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1

Heavy Metal.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the advantages, both functional and economic, of using a standing-seam metal roof in both new roof installations and reroofing projects of educational facilities. Structural versus non-structural standing-seam roofs are described as are the types of insulation that can be added and roof finishes used. (GR)

Shoemaker, W. Lee

1998-01-01

2

Phytochelatins and heavy metal tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction and heavy metal binding properties of phytochelatins in heavy metal tolerant (Silene vulgaris) and sensitive (tomato) cell cultures, in water cultures of these plants and in Silene vulgaris grown on a medieval copper mining dump were investigated. Application of heavy metals to cell suspension cultures and whole plants of Silene vulgaris and tomato induces the formation of heavy

I Leopold; D Günther; J Schmidt; D Neumann

1999-01-01

3

Hazards of heavy metal contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. These metals have been extensively studied and their effects on human health regularly reviewed by international bodies such as the WHO. Heavy metals have been used by humans for thousands of years. Although several adverse health effects of heavy metals have

Lars Järup

2003-01-01

4

Sulfide Precipitation of Heavy Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The research program was initiated with the objective of evaluating a new process, the sulfide precipitation of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters. The process was expected to effect a more complete removal of heavy metals than conventional lime pro...

A. K. Robinson J. C. Sum

1980-01-01

5

Microbial heavy-metal resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are just beginning to understand the metabolism of heavy metals and to use their metabolic functions in biotechnology,\\u000a although heavy metals comprise the major part of the elements in the periodic table. Because they can form complex compounds,\\u000a some heavy metal ions are essential trace elements, but, essential or not, most heavy metals are toxic at higher concentrations.\\u000a This

D. H. Nies

1999-01-01

6

Plants absorb heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination of heavy metals-polluted soils remains one of the most intractable problems of cleanup technology. Currently available techniques include extraction of the metals by physical and chemical means, such as acid leaching and electroosmosis, or immobilization by vitrification. There are presently no techniques for cleanup which are low cost and retain soil fertility after metals removal. But a solution to the problem could be on the horizon. A small but growing number of plants native to metalliferous soils are known to be capable of accumulating extremely high concentrations of metals in their aboveground portions. These hyperaccumulators, as they are called, contain up to 1,000 times larger metal concentrations in their aboveground parts than normal species. Their distribution is global, including many different families of flowering plants of varying growth forms, from herbaceous plants to trees. Hyperaccumulators absorb metals they do not need for their own nutrition. The metals are accumulated in the leaf and stem vacuoles, and to a lesser extent in the roots.

Parry, J.

1995-02-01

7

Biosorption of heavy metals.  

PubMed

Only within the past decade has the potential of metal biosorption by biomass materials been well established. For economic reasons, of particular interest are abundant biomass types generated as a waste byproduct of large-scale industrial fermentations or certain metal-binding algae found in large quantities in the sea. These biomass types serve as a basis for newly developed metal biosorption processes foreseen particularly as a very competitive means for the detoxification of metal-bearing industrial effluents. The assessment of the metal-binding capacity of some new biosorbents is discussed. Lead and cadmium, for instance, have been effectively removed from very dilute solutions by the dried biomass of some ubiquitous species of brown marine algae such as Ascophyllum and Sargassum, which accumulate more than 30% of biomass dry weight in the metal. Mycelia of the industrial steroid-transforming fungi Rhizopus and Absidia are excellent biosorbents for lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and uranium and also bind other heavy metals up to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Biosorption isotherm curves, derived from equilibrium batch sorption experiments, are used in the evaluation of metal uptake by different biosorbents. Further studies are focusing on the assessment of biosorbent performance in dynamic continuous-flow sorption systems. In the course of this work, new methodologies are being developed that are aimed at mathematical modeling of biosorption systems and their effective optimization. Elucidation of mechanisms active in metal biosorption is essential for successful exploitation of the phenomenon and for regeneration of biosorbent materials in multiple reuse cycles. The complex nature of biosorbent materials makes this task particularly challenging. Discussion focuses on the composition of marine algae polysaccharide structures, which seem instrumental in metal uptake and binding. The state of the art in the field of biosorption is reviewed in this article, with many references to recent reviews and key individual contributions. PMID:7619394

Volesky, B; Holan, Z R

1995-01-01

8

Microorganisms and heavy metal toxicity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental and microbiological factors that can influence heavy metal toxicity are discussed with a view to understanding the mechanisms of microbial metal tolerance. It is apparent that metal toxicity can be heavily influenced by environmental conditions. Binding of metals to organic materials, precipitation, complexation, and ionic interactions are all important phenomena that must be considered carefully in laboratory and

Geoffrey M. Gadd; Alan J. Griffiths

1977-01-01

9

Heavy Metal Pumps in Plants  

SciTech Connect

The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of these plants to help clean up toxic metals from soils. A rate limiting step is using plant for bioremediation is the normally poor capacity of plants to concentrate toxic metals. Our interest in metal ion transport systems includes those for essential mineral nutrients such as molybdenum, copper, iron, manganese, as well as toxic metals such as cerium, mercury, cesium, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Understanding the pathways by which toxic metals accumulate in plants will enable the engineering of plants to exclude toxic metals and create healthier food sources, or to extract toxic metals from the soil as a strategy to clean up polluted lands and water.

Harper, J.F.

2000-10-01

10

Insoluble heavy metal polysulfide cathodes  

SciTech Connect

Heavy metal polysulfides which are insoluble in non-aqueous electrolytes and having the formula M /SUB x/ /SUP m/ (S /SUB y/ ) /SUB z/ -/sup 2/ (wherein M is a heavy metal such as iron, cobalt, copper or nickel: S is sulfer; mx=2z; and y is greater than two) are utilized as very high energy density cathodes in non-aqueous electrochemical cells.

Bowden, W.L.; Barnette, L.H.; DeMuth, D.L.

1984-11-06

11

Biosorption of heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Only within the past decade has the potential of metal biosorption by biomass materials been well established. For economic reasons, of particular interest are abundant biomass types generated as a waste byproduct of large-scale industrial fermentations or certain metal-binding algae found in large quantities in the sea. These biomass types serve as a basis for newly developed metal biosorption processes

B. Volesky; Z. R. Holant

1995-01-01

12

The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide problem through disturbing the normal functions of rivers and lakes. Sediment, as the largest storage and resources of heavy metal, plays a rather important role in metal transformations. This paper provides a review on the geochemical forms, affecting factors and remediation technologies of heavy metal in sediment. The in situ remediation of sediment

Jian-feng Peng; Yong-hui Song; Peng Yuan; Xiao-yu Cui; Guang-lei Qiu

2009-01-01

13

Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil  

DOEpatents

A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

Cha, Chang Y. (Golden, CO); Boysen, John E. (Laramie, WY); Branthaver, Jan F. (Laramie, WY)

1991-01-01

14

Arbuscular mycorrhiza and heavy metal tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have repeatedly been demonstrated to alleviate heavy metal stress of plants. The current manuscript summarizes results obtained to date on the colonization of plants by AMF in heavy metal soils, the depositions of heavy metals in plant and fungal structures and the potential to use AMF-plant combinations in phytoremediation, with emphasis on pennycresses (Thlaspi ssp.). The

Ulrich Hildebrandt; Marjana Regvar; Hermann Bothe

2007-01-01

15

Heavy Metal Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La Silla Telescope Detects Lots of Lead in Three Distant Binaries Summary Very high abundances of the heavy element Lead have been discovered in three distant stars in the Milky Way Galaxy . This finding strongly supports the long-held view that roughly half of the stable elements heavier than Iron are produced in common stars during a phase towards the end of their life when they burn their Helium - the other half results from supernova explosions. All the Lead contained in each of the three stars weighs about as much as our Moon. The observations show that these "Lead stars" - all members of binary stellar systems - have been more enriched with Lead than with any other chemical element heavier than Iron. This new result is in excellent agreement with predictions by current stellar models about the build-up of heavy elements in stellar interiors. The new observations are reported by a team of Belgian and French astronomers [1] who used the Coude Echelle Spectrometer on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at the La Silla Observatory (Chile). PR Photo 26a/01 : A photo of HD 196944 , one of the "Lead stars". PR Photo 26b/01 : A CES spectrum of HD 196944 . The build-up of heavy elements Astronomers and physicists denote the build-up of heavier elements from lighter ones as " nucleosynthesis ". Only the very lightest elements (Hydrogen, Helium and Lithium [2]) were created at the time of the Big Bang and therefore present in the early universe. All the other heavier elements we now see around us were produced at a later time by nucleosynthesis inside stars. In those "element factories", nuclei of the lighter elements are smashed together whereby they become the nuclei of heavier ones - this process is known as nuclear fusion . In our Sun and similar stars, Hydrogen is being fused into Helium. At some stage, Helium is fused into Carbon, then Oxygen, etc. The fusion process requires positively charged nuclei to move very close to each other before they can unite. But with increasing atomic mass and hence, increasing positive charge of the nuclei, the electric repulsion between the nuclei becomes stronger and stronger. In fact, the fusion process only works up to a certain mass limit, corresponding to the element Iron [2]. All elements that are heavier than Iron cannot be produced via this path. But then, how were those heavy elements we now find on the Earth produced in the first place? From where comes the Zirconium in artificial diamonds, the Barium that colours fireworks, the Tungsten in the filaments in electric bulbs? Which process made the Lead in your car battery? Beyond iron The production of elements heavier than Iron takes place by adding neutrons to the atomic nuclei . These neutral particles do not feel any electrical repulsion from the charged nuclei. They can therefore easily approach them and thereby create heavier nuclei. This is indeed the way the heaviest chemical elements are built up. There are actually two different stellar environments where this process of "neutron capture" can happen. One place where this process occurs is inside very massive stars when they explode as supernovae . In such a dramatic event, the build-up proceeds very rapidly, via the so-called "r-process" ( "r" for rapid ). The AGB stars But not all heavy elements are created in such an explosive way. A second possibility follows a more "peaceful" road. It takes place in rather normal stars, when they burn their Helium towards the end of their lives. In the so-called "s-process" ( "s" for slow ), heavier elements are then produced by a rather gentle addition of neutral neutrons to atomic nuclei. In fact, roughly half of all the elements heavier than Iron are believed to be synthesized by this process during the late evolutionary phases of stars. This process takes place during a specific stage of stellar evolution, known as the "AGB" phase [3]. It occurs just before an old star expels its gaseous envelope into the surrounding interstellar s

2001-08-01

16

Experimental Perspectives on Heavy Electron Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We motivate the description of heavy electron metals in terms of concepts from the Kondo problem. These concepts are used to discuss magnetism and superconductivity in heavy electron systems. Particular attention is given to what we view as the principal ...

Z. Fisk H. R. Ott G. Aeppli

1987-01-01

17

The Heavy Metal Subculture and Suicide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Assessed relationship between heavy metal music and suicide with data on heavy metal magazine subscriptions and youth suicide in 50 states. Found that, controlling for other predictors of suicide, greater strength of metal subculture, higher youth suicide rate, suggests that music perhaps nurtures suicidal tendencies already present in subculture.…

Stack, Steven; And Others

1994-01-01

18

Interactions of lichens with heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent developments in knowledge about the interactions between lichens and heavy metals at different levels, from populations\\u000a to cells and from ecology to molecular biology are reviewed. Sources of heavy metals, mechanisms of heavy metal accumulation\\u000a and detoxification by lichens are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on ultrastructural changes as well as physiological\\u000a parameters such as membrane integrity, pigment composition,

M. Ba?kor; S. Loppi

2009-01-01

19

Heavy metals in plants and phytoremediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  In some cases, soil, water and food are heavily polluted by heavy metals in China. To use plants to remediate heavy metal\\u000a pollution would be an effective technique in pollution control. The accumulation of heavy metals in plants and die role of\\u000a plants in removing pollutants should be understood in order to implement phytoremediation, which makes use

Shuiping Cheng

2003-01-01

20

Arbuscular mycorrhiza and heavy metal tolerance.  

PubMed

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have repeatedly been demonstrated to alleviate heavy metal stress of plants. The current manuscript summarizes results obtained to date on the colonization of plants by AMF in heavy metal soils, the depositions of heavy metals in plant and fungal structures and the potential to use AMF-plant combinations in phytoremediation, with emphasis on pennycresses (Thlaspi ssp.). The focus of this manuscript is to describe and discuss studies on the expression of genes in plants and fungi under heavy metal stress. The summary is followed by data on differential gene expression in extraradical mycelia (ERM) of in vitro cultured Glomus intraradices Sy167 supplemented with different heavy metals (Cd, Cu or Zn). The expression of several genes encoding proteins potentially involved in heavy metal tolerance varied in their response to different heavy metals. Such proteins included a Zn transporter, a metallothionein, a 90 kD heat shock protein and a glutathione S-transferase (all assignments of protein function are putative). Studies on the expression of the selected genes were also performed with roots of Medicago truncatula grown in either a natural, Zn-rich heavy metal "Breinigerberg" soil or in a non-polluted soil supplemented with 100 microM ZnSO(4). The transcript levels of the genes analyzed were enhanced up to eight fold in roots grown in the heavy metal-containing soils. The data obtained demonstrate the heavy metal-dependent expression of different AMF genes in the intra- and extraradical mycelium. The distinct induction of genes coding for proteins possibly involved in the alleviation of damage caused by reactive oxygen species (a 90 kD heat shock protein and a glutathione S-transferase) might indicate that heavy metal-derived oxidative stress is the primary concern of the fungal partner in the symbiosis. PMID:17078985

Hildebrandt, Ulrich; Regvar, Marjana; Bothe, Hermann

2007-01-01

21

Hazards of heavy metal contamination.  

PubMed

The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. These metals have been extensively studied and their effects on human health regularly reviewed by international bodies such as the WHO. Heavy metals have been used by humans for thousands of years. Although several adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues, and is even increasing in some parts of the world, in particular in less developed countries, though emissions have declined in most developed countries over the last 100 years. Cadmium compounds are currently mainly used in re-chargeable nickel-cadmium batteries. Cadmium emissions have increased dramatically during the 20th century, one reason being that cadmium-containing products are rarely re-cycled, but often dumped together with household waste. Cigarette smoking is a major source of cadmium exposure. In non-smokers, food is the most important source of cadmium exposure. Recent data indicate that adverse health effects of cadmium exposure may occur at lower exposure levels than previously anticipated, primarily in the form of kidney damage but possibly also bone effects and fractures. Many individuals in Europe already exceed these exposure levels and the margin is very narrow for large groups. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce cadmium exposure in the general population in order to minimize the risk of adverse health effects. The general population is primarily exposed to mercury via food, fish being a major source of methyl mercury exposure, and dental amalgam. The general population does not face a significant health risk from methyl mercury, although certain groups with high fish consumption may attain blood levels associated with a low risk of neurological damage to adults. Since there is a risk to the fetus in particular, pregnant women should avoid a high intake of certain fish, such as shark, swordfish and tuna; fish (such as pike, walleye and bass) taken from polluted fresh waters should especially be avoided. There has been a debate on the safety of dental amalgams and claims have been made that mercury from amalgam may cause a variety of diseases. However, there are no studies so far that have been able to show any associations between amalgam fillings and ill health. The general population is exposed to lead from air and food in roughly equal proportions. During the last century, lead emissions to ambient air have caused considerable pollution, mainly due to lead emissions from petrol. Children are particularly susceptible to lead exposure due to high gastrointestinal uptake and the permeable blood-brain barrier. Blood levels in children should be reduced below the levels so far considered acceptable, recent data indicating that there may be neurotoxic effects of lead at lower levels of exposure than previously anticipated. Although lead in petrol has dramatically decreased over the last decades, thereby reducing environmental exposure, phasing out any remaining uses of lead additives in motor fuels should be encouraged. The use of lead-based paints should be abandoned, and lead should not be used in food containers. In particular, the public should be aware of glazed food containers, which may leach lead into food. Exposure to arsenic is mainly via intake of food and drinking water, food being the most important source in most populations. Long-term exposure to arsenic in drinking-water is mainly related to increased risks of skin cancer, but also some other cancers, as well as other skin lesions such as hyperkeratosis and pigmentation changes. Occupational exposure to arsenic, primarily by inhalation, is causally associated with lung cancer. Clear exposure-response relationships and high risks have been observed. PMID:14757716

Järup, Lars

2003-01-01

22

FINAL REPORT. HEAVY METAL PUMPS IN PLANTS  

EPA Science Inventory

The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of t...

23

Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidal Risk.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Studied differentiating characteristics of youth who prefer heavy metal music, worship music, and use music for vicarious release. Data for 275 secondary school students suggest that heavy metal music preference and worshipping is not related to suicidal risk when controlling for other suicide factors. Discusses findings in the context of…

Lacourse, Eric; Claes, Michel; Villeneuve, Martine

2001-01-01

24

Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

Stack, Steven

1998-01-01

25

Heavy metal ions removal by chelating resin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – Preparation of chelating resin to be used in the removal of heavy metal ions from solutions. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Chelating resin based on poly (glycidyl-methacrylate-co-N, N-methylene-bis-acrylamide) containing ethylenediamine was synthesised and used in removal of heavy metals from solutions. Findings – The optimal pH values for adsorption of different metal ions occur in the range 4.0-10.0 depending on the

N. M. Abd El-Moniem; M. R. El-Sourougy; D. A. F. Shaaban

2005-01-01

26

Experimental perspectives on heavy electron metals  

SciTech Connect

We motivate the description of heavy electron metals in terms of concepts from the Kondo problem. These concepts are used to discuss magnetism and superconductivity in heavy electron systems. Particular attention is given to what we view as the principal outstanding questions in this field and direction in which the field is developing. This will include consideration of the differences between Ce and U heavy electron compounds, as well as the occurrence of very small ordered magnetic moments. 26 refs., 5 figs.

Fisk, Z.; Ott, H.R.; Aeppli, G.

1987-01-01

27

Removal of heavy metals from waste streams  

SciTech Connect

A method for removing heavy metals from effluent water is described comprising performing sequentially the following steps: (a) adding from 7-333 ppm of an anionic surfactant to the effluent water to provide coagulatable heavy metal ion; (b) adjusting the effluent water pH to within the range of 8 to 10, (c) providing from 10-200 ppm of a cationic coagulant to coagulate the heavy metal ion, (d) providing from 0.3 to 5.0 ppm of a polymeric flocculant whereby a heavy metal containing floc is formed for removal from the effluent water, and, (e) then removing the floc from the effluent water, wherein the anionic surfactant is sodium lauryl ether sulfate. The cationic coagulant is selected from the group consisting of diallyl dimethylammonium chloride polymer, epichlorohydrin dimethylamine polymer, ethylene amine polymer, polyaluminum chloride, and alum; and the flocculant is an acrylamide/sodium acrylate copolymer having an RSV greater than 23.

Spence, M.D.; Kozaruk, J.M.; Melvin, M.; Gardocki, S.M.

1988-07-19

28

Heavy Metals and the Petroleum Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this report is to investigate the amounts of heavy metals introduced into the environment by the petroleum industry during exploration and production operations, to examine their environmental impacts, and to compare those impacts to the he...

K. D. Ware

1993-01-01

29

Modeling Heavy Metal Transport in River Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study resulted in a mathematical model for prediction of the probable fate of heavy metals in rivers downstream from wastewater discharges. The developed model accounts for hydraulic mixing processes of rivers, and relies heavily on the relationship ...

F. E. Woodard J. H. Fitch R. A. Fontaine

1981-01-01

30

Heavy metals and living systems: An overview  

PubMed Central

Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in accumulation of metals in plant parts having secondary metabolites, which is responsible for a particular pharmacological activity. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Molecular understanding of plant metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications also, the long term effects of which might not be yet known.

Singh, Reena; Gautam, Neetu; Mishra, Anurag; Gupta, Rajiv

2011-01-01

31

Heavy Metal Removal by Microbial Biosorbents  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Conventional methods for heavy metal removal are precipitation, coagulation, reduction, ion exchange, evaporation, and membrane\\u000a processes. This chapter describes the use of microbial biosorbents in removing heavy metals. Environmental factors, mechanisms,\\u000a and isotherms of biosorption were discussed. Biosorption kinetics includes pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, and Elovich\\u000a kinetics model.

Dae Haeng Cho; Eui Yong Kim; Yung-Tse Hung

32

Extractability of heavy metals in cyclone ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

Landfill disposal is the onl y reasonable option for cyclone ash due to its elev ated concentrations of the heavy metals Cd (25 mg kg-1; d.w.), Zn (3630 mg kg-1; d.w.), Ba (4260 mg kg-1; d.w.), and Hg (1.7 mg kg-1; d.w.). The distribution of heavy metals (i.e. Cd, Cu, Pb, Cr, Zn, As, V, and Ba) after a three-stage

R Pöykiö; H Rönkkömäki; Hannu Nurmesniemi; Toomas Tenno; Lilli Paama

2008-01-01

33

Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

Wilde, E.W. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)); Benemann, J.R. (Benemann (J.R.), Pinole, CA (United States))

1991-02-01

34

Heavy Metal Risk Management: Case Analysis  

PubMed Central

To prepare measures for practical policy utilization and the control of heavy metals, hazard control related institutions by country, present states of control by country, and present states of control by heavy metals were examined. Hazard control cases by heavy metals in various countries were compared and analyzed. In certain countries (e.g., the U.S., the U.K., and Japan), hazardous substances found in foods (e.g., arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury) are controlled. In addition, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) recommends calculating the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of individual heavy metals instead of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) to compare their pollution levels considering their toxicity accumulated in the human body. In Korea, exposure assessments have been conducted, and in other countries, hazardous substances are controlled by various governing bodies. As such, in Korea and other countries, diverse food heavy metal monitoring and human body exposure assessments are conducted, and reducing measures are prepared accordingly. To reduce the danger of hazardous substances, many countries provide leaflets and guidelines, develop hazardous heavy metal intake recommendations, and take necessary actions. Hazard control case analyses can assist in securing consumer safety by establishing systematic and reliable hazard control methods.

Kim, Ji Ae; Lee, Seung Ha; Choi, Seung Hyun; Jung, Ki Kyung; Park, Mi Sun; Jeong, Ji Yoon; Hwang, Myung Sil; Yoon, Hae Jung; Choi, Dal Woong

2012-01-01

35

Heavy metal pollution in sediments of the Pasvik River drainage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to study the regional impacts of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Co, Zn, Cd, Pb, Hg) on the watershed of the Pasvik River. On the basis of sediment investigations at 27 stations of the watershed, background concentrations of the heavy metals, vertical distribution of heavy metals in sediments, heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments, contamination

Vladimir Dauvalter; Sigurd Rognerud

2001-01-01

36

Histochemical demonstration of heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The three steps of the sulphide silver method have been examined: 1) Transformation of metals to metal sulphides; 2) Fixation and embedding or freezing of the tissue for sectioning; and 3) Deposition of metallic silver on the metal sulphides in a physical developer. Based on the results, a revised method is described and discussed. It is particularly important 1) To

G. Danscher

1981-01-01

37

Selective Separation of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewater Streams by Means of Heavy Metal Bonding Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial wastewater is often contaminated with heavy metals and must undergo expensive and elaborate treatment. A new, environmentally\\u000a friendly process, which allows both metals and water to be reused, has been developed. It comprises the following three process\\u000a stages: firstly, a metal bonding agent (BA) is added to the wastewater to bind the heavy metal; secondly, the loaded BA is

V. Mavrov; T. Erwe; H. Chmiel

2004-01-01

38

Heavy metals in common foodstuff: Quantitative analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of heavy metals in human body always draws scientific concern as these are considered responsible for affecting health, especially in these days where the release of toxic wastes in the environment has been increased. Some metals are essential for life, others have unknown biologic function, either favourable or toxic and some others have the potential to produce disease.

P. Tsoumbaris; H. Tsoukali-Papadopoulou

1994-01-01

39

ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS IN STORMWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Stormwater sampling for colloidal and dissolved metals and organic carbon has been initiated at six outfalls draining locally-designated, nonindustrial land uses in Monmouth County, NJ. Of the heavy metals, only Cu and Zn were found in all samples, mostly in dissolved form. Large...

40

Sequestration of heavy metals from water with layered metal sulfides.  

PubMed

Extraordinarily effective heavy metal ion scavenger: We show here that the material K(2x)Mn(x)Sn(3-x)S(6) (x = 0.5-0.95) (KMS-1) overcomes the limitations of the known heavy metal ion sorbents, showing the capability to rapidly reduce the concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb ions well-below the legally acceptable levels for drinking water. KMS-1 is inexpensive, easily prepared in large quantities, and may play a role in addressing the global problem of water contamination with heavy metal ions. The paradigm of heavy metal ion absorption of KMS-1 is the ability to form very strong M-S bonds. PMID:19322849

Manos, Manolis J; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

2009-01-01

41

Relationship between partition of heavy metals in sewage sludge and elution of heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals in sewage sludge were classified into three partitions associated with extracellular and intracellular organic matters and the residue before and after different elution processes of heavy metals from the sludge. Alkalization of the sludge to pH 11 decreased the content of Cu in the three partitions and that of Ni in extracellular organic and residual ones. Acidification of

A. Ito; J. Kusanagi; T. Matsukura; J. Aizawa; T. Umit

2002-01-01

42

Advances in the biosorption of heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biosorption of heavy metals by certain types of non-living biomass is a highly cost-effective new alternative for the decontamination of metal-containing effluents. Our understanding of the mechanisms of metal biosorption now allows the process to be scaled up and used in field applications, with packed-bed sorption columns being perhaps the most efficient for this purpose. Regenerating the biosorbents increases

David Kratochvil; Bohumil Volesky

1998-01-01

43

[Resistance to heavy metals in ruminal staphylococci].  

PubMed

Ruminal, coagulase-negative, urease and bacteriocin-like substances producing staphylococci were screened for their heavy metal ions and antibiotics resistance. All strains tested were resistant to disodium arsenate at a minimal inhibition concentration (MIC > 5 g/l) and cadmium sulphate (MIC > 4 g/l). MIC = 50-60 mg/l was determined in eight staphylococci screened in mercury chloride resistance test (Tab. I). Silver nitrate resistance was detected in seven of the bacteria used (MIC = 40-50 mg/l). All strains were novobiocin resistant. Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum SCU 40 was found as a strain with resistance to all heavy metal ions and 5 antibiotics (Tab. II). In addition, this strain produced bacteriocin-like substance which inhibited growth of six indicators of different origin (Tab. II). The most of staphylococci were detected as heavy metal ion polyresistant strains and antibiotic polyresistant strains producing antimicrobial substances with inhibition effects against at least one indicator of different origin. These results represent the first information on heavy metal ion resistance in ruminal bacteria. They also show relation or coresistance between heavy metal ions and antibiotics. Resulting from this study, staphylococci can be used as a bioindicator model for animal environmental studies. In addition, it can be used for specific interactions studies within the framework of ruminal bacterial ecosystem and also mainly with regard to molecular genetic studies. PMID:8073587

Lauková, A

1994-01-01

44

Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed.

Alissa, Eman M.; Ferns, Gordon A.

2011-01-01

45

Accumulative phases for heavy metals in limnic sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from mechanical concentrates of recent sediments indicate that clay minerals, clay-rich aggregates and heavy minerals are the major carriers of heavy metals in detrital sediment fractions. Hydrous Fe\\/Mn oxides and carbonates and sulfides, in their specific environments, are the predominant accumulative phases for heavy metals in autochthonous fractions. Sequential chemical extraction techniques permit the estimation of characteristic heavy metal

Ulrich Förstner

1982-01-01

46

Heavy metal monitoring in sea turtles using eggs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals in the muscles, livers, kidneys and eggs of loggerhead turtles and green sea turtles were analysed to develop a non-killing method of heavy metal monitoring using eggs. Heavy metal concentrations were higher in the liver and kidney than in the muscle and eggs of loggerhead turtles. Within an egg, yolk contained the highest concentrations and burdens of heavy

Haruya Sakai; Hideki Ichihashi; Hiroyuki Suganuma; Ryo Tatsukawa

1995-01-01

47

Community Heavy Metal Exposure, San Francisco, California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metals are natural elements that generally occur in minute concentrations in the earth's crust. While some of these elements, in small quantities, are vital to life, most are harmful in larger doses. Various industrial and agricultural processes can result in dangerously high concentrations of heavy metals in our environment. Consequently, humans can be exposed to unsafe levels of these elements via the air we breathe, the water and food we consume, and the many products we use. During a two week study we collected numerous samples of sediments, water, food, and household items from around the San Francisco Bay Area that represent industrial, agricultural, and urban/residential settings. We analyzed these samples for Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As). Our goal was to examine the extent of our exposure to heavy metals in our daily lives. We discovered that many of the common foods and materials in our lives have become contaminated with unhealthy concentrations of these metals. Of our food samples, many exceeded the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) set for each metal. Meats (fish, chicken, and beef) had higher amounts of each metal than did non-meat items. Heavy metals were also prevalent in varying concentrations in the environment. While many of our samples exceeded the EPA's Sediment Screening Level (SSL) for As, only two other samples surpassed the SSL set for Pb, and zero of our samples exceeded the SSL for Hg. Because of the serious health effects that can result from over-exposure to heavy metals, the information obtained in this study should be used to influence our future dietary and recreational habits.

Chavez, A.; Devine, M.; Ho, T.; Zapata, I.; Bissell, M.; Neiss, J.

2008-12-01

48

Heavy metals content in sediment of Terengganu River, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of heavy metals were studied in sediment using a sequential extraction method. pH, grain size and percentage of organic carbon were also analysed. Results showed that sediments are low in heavy metals which are mainly due to anthropogenic activities. This could indicate that the river is still unpolluted with heavy metals. However fluctuation of certain metals was observed in

I. Mushrifah; A. Ahmad; M. A. Badri

1995-01-01

49

Transport and distribution of heavy metals in Cauvery river  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal transport in Cauvery river chiefly takes place in the particulate form. Tributaries Hemevathi and Kabini draining highly mineralized areas contribute significantly to the heavy metal load of the Cauvery river. Particulate metal transport is influenced by the presence of major dams built across the river. Factor analysis of the elemental data identifies two major group of heavy metals,

P. Vaithiyanathan; Al. Ramanathan; V. Subramanian

1993-01-01

50

Magnesium oxide for improved heavy metals removal  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve technology for treating process water, US Bureau of Mines research has shown that magnesium oxide (MgO) has many advantages over lime or caustic soda for precipitating heavy metals. Sludge produced by MgO occupies only 0.2-0.3 times as much volume as the precipitate made using a soluble base. While a settled, lime-formed precipitate is easily resuspended, the MgO-metal hydroxide

J. E. Schiller; S. E. Khalafalla

1984-01-01

51

Content of heavy metals in the hair  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of our investigation was to determine of HM content in the hair of people and animals. Two of the main essential elements-Zn and Cu and two of the supertoxical heavy metals- Pb and Cd were chosen. The investigations were conducted in Russian Federation and Belarus Republic in 2001-2002. About 500 hair samples of people, dogs, cats, cattle, horses,

S. A. Patrashkov; V. L. Petukhov; O. S. Korotkevich; I. V. Petukhov

2003-01-01

52

Heavy metal transporters in Hemiascomycete yeasts.  

PubMed

We have compiled all known heavy metal transporters of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified their orthologs in four other species spanning the entire Hemiascomycete phylum. The 213 transporters belong to 27 distinct phylogenetic families distributed within the three classes: channels, secondary porters (permeases) and transport ATPases. They are present in all cellular membranes: plasma membranes, vacuoles, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, Golgi and various cytoplasmic vesicles. The major physiological heavy metals transported are: iron, manganese, zinc, copper, arsenite and cadmium. The major subfamilies that comprise the highest number of transporters are Siderophore-Iron Transporters (SIT) and CT2 (conjugated ABC transporters). They transport heavy metals (iron or cadmium, respectively) conjugated to organic chelators such as siderophores or glutathione. Both subfamilies are considerably amplified in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica. The pattern of expansion and restriction of the subfamilies during the evolution of the different species is highly variable. The phylogenetic trees of the major transporters subfamilies distinguish homogenous clusters of transporters suggesting that possible different physiological or mechanistic functions evolved independently. We also validated the use of the Hemiascomycetes heavy metal transporters for identification of orthologs transporters in the pathogenic Basidiomycetes Cryptococcus neoformans. PMID:17011109

Diffels, J F; Seret, M-L; Goffeau, A; Baret, P V

2006-11-01

53

Heavy metal transporters in Hemiascomycete yeasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have compiled all known heavy metal transporters of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and identified their orthologs in four other species spanning the entire Hemiascomycete phylum. The 213 transporters belong to 27 distinct phylogenetic families distributed within the three classes: channels, secondary porters (permeases) and transport ATPases. They are present in all cellular membranes: plasma membranes, vacuoles, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum,

J. F. Diffels; M.-L. Seret; A. Goffeau; P. V. Baret

2006-01-01

54

Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

Pickett, J.B.

1990-06-25

55

Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed`s Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering & Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

Pickett, J.B.

1990-06-25

56

ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS IN STORMWATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Sampling has been undertaken to determine the concentrations of heavy metals, both particle-associated and dissolved, in stormwater from several storm sewer outfalls in Monmouth County, NJ. This project is ongoing in concert with coordinated studies of pathogen and nutrient input...

57

Heavy Metals and Related Trace Elements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a literature review of heavy metals and related trace elements in the environment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) trace treatment in natural water and in sediments; and (2) bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace elements. A list of 466 references is presented. (HM)

Leland, Harry V.; And Others

1978-01-01

58

Heavy metal biosorption sites in Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aspergillus niger is capable of removing heavy metals such as lead, cadmium and copper from aqueous solutions. The role played by various functional groups in the cell wall of A. niger in biosorption of lead, cadmium and copper was investigated. The biomass was subjected to chemical treatments to modify the functional groups, carboxyl, amino and phosphate, to study their role

Anoop Kapoor; T. Viraraghavan

1997-01-01

59

Phytoaccumulation of heavy metals by aquatic plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three aquatic plants were examined for their ability to remove heavy metals from contaminated water: parrot feather (Myriophylhum aquaticum), creeping primrose (Ludwigina palustris), and water mint (Mentha aquatic). The plants were obtained from a Solar Aquatic System treating municipal wastewater. All the three plants were able to remove Fe, Zn, Cu, and Hg from the contaminated water. The average removal

M. Kamal; A. E. Ghaly; N. Mahmoud; R. Côté

2004-01-01

60

Heavy metals in MSW incineration fly ashes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incineration is a common solution for dealing with the increasing amount of municipal solid waste (MSW). During the process, the heavy metals initially present in the waste go through several transformations, ending up in combustion products, such as fly ash. This article deals with some issues related to the combustion of MSW and the formation of fly ash, especially in

C. Ferreira; A. Ribeiro; L. Ottosen

2003-01-01

61

Heavy metal pollutant tolerance of Azolla Pinnata  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr (1, 2, and 5 mg L-1 each) on Azolla pinnata R. Br. were analyzed. The treatments (2 and 5 mg L-1) of the heavy metal pollutants decreased Hill activity, chlorophyll, protein and dry wt, and increased tissue permeability over control values. The effects were most pronounced with the treatment of

Amar Sarkar; Sasadhar Jana

1986-01-01

62

Monitoring heavy metal pollutants in Tai Hu  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1980-81, specimens of 66 species of macroscopic hydrophytes were collected from Tai Hu to determine their contents of arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, zinc, and molybdenum by techniques of oscillo-polarography and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Relationships between the heavy metal contents of plants and those of the water and sediments of different areas of the lake, and the ash contents of

Dai Quanyu

1983-01-01

63

Heavy metal adsorption by sulphide mineral surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of aqueous Hg 2+ , Pb 2+ , Zn 2+ and Cd 2+ complexes on a variety of sulphide minerals has been studied as a function of the solution pH and also as a function of the nature of the ligands in solution. Sulphide minerals are excellent scavengers for these heavy metals. The adsorption is strongly pH dependent,

Gilles E. Jean; G. Michael Bancroft

1986-01-01

64

Biosensors for the Detection of Heavy Metal Ions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Phytochelatins, metallothioneins and glutathione are under investigation as biological components for the development of biosensors for heavy metal ion detection in aqueous solutions. These peptides/proteins selectively bind heavy metal ions by thiolate c...

R. Hilpert F. Binder M. H. Zenk

1989-01-01

65

Removal of dissolved heavy metals and radionuclides by microbial spores.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Microbial systems have been shown to remove specific heavy metals from contaminated aqueous waste to levels acceptable to EPA for environmental release. However, systems capable of removing a variety of heavy metals from aqueous waste to environmentally a...

N. W. Revis C. T. Hadden H. Edenborn

1997-01-01

66

Modeling the Transport of Heavy Metals in Soils.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Retention reactions in soils are important processes that govern the fate of chemical contaminants such as heavy metals in groundwaters. The ability to predict the mobility of heavy metals in the soil and the potential contamination of groundwater supplie...

H. M. Selim I. K. Iskandar M. C. Amacher

1990-01-01

67

Heavy metals in the environment  

SciTech Connect

Concentration (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) in soil and wildlife at the Palmerton zinc smelter site in eastern Pennsylvania were determined 6 yr after zinc smelting was terminated in 1980. Levels of the four metals were higher in litter (01 and 02 horizon) than in soil (A1 horizon), and the metals were at or near levels when the smelters were still in operation. Levels of metals in sod weft highest at sites close to the smelters and decreased as distances from the smelters increased. The relation of decreasing amounts of metals in body tissues with increasing distance from the smelters also held true for amphibians and mammals. An exception to this relation was higher level of Cu in red-lacked salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) captured {approx}17 km downwind than those captured {approx}12 km downwind. Levels of Zn, Pb, and Co in liver, kidney, and muscle tissue of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were not different (P >0.05) among sites. Cadmium in kidneys in white-footed mice exceeded 10 mg&& which is reportedly considered an indication of environmental contamination. Levels of Cd in kidneys and liver of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at Palmerton were five times higher than those for white-tailed deer collected 180 km southwest of Palmerton in southcentral Pennsylvania. The abnormal amounts of metals in the tissues of terrestrial vertebrates, and the absence or low abundance of wildlife at Palmerton indicated that ecological processes within 5 km of the smelters were markedly influenced 6 yr after zinc smelting was discontinued. 41 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Storm, G.L. [Fish and Wildlife Service, University Park, PA (United States); Fosmire, G.J. [Dept. of Nutrition, University Park, PA (United States); Bellis, E.D. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1994-05-01

68

Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

Forgy, David

2012-01-01

69

Toxicity assessment of heavy metal mixtures by Lemna minor L  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discharge of untreated electroplating wastewaters directly into the environment is a certain source of heavy metals in surface waters. Even though heavy metal discharge is regulated by environmental laws many small-scale electroplating facilities do not apply adequate protective measures. Electroplating wastewaters contain large amounts of various heavy metals (the composition depending on the facility) and the pH value often

Tea Horvat; Željka Vidakovi?-Cifrek; Višnja Oreš?anin; Mirta Tkalec; Branka Pevalek-Kozlina

2007-01-01

70

Trace organic and heavy metal pollutants in the Mississippi River  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to characterize and measure organic and heavy metal pollutants in the Mississippi River. Water samples were collected along the entire length of the river, and were screened for semivolatile organics by capillary GC and for heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Four water samples were further examined for semivolatile organics by capillary GC\\/MS. Eight heavy metals

I. R. DeLeon; C. J. Byrne; E. A. Peuler; S. R. Antoine; J. Schaeffer; R. C. Murphy

1986-01-01

71

Heavy-metal distribution in various types of soil aggregates  

Microsoft Academic Search

125 Many regions of the world being heavily polluted, the geochemical cycles of heavy metals in the biosphere are considerably affected by anthropogenic factors. Studies and assessment of environmental pollution with heavy metals have become an integral part of environmental protection problems. In this context, soil is of great interest as a deposition medium [1]. The behavior of heavy metals

G. N. Fedotov; G. G. Omel’yanyuk; O. N. Bystrova; E. A. Martynkina; V. V. Gulevskaya; M. V. Nikulina

2008-01-01

72

Heavy metals and the origin of life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The functional value of heavy metals in proto-cells was immense and involved critical roles in catalysis of molecular synthesis, translation, electrical neutrality and conduction, energy capture, cross-linking and precipitation (stabilizers of protective cell walls), and to a limited extent, osmotic pressure control. Metals must have modulated the evolutionary choices of the types of building blocks, such as ribose sugars as a constituent of RNA, or the the chirality and enantiopurity of many biomolecules. The formation of an enclosing membrane led to intracellular prokaryotic life (believed to have originated in an anaerobic environment) and much enhanced control over primary metabolism, the uptake and incorporation of heavy metals and the management of biomolecules (especially RNA, DNA and proteins) that were formed. Cells of the most primitive organisms (archaebacteria) reveal complex mechanisms designed specifically to deal with selective pressures from metal-containing environments including intra- and extra-cellular sequestration, exclusion by cell wall barrier, removal through active efflux pumps, enzymatic detoxification, and reduction in sensitivity of cellular targets to metal ions. Adaptation to metals using a variety of chromosomal, and transposon and plasmid-mediated systems began early in the evolution of life on Earth. Recent studies, however, show that the roles played by many heavy metals have changed over time. Divalent lead, for instance, has relinquished its unique catalytic role in the conversion of carbohydrates into ribose in the prebiotic world. The putative elements that dominated the primordial biochemistry were V, Mo, W, Co, Fe(II) and Ni; with the development of oxygenated atmosphere, these elements gave way to Zn, Cu and Fe(Ill) in their metabolic functions.

Nriagu, J.

2003-05-01

73

Environmental impact of mercury and other heavy metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The environmental impact of heavy metals is reviewed. One significant source of emissions of heavy metals to air is waste incineration. Consumer batteries contributes significantly to this problem, as well as to heavy metal leakage to groundwater from landfill deposits. The situation in Sweden is used as an example to describe how the deposition from the atmosphere still is increasing the load of heavy metals, like mercury, cadmium and lead, in top soils and aquatic sediments. Critical factors and effect levels for Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and As are discussed. Specific questions like mercury contents in present battery waste and heavy metal contents in new and future secondary batteries are addressed.

Lindqvist, Oliver

74

Effect of heavy metals on bacterial transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adsorption of metals onto bacteria and soil takes place as stormwater runoff infiltrates into the subsurface. Changes in both bacterial surfaces and soil elemental content have been observed, and may alter the attachment of bacteria to soil surfaces. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses were performed on soil samples equilibrated with synthetic stormwater amended with copper, lead and zinc. The results demonstrate the presence of copper and zinc on soil surfaces. To investigate bacterial attachment behavior, sets of batch sorption experiments were conducted on Escherichia Coli (E. coli) under different chemical conditions by varying solution compositions (nutrient solution vs synthetic stormwater). The adsorption data is best described using theoretical linear isotherms. The equilibrium coefficient (Kd) of E. coli is higher in synthetic stormwater than in nutrient solution without heavy metals. The adsorption of heavy metals onto bacterial surfaces significantly decreases their negative surface charge as determined via zeta potential measurements (-17.0±5.96mv for E. coli equilibrated with synthetic stormwater vs -21.6±5.45mv for E. coli equilibrated with nutrient solution), indicating that bacterial attachment may increase due to the attachment of metals onto bacterial surfaces and their subsequent change in surface charge. The attachment efficiency (?) of bacteria was also calculated and compared for both solution chemistries. Bacterial attachment efficiency (?) in synthetic stormwater is 0.997, which is twice as high as that in nutrient solution(? 0.465). The ratio of bacterial diameter : collector diameter suggests minimal soil straining during bacterial transport. Results suggest that the presence of metals in synthetic stormwater leads to an increase in bacterial attachment to soil surfaces. In terms of designing stormwater infiltration basins, the presence of heavy metals seems to reduce the soil depth required to achieve certain levels of bacterial removal. This study demonstrates the effect of chemical constituents in stormwater runoff on bacterial transport in the subsurface.

Zhang, H.; Olson, M. S.

2010-12-01

75

Insoluble mixed heavy metal polysulfide cathodes  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes an electrochemical cell comprising an anode, an electrolyte, and a solid active cathode. Wherein the cathode is comprised of one or more mixed heavy metal polysulfides having the formula M(1){sub w}{sup + n}M(2){sub x }{sup + m}(S{sub y)z} {sup {minus} 2} wherein M(1) and M(2) are different heavy metal atoms, n and m are integers representing the valence states of M(1) and M(2) respectively, w and x are non zero integers representing the stoichiometry of M(1) and M(2) respectively in the polysulfide, S is sulfur, nw + mx = 2z and y is greater than 4.5.

Bowden, W.L.; Demuth, D.L.; Barnette, L.H.

1990-01-02

76

Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations  

SciTech Connect

The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations.

O'Neill, Malcolm A. (Winterville, GA); Pellerin, Patrice J. M. (Montpellier, FR); Warrenfeltz, Dennis (Athens, GA); Vidal, Stephane (Combaillaux, FR); Darvill, Alan G. (Athens, GA); Albersheim, Peter (Athens, GA)

1999-01-01

77

Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations  

DOEpatents

The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations. 15 figs.

O`Neill, M.A.; Pellerin, P.J.M.; Warrenfeltz, D.; Vidal, S.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.

1999-03-02

78

Novel modified pectin for heavy metal adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modified pectin cross-linked with adipic acid, was synthesized and used for heavy metal removal from wastewater. SEM and FTIR were used to investigate its structure and morphology. The modified pectin had a rough, porous phase covered with carboxy groups, resulting a high adsorption capacity. And at the room temperature, the saturated loading capacity for Pb2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ reached 1.82mmol\\/g,

Feng Ting Li; Hong Yang; Yan Zhao; Ran Xu

2007-01-01

79

Remediation of heavy metal contaminated solid wastes using agglomeration techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

A process has been developed for the remediation of heavy metal contaminated, fine textured; solid wastes so that the treated material will meet EPA's TCLP and Total Extractable Metal Limits. The process involves the formation of strong aggregates using dry agglomeration methods. Remediation is achieved either by incorporating metal fixation agents into the agglomerates, or by leaching of heavy metal

A. Majid; S. Argue

2001-01-01

80

Cellular mechanisms for heavy metal detoxification and tolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals such as Cu and Zn are essential for normal plant growth, although elevated concentra- tions of both essential and non-essential metals can result in growth inhibition and toxicity symptoms. Plants possess a range of potential cellular mech- anisms that may be involved in the detoxification of heavy metals and thus tolerance to metal stress. These include roles for

J. L. Hall

2002-01-01

81

Interactions of heavy metals with white-rot fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

White-rot fungi require trace amounts of essential heavy metals such as Cd, Mn or Zn for their growth, but these metals are toxic when present in excess. Toxic heavy metals can inhibit the growth, cause morphological and physiological changes and affect the reproduction of Basidiomycetes. Fungal species and strains differ in their sensitivity towards metals and in the protection mechanisms

Petr Baldrian

2003-01-01

82

Cocoa shells for heavy metal removal from acidic solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of economic and efficient processes for the removal of heavy metals present in acidic effluents from industrial sources or decontamination technologies has become a priority. The purpose of this work was to study the efficiency with which cocoa shells remove heavy metals from acidic solutions (pH 2) and to investigate how the composition of these solutions influences heavy

N. Meunier; J. Laroulandie; J. F. Blais; R. D. Tyagi

2003-01-01

83

Material Removes Heavy Metal Ions From Water  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

New high capacity ion-exchange polymer material removes toxic metal cations from contaminated water. Offers several advantages. High sensitivities for such heavy metals as lead, cadmium, and copper and capable of reducing concentrations in aqueous solutions to parts-per-billion range. Removes cations even when calcium present. Material made into variety of forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As result, adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water, usually hard wherever found, whether in wastewater-treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or homes. Another important feature that adsorbed metals easily reclaimed by either destructive or nondestructive process. Other tests show ion-exchange polymer made inexpensively; easy to use; strong, flexible, not easily torn; and chemically stable in storage, in aqueous solutions, and in acidic or basic solution.

Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W.; Hill, Carol; Savino, Joseph M.

1995-01-01

84

Road traffic emission factors for heavy metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantifying the emissions and concentrations of heavy metals in urban air is a prerequisite for assessing their health effects. In this paper a combination of measurements and modelling is used to assess the contribution from road traffic emissions. Concentrations of particulate heavy metals in air were measured simultaneously during 1 year at a densely trafficked street and at an urban background site in Stockholm, Sweden. Annual mean concentrations of cadmium were 50 times lower than the EU directive and for nickel and arsenic concentrations were 10 and six times lower, respectively. More than a factor of two higher concentrations was in general observed at the street in comparison to roof levels indicating the strong influence from local road traffic emissions. The only compound with a significantly decreasing trend in the urban background was Pb with 9.1 ng m -3 in 1995/96 compared to 3.4 ng m -3 2003/04. This is likely due to decreased emissions from wear of brake linings and reduced emissions due to oil and coal combustion in central Europe. Total road traffic emission factors for heavy metals were estimated using parallel measurements of NOx concentrations and knowledge of NOx emission factors. In general, the emission factors for the street were higher than reported in road tunnel measurements. This could partly be due to different driving conditions, since especially for metals which are mainly emitted from brake wear, more stop and go driving in the street compared to in road tunnels is likely to increase emissions. Total emissions were compared with exhaust emissions, obtained from the COPERT model and brake wear emissions based on an earlier study in Stockholm. For Cu, Ni and Zn the sum of brake wear and exhaust emissions agreed very well with estimated total emission factors in this study. More than 90% of the road traffic emissions of Cu were due to brake wear. For Ni more than 80% is estimated to be due to exhaust emissions and for Zn around 40% of road traffic emissions are estimated to be due to exhaust emissions. Pb is also mainly due to exhaust emissions (90%); a fuel Pb content of only 0.5 mg L -1 would give similar emission factor as that based on the concentration increment at the street. This is the first study using simultaneous measurements of heavy metals at street and roof enabling calculations of emission factors using a tracer technique.

Johansson, Christer; Norman, Michael; Burman, Lars

85

Facultative hyperaccumulation of heavy metals and metalloids.  

PubMed

Approximately 500 species of plants are known to hyperaccumulate heavy metals and metalloids. The majority are obligate metallophytes, species that are restricted to metalliferous soils. However, a smaller but increasing list of plants are "facultative hyperaccumulators" that hyperaccumulate heavy metals when occurring on metalliferous soils, yet also occur commonly on normal, non-metalliferous soils. This paper reviews the biology of facultative hyperaccumulators and the opportunities they provide for ecological and evolutionary research. The existence of facultative hyperaccumulator populations across a wide edaphic range allows intraspecific comparisons of tolerance and uptake physiology. This approach has been used to study zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulation by Noccaea (Thlaspi) caerulescens and Arabidopsis halleri, and it will be instructive to make similar comparisons on species that are distributed even more abundantly on normal soil. Over 90% of known hyperaccumulators occur on serpentine (ultramafic) soil and accumulate nickel, yet there have paradoxically been few experimental studies of facultative nickel hyperaccumulation. Several hypotheses suggested to explain the evolution of hyperaccumulation seem unlikely when most populations of a species occur on normal soil, where plants cannot hyperaccumulate due to low metal availability. In such species, it may be that hyperaccumulation is an ancestral phylogenetic trait or an anomalous manifestation of physiological mechanisms evolved on normal soils, and may or may not have direct adaptive benefits. PMID:24467891

Pollard, A Joseph; Reeves, Roger D; Baker, Alan J M

2014-03-01

86

Genetic engineering strategies for enhancing phytoremediation of heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The industrial revolution has increased the use of metals for various processes and operations. The waste containing heavy metals are transported to the environment; air, water and soil through the various sources which has increased the burden in the environment. Phytoremediation has been found a promising, cost-effective, aesthetically pleasing, in situ treatment technology for the remediation of heavy metal contaminants

M. H. Fulekar; Anamika Singh; Anwesha M. Bhaduri

2009-01-01

87

Heavy metal adsorption by modified oak sawdust: Thermodynamics and kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the adsorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions by oak (Quercus coccifera) sawdust modified by means of HCl treatment. Our study tested the removal of three heavy metals: Cu, Ni, and Cr. The optimum shaking speed, adsorbent mass, contact time, and pH were determined, and adsorption isotherms were obtained using concentrations of the metal ions ranging

Mehmet Emin Argun; Sukru Dursun; Celalettin Ozdemir; Mustafa Karatas

2007-01-01

88

Hyperaccumulators, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and stress of heavy metals.  

PubMed

Use of plants, with hyperaccumulating ability or in association with soil microbes including the symbiotic fungi, arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM), are among the most common biological methods of treating heavy metals in soil. Both hyperaccumulating plants and AM fungi have some unique abilities, which make them suitable to treat heavy metals. Hyperaccumulator plants have some genes, being expressed at the time of heavy metal pollution, and can accordingly localize high concentration of heavy metals to their tissues, without showing the toxicity symptoms. A key solution to the issue of heavy metal pollution may be the proper integration of hyperaccumulator plants and AM fungi. The interactions between the soil microbes and the host plant can also be important for the treatment of soils polluted with heavy metals. PMID:21557996

Miransari, Mohammad

2011-01-01

89

Photoluminescent graphene oxide microarray for multiplex heavy metal ion analysis.  

PubMed

An aptamer-linked graphene oxide (GO) microarray is synthesized for multiplex heavy metal ion detection. Fluorescent nanosized GO sheets are micropatterned, and specific aptamers targeting Ag(+) and Hg(2+) are immobilized on the GO array. Upon capture of the target heavy metal ions, electron transfer occurs between the GO (donors) and the heavy metal ions (acceptors), leading to fluorescence quenching of the GO. PMID:23606642

Liu, Fei; Ha, Hyun Dong; Han, Dong Ju; Seo, Tae Seok

2013-10-25

90

Contamination of Polish national parks with heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents results of screening analysis of all Polish national parks (23) contamination with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn on\\u000a the basis of a three-level characteristic of heavy metal presence in Norway spruce stands: accumulation on the needle surface,\\u000a concentration of heavy metals in spruce needles and concentration of bioavailable heavy metals in the soil. Based on the obtained

Tomasz Staszewski; W?odzimierz ?ukasik; Piotr Kubiesa

91

DISTRIBUTION OF HEAVY METALS IN CONTAMINATED RIVER SEDIMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sediment was collected from the Ell-Ren River for analysis, to assess the influence of geochemical components in the sediment on remobilization of heavy metals into pore water and on distribution of each heavy metal in five geochemical phases (exchangeable, carbonates, Mn-oxides, Fe-oxides, and organic matters (OM)) in the sediment. Average distribution coefficients, the ratio of heavy metal in pore water

Li-Jyur Tsai; Kuang Chung Yu; Ju-Sheng Huang; Shien-Tsong Ho

2002-01-01

92

Heavy metal uptake by natural zeolite and metals partitioning in sewage sludge compost  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major limitation of land application of sewage sludge compost is the potential high heavy metal content due to the metal content of the original sludge. Zeolites may be useful as metal scavengers in metal-rich sludges. The natural zeolite, clinoptilolite has the ability to take up heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). The aim of the

A. A Zorpas; T Constantinides; A. G Vlyssides; I Haralambous; M Loizidou

2000-01-01

93

Heavy metals in bottled natural spring water.  

PubMed

New regulations regarding the presence of contaminants in bottled water went into effect in California in January 2009. These requirements include testing, reporting, and notification to regulate the presence of heavy metals in bottled natural spring water sold in California. In the study described in this article, six sources of bottled natural spring water were purchased and analyzed for silver, arsenic, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc. All of these metals except beryllium, mercury, and thallium were detected in at least one of the bottled natural spring water sources. No concentrations were above either federal or California maximum contaminant levels but arsenic concentrations exceeded California public health goals in all six sources. Improving the California notification requirements for bottled water contaminants would result in a process more similar to the notification process for tap water and would result in better-informed consumers. PMID:21667718

Sullivan, Michael J; Leavey, Shannon

2011-06-01

94

Removal of dissolved heavy metals and radionuclides by microbial spores  

SciTech Connect

Microbial systems have been shown to remove specific heavy metals from contaminated aqueous waste to levels acceptable to EPA for environmental release. However, systems capable of removing a variety of heavy metals from aqueous waste to environmentally acceptable levels remain to be reported. The present studies were performed to determine the specificity of spores of the bacterium Bacillus megaterium for the adsorption of dissolved metals and radionuclides from aqueous waste. The spores effectively adsorbed eight heavy metals from a prepared metal mix and from a plating rinse waste to EPA acceptable levels for waste water. These results suggest that spores have multiple binding sites for the adsorption of heavy metals. Spores were also effective in adsorbing the radionuclides {sup 85}strontium and {sup 197}cesium. The presence of multiple sites in spores for the adsorption of heavy metals and radionuclides makes this biosorbent a good candidate for the treatment of aqueous wastes associated with the plating and nuclear industries. 17 refs., 4 tabs.

Revis, N.W.; Hadden, C.T.; Edenborn, H. [and others

1997-11-01

95

Effects of Heavy metals on plants and resistance mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  As one of the consequences of heavy metal pollution in soil, water and air, plants are contaminated by heavy metals in some\\u000a parts of China. To understand the effects of heavy metals upon plants and the resistance mechanisms, would make it possible\\u000a to use plants for cleaning and remediating heavy metal-polluted sites.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The research results on the

Shuiping Cheng

2003-01-01

96

Heavy metal pollution status in the Malaysian aquatic environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper was to review the status of the Malaysian aquatic environment with respect to heavy metals. Much of the work on metals focused on measurements in biota and sediments, but very little research has been done on dissolved and particulate metals in water, metal speciation in sediments or on the bioavailability of metals. Cadmium (Cd), Copper

Noor Azhar M. Shazili; Kamaruzaman Yunus; Ahmad Shamsudin Ahmad; Norantonina Abdullah; Mohd Kamil Abd Rashid

2006-01-01

97

Heavy metals and noise exposure: health effects.  

PubMed

Heavy metals are chemical elements with a specific gravity that is atleast five times that of water which is 1 at 4 degrees C. The commonly encountered heavy metals are lead,mercury, cadmium, and arsenic. Lead levels in children continue to be a health hazard as the current limit of 10 ug/dL is considered too high with the WHO estimate of 40% of children having blood levels greater than 5 ug/dL. Some authors have suggested a new limit should be set at 2 ug/dL. There are substantial differences in the literature regarding the effects of lead on hearing as assessed by pure tone audiometry. Mercury causes hearing loss and neurological dysfunction in Humans and animals. Methyl mercury is considered a more toxic compound to mercuric chloride. Cadmium causes a range of health effects from lung cancer, kidney damage to hearing loss. Dose dependent effects on hearing loss have been shown in rats. Combined effect with noise exposure has been shown to be more pronounced. Arsenic is released into the environment through the smelting process of copper, zinc, and lead. It is usually found in the water supply. Hearing impairments have been noted in the low and high frequencies in conjunction with balance disturbance. PMID:19602766

Prasher, Deepak

2009-01-01

98

Assessment of heavy metal removal technologies for biowaste by physico?chemical fractionation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Netherlands, the heavy metal content of biowaste?compost frequently exceeds the legal standards for heavy metals. In order to assess heavy metal removal technologies, a physico?chemical fractionation scheme was developed to gain insight into the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) over the physical entities of biowaste and to determine the binding strength of heavy metals

A. H. M. Veeken; B. Hamelers

2003-01-01

99

Removal of Heavy Metal Contaminants from Fluid Streams.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The patent application relates to the removal of heavy metals, particularly mercury, from contaminated solutions. Other contaminating metals that may at least be partially removed from solution include arsenic, lead, cooper, silver, gold and platinum. A f...

E. L. Albenesius E. R. Russell D. W. Tharin A. R. McJunkin

1973-01-01

100

Heavy Metals Effect in Drosophila Melanogaster Germinal Cells.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Heavy metals occur naturally and some of them are very important in cellular metabolism. Industrial development has increased metal concentration in the environment and in the living organisms' tissues. This increase promotes the human risk to suffer tera...

M. E. de la Rosa Duque

1984-01-01

101

Coupled Transport Systems for Control of Heavy Metal Pollutants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes a process for separating and concentrating heavy metals from electroplating rinse waters. Metal ions can be 'chemically pumped' across a coupled transport membrane against large concentration gradients by allowing the counterflow of ...

W. C. Babcock, R. W. Baker, D. J. Kelly, J. C. Kleiber, H. K. Lonsdale

1979-01-01

102

SULFIDE PRECIPITATION OF HEAVY METALS: EFFECT OF COMPLEXING AGENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Process wastewaters containing heavy metals result from metal finishing and production operations and certain inorganic chemical manufacturing operations. Depending on their origin, these process wastewaters may also contain chelating agents such as EDTA, citrate, etc. The effect...

103

Toxic Heavy Metals: Materials Cycle Optimization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Long-term ecological sustainability is incompatible with an open materials cycle. The toxic heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, uranium/plutonium, zinc) exemplify the problem. These metals are being mobilized and dispersed into the environment by industrial activity at a rate far higher than by natural processes. Apart from losses to the environment resulting from mine wastes and primary processing, many of these metals are utilized in products that are inherently dissipative. Examples of such uses include fuels, lubricants, solvents, fire retardants, stabilizers, flocculants, pigments, biocides, and preservatives. To close the materials cycle, it will be necessary to accomplish two things. The first is to ban or otherwise discourage (e.g., by means of high severance taxes on virgin materials) dissipative uses of the above type. The second is to increase the efficiency of recycling of those materials that are not replaceable in principle. Here, also, economic instruments (such as returnable deposits) can be effective in some cases. A systems view of the problem is essential to assess the cost and effectiveness of alternative strategies.

Ayres, Robert U.

1992-02-01

104

Heavy liquid metal technologies development in Kalla  

SciTech Connect

The thermo-physical properties of Heavy Liquid Metals (Pb and Pb-Bi Eutectic) such as the low melting and high boiling temperatures, the chemical inertness in direct contact with typical reactor coolants, makes HLMs to relevant candidates as core coolant of critical and sub-critical nuclear systems. In addition the high neutron yield obtained by proton irradiation renders this material attractive for the development of neutron spallation sources. The practical use of HLM as core coolant and spallation material needs to be validated by experimental and computational activities. In this frame the KALLA (Karlsruhe Lead Laboratory) program, which consists of several stagnant and loop experiments, has been defined. Currently KALLA represents one of the most relevant infrastructures, which is in operation in Europe. The capabilities of KALLA make it possible to evaluate thermal-hydraulics parameters in complex geometries, to develop techniques for local and global quantities measurement, to assess the materials compatibility in different conditions and to evaluate basic chemical-physical data as for instance the wetting capability of the liquid metal. The aim of this article is to discuss the most significant development conducted at KALLA to support the activities of Accelerator Driven Transmutation Systems and to overview the experiences gained with the operation of liquid metal facilities. The loop experiments are now operated continuously since several years and a broad experience has been gained for the individual components typically appearing in reactors like pump systems (both electromagnetic and mechanical), oxygen monitoring and control systems, etc. (authors)

Stieglitz, Robert; Knebel, Joachim; Fazio, Concetta; Muller, Georg; Konys, Jurgen [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Herrmann v. Helmholtz Platz 1, D-76344 Leopoldshafen (Germany)

2006-07-01

105

Toxic heavy metals: materials cycle optimization.  

PubMed Central

Long-term ecological sustainability is incompatible with an open materials cycle. The toxic heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, uranium/plutonium, zinc) exemplify the problem. These metals are being mobilized and dispersed into the environment by industrial activity at a rate far higher than by natural processes. Apart from losses to the environment resulting from mine wastes and primary processing, many of these metals are utilized in products that are inherently dissipative. Examples of such uses include fuels, lubricants, solvents, fire retardants, stabilizers, flocculants, pigments, biocides, and preservatives. To close the materials cycle, it will be necessary to accomplish two things. The first is to ban or otherwise discourage (e.g., by means of high severance taxes on virgin materials) dissipative uses of the above type. The second is to increase the efficiency of recycling of those materials that are not replaceable in principle. Here, also, economic instruments (such as returnable deposits) can be effective in some cases. A systems view of the problem is essential to assess the cost and effectiveness of alternative strategies.

Ayres, R U

1992-01-01

106

Heavy metals in garden soils along roads in Szeged, Hungary  

Microsoft Academic Search

The soils of the urban environment, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by heavy metals. The traffic is well-known for more decades to be main source of heavy metals mostly in cities. The accumulation of these elements can have different effects, either directly endangering the natural soil functions, or indirectly endangering the biosphere by bio-accumulation and inclusion

Zsuzsanna Szolnoki; Andrea Farsang

2010-01-01

107

REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS USING ALUMINUM SALTS FOR PHOSPHORUS REMOVAL  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of aluminum salts to remove phosphorus is common practice. It has been shown that aluminum salts are also capable of removing heavy metals, but the dosages were much greater than normally applied for phosphorus removal. This study investigates the removal of heavy metals ...

108

Magnetic Process for Removing Heavy Metals from Water Employing Magnetites.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A process for removing heavy metals from water is provided. The process includes the steps of introducing magnetite to a quantity of water containing heavy metal. The magnetite is mixed with the water such that at least a portion of, and preferably the ma...

F. C. Prenger D. D. Hill

2003-01-01

109

Engineering Plant-Microbe Symbiosis for Rhizoremediation of Heavy Metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of plants for rehabilitation of heavy-metal-contaminated environments is an emerging area of interest because it provides an ecologically sound and safe method for restoration and remediation. Although a number of plant species are capable of hyperaccumulation of heavy metals, the technology is not applicable for remediating sites with multiple contaminants. A clever solution is to combine the advantages

Cindy H. Wu; Thomas K. Wood; Ashok Mulchandani; Wilfred Chen

2006-01-01

110

Biomagnification of heavy metals by organisms in a marine microcosm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protection of the public health requires that marine organisms used for food be protected from contamination by heavy metals which are potentially toxic to the consumer. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by oysters, clams, crabs, shrimp, and fish in near-shore environments has been shown in a number of investigations including those of Colwell et al, (1976), Mason et al. (1974), Kopfler

Rufus K. Guthrie; Ernst M. Davis; Donald S. Cherry; H. Edward Murray

1979-01-01

111

Cellular response of mouse splenocytes to heavy metals exposure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Among the environmental contaminants recognised for their toxicity and their global presence, heavy metals are certainly a major concern. They can elicit a number of immunomodulatory effects leading ultimately to an enhanced susceptibility (sensitivity) of immune cells to microbial agents and the appearance of neoplastic diseases and autoimmune phenomena. Heavy metals also provoke changes in the function(s) of immune cells.

Julie DeGagné; Marlčne Fortier; Gaston Chevalier; Michel Fournier

2006-01-01

112

Bioremediation of heavy metals using biostimulation in laboratory bioreactor.  

PubMed

The present research study investigates bioremediation potential of biostimulated microbial culture isolated from heavy metals waste disposal contaminated site located at Bhayander (east), Mumbai, India. The physicochemical and microbial characterization including heavy metal contaminants have been studied at waste disposal site. The microorganisms adapted at heavy metal-contaminated environment were isolated, cultured, and biostimulated in minimal salt medium under aerobic conditions in a designed and developed laboratory bioreactor. Heavy metals such as Fe, Cu, and Cd at a selected concentration of 25, 50, and 100 ?g/ml were taken in bioreactor wherein biostimulated microbial culture was added for bioremediation of heavy metals under aerobic conditions. The remediation of heavy metals was studied at an interval of 24 h for a period of 21 days. The biostimulated microbial consortium has been found effective for remediation of Cd, Cu, and Fe at higher concentration, i.e., 100 mg/l up to 98.5%, 99.6%, and 100%, respectively. Fe being a micronutrient was remediated completely compared to Cu and Cd. During the bioaccumulation of heavy metals by microorganisms, environmental parameters such as pH, total alkalinity, electronic conductivity, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, etc. were monitored and assessed. The pilot scale study would be applicable to remediate heavy metals from waste disposal contaminated site to clean up the environment. PMID:22270588

Fulekar, M H; Sharma, Jaya; Tendulkar, Akalpita

2012-12-01

113

Phytochelatin biosynthesis and function in heavy-metal detoxification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants respond to heavy-metal toxicity via a number of mechanisms. One such mechanism involves the chelation of heavy metals by a family of peptide ligands, the phytochelatins. Molecular genetic approaches have resulted in important advances in our understanding of phytochelatin biosynthesis. In particular, genes encoding the enzyme phytochelatin synthase have been isolated from plant and yeast species. Unexpectedly, genes with

Christopher S Cobbett

2000-01-01

114

Electrokinetic extraction of heavy metals from dredged marine sediment  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates the suitability of the electrokinetic process for extracting heavy metals from dredged marine sediment. Marine sediments have unique characteristics such as high alkalinity, high buffering capacity, and a large fraction of fine particles and organic contents. The target heavy metals were nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and lead (Pb). Tap water was circulated in the anode

Kyung-Jo Kim; Do-Hyung Kim; Jong-Chan Yoo; Kitae Baek

2011-01-01

115

Acid Rain, Heavy Metals and Uptake of Pollutants by Plants.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report is a bibliographic study. Acid rain, whose pH averages 4.1 in West Germany dissolves heavy metals which are then taken up from the soil by the root hairs of plants. The acid components and the heavy metals then destroy the plants. The report de...

A. T. Bhattacharyya

1984-01-01

116

Traces of Heavy Metals in Water Removal Processes and Monitoring.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report includes twenty papers on removal and monitoring of trace qualities of heavy metals in water. Titles include: Overview of drinking water quality control at the federal level; Trace heavy metals in water: Removal processes by ion-exchange; Some ...

J. E. Sabadell

1973-01-01

117

Heavy Metal Music and Reckless Behavior among Adolescents.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-four male and 30 female adolescents who like heavy metal music were compared on various outcome variables to 56 male and 105 female peers who do not like it. Those who like heavy metal report a wider range of reckless behavior than those who do not like it. (SLD)

Arnett, Jeffrey

1991-01-01

118

BIOACCUMULATION OF HEAVY METALS BY LITTORAL AND PELAGIC MARINE ORGANISMS  

EPA Science Inventory

Marine organisms appear to be useful indicators of heavy metal pollution in the marine environment. In order to test this concept, research was performed to determine the levels of heavy metals in selected indicator organisms. Several approaches were used. The first was to select...

119

Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidality: An Empirical Investigation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigates the relationship between preference for heavy metal music and vulnerability to suicide among high school students. Results indicate that preference for heavy metal music among adolescents may be sign of increased suicidal vulnerability, but also suggests that the source of the problem may lie more in personal and familial…

Scheel, Karen R.; Westefeld, John S.

1999-01-01

120

Balance of heavy metals in the Volga River delta  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of many years of geochemical research of aquatic landscapes are presented. Data on the average annual and seasonal concentrations of heavy metals in water and suspended sediments are given. Factors of migration and accumulation of elements in aquatic landscapes are discussed. Masses of heavy metals annually incoming and accumulated in the Volga River delta were calculated.

Kur'yakova, A. N.

2011-08-01

121

Heavy metals in stream sediments: Effects of human activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

The content of 11 heavy metals in the sediments of a stream system was determined by atomic absorption analysis. Geochemical phases were investigated using a sequential extraction scheme, and bulk contents were assessed with a single HNO3 extraction. Certain heavy metals were associated with different geochemical phases. Co, Mn, and Ba concentrated primarily in the carbonate and Mn phases, while

Erwin J. Mantei; Melvin V. Foster

1991-01-01

122

Assessing fly ash treatment: Remediation and stabilization of heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification\\/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always

A. T. Lima; Lisbeth M. Ottosen; Alexandra B. Ribeiro

123

BIOTESTING OF HEAVY METAL POLLUTION IN THE SOIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biotesting of heavy metal pollution in the soil. Chemical pollution of the environment increases sharply globally, and one of the most significant indicator of this increasing pollution is the accumulation of heavy metals in the soil. In mobile forms they can enter the food chain, damaging the environment seriously and posing a risk to human health. The subject of this

György FÜLEKY; Szilvia BARNA

2008-01-01

124

Conditioning of Heavy Metal-Polluted River Sediments by Helophytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aquatic sediments in industrial regions are often polluted by heavy metals. When removed by dredging, the sediments become an environmental risk. Because of the high costs and the deficient sustainability of landfill disposal, we intend to develop a remediation process for cleaning heavy metal-contaminated sediments by solid-bed bioleaching. Unfortunately, freshly dredged sediments are often impermeable to water. Therefore, they have

Andreas Zehnsdorf; Petra Hoffmann; Heinz Seidel

1999-01-01

125

Detection of stressed vegetation for mapping heavy metal polluted soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maatheide' in the northern part of Belgium is polluted with heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, …) due to several decades of historical non-ferrous industrial activities. In the 1970's the industrial activities ceased and the premises including highly polluted waste were spread over the industrial site. The heavy metal pollution causing vegetation stress introduces subtle changes in the reflectance spectrum

I. Reusen; L. Bertels; S. Debacker; P. Scheunders; S. Sterckx; Wouter Van den Broek

126

Broom fibre PRB for heavy metals groundwater remediation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soil contamination by heavy metal and, though it, of groundwater represent a serious alteration of original geochemical levels owing to various human activities as: particular industrial processes and their non-correct treatment emission, urban traffic, use of phytosanitary product and mineral fertilizer. Heavy metals are genotoxic contaminants who can be found by environmental matrix analysis or by examination of the genetic

A. Molinari; S. Troisi; C. Fallico; A. Paparella; S. Straface

2009-01-01

127

HEAVY METAL TOXICITY OF RIVER RAVI AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The assessment of river water quality has been made by physico-chemical and biological analyses. The role ofplankton as indicators offreshwater contamination by heavy metals viz. zinc, iron, manganese, cadmium, lead and nickel has been studied through the computation ofregression models. Significant variations in the concentration of heavy metals in water were due to changes in the volume of untreated industrial

Muhammad Javed; S. Hayat

1999-01-01

128

Photosynthetic response of Halophila ovalis to heavy metal stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the photosynthetic effects of a range of heavy metals on the seagrass Halophila ovalis. In this study, the photosynthetic response of laboratory-cultured H. ovalis to four heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn) was investigated. The results indicated clearly that chlorophyll a fluorescence was effective in monitoring the onset and development of stress, and occasional recovery, of

P. J Ralph; M. D Burchett

1998-01-01

129

Heavy metals in the hydrological cycle: Trends and explanation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the major sources and transport characteristics of heavy metals in the hydrological cycle. It is demonstrated that heavy metal releases to the environment have changed from 19th and early 20th century production-related activities to consumption-oriented factors in more recent times. The relative roles of particle size, sorption and desorption processes, partitioning and the chemical speciation of heavy

I. D. L. Foster; S. M. Charlesworth

1996-01-01

130

Functionalized silica for heavy metal ions adsorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals adsorbents were prepared by co-condensation of tetraethoxysilane and functionalized trialkoxysilane RSi(OR?)3. Functionalized porous silicas with aminopropyl (H2N(CH2)3-), [amino-ethylamino]propyl- (H2N-(CH2)2-NH(CH2)3), (2-aminoethylamino)-ethylamino]propyl (H2N-(CH2)2-NH-(CH2)2-NH(CH2)3-), and mercaptopropyl (HS-(CH2)3-) groups were synthesized using dodecylamine as structure directing agent. These materials have been characterized by elemental analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, nitrogen gas sorption, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopies and thermogravimetric analysis. These organo-silicas

Laurence Bois; Anne Bonhommé; Annie Ribes; Bernadette Pais; Guy Raffin; Franck Tessier

2003-01-01

131

Heavy metal concentrations in roadside soils of Lithuania's highways  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the number of vehicles increasing, the analysis of highway roadside soils for contamination by heavy metals becomes expedient. This article deals with contamination by heavy metals of the road-sides of the Vilnius-Kaunas-Klaip?da (A1), Vilnius-Panev?žys (A2), Vilnius-Var?na-Grodno (A4), Vilnius-Utena (A14) and Vilnius-Prienai-Marijampol? (A16) highways. The analysis covers six heavy metals - nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and manganese (Mn), - the contaminants most often emitted by vehicles. The results have shown the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) of the heavy metals in question to be not exceeded in any of the samples, but the concentrations of some heavy metals in the highway roadsides exceeded the background concentrations 1.3 to 6.7 times.

Jankait?, Audron?; Baltr?nas, Pranas; Kazlauskien?, Agn?

2008-01-01

132

Selective assay for heavy metal toxicity using a fluorogenic substrate  

SciTech Connect

Chromogenic substrates have been generally used in enzymatic assays for the specific determination of heavy metal toxicity. A toxicity assay based on the specific inhibition of {beta}-galactosidase by heavy metals and using a fluorogenic substrate was evaluated for its sensitivity to heavy metals and organic toxicants. The toxicity assay, FluoroMetPLATE, was specific for heavy metals and was more sensitive than the widely used Microtox assay. Except for lead, the assay displayed sensitivity similar to that of the 48-h acute Ceriodaphnia dubia assay. Monitoring of industrial samples showed that the FluoroMetPLATE assay gave similar results as the daphnid toxicity assay for 22 of 29 samples. For the remaining samples, for which there was no agreement between the two tests, it was found that the toxicity was mostly due to organic toxicants, confirming the specificity of FluoroMetPLATE for heavy metal toxicity.

Jung, K.; Bitton, G.; Koopman, B. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Environmental Engineering Sciences

1996-05-01

133

Heavy metal retention of different roadside soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Emissions from major highways contain different kinds of contaminants such as heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and road salts which can occur in both particulate and dissolved form. Pollutants are transferred to the environment via aerial transport or the infiltration of road runoff and spray water. A significant rate of the road runoff infiltrates into the Embankment which is usually built during road construction and located next to the road edge. Especially in the long term development there is an increasing problem of soil contamination and groundwater pollution. According to valid German law, newly constructed hard shoulders have to provide a specific bear-ing capacity to enable trafficability in emergency cases. Therefore the applicable materials consist of accurately defined gravel-soil mixtures, which can fulfil this requirement. To determine and com-pare the total and dissolved concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr in the road runoff and seep-age water of newly constructed embankments, we installed 6 Lysimeter along the edge of the German highway A115. Three lysimeter were filled with different materials which are recently used for embankment construction in Germany. Three further lysimeter where installed and filled with plain gravel, to observe the distribution, quantity and quality of road runoff. Fist results showed that heavy metal concentrations determined in the road runoff were compara-ble to literature values. The solute concentrations in the seepage water of the different embank-ment materials do not show considerable differences and exceed the trigger values of the German Federal Soil Protection & Contamination Ordinance (BBodSchV) only sporadically. Total concentra-tions of the seepage water are significantly higher than solute concentrations and clearly differ be-tween stable and non stable variant. In order to estimate the risk of groundwater pollution further monitoring of seepage water quality is necessary.

Werkenthin, Moritz; Kluge, Björn; Wessolek, Gerd

2014-05-01

134

Characterisation of heavy metal discharge into the Ria of Huelva.  

PubMed

The Ria of Huelva estuary, in SW Spain, is known to be one of the most heavy metal contaminated estuaries in the world. River contribution to the estuary of dissolved Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cd, and As were analysed for the period 1988-2001. The obtained mean values show that this contribution, both because of the magnitude of total metals (895.1 kg/h), composition, toxicity (8.7 kg/h of As+Cd+Pb) and persistence, is an incomparable case in heavy metal contamination of estuaries. The amount and typology of heavy metal discharge to the Ria of Huelva are related to freshwater flow (and, consequently, to rainfall); as a result, two different types of heavy metal discharge can be distinguished in the estuary: during low water (50% of the days), with only 19.3 kg/h of heavy metals, and during high water or flood (17% of the days), where daily maximum discharge of 72,475 kg of heavy metals were recorded, from which 1481 kg were of As, 470 kg of Pb, and 170 kg of Cd. In the most frequent situation (77% of the days), the Odiel River discharges from 90% to 100% of the freshwater received by the estuary. Despite this, the high concentration of heavy metals in the Tinto River water causes this river to discharge into the Ria of Huelva 12.5% of fluvial total dissolved metal load received by the estuary. PMID:15031016

Sainz, A; Grande, J A; de la Torre, M L

2004-06-01

135

Fate and effects of heavy metals on the Arkansas river  

SciTech Connect

The project examined fate and effects of heavy metals on biological communities in the upper Arkansas River Basin. The principal objectives of the research were: (1) to measure the impact of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) on benthic invertebrate communities in the Arkansas River; (2) to delineate zones of high impact, moderate impact, and recovery based on the distribution and abundance of these organisms; (3) to examine seasonal variation in effects of metals on benthic communities; (4) to examine the potential transfer of heavy metals from benthic invertebrates to brown trout, Salmo trutta.

Clements, W.H.

1991-12-15

136

Relationship between partition of heavy metals in sewage sludge and elution of heavy metals.  

PubMed

Heavy metals in sewage sludge were classified into three partitions associated with extracellular and intracellular organic matters and the residue before and after different elution processes of heavy metals from the sludge. Alkalization of the sludge to pH 11 decreased the content of Cu in the three partitions and that of Ni in extracellular organic and residual ones. Acidification of the sludge to pH 3 decreased the content of Cd, Mn, Ni and Zn in all of the partitions and that of Cu in the intracellular organic one. A further decrease in the pH to 2 caused a decrease in the content of Cu in extracellular organic and residual partitions and that of Ni in the inorganic one. The addition of ferric sulfate to the sludge effectively lowered the content of Cd and Cu in extracellular organic and inorganic partitions under acidic conditions. These results would give information on a selection of the method for removing heavy metals from the sludge. PMID:12479449

Ito, A; Kusanagi, J; Matsukura, T; Aizawa, J; Umita, T

2002-01-01

137

Biomethylation of Heavy Metals in Soil and Terrestrial Invertebrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals play a prominent role in the lives of all organisms. They can be essential, as in the cases of iron, manganese,\\u000a nickel and copper, which are needed to obtain proper enzyme conformation and reactivity. Some heavy metals are toxic to organisms,\\u000a such as mercury or cadmium. Often, these metals are rarely accessible in their inorganic form. After biological

Burkhard Knopf; Helmut König

138

Effect of Heavy Metals on, and Handling by, the Kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and platinum (Pt) are a major environmental and occupational hazard. Unfortunately, these non-essential elements are toxic at very low doses and non-biodegradable with a very long biological half-life. Thus, exposure to heavy metals is potentially harmful. Because of its ability to reabsorb and accumulate divalent metals, the kidney

Olivier Barbier; Grégory Jacquillet; Michel Tauc; Marc Cougnon; Philippe Poujeol

2005-01-01

139

Optical methods for the detection of heavy metal ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The review covers an important area of the modern chemistry, namely, the detection of heavy metal ions using optical molecular detectors. The role of this method in metal ion detection and the physicochemical grounds of operation of chemosensors are discussed, and examples of detection of most abundant heavy metal ions and synthetic approaches to molecular detectors are presented. The immobilization of molecular detectors on solid substrates for the design of analytical sensor devices is described. The bibliography includes 178 references.

Uglov, A. N.; Bessmertnykh-Lemeune, A.; Guilard, R.; Averin, A. D.; Beletskaya, I. P.

2014-03-01

140

Kinetics of heavy-metal removal and recovery in sepiolite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fixed beds of Mg-enriched sepiolite were percolated through Co2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ single- and multicomponent heavy-metal solutions to study both the dynamic interactions between mineral and heavy-metal cations and the ion-sorption kinetics. The metal concentrations in the eluates were determined by atomic adsorption and\\/or inductively-coupled plasma and kinetics by the classical kinetic approach, using isothermal experiments at room

M. F Brigatti; C Lugli; L Poppi

2000-01-01

141

Bismuth film electrodes for heavy metals determination  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bismuth film electrodes (BiFEs) have a potential to replace toxic mercury used most frequently for determination of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn) by anodic stripping voltammetry. We prepared a graphite disc electrode (0.5 mm in diameter) from a pencil-lead rod and developed a nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (NDLC) microelectrode array consisting of 50 625 microdiscs with 3 ?m in diameter and interelectrode distances of 20 ?m on a highly conductive silicon substrate as a support for BiFEs. The disc graphite BiFE was used for simultaneous determination of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) by square wave voltammetry (SWV) in an aqueous solution. We found the optimum bismuth-to-metal concentration ratio in the solution to be 20. The dependence of the stripping responses on the concentration of target metals was linear in the range from 1×10 -8 to 1.2×10 -7 mol/L. Detection limits 2.4×10 -9 mol/L for Pb(II), 2.9×10 -9 mol/L for Cd(II) and 1.2×10 -8 mol/L for Zn(II) were estimated. A bismuth-plated NDLC microelectrode array was used for Pb(II) determination by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in an aqueous solution. We found that the stripping current for bismuth-plated NDLC array was linear in the concentration range of Pb(II) from 2×10 -8 to 1.2×10 -7 mol/L. The detection limit 2.2×10 -8 mol/L was estimated from a calibration plot.

Rehacek, Vlastimil; Hotovy, Ivan; Vojs, Marian; Mika, Fedor

2007-06-01

142

Heavy metal displacement in chelate-irrigated soil during phytoremediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metals in wastewater sewage sludge (biosolids), applied to land, contaminate soils. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up toxic heavy metals, might remove them. Chelating agents are added to soil to solubilize the metals for enhanced phytoextraction. Yet no studies follow the displacement and leaching of heavy metals in soil with and without roots following solubilization with chelates. The objective of this work was to determine the mobility of heavy metals in biosolids applied to the surface of soil columns (76 cm long; 17 cm diam.) with or without plants (barley; Hordeum vulgare L.). Three weeks after barley was planted, all columns were irrigated with the disodium salt of the chelating agent, EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) (0.5 g/kg soil). Drainage water, soil, and plants were analyzed for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). Total concentrations of the heavy metals in all columns at the end of the experiment generally were lower in the top 30 cm of soil with EDTA than without EDTA. The chelate increased concentrations of heavy metals in shoots. With or without plants, the EDTA mobilized Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which leached to drainage water. Drainage water from columns without EDTA had concentrations of these heavy metals below detection limits. Only Cu did not leach in the presence of EDTA. Even though roots retarded the movement of Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn through the EDTA-treated soil from 1 d (Cd) to 5 d (Fe), the drainage water from columns with EDTA had concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, and Pb that exceeded drinking water standards by 1.3, 500, 620, and 8.6 times, respectively. Because the chelate rendered Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn mobile, it is suggested that the theory for leaching of soluble salts, put forward by Nielsen and associates in 1965, could be applied to control movement of the heavy metals for maximum uptake during chelate-assisted phytoremediation.

Madrid, F.; Liphadzi, M. S.; Kirkham, M. B.

2003-03-01

143

Heavy Metal Content in Plants from Family Lamiaceae Cultivated in an Industrially Polluted Region  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.), sage (Salvia officinalis L.), and clary sage (Salvia sclarea L.), cultivated at selected distances from a heavy metal pollution source (the Non-Ferrous Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria) were examined for heavy metal accumulation. The content of heavy metals in the roots, stems, leaves, and inflorescences, plus the heavy metal concentration in the essential oils obtained

V. Angelova; K. Ivanov; R. Ivanova

2006-01-01

144

Heavy metal-induced glutathione accumulation and its role in heavy metal detoxification in Phanerochaete chrysosporium.  

PubMed

Phanerochaete chrysosporium are known to be vital hyperaccumulation species for heavy metal removal with admirable intracellular bioaccumulation capacity. This study analyzes the heavy metal-induced glutathione (GSH) accumulation and the regulation at the intracellular heavy metal level in P. chrysosporium. P. chrysosporium accumulated high levels of GSH, accompanied with high intracellular concentrations of Pb and Cd. Pb bioaccumulation lead to a narrow range of fluctuation in GSH accumulation (0.72-0.84 ?mol), while GSH plummeted under Cd exposure at the maximum value of 0.37 ?mol. Good correlations between time-course GSH depletion and Cd bioaccumulation were determined (R (2)?>?0.87), while no significant correlations have been found between GSH variation and Pb bioaccumulation (R (2)?metal toxicity can offer important information on the application of the microorganism for wastewater treatment. PMID:24723291

Xu, Piao; Liu, Liang; Zeng, Guangming; Huang, Danlian; Lai, Cui; Zhao, Meihua; Huang, Chao; Li, Ningjie; Wei, Zhen; Wu, Haipeng; Zhang, Chen; Lai, Mingyong; He, Yibin

2014-07-01

145

Bacterial Activity in Heavy Metals Polluted Soils: Metal Efflux Systems in Native Rhizobial Strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

The negative effect of high levels of heavy metals on the activity of soil microorganisms is well-known. However, some microorganisms survive even in high levels of heavy metals, and the microbial activity can therefore, help to recover these polluted soils. Microbial metal uptake in contaminated soils has to be tightly regulated to avoid toxic effects for the cells. These mechanisms

Paula Sá-Pereira; Mónica Rodrigues; Fernanda Simőes; Lucília Domingues; Isabel Videira e Castro

2009-01-01

146

Kinetics of Desorption of Heavy Metals from Polluted Soils: Influence of Soil Type and Metal Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of desorption of heavy metal ions (Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn) from the surface (0–15 cm) samples of an acidic soil (Inceptisol) and a neutral soil (Mollisol) spiked with inorganic salts of these metals or through an acidic sludge were studied by the column method. The rate of desorption of soil applied heavy metals was initially rapid and gradually

Geeta Kandpal; P. C. Srivastava; Bali Ram

2005-01-01

147

Heavy metal pollution in China: Origin, pattern and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Goal, Scope and Background  Heavy metal is among one of the pollutants, which cause severe threats to humans and the environment in China. The aim of\\u000a the present review is to make information on the source of heavy metal pollution, distribution of heavy metals in the environment,\\u000a and measures of pollution control accessible internationally, which are mostly published in Chinese.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Information

Shuiping Cheng

2003-01-01

148

Speciation of heavy metals in soils based on charge separation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary An experimental approach to the speciation of heavy metals in soil extracts has been developed. The proposed methodology differentiates between differently charged metal species in water and ammonium acetate soil extracts. Furthermore a distinction has been made between labile and stable metal species by using a Chelex 100 chelating ion exchange resin.

R. Camerlynck; L. Kiekens

1982-01-01

149

Effect of heavy metals on peppermint and cornmint  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal pollution of agricultural soils and air is one of the most severe ecological problems on a world scale and in Bulgaria in particular. The biggest sources of pollution in Bulgaria are some non-ferrous metals smelters, such as the Non-Ferrous Metals Combine (NFMC) near Plovdiv, situated on very fertile soils. Vegetable, arable and animal production in this area results

Valcho D. Zheljazkov; Niels E. Nielsen

1996-01-01

150

Bioavailability of heavy metals and decontamination of soils by plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioavailability of heavy metals in metal-contaminated soils depends on physical, chemical and biological factors. Physical (structure, penetrability) and chemical factors (Eh, pH, speciation, concentration) give the framework in which biological factors can modify the metal availability by release of oxygen, protons, and organic acids and by association with mycorrhizal fungi. With these conditions in mind, the possibilities of the use

W. H. O. Ernst

1996-01-01

151

Heavy metal accumulation in a flow restricted, tropical estuary  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn), organic carbon content and textural characteristics in the surficial sediments of Cochin estuary (SW coast of India) and adjacent coast are presented. Anthropogenic inputs from industries have given rise to a gradient in concentration of metals in estuarine sediments. Metal accumulation initiated by precipitation of iron

K. K. Balachandran; C. M. Lalu Raj; M. Nair; T. Joseph; P. Sheeba; P. Venugopal

2005-01-01

152

Adsorption of Heavy Metals in Industrial Wastewater by Magnetic Nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is of great concern because of their toxic impact to living species and environments. Removal of metal ions from industrial effluent using nano-particles is an area of extensive research. This study collected wastewaters and effluents from 11 industrial companies in tanning, electronic plating, printed circuit board manufacturing, semi-conductor, and metal surface treatment industry and studied

Y. Tu; C. You

2010-01-01

153

Heavy-metal complexation by de novo peptide design.  

PubMed

From poisoning caused by lead-based paint on domestic buildings to groundwater contamination by naturally occurring arsenic deposits in India, heavy-metal toxicity is a global health problem. Contaminated ground water and acute cases of heavy-metal poisoning are treated with chelators to remove the heavy metals from the contaminated site or person. This review discusses the effort to generate heavy-metal chelators through peptide de novo design. De novo design entails the design of a primary sequence that will precisely fold into a predetermined secondary and tertiary protein structure. The first-generation peptide chelator used to initiate this investigation is the three-stranded coild coil containing Cys. Cys provides a potential trigonal binding site with soft thiolate ligands, which has been proposed to provide specific interactions with heavy metals. This hypothesis derives from the observation that similar sites on natural proteins show selectivity for heavy metals over other essential metals, such as Zn or Mg. A description of two systems, the TRI series and the IZ-AC peptide, is given, highlighting the interaction of these peptides with Hg, Cd, As and Pb. Arguments are also presented for the potential use of three-helix bundles as a second-generation design. PMID:12478724

Farrer, Brian T; Pecoraro, Vincent L

2002-11-01

154

Resins for, Removal of Heavy Metals Modified from Natural Rubber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Application of natural rubber to remove heavy metals was carried out using chemical addition reaction of ion exchange functional group to the rubber molecules. Modified natural rubber having ion exchange functional group was called, herewith, \\

Pleonpit Boochathum; Praweena Tira

155

Headbanging to Heavy Metal Music Linked to Man's Brain Bleed  

MedlinePLUS

... page, please enable JavaScript. Headbanging to Heavy Metal Music Linked To Man's Brain Bleed Practice is occasionally ... July 4, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Headbanging to rock music may be bad for your brain, a new ...

156

Modeling Heavy Metal Removal in Wetlands (Final Report).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A computer model has been developed to simulate the fate transport of heavy metals introduced to a wetland ecosystem. Modeled water quality variables include plankton biomass and productivity; macrophyte (Nuiumbo lutea) biomass; total phosphorus in the wa...

R. N. Light

1992-01-01

157

View of interior detail; in kitchen; builtiniron and heavy metal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

View of interior detail; in kitchen; built-in-iron and heavy metal clock. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Quarters P, Walnut Avenue, northwest corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

158

HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATION OF SOIL IN THE REGIONAL CITY PLAYGROUNDS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It seems important to examine heavy metal concentration in playgrounds, to evaluate potential risk for heavy metal ingestion by children. In this study, heavy metal concentrations of soil samples in 40 playgrounds in K-city were investigated by the voltammetric method. To visualize heavy metal concentration distribution in playgrounds, free GIS software MANDARA was used. According to the comparison between the 1 N HCl dissolved concentration and the PTWI (Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake), playgrounds in K-city may not have intake risk of lead. Even if the possibility of the risk was very low, there are differences of the intensities. As for the specific playground where concentration is high, investigating continuously may be desirable hereafter.

Nakagawa, Kei; Tsuzuki, Megumi; Asakura, Hiroshi

159

ULTRASONIC ENHANCEMENT OF THE REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS  

EPA Science Inventory

EPA GRANT NUMBER: R828598C020 Title: Ultrasonic Enhancement of the Removal of Heavy Metals Investigators: Dennis Truax, Krishnan Balasubramaniam Institution: Mississippi State University EPA Project Officer: S. Bala Krishnan...

160

DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS AND PESTICIDES IN GINSENG PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Medicinal plants may carry residuals of environmentally persistent pesticides or assimilate heavy metals in varying degrees. Several factors may influence contaminant accumulation, including species, level and duration of contaminant exposure, and topography. As part of a progra...

161

Lethal Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Tissue of Earthworms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This toxicological research report addresses lethal concentrations of heavy metals in tissue of earthworms. We have presented the work in progress in the first interim report to improve 1) ecotoxicological test, 2) field procedures and 3) standardization ...

A. Rida J. Y. Gal M. B. Bouche P. Brun

1987-01-01

162

Industrial age anthropogenic inputs of heavy metals into the pedosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy metals have been increasingly released into our environment. We present here, for the first time, the global industrial age production of Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn, and their potential accumulation and environmental effects in the pedosphere. World soils have been seriously polluted by Pb and Cd and slightly by Zn. The potential industrial age anthropogenic Pb, Hg, and Cd inputs in the pedosphere are 9.6, 6.1, and 5.2 times those in the lithosphere, respectively. The potential anthropogenic heavy metal inputs in the pedosphere increased tremendously after the 1950s, especially for Cr and Ni. In 2000, the cumulative industrial age anthropogenic global production of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn was 1.1, 105, 451, 0.64, 36, 235, and 354 million tonnes, respectively. The global industrial age metal burdens per capita (in 2000) were 0.18, 17.3, 74.2, 0.10, 5.9, 38.6, and 58.2 kg for Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn, respectively. Acidification may increase the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals in the pedosphere. The improvement of industrial processing technology reducing the metal dispersion rate, the recycling of metal-containing outdated products, by-products and wastes, and the development of new substitute materials for heavy metals are possible strategies to minimize the effects of heavy metals on our environment.

Han, Fengxiang; Banin, Amos; Su, Yi; Monts, David; Plodinec, John; Kingery, William; Triplett, Glover

2002-10-01

163

Heavy metals in sediments from constructed wetlands treating municipal wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed wetlands are commonly used for treatment of municipal sewage. The treatment is usually aimed at removal of organics,\\u000a suspended solids, nutrients and microbial pollution. The information on removal and fate of heavy metals is very limited.\\u000a The purpose of this study was to evaluate the amount of sediments and heavy metal concentration in the sediments in filtration\\u000a beds of

Jan Vymazal; Jaroslav Švehla; Lenka Kröpfelová; Jana N?mcová; Vladimír Suchý

2010-01-01

164

Use of Electrodialysis to Remove Heavy Metals from Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The removal of heavy metals from water by using electrodialysis is discussed. Parameters studied include current efficiency, stack resistance, and osmotic water transfer. Four single-electrolyte systems are investigated: CdCl2 and CdSO4 are used as representative heavy metal salts; NaCl and CaCl2 are studied in order to enhance the understanding of physical electrodialytic processes in general and to provide a basis

Kevin L. Gering; John F. Scamehorn

1988-01-01

165

PHYTOCHELATINS AND METALLOTHIONEINS: Roles in Heavy Metal Detoxification and Homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

? Abstract Among,the heavy metal-binding ligands in plant cells the phytochelatins (PCs) and metallothioneins,(MTs) are the best characterized. PCs and MTs are different classes of cysteine-rich, heavy metal-binding protein molecules. PCs are enzymatically synthesized peptides, whereas MTs are gene-encoded polypeptides. Recently, genes encoding,the enzyme,PC synthase have been identified in plants and other species while the completion,of the Arabidopsis genome,sequence,has allowed

Christopher Cobbett; Peter Goldsbrough

2002-01-01

166

Removal of heavy metals using the fungus Aspergillus niger  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is a need to develop technologies that can remove toxic heavy metal ions found in wastewaters. Microorganisms are known to remove heavy metal ions from water. In this study the potential of the fungus Aspergillus niger to remove lead, cadmium, copper and nickel ions was evaluated. A. niger biomass pretreated by boiling in 0.1N NaOH solution for 15 min

Anoop Kapoor; T Viraraghavan; D. Roy Cullimore

1999-01-01

167

Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soil and countermeasures in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many heavy metals exist in minute amounts in natural agricultural soil. However, when their amounts exceed a certain level\\u000a due to pollutants brought from outside, soil contamination occurs and agricultural products become contaminated. There have\\u000a been many cases in Japan of heavy metal contamination originating from old mines and smelters, and soil contamination of agricultural\\u000a land has become a social

Tomohito Arao; Satoru Ishikawa; Masaharu Murakami; Kaoru Abe; Yuji Maejima; Tomoyuki Makino

2010-01-01

168

Heavy metal status of sediment in river Cauvery, Karnataka  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research work was to appraise extent of heavy metals in sediment and the degree to which its quality tainted\\u000a seasonally and spatially in river Cauvery. In this study, heavy metals such as Fe, Zn, Ni, Mn, Pb, Cu, Co, Cd and Cr were\\u000a analysed in sediments. Results were compared with sediment quality guidelines from various derived

K. Venkatesha Raju; R. K. Somashekar; K. L. Prakash

169

Heavy metal bioaccumulation and toxicity with special reference to microalgae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals were reviewed with special reference to microalgae, the key component of\\u000a the food web in aquatic ecosystems. Heavy metals enter algal cells either by means of active transport or by endocytosis through\\u000a chelating proteins and affect various physiological and biochemical processes of the algae. The toxicity primarily results\\u000a from their binding to the

K. K. I. U. Arunakumara; Xuecheng Zhang

2008-01-01

170

Heavy Metal Pollutants and Chemical Ecology: Exploring New Frontiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals are an important class of pollutants with both lethal and sublethal effects on organisms. The latter are receiving\\u000a increased attention, as these may have harmful ecological outcomes. For example, recent explorations of heavy metals in freshwater\\u000a habitats reveal that they can modify chemical communication between individuals, resulting in “info-disruption” that can impact\\u000a ecological relationships within and between species.

Robert S. Boyd

2010-01-01

171

Heavy metal contamination in the Delhi segment of Yamuna basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Pb, Cr, Hg and As) in the waters of River Yamuna and in the soil of\\u000a agricultural fields along its course in Delhi are reported from 13 sites, spread through the Delhi stretch of Yamuna, starting\\u000a from the Wazirabad barrage till the Okhla barrage. Varying concentration of heavy metals was

Meena Sehgal; Ankur Garg; R. Suresh; Priya Dagar

172

A review of heavy metal adsorption by marine algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accumulation of heavy metals by algae had been studied extensively for biomonitoring or bioremediation purposes. Having the\\u000a advantages of low cost raw material, big adsorbing capacity, no secondary pollution, etc., algae may be used to treat industrial\\u000a water containing heavy metals. The adsorption processes were carried out in two steps: rapid physical adsorption first, and\\u000a then slow chemical adsorption. pH

Jin-Fen Pan; Rong-Gen Lin; Li Ma

2000-01-01

173

Heavy Metal Adsorption by Montmorillonites Modified with Natural Organic Cations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Agricultural and industrial pollution release large amounts of heavy metals into the atmosphere, surface water, soil, and plants. The protection and restoration of soils and water contaminated with heavy metals generate a great need to develop efficient adsorbents for these pollutants. This study reports the adsorption of Pb(II) and Hg(II) by two reference montmorillonites, Wyoming (SWy-2) and Arizona (SAz-1), that

M. Cruz-Guzmán; R. Celis; M. C. Hermosín; W. C. Koskinen; E. A. Nater; J. Cornejo

2006-01-01

174

Heavy Metal Resistance of Biofilm and Planktonic Pseudomonas aeruginosa  

PubMed Central

A study was undertaken to examine the effects of the heavy metals copper, lead, and zinc on biofilm and planktonic Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A rotating-disk biofilm reactor was used to generate biofilm and free-swimming cultures to test their relative levels of resistance to heavy metals. It was determined that biofilms were anywhere from 2 to 600 times more resistant to heavy metal stress than free-swimming cells. When planktonic cells at different stages of growth were examined, it was found that logarithmically growing cells were more resistant to copper and lead stress than stationary-phase cells. However, biofilms were observed to be more resistant to heavy metals than either stationary-phase or logarithmically growing planktonic cells. Microscopy was used to evaluate the effect of copper stress on a mature P. aeruginosa biofilm. The exterior of the biofilm was preferentially killed after exposure to elevated concentrations of copper, and the majority of living cells were near the substratum. A potential explanation for this is that the extracellular polymeric substances that encase a biofilm may be responsible for protecting cells from heavy metal stress by binding the heavy metals and retarding their diffusion within the biofilm.

Teitzel, Gail M.; Parsek, Matthew R.

2003-01-01

175

Crab shell for the removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of crab shell to remove heavy metals from aqueous solution was evaluated by comparing with that of several sorbents (cation exchange resin, zeolite, granular activated carbon, powdered activated carbon). All experiments were conducted using several heavy metal ion solutions (Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr). The orders of heavy metal removal capacity and initial heavy metal removal rate were found

H. K An; B. Y Park; D. S Kim

2001-01-01

176

Calcium Disodium EDTA Chelation Suppositories: A Novel Approach for Removing Heavy Metal Toxins in Clinical Practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals accumulate in various tissues and are associated with increases in today's biggest killers: cardiovascular disease and cancer. Reducing these heavy metals from the body has been a challenge to modern day medicine. With the advent of intravenous EDTA chelation, it was possible to remove heavy metals, but this invasive method of heavy metal removal is burdensome and expensive.

Rita Ellithorpe; Tony Jimenez; Brett Jacques; Robert Settineri; Larry Clapp; Garth L. Nicolson

177

Bioleaching of heavy metals from sediment: significance of pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bioleaching process, which causes acidification and solubilization of heavy metals, is one of the promising methods for removing heavy metals from contaminated sediments. The solubilization of heavy metals from contaminated sediments is governed by the sediment pH. In the present study, the significance of pH in bioleaching of heavy metals from contaminated sediment was evaluated at different solid contents of

Shen-Yi Chen; Jih-Gaw Lin

2001-01-01

178

Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration of heavy metals using lecithin  

SciTech Connect

Conventional treatment methods for removal of heavy metals from metal finishing operations are usually energy-intensive and costly. Micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration (MEUF) with synthetic surfactants is a recently developed technique which can remove heavy metals and other small molecular weight ions from wastestreams at relatively lower costs and without a phase change. Lecithin, a natural, inexpensive, nontoxic, and biodegradable surfactant exhibits emulsifying characteristics which can be used in a MEUF. The binding of various lecithins to cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc - in a mixture and individually - was studied using a continuous diafiltration method. This technique uses small volumes of toxic waters and produces an entire isotherm with just one experiment. In the presence of all five heavy metals, the lecithin in this study showed the following affinity: Cu > Cd [approximately] Zn > Ni. In experiments when only one metal was present, lecithin exhibited the following affinity: Ni > Cu [approximately] Zn > Cd. Lead was not bound significantly in either scenario.

Ahmadi, S.; Tseng, L.K.; Batchelor, B.; Koseoglu, S.S. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

1994-12-01

179

Effects of heavy metals on insect immunocompetent cells.  

PubMed

The influence of the following heavy metals, copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), on haemocytes of the house fly Musca domestica L. was studied under laboratory conditions. House fly larvae were exposed to low or high, semi-lethal concentrations of metals. These particular metals were selected because they are present in polluted environments in Poland. In addition, we studied expression of the stress proteins HSP70 and HSP72 in haemocytes collected from larvae that had been exposed to heavy metal. The obtained results showed changes in haemocytes morphology and phagocytotic plasticity in the experimental flies in comparison to control. The number of prohaemocytes, regarded as stem cells, increased, while granulocytes, responsible for phagocytosis, decreased. However, we have not detected any clear changes in expression of HSP70 or HSP72 in flies treated with low or high concentrations of the heavy metals. PMID:21419130

Borowska, Joanna; Pyza, El?bieta

2011-06-01

180

Cysteine-metal affinity chromatography: determination of heavy metal adsorption properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various adsorbent materials have been reported in the literature for heavy metal removal. We have developed a novel approach to obtain high metal sorption capacity utilising cysteine containing adsorbent. Metal complexing aminoacid-ligand cysteine was immobilised onto poly(hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (PHEMA) microbeads. PHEMA-cysteine affinity microbeads containing 0.318 mmol cysteine\\/g were used in the removal of heavy metal ions (i.e. copper, lead and cadmium)

Ay?egük Di?budak; Sema Bekta?; Süleyman Pat?r; Ömer Genç; Adil Denizli

2002-01-01

181

Effect of ultrasonic treatment on heavy metal decontamination in milk.  

PubMed

Ultrasound has been found useful in increasing the efficiency and consumer safety in food processing. Removal of heavy metal (lead, mercury, and arsenic) contamination in milk is extremely important in regions of poor ecological environment - urban areas with heavy motor traffic or well established metallurgical/cement industry. In this communication, we report on the preliminary studies on the application of low frequency (20kHz) ultrasound for heavy metal decontamination of milk without affecting its physical, chemical, and microbiological properties. PMID:24746508

Porova, Nataliya; Botvinnikova, Valentina; Krasulya, Olga; Cherepanov, Pavel; Potoroko, Irina

2014-11-01

182

The electric field gradient in heavy rare earth metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Estimates of the electric field gradient in heavy rare earth metals have been evaluated from experimental hyperfine interaction data. In addition, the magnetic hyperfine fields are analyzed. In the metals the effective radial integrals r-3>4f of the magnetic and quadrupole hyperfine interaction are reduced at most by 10% compared with the free ion values. The electric field gradients due to

J. Pelzl; Fachbereich Physik

1972-01-01

183

Levels and sources of heavy metals in house dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration and the sources of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Zn and Cu) in house dust samples of nine selected houses of Jalil Town, Gujranwala, Pakistan are determined and a comparison with the concentration of these metals in respective street dust samples is given. Sources, exterior as well as interior are identified. The extent of contribution of lead in house

N. Jabeen; S. Ahmed; S. T. Hassan; N. M. Alam

2001-01-01

184

Sources of heavy metals in urban wastewater in Stockholm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The sources of heavy metals to a wastewater treatment plant was investigated. Sources can be actual goods, e.g. runoff from roofs, wear of tires, food, or activities, e.g. large enterprises, car washes. The sources were identified by knowing the metals content in various goods and the emissions from goods to sewage or stormwater. The sources of sewage water and stormwater

L Sörme; R Lagerkvist

2002-01-01

185

Heavy Metal Contents of Fly Ashes from Selected Biomass Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, heavy metal levels in selected fly ash samples of various biomass types (municipal solid waste, hazelnut shell, wheat straw, olive husk, walnut shell, almond shell, sunflower shell, and beech wood) were determined. The concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cd, Mn, Cr, Ni, Co, Cu, Sn, Sb, Se, V, Mo, and As metals were determined in the fly ash

Ayhan Demirba?

2005-01-01

186

The fate of heavy metals in wastewater stabilization ponds  

Microsoft Academic Search

(RecewedMay 1986) Abstract--The distribution of toxic heavy metals was studied throughout the process of treatment of domestic wastewater by stabilization ponds. The concentrations and distribution of free and bound zinc, cadmium, lead and copper through the various stages of a treatment plant were analyzed by Anodic Stripping Voltammetry (ASV). Only a slight decrease in the total metals concentration was observed

DRORA KAPLAN; AHARON ABELIOVICH; SAM BEN-YAAKOV

1987-01-01

187

Study of heavy metals in some environmental samples.  

PubMed

Fuels like coal and rubber are frequently used for brick burning. However, both coal and rubber contain heavy metals. These heavy metals may elutriate in the wake of fly ash or may adsorb or absorb in the product. The present work deals with the analysis of heavy metals in some samples collected from brick burning industries located in the vicinity of a metropolitan city, Peshawar, Pakistan. Samples from raw clay, product, chimney scale and fossil fuel & rubber were collected and leached with acid mixture. The leachates were concentrated and analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer for the determination of chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and antimony (Sb). It was observed that heavy metals are present in clay, brick and chimney scale. However, significant amount of these metals was observed in chimney scale. It is inferred that such emanations laden with heavy metals are accompanying the stack gases which are being dumped in to the environment. In order to avoid environmental problems, strict environmental regulations shall be enforced and a constant check on these emanations to the environment must be made to ensure clean air act. PMID:18853266

Ahmad, Imtiaz; Rashid, Haroon; Rehman, Zia Ur

2009-11-01

188

Multivariate analysis of heavy metals concentrations in river estuary.  

PubMed

Multivariate statistical techniques such as multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied for analyzing the data obtained from two rivers in the Penang State of Malaysia for the concentration of heavy metal ions (As, Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, and Hg) using a flame atomic absorption spectrometry (F-AAS) for Cr, Cd, Zn, Cu, Pb, As and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) for Hg. The two locations of interest with 20 sampling points of each location were Kuala Juru (Juru River) and Bukit Tambun (Jejawi River). MANOVA showed a strong significant difference between the two rivers in terms of heavy metal concentrations in water samples. DA gave the best result to identify the relative contribution for all parameters in discriminating (distinguishing) the two rivers. It provided an important data reduction as it used four parameters (Zn, Pb, Cd and Cr) affording 100% correct assignations. Results indicated that the two rivers were different in terms of heavy metals concentrations in water, and the major difference was due to the contribution of Zn. A negative correlation was found between discriminate functions (DF) and Cr and As, whereas positive correlation was exhibited with other heavy metals. Therefore, DA allowed a reduction in the dimensionality of the data set, delineating a few indicator parameters responsible for large variations in heavy metal concentrations. Correlation matrix between the parameters exhibited a strong evidence of mutual dependence of these metals. PMID:17899414

Alkarkhi, Abbas F M; Ahmad, Anees; Ismail, Norli; Easa, Azhar Mat

2008-08-01

189

Heavy metals contamination of table salt consumed in iran.  

PubMed

Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are the most important heavy metals which may cause health risks following consumption of contaminated foods. Table salt is one the mostly used food additive with unique place in food consumption. Although purified table salt is expected to have lower level of contamination, some Iranians still prefer to use rock salt. Use of rock salt for food purposes has been banned by Iranian health authorities. In this study, heavy metal contamination of table salt consumed in Iran has been investigated. One hundred samples of rock and refined table salts were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometeric methods for the presence of toxic heavy metals. The mean concentration of tested tracer metals including Cd, Pb, Hg and As was 0.024, 0.438, 0.021 and 0.094 ?g/g, respectively. The concentrations of tested heavy metals were well below the maximum levels set by Codex. However, no statistically significant difference was found between contamination of rock salt and refined salt to heavy metals. PMID:24363718

Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Kobarfard, Farzad; Faeizy, Noroldin

2010-01-01

190

Heavy Metals Contamination of Table Salt Consumed in Iran  

PubMed Central

Lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic are the most important heavy metals which may cause health risks following consumption of contaminated foods. Table salt is one the mostly used food additive with unique place in food consumption. Although purified table salt is expected to have lower level of contamination, some Iranians still prefer to use rock salt. Use of rock salt for food purposes has been banned by Iranian health authorities. In this study, heavy metal contamination of table salt consumed in Iran has been investigated. One hundred samples of rock and refined table salts were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometeric methods for the presence of toxic heavy metals. The mean concentration of tested tracer metals including Cd, Pb, Hg and As was 0.024, 0.438, 0.021 and 0.094 ?g/g, respectively. The concentrations of tested heavy metals were well below the maximum levels set by Codex. However, no statistically significant difference was found between contamination of rock salt and refined salt to heavy metals.

Cheraghali, Abdol Majid; Kobarfard, Farzad; Faeizy, Noroldin

2010-01-01

191

Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution the tropics  

SciTech Connect

The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this plant is stronger in the roots than in the floating shoots. Metallothionein-like compounds have been found from roots of this species after cadmium exposure. The purpose of this investigation was to study the possibilities of using roots of water hyacinth as a biological indicator of metal pollution in tropical aquatic ecosystems.

Gonzalez, H.; Otero, M. (Institute of Transport Investigations, Havana (Cuba)); Lodenius, M. (Univ. of Helsinki (Finland))

1989-12-01

192

The Sources and Behavior of Heavy Metals in Wastewater and Sludges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A critical evaluation has been made of the literature regarding the sources of heavy metals in sludges from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Residential loadings of heavy metals as a percentage of total metal loads are highly variable with respect t...

B. W. Vigon R. A. Craig N. A. Frazier

1977-01-01

193

Ground states of heavy electrons in metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

We briefly discuss experimental observations which imply that heavy electron ground states of different varieties exist. It seems possible that more sophisticated models than the Fermi liquid concept are necessary for a theoretical description of these ground states.

H. R. Ott; E. Felder; A. Bernasconi

1993-01-01

194

EDGA amendment of slightly heavy metal loaded soil affects heavy metal solubility, crop growth and microbivorous nematodes but not bacteria and herbivorous nematodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phytoextraction of heavy metals is a promising technology to remediate slightly and moderately contaminated soils. To enhance crops' uptake of heavy metals, chelates such as EDGA are being tested as soil additives. Heavy metal loaded EDGA can affect soil organisms such as bacteria and nematodes in various ways: directly via the soil solution surrounding the organisms and indirectly by changing

L. A. Bouwman; J. Bloem; P. F. A. M. Römkens; J. Japenga

2005-01-01

195

Characterisation and distribution of heavy metals at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Activity at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, is characterised by periodic cycles of intense gas emission that last years to decades. The volcano entered its current phase of degassing in 1993, which resulted in a low-level persistent gas plume. As a result of this continuous emission, the substantial deposition of heavy metals onto the surrounding soils (andosols) is thought to be occurring (Delfosse et al., 2003). The deposition of these heavy metal plume components, and their incorporation into soil, is of key interest because once discharged to the environment they accumulate throughout the food chain and may pose a serious ecological threat (Alloway, 1995). Although many studies have focused on the impacts of volcanic gases on the environment, few have addressed the fate of the metals released by persistent gas plumes. This study therefore investigates the patterns of heavy metal transport, deposition and distribution at Masaya in order to provide additional information on the processes that govern the behaviour of volcanic heavy metals. A number of agricultural and non-agricultural soils at two horizons (A: 0-10 cm and B: 20-30 cm) were collected and their trace metal content analysed. Twenty sites were sampled from the active vent to ~5 km downwind, as well as two control sites upwind of the volcano. Preliminary data suggest that a rapid deposition of metals occurs close to the source, with metal concentrations in the soil generally decreasing with distance away from the active vent. Cr and As clearly follow this trend, with maximum concentrations of 20.71 and 7.61 mg/kg respectively occurring closest to the vent. Concentration peaks for Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn (959.30, 21.57, 13.44, 152.85, and 72.73 mg/kg respectively) occur slightly further away from the vent, implying that these metals are transported further. The concentration of Cr, Co, Al, Ni and Mn was found to increase from soil horizon A to B, whereas the abundance of Zn decreases with depth. Heavy metal concentrations in the soils from the control sites were generally lower than the sites downwind of the active vent, confirming that the plume is a contributing factor to the total metal content. Although the measured concentrations do not exceed soil guideline values, further studies are required in order to evaluate the impacts of the currently increasing gas emission at Masaya volcano on heavy metal accumulation in soils, and to determine the regions that are most at risk of reaching potentially toxic levels. Alloway (1995) Heavy Metals in Soils, Chapman and Hall, London Delfosse et al. (2003) AGU Fall Meeting, Abstract V21C-0525

Hinrichs, M.; Rymer, H.; Gillman, M.; Blake, S.

2011-12-01

196

Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Neurospora crassa contain heavy metal sequestering phytochelatin  

Microsoft Academic Search

In fungi, cellular resistance to heavy metal cytotoxicity is mediated either by binding of metal ions to proteins of the metallothionein type or by chelation to phytochelatin-peptides of the general formula (?-Glu-Cys)n-Gly. Hitherto, only one fungus, Candida glabrata has been shown to contain both metal inactivating systems. Here we show by unambiguous FAB-MS analysis that both a metallothionein-free mutant of

Ralf Kneer; Toni M. Kutchan; Andreas Hochberger; Meinhart H. Zenk

1992-01-01

197

Competitive adsorption behavior of heavy metals on kaolinite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polluted and contaminated soils can often contain more than one heavy metal species. It is possible that the behavior of a particular metal species in a soil system will be affected by the presence of other metals. In this study we have investigated the adsorption of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) onto kaolinite in single- and multi-element systems as a

Prashant Srivastava; Balwant Singh; Michael Angove

2005-01-01

198

Comparison of Heavy Metal Adsorptions by Thai Kaolin and Ballclay  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption characteristics of heavy metals: cadmium(II), chromium(III), copper(II), nickel(II), lead(II), and zinc(II) ions by kaolin (kaolinite) and ballclay (illite) from Thailand were studied. This research was focussed on the pH, adsorption isotherms of single-metal solutions at 30–60 °C by batch experiments, and on ion selectivityin mixed and binary combination solutions. It was found that, except Ni, metal adsorption increased

V. Chantawong; N. W. Harvey; V. N. Bashkin

2003-01-01

199

Source of atmospheric heavy metals in winter in Foshan, China.  

PubMed

Foshan is a ceramics manufacturing center in the world and the most polluted city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China measured by the levels of atmospheric heavy metals. PM2.5 samples were collected in Foshan in winter 2008. Among the 22 elements and ions analyzed, 7 heavy metals (Zn, V, Mn, Cu, As, Cd and Pb) were studied in depth for their levels, spatiotemporal variations and sources. The ambient concentrations of the heavy metals were much higher than the reported average concentrations in China. The levels of Pb (675.7±378.5ng/m(3)), As (76.6±49.1ng/m(3)) and Cd (42.6±45.2ng/m(3)) exceeded the reference values of NAAQS (GB3095-2012) and the health guidelines of the World Health Organization. Generally, the levels of atmospheric heavy metals showed spatial distribution as: downtown site (CC, Chancheng District)>urban sites (NH and SD, Nanhai and Shunde Districts)>rural site (SS, Shanshui District). Two sources of heavy metals, the ceramic and aluminum industries, were identified during the sampling period. The large number of ceramic manufactures was responsible for the high levels of atmospheric Zn, Pb and As in Chancheng District. Transport from an aluminum industry park under light north-west winds contributed high levels of Cd to the SS site (Shanshui District). The average concentration of Cd under north-west wind was 220ng/m(3), 20.5times higher than those under other wind directions. The high daily maximum enrichment factors (EFs) of Cd, Pb, Zn, As and Cu at all four sites indicated extremely high contamination by local emissions. Back trajectory analysis showed that the heavy metals were also closely associated with the pathway of air mass. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to determine the source apportionment of these heavy metals. Five factors (industry including the ceramic industry and coal combustion, vehicle emissions, dust, transportation and sea salt) were identified and industry was the most important source of atmospheric heavy metals. The present paper suggests a control policy on the four heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu, and suggests the inclusion of As in the ceramic industry emission standard in the future. PMID:24951884

Tan, Ji-Hua; Duan, Jing-Chun; Ma, Yong-Liang; Yang, Fu-Mo; Cheng, Yuan; He, Ke-Bin; Yu, Yong-Chang; Wang, Jie-Wen

2014-09-15

200

Perspectives in endocrine toxicity of heavy metals-a review.  

PubMed

An attempt has been made to review the endocrine/hormonal implications of a few environmentally significant metals, viz, lead, mercury, cadmium, copper, arsenic and nickel, in man and animals. Special emphasis has been given to the adrenals, thyroid, testis, ovary and pancreas. Toxic metals can cause structural and functional changes in the adrenal glands. Their effects on steroidogenesis have been reviewed. It has been reported that thyroid hormone kinetics are affected by a number of metallic compounds. Occupational exposure to a few of these metals can cause testicular injury and sex hormone disturbances. Protective effects of a few antioxidants on their reproductive toxicity have also been discussed. Information gathered on female reproductive toxicity of heavy metals shows that exposure to these metals can lead to disturbances in reproductive performance in exposed subjects. Certain metals can cause injury to the endocrine pancreas. Exposure to them can cause diabetes mellitus and disturb insulin homeostasis. The need to develop molecular markers of endocrine toxicity of heavy metals has been suggested. Overall information described in this review is expected to be helpful in planning future studies on endocrine toxicity of heavy metals. PMID:24898714

Rana, S V S

2014-07-01

201

Thermal treatment of harzardous waste for heavy metal recovery.  

PubMed

In this study, a new method for recovering heavy metals from hazardous waste is introduced. The process is characterized by a separation of heavy metals and residues during the thermal treatment under a sub-stoichiometric atmosphere in a rotary kiln. After leaving the rotary kiln the separated heavy metals are precipitated in a hot gas ceramic filter. Using this technology, hazardous materials, both liquids and pasty hazardous waste containing heavy metals, can be treated and a product with a quasi-raw material condition can be formed. In contrast to current methods,the harmful substances should not be immobilized and disposed. In fact, a saleable product highly concentrated with heavy metals should be formed. During preliminary investigations with a solution containing sodium chromate tetrahydrate, the process was tested in a pilot plant. Here,the separation of chromium could be demonstrated with leaching tests and characterization of the filter dust. Analysis concerning the disposability of the residues had not been carried out because only the process and the characteristic of the filter dust were in the centre of attention. PMID:17691119

Hoffmann, Gaston; Schirmer, Matthias; Bilitewski, Bernd; Kaszás Savos, Melania

2007-07-16

202

Effect of heavy metals on germination of seeds.  

PubMed

With the expansion of the world population, the environmental pollution and toxicity by chemicals raises concern. Rapid industrialization and urbanization processes has led to the incorporation of pollutants such as pesticides, petroleum products, acids and heavy metals in the natural resources like soil, water and air thus degrading not only the quality of the environment, but also affecting both plants and animals. Heavy metals including lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, cobalt, chromium and mercury are important environmental pollutants that cause toxic effects to plants; thus, lessening productivity and posing dangerous threats to the agro-ecosystems. They act as stress to plants and affect the plant physiology. In this review, we have summarized the effects of heavy metals on seeds of different plants affecting the germination process. Although reports exist on mechanisms by which the heavy metals act as stress and how plants have learnt to overcome, the future scope of this review remains in excavating the signaling mechanisms in germinating seeds in response to heavy metal stress. PMID:24082715

Sethy, Sunil Kumar; Ghosh, Shyamasree

2013-07-01

203

Implications of soil pollution with heavy metals for public health  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil of military grounds is often polluted with heavy metals. Their concentrations may be dosens of times higher in polluted regions. The affected soils are permeable, so the pollutions can get into water and spread to the environment. Into human and animal organisms they can get with food and water. Heavy metals are very dangerous for people's health, and we must know their accumulation places, intensity of scatter and integral risk for health. The purpose of this work was to establish links between zones polluted with heavy metals and morbidity caused by pollution with heavy metals. The morbidity caused by heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Zn, Ca and other) in the polluted regions is 1.4-1.5 times higher for adults and teenagers and 1.5-3.9 times higher for children aged under 14 years than the mean morbidity of the same diseases in Lithuania. Hypothetically, it is possible to prognosticate that this problem will grow in future because the ratio of the newly registered and the existing cases of morbidity for children aged under 14 years is 1.3-1.5 times higher than for adults.

Juozulynas, Algirdas; Jurgel?nas, Antanas; Butkien?, Birut?; Grei?i?t?, Kristina; Savi?i?t?, Rasa

2008-01-01

204

Characterization of Heavy Metal Resistance of Metal-Reducing Shewanella Isolates From Marine Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study focuses on heavy metal resistance of marine, benthic Mn(IV)- and Fe(III)-reducing bacteria and their potential to mobilize heavy metals from sedimentary phases, as hydrous ferric oxides (HFO) and Mn(IV)-oxides (? -MnO2). One isolate was obtained from enrichments of metal-polluted sediment with ? -MnO2 (strain MB4, 99% similarity to S. marisflavi), and two strains were isolated from enrichments on

A.-C. M. Toes; J. S. Geelhoed; J. G. Kuenen; G. Muyzer

2008-01-01

205

Selection of ectomycorrhizal willow genotype in phytoextraction of heavy metals.  

PubMed

Willow clones are used for the phytoextraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils and are usually mycorrhizal. The receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum varies specific to genotype; however, it is unknown if this might have a significant impact on their efficiency in phytoextraction of heavy metals. Therefore, a model system with mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal willows of two different genotypes--one with usually stronger natural mycorrhizal colonization (Salix dasyclados), and one with lower natural mycorrhizal colonization (S. viminalis)--was investigated for its efficiency of phytoextraction of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) from contaminated soil. Inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria significantly decreased the biomass of leaves of both inoculated willow clones, and increased or had no effect on the biomass of trunks and roots of S. dasyclados and S. viminalis, respectively. The concentrations of heavy metals in the biomass of S. dasyclados were in general higher than in S. viminalis irrespective of inoculation with the ectomycorrhizal fungus. Inoculation with A. muscaria significantly decreased the concentration of Cu in the trunks of both Salix taxa, but did not affected the concentrations of other heavy metals in the biomass. In conclusion, stronger receptiveness of willow clones for mycorrhizal inoculum was correlated with an increased total extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils. Therefore, this seems to be a suitable criterion for effective willow clone selection for phytoremediation. Increased biomass production with relatively constant metal concentrations seems to be a major advantage of mycorrhizal formation of willows in phytoremediation of contaminated soils. PMID:23530334

Hrynkiewicz, Katarzyna; Baum, Christel

2013-01-01

206

Heavy metal pollution in coastal areas of South China: a review.  

PubMed

Coastal areas of South China face great challenges due to heavy metal contamination caused by rapid urbanization and industrialization. In this paper, more than 90 articles on levels, distributions, and sources of heavy metals in sediments and organisms were collected to review the status of heavy metal pollution along coastal regions of South China. The results show that heavy metal levels were closely associated with local economic development. Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary were severely contaminated by heavy metals. However, concentrations of heavy metals in sediments from Hong Kong have continually decreased since the early 1990 s. High levels of heavy metals were found in biota from Lingdingyang in Guangdong province. Mollusks had higher concentrations of heavy metals than other species. Human health risk assessments suggested that levels of heavy metals in some seafood from coastal areas of South China exceeded the safety limit. PMID:24084375

Wang, Shuai-Long; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Sun, Yu-Xin; Liu, Jin-Ling; Li, Hua-Bin

2013-11-15

207

Evaluation of Different Extraction Methods for the Assessment of Heavy Metal Bioavailability in Various Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of different methods (heavy metals in pore water (PW), diffusive\\u000a gradients in thin films (DGT), diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extraction, and total heavy metals (THM) in soil)\\u000a for the assessment of heavy metal bioavailability from soils having various properties and heavy metal contents. The effect\\u000a of soil heavy

José Martin Soriano-Disla; Tom W. Speir; Ignacio Gómez; Lynne M. Clucas; Ron G. McLaren; José Navarro-Pedreńo

2010-01-01

208

Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils Downwind from Masaya Volcano (Nicaragua)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quiescently degassing volcanoes can significantly contribute to the global emission of heavy metals. In turn, substantial deposition of metals onto soils may result, possibly increasing the risk of phytotoxicity. In contrast to anthropogenic sources, the environmental impacts of airborne volcanic heavy metals and their accumulation in soils are poorly studied. Along with the degassing of S, Cl and F, Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, is also a strong source of heavy metals. Recent estimates indicate emission rates of e.g., 62 t As yr-1, 133 t Zn yr-1 and 306 t Cu yr-1 (Moune, 2002). Here, we report on the effects of heavy metal depositions on the total contents of As, Cr, Ni, Cu, Bi, Zn, Se, and Co in two groups of soils located 5 km and 15 km downwind from the volcano. These soils correspond to young Vitric Andosols and more weathered Eutric Andosols, respectively. As and Se were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry after soil digestion in a trace metal unit, and Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, Bi and Zn were determined after alkaline fusion in Li-metaborate/Li-tetraborate. Results suggest that prolonged metal inputs in the vicinity of Masaya volcano have significantly increased the As, Se and Zn contents of the soils. For these elements, concentrations are about 3-5 times those measured in the parent rock materials. However, maximum concentrations in soils (i.e., 5.4 mg As kg-1, 183 mg Zn kg-1 and 0.9 mg Se kg-1) never exceed critical concentration levels as defined for cultivated soils in the UK (10, 300 and 3 mg kg-1 for As, Zn and Se, respectively). We did not detect significant enrichments in Cr, Ni, Cu, Bi, and Co. The relatively low accumulation of metals in the Masaya Andosols contrasts with the high retention of volcanic F and S inputs (Delmelle et al., 2003). Since Andosols typically show a high affinity for heavy metals, which can be bound to organic matter as well as to oxides, oxyhydroxide and allophane minerals present in these soils, rapid leaching of the metal inputs through the soil profiles is considered unlikely. Instead, metals in the plume may have been deposited during the first seconds of transport in the atmosphere, rapidly depleting the plume in these elements. Thus, in the case of plume emitted in the boundary layer, the volcanic contribution of metals to the atmosphere may be significantly lower than that extrapolated from emission rates measured at the source. Further studies are needed to better assess heavy metal deposition and the biogeochemical cycle of these compounds in volcanic environments.

Delfosse, T.; Delmelle, P.; Iserentant, A.; Delvaux, B.

2003-12-01

209

Beneficial effect of sesame oil on heavy metal toxicity.  

PubMed

Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in the soft tissue. Chelation therapy is mainly for the management of heavy metal-induced toxicity; however, it usually causes adverse effects or completely blocks the vital function of the particular metal chelated. Much attention has been paid to the development of chelating agents from natural sources to counteract lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal damage. Sesame oil (a natural edible oil) and sesamol (an active antioxidant) are potently beneficial for treating lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal toxicity and have no adverse effects. Sesame oil and sesamol significantly inhibit iron-induced lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical generation. In addition, sesame oil is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediators, and it attenuates lead-induced hepatic damage by inhibiting nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-?, and interleukin-1? levels. Because metal chelating therapy is associated with adverse effects, treating heavy metal toxicity in addition with sesame oil and sesamol may be better alternatives. This review deals with the possible use and beneficial effects of sesame oil and sesamol during heavy metal toxicity treatment. PMID:23744838

Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie

2014-02-01

210

Heavy metal ion adsorption onto polypyrrole-impregnated porous carbon.  

PubMed

Polypyrrole-impregnated porous carbon was readily synthesized using vapor infiltration polymerization of pyrrole monomers. The results show that the functionalized polymer layer was successfully coated onto the pore surface of carbon without collapse of mesoporous structure. The modified porous carbon exhibited an improved complexation affinity for heavy metal ions such as mercury, lead, and silver ions due to the amine group of polypyrrole. The introduced polypyrrole layer could provide the surface modification to be applied for heavy metal ion adsorbents. Especially, polymer-impregnated porous carbon has an enhanced heavy metal ion uptake, which is 20 times higher than that of adsorbents with amine functional groups. Furthermore, the relationship between the coated polymer amount and surface area was also investigated in regard to adsorption capacity. PMID:18602641

Choi, Moonjung; Jang, Jyongsik

2008-09-01

211

Baker's yeast assay procedure for testing heavy metal toxicity  

SciTech Connect

Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is microorganism which is commercially available and sold as packaged dry pellets in any food store at low cost. Studies have been undertaken on the effects of organic xenobiotics as well as heavy metals on yeast metabolism. This type of study has been generally useful in examining the mechanism(s) of chemical toxicity. However, a rapid and quantitative toxicity test using S. cerevisiae as the test organism has not been developed. The purpose of this study was to develop a toxicity assay for heavy metals, using commercial dry yeast as the test microorganism. This rapid and simple procedure is based on the reduction of 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride (INT) to INT-formazan by the yeast electron transport system. The scoring of active cells following exposure to heavy metals was undertaken according to the MINT (malachite green-INT) method developed by Bitton and Koopman.

Bitton, G.; Koopman, B.; Wang, H.D.

1984-01-01

212

Characterization of a heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene from an environmental heavy metal resistance Enterobacter sp. isolate.  

PubMed

Heavy metals are common contaminants found in polluted areas. We have identified a heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene (hmtp) via fosmid library and in vitro transposon mutagenesis from an Enterobacter sp. isolate. This gene is believed to participate in the bacterium's heavy metal resistance traits. The complete gene was identified, cloned, and expressed in a suitable Escherichia coli host cell. E. coli W3110, RW3110 (zntA::Km), GG48 (?zitB::Cm zntA::Km), and GG51 (?zitB::Cm) were used to study the possible effects of this gene for heavy metal (cadmium and zinc in particular) resistance. Among the E. coli strains tested, RW3110 and GG48 showed more sensitivity to cadmium and zinc compared to the wild-type E. coli W3110 and strain GG51. Therefore, strains RW3110 and GG48 were chosen for the reference hosts for further evaluation of the gene's effect. The results showed that expression of this heavy metal translocating P-type ATPase gene could increase the ability for zinc and cadmium resistance in the tested microorganisms. PMID:23344939

Chien, Chih-Ching; Huang, Chia-Hsuan; Lin, Yi-Wei

2013-03-01

213

Phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated land by trees—a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reviews the potential for using trees for the phytoremediation of heavy metal-contaminated land. It considers the following aspects: metal tolerance in trees, heavy metal uptake by trees grown on contaminated substrates, heavy metal compartmentalisation within trees, phytoremediation using trees and the phytoremediation potential of willow (Salix spp.).

I. D. Pulford; C. Watson

2003-01-01

214

Removal of Heavy Metals by Sawdust Adsorption: Equilibrium and Kinetic Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of heavy metals by sawdust was investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of using sawdust to remove heavy metals from aqueous solutions. Kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out by considering the effects of initial concentration and pH. The adsorption isotherms of heavy metals fitted the Langmuir or Freundlich model reasonably well. The adsorption capacity of metal was in the

Jihyun Lim; Hee-Man Kang; Lee-Hyung Kim; Seok-Oh Ko

2008-01-01

215

Heavy Metal Concentration in Coastal Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

NO data are available for the concentration or distribution of trace metals in coastal waters to the west of England and Wales, including the toxic metals such as cadmium, lead, copper and zinc. This deficiency is particularly serious considering the nature and amounts of natural runoff and waste effluent present in these waters.

M. I. Abdullah; L. G. Royle; A. W. MORRIS

1972-01-01

216

Progress in heavy metal fluoride glasses for infrared fibers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optical and physical characteristics of heavy metal fluoride glasses are reviewed with reference to recent laboratory experiments. In particular, attention is given to comparative optical studies of fluorozirconate and fluorohafnate glasses, refractive index and material dispersion of fluoride glasses, and preliminary results of optical studies of heavy metal fluoride glasses not containing ZrF4 or HfF4. The latter sometimes exhibit extended transparency in the mid-IR relative to that observed in fluorozirconate and fluorohafnate glasses. The effect of the AlF4 content on the optical properties of BaF2/ThF4 glasses is discussed.

Drexhage, M. G.; El-Bayoumi, O. H.; Moynihan, C. T.

217

[Heavy metal poisoning and renal injury in children].  

PubMed

Along with global environmental pollution resulting from economic development, heavy metal poisoning in children has become an increasingly serious health problem in the world. It can lead to renal injury, which tends to be misdiagnosed due to the lack of obvious or specific early clinical manifestations in children. Early prevention, diagnosis and intervention are valuable for the recovery of renal function and children's good health and growth. This paper reviews the mechanism of renal injury caused by heavy metal poisoning in children, as well as the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and prevention and treatment of renal injury caused by lead, mercury, cadmium, and chromium. PMID:24750823

Rong, Li-Ping; Xu, Yuan-Yuan; Jiang, Xiao-Yun

2014-04-01

218

Adsorption equilibrium of heavy metals on natural zeolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prior to equilibrium experiments, a clinoptilolite-type Korean natural zeolite was pretreated with HCl, NaOH, and NaCl to\\u000a improve the ion-exchange capacity for heavy metals. Singleand multi-species equilibrium data of heavy metals such as copper,\\u000a cadmium, cesium, and lead on treated and untreated natural zeolites were measured experimentally. For single-species equilibrium\\u000a data, one of the conventional adsorption isotherms, the Sips equation,

Dae Haeng Lee; Hee Moon

2001-01-01

219

Phytochelatins as biomarkers for heavy metal toxicity in maize: Single metal effects of copper and cadmium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contamination of soils with heavy metals becomes more and more a problem in many countries all over the world. In areas where metal contaminated soils are used for food crop production, metals relatively mobile within the plant, such as cadmium (Cd) and zinc (Zn) can easily come into the food chain with great risks for human health. Since bioavailability of

W. G. Keltjens; M. L. van Beusichem

1998-01-01

220

Heavy metal concentrations along the Louisiana coastal zone  

SciTech Connect

Cores were taken from seven locations in southern Louisiana and analyzed for concentrations of heavy metals. Sedimentation rates for the locations were determined using the /sup 137/Cs dating technique. Correlations of metals with depth were calculated using absolute, aluminum normalized, and iron normalized concentrations. Correlations indicated recent increases at several sites (Lake Palourde, Manchac Pass, and Wax Lake Outlet) for several metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn) when profiles were normalized to aluminum. Metal profiles from rapidly-accreting areas (Atchafalaya and Four league Bay) did not show historical increases comparable to areas accreting less rapidly (e.g., Wax Lake Outlet, Manchac Pass, and Lake Palourde).

Pardue, J.H.; DeLaune, R.D.; Smith, C.J.; Patrick, W.H. Jr.

1988-01-01

221

Heavy metal characterization of circulating fluidized bed derived biomass ash.  

PubMed

Although the direct combustion of biomass for energy that applies circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology is steadily expanding worldwide, only few studies have conducted an environmental assessment of biomass ash thus far. Therefore, this study aims to integrate information on the environmental effects of biomass ash. We investigated the concentration of heavy metal in biomass ash samples (bottom ash, cyclone ash, and filter ash) derived from a CFB boiler that combusted agricultural and forest residues at a biomass power plant (2×12 MW) in China. Ash samples were gathered for the digestion and leaching test. The heavy metal content in the solution and the leachate was studied via an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 mercury analyzer. Measurements for the chemical composition, particle size distribution, and the surface morphology were carried out. Most of the metals in cyclone ash particles were enriched, whereas Ti and Hg were enriched in filter ash. Residence time contributed most to heavy metal enrichment. Under HJ/T 300 conditions, the heavy metals showed serious leaching characteristics. Under EN 12457-2 conditions, leaching behavior was hardly detected. PMID:22840499

Li, Lianming; Yu, Chunjiang; Bai, Jisong; Wang, Qinhui; Luo, Zhongyang

2012-09-30

222

Susceptibility of halobacteria to heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

Sixty-eight halobacteria, including both culture collection strains and fresh isolates from widely differing geographical areas, were tested for susceptibility to arsenate, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc ions by an agar dilution technique. The culture collection strains showed different susceptibilities, clustering into five groups. Halobacterium mediterranei and Halobacterium volcanii were the most metal tolerant, whereas Haloarcula californiae and Haloarcula sinaiiensis had the highest susceptibilities of the culture collection strains. Different patterns of metal susceptibility were found for all the halobacteria tested, and there was a uniform susceptibility to mercury and silver. All strains tested were multiply metal tolerant.

Nieto, J.J.; Ventosa, A.; Ruiz-Berraquero, F.

1987-05-01

223

Susceptibility of Halobacteria to Heavy Metals  

PubMed Central

Sixty-eight halobacteria, including both culture collection strains and fresh isolates from widely differing geographical areas, were tested for susceptibility to arsenate, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, silver, and zinc ions by an agar dilution technique. The culture collection strains showed different susceptibilities, clustering into five groups. Halobacterium mediterranei and Halobacterium volcanii were the most metal tolerant, whereas Haloarcula californiae and Haloarcula sinaiiensis had the highest susceptibilities of the culture collection strains. Different patterns of metal susceptibility were found for all the halobacteria tested, and there was a uniform susceptibility to mercury and silver. All strains tested were multiply metal tolerant.

Nieto, J. J.; Ventosa, A.; Ruiz-Berraquero, F.

1987-01-01

224

Black hole thermodynamics and heavy fermion metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy fermion alloys at critical doping typically exhibit non-Fermi-liquid behavior at low temperatures, including a logarithmic\\u000a or power law rise in the ratio of specific heat to temperature as the temperature is lowered. Anomalous specific heat of this\\u000a type is also observed in a simple class of gravitational dual models that exhibit anisotropic scaling with dynamical critical\\u000a exponent z >

E. J. Brynjolfsson; U. H. Danielsson; L. Thorlaciusa; T. Zingg

2010-01-01

225

Adsorption of heavy metals on kaolinite and montmorillonite: a review.  

PubMed

The process of adsorption is considered to be one of the best water treatment technologies around the world. Different heavy metals, due to their toxic and hazardous nature, are possibly the most widespread groundwater contaminants imposing a serious threat to human health. In this review, an attempt has been made to discuss the use of two common clay materials, namely kaolinite and montmorillonite, along with their modified forms for heavy metal removal on the basis of published reports (2008 onwards). The modifications of clays have been attempted by the process of pillaring, intercalation, acid/base activation, functionalization, etc. The adsorption of toxic metals, viz., As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, etc., has been studied predominantly. Montmorillonite and its modified forms have much higher metal adsorption capacity compared to that of kaolinite as well as modified-kaolinite. The modification often boosted the adsorption capacities of the clays, however, reverse trends are also reported in some cases. PMID:22499238

Sen Gupta, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G

2012-04-12

226

Characterization of disposable optical sensors for heavy metal determination.  

PubMed

This paper presents the development, characterization and quality control of analytical methods based on the use of disposable optical sensors for determination of heavy metals. Chromogenic reagents such as 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol, (2-pyridylazo)resorcinol, Zincon, Ferrozine, and Chromazurol S were used to develop optical sensors of heavy metal ions found as contaminants in pharmaceutical substances and products, such as Zn(II), Cu(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), and Fe(III). The chromogenic reagents were immobilized in polymeric membranes by spin-coating from cocktails containing all reagents needed. The methods were prevalidated using a comprehensive quality control strategy based on a system of mathematical/statistical testing and diagnosis of each prevalidation step. This system involved characterization of analytical groups; checking of two limiting groups; testing of data homogeneity; recognition of outliers; and determination of analytical functions, limiting values, precision and accuracy. The prevalidation strategy demonstrated the reliability of the proposed method and pointed out some limitations. Combining the optical sensors with multicomponent linear regression allowed simultaneous determination of multiple metals in synthetic mixtures with different compositions. Good agreement between experimental and theoretical amounts of heavy metals in the mixtures was obtained for the majority of sensors and metals. Even better agreement was obtained between the experimental and theoretical total amounts of metals in the mixtures. The proposed analytical methods were successfully applied to the determination of zinc in pharmaceutical preparations of insulin and the determination of metal mixtures in a commercial nasal spray of isotonic seawater. The reliable and sensitive individual optical sensors developed in this study may be useful for designing a multimembrane optical tongue that with appropriate further optimization can be used for screening heavy metals in various matrices. PMID:22608424

Vukovi?, Jadranka; Avidad, María Ariza; Capitán-Vallvey, Luis Fermín

2012-05-30

227

Heavy metal detoxification in higher plants - a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of heavy-metal-complexing peptides was isolated from plants and plant suspension cultures. The structure of these peptides was established as (?-glutamic acid-cysteine)n-glycine (n=2–11) [(?-Glu-Cys)n-Gly]. These peptides appear upon induction of plants with metals of the transition and main groups (Ib-Va, Z=29?83) of the periodic table of elements. These peptides, called phytochelatins (PC), are induced in all autotrophic plants so

Meinhart H. Zenk

1996-01-01

228

Heavy metal accumulation by bacteria and other microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Bacteria, and other microorganisms, exhibit a number of metabolism-dependent and-independent processes or the uptake and accumulation of heavy metals and radionuclides. The removal of such harmful substances from effluents and waste waters by microbe-based technologies may provide an alternative or additional means of metal\\/radionuclide recovery for economic reasons and\\/or environmental protection. Both living and dead cells as well as

G. M. Gadd

1990-01-01

229

Mechanisms of heavy metal removal using microorganisms as biosorbent.  

PubMed

Release and distribution of heavy metals through industrial wastewaters has adverse affects on the environment via contamination of surface- and ground-water resources. Biosorption of heavy metals from aqueous solutions has been proved to be very promising, offering significant advantages such as low cost, availability, profitability, ease of operation, and high efficiency, especially when dealing with low concentrations. Residual biomasses of industrial microorganisms including bacteria, algae, fungi, and yeast have been found to be capable of efficiently accumulating heavy metals as biosorbent. This paper presents and investigates major mechanisms of biosorption and most of the functional groups involved. The biosorption process includes the following mechanisms: transport across cell membrane, complexation, ion exchange, precipitation, and physical adsorption. In order to understand how metals bind to the biomass, it is essential to identify the functional groups responsible for metal binding. Most of these groups have been characterized on the cell walls. The biosorbent contains a variety of functional sites including carboxyl, imidazole, sulfydryl, amino, phosphate, sulfate, thioether, phenol, carbonyl, amide, and hydroxyl moieties that are responsible for metal adsorption. These could be helpful to improve biosorbents through modification of surface reactive sites via surface grafting and/or exchange of functional groups. PMID:24804650

Javanbakht, Vahid; Alavi, Seyed Amir; Zilouei, Hamid

2014-01-01

230

Active biomonitoring of heavy metal pollution using Rosa rugosa plants.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to evaluate the quality of a rural area near Faenza (Italy) by using an active biomonitoring approach, i.e., by placing homogeneous individuals of the perennial shrub Rosa rugosa in different sites throughout the area. Further sites, within the city or its environs, were used for comparison. Soil and leaves of R. rugosa were analyzed for their heavy metal content. The total heavy metal pattern of leaves closely paralleled the pattern registered in soil, with the highest content (both in total and assimilable forms) at the site in the urban area, which is exposed to heavy traffic. Pollen quality (abortiveness and viability) was also tested as a potential indicator of pollution. Pollen abortiveness was strictly related to Pb levels in leaves, while viability was inversely related to leaf Cr content. Our results suggest that R. rugosa has the potential to be a good biomonitoring system. PMID:17321656

Calzoni, Gian Lorenzo; Antognoni, Fabiana; Pari, Elena; Fonti, Paolo; Gnes, Antonio; Speranza, Anna

2007-09-01

231

Comparative genomics of regulation of heavy metal resistance in Eubacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Heavy metal resistance (HMR) in Eubacteria is regulated by a variety of systems including transcription factors from the MerR family (COG0789). The HMR systems are characterized by the complex signal structure (strong palindrome within a 19 or 20 bp promoter spacer), and usually consist of transporter and regulator genes. Some HMR regulons also include detoxification systems. The number of

EA Permina; AE Kazakov; OV Kalinina

2006-01-01

232

Study on the treatment of industrial wastewater containing heavy metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In order to practically use the acornic acid process for treating heavy metal contained wastewater, the pilot plant of 2.4 ton (wastewater)/day capacity was designed, constructed and operated. An electroplating wastewater originated from a company was tre...

M. H. Yoon I. S. Chang J. J. Park Y. H. Lee J. M. Shin

1994-01-01

233

Lichens as Bioindicators of Atmospheric Heavy Metal Pollution in Singapore  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lichens have been used as bioindicators in various atmospheric pollution assessments in several countries. This study presents the first data on levels of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in lichens at different locations in Singapore, Southeast Asia. Singapore is a fully industrialised island nation, with a prevailing tropical climate and a population of 4 million people

O.-H. Ng; B. C. Tan; J. P. Obbard

2006-01-01

234

Heavy metal levels in Spanish cheeses: influence of manufacturing conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal (Pb, Cd, Hg) and Ni contents were determined in a wide variety of cheeses consumed in Spain from all geographical regions and with the official “Protected Designation of Origin”. Pb content ranged from 110 to 5 µg kg, which can be considered safe as, in all cases, the Pb contribution did not exceed 50% of the toxic density.

R. Moreno-Rojas; P. J. Sánchez-Segarra; F. Cámara-Martos; M. A. Amaro-López

2010-01-01

235

CONCENTRATION OF NINE HEAVY METALS IN SUEZ CANAL WATERS, EGYPT  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concentration of nine heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Co, Fe and Mn) in waters of the Suez Canal and in the nearby waters was measured seasonally during 1997 - 1998 in their dissolved (D) and particulate (P) forms. The results revealed that the northern part of the canal (at Port Said) recorded higher concentrations for most

EL SAMRA; ABD EL-AZIM

2005-01-01

236

Phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals using Brassica napus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to examine the feasibility of utilizing oil extracted from plant seed in the contaminated areas, the phytoremediation applicability of soils contaminated with heavy metals and its follow-up result in the production of biodiesel was investigated. Brassica napus was chosen as the main target plant because it is widely used for phytoremediation and is an advantage of biodiesel production.

Jiyeon Park; Ju-Yong Kim; Kyoung-Woong Kim

2012-01-01

237

Remediation technologies for soils contaminated with heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals, such as lead, chromium, zinc, cadmium and cooper may cause hazardous harm to human health and the environment because of their dissolubility and mobility. Selection of the most appropriate soil remediation method depends on site characteristics, concentration, types of pollutants to be removed and the final use of a contaminated medium. This paper reviews soil remediation technologies, such

Audrone Jankaite; Saulius Vasarevi?ius

2005-01-01

238

Chemical methods and phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of chemical amendments (calcium carbonate (CC), steel sludge (SS) and furnace slag (FS)) on the growth and uptake of cadmium (Cd) by wetland rice, Chinese cabbage and wheat grown in a red soil contaminated with Cd were investigated using a pot experiment. The phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil with vetiver grass was also studied in a field

H. M Chen; C. R Zheng; C Tu; Z. G Shen

2000-01-01

239

Heavy Metal Content of Some Rivers and Lakes in Wales  

Microsoft Academic Search

WELSH rivers and lakes are remarkably free from domestic and industrial pollutants, but because of the presence of mineral deposits and the remains of mining activities, they are likely to have small but significant concentrations of heavy metals that may cause severe deterioration of the water quality. For example, the presence of lead, zinc and copper in some Welsh streams

M. I. Abdullah; L. G. Royle

1972-01-01

240

Chemical Speciation of Heavy Metals in Stainless Steel Plant Dust  

Microsoft Academic Search

The leaching tests and the sequential extraction procedure of heavy metals in the stainless steel plant dusts were studied. The results show that the total Cr and Cr (VI) content in argon oxygen decarburization converter dust (AODD), and the concentrations of Cd and Zn in electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) exceed the national standards. Lead is the most extractable element

Guojun Ma; Wei Fan; Hui Tang; Wei Wang; Weihou Su

2010-01-01

241

Adolescents and Heavy Metal Music: From the Mouths of Metalheads.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attitudes and characteristics of adolescents who like heavy metal music (HMM) were explored in a study of 52 adolescents (largely White males) who liked HMM and 123 who did not in suburban Atlanta (Georgia). HMM is discussed as a reflection of, rather than a cause of, adolescent alienation. (SLD)

Arnett, Jeffrey

1991-01-01

242

Organochlorines, heavy metals, and the biology of North American accipiters  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Analyses of eggs of three species of North American accipitrine hawks for organochlorines and heavy metals indicate that contamination with DDE may be the primary cause of recent population declines of two of the species, Cooper's hawk and sharp-shinned hawk.

Snyder, N.F.R.; Snyder, H. A.; Lincer, J.L.; Reynolds, R.T.

1973-01-01

243

Chelation of heavy metals by potassium butyl dithiophosphate.  

PubMed

Potassium butyl dithiophosphate (PBD) was developed and introduced as a new chelating agent for heavy metal removal. The synthesized PBD were characterized by IR and NMR. The effects of pH, chelating agent dosage, and other heavy metal ions on the performance of PBD in Cd2+ removal from water are investigated. Experimental results showed that the chelating agent could be used to treat acidic heavy metal wastewater. The Cd2+ removal was not affected by solution pH value within the range of 2 to 6. The Cd2+ removal rate could reach over 99%. Therefore, the deficiency of the precipitation process using hydroxide under alkaline condition can be overcome. Without the need for pH adjustment, the method could save on costs. If Cd2+ co-exists with Pb2+ and Cu2+, the affinity of the chelating agent with these three heavy metal ions was in the order of: Cu2+ > Pb2+ > Cd2+. Through PBD chelating precipitation, all the contents of Pb2+, Cd2+, and Cu2+ in wastewater met the standard levels through a one-step treatment. The one-step treatment process was superior to the process (sectional treatment is required) of precipitation with hydroxide. When the pH was between 3 and 11, the amount of leached chelated Cd2+ was much lower than that obtained by precipitation with hydroxide. Therefore, the risk of environmental pollution could be further reduced. PMID:21790050

Xu, Ying; Xie, Zhigang; Xue, Lu

2011-01-01

244

Representing soil pollution by heavy metals using continuous limitation scores  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper suggests a methodology to represent overall soil pollution in a sampled area using continuous limitation scores. The interpolated heavy metal concentrations are first transformed to limitation scores using the exponential transfer function determined by using two threshold values: permissible concentration (0 limitation points) and seriously polluted soil (4 limitation points). The limitation scores can then be summed to

Marija Romic; Tomislav Hengl; Davor Romic; Stjepan Husnjak

2007-01-01

245

Heavy metal distribution in sediments of Krishna River basin, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspended and bed sediments collected from the entire region of the Krishna River and its major tributaries were analyzed for heavy metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) by the thin-film energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. There is considerable variation in the concentration of elements towards downstream, which may be due to the variation in the

R. Ramesh; V. Subramanian; R. van Grieken

1990-01-01

246

Heavy metal distribution in sediments of Krishna River basin, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suspended and bed sediments collected from the entire region of the Krishna River and its major tributaries were analyzed for heavy metals (vanadium, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, zinc, and lead) by the thin-film energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence technique. There is considerable variation in the concentration of elements proceeding downstream, which may be due to the variation in the

R. Ramesh; V. Subranian; R. Van Grieken

2009-01-01

247

Effects of combinations of heavy metal pollutants on Cuscuta reflexa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of combinations of Hg, As, Pb, Cu, Cd, and Cr on the variables of Cuscuta reflexa Roxb. in natural condition were studied. All of the combinations of heavy metals tested decreased Hill reaction activity, chlorophyll and protein contents and increased tissue permeability over control values. The effects were best visible with the treatments of (As + Cd +

Sasadhar Jana; Aloke Bhattacharjee

1988-01-01

248

Fungal diversity in heavy metal polluted waters in central Germany  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the former copper shale mining district of Mansfeld, Central Germany, weathering of slag heaps and dumps resulted in groundwater, lakes and streams with extremely high heavy metal concentrations (Zn, Cu, Pb, Cs, Cd). We investigated aquatic hyphomycete communities in six of these sites by collecting foam and naturally occurring plant litter, and by following fungal colonization of Alnus glutinosa

K. R. Sridharl; G. Krauss; F. Barlocher; R. Wennrich

249

Content of some heavy metals in soil and corn grain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an attempt to find causes for lower than expected corn (Zea mays L.) production along the bottomlands of the Green and Pond Rivers in western Kentucky, corn fields were sampled for soil and corn grain to determine heavy metal content. Samples from sixteen carefully selected fields were analyzed for Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ni content. Yield of corn was

K. L. Wells; Greg Henson; George Kelley

1993-01-01

250

Heavy metal pollution of river Ganga in Mirzapur, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study on the heavy metal pollution of River Ganga in the Mirzapur region, India has revealed that the river is polluted. The samples were collected from both the confluence of sewers and the river and from midstream points. The river is the dumping ground for domestic, municipal and industrial effluents. All the samples were analysed for certain physiochemical parameters

Y. C. Sharma; G. Prasad; D. C. Rupainwar

1992-01-01

251

Heavy metal leaching of contaminated soils from a metallurgical plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratory tests were carried out to determine the primary parameters affecting the efficiency of the process of leaching heavy metals from natural soil collected inside a metallurgical plant in Italy. The soil samples tested consisted primarily of medium density, fine silica sand that had been contaminated with lead and zinc metallurgical wastes by percolating rainwater. Samples were obtained 1–2 m below

Paolo Desogus; Pier Paolo Manca; Giampaolo Orrů

2012-01-01

252

Heavy metal contamination in the Delhi segment of Yamuna basin.  

PubMed

Concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, Pb, Cr, Hg and As) in the waters of River Yamuna and in the soil of agricultural fields along its course in Delhi are reported from 13 sites, spread through the Delhi stretch of Yamuna, starting from the Wazirabad barrage till the Okhla barrage. Varying concentration of heavy metals was found. Peaks were observed in samples collected downstream of Wazirabad and Okhla barrage, indicating the anthropogenic nature of the contamination. The Wazirabad section of the river receives wastewater from Najafgarh and its supplementary drains, whereas the Shahdara drain releases its pollution load upstream of the Okhla barrage. Average heavy metal concentration at different locations in the river water varied in the order of Fe>Cr>Mn>Zn>Pb>Cu>Ni>Hg>As>Cd. The river basin soil shows higher level of contamination with lesser variation than the water samples among sampling locations, thereby suggesting deposition over long periods of time through the processes of adsorption and absorption. The average heavy metal concentration at different locations in soil varied in the order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Cr>Pb>Ni>Hg>Cu>As>Cd. PMID:21505769

Sehgal, Meena; Garg, Ankur; Suresh, R; Dagar, Priya

2012-01-01

253

Heavy metal ion adsorption onto polypyrrole-impregnated porous carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polypyrrole-impregnated porous carbon was readily synthesized using vapor infiltration polymerization of pyrrole monomers. The results show that the functionalized polymer layer was successfully coated onto the pore surface of carbon without collapse of mesoporous structure. The modified porous carbon exhibited an improved complexation affinity for heavy metal ions such as mercury, lead, and silver ions due to the amine group

Moonjung Choi; Jyongsik Jang

2008-01-01

254

MICROBIAL SEQUESTRATION OF LEAD AND OTHER HEAVY METALS  

EPA Science Inventory

Human activity resulting in heavy metal contamination is a worldwide concern. Lead is a potent neurotoxin that can cause heart problems, kidney damage, and mental retardation. Mercury causes toxicity based on its form and route of exposure. Effects range from allergic reactions t...

255

Heavy Metals Behavior During Thermal Plasma Vitrification Of Incineration Residues  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incineration of wastes, widely and increasingly used nowadays, produces residues, mainly bottom ash and filter fly ash. Fly ash is especially problematic because of its high content in heavy metals easily drawn out. Thermal processes, based mainly on electrical arc processes, are used to melt the residues at high temperature and convert them into a relatively inert glass. Consequently, to

Nuno Cerqueira; Colette Vandensteendam; Jean Marie Baronnet

2006-01-01

256

HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF AYURVEDIC HERBAL MEDICINE PRODUCTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Case reports of individuals taking Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (HMPs) suggest that they may contain lead, mercury, and/or arsenic. We analyzed the heavy metal content of Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in India and Pakistan, available in South Asian grocery stores in the Bost...

257

Surfactin restores and enhances swarming motility under heavy metal stress.  

PubMed

The present work reports the importance of lipopeptide biosurfactant on swarming motility of multi-metal resistant (MMR) bacterium under heavy metal stress. The MMR bacteria strain CM100B, identified as Bacillus cereus, was isolated from the coal mine sample. The strain was able to grow and reduce several metals namely Cd(2+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+) and Pb(2+) ions which are common environmental pollutants. Presence of toxic heavy metal ions in the swarming medium significantly altered the motility of CM100B. Presence of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ions inhibited development of peritrichous flagella, thus inhibiting swarming motility. However, the addition of anionic biosurfactant surfactin restored (in case of Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ions) or enhanced (in case of Co(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+) and Mn(2+)) the swarming ability of CM100B. Zeta potential studies for determining bacterial cell surface charge indicated that surfactin provided a suitable swarming environment to bacteria even under metal stress by chelating to cationic metal ions. Non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 was unable to restore swarming under Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) ion stress. Thus, suggesting that surfactin can aid in motility not only by reducing the surface tension of swarming medium but also by binding to metal ions in the presence of metal ions stress. PMID:24441179

Singh, Anil Kumar; Dhanjal, Soniya; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

2014-04-01

258

Engineering Assessment of Hot-Acid Treatment of Municipal Sludge for Heavy Metals Removal.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The hot-acid method for treating sludge was developed by the Walden Division of Abcor, Inc., to remove heavy metals from municipal wastewater sludge. Investigations by Walden have demonstrated the degrees to which heavy metals are solubilized. Sulfuric ac...

1982-01-01

259

Estimation of Heavy Metal Concentration in FBR Reprocessing Solvent Streams by Density Measurement.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The application of density measurement to heavy metal monitoring in the solvent phase is described, including practical experience gained during three fast reactor fuel reprocessing campaigns. An experimental algorithm relating heavy metal concentration a...

M. L. Brown D. J. Savage

1986-01-01

260

Characterization of Compost with Respect to Its Content of Heavy Metals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The thesis contains studies aimed at establishing a standard procedure for quality control with respect to the content of heavy metals in compost lots to facilitate the control of legal standards relating to heavy metals. An unambiguous analytical procedu...

J. W. A. Lustenhouwer

1991-01-01

261

A Hydroponic Study of Heavy Metal Uptake by Selected Marsh Plant Species.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Eight marsh plants were grown in chemically controlled hydroponic solutions containing three concentrations of heavy metals to evluate the ability of each plant species to take up and accumulate heavy metals. The marsh plants studies were Cyperus esculent...

C. R. Lee T. C. Sturgis M. C. Landin

1976-01-01

262

Biosensors for the Detection of Heavy Metal Ions and Fecal Contamination.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sensors for the detection of heavy metal ions in waste water and fecal coliforms in surface water are described. Heavy metal complexing peptides/proteins and antibodies against surface antigens of fecal coliforms are used as biological components. As tran...

C. Koesslinger F. Binder J. Ritter R. Hilpert S. Drost

1991-01-01

263

Noninvasive Evaluation of Heavy Metal Uptake and Storage in Micoralgae Using a Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Heavy Metal Biosensor1[C][W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

We have developed a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based heavy metal biosensor for the quantification of bioavailable free heavy metals in the cytoplasm of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The biosensor is composed of an end-to-end fusion of cyan fluorescent protein (CFP), chicken metallothionein II (MT-II), and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). In vitro measurements of YFP/CFP fluorescence emission ratios indicated that the addition of metals to the purified biosensor enhanced FRET between CFP and YFP, consistent with heavy metal-induced folding of MT-II. A maximum YFP/CFP FRET ratio of 2.8 was observed in the presence of saturating concentrations of heavy metals. The sensitivity of the biosensor was greatest for Hg2+ followed by Cd2+ ? Pb2+ > Zn2+ > Cu2+. The heavy metal biosensor was unresponsive to metals that do not bind to MT-II (Na+ and Mg2+). When expressed in C. reinhardtii, we observed a differential metal-dependent response to saturating external concentrations (1.6 mm) of heavy metals (Pb2+ > Cd2+) that was unlike that observed for the isolated biosensor (in vitro). Significantly, analysis of metal uptake kinetics indicated that equilibration of the cytoplasm with externally applied heavy metals occurred within seconds. Our results also indicated that algae have substantial buffering capacity for free heavy metals in their cytosol, even at high external metal concentrations.

Rajamani, Sathish; Torres, Moacir; Falcao, Vanessa; Ewalt Gray, Jaime; Coury, Daniel A.; Colepicolo, Pio; Sayre, Richard

2014-01-01

264

Heavy Metal Tolerance in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia  

PubMed Central

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an aerobic, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacterium widespread in the environment. S. maltophilia Sm777 exhibits innate resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents. Furthermore, this bacterium tolerates high levels (0.1 to 50 mM) of various toxic metals, such as Cd, Pb, Co, Zn, Hg, Ag, selenite, tellurite and uranyl. S. maltophilia Sm777 was able to grow in the presence of 50 mM selenite and 25 mM tellurite and to reduce them to elemental selenium (Se0) and tellurium (Te0) respectively. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed cytoplasmic nanometer-sized electron-dense Se0 granules and Te0 crystals. Moreover, this bacterium can withstand up to 2 mM CdCl2 and accumulate this metal up to 4% of its biomass. The analysis of soluble thiols in response to ten different metals showed eightfold increase of the intracellular pool of cysteine only in response to cadmium. Measurements by Cd K-edge EXAFS spectroscopy indicated the formation of Cd-S clusters in strain Sm777. Cysteine is likely to be involved in Cd tolerance and in CdS-clusters formation. Our data suggest that besides high tolerance to antibiotics by efflux mechanisms, S. maltophilia Sm777 has developed at least two different mechanisms to overcome metal toxicity, reduction of oxyanions to non-toxic elemental ions and detoxification of Cd into CdS.

Pages, Delphine; Rose, Jerome; Conrod, Sandrine; Cuine, Stephane; Carrier, Patrick; Heulin, Thierry; Achouak, Wafa

2008-01-01

265

Heavy Metals in Chesapeake Bay Sediments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The sediments and interstitial waters of four rivers of the Chesapeake Bay, the Potomac, Patuxent, Severn and Magothy, were analyzed for trace metals (Cu, Ni and Pb in the waters, Cu, Ni, Pb, Co, Cr, V and C in the sediments) to determine their distributi...

S. E. Sommer G. Diachenko A. Pyzik H. G. Siegrist

1976-01-01

266

Anaerobes into heavy metal: Dissimilatory metal reduction in anoxic environments  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Within the last decade, a novel form of microbial metabolism of major environmental significance has been elucidated. In this process, known as dissimilatory metal reduction, specialized microorganisms, living in anoxic aquatic sediments and ground water, oxidize organic compounds to carbon dioxide with metals serving as the oxidant. Recent studies have demonstrated that this metabolism explains a number of important geochemical phenomena in ancient and modern sedimentary environments, affecting not only the cycling of metals but also the fate of organic matter. Furthermore, this metabolism may have practical application in remediation of environments contaminated with toxic metals and/or organics.

Lovley, D. R.

1993-01-01

267

Disposable cuvette test for enzymatic determination of heavy metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on an optical cuvette test for total heavy metals based on the inhibition of the enzyme urease by metals ions including silver(I), mercury(II), copper(II), nickel(II), cobalt(II), and cadmium(II). The enzymatic action is monitored using an optical ammonia transducer deposited on the wall of a disposable cuvette. This results in a rapid and inexpensive single-shot device for heavy metal sensing. A solution of urease and buffer is placed in the cuvette with the ammonium sensor membrane fixed on one of its walls. Enzymatic action starts after addition of a defined quantity of urea. This is indicated by the increase in the absorption of the ammonia sensor membrane whose color changes from yellow to blue. The slop of the increase in signal is the information for the un-inhibited reaction. After several minutes,the sample (containing the heavy metal) is added to the cuvette. Heavy metal ions inhibit the enzyme (by binding to the sulfhydryl groups) and cause a decrease in the slope. The ratio of slopes of un-inhibited and inhibited reactions is a direct parameter for detecting and calculating total heavy metals. The optimum pH was a trade-off between optimum enzyme activity (pH 7 at 25 degree(s)C) and the relative signal change of the ammonia-sensor (highest at pH 8). pH 7.5 was found to be optimal. The system was calibrated at optimized activities of urease (1.5 (mu) ) and an optimized urea concentration (0.5 mmol). Heavy metals inhibit in the following order: Ag(I) > Hg(II) > Cu(II) >> Ni(II) > Co(II) > Cd(II) > Fe(III) > Pb(II), Zn(II). The following concentrations that cause 50% inhibition were found: Ag(I) (0.1 ppm), Hg(II) (0.5 ppm), Cu(II) (0.5 ppm), Ni(II) (7 ppm), Co(II) (30 ppm), Cd(II) (95 ppm), Fe(III) (50 ppm), Zn(II) (85 ppm) and Pb(II) (210 ppm). We also studied the inhibitory effect of combinations of metal ions, the influence of ionic strength, and the effect of incubation time.

Wolfbeis, Otto S.; Preininger, Claudia

1995-10-01

268

Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops*  

PubMed Central

Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals enter the human body mainly through two routes namely: inhalation and ingestion, ingestion being the main route of exposure to these elements in human population. Heavy metals intake by human populations through food chain has been reported in many countries. Soil threshold for heavy metal toxicity is an important factor affecting soil environmental capacity of heavy metal and determines heavy metal cumulative loading limits. For soil-plant system, heavy metal toxicity threshold is the highest permissible content in the soil (total or bioavailable concentration) that does not pose any phytotoxic effects or heavy metals in the edible parts of the crops does not exceed food hygiene standards. Factors affecting the thresholds of dietary toxicity of heavy metal in soil-crop system include: soil type which includes soil pH, organic matter content, clay mineral and other soil chemical and biochemical properties; and crop species or cultivars regulated by genetic basis for heavy metal transport and accumulation in plants. In addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-microbes play important roles in regulating heavy metal movement from soil to the edible parts of crops. Agronomic practices such as fertilizer and water managements as well as crop rotation system can affect bioavailability and crop accumulation of heavy metals, thus influencing the thresholds for assessing dietary toxicity of heavy metals in the food chain. This paper reviews the phytotoxic effects and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and food crops and assesses soil heavy metal thresholds for potential dietary toxicity.

Islam, Ejaz ul; Yang, Xiao-e; He, Zhen-li; Mahmood, Qaisar

2007-01-01

269

Intelligent potentiostat for identification of heavy metals in situ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a low-cost portable electrochemical instrument capable of on-site identification of heavy metals. The instrument acquires metal-specific voltage and current signals by the application of differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry. This technique enhances the analytical current and rejects the background current, resulting in a higher signal-to-noise ratio for a better detection limit. The identification of heavy metals is based on an intelligent machine-based method using a multilayer perceptron neural network consisting of three layers of neurons. The neural network is implemented using a 16 bit microcontroller. The system is developed for use in the field in order to avoid expensive and time-consuming procedures and can be used in a variety of situations to help environmental assessment and control.

Christidis, K.; Gow, K.; Robertson, P.; Pollard, P.

2006-01-01

270

THE EFFECTS OF CERTAIN HEAVY METALS ON RESPIRATION  

PubMed Central

1. The effect of the heavy metals on the respiration of Aspergillus niger is to cause the rate of carbon dioxide production to decrease from the first or to increase and subsequently diminish. 2. The speed of the toxic action varies as a constant power of the concentration. 3. The temperature coefficient of the toxic action is between 1.5 and 2. 4. An hypothesis is advanced to account for the action of the heavy metals, by means of which the experimental results may be accounted for. It is assumed that the metal is activated by a chemical combination with a cell constituent. This active compound alters the velocity constants of the normal respiratory reactions, and thus causes the observed changes in the rate of carbon dioxide production.

Cook, S. F.

1926-01-01

271

Heavy-metal enrichment in surficial sediments in the Oder River discharge area: source or sink for heavy metals?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Oder river drains a highly polluted industrial area and enters the Baltic Sea through a system of shallow lagoons. Surficial sediments in the discharge area of the Oder are highly enriched in heavy metals compared to their preindustrial background levels. Pore-water studies in short sediment cores reveal anoxic environments over the entire sediment column, except for a suboxic layer

Thomas Neumann; Thomas Leipe; Graham Shimmield

1998-01-01

272

“ In situ” phytostabilisation of heavy metal polluted soils using Lupinus luteus inoculated with metal resistant plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work is the evaluation of metal phytostabilisation potential of Lupinus luteus inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. 750 and heavy metal resistant PGPRs (plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria), for in situ reclamation of multi-metal contaminated soil after a mine spill. Yellow lupines accumulated heavy metals mainly in roots (Cu, Cd and especially Pb were poorly translocated to shoots). This indicates

M. Dary; M. A. Chamber-Pérez; A. J. Palomares; E. Pajuelo

2010-01-01

273

Heavy metals partioning in three French forest soils by sequential extraction procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

To know the concentration of heavy metal associated to chemical compounds is important to evaluate the environmental risks on soils, particularly regarding ion bioavailability. The relative mobility and strength of binding of heavy metals to the soil components can be studied using a sequential extraction procedure which provides a meaningful comparison between different soil profiles. The heavy metals partitioning has

A. Probst; L. Hernandez; J. L. Probst

2003-01-01

274

Ecotoxicological Studies. 3. Heavy metals contaminating water and fish from Fayoum Governorate, Egypt  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of some heavy metals in water and fish from Fayoum Governorate (Egypt) was studied in samples collected throughout two successive years (1997\\/1998 and 1998\\/1999). Water from Lake Qarun, a private fish farm and “Sanhour River” was found to contain heavy metals at concentration levels lower than those found in fish from the first two ecosystems. The heavy metals

S. A. Mansour; M. M. Sidky

2002-01-01

275

Studies on potential applications of biomass for the separation of heavy metals from water and wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal pollution has become a more serious environmental problem in the last several decades as a result of its toxicity and insusceptibility to the environment. This paper attempts to present a brief summary of the role of biomass in heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions. Undoubtedly, the biosorption process is a potential technique for heavy metal decontamination. The current

Sisca O. Lesmana; Novie Febriana; Felycia E. Soetaredjo; Jaka Sunarso; Suryadi Ismadji

2009-01-01

276

Influence of light on chlorophyll. A content of blue-green algae treated with heavy metals  

SciTech Connect

The toxicity of heavy metals is manifested in multifarious forms. Factors like illumination influence the inhibitory effect of heavy metals on chlorophyll metabolism and photosynthetic activities. The present study was undertaken to explore the effect of light on the chlorophyll A (Chl A) content of blue green algae. This is in continuation of heavy metal toxicity and accumulation studies on cyanobacteria reported earlier.

Azeez, P.A.; Banerjee, D.K.

1987-06-01

277

Separation Characteristics of Heavy Metal Compounds by Hot Gas Cleaning System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this research is the basic study for the development of separation technology of heavy metal compounds from hot flue gas. While the hot flue gas containing heavy metals from a melting furnace of industrial waste passes through the high temperature dust collector which can be varied the operating temperature. The heavy metals can be separated due to

T. Sakano; C. Kanaoka; M. Furuuchi; K. S. Yang; M. Hata

2002-01-01

278

Mobility of heavy metals associated with the natural weathering of coal mine spoils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of chemical mobility of heavy metals is fundamental to understanding their toxicity, bioavailability, and geochemical behavior. In this paper, two different methods, i.e. mineralogical means and sequential extractions, were employed to analyze the total contents, existing states, and chemical forms of heavy metals in coal mine spoils. The results demonstrate that the mobility of heavy metals in coal mine

Zhi Dang; Congqiang Liu; Martin J Haigh

2002-01-01

279

Heavy metals in organisms and sediments from Turkish Coast of the Black Sea, 1997–1998  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the period 1997–1998, macroalgae, sea snail, mussel, fish and sediment samples were collected at different stations of the Turkish Black Sea coast in order to establish the concentration of selected heavy metals. Heavy metals analyzed were Cd, Co, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, Pb and Cu. The results showed that the Turkish Black Sea coast is facing heavy metal

S Topcuo?lu; Ç K?rba?o?lu; N Güngör

2002-01-01

280

Ecological risk and pollution history of heavy metals in Nansha mangrove, South China.  

PubMed

Owing to the Industrial Revolution in the late 1970s, heavy metal pollution has been regarded as a serious threat to mangrove ecosystems in the region of the Pearl River Estuary, potentially affecting human health. The present study attempted to characterize the ecological risk of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in Nansha mangrove, South China, by estimating their concentrations in the surface sediment. In addition, the pollution history of heavy metals was examined by determining the concentrations of heavy metals along the depth gradient. The phytoremediation potential of heavy metals by the dominant plants in Nansha mangrove, namely Sonneratia apetala and Cyperus malaccensis, was also studied. Results found that the surface sediment was severely contaminated with heavy metals, probably due to the discharge of industrial sewage into the Pearl River Estuary. Spatial variation of heavy metals was generally unobvious. The ecological risk of heavy metals was very high, largely due to Cd contamination. All heavy metals, except Mn, decreased with depth, indicating that heavy metal pollution has been deteriorating since 1979. Worse still, the dominant plants in Nansha mangrove had limited capability to remove the heavy metals from sediment. Therefore, we propose that immediate actions, such as regulation of discharge standards of industrial sewage, should be taken by the authorities concerned to mitigate the ecological risk posed by heavy metals. PMID:24675443

Wu, Qihang; Tam, Nora F Y; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Zhou, Xizhen; Fu, Jie; Yao, Bo; Huang, Xuexia; Xia, Lihua

2014-06-01

281

Influence of ash composition on heavy metal emissions in ash melting process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two kinds of fly ash, discharged in the combustion of either refused derived fuel (RDF) or car shredder dust (SD), were examined for the emission of heavy metals in melting process under oxidizing and reducing conditions. The residual fractions of heavy metal in slag were experimentally estimated. As a result, it was confirmed that several volatile heavy metals were readily

Ryo Yoshiie; Makoto Nishimura; Hiroshi Moritomi

2002-01-01

282

Study on Form Distribution and Correlation of Heavy Metals in the Sediment of Urban Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the Tessier Five-step Continuous Extracting Method, the thesis studied the form distribution of heavy metals in the sediment samples collected from Mochou Lake, Xuanwu Lake and Qinhuai River in Nanjing, analyzed the correlation between leaching contents of heavy metals and various forms and between content of organic matter and leachability of heavy metals and between organic matter and organic

Xu Ying; Lu Jing-ling

2010-01-01

283

Potential toxic risk of heavy metals from sediment of the Pearl River in South China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on the monitoring of five heavy metal elements in the surface sediments of the Pearl River in South China, potential toxicity of the heavy metals was assessed using consensus-based sediment quality guidelines (SQGs) method and geo-accumulation (Igeo) index method. The monitoring results showed the heavy metal concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with each other, demonstrating a common trend

Hongyi NIU; Wenjing DENG; Qunhe WU; Xingeng CHEN

2009-01-01

284

Optimization of pig slurry application to heavy metal polluted soils monitoring nitrification processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrification is often negatively affected by heavy metal pollution in soils, this limiting land revegetation. Thus, the potential use of pig slurry as a nitrogen-rich organic amendment in different heavy metal contaminated soils has been evaluated; this also being a way of recycling this waste. In order to identify the factors affecting nitrification processes in heavy metal polluted soils (soil

Carlos de la Fuente; Rafael Clemente; José Martinez; M. Pilar Bernal

2010-01-01

285

Mineral materials as feasible amendments to stabilize heavy metals in polluted urban soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four minerals, agricultural limestone (AL), rock phosphate (RP), palygorskite (PG), and calcium magnesium phosphate (CMP), were evaluated by means of chemical fractions of heavy metals in soils and concentrations of heavy metals in leachates from columns to determine their ability to stabilize heavy metals in polluted urban soils. Two urban soils (calcareous soil and acidic soil) polluted with cadmium, copper,

Mingkui Zhang; Jincheng Pu

2011-01-01

286

Modeling of Heavy Metals Removal from Municipal Landfill Leachate Using Living Biomass of Water Hyacinth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water Hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes, a fast-growing floating aquatic macrophyte; was used for the removal of heavy metals from a municipal landfill leachate. The leachate was spiked with different mixtures of five heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb and Ni), at a range of concentrations to cover the ranges reported in literature. The initial concentrations of the total heavy metals in

Ahmed S. El-Gendy

2008-01-01

287

Spatial distribution of heavy metals in surficial sediments from Guanabara Bay: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-two surface sediment samples were collected in Guanabara Bay, one of the most prominent urban bays in SE Brazil, to investigate the spatial distribution of anthropogenic pollutants. The concentrations of heavy metals, organic carbon and particle size were examined in all samples. Large spatial variations of heavy metals and particle size were observed. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were

José Antônio Baptista Neto; Franz Xaver Gingele; Thomas Leipe; Isa Brehme

2006-01-01

288

Toxic effects of heavy metals and their accumulation in vegetables grown in a saline soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of heavy metals on biomass, chlorophyll, and antioxidative enzyme activities of eight vegetables grown in a saline soil. The heavy metal accumulation in vegetables was also investigated. Results show that biomass and chlorophyll content of crops decreased with the increase of heavy metal concentration while peroxidase activity increased at low

QuSheng Li; ShaSha Cai; CeHui Mo; Bei Chu; LiHua Peng; FangBing Yang

2010-01-01

289

Sorption of heavy metals by Lithuanian glauconite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption equilibria are evaluated for Cd(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) on a sample of pass 200 mesh Lithuanian glauconite using two different experimental\\/analytical approaches. First, the impacts of total metal concentration, ionic strength and pH on adsorption capacity are quantified in terms of the Freundlich isotherm equation for isotherms conducted at a single initial pH value. Relative adsorption capacity for the

Edward H. Smith; Weiping Lu; Tomas Vengris; Rima Binkiene

1996-01-01

290

Interaction of heavy metals and pyrene on their fates in soil and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea).  

PubMed

90-Day growth chamber experiments were performed to investigate the interactive effect of pyrene and heavy metals (Cu, Cd, and Pb) on the growth of tall fescue and its uptake, accumulation, and dissipation of heavy metals and pyrene. Results show that plant growth and phytomass production were impacted by the interaction of heavy metals and pyrene. They were significantly decreased with heavy metal additions (100-2000 mg/kg), but they were only slightly declined with pyrene spiked up to 100 mg/kg. The addition of a moderate dosage of pyrene (100 mg/kg) lessened heavy metal toxicity to plants, resulting in enhanced plant growth and increased metal accumulation in plant tissues, thus improving heavy metal removal by plants. In contrast, heavy metals always reduced both plant growth and pyrene dissipation in soils. The chemical forms of Cu, Cd, and Pb in plant organs varied with metal species and pyrene addition. The dissipation and mineralization of pyrene tended to decline in both planted soil and unplanted soils with the presence of heavy metals, whereas they were enhanced with planting. The results demonstrate the complex interactive effects of organic pollutants and heavy metals on phytoremediation in soils. It can be concluded that, to a certain extent, tall fescue may be useful for phytoremediation of pyrene-heavy metal-contaminated sites. Further work is needed to enhance methods for phytoremediation of heavy metal-organics co-contaminated soil. PMID:24383577

Lu, Mang; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Jing-Xiu; Zhang, Min; Xu, Yu-Xin; Wu, Xue-Jiao

2014-01-21

291

Detection of heavy metals in multianalyte solutions using diamond electrodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diamond is an attractive electrode material to replace mercury, which has been the material of choice for the electrochemical analysis of heavy metals in solution using stripping voltammetry. As a solid electrode however, interactions between different metal analytes can occur at diamond, which are not observed at Hg electrodes. We therefore examine the associated effects arising in the analysis of two types of mixed metal ion solutions, Cu-Cd and Cu-Zn, using stripping voltammetry at diamond electrodes. The detection of Cu is shown not to be strongly affected by the presence of either of the other metals, but the presence of Cu blocks the signal which otherwise would be detected for the second metal, Cd or Zn.

Foord, John S.; Hao, Wang; Eaton, Kirk

2005-09-01

292

Concentration and speciation of heavy metals during water hyacinth composting.  

PubMed

The Tessier sequential extraction method was employed to investigate the changes in heavy metals speciation (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr) during water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) composting. Results showed that, the contents of total metals concentration were increased during the composting process. The largest proportion of metals was found in the residual fraction which was in more stable form and is consequently considered unavailable for plant uptake. Reducible and oxidizable fractions of Ni, Pb and Cd were not found in all trials during water hyacinth composting. The concentrations of Cu and Cd were very low comparative to the other metals, but the percentage of exchangeable and carbonate fractions were similar as other metals. From this study it can be concluded that the appropriate proportion of cattle manure addition (Trial 4) significantly reduced the mobile and easily available fractions (exchangeable and carbonate fractions) during the composting process. PMID:22989643

Singh, Jiwan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

2012-11-01

293

Characterization of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust.  

PubMed

Tire dust is a significant pollutant, especially as a source of zinc in the urban environment. This study characterizes the morphology and chemical composition of heavy metal particles embedded in tire dust and traffic-related materials (brake dust, yellow paint, and tire tread) as measured by a field emission scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (FESEM/EDX). In 60 samples of tire dust, we detected 2288 heavy metal particles, which we classified into four groups using cluster analysis according to the following typical elements: cluster 1: Fe, cluster 2: Cr/Pb, cluster 3: multiple elements (Ti, Cr, Fe, Cu, Zn, Sr, Y, Zr, Sn, Sb, Ba, La, Ce, Pb), cluster 4: ZnO. According to their morphologies and chemical compositions, the possible sources of each cluster were as follows: (1) brake dust (particles rich in Fe and with trace Cu, Sb, and Ba), (2) yellow paint (CrPbO(4) particles), (3) brake dust (particulate Ti, Fe, Cu, Sb, Zr, and Ba) and heavy minerals (Y, Zr, La, and Ce), (4) tire tread (zinc oxide). When the chemical composition of tire dust was compared to that of tire tread, the tire dust was found to have greater concentrations of heavy metal elements as well as mineral or asphalt pavement material characterized by Al, Si, and Ca. We conclude that tire dust consists not only of the debris from tire wear but also of assimilated heavy metal particles emitted from road traffic materials such as brake lining and road paint. PMID:15337346

Adachi, Kouji; Tainosho, Yoshiaki

2004-10-01

294

Phytoremediation of heavy metals and study of the metal coordination by X-ray absorption spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although traditional technologies for cleaning contaminated soils and waters have proven to be efficient, they are usually expensive, labor intensive, and in the case of soil, they produce severe disturbance. More recently, the use of plants in metal extraction (phytoremediation) has appeared as a promising alternative in the removal of heavy metal excess from soil and water. Phytoremediation of polluted

Jorge L. Gardea-Torresdey; Jose R. Peralta-Videa; G. de la Rosa; J. G. Parsons

2005-01-01

295

Removal of dissolved heavy metals from acid rock drainage using iron metal  

Microsoft Academic Search

The chemical and microbial activity of corroding iron metal is examined in the acid rock drainage (ARD) resulting from pyrite oxidation to determine the effectiveness in neutralizing the ARD and reducing the load of dissolved heavy metals. ARD from Berkeley Pit, MT, is treated with iron in batch reactors and columns containing iron granules. Iron, in acidic solution, hydrolyzes water

Tamara E. Shokes; G. Moeller

1999-01-01

296

Heavy metals in garden soils along roads in Szeged, Hungary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The soils of the urban environment, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by heavy metals. The traffic is well-known for more decades to be main source of heavy metals mostly in cities. The accumulation of these elements can have different effects, either directly endangering the natural soil functions, or indirectly endangering the biosphere by bio-accumulation and inclusion in the food chain. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads can be potential risky for people since unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metal content of garden soils directly along roads with heavy traffic in order to assess possible risk for human health. The total content and the mobile content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples from garden soils along 5 busy roads of Szeged, South Hungary. Enrichment factor has been calculated with the help of control soil samples far from roads. The soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility have also been examined. Finally, the human health risk of these garden soils has been modelled by determination of health risk quotient (HRQ). As a result of our investigations, it can be claimed that mostly Cu, Zn and to a lesser degree the Ni, Cr and Pb accumulated in garden soils along roads depending on the traffic density. In general, the topsoils (0-10 cm) had higher amount of these metals rather than the subsoils (40-50 cm). Ni of these metals has approached; Cu has exceeded limit value while Pb is under it. Cd is very high in both soils along roads and control ones far from roads. Garden soils along the roads have such basic soil parameters (pH, mechanical soil type, humus content) that prove fairly high metal-binding capacity for these soils. Total risk of usage of these gardens (ingestion of soil, dermal contact, consumption of vegetables) has not exceeded the moderate level in normal case. However, the degree of risk has considerably increased if you consume exclusively vegetables in contaminated garden soils. In this case the risk can be relatively high for the more sensitive children.

Szolnoki, Zsuzsanna; Farsang, Andrea

2010-05-01

297

Heavy metals in Ratnapura alluvial gem sediments, Sri Lanka  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The valuable gems in Sri Lanka are found from the sedimentary gem deposits in Ratnapura District, which are found as alluvial deposits some are about >50 m deep. Gem bearing gravel layer is taken out from the mine, washed by panning to recover the gem minerals in the heavy mineral fraction, is a common practice in the gem mining area. Gem bearing sediment layer is associated with different heavy minerals in which different trace metals as Co, Cr, Cu, Al, Zr, Pb and As also can be present. During panning, the sediment is washed away and the heavy metals attached to the sediments are released into the environment. Hence we studied the lability and bioavailability of arsenic and other heavy metals from the gem sediments. Sediment samples were collected from 15 small scale gem mines (3 soil layers- top, gem mineral layer and layer below gem bearing gravel layer), air dried and sieved to obtain <63?m fraction. Bioavailable, exchangeable and residual fractions were 0.01M CaCl2, 1M NaOAc, pH 8.2 and microwave digestion using HF, HNO3 and HClO4. Filtered samples were analyzed for As, Co, Zn, Mn, Cu, Ni, Pb and Fe using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (GBC 933AA). Total digestion results in different layers indicated that heavy metals show an increasing pattern with depth. About 4 gem bearing gravel layers were consist of high concentrations of Ni (>150 mg/kg), Cu (>150 mg/kg), Pb (>400 mg/kg), Zn (>600 mg/kg) and Co ions (>100 mg/kg). Arsenite in the gem sediments were low and recorded as <5mg/kg. Total arsenic analysis is under investigation. Highest concentrations for bioavailable and exchangeable (leach to water) metals were Fe>Co>Zn>Mn>Ni>Cu>Pb. Sediments from few gem pits showed considerably high concentrations of metals analyzed. In some places Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn reported high in bioavailable fractions 70, 25, 20, 10 mg/kg respectively. Mobilization of these metals may increase due to changes in the pH and the presence of other ions in the environment. High concentrations of toxic metals in exchangeable and bioavailable fractions indicate the risk on plant and animals as well as the open water bodies and groundwater sources.

Vithanage, M. S.; Hettiarachchi, J. K.; Rajapaksha, A. U.; Wijesekara, H.; Hewawasam, T.

2011-12-01

298

Analysis of heavy-metal-stressed plants by fluorescence imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chlorophyll fluorescence has been widely applied as a non-invasive technique for the in vivo analysis of plant stress. In this work, the two-dimensional image analysis of the fluorescence signal was used to evaluate the physiological status of heavy metal stressed leaves, based on their photosynthetic capacity. Chlorophyll fluorescence (greater than 650 nm) emission of control and heavy metal treated plants registered at different times during the blue light illumination of the leaves show abnormal patterns of non- homogeneous spatial distribution of the fluorescence emission from metal-treated plants. This is correlated to an altered photosynthetic functionality in different parts of the leaves. Quantitative evaluation of the photosynthetic activity can be made on data extracted after simple arithmetical pixel-point processing of fluorescence images taken at different time during the illumination process. The altered fluorescence emission was observed in absence of other visual symptoms that could testify problems at the level of the photosynthetic apparatus. This indicates that chlorophyll fluorescence imaging is a suitable tool for the early, pre-visual detection of plant stress also in the case of heavy metal stress.

Valcke, Roland L.; Ciscato, Massimo; Heisel, Francine; Miehe, Joseph-Albert; Sowinska, Malgorzata

1999-05-01

299

Heavy metals in aquatic macrophytes drifting in a large river  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Macrophytes drifting through the water column in the Detroit River were collected monthly from May to October 1985 to estimate the quantities of heavy metals being transported to Lake Erie by the plants. Most macrophytes (80-92% by weight) drifted at the water surface. Live submersed macrophytes made up the bulk of each sample. The most widely distributed submersed macrophyte in the river, American wildcelery (Vallisneria americana), occurred most frequently in the drift. A total of 151 tonnes (ash-free dry weight) of macrophytes drifted out of the Detroit River from May to October. The drift was greatest (37 tonnes) in May. Concentrations of heavy metals were significantly higher in macrophytes drifiting in the river than in those growing elsewhere in unpolluted waters. Annually, a maximum of 2796 kg (eight heavy metals combined) were transported into Lake Erie by drifting macrophytes. The enrichment of all metals was remarkably high in macrophytes, relative to their concentration in water of the Detroit River. Detroit River Macrophytes are thus a source of contaminated food for animals in the river and in Lake Erie.

Manny, Bruce A.; Nichols, Susan J.; Schloesser, Donald W.

1991-01-01

300

Immobilization of heavy metals and phenol on altered bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect

This article evaluates adsorption ability of the altered bituminous coals to remove heavy metals and/or phenol from aqueous solutions. As for heavy metals, copper (II), cadmium (II) and lead (II) cations were used. In addition to phenol, cyclohexanol and 2-cyclohexen-1-ol were also examined. Adsorption experiments were conducted in the batch mode at room temperature and at pH 3 and 5. To characterize the texture of coal samples, adsorption isotherms of nitrogen at - 196{sup o}C, enthalpies of the immersion in water, and pH values in aqueous dispersions were measured. Coal hydrogen aromaticities were evaluated from the infrared spectrometric examinations (DRIFTS). Based on the investigations performed, cation exchange was confirmed as the principal mechanism to immobilize heavy metallic ions on coals. However, apart from carboxylic groups, other functionalities (hydroxyl groups) were found to be involved in the adsorption process. During adsorption of phenol, {pi}-{pi} interactions between {pi}-electrons of phenol and aromatic rings of coal proved to play the important role; however, no distinct correlation between adsorption capacities for phenol and hydrogen aromaticities of the coal was found. Probable involvement of oxygenated surface groups in the immobilization of phenol on coal was deduced. As a result, for waste water treatment, oxidative altered bituminous coal can be recommended as a suitable precursor, with the largest immobilization capacities both for metallic ions and phenol, as found in the studied samples.

Taraba, B.; Marsalek, R. [Technical University of Ostrava, Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Chemistry

2007-07-01

301

Perspectives of plant-associated microbes in heavy metal phytoremediation.  

PubMed

"Phytoremediation" know-how to do-how is rapidly expanding and is being commercialized by harnessing the phyto-microbial diversity. This technology employs biodiversity to remove/contain pollutants from the air, soil and water. In recent years, there has been a considerable knowledge explosion in understanding plant-microbes-heavy metals interactions. Novel applications of plant-associated microbes have opened up promising areas of research in the field of phytoremediation technology. Various metabolites (e.g., 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, organic acids, etc.) produced by plant-associated microbes (e.g., plant growth promoting bacteria, mycorrhizae) have been proposed to be involved in many biogeochemical processes operating in the rhizosphere. The salient functions include nutrient acquisition, cell elongation, metal detoxification and alleviation of biotic/abiotic stress in plants. Rhizosphere microbes accelerate metal mobility, or immobilization. Plants and associated microbes release inorganic and organic compounds possessing acidifying, chelating and/or reductive power. These functions are implicated to play an essential role in plant metal uptake. Overall the plant-associated beneficial microbes enhance the efficiency of phytoremediation process directly by altering the metal accumulation in plant tissues and indirectly by promoting the shoot and root biomass production. The present work aims to provide a comprehensive review of some of the promising processes mediated by plant-associated microbes and to illustrate how such processes influence heavy metal uptake through various biogeochemical processes including translocation, transformation, chelation, immobilization, solubilization, precipitation, volatilization and complexation of heavy metals ultimately facilitating phytoremediation. PMID:22580219

Rajkumar, M; Sandhya, S; Prasad, M N V; Freitas, H

2012-01-01

302

Plants accumulating heavy metals in the Danube River wetlands  

PubMed Central

Background We present herein our results regarding the accumulation of four heavy metals (copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc) in four aquatic species plants (Ceratophyllum demersum, Potamogeton pectinatus, Potamogeton lucens, Potamogeton perfoliatus) collected from the Danube River, South-Western part of Romania and their possible use as indicators of aquatic ecosystems pollution with heavy metals. Methods Elements concentration from the vegetal material was determined through Inductively Coupled Plasma – Mass Spectrometry. Results The species were chosen based on their previous use as bioindicators in aquatic ecosystems and due to the fact they are one of the most frequent aquatic plant species of the Danube River ecosystems within the Iron Gates Natural Park. Highest amounts are recorded for Ceratophyllum demersum (3.52 ?g/g for Cd; 22.71 ?g/g for Cu; 20.06 ?g/g for Pb; 104.23 ?g/g for Zn). Among the Potamogeton species, the highest amounts of heavy metals are recorded in Potamogeton perfoliatus (1.88 ?g/g for Cd; 13.14 ?g/g for Cu; 13.32 ?g/g for Pb; 57.96 ?g/g for Zn). The sequence for the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) calculated in order to describe the accumulation of the four metals is Cd >> Zn > Pb > Cu. Increase of the zinc concentration determines an increase of the cadmium concentration (Spearman rho=0.40, p=0.02). Conclusions Despite the low ambiental levels of heavy metals, the four aquatic plants have the ability to accumulate significant amounts, which make them useful as biological indicators. BCF value for Ceratophyllum demersum indicated this species as a cadmium hyperaccumulator.

2013-01-01

303

Leachability of Arsenic and Heavy Metals from Mine Tailings of Abandoned Metal Mines  

PubMed Central

Mine tailings from an abandoned metal mine in Korea contained high concentrations of arsenic (As) and heavy metals [e.g., As: 67,336, Fe: 137,180, Cu: 764, Pb: 3,572, and Zn: 12,420 (mg/kg)]. US EPA method 6010 was an effective method for analyzing total arsenic and heavy metals concentrations. Arsenic in the mine tailings showed a high residual fraction of 89% by a sequential extraction. In Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and Korean Standard Leaching Test (KSLT), leaching concentrations of arsenic and heavy metals were very low [e.g., As (mg/L): 0.4 for TCLP and 0.2 for KSLT; cf. As criteria (mg/L): 5.0 for TCLP and 1.5 for KSLT].

Lim, Mihee; Han, Gi-Chun; Ahn, Ji-Whan; You, Kwang-Suk; Kim, Hyung-Seok

2009-01-01

304

Characterization of a Novel Plant Promoter Specifically Induced by Heavy Metal and Identification of the Promoter Regions Conferring Heavy Metal Responsiveness1  

PubMed Central

The bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) stress-related gene number 2 (PvSR2) gene responds to heavy metals but not to other forms of environmental stresses. To elucidate its heavy metal-regulatory mechanism at the transcriptional level, we isolated and characterized the promoter region (?1623/+48) of PvSR2. Deletions from the 5? end revealed that a sequence between ?222 and ?147 relative to the transcriptional start site was sufficient for heavy metal-specific induction of the promoter region of PvSR2. Detailed analysis of this 76-bp fragment indicated that heavy metal-responsive elements were localized in two regions (?222/?188 and ?187/?147), each of which could separately confer heavy metal-responsive expression on the ?-glucuronidase gene in the context of a minimal cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Region I (?222/?188) contains a motif (metal-regulatory element-like sequence) similar to the consensus metal-regulatory element of the animal metallothionein gene, and mutation of this motif eliminated the heavy metal-inducible function of region I. Region II (?187/?147) had no similarity to previously identified cis-acting elements involved in heavy metal induction, suggesting the presence of a novel heavy metal-responsive element. Transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) seedlings expressing ?-glucuronidase under control of the PvSR2 promoter region (?687/+48) showed heavy metal-specific responsive activity that depended on the type and concentration of the heavy metal and the type of organ. These findings further our understanding of the regulation of PvSR2 expression and provide a new heavy-metal-inducible promoter system in transgenic plants.

Qi, Xiaoting; Zhang, Yuxiu; Chai, Tuanyao

2007-01-01

305

Bioremediation of heavy metals in liquid media through fungi isolated from contaminated sources.  

PubMed

Wastewater particularly from electroplating, paint, leather, metal and tanning industries contain enormous amount of heavy metals. Microorganisms including fungi have been reported to exclude heavy metals from wastewater through bioaccumulation and biosorption at low cost and in eco-friendly way. An attempt was, therefore, made to isolate fungi from sites contaminated with heavy metals for higher tolerance and removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Seventy-six fungal isolates tolerant to heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were isolated from sewage, sludge and industrial effluents containing heavy metals. Four fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspegillus awamori, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride) also were included in this study. The majority of the fungal isolates were able to tolerate up to 400 ppm concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. The most heavy metal tolerant fungi were studied for removal of heavy metals from liquid media at 50 ppm concentration. Results indicated removal of substantial amount of heavy metals by some of the fungi. With respect to Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni, maximum uptake of 59.67, 16.25, 0.55, and 0.55 mg/g was observed by fungi Pb3 (Aspergillus terreus), Trichoderma viride, Cr8 (Trichoderma longibrachiatum), and isolate Ni27 (A. niger) respectively. This indicated the potential of these fungi as biosorbent for removal of heavy metals from wastewater and industrial effluents containing higher concentration of heavy metals. PMID:23024411

Joshi, P K; Swarup, Anand; Maheshwari, Sonu; Kumar, Raman; Singh, Namita

2011-10-01

306

Heavy Metals Contamination in Coastal Sediments of Karachi, Pakistan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Toxic compounds such as heavy metals exert chronic and lethal effects in animals, plants, and human health. With the rapid industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi, heavy metals are continuing to be introduced to estuarine and coastal environment through rivers, runoff and land-based point sources. Pollution in the Karachi coastal region (167 km long) is mainly attributed to Lyari and Malir Rivers flowing through the city of Karachi. Both rivers are served by various channels of domestic and industrial wastes carrying more than 300 million gallons per day untreated effluent of 6000 industries and ultimately drain into the beaches of Arabian Sea. Concentrations of selected heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in surface sediments from eighty-eight sites in Karachi coastal region were studied in order to understand metal contamination due to industrialization, urbanization, and economic development in Karachi. Sediment samples were collected in 2005 and 2006. We have found that heavy metal concentrations in surface sediments varied from 0.006 to 24.3 ug/g for Cd, 5.1 to 95 ug/g for Co, 2.9 to 571 ug/g for Cr, 6.9 to 272 ug/g for Cu, 0.55 to 6.5% for Fe, 1.2 to 318 ug/g for Mn, 7.5 to 75 ug/g for Ni, 6.3 to 121 ug/g for Pb, and 3.3 to 389 ug/g for Zn. Enrichment factors (EFs) were calculated to assess whether the concentrations observed represent background or contaminated levels. The highest levels of metals were found to be at the confluence of the Lyari and Malir River streams at the Arabian Sea, indicating the impact of the effluents of the highly urbanized and industrialized city of Karachi. Furthermore, this study assessed heavy metal toxicity risk with the application of Sediment Quality Guideline (SQG) indices (effect range low/effect range median values, ERL/ERM). Results indicated that the potential toxicity of marine environment can cause adverse biological effects to the biota directly and the human health indirectly through food web chain.

Siddique, A.; Mumtaz, M.; Zaigham, N. A.; Mallick, K. A.; Saied, S.; Khwaja, H. A.

2008-12-01

307

Sorption of heavy metals to Phormidium laminosum biomass  

SciTech Connect

The capacity to adsorb a number of heavy metals [Fe(II), Cr(III), Cd(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Cu(II) and Ni(II)] by heat-dried biomass of the non-N{sub 2}-fixing cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosum was examined. Pretreatment of biomass with alkaline (1 M NaOH or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) washes led to increased metal adsorption, whereas acid treatment was inadequate. Exopolysaccharides present in the mucilaginous layer covering nitrogen-starved cells did not improve the adsorption capacity of the biomass. Biosorption was a very fast and pH-dependent process for most metals investigated. Generally, binding showed a minimum at pH < 3, but increased clearly with pH and reached a maximum at about pH 6-7. In contrast, the amount of metal bound increased with the biomass and the amount of available metal. Constants from Langmuir isotherms were calculated and the order of relative affinities for the studied metals was established according to the sorption intensity. Far from being reduced, the biosorption of the tested metals, with the exception of Ni(II), was slightly enhanced in the presence of high concentrations of Ca{sup 2+} (up to 200 p.p.m.). Finally, desorption attempts with 0.1 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} succeeded to different degrees depending on the metal. Alkaline conditioned biomass of P. laminosum can constitute an interesting and novel biosorbent of heavy metals to depollute wastewaters, even in hard waters containing a high concentration of Ca{sup 2+}. 38 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Sampedro, M.A.; Blanco, A.; Llama, M.J.; Serra, J.L. [Universidad del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain)

1995-12-01

308

Heavy Metals Behavior During Thermal Plasma Vitrification Of Incineration Residues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Incineration of wastes, widely and increasingly used nowadays, produces residues, mainly bottom ash and filter fly ash. Fly ash is especially problematic because of its high content in heavy metals easily drawn out. Thermal processes, based mainly on electrical arc processes, are used to melt the residues at high temperature and convert them into a relatively inert glass. Consequently, to improve the process and get a glass satisfying regulation, control of heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium and chromium...) volatility during plasma fly ash melting and vitrification is needed and basic data concerning vaporization of these metals are required. According to the volatility of these compounds observed during vitrification of fly ash, a predictive model has been used to simulate the elimination of Pb, Zn and S from the melt as a function of time and temperature for a system including chlorides, oxides and sulfates. The objective of this work was the experimental study of heavy metals volatility using optical emission spectroscopy. A twin torch plasma system, mounted above a cold crucible with Ar (or Ar + O2) as plasma gas, has been used. The crucible was filled with synthetic glass in which known amounts of metallic salts were added to obtain the same chemical composition as used in the model. From spectral lines intensities of Ar, the plasma temperature profiles along the observation direction has been first established, before using ratios of spectral lines of Ar and metallic (Pb, Zn) or Cl vapors to reach the evolution of the elements concentrations above the melt. Off-gases have been analyzed by mass spectrometry. The influence of the atmosphere (Ar or Ar + O2) above the crucible has been studied and differences in elements behaviors have been pointed out. The results of the spectroscopic measurements have been compared to the ones issued of modeling, in order to validate our model of vaporization.

Cerqueira, Nuno; Vandensteendam, Colette; Baronnet, Jean Marie

2006-01-01

309

Extraction of heavy metals by amines adsorbed onto silica gel.  

PubMed

Previous work has established the possibility of using known coordinating agents supported on silica gel in the removal of heavy metals such as lead, copper, cadmium, and nickel from aqueous media. Functionalized silica gel has been used in the removal of heavy metals with notable success. Silica gel is currently being used as a support for various monofunctional aliphatic amines as coordinating ligands. The current study reports the results of an investigation involving the use of saturated, straight chain primary amines as coordinating ligands in the removal of copper(II), cadmium(II), lead(II), nickel(II), and silver(I) ions from aqueous solutions of known concentration. Primary amines used in this investigation were n-butylamine, n-hexylamine, n-octylamine, n-decylamine, and n-hexadecylamine. PMID:14533930

Bowe, Craig A; Pooré, Duke D; Benson, Robert F; Martin, Dean F

2003-01-01

310

Heavy metal removel from minewaters by alkaline waste products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the serious environmental problems of the Western Urals area (Russia) is the consequence of the cessation of mining in the Kizel Coal Basin. After mine closure, acid mine waters (pH about 3) with excessive heavy metal contents began to pollute ground surface and rivers. The methodology of neutralization of acid mine water and heavy metal removal by alkaline waste products is discussed in the paper. Waste products are non-toxic and consist of 70-80% of calcite. As a result of neutralization, the sediment becomes a mixture of iron and gypsum hydroxide and carbonate calcium with neutral pH. Mobile forms of Fe, Al, Mn, Pb and others were not revealed. The pilot field experiment showed the prospect and low cost of this technology.

Maximovich, N. G.; Khayrulina, E. A.

2009-04-01

311

Slag from hazardous waste incineration: reduction of heavy metal leaching.  

PubMed

Hazardous waste incineration (HWI) in rotary kilns and the disposal of the residues on landfills play an important role in German waste treatment. In order to reduce costs by disposal on cheaper landfill sites still applying to landfill regulations the leaching behaviour of HWI-slag should be improved further. In a new process-integrated approach hazardous waste is mixed with limestone, which initiates chemical reactions with heavy metals in the rotary kiln yielding new compounds of different solubility. These reactions were observed after treatment at 1200 degrees C combined with fusion processes, at 930 degrees C they also occurred without fusion to the major part. For that purpose HWI-slag/limestone mixtures are thermally treated and then examined by elution tests. A minimum of overall heavy metal leaching was determined at CaO-contents between 15 and 20% after sintering at the average temperature at HWI. PMID:12739725

Reich, Jens

2003-04-01

312

Situ formation of apatite for sequestering radionuclides and heavy metals  

DOEpatents

Methods for in situ formation in soil of a permeable reactive barrier or zone comprising a phosphate precipitate, such as apatite or hydroxyapatite, which is capable of selectively trapping and removing radionuclides and heavy metal contaminants from the soil, while allowing water or other compounds to pass through. A preparation of a phosphate reagent and a chelated calcium reagent is mixed aboveground and injected into the soil. Subsequently, the chelated calcium reagent biodegrades and slowly releases free calcium. The free calcium reacts with the phosphate reagent to form a phosphate precipitate. Under the proper chemical conditions, apatite or hydroxyapatite can form. Radionuclide and heavy metal contaminants, including lead, strontium, lanthanides, and uranium are then selectively sequestered by sorbing them onto the phosphate precipitate. A reducing agent can be added for reduction and selective sequestration of technetium or selenium contaminants.

Moore, Robert C. (Edgewood, NM)

2003-07-15

313

Correlation analyses on binding behavior of heavy metals with sediment matrices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents the amounts of heavy metals bound to the sediment matrices (carbonates, Fe-oxides, Mn-oxides, and organic matter), the correlations between any two heavy-metal binding fractions, and the correlations between sediment matrices and their heavy-metal binding fractions. Data consisted of 313 sets obtained from five main rivers (located in southern Taiwan) were analyzed by statistical methods. Among six heavy

Kuang-Chung Yu; Li-Jyur Tsai; Shih-Hsiung Chen; Shien-Tsong Ho

2001-01-01

314

Role of soil rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils*  

PubMed Central

Heavy metal pollution of soil is a significant environmental problem and has its negative impact on human health and agriculture. Rhizosphere, as an important interface of soil and plant, plays a significant role in phytoremediation of contaminated soil by heavy metals, in which, microbial populations are known to affect heavy metal mobility and availability to the plant through release of chelating agents, acidification, phosphate solubilization and redox changes, and therefore, have potential to enhance phytoremediation processes. Phytoremediation strategies with appropriate heavy metal-adapted rhizobacteria have received more and more attention. This article paper reviews some recent advances in effect and significance of rhizobacteria in phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. There is also a need to improve our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the transfer and mobilization of heavy metals by rhizobacteria and to conduct research on the selection of microbial isolates from rhizosphere of plants growing on heavy metal contaminated soils for specific restoration programmes.

Jing, Yan-de; He, Zhen-li; Yang, Xiao-e

2007-01-01

315

Pentadienyl chemistry of the heavy alkaline-earth metals revisited.  

PubMed

Open-metallocenes of the heavy alkaline-earth metals [(?(5)-Pdl')2M(thf)n] (M = Ca (1), Sr (2), n = 1; M = Ba (3), n = 2; Pdl' = 2,4-tBu2C5H5) are readily prepared by salt-metathesis between MI2 and KPdl' and characterized by NMR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. PMID:24652227

Reiners, Matthias; Fecker, Ann Christin; Freytag, Matthias; Jones, Peter G; Walter, Marc D

2014-05-14

316

Sorption of heavy metals on blast furnace sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation into the use of sludge, a by-product of the steel industry, as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from liquid effluents was carried out. Gases produced in the blast furnace were washed and led towards a Dorr thickener where the sludge was obtained as a suspension. The sorption of Pb2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Cu2+ and Cr3+ on

A. López-Delgado; C. Pérez; F. A. López

1998-01-01

317

Altered Heavy Metals and Transketolase Found in Autistic Spectrum Disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autism and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are developmental brain disorders with complex, obscure, and multifactorial etiology.\\u000a Our recent clinical survey of patient records from ASD children under the age of 6 years and their age-matched controls revealed\\u000a evidence of abnormal markers of thiol metabolism, as well as a significant alteration in deposition of several heavy metal\\u000a species, particularly arsenic, mercury, copper,

Mark E. Obrenovich; Raymond J. Shamberger; Derrick Lonsdale

318

Chemical changes in heavy metals in the leachates from Technosols.  

PubMed

A 2 month long column study was conducted to evaluate the mobility of heavy metals eluting from Technosols constituted from sewage sludges (aerobic or anaerobic) (as controls) or a mixture of different types of sewage sludges with green foundry sand (FS) or/and Linz-Donowitz slag (LD). The organic and inorganic wastes were mixed at a ratio of 56:44 (w/w). The mixtures and the controls were moistened to field capacity before adding them to the polypropylene columns (4.5 cm wide and 14 cm long). During the 8-week experimental period, the columns were watered, twice a week, with 100 mL of deionised water. The concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr) in the leachates were determined periodically. The concentrations of all the heavy metals were generally higher in the leachates from the Technosols containing anaerobic sewage sludge as a component. The concentration of Cu was strongly dependent on pH and was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the most alkaline leachates (pH>10) than in the other leachates. More Zn was mobilized in the most acidic leachates (pH<6) than in other leachates. The concentration of Ni in 80% of the leachates exceeded the EU drinking water limit for Ni (0.02 mgL(-1)). The concentrations of Pb were lower in the Technosols containing FS. The concentrations of Cd in the leachates from Technosols containing the conditioners were relatively high, while concentrations of Cr were higher in the controls. As far as the potential toxicity of heavy metals is concerned, the combination of aerobic sludge, inorganic conditioners able to buffer the pH to around neutrality, and reactive aluminosilicates, can be regarded as suitable choice for formulating Technosols from wastes. PMID:19580987

Yao, F X; Macías, F; Virgel, S; Blanco, F; Jiang, X; Camps Arbestain, M

2009-09-01

319

Modeling rhizofiltration: heavy-metal uptake by plant roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

The discovery of phytoaccumulation potential of plant species has led to its application for remediation of heavy-metal-contaminated soil and wastewater, which is termed as phytoextraction\\/rhizofiltration. For prediction, analysis, planning and cost-effective design of such systems, mathematical models not only are used as a screening tool but also provide optimal parameters like harvesting time, irrigation schedule, etc. Several laboratory and field

P. Verma; K. V. George; H. V. Singh; S. K. Singh; A. Juwarkar; R. N. Singh

2006-01-01

320

Heavy metals: leaching from glazed surfaces of tea mugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals (zinc, lead, cadmium, iron, chromium, copper, manganese, nickel and cobalt) were found to leach from the glazed surfaces of tea mugs collected from 13 different pottery units of Khurja (U.P.) and one each from Ghaziabad (U.P.) and Calcutta (West Bengal) determined under different conditions. The leachates used were: tea at 80°C, orange juice at room temperature and 4%

Mohammed Ajmal; Ahsanullah Khan; Azhar A. Nomani; Shamin Ahmed

1997-01-01

321

Classification of Japanese rivers by heavy metals in bottom mud  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bottom mud was collected from the upper and lower reaches of 92 rivers in Japan to determine the distribution of 0.5N-HCI-soluble\\u000a heavy metals. The average concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in the mud from the lower reaches were from two to three times\\u000a higher than those in the upper reaches. Japanese rivers were classified according to the degree

Fumi Tada; Hideo Nishida; Masaya Miyai; Shizuo Suzuki

1982-01-01

322

Biomonitoring of heavy metals by pollen in urban environment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Industrial development and consumption of petroleum products leads to increase air pollution levels especially in\\u000a urban and industrial areas. Heavy metal components associated with air pollutants have far reaching effects with respect to\\u000a economic and ecological importance of pollens. The pollens are male reproductive organs of the plant and travel through air\\u000a from flower to flower for pollination purpose.

D. M Kalbande; Sharda N Dhadse; P. R Chaudhari; S. R Wate

2008-01-01

323

Plants Under Heavy Metal Stress in Saline Environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is devoted to an important yet poorly studied topic, investigations of plant responses to heavy metals (HMs) in\\u000a salinized environments. It embraces information obtained mainly during the last decade. Specific features of the actions of\\u000a NaCl and HMs on plants from various ecological groups are considered. The patterns of HM accumulation and organ specificity\\u000a under saline conditions are

Valentina Kholodova; Kirill Volkov; Vladimir Kuznetsov

324

Acid dissolution methods for heavy metals determination in pine needles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave digestion procedures using HNO 3, HNO 3+H 2O 2, HNO 3+HClO 4, HF mixtures and dry ashing with HF were investigated for heavy metals analysis by either inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) or ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in pine needles. The HF digestion procedures gave about 1.5 times higher values than a mixture of HNO 3+H 2O 2 alone.

R. Pöykiö; P. Perämäki

2003-01-01

325

Algae sequester heavy metals via synthesis of phytochelatin complexes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Cd-binding complex was isolated from Chlorella fusca and has been shown to be composed of phytochelating peptides, (?-Glu-Cys)n-Gly, n=2–5. Members of six of the ten classes of Phycophyta revealed phytochelatin synthesis after exposure to cadmium ions. Phytochelatin was also induced by ions of lead, zinc, silver, copper and mercury. These experiments uneqiovocally demonstrated that algae sequester heavy metals by

Walter Gekeler; Erwin Grill; Ernst-Ludwig Winnacker; Meinhart H. Zenk

1988-01-01

326

Effect of Heavy Metals on Saprotrophic Soil Fungi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals represent an important group of soil pollutants that contribute to the formation of specific “toxic” habitats\\u000a characterized by alterations in the relative abundances of soil bacteria and fungi, changes in fungal community composition,\\u000a and interference with environmental processes of soil organic matter transformation. They also contribute to the heterogeneity\\u000a of soil, forming microhabitats that are toxic to varying

Petr Baldrian

327

Sensing of Heavy Metals Using Caenorhabditis elegans DNA Microarray  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—Previously we reported that the possibility of sensing of chemical substances using gene expression patterns analyzed,by DNA microarray using Caenorhabditis elegans( C. elegans) as a sensor (Matsuno et al., 2002, 2006). In this study, we evaluated sensitivity and selectivity of above system using a customized,DNA microarray ,for heavy ,metal responded ,genes. The results showed,that this system ,showed ,high sensitivity and

Nobuaki TOMINAGA; Tetsuya MATSUNO; Shinya KOHRA; Koji ARIZONO

328

Heavy metal poisoning: the effects of cadmium on the kidney  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is known to be a widespread environmental contaminant and a potential toxin that may adversely\\u000a affect human health. Exposure is largely via the respiratory or gastrointestinal tracts; important non-industrial sources\\u000a of exposure are cigarette smoke and food (from contaminated soil and water). The kidney is the main organ affected by chronic\\u000a Cd exposure and toxicity.

Nikhil JohriGregory Jacquillet; Grégory Jacquillet; Robert Unwin

2010-01-01

329

Heavy metals in source-separated compost and digestates.  

PubMed

The production of compost and digestate from source-separated organic residues is well established in Europe. However, these products may be a source of pollutants when applied to soils. In order to assess this issue, composts, solid and liquid digestates from Switzerland were analyzed for heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) addressing factors which may influence the concentration levels: the treatment process, the composition, origin, particle size and impurity content of input materials, the season of input materials collection or the degree of organic matter degradation. Composts (n=81) showed mean contents being at 60% or less of the legal threshold values. Solid digestates (n=20) had 20-50% lower values for Cd, Co, Pb and Zn but similar values for Cr, Cu and Ni. Liquid digestates (n=5) exhibited mean concentrations which were approximately twice the values measured in compost for most elements. Statistical analyses did not reveal clear relationships between influencing factors and heavy metal contents. This suggests that the contamination was rather driven by factors not addressed in the present study. According to mass balance calculations related to Switzerland, the annual loads to agricultural soils resulting from the application of compost and digestates ranged between 2% (Cd) and 22% (Pb) of total heavy metal loads. At regional scale, composts and digestates are therefore minor sources of pollution compared to manure (Co, Cu, Ni, Zn), mineral fertilizer (Cd, Cr) and aerial deposition (Pb). However, for individual fields, fertilization with compost or digestates results in higher heavy metal loads than application of equivalent nutrient inputs through manure or mineral fertilizer. PMID:24613591

Kupper, Thomas; Bürge, Diane; Bachmann, Hans Jörg; Güsewell, Sabine; Mayer, Jochen

2014-05-01

330

Heavy metal soil pollution cartography in northern France  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents maps and analyses of soil contamination by lead and cadmium. Data are for soil samples from the Evin-Malmaison site (Nord Pas-de-Calais, France). The statistical method used to interpolate concentrations of heavy metals enables the drawing of maps and the associated errors. The instrumentation required to follow both the spatial and temporal evolution of these concentrations is discussed.

J.-P. Frangi; D. Richard

1997-01-01

331

Extraction kinetics of heavy metal-containing sludge  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to remove and recover copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from the wastewater treatment sludge generated by an electroplating process, the heavy metal extraction kinetics was studied in a batch reactor using two different extraction agents (nitric and citric acid) at constant agitation speed (150rpm) and solid to liquid ratio (10g\\/L), but varying acid concentrations (0.02–0.10N), temperatures (25–85°C in

I.-Hsien Lee; Yi-Jing Wang; Jia-Ming Chern

2005-01-01

332

Extraction of heavy metal ions sorbed on clays  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of seventeen different chemical solutions to displace heavy metal ions (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd), pre-adsorbed on clay (kaolinite, illite and montmorillonite) at either pH 5 or 7, has been examined and the relative efficiency of each extractant ascertained. Of the reagents used, only EDTA (0.001 M, pH 7) quantitatively released all four ions from the three clays; oxalic

Helen Farrah; William F. Pickering

1978-01-01

333

Effects of Gravity on Processing Heavy Metal Fluoride Fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The effects of gravity on the crystal nucleation of heavy metal fluoride fibers have been studied in preliminary experiments utilizing NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft and a microgravity sounding rocket flight. Commercially produced fibers were heated to the crystallization temperature in normal and reduced gravity. The fibers processed in normal gravity showed complete crystallization while the fibers processed in reduced gravity did not show signs of crystallization.

Tucker, Dennis S.; Workman, Gary L.; Smith, Guy A.

1997-01-01

334

Effect of fertilizer application on soil heavy metal concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large amount of chemicals is annually applied at the agricultural soils as fertilizers and pesticides. Such applications\\u000a may result in the increase of heavy metals particularly Cd, Pb, and As. The objective of this study was to investigate the\\u000a variability of chemical applications on Cd, Pb, and As concentrations of wheat-cultivated soils. Consequently, a study area\\u000a was designed and

Zahra Atafar; Alireza Mesdaghinia; Jafar Nouri; Mehdi Homaee; Masoud Yunesian; Mehdi Ahmadimoghaddam; Amir Hossein Mahvi

2010-01-01

335

Heavy metal complexation capacity of the South China Sea water  

Microsoft Academic Search

The seawater complexation capacity for heavy metals (copper, lead and cadmium) in the South China Sea was determined by anodic\\u000a voltammetry and the conditional stability constants of these complexes were calculated. The data showed that the complexation\\u000a capacity of the South China Sea water was greater than that of seawater in the Huanghe Estuary and the coast water of Qingdao.

Manping Zhang; Boshu Guo; Zhengbin Zhang; Liansheng Liu

1990-01-01

336

Heavy-metal adsorption by non-living biomass  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption of some heavy metals onto the walls of harvested, washed, and dried non-living biomass cells of different Pseudomonas strains was studied at optimum experimental conditions using a simplified single component system. The Langmuir adsorption model was found to be a suitable approach to describe the system via multi-step processes. Isotherms measured at 30.0°C and pH 5.5 with [M]total?=?10–100 mM

M. A. Shaker; H. M. Hussein

2005-01-01

337

Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals  

DOEpatents

Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

2011-05-03

338

Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals  

DOEpatents

Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman; Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

2011-03-29

339

Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals  

DOEpatents

Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

2011-03-15

340

Predicting the Phytoextraction Duration to Remediate Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

The applicability of phytoextraction to remediate soils contaminated with heavy metals (HMs) depends on, amongst others, the\\u000a duration before remediation is completed. The impact of changes in the HM content in soil occurring during remediation on\\u000a plant uptake has to be considered in order to obtain a reliable estimate of the phytoextraction duration. To simulate the\\u000a decrease in the HM

G. F. Koopmans; P. F. A. M. Römkens; J. Song; E. J. M. Temminghoff; J. Japenga

2007-01-01

341

Occurrence of heavy metal binding phytochelatins in plants growing in a mining refuse area  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Phytochelatins were identified in roots of heavy metal-sensitiveAcer pseudoplatanus and-resistantSilene cucubalus plants grown in zinc-rich soil of a mine dump. Both plants, when collected from a metal-uncontaminated stand, located nearby, revealed no phytochelatins. Thus, we concluded that metal-binding phytochelatins are specifically induced in plants of heavy metal enriched ecosystems.

E. Grill; E.-L. Winnacker; M. H. Zenk

1988-01-01

342

ACCUMULATION AND CELLULAR EFFECTS OF HEAVY METALS IN BENTHIC AND PLANKTONIC ALGAE  

EPA Science Inventory

These results suggest that in addition to metal exclusion, two other mechanisms are responsible for successful adaptation to heavy metals in Great Lakes algae. Heavy metals, especially Pb, Cd, and Zn can be incorporated in polyphosphate bodies. Metals incorporated in this manner ...

343

Derivation and application of a new model for heavy metal biosorption by algae  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equilibrium model for describing the relationships between important parameters for heavy metal sorption by algae was derived through a thermodynamics approach. In this model, both the removal efficiency of heavy metal and metal adsorption per unit algal biomass are considered to be simple functions of the ratio of algal biomass concentration to the initial metal concentration for selected conditions,

Karina Yew-Hoong Gin; Ying-Zhong Tang; M. A. Aziz

2002-01-01

344

Influence of inheritance and pedogenesis on heavy metal distribution in soils of Sicily, Italy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recognition of the potential health hazards associated with heavy metals has focused attention on the levels and behaviours of these elements both in natural and contaminated environments. Various soil types developed from different parent materials in Sicily, Italy, have been analysed in order to compare heavy metal distribution under different geopedological conditions. Total metal concentrations, metal partitioning and distribution

B Palumbo; M Angelone; A Bellanca; C Dazzi; S Hauser; R Neri; J Wilson

2000-01-01

345

Dynamic adsorption of heavy metals under various incineration temperatures  

SciTech Connect

Previous studies have indicated that an effective control technology, for heavy metal emissions from incinerators, is to use solid sorbents to capture metals by physical deposition and chemical adsorption. The controlling efficiency is affected by the kind and size of sorbents, the operating temperature, and the specific compositions of the waste. However, the dynamic adsorption behavior of heavy metals on sorbents during incineration is rarely discussed, because it is difficult to analyze and identify trace metals at high temperatures. The main objective of this study is to investigate the dynamic adsorption behavior of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Cd on sorbents (silica sand with limestone) at different operating temperatures (600, 700, and 800 C) and to find the adsorption saturation point of the sorbents during fluidized bed incineration. This will help us to determine when the sorbents should be renewed and investigate the adsorption mechanism. The results show that the adsorption saturation points of three of the four metals were: (1) Cr, 1.4 mg/g at 600 C, 1.04 mg/g at 800 C; (2) Pb, 16.08 mg/g at 600 C, 12 mg/g at 800 C; and (3) Cu, 10.6 mg/g at 600 C, 5.34 mg/g at 700 C. The adsorption capacity follows the sequence of Pb > Cu > Cr > Cd.

Chen, J.C.; Wey, M.Y.; Liu, Y.F.; Chiang, B.C. [National Chung Hsing Univ., Taichung (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Environmental Engineering

1998-08-01

346

Water Purification Using Functional Nanomaterials: Sequestering Toxic Heavy Metals  

SciTech Connect

Water, and water quality, are issues of critical importance to the future of humankind. Our water supply has been contaminated by a wide variety of industrial, military and natural sources. There is a serious need for technologies to remove toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the world’s water supplies. Surfactant templated synthesis of mesoporous ceramics provides a versatile foundation upon which to create high efficiency environmental sorbents. These nanoporous ceramics condense a huge amount of surface area into a very small volume. These mesoporous architectures can be subsequently functionalized through molecular self-assembly. These functional mesoporous materials offer significant capabilities in terms of removal of heavy metals and radionuclides from groundwater and other liquid media. They are highly efficient sorbents, whose interfacial chemistry can be fine-tuned to selectively sequester a specific target species, such as heavy metals, tetrahedral oxometallate anions and radionuclides. Their rigid, open pore structure allows for rapid, efficient sorption kinetics. This manuscript provides an overview of the design, synthesis and performance of the sorbent materials.

Fryxell, Glen E.

2008-02-01

347

Heavy metal analysis in commercial Spirulina products for human consumption.  

PubMed

For consumption of health foods of Spirulina, by the general public, health food stores are increasingly offering more exotic products. Though Spirulina consumption is growing worldwide, relatively few studies have reported on the quantities of heavy metals/minerals they contain and/or their potential effects on the population's health. This study reveals the concentrations of six typical heavy metals/minerals (Ni, Zn, Hg, Pt, Mg, and Mn) in 25 Spirulina products commercialized worldwide for direct human consumption. Samples were ground, digested and quantified by Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The concentrations (mg/kg d.w.) were range from 0.001 to 0.012 (Pt) followed by 0.002-0.028 (Hg), 0.002-0.042 (Mg), 0.005-2.248 (Mn), 0.211-4.672 (Ni) and 0.533-6.225 (Zn). The inorganic elements of the present study were significantly lower than the recommended daily intake (RDI) level of heavy metal elements (mg/daily) Ni (0.4), Zn (13), Hg (0.01), Pt (0.002), Mg (400) and Mn (4). Based on this study the concentration of inorganic elements was not found to exceed the present regulation levels, and they can be considered as safe food. PMID:24235875

Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

2013-10-01

348

Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions.  

PubMed

Smart responsive microcapsules capable of recognizing heavy metal ions are successfully prepared with oil-in-water-in-oil double emulsions as templates for polymerization in this study. The microcapsules are featured with thin poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-benzo-18-crown-6-acrylamide) (P(NIPAM-co-BCAm)) membranes, and they can selectively recognize special heavy metal ions such as barium(II) or lead(II) ions very well due to the "host-guest" complexation between the BCAm receptors and barium(II) or lead(II) ions. The stable BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes in the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membrane cause a positive shift of the volume phase transition temperature of the crosslinked P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) hydrogel to a higher temperature, and the repulsion among the charged BCAm/Ba(2+) or BCAm/Pb(2+) complexes and the osmotic pressure within the P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes result in the swelling of microcapsules. Induced by recognizing barium(II) or lead(II) ions, the prepared microcapsules with P(NIPAM-co-BCAm) membranes exhibit isothermal and significant swelling not only in outer and inner diameters but also in the membrane thickness. The proposed microcapsules in this study are highly attractive for developing smart sensors and/or carriers for detection and/or elimination of heavy metal ions. PMID:20656104

Pi, Shuo-Wei; Ju, Xiao-Jie; Wu, Han-Guang; Xie, Rui; Chu, Liang-Yin

2010-09-15

349

Heavy metal analysis in commercial Spirulina products for human consumption  

PubMed Central

For consumption of health foods of Spirulina, by the general public, health food stores are increasingly offering more exotic products. Though Spirulina consumption is growing worldwide, relatively few studies have reported on the quantities of heavy metals/minerals they contain and/or their potential effects on the population’s health. This study reveals the concentrations of six typical heavy metals/minerals (Ni, Zn, Hg, Pt, Mg, and Mn) in 25 Spirulina products commercialized worldwide for direct human consumption. Samples were ground, digested and quantified by Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP–MS). The concentrations (mg/kg d.w.) were range from 0.001 to 0.012 (Pt) followed by 0.002–0.028 (Hg), 0.002–0.042 (Mg), 0.005–2.248 (Mn), 0.211–4.672 (Ni) and 0.533–6.225 (Zn). The inorganic elements of the present study were significantly lower than the recommended daily intake (RDI) level of heavy metal elements (mg/daily) Ni (0.4), Zn (13), Hg (0.01), Pt (0.002), Mg (400) and Mn (4). Based on this study the concentration of inorganic elements was not found to exceed the present regulation levels, and they can be considered as safe food.

Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah

2013-01-01

350

Heavy metals and pain in the dysfunctional patient  

PubMed Central

Summary Aims The aim of this research is to verify the quality and quantity of heavy metals (HM) of dental origin in TMD patients. Methods A population of 100 subject was studied and divided in two homogeneous groups: Study Group (SG) and Control Group (CG). Organism heavy metals were tested by a spot sampling method in which the first urine of the day, through Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), were analyzed. The results obtained were compared with reference values (RV) of Italian people. Descriptive statistical analysis and student’s t-test has been applied (statistical significance for p > 0.05). Results The SG presented the absolute highest levels of HM compared to the CG (p=0.787). As regards the relation between pain and HM, the subjects that refer “severe/very severe” values of pain present the highest levels of HM in urines. Conclusions The obtained results seem to highlight a possible direct proportionality between the level of pain the increase of the concentration of heavy metals in all the examined groups and subgroups.

Di Paolo, Carlo; Serritella, Emanuela; Panti, Fabrizio; Falisi, Giovanni; Manna, Fedele

2014-01-01

351

Heavy metal uptake by barley growing in polluted soils: relationship with heavy metal speciation in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

One soil polluted by lead and zinc and three soils contaminated with different copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) solutions in the laboratory were sown with barley (Hordeum distichum) to study the relationship between metal uptake and metal speciation in soil. The pH and organic matter content played a fundamental role in metal speciation and in particular in the

Nicoletta Calace; Bianca Maria Petronio; Massimiliano Picciolo; Marco Pietroletti

2002-01-01

352

Heavy Metal Toxicity: Effect on Plant Growth and Metal Uptake by Wheat, and on Free Living Azotobacter  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pot study was conducted to investigate the toxiceffects of certain heavy metals on the plant growth and grainyield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The resultsrevealed that heavy metals brought about significant reductionsin both parameters, Cd being the most toxic metal followed by Cu,Ni, Zn, Pb and Cr. Moreover, the presence of Cd in the soilresulted in the maximum inhibition

Rana Athar; Masood Ahmad

2002-01-01

353

Multiple Metal Resistant Transferable Phenotypes in Bacteria as Indicators of Soil Contamination with Heavy Metals (6 pp)  

Microsoft Academic Search

(14%) isolates resistant to zinc, copper, nickel, arsenic and cobalt and site B had no bacteria resistant to all five of these selected metals. The transferability of heavy metal resistance was investigated in the case of 60 multiple heavy metal resistant isolates taken from site A and 50 multiple resistance isolates from site B. Transfer was only detected in isolates

Robert P. Ryan; David J. Ryan; David N. Dowling

2005-01-01

354

Heavy metals in commercial fish in New Jersey  

SciTech Connect

Levels of contaminants in fish are of particular interest because of the potential risk to humans who consume them. While attention has focused on self-caught fish, most of the fish eaten by the American public comes from commercial sources. We sampled 11 types of fish and shellfish obtained from supermarkets and specialty fish markets in New Jersey and analyzed them for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese, mercury, and selenium. We test the null hypothesis that metal levels do not vary among fish types, and we consider whether the levels of any metals could harm the fish themselves or their predators or pose a health risk for human consumers. There were significant interspecific differences for all metals, and no fish types had the highest levels of more than two metals. There were few significant correlations (Kendall tau) among metals for the three most numerous fish (yellowfin tuna, bluefish, and flounder), the correlations were generally low (below 0.40), and many correlations were negative. Only manganese and lead positively were correlated for tuna, bluefish, and flounder. The levels of most metals were below those known to cause adverse effects in the fish themselves. However, the levels of arsenic, lead, mercury, and selenium in some fish were in the range known to cause some sublethal effects in sensitive predatory birds and mammals and in some fish exceeded health-based standards. The greatest risk from different metals resided in different fish; the species of fish with the highest levels of a given metal sometimes exceeded the human health guidance or standards for that metal. Thus, the risk information given to the public (mainly about mercury) does not present a complete picture. The potential of harm from other metals suggests that people not only should eat smaller quantities of fish known to accumulate mercury but also should eat a diversity of fish to avoid consuming unhealthy quantities of other heavy metals. However, consumers should bear in mind that standards have a margin of safety.

Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8082 (United States) and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)]. E-mail: burger@biology.rutgers.edu; Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

2005-11-15

355

Application of Kaolin for Control of Heavy Metals in Anaerobic Sludge Digestion.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Six laboratory-scale anaerobic digesters were used to evaluate the potential of kaolin addition for the control of heavy metal toxicity. Adsorption isotherms were obtained for the kaolin-metal system in solutions of the individual metals, nickel, copper, ...

W. H. Cross P. M. Rossello

1983-01-01

356

The Application of Fish Scales in Removing Heavy, Metals from Energy-Produced Waste Streams: The Role of Microbes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In energy production, heavy metals pose significant contamination hazards. For example, the petroleum industry generates wastes that are often high in heavy metal concentrations. Heavy metals are very toxic and extremely deleterious to humans, plants, and animals. Application of fish scale to remove heavy metals is a very recent innovation. It is an environmentally appealing and economically attractive alternative to

S. MUSTAFIZ

2003-01-01

357

On-line heavy metal analysis in the fumes from a laboratory fluid-bed incinerator  

Microsoft Academic Search

An inductively coupled plasma spectrometer was used with a laboratory fluidized-bed reactor and adapted to continuously measure the heavy metal concentrations in exhaust gases. The system is devoted to the thermal treatment of metal-spiked model wastes; on-line analyses were performed to study heavy metal release. This method was used to study the kinetics of heavy metal vaporization from pure mineral

Stéphane Abanades; Daniel Gauthier; Gilles Flamant; Christian Trassy

2003-01-01

358

Soil metatranscriptomics for mining eukaryotic heavy metal resistance genes.  

PubMed

Heavy metals are pollutants which affect all organisms. Since a small number of eukaryotes have been investigated with respect to metal resistance, we hypothesize that many genes that control this phenomenon remain to be identified. This was tested by screening soil eukaryotic metatranscriptomes which encompass RNA from organisms belonging to the main eukaryotic phyla. Soil-extracted polyadenylated mRNAs were converted into cDNAs and 35 of them were selected for their ability to rescue the metal (Cd or Zn) sensitive phenotype of yeast mutants. Few of the genes belonged to families known to confer metal resistance when overexpressed in yeast. Several of them were homologous to genes that had not been studied in the context of metal resistance. For instance, the BOLA ones, which conferred cross metal (Zn, Co, Cd, Mn) resistance may act by interfering with Fe homeostasis. Other genes, such as those encoding 110- to 130-amino-acid-long, cysteine-rich polypeptides, had no homologues in databases. This study confirms that functional metatranscriptomics represents a powerful approach to address basic biological processes in eukaryotes. The selected genes can be used to probe new pathways involved in metal homeostasis and to manipulate the resistance level of selected organisms. PMID:23663419

Lehembre, Frédéric; Doillon, Didier; David, Elise; Perrotto, Sandrine; Baude, Jessica; Foulon, Julie; Harfouche, Lamia; Vallon, Laurent; Poulain, Julie; Da Silva, Corinne; Wincker, Patrick; Oger-Desfeux, Christine; Richaud, Pierre; Colpaert, Jan V; Chalot, Michel; Fraissinet-Tachet, Laurence; Blaudez, Damien; Marmeisse, Roland

2013-10-01

359

Broom fibre PRB for heavy metals groundwater remediation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil contamination by heavy metal and, though it, of groundwater represent a serious alteration of original geochemical levels owing to various human activities as: particular industrial processes and their non-correct treatment emission, urban traffic, use of phytosanitary product and mineral fertilizer. Heavy metals are genotoxic contaminants who can be found by environmental matrix analysis or by examination of the genetic damage inducted, after exposition, to sentry organism. In this last case we use a relative quantitation of the gene expression monitoring the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism hepatopancreas's gene of the organism used by bioindicator. This test is based on consideration that the hepatopancreas is the first internal organ affected by heavy metals or any other pollutant that the organism is exposed. In this work, the organism used by bioindicator to evalutate the pollutant contamination of waste water is Danio rerio (Zebrafish) that is a little tropical fish of 2-3 cm, native on asiatic south-east rivers. This organism has a large use in scientific field because its genoma is almost completely mapped and, above all, because the congenital gene cause in human, if it was mutated in zebrafish, similar damage or almost similar mutation that happens in human being so you can develop a dose - response curve. To do this, after prepared a cadmium solution with a concentration 10 times the Italian normative limit, the organisms have been put in the aquarium to recreate the optimal condition to survival of zebrafish observed by continuous monitoring by web-cam. After one month exposition, that we took little by little sample fish to analyzing, for different exposition time, the hepatopancreas's fish. First results shows considerable variation of the gene expression by interested gene in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism compared to control, highlighting the mutagenity caused by heavy metals on Danio rerio's hepatopancreas and, mutatis mutandis, also in human being. One of the most interesting techniques applied in contaminated aquifer by heavy metals is the PRBs (Troisi et al., 2002; Calvin et al., 2006), in particular broom fibers PRB (Troisi et al., 2008). The first results highlight an optimum removal capacity for contaminants underlined from following removal percentage: 98.01% (Cd), 99.95% (Cu), 97.35% (Pb) and 99.53% (Zn). A fundamental parameter for PRB design is the decay coefficient who indicates the removal capacity (degradation, transformation, adsorption/absorption, mass transport, etc.). This parameter has been determined for four heavy metals: Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) carrying out column tests. Besides, for real use of broom fibers PRB same tests have been performed, using flow cells, to estimate a relation between hydraulic conductivity of fiber and its density. References Chien C. C., H. I. Inyang and L.G. Everett (2006). Barrier Systems for Environmental Contaminant Containment and Treatment. Taylor and Francis Group eds. Troisi S., C. Fallico, S. Straface S. e L. Mazzuca. (2008). Biodreni per la bonifica di siti contaminati realizzati con fibre naturali liberiane ad elevato sviluppo superficiale. CS2008A00018. Universitŕ della Calabria. Troisi S, E. Migliari and S. Straface (2002). Soil and groundwater contamination by heavy metals in the industrial area of Crotone. Third International Conference Risk Analysis III. Sintra, Ed. by C.A. Brebbia. WIT Press.

Molinari, A.; Troisi, S.; Fallico, C.; Paparella, A.; Straface, S.

2009-04-01

360

Heavy metals in sludge from the sewage treatment plant of Rio de Janeiro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The final disposal of sewage sludge on soils as a compost for agriculture increases heavy metal contamination in soils. This demands controlled use to avoid hazardous situations. This work measures the heavy metals content in sludge and its potential as a fertilizer in agriculture. Samples were collected from the Penha urban sewage plant, the largest in Rio de Janeiro. Heavy

Tomaz Langenbach; Wolfgang Pfeifer; Luiz Rodrigues Freire; Michele Sarpa; Sueli Paim

1994-01-01

361

Heavy metal contaminants can eliminate quantum dot fluorescence.  

PubMed

Quantum dots (QD) are fluorescent nanocrystals that are highly useful in imaging and flow cytometric analyses. During routine use of monoclonal antibody conjugates of QD, we have occasionally seen partial or total loss of fluorescence when using certain lots of fixative solutions. We hypothesized that a low level contamination with heavy metal cations was responsible, since low level metal contaminants are not uncommon in formalin solutions. By titrating known concentrations of heavy metal cations into staining solutions, we found that millimolar concentrations of ferrous and zinc ions, and as low as 50 nanomolar cupric ions, completely eliminated QD fluorescence. By mass spectroscopic quantification of metals in commercial fixative solutions previously shown to perform poorly or well with regard to QD fluorescence, we confirmed that the presence of copper in solution was correlated with poor performance. Notably, prior addition of EDTA to chelate the divalent cations in these solutions prevented the inhibition of QD fluorescence. Finally, the copper-induced loss of QD fluorescence is irreversible: cells labeled with QD are highly fluorescent and can be rendered nonfluorescent by the addition of cupric sulfate, even after washing extensively. Indeed, these cells can then be successfully stained with other QD reagents, providing a method for immunofluorescence restaining of cells without contaminating fluorescence from the first stain. PMID:21182185

Zarkowsky, David; Lamoreaux, Laurie; Chattopadhyay, Pratip; Koup, Richard A; Perfetto, Stephen P; Roederer, Mario

2011-01-01

362

Effects of heavy metal pollution on oak leaf microorganisms.  

PubMed

During the growing season, comparisons were made of the leaf surface microflora of (i) two groups of mature oak trees, one in the vicinity of a smelting complex contaminated by heavy metals and the other at a relatively uncontaminated site, and (ii) two groups of oak saplings at the uncontaminated site, one of which was sprayed with zinc, lead, and cadmium to simulate the heavy metal pollution from the smelter without the complicating effects of other pollutants. Total viable counts of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi (isolated by leaf washing) were generally little affected by the spraying treatment, whereas polluted leaves of mature trees supported fewer bacteria compared with leaves of mature trees at the uncontaminated site. Numbers of pigmented yeasts were lower on polluted oaks and on metal-dosed saplings compared with their respective controls. Polluted leaves of mature trees supported both greater numbers of Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium spp. and a greater percentage of metal-tolerant fungi compared with oak leaves at the uncontaminated site. There were no significant overall differences in the degree of mycelial growth between the two groups of saplings or the mature trees. PMID:16345669

Bewley, R J

1980-12-01

363

Effects of Heavy Metal Pollution on Oak Leaf Microorganisms  

PubMed Central

During the growing season, comparisons were made of the leaf surface microflora of (i) two groups of mature oak trees, one in the vicinity of a smelting complex contaminated by heavy metals and the other at a relatively uncontaminated site, and (ii) two groups of oak saplings at the uncontaminated site, one of which was sprayed with zinc, lead, and cadmium to simulate the heavy metal pollution from the smelter without the complicating effects of other pollutants. Total viable counts of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi (isolated by leaf washing) were generally little affected by the spraying treatment, whereas polluted leaves of mature trees supported fewer bacteria compared with leaves of mature trees at the uncontaminated site. Numbers of pigmented yeasts were lower on polluted oaks and on metal-dosed saplings compared with their respective controls. Polluted leaves of mature trees supported both greater numbers of Aureobasidium pullulans and Cladosporium spp. and a greater percentage of metal-tolerant fungi compared with oak leaves at the uncontaminated site. There were no significant overall differences in the degree of mycelial growth between the two groups of saplings or the mature trees.

Bewley, Richard J. F.

1980-01-01

364

Improving the sensitivity of bacterial bioreporters for heavy metals  

PubMed Central

Whole-cell bacterial bioreporters represent a convenient testing method for quantifying the bioavailability of contaminants in environmental samples. Despite the fact that several bioreporters have been constructed for measuring heavy metals, their application to environmental samples has remained minimal. The major drawbacks of the available bioreporters include a lack of sensitivity and specificity. Here, we report an improvement in the limit of detection of bacterial bioreporters by interfering with the natural metal homeostasis system of the host bacterium. The limit of detection of a Pseudomonas putida KT2440-based Zn/Cd/Pb-biosensor was improved by a factor of up to 45 by disrupting four main efflux transporters for Zn/Cd/Pb and thereby causing the metals to accumulate in the cell. The specificity of the bioreporter could be modified by changing the sensor element. A Zn-specific bioreporter was achieved by using the promoter of the cadA1 gene from P. putida as a sensor element. The constructed transporter-deficient P. putida reporter strain detected Zn2+ concentrations about 50 times lower than that possible with other available Zn-bioreporters. The achieved detection limits were significantly below the permitted limit values for Zn and Pb in water and in soil, allowing for reliable detection of heavy metals in the environment.

Tonismann, Karmen; Virta, Marko

2010-01-01

365

Removal of dissolved heavy metals from acid rock drainage using iron metal  

SciTech Connect

The chemical and microbial activity of corroding iron metal is examined in the acid rock drainage (ARD) resulting from pyrite oxidation to determine the effectiveness in neutralizing the ARD and reducing the load of dissolved heavy metals. ARD from Berkeley Pit, MT, is treated with iron in batch reactors and columns containing iron granules. Iron, in acidic solution, hydrolyzes water producing hydride and hydroxide ion resulting in a concomitant increase in pH and decrease in redox potential. The dissolved metals in ARD are removed by several mechanisms. Copper and cadmium cement onto the surface of the iron as zerovalent metals. Hydroxide forming metals such as aluminum, zinc, and nickel form complexes with iron and other metals precipitating from solution as the pH rises. Metalloids such as arsenic and antimony coprecipitate with iron. As metals precipitate from solution, various other mechanisms including coprecipitation, sorption, and ion exchange also enhance removal of metals from solution. Corroding iron also creates a reducing environment supportive for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) growth. Increases in SRB populations of 5,000-fold are observed in iron metal treated ARD solutions. Although the biological process is slow, sulfidogenesis is an additional pathway to further stabilize heavy metal precipitates.

Shokes, T.E.; Moeller, G. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)] [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States)

1999-01-15

366

Heavy metals distribution in an Iowa suburban landscape.  

PubMed

This study investigated the degree to which human activities through urbanization influence heavy metal concentrations in a suburban landscape in Ankeny, IA. Residential areas from different years in nine time periods of development were identified from aerial photos. Soil cores were collected from the center of the front yard of 10 randomly selected homes. Cores were subdivided into 0- to 5-, 5- to 10-, and 10- to 20-cm increments from a composite of five cores. The soils were analyzed for organic C, pH, and total Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. Results showed that organic C increased and pH decreased with time, and that there was a general decreasing trend in heavy metal concentrations from the pre-1939 period until 1983-1990, after which there was a sharp increase in the concentrations of most of the metals. The mean Cu concentration ranged from 21 mg kg(-1) for the pre-1939 time period of development to 14.9 mg kg(-1) for the recent period of development (2003-2005). Nickel concentrations increased significantly with depth with means of 21.3 mg kg(-1) at depth 0 to 5 cm, 22.5 mg kg(-1) at depth 5 to 10 cm, and 23.0 mg kg(-1) at depth 10 to 20 cm. The concentrations of heavy metals were significantly intercorrelated, except Zn, suggesting their coexistence as mineral constituents or common contamination source. The concentrations of Cu and Pb in some locations could be due to anthropogenic inputs or higher organic matter content in soils adjacent to older homes. There appears to have been a source that caused an increase in Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, and Ni concentrations in soil adjacent to homes built between 1983 and 1990. PMID:21488496

Langner, A N; Manu, A; Tabatabai, M A

2011-01-01

367

Heavy metal-binding proteins from metal-stimulated bacteria as a novel adsorbent for metal removal technology.  

PubMed

Water pollution with toxic heavy metals is of growing concern because heavy metals could bring about serious problems for not only ecosystems in the water environment but also human health. Some metal removal technologies have been in practical use, but much energy and troublesome treatments for chemical wastes are required to operate these conventional technologies. In this study, heavy metal-binding proteins (HMBPs) were obtained from metal-stimulated activated sludge culture with affinity chromatography using copper ion as a ligand. Two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed that a number of proteins in activated sludge culture were recovered as HMBPs for copper ion. N-termini of five HMBPs were determined, and two of them were found to be newly discovered proteins for which no amino acid sequences in protein databases were retrieved at more than 80% identities. Metal-coordinating amino acids occupied 38% of residues in one of the N-terminal sequences of the newly discovered HMBPs. Since these HMBPs were expected to be stable under conditions of water and wastewater treatments, it would be possible to utilize HMBPs as novel adsorbents for heavy metal removal if mass volume of HMBPs can be obtained with protein cloning techniques. PMID:16749461

Sano, D; Myojo, K; Omura, T

2006-01-01

368

An overview of heavy metal challenge in plants: from roots to shoots.  

PubMed

Heavy metals are often present naturally in soils, but many human activities (e.g. mining, agriculture, sewage processing, the metal industry and automobiles) increase their prevalence in the environment resulting in concentrations that are toxic to animals and plants. Excess heavy metals affect plant physiology by inducing stress symptoms, but many plants have adapted to avoid the damaging effects of metal toxicity, using strategies such as metal chelation, transport and compartmentalization. Understanding the molecular basis of heavy metal tolerance in plants will facilitate the development of new strategies to create metal-tolerant crops, biofortified foods and plants suitable for the phytoremediation of contaminated sites. PMID:23739766

DalCorso, Giovanni; Manara, Anna; Furini, Antonella

2013-09-01

369

Sorption of trace heavy metals by thiol containing chelating resins  

SciTech Connect

The sorption of copper, cadmium, nickel and zinc ions on thiol (-SH) based chelating polymeric resins (thiomethyl resin and Duolite GT-73) has been investigated. The physical and chemical characterization of these polymers in the form of scanning electron micrographs (SEM), BET and Langmuir surface area measurements. Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, atomic composition measurement, sodium capacity determination and zeta potential measurements have been conducted to assess their performance as sorbents for trace toxic metal removal. Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to analyze the pore size distribution data. The adsorption of metal ions from aqueous solution on these sorbents has been studied in batch equilibrium experiments. The influence of pH on metal adsorption capacity has also been examined. The kinetic performance of these polymers has been assessed and the results have been analyzed by a pore diffusion model. The resins have been used in mini-columns to study the selectivity towards the desired metal ion. The desorption of metal ions has been studied using hydrochloric acid (1 M and 4 M), sulfuric acid (1 M and 4 M) and acidified thiourea. The present study confirms that these thiol based chelating resins are very effective for selective removal of trace heavy metals from water.

Saha, B.; Iglesias, M.; Cumming, I.W.; Streat, M.

2000-01-01

370

Heavy metal status of sediment in river Cauvery, Karnataka.  

PubMed

The purpose of this research work was to appraise extent of heavy metals in sediment and the degree to which its quality tainted seasonally and spatially in river Cauvery. In this study, heavy metals such as Fe, Zn, Ni, Mn, Pb, Cu, Co, Cd and Cr were analysed in sediments. Results were compared with sediment quality guidelines from various derived criteria. Twenty-five sampling points were selected based on geographical proximity of agricultural fields and industrial discharges; river-tributary confluence points; settlements located along the river bank; ritual and recreational activities. Sampling was done for the period of 3 years (2007 to 2009). Digestion of the samples was done by microwave-assisted digestion technique. Analysis was carried out using flame furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer, and results are expressed in micrograms per gram. The mean concentration of Fe (11144 ?g/g) followed by Mn (1763.3 ?g/g), Zn (93.1 ?g/g), Cr (389 ?g/g), Ni (27.7 ?g/g), Cu (11.2 ?g/g), Pb (4.3 ?g/g), Co (1.9 ?g/g) and Cd (1.3 ?g/g) remained within the levels of sediment quality guidelines. Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis (CA) were employed to better comprehend the controlling factors of sediment quality and spatial homogeneity among the stations. The sediment geo-accumulation index (I(geo)) showed maximum value of Cd (2.69) and least value of Mn (-1.44). The geo-accumulation class (I(geo) class) was in the sequence as follows: Cd>Zn>Pb>Cr>Cu>Co>Ni>Fe>Mn. Negative total geo-accumulation indices (I(tot)) revealed that mean concentration of heavy metals in the river bed sediment are lower than their respective shale values. The statistical analysis of inter-metallic relationship revealed the high degree of correlation among the metals indicated their identical behaviour during transport. This study concludes that insignificant geo-accumulation with metals except Cd (moderate contamination), Pb and Zn (slight contamination) principally in downstream stretch may perhaps deteriorate the sediment quality due to intensification anthropogenic influences. It also proves that extent of existing metal concentrations in sediments of river Cauvery in Karnataka not exceeded the toxic limit, and there is no peril to the aquatic life. PMID:21437596

Venkatesha Raju, K; Somashekar, R K; Prakash, K L

2012-01-01

371

Heavy Metals in River Sediments (Regnitz, Central Franconia) as a Function of Sediment Parameters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following subjects are discussed: The pollutant concentrations in sediments of the Regnitz river, the Dechsendorf lake, and high water sediments, the time variation of the heavy metal concentrations in the regions of investigation, the local heavy met...

F. Heravi

1984-01-01

372

Heavy metal removal from water/wastewater by nanosized metal oxides: a review.  

PubMed

Nanosized metal oxides (NMOs), including nanosized ferric oxides, manganese oxides, aluminum oxides, titanium oxides, magnesium oxides and cerium oxides, provide high surface area and specific affinity for heavy metal adsorption from aqueous systems. To date, it has become a hot topic to develop new technologies to synthesize NMOs, to evaluate their removal of heavy metals under varying experimental conditions, to reveal the underlying mechanism responsible for metal removal based on modern analytical techniques (XAS, ATR-FT-IR, NMR, etc.) or mathematical models, and to develop metal oxide-based materials of better applicability for practical use (such as granular oxides or composite materials). The present review mainly focuses on NMOs' preparation, their physicochemical properties, adsorption characteristics and mechanism, as well as their application in heavy metal removal. In addition, porous host supported NMOs are particularly concerned because of their great advantages for practical application as compared to the original NMOs. Also, some magnetic NMOs were included due to their unique separation performance. PMID:22018872

Hua, Ming; Zhang, Shujuan; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weiming; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Quanxing

2012-04-15

373

Heavy metals in urban soils of the Granada city (Spain)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban soils (Anthrosols, Technosols, and the remaining natural patches) are essential components of the city ecosystems influencing the quality of life for people. Unfortunately, because of the high concentration of matter and energy that occurs in any city, these soils might accumulate potentially toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds, pathogens, pharmaceuticals, and soluble salts. Contamination by heavy metals has been considered especially dangerous because they can affect human health via inhalation of dust, ingestion, or skin contact with soils. Children are the more exposed citizens in gardens and parks. Accordingly, our objective was to analyze the content of heavy metals in soils of the two most emblematic, extensive, and visited landscaped areas of the Granada city (Salón Garden, which dates back to 1612, and Federico García Lorca Park, opened since 1993) for assessing the health hazard. Using a composite sampling of 20-30 points chosen at random, we collected the upper soil (10 cm) of five representative plots for each landscaped area. We determined soil characteristics by routine procedures and metal elements using ICP-mass. From high to low concentration we found Mn, Ba, Pb, Zn, V, Sn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sb, Y, As, Sc, Co, Th, Au, U, Mo, Be, Bi, Tl, Cd, and In; the first 10 metals ranging between 478 and 22 ppm. Mn, Ba, and other trace elements were strongly correlated with soil properties suggesting the inheritance as a possible source of metal variation, especially in the soils of younger Park, where the materials used to build gardens in the five sampled plots seemed to be more variable (carbonates: 10-40%, clay: 18-26%, pH: 7.6-7.9, organic matter: 3-7%, free iron 0.5-1.1%). The content of many other metals measured in the sampled plots, however, were independent of soil material and management. On the other hand, compared to agricultural and native soils of the surroundings, our urban soils had obviously greater content in organic matter and nutrients as a result of the garden management, but was unexpected the abundance of heavy metals of urban provenance. Especially the concentration in Pb (83-322 ppm) and Cu (37-48 ppm), common in the city fumes, was higher in the urban soils. Considering the total content of metals, the soils of Salón Gardens also had 200 ppm (45% in Pb) more than those of Federico García Lorca Park, with statistically significant differences (P<0.05) in Zn, Cd, and Pb, which could be explained by a longer metal accumulation time. In addition, it was noted that the Pb content in the ancient garden substantially increased from the inner parts (154 ppm) to the periphery (322 ppm) near streets with car traffic. This is noteworthy because the five Salón plots had soils extremely homogeneous (carbonates: 24-25%, clay: 18-19%, pH: 7.6-7.7, organic matter: 3-4%, free iron 0.6-0.7%). Despite this seeming soil contamination in Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Cd from urban sources, there were no toxic levels according to European legislation and consequently, there should be no health risk.

Delgado, Gabriel; Sánchez-Marańón, Manuel; Bech, Jaume; Sartini, Alessandra; Martín-García, Juan Manuel; Delgado, Rafael

2013-04-01

374

Wastewaters at SRS where heavy metals are a potential problem  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this report is to identify and prioritize heavy metal-containing wastewaters at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in terms of their suitability for testing of and clean-up by a novel bioremediation process being developed by SRTC. This process involves the use of algal biomass for sequestering heavy metal and radionuclides from wastewaters. Two categories of SRS wastewaters were considered for this investigation: (1) waste sites (primarily non-contained wastes managed by Environmental Restoration), and (2) waste streams (primarily contained wastes managed by Waste Management). An attempt was made to evaluate all sources of both categories of waste throughout the site so that rational decisions could be made with regard to selecting the most appropriate wastewaters for present study and potential future treatment. The investigation included a review of information on surface and/or groundwater associated with all known SRS waste sites, as well as waters associated with all known SRS waste streams. Following the initial review, wastewaters known or suspected to contain potentially problematic concentrations of one or more of the toxic metals were given further consideration.

Wilde, E.W.; Radway, J.C.

1994-11-01

375

Extraction kinetics of heavy metal-containing sludge.  

PubMed

In order to remove and recover copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from the wastewater treatment sludge generated by an electroplating process, the heavy metal extraction kinetics was studied in a batch reactor using two different extraction agents (nitric and citric acid) at constant agitation speed (150 rpm) and solid to liquid ratio (10 g/L), but varying acid concentrations (0.02-0.10 N), temperatures (25-85 degrees C in nitric acid solution, 25-95 degrees C in citric acid solution), and sludge particle sizes. The shrinking-core model and empirical kinetic model were adopted to analyze the experimental data. Although both models could fit the experimental kinetic data well, the obtained parameters of the shrinking-core model did not show reasonable trends varying with the experimental variables while the empirical model parameters showed significant trends. The experimental and modeling results showed that the metal extraction rates increased with acid concentration, temperature, but decreased with increasing particle size. Nitric acid was found to be more effective than citric acid to extract the heavy metals from the sludge. The extraction activation energies obtained in this study suggested that both a physical diffusion process and a chemical reaction process might play important roles in the overall extraction process. PMID:15993295

Lee, I-Hsien; Wang, Yi-Jing; Chern, Jia-Ming

2005-08-31

376

Kinetic vaporization of heavy metals during fluidized bed thermal treatment of municipal solid waste.  

PubMed

Heavy metals volatilization during thermal treatment of model solid waste was theoretically and experimentally investigated in a fluidized bed reactor. Lead, cadmium, zinc and copper, the most four conventional heavy metals were investigated. Particle temperature model and metal diffusion model were established to simulate the volatilization of CdCl(2) evaporation and investigate the possible influencing factors. The diffusion coefficient, porosity and particle size had significant effects on metal volatilization. The higher diffusion coefficient and porosity resulted in the higher metal evaporation. The influence of redox conditions, HCl, water and mineral matrice were also investigated experimentally. The metal volatilization can be promoted by the injection of HCl, while oxygen played a negative role. The diffusion process of heavy metals within particles also had a significant influence on kinetics of their vaporization. The interaction between heavy metals and mineral matter can decrease metal evaporation amount by forming stable metallic species. PMID:23238522

Yu, Jie; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng

2013-02-01

377

EFFECTS OF HIGH TEMPERATURE MELTING ON FRACTIONATION OF HEAVY METALS IN SEWAGE SLUDGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sewage sludge from aerobic treatment plant was found to contain high amounts of heavy metals. Research was carried out to investigate the speciation and leaching behavior of heavy metals when using high temperature melting technology for treatment. This was achieved by conducting a sequential chemical extraction procedure and EP-TOX leaching test. The thermal treatment led to increased shift of metals

Azni Idris; Katayon Saed

2002-01-01

378

THE SOURCES AND BEHAVIOR OF HEAVY METALS IN WASTEWATER AND SLUDGES  

EPA Science Inventory

A critical evaluation has been made of the literature regarding the sources of heavy metals in sludges from municipal wastewater treatment plants. Residential loadings of heavy metals as a percentage of total metal loads are highly variable with respect to both the particular ele...

379

Pint-sized plants pack a punch in fight against heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

USDA researchers are experimenting with plants that naturally scavenge heavy metals such as cadmium and zinc from the soil. Known as hyperaccumulators, the plants can store up to 2.5% of their dry weight in heavy metals in leaves without yield reductions. They can be grown, harvested, and dried. The dried material is then burned, and the metal ore can be

1996-01-01

380

Phosphorus and Heavy Metal Attachment and Release in Sandy Soil Aggregate Fractions  

Microsoft Academic Search

metal concentrations in aggregate (particle)-size frac- tions of the soil is critical. Attention has been drawn to The presence of P and heavy metals in different forms or in associa- the role of these pools in the relationship of P dynamics creasing aggregate sizes. Phosphorus and heavy metals in the sandy soils are readily transported to surface waters with suspended

M. K. Zhang; Z. L. He; D. V. Calvert; P. J. Stoffella; X. E. Yang; Y. C. Li

2003-01-01

381

Heavy metal complexation with naturally occurring organic ligands in wetland ecosystems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mode, rate, and extent of heavy metal uptake by freshwater wetlands were investigated as well as heavy metal complexation by a variety of soluble organics. One study involved adding Cd, Cu, Mn, and Zn to septage from Waldo, Florida, and pumping the wastewater through a 10 x 40-m corridor in a cypress swamp. Soluble concentrations of all four metals

Tuschall; J. R. Jr

1981-01-01

382

Heavy metal removal from municipal solid waste fly ash by chlorination and thermal treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash is classified as a hazardous material because it contains high amounts of heavy metals. For decontamination, MSW fly ash is first mixed with alkali or alkaline earth metal chlorides (e.g. calcium chloride) and water, and then the mixture is pelletized and treated in a rotary reactor at about 1000°C. Volatile heavy metal compounds are

B. Nowak; A. Pessl; P. Aschenbrenner; P. Szentannai; H. Mattenberger; H. Rechberger; L. Hermann; F. Winter

2010-01-01

383

Assessment of heavy metal pollution in urban topsoils from the metropolitan area of Mexico City  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports the degree of heavy metal pollution (Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and V) in 135 urban topsoil samples from the metropolitan area of Mexico City. Pollution indices (PI) were calculated to identify the metal accumulation with respect to the background values. The levels of heavy metals in the analyzed samples show a wide range of variation. Lead,

O. Morton-Bermea; E. Hernández-Álvarez; G. González-Hernández; F. Romero; R. Lozano; L. E. Beramendi-Orosco

2009-01-01

384

Monitoring of metallic micronutrients and heavy metals in herbs, spices and medicinal plants from Austria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medicinal, aromatic and spice plants grown in different regions of Austria were monitored as to their Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb and Zn contents. Since the plants were grown under common field conditions, the essential elements were within the usual ranges for plant material. The contamination level with the toxic heavy metals, Pb and Cd, can be classified as normally

Remigius Chizzola; Hanneliese Michitsch; Chlodwig Franz

2003-01-01

385

Heavy metal-activated synthesis of peptides in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  

SciTech Connect

In this study, the authors have addressed the capacity of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii to produce metal-binding peptides in response to stress induced by the heavy metals Cd{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+}, and Ag{sup +}. Cells cultured in the presence of sublethal concentrations of Cd{sup 2+} synthesized and accumulated oligopeptides consisting solely of glutamic acid, cysteine, and glycine in an average ratio of 3:3:1. Cadmium-induced peptides were isolated in their native form as higher molecular weight peptide-metal complexes with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 6.5 {times} 10{sup 3}. The isolated complex bound cadmium (as evidenced by absorption spectroscopy) and sequestered (with a stoichiometry of 0.7 moles of cadmium per mole of cysteine) up to 70% of the total cadmium found in extracts of cadmium-treated cells. In Hg{sup 2+}-treated cells, the principal thiol-containing compound induced by Hg{sup 2+} ion was glutathione. It is possible that glutathione functions in plant cells (as it does in animal cells) to detoxify heavy metals. Cells treated with Ag{sup +} ions also synthesized a sulfur-containing component with a charge to mass ratio similar to Cd{sup 2+}-induced peptides. But, in contrast to the results obtained using Cd{sup 2+} as an inducer, these molecules did not accumulate to significant levels in Ag{sup +}-treated cells. The presence of physiological concentrations of Cu{sup 2+} in the growth medium blocked the synthesis of the Ag{sup +}-inducible component(s) and rendered cells resistant to the toxic effects of Ag{sup +}, suggesting competition between Cu{sup 2+} and Ag{sup +} ions, possibly at the level of metal uptake.

Howe, G.; Merchant, S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

1992-01-01

386

Heavy Metal Contaminants Can Eliminate Quantum Dot Fluorescence  

PubMed Central

Background Quantum Dots (QD) are fluorescent nanocrystals that are highly useful in imaging and flow cytometric analyses. During routine use of monoclonal antibody conjugates of QD, we have occasionally seen partial or total loss of fluorescence when using certain lots of fixative solutions. We hypothesized that a low level contamination with heavy metal cations was responsible. Methods QD reagent fluorescence was quantified using different lots of fixative solutions that were known to perform well or poorly. The role of heavy metal cation contamination was evaluated by addition of chelators or addition of metal cation salt solutions. Concentrations of metals in solution was determined by mass spectroscopy. Results Millimolar concentrations of ferrous and zinc ions, and as low as 50 nanomolar cupric ions, permanently eliminated QD fluorescence. The commercial lots of fixative that led to poor QD fluorescence patterns, but not those that preserved QD fluorescence, had concentrations of copper that far exceeded this threshold. The elimination of QD fluorescence is irreversible; cells labeled with QD, and are highly fluorescent, can be rendered nonfluorescent by the addition of cupric sulfate. These cells can then be subsequently successfully stained with other QD reagents with no fluorescence arising from the first staining. Conclusion Low level metal contaminants are not uncommon in formalin solutions; this can lead to highly variable performance of QD reagents. Addition of EDTA can prevent this; solutions can also be pre-tested to ensure best performance. This property of QD can also be exploited in cases where fluorescently-stained cells must be rendered non-fluorescent for experimental reasons.

Zarkowsky, David; Lamoreaux, Laurie; Chattopadhyay, Pratip; Koup, Richard A.; Perfetto, Stephen P.; Roederer, Mario

2011-01-01

387

PhoN-type acid phosphatases of a heavy metal-accumulating Citrobacter sp.: resistance to heavy metals and affinity towards phosphomonoester substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An atypical Citrobacter sp. isolated from a heavy metal-polluted site has a PhoN-type acid phosphatase that is responsible for the precipitation of heavy metals as cell-bound metal phosphates via liberated inorganic phosphate, supplied via enzymic cleavage of a phosphomonoester substrate. Phosphatase activity, comprising two isoenzymes designated CPI and CPII, was resistant to cadmium (II), zinc (II) and lead (II), but

B. C. Jeong; L. E. Macaskie

1995-01-01

388

Heavy metals in wild rice from northern Wisconsin  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Wild rice grain samples from various parts of the world have been found to have elevated concentrations of heavy metals, raising concern for potential effects on human health. It was hypothesized that wild rice from north-central Wisconsin could potentially have elevated concentrations of some heavy metals because of possible exposure to these elements from the atmosphere or from water and sediments. In addition, no studies of heavy metals in wild rice from Wisconsin had been performed, and a baseline study was needed for future comparisons. Wild rice plants were collected from four areas in Bayfield, Forest, Langlade, Oneida, Sawyer and Wood Counties in September, 1997 and 1998 and divided into four plant parts for elemental analyses: roots, stems, leaves and seeds. A total of 194 samples from 51 plants were analyzed across the localities, with an average of 49 samples per part depending on the element. Samples were cleaned of soil, wet digested, and analyzed by ICP for Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mg, Pb, Se and Zn. Roots contained the highest concentrations of Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se. Copper was highest in both roots and seeds, while Zn was highest just in seeds. Magnesium was highest in leaves. Seed baseline ranges for the 10 elements were established using the 95% confidence intervals of the medians. Wild rice plants from northern Wisconsin had normal levels of the nutritional elements Cu, Mg and Zn in the seeds. Silver, Cd, Hg, Cr, and Se were very low in concentration or within normal limits for food plants. Arsenic and Pb, however, were elevated and could pose a problem for human health. The pathway for As, Hg and Pb to the plants could be atmospheric.

Bennett, J. P.; Chiriboga, E.; Coleman, J.; Waller, D. M.

2000-01-01

389

Representing soil pollution by heavy metals using continuous limitation scores  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper suggests a methodology to represent overall soil pollution in a sampled area using continuous limitation scores. The interpolated heavy metal concentrations are first transformed to limitation scores using the exponential transfer function determined by using two threshold values: permissible concentration (0 limitation points) and seriously polluted soil (4 limitation points). The limitation scores can then be summed to produce the map of cumulative limitation scores and visualize the most critically polluted areas. The methodology was illustrated using the 784 soil samples analyzed for Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the central region of Croatia. The samples were taken at 1×1 and 2×2km grids and at fixed depths of 20 cm. Heavy metal concentrations in soil were determined by ICP-OES after microwave assisted aqua regia digestion. The sampled concentrations were interpolated using block regression-kriging with geology and land cover maps, terrain parameters and industrialization parameters as auxiliary predictors. The results showed that the best auxiliary predictors are geological map, ground water depth, NDVI and slope map and distance to urban areas. The spatial prediction was satisfactory for Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn, and somewhat less satisfactory for Cu and Cr. The final map of cumulative limitation scores showed that 33.5% of the total area is suitable for organic agriculture and 7.2% of the total area is seriously polluted by one or more heavy metals. This procedure can be used to assess suitability of soils for agricultural production and as a basis for possible legal commitments to maintain the soil quality.

Romi?, Marija; Hengl, Tomislav; Romi?, Davor; Husnjak, Stjepan

2007-10-01

390

Mahayograj guggulu: Heavy metal estimation and safety studies  

PubMed Central

Objective: This study was conducted to estimate the heavy metal profile and determine the safety of Mahayograj guggulu, an Ayurvedic herbo-mineral preparation. Design: Mahayograj guggulu, manufactured by Shree Baidynath Ayurved Bhawan Pvt. Ltd., Gwalior Road, Jhansi - 284 003 (of batch number-07 and manufacturing date October 2004) was procured from the local market. Heavy metal concentrations were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A total of 40 Charles Foster strain albino rats of either sex with an average body weight of 160–250 g were divided into four groups (Groups I, II, III and IV), with 10 animals in each group. Group I served as the control, while Group II, III and IV rats received Mahayograj guggulu at a dose of 54 (dose equivalent to human therapeutic dose), 270 (five-times the dose equivalent to the human therapeutic dose) and 540 (10-times the dose equivalent to human therapeutic dose) mg/kg, p.o. for 120 days. The effect of drug administration was noted on the ponderal, biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters. In addition, urine examination was also carried out. At the end of the study, only six rats per group were sacrificed as per the IAEC advice. Results: Mahayograj guggulu was found to be safe at all dose levels tested. No significant behavioral changes were noted in any of the groups studied. The effect on food and water consumption and fecal and urine output remained unaffected in all groups during the study period. No major alterations were observed in hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy and histopathology at the therapeutically advocated dose level. Heavy metal content measurement indicated levels of 25.8 µg/g for lead, 0.07 µg/g for mercury and 5.19 µg/g for arsenic. Conclusions: The test drug is well tolerated as no changes of a serious nature could be observed in any of the parameters assessed.

Lavekar, G. S.; Ravishankar, B.; Gaidhani, S.; Shukla, V. J.; Ashok, B. K.; Padhi, M. M.

2010-01-01

391

Modified accumulation of selected heavy metals in Bt transgenic rice.  

PubMed

Safety assessment of genetically modified crops generally does not take into account the potential hazard of altered patterns of heavy metal accumulation in plants. A pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions to evaluate the impact of heavy metal amendments on the accumulation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in a Bt transgenic rice Ke-Ming-Dao (KMD) and its wild-type Xiushui 11 (Xs11). In control soils, significant difference was only found in contents of Cu (p < 0.01) and Pb (p < 0.05) in straw between KMD and Xs11. At three levels of Cd amendments (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg), the Cd contents in grain and straw of KMD were significantlyhigher than those of Xs11, and all grain Cd contents were significantly higher than the International Criteria (0.2-0.4 mg/kg) as specified by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). These results implied that it may be unsafe for growing Bt transgenic rice in heavily Cd-polluted areas. No significant difference in Zn was found between the two varieties with the exception of roots at Zn amendment level of 600 mg/kg, while Pb contents in KMD were much higher in the straw at the lead amendment level of 1000 mg/kg and inthe root at 250 mg Pb/kg. Data on the heavy metal accumulation patterns for the genetically modified rice may be used for the selection of growing areas as well as for plant residue management for Bt rice. PMID:20108697

Wang, Haiyan; Huang, Jianzhong; Ye, Qingfu; Wu, Dianxing; Chen, Ziyuan

2009-01-01

392

Heavy metal pollution and assessment in the tidal flat sediments of Haizhou Bay, China.  

PubMed

The heavy metal inventory and the ecological risk of the tidal flat sediments in Haizhou Bay were investigated. Results show that the average concentrations of heavy metals in the surface sediments exceeded the environment background values of Jiangsu Province coastal soil, suggesting that the surface sediments were mainly polluted by heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn). In addition, the profiles of heavy metals fluxes can reflect the socio-economic development of Lianyungang City, and heavy metals inputs were attributed to anthropogenic activities. Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn were mainly present in the non-bioavailable residual form in surface sediments, whereas Cd and Mn were predominantly in the highly mobile acid soluble and reducible fractions. The ecological risk of the polluted sediments stemmed mainly from Cd and Pb. According to the Sediment quality guidelines (SQGs), however, the adverse biological effects caused by the heavy metals occasionally occurred in tidal flat. PMID:23820195

Zhang, Rui; Zhou, Li; Zhang, Fan; Ding, Yingjun; Gao, Jinrong; Chen, Jing; Yan, Hongqiang; Shao, Wei

2013-09-15

393

Role of Sulfate and S-Rich Compounds in Heavy Metal Tolerance and Accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plants can withstand the potentially toxic effects exerted by a number of heavy metals through exclusion, which consists in\\u000a restricted metal transport into plant tissues, or accumulation of metals, accompanied by the development of concomitant internal\\u000a tolerance mechanisms. Plant tolerance and accumulation to heavy metals are known to be related to sulfur assimilation. The\\u000a presence of metals can differently modulate

Michela Schiavon; Mario Malagoli

394

Heavy metal contamination of vegetables in Isfahan, Iran.  

PubMed

Vegetables are an inevitable and important part of a healthy and balanced diet. They could be contaminated by heavy metals in many ways including irrigation by sewage water and industrial effluents sewage sludge, vehicular emissions, industrial waste and atmospheric deposition. In this study, we sought to determine if some vegetables (cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, lettuce, potatoes, onions, carrots, persian leeks, dill, spinach, coriander, parsley) grown locally in the suburban of Isfahan city and sold in the urban markets are contaminated with cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb). Vegetables were sampled from August to October 2010. After washing, they were oven-dried and digested using three-acid mixture (70% HNO3, 65% HClO4 and 70% H2SO4). Analyzes of the heavy metals was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. To validate the assay method, intra-day and inter-day variation studies were performed. The concentrations (?g/g) of heavy metals in the samples ranged from 0.00 to 3.66 for Cd, 0.00 to 6.00 for Cr and 0.00 to 7.14 for Pb. The highest concentration of heavy metals was for Pb. The results showed that the amount of Cd, Cr and Pb of some samples exceeded the recommended levels. The amount of Cd in cucumber, tomatoes, potatoes with skin, carrots, and spinach was significantly higher in the samples collected from Isfahanak, Dashti and Ilchi farms than those of Dorche farms. Also, the amount of Cr in onion, carrots, and spinach was significantly higher in samples collected from Isfahanak, Dashti and Ilchi farms than those of Dorche farms. However, the amount of Pb in the carrots and leek was significantly higher in the samples collected from Dorche farms than those of Isfahanak, Dashti and Ilchi farms. It can be concluded from the findings of this study that the amounts of Cd, Cr, and Pb were higher than the acceptable levels recommended by WHO/FAO. Also, higher amount of Cd and Cr in some samples collected from Isfahanak, Dashti and Ilchi farms compared to that of the samples collected from Dorche farms may indicate the influence of contaminants that enter ZayadeRood River as it passes Isfahan. PMID:24459476

Jafarian-Dehkordi, A; Alehashem, M

2013-01-01

395

Impact of Heavy Metals on Water Loss from Lichen Thalli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water loss in lichen speciesCladonia convoluta(Lam.) andC. rangiformis(L.) Hoffm. after exposure to heavy-metal (Pb, Cu, or Zn) solutions, either as single compounds or in combination, have been studied in this laboratory. Water loss was reduced in Pb-treatedC. convoluta,whereas inC. rangiformisit increased significantly with 10?2MPb treatment. Water loss increased significantly (P= 0.05) after Cu treatment inC. convolutabut was significantly reduced (P=

M. K. Chettri; T. Sawidis

1997-01-01

396

Using semivariogram scaled to the sample design of heavy metals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "sampling intensity" issue is of important application to precision agriculture. About 80%-85 % of the total error in precision in agriculture results from the field sampling preceding the application of fertilizers and corrective practices. The spatial sampling design used to characterize the spatial variability of soil attributes is crucial to science studies. The sample planning for interpolation of a regionalized variable may use several criteria, which could be best selected from the estimated semivariogram from a previously established grid. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of the semivariogram scaled to improve the sample design of heavy metals in an experimental plot. The study area surface is 6 ha and is located at Castro Ribeiras de Lea, Lugo, Spain. The geographical coordinates of the study area are: latitude 43° 09 '49''N and longitude 7° 29' 47''W, with average elevation of 410 m and average slope of 2 %. The mean annual temperature is 11.2 °C and mean annual rainfall is 930 mm (data 1961-1990). The soil is classified with Cambisol and the parent material are sediments from tertiary and quaternary. Heavy metals were initially sampled at 40 points randomly distributed in the study area. The heavy metals analyzed in this study were: Pb, Cd, Cu and Ni. Data were initially analyzed using descriptive statistics and geostatistical tools. The scaled semivariogram was built with the aim of setting a single theoretical semivariogram all elements studied. Subsequently, the software SANOS was used to determine the sampling optimization of new sampling points of the heavy metals. The spatial variability analysis of the studied elements using the scaled semivariogram showed the existence of a relationship between the spatial variability of these elements. The gaussian model was adjusted for Pb, Cd and Ni, and spherical models for the Cu element. The semivariogram scaled theoretical adjusted to elements in four study was Gaussian, with a value range of 70 m, and this value range intermediate values found for the individual semivariograms. The scaled semivariogram and programs of simulation of sampling points based on the parameters of the semivariogram can be used to assist soil management.

Medeiros Bezerra, Joel; Machado Siqueira, Glécio; Dafonte Dafonte, Jorge; Vidal Vazquez, Eva; Paz González, Antonio

2013-04-01

397

Heavy metal contamination of vegetables in Isfahan, Iran  

PubMed Central

Vegetables are an inevitable and important part of a healthy and balanced diet. They could be contaminated by heavy metals in many ways including irrigation by sewage water and industrial effluents sewage sludge, vehicular emissions, industrial waste and atmospheric deposition. In this study, we sought to determine if some vegetables (cucumbers, tomatoes, cabbage, lettuce, potatoes, onions, carrots, persian leeks, dill, spinach, coriander, parsley) grown locally in the suburban of Isfahan city and sold in the urban markets are contaminated with cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb). Vegetables were sampled from August to October 2010. After washing, they were oven-dried and digested using three-acid mixture (70% HNO3, 65% HClO4 and 70% H2SO4). Analyzes of the heavy metals was performed using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. To validate the assay method, intra-day and inter-day variation studies were performed. The concentrations (?g/g) of heavy metals in the samples ranged from 0.00 to 3.66 for Cd, 0.00 to 6.00 for Cr and 0.00 to 7.14 for Pb. The highest concentration of heavy metals was for Pb. The results showed that the amount of Cd, Cr and Pb of some samples exceeded the recommended levels. The amount of Cd in cucumber, tomatoes, potatoes with skin, carrots, and spinach was significantly higher in the samples collected from Isfahanak, Dashti and Ilchi farms than those of Dorche farms. Also, the amount of Cr in onion, carrots, and spinach was significantly higher in samples collected from Isfahanak, Dashti and Ilchi farms than those of Dorche farms. However, the amount of Pb in the carrots and leek was significantly higher in the samples collected from Dorche farms than those of Isfahanak, Dashti and Ilchi farms. It can be concluded from the findings of this study that the amounts of Cd, Cr, and Pb were higher than the acceptable levels recommended by WHO/FAO. Also, higher amount of Cd and Cr in some samples collected from Isfahanak, Dashti and Ilchi farms compared to that of the samples collected from Dorche farms may indicate the influence of contaminants that enter ZayadeRood River as it passes Isfahan.

Jafarian-Dehkordi, A.; Alehashem, M.

2013-01-01

398

Temporal Variation in Concentrations of Heavy Metals in Marine Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal changes in the distribution of heavy-metal pollutants have been examined in many studies. Without knowledge of the presence or absence of variation at shorter time-scales, however, comparisons among longer intervals are always potentially confounded. Temporal variation in the distribution of copper, lead and zinc in the sediments of Botany Bay, Australia is described, using a nested, hierarchical sampling design. Significant variation was found at temporal scales from days to several months. The implications of short-term variation for environmental sampling, and the means of overcoming problems associated with it, are discussed. The conclusions of the present study are applicable to other variables and to other environments.

Morrisey, D. J.; Underwood, A. J.; Stark, J. S.; Howitt, L.

1994-03-01

399

Accumulation rates of airborne heavy metals in wetlands  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Accumulation rates of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) retained in wetland sediments in northwest Indiana-downwind of the Chicago-Gary-Hammond industrial area-are quantified to assess anthropogenic influences on atmospheric fluxes. Metal concentrations for 22 sediment cores are determined by ICP-AES after ashing and strong acid extraction. Relations between organic content and metal concentrations at depth are used to separate natural and anthropogenic sources. Accumulation rates over the lifetime of the wetlands (???4500 years) have averaged 0.2 (Cd), 1.4 (Cu), 1.7 (Cr), 13.4 (Mn), 4.8 (Pb), and 18.7 (Zn) mg m-2 y-1. Rates for the last 100 years have increased on average by factors of 6 (Cd), 8 (Cu), 10 (Mn), 15 (Pb), and 30 (Zn), remaining effectively constant for Cr. Where the wetlands have been drained, metals have been lost from the sediments, owing to changes in organic content and local hydrochemistry (exposure to acidic rainfall). Sediment-based accumulation rates at the undrained sites are higher, though generally consistent, with measured and modeled atmospheric fluxes documented by short-term studies conducted over the last three decades. The fraction of the total metals in the wetlands estimated to be of anthropogenic origin ranges from approximately 3% for Cr, up to approximately 35% for Pb, and 70% for Zn. This historic legacy of contamination must be considered in land management decisions, particularly when wetlands are drained.

Souch, C. J.; Filippelli, G. M.; Dollar, N.; Perkins, S.; Mastalerz, M.

2002-01-01

400

Removal of metals from heavy oils with phosphorus - Alumina catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Earlier it was found that various oil-soluble phosphorous compounds were active for vanadium removal from different crude oils. The phosphorous compounds preferentially reacted with low molecular weight vanadium species in the resin fraction and therefore the highest rate of vanadium removal was observed when the asphaltene fraction was partially or completely removed. Phosphorous compounds promoted the rate of vanadium removal during hydroprocessing over alumina in a trickle bed reactor. Some metal phosphates were prepared and tested for demetallization activity. Several mixed metal phosphates, such as Cr-Zr, Ni-Zr, Cu-Zr, V-Co-Zr, Fe-Co-Zr, Ni-Co-Zr, etc., exhibited high activity for both vanadium and nickel removal. These catalysts were found to possess HDM activity and activity maintenance comparable to conventional hydrotreating catalysts available commercially. The vanadium removal selectivity of the mixed metal phosphates was similar to that of the commercial catalyst, but much lower than that observed earlier for oil soluble phosphorous compounds. Since the lack of high vanadium selectivity for the mixed metal phosphates could be due to their transition metal component, they investigated the hydroprocessing of heavy oils over aluminas impregnated with different inorganic phosphorous compounds.

Kukes, S.G.; Parrott, S.L.; Gardner, L.E. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA))

1987-04-01

401

An Effective Means of Biofiltration of Heavy Metal Contaminated Water Bodies Using Aquatic Weed Eichhornia crassipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various aquatic plant species are known to accumulate heavy metals through the process of bioaccumulation. World’s most troublesome\\u000a aquatic weed water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has been studied for its tendency to bio-accumulate and bio-magnify the heavy metal contaminants present in water bodies.\\u000a The chemical investigation of plant parts has shown that it accumulates heavy metals like lead (Pb), chromium (Cr),

Suchi Tiwari; Savita Dixit; Neelam Verma

2007-01-01

402

Biosorption of chromium and nickel by heavy metal resistant fungal and bacterial isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms play a significant role in bioremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil and wastewater. In this study, heavy metal resistant fungi and bacteria were isolated from the soil samples of an electroplating industry, and the bioaccumulations of Cr(VI) and Ni(II) by these isolates were characterized to evaluate their applicability for heavy metal removal from industrial wastewaters. The optimum pH and

Shankar Congeevaram; Sridevi Dhanarani; Michael Dexilin; Kaliannan Thamaraiselvi

2007-01-01

403

Assessment of heavy metals in sediments from a typical catchment of the Yangtze River, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

An intensive investigation was conducted to study the accumulation, speciation, and distribution of various heavy metals (As,\\u000a Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in sediments from the Yangtze River catchment of Wuhan, China. The potential ecological risks\\u000a posed by these heavy metals also were estimated. The median concentrations of most heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb,

Ying Wang; Zhifeng Yang; Zhenyao Shen; Zhenwu Tang; Junfeng Niu; Fan Gao

2011-01-01

404

Spatial distribution of heavy metals in surficial sediments from Guanabara Bay: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ninety-two surface sediment samples were collected in Guanabara Bay, one of the most prominent urban bays in SE Brazil, to\\u000a investigate the spatial distribution of anthropogenic pollutants. The concentrations of heavy metals, organic carbon and particle\\u000a size were examined in all samples. Large spatial variations of heavy metals and particle size were observed. The highest concentrations\\u000a of heavy metals were

José Antônio Baptista Neto; Franz Xaver Gingele; Thomas Leipe; Isa Brehme

2006-01-01

405

Effect of heavy metals on nitrification performance in different activated sludge processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

To understand the toxic effect of heavy metals on the nitrification mechanisms of activated sludge, this study identified the specific ammonia utilization rate (SAUR) inhibited by Pb, Ni and\\/or Cd shock loadings. Seven different heavy metal combinations (Pb, Ni, Cd, Pb+Ni, Ni+Cd, Pb+Cd, and Pb+Ni+Cd) with seven different heavy metal concentrations (0, 2, 5, 10, 15, 25, and 40ppm, respectively)

Sheng-Jie You; Yung-Pin Tsai; Ru-Yi Huang

2009-01-01

406

Effect of heavy metal pollution on mycorrhizal colonization and function: physiological, ecological and applied aspects  

Microsoft Academic Search

High concentrations of heavy metals in soil have an adverse effect on micro-organisms and microbial processes. Among soil\\u000a microorganisms, mycorrhizal fungi are the only ones providing a direct link between soil and roots, and can therefore be of\\u000a great importance in heavy metal availability and toxicity to plants. This review discusses various aspects of the interactions\\u000a between heavy metals and

C. Leyval; K. Turnau; K. Haselwandter

1997-01-01

407

Heavy metal contamination in a vulnerable mangrove swamp in South China.  

PubMed

Concentrations of six heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Cr, and Pb) in sediments and fine roots, thick roots, branches, and leaves of six mangrove plant species collected from the Futian mangrove forest, South China were measured. The results show that both the sediments and plants in Futian mangrove ecosystem are moderately contaminated by heavy metals, with the main contaminants being Zn and Cu. All investigated metals showed very similar distribution patterns in the sediments, implying that they had the same anthropogenic source(s). High accumulations of the heavy metals were observed in the root tissues, especially the fine roots, and much lower concentrations in the other organs. This indicates that the roots strongly immobilize the heavy metals and (hence) that mangrove plants possess mechanisms that limit the upward transport of heavy metals and exclude them from sensitive tissues. The growth performance of propagules and 6-month-old seedlings of Bruguiera gymnorhiza in the presence of contaminating Cu and Cd was also examined. The results show that this plant is not sufficiently sensitive to heavy metals after its propagule stage for its regeneration and growth to be significantly affected by heavy metal contamination in the Futian mangrove ecosystem. However, older mangrove seedlings appeared to be more metal-tolerant than the younger seedlings due to their more efficient exclusion mechanism. Thus, the effects of metal contamination on young seedlings should be assessed when evaluating the risks posed by heavy metals in an ecosystem. PMID:23203819

Wang, Yutao; Qiu, Qiu; Xin, Guorong; Yang, Zhongyi; Zheng, Jing; Ye, Zhihong; Li, Shaoshan

2013-07-01

408

Natural and technogenic compounds of heavy metals in soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The existing geological classification of heavy metals (HMs) is not suitable for their characterization in soils. The carriers of HMs in soils differ from those in the lithosphere. These are clay minerals; iron oxides, whose composition varies between the background and urban soils; various manganese oxides; and different groups of organic substances. The mineral composition of HM carriers can vary significantly. The main iron oxides are ferrihydrite, goethite, feroxyhyte, and lepidocrocite in the background soils and technogenic magnetite in the urban soils. The different structures of manganese oxides determine their affinity for specific HMs. Metallic iron and green rust are very efficient in artificial geochemical barriers, although they act as strong reducers there. HM compounds strongly vary in soils because of the unstable conditions.

Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.

2014-04-01

409

Comprehensive assessment of heavy metal contamination in sediment of the Pearl River Estuary and adjacent shelf.  

PubMed

Total metal concentrations (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb), acid volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals (AVS-SEM), and heavy metal fractionation were used to assess the heavy metals contamination status and ecological risk in the sediments of the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) and adjacent shelf. Elevated concentrations at estuarine sites and lower concentrations at adjacent shelf sites are observed, especially for Cu and Zn. Within the PRE, the concentration of heavy metals in the western shore was mostly higher than that in the middle shore. The metals from anthropogenic sources mainly occur in the labile fraction and may be taken up by organisms as the environmental parameters change. A combination of total metal concentrations, metal contamination index and sequential extraction analysis is necessary to get the comprehensive information on the baseline, anthropogenic discharge and bioavailability of heavy metals. PMID:22677011

Yang, Yongqiang; Chen, Fanrong; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Jinsong; Wu, Shijun; Kang, Mingliang

2012-09-01

410

An effective means of biofiltration of heavy metal contaminated water bodies using aquatic weed Eichhornia crassipes.  

PubMed

Various aquatic plant species are known to accumulate heavy metals through the process of bioaccumulation. World's most troublesome aquatic weed water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has been studied for its tendency to bio-accumulate and bio-magnify the heavy metal contaminants present in water bodies. The chemical investigation of plant parts has shown that it accumulates heavy metals like lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and copper (Cu) to a large extent. Of all the heavy metals studied Pb, Zn and Mn tend to show greater affinity towards bioaccumulation. The higher concentration of metal in the aquatic weed signifies the biomagnification that lead to filtration of metallic ions from polluted water. The concept that E. crassipes can be used as a natural aquatic treatment system in the uptake of heavy metals is explored. PMID:17072557

Tiwari, Suchi; Dixit, Savita; Verma, Neelam

2007-06-01

411

Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing  

DOEpatents

An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500.degree. C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

Gay, Eddie C. (Park Forest, IL)

1995-01-01

412

Changes of Heavy Metals in Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers (PRTRs) in Korea  

PubMed Central

Industrial effluent containing heavy metals discharged into streams may pose high toxicity risks to aquatic organisms and to human health. Therefore, it is important to understand how to change the amount of effluent with heavy metals discharged from industries into open aquatic ecosystems both for effective management of heavy metals and to foster sustainable ecosystems. This study was conducted to characterize the release of heavy metals from industries based on the Pollutant Release and Transfer Registers database in Korea from 1999 to 2010. From the database, we selected nine heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Mn, Sb, Cu, Zn, Cr, Sn, and Ni) and compared the differences in their effluent for different types of industries. The heavy metal effluents released into freshwater ecosystems were classified into four clusters through the learning process of the self-organizing map. Cluster 1 was characterized by the relatively higher effluent volumes of heavy metals, whereas cluster 4 had lower effluent volumes. The different patterns of the effluent volumes in heavy metals were closely associated with the differences of industrial types, and the changes of effluents of heavy metals reflected the changes in regulations and laws for aquatic ecosystem management.

Kwon, Yong-Su; Bae, Mi-Jung; Park, Young-Seuk

2014-01-01

413

Heavy metals processing near-net-forming summary progress report  

SciTech Connect

This study utilized a converging-diverging nozzle to spray-form an alloy having a weight percent composition of 49.6% iron, 49.6% tungsten, and 0.8% carbon into samples for analysis. The alloy was a surrogate that displayed metallurgical characteristics similar to the alloys used in the heavy metals processing industry. US DOE facilities are evaluating advanced technologies which can simplify component fabrication, reduce handling steps, and minimize final machining. The goal of producing net-shaped components can be approached from several directions. In spray forming, molten metal is converted by a nozzle into a plume of fine droplets which quickly cool in flight and solidify against a substrate. The near-final dimension product that is formed receives additional benefits from rapid solidification. This single-step processing approach would aid the heavy metals industry by streamlining fabrication, improving production yields, and minimizing the generation of processing wastes. This Program effort provided a large selection of as-sprayed specimens. These samples were sprayed with gas-to-metal mass ratios ranging from 0.8:1 to 4:1. Samples targeted for analysis were produced from different spray conditions. Metallography on some samples revealed areas that were fully dense and homogeneous at 5,000X. These areas averaged grain sizes of 1 micron diameter. Other samples when viewed at 2,000X were highly segregated in the 10 micron diameter range. Deposit efficiencies of greater than 90% were demonstrated using the untailored spray system. Discharge gases were analyzed and two categories of particles were identified. One category of particle had a chemical composition characteristic of the alloy being sprayed and the second type of particle had a chemical composition characteristic of the ceramics used in the spray system component fabrication. Particles ranged in size from 0.07 to 3 microns in diameter. 8 refs., 67 figs., 20 tabs.

Watson, L.D. [Custom Spray Technologies, Inc., Rigby, ID (United States); Thompson, J.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

1994-09-01

414

Mapping of available heavy metals in Catamarca (Argentina)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Copper, iron, manganese and zinc are four essential elements for plant growth. Mapping heavy metal migration and distribution in soils is a preliminary step in assessing heavy metal availability in soils. However, data of qualitative and quantitative trace elements composition of soils of Argentina are scarce. Despite the small amounts required by plants, agricultural soils are usually deficient in one or more micronutrients, therefore, their concentration in plant tissues falls below the levels that allow optimal growth. Soil nature plays a fundamental role in the availability of micronutrients and their behaviour at a soil-plant level. The aim of this study is to determine the plant availability and areas of deficiency in agricultural soils with risk of salinization. The presented maps have been elaborated on the basis of the information provided by the monochromatic aerial photographs, scale 1:7000 and projected using the topographic information of the National Topographic Maps. Soils were sampled according to the spatial variation of soil types and land use. Sampling points were geo-referenced. Soil samples were analyzed at the laboratory for complete physicochemical and mineralogical characteristics. The percentage of organic matter is the determining factor in the presence and distribution of the available metals in the soils of the studied area, being the top horizon the one of greatest accumulation. CuDTPA, FeDPTA and MnDPTA are mobile within the profile, whereas ZnDPTA remains adsorbed without vertical displacement. ZnDTPA is the only available metal which also shows differences due to soil salinity and textural classes. However, soil geochemical conditions imply low extractability and a certain difficulty for micronutrient absorption by plants.

Roca, N.; Pazos, M. S.; Bech, J.

2009-04-01

415

The isolation of heavy-metal resistant culturable bacteria and resistance determinants from a heavy-metal-contaminated site  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we performed a phylogenetic analysis of a culturable bacterial community isolated from heavymetal-contaminated\\u000a soil from southwest Slovakia using 16S rRNA (16S rDNA) and heavy-metal resistance genes. The soil sample contained high concentrations\\u000a of nickel (2,109 mg\\/kg), cobalt (355 mg\\/kg) and zinc (177 mg\\/kg), smaller concentrations of iron (35.75 mg\\/kg) and copper\\u000a (32.2 mg\\/kg), and a trace amount

Edita Karelová; Jana Harichová; Tatjana Stojnev; Domenico Pangallo; Peter Ferianc

2011-01-01

416

Heavy meals in urban roadside soils, part 1: effect of particle size fractions on heavy metals partitioning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Urban roadside soils are important environmental media for assessing heavy metal concentrations in urban environment. However, among other things, heavy metal concentrations are controlled by soil particle grain size fractions. In this study, two roadside sites were chosen within the city of Xuzhou (China) to reflect differences in land use. Bulk soil samples were collected and then divided by particle diameter into five physical size fractions, 500-250, 250-125, 125-74, 74-45, < 45 ?m. Concentrations of metals (Ti, Cr, Al, Ga, Pb, Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, Mo, As, Sb, Se, Hg, Bi, Ag) were determined for each individual fraction. These metals could be roughly classified into two groups: anthropogenic element (Pb, Ba, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mo, As, Sb, Se, Hg, Bi, Ag) and lithophile element (Ti, Cr, Al, Ga, Co, Mn, Ni, V) in terms of values of enrichment factor. As expected, higher concentrations of anthropogenic heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Mo, As, Hg, Bi, Ag) are observed in the finest particle grain size fraction (i.e. < 45 ?m). However, heavy metals Se, Sb and Ba behave independently of selected grain size fractions. From the viewpoint of mass loading, more than 30% of the concentrations for all anthropogenic heavy metals are contributed by the particle grain size fractions of 45-74 ?m at site 1 and more than 70% of the concentrations for all heavy metals are contributed by the particle grain size fractions of 45-74 and 74-125 ?m at site 2. These results are important for transport of soil-bound heavy metals and pollution control by various remedial options.

Wang, Xue-Song; Qin, Yong; Chen, Yong-Kang

2006-08-01

417

Heavy metal concentrations in timberline trees of eastern Tibetan Plateau.  

PubMed

Concentrations of 14 heavy metals (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl, V, and Zn) in needles, twigs, bark and xylem of spruce and fir collected at the timberline of eight sites along the Hengduan Mountains, eastern Tibetan Plateau, are reported. Twigs had the highest concentration for most of elements, while xylem had the lowest concentration. The connections between elements in twigs were much richer than other organ/tissues. Pb, Ni, As, Sb, Co, Cd, Hg, Cr and Tl which are partly through anthropogenic sources and brought in by monsoon, have been accumulated in twigs and needles by wet or dry deposition in south and east sites where are within or near pollutant sources. Under moderate pollution situation, vegetation are able to adjust the nutrient element (Cu and Zn) cycle rate, thus maintain a stable concentration level. Seldom V, Ag, and Mo are from external anthropogenic sources. Needles and twigs can be used as biomonitors for ecosystem environment when needles can simply distinguish the origin of elements and twigs are more sensitive to extra heavy metal input. PMID:24817526

Luo, Ji; She, Jia; Yang, Peijun; Sun, Shouqin; Li, Wei; Gong, Yiwen; Tang, Ronggui

2014-08-01

418

Chemical methods and phytoremediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals.  

PubMed

The effects of chemical amendments (calcium carbonate (CC), steel sludge (SS) and furnace slag (FS)) on the growth and uptake of cadmium (Cd) by wetland rice, Chinese cabbage and wheat grown in a red soil contaminated with Cd were investigated using a pot experiment. The phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil with vetiver grass was also studied in a field plot experiment. Results showed that treatments with CC, SS and FS decreased Cd uptake by wetland rice, Chinese cabbage and wheat by 23-95% compared with the unamended control. Among the three amendments, FS was the most efficient at suppressing Cd uptake by the plants, probably due to its higher content of available silicon (Si). The concentrations of zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and Cd in the shoots of vetiver grass were 42-67%, 500-1200% and 120-260% higher in contaminated plots than in control, respectively. Cadmium accumulation by vetiver shoots was 218 g Cd/ha at a soil Cd concentration of 0.33 mg Cd/kg. It is suggested that heavy metal-contaminated soil could be remediated with a combination of chemical treatments and plants. PMID:10819205

Chen, H M; Zheng, C R; Tu, C; Shen, Z G

2000-07-01

419

Perturbations in nucleosome structure from heavy metal association  

PubMed Central

Heavy metals have the potential to engage in strong bonding interactions and can thus function in essential as well as toxic or therapeutic capacities. We conducted crystallographic analyses of heavy cation binding to the nucleosome core particle and found that Co2+ and Ni2+ preferentially associate with the DNA major groove, in a sequence- and conformation-dependent manner. Conversely, Rb+ and Cs+ are found to bind only opportunistically to minor groove elements of the DNA, in particular at narrow AT dinucleotide sites. Furthermore, relative to Mn2+ the aggressive coordination of Co2+ and Ni2+ to guanine bases is observed to induce a shift in histone–DNA register around the nucleosome center by stabilizing DNA stretching over one region accompanied by expulsion of two bases at an opposing location. These ‘softer’ transition metals also associate with multiple histone protein sites, including inter-nucleosomal cross-linking, and display a proclivity for coordination to histidine. Sustained binding and the ability to induce structural perturbations at specific locations in the nucleosome may contribute to genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of carcinogenesis mediated by Co2+ and Ni2+.

Mohideen, Kareem; Muhammad, Reyhan; Davey, Curt A.

2010-01-01

420

Chelation: Harnessing and Enhancing Heavy Metal Detoxification--A Review  

PubMed Central

Toxic metals such as arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are ubiquitous, have no beneficial role in human homeostasis, and contribute to noncommunicable chronic diseases. While novel drug targets for chronic disease are eagerly sought, potentially helpful agents that aid in detoxification of toxic elements, chelators, have largely been restricted to overt acute poisoning. Chelation, that is multiple coordination bonds between organic molecules and metals, is very common in the body and at the heart of enzymes with a metal cofactor such as copper or zinc. Peptides glutathione and metallothionein chelate both essential and toxic elements as they are sequestered, transported, and excreted. Enhancing natural chelation detoxification pathways, as well as use of pharmaceutical chelators against heavy metals are reviewed. Historical adverse outcomes with chelators, lessons learned in the art of using them, and successes using chelation to ameliorate renal, cardiovascular, and neurological conditions highlight the need for renewed attention to simple, safe, inexpensive interventions that offer potential to stem the tide of debilitating, expensive chronic disease.

Sears, Margaret E.

2013-01-01

421

Assessment of carcinogenic heavy metal levels in Brazilian cigarettes.  

PubMed

Several studies have associated high cancer incidence with smoking habits. According to IARC, lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) are carcinogenic to humans. These metals are present in cigarettes and their levels vary according to geographical region of tobacco cultivation, fertilizer treatment, plant variety etc. This study aims to assess these metal levels in cigarettes commercialized in Brazil. Three cigarettes of each 20 different brands were individually weighed, the tobacco filling removed, and homogenized. After desiccation, samples were subjected to microwave-assisted digestion. Analyses were performed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean levels for Pb, Cd, As, Ni, and Cr were, respectively, 0.27 ± 0.054, 0.65 ± 0.091, 0.09 ± 0.024, 1.26 ± 0.449, and 1.43 ± 0.630, in micrograms per gram of tobacco. No correlation was observed between Cd and any other metal analyzed. A mild correlation (r?=?0.483, p?heavy metal levels in cigarettes, representing an important exposure source of smokers and passive smokers to carcinogenic substances. PMID:21153763

Viana, Gustavo Freitas de Sousa; Garcia, Karina S; Menezes-Filho, Jose Antonio

2011-10-01

422

Analysis of heavy metal sources in soil using kriging interpolation on principal components.  

PubMed

Anniston, Alabama has a long history of operation of foundries and other heavy industry. We assessed the extent of heavy metal contamination in soils by determining the concentrations of 11 heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Mn, Hg, Ni, V, and Zn) based on 2046 soil samples collected from 595 industrial and residential sites. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was adopted to characterize the distribution of heavy metals in soil in this region. In addition, a geostatistical technique (kriging) was used to create regional distribution maps for the interpolation of nonpoint sources of heavy metal contamination using geographical information system (GIS) techniques. There were significant differences found between sampling zones in the concentrations of heavy metals, with the exception of the levels of Ni. Three main components explaining the heavy metal variability in soils were identified. The results suggest that Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn were associated with anthropogenic activities, such as the operations of some foundries and major railroads, which released these heavy metals, whereas the presence of Co, Mn, and V were controlled by natural sources, such as soil texture, pedogenesis, and soil hydrology. In general terms, the soil levels of heavy metals analyzed in this study were higher than those reported in previous studies in other industrial and residential communities. PMID:24693925

Ha, Hoehun; Olson, James R; Bian, Ling; Rogerson, Peter A

2014-05-01

423

TREATMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN STORMWATER RUNOFF USING RETENTION PONDS AND CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS  

EPA Science Inventory

Urban stormwater runoff is a significant source of suspended sediments and associated contaminants, including heavy metals, to receiving waterways. These metals are either dissolved or bound to particulates (coarse >75 µm; fine particulates ...

424

Coupled reactor physics and coolant dynamics of heavy liquid metal coolant systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cooling of advanced nuclear designs with heavy liquid metals such as lead or lead-bismuth eutectic offers the potential for plant simplifications and higher operating efficiencies compared to previously considered liquid metal coolants such as sodium or N...

J. E. Cahalan F. E. Dunn T. A. Taiwo

1999-01-01

425

The Interactions between Complexed Heavy Metals and Hydrous Solids: Adsorption and Its Effect on Colloidal Stability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Specific chemical interactions between heavy metals and solid particulates in the presence of chelating agents are examined. The absorption of metal ions onto hydrous solids in the presence of organic chelating agents is shown to be extremely complicated....

A. R. Bowers E. A. Rhoads K. P. Kehrer C. P. Huang

1981-01-01

426

Heavy metal leaching from mine tailings as affected by plants  

SciTech Connect

A column experiment was conducted to determine the impact of soil cover and plants on heavy metal leaching from mine tailings and heavy metal contaminated soil. Columns made of PVC were constructed with 30 cm subsoil covered by 30 cm of mine tailings followed by 0, 30, or 60 cm subsoil covered by 30 cm of mine tailings followed by 0, 30, or 60 cm of clean topsoil. Two grasses, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii), were grown in the columns. The columns were leached at a slow rate for 1 yr with a 0.001 M CaCl{sub 2} solution under unsaturated conditions. The presence of both tall fescue and big bluestem increased Zn and Cd concentrations in the leachate. Lead concentrations in leachates were not affected by the presence of plants. Although plants generally reduced the total amount of water leached, total mass of Zn and Cd leached generally was not impacted by plants. Total mass of Pb leached was positively correlated with total leachate collected from each column. Covering the mine tailings with 60 cm of topsoil increased the mass of Zn and Cd leached relative to no topsoil. When the subsoil was absent, Zn and Cd leaching increased by as much as 20-fold, verifying the ability of soil to act as a sink for metals. Mine tailing remediation by establishing vegetation can reduce Pb movement but may enhance short-term Cd and Zn leaching. However, the changes were relatively small and do not outweigh the benefits of using vegetation in mine tailings reclamation.

Zhu, D.; Schwab, A.P.; Banks, M.K.

1999-12-01

427

Studies on Microbial Heavy Metal Retention from Uranium Mine Drainage Water with Special Emphasis on Rare Earth Elements  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microbial heavy metal retention was studied using seepage water sampled from a former uranium mining site in Eastern Thuringia, Germany. The seepage water has a low pH and contains high concentrations of metals, including uranium, rare earth elements (REE), and other heavy metals. Microbial influence on sorption and\\/or active uptake of heavy metals was studied using REE patterns. Incubation of

D. Merten; E. Kothe; G. Büchel

2004-01-01

428

Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts  

DOEpatents

A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption processes, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gasses from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or "passivating" the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

Gangwal, Santosh (Cary, NC); Jothimurugesan, Kandaswamy (Hampton, VA)

1999-01-01

429

Heavy metal precipitation by polycation-polyanion complex of PEI and its phosphonomethylated derivative.  

PubMed

The removal of various heavy metal ions such as Cu2+, Co2+, Zn2+, Ni2+ and Pb2+ from aqueous solutions by precipitation with polyelectrolyte complex of PPEI and PEI was conducted. Heavy metal binding with PPEI was initially allowed to occur and then upon equilibration, PEI was added to initiate precipitation of the polyelectrolyte complex together with the heavy metal ion. The PPEI-PEI system was found effective for heavy metal scavenging purposes even in the presence of high concentrations of non-transition metal ions like Na+. Heavy metal concentration may be reduced beyond emission standards for industrial wastewaters. The PPEI-PEI polyelectrolyte complex was found to be more effective than traditional precipitation methods for the treatment of a representative electroless Ni plating waste solution. PMID:15925445

Navarro, Ronald R; Wada, Shinji; Tatsumi, Kenji

2005-08-31

430

Study on the law of heavy metal leaching in municipal solid waste landfill.  

PubMed

Comparative leaching experiments were carried out using leaching medium with different pH to municipal solid waste in the landfill columns in order to investigate the mobility of heavy metals. The leachate pH and oxidation-reduction potential were measured by oxidation-reduction potential analyzer; the contents of heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. It is very different in leaching concentrations of heavy metals; the dynamic leaching of heavy metals decreased with the rise of the leaching amount on the whole. Acid leaching medium had definite influence on the leaching of heavy metals in the early landfill, but it had the obvious inhibition effect on the leaching in the middle and late period of landfill; the neutral and alkaline leaching medium are more beneficial to the leaching of heavy metals. Due to the influence of the environment of landfill, the differences of the results in cumulative leaching amount, leaching rate, and leaching intensity of heavy metals are very big. The calculation results of the release rates of heavy metals prove that the orders of the release rates are not identical under different leaching conditions. Acid rain made heavy metals migrate from municipal solid waste to soil and detain in soil more easily; approached neutral and alkaline leaching mediums are more beneficial to leaching of heavy metals in the municipal solid waste and soil with leachate. The field verification of experimental data showed that the law of heavy metal leaching in municipal solid waste revealed by the experiment has a good consistency with the data obtained by municipal solid waste landfill. PMID:19466573

Liu, Hui-Hu; Sang, Shu-Xun

2010-06-01

431

Heavy metals induce oxidative stress and genome-wide modulation in transcriptome of rice root.  

PubMed

Industrial growth, ecological disturbances and agricultural practices have contaminated the soil and water with many harmful compounds, including heavy metals. These heavy metals affect growth and development of plants as well as cause severe human health hazards through food chain contamination. In past, studies have been made to identify biochemical and molecular networks associated with heavy metal toxicity and uptake in plants. Studies suggested that most of the physiological and molecular processes affected by different heavy metals are similar to those affected by other abiotic stresses. To identify common and unique responses by different metals, we have studied biochemical and genome-wide modulation in transcriptome of rice (IR-64 cultivar) root after exposure to cadmium (Cd), arsenate [As(V)], lead (Pb) and chromium [Cr(VI)] in hydroponic condition. We observed that root tissue shows variable responses for antioxidant enzyme system for different heavy metals. Genome-wide expression analysis suggests variable number of genes differentially expressed in root in response to As(V), Cd, Pb and Cr(VI) stresses. In addition to unique genes, each heavy metal modulated expression of a large number of common genes. Study also identified cis-acting regions of the promoters which can be determinants for the modulated expression of the genes in response to different heavy metals. Our study advances understanding related to various processes and networks which might be responsible for heavy metal stresses, accumulation and detoxification. PMID:24553786

Dubey, Sonali; Shri, Manju; Misra, Prashant; Lakhwani, Deepika; Bag, Sumit Kumar; Asif, Mehar H; Trivedi, Prabodh Kumar; Tripathi, Rudro Deo; Chakrabarty, Debasis

2014-06-01

432

Role of Phosphate in the Remediation and Reuse of Heavy Metal Polluted Wastes and Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metal pollution is a major environmental concern because of the toxicity to humans and plants. This toxicity is lethal\\u000a even in trace quantities and metals have a great tendency to bioaccumulate. The efficiency of phosphate and apatites M10(PO4)6(OH)2, M: Metal, in particular, in removing and immobilizing heavy metals from wastewater, groundwater (as permeable reactive barriers\\u000a for in situ site

Ange Nzihou; Patrick Sharrock

2010-01-01

433

Native Australian species are effective in extracting multiple heavy metals from biosolids.  

PubMed

Selecting native plant species with characteristics suitable for extraction of heavy metals may have multiple advantages over non-native plants. Six Australian perennial woody plant species and one willow were grown in a pot trial in heavy metal-contaminated biosolids and a potting mix. The plants were harvested after fourteen months and above-ground parts were analysed for heavy metal concentrations and total metal contents. All native species were capable of growing in biosolids and extracted heavy metals to varying degrees. No single species was able to accumulate heavy metals at particularly high levels and metal extraction depended upon the bioavailability of the metal in the substrate. Metal extraction efficiency was driven by biomass accumulation, with the species extracting the most metals also having the greatest biomass yield. The study demonstrated that Grevillea robusta, Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus polybractea, and E. cladocalyx have the greatest potential as phytoextractor species in the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated biosolids. Species survival and growth were the main determinants of metal extraction efficiency and these traits will be important for future screening of native species. PMID:23819263

Mok, Hoi-Fei; Majumder, Ramaprasad; Laidlaw, W Scott; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Arndt, Stefan K

2013-01-01

434

Isolation and screening of heavy metal resistant bacteria from wastewater: a study of heavy metal co-resistance and antibiotics resistance.  

PubMed

The uncontrolled discharges of wastes containing a large quantity of heavy metal create huge economical and healthcare burdens particularly for people living near that area. However, the bioremediation of metal pollutants from wastewater using metal-resistant bacteria is a very important aspect of environmental biotechnology. In this study, 13 heavy metal resistant bacteria were isolated from the wastewater of wadi El Harrach in the east of Algiers and characterized. These include zinc-, lead-, chromium- and cadmium-resistant bacteria. The metal-resistant isolates characterized include both Gram-negative (77%) and Gram-positive (23%) bacteria. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of wastewater isolates against the four heavy metals was determined in solid media and ranged from 100 to 1,500 ?g/ml. All the isolates showed co-resistance to other heavy metals and antibiotic resistance of which 15% were resistant to one antibiotic and 85% were multi- and bi-antibiotics resistant. The zinc-resistant species Micrococcus luteus was the much more heavy metal resistant. The results of toxicity tests on Vibrio fischeri showed that the DI(50) (5 min) as low as 0.1 carried away luminescence inhibition greater than 50%. PMID:22949232

Yamina, Benmalek; Tahar, Benayad; Marie Laure, Fardeau

2012-01-01

435

Heavy metal contamination in the seaweeds of the Venice lagoon.  

PubMed

The concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cr, As) were determined in seven seaweeds of environmental and commercial relevance (Ulva rigida C. Ag., Gracilaria gracilis (Stackhouse) Steentoft, L. Irvine and Farnham, Porphyra leucosticta Thuret, Grateloupia doryphora (Montagne) Howe., Undaria pinnatifida (Harv.) Suringar, Fucus virsoides J. Agardh, Cystoseira barbata (Good. et Wood.) Ag.) collected in four sampling sites in the lagoon of Venice, in spring and autumn 1999. Metals were extracted using hot concentrated acids in a Microwave Digestion Rotor and analysed by absorption spectrophotometry using a flame mode for Fe and Zn and a graphite furnace for Pb, Cr, Cd, Cu, Ni and As. High contamination levels, especially for Pb, were detected in Ulva and to a lesser extent in Gracilaria. Brown seaweeds, especially Cystoseira was highly contaminated by As. The least contaminated genera with all metals except As were Porphyra and Undaria. A concentration decrease for Zn and Cd was observed from the inner parts of the central lagoon, close to the industrial district, towards the lagoon openings to the sea. PMID:11999620

Caliceti, M; Argese, E; Sfriso, A; Pavoni, B

2002-04-01

436

Surface binding of toxins and heavy metals by probiotics.  

PubMed

Removal of toxic metals and toxins using microbial biomass has been introduced as an inexpensive, new promising method on top of conventional methods for decontamination of food, raw material and concentrated. In this article the potential application of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts as the most familiar probiotics to eliminate, inactivate or reduce bioavailability of contamination in foods and feed has been reviewed. After fast glance to beneficial health effects and preservative properties of lactic acid bacteria, the mechanisms which explain antibacterial and antifungal efficiency as well as their antifungal metabolites are mentioned. Then the article has been focused on potential application of single strain or combination of lactic acid bacteria for removal of heavy metals (copper, lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic), cyanotoxins (microcystin-LR, -RR, -LF) and mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, B2, B2a, M1, M2, G1, G2, patulin, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1 and B2, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon, nivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin, zearalenone and its derivative, etc) from aqueous solutions in vitro. Wherever possible the mechanism of decontamination and the factors influencing yield of removal are discussed. Some factors which can facilitate metal removal capacity of lactic acid bacteria including the strains, surface charge, pH, temperature, presence of other cations are introduced. The cell wall structure of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts are also introduced for further explanation of mechanism of action in complex binding of probiotic to contaminants and strength of mycotoxin- bacterium interaction. PMID:24329992

Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara

2014-01-01

437

Water hyacinth as indicator of heavy metal pollution in the tropics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a common aquatic plant in many tropical countries. Its ability absorb nutrients and other elements from the water has made it possible to use it for water purification purposes. Eichhornia, especially stems and leaves, have been successfully used as indicators of heavy metal pollution in tropical countries. The uptake of heavy metals in this

Humberto Gonzalez; Martin Lodenius; Mirta Otero

1989-01-01

438

Laboratory study on the survival of water hyacinth under several conditions of heavy metal concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To study the survival and behaviour of water hyacinth [Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms] under varying conditions of heavy metal concentrations, groups of the plants were grown in different media (distilled water, Nile water, wastewater and different concentrations of heavy metals). Simultaneously, blank experiments were carried out for comparison. Visual changes in the plants observed during each experiment were noted. The

M. E Soltan; M. N Rashed

2003-01-01

439

Distribution of heavy metals in sediment and water of river Gomti  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gomti river receives industrial as well as domestic wastes from various drains of Lucknow city. In the process the water and sediment of the river Gomti get contaminated with heavy metals and other pollutants. In the present study, impacts of domestic\\/industrial wastes on the water and sediment chemistry of river Gomti with special reference to heavy metals have been investigated

Vivek K. Gaur; Sanjay K. Gupta; S. D. Pandey; Krishna Gopal; Virendra Misra

2005-01-01

440

Plant responses to abiotic stresses: heavy metal-induced oxidative stress and protection by mycorrhization  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review is to assess the mode of action and role of antioxidants as protection from heavy metal stress in roots, mycorrhizal fungi and mycor- rhizae. Based on their chemical and physical proper- ties three different molecular mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity can be distinguished: (a) production of reactive oxygen species by autoxidation and Fenton reaction; this

Andres Schutzendubel; Andrea Polle

2002-01-01

441

The presence and distribution of heavy metals in municipal solid waste incinerators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals are both a hazard to human health and a risk to the environment. Among the different sources, it seems interesting to study the waste incineration process for the increasing number of composite materials which are disposed by this method. This paper will focus mainly on the processing of heavy metals in municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration plants. In

Luciano Morselli; Sergio Zappoli; Simonetta Militerno

1993-01-01

442

Determination of heavy metals in different honey brands from Iranian markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of elements are present in honey at different concentrations. Although some of these heavy metals and trace elements are useful nutrition, at higher levels they could cause health problems. In order to achieve confidence about food safety, regular monitoring of food quality is necessary. In this study, heavy metals and trace element contents were determined by inductively coupled

Behrouz Akbari; Faezeh Gharanfoli; Mohammd Hassanzadeh Khayyat; Zahra Khashyarmanesh; Ramin Rezaee; Gholamreza Karimi

2012-01-01

443

Intake of heavy metals from foods in Finland, West Germany and Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of heavy metal intakes between Finland, West Germany and Japan suggests that the average oral exposure to lead and cadmium in Finland is 30–40% of that in the other two countries. Environmental contamination is the obvious cause of high heavy metal content of vegetables and liver in West Germany and Japan and this explains a part of the difference

K. Louekari; S. Salminen

1986-01-01

444

Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils around a chromite mine in Vietnam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Vietnam, the Co Dinh mine is the largest chromite mine in the country. Mining, ore dressing and disposal of the tailings provide obvious sources of heavy metal contamination in the mine area. The present study examined the influence of chromite mining activities on the adjacent lowland paddy field by investigating heavy metal and As levels in the mine tailings,

Chu N. Kien; Nguyen V. Noi; Le T. Son; Ha M. Ngoc; Sota Tanaka; Takuro Nishina; K?z? Iwasaki

2010-01-01

445

Determination and speciation of heavy metals in sediments of the Juru River, Penang, Malaysia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Juru River flows through largely urbanized areas and is grossly polluted by domestic wastes and discharges from pig farms. Other than carrying highly polluting organic materials, these wastes are also contaminated with heavy metals. To ascertain the extent of heavy metal pollution in the river, total and non-residual concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn and Fe in sediment samples

Poh-Eng Lim; Mun-Yoon Kiu

1995-01-01

446

Influence of Acid Rain on the Release Characteristics of the Heavy Metals in Coal Ash  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release characteristics of Cd, Pb, Mn, Cu and Zn from coal-ash are investigated by the simulated acid rain. The soaking and leaching experiments were performed to test the heavy metals sensitivity to acidity and the releasing potential in different pH and time conditions. The heavy metals release content was measured by atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (AFS). The release ratio was

Zeng Fang; Chen Qing

2008-01-01

447

Industrialization affects heavy metal and carbon isotope concentrations in recent Baltic Sea sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent sediment cores of the western Baltic Sea were analyzed for heavy metal and carbon isotope contents. The sedimentation rate was determined from radiocarbon dates to be 1.4 mm\\/yr. The `recent age' of the sediment was about 850 yr. Within the upper 20 cm of sediment, certain heavy metals became increasingly enriched towards the surface; Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu

Helmut Erlenkeuser; Erwin Suess; Horst Willkomm

1974-01-01

448

In-air PIXE for analyzing heavy metals in water boiled in pans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release rates of heavy metals from pans were measured for boiling water as well as for an acidic solution prior to an investigation on the release or sorption of trace elements due to cooking of food by boiling. The boiled samples were condensed and analyzed by means of in-air PIXE. The release of heavy metals was measured for five

M. Tomita; Y. Haruyama; M. Saito

1993-01-01

449

Toxicity of heavy metals to microorganisms and microbial processes in agricultural soils: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

An increasing body of evidence suggests that microorganisms are far more sensitive to heavy metal stress than soil animals or plants growing on the same soils. Not surprisingly, most studies of heavy metal toxicity to soil microorganisms have concentrated on effects where loss of microbial function can be observed and yet such studies may mask underlying effects on biodiversity within

Ken E Giller; Ernst Witter; Steve P Mcgrath

1998-01-01

450

A Pyoverdin Siderophore Produced By Pseudomonas aeruginosa CHL-004 Binds Lead And Other Heavy Metals - (Poster)  

EPA Science Inventory

Heavy metal pollution in soils, sediments and wastewater poses a significant environmental and public health threat due to toxicity and the potential for bioaccumulation in both plant and animal tissues. Remediation of heavy metals in soils and sediments using solely physical or...

451

A Pyoverdin Siderophore Produced By Pseudomonas aeruginosa CHL-004 Binds Lead And Other Heavy Metals  

EPA Science Inventory

Heavy metal pollution in soils, sediments and wastewater poses a significant environmental and public health threat due to toxicity and the potential for bioaccumulation in both plant and animal tissues. Remediation of heavy metals in soils and sediments using solely physical or...

452

Evaluation of Drosophila melanogaster as an alternative animal for studying the neurotoxicity of heavy metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heavy metals cause irreversible neurobehavioral damage in many developing mammals, but the mechanisms of this damage are unknown. The influence of three heavy metal compounds, triethyllead chloride, lead acetate and cadmium chloride, on lethality, development, behavior and learning was studied using the fruit fly,Drosophila melanogaster. This animal was used because it allows hundreds of subjects to be assayed very easily

Jonathan M. Akins; Joyce A. Schroeder; Danny L. Browert; H. Vasken Aposhian

1992-01-01

453

Cloning of a heavy-metal-binding protein derived from activated-sludge microorganisms.  

PubMed

A gene of the heavy-metal-binding protein (HMBP) was newly isolated from a genetic DNA library of activated-sludge microorganisms. HMBP was produced by transformed Escherichia coli, and the copper-binding ability of HMBP was confirmed. HMBP derived from activated sludge could be available as heavy metal adsorbents in water and wastewater treatments. PMID:16957266

Sano, Daisuke; Myojo, Ken; Omura, Tatsuo

2006-09-01

454

Heavy-metal contamination on training ranges at the Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Large quantities of lead and other heavy metals are deposited in the environment of weapons ranges during training exercises. This study was conducted to determine the type, degree, and extent of heavy-metal contamination on selected handgun, rifle, and h...

S. D. Zellmer J. F. Schneider

1993-01-01

455

Extent and distribution of soil heavy metal contamination near a nickel smelter at Coniston, Ontario  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent of contamination in surface soils and profiles by sulfur compounds and the heavy metals nickel, copper, zinc, and iron up to a distance of 3.5 km in the southeast quadrant from the smelter at Coniston, Ontario, was examined. Total and sulfate sulfur were measured, as well as total, available, and exchange heavy metals. Strong contamination by Ni, Cu,

G. K. Rutherford; C. R. Bray

1979-01-01

456

Investigations for Heavy Metals and POPs Emission Inventory Improvement in Belarus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emission fluxes assessment acts as starting point of air pollution interpretation. The paper presents results of a 7-years activity on identification and estimation of heavy metals and POPs emission sources in Belarus, most of which are poorly inventoried. Methodology based on sources testing and emission factors has been used. The following heavy metals emission sources have been evaluated: stationary fuel

S. Kakareka; T. Kukharchyk

2003-01-01

457

Effects of Listening to Heavy Metal Music on College Women: A Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

College students are typically very identified with popular music and spend many hours listening to their music of preference. To investigate the effects of heavy metal music, we compared the responses of 18 female undergraduate college students to a baseline silence condition (A) and a heavy metal music condition (B). Dependent measures included:…

Becknell, Milton E.; Firmin, Michael W.; Hwang, Chi-en; Fleetwood, David M.; Tate, Kristie L.; Schwab, Gregory D.

2008-01-01

458

Heavy metal and selenium concentrations in black skimmers (Rynchops niger): Gender differences  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most studies of heavy metals and selenium have not examined or have failed to find differences in concentrations in the tissues of birds as a function of size or sex. Heavy metal and selenium concentrations were analyzed in breast feathers of adult black skimmers Rynchops niger, a species with marked sexual size dimorphism in which males average 35% heavier than

Joanna Burger; M. Gochfeld

1992-01-01

459

Heavy metal contamination in dusts and stream sediments in the Taejon area, Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Associated with the rapid pace of urbanization and industrialization is the increase of automobile emissions, factory emissions, and industrial wastewater. Heavy metal contamination from these point sources has received much attention in the Taejon area, Korea. In order to investigate the d