made by physico-chemical and biological analyses. The role ofplankton as indicators offreshwater contamination by heavy metals viz. zinc, iron, manganese, cadmium, lead and nickel has been studied through the computation ofregression models. Significant variations in the concentration of heavy metals in water were due to changes in the volume of untreated industrial

  20. Agro-improving method of phytoextracting heavy metal contaminated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuhe Wei; Qixing Zhou

    2008-01-01

    Phytoextraction of heavy metal contaminated soils is a promising remediation technology. Till now, more than several hundreds of hyperaccumulators or non-hyperaccumulators which can be used to clean polluted soils with heavy metals have been reported. However, phytoextraction is still not extensively applied. Thus, some measurements should be taken to improve phytoremediation. This paper introduced the basic mechanisms of phytoextration, its

  1. Heavy Metals Contamination in Coastal Sediments of Karachi, Pakistan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Siddique; M. Mumtaz; N. A. Zaigham; K. A. Mallick; S. Saied; H. A. Khwaja

    2008-01-01

    Toxic compounds such as heavy metals exert chronic and lethal effects in animals, plants, and human health. With the rapid industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi, heavy metals are continuing to be introduced to estuarine and coastal environment through rivers, runoff and land-based point sources. Pollution in the Karachi coastal region (167 km long) is mainly attributed to Lyari

  2. Heavy metal concentrations in tissues of mink in Virginia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin C. Ogle; Patrick F. Scanlon; Roy L. Kirkpatrick; Jack V. Gwynn

    1985-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc and copper in wild mink populations from Virginia and to determine if differences existed in heavy metal concentrations among sexes, ages and locations of capture. Mink were chosen for this study because their high trophic status and opportunistic feeding patterns make them potential indicators of heavy metal pollution.

  3. ENZYME-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATIONS OF HEAVY METALS/METALLOIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major emphasis has been placed on the bioremediation of organic compounds and their fate and transport throughout the environment. However, another important class of chemicals polluting our environment are inorganic, particularly heavy metals and metalloids. Heavy metals are elements of the Per...

  4. REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS USING ALUMINUM SALTS FOR PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The use of aluminum salts to remove phosphorus is common practice. It has been shown that aluminum salts are also capable of removing heavy metals, but the dosages were much greater than normally applied for phosphorus removal. This study investigates the removal of heavy metals ...

  5. BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS BY LITTORAL AND PELAGIC MARINE ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine organisms appear to be useful indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment. In order to test this concept, research was performed to determine the levels of heavy metals in selected indicator organisms. Several approaches were used. The first was to select...

  6. Hyperaccumulators, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and stress of heavy metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammad Miransari

    2011-01-01

    Use of plants, with hyperaccumulating ability or in association with soil microbes including the symbiotic fungi, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), are among the most common biological methods of treating heavy metals in soil. Both hyperaccumulating plants and AM fungi have some unique abilities, which make them suitable to treat heavy metals. Hyperaccumulator plants have some genes, being expressed at the time

  7. Bioremediation of heavy metals using biostimulation in laboratory bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Fulekar, M H; Sharma, Jaya; Tendulkar, Akalpita

    2012-12-01

    The present research study investigates bioremediation potential of biostimulated microbial culture isolated from heavy metals waste disposal contaminated site located at Bhayander (east), Mumbai, India. The physicochemical and microbial characterization including heavy metal contaminants have been studied at waste disposal site. The microorganisms adapted at heavy metal-contaminated environment were isolated, cultured, and biostimulated in minimal salt medium under aerobic conditions in a designed and developed laboratory bioreactor. Heavy metals such as Fe, Cu, and Cd at a selected concentration of 25, 50, and 100 ?g/ml were taken in bioreactor wherein biostimulated microbial culture was added for bioremediation of heavy metals under aerobic conditions. The remediation of heavy metals was studied at an interval of 24 h for a period of 21 days. The biostimulated microbial consortium has been found effective for remediation of Cd, Cu, and Fe at higher concentration, i.e., 100 mg/l up to 98.5%, 99.6%, and 100%, respectively. Fe being a micronutrient was remediated completely compared to Cu and Cd. During the bioaccumulation of heavy metals by microorganisms, environmental parameters such as pH, total alkalinity, electronic conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, etc. were monitored and assessed. The pilot scale study would be applicable to remediate heavy metals from waste disposal contaminated site to clean up the environment. PMID:22270588

  8. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF HEAVY METALS BEHAVIOUR DURING MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Me´tallurgie (LSG2M) Nancy, France T he incineration of municipal solid waste (MSW) contributesTHERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF HEAVY METALS BEHAVIOUR DURING MUNICIPAL WASTE INCINERATION Y. ME´ NARD, A of heavy metals contained in the municipal wastes during their incineration in a grate furnace. Considering

  9. Evaluation of Heavy Metals in Slags from Medical Waste Incinerator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Santarsiero; M. Ottaviani

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the landfilling of solid residues from hospital waste incineration in Italy and its complex legal status (hazardous or nonhazardous). According to current regulations, the parameter to be controlled is the concentration of heavy metals before their final disposal in a landfill. Some results are reported on the heavy metal content in slag samples from a medical solid

  10. Heavy metal accumulation in the sediments of a Washington lake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. Wisseman; S. F. Jr. Cook

    1977-01-01

    Conclusions Freshwater and marine sediments are known to be potential sinks for heavy metals discharged into the atmosphere and into water through man's activities. Under natural conditions lake sediments may concentrate heavy metals to a certain extent over surrounding geological material.

  11. Biosorption: An eco-friendly alternative for heavy metal removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Srinivasa Reddy Ronda; Vijaya Saradhi Settalluri; Koneru Lakshmaiah

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals occur in immobilized form in sediments and as ores in nature. However due to various human activities like ore mining and industrial processes the natural biogeochemical cycles are disrupted causing increased deposition of heavy metals in terrestrial and aquatic environment. Release of these pollutants without proper treatment poses a significant threat to both environment and public health, as

  12. New approach to studies of heavy metal redistribution in soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. X. Han; A. Banin; W. L. Kingery; G. B. Triplett; L. X. Zhou; S. J. Zheng; W. X. Ding

    2003-01-01

    The bioavailability and mobility of heavy metals in soils is dependent upon redistribution processes between solution and solid phases and among solid-phase components. This paper reviews the definitions and applications of two newly developed parameters, the redistribution index and the reduced partitioning parameter, in quantifying redistribution processes of heavy metals in contaminated soils. The redistribution index depicts the removal\\/attainment of

  13. Fate and effects of heavy metals on the Arkansas river

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, W.H.

    1991-12-15

    The project examined fate and effects of heavy metals on biological communities in the upper Arkansas River Basin. The principal objectives of the research were: (1) to measure the impact of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) on benthic invertebrate communities in the Arkansas River; (2) to delineate zones of high impact, moderate impact, and recovery based on the distribution and abundance of these organisms; (3) to examine seasonal variation in effects of metals on benthic communities; (4) to examine the potential transfer of heavy metals from benthic invertebrates to brown trout, Salmo trutta.

  14. Biomedical Implications of Heavy Metals Induced Imbalances in Redox Systems

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shweta; Siddiqi, Nikhat J.

    2014-01-01

    Several workers have extensively worked out the metal induced toxicity and have reported the toxic and carcinogenic effects of metals in human and animals. It is well known that these metals play a crucial role in facilitating normal biological functions of cells as well. One of the major mechanisms associated with heavy metal toxicity has been attributed to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, which develops imbalance between the prooxidant elements and the antioxidants (reducing elements) in the body. In this process, a shift to the former is termed as oxidative stress. The oxidative stress mediated toxicity of heavy metals involves damage primarily to liver (hepatotoxicity), central nervous system (neurotoxicity), DNA (genotoxicity), and kidney (nephrotoxicity) in animals and humans. Heavy metals are reported to impact signaling cascade and associated factors leading to apoptosis. The present review illustrates an account of the current knowledge about the effects of heavy metals (mainly arsenic, lead, mercury, and cadmium) induced oxidative stress as well as the possible remedies of metal(s) toxicity through natural/synthetic antioxidants, which may render their effects by reducing the concentration of toxic metal(s). This paper primarily concerns the clinicopathological and biomedical implications of heavy metals induced oxidative stress and their toxicity management in mammals. PMID:25184144

  15. Decomposition of heavy metal contaminated nettles ( Urtica dioica L.) in soils subjected to heavy metal pollution by river sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Khalid Saifullah Khan; Rainer Georg Joergensen

    2006-01-01

    Two incubation experiments were conducted to evaluate differences in the microbial use of non-contaminated and heavy metal contaminated nettle (Urtica dioica L.) shoot residues in three soils subjected to heavy metal pollution (Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd) by river sediments. The microbial use of shoot residues was monitored by changes in microbial biomass C, biomass N, biomass P, ergosterol, N

  16. Cell surface engineering of microorganisms towards adsorption of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng-Song; Tao, Hu-Chun

    2015-06-01

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide environmental concern due to its toxicity, non-degradability and food-chain bioaccumulation. Conventional physical and chemical treatment methods for heavy metal removal have disadvantages such as cost-intensiveness, incomplete removal, secondary pollution and the lack of metal specificity. Microbial biomass-based biosorption is one of the approaches gaining increasing attention because it is effective, cheap, and environmental friendly and can work well at low concentrations. To enhance the adsorption properties of microbial cells to heavy metal ions, the cell surface display of various metal-binding proteins/peptides have been performed using a cell surface engineering approach. The surface engineering of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and yeast towards the adsorption of heavy metals are reviewed in this article. The problems and future perspectives of this technology are discussed. PMID:23915280

  17. Efflux-mediated heavy metal resistance in prokaryotes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietrich H Nies

    2003-01-01

    What makes a heavy metal resistant bacterium heavy metal resistant? The mechanisms of action, physiological functions, and distribution of metal-exporting proteins are outlined, namely: CBA efflux pumps driven by proteins of the resistance–nodulation–cell division superfamily, P-type ATPases, cation diffusion facilitator and chromate proteins, NreB- and CnrT-like resistance factors. The complement of efflux systems of 63 sequenced prokaryotes was compared with

  18. Stabilization of an elevated heavy metal contaminated site

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. M. Wang; T. C. Chen; K. J. Yeh; M. F. Shue

    2001-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination is a common problem that is encountered at many uncontrolled sites. Immobilization is seen as a promising technology for heavy metal remediation. Here, we report a remediation case study of an elevated and multi-metal contaminated site containing Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. In a laboratory test, when the soil was stabilized with reagent grade stabilizers (CaHPO4

  19. Biomethylation of Heavy Metals in Soil and Terrestrial Invertebrates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Burkhard Knopf; Helmut König

    Heavy metals play a prominent role in the lives of all organisms. They can be essential, as in the cases of iron, manganese,\\u000a nickel and copper, which are needed to obtain proper enzyme conformation and reactivity. Some heavy metals are toxic to organisms,\\u000a such as mercury or cadmium. Often, these metals are rarely accessible in their inorganic form. After biological

  20. Tea Plantation–Induced Activation of Soil Heavy Metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mingkui Zhang; Liping Fang

    2007-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in tea leaves is of concern because of its impact on tea quality. This study characterized long?term changes of soil properties and heavy?metal fractions in tea gardens and their effect on the uptake of metals from soils by the plants. Soil and tea leaf samples were collected from five plantations with a history of 2–70

  1. Kinetics of Desorption of Heavy Metals from Polluted Soils: Influence of Soil Type and Metal Source

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geeta Kandpal; P. C. Srivastava; Bali Ram

    2005-01-01

    Kinetics of desorption of heavy metal ions (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) from the surface (0–15 cm) samples of an acidic soil (Inceptisol) and a neutral soil (Mollisol) spiked with inorganic salts of these metals or through an acidic sludge were studied by the column method. The rate of desorption of soil applied heavy metals was initially rapid and gradually

  2. Bismuth film electrodes for heavy metals determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehacek, Vlastimil; Hotovy, Ivan; Vojs, Marian; Mika, Fedor

    2007-05-01

    Bismuth film electrodes (BiFEs) have a potential to replace toxic mercury used most frequently for determination of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn) by anodic stripping voltammetry. We prepared a graphite disc electrode (0.5 mm in diameter) from a pencil-lead rod and developed a nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (NDLC) microelectrode array consisting of 50 625 microdiscs with 3 ?m in diameter and interelectrode distances of 20 ?m on a highly conductive silicon substrate as a support for BiFEs. The disc graphite BiFE was used for simultaneous determination of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) by square wave voltammetry (SWV) in an aqueous solution. We found the optimum bismuth-to-metal concentration ratio in the solution to be 20. The dependence of the stripping responses on the concentration of target metals was linear in the range from 1×10 -8 to 1.2×10 -7 mol/L. Detection limits 2.4×10 -9 mol/L for Pb(II), 2.9×10 -9 mol/L for Cd(II) and 1.2×10 -8 mol/L for Zn(II) were estimated. A bismuth-plated NDLC microelectrode array was used for Pb(II) determination by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in an aqueous solution. We found that the stripping current for bismuth-plated NDLC array was linear in the concentration range of Pb(II) from 2×10 -8 to 1.2×10 -7 mol/L. The detection limit 2.2×10 -8 mol/L was estimated from a calibration plot.

  3. Heavy Metal Content in Plants from Family Lamiaceae Cultivated in an Industrially Polluted Region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Angelova; K. Ivanov; R. Ivanova

    2006-01-01

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), and clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), cultivated at selected distances from a heavy metal pollution source (the Non-Ferrous Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria) were examined for heavy metal accumulation. The content of heavy metals in the roots, stems, leaves, and inflorescences, plus the heavy metal concentration in the essential oils obtained

  4. Leaching Properties of Naturally Occurring Heavy Metals from Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Hoshino, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Hara, J.; Sugita, H.

    2014-12-01

    The major threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, as well as some other elements. The effects of such heavy metals on human health have been extensively studied and reviewed by international organizations such as WHO. Due to their toxicity, heavy metal contaminations have been regulated by national environmental standards in many countries, and/or laws such as the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act in Japan. Leaching of naturally occurring heavy metals from the soils, especially those around abandoned metal mines into surrounding water systems, either groundwater or surface water systems, is one of the major pathways of exposure. Therefore, understanding the leaching properties of toxic heavy metals from naturally polluted soils is of fundamentally importance for effectively managing abandoned metal mines, excavated rocks discharged from infrastructure constructions such as tunneling, and/or selecting a pertinent countermeasure against pollution when it is necessary. In this study, soil samples taken from the surroundings of abandoned metal mines in different regions in Japan were collected and analyzed. The samples contained multiple heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and chromium. Standard leaching test and sequential leaching test considering different forms of contaminants, such as trivalent and pentavalent arsenics, and trivalent and hexavalent chromiums, together with standard test for evaluating total concentration, X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) tests were performed. In addition, sequential leaching tests were performed to evaluate long-term leaching properties of lead from representative samples. This presentation introduces the details of the above experimental study, discusses the relationships among leaching properties and chemical and mineral compositions, indicates the difficulties associated with remediation of naturally polluted sites, and emphasizes the importance of risk-based countermeasures against naturally occurring heavy metals. Keywords: Leaching properties, Control Factor, Naturally Occurring Heavy Metals, Lead, Arsenic, Chromium

  5. Microalgae - A promising tool for heavy metal remediation.

    PubMed

    Suresh Kumar, K; Dahms, Hans-Uwe; Won, Eun-Ji; Lee, Jae-Seong; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2015-03-01

    Biotechnology of microalgae has gained popularity due to the growing need for novel environmental technologies and the development of innovative mass-production. Inexpensive growth requirements (solar light and CO2), and, the advantage of being utilized simultaneously for multiple technologies (e.g. carbon mitigation, biofuel production, and bioremediation) make microalgae suitable candidates for several ecofriendly technologies. Microalgae have developed an extensive spectrum of mechanisms (extracellular and intracellular) to cope with heavy metal toxicity. Their wide-spread occurrence along with their ability to grow and concentrate heavy metals, ascertains their suitability in practical applications of waste-water bioremediation. Heavy metal uptake by microalgae is affirmed to be superior to the prevalent physicochemical processes employed in the removal of toxic heavy metals. In order to evaluate their potential and to fill in the loopholes, it is essential to carry out a critical assessment of the existing microalgal technologies, and realize the need for development of commercially viable technologies involving strategic multidisciplinary approaches. This review summarizes several areas of heavy metal remediation from a microalgal perspective and provides an overview of various practical avenues of this technology. It particularly details heavy metals and microalgae which have been extensively studied, and provides a schematic representation of the mechanisms of heavy metal remediation in microalgae. PMID:25528489

  6. Selected aquatic plants as indicator species for heavy metal pollution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ray; W. White

    1976-01-01

    Heavy metal pollution of the aquatic environment is often responsible for depletion of fishery resources and sudden fish?kills. Some aquatic plants do selectively accumulate specific metals and can serve as biological monitors. Two vascular plants, Potamogeton and Equisetum and a blue algae Oscillatoria have proved useful for monitoring metal pollution.

  7. Heavy metals testing in active pharmaceutical ingredients: an alternate approach.

    PubMed

    Raghuram, P; Soma Raju, I V; Sriramulu, J

    2010-01-01

    The principle of the pharmacopoeial heavy metals test is detection and estimation of the metallic impurities colored by sulfide ion by comparison against lead standard. The test suffers from a loss of analytes upon ashing and from having varied responses for various metals. An inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) for estimating 23 metals in active pharmaceutical ingredients is being proposed. The method covers the metals listed in USP, Ph. Eur and EMEA guidance on "Residues of Metal Catalysts or Metal Reagents". PMID:20187573

  8. Heavy Metals and Epigenetic Alterations in Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Caffo, Maria; Caruso, Gerardo; Fata, Giuseppe La; Barresi, Valeria; Visalli, Maria; Venza, Mario; Venza, Isabella

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals and their derivatives can cause various diseases. Numerous studies have evaluated the possible link between exposure to heavy metals and various cancers. Recent data show a correlation between heavy metals and aberration of genetic and epigenetic patterns. From a literature search we noticed few experimental and epidemiological studies that evaluate a possible correlation between heavy metals and brain tumors. Gliomas arise due to genetic and epigenetic alterations of glial cells. Changes in gene expression result in the alteration of the cellular division process. Epigenetic alterations in brain tumors include the hypermethylation of CpG group, hypomethylation of specific genes, aberrant activation of genes, and changes in the position of various histones. Heavy metals are capable of generating reactive oxygen assumes that key functions in various pathological mechanisms. Alteration of homeostasis of metals could cause the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and induce DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, and alteration of proteins. In this study we summarize the possible correlation between heavy metals, epigenetic alterations and brain tumors. We report, moreover, the review of relevant literature. PMID:25646073

  9. Heavy metals influence on ascorbic acid level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaldinov, E. V.; Patrashkov, S. A.; Batenyeva, E. V.; Korotkevich, O. S.

    2003-05-01

    It is well known that heavy metals (HM) are extremely dangerous pollutants influencing to metabolism in animals' organisms. The vitamin C is one of the most important metabolites taking part in many biochemical processes. We studied the influence of main essential HM-Zn and Cu as well as the based supertoxical elements - Cd and Pd on ascorbic acid level in serum. The studies were carried out in Tulinskoe farm of Novosibirsk region. The objects of investigations were piglets (2 month after weaning) and 6-month pigs of Early Ripe Meat breed. The levels of HM in bristle were found by stripping voltammetric analysis using the TA-2 analyzer. Vitamin C content was determined by I.P. Kondrakhin (1985) method using 2,2-dipyridyl. The significant negative correlations between Pb, Cd content and vitamin C (-0.46 ± 0.18, -0.47 ± 0.19) in 6-month pigs were determined. The tendencies of negative correlation between all HM levels in hair and ascorbic acid level in plasma of piglets were revealed. Thus, the obtained correlations let us to suppose that all studied HM influence on 1-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase and other vitamin C metabolism enzymes activity.

  10. Heavy metal partitioning and chloride influence in MSW incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, K.S.; Lin, S.M.; Tsai, C.C.; Sun, C.J. [National Central Univ., Chung-Li (Taiwan, Province of China). Graduate Inst. of Environmental Engineering; Chiang, K.Y. [Yuan-Pei Inst. of Medical Technology, Hsin-Chu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering and Health

    1998-12-31

    Chlorides derived from plastics and food residue content in MSW will affect the formation and partitioning of metal chlorides in the incineration discharges. This study investigated the effects of waste-derived chlorides on the speciation and partitioning of heavy metals in a single-metal and a multi-metal combustion system. The results indicate that the heavy metal speciation and partitioning behaviors are mainly affected by the presence of chloride, alkaline metals (i.e., Na, K) and moisture in the wastes. The configuration of the metal partitioning is determined by the availability of chlorine, hydrogen, and alkaline metals, or the extent to which the elements may divide from their compounds at a given combustion temperature. The effects of chlorides, including PVC, C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}, FeCl{sub 3}, NaCl and KCl, were also discussed.

  11. Heavy metal induced physiological alterations in Salvinia natans.

    PubMed

    Dhir, Bhupinder; Sharmila, P; Pardha Saradhi, P; Sharma, S; Kumar, R; Mehta, Devinder

    2011-09-01

    Salvinia possess inherent capacity to accumulate high levels of various heavy metals. Accumulation of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd ranged between 6 and 9 mg g(-1)dry wt., while accumulation of Co, Zn and Mn was ?4 mg g(-1)dry wt. Heavy metal accumulation affected the physiological status of plants. Photosystem II activity noted to decline in Ni, Co, Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu exposed plants, while Photosystem I activity showed enhancement under heavy metal stress in comparison to control. The increase in PS I activity supported build up of transthylakoidal proton gradient (?pH), which subsequently helped in maintaining the photophosphorylation potential. Ribulose 1,5 dicarboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) activity noted a decline. Alterations in photosynthetic potential of Salvinia result primarily from changes in carbon assimilation efficiency with slight variations in primary photochemical activities and photophosphorylation potential. Studies suggest that Salvinia possess efficient photosynthetic machinery to withstand heavy metal stress. PMID:21724257

  12. DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS AND PESTICIDES IN GINSENG PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Medicinal plants may carry residuals of environmentally persistent pesticides or assimilate heavy metals in varying degrees. Several factors may influence contaminant accumulation, including species, level and duration of contaminant exposure, and topography. As part of a progra...

  13. View of interior detail; in kitchen; builtiniron and heavy metal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of interior detail; in kitchen; built-in-iron and heavy metal clock. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters P, Walnut Avenue, northwest corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. ULTRASONIC ENHANCEMENT OF THE REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA GRANT NUMBER: R828598C020 Title: Ultrasonic Enhancement of the Removal of Heavy Metals Investigators: Dennis Truax, Krishnan Balasubramaniam Institution: Mississippi State University EPA Project Officer: S. Bala Krishnan...

  15. Industrial age anthropogenic inputs of heavy metals into the pedosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Fengxiang; Banin, Amos; Su, Yi; Monts, David; Plodinec, John; Kingery, William; Triplett, Glover

    2002-10-01

    Heavy metals have been increasingly released into our environment. We present here, for the first time, the global industrial age production of Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and their potential accumulation and environmental effects in the pedosphere. World soils have been seriously polluted by Pb and Cd and slightly by Zn. The potential industrial age anthropogenic Pb, Hg, and Cd inputs in the pedosphere are 9.6, 6.1, and 5.2 times those in the lithosphere, respectively. The potential anthropogenic heavy metal inputs in the pedosphere increased tremendously after the 1950s, especially for Cr and Ni. In 2000, the cumulative industrial age anthropogenic global production of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn was 1.1, 105, 451, 0.64, 36, 235, and 354 million tonnes, respectively. The global industrial age metal burdens per capita (in 2000) were 0.18, 17.3, 74.2, 0.10, 5.9, 38.6, and 58.2 kg for Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn, respectively. Acidification may increase the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals in the pedosphere. The improvement of industrial processing technology reducing the metal dispersion rate, the recycling of metal-containing outdated products, by-products and wastes, and the development of new substitute materials for heavy metals are possible strategies to minimize the effects of heavy metals on our environment.

  16. COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN Euphorbia helioscopia L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shad Ali Khan; Lajbar Khan; Iqbal Hussain; Haider Shah; Naveed Akhtar

    In order to ascertain accumulation of heavy metals including Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Cr, Mn, Cd and Pb in Euphorbia helioscopia L. found in polluted and unpolluted sites of Peshawar city, investigations were performed by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Comparative assessment of heavy metal contents confirmed accumulation of iron in leaves (67.00 mg kg-1) and stem (13.50 mg kg-1) followed

  17. Distribution of heavy metals from flue gas in algal bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napan, Katerine

    Flue gas from coal-fired power plants is a major source of CO2 to the atmosphere. Microalgae can use this enriched form of CO2 as carbon source and in turn the biomass can be used to produce food, feed, fertilizer and biofuels. However, along with CO2, coal-based flue gas will inevitably introduce heavy metals, which have a high affinity to bind algal cells, could be toxic to the organisms and if transferred to the products could limit their uses. This study seeks to address the distribution and impact of heavy metals present in flue gas on microalgae production systems. To comprehend its effects, algae Scenedesmus obliquus was grown in batch reactors in a multimetal system. Ten heavy metals (Cu, Co, Zn, Pb, As, Se, Cr, Hg, Ni and Cd) were selected and were evaluated at four concentrations (1X, 2X, 5X and 10X). Results show that most heavy metals accumulated mainly in biomass and were found in very low concentrations in media. Hg was shown to be lost from the culture, with low amounts present in the biomass. An upper limit for As uptake was observed, suggesting its likelihood to build-up in the system during medium recycle. The As limited bioaccumulation was overcome by addition of sulfur to the algal medium. Heavy metal at 2X, 5X and 10X inhibited both growth and lipid production, while at the reference concentration both biomass and lipids yields were increased. Heavy metal concentrations in the medium and biomass were time dependent, and at the end of the cultivation most heavy metals in the supernatant solution complied with the recommendations for irrigation water, while biomass was below limits for cattle and poultry feed, fertilizer, plastic and paper. This research shows that bioremediation of CO2 and heavy metals in combination with energy production can be integrated, which is an environmentally friendly form of biotechnology.

  18. Heavy metal induced physiological alterations in Salvinia natans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhupinder Dhir; P. Sharmila; P. Pardha Saradhi; S. Sharma; R. Kumar; Devinder Mehta

    2011-01-01

    Salvinia possess inherent capacity to accumulate high levels of various heavy metals. Accumulation of Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd ranged between 6 and 9mgg?1dry wt., while accumulation of Co, Zn and Mn was ?4mgg?1dry wt. Heavy metal accumulation affected the physiological status of plants. Photosystem II activity noted to decline in Ni, Co, Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu

  19. Heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash analyzed by thermogravimetry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Vogel; Christian Adam; Miriam Unger

    2011-01-01

    A high temperature (1000 °C) thermochemical process for heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash via the chloride pathway\\u000a was investigated by thermogravimetry\\/differential thermal analysis (TG\\/DTA). TG and DTA measurements gave information about\\u000a secession and evaporation of water, HCl, and heavy metal chlorides at different temperatures. Additionally, gaseous water\\u000a and hydrochloric acid which occurred in the process were detected by an

  20. PHYTOCHELATINS AND METALLOTHIONEINS: Roles in Heavy Metal Detoxification and Homeostasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher Cobbett; Peter Goldsbrough

    2002-01-01

    ? Abstract Among,the heavy metal-binding ligands in plant cells the phytochelatins (PCs) and metallothioneins,(MTs) are the best characterized. PCs and MTs are different classes of cysteine-rich, heavy metal-binding protein molecules. PCs are enzymatically synthesized peptides, whereas MTs are gene-encoded polypeptides. Recently, genes encoding,the enzyme,PC synthase have been identified in plants and other species while the completion,of the Arabidopsis genome,sequence,has allowed

  1. Heavy metal concentrations in tissues of mink in Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, M.C.; Scanlon, P.F.; Kirkpatrick, R.L.; Gwynn, J.V.

    1985-07-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine concentrations of lead, cadmium, zinc and copper in wild mink populations from Virginia and to determine if differences existed in heavy metal concentrations among sexes, ages and locations of capture. Mink were chosen for this study because their high trophic status and opportunistic feeding patterns make them potential indicators of heavy metal pollution. Also mink populations have been decreasing in certain parts of the state.

  2. Natural radionuclides and heavy metals in bottled water in Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Karamanis; K. Stamoulis; K. G. Ioannides

    2007-01-01

    Natural radionuclides and heavy metals in bottled waters of the major brands in Greece were measured. Gross alpha- and beta-activities were evaluated first; subsequently 226Ra was measured by alpha spectroscopy. Tritium and uranium activities were assessed with liquid scintillation counting. Heavy metals were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy following pre-concentration. A correlation of activity concentrations with the chemical parameters of

  3. Heavy metal pollution in Suva harbour sediments, Fiji

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Maata; S. Singh

    2008-01-01

    In Fiji, contamination of the coastal environment by heavy metals is proving to be a real concern. This work reports for the\\u000a first time analyses carried out on an extensive basis, to ascertain the extent of anthropogenic contamination by heavy metals\\u000a in the <0.063 mm surface sediments of Suva harbour. Sediment samples from 40 sites selected within the harbour were collected

  4. Pollution Regionalization of Soil Heavy Metals in County Scale

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhou Shenglu; Zhang Hongfu; Wu Shaohua; Cao Wei; Qi Shusi

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to make a pollution regionalization of soil heavy metals in A city, an area with rapid economic development in Yangtze River Delta of China. Therefore, the spatial distribution of soil heavy metals was firstly estimated by optimal space method using 126 data points and performed using ArcGIS9.2 software. The areas of different content

  5. Factorial experimental design for recovering heavy metals from sludge with ion-exchange resin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Hsien Lee; Yu-Chung Kuan; Jia-Ming Chern

    2006-01-01

    Wastewaters containing heavy metals are usually treated by chemical precipitation method in Taiwan. This method can remove heavy metals form wastewaters efficiently, but the resultant heavy metal sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and becomes another environmental problem. If we can remove heavy metals from sludge, it becomes non-hazardous waste and the treatment cost can be greatly reduced. This

  6. Heavy metal contamination in arable land of Chongming based on GIS and Geostatistics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guangrong Shen; Xiumei Huang; Zhenhua Qian; Jingjing Xu

    2010-01-01

    Soil heavy metal pollution has increasing applied pressure on land resources with the intensive effects of local geochemistry or human activities in recent years. This investigation was conducted to understand the spatial variability of the soil heavy metal elements, to evaluate the relationship between heavy metals and their probable sources and to identify or forewarn the probable heavy metal contamination

  7. The Search for Novel Integron Expression Along a Heavy Metal Gradient , Anne Giblin2

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    The Search for Novel Integron Expression Along a Heavy Metal Gradient Brian Suh1 , Anne Giblin2 in the form of heavy metals. Doing so would provide insight into the diversity of genes found in environmental inducing levels of heavy metals. As increased heavy metal concentrations should correlate with increased

  8. Removal and recovery of heavy metals from incinerator ash residues

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, K.E. [Forrester Environmental Services, Inc., Hampton, NY (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents results of a novel and state-of-the-art patent-pending processes developed jointly by Forrester Environmental Services Inc. (FESI) and Brookhaven National Laboratories (BNL) for the extraction and recovery of lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and other heavy metals from heavy metal bearing wastes including but not limited to solid waste incinerator bottom ash, flyash and combined ash. The heavy metal extraction and recovery processes were found to be capable of high percentage of heavy metals extraction and recovery at a relatively low cost under bench scale and full-scale refuse incinerator facility conditions. This paper presents empirical data from bench scale studies only, as the full-scale data is currently under review. The ash product remaining after extraction passed all TCLP regulatory limits and retained only minimal Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn content and other water insoluble heavy metal compounds. Results of heavy metals recovery and low cost from ongoing field applications of this technology are consistent with the bench scale data presented within this paper.

  9. Heavy Metal Resistance of Biofilm and Planktonic Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Teitzel, Gail M.; Parsek, Matthew R.

    2003-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the effects of the heavy metals copper, lead, and zinc on biofilm and planktonic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A rotating-disk biofilm reactor was used to generate biofilm and free-swimming cultures to test their relative levels of resistance to heavy metals. It was determined that biofilms were anywhere from 2 to 600 times more resistant to heavy metal stress than free-swimming cells. When planktonic cells at different stages of growth were examined, it was found that logarithmically growing cells were more resistant to copper and lead stress than stationary-phase cells. However, biofilms were observed to be more resistant to heavy metals than either stationary-phase or logarithmically growing planktonic cells. Microscopy was used to evaluate the effect of copper stress on a mature P. aeruginosa biofilm. The exterior of the biofilm was preferentially killed after exposure to elevated concentrations of copper, and the majority of living cells were near the substratum. A potential explanation for this is that the extracellular polymeric substances that encase a biofilm may be responsible for protecting cells from heavy metal stress by binding the heavy metals and retarding their diffusion within the biofilm. PMID:12676715

  10. Heavy metal ions are potent inhibitors of protein folding

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Sandeep K. [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland); Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Goloubinoff, Pierre [Departement de Biologie Moleculaire Vegetale, Universite de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Christen, Philipp [Biochemisches Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: christen@bioc.uzh.ch

    2008-07-25

    Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, mercury and lead results in severe health hazards including prenatal and developmental defects. The deleterious effects of heavy metal ions have hitherto been attributed to their interactions with specific, particularly susceptible native proteins. Here, we report an as yet undescribed mode of heavy metal toxicity. Cd{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} and Pb{sup 2+} proved to inhibit very efficiently the spontaneous refolding of chemically denatured proteins by forming high-affinity multidentate complexes with thiol and other functional groups (IC{sub 50} in the nanomolar range). With similar efficacy, the heavy metal ions inhibited the chaperone-assisted refolding of chemically denatured and heat-denatured proteins. Thus, the toxic effects of heavy metal ions may result as well from their interaction with the more readily accessible functional groups of proteins in nascent and other non-native form. The toxic scope of heavy metals seems to be substantially larger than assumed so far.

  11. Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration of heavy metals using lecithin

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadi, S.; Tseng, L.K.; Batchelor, B.; Koseoglu, S.S. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1994-12-01

    Conventional treatment methods for removal of heavy metals from metal finishing operations are usually energy-intensive and costly. Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) with synthetic surfactants is a recently developed technique which can remove heavy metals and other small molecular weight ions from wastestreams at relatively lower costs and without a phase change. Lecithin, a natural, inexpensive, nontoxic, and biodegradable surfactant exhibits emulsifying characteristics which can be used in a MEUF. The binding of various lecithins to cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc - in a mixture and individually - was studied using a continuous diafiltration method. This technique uses small volumes of toxic waters and produces an entire isotherm with just one experiment. In the presence of all five heavy metals, the lecithin in this study showed the following affinity: Cu > Cd [approximately] Zn > Ni. In experiments when only one metal was present, lecithin exhibited the following affinity: Ni > Cu [approximately] Zn > Cd. Lead was not bound significantly in either scenario.

  12. Removal of Trichloroethylene and Heavy Metals by Zerovalent Iron Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boparai, H. K.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2009-05-01

    Heavy metals combined with chlorinated solvents are one class of mixed waste found at various hazardous waste sites in North America. Nano zerovalent iron (nZVI), an emerging technology, is being successfully used for treating chlorinated solvents and heavy metals independently, however comparatively little research has investigated the remediation of the wastes when they are present in the same mixture. The remediation of trichloroethylene (TCE)/heavy metal waste mixtures via nZVI has been investigated in the present study. Results suggest that some metals are reduced by nZVI to their zerovalent state and thus precipitate on nZVI particles. This improves the contaminant removal performance of nZVI by forming bimetallic iron nanoparticles. Other metals are directly precipitated or adsorbed on the nZVI particles in their original oxidation state and are rendered immobile. In some cases the presence of the heavy metals in the waste mixture enhanced the dechlorination of TCE while in other cases it did not. This study suggests that nano zerovalent iron particles can be effectively used for the remediation of mixed contamination of heavy metals and chlorinated solvents. Results have been supported by a variety of techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis.

  13. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on heavy metal decontamination in milk.

    PubMed

    Porova, Nataliya; Botvinnikova, Valentina; Krasulya, Olga; Cherepanov, Pavel; Potoroko, Irina

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound has been found useful in increasing the efficiency and consumer safety in food processing. Removal of heavy metal (lead, mercury, and arsenic) contamination in milk is extremely important in regions of poor ecological environment - urban areas with heavy motor traffic or well established metallurgical/cement industry. In this communication, we report on the preliminary studies on the application of low frequency (20kHz) ultrasound for heavy metal decontamination of milk without affecting its physical, chemical, and microbiological properties. PMID:24746508

  14. COUPLED TRANSPORT SYSTEMS FOR CONTROL OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a process for separating and concentrating heavy metals from electroplating rinse waters. Metal ions can be 'chemically pumped' across a coupled transport membrane against large concentration gradients by allowing the counterflow of a coupled ion such as hyd...

  15. Dietary intake of heavy metals in Bombay city, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Tripathi; R. Raghunath; T. M. Krishnamoorthy

    1997-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals such as Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn have been estimated in air particulates, water and food samples collected from different suburbs in Bombay during 1991–1994. The concentrations of these metals are translated into intake rates through inhalation and ingestion pathways. Results indicate the highest concentration of Pb and Cu are in pulses (green gram), Cd in

  16. Biomonitoring heavy metal contaminations by moss visible parameters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang-Er; Cui, Jun-Mei; Yang, Jin-Chuan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Ming; Song, Chun; Yang, Hui; Liu, Han-Mei; Wang, Chang-Quan; Zhang, Huai-Yu; Zeng, Xian-Yin; Yuan, Shu

    2015-10-15

    Traditional sampling for heavy metal monitoring is a time-consuming and inconvenient method, which also does not indicate contaminants non-invasively and instantaneously. Moss is sensitive to heavy metals and is therefore considered a pollution indicator. However, it is unknown what kind physiological parameters can indicate metal contaminations quickly and non-invasively. Here, we systematically examined the effects of six heavy metals on physiological parameters and photosynthetic activities of two moss species grown in aquatic media or moist soil surface. We suggest that a phenotype with anthocyanin accumulation pattern and chlorosis pattern and two chlorophyll fluorescence parameters with their images can roughly reflect metal species groups, concentrations and differences between the two moss species. In other words, metal contaminations could be roughly estimated visually using the naked eye. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidative abilities and photosynthetic protein contents of Eurhynchium eustegium were higher than those of Taxiphyllum taxirameum, indicating their differential metal tolerance. Neither anti-oxidative abilities nor photosynthetic proteins were found to be ideal indicators. This study provides new ideas to monitor heavy metals rapidly and non-invasively in water or on wetland and moist soil surface. PMID:25919648

  17. The electric field gradient in heavy rare earth metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pelzl; Fachbereich Physik

    1972-01-01

    Estimates of the electric field gradient in heavy rare earth metals have been evaluated from experimental hyperfine interaction data. In addition, the magnetic hyperfine fields are analyzed. In the metals the effective radial integrals r-3>4f of the magnetic and quadrupole hyperfine interaction are reduced at most by 10% compared with the free ion values. The electric field gradients due to

  18. Separation of Toxic Heavy Metals by Sulfide Precipitation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Bhattacharyya; A. B. Jumawan Jr; R. B. Grieves

    1979-01-01

    Sulfide precipitation with Na2S is found to be highly effective to obtain a high degree of separation of heavy metal cations (Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb) and of the oxyanions of arsenic and selenium from complex wastewaters. The metal separation characteristics are evaluated with a dilute synthetic mixture and with an actual copper smelting plant wastewater. The overall separation of

  19. Endophytic bacteria and their potential to enhance heavy metal phytoextraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mani Rajkumar; Noriharu Ae; Helena Freitas

    2009-01-01

    Pollution of soils with heavy metals is becoming one of the most severe environmental and human health hazards. Due to its widespread contamination finding innovative ways to clean metal pollutant has become a priority in the remediation field. Phytoremediation, the use of plants for the restoration of environments contaminated with pollutants is a relatively new technology that is more benign

  20. Movement of heavy metals through undisturbed and homogenized soil columns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. J. Camobreco; B. K. Richards; T. S. Steenhuis

    1996-01-01

    When sewage sludge is applied to land for disposal or intended beneficial use, heavy metals accumulate in the soil. Because of environmental concerns, many studies have been undertaken in an attempt to clarify the different factors that contribute to metal solubility, plant uptake, and leachability. This study attempted to determine if two independent factors - soluble organic chelators and preferential

  1. Leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soils using EDTA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Sun; F. J Zhao; E Lombi; S. P McGrath

    2001-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) extraction of Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb from four contaminated soils was studied using batch and column leaching experiments. In the batch experiment, the heavy metals extracted were virtually all as 1:1 metal-EDTA complexes. The ratios of Zn, Cd, Cu and Pb of the extracted were similar to those in the soils, suggesting that EDTA extracted the

  2. Heavy Metal Contents of Fly Ashes from Selected Biomass Samples

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ayhan Demirba?

    2005-01-01

    In this study, heavy metal levels in selected fly ash samples of various biomass types (municipal solid waste, hazelnut shell, wheat straw, olive husk, walnut shell, almond shell, sunflower shell, and beech wood) were determined. The concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cd, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Sn, Sb, Se, V, Mo, and As metals were determined in the fly ash

  3. Magnetic process for removing heavy metals from water employing magnetites

    DOEpatents

    Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D.

    2006-12-26

    A process for removing heavy metals from water is provided. The process includes the steps of introducing magnetite to a quantity of water containing heavy metal. The magnetite is mixed with the water such that at least a portion of, and preferably the majority of, the heavy metal in the water is bound to the magnetite. Once this occurs the magnetite and absorbed metal is removed from the water by application of a magnetic field. In most applications the process is achieved by flowing the water through a solid magnetized matrix, such as steel wool, such that the magnetite magnetically binds to the solid matrix. The magnetized matrix preferably has remnant magnetism, but may also be subject to an externally applied magnetic field. Once the magnetite and associated heavy metal is bound to the matrix, it can be removed and disposed of, such as by reverse water or air and water flow through the matrix. The magnetite may be formed in-situ by the addition of the necessary quantities of Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions, or pre-formed magnetite may be added, or a combination of seed and in-situ formation may be used. The invention also relates to an apparatus for performing the removal of heavy metals from water using the process outlined above.

  4. Magnetic process for removing heavy metals from water employing magnetites

    DOEpatents

    Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D.; Padilla, Dennis D.; Wingo, Robert M.; Worl, Laura A.; Johnson, Michael D.

    2003-07-22

    A process for removing heavy metals from water is provided. The process includes the steps of introducing magnetite to a quantity of water containing heavy metal. The magnetite is mixed with the water such that at least a portion of, and preferably the majority of, the heavy metal in the water is bound to the magnetite. Once this occurs the magnetite and absorbed metal is removed from the water by application of a magnetic field. In most applications the process is achieved by flowing the water through a solid magnetized matrix, such as steel wool, such that the magnetite magnetically binds to the solid matrix. The magnetized matrix preferably has remnant magnetism, but may also be subject to an externally applied magnetic field. Once the magnetite and associated heavy metal is bound to the matrix, it can be removed and disposed of, such as by reverse water or air and water flow through the matrix. The magnetite may be formed in-situ by the addition of the necessary quantities of Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions, or pre-formed magnetite may be added, or a combination of seed and in-situ formation may be used. The invention also relates to an apparatus for performing the removal of heavy metals from water using the process outlined above.

  5. Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution the tropics

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, H.; Otero, M. (Institute of Transport Investigations, Havana (Cuba)); Lodenius, M. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

    1989-12-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this plant is stronger in the roots than in the floating shoots. Metallothionein-like compounds have been found from roots of this species after cadmium exposure. The purpose of this investigation was to study the possibilities of using roots of water hyacinth as a biological indicator of metal pollution in tropical aquatic ecosystems.

  6. Molecular Indicators of Soil Humification and Interaction with Heavy Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Teresa W.-M.; Higashi, Richard M.; Cassel, Teresa; Green, Peter; Lane, Andrew N.

    2003-03-26

    For stabilization of heavy metals at contaminated sites, interaction of soil organic matter (SOM) with heavy metal ions is critically important for long-term sustainability, a factor that is poorly understood at the molecular level. Using 13C- and 15N-labeled soil humates (HS), we investigated the turnover of five organic amendments (celluose, wheat straw, pine shavings, chitin and bone meal) in relation to heavy metal ion leaching in soil column experiments. The labeled molecular substructures in HS were examined by multinuclear 2-D NMR and pyrolysis GC-MS while the element profile in the leachates was analyzed by ICP-MS. Preliminary analysis revealed that peptidic and polysaccharidic structures were highly enriched, which suggests their microbial origin. Cd(II) leaching was significantly attenuated with humification of lignocellulosic materials. Correlation of 13C and 15N turnovers of HS substructures to metal leaching is underway.

  7. Increased Tolerance to Heavy Metals Exhibited by Swarming Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyan, M.; Shrout, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a ubiquitous, Gram-negative bacterium that utilizes several different modes of motility to colonize surfaces, including swarming, which is the coordinated movement of cells over surfaces in groups. Swarming facilitates surface colonization and biofilm development for P. aeruginosa, and it is known that swarming behavior is influenced by changes in nutrient composition and surface moisture. To understand the fate and cycling of heavy metals in the environment, it is important to understand the interaction and toxicity of these metals upon bacteria. While previous studies have shown surface-attached bacterial biofilms to be highly resistant to heavy metal toxicity, little is known about the influence of heavy metals upon surface motile bacteria and developing biofilms. Using a combination of laboratory assays we examined differences in bacterial behavior in response to two metals, Cd and Ni. We find that surface swarming bacteria are able to grow on 4x and 2.5x more Cd and Ni, respectively, than planktonic cells (i.e., test tube cultures). P. aeruginosa was able to swarm in the presence ?0.051mM Ni and ?0.045mM Cd. To investigate the bioavailability of metals to bacteria growing under our examined conditions, we separated cell and supernatant fractions of P. aeruginosa cultures, and used ICP-MS techniques to measure Cd and Ni sorption. A greater percentage of Cd than Ni was sorbed by both cells and supernatant (which contains rhamnolipid, a surfactant known to sorb some metals and improve swarming). While we show that cell products such as rhamnolipid bind heavy metals (as expected) and should limit metal bioavailability, our results suggest at least one additional mechanism (as yet undetermined) that promotes cell survival during swarming in the presence of these heavy metals.

  8. Studies on the indicator for heavy metal contamination in environments (1) heavy metal contents of hair, nail and moustache

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Nishihara; K. Watabe; T. Ichikawa; M. Kondo; M. Fujii

    1985-01-01

    Heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Zn, and Mn) contents of the samples from 10 males were followed throughout a year. The values were characteristic of the individuals, and some correlations between the contents of different metals were shown.

  9. Heavy metal bioaccumulation and toxicity with special reference to microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunakumara, K. K. I. U.; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2008-02-01

    The bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals were reviewed with special reference to microalgae, the key component of the food web in aquatic ecosystems. Heavy metals enter algal cells either by means of active transport or by endocytosis through chelating proteins and affect various physiological and biochemical processes of the algae. The toxicity primarily results from their binding to the sulphydryl groups in proteins or disrupting protein structure or displacing essential elements. Metals can break the oxidative balance of the algae, inducing antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). The amount of oxidized proteins and lipids in the algal cells thus indicates the severity of the stress. Algal tolerance to heavy metal is highly dependent upon the defense response against the probable oxidative damages. Production of binding factors and proteins, exclusion of metals from cells by ion-selective transporters and excretion or compartmentalization have been suggested with regard to reducing heavy metal toxicity. However, a comprehensive description on the mechanisms underlining metal toxicity of microalgae and gaining tolerance is yet to be elaborated.

  10. Effect of heavy metal-solubilizing microorganisms on zinc and cadmium extractions from heavy metal contaminated soil with Tricholoma lobynsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ling-yun JiWei-wei; Wei-wei Zhang; Dong Yu; Yan-ru Cao; Heng Xu

    The macrofungus, Tricholoma\\u000a lobynsis, was chosen to remedy Zn–Cd–Pb contaminated soil. To enhance its metal-extracting efficiency, two heavy metal resistant microbes\\u000a M6 and K1 were applied owing to their excellent abilities to solubilize heavy metal salts. The two isolated microbial strains\\u000a could also produce indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophore and solubilize inorganic phosphate, but neither of them showed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate\\u000a deaminase

  11. Heavy metal distribution in sediments of Krishna River basin, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, R.; Subramanian, V.; van Grieken, R.

    1990-05-01

    Suspended and bed sediments collected from the entire region of the Krishna River and its major tributaries were analyzed for heavy metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) by the thin-film energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. There is considerable variation in the concentration of elements towards downstream, which may be due to the variation in the subbasin geology and various degrees of human impact. Suspended particles are enriched in heavy metals throughout the basin relative to bed sediments. The heavy metals are enriched in coarse size fractions (10 90 µm) throughout the Krishna River except its tributary Bhima, where finer fractions (2 µm) dominate. Transition elements correlate very well with each other. There is a striking similarity between the bed sediments of Krishna River and the Indian average. When the annual heavy metal flux carried by the Krishna River was estimated, and viewed in relation to the other major riverine transport, the Krishna is seen to be a minor contributor of heavy metals to the Bay of Bengal.

  12. Heavy Metals in Seafood and Farm Produce from Uyo, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Orisakwe, Orish E.; Mbagwu, Herbert O. C.; Ajaezi, Godwin C.; Edet, Ukeme W.; Uwana, Patrick U.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to obtain representative data on the levels of heavy metals in seafood and farm produce consumed by the general population in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, a region known for the exploration and exploitation of crude oil. Methods: In May 2012, 25 food items, including common types of seafood, cereals, root crops and vegetables, were purchased in Uyo or collected from farmland in the region. Dried samples were ground, digested and centrifuged. Levels of heavy metals (lead, cadmium, nickel, cobalt and chromium) were analysed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Average daily intake and target hazard quotients (THQ) were estimated. Results: Eight food items (millet, maize, periwinkle, crayfish, stock fish, sabina fish, bonga fish and pumpkin leaf) had THQ values over 1.0 for cadmium, indicating a potential health risk in their consumption. All other heavy metals had THQ values below 1.0, indicating insignificant health risks. The total THQ for the heavy metals ranged from 0.389 to 2.986. There were 14 items with total THQ values greater than 1.0, indicating potential health risks in their consumption. Conclusion: The regular consumption of certain types of farm produce and seafood available in Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria, is likely adding to the body burden of heavy metals among those living in this region.

  13. Implications of soil pollution with heavy metals for public health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juozulynas, Algirdas; Jurgel?nas, Antanas; Butkien?, Birut?; Grei?i?t?, Kristina; Savi?i?t?, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Soil of military grounds is often polluted with heavy metals. Their concentrations may be dosens of times higher in polluted regions. The affected soils are permeable, so the pollutions can get into water and spread to the environment. Into human and animal organisms they can get with food and water. Heavy metals are very dangerous for people's health, and we must know their accumulation places, intensity of scatter and integral risk for health. The purpose of this work was to establish links between zones polluted with heavy metals and morbidity caused by pollution with heavy metals. The morbidity caused by heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ca and other) in the polluted regions is 1.4-1.5 times higher for adults and teenagers and 1.5-3.9 times higher for children aged under 14 years than the mean morbidity of the same diseases in Lithuania. Hypothetically, it is possible to prognosticate that this problem will grow in future because the ratio of the newly registered and the existing cases of morbidity for children aged under 14 years is 1.3-1.5 times higher than for adults.

  14. Sorption of heavy metal ions on new metal-ligand complexes chemically derived from Lycopodium clavatum

    SciTech Connect

    Pehlivan, E.; Ersoz, M.; Yildiz, S. [Univ. of Selcuk, Konya (Turkey); Duncan, H.J. [Univ. of Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    1994-08-01

    Sorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated as a function of pH using a novel exchanger system whereby Lycopodium clavatum is functionalized with carboxylate and glyoxime metal-ligand complexes. The new ligand exchangers were prepared using a reaction of diaminosporopollenin with various metal-ligand complexes of glyoxime and monocarboxylic acid. The sorptive behavior of these metal-ligand exchangers and the possibilities to remove and to recover selectively heavy metal cations using these systems are discussed on the basis of their chemical natures and their complexing properties.

  15. Heavy metals in zooplankton from the Southern Baltic.

    PubMed

    Pempkowiak, J; Walkusz-Miotk, J; Be?dowski, J; Walkusz, W

    2006-03-01

    Samples of zooplankton and suspended matter were collected using a Bongo net (0.33/0.50 mm mesh net), and Nucleopore filters, respectively, from the Southern Baltic off Poland. Major classes of zooplankton, and selected heavy metals (Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Cr) were determined in the collected samples. Concentrations of heavy metals in zooplankton were corrected for metals contributed by particulate matter adhering to zooplankton organisms. Heavy metals levels measured in nearshore samples (Bay of Gda?sk, Pomeranian Bay) were higher than those in the samples from the open sea. The only exception was cadmium exhibiting larger concentrations in the offshore as compared to the nearshore samples (0.8 vs. 1.3 microg/g d.w.). This was attributed to decreased concentrations, of both dissolved and particulate cadmium, caused by algal bloom. Larger concentrations of heavy metals in the Bay of Gda?sk in comparison with the Pomeranian Bay (e.g. Cd-1.3 vs. 0.8 microg/g, Cu-20.5 vs. 8.3 microg/g, Pb-12.9 vs. 1.2 microg/g, Cr-12.4 vs. 1.4 microg/g) were attributed to the direct discharge of the Vistula river to the Bay of Gda?sk, while the Pomeranian Bay receives the Odra river runoff indirectly, via the Szczecin Lagoon. The nonlinear estimation of the data set was used to evaluate concentrations of heavy metals in Copepoda and Cladocera. Copepoda proved to be enriched with heavy metals in comparison with Cladocera. PMID:16139327

  16. Metal-binding proteins and peptides in bioremediation and phytoremediation of heavy metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Malin Mejáre; Leif Bülow

    2001-01-01

    The expression of metal-binding proteins or peptides in microorganisms and plants in order to enhance heavy metal accumulation and\\/or tolerance has great potential. Several different peptides and proteins have been explored. This review focuses on cadmium (Cd) because of the significant importance of this metal and because of its global presence in many food materials.

  17. Heavy metal toxicity in Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae isolated from soils subjected to different sources of heavy-metal contamination: Effects on protein expression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sofia Isabel Almeida Pereira; Ana Isabel Gusmão Lima; Etelvina Maria de Almeida Paula Figueira

    2006-01-01

    Heavy metals adversely influence microorganisms, affecting their growth, morphology and activities. Metals also can exert a selective pressure on the organisms, resulting in microbial populations with higher tolerance to metals. Given the importance of legumes in animal and human consumption and their use in maintaining soil fertility, some attention has been given to the effects that heavy metals exert on

  18. Heavy metals as indicators for an integrated environmental monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morselli, L.; Bartoli, M.; Passarini, F.; Bernard, E.; Brighetti, A.

    2003-05-01

    Heavy metals are typical micropollutants emitted by incineration processes and they were chosen as Environmental Indicator in order to assess the effects of the activity of a medium-size Italian Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator in the vicinity. An Integrated Environmental Monitoring System was applied: after the recognition of maximum deposition areas, by a dispersion model, many different environmental samples were collected in many sites around the plant. The data referring to wet and dry deposition and superficial soil are here reported. Heavy metal contents in them were measured, and compared to heavy metal fluxes emitted from plant stacks. A statistical data analysis showed some interesting correlation, in particular between contaminant pattern in emission and in soil samples.

  19. Baker's yeast assay procedure for testing heavy metal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Bitton, G.; Koopman, B.; Wang, H.D.

    1984-01-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is microorganism which is commercially available and sold as packaged dry pellets in any food store at low cost. Studies have been undertaken on the effects of organic xenobiotics as well as heavy metals on yeast metabolism. This type of study has been generally useful in examining the mechanism(s) of chemical toxicity. However, a rapid and quantitative toxicity test using S. cerevisiae as the test organism has not been developed. The purpose of this study was to develop a toxicity assay for heavy metals, using commercial dry yeast as the test microorganism. This rapid and simple procedure is based on the reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) to INT-formazan by the yeast electron transport system. The scoring of active cells following exposure to heavy metals was undertaken according to the MINT (malachite green-INT) method developed by Bitton and Koopman.

  20. Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated land by trees—a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. D. Pulford; C. Watson

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential for using trees for the phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated land. It considers the following aspects: metal tolerance in trees, heavy metal uptake by trees grown on contaminated substrates, heavy metal compartmentalisation within trees, phytoremediation using trees and the phytoremediation potential of willow (Salix spp.).

  1. Detection of Heavy Metal Ions in Water by High-Resolution Surface Plasmon Resonance

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Yanchao

    Detection of Heavy Metal Ions in Water by High-Resolution Surface Plasmon Resonance Spectroscopy voltammetry (ASV) capability has been demonstrated for detecting heavy metal ions in water. Metal ions in water from part-per-million to sub-part-per-billion levels with good linearity. Heavy metal poisoning

  2. The Ability of Chickens to Select Nutritive and Avoid Toxic Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Feeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. C. Phillips; S. T. Strojan

    2007-01-01

    The ability of free range chickens to detect and select feeds with varying heavy metal concentrations is important in relation to their ability to avoid toxic heavy metals in polluted regions and to self-supplement their diet with nutritive metals. An operant test was conducted to determine whether chickens could detect a range of heavy metals mixed with feed pellets, with

  3. Long-Term Retention and Loss of Heavy Metals from Experimental Salt Marsh Plots

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    Long-Term Retention and Loss of Heavy Metals from Experimental Salt Marsh Plots Katie Harrold Sippewissett Marsh I have tested the long-term retention of heavy metals by the marsh. Beginning in the early of fertilization. This could be due to sorbtion to organic matter and metal-oxides. Key Words: heavy metals, salt

  4. Tunable Biopolymers for Heavy Metal Removal Jan Kostal, Ashok Mulchandani, and Wilfred Chen*

    E-print Network

    Chen, Wilfred

    Tunable Biopolymers for Heavy Metal Removal Jan Kostal, Ashok Mulchandani, and Wilfred Chen synthesized for the removal of heavy metals from dilute waste streams. Protein-protein interaction persistent nature, heavy metal ions are major contributors to pollution of the biosphere.1,2 These metals

  5. Atmospheric accessions of heavy metals to some New Zealand pastoral soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Colin W Gray; Ronald G McLaren; Ants H. C Roberts

    2003-01-01

    Total heavy metal deposition was monitored at seven rural sites across New Zealand to determine the rate of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals to soils and to evaluate any regional and temporal variations in metal deposition. Heavy metal deposition was collected monthly in Warren Spring Laboratory type inverted frisbees. The rate of heavy metal deposition followed the order Zn?Cu>Cr>Pb>Ni?Cd. There

  6. [Heavy metal poisoning and renal injury in children].

    PubMed

    Rong, Li-Ping; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Xiao-Yun

    2014-04-01

    Along with global environmental pollution resulting from economic development, heavy metal poisoning in children has become an increasingly serious health problem in the world. It can lead to renal injury, which tends to be misdiagnosed due to the lack of obvious or specific early clinical manifestations in children. Early prevention, diagnosis and intervention are valuable for the recovery of renal function and children's good health and growth. This paper reviews the mechanism of renal injury caused by heavy metal poisoning in children, as well as the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and prevention and treatment of renal injury caused by lead, mercury, cadmium, and chromium. PMID:24750823

  7. Heavy metals emission from controlled combustion of PVC 

    E-print Network

    El-Ayyoubi, Mohammed A.

    1989-01-01

    14 emissions when excited (23). The AAS determination of most heavy metals is remarkably selective and sensitive. Lower detection limits, using concentrations in a a lean a)r ? acetylene flame, are down to 0. 7 to 2 ng/ml for cadmium, and 0. 01... situations. Extremely toxic heavy metals such as, cadmium, lead, and antimony were found in major and minor concentrations in more than half of the plastic materials analyzed. Moreover, par ticle size distr ibution analysis indicated that gener ated smoke...

  8. Black Hole Thermodynamics and Heavy Fermion Metals

    E-print Network

    E. J. Brynjolfsson; U. H. Danielsson; L. Thorlacius; T. Zingg

    2010-08-10

    Heavy fermion alloys at critical doping typically exhibit non-Fermi-liquid behavior at low temperatures, including a logarithmic or power law rise in the ratio of specific heat to temperature as the temperature is lowered. Anomalous specific heat of this type is also observed in a simple class of gravitational dual models that exhibit anisotropic scaling with dynamical critical exponent z > 1.

  9. Sorption of heavy metal cations on activated carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczak, A.

    1988-01-01

    Activated carbon is used to remove trace amounts of organic compounds from waters and wastewaters. An experimental program was conducted to determine the kinetics of sorption of lead, copper, and zinc on the surface of the powdered activated carbon Nuchar SA, and on granular activated carbon Filtrasorb 400. The results of the experimental program showed that sorption of heavy metals on activated carbon was a two-step process with a rapid initial uptake step followed by a slow approach to equilibrium extending over a period of several weeks. Desorption of heavy metals from the surface of activated carbon was very rapid and indicated no evidence of sorption irreversibility. The sorption isotherms for heavy metals on Nuchar SA were noted to be nonunique and depended on the initial concentration of the metal ions present in the system. The results obtained suggested that lead species precipitated on the surface of Nuchar SA, whereas copper and zinc ions adsorbed on the surface sites with variable affinity for the heavy metals. Sorption of lead and copper was not affected by the presence of weakly sorbing zinc ions, whereas the sorption capacity for zinc was considerably decreased in the presence of strongly sorbed copper or lead. A double-exponential faction and equilibration criteria were demonstrated for determination of the required equilibration time for batch equilibrium sorption experiments. The numerical technique proposed for fitting sorption isotherms enabled calculation of the least squares estimates of isotherm parameters. A similar technique was proposed for fitting bi-solute sorption isotherms.

  10. Transformation of heavy metal speciation during sludge drying: mechanistic insights

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Huanxin; Ma, Xue-Wen; Fu, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Jin-Jun; Liu, Zan; Tian, Li-Xun; Liu, Chongxuan

    2014-01-30

    Speciation can fundamentally affect on the stability and toxicity of heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plants. This research investigated the speciation of heavy metals in sludge from both municipal and industrial sources, and metal speciation change as a result of drying process to reduce sludge volume. The changes in sludge properties including sludge moisture content, temperature, density, and electrical conductivity were also monitored to provide insights into the mechanisms causing the change in heavy metal speciation. The results show that the drying process generally stabilized the Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb in sludge by transforming acid-soluble, reducible and oxidizable species into structurally stable forms. Such transformation and stabilization occurred regardless of the sludge source and type, and were primarily caused by the changes in sludge properties associated with decomposition of organic matter and sulfide. The results enhanced our understanding of the geochemical behavior of heavy metals in municipal sludge, and are useful for designing a treatment system for environment-friendly disposal of sludge.

  11. Coal burning leaves toxic heavy metal legacy in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, J.R.; Edwards, R. [Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States)

    2008-08-26

    Toxic heavy metals emitted by industrial activities in the midlatitudes are transported through the atmosphere and deposited in the polar regions; bioconcentration and biomagnification in the food chain mean that even low levels of atmospheric deposition may threaten human health and Arctic ecosystems. Little is known about sources and long-term trends of most heavy metals before approximate to 1980, when modern measurements began, although heavy-metal pollution in the Arctic was widespread during recent decades. Lacking detailed, long-term measurements until now, ecologists, health researchers, and policy makers generally have assumed that contamination was highest during the 1960s and 1970s peak of industrial activity in North America and Europe. We present continuous 1772-2003 monthly and annually averaged deposition records for highly toxic thallium, cadmium, and lead from a Greenland ice core showing that atmospheric deposition was much higher than expected in the early 20th century, with tenfold increases from preindustrial levels by the early 1900s that were two to five times higher than during recent decades. Tracer measurements indicate that coal burning in North America and Europe was the likely source of these metals in the Arctic after 1860. Although these results show that heavy-metal pollution in the North Atlantic sector of the Arctic is substantially lower today than a century ago, contamination of other sectors may be increasing because of the rapid coal-driven growth of Asian economies.

  12. Accumulation of heavy metals using Sorghum sp.

    PubMed

    Soudek, Petr; Petrová, Šarka; Va?ková, Radomíra; Song, Jing; Van?k, Tomaš

    2014-06-01

    The essential requirement for the effective phytoremediation is selection of a plant species which should be metal tolerant, with high biomass production and known agronomic techniques. The above mentioned criteria are met by crop plant sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). The response of hydroponically grown S. bicolor plants to cadmium and zinc stress was followed. The impact of metal application on physiological parameters, including changes in chlorophylls contents and antioxidative enzymes activities, was followed during the stress progression. Cadmium and zinc were accumulated primarily in the roots of sorghum plants. However, elevation of metal concentrations in the media promoted their transfer to the shoots. Toxic effects of metals applied at lower concentrations were less serious in the shoots in comparison with their influence to the roots. When applied at higher concentrations, transfer of the metals into the leaves increased, causing growth reduction and leading to Chl loss and metal-induced chlorosis. Moreover, higher metal levels in the roots overcame the quenching capacity of peroxidase and glutathione transferase, which was associated with reduction of their activities. Fortification of antioxidant system by addition of glutathione significantly increased the accumulation of cadmium in the roots as well as in the shoots at the highest cadmium concentration applied. PMID:24268752

  13. Heavy metal and abiotic stress inducible metallothionein isoforms from Prosopis juliflora (SW) D.C. show differences in binding to heavy metals in vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Usha; Gayatri Venkataraman; Ajay Parida

    2009-01-01

    Prosopis juliflora is a tree species that grows well in heavy metal laden industrial sites and accumulates heavy metals. To understand the possible\\u000a contribution of metallothioneins (MTs) in heavy metal accumulation in P. juliflora, we isolated and compared the metal binding ability of three different types of MTs (PjMT1-3). Glutathione S-transferase fusions of PjMTs (GSTMT1-3) were purified from Escherichia coli

  14. Sorption of Heavy Metal Ions on New Metal-Ligand Complexes Chemically Derived from Lycopodium clavatum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erol Pehlivan; Mustafa Ersoz; Salih Yildiz; Harry J. Duncan

    1994-01-01

    Sorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution has been investigated as a function of pH using a novel exchanger system whereby Lycopodium clavatum is functionalized with carboxylate and glyoxime metal-ligand complexes. The new ligand exchangers were prepared using a reaction of diaminosporopollenin with various metal-ligand complexes of glyoxime and monocarboxylic acid. The sorptive behavior of these metal-ligand exchangers and

  15. Heavy Metal Bioavailability and Bioaccessibility in Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, John Richard

    This chapter considers the use of a variety of approaches to assess either the bioavailability or the bioaccessibility of metals in soil. The bioavailability of metals from soils is considered with respect to a series of single-extraction methods, including the use of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), acetic acid, diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), ammonium nitrate, calcium chloride and sodium nitrate. Then, a procedure for the recovery of metals using a three-stage sequential extraction protocol is described. Two alternate approaches for assessing the environmental health risk to humans by undertaking in vitro gastrointestinal extraction (also known as the physiologically based extraction test, PBET) are considered. Finally, two acid digestion protocols that allow the pseudo-total metal content of samples to be assessed are provided.

  16. Characterization of disposable optical sensors for heavy metal determination.

    PubMed

    Vukovi?, Jadranka; Avidad, María Ariza; Capitán-Vallvey, Luis Fermín

    2012-05-30

    This paper presents the development, characterization and quality control of analytical methods based on the use of disposable optical sensors for determination of heavy metals. Chromogenic reagents such as 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol, (2-pyridylazo)resorcinol, Zincon, Ferrozine, and Chromazurol S were used to develop optical sensors of heavy metal ions found as contaminants in pharmaceutical substances and products, such as Zn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), and Fe(III). The chromogenic reagents were immobilized in polymeric membranes by spin-coating from cocktails containing all reagents needed. The methods were prevalidated using a comprehensive quality control strategy based on a system of mathematical/statistical testing and diagnosis of each prevalidation step. This system involved characterization of analytical groups; checking of two limiting groups; testing of data homogeneity; recognition of outliers; and determination of analytical functions, limiting values, precision and accuracy. The prevalidation strategy demonstrated the reliability of the proposed method and pointed out some limitations. Combining the optical sensors with multicomponent linear regression allowed simultaneous determination of multiple metals in synthetic mixtures with different compositions. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical amounts of heavy metals in the mixtures was obtained for the majority of sensors and metals. Even better agreement was obtained between the experimental and theoretical total amounts of metals in the mixtures. The proposed analytical methods were successfully applied to the determination of zinc in pharmaceutical preparations of insulin and the determination of metal mixtures in a commercial nasal spray of isotonic seawater. The reliable and sensitive individual optical sensors developed in this study may be useful for designing a multimembrane optical tongue that with appropriate further optimization can be used for screening heavy metals in various matrices. PMID:22608424

  17. Speciation of heavy metals in landfill-leachate polluted groundwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dorthe LÆrke Jensen; Anna Ledin; Thomas H Christensen

    1999-01-01

    Anaerobic leachate polluted groundwater samples were collected downgradient of a Danish landfill. The groundwater samples were spiked with heavy metals at concentrations within the range of metal concentrations found in landfill leachates (100?g Cdl?1, 500?g Nil?1, 1000?g Znl?1, 1000?g Cul?1 and 1000?g Pbl?1) and divided under anaerobic conditions into colloidal (screen-filtration and cross-flow ultrafiltration), organic (anion-exchange) and dissolved inorganic species

  18. Heavy metal detoxification in higher plants - a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meinhart H. Zenk

    1996-01-01

    A set of heavy-metal-complexing peptides was isolated from plants and plant suspension cultures. The structure of these peptides was established as (?-glutamic acid-cysteine)n-glycine (n=2–11) [(?-Glu-Cys)n-Gly]. These peptides appear upon induction of plants with metals of the transition and main groups (Ib-Va, Z=29?83) of the periodic table of elements. These peptides, called phytochelatins (PC), are induced in all autotrophic plants so

  19. Heavy metal accumulation by bacteria and other microorganisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. M. Gadd

    1990-01-01

    Summary Bacteria, and other microorganisms, exhibit a number of metabolism-dependent and-independent processes or the uptake and accumulation of heavy metals and radionuclides. The removal of such harmful substances from effluents and waste waters by microbe-based technologies may provide an alternative or additional means of metal\\/radionuclide recovery for economic reasons and\\/or environmental protection. Both living and dead cells as well as

  20. Heavy Metals Contamination in Vegetables Grown in Urban and Metal Smelter Contaminated Sites in Australia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony George Kachenko; Balwant Singh

    2006-01-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals, namely cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), has been identified as a risk\\u000a to human health through the consumption of vegetable crops. This study investigates the source and magnitude of heavy metal\\u000a contamination in soil and vegetable samples at 46 sites across four vegetable growing regions in New South Wales, Australia.\\u000a The

  1. Anaerobes into heavy metal: Dissimilatory metal reduction in anoxic environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.

    1993-01-01

    Within the last decade, a novel form of microbial metabolism of major environmental significance has been elucidated. In this process, known as dissimilatory metal reduction, specialized microorganisms, living in anoxic aquatic sediments and ground water, oxidize organic compounds to carbon dioxide with metals serving as the oxidant. Recent studies have demonstrated that this metabolism explains a number of important geochemical phenomena in ancient and modern sedimentary environments, affecting not only the cycling of metals but also the fate of organic matter. Furthermore, this metabolism may have practical application in remediation of environments contaminated with toxic metals and/or organics.

  2. Surfactin restores and enhances swarming motility under heavy metal stress.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anil Kumar; Dhanjal, Soniya; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-04-01

    The present work reports the importance of lipopeptide biosurfactant on swarming motility of multi-metal resistant (MMR) bacterium under heavy metal stress. The MMR bacteria strain CM100B, identified as Bacillus cereus, was isolated from the coal mine sample. The strain was able to grow and reduce several metals namely Cd(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+) and Pb(2+) ions which are common environmental pollutants. Presence of toxic heavy metal ions in the swarming medium significantly altered the motility of CM100B. Presence of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ions inhibited development of peritrichous flagella, thus inhibiting swarming motility. However, the addition of anionic biosurfactant surfactin restored (in case of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ions) or enhanced (in case of Co(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+) and Mn(2+)) the swarming ability of CM100B. Zeta potential studies for determining bacterial cell surface charge indicated that surfactin provided a suitable swarming environment to bacteria even under metal stress by chelating to cationic metal ions. Non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 was unable to restore swarming under Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ion stress. Thus, suggesting that surfactin can aid in motility not only by reducing the surface tension of swarming medium but also by binding to metal ions in the presence of metal ions stress. PMID:24441179

  3. CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR TREATMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF: CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF WETLAND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metals in urban stormwater runoff are primarily removed by sedimentation in stormwater best management practices (BMPs) such as constructed wetlands. Heavy metals accumulated in wetland sediments may be potentially toxic to benthic invertebrates and aquatic microorganisms, ...

  4. Heavy metal contamination of soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site: implications for dissemination of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Geng, Xinhua; Chen, Shejun; Huang, Xuexia; Li, Haiyan; Huang, Zhuying; Zhu, Libin; Chen, Jiahao; Lu, Yayin

    2015-02-15

    Illegal e-waste recycling activity has caused heavy metal pollution in many developing countries, including China. In recent years, the Chinese government has strengthened enforcement to impede such activity; however, the heavy metals remaining in the abandoned e-waste recycling site can still pose ecological risk. The present study aimed to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in soil and water in the vicinity of an abandoned e-waste recycling site in Longtang, South China. Results showed that the surface soil of the former burning and acid-leaching sites was still heavily contaminated with Cd (>0.39 mg kg(-1)) and Cu (>1981 mg kg(-1)), which exceeded their respective guideline levels. The concentration of heavy metals generally decreased with depth in both burning site and paddy field, which is related to the elevated pH and reduced TOM along the depth gradient. The pond water was seriously acidified and contaminated with heavy metals, while the well water was slightly contaminated since heavy metals were mostly retained in the surface soil. The use of pond water for irrigation resulted in considerable heavy metal contamination in the paddy soil. Compared with previous studies, the reduced heavy metal concentrations in the surface soil imply that heavy metals were transported to the other areas, such as pond. Therefore, immediate remediation of the contaminated soil and water is necessary to prevent dissemination of heavy metals and potential ecological disaster. PMID:25460954

  5. Noninvasive evaluation of heavy metal uptake and storage in micoralgae using a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based heavy metal biosensor.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Sathish; Torres, Moacir; Falcao, Vanessa; Ewalt Gray, Jaime; Coury, Daniel A; Colepicolo, Pio; Sayre, Richard

    2014-02-01

    We have developed a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based heavy metal biosensor for the quantification of bioavailable free heavy metals in the cytoplasm of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The biosensor is composed of an end-to-end fusion of cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), chicken metallothionein II (MT-II), and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). In vitro measurements of YFP/CFP fluorescence emission ratios indicated that the addition of metals to the purified biosensor enhanced FRET between CFP and YFP, consistent with heavy metal-induced folding of MT-II. A maximum YFP/CFP FRET ratio of 2.8 was observed in the presence of saturating concentrations of heavy metals. The sensitivity of the biosensor was greatest for Hg2+ followed by Cd2+?Pb2+>Zn2+>Cu2+. The heavy metal biosensor was unresponsive to metals that do not bind to MT-II (Na+ and Mg2+). When expressed in C. reinhardtii, we observed a differential metal-dependent response to saturating external concentrations (1.6 mm) of heavy metals (Pb2+>Cd2+) that was unlike that observed for the isolated biosensor (in vitro). Significantly, analysis of metal uptake kinetics indicated that equilibration of the cytoplasm with externally applied heavy metals occurred within seconds. Our results also indicated that algae have substantial buffering capacity for free heavy metals in their cytosol, even at high external metal concentrations. PMID:24368336

  6. Accumulation of heavy metals by freshwater zooplankton - a toxicological study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Baliarsingh; S. Srichandan; T. Padmavati; Subrat Naik; K. C. Sahu

    2010-01-01

    So far many toxicologic studies are made earlier; we studied the acute toxicity estimation related to some specific identified freshwater zooplanktons of Paradip (Harbour City) area of Jagatsingpur District, Orissa, India which is situated on the bank of Mahanadi River. The study area is prone to heavy metal pollution because mineral based industries in relation to zinc, lead and cadmium

  7. Influence of heavy metals on soil microbial activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Hattori

    1992-01-01

    Studies were carried out to evaluate the influence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, or Zn on the decomposition of organic matter in soils and on their microflora. The heavy metals were added to samples of Gley soil and Light-colored Andosol at the level of 10 ?mol\\/g soil, respectively. Three days after the addition, sewage sludge was mixed with the

  8. Heavy metals as indicators for an integrated environmental monitoring system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Morselli; M. Bartoli; F. Passarini; E. Bernard; A. Brighetti

    2003-01-01

    Heavy metals are typical micropollutants emitted by incineration processes and they were chosen as Environmental Indicator in order to assess the effects of the activity of a medium-size Italian Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator in the vicinity. An Integrated Environmental Monitoring System was applied: after the recognition of maximum deposition areas, by a dispersion model, many different environmental samples were collected

  9. Forecast Estimation of Heavy Metals Values in a Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Koroleva

    Recently problem of accumulation of heavy metals in an atmosphere, soils both waters in the natural and antropogently-modified landscapes is characteristic for many countries of the world. The soil can be considered as the integrated indicator of long-term process of pollution of an environment giving representation about quality of environments connected with soil - air and waters. The influence of

  10. High-Level Treatment of Stormwater Heavy Metals

    E-print Network

    Clark, Shirley E.

    Capacities for Different Media CEC (meq/100 g) Peat Moss 22 Compost 19 Activated Carbon 5.4 Zeolite 6 1)Characteristics and treatability 2)Ch i l t t t2)Chemical treatment 3)Media filtration and grass of stormwater heavy metals by media filtration and grass swales. · Provide guidelines to enhance the design

  11. Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W Peters

    1999-01-01

    The current state of the art regarding the use of chelating agents to extract heavy metal contaminants has been addressed. Results are presented for treatability studies conducted as worst-case and representative soils from Aberdeen Proving Ground's J-Field for extraction of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The particle size distribution characteristics of the soils determined from hydrometer tests are

  12. Instances of Soil and Crop Heavy Metal Contamination in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Qingren Y. Dong; Y. Cui; X. Liu

    2001-01-01

    Both general and specific investigations of soil and crop heavy metal contamination were carried out across China. The former was focused mainly on Cd, Hg, As, Pb, and Cr in soils and vegetables in suburbs of four large cities; the latter investigated Cd levels in both soils and rice or wheat in contaminated areas throughout 15 provinces of the country.

  13. Nitrous oxide production of heavy metal contaminated soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Vásquez-Murrieta; C. Cruz-Mondragón; N. Trujillo-Tapia; G. Herrera-Arreola; B. Govaerts; O. Van Cleemput; L. Dendooven

    2006-01-01

    Arsenic (As), lead (Pb), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) can be found in large concentrations in mine spills of central and northern Mexico. Interest in these heavy metals has increased recently as they contaminate drinking water and aquifers in large parts of the world and severely affect human health, but little is known about how they affect biological functioning of

  14. Chemical methods and phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M Chen; C. R Zheng; C Tu; Z. G Shen

    2000-01-01

    The effects of chemical amendments (calcium carbonate (CC), steel sludge (SS) and furnace slag (FS)) on the growth and uptake of cadmium (Cd) by wetland rice, Chinese cabbage and wheat grown in a red soil contaminated with Cd were investigated using a pot experiment. The phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil with vetiver grass was also studied in a field

  15. HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF AYURVEDIC HERBAL MEDICINE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case reports of individuals taking Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (HMPs) suggest that they may contain lead, mercury, and/or arsenic. We analyzed the heavy metal content of Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in India and Pakistan, available in South Asian grocery stores in the Bost...

  16. Toxic heavy metals and undeclared drugs in Asian herbal medicines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edzard Ernst

    2002-01-01

    Asian herbal medicines are currently used by large sections of the population. Because they are not regulated as medicines and are freely available to everyone, serious safety concerns might be associated with these herbal medicines. In this article, evidence suggesting that some Asian herbal medicines contain toxic heavy metals or undeclared prescription drugs is reviewed. In particular, Indian and Chinese

  17. Chemical Speciation of Heavy Metals in Stainless Steel Plant Dust

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guojun Ma; Wei Fan; Hui Tang; Wei Wang; Weihou Su

    2010-01-01

    The leaching tests and the sequential extraction procedure of heavy metals in the stainless steel plant dusts were studied. The results show that the total Cr and Cr (VI) content in argon oxygen decarburization converter dust (AODD), and the concentrations of Cd and Zn in electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) exceed the national standards. Lead is the most extractable element

  18. The reduction of heavy metals in a stormwater wetland

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Walker; Sigrid Hurl

    2002-01-01

    Sedimentation has long been recognised as the principal process in the removal of heavy metals from stormwater in natural or constructed wetlands. However, there are a range of other processes including filtration, adsorption, biological assimilation, decomposition, chemical transformation and volatilisation that may also play an important role. To date there have been few attempts to quantify the importance of the

  19. HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION IN THE TAIMYR PENINSULA, SIBERIAN ARCTIC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Taimyr Peninsula is directly north of the world's largest heavy metal smelting complex (Norilsk, Russia). Despite this proximity, there has been little research to examine the extent of contamination of the Taimyr Peninsula, primarily because of the remoteness of this area. W...

  20. Sorption of heavy metal cations on activated carbon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilczak

    1988-01-01

    Activated carbon is used to remove trace amounts of organic compounds from waters and wastewaters. An experimental program was conducted to determine the kinetics of sorption of lead, copper, and zinc on the surface of the powdered activated carbon Nuchar SA, and on granular activated carbon Filtrasorb 400. The results of the experimental program showed that sorption of heavy metals

  1. Water Purification Using Functional Nanomaterials: Sequestering Toxic Heavy Metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fryxell; Glen E

    2008-01-01

    Water, and water quality, are issues of critical importance to the future of humankind. Our water supply has been contaminated by a wide variety of industrial, military and natural sources. There is a serious need for technologies to remove toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the worlds water supplies. Surfactant templated synthesis of mesoporous ceramics provides a versatile foundation upon

  2. Heavy metals in soils and crops in Southeast Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernhard A. Zarcinas; Che Fauziah Ishak; Mike J. McLaughlin; Gill Cozens

    2004-01-01

    In a reconnaissance soil geochemical and plant survey undertaken to study the heavy metal uptake by major food crops in Malaysia, 241 soils were analysed for cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic carbon (C), pH, electrical conductivity (EC) and available phosphorus (P) using appropriate procedures. These soils were also analysed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu),

  3. CONCENTRATION OF NINE HEAVY METALS IN SUEZ CANAL WATERS, EGYPT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EL SAMRA; ABD EL-AZIM

    2005-01-01

    The concentration of nine heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Co, Fe and Mn) in waters of the Suez Canal and in the nearby waters was measured seasonally during 1997 - 1998 in their dissolved (D) and particulate (P) forms. The results revealed that the northern part of the canal (at Port Said) recorded higher concentrations for most

  4. MICROBIAL SEQUESTRATION OF LEAD AND OTHER HEAVY METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activity resulting in heavy metal contamination is a worldwide concern. Lead is a potent neurotoxin that can cause heart problems, kidney damage, and mental retardation. Mercury causes toxicity based on its form and route of exposure. Effects range from allergic reactions t...

  5. Heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemann, Martin; Walder, Rudolf; Schwyn, André

    This report gives general information on the consumption of batteries, and nickel-cadmium storage and handling of spent batteries in Switzerland, followed by detailed battery analyses; it considers finally the environmental impact, due to the heavy metals from nickel-cadmium accumulators and other batteries.

  6. Fate of heavy metals and agrochemicals in biochar amended soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Heavy metals and agrochemicals are the key targets for biochar-induced mitigation of runoff/groundwater contamination. Inorganic and organic contaminants interact differently with biochars as well as soil components. Mechanistic understandings are needed on sorption, desorption, and competitive sor...

  7. Organochlorines, heavy metals, and the biology of North American accipiters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snyder, N.F.R.; Snyder, H.A.; Lincer, J.L.; Reynolds, R.T.

    1973-01-01

    Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

  8. Baker's yeast assay procedure for testing heavy metal toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Bitton; Ben Koopman; Hsien-Deng Wang

    1984-01-01

    Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is microorganism which is commercially available and sold as packaged dry pellets in any food store at low cost. Studies have been undertaken on the effects of organic xenobiotics as well as heavy metals on yeast metabolism. This type of study has been generally useful in examining the mechanism(s) of chemical toxicity. However, a rapid and

  9. Heavy metal linkages with mineral, organic and living soil compartments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdul Motalib M. Abdul Rida; Marcel B. Bouché

    1997-01-01

    For soil ecotoxicological assessment, we can observe lethal effects (on organism as presence or absence) or sublethal effects due to bioconcentrations of contaminants in organisms. This paper deals with the analysis of seven heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and Ca: (i) in soils, by three chemical extraction techniques; (ii) in earthworm tissues; (iii) the relationships

  10. Industrial age anthropogenic inputs of heavy metals into the pedosphere

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fengxiang X. Han; Amos Banin; Yi Su; David L. Monts; John M. Plodinec; William L. Kingery; Glover E. Triplett

    2002-01-01

    Heavy metals have been increasingly released into our environment. We present here, for the first time, the global industrial age production of Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and their potential accumulation and environmental effects in the pedosphere. World soils have been seriously polluted by Pb and Cd and slightly by Zn. The potential industrial age anthropogenic Pb,

  11. Heavy metal atmospheric deposition study in the South Ural Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. V. Frontasyeva; L. I. Smirnov; E. Steinnes; S. M. Lyapunov; V. D. Cherchintsev

    2004-01-01

    Samples of the mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi, collected in the summer of 1998, were used to study the atmospheric deposition of heavy metals and other toxic elements in the Chelyabinsk Region situated in the South Urals, one of the most heavily polluted industrial areas of the Russian Federation. Samples of natural soils were collected simultaneously with moss at

  12. Stability of heavy metals in bottom ash and fly ash under various incinerating conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming-Chi Wei; Ming-Yen Wey; Jiann-Harng Hwang; Jyh-Cherng Chen

    1998-01-01

    High chloride concentrations are normally found in municipal waste. Most chloride resources are originally derived from organic chlorides, e.g., PVC and inorganic chlorides, or chloride salt from kitchen waste. Heavy metals can easily react with chlorides during incineration, thus, producing related metallic chlorides. These factors make the combustion products more complicated (such as metallic chloride, metallic oxide, or heavy metal).

  13. Bioremediation of Heavy Metals in Liquid Media Through Fungi Isolated from Contaminated Sources

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. JoshiAnand; Anand Swarup; Sonu Maheshwari; Raman Kumar; Namita Singh

    Wastewater particularly from electroplating, paint, leather, metal and tanning industries contain enormous amount of heavy\\u000a metals. Microorganisms including fungi have been reported to exclude heavy metals from wastewater through bioaccumulation\\u000a and biosorption at low cost and in eco-friendly way. An attempt was, therefore, made to isolate fungi from sites contaminated\\u000a with heavy metals for higher tolerance and removal of heavy

  14. Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops*

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Ejaz ul; Yang, Xiao-e; He, Zhen-li; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals enter the human body mainly through two routes namely: inhalation and ingestion, ingestion being the main route of exposure to these elements in human population. Heavy metals intake by human populations through food chain has been reported in many countries. Soil threshold for heavy metal toxicity is an important factor affecting soil environmental capacity of heavy metal and determines heavy metal cumulative loading limits. For soil-plant system, heavy metal toxicity threshold is the highest permissible content in the soil (total or bioavailable concentration) that does not pose any phytotoxic effects or heavy metals in the edible parts of the crops does not exceed food hygiene standards. Factors affecting the thresholds of dietary toxicity of heavy metal in soil-crop system include: soil type which includes soil pH, organic matter content, clay mineral and other soil chemical and biochemical properties; and crop species or cultivars regulated by genetic basis for heavy metal transport and accumulation in plants. In addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-microbes play important roles in regulating heavy metal movement from soil to the edible parts of crops. Agronomic practices such as fertilizer and water managements as well as crop rotation system can affect bioavailability and crop accumulation of heavy metals, thus influencing the thresholds for assessing dietary toxicity of heavy metals in the food chain. This paper reviews the phytotoxic effects and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and food crops and assesses soil heavy metal thresholds for potential dietary toxicity. PMID:17173356

  15. Heavy metal relationships in a Pennsylvania soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L. Suarez; Donald Langmuir

    1976-01-01

    Soils of loamy sand on weathered, sandy dolomite were cored from six holes up to 70 ft beneath a municipal waste landfill in central Pennsylvania. Mn, Fe, Ni, Co, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, and Ag were determined in exchangeable and non-exchangeable forms in total and < 15 m soil samples. Most of these metals were bound in Mn oxides, non-exchangeable

  16. Plasma polymer-functionalized silica particles for heavy metals removal.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Behnam; Jarvis, Karyn; Majewski, Peter

    2015-02-25

    Highly negatively charged particles were fabricated via an innovative plasma-assisted approach for the removal of heavy metal ions. Thiophene plasma polymerization was used to deposit sulfur-rich films onto silica particles followed by the introduction of oxidized sulfur functionalities, such as sulfonate and sulfonic acid, via water-plasma treatments. Surface chemistry analyses were conducted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Electrokinetic measurements quantified the zeta potentials and isoelectric points (IEPs) of modified particles and indicated significant decreases of zeta potentials and IEPs upon plasma modification of particles. Plasma polymerized thiophene-coated particles treated with water plasma for 10 min exhibited an IEP of less than 3.5. The effectiveness of developed surfaces in the adsorption of heavy metal ions was demonstrated through copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) removal experiments. The removal of metal ions was examined through changing initial pH of solution, removal time, and mass of particles. Increasing the water plasma treatment time to 20 min significantly increased the metal removal efficiency (MRE) of modified particles, whereas further increasing the plasma treatment time reduced the MRE due to the influence of an ablation mechanism. The developed particulate surfaces were capable of removing more than 96.7% of both Cu and Zn ions in 1 h. The combination of plasma polymerization and oxidative plasma treatment is an effective method for the fabrication of new adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals. PMID:25603034

  17. Spectroscopic investigations of heavy metal binding to biomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Rayson, G.D.; Drake, L.R. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The application of biomaterials for the binding of heavy metals from contaminated waters has many attractive features. Among these are their relative low costs, their natural selectivity relative to more benign metals, and their high binding capacities. Unfortunately, a general lack of understanding of the fundamental chemical interaction responsible for the binding of heavy metals by these materials response has often restricted their use to systems with comparatively well defined influent composition. To enable these materials to be used to their fullest capability, it will be necessary to acquire such a fundamental understanding of these basic chemical processes. In this paper, work in our laboratory pertaining to the investigation of heavy metal binding to biomaterials will be discussed. Specifically, materials composed of cell wall fragments from the plant Datura innoxia and a fraction of organic peat have been investigated using several spectroscopic techniques. The techniques which will be discussed include solid-state luminescence of bound lanthanide ions, {sup 113}Cd-NMR (slurries and solid-state), and solid-state FT-IR. The findings of these investigations regarding the binding of metal ions to each of these materials and the impact of solution conditions (e.g., pH) will be discussed.

  18. A review of heavy metal adsorption by marine algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin-Fen, Pan; Rong-Gen, Lin; Li, Ma

    2000-09-01

    Accumulation of heavy metals by algae had been studied extensively for biomonitoring or bioremediation purposes. Having the advantages of low cost raw material, big adsorbing capacity, no secondary pollution, etc., algae may be used to treat industrial water containing heavy metals. The adsorption processes were carried out in two steps: rapid physical adsorption first, and then slow chemical adsorption. pH is the major factor influencing the adsorption. The Freundlich equation fitted very well the adsorption isotherms. The uptake decreased with increasing ionic strength. The principal mechanism of metallic cation sequestration involves the formation of complexes between a metal ion and functional groups on the surface or inside the porous structure of the biological material. The carboxyl groups of alginate play a major role in the complexation. Different species of algae and the algae of the same species may have different adsorption capacity. Their selection affinity for heavy metals was the major criterion for the screening of a biologic adsorbent to be used in water treatment. The surface complex formation model (SCFM) can solve the equilibrium and kinetic problems in the biosorption.

  19. Heavy metal content in rubbish bags used for separate collection of biowaste

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oscar Huerta-Pujol; Montserrat Soliva; Francesc Giró; Marga López

    2010-01-01

    The heavy metal content of several rubbish bags used to collect the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is shown in this paper. Nowadays, several public awareness campaigns carried out by municipalities have promoted rubbish bags based mainly on their appearance, without concern for their heavy metal content. A high amount of heavy metals was detected in some polyethylene

  20. Heavy metal release from different ashes during serial batch tests using water and acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernard Ludwig; Partap Khanna; Jürgen Prenzel; Friedrich Beese

    2005-01-01

    Most ashes contain a significant amount of heavy metals and when released from disposed or used ash materials, they can form a major environmental concern for underground waters. The use of water extracts to assess the easily mobilisable content of heavy metals may not provide an appropriate measure. This study describes the patterns of heavy metal release from ash materials

  1. Study on Form Distribution and Correlation of Heavy Metals in the Sediment of Urban Water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xu Ying; Lu Jing-ling

    2010-01-01

    With the Tessier Five-step Continuous Extracting Method, the thesis studied the form distribution of heavy metals in the sediment samples collected from Mochou Lake, Xuanwu Lake and Qinhuai River in Nanjing, analyzed the correlation between leaching contents of heavy metals and various forms and between content of organic matter and leachability of heavy metals and between organic matter and organic

  2. A Mechanism Study of Reflectance Spectroscopy for Investigating Heavy Metals in Soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yunzhao Wu; Jun Chen; Junfeng Ji; Peng Gong; Qilin Liao; Qingjiu Tian; Hongrui Ma

    2007-01-01

    Conventional methods for investigating heavy metal contamination in soil are time consuming and expensive. In this study, we (i) explored refl ectance spectroscopy as an alternative method for assessing heavy metals, and (ii) further explored the physicochemical mechanism that allows estima- tion of heavy metals with the refl ectance spectroscopy method. We fi rst investigated the spectral response of changing

  3. Comparison of heavy metal toxicity in continuous flow and batch reactors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. S. Sengor; P. Gikas; J. G. Moberly; B. M. Peyton; T. R. Ginn

    2009-01-01

    The presence of heavy metals may significantly affect microbial growth. In many cases, small amounts of particular heavy metals may stimulate microbial growth; however, larger quantities may result in microbial growth reduction. Environmental parameters, such as growth pattern may alter the critical heavy metal concentration, above which microbial growth stimulation turns to growth inhibition. Thus, it is important to quantify

  4. Industrial hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) growing on heavy metal contaminated soil: fibre quality and phytoremediation potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Linger; J. Müssig; H. Fischer; J. Kobert

    2002-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) was used to examine its capability as a renewable resource to decontaminate heavy metal polluted soils. The influence of heavy metals on the fibre quality was of special interest. Determination of heavy metal content was carried out by means of atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Four different parts of the plant were examined: seeds, leaves, fibres and

  5. Ecotoxicological Studies. 3. Heavy metals contaminating water and fish from Fayoum Governorate, Egypt

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Mansour; M. M. Sidky

    2002-01-01

    The distribution of some heavy metals in water and fish from Fayoum Governorate (Egypt) was studied in samples collected throughout two successive years (1997\\/1998 and 1998\\/1999). Water from Lake Qarun, a private fish farm and “Sanhour River” was found to contain heavy metals at concentration levels lower than those found in fish from the first two ecosystems. The heavy metals

  6. Temporal variation of heavy metal contamination in fish of the river lot in southern France

    E-print Network

    Grenouillet, Gael

    Temporal variation of heavy metal contamination in fish of the river lot in southern France C s t r a c t The present study aims at assessing the current situation of the heavy metal contaminated July 2009 Keywords: Heavy metals Historical pollution Freshwater fish Muscle Liver Quality index a b

  7. The accumulation of heavy metals in the submerged plant ( Elodea nuttallii )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Nakada; K. Fukaya; S. Takeshita; Y. Wada

    1979-01-01

    Several species of submerged plants grow in flowing water of polluted urban rivers in Japan. The measurement of heavy metals content in the submerged plants are suitable for a criterion to estimate the average heavy metals concentration in water. DIETZ (1972) reported enrichment of heavy metals in six submerged plants collected from the Ruhr river (Germany). He found that the

  8. Heavy metal speciation and phytotoxic effects of three representative sewage sludges for agricultural uses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Walter; F. Martínez; V. Cala

    2006-01-01

    The environmental impact of sewage sludges depends on the availability and phytotoxicity of their heavy metal. The influence of representative sludges (dewatered anaerobic, pelletization, and composted sludge) on the availability of heavy metals, and their effects on seed germination were compared. The total heavy metal concentrations were below the maximum permitted for land-applied waste and the differences among them were

  9. Soil Contamination and Plant Uptake of Heavy Metals at Polluted Sites in China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qing-Ren Wang; Yan-Shan Cui; Xiu-Mei Liu; Yi-Ting Dong; Peter Christie

    2003-01-01

    We investigated heavy metal contamination in soils and plants at polluted sites in China including some with heavy industries, metal mining, smelting and untreated wastewater irrigation areas. We report our main findings in this paper. The concentrations of heavy metals, including Cd and Zn, in the soils at the investigated sites were above the background levels, and generally exceeded the

  10. Analysis of heavy metals in slag from one municipal solid waste incinerator in Shanghai

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Haiying; Qi Jingyu

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a methodology for analysis of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) slag. It performed analysis of composition of heavy metals, leaching toxicity, leaching behavior as a function of pH and specification distribution of Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn. It was found that content of heavy metals followed the decreasing sequence of Zn >

  11. IMPACT OF HEAVY METALS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE ON SOIL AND PLANTS (COLZA and WHEAT)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of heavy metals, however rape (colza) is a plant of the family Brassica napus, is an excellent bio of rape than wheat. Keywords: Mud, urban, industrial, heavy metals, rape, colza, wheat, bio accumulator is a small accumulator of heavy metals while rape is an accumulator of these elements. 45 hal-00788945

  12. Mobility of heavy metals associated with the natural weathering of coal mine spoils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhi Dang; Congqiang Liu; Martin J Haigh

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge of chemical mobility of heavy metals is fundamental to understanding their toxicity, bioavailability, and geochemical behavior. In this paper, two different methods, i.e. mineralogical means and sequential extractions, were employed to analyze the total contents, existing states, and chemical forms of heavy metals in coal mine spoils. The results demonstrate that the mobility of heavy metals in coal mine

  13. Heavy Metal Phytoremediation from Aquatic Ecosystems with Special Reference to Macrophytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Prabhat Kumar Rai

    2009-01-01

    The rapid pace of industrialization and urbanization has given birth to heavy metal pollution. Heavy metals are one of the most hazardous contaminants that may be present in the aquatic environment. It derives its origin from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Heavy metal pollution in aquatic ecosystem poses a serious threat to aquatic biodiversity, and drinking contaminated water poses severe

  14. A heavy metal biossay based on percent spore germination of the sensitive fern, Onoclea sensibilis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond L. Petersen; Damon Arnold; David G. Lynch; Steven A. Price

    1980-01-01

    This is the first in a series of reports on the effects of heavy metals on the fern gametophyte developmental system. We report herein on a heavy metal bloassay based on percent fern spore germination. We selected two of the top three heavy metal pollutants -- mercury and cadmium -- for investigation and deleted lead because of its low solubility.

  15. Independent Evolution of Heavy Metal-Associated Domains in Copper Chaperones and Copper-Transporting ATPases

    E-print Network

    Jordan, King

    Independent Evolution of Heavy Metal-Associated Domains in Copper Chaperones and Copper and structure to the Cu- binding heavy metal-associated (HMA) domains of Cu- transporting ATPases (Cu to the Cu-binding heavy metal-associated (HMA) domains of Cu-transporting ATPases (Cu- ATPases) whose genes

  16. Environmental Pollution (Series B) 6 (1983)309-318 Heavy Metals in the Centipede Lithobius variegatus

    E-print Network

    Hopkin, Steve

    1983-01-01

    Environmental Pollution (Series B) 6 (1983)309-318 Heavy Metals in the Centipede Lithobius) may accumulate considerable amounts of heavy metals. These authors have suggested that the high in this paper are, as far as is known, the first to be published on the concentrations of heavy metals

  17. Executive Summary The remediation of radionuclides and heavy metals using current technology is generally

    E-print Network

    vii Executive Summary The remediation of radionuclides and heavy metals using current technology stages of development of nanotechnology applications for remediation of radionuclides and heavy metals radionuclides and heavy metals is a promising development. Though a recently-emerged technology, the LOC device

  18. Macrobenthic Community in Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong and its Relations with Heavy Metals

    E-print Network

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    Macrobenthic Community in Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong and its Relations with Heavy Metals Kouping Chen study investigated the macrobenthic community in Tolo Harbour, Hong Kong, aiming at linking heavy metal and abun- dance of macrobenthos in areas with low heavy metal concentrations were recorded. Strong negative

  19. Characterization of sperm motility in sea bass: the effect of heavy metals and physicochemical

    E-print Network

    Villefranche sur mer

    Characterization of sperm motility in sea bass: the effect of heavy metals and physicochemical of several physicochemical variables and heavy metals on sperm swimming performance. Duration of sperm. Two of the heavy metals tested, Cu2þ and Pb2þ , did not affect sperm motility when the activating

  20. Trends in heavy metal concentrations in the Western and Central Baltic Sea waters detected by using

    E-print Network

    Dippner, Joachim W.

    Trends in heavy metal concentrations in the Western and Central Baltic Sea waters detected by using 2003; accepted 10 October 2003 Abstract Heavy metal concentrations from annual sampling in the period and the accumulation of, inter alia, heavy metals. At irregular intervals, major inflows provide large volumes

  1. HEAVY METALS IN THE NORTHERN FUR SEAL, CALLORHINUS URSIN US, AND

    E-print Network

    HEAVY METALS IN THE NORTHERN FUR SEAL, CALLORHINUS URSIN US, AND HARBOR SEAL, PHOCA VITULINA of mercury were from southern California seals. Heavy metals are persistent contaminants that ultimately end resources, but some heavy metals are known to be harmful. One ppb (part pel' billion) of four commonly used

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Speciation and mobility of heavy metals in mud in coastal

    E-print Network

    Jiao, Jiu Jimmy

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Speciation and mobility of heavy metals in mud in coastal reclamation areas and the properties of the pore water in the mud may induce the release of some heavy metals into the mud. Field in different years indicate that most of the heavy metals in the mud decrease gradually with time

  3. ADVANCES IN BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS David Kratochvil and Bohumil Volesky

    E-print Network

    Volesky, Bohumil

    ADVANCES IN BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY METALS David Kratochvil and Bohumil Volesky Department of Chemical@chemeng.LAN.mcgill.ca SUMMARY Biosorption of heavy metals by various types of non-living (microbial) biomass appears as a very desorbing solutions facilitating a conventional follow-up metal recovery. ADVANCES IN BIOSORPTION OF HEAVY

  4. Concentrations of heavy metals, organochlorines, and organotins in horseshoe crab, Tachypleus tridentatus , from Japanese coastal waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Kannan; Y. Yasunaga; H. Iwata; H. Ichihashi; S. Tanabe; R. Tatsukawa

    1995-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls and organotins were determined in horseshoe crabs, Tachypleus tridentatus, collected from Japanese coastal waters. Heavy metal concentrations were high in the hepatopancreas, gill and egg. Residue levels of heavy metals were comparable to those recorded in most benthic organisms from Japanese coastal waters. Organochlorine concentrations were detected at a few ng\\/g and

  5. Influence of light on chlorophyll. A content of blue-green algae treated with heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Azeez, P.A.; Banerjee, D.K.

    1987-06-01

    The toxicity of heavy metals is manifested in multifarious forms. Factors like illumination influence the inhibitory effect of heavy metals on chlorophyll metabolism and photosynthetic activities. The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of light on the chlorophyll A (Chl A) content of blue green algae. This is in continuation of heavy metal toxicity and accumulation studies on cyanobacteria reported earlier.

  6. Survey of heavy metal deposition in Poland using mosses as indicators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Grodzi?ska; G. Szarek-?ukaszewska; B. Godzik

    1999-01-01

    Concentration of heavy metals in the feather moss Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., a common moss species, were used to indicate relative levels of air pollution by seven heavy metals: Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn in Poland. Pleurozium was sampled from 297 localities regularly distributed throughout the country. Significant differences in heavy metal levels in Pleurozium which are

  7. Response of mosses to the heavy metal deposition in Poland — an overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Grodzi?ska; G. Szarek-?ukaszewska

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) in Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., a common moss species, were used to indicate relative levels of atmospheric deposition in Poland in the years 1975–1998. Spatial and temporal differences in the heavy metal concentrations in mosses were found. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in the moss samples

  8. Biosynthetic regulation of phytochelatins, heavy metal-binding peptides.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Kazumasa; Tsuji, Naoki; Miyamoto, Kazuhisa

    2005-12-01

    Phytochelatins (PCs) are heavy metal-binding peptides that play important roles in the detoxification of toxic heavy metals and the regulation of intracellular concentrations of essential metals in eukaryotes, including higher plants, fungi, and microalgae. Recently, PC synthase genes in higher plants and fission yeast have been identified and characterized, enabling molecular biological studies to unravel the mechanisms underlying PC synthesis. Moreover, recent routine database searches have unexpectedly identified genes that are similar to plant PC synthase genes in the genomes of worms and some prokaryotes. In this review, we introduce these recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms for PC biosynthesis and functions in order to supply basic information about the unique and attractive peptides applicable to various fields. PMID:16473766

  9. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals

    PubMed Central

    Jaishankar, Monisha; Tseten, Tenzin; Anbalagan, Naresh; Beeregowda, Krishnamurthy N.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metal toxicity has proven to be a major threat and there are several health risks associated with it. The toxic effects of these metals, even though they do not have any biological role, remain present in some or the other form harmful for the human body and its proper functioning. They sometimes act as a pseudo element of the body while at certain times they may even interfere with metabolic processes. Few metals, such as aluminium, can be removed through elimination activities, while some metals get accumulated in the body and food chain, exhibiting a chronic nature. Various public health measures have been undertaken to control, prevent and treat metal toxicity occurring at various levels, such as occupational exposure, accidents and environmental factors. Metal toxicity depends upon the absorbed dose, the route of exposure and duration of exposure, i.e. acute or chronic. This can lead to various disorders and can also result in excessive damage due to oxidative stress induced by free radical formation. This review gives details about some heavy metals and their toxicity mechanisms, along with their health effects.

  10. SULFIDE PRECIPITATION OF NICKEL AND OTHER HEAVY METALS FROM SINGLE- AND MULTI-METAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Precipitation behavior of heavy metals (Ni, Co, Cd, Cu, and Zn) was studied extensively in single- and multi-metal systems. Kinetic studies showed that NiS oxidation (as a function of pH, oxygen, and reaction time) caused the dissolution of NiS. CoS precipitation would require hi...

  11. Heavy-metal enrichment in surficial sediments in the Oder River discharge area: source or sink for heavy metals?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Neumann; Thomas Leipe; Graham Shimmield

    1998-01-01

    The Oder river drains a highly polluted industrial area and enters the Baltic Sea through a system of shallow lagoons. Surficial sediments in the discharge area of the Oder are highly enriched in heavy metals compared to their preindustrial background levels. Pore-water studies in short sediment cores reveal anoxic environments over the entire sediment column, except for a suboxic layer

  12. Concentration and speciation of heavy metals during water hyacinth composting.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jiwan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2012-11-01

    The Tessier sequential extraction method was employed to investigate the changes in heavy metals speciation (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr) during water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) composting. Results showed that, the contents of total metals concentration were increased during the composting process. The largest proportion of metals was found in the residual fraction which was in more stable form and is consequently considered unavailable for plant uptake. Reducible and oxidizable fractions of Ni, Pb and Cd were not found in all trials during water hyacinth composting. The concentrations of Cu and Cd were very low comparative to the other metals, but the percentage of exchangeable and carbonate fractions were similar as other metals. From this study it can be concluded that the appropriate proportion of cattle manure addition (Trial 4) significantly reduced the mobile and easily available fractions (exchangeable and carbonate fractions) during the composting process. PMID:22989643

  13. Leachability of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings of Abandoned Metal Mines

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Mihee; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; You, Kwang-Suk; Kim, Hyung-Seok

    2009-01-01

    Mine tailings from an abandoned metal mine in Korea contained high concentrations of arsenic (As) and heavy metals [e.g., As: 67,336, Fe: 137,180, Cu: 764, Pb: 3,572, and Zn: 12,420 (mg/kg)]. US EPA method 6010 was an effective method for analyzing total arsenic and heavy metals concentrations. Arsenic in the mine tailings showed a high residual fraction of 89% by a sequential extraction. In Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT), leaching concentrations of arsenic and heavy metals were very low [e.g., As (mg/L): 0.4 for TCLP and 0.2 for KSLT; cf. As criteria (mg/L): 5.0 for TCLP and 1.5 for KSLT]. PMID:20049231

  14. Effect of the militarily-relevant heavy metals, depleted uranium and heavy metal tungsten-alloy on gene expression in human liver carcinoma cells (HepG2)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexandra C. Miller; Kia Brooks; Jan Smith; Natalie Page

    2004-01-01

    Depleted uranium (DU) and heavy-metal tungsten alloys (HMTAs) are dense heavy-metals used primarily in military applications. Chemically similar to natural uranium, but depleted of the higher activity 235U and 234U isotopes, DU is a low specific activity, high-density heavy metal. In contrast, the non-radioactive HMTAs are composed of a mixture of tungsten (91–93%), nickel (3–5%), and cobalt (2–4%) particles. The

  15. Extraction of heavy metals from soils using biodegradable chelating agents.

    PubMed

    Tandy, Susan; Bossart, Karin; Mueller, Roland; Ritschel, Jens; Hauser, Lukas; Schulin, Rainer; Nowack, Bernd

    2004-02-01

    Metal pollution of soils is widespread across the globe, and the clean up of these soils is a difficulttask. One possible remediation technique is ex-situ soil washing using chelating agents. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a very effective chelating agent for this purpose but has the disadvantage that it is quite persistent in the environment due to its low biodegradability. The aim of our work was to investigate the biodegradable chelating agents [S,S]-ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS), iminodisuccinic acid (IDSA), methylglycine diacetic acid (MGDA), and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) as potential alternatives and compare them with EDTA for effectiveness. Kinetic experiments showed for all metals and soils that 24 h was the optimum extraction time. Longer times only gave minor additional benefits for heavy metal extraction but an unwanted increase in iron mobilization. For Cu at pH 7, the order of the extraction efficiency for equimolar ratios of chelating agent to metal was EDDS > NTA> IDSA > MGDA > EDTA and for Zn it was NTA > EDDS > EDTA >MGDA > IDSA. The comparatively low efficiency of EDTA resulted from competition between the heavy metals and co-extracted Ca. For Pb the order of extraction was EDTA > NTA >EDDS due to the much stronger complexation of Pb by EDTA compared to EDDS. At higher concentration of complexing agent, less difference between the agents was found and less pH dependence. There was an increase in heavy metal extraction with decreasing pH, but this was offset by an increase in Ca and Fe extraction. In sequential extractions EDDS extracted metals almost exclusively from the exchangeable, mobile, and Mn-oxide fractions. We conclude that the extraction with EDDS at pH 7 showed the best compromise between extraction efficiency for Cu, Zn, and Pb and loss of Ca and Fe from the soil. PMID:14968886

  16. Bacterial sorption of heavy metals. [Bacillus cereus

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, M.D.; Wolf, D.C. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville (USA)); Ferris, F.G.; Beveridge, T.J.; Flemming, C.A. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario (Canada)); Bailey, G.W. (Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA (USA))

    1989-12-01

    Four bacteria, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were examined for the ability to remove Ag{sup +}, Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and La{sup 3+} from solution by batch equilibration methods. Cd and Cu sorption over the concentration range 0.001 to 1 mM was described by Freundlich isotherms. At 1 mM concentrations of both Cd{sup 2+} and Cu{sup 2+}, P. aeruginosa and B. cereus were the most and least efficient at metal removal, respectively. Freundlich K constants indicated that E. coli was most efficient at Cd{sup 2+} removal and B. subtilis removed the most Cu{sup 2+}. Removal of Ag{sup +} from solution by bacteria was very efficient; an average of 89% of the total Ag{sup +} was removed from the 1 mM solution, while only 12, 29, and 27% of the total Cd{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, and La{sup 3+}, respectively, were sorbed from 1 mM solutions. Electron microscopy indicated that La{sup 3+} accumulated at the cell surface as needlelike, crystalline precipitates. Silver precipitated as discrete colloidal aggregates at the cell surface and occasionally in the cytoplasm. Neither Cd{sup 2+} nor Cu{sup 2+} provided enough electron scattering to identify the location of sorption. The affinity series for bacterial removal of these metals decreased in the order Ag > La > Cu > Cd. The results indicate that bacterial cells are capable of binding large quantities of different metals.

  17. Immobilization of heavy metals and phenol on altered bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect

    Taraba, B.; Marsalek, R. [Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-07-01

    This article evaluates adsorption ability of the altered bituminous coals to remove heavy metals and/or phenol from aqueous solutions. As for heavy metals, copper (II), cadmium (II) and lead (II) cations were used. In addition to phenol, cyclohexanol and 2-cyclohexen-1-ol were also examined. Adsorption experiments were conducted in the batch mode at room temperature and at pH 3 and 5. To characterize the texture of coal samples, adsorption isotherms of nitrogen at - 196{sup o}C, enthalpies of the immersion in water, and pH values in aqueous dispersions were measured. Coal hydrogen aromaticities were evaluated from the infrared spectrometric examinations (DRIFTS). Based on the investigations performed, cation exchange was confirmed as the principal mechanism to immobilize heavy metallic ions on coals. However, apart from carboxylic groups, other functionalities (hydroxyl groups) were found to be involved in the adsorption process. During adsorption of phenol, {pi}-{pi} interactions between {pi}-electrons of phenol and aromatic rings of coal proved to play the important role; however, no distinct correlation between adsorption capacities for phenol and hydrogen aromaticities of the coal was found. Probable involvement of oxygenated surface groups in the immobilization of phenol on coal was deduced. As a result, for waste water treatment, oxidative altered bituminous coal can be recommended as a suitable precursor, with the largest immobilization capacities both for metallic ions and phenol, as found in the studied samples.

  18. [Heavy metal-induced immunotoxicity and its mechanisms].

    PubMed

    Ohsawa, Motoyasu

    2009-03-01

    Immunotoxic effects of heavy metals, as a typical environmental agent, and their mechanisms are reviewed based on our findings on autoimmune response induced by exposure to cadmium (Cd) as CdCl(2). Adverse immune effects of chemicals, defined as immunotoxicity, have been used as a sensitive biomarker for assessing health effects of environmental chemicals. My initial research focused on renal toxicity of heavy metals was developed to elucidate characteristics and mechanisms for immune-mediated nephritis induced by heavy metals. In our studies the most interesting finding was autoantibody production enhanced by the oral exposure to Cd at environmental levels. It was observed simultaneously with enhancement of non-specific antibody production and suppression of primed-antigen specific antibody production. Immunostimulation including induction of autoantibodies was found to be the primary immunotoxic effect of Cd, because of the dose-sensitivity, and to be associated with polyclonal B cell activation (PBA). Further mechanism studies on the PBA induced by Cd in vitro showed that it was mediated by T cells, via cytokines, dominantly Type-2 cytokines, and recognition of MHC-II antigens of cell surface. The similarity among PBAs induced by inorganic salts of Cd, mercury and lead suggests that it would be the common effect among the metals to be involved in their pathogenesis of nephritis. Finally possible health significance of chemical-induced PBA is discussed associated with an increasing trend of autoimmune diseases in industrialized countries. PMID:19252388

  19. Competitive adsorption of dyes and heavy metals on zeolitic structures.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Montoya, V; Pérez-Cruz, M A; Mendoza-Castillo, D I; Moreno-Virgen, M R; Bonilla-Petriciolet, A

    2013-02-15

    The adsorption of Acid blue 25, basic blue 9, basic violet 3, Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) and Cd(2+) ions has been studied in single and dye-metal binary solutions using two mineral materials: Clinoptilolite (CL) and ER (Erionite). These zeolites were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy; potentiometric titration and nitrogen adsorption isotherms at 77 K to obtain their textural parameters. Results indicated that ER has an acidic character and a high specific surface (401 m(2) g(-1)) in contrast with the zeolite CL (21 m(2) g(-1)). Surprisingly, the removal of dyes was very similar for the two zeolites and they showed a considerable selectivity by the basic dyes in comparison with the acid dyes. In the case of heavy metals, ER was more effective in the adsorption process showing a selectivity of: Pb(2+) > Ni(2+) > Zn(2+) > Cd(2+). In the multicomponent adsorption experiments an antagonistic effect was observed in the removal of basic dyes and heavy metals. Particularly, the adsorbed amount of basic violet 3 decreased more significantly when the heavy metals are presents in contrast with the basic blue 9. PMID:23321372

  20. Heavy metals in aquatic macrophytes drifting in a large river

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manny, Bruce A.; Nichols, Susan J.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1991-01-01

    Macrophytes drifting through the water column in the Detroit River were collected monthly from May to October 1985 to estimate the quantities of heavy metals being transported to Lake Erie by the plants. Most macrophytes (80-92% by weight) drifted at the water surface. Live submersed macrophytes made up the bulk of each sample. The most widely distributed submersed macrophyte in the river, American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana), occurred most frequently in the drift. A total of 151 tonnes (ash-free dry weight) of macrophytes drifted out of the Detroit River from May to October. The drift was greatest (37 tonnes) in May. Concentrations of heavy metals were significantly higher in macrophytes drifiting in the river than in those growing elsewhere in unpolluted waters. Annually, a maximum of 2796 kg (eight heavy metals combined) were transported into Lake Erie by drifting macrophytes. The enrichment of all metals was remarkably high in macrophytes, relative to their concentration in water of the Detroit River. Detroit River Macrophytes are thus a source of contaminated food for animals in the river and in Lake Erie.

  1. Plants accumulating heavy metals in the Danube River wetlands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We present herein our results regarding the accumulation of four heavy metals (copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc) in four aquatic species plants (Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton lucens, Potamogeton perfoliatus) collected from the Danube River, South-Western part of Romania and their possible use as indicators of aquatic ecosystems pollution with heavy metals. Methods Elements concentration from the vegetal material was determined through Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry. Results The species were chosen based on their previous use as bioindicators in aquatic ecosystems and due to the fact they are one of the most frequent aquatic plant species of the Danube River ecosystems within the Iron Gates Natural Park. Highest amounts are recorded for Ceratophyllum demersum (3.52 ?g/g for Cd; 22.71 ?g/g for Cu; 20.06 ?g/g for Pb; 104.23 ?g/g for Zn). Among the Potamogeton species, the highest amounts of heavy metals are recorded in Potamogeton perfoliatus (1.88 ?g/g for Cd; 13.14 ?g/g for Cu; 13.32 ?g/g for Pb; 57.96 ?g/g for Zn). The sequence for the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) calculated in order to describe the accumulation of the four metals is Cd >> Zn > Pb > Cu. Increase of the zinc concentration determines an increase of the cadmium concentration (Spearman rho=0.40, p=0.02). Conclusions Despite the low ambiental levels of heavy metals, the four aquatic plants have the ability to accumulate significant amounts, which make them useful as biological indicators. BCF value for Ceratophyllum demersum indicated this species as a cadmium hyperaccumulator. PMID:24359799

  2. Heavy metals distribution in sediments of Nador lagoon (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloundi, K.; Duplay, J.

    2003-04-01

    The Nador lagoon is a paralic system, located North-East of Morocco. At the present time this ecosystem undergoes an anthropic stress induced by urban, industrial and agricultural releases, and also by fishery activity which enriches this ecosystem in organic and inorganic wastes. A geochemical study has been undertaken, first to define the areas contaminated by heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr and V), and second to caracterize the different mineral phases, which trap these elements. Sediment samples were collected on twenty-eight stations scattered all over the lagoon, and each core (30 cm) was subdivided in two horizons (surface and depth). Mineralogical analyses as well as major and trace elements analyses were performed on surface and deep sediments. The results on major element analyses (Si, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, P) show an enrichment in halite and phosphates in the surface sediments. This highlights on one hand, low water exchange rates between the lagoon and the Mediterranean sea, and on the other hand, an increase in organic releases related to the urban, agricultural and fishery activities. The highest concentrations in inorganic micro-pollutant were recorded N-E of the lagoon and close to Nador city. With reference to the geochemical background, it can be concluded that there is a slight contamination in heavy metals. Moreover, enrichment factor calculations (EF) for heavy metals point out an increase in metal elements as following: Zn>Co>Cr>V>Cu. Sequential extractions were performed to determine the behaviour of these micro-pollutants. Thus, it was shown that carbonates, oxides and phosphates are the preferential mineral phases for trapping these heavy metals.

  3. [Antimony and other heavy metals in metallic kitchen ware].

    PubMed

    Ishiwata, H; Sugita, T; Yoshihira, K

    1989-01-01

    The antimony in metallic kitchen ware was determined. The content of this element in metals used for the production or repairing of utensils, containers and packaging which come in contact with foods is regulated and should be less than 5% in under the Japanese Food Sanitation Law. In eight metallic samples, antimony was detected in solder used for the production of a can for green tea and an eggbeater. The contents were 1.30% in the former and 1.90% in the latter. No antimony was detected in solder used for a cookie cutter. A sample of solder used for electric work, not for food utensils, contained 0.81% of antimony. In other metallic utensils which come in contact with food such as aluminum foil, a brass spoon, a stainless steel fork, a wire netting, and an iron rock for vegetable color stabilizing, antimony was not detected at a 0.05% detection limit. A qualitative test using rhodamine B also showed positive results in only three solder samples. Lead concentrations in solder used for the kitchen ware were from 39.3 to 51.3%. These concentrations were higher than the limit (20%) of lead content by the Law. No cadmium was detected in any samples. PMID:2636916

  4. ACCUMULATION AND CELLULAR EFFECTS OF HEAVY METALS IN BENTHIC AND PLANKTONIC ALGAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    These results suggest that in addition to metal exclusion, two other mechanisms are responsible for successful adaptation to heavy metals in Great Lakes algae. Heavy metals, especially Pb, Cd, and Zn can be incorporated in polyphosphate bodies. Metals incorporated in this manner ...

  5. A preliminary model for predicting heavy metal contaminant loading from an urban catchment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Yuan; Ken Hall; Carolyn Oldham

    2001-01-01

    The toxicity of heavy metals to biota in urban catchments has been regarded as a very important non-point source pollution issue. Numerous studies on heavy metal pollution in urban receiving waters have found that metal transport by surface runoff is closely correlated to the partitioning of the metal forms between dissolved and particulate phases, where sediment plays an important role

  6. Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Gangwal; K. Jothimurugesan

    1999-01-01

    A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption process, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gases from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated

  7. Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santosh Gangwal; Kandaswamy Jothimurugesan

    1999-01-01

    A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption processes, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gasses from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated

  8. Effects of heavy metals on antioxidant activities of Atriplex hortensis and A. rosea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sai Kachout; A. Ben Mansoura; J. C. Leclerc; R. Mechergui; M. N. Rejeb; Z. Ouerghi

    Oxidative stress is induced by a wide range of environmental factors including heavy metals stress. Therefore, antioxidant resistance mechanisms may provide a strategy to enhance metal tolerance, and processes underlying antioxidant responses to metal stress must be clearly understood. In the present study, the effects of heavy metals generating antioxidative defense systems (i.e. superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxydase, glutathione reductase and

  9. Photoelectron spectroscopy of group IV heavy metal dimers: Sn;, Pb;, and SnPb-

    E-print Network

    Lineberger, W. Carl

    Photoelectron spectroscopy of group IV heavy metal dimers: Sn;, Pb;, and SnPb- Joe Ho, Mark L The group IV heavy metal dimers Sn, and Pb, have attracted extensiveattention due to their interesting elec states, anionic electronic ground states,and the nature of the metal-metal bond of these dimersis far

  10. Heavy Metals Behavior During Thermal Plasma Vitrification Of Incineration Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Cerqueira, Nuno [Laboratoire d'Analyse Spectroscopique et d'Energetique des Plasmas UPRES-EA 3269, Faculte des Sciences, Site de Bourges, Universite d'Orleans, Rue Gaston Berger, BP 4043, 18028 BOURGES Cedex (France); Vandensteendam, Colette; Baronnet, Jean Marie [Laboratoire de Chimie des Plasmas, Universite de Limoges, 123 Avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges (France)

    2006-01-15

    Incineration of wastes, widely and increasingly used nowadays, produces residues, mainly bottom ash and filter fly ash. Fly ash is especially problematic because of its high content in heavy metals easily drawn out. Thermal processes, based mainly on electrical arc processes, are used to melt the residues at high temperature and convert them into a relatively inert glass. Consequently, to improve the process and get a glass satisfying regulation, control of heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium and chromium...) volatility during plasma fly ash melting and vitrification is needed and basic data concerning vaporization of these metals are required. According to the volatility of these compounds observed during vitrification of fly ash, a predictive model has been used to simulate the elimination of Pb, Zn and S from the melt as a function of time and temperature for a system including chlorides, oxides and sulfates. The objective of this work was the experimental study of heavy metals volatility using optical emission spectroscopy. A twin torch plasma system, mounted above a cold crucible with Ar (or Ar + O2) as plasma gas, has been used. The crucible was filled with synthetic glass in which known amounts of metallic salts were added to obtain the same chemical composition as used in the model. From spectral lines intensities of Ar, the plasma temperature profiles along the observation direction has been first established, before using ratios of spectral lines of Ar and metallic (Pb, Zn) or Cl vapors to reach the evolution of the elements concentrations above the melt. Off-gases have been analyzed by mass spectrometry. The influence of the atmosphere (Ar or Ar + O2) above the crucible has been studied and differences in elements behaviors have been pointed out. The results of the spectroscopic measurements have been compared to the ones issued of modeling, in order to validate our model of vaporization.

  11. Wetland plants as indicators of heavy metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Phillips, D P; Human, L R D; Adams, J B

    2015-03-15

    In this study metal accumulating abilities of three emergent macrophytes (Phragmites australis, Typha capensis and Spartina maritima) were investigated in the urbanised Swartkops Estuary. Plants and sediment samples were collected at seven sites along the banks of the main channel and in adjacent canals. Sediments and plant organs were analysed, by means of atomic absorption spectrometry, for four elements (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn). Metal concentrations in the sediments of adjacent canals were found to be substantially higher than those at sites along the banks of the estuary. These differences were reflected in the plant organs for Pb and Zn, but not for Cu and Cd. All three species exhibited significantly higher concentrations of metals in their roots. These species are therefore suitable for use as indicators of the presence and level of heavy metal contaminants in estuaries. PMID:25599629

  12. Toxicity of heavy metals for microorganisms isolated from slow sand filter schmutzdecke.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, N; Hooke, A M

    2003-09-01

    This paper describes the susceptibility of three species of environmental bacteria isolated from the schmutzdecke of biologically active slow sand filters to cadmium, chromium and lead. The microorganisms, all identified as members of the genus Pseudomonas, were grown in tryptic soy broth with various concentrations of the selected heavy metals. The mean generation times (MGT) of the bacteria were compared to evaluate the toxic effects of the heavy metals. All three species tolerated high doses of heavy metals and the MGTs increased exponentially as the heavy metal concentrations increased; 12 mg l(-1) was the highest dose tested and the bacteria continued to grow albeit at very slow rates. In dilute media, the toxic effects of heavy metals were enhanced, illustrating the protection effect of organic matter and heavy metal complex formation. Growth studies of the isolated microorganisms on half-strength tryptic soy agar containing 6 mg l(-1) heavy metals also proved useful in determining toxicity. PMID:14599143

  13. Role of soil rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Jing, Yan-de; He, Zhen-li; Yang, Xiao-e

    2007-03-01

    Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem and has its negative impact on human health and agriculture. Rhizosphere, as an important interface of soil and plant, plays a significant role in phytoremediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals, in which, microbial populations are known to affect heavy metal mobility and availability to the plant through release of chelating agents, acidification, phosphate solubilization and redox changes, and therefore, have potential to enhance phytoremediation processes. Phytoremediation strategies with appropriate heavy metal-adapted rhizobacteria have received more and more attention. This article paper reviews some recent advances in effect and significance of rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. There is also a need to improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the transfer and mobilization of heavy metals by rhizobacteria and to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from rhizosphere of plants growing on heavy metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programmes. PMID:17323432

  14. Multiple Metal Resistant Transferable Phenotypes in Bacteria as Indicators of Soil Contamination with Heavy Metals (6 pp)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert P. Ryan; David J. Ryan; David N. Dowling

    2005-01-01

    (14%) isolates resistant to zinc, copper, nickel, arsenic and cobalt and site B had no bacteria resistant to all five of these selected metals. The transferability of heavy metal resistance was investigated in the case of 60 multiple heavy metal resistant isolates taken from site A and 50 multiple resistance isolates from site B. Transfer was only detected in isolates

  15. Extractability of heavy metals in wastewater solids undergoing anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    The extractability of heavy metals in wastewater sludge undergoing anaerobic digestion was investigated. Using batch laboratory digesters, raw wastewater sludge was anaerobically digested at different raw sludge solids loadings and two temperatures. From each of the laboratory digesters, wastewater sludge was sampled at three day intervals and sequentially separated into seven extraction fractions and analyzed for the metals Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni, and Pb. The seven step sequential extraction was for metal species: (a) soluble, (b) displaced-exchangeable, (c) adsorbed, (d) organic, (e) carbonate, (f) sulfide-acid soluble, and (g) residual. At the 35/sup 0/C digestion temperature the distribution of metals in the extractant fractions between the raw and anaerobically digested sludges were significantly different. For the 45/sup 0/C digestion temperature the distribution of metals in the raw and digested sludge extractant fractions were different and different compared to the 35/sup 0/C system. The 45/sup 0/C raw sludge showed greater percent metal in the organic and sulfide-acid soluble fraction than the digested sludge. At the 45/sup 0/C anaerobic digestion temperature the percent of raw sludge solids loading in the digester had a greater effect on changes in metal extractability and proposed metal species than the 35/sup 0/C.

  16. Some Case Studies on Metal-Microbe Interactions to Remediate Heavy Metals- Contaminated Soils in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2015-04-01

    Conventional physicochemical technologies to remediate heavy metals-contaminated soil have many problems such as low efficiency, high cost and occurrence of byproducts. Recently bioremediation technology is getting more and more attention. Bioremediation is defined as the use of biological methods to remediate and/or restore the contaminated land. The objectives of bioremediation are to degrade hazardous organic contaminants and to convert hazardous inorganic contaminants to less toxic compounds of safe levels. The use of bioremediation in the treatment of heavy metals in soils is a relatively new concept. Bioremediation using microbes has been developed to remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated soils in laboratory scale to the contaminated field sites. Recently the application of cost-effective and environment-friendly bioremediation technology to the heavy metals-contaminated sites has been gradually realized in Korea. The merits of bioremediation include low cost, natural process, minimal exposure to the contaminants, and minimum amount of equipment. The limitations of bioremediation are length of remediation, long monitoring time, and, sometimes, toxicity of byproducts for especially organic contaminants. From now on, it is necessary to prove applicability of the technologies to contaminated sites and to establish highly effective, low-cost and easy bioremediation technology. Four categories of metal-microbe interactions are generally biosorption, bioreduction, biomineralization and bioleaching. In this paper, some case studies of the above metal-microbe interactions in author's lab which were published recently in domestic and international journals will be introduced and summarized.

  17. Thermal treatment of metal-enriched biomass produced from heavy metal phytoextraction.

    PubMed

    Keller, Catherine; Ludwig, Christian; Davoli, Frédéric; Wochele, Jörg

    2005-05-01

    Phytoextraction is an environmentally sound method for cleaning up sites that are contaminated with toxic heavy metals. However, the method has been questioned because it produces a biomass-rich secondary waste containing the extracted metals. Therefore, further treatment of this biomass is necessary. In this study, we investigated whether thermal treatment could be a feasible option for evaporatively separating metals from the plant residues. We used a laboratory scale reactor designed to simulate the volatilization behavior of heavy metals in a grate furnace. The evaporation of alkali and heavy metals from plant samples was investigated online, using a thermo-desorption spectrometer (TDS). Experiments were performed in the temperature range of 25-950 degrees C with leaves of the Cd and Zn hyperaccumulator Thlaspi caerulescens and of the high biomass plant Salix viminalis (willow), both grown on contaminated soils. Gasification (i.e., pyrolysis), which occurs under reducing conditions, was a better method than incineration under oxidizing conditions to increase volatilization and, hence subsequently recovery, of Cd and Zn from plants. It would also allow the recycling of the bottom ash as fertilizer. Thus, our investigations confirmed that incineration (or co-incineration) is a viable option for the treatment of the heavy metal-enriched plants. PMID:15926590

  18. Constraints in cropping heavy-metal contaminated fluvial sediments.

    PubMed

    Smilde, K W; van Driel, W; van Luit, B

    1982-11-01

    Growth and heavy-metal uptake of various food crops and grass cultivated on harbour dredge spoils were studied, and health aspects in consuming the marketable products were discussed. Vegetables (potato, carrot, radish, endive, lettuce) and grass (English ryegrass) performed well on dredge spoils, but small grains (wheat, barley) were affected by manganese deficiency. As compared with crops grown on uncontaminated reference soils, there was a net accumulation of As and heavy metals, especially so Cd, Zn and Cu, and a reduced uptake of Mn. Mainly because of the elevated Cd concentrations of the edible parts, exceeding the guideline of 0.1 mg/kg in fresh matter, the harbour dredge spoils investigated are considered unfit for the production of food crops, but may be used as grassland for dairy cattle. Highest Cd concentrations were attained in leafy vegetables and wheat (grain) and lowest in potato (tuber). PMID:7156971

  19. Sublethal Heavy Metal Stress Stimulates Innate Immunity in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Swarnendu; Acharya, Krishnendu

    2015-01-01

    Effect of sublethal heavy metal stress as plant biotic elicitor for triggering innate immunity in tomato plant was investigated. Copper in in vivo condition induced accumulation of defense enzymes like peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), and ?-1,3 glucanase along with higher accumulation of total phenol, antioxidative enzymes (catalase and ascorbate peroxidase), and total chlorophyll content. Furthermore, the treatment also induced nitric oxide (NO) production which was confirmed by realtime visualization of NO burst using a fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) and spectrophotometric analysis. The result suggested that the sublethal dose of heavy metal can induce an array of plant defense responses that lead to the improvement of innate immunity in plants. PMID:25729768

  20. Heavy metal sorption in the lichen cationactive layer.

    PubMed

    Andrzej, K?os; Ma?gorzata, Rajfur; Maria, Wac?awek; Witold, Wac?awek

    2007-09-01

    Results of copper ion sorption in lichens owing to the ion exchange between the surroundings (aqueous solution) and the lichen cationactive layer have been presented. It indicates that the course of sorption of these ions, similarly as in the case of cations of other heavy metals, depends on the concentration and type of cations naturally found in lichen surroundings: H+, Na+, K+, Mg2+ and Ca2+. A determination method of heavy metal concentration in lichen surroundings has been proposed. It consists in exposure of transplanted lichens in the presence of salts that provide precisely determined, artificial salinity of precipitation with which the lichens are in contact. The studies were conducted on Hypogymnia physodes lichens. PMID:17289443

  1. Ultrastructural alterations in ciliated protozoa under heavy metal exposure.

    PubMed

    Martín-González, Ana; Borniquel, Sara; Díaz, Silvia; Ortega, Ruth; Gutiérrez, Juan Carlos

    2005-02-01

    Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the ultrastructural changes induced by exposure to Cd or Zn in three species of ciliated protozoa: Colpoda steinii, Cyrtolophosis elongata and Drepanomonas revoluta. The main cytoplasmic alterations were partial mitochondrial degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolisation, accumulation of membranous debris and autophagosome formation. At the nuclear level we detected nucleolar fusion in the macronucleus, and micronuclear membrane modifications. We compared these modifications with those coinciding with ciliate encystment (a differentiation process induced by environmental nutritional stress) and with changes in eukaryotic cells treated with staurosporine, a potent protein kinase inhibitor considered to be an apoptosis inducer. Exposure to heavy metals also coincided with the appearance of electron-dense accumulations in the cytoplasm, which might be related to metallothionein-mediated detoxification. The results are compared with previously reported data from ciliates and microalgae treated with heavy metals. PMID:15774308

  2. Situ formation of apatite for sequestering radionuclides and heavy metals

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM)

    2003-07-15

    Methods for in situ formation in soil of a permeable reactive barrier or zone comprising a phosphate precipitate, such as apatite or hydroxyapatite, which is capable of selectively trapping and removing radionuclides and heavy metal contaminants from the soil, while allowing water or other compounds to pass through. A preparation of a phosphate reagent and a chelated calcium reagent is mixed aboveground and injected into the soil. Subsequently, the chelated calcium reagent biodegrades and slowly releases free calcium. The free calcium reacts with the phosphate reagent to form a phosphate precipitate. Under the proper chemical conditions, apatite or hydroxyapatite can form. Radionuclide and heavy metal contaminants, including lead, strontium, lanthanides, and uranium are then selectively sequestered by sorbing them onto the phosphate precipitate. A reducing agent can be added for reduction and selective sequestration of technetium or selenium contaminants.

  3. Understanding molecular mechanisms for improving phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Hong-Bo, Shao; Li-Ye, Chu; Cheng-Jiang, Ruan; Hua, Li; Dong-Gang, Guo; Wei-Xiang, Li

    2010-03-01

    Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem with a negative potential impact on human health and agriculture. Rhizosphere, as an important interface of soil and plants, plays a significant role in phytoremediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals, in which, microbial populations are known to affect heavy metal mobility and availability to the plant through release of chelating agents, acidification, phosphate solubilization and redox changes, and therefore, have potential to enhance phytoremediation processes. Phytoremediation strategies with appropriate heavy metal-adapted rhizobacteria or mycorrhizas have received more and more attention. In addition, some plants possess a range of potential mechanisms that may be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals, and they manage to survive under metal stresses. High tolerance to heavy metal toxicity could rely either on reduced uptake or increased plant internal sequestration, which is manifested by an interaction between a genotype and its environment.A coordinated network of molecular processes provides plants with multiple metal-detoxifying mechanisms and repair capabilities. The growing application of molecular genetic technologies has led to an increased understanding of mechanisms of heavy metal tolerance/accumulation in plants and, subsequently, many transgenic plants with increased heavy metal resistance, as well as increased uptake of heavy metals, have been developed for the purpose of phytoremediation. This article reviews advantages, possible mechanisms, current status and future direction of phytoremediation for heavy-metal-contaminated soils. PMID:19821782

  4. Lithium vanadium oxide: A heavy fermion transition metal oxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shinichiro Kondo

    1998-01-01

    LiVsb2Osb4 has the face-centered-cubic normal-spinel structure and is a metal. The preparative method and characterization of high-purity polycrystalline samples are herein reported. The intrinsic susceptibility chi, electronic heat capacity Csbe, nuclear magnetic resonance and thermal expansion measurements revealed that LiVsb2Osb4 shows a crossover from high temperature T localized magnetic moment behavior to low-T heavy Fermi liquid behavior. chi follows the

  5. Normalisation and heavy metal contamination in mangrove sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. F. Y Tam; M. W. Y Yao

    1998-01-01

    The concentrations of Zn, Ni, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe and Al in surface sediments collected from three mangrove sites in Hong Kong were determined following aqua regia digestion. The heavy metal concentrations were normalised to reference elements to facilitate comparison between mangrove sites. Iron was found to be a good normaliser for Mn (r=0.892), Zn (r=0.443) and Ni (r=0.318) in

  6. Heavy metal concentrations in floodplain surface soils, Lahn River, Germany

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Martin

    1997-01-01

    Even relatively pristine drainage basins in industrial countries would appear to have received anthropogenic inputs of heavy\\u000a metals. Investigation of floodplain surface soils in the Lahn River drainage basin, west-central Germany, indicates that the\\u000a Cu concentration is 1.5 times the pre-industrial level, Pb and Zn contents twice the pre-industrial level; Cd, Co, and Cr\\u000a concentrations are nearly equal to background

  7. Evaluation of heavy metal contamination in Phaeozem of northeast China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Guo; Q. X. Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Surface and profile Phaeozem soil samples from 31 locations affected by various anthropogenic activities such as mining, chemical manufacturing, traffic emission and pesticide application were collected in Heilongjiang Province and Jilin Province, northeast China. The range of total concentrations of four heavy metals Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in the soil was 0.011–3.137, 10.31–62.34, 9.74–51.21 and 39.54–247.59 mg kg?1, respectively, determined using

  8. Heavy metals emission from controlled combustion of PVC

    E-print Network

    El-Ayyoubi, Mohammed A.

    1989-01-01

    from burning of thr ee different Poly(vinyl ch)oride) plastic materials and guayule resin contained more than 801 respirable particles. Results of analysis, ther efor e, are suggestive of continuous heavy metals environmental pollution even if some... is the growing economical importance of guayule resins as a source of natural r ubber and the similar analysis techniques used in this research to an earlier study involving "Toxic Species Evolution from Guayule Fireplace Logs" cited in reference 6...

  9. Heavy metal characterization of municipal solid waste compost

    E-print Network

    Worsham, Michael Craig

    1992-01-01

    at about pH 8 to 9 as stabilization occurs during the thermophilic phase (De Nobili & Petrussi 1988), These more alkaline conditions accounts for the liming effect of compost, and are associated with low heavy metal solubility due to precipitation... month composting period (Leita & De Nobili 1991). The water-extractable fractions of Pb and Zn decreased rapidly with composting time, and more complex relationships were observed for Cd and Cu. Environmental and public interest groups have taken a...

  10. Altered Heavy Metals and Transketolase Found in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark E. Obrenovich; Raymond J. Shamberger; Derrick Lonsdale

    Autism and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are developmental brain disorders with complex, obscure, and multifactorial etiology.\\u000a Our recent clinical survey of patient records from ASD children under the age of 6 years and their age-matched controls revealed\\u000a evidence of abnormal markers of thiol metabolism, as well as a significant alteration in deposition of several heavy metal\\u000a species, particularly arsenic, mercury, copper,

  11. Micellar enhanced ultrafiltration of heavy metals using lecithin 

    E-print Network

    Ahmadi, Saman Nameghi

    1992-01-01

    and costly. Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration (MEUF), which combines the advantages of both reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration, has been shown effective in the treatment of aqueous wastes for heavy metals with the use of synthetic surfactants... Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure 1. Schematic of Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration. . . . . 2. Principle of Osmosis. . 3. Micelle Structure in Aqueous Solution. . 4. Structure of a Phospholipid. . 5. Experimental...

  12. Heavy metals in source-separated compost and digestates.

    PubMed

    Kupper, Thomas; Bürge, Diane; Bachmann, Hans Jörg; Güsewell, Sabine; Mayer, Jochen

    2014-05-01

    The production of compost and digestate from source-separated organic residues is well established in Europe. However, these products may be a source of pollutants when applied to soils. In order to assess this issue, composts, solid and liquid digestates from Switzerland were analyzed for heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) addressing factors which may influence the concentration levels: the treatment process, the composition, origin, particle size and impurity content of input materials, the season of input materials collection or the degree of organic matter degradation. Composts (n=81) showed mean contents being at 60% or less of the legal threshold values. Solid digestates (n=20) had 20-50% lower values for Cd, Co, Pb and Zn but similar values for Cr, Cu and Ni. Liquid digestates (n=5) exhibited mean concentrations which were approximately twice the values measured in compost for most elements. Statistical analyses did not reveal clear relationships between influencing factors and heavy metal contents. This suggests that the contamination was rather driven by factors not addressed in the present study. According to mass balance calculations related to Switzerland, the annual loads to agricultural soils resulting from the application of compost and digestates ranged between 2% (Cd) and 22% (Pb) of total heavy metal loads. At regional scale, composts and digestates are therefore minor sources of pollution compared to manure (Co, Cu, Ni, Zn), mineral fertilizer (Cd, Cr) and aerial deposition (Pb). However, for individual fields, fertilization with compost or digestates results in higher heavy metal loads than application of equivalent nutrient inputs through manure or mineral fertilizer. PMID:24613591

  13. An Environmental Automatic Monitoring System for Heavy Metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaofang Zou; Ping Xu; Weidong Xu; Yingle Fan

    2007-01-01

    An automatic monitoring system was developed for simultaneous determination of trace zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, iron and arsenic in environmental aqueous media using electrochemical stripping voltammetry. The sensor was mercury-film silver-based electrode. With a potentiostat, several pumps and valves controlled by computer, the system realized in-situ real-time detection of the six heavy metal ions mentioned above without manual operation. Quantitative

  14. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOEpatents

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-05-03

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  15. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOEpatents

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman; Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-03-29

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  16. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOEpatents

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-03-15

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  17. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOEpatents

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2009-01-06

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  18. Sorption of heavy metals on blast furnace sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. López-Delgado; C. Pérez; F. A. López

    1998-01-01

    An investigation into the use of sludge, a by-product of the steel industry, as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents was carried out. Gases produced in the blast furnace were washed and led towards a Dorr thickener where the sludge was obtained as a suspension. The sorption of Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ on

  19. Extraction kinetics of heavy metal-containing sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I.-Hsien Lee; Yi-Jing Wang; Jia-Ming Chern

    2005-01-01

    In order to remove and recover copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from the wastewater treatment sludge generated by an electroplating process, the heavy metal extraction kinetics was studied in a batch reactor using two different extraction agents (nitric and citric acid) at constant agitation speed (150rpm) and solid to liquid ratio (10g\\/L), but varying acid concentrations (0.02–0.10N), temperatures (25–85°C in

  20. Antioxidant, Heavy Metals and Elemental Analysis of Holoptelea integrifolia Planch

    PubMed Central

    Saraswathy, A.; Devi, S. Nandini; Ramasamy, D.

    2008-01-01

    The ethanol crude extract of stem bark of Holoptelea integrifolia Planch. traditionally used in Indian system of medicine was screened for its antioxidant activity using ?-tocopherol as standard antioxidant. The free radical scavenging potential of the extract was evaluated by two different antioxidant methods; ferric thiocyanate and thiobarbituric acid method. The ethanol extract was found to exhibit good antioxidant property. Further physicochemical constants, elemental and heavy metal analysis of stem bark have been described. PMID:21394277

  1. Sorption of heavy metals onto hydrophobic parts of aquatic plants

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.W.; Robichaud, K.; Misra, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The ability of the roots of Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), Tripha latifolia (common cattail) and Sparganium minimum (burr reed) to accumulate lead and mercury ions from aqueous solution was investigated. The relative abilities of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic portions of the root material to accumulate these ions was studied and it was found that the hydrophilic portion accumulates substantially more of the heavy metal ions than the hydrophobic portion. An attempt is made to explain this better sorption ability.

  2. Heavy Metal Distribution in Some Wild Birds from Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jungsoo Kim; Ju-Ryul Shin; Tae-Hoe Koo

    2009-01-01

    This study presents concentrations of heavy metals (manganese, zinc, lead, and cadmium) in tissues in six orders of Korean\\u000a wild birds (n = 37), 2000–2002. Zinc, manganese, lead, and cadmium concentrations in all tissues were highest in ancient murrelets (Synthliboramphus antiquus). Essential elements in Korean wild birds were within the normal range for wild birds and are maintained there by a normal

  3. Effects of Gravity on Processing Heavy Metal Fluoride Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of gravity on the crystal nucleation of heavy metal fluoride fibers have been studied in preliminary experiments utilizing NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft and a microgravity sounding rocket flight. Commercially produced fibers were heated to the crystallization temperature in normal and reduced gravity. The fibers processed in normal gravity showed complete crystallization while the fibers processed in reduced gravity did not show signs of crystallization.

  4. Heavy metals leaching in Indian fly ash.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Bably; Mondal, Kajal Kumar

    2008-04-01

    Fly ash is an industrial waste generated from thermal power plants. Fly ash constitutes 80-85% of the total ash produced. A small part of fly ash is utilised in some sectors such as construction materials, building engineering, road, back fill, agriculture, selective engineering and processing useful materials. A large part of fly ash produced is disposed of with very high environmental risk. In the present paper, laboratory leaching test has been used to determine the potential mobility of Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Ni in fly ash samples, collected from Chandrapura Thermal Power Plant, Jharkhand and Ramagundam Super Thermal Power Plant, Andhra Pradesh, in order to assess their leachability when these wastes are disposed of. A cascade-leaching test was used at liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) ranging between 20 and 100. Both fly ash samples exhibited neutral reactions, as indicated by pH values <11.75 and >7.0 at L/S=10 and contact time of 10 minutes. The percentage of leached amounts found to follow the trend Zn>Fe>Mn>Cr>Pb>Cu>Ni>Cd for fly ash from Chandrapura and Fe>Zn>Cu>Mn>Cr>Ni>Pb>Cd for fly ash from Ramagundam. Effect of pH on metals released from ash surface in aqueous solution followed a predictable pattern of decreasing release with increasing pH. PMID:19295096

  5. Removal of dissolved heavy metals from acid rock drainage using iron metal

    SciTech Connect

    Shokes, T.E.; Moeller, G. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)] [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

    1999-01-15

    The chemical and microbial activity of corroding iron metal is examined in the acid rock drainage (ARD) resulting from pyrite oxidation to determine the effectiveness in neutralizing the ARD and reducing the load of dissolved heavy metals. ARD from Berkeley Pit, MT, is treated with iron in batch reactors and columns containing iron granules. Iron, in acidic solution, hydrolyzes water producing hydride and hydroxide ion resulting in a concomitant increase in pH and decrease in redox potential. The dissolved metals in ARD are removed by several mechanisms. Copper and cadmium cement onto the surface of the iron as zerovalent metals. Hydroxide forming metals such as aluminum, zinc, and nickel form complexes with iron and other metals precipitating from solution as the pH rises. Metalloids such as arsenic and antimony coprecipitate with iron. As metals precipitate from solution, various other mechanisms including coprecipitation, sorption, and ion exchange also enhance removal of metals from solution. Corroding iron also creates a reducing environment supportive for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) growth. Increases in SRB populations of 5,000-fold are observed in iron metal treated ARD solutions. Although the biological process is slow, sulfidogenesis is an additional pathway to further stabilize heavy metal precipitates.

  6. Heavy metal concentrations in Louisiana waterways, sediments, and biota

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, K.J.; Berzins, D. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States). Biomedical Engineering Dept.

    1994-12-31

    In this investigation polarographic methods (along with GFAAS and ICP) have been used to study the distribution of lead and chromium in Bayou Trepagnier and Devil`s Swamp. Both laboratory and field research have been conducted. Separation and extraction methodology appropriate for analysis of the contaminants at these sites have been developed. Particular attention has been paid to extraction methods for chromium which do not lead to valence state conversion. The availability of such techniques is essential to take full advantage of polarography, a method capable of performing speciation analysis. The results indicate that there is a very inhomogeneous distribution of heavy metals in these environments. In Devil`s Swamp, for example, separation and analysis of aqueous and variously sized particulate moieties in the water and sediment compartments were conducted to determine the partition of lead between them. The results showed that the average lead content was 14.7 ppb and 19.8 ppm, respectively, in these compartments. Apparently bull frogs in Devil`s Swamp can bioaccumulate lead (compared to the measured water level), since the muscle concentration was found to be about 0.6 ppm. This phenomenon is being investigated in a Xenopus frog laboratory model of heavy metal uptake. The basic methodology validated in this study should be fairly generally applicable to assays of other heavy metals.

  7. Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

    2010-09-15

    Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. PMID:20656104

  8. Toxicity of heavy metals to bacteria in sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Montuelle, B.; Volat, B. (CEMAGREF, Lyon (France)); Latour, X.; Gounot, A.M. (Universite Claude Bernard, Villeurbanne (France))

    1994-11-01

    Several biological parameters may be used to evaluate toxic effects on bacterial populations: growth rate, biomass measurement, activity variations or specific enzymatic activities. Most experiments are in vitro tests, with pure bacterial strains, isolated or not from the study site (mainly soil or aquatic environments). Some of the studies are in situ toxicity versus bacterial populations, especially in sediments. These studies are in fact complex: bacterial activities are highly variable, according to sediment localization (marine, estuarine or continental) and chemical composition, environmental parameters (oxygen level, pH, organic matter content, temperature, ...). This induces an important heterogeneity during sampling. In the same way, environmental factors have a very marked influence on heavy metal toxicity. The aims of the present study were (1): to determine changes in respiratory (dehydrogenase) and exoenzymatic ([beta]-glucosidase) activities of a microbial community in a non-polluted river sediment, in the presence of lead and cadmium and (2): to determine and compare the impact of these two heavy metals on pure bacterial cultures isolated from the same sediment and from a neighboring one with the same physicochemical characteristics, but contaminated with high levels of heavy metals, particularly lead (114 ppm) and cadmium (10, 1 ppm). 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Heavy Metal Contamination in the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberian Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Allen-Gil, Susan M.; Ford, Jesse; Lasorsa, Brenda K.; Monetti, Matthew; Vlasova, Tamara; Landers, Dixon H.

    2003-01-01

    The Taimyr Peninsula is directly north of the world's largest heavy metal smelting complex (Norilsk, Russia). Despite this proximity, there has been little research to examine the extent of contamination of the Taimyr Peninsula. We analyzed heavy metal concentrations in lichen (Cetraria cucullata), moss (Hylocomium splendens), soils, lake sediment, freshwater fish (Salvelinus alpinus, Lota lota, and Coregonus spp.) and collared lemming (Dicrostonyx torquatus) from 13 sites between 30 and 300 km from Norilsk. Element concentrations were low in both C. cucullata and H. splendens, although concentrations of Al, Fe, Cu, Ni, and Pb were significantly higher than those in Arctic Alaska, probably due to natural differences in the geochemical environments. Inorganic surface soils had significantly higher concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb, and Mg than inorganic soils at depth, although a lake sediment core from the eastern Taimyr Peninsula indicated no recent enrichment by atmospherically transported elements. Tissue concentrations of heavy metals in fish and lemming were not elevated relative to other Arctic sites. Our results show that the impact of the Norilsk smelting complex is primarily localized rather than regional, and does not extend northward beyond 100 km.

  10. Water Purification Using Functional Nanomaterials: Sequestering Toxic Heavy Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Fryxell, Glen E.

    2008-02-01

    Water, and water quality, are issues of critical importance to the future of humankind. Our water supply has been contaminated by a wide variety of industrial, military and natural sources. There is a serious need for technologies to remove toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the world’s water supplies. Surfactant templated synthesis of mesoporous ceramics provides a versatile foundation upon which to create high efficiency environmental sorbents. These nanoporous ceramics condense a huge amount of surface area into a very small volume. These mesoporous architectures can be subsequently functionalized through molecular self-assembly. These functional mesoporous materials offer significant capabilities in terms of removal of heavy metals and radionuclides from groundwater and other liquid media. They are highly efficient sorbents, whose interfacial chemistry can be fine-tuned to selectively sequester a specific target species, such as heavy metals, tetrahedral oxometallate anions and radionuclides. Their rigid, open pore structure allows for rapid, efficient sorption kinetics. This manuscript provides an overview of the design, synthesis and performance of the sorbent materials.

  11. Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Khan; Q. Cao; Y. M. Zheng; Y. Z. Huang; Y. G. Zhu

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of food crops contaminated with heavy metals is a major food chain route for human exposure. We studied the health risks of heavy metals in contaminated food crops irrigated with wastewater. Results indicate that there is a substantial buildup of heavy metals in wastewater-irrigated soils, collected from Beijing, China. Heavy metal concentrations in plants grown in wastewater-irrigated soils were

  12. 1. Coastal waters are often exposed to heavy metals (HM) introduced from point and diffusive sources. Chronic and

    E-print Network

    Einat, Aharonov

    1. Coastal waters are often exposed to heavy metals (HM) introduced from point and diffusive and ALF3-ALF6. Sampling during 04/2004 5. Heavy metals concentration in Amphistegina lobifera is far higher than in sea water. Heavy metals concentration in seawater 4. Most of the dissolved heavy metals

  13. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in macroinvertebrates living in stormwater wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Karouna, N.K.; Sparling, D.W. [National Biological Service, Laurel, MD (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The design of stormwater wetlands and ponds as wildlife habitats has prompted concern over the potential uptake of runoff contaminants by aquatic fauna. Stormwater wetlands provide a diverse array of habitat for aquatic macroinvertebrates. The importance of macroinvertebrates in aquatic communities has been well documented. Aquatic macroinvertebrates also serve as a major food source of many aquatic vertebrates, including fish and birds. The objectives of the study were to: (1) examine the responses of the macroinvertebrate community to water and sediment concentrations of heavy metals, and other water quality parameters; (2) determine whether macroinvertebrates living in stormwater wetlands bioaccumulate significant concentrations of heavy metals; (3) relate the concentrations of heavy metals in sediment, water and macroinvertebrates to land use in the surrounding watershed; (4) determine sediment and water toxicity to macroinvertebrates. Twenty stormwater wetlands, representing four land uses commercial, residential, highway and control, were monitored in this study. Water quality parameters, including pH, DO, turbidity, conductivity, hardness and metal concentrations were monitored bi-weekly for six months. Sediment samples were collected three times during the same period. Macroinvertebrate communities were sampled during alternate weeks after water collections. Ten-day sediment bioassays were conducted using the amphipod Hyalella azteca. Preliminary data analyses have indicated no significant difference in sediment and water metal concentrations between land uses. However, Zn concentrations in macroinvertebrates were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in wetlands serving commercial watersheds than in those serving the remaining three land uses. No differences have been detected in composition of invertebrate communities due to land use category.

  14. Study on impact of heavy metal accumulation in Brachythecium populeum (Hedw.) B.S.G

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shalini Sharma

    2009-01-01

    Mussoorie, Uttarakhand, western Himalaya, India is a popular tourist destination, selected for the comprehensive study on effects of heavy metals from vehicular exhaust which remain air borne for a long time, on the epiphytic moss Brachythecium populeum Hedw. (B.S.G.). Moss bags were transplanted in residential, heavy and low vehicular movement areas ascertain comparable levels of accumulation. The heavy metals Fe,

  15. Heavy metals and neurodegenerative diseases: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Galuppo, Maria; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; D'Aleo, Giangaetano; Marra, Angela; Sessa, Edoardo; Bua, Daniel Giuseppe; Potortì, Angela Giorgia; Dugo, Giacomo; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the levels of some of the most investigated metals (Cu, Se, Zn, Pb, and Hg) in the blood of patients affected by the most common chronic neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease (AD) and multiple sclerosis (MS), in order to better clarify their involvement. For the first time, we investigated a Sicilian population living in an area exposed to a potentially contaminated environment from dust and fumes of volcano Etna and consumer of a considerable quantity of fish in their diet, so that this represents a good cohort to demonstrate a possible link between metals levels and development of neurodegenerative disorders. More specifically, 15 patients affected by AD, 41 patients affected by MS, 23 healthy controls, and 10 healthy elderly controls were recruited and subjected to a venous blood sampling. Quantification of heavy metals was performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). This technique has allowed us to establish that there is a concomitance of heavy metal unbalance associated with AD more than in other neurodegenerative pathologies, such as MS. Also, we can assess that the concentration of these elements is independent from the diet, especially from occasional or habitual consumption of fruits and vegetables, prevalence in the diet of meat or fish, possible exposure to contaminated environment due both to the occupation and place of residence. PMID:25107328

  16. Broom fibre PRB for heavy metals groundwater remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, A.; Troisi, S.; Fallico, C.; Paparella, A.; Straface, S.

    2009-04-01

    Soil contamination by heavy metal and, though it, of groundwater represent a serious alteration of original geochemical levels owing to various human activities as: particular industrial processes and their non-correct treatment emission, urban traffic, use of phytosanitary product and mineral fertilizer. Heavy metals are genotoxic contaminants who can be found by environmental matrix analysis or by examination of the genetic damage inducted, after exposition, to sentry organism. In this last case we use a relative quantitation of the gene expression monitoring the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism hepatopancreas's gene of the organism used by bioindicator. This test is based on consideration that the hepatopancreas is the first internal organ affected by heavy metals or any other pollutant that the organism is exposed. In this work, the organism used by bioindicator to evalutate the pollutant contamination of waste water is Danio rerio (Zebrafish) that is a little tropical fish of 2-3 cm, native on asiatic south-east rivers. This organism has a large use in scientific field because its genoma is almost completely mapped and, above all, because the congenital gene cause in human, if it was mutated in zebrafish, similar damage or almost similar mutation that happens in human being so you can develop a dose - response curve. To do this, after prepared a cadmium solution with a concentration 10 times the Italian normative limit, the organisms have been put in the aquarium to recreate the optimal condition to survival of zebrafish observed by continuous monitoring by web-cam. After one month exposition, that we took little by little sample fish to analyzing, for different exposition time, the hepatopancreas's fish. First results shows considerable variation of the gene expression by interested gene in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism compared to control, highlighting the mutagenity caused by heavy metals on Danio rerio's hepatopancreas and, mutatis mutandis, also in human being. One of the most interesting techniques applied in contaminated aquifer by heavy metals is the PRBs (Troisi et al., 2002; Calvin et al., 2006), in particular broom fibers PRB (Troisi et al., 2008). The first results highlight an optimum removal capacity for contaminants underlined from following removal percentage: 98.01% (Cd), 99.95% (Cu), 97.35% (Pb) and 99.53% (Zn). A fundamental parameter for PRB design is the decay coefficient who indicates the removal capacity (degradation, transformation, adsorption/absorption, mass transport, etc.). This parameter has been determined for four heavy metals: Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) carrying out column tests. Besides, for real use of broom fibers PRB same tests have been performed, using flow cells, to estimate a relation between hydraulic conductivity of fiber and its density. References Chien C. C., H. I. Inyang and L.G. Everett (2006). Barrier Systems for Environmental Contaminant Containment and Treatment. Taylor and Francis Group eds. Troisi S., C. Fallico, S. Straface S. e L. Mazzuca. (2008). Biodreni per la bonifica di siti contaminati realizzati con fibre naturali liberiane ad elevato sviluppo superficiale. CS2008A00018. Università della Calabria. Troisi S, E. Migliari and S. Straface (2002). Soil and groundwater contamination by heavy metals in the industrial area of Crotone. Third International Conference Risk Analysis III. Sintra, Ed. by C.A. Brebbia. WIT Press.

  17. MELIMEX, an experimental heavy metal pollution study: Behaviour of heavy metals in an aquatic food chain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René Gächter; Wolfgang Geiger

    1979-01-01

    Phytoplankton, periphyton and zooplankton samples, chironomid andSialis sp. larvae, and fry of trout and bream collected from unpolluted and artificially metal-polluted limno-corrals were analyzed\\u000a for mercury, copper, cadmium, zinc and lead. The results indicate that these metals are not accumulated through the food chain\\u000a and suggest that increased metal concentrations in the environment favor the growth of phytoplankton organisms with

  18. Human risk assessment of heavy metals: principles and applications.

    PubMed

    Dorne, Jean-Lou C M; Kass, George E N; Bordajandi, Luisa R; Amzal, Billy; Bertelsen, Ulla; Castoldi, Anna F; Heppner, Claudia; Eskola, Mari; Fabiansson, Stefan; Ferrari, Pietro; Scaravelli, Elena; Dogliotti, Eugenia; Fuerst, Peter; Boobis, Alan R; Verger, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Humans are exposed to a number of "heavy metals" such as cadmium, mercury and its organic form methylmercury, uranium, lead, and other metals as wel as metalloids, such as arsenic, in the environment, workplace, food, and water supply. Exposure to these metals may result in adverse health effects, and national and international health agencies have methodologies to set health-based guidance values with the aim to protect the human population. This chapter introduces the general principles of chemical risk assessment, the common four steps of chemical risk assessment: hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment, risk characterization, and toxicokinetic and toxicity aspects. Finally, the risk assessments performed by international health agencies such as the World Health Organisation, the Environmental Protection Agency of the United States, and the European Food Safety Authority are reviewed for cadmium, lead, mercury, uranium, and arsenic. PMID:21473375

  19. Unusual sources of aluminium and heavy metals in potable waters.

    PubMed

    Fuge, R; Pearce, N J; Perkins, W T

    1992-04-01

    Aluminium in water supplies derives from natural sources and from the use of Al2(SO4)3 in water treatment. Heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd can be added to water from pipework and solder. However, it is apparent that AI and other metals in potable waters can derive from deposits on pipe walls which can be subsequently mobilised when the supply and/or treatment process is changed. Concentrations of Al in domestic supply water of the Llanbrynmair area have been shown to increase from 1 ?g to 50 ?g L(-1) during its 18 km journey along the water main. Similarly, Pb concentrations in a public building in the Aberystwyth area are found to be extremely elevated due to the metal's mobilisation from encrustations occurring on the copper pipework. PMID:24197897

  20. Heavy metals in MSW incineration thermodynamic and experimental study

    SciTech Connect

    Buekens, A.G.; Verhulst, D.; Dimova, C. [Vrije Univ. Brussel, Brussels (Belgium)

    1996-12-31

    Incineration is a proven, commercially available technique for volume reduction of municipal solid waste (MSW). The heavy metals present during incineration have a potential to vaporize, either as such or as volatile salts, and upon cooling to condense as a fine aerosol and adsorb on particulate, possibly escaping air pollution control (APC) devices. Finely distributed metals, in particular copper, may also exert a catalytic action upon the formation of dioxins. Metals in MSW-incineration have a direct impact on a variety of issues, such as emission and risk analysis, potential for reuse or recycling of the residues or boiler fouling and corrosion. The speciation of a large number of elements (Hg, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, K, Na, Ca, Ba, Mg, As, Sb, Al, Ti, Si, Fe, Ni, Cr, Mn, V,...) has been computed as a function of temperature. In specific cases the effect of reducing conditions is also considered.

  1. Heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions by activated phosphate rock.

    PubMed

    Elouear, Z; Bouzid, J; Boujelben, N; Feki, M; Jamoussi, F; Montiel, A

    2008-08-15

    The use of natural adsorbent such as phosphate rock to replace expensive imported synthetic adsorbent is particularly appropriate for developing countries such as Tunisia. In this study, the removal characteristics of lead, cadmium, copper and zinc ions from aqueous solution by activated phosphate rock were investigated under various operating variables like contact time, solution pH, initial metal concentration and temperature. The kinetic and the sorption process of these metal ions were compared for phosphate rock (PR) and activated phosphate rock (APR). To accomplish this objective we have: (a) characterized both (PR) and (APR) using different techniques (XRD, IR) and analyses (EDAX, BET-N(2)); and, (b) qualified and quantified the interaction of Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) with these sorbents through batch experiments. Initial uptake of these metal ions increases with time up to 1h for (PR) and 2h for (APR), after then, it reaches equilibrium. The maximum sorption obtained for (PR) and (APR) is between pH 2 and 3 for Pb(2+) and 4 and 6 for Cd(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). The effect of temperature has been carried out at 10, 20 and 40 degrees C. The data obtained from sorption isotherms of metal ions at different temperatures fit to linear form of Langmuir sorption equation. The heat of sorption (DeltaH degrees), free energy (DeltaG degrees) and change in entropy (DeltaS degrees) were calculated. They show that sorption of Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) on (PR) and (APR) an endothermic process. These findings are significant for future using of (APR) for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater under realistic competitive conditions in terms of initial heavy metals, concentrations and pH. PMID:18242833

  2. Movement of heavy metals through undisturbed and homogenized soil columns

    SciTech Connect

    Camobreco, V.J.; Richards, B.K.; Steenhuis, T.S. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States)] [and others] [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States); and others

    1996-11-01

    When sewage sludge is applied to land for disposal or intended beneficial use, heavy metals accumulate in the soil. Because of environmental concerns, many studies have been undertaken in an attempt to clarify the different factors that contribute to metal solubility, plant uptake, and leachability. This study attempted to determine if two independent factors - soluble organic chelators and preferential flow paths - enhance metal mobility through soil. Dilute solutions containing CdCl{sub 2}, ZnCl{sub 2}, CuCl{sub 2}, and Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} were applied to soil columns with a rainmaker, and leachate metals and chloride concentrations were measured. For four columns, the input metal concentrations (mg L{sup {minus}1}) were 7.25 Cd, 4.55 Zn, 3.51 Cu, and 13.85 Pb. In other four other columns, the solution also contained dissolved organic matter so that the metals were organically complexed, and input metal concentrations (mg L{sup {minus}1}) were 6.30 Cd, 4.11 Zn, 3.19 Cu, and 12.55 Pb. For each treatment, two soil columns were undisturbed and two were constructed from homogenized soils. The continuous solution application rate was approximately 3 cm/day. The undisturbed soil columns treated with organically complexed metals had peak effluent concentrations of 30, 26, 28, and 27% for Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb, respectively. Peak effluent concentrations for undisturbed columns treated with metals in water were 30 and 23% of influent concentrations for Cd and Zn, but only 15 and 12% for Cu and Pb, respectively. However, the four homogenized soil columns retained all added metals, whether the metals were added in water or as organic complexes. The results indicate that previous laboratory metal leaching studies performed on homogenous soils might have greatly underestimated metal mobility in the field and that preferential flow, both alone and in combination with organic-facilitated transport, can accelerate metal leaching through soils. 32 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Factorial experimental design for recovering heavy metals from sludge with ion-exchange resin.

    PubMed

    Lee, I Hsien; Kuan, Yu-Chung; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2006-12-01

    Wastewaters containing heavy metals are usually treated by chemical precipitation method in Taiwan. This method can remove heavy metals form wastewaters efficiently, but the resultant heavy metal sludge is classified as hazardous solid waste and becomes another environmental problem. If we can remove heavy metals from sludge, it becomes non-hazardous waste and the treatment cost can be greatly reduced. This study aims at using ion-exchange resin to remove heavy metals such as copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from sludge generated by a PCB manufacturing plant. Factorial experimental design methodology was used to study the heavy metal removal efficiency. The total metal concentrations in the sludge, resin, and solution phases were measured respectively after 30 min reaction with varying leaching agents (citric acid and nitric acid); ion-exchange resins (Amberlite IRC-718 and IR-120), and temperatures (50 and 70 degrees C). The experimental results and statistical analysis show that a stronger leaching acid and a higher temperature both favor lower heavy metal residues in the sludge. Two-factors and even three-factor interaction effects on the heavy metal sorption in the resin phase are not negligible. The ion-exchange resin plays an important role in the sludge extraction or metal recovery. Empirical regression models were also obtained and used to predict the heavy metal profiles with satisfactory results. PMID:16843592

  4. Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Peters, R W

    1999-04-23

    The current state of the art regarding the use of chelating agents to extract heavy metal contaminants has been addressed. Results are presented for treatability studies conducted as worst-case and representative soils from Aberdeen Proving Ground's J-Field for extraction of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The particle size distribution characteristics of the soils determined from hydrometer tests are approximately 60% sand, 30% silt, and 10% clay. Sequential extractions were performed on the 'as-received' soils (worst case and representative) to determine the speciation of the metal forms. The technique speciates the heavy metal distribution into an easily extractable (exchangeable) form, carbonates, reducible oxides, organically-bound, and residual forms. The results indicated that most of the metals are in forms that are amenable to soil washing (i.e. exchangeable+carbonate+reducible oxides). The metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cr have greater than 70% of their distribution in forms amenable to soil washing techniques, while Cd, Mn, and Fe are somewhat less amenable to soil washing using chelant extraction. However, the concentrations of Cd and Mn are low in the contaminated soil. From the batch chelant extraction studies, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were all effective in removing copper, lead, and zinc from the J-Field soils. Due to NTA being a Class II carcinogen, it is not recommended for use in remediating contaminated soils. EDTA and citric acid appear to offer the greatest potential as chelating agents to use in soil washing the Aberdeen Proving Ground soils. The other chelating agents studied (gluconate, oxalate, Citranox, ammonium acetate, and phosphoric acid, along with pH-adjusted water) were generally ineffective in mobilizing the heavy metals from the soils. The chelant solution removes the heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Cr, As, and Hg) simultaneously. Using a multiple-stage batch extraction, the soil was successfully treated passing both the Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and EPA Total Extractable Metal Limit. The final residual Pb concentration was about 300 mg/kg, with a corresponding TCLP of 1.5 mg/l. Removal of the exchangeable and carbonate fractions for Cu and Zn was achieved during the first extraction stage, whereas it required two extraction stages for the same fractions for Pb. Removal of Pb, Cu, and Zn present as exchangeable, carbonates, and reducible oxides occurred between the fourth- and fifth-stage extractions. The overall removal of copper, lead, and zinc from the multiple-stage washing were 98.9%, 98.9%, and 97.2%, respectively. The concentration and operating conditions for the soil washing extractions were not necessarily optimized. If the conditions had been optimized and using a more representative Pb concentration (approximately 12000 mg/kg), it is likely that the TCLP and residual heavy metal soil concentrations could be achieved within two to three extractions. The results indicate that the J-Field contaminated soils can be successfully treated using a soil washing technique. PMID:10379036

  5. Adsorption of heavy metal ion from aqueous single metal solution by chemically modified sugarcane bagasse

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Osvaldo Karnitz; Leandro Vinicius Alves Gurgel; Júlio César Perin de Melo; Vagner Roberto Botaro; Tânia Márcia Sacramento Melo; Rossimiriam Pereira de Freitas Gil; Laurent Frédéric Gil

    2007-01-01

    This work describes the preparation of new chelating materials derived from sugarcane bagasse for adsorption of heavy metal ions in aqueous solution. The first part of this report deals with the chemical modification of sugarcane bagasse with succinic anhydride. The carboxylic acid functions introduced into the material were used to anchor polyamines, which resulted in two yet unpublished modified sugarcane

  6. BIOAVAILABILITY AND SAFETY ISSUES OF HEAVY METALS IN PADDY SOIL-RICE CONTINUUM IN KOREA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Won-Il Kim; Jae E. Yang; Goo-Bok Jung; Byung-Jun Park; Sang-Won Park; Jin-Kyoung Kim; Oh-Kyung Kwon; Gab-Hee Ryu

    There is an increasing concern over heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils and the successive translocation of metals to rice in Korea. Rice is one of the most important crops in the country. Thus, it is very important to monitor the status and trend of heavy metal contamination in paddy soils and rice periodically. It is also important to verify

  7. Heavy Metals in Rivers of Shanghai Xuhui District and Their Potentiality in Health Risk Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiyi Xu; Xialin Xu; Xiaole Liu; Limin Cheng; Feipeng Li; Haiping Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study are to illustrate the pollution characterizations of heavy metals in rivers of Xuhui District, Shanghai, China and assess the potential health risk. Water samples were collected from four sites along the rivers in recent years and six metals were determined using proposed standard methods of China. It is found that the total heavy metal concentrations

  8. Seed Germination of Some Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in Heavy Metal Environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. A. Jeliazkova; L. E. Craker

    2003-01-01

    The effect of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn) on seed germination and root growth in Pimpinella anisum L. (anise), Carum carvi L. (caraway), and Foeniculum vulgare L. (fennel) was evaluated on randomly selected samples of 50 seeds in three replicates from each of the plant species. Heavy metal test solutions were prepared from each metal at two concentrations, the

  9. The spatial distribution of heavy metal contaminated sediment across terraced floodplains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Brewer; M. P. Taylor

    1997-01-01

    Deposits of fine alluvial sediment contaminated by heavy metals derived from mining provide an opportunity to reconstruct the alluvial histories of mineralised catchments. Field data were collected to identify the spatial distribution of heavy metal contamination in surficial floodplain sediments and establish the relationships between terrace height, terrace age and metal concentrations. Floodplain terrace morphology was mapped and terrace heights

  10. Effects of ash physical properties on leaching behavior of heavy metals from MSW incineration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moo Been Chang

    1997-01-01

    Physical properties of fly ash collected from two municipal solid waste incinerators located in Taiwan were characterized to determine their effects on the leaching behavior of heavy metals from fly ash. Physical properties investigated include particle size, surface area, and carbon content. Experimental results indicate that leachabilities of heavy metals vary to a large extent depending on the metal species

  11. Analysis of Heavy Metal Content in Canabis Leaf and Seed Cultivated in Southern Part of Nigeria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of heavy metals content in cannabis leaf and seed were assayed \\/ carried, using an atomic absorption spectrometers model Perkin Elmer 3110. The heavy metals determined in bot h samples mean arsenic, cadmium, chromium, iron, nickel, lead mercury and manganese. The results obtained revealed that metal levels in cannabis leaf exceeded those of cannabis seed except in manganese,

  12. Influence of temperature and salinity on heavy metal uptake by submersed plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Å. Fritioff; L. Kautsky; M. Greger

    2005-01-01

    Submersed plants can be useful in reducing heavy metal concentrations in stormwater, since they can accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in their shoots. To investigate the effects of water temperature and salinity on the metal uptake of two submersed plant species, Elodea canadensis (Michx.) and Potamogeton natans (L.), these plants were grown in the presence of Cu, Zn, Cd,

  13. Fungal biosorption — an alternative treatment option for heavy metal bearing wastewaters: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

    1995-01-01

    The common filamentous fungi can sorb heavy metals from aqueous solutions. The sorption of heavy metals, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Fe, Ni, Ag, Th, Ra and U, by fungal biomass has been observed to varying extents. Fungal biosorption largely depends on parameters such as pH, metal ion and biomass concentration, physical or chemical pre-treatment of biomass, presence of various ligands

  14. extended study of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in lithuania based on moss analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Ceburnis; Å. Rühling; K. Kvietkus

    1997-01-01

    The use of different moss species – Hylocomium splendens,Pleurozium schreberi, Eurhynchium angustirete, Sphagnum and Rhytidiadelphus – was tested for the investigation of atmosphericheavy metal deposition. Maps representing heavy metal depositionpattern in Lithuania are presented for Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and V.The most suitable species for heavy metal deposition studies was Hylocomium splendens in which the concentrations of metalswere

  15. Mosses as bioindicators of heavy metal pollution in polish national parks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krystyna Grodzi?vska

    1978-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Cu, Ph, Zn, Mn, Fe) and other elements (Mg, Na, K, Ca) were determined in the samples of Pleurozium schreberi and Hylocomium splendens from 12 Polish national parks. The significant differences in the concentrations of all heavy metals between particular parks were found. The lowest concentrations of these metals were recorded

  16. Fungal biosorption – an alternative to meet the challenges of heavy metal pollution in aqueous solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh Dhankhar; Anju Hooda

    2011-01-01

    The removal of heavy metal from the environment, especially wastewater, is now shifting from the use of conventional methods to the use of biosorption, which may be defined as the binding and concentration of selected heavy metal ions or other molecules on to certain biological material. Although most biosorption research concerns metal and related pollutants, including radionuclides, the term is

  17. Heavy metals in edible seaweeds commercialised for human consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besada, Victoria; Andrade, José Manuel; Schultze, Fernando; González, Juan José

    2009-01-01

    Though seaweed consumption is growing steadily across Europe, relatively few studies have reported on the quantities of heavy metals they contain and/or their potential effects on the population's health. This study focuses on the first topic and analyses the concentrations of six typical heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg, Cu, Zn, total As and inorganic As) in 52 samples from 11 algae-based products commercialised in Spain for direct human consumption ( Gelidium spp.; Eisenia bicyclis; Himanthalia elongata; Hizikia fusiforme; Laminaria spp.; Ulva rigida; Chondrus crispus; Porphyra umbilicales and Undaria pinnatifida). Samples were ground, homogenised and quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry (Cu and Zn by flame AAS; Cd, Pb and total As by electrothermal AAS; total mercury by the cold vapour technique; and inorganic As by flame-hydride generation). Accuracy was assessed by participation in periodic QUASIMEME (Quality Assurance of Information in Marine Environmental Monitoring in Europe) and IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) intercalibration exercises. To detect any objective differences existing between the seaweeds' metal concentrations, univariate and multivariate studies (principal component analysis, cluster analysis and linear discriminant analysis) were performed. It is concluded that the Hizikia fusiforme samples contained the highest values of total and inorganic As and that most Cd concentrations exceeded the French Legislation. The two harvesting areas (Atlantic and Pacific oceans) were differentiated using both univariate studies (for Cu, total As, Hg and Zn) and a multivariate discriminant function (which includes Zn, Cu and Pb).

  18. The German heavy metal survey by means of mosses.

    PubMed

    Markert, B; Herpin, U; Siewers, U; Berlekamp, J; Lieth, H

    1996-04-01

    This is the first attempt to determine pollution with metals throughout the Federal Republic of Germany by analysing moss samples. Samples of Pleurozium schreberi, Scleropodium purum, Hypnum cupessiforme and Hylocomium splendens were collected at 593 sites and analysed by ICP-AES and AAS for the elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, V and Zn. Citrus leaves and pine needles were used as reference materials to ensure the quality of the results. In many cases it was possible to trace the areas affected by known sources of heavy-metal emissions in addition to isolated local increases in the values. The moss monitoring programme showed up the highly industrialized and urban locations such as the Ruhr, parts of the Saarland and Baden-Wurttemberg and large areas of eastern Germany. Lower levels of many elements were found in wide stretches of Lower Saxony and Bavaria. The results largely reflect the pollution patterns found in these areas. On the other hand, expected correlations between the effects of traffic (e.g. Pb) and concentrations in moss could not be demonstrated with certainty. The element data yielded by this project are Germany's contribution to the European project 'Atmospheric Heavy Metal Deposition in Europe -- Estimations based on Moss Analysis'. PMID:8854944

  19. The Chemophytostabilisation Process of Heavy Metal Polluted Soil

    PubMed Central

    Grobelak, Anna; Napora, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Industrial areas are characterised by soil degradation processes that are related primarily to the deposition of heavy metals. Areas contaminated with metals are a serious source of risk due to secondary pollutant emissions and metal leaching and migration in the soil profile and into the groundwater. Consequently, the optimal solution for these areas is to apply methods of remediation that create conditions for the restoration of plant cover and ensure the protection of groundwater against pollution. Remediation activities that are applied to large-scale areas contaminated with heavy metals should mainly focus on decreasing the degree of metal mobility in the soil profile and metal bioavailability to levels that are not phytotoxic. Chemophytostabilisation is a process in which soil amendments and plants are used to immobilise metals. The main objective of this research was to investigate the effects of different doses of organic amendments (after aerobic sewage sludge digestion in the food industry) and inorganic amendments (lime, superphosphate, and potassium phosphate) on changes in the metals fractions in soils contaminated with Cd, Pb and Zn during phytostabilisation. In this study, the contaminated soil was amended with sewage sludge and inorganic amendments and seeded with grass (tall fescue) to increase the degree of immobilisation of the studied metals. The contaminated soil was collected from the area surrounding a zinc smelter in the Silesia region of Poland (pH 5.5, Cd 12 mg kg-1, Pb 1100 mg kg-1, Zn 700 mg kg-1). A plant growth experiment was conducted in a growth chamber for 5 months. Before and after plant growth, soil subsamples were subjected to chemical and physical analyses. To determine the fractions of the elements, a sequential extraction method was used according to Zeien and Brümmer. Research confirmed that the most important impacts on the Zn, Cd and Pb fractions included the combined application of sewage sludge from the food industry and the addition of lime and potassium phosphate. Certain doses of inorganic additives decreased the easily exchangeable fraction from 50% to 1%. The addition of sewage sludge caused a decrease in fraction I for Cd and Pb. In combination with the use of inorganic additives, a mobile fraction was not detected and an easily mobilisable fraction was reduced by half. For certain combinations of metals, the concentrations were detected up to a few percent. The application of sewage sludge resulted in a slight decrease in a mobile (water soluble and easily exchangeable metals) fraction of Zn, but when inorganic additives were applied, this fraction was not detected. The highest degree of immobilisation of the tested heavy metals relative to the control was achieved when using both sewage sludge and inorganic additives at an experimentally determined dose. The sequential extraction results confirmed this result. In addition, the results proved that the use of the phytostabilisation process on contaminated soils should be supported. PMID:26115341

  20. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in vegetables and relationships with soil heavy metal distribution in Zhejiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xuezhu; Xiao, Wendan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Zhao, Shouping; Wang, Gangjun; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    There are increasing concerns on heavy metal contaminant in soils and vegetables. In this study, we investigated heavy metal pollution in vegetables and the corresponding soils in the main vegetable production regions of Zhejiang province, China. A total of 97 vegetable samples and 202 agricultural soil samples were analyzed for the concentrations of Cd, Pb, As, Hg, and Cr. The average levels of Cd, Pb, and Cr in vegetable samples [Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris spp. Pekinensis), pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), celery (Apium graveolens), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), cucumber (Colletotrichum lagenarium), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.), and eggplant (Solanum melongena)] were 0.020, 0.048, and 0.043 mg kg(-1), respectively. The Pb and Cr concentrations in all vegetable samples were below the threshold levels of the Food Quality Standard (0.3 and 0.5 mg kg(-1), respectively), except that two eggplant samples exceeded the threshold levels for Cd concentrations (0.05 mg kg(-1)). As and Hg contents in vegetables were below the detection level (0.005 and 0.002 mg kg(-1), respectively). Soil pollution conditions were assessed in accordance with the Chinese Soil Quality Criterion (GB15618-1995, Grade II); 50 and 68 soil samples from the investigated area exceeded the maximum allowable contents for Cd and Hg, respectively. Simple correlation analysis revealed that there were significantly positive correlations between the metal concentrations in vegetables and the corresponding soils, especially for the leafy and stem vegetables such as pakchoi, cabbage, and celery. Bio-concentration factor values for Cd are higher than those for Pb and Cr, which indicates that Cd is more readily absorbed by vegetables than Pb and Cr. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the possible pollution of heavy metals in vegetables, especially Cd. PMID:26013654

  1. Removal of metals from heavy oils with phosphorus - Alumina catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Kukes, S.G.; Parrott, S.L.; Gardner, L.E. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA))

    1987-04-01

    Earlier it was found that various oil-soluble phosphorous compounds were active for vanadium removal from different crude oils. The phosphorous compounds preferentially reacted with low molecular weight vanadium species in the resin fraction and therefore the highest rate of vanadium removal was observed when the asphaltene fraction was partially or completely removed. Phosphorous compounds promoted the rate of vanadium removal during hydroprocessing over alumina in a trickle bed reactor. Some metal phosphates were prepared and tested for demetallization activity. Several mixed metal phosphates, such as Cr-Zr, Ni-Zr, Cu-Zr, V-Co-Zr, Fe-Co-Zr, Ni-Co-Zr, etc., exhibited high activity for both vanadium and nickel removal. These catalysts were found to possess HDM activity and activity maintenance comparable to conventional hydrotreating catalysts available commercially. The vanadium removal selectivity of the mixed metal phosphates was similar to that of the commercial catalyst, but much lower than that observed earlier for oil soluble phosphorous compounds. Since the lack of high vanadium selectivity for the mixed metal phosphates could be due to their transition metal component, they investigated the hydroprocessing of heavy oils over aluminas impregnated with different inorganic phosphorous compounds.

  2. Bioremoval of heavy metals by the use of microalgae.

    PubMed

    Wilde, E W; Benemann, J R

    1993-01-01

    Bioremoval, the use of biological systems for the removal of metal ions from polluted waters, has the potential to achieve greater performance at lower cost than conventional wastewater treatment technologies for metal removal. Bioremoval capabilities of microalgae have been extensively studied, and some commercial applications have been initiated. Although microalgae are not unique in their bioremoval capabilities, they offer advantages over other biological materials in some conceptual bioremoval process schemes. Selected microalgae strains, purposefully cultivated and processed for specific bioremoval applications, have the potential to provide significant improvements in dealing with the world-wide problems of metal pollution. In addition to strain selection, significant advances in the technology appear possible by improving biomass containment or immobilization techniques and by developing bioremoval process steps utilizing metabolically active microalgae cultures. The latter approach is especially attractive in applications where extremely low levels of residual metal ions are desired. This review summarizes the current literature, highlighting the potential benefits and problems associated with the development of novel algal-based bioremoval processes for the abatement of heavy metal pollution. PMID:14538057

  3. Representing soil pollution by heavy metals using continuous limitation scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romi?, Marija; Hengl, Tomislav; Romi?, Davor; Husnjak, Stjepan

    2007-10-01

    The paper suggests a methodology to represent overall soil pollution in a sampled area using continuous limitation scores. The interpolated heavy metal concentrations are first transformed to limitation scores using the exponential transfer function determined by using two threshold values: permissible concentration (0 limitation points) and seriously polluted soil (4 limitation points). The limitation scores can then be summed to produce the map of cumulative limitation scores and visualize the most critically polluted areas. The methodology was illustrated using the 784 soil samples analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the central region of Croatia. The samples were taken at 1×1 and 2×2 km grids and at fixed depths of 20 cm. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were determined by ICP-OES after microwave assisted aqua regia digestion. The sampled concentrations were interpolated using block regression-kriging with geology and land cover maps, terrain parameters and industrialization parameters as auxiliary predictors. The results showed that the best auxiliary predictors are geological map, ground water depth, NDVI and slope map and distance to urban areas. The spatial prediction was satisfactory for Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn, and somewhat less satisfactory for Cu and Cr. The final map of cumulative limitation scores showed that 33.5% of the total area is suitable for organic agriculture and 7.2% of the total area is seriously polluted by one or more heavy metals. This procedure can be used to assess suitability of soils for agricultural production and as a basis for possible legal commitments to maintain the soil quality.

  4. Heavy metals in wild rice from northern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.P.; Chiriboga, E.; Coleman, J.; Waller, D.M.

    2000-01-01

    Wild rice grain samples from various parts of the world have been found to have elevated concentrations of heavy metals, raising concern for potential effects on human health. It was hypothesized that wild rice from north-central Wisconsin could potentially have elevated concentrations of some heavy metals because of possible exposure to these elements from the atmosphere or from water and sediments. In addition, no studies of heavy metals in wild rice from Wisconsin had been performed, and a baseline study was needed for future comparisons. Wild rice plants were collected from four areas in Bayfield, Forest, Langlade, Oneida, Sawyer and Wood Counties in September, 1997 and 1998 and divided into four plant parts for elemental analyses: roots, stems, leaves and seeds. A total of 194 samples from 51 plants were analyzed across the localities, with an average of 49 samples per part depending on the element. Samples were cleaned of soil, wet digested, and analyzed by ICP for Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mg, Pb, Se and Zn. Roots contained the highest concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se. Copper was highest in both roots and seeds, while Zn was highest just in seeds. Magnesium was highest in leaves. Seed baseline ranges for the 10 elements were established using the 95% confidence intervals of the medians. Wild rice plants from northern Wisconsin had normal levels of the nutritional elements Cu, Mg and Zn in the seeds. Silver, Cd, Hg, Cr, and Se were very low in concentration or within normal limits for food plants. Arsenic and Pb, however, were elevated and could pose a problem for human health. The pathway for As, Hg and Pb to the plants could be atmospheric.

  5. Current state of heavy metal contents in Vienna soils.

    PubMed

    Pfleiderer, Sebastian; Englisch, Michael; Reiter, Rainer

    2012-12-01

    This study presents the current state of heavy metal contents in both urban and forest soils within the city area of Vienna, Austria. Based on a systematic survey of urban soils and on targeted sampling in forest areas, local and regional anomaly thresholds are derived using statistical methods and considering regional distribution patterns. For urban soils, local anomaly thresholds of elements Cu (60 mg/kg), Hg (0.5 mg/kg), Pb (100 mg/kg) and Zn (200 mg/kg) exceed national guideline values for uncontaminated urban soils and according to Austrian legislation fall into the category "anthropogenic contamination present but no damage to plants, animals or humans detectable". In forest soils within the city, thresholds are very similar to reference values for similar geological settings outside the city, apart from higher concentrations of elements Cr and Ni (threshold values of 107 and 64 mg/kg, respectively). Grouping urban soils according to land use reveals that Cd contents are 25 % higher, Pb contents 36 % higher, in traffic and industrial areas than in parks and like Cu, Hg and Zn, these elements can be shown to be at least partly caused by anthropogenic contamination. A dependency between heavy metal concentrations in soils and underlying geological units is shown within the flysch zone at the western city margin where the contents of elements Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and V are controlled by geology and reveal distinct differences between geological units. In built-up areas, no clear dependency between heavy metal contents in soils and geology is evident as urban soils represent accumulations by anthropogenic activity rather than in situ weathering products of underlying sediments. PMID:23053926

  6. Heavy metal stabilization in municipal solid waste combustion bottom ash using soluble phosphate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bradley S. Crannell; T. Taylor Eighmy; James E. Krzanowski; J. Dykstra Eusden; Elisabeth L. Shaw; Carl A. Francis

    2000-01-01

    Heavy metal chemical stabilization with soluble PO43? was assessed for bottom ash from combustion of municipal solid waste. Bottom ash can contain heavy metals (e.g. Pb) that can leach. An experimental dose of 0.38 mols of soluble PO43? per kg of residue was used without optimizing the formulation for any one heavy metal. The reduction in the fraction available for

  7. Blockade of heavy metals accumulation in Chlorella vulgaris cells by 24-epibrassinolide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Bajguz

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted on the influence of 24-epibrassinolide (24-epiBL) mixed with varying concentrations of heavy metals (copper, lead, cadmium, zinc) upon the growth and accumulation of these heavy metals in the cell of the alga Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck (Chlorophyceae). Heavy metals at the concentration of 10–3 M, alone or mixed with 24-epiBL, showed a lethal effect on C. vulgaris. At

  8. Molecular Mechanisms and Genetic Basis of Heavy Metal Toxicity and Tolerance in Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nand Lal

    \\u000a Heavy metal pollutants are mainly derived from growing number of anthropogenic sources. As the environmental pollution with\\u000a heavy metals increases, some new technologies are being developed, one of these being phytoremediation. Hyperaccumulator plant\\u000a varieties can be achieved by using methods of genetic engineering. An uptake of excessive amounts of heavy metals by plants\\u000a from soil solution leads to range of

  9. Accumulated Heavy Metal Content in Wolf Spider, Pardosa astrigera (Araneae: Lycosidae), as a Bioindicator of Exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chan-Sik Jung; Su Bum Lee; Myung-Pyo Jung; Joon-Ho Lee; Seungwhan Lee; Si Hyeock Lee

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the rate and extent of heavy metal accumulation in a potential indicator species of wolf spider, Pardosa astrigera (L. Koch) (Araneae: Lycosidae), adult spiders were exposed to three different heavy metals by dietary uptake. The spiders were regularly fed with heavy metal-coated fruit flies (20 mM CdCl2, 10 mM PbCl2, 10 mM HgCl2; singly or altogether) up to

  10. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the wolf spider, Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Araneae: Lycosidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myung-Pyo Jung; Joon-Ho Lee

    Previous studies have proposed that Pardosa astrigera L. Koch (Lycosidae) can be used as a biological indicator of heavy metal contamination in soil. In this study, we estimated\\u000a the bioaccumulation levels and the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) in adult female\\u000a P. astrigera collected from various field sites according to heavy metal content

  11. Selective Separation and Determination of Heavy Metals (Cd, Pb, Cr) Speciation Forms from Hortic Antrosols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Bulgariu; L. Bulgariu

    2009-01-01

    The speciation, inter-phases distribution and biodisponibility of heavy metals in soils represent one of main problem of environmental geochemistry and agro-chemistry. This problem is very important in case of hortic antrosols (soils from glasshouses) for the elimination of agricultural products (fruits, vegetables) contamination with heavy metals. In soils from glass houses, the speciation and inter-phases distribution processes of heavy metals

  12. Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ejaz ul Islam; Xiao-e Yang; Zhen-li He; Qaisar Mahmood

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in\\u000a areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious\\u000a problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health.\\u000a Heavy metals enter the human

  13. Abundance and diversity of Archaea in heavy-metal-contaminated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    RUTH-ANNE SANDAA; O. Enger; VIGDIS TORSVIK

    1999-01-01

    The impact of heavy-metal contamination on archaean communities was studied in soils amended with sewage sludge contaminated with heavy metals to varying extents. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed a decrease in the percentage of Archaea from 1.3% {+-} 0.3% of 4â²,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained cells in untreated soil to below the detection limit in soils amended with heavy metals. A comparison of the

  14. Occurrence and toxicology of heavy metals in Chesapeake Bay waterfowl

    SciTech Connect

    Di Giulio, R.T.

    1982-01-01

    The goals of this study were to elucidate relationships between food habits and tissue accumulations of heavy metals in Chesapeake Bay waterfowl and to determine effects of chronic cadmium and lead ingestion on energy metabolism in waterfowl. In combination with an imposed food restriction, cadmium ingestion appeared to alter some indices of energy metabolism, such as plasma concentrations of free fatty acids and triiodothyronine, at dietary cadmium levels far below those eliciting similar responses in the absence of a food restriction. Those results suggest the importance of considering interactions with other stressors when examining potential effects of environmental contaminants on wild animals.

  15. Heavy metal contamination of vegetables in Isfahan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Jafarian-Dehkordi, A; Alehashem, M

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are an inevitable and important part of a healthy and balanced diet. They could be contaminated by heavy metals in many ways including irrigation by sewage water and industrial effluents sewage sludge, vehicular emissions, industrial waste and atmospheric deposition. In this study, we sought to determine if some vegetables (cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, lettuce, potatoes, onions, carrots, persian leeks, dill, spinach, coriander, parsley) grown locally in the suburban of Isfahan city and sold in the urban markets are contaminated with cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb). Vegetables were sampled from August to October 2010. After washing, they were oven-dried and digested using three-acid mixture (70% HNO3, 65% HClO4 and 70% H2SO4). Analyzes of the heavy metals was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. To validate the assay method, intra-day and inter-day variation studies were performed. The concentrations (?g/g) of heavy metals in the samples ranged from 0.00 to 3.66 for Cd, 0.00 to 6.00 for Cr and 0.00 to 7.14 for Pb. The highest concentration of heavy metals was for Pb. The results showed that the amount of Cd, Cr and Pb of some samples exceeded the recommended levels. The amount of Cd in cucumber, tomatoes, potatoes with skin, carrots, and spinach was significantly higher in the samples collected from Isfahanak, Dashti and Ilchi farms than those of Dorche farms. Also, the amount of Cr in onion, carrots, and spinach was significantly higher in samples collected from Isfahanak, Dashti and Ilchi farms than those of Dorche farms. However, the amount of Pb in the carrots and leek was significantly higher in the samples collected from Dorche farms than those of Isfahanak, Dashti and Ilchi farms. It can be concluded from the findings of this study that the amounts of Cd, Cr, and Pb were higher than the acceptable levels recommended by WHO/FAO. Also, higher amount of Cd and Cr in some samples collected from Isfahanak, Dashti and Ilchi farms compared to that of the samples collected from Dorche farms may indicate the influence of contaminants that enter ZayadeRood River as it passes Isfahan. PMID:24459476

  16. Using semivariogram scaled to the sample design of heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medeiros Bezerra, Joel; Machado Siqueira, Glécio; Dafonte Dafonte, Jorge; Vidal Vazquez, Eva; Paz González, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The "sampling intensity" issue is of important application to precision agriculture. About 80%-85 % of the total error in precision in agriculture results from the field sampling preceding the application of fertilizers and corrective practices. The spatial sampling design used to characterize the spatial variability of soil attributes is crucial to science studies. The sample planning for interpolation of a regionalized variable may use several criteria, which could be best selected from the estimated semivariogram from a previously established grid. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the semivariogram scaled to improve the sample design of heavy metals in an experimental plot. The study area surface is 6 ha and is located at Castro Ribeiras de Lea, Lugo, Spain. The geographical coordinates of the study area are: latitude 43° 09 '49''N and longitude 7° 29' 47''W, with average elevation of 410 m and average slope of 2 %. The mean annual temperature is 11.2 °C and mean annual rainfall is 930 mm (data 1961-1990). The soil is classified with Cambisol and the parent material are sediments from tertiary and quaternary. Heavy metals were initially sampled at 40 points randomly distributed in the study area. The heavy metals analyzed in this study were: Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni. Data were initially analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The scaled semivariogram was built with the aim of setting a single theoretical semivariogram all elements studied. Subsequently, the software SANOS was used to determine the sampling optimization of new sampling points of the heavy metals. The spatial variability analysis of the studied elements using the scaled semivariogram showed the existence of a relationship between the spatial variability of these elements. The gaussian model was adjusted for Pb, Cd and Ni, and spherical models for the Cu element. The semivariogram scaled theoretical adjusted to elements in four study was Gaussian, with a value range of 70 m, and this value range intermediate values found for the individual semivariograms. The scaled semivariogram and programs of simulation of sampling points based on the parameters of the semivariogram can be used to assist soil management.

  17. Heavy metal contamination of vegetables in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian-Dehkordi, A.; Alehashem, M.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetables are an inevitable and important part of a healthy and balanced diet. They could be contaminated by heavy metals in many ways including irrigation by sewage water and industrial effluents sewage sludge, vehicular emissions, industrial waste and atmospheric deposition. In this study, we sought to determine if some vegetables (cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, lettuce, potatoes, onions, carrots, persian leeks, dill, spinach, coriander, parsley) grown locally in the suburban of Isfahan city and sold in the urban markets are contaminated with cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb). Vegetables were sampled from August to October 2010. After washing, they were oven-dried and digested using three-acid mixture (70% HNO3, 65% HClO4 and 70% H2SO4). Analyzes of the heavy metals was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. To validate the assay method, intra-day and inter-day variation studies were performed. The concentrations (?g/g) of heavy metals in the samples ranged from 0.00 to 3.66 for Cd, 0.00 to 6.00 for Cr and 0.00 to 7.14 for Pb. The highest concentration of heavy metals was for Pb. The results showed that the amount of Cd, Cr and Pb of some samples exceeded the recommended levels. The amount of Cd in cucumber, tomatoes, potatoes with skin, carrots, and spinach was significantly higher in the samples collected from Isfahanak, Dashti and Ilchi farms than those of Dorche farms. Also, the amount of Cr in onion, carrots, and spinach was significantly higher in samples collected from Isfahanak, Dashti and Ilchi farms than those of Dorche farms. However, the amount of Pb in the carrots and leek was significantly higher in the samples collected from Dorche farms than those of Isfahanak, Dashti and Ilchi farms. It can be concluded from the findings of this study that the amounts of Cd, Cr, and Pb were higher than the acceptable levels recommended by WHO/FAO. Also, higher amount of Cd and Cr in some samples collected from Isfahanak, Dashti and Ilchi farms compared to that of the samples collected from Dorche farms may indicate the influence of contaminants that enter ZayadeRood River as it passes Isfahan. PMID:24459476

  18. Heavy metals in water, sediments and submerged macrophytes in ponds around the Dianchi Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhixiu; Yao, Lu; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2014-09-01

    Through retaining runoff and pollutants such as heavy metals from surrounding landscapes, ponds around a lake play an important role in mitigating the impacts of human activities on lake ecosystems. In order to determine the potential for heavy metal accumulation of submerged macrophytes, we investigated the concentrations of 10 heavy metals (i.e., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in water, sediments, and submerged macrophytes collected from 37 ponds around the Dianchi Lake in China. Our results showed that both water and sediments of these ponds were polluted by Pb. Water and sediments heavy metal concentrations in ponds received urban and agricultural runoff were not significantly higher than those in ponds received forest runoff. This result indicates that a large portion of heavy metals in these ponds may originate from atmospheric deposition and weathering of background soils. Positive relationships were found among heavy metal concentrations in submerged macrophytes, probably due to the coaccumulation of heavy metals. For most heavy metals, no significant relationships were found between submerged macrophytes and their water and sediment environments. The maximum concentrations of Cr, Fe and Ni in Ceratophyllum demersum were 4242, 16,429 and 2662mgkg(-1), respectively. The result suggests that C. demersum is a good candidate species for removing heavy metals from polluted aquatic environments. PMID:25011115

  19. Distribution of environmental pollutants in pet animals. VI. Heavy metals in hair of house-dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, M. (Dokkyo Univ., Mibu-cho, Japan); Okada, I.; Tate, H.; Miura, Y.; Ohhira, S.; Yamada, Y.

    1981-01-01

    The concentrations of cadmium, copper, lead, manganese, and zinc were determined in the hair of 40 pet dogs of both sexes. Of the heavy metals, zinc showed the highest concentration in the hair regardless of sex or color. Zinc also increased gradually with age. Cadmium and lead increased in concentration up to 7 years of age and decreased thereafter. Correlations were made among the heavy metal concentrations in the hair. Comparisons also were made with available human data. It was suggested that analysis of heavy metals in the hair of house-dogs may be valuable as a means of biological monitoring of the human heavy metal body burden. (RJC)

  20. Response of mosses to the heavy metal deposition in Poland--an overview.

    PubMed

    Grodzi?ska, K; Szarek-?ukaszewska, G

    2001-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) in Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt., a common moss species, were used to indicate relative levels of atmospheric deposition in Poland in the years 1975-1998. Spatial and temporal differences in the heavy metal concentrations in mosses were found. The highest concentration of heavy metals was recorded in the moss samples from the southern, most industrialised part of the country, and the lowest from north-eastern Poland. A significant decrease of heavy metals over 20 years (1975-1998) was found. PMID:11584642

  1. Heavy metal and radionuclide concentrations in fly ash material

    SciTech Connect

    Booker, J.D.; Phagan, C.J.; Gray, R.H. [Battelle Memorial Institute, Amarillo, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A study was completed to characterize the concentrations of heavy metals and radionuclides and their mobility in two fly ash covered parking lots at the US Department of Energy`s Pantex Plant. Six composite samples collected from the parking areas were analyzed by an offsite contract laboratory for arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury, selenium, silver, uranium 234, and uranium 238. All metal and radionuclide concentrations except mercury and silver exceeded the applicable comparison standards for typical Pantex Plant soil; however, concentrations of mercury and silver were significantly below the Texas Risk Reduction Standards. In view of these results, it was strongly recommended that fly ash not be used for future projects at the Pantex Plant unless specialized engineering controls are used.

  2. Use of dried aquatic plant roots to adsorb heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, K.D.

    1996-12-31

    The removal of heavy metal ions by dried aquatic macrophytes was investigated. The ability of the biomass, Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), Typha latifolia (cattail), Sparganium minimum (burr reed) and Menyanthes trifoliata to abstract lead and mercury ions is presented here, along with a conceptual filter design. This paper examines an alternative to both the traditional and recent systems designed for metal removal. It involves the use of dried aquatic macrophytes. There are numerous advantages for the use of dried macrophytes in the treatment of industrial wastewater. First, it is cost-effective. There are also funding opportunities through a variety of Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) programs. It is more environmentally conscious because a wetland, the harvesting pond, has been created. And, it creates public goodwill by providing a more appealing, less hardware-intensive, natural system.

  3. Heavy metals processing near-net-forming summary progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, L.D. [Custom Spray Technologies, Inc., Rigby, ID (United States); Thompson, J.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    This study utilized a converging-diverging nozzle to spray-form an alloy having a weight percent composition of 49.6% iron, 49.6% tungsten, and 0.8% carbon into samples for analysis. The alloy was a surrogate that displayed metallurgical characteristics similar to the alloys used in the heavy metals processing industry. US DOE facilities are evaluating advanced technologies which can simplify component fabrication, reduce handling steps, and minimize final machining. The goal of producing net-shaped components can be approached from several directions. In spray forming, molten metal is converted by a nozzle into a plume of fine droplets which quickly cool in flight and solidify against a substrate. The near-final dimension product that is formed receives additional benefits from rapid solidification. This single-step processing approach would aid the heavy metals industry by streamlining fabrication, improving production yields, and minimizing the generation of processing wastes. This Program effort provided a large selection of as-sprayed specimens. These samples were sprayed with gas-to-metal mass ratios ranging from 0.8:1 to 4:1. Samples targeted for analysis were produced from different spray conditions. Metallography on some samples revealed areas that were fully dense and homogeneous at 5,000X. These areas averaged grain sizes of 1 micron diameter. Other samples when viewed at 2,000X were highly segregated in the 10 micron diameter range. Deposit efficiencies of greater than 90% were demonstrated using the untailored spray system. Discharge gases were analyzed and two categories of particles were identified. One category of particle had a chemical composition characteristic of the alloy being sprayed and the second type of particle had a chemical composition characteristic of the ceramics used in the spray system component fabrication. Particles ranged in size from 0.07 to 3 microns in diameter. 8 refs., 67 figs., 20 tabs.

  4. Chelation: harnessing and enhancing heavy metal detoxification--a review.

    PubMed

    Sears, Margaret E

    2013-01-01

    Toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are ubiquitous, have no beneficial role in human homeostasis, and contribute to noncommunicable chronic diseases. While novel drug targets for chronic disease are eagerly sought, potentially helpful agents that aid in detoxification of toxic elements, chelators, have largely been restricted to overt acute poisoning. Chelation, that is multiple coordination bonds between organic molecules and metals, is very common in the body and at the heart of enzymes with a metal cofactor such as copper or zinc. Peptides glutathione and metallothionein chelate both essential and toxic elements as they are sequestered, transported, and excreted. Enhancing natural chelation detoxification pathways, as well as use of pharmaceutical chelators against heavy metals are reviewed. Historical adverse outcomes with chelators, lessons learned in the art of using them, and successes using chelation to ameliorate renal, cardiovascular, and neurological conditions highlight the need for renewed attention to simple, safe, inexpensive interventions that offer potential to stem the tide of debilitating, expensive chronic disease. PMID:23690738

  5. Morphological changes in an acidophilic bacterium induced by heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Rajdeep; Banerjee, Pataki C

    2008-03-01

    The Acidiphilium strains inhabit acidic mine regions where they are subjected to occasional environmental stresses such as high and low temperatures, exposure to various heavy metals, etc. Change in morphology is one of the strategies that bacteria adopt to cope with environmental stresses; however, no study on this aspect has been reported in the case of Acidiphilium sp. This work is an attempt using the acidophilic heterotrophic bacterium Acidiphilium symbioticum H8. It was observed that the maximum alterations in size occurred when the bacterium was exposed to sub-inhibitory concentrations of Cu and Cd. Loosely packed coccobacillus-type normal cells formed characteristic chains of coccoidal lenticular shape with constrictions at the junctions between them in the presence of Cd; Cu induced transformation of cells to become round shaped; Ni caused the cells to aggregate, but Zn showed no effect. Respective metal depositions on the cell surface were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Cell bound Ca2+ ions were replaced by these metal ions and measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry from the culture filtrate. Cell shape changed only after the addition of sub-inhibitory concentrations of the metals, but in growth inhibitory concentrations it was similar to the normal cells. PMID:18193380

  6. Intense metal ion beam source for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, I.G.

    1986-05-01

    We have developed an ion source which can produce high current beams of metal ions. The source uses a metal vapor vacuum arc discharge as the plasma medium from which the ions are extracted, so we have called this source the MEVVA ion source. The metal plasma is created simply and efficiently and no carrier gas is required. Beams have been produced from metallic elements spanning the periodic table from lithium through uranium, at extraction voltages from 10 to 60 kV and with beam currents as high as 1.1 Amperes (electrical current in all charge states). A brief description of the source is given and its possible application as an ion source for heavy ion fusion is considered. Beams such as C/sup +/ (greater than or equal to99% of the beam in this species and charge state), Cr/sup 2 +/ (80%), and Ta/sup 3+,4+,5+/ (mixed charge states) have been produced. Beam emittance measurements and ways of increasing the source brightness are discussed.

  7. EM Task 13 - Cone Penetrometer for Subsurface Heavy Metals Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Ames A. Grisanti; Charlene R. Crocker

    1998-11-01

    Surface and subsurface contamination of soils by heavy metals, including Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Cd has become an area of concern for many industrial and government organizations (1) Conventional sampling and analysis techniques for soil provide a high degree of sensitivity and selectivity for individual analytes. However, obtaining a representative sampling and analysis from a particular site using conventional techniques is time consuming and costly (2) Additionally, conventional methods are difficult to implement in the field for in situ and/or real-time applications. Therefore, there is a need for characterization and monitoring techniques for heavy metals in soils that allow cost-effective, rapid, in situ measurements. The overall objectives of this project are to evaluate potential calibration techniques for the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)-CPT instrument, to provide a preliminary evaluation of the LIBS instrument calibration using samples obtained from the field and to provide technical support to field demonstration of the LIBS-CPT instrument at a DOE facility.

  8. DRAFT The Common Vernacular of Power Relations in Heavy Metal and Christian Fundamentalist Performances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine A. James

    Wittgenstein's comment that what can be shown cannot be said has a special resonance with visual representations of power in both Heavy Metal and Fundamentalist Christian communities. Performances at metal shows, and performances of \\

  9. Analysis of heavy metal sources in soil using kriging interpolation on principal components.

    PubMed

    Ha, Hoehun; Olson, James R; Bian, Ling; Rogerson, Peter A

    2014-05-01

    Anniston, Alabama has a long history of operation of foundries and other heavy industry. We assessed the extent of heavy metal contamination in soils by determining the concentrations of 11 heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Hg, Ni, V, and Zn) based on 2046 soil samples collected from 595 industrial and residential sites. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was adopted to characterize the distribution of heavy metals in soil in this region. In addition, a geostatistical technique (kriging) was used to create regional distribution maps for the interpolation of nonpoint sources of heavy metal contamination using geographical information system (GIS) techniques. There were significant differences found between sampling zones in the concentrations of heavy metals, with the exception of the levels of Ni. Three main components explaining the heavy metal variability in soils were identified. The results suggest that Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn were associated with anthropogenic activities, such as the operations of some foundries and major railroads, which released these heavy metals, whereas the presence of Co, Mn, and V were controlled by natural sources, such as soil texture, pedogenesis, and soil hydrology. In general terms, the soil levels of heavy metals analyzed in this study were higher than those reported in previous studies in other industrial and residential communities. PMID:24693925

  10. Studies on Microbial Heavy Metal Retention from Uranium Mine Drainage Water with Special Emphasis on Rare Earth Elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Merten; E. Kothe; G. Büchel

    2004-01-01

    Microbial heavy metal retention was studied using seepage water sampled from a former uranium mining site in Eastern Thuringia, Germany. The seepage water has a low pH and contains high concentrations of metals, including uranium, rare earth elements (REE), and other heavy metals. Microbial influence on sorption and\\/or active uptake of heavy metals was studied using REE patterns. Incubation of

  11. Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Gangwal, Santosh (Cary, NC); Jothimurugesan, Kandaswamy (Hampton, VA)

    1999-01-01

    A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption processes, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gasses from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or "passivating" the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

  12. Emission characteristics of heavy metals and their behavior during coking processes.

    PubMed

    Mu, Ling; Peng, Lin; Liu, Xiaofeng; Bai, Huiling; Song, Chongfang; Wang, Ying; Li, Zhen

    2012-06-01

    Besides organic pollutants, coke production generates emissions of toxic heavy metals. However, intensive studies on heavy metal emissions from the coking industry are still very scarce. The current work focuses on assessing the emission characteristics of heavy metals and their behavior during coking. Simultaneous sampling of coal, coke, residues from air pollution control devices (APCD), effluent from coke quenching, and fly ash from different processes before and after APCD has been performed. The total heavy metal concentration in the flue gas from coke pushing (CP) was significantly higher than that from coal charging (CC) and combustion of coke oven gases (CG). Emission factors of heavy metals for CP and CC were 378.692 and 42.783 ?g/kg, respectively. During coking, the heavy metals that were contained in the feedstock coal showed different partitioning patterns. For example, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, and Cr were obviously concentrated in the inlet fly ash compared to the coke; among these metals Cu, As, and Cr were concentrated in the outlet fly ash, whereas Zn and Pb were distributed equally between the outlet fly ash and APCD residue. Ni, Co, Cd, Fe, and V were partitioned equally between the inlet fly ash and the coke. Understanding the behavior of heavy metals during coking processes is helpful for the effective control of these heavy metals and the assessment of the potential impact of their emissions on the environment. PMID:22607524

  13. Bioremediation of soluble heavy metals with recombinant Caulobacter crescentus

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yu; Patel, Jigar

    2010-01-01

    To achieve one-step separation of heavy metal ions from contaminated water, we have developed a novel bioremediation technology based on self-immobilization of the Caulobacter crescentus recombinant strain JS4022/p723-6H, which overexpresses hexahistidine peptide on the surface of the bacterial cells and serves as a whole-cell adsorbent for dissolved heavy metals. Biofilms formed by JS4022/p723-6H are effective at retaining cadmium from bacterial growth media or environmental water samples. Here we provide additional experiment data discussing the application potential of this new technology. Supplementation of calcium to the growth media produced robust JS4022/p723-6H cells by alleviating their sensitivity to chelators. After growth in the presence of 0.3% CaCl2·2H2O, double the amount of JS4022/p723-6H cells survived the treatment with 2 mM EDTA. Free cells of JS4022/p723-6H effectively sequestered 51% of the total cadmium from a Lake Erie water sample at pH 5.4, compared to 37% retrieved by the control strain. Similar levels of adsorption were observed at pH 4.2 as well. Cells of JS4022/p723-6H were tolerant of acid treatment for 90 min at pH ?1.1 or 120 min at pH ?2.5, which provides an avenue for the convenient regeneration of the bacterial cells metal-binding capacity with acidic solutions. Designs of possible bioreactors and an operation system are also presented. PMID:21326927

  14. Heavy metal leaching from mine tailings as affected by plants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, D.; Schwab, A.P.; Banks, M.K.

    1999-12-01

    A column experiment was conducted to determine the impact of soil cover and plants on heavy metal leaching from mine tailings and heavy metal contaminated soil. Columns made of PVC were constructed with 30 cm subsoil covered by 30 cm of mine tailings followed by 0, 30, or 60 cm subsoil covered by 30 cm of mine tailings followed by 0, 30, or 60 cm of clean topsoil. Two grasses, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), were grown in the columns. The columns were leached at a slow rate for 1 yr with a 0.001 M CaCl{sub 2} solution under unsaturated conditions. The presence of both tall fescue and big bluestem increased Zn and Cd concentrations in the leachate. Lead concentrations in leachates were not affected by the presence of plants. Although plants generally reduced the total amount of water leached, total mass of Zn and Cd leached generally was not impacted by plants. Total mass of Pb leached was positively correlated with total leachate collected from each column. Covering the mine tailings with 60 cm of topsoil increased the mass of Zn and Cd leached relative to no topsoil. When the subsoil was absent, Zn and Cd leaching increased by as much as 20-fold, verifying the ability of soil to act as a sink for metals. Mine tailing remediation by establishing vegetation can reduce Pb movement but may enhance short-term Cd and Zn leaching. However, the changes were relatively small and do not outweigh the benefits of using vegetation in mine tailings reclamation.

  15. Toxicity of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb) to vascular plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna-Maj Balsberg Påhlsson; J. Vallgatan

    1989-01-01

    The literature on heavy metal toxicity to vascular plants is reviewed. Special attention is given to forest plant species, especially trees, and effects at low metal concentrations, including growth, physiological, biochemical and cytological responses. Interactions between the metals in toxicity are considered and the role of mycorrhizal infection as well. Of the metals reviewed, Zn is the least toxic. Generally

  16. Speciation of heavy metal ions as influenced by interactions with montmorillonite, Al hydroxide polymers and citrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. P. T. Janssen

    1995-01-01

    Clay minerals, metal-hydroxides and organic matter can bind metal ions; moreover they also interact with each other. These mutual interactions influence the metal binding to a significant extent. In this study, the speciation of the heavy metal ions Zn and Ph was investigated in model systems consisting of various combinations of the clay mineral montmorillonite (Na saturated), Al hydroxide polymers

  17. Structural Study of the Incorporation of Heavy Metals into Solid Phase

    E-print Network

    Frenkel, Anatoly

    Structural Study of the Incorporation of Heavy Metals into Solid Phase Formed during the Oxidation of these ligands with metal cations break down to release uncomplexed metal ions that pre- cipitate, coprecipitate by the reduction of permanganate at high pH play a crucial role in the removal of TRU and metals present

  18. Parameters for Removal of Toxic Heavy Metals by Water Milfoil ( Myriophyllum spicatum )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. C. Wang; J. C. Weissman; G. Ramesh; R. Varadarajan; J. R. Benemann

    1996-01-01

    Due to the increasing awareness of toxic heavy metals contamination to the environment, studies of metal accumulation from the view point of metal removal from contaminated water have been performed. Conventional methods including precipitation, oxidation, reduction, ion exchange, filtration, electrochemical treatment, membrane technologies and evaporation recovery are expensive or ineffective, especially when the metal concentrations are very low in the

  19. Characterization of a Novel Plant Promoter Specifically Induced by Heavy Metal and Identification of the Promoter Regions Conferring Heavy Metal Responsiveness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiaoting Qi; Yuxiu Zhang; Tuanyao Chai

    2006-01-01

    The bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) stress-related gene number 2 (PvSR2) gene responds to heavy metals but not to other forms of environmental stresses. To elucidate its heavy metal-regulatory mechanism at the transcriptional level, we isolated and characterized the promoter region (21623\\/148) of PvSR2. Deletions from the 5# end revealed that a sequence between 2222 and 2147 relative to the transcriptional start

  20. [Heavy metal]-Chlorophylls Formed in Vivo During Heavy Metal Stress and Degradation Products Formed During Digestion, Extraction and Storage of Plant Material

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hendrik Küpper; Frithjof C. Küpper; Martin Spiller

    This chapter discusses the occurrence, properties and relevance of chlorophyll (Chl) degradation products that are formed\\u000a either in vivo in heavy metal-stressed plants or by digestion of algae in marine invertebrates, or that are formed during extraction or processing of dead plant material. The in vivo substitution of the central Mg2+ ion of chlorophyll by heavy metals constitutes an important

  1. Total concentrations and chemical speciation of heavy metals in liquefaction residues of sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xingzhong Yuan; Huajun Huang; Guangming Zeng; Hui Li; Jingyu Wang; Chunfei Zhou; Huina Zhu; Xiaokai Pei; Zhifeng Liu; Zhantao Liu

    2011-01-01

    The risk (including bioavailability and eco-toxicity) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr and Ni) in liquefaction residues (LR) of sewage sludge (SS) was estimated, according to both the speciation of heavy metals and the local environmental characteristics. The amount of organic matters in LR was lower than that in SS, resulting in a smaller calorific value, while the

  2. Heavy Metal Pollution in Air-Water-Soil-Plant System of Zhuzhou City, Hunan Province, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wang Haiyan; Arne O. Stuanes

    2003-01-01

    The sources, distribution and mobility of heavy metals in Zhuzhou City, Hunan Province, China were systematically studied based on environmental monitoring data and random sampling from fields and markets. The significant positive correlations between some pairs of heavy metals (total Cd–Hg, total Cu–Pb) within the Zhuzhou section of the Xiang River may indicate that they are coming from the same

  3. Duckweed as heavy metal accumulator and pollution indicator in industrial wastewater ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmad K. Hegazy; Hanan F. Kabiel; Manal Fawzy

    2009-01-01

    Bioaccumulations of the four heavy metals Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in Lemna gibba (duckweed) as an environmental indicator of contaminated industrial wastewater were detected. Plant pigment content (chlorophyll and carotenoids) were estimated. During the study, heavy metals were ranked according to the preference for bioaccumulation by L. gibba, Zn came in the first place followed by Cr, Pb and

  4. Forms and distribution of heavy metals in soils of the Axios delta of northern Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Zalidis; N. Barbayiarinis; Theodora Matsi

    1999-01-01

    Distribution and availability of heavy metals to plants is important when assessing the environmental quality of an area. The objectives of this study, conducted in 1992–1993, were: a) to determine the levels of the heavy metals, cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper(Cu), lead (Pb), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn), in the soils of the Axios Delta (a Ramsar wetland

  5. Influence of Heavy Metal Stress On Water Regime of A Model Forest Ecosystem

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Menon; K. C. Abbaspour; R. Schulin

    2002-01-01

    Among various toxic substances that contaminate the soil, the effects of heavy metals are particularly severe on all aspects of soil-plant system. The Swiss Federal Institute for Forest Snow and Land Research (WSL) is addressing comprehensively the issue of heavy metal toxicity in a forest ecosystem in a project titled Sfrom cell to treeT. As & cedil; part of the

  6. Heavy metals modify costs of reproduction and clonal growth in the stoloniferous herb Potentilla anserina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sari Koivunen; Kari Saikkonen; Timo Vuorisalo; Pia Mutikainen

    2004-01-01

    We examined costs of sexual reproduction and clonal propagation, and their consequences for resource allocation in the clonal stoloniferous herb, Potentilla anserina, a typical pioneer species in disturbed areas. We used heavy-metal treatment in soil to create unfavourable growing conditions, because costs of reproduction are more likely to be expressed when resources are limited. We also studied whether heavy metals

  7. Heavy metals tolerance of soil denitrifying communities: N 2O dynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liv Holtan-Hartwig; Marianne Bechmann; Tyra Risnes Høyås; Roar Linjordet; Lars Reier Bakken

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effects of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) on the enzyme activity of soil denitrifying community, and tolerance to the same heavy metals as indicated by denitrification rates. We focused on the rates of nitrate reduction to N2O and the N2O reductase activity, because the ratio between these two process rates is an indicator of the community's

  8. Determination of mobile heavy metal fraction in soil: Results of a pot experiment with sewage sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enzo Lombi; Martin H. Gerzabek

    1998-01-01

    The development of a method using a chelating resin to assess heavy metal mobility in soil and the first results obtained from a pot experiment with sewage sludge additions were studied. The resin was Chelex 100 with the calcium (Ca)?form of the resin proving to be best suited for the extraction. The efficiency of recovery of the heavy metals from

  9. Heavy metals in sediments of two Chesapeake Bay tributaries — Wicomico and Pocomoke Rivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gian Gupta; Makesh Karuppiah

    1996-01-01

    Aquatic sediments can be both sinks and sources of heavy metals. The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of heavy metals in sediments and sediment-porewaters of two Chesapeake Bay tributaries — Wicomico (WR) and Pocomoke (PR) Rivers so as to better understand the contributions of point (sewage treatment plant — STP) or non-point (agricultural runoff) sources of

  10. Heavy metal adsorption properties of a submerged aquatic plant ( Ceratophyllum demersum)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Keskinkan; M. Z. L. Goksu; M. Basibuyuk; C. F. Forster

    2004-01-01

    Heavy metals can be adsorbed by living or non-living biomass. Submerged aquatic plants can be used for the removal of heavy metals. In this paper, lead, zinc, and copper adsorption properties of Ceratophyllum demersum (Coontail or hornwort) were investigated and results were compared with other aquatic submerged plants. Data obtained from the initial adsorption studies indicated that C. demersum was

  11. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus populations in heavy-metal-contaminated soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Del Val; J. M. Barea; C. Azcon-Aguilar

    1999-01-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals have been shown to adversely affect the size, diversity, and activity of microbial populations in soil. The aim of this work was to determine how the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is affected by the addition of sewage-amended sludge containing heavy metals in a long-term experiment. Due to the reduced number of indigenous AM

  12. Heavy metal contamination in dusts and stream sediments in the Taejon area, Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K.-W. Kim; J.-H. Myung; J. S. Ahn; H.-T. Chon

    1998-01-01

    Associated with the rapid pace of urbanization and industrialization is the increase of automobile emissions, factory emissions, and industrial wastewater. Heavy metal contamination from these point sources has received much attention in the Taejon area, Korea. In order to investigate the degree of heavy metal contamination, 81 road dusts, 79 house dusts, 40 indoor dusts of subway stations and 21

  13. Heavy metal contamination of soil and vegetables in suburban areas of Varanasi, India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh Kumar Sharma; Madhoolika Agrawal; Fiona Marshall

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination of soil resulting from wastewater irrigation is a cause of serious concern due to the potential health impacts of consuming contaminated produce. In this study an assessment is made of the impact of wastewater irrigation on heavy metal contamination of Beta vulgaris (palak); this is a highly nutritious leafy vegetable that is widely cultivated and consumed in

  14. Multivariate analysis of heavy metal contamination in urban dusts of Xi'an, Central China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Han Yongming; Du Peixuan; Cao Junji; Eric S. Posmentier

    2006-01-01

    Though there are many studies of heavy metal contaminations of urban dusts in developed countries, little attention has been paid to this kind of study in developing countries, including China. Therefore, a series of investigations were performed to provide heavy metal signatures of urban dusts and to evaluate potential sources in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province. Sixty-five samples of urban dusts were

  15. Impact of heavy metal contamination of Bellandur Lake on soil and cultivated vegetation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lokeshwari; G. T. Chandrappa

    The aim of this study is to assess the extent of heavy metal contamination of vegetation due to irrigation with sewage-fed lake water on agricultural land. Samples of water, soil and crop plants have been analysed for seven heavy metals, viz. Fe, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb and Cd using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The re- sults show the presence of

  16. Soil factors affecting patchiness in community composition of heavy metal-contaminated areas of Western Europe

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gary Brown

    1994-01-01

    The vegetation at various sites within two separate areas (Mechernich and Aachen) of the Eifel Mountains, Germany\\/Belgium, both characterized by elevated concentrations of heavy metals in their soils, was surveyed in order to investigate the relationships between soil chemical attributes and floristic composition. In both areas, the typical heavy metal communities can form distinct zones, clearly separated from the surrounding

  17. Methyl Mercury and Heavy Metal Content in Soils of Rivers Saale and Elbe (Germany)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Istvan Devai; W. H. Patrick Jr; R. D. DeLaune; M. Kongchum; J. Rinklebe

    2005-01-01

    The rivers Saale and Elbe, including their catchment areas (Germany), have been heavily polluted by ore mining and other anthropogenic emission sources during the last centuries. Heavy metal contamination along the Elbe River floodplains can vary depending on location. In this study data on methyl mercury, mercury, and other heavy metal contents in three soil profiles from a representative site

  18. Intake of heavy metals from foods in Finland, West Germany and Japan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Louekari; S. Salminen

    1986-01-01

    Comparison of heavy metal intakes between Finland, West Germany and Japan suggests that the average oral exposure to lead and cadmium in Finland is 30–40% of that in the other two countries. Environmental contamination is the obvious cause of high heavy metal content of vegetables and liver in West Germany and Japan and this explains a part of the difference

  19. The influence of paddy soil bacterial diversity affected by heavy metals contamination of Dabaoshan Mine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaizhi Xie; Peizhi Xu; Shaohai Yang; Shuanhu Tang; Fabao Zhang; Xu Huang; Wenjie Gu; Hui Zhang

    2011-01-01

    We studied the paddy soil affected by acid drainage of Dabaoshan polymetallic ore in north Guangdong. Using real -time PCR and PCR-DGGE technique, we explored the influence of the soil bacterial community diversity at different degrees of heavy metals contamination of heavy metal and available content. The results showed that: the number of bacteria, paddy soil bacteria diversity, Shannon-Wiener index

  20. Heavy metals contamination in roadside soil near different traffic signals in Dubai, United Arab Emirates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Junaid Aslam; Saeed Ahmad Khan; Sheba Haque Khan

    The present research was conducted to study heavy metal contamination in roadside soil viz. (i) at sites having more than two traffic signals (ii) roads having only one traffic signal and (iii) roads having no traffic signals. The samples were collected and analyzed for seven heavy metals i.e. cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn)

  1. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in pre-fledgling tree swallows, Tachycineta bicolor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark L. Kraus

    1989-01-01

    Wetlands in urbanized areas are frequently degraded by human activity. The Hackensack River Estuary in Northeastern New Jersey is no exception. This estuary contains over 1,600 acres of landfill, and receives various levels of treated effluent from seven different sewage treatment plants. Heavy metals are a common pollutant in the Hackensack River Basin. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in birds is

  2. The use of vetiver grass ( Vetiveria zizanioides) in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yahua Chen; Zhenguo Shen; Xiangdong Li

    2004-01-01

    Recent research has shown that phytoextraction approaches often require soil amendments, such as the application of EDTA, to increase the bioavailability of heavy metals in soils. However, EDTA and EDTA–heavy metal complexes can be toxic to plants and soil microorganisms and may leach into groundwater, causing further environmental pollution. In the present study, vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) was studied for

  3. Marine molluscs as biomonitors for heavy metal levels in the Gulf of Suez, Red Sea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohamed A. Hamed; Ahmed M. Emara

    2006-01-01

    Levels of the heavy metals Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Iron (Fe) and Manganese (Mn) were determined in coastal water, sediments and soft tissues of the gastropod limpet, Patella caerulea, and the bivalve, Barbatus barbatus, from seven different stations in the western coast of the Gulf of Suez. The concentrations of heavy metals

  4. Removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater by chemically modified plant wastes as adsorbents: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. S. Wan Ngah; M. A. K. M. Hanafiah

    2008-01-01

    The application of low-cost adsorbents obtained from plant wastes as a replacement for costly conventional methods of removing heavy metal ions from wastewater has been reviewed. It is well known that cellulosic waste materials can be obtained and employed as cheap adsorbents and their performance to remove heavy metal ions can be affected upon chemical treatment. In general, chemically modified

  5. The partitioning and fate of heavy metals from municipal solid waste incineration plants in Taiwan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1998-01-01

    This study investigates the fate and partitioning of heavy metals in the municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator ash collected from a typical mass burning incineration plant in Taiwan. The results indicate that large amounts of heavy metals are contributed by noncombustible composition in the MSW. Regarding the partitioning results, Cd and its high vapor pressure compounds were relatively volatile compared

  6. Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertiliser: Variables influencing heavy metal removal during thermochemical treatment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Mattenberger; G. Fraissler; T. Brunner; P. Herk; L. Hermann; I. Obernberger

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge ash by a thermochemical process. The resulting detoxified ash was intended for use as a raw material rich in phosphorus (P) for inorganic fertiliser production. The thermochemical treatment was performed in a rotary kiln where the evaporation of relevant heavy metals was enhanced by

  7. Heavy metal source analysis in municipal solid waste (MSW): Case study on Cu and Zn

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Yang Long; Dong-Sheng Shen; Hong-Tao Wang; Wen-Jing Lu; Yan Zhao

    2011-01-01

    This research contributes to the knowledge of the heavy metal sources in municipal solid waste (MSW). Samples were collected from 8 cities of Zhejiang province, Eastern China. Cu and Zn, the most two conventional heavy metals with extensive distribution in many kinds of MSW components, were investigated. It shows components of kitchen waste (KW), ash (AS), plastic (PL), and paper

  8. ENGINEERING ASSESSMENT OF HOT-ACID TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE FOR HEAVY METALS REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hot-acid method for treating sludge was developed by the Walden Division of Abcor, Inc., to remove heavy metals from municipal wastewater sludge. Investigations by Walden have demonstrated the degrees to which heavy metals are solubilized. Sulfuric acid dosage at about 20 to ...

  9. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Nestlings of Black-Crowned Night Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) in Zhengzhou, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongpeng Han; Hui Wu; Yanju Wu; Jing Zhang; Wenlin Wang

    2011-01-01

    To assess the heavy metal accumulation level, distribution among tissues or organs, and gender related variations, concentrations of five heavy metal elements were examined in six tissues or organs of 10 nestlings of Black-crowned Night Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) collected from urban district of Zhengzhou, China. Hg was found in all six tissues or organs and As in the muscle, heart,

  10. Colonization of heavy metal polluted soils by Collembola: preliminary1 experiments in compartmented boxes2

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Colonization of heavy metal polluted soils by Collembola: preliminary1 experiments faunas. Migration of Collembola from one compartment to the other was13 allowed through a perforated wall;2 Keywords: Collembola, Acidophily, Heavy metals, Migration, Sensitivity.1 2 1. Introduction3 4

  11. Toenail as a biomarker of heavy metal exposure via drinking water: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ab Razak, Nurul Hafiza; Praveena, Sarva Mangala; Hashim, Zailina

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Toenail is metabolic end product of the skin, which can provide information about heavy metal accumulation in human cells. Slow growth rates of toenail can represent heavy metal exposure from 2 to 12 months before the clipping. The toenail is a non-invasive biomarker that is easy to collect and store and is stable over time. In this systematic review, the suitability of toenail as a long-term biomarker was reviewed, along with the analysis and validation of toenail and confounders to heavy metal. This systematic review has included 30 articles chosen from a total of 132 articles searched from online electronic databases like Pubmed, Proquest, Science Direct, and SCOPUS. Keywords used in the search included "toenail", "biomarker", "heavy metal", and "drinking water". Heavy metal in toenail can be accurately analyzed using an ICP-MS instrument. The validation of toenail heavy metal concentration data is very crucial; however, the Certified Reference Material (CRM) for toenail is still unavailable. Usually, CRM for hair is used in toenail studies. Confounders that have major effects on heavy metal accumulation in toenail are dietary intake of food and supplement, smoking habit, and overall health condition. This review has identified the advantages and limitations of using toenail as a biomarker for long-term exposure, which can help future researchers design a study on heavy metal exposure using toenail. PMID:25332289

  12. Aquatic and Terrestrial Plant Species with Potential to Remove Heavy Metals from Stormwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Åsa Fritioff; Maria Greger

    2003-01-01

    Remediation of stormwater polluted with heavy metals should be possible in percolation systems, ponds, or wetlands. The aim of this work was to find plant species for such systems that are efficient in the uptake of Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb. Plants were collected from percolation and wetland areas and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. Results showed that submersed and

  13. Heavy Metal Pollution Potential of Zinc Leach Residues Discarded in C inkur Plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Soner; ALTUNDO GAN; Mehmet ERDEM; Ramazan ORHAN

    In this paper, results of the study on heavy metals solubility behaviour of lter cakes from leaching of clinkerized Waelz oxide and flue dust collected during clinkerization in C inkur plant are given. The release of heavy metals into water was investigated by subjecting the cakes to solubility tests systematically. The eect of contact time, pH, liquid\\/solid ratio and successive

  14. Influence of vegetative filter strips on heavy metal retention in runoff waters: a laboratory evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Lambrechts; Charlotte de Braekeleer; Anne Iserentant; Guido Rentmeesters; Stanley Lutts; Charles Bielders

    2010-01-01

    Point-polluted industrial sites can be exposed to water erosion, leading to a dispersion of, e.g., heavy metal contaminated soil particles. Sowing vegetative buffer strips could limit this problem. We therefore investigated the influence of different vegetative filter strips on heavy metal retention, for runoff water loaded with two different polluted sediments. An experimental flume was built in order to simulate

  15. Sensitivity of freshwater pulmonate snails, Lymnaea luteola L., to heavy metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. S. Khangarot; P. K. Ray

    1988-01-01

    The current alarm of the impacts of metal pollution on living organisms has received much attention with the tragedy of Minimata and later Niigata, in Japan. Although there has been a great deal of the concern about the acute and chronic toxicities of heavy metals to freshwater fishes and crustaceans but little information is available on the effects of heavy

  16. Serum heavy metals and hemoglobin related compounds in Saudi Arabia firefighters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdulrahman L Al-Malki

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Firefighters are frequently exposed to significant concentrations of hazardous materials including heavy metals, aldehydes, hydrogen chloride, dichlorofluoromethane and some particulates. Many of these materials have been implicated in the triggering of several diseases. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of fire smoke exposure on serum heavy metals and possible affection on iron functions compounds

  17. Evaluation of Drosophila melanogaster as an alternative animal for studying the neurotoxicity of heavy metals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan M. Akins; Joyce A. Schroeder; Danny L. Browert; H. Vasken Aposhian

    1992-01-01

    Heavy metals cause irreversible neurobehavioral damage in many developing mammals, but the mechanisms of this damage are unknown. The influence of three heavy metal compounds, triethyllead chloride, lead acetate and cadmium chloride, on lethality, development, behavior and learning was studied using the fruit fly,Drosophila melanogaster. This animal was used because it allows hundreds of subjects to be assayed very easily

  18. The sorption of heavy metal species by sediments in soakaways receiving urban road runoff

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michio Murakami; Fumiyuki Nakajima; Hiroaki Furumai

    2008-01-01

    Infiltration facilities are designed for both the retention of non-point pollutants and the replenishment of groundwater in urban areas. In this study, sorption tests were conducted to evaluate the speciation of heavy metals and their behaviour in infiltration facilities receiving urban road runoff containing high DOC concentrations and stable heavy metal organic complexes. Road dust and three soakaway sediments were

  19. Development of protein based bioremediation and drugs for heavy metal toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Opella, Stanley J.

    2001-09-18

    Structural studies were performed on several proteins of the bacterial detoxification system. These proteins are responsible for binding (MerP) and transport of heavy metals, including mercury, across membranes. The structural information obtained from NMR experiments provides insight into the selectivity and sequestration processes towards heavy metal toxins.

  20. Retention of heavy metals by carboxyl functional groups of biochars in small arms range soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term effectiveness of biochar for heavy metal stabilization depends upon biochar’s sorptive property and recalcitrance in soil. To understand the role of carboxyl functional groups on heavy metal stabilization, cottonseed hull biochar and flax shive steam activated biochar having low O/C ratio...

  1. Heavy metals balance in Polish and Dutch agronomy: Actual state and previsions for the future

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacek Dach; Dick Starmans

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the state of agro-ecosystem contamination with heavy metals in relation to the level of agricultural development. For this, the Polish and Dutch agricultural situations were compared. The intensive animal and vegetable production observed in the Netherlands over the past 20–30 years was found to substantially contribute to the heavy metal input of these systems. Agriculture in Poland

  2. The presence and distribution of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luciano Morselli; Sergio Zappoli; Simonetta Militerno

    1993-01-01

    Heavy metals are both a hazard to human health and a risk to the environment. Among the different sources, it seems interesting to study the waste incineration process for the increasing number of composite materials which are disposed by this method. This paper will focus mainly on the processing of heavy metals in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants. In

  3. Do Heavy Metal Concentrations Pose a Threat to Marine Turtles from the

    E-print Network

    Exeter, University of

    Do Heavy Metal Concentrations Pose a Threat to Marine Turtles from the Mediterranean Sea? BRENDAN J turtles Chelonia mydas and loggerhead turtles Caretta caretta from northern Cyprus, eastern Mediterranean- sented here are consistent with inter-speci®c dierences in diet and trophic status. Heavy metal burdens

  4. [Effect of reclaimed water irrigation on soil properties and vertical distribution of heavy metal].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zong-Ming; Chen, Wei-Ping; Jiao, Wen-Tao; Wang, Mei-E

    2012-12-01

    Utilization of reclaimed water is one of the important methods to alleviate water shortage. The effect of reclaimed water irrigation on soil is always a concern. To understand the effect of long time reclaimed water irrigation on soil, typical farmland irrigated with reused water was selected. Soil properties and heavy metal concentration of soil and water samples were analyzed to identify the effect of the irrigation on heavy metal vertical distribution and organic matter content, total carbon, total nitrogen and pH value in soil. The results show that heavy metal contents of irrigation water used in Liangshuihe farmland are 2.5 to 10.5 times higher than that of Beiyechang farmland, and reclaimed water irrigation could cause changes of soil properties that soil organic matter content, total carbon, total nitrogen were increased and pH values were reduced. Based on the field investigation results, the soil nutrient conditions benefit from irrigate reclaimed water, however, the accumulation of heavy metal in soil could raise the risk. As a source of soil heavy metal, reclaimed water irrigation could make differences on the accumulation and mobility of soil heavy metal. Also the distribution and mobility of soil heavy metal are influenced by soil organic matter content and there are more heavy metal were taken up by plants or transferred to the deeper area in Liangshuihe farmland. PMID:23379128

  5. Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution in the tropics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Humberto Gonzalez; Martin Lodenius; Mirta Otero

    1989-01-01

    The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this

  6. Laboratory study on the survival of water hyacinth under several conditions of heavy metal concentrations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E Soltan; M. N Rashed

    2003-01-01

    To study the survival and behaviour of water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] under varying conditions of heavy metal concentrations, groups of the plants were grown in different media (distilled water, Nile water, wastewater and different concentrations of heavy metals). Simultaneously, blank experiments were carried out for comparison. Visual changes in the plants observed during each experiment were noted. The

  7. Genome of Cupriavidus sp. HMR-1, a Heavy Metal-Resistant Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li-Guan; Cai, Lin

    2013-01-01

    Cupriavidus sp. HMR-1 was isolated from a heavy metal-enriched culture of activated sludge from a wastewater treatment plant in Hong Kong. Here, we release the HMR-1 genome to provide basic genetic characteristics for a better understanding of its multiple heavy metal resistance properties. PMID:23409271

  8. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils and Irrigation Waters in Thessaly Region, Central Greece

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. K. Mitsios; E. E. Golia; C. D. Tsadilas

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to provide information on heavy metals concentrations in soils and in irrigation water in Thessaly, Central Greece, where tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is cultivated. Tobacco tends to accumulate high levels of heavy metals, especially Cadmium. During the years 1998, 1999, and 2000, 795 surface soil samples (0 to 30 cm depth) and 200 water samples were

  9. Effect of drying on heavy metal fraction distribution in rice paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yanbing; Huang, Biao; Darilek, Jeremy Landon

    2014-01-01

    An understanding of how redox conditions affect soil heavy metal fractions in rice paddies is important due to its implications for heavy metal mobility and plant uptake. Rice paddy soil samples routinely undergo oxidation prior to heavy metal analysis. Fraction distribution of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd from paddy soil with a wide pH range was investigated. Samples were both dried according to standard protocols and also preserved under anaerobic conditions through the sampling and analysis process and heavy metals were then sequentially extracted for the exchangeable and carbonate bound fraction (acid soluble fraction), iron and manganese oxide bound fraction (reducible fraction), organic bound fraction (oxidizable fraction), and residual fraction. Fractions were affected by redox conditions across all pH ranges. Drying decreased reducible fraction of all heavy metals. Curesidual fraction, Pboxidizable fraction, Cdresidual fraction, and Niresidual fraction increased by 25%, 33%, 35%, and >60%, respectively. Pbresidual fraction, Niacid soluble fraction, and Cdoxidizable fraction decreased 33%, 25%, and 15%, respectively. Drying paddy soil prior to heavy metal analysis overestimated Pb and underestimated Cu, Ni, and Cd. In future studies, samples should be stored after injecting N2 gas to maintain the redox potential of soil prior to heavy metal analysis, and investigate the correlation between heavy metal fraction distribution under field conditions and air-dried samples. PMID:24823670

  10. Effects of certain heavy metals on the growth, dye decolorization, and enzyme activity of Lentinula edodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nóra Hatvani; Imre Mécs

    2003-01-01

    Various physiological parameters of Lentinula edodes (Shiitake) in the presence of nine heavy metal salts were investigated. The mycelial growth was highly sensitive to cadmium and mercury, but less sensitive to zinc, copper, and lead. This resistance can be particularly dangerous to humans in the case of edible fungi such as Shiitake because of the possible heavy metal accumulation during

  11. Leaching behavior of heavy metals from municipal solid wastes incineration (MSWI) fly ash used in concrete

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui-Sheng Shi; Li-Li Kan

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash, surface leaching toxicity and successive leaching concentration of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash-cement hardened pastes were studied. And, the relationships between leaching concentrations of heavy metals and leaching time were also discussed. Experimental results showed that immobilization effect of cement on MSWI fly ash is good. Even if MSWI

  12. Magnetic properties of alluvial soils polluted with heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlouha, S.; Petrovsky, E.; Boruvka, L.; Kapicka, A.; Grison, H.

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic properties of soils, reflecting mineralogy, concentration and grain-size distribution of Fe-oxides, proved to be useful tool in assessing the soil properties in terms of various environmental conditions. Measurement of soil magnetic properties presents a convenient method to investigate the natural environmental changes in soils as well as the anthropogenic pollution of soils with several risk elements. The effect of fluvial pollution with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn on magnetic soil properties was studied on highly contaminated alluvial soils from the mining/smelting district (P?íbram; CZ) using a combination of magnetic and geochemical methods. The basic soil characteristics, the content of heavy metals, oxalate, and dithionite extractable iron were determined in selected soil samples. Soil profiles were sampled using HUMAX soil corer and the magnetic susceptibility was measured in situ, further detailed magnetic analyses of selected distinct layers were carried out. Two types of variations of magnetic properties in soil profiles were observed corresponding to indentified soil types (Fluvisols, and Gleyic Fluvisols). Significantly higher values of topsoil magnetic susceptibility compared to underlying soil are accompanied with high concentration of heavy metals. Sequential extraction analysis proved the binding of Pb, Zn and Cd in Fe and Mn oxides. Concentration and size-dependent parameters (anhysteretic and isothermal magnetization) were measured on bulk samples in terms of assessing the origin of magnetic components. The results enabled to distinguish clearly topsoil layers enhanced with heavy metals from subsoil samples. The dominance of particles with pseudo-single domain behavior in topsoil and paramagnetic/antiferromagnetic contribution in subsoil were observed. These measurements were verified with room temperature hysteresis measurement carried out on bulk samples and magnetic extracts. Thermomagnetic analysis of magnetic susceptibility measured on magnetic extracts indicated the presence of magnetite/maghemite in the uppermost layers, and strong mineralogical transformation of iron oxyhydroxides during heating. Magnetic techniques give valuable information about the soil Fe oxides, which are useful for investigation of the environmental effects in soil. Key words: magnetic methods, Fe oxides, pollution, alluvial soils.

  13. Quantification of Heavy Metals in Mining Affected Soil and Their Bioaccumulation in Native Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Nawab, Javed; Khan, Sardar; Shah, Mohammad Tahir; Khan, Kifayatullah; Huang, Qing; Ali, Roshan

    2015-01-01

    Several anthropogenic and natural sources are considered as the primary sources of toxic metals in the environment. The current study investigates the level of heavy metals contamination in the flora associated with serpentine soil along the Mafic and Ultramafic rocks northern-Pakistan. Soil and wild native plant species were collected from chromites mining affected areas and analyzed for heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) using atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS-PEA-700). The heavy metal concentrations were significantly (p < 0.01) higher in mine affected soil as compared to reference soil, however Cr and Ni exceeded maximum allowable limit (250 and 60 mg kg(-1), respectively) set by SEPA for soil. Inter-metal correlations between soil, roots and shoots showed that the sources of contamination of heavy metals were mainly associated with chromites mining. All the plant species accumulated significantly higher concentrations of heavy metals as compared to reference plant. The open dumping of mine wastes can create serious problems (food crops and drinking water contamination with heavy metals) for local community of the study area. The native wild plant species (Nepeta cataria, Impatiens bicolor royle, Tegetis minuta) growing on mining affected sites may be used for soil reclamation contaminated with heavy metals. PMID:26079739

  14. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by submerged macrophytes: looking for hyperaccumulators in eutrophic lakes.

    PubMed

    Xing, Wei; Wu, Haoping; Hao, Beibei; Huang, Wenmin; Liu, Guihua

    2013-05-01

    To directly select submerged macrophytes with high accumulation capability from the field, 24 eutrophic lakes along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were investigated in the study. These eutrophic lakes have large amounts of heavy metals in both water and sediments because of human activities. The results showed that Najas marina is a hyperaccumulator of As and Cd, Ceratophyllum demersum is a hyperaccumulator of Co, Cr, and Fe, and Vallisneria natans is a hyperaccumulator of Pb. Strong positive correlations were found between concentrations of heavy metals in tissues of submerged macrophytes, probably because of coaccumulation of heavy metals. However, for most heavy metals, no significant correlations were found between submerged macrophytes and their surrounding environments. In conclusion, N. marina, C. demersum, and V. natans are good candidate species for removing heavy metals from eutrophic lakes. PMID:23582178

  15. Hydration and solidification of hazardous wastes containing heavy metals using modified cementitious materials

    SciTech Connect

    Park, C.K.

    2000-03-01

    Three cementitious materials were used to investigate solidifying and stabilizing hazardous wastes containing heavy metals. The cementitious materials were ordinary Portland cement (OPC), clinker kiln dust (CKD) modified OPC, and CKD and quick setting agent (QSA) modified OPC. High alkalis in CKD accelerated the setting and hydration of cement, and QSA influenced quick setting and increased compressive strength of cement. For the solidification and stabilization of heavy metals in the steel industry, dust high alkali CKD modified cement reduced heavy metals leached from the waste form and increased compressive strength of the waste form. The CKD and QSA modified cement presented the least amount of heavy metals leached and the highest compressive strength due to a large number of formation of hydrates, and most effective stabilization of hazardous wastes containing multi-heavy metals.

  16. Portable X-Ray, K-Edge Heavy Metal Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, V.

    1999-10-25

    The X-Ray, K-Edge Heavy Metal Detection System was designed and built by Ames Laboratory and the Center for Nondestructive Evaluation at Iowa State University. The system uses a C-frame inspection head with an X-ray tube mounted on one side of the frame and an imaging unit and a high purity germanium detector on the other side. the inspection head is portable and can be easily positioned around ventilation ducts and pipes up to 36 inches in diameter. Wide angle and narrow beam X-ray shots are used to identify the type of holdup material and the amount of the contaminant. Precise assay data can be obtained within minutes of the interrogation. A profile of the containerized holdup material and a permanent record of the measurement are immediately available.

  17. Bioleaching of heavy metals from sewage sludge using Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Ye-Ming; Lin, Hong-Yan; Wang, Qing-Ping; Chen, Zu-Liang

    2010-11-01

    Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans was isolated from sewage sludge using the incubation in the Waksman liquor medium and the inoculation in Waksman solid plate. It was found that the optimum conditions of the bioleaching included solid concentration 2%, sulfur concentration 5 g?L-1 and cell concentration 10%. The removal efficiency of Cr, Cu, Pb and Zh in sewage sludge, which was obtained from waste treatment plant, Jinshan, Fuzhou, was 43.65%, 96.24%, 41.61% and 96.50% in the period of 4˜10 days under the optimum conditions, respectively. After processing using the proposed techniques, the heavy metals in sewage sludge did meet the requirement the standards of nation.

  18. Swift heavy ions induced mixing in metal/semiconductor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Chauhan, R. S.; Agarwal, D. C.; Kumar, Manvendra; Tripathi, A.; Bolse, W.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2008-04-01

    We have investigated the ion beam mixing in the metal/semiconductor (Cu/Ge) system under swift heavy ion irradiation. For this study the samples have been prepared by electron gun evaporation in ultrahigh vacuum deposition system. The irradiations were performed at room temperature (RT) using 100 MeV Ag ions, 120 MeV and 140 MeV Au ions and at liquid nitrogen temperature (LT) using 120 MeV, 350 MeV Au ions with fluences ranging from 1 × 10 13 to 2.7 × 10 14 ions/cm 2. Characterizations of these samples have been performed using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). On analyzing the RBS data, we find that mixing occurs at the interface and it increases with the fluence, electronic energy loss and irradiation temperature. The mixing in this case is due to interdiffusion across the interface during a transient melt phase according to the thermal spike model.

  19. Selenium and heavy metals in San Francisco Bay diving ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ohlendorf, H.M.; Lowe, R.W.; Kelly, P.R.; Harvey, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    We analyzed for selenium (Se) and heavy metals in greater scaups (Aythya marila) and surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata) collected from southern San Francisco Bay in March and April 1982. There were no differences (P > 0.05) between species for liver concentrations of silver (Ag), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb). Copper (Cu) (P 0.05) between the 2 species. The geometric mean cadmium (Cd) concentration in scoter kidneys (24.6 ppm, dry wt) was higher than in scaups (15.5 ppm) (0.1 > P > 0.05). Liver concentrations of Hg and Se were correlated (P < 0.01). The toxicological significance of some elements in these species is not known. However, Se levels in scoters (34.4 ppm, dry wt) were similar to those in livers of dabbling ducks (Anas spp.) in the nearby San Joaquin Valley where reproduction was impaired severely.

  20. Model of cratering by single ions in heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinichenko, A. I.; Perepelkin, S. S.; Strel'nitskij, V. E.

    2015-04-01

    In the model of the nonlocal thermoelasticpeak (NTP) of ion the theoretical investigation of nanocratering in targets of heavy metals at bombardment by ions Xe+ with energy from 25 eV up to 30 keV is carried out. Simulation using program package SRIM2008 has shown possibility of formation of subsurface singly connected cascade with energy capacity sufficient for arising of the droplet sputtering for Ag targets. Calculations have shown opportunity of cratering on surface of Ag flat targets with yield strength <0.1 GPa at bombardment by Xe+ ions with energy E > 10 keV. Craters are not formed on Pt flat targets. Possible influence of nanoscale roughness on cratering by single ions is discussed.

  1. HEAVY METAL, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDE AND POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL CONTAMINATION IN ARCTIC GROUND SQUIRRELS (SPERMOPHILUS PARRYI) IN NORTHERN ALASKA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metal and organochlorine (OC)concentrations, including organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyl congeners (PCBs), were determined in arctic ground squirrels (Spermophilus parryi) from three sites in the Brooks Range of northern Alaska in 1991-93. Heavy metals ...

  2. Accumulation and removal of heavy metal ions by insolubilized-DNA and its interaction.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Kato, K; Nomizu, M; Sakairi, N; Ohkawa, K; Yamamoto, H; Nishi, N

    2000-01-01

    DNA was immobilized onto a porous glass bead by a treatment with UV irradiation. The immobilized DNA was insoluble in water and used for accumulation of heavy metal ion. When DNA-immobilized glass bead was added into aqueous solution containing heavy metal ions, such as Hg2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and Fe3+, the concentration of these metal ions in the solution was decreased. However, the concentration of Mg2+ in the solution was not affected by the addition of the DNA-immobilized glass bead. These results suggested that UV-irradiated DNA selectively accumulated heavy metal ions. PMID:12903348

  3. Heavy metal enrichment in the riparian sediments and soils of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Q.; Bao, Y.; He, X.; Wen, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir encompasses a riparian zone with a vertical height of 30 m and a total area of 349 km2 that has been subjected to alternate inundation and exposure due to regular impoundment. Sedimentation on the riparian landforms constitutes an important pathway for riverine contaminant redistribution. In an attempt to understand heavy metal enrichment since water inundation, riparian sediments and soils were sampled along five transects in a typical riparian zone composed of cultivated bench terraces in the middle reaches. Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) were determined to characterize the lateral distribution and vertical transfer ratio. The results indicated that all heavy metals were enriched to varying extents both in the riparian sediments and soils, compared with regional background contents in soils and the reference levels in sediments. However, heavy metal levels in the riparian sediments were generally higher than those in the riparian soils, while those in the upper riparian soils (0-5 cm) were overall slightly higher than those in the lower riparian soils (5-10 cm). There was a decreasing trend of heavy metal contents with increasing elevation. The elevated levels of heavy metals in the riparian sediments may be attributed to sediment yields from upstream anthropogenic sources, especially during major rainstorms in the wet season when large loads of contaminated sediment may be produced from diffuse source areas. Heavy metals can also be adsorbed to pure sediment in the course of mobilization or after deposition. Considering that the riparian soils are local weathering products without mobilization, the enrichment of heavy metals may principally be ascribed to chemical adsorption from dissolved fractions or vertical transfer from overlaid sediments. Heavy metal enrichment may further be affected by the specific type of hydrologic regime such that relatively long flooding duration caused by water impoundment and natural floods was responsible for the relatively higher levels of heavy metals in the lower portions of the riparian zone.

  4. Assessment of heavy metals contamination in roadside topsoil along Qinghai-Tibetan highway, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, C.; Zhang, F.; Yan, X.; Gao, D.

    2012-12-01

    With the rapid development of road construction and increase of vehicles on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau over last few decades, traffic source heavy metals have been continuously emitted into roadside soils and caused a growing concern on potential pollution of soils. In this study, a soil survey was conducted along the Qinghai-Tibet highway (Xining-Maduo-Budongquan-Naqu-Lhasa), China, to investigate the status and influence factors of heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn) in roadside topsoil. A total of 32 sampling sites, 144 topsoil (0~2 cm) samples were collected at different distances to the highway edge (0 m, 10 m, 30 m, 50 m and 100m). Vehicle volume, soil types and road types have significantly impacts on concentrations of the four heavy metals. On the whole, heavy metal concentrations were higher in Budongquan-Naqu-Lhasa (BNL) segment with higher traffic volume than Xining-Maduo-Budongquan (XMB) segment with lower traffic volume. The heavy metals concentrations also show higher levels for asphalt roads than gravel roads, and a sequence of severely degraded meadow soil (MS) > slightly degraded MS > desert soil > non-degraded MS. Besides, concentrations of all the four heavy metals show exponentially decreasing relationships with roadside distances. Compared to the background values of heavy metals in the soils of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, traffic source heavy metals pollution only exists within 10 m to the road edge in most segments. However, the maximum polluted distance can reach 30 m along the TMP segment. It should be noted that heavy metals pollution was more harmful to this high-altitude segment with fragile ecology. Keywords: Heavy Metal (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn); Roadside soil; Qinghai-Tibet highway; Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

  5. Immobilisation of heavy metal in cement-based solidification/stabilisation: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Q.Y. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China)], E-mail: qychen@dhu.edu.cn; Tyrer, M. [Department of Materials, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London SW7 4AZ (United Kingdom); Hills, C.D. [Centre for Contaminated Land Remediation, Medway School of Science, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB (United Kingdom); Yang, X.M. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 200051 (China); Carey, P. [Centre for Contaminated Land Remediation, Medway School of Science, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-15

    Heavy metal-bearing waste usually needs solidification/stabilization (s/s) prior to landfill to lower the leaching rate. Cement is the most adaptable binder currently available for the immobilisation of heavy metals. The selection of cements and operating parameters depends upon an understanding of chemistry of the system. This paper discusses interactions of heavy metals and cement phases in the solidification/stabilisation process. It provides a clarification of heavy metal effects on cement hydration. According to the decomposition rate of minerals, heavy metals accelerate the hydration of tricalcium silicate (C{sub 3}S) and Portland cement, although they retard the precipitation of portlandite due to the reduction of pH resulted from hydrolyses of heavy metal ions. The chemical mechanism relevant to the accelerating effect of heavy metals is considered to be H{sup +} attacks on cement phases and the precipitation of calcium heavy metal double hydroxides, which consumes calcium ions and then promotes the decomposition of C{sub 3}S. In this work, molecular models of calcium silicate hydrate gel are presented based on the examination of {sup 29}Si solid-state magic angle spinning/nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS/NMR). This paper also reviews immobilisation mechanisms of heavy metals in hydrated cement matrices, focusing on the sorption, precipitation and chemical incorporation of cement hydration products. It is concluded that further research on the phase development during cement hydration in the presence of heavy metals and thermodynamic modelling is needed to improve effectiveness of cement-based s/s and extend this waste management technique.

  6. Geochemical flows of heavy metals in the Don and Kuban Rivers deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Oleg; Tkachenko, Anna; Lychagin, Mikhael

    2015-04-01

    Don and Kuban are the two biggest rivers of the Azov sea basin. Deltaic areas of Don and Kuban Rivers have been influenced by agricultural and industry for a long time. A significant amount of heavy metals and biogenic elements comes into the rivers downstream annually. However, in the deltaic areas these geochemical flows are transformed due to changing of the environment conditions, some pollutions are excluded from the flows and accumulated in the deltaic landscapes. In this way Don and Kuban Rivers deltas can be considered as the biogeochemical filters on the way of the heavy metals and biogenic elements flows in to the Azov Sea. The paper presents the results of the heavy metals flows investigation in the Don and Kuban Rivers deltas. This investigation is based on the field studies of the water flow and sediment load distributions and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr, Co, Pb) content in the water and suspended matter of the deltas. Quantities arriving of heavy metals in the delta apex in the low water period are calculated; seasonal patterns of flows are considered. Is shown that greater number of heavy metals flow into the delta during the flood period, especially with respect to the dissolved forms of zinc and copper; it is also shown a significant increase of the heavy metals flows downstream of the large cities (Rostov-on-Don, Azov, Temryuk). All these facts indicate anthropogenic impact on the heavy metals inflow. In comparing the heavy metals flow in the Don and Kuban Rivers deltas investigated that Don River flows is an order of magnitude greater than the Kuban River flows. When it comes about the structure of the flows, shown that Don River characterized increased content of dissolved form of heavy metals; Kuban River originates in the Caucasus Mountains so the proportion of suspended forms is higher.

  7. Investigating the Effect of Heavy Metals on Developmental Stages of Anther and Pollen in Chenopodium botrys L. (Chenopodiaceae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nafiseh Yousefi; Abdolkarim Chehregani; Behrouz Malayeri; Bahareh Lorestani; Mehrdad Cheraghi

    2011-01-01

    Excessive amounts of heavy metals adversely affect plant growth and development. Whereas some regions naturally contain high\\u000a levels of heavy metals, anthropogenic release of heavy metals into the environment continuously increases soil contamination.\\u000a Preliminary studies have shown that Chenopodium botrys can grow in some heavy metal contaminated soils and is a high accumulator plant species for Cu and moderately accumulator

  8. Microbial Links between Sulfate Reduction and Metal Retention in Uranium- and Heavy Metal-Contaminated Soil?

    PubMed Central

    Sitte, Jana; Akob, Denise M.; Kaufmann, Christian; Finster, Kai; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Burkhardt, Eva-Maria; Kostka, Joel E.; Scheinost, Andreas C.; Büchel, Georg; Küsel, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can affect metal mobility either directly by reductive transformation of metal ions, e.g., uranium, into their insoluble forms or indirectly by formation of metal sulfides. This study evaluated in situ and biostimulated activity of SRB in groundwater-influenced soils from a creek bank contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides within the former uranium mining district of Ronneburg, Germany. In situ activity of SRB, measured by the 35SO42? radiotracer method, was restricted to reduced soil horizons with rates of ?142 ± 20 nmol cm?3 day?1. Concentrations of heavy metals were enriched in the solid phase of the reduced horizons, whereas pore water concentrations were low. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) measurements demonstrated that ?80% of uranium was present as reduced uranium but appeared to occur as a sorbed complex. Soil-based dsrAB clone libraries were dominated by sequences affiliated with members of the Desulfobacterales but also the Desulfovibrionales, Syntrophobacteraceae, and Clostridiales. [13C]acetate- and [13C]lactate-biostimulated soil microcosms were dominated by sulfate and Fe(III) reduction. These processes were associated with enrichment of SRB and Geobacteraceae; enriched SRB were closely related to organisms detected in soils by using the dsrAB marker. Concentrations of soluble nickel, cobalt, and occasionally zinc declined ?100% during anoxic soil incubations. In contrast to results in other studies, soluble uranium increased in carbon-amended treatments, reaching ?1,407 nM in solution. Our results suggest that (i) ongoing sulfate reduction in contaminated soil resulted in in situ metal attenuation and (ii) the fate of uranium mobility is not predictable and may lead to downstream contamination of adjacent ecosystems. PMID:20363796

  9. Effects of heavy metals on sea urchin embryo development. Part 2. Interactive toxic effects of heavy metals in synthetic mine effluents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naomasa Kobayashi; Hideo Okamura

    2005-01-01

    Interactive toxic effects between heavy metals were investigated using a sea urchin (Anthocidaris crassispina) bioassay. An effluent from an abandoned mine showed significant inhibitory effects on embryo development as well as producing specific malformations. The effects on the embryos were reproduced by synthetic polluted seawater consisting of eight metals (manganese, lead, cadmium, nickel, zinc, chromium, iron, and copper) at the

  10. Identification of heavy metal sources by multivariable analysis in a typical Mediterranean city (SE Spain)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose A. Acosta; Angel Faz; Silvia Martinez-Martinez

    2010-01-01

    Problems associated with heavy metal characterization in the majority of sites are often due to multiple sources of pollution.\\u000a This work presents the results through the use of advanced statistical techniques to identify sources of soil heavy metals\\u000a in a typical Mediterranean city. The multivariable analysis performed on seven metals identified four sources controlling\\u000a their variability. Cr, Mn, and Ni

  11. Microbial Communities in Long-Term Heavy Metal Contaminated Ombrotrophic Peats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patricia E. Linton; Laura Shotbolt; Andrew D. Thomas

    2007-01-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals are known to be toxic to many soil organisms. The effects of long-term exposure to lower\\u000a levels of metals on the soil microbial community are, however, less well understood. The southern Pennines of the U.K. are\\u000a characterised by expanses of ombrotrophic peat soils that have experienced deposition of high levels of heavy metals since\\u000a the

  12. Nano-Structured Sorbent Injection Strategies for Heavy Metal Capture in Combustion Exhausts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Achariya Suriyawong; Xu Chen; Pratim Biswas

    2010-01-01

    Nano-structured sorbent injection is a promising technique for heavy metal capture in combustion systems. The importance of sorbent injection strategies, including the form of the sorbent and its injection location for metal capture and removal is investigated in this study. A multi-component tri-modal aerosol dynamic model was employed to understand the evolution of heavy metals and sorbents, as well as

  13. Concentration of selected heavy metals in spices, dry fruits and plant nuts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdus Sattar; Mohammad Wahid; Shahid Khan Durrani

    1989-01-01

    Different spices, dry fruits and plant nuts commonly consumed in Pakistan were assayed for the heavy metals cadmium, lead, copper, zinc, iron and manganese by the potentiometric stripping analysis and AA spectrophotometry. The results revealed wide variation in heavy metal content among different biological materials. Mixed spices generally exhibited higher value for trace metals specially lead (6.6–9.2 µg\\/g), cadmium (0.65–1.34

  14. Electron transmission between normal and heavy electron metallic phases in a Kondo lattice system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Araújo; A. H. Castro Neto

    2007-01-01

    The interface between a heavy electron coherent metallic phase and an\\u000aincoherent normal metal phase is discussed. The Fermi momentum mismatch between\\u000athe two phases causes the carriers to scatter at the interface. The interface\\u000aconductance is a monotonous increasing function of conduction electron density,\\u000an_c, and is less than 60% of that of a clean heavy fermion metal at

  15. Heavy-metal balances of agro-ecosystems in the Netherlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Moolenaar; Th. M. Lexmond

    1998-01-01

    Heavy-metal flows (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) of arable, dairy and mixed farming systems in the Netherlands were studied, and farm-gate and field-scale balances calculated. On the field-scale, static and dynamic balances were distinguished. By determining the characteristic metal flows, it became possible to differentiate between farming systems and to select the most viable options for sustainable heavy-metal management. Crop

  16. Removal Of Heavy Metals From Electroplating Wastewater By Anaerobic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wanggang; Sun, Peide; Song, Yingqi; Zhang, Yi; Yin, Jun

    2010-11-01

    Biosorption of heavy metals from simulated wastewater and the raw electroplating wastewater with "BM (Biosorption of Metals) bacteria" were investigated in this study. The influence of initial pH, biosorbents dose, concentration of ions, contact time and temperature on biosorption capacity of Cr(VI) and Ni(II) were studied. The optimum pH for biosorption of Cr(VI) was found to be low, and the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) was 98.60% with "BM bacteria" at pH 2. The removal efficiency of Ni(II) was increased with increasing the pH, and was enhanced up to 115% compared with the wastewater without BM bacteria. In this experiment, the "BM bacteria" efficiently removed Cu(II), Ni(II), Cr(VI), Zn(II) and COD from the raw electroplating wastewater, and the removal efficiencies were 98.92%, 99.92%, 99.86%, 99.93% and 45.20% respectively.

  17. Adsorption of heavy metal ions by immobilized phytic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Tsao, G.T.; Zheng, Yizhou; Lu, J.; Gong, Cheng S. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Phytic acid (myoinositol hexaphosphate) or its calcium salt, phytate, is an important plant constituents. It accounts for up to 85% of total phosphorus in cereals and legumes. Phytic acid has 12 replaceable protons in the phytic molecule rendering it the ability to complex with multivalent cations and positively charged proteins. Poly 4-vinyl pyridine (PVP) and other strong-based resins have the ability to adsorb phytic acid. PVP has the highest adsorption capacity of 0.51 phytic acid/resins. The PVP resin was used as the support material for the immobilization of phytic acid. The immobilized phytic acid can adsorb heavy metal ions, such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc ions, from aqueous solutions. Adsorption isotherms of the selected ions by immobilized phytic acid were conducted in packed-bed column at room temperature. Results from the adsorption tests showed 6.6 mg of Cd{sup 2+}, 7 mg of Cu{sup 2+}, 7.2 mg of Ni{sup 2+}, 7.4 mg of Pb{sup 2+}, and 7.7 mg of Zn{sup 2+} can be adsorbed by each gram of PVP-phytic acid complex. The use of immobilized phytic acid has the potential for removing metal ions from industrial or mining waste water. 15 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL HEAVY METAL UPTAKE TRANSPORTER FROM HIGHER PLANTS & ITS POTENTIAL FOR USE IN PHYTOREMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils with high levels of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr and Pb are detrimental to human and animal health. Many human disorders have been attributed to environmental contamination by heavy metals. Removal of heavy metals from highly contaminated soils is therefore a very costly but...

  19. The influence of soil heavy metals pollution on soil microbial biomass, enzyme activity, and community composition near a copper smelter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    YuanPeng Wang; JiYan Shi; Hui Wang; Qi Lin; XinCai Chen; YingXu Chen

    2007-01-01

    The environmental risk of heavy metal pollution is pronounced in soils adjacent to large industrial complexes. It is important to investigate the functioning of soil microorganisms in ecosystems exposed to long-term contamination by heavy metals. We studied the potential effects of heavy metals on microbial biomass, activity, and community composition in soil near a copper smelter in China. The results

  20. Trends in the heavy metal content (Cd, Pb, Zn) of river sediments in the drainage basin of smelting activities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clotilde Bertin; Alain C. M. Bourg

    1995-01-01

    The geochemical and granulometric characteristics of sediments from three sites in the Lot River basin contaminated by heavy metals (cadmium, lead and zinc) were studied over a period of three years. Total heavy metal concentrations show little variation with time. However, a correlation between the heavy metal concentration and the fraction of sediment particles smaller than 20 ?m in the

  1. A preliminary study of heavy metal distribution on the floodplain of the River Severn, UK by a single flood event

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Zhao; S Marriott; J Rogers; K Iwugo

    1999-01-01

    An important feature of floodplain deposits is the spatial variability of sediment grain size. Study of the variability can improve understanding of the transport and deposition of sediments and particle-associated heavy metals. Heavy metal depositional processes are associated with those of sediment particles and these have been generally inferred from the surface and subsurface distribution of heavy metals in floodplain

  2. Application of multiple ecological risk indices for the evaluation of heavy metal contamination in a coastal dredging area

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-T. Kwon; C.-W. Lee

    1998-01-01

    Toxic compounds such as heavy metals exert chronic and lethal effects in animals and plants. There is a need to analyze the contamination level and the biological effect rather than to simply compare the heavy metal contents. Heavy metal contamination in sediments from Masan Bay were evaluated by multiple ecological risk indices before and after a sediment dredging process. The

  3. Mobilization of heavy metals and arsenic in polluted wetland soils and its dependence on dissolved organic matter

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K Kalbitz; R Wennrich

    1998-01-01

    The wetland soils of the Mulde river in the industrial district of Bitterfeld-Wolfen (Germany) are highly contaminated with heavy metals and arsenic. We studied the mobility of accumulated heavy metals and arsenic and the influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on element mobility. Undisturbed soil cores were taken from five different sites to represent a wide range of heavy-metal contamination,

  4. Screening heavy metals levels in hair of sanitation workers by X-ray fluorescence Jauharah Md Khudzari b,1

    E-print Network

    Short, Daniel

    Screening heavy metals levels in hair of sanitation workers by X-ray fluorescence analysis Jauharah online 28 July 2012 Keywords: Hair Heavy metal EDXRF As Hg Pb a b s t r a c t This work presents a study of human hair as a bio-indicator for detection of heavy metals as part of environmental health surveillance

  5. Environmental Pollution (Series B) 9 (1985) 239-254 Heavy Metals in Isopods from the Supra-littoral Zone

    E-print Network

    Hopkin, Steve

    1985-01-01

    Environmental Pollution (Series B) 9 (1985) 239-254 Heavy Metals in Isopods from the Supra were very small. The hepatopancreas was the most important storage organ oj'heavy metals and, at all of heavy metals were compared in the tissues oiL. oceanica and in two 'more terrestrial' isopods, Oniscus

  6. C. elegans pgp-5 IS INVOLVED IN RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL INFECTION AND HEAVY METAL AND ITS REGULATION

    E-print Network

    Baillie, David

    C. elegans pgp-5 IS INVOLVED IN RESISTANCE TO BACTERIAL INFECTION AND HEAVY METAL AND ITS of a C. elegans ABC transporter, pgp-5 is induced by both bacterial infection and heavy metal stress contributes to resistance to bacterial infection and heavy metals. Using pgp-5 transcription as a read-out, we

  7. Sedimentation and chronology of heavy metal pollution in Oslo harbor, Norway Aivo Lepland a,*, Thorbjrn J. Andersen b

    E-print Network

    Alve, Elisabeth

    Sedimentation and chronology of heavy metal pollution in Oslo harbor, Norway Aivo Lepland a such as heavy metals and organic pollu- tants are typically scavenged by suspended, fine-grained, mineral (137 Cs), and on the local scale by using heavy metals or other com- pounds which release

  8. Using stable lead isotopes to trace heavy metal contamination sources in sediments of Xiangjiang and Lishui Rivers in China

    E-print Network

    Hu, Qinhong "Max"

    Using stable lead isotopes to trace heavy metal contamination sources in sediments of Xiangjiang 2011 Keywords: Lead isotope ratios Heavy metals River Sediment cores a b s t r a c t Lead isotopes and heavy metal concentrations were measured in two sediment cores sampled in estu- aries of Xiangjiang

  9. Redox conditions and heavy metals distribution in mangrove forests receiving shrimp farm effluents (Teremba bay, New Caledonia)

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    heavy metals distributions in mangroves receiving shrimp farm effluents. Materials and methods Samples rocks and lateritic soils that are exploited for their richness in some heavy metals. We will endeavour1 Redox conditions and heavy metals distribution in mangrove forests receiving shrimp farm

  10. Usefulness of NIR spectroscopy for the estimation of the mineral composition and texture of soils and heavy metal uptake

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Soriano-Disla; I. Gómez; M. M. Jordán; C. Guerrero; J. Navarro-Pedreño; S. Meseguer; T. Sanfeliu

    2009-01-01

    The accumulation of heavy metals in soils from different sources (atmospheric deposition, agricultural practices, urban-industrial activities, etc.) is of a great environmental concern. In this sense, there is a consensus in the literature that the total heavy metals in soil are not a suitable tool for risk assessment regarding heavy metal mobility and bioavailability. Several approaches have been proposed to

  11. Effects of Extracting Reagents and Metal Speciation on the Removal of Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils by Chemical Extraction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Shu Lee; Ming-Muh Kao

    2004-01-01

    Chelating agents and acids were evaluated for removing heavy metals from contaminated soils. Two soils, latosols soil and sandatone-shale alluvial soil, artificially contaminated with Cu, Zn, and Pb were investigated. The removal efficiencies of Cu, Zn, and Pb from both soils for various chelating agents and acids followed the descending order EDTA > DTPA > Citric Acid > HCl. Heavy

  12. Occurrence of platinum and additional traffic related heavy metals in sediments and biota.

    PubMed

    Haus, N; Zimmermann, S; Wiegand, J; Sures, B

    2007-01-01

    Non-point sources play an important role in metal emissions into surface waters. One of the most important non-point sources is automobile traffic. Recent studies determining traffic related heavy metals in surface waters have concentrated mainly on worst case scenarios by analyzing heavy metal loads in waters and sediments close to storm-water overflow inlets. The present study aims at identifying traffic related heavy metals in moderately polluted sites, as they occur in highly urbanized regions. Therefore, the concentrations of eight traffic related metals (Pt, Sb, Mo, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr and Zn) were determined in sediment and crustacean samples from eight different aquatic habitats in the Ruhr district, Germany. Traffic related heavy metals could be identified in sediment and biota samples as a combination of heavy metals (Pt, Sb, Cd, Pb for sediments and Pt and Sb for crustacean samples). Pt concentrations received special attention due to the relatively recent occurrence of anthropogenically emitted Pt in the environment. At six sampling sites, Pt was detected in sediment and/or biota samples. The uptake of Pt compared to other traffic related heavy metals by Asellus aquaticus and Gammarus pulex is relatively high and can be compared with the uptake rates of essential metals like Zn. PMID:16996105

  13. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus populations in heavy-metal-contaminated soils

    SciTech Connect

    Del Val, C.; Barea, J.M.; Azcon-Aguilar, C. [CSIC, Granada (Spain)

    1999-02-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals have been shown to adversely affect the size, diversity, and activity of microbial populations in soil. The aim of this work was to determine how the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is affected by the addition of sewage-amended sludge containing heavy metals in a long-term experiment. Due to the reduced number of indigenous AM fungal (AMF) propagules in the experimental soils, several host plants with different life cycles were used to multiply indigenous fungi. Six AMF ecotypes were found in the experimental soils, showing consistent differences with regard to their tolerance to the presence of heavy metals. AMF ecotypes ranged from very sensitive to the presence of metals to relatively tolerant to high rates of heavy metals in soil. Total AMF spore numbers decreased with increasing amounts of heavy metals in the soil. However, species richness and diversity as measured by the Shannon-Wiener index increased in soils receiving intermediate rates of sludge contamination but decreased in soils receiving the highest rate of heavy-metal-contaminated sludge. Relative densities of most AMF species were also significantly influenced by soil treatments. Host plant species exerted a selective influence on AMF population size and diversity. The authors conclude based on the results of this study that size and diversity of AMF populations were modified in metal-polluted soils, even in those with metal concentrations that were below the upper limits accepted by the European Union for agricultural soils.

  14. Heavy metal bioaccumulation in Great Basin submersed aquatic macrophytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Seasonal element cycling and nutritional quality were determined in sago pondweed plant tissue. Leaf protein was 27% in July and 15% in December. Sago drupelet protein content was 9% in July and 6.5% in October. Sago plant tissue mineral, trace metal and non-structural carbohydrate content were high in the Fall. Submersed aquatic plant species from the Provo River drainage, Bear River MBR and Utah Lake - Provo Bay were significantly higher in heavy metals than aquatic species from remote wetlands. Extreme sodium concentrations were found in water, sediment and plant tissue in Ibis and Harrison pools (Fish Springs NWR). Boron, arsenic and selenium concentrations in plant tissue were much lower than those at Kesterson Reservoir, California. Submersed aquatic plants may act as channels that expedite the trophic movement of metal ions. The chemical structure of accumulated manganese and iron in sago pondweed plant tissue differed with time of year. June plant tissue manganese was fully hydrated. Accumulated manganese in October plant tissue was a Mn(II)Mn(III) mineral oxide. Accumulated iron was Fe(III) in both leaf and root tissue. Methylmercury was toxic to Lesser duckweed at very low doses (>0.1 [mu]g ml[sup [minus]1]). Increased pH improved frond survival in organic and inorganic mercury solutions. Duckweed should be considered as a sensitive phytoassay of methylmercury toxicity. Soil manganese and lead concentrations are correlated with distance from the roadway and traffic volume. Soil lead concentrations have moved deeper into the profile. Roadside aquatic plants were higher in manganese than herbaceous plants and grasses. Roadside snow and water were low in manganese and lead. Roadside soil and plants were apparently contaminated by Mn oxides from motor vehicle exhaust.

  15. Indirect effects of heavy metals on parasites may cause shifts in snail species compositions.

    PubMed

    Lefcort, H; Aguon, M Q; Bond, K A; Chapman, K R; Chaquette, R; Clark, J; Kornachuk, P; Lang, B Z; Martin, J C

    2002-07-01

    We studied the direct and indirect effects of pollution on the distributions and abundances of two closely related species of pulmonate freshwater snails. Physella columbiana is more numerous at heavy metal-polluted lakes, and Lymnaea palustris is more numerous at reference lakes. Both species are present at all sites, as are predatory bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus). The direct effects examined included the snails' growth and reproduction in both the presence and absence of heavy metals and their short-term survival when exposed to large concentrations of heavy metals. The indirect effects were the species' ability to elude capture by sunfish and the diversity and abundance of parasites within the snails. We found that heavy metals had little direct effect on growth and reproduction and that both species acquired similar levels of metals in their tissues. Interestingly, P. columbiana (the more abundant species in polluted lakes) actually exhibited higher recruitment in the absence of metals than did L. palustris (reference lakes). L. palustris has life history characteristics that favor increased growth and reduced reproduction. These characteristics resulted in decreased predation of adults by gape-limited predators and a greater ability to cope with heavy parasite burdens. P. columbiana exhibited slower growth, which resulted in increased predation although higher reproduction rates may compensate.The major effect of heavy metals on species distributions was indirect on the snails' parasites. Parasites appeared to be very susceptible to metals, and this resulted in lower parasite diversity and intensities at polluted sites for both species of snails. P. columbiana may only be able to outcompete L. palustris at polluted sites due to the indirect effects of heavy metals; the negative effect of heavy metals on parasites, and a proposed negative effect of metals on the foraging ability of sunfish that favors the faster-reproducing P. columbiana. PMID:12045872

  16. [Removal of heavy metals from extract of Angelica sinensis by EDTA-modified chitosan magnetic adsorbent].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong; Sun, Ming-Hui; Peng, Hong; Huang, Kai-Xun

    2013-11-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals in the extracting solutions of traditional Chinese medicine are usually very low. Furthermore, a vast number of organic components contained in the extracting solutions would be able to coordinate with heavy metals, which might lead to great difficulty in high efficient removal of them from the extracting solutions. This paper was focused on the removal of heavy metals of low concentrations from the extracting solution of Angelica sinensis by applying an EDTA-modified chitosan magnetic adsorbent (EDTA-modified chitosan/SiO2/Fe3O4, abbreviated as EDCMS). The results showed that EDCMS exhibited high efficiency for the removal of heavy metals, such as Cu, Cd and Pb, e.g. the removal percentage of Cd and Pb reached 90% and 94.7%, respectively. Besides, some amounts of other heavy metals like Zn and Mn were also removed by EDCMS. In addition, the total solid contents, the amount of ferulic acid and the HPLC fingerprints of the extracting solution were not changed significantly during the heavy metal removal process. These results indicate that EDCMS may act as an applicable and efficient candidate for the removal of heavy metals from the extracting solution of A. sinensis. PMID:24494559

  17. Atmospheric heavy metals and Arsenic in China: Situation, sources and control policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Jingchun; Tan, Jihua

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, heavy metal pollution accidents were reported frequently in China. The atmospheric heavy metal pollution is drawing all aspects of attention. This paper summarizes the recent research results from our studies and previous studies in recent years in China. The level, temporal variation, seasonal variation and size distribution of the heavy metals of atmospheric Lead(Pb), Vanadium(V), Manganese(Mn), Nickel(Ni), Chromium(Cr), Cadmium(Cd), Copper(Cu), Zinc(Zn) and Arsenic(As) were characterized in China. The emission characteristics and sources of atmospheric heavy metals and As in China were reviewed. Coal burning, iron and steel industry and vehicle emission are important sources in China. Control policies and effects in China were reviewed including emission standards, ambient air quality standards, phase out of leaded gasoline and so on, and further works for atmospheric heavy metals control were suggested. The comprehensive heavy metals pollution control measures and suggestions were put forward based on the summarization of the development and experience of the atmospheric heavy metal pollution control abroad.

  18. A study on characteristics of atmospheric heavy metals in subway station.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chun-Huem; Yoo, Dong-Chul; Kwon, Young-Min; Han, Woong-Soo; Kim, Gi-Sun; Park, Mi-Jung; Kim, Young Soon; Choi, Dalwoong

    2010-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the atmospheric heavy metal concentrations in the particulate matter inside the subway stations of Seoul. In particular, we examined the correlation between the heavy metals and studied the effect of the heavy metals on cell proliferation. In six selected subway stations in Seoul, particulate matter was captured at the platforms and 11 types of heavy metals were analyzed. The results showed that the mean concentration of iron was the highest out of the heavy metals in particulate matter, followed by copper, potassium, calcium, zinc, nickel, sodium, manganese, magnesium, chromium and cadmium in that order. The correlation analysis showed that the correlations between the heavy metals was highest in the following order: (Cu vs Zn) , (Ca vs Na) , (Ca vs Mn) , (Ni vs Cr) , (Na vs Mn) , (Cr vs Cd) , (Zn vs Cd) , (Cu vs Cd) , (Ni vs Cd) , (Cu vs Ni) , (K vs Zn) , (Cu vs K) , (Cu vs Cr) , (K vs Cd) , (Zn vs Cr) , (K vs Ni) , (Zn vs Ni) , (K vs Cr) , and (Fe vs Cu) . The correlation coefficient between zinc and copper was 0.937, indicating the highest correlation. Copper, zinc, nickel, chromium and cadmium, which are generated from artificial sources in general, showed correlations with many of the other metals and the correlation coefficients were also relatively high. The effect of the heavy metals on cell proliferation was also investigated in this study. Cultured cell was exposed to 10 mg/l or 100 mg/l of iron, copper, calcium, zinc, nickel, manganese, magnesium, chromium and cadmium for 24 hours. The cell proliferation in all the heavy metal-treated groups was not inhibited at 10 mg/l of the heavy metal concentration. The only exception to this was with the cadmium-treated group which showed a strong cell proliferation inhibition. This study provides the fundamental data for the understanding of simultaneous heavy metal exposure tendency at the time of particulate matter exposure in subway stations and the identification of heavy metal sources. Moreover, this study can be used as the fundamental data for the cell toxicity study of the subway-oriented heavy metal-containing particulate matter. PMID:24278519

  19. [Distribution of heavy metals in Xiangsi River Valley of Tongling, China].

    PubMed

    Chen, Li-Wei; Xu, Xiao-Chun; Wang, Jun; Chen, Fang

    2014-08-01

    The Xiangsi River valley was selected to study the distribution of heavy metals in mining area. Waste rocks, soils, sediments and waters of Xiangsi River valley were sampled. The concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr, As and Hg were analyzed. The possibility of generating acid drainage of the waste rocks was studied. Meanwhile, the speciation of Pb and Cr in waste rocks was analyzed by the five-step sequential chemical extract method developed by F?rtsner. And then the distribution of heavy metals in various samples was summarized, and the ecological risk of heavy metals in mining area was discussed. The results indicated that the waste rocks of Fenghuangshan copper mine upriver barely generated acid mine drainage (AMD). But the waste rocks of Xinqiao pyrite mine in the middle area generated AMD. The content of sulfide mineral rich of heavy metals was lower and the content of CaO was higher in the waste rocks of Fenghuangshan copper mine, resulting in the different AMD generation ability. The contents of heavy metals in waste rocks were higher, and the deoxidization of Pb and Cr was positively correlated with their concentrations in waste rocks. The results indicated that heavy metals in waste rocks would be most likely dissolved in AMD and then contaminate the environment. There was obvious regularity in the distributions of heavy metals in soils, sediments and waters of Xiangsi river valley. The concentrations of heavy metals upriver were lower than those of corresponding national standards and elements background values. But there was obvious heavy metal contamination in the middle area. It was shown that the mining activities of Xinqiao pyrite mine in the middle area had ecological harm to the surrounding environment. And mining enterprises should pay attention to the emissions of mining wastes and the treatment of AMD. PMID:25338367

  20. Vitrification of MSWI Fly Ash by Thermal Plasma Melting and Fate of Heavy Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Guohua; Zhao, Peng; Jiang, Yiman; Meng, Yuedong

    2012-09-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash with high basicity (about 1.68) was vitrified in a thermal plasma melting furnace system. Through the thermal plasma treatment, the vitrified product (slag) with amorphous dark glassy structure was obtained, and the leachability of hazardous metals in slag was significantly reduced. Meanwhile, it was found that the cooling rate affects significantly the immobility of heavy metals in slag. The mass distribution of heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Cr, Pb, As, Hg) was investigated in residual products (slag, secondary residues and flue gas), in order to analyze the behavior of heavy metals in thermal plasma atmosphere. Heavy metal species with low boiling points accounting for the major fraction of their input-mass were adsorbed in secondary residues by pollution abatement devices, while those with high boiling points tended to be encapsulated in slag.