Science.gov

Sample records for heavy metals content

  1. Content of heavy metals in the hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrashkov, S. A.; Petukhov, V. L.; Korotkevich, O. S.; Petukhov, I. V.

    2003-05-01

    The aim of our investigation was to determine of HM content in the hair of people and animals. Two of the main essential elements-Zn and Cu and two of the supertoxical heavy metals- Pb and Cd were chosen. The investigations were conducted in Russian Federation and Belarus Republic in 2001-2002. About 500 hair samples of people, dogs, cats, cattle, horses, yaks, pigs, sheep goats and rabbits were studied by the stripping voltammetric analysis (SVA) method with TA- 2 analyzer to determine Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd concentrations. The hair samples were prepared according to the methods developed in Tomsk University (Russia) and improved by the authors. The essence of the methods is the multiconsecutive burning of hair samples to ashes and boiling them in concentrated acids to dissolve chemical combinations and transform their metals into ion forms. The zinc concentration was the highest in all hair samples (58.65 ... 195.15 mg/kg). The copper content was several times less (5.49 ... 22.63 mg/kg). Lead and cadmium were detected in relatively low amounts (0.32 ... 2.42 mg/kg and 0.04 ... 0.92 mg/kg respectively). The highest Pb and Cd levels were detected in cats and people hair.

  2. HEAVY METAL CONTENT OF AYURVEDIC HERBAL MEDICINE PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Case reports of individuals taking Ayurvedic herbal medicine products (HMPs) suggest that they may contain lead, mercury, and/or arsenic. We analyzed the heavy metal content of Ayurvedic HMPs manufactured in India and Pakistan, available in South Asian grocery stores in the Bost...

  3. Studies on the indicator for heavy metal contamination in environments (1) heavy metal contents of hair, nail and moustache

    SciTech Connect

    Nishihara, T.; Watabe, K.; Ichikawa, T.; Kondo, M.; Fujii, M.

    1985-01-01

    Heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Fe, Zn, and Mn) contents of the samples from 10 males were followed throughout a year. The values were characteristic of the individuals, and some correlations between the contents of different metals were shown.

  4. [Application of ICP-MS to determination of heavy metal content of heavy metals in two kinds of N fertilizer].

    PubMed

    Rui, Yu-kui; Shen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Fu-suo

    2008-10-01

    Environmental safety has been the focus worldwide, where involved are the pollutions of heavy metals, pesticides and persistent organic pollutants. Fertilizer has become one of the polluting sources of heavy metals, which are very deleterious to human health and environmental safety. Heavy metals are difficult to metabolize in human body and very harmful, so research on the pollution of heavy metals is considered increasingly important. The pollution sources of heavy metals include waste residue, waste water and exhaust gas from industry and automobile, and garbage from human life. The heavy metals in fertilizer can endanger the human body by the crop containing heavy metals. Two kinds of nitrogen fertilizer were analyzed in terms of the content of heavy metals by ICP-MS, and the results showed that the content of 10 kinds of heavy metals (Al, Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Hg and Pb) in (NH4)2SO4 was 1345.13, 35.12, 2539.27, 287.26, 674.05, 270.79, 42.54, 22.13, 27.20 and 123.87 ng x g(-1) respectively; and in CO(NH2)2 it is 71.59, 5.36, 1167.71, 188.60, 7.46, 64.45, 10.55, 0.00, 0.09 and 3.71 ng x g(-1) respectively. All the data showed that CO(NH2)2 contained much less heavy metals than (NH4)2SO4, so we should select CO(NH2)2 as the nitrogen fertilizer in agricultural production. PMID:19123422

  5. Heavy metals content of municipal wastewater and sludges in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al Enezi, G; Hamoda, M F; Fawzi, N

    2004-01-01

    Municipal wastewater may contain heavy metals, which are hazardous to the environment and humans. With stringent regulations concerning water reuse and sludge utilization in agriculture, there is a great need to determine levels of heavy metals in liquid wastes, sludges and agricultural crops. The state of Kuwait has programs to utilize waste sludge produced at wastewater treatment plants as soil conditioner and fertilizer for greenery and agricultural development projects and to reuse treated wastewater effluents in irrigation. The common metals found in Kuwait's raw wastewater and sludge are Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The effects of accumulation of heavy metals in soil are long lasting and even permanent. In this study, the variations in the concentration levels of heavy metals were measured in wastewater and sludge produced at Ardiya municipal wastewater treatment plant in Kuwait. A relationship was observed between the concentrations of heavy metals in treated wastewater and sludge used for agriculture and the level of accumulated heavy metals found in residual tissues of some crops. PMID:15027823

  6. Heavy metal content in rubbish bags used for separate collection of biowaste.

    PubMed

    Huerta-Pujol, Oscar; Soliva, Montserrat; Giró, Francesc; López, Marga

    2010-01-01

    The heavy metal content of several rubbish bags used to collect the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is shown in this paper. Nowadays, several public awareness campaigns carried out by municipalities have promoted rubbish bags based mainly on their appearance, without concern for their heavy metal content. A high amount of heavy metals was detected in some polyethylene bags promoted in different campaigns for OFMSW source-sorted collection, while compostable bags presented low quantities of heavy metals. Some other rubbish bags, as well as commercial bags, were also analysed for comparison. These results should be taken into account before promoting the use of one or other type of bag. Moreover, the rubbish bag manufacturers should reduce the heavy metal content in order to avoid heavy metal scattering in the environment, and also to reduce the consumption of raw materials. PMID:20400284

  7. Effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill on corn yield and heavy metal content

    SciTech Connect

    Prabpai, S. Charerntanyarak, L. Siri, B. Moore, M.R. Noller, Barry N.

    2009-08-15

    The effects of residues from municipal solid waste landfill, Khon Kaen Municipality, Thailand, on corn (Zea mays L.) yield and heavy metal content were studied. Field experiments with randomized complete block design with five treatments (0, 20, 40, 60 and 80% v/v of residues and soil) and four replications were carried out. Corn yield and heavy metal contents in corn grain were analyzed. Corn yield increased by 50, 72, 85 and 71% at 20, 40, 60 and 80% treatments as compared to the control, respectively. All heavy metals content, except cadmium, nickel and zinc, in corn grain were not significantly different from the control. Arsenic, cadmium and zinc in corn grain were strongly positively correlated with concentrations in soil. The heavy metal content in corn grain was within regulated limits for human consumption.

  8. Assessment of heavy metal contents in the ambient air of the Coimbatore city, Tamilnadu, India.

    PubMed

    Vijayanand, C; Rajaguru, P; Kalaiselvi, K; Selvam, K Panneer; Palanivel, M

    2008-12-30

    Industrialization and urbanization are the two major causes of deteriorating air quality. To evaluate the ambient air quality of the Coimbatore city, suspended particulate matter (SPM) was collected at ten stations and analysed for the heavy metals content. The concentrations of seven heavy metals (Zn, Fe, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr and Cd) were estimated. The level of SPM was found to be either at permissible or non-permissible limit depending upon the category of the sampling station. At majority of sampling stations, concentrations of Zn were found to be maximum than other heavy metals. The order of average concentrations of heavy metals in Coimbatore atmospheric air was Zn>Fe>Cu>Pb>Cr>Ni>Cd. The usage of Zn for protective coating on iron, steel etc. by the industries in Coimbatore city could be the major reason for the higher concentration of this heavy metal in this region. PMID:18471965

  9. Evaluation of heavy metals content in dietary supplements in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The consumption of dietary supplements is widely spread and on the rise. These dietary supplements are generally used without prescriptions, proper counseling or any awareness of their health risk. The current study aimed at analyzing the metals in 33 samples of imported dietary supplements highly consumed by the Lebanese population, using 3 different techniques, to ensure the safety and increase the awareness of the citizen to benefit from these dietary supplements. Results Some samples had levels of metals above their maximum allowable levels (Fe: 24%, Zn: 33%, Mn: 27%, Se: 15%, Mo: 12% of samples), but did not pose any health risk because they were below permitted daily exposure limit and recommended daily allowance except for Fe in 6% of the samples. On the other hand, 34% of the samples had Cu levels above allowable limit where 18% of them were above their permitted daily exposure and recommended daily allowance. In contrast, all samples had concentration of Cr, Hg, and Pb below allowable limits and daily exposure. Whereas, 30% of analyzed samples had levels of Cd above allowable levels, and were statistically correlated with Ca, and Zn essential minerals. Similarly 62% of the samples had levels of As above allowable limits and As levels were associated with Fe and Mn essential minerals. Conclusion Dietary supplements consumed as essential nutrients for their Ca, Zn, Fe and Mn content should be monitored for toxic metal levels due to their natural geochemical association with these essential metals to provide citizens the safe allowable amounts. PMID:23331553

  10. Heavy metal content in various types of candies and their daily dietary intake by children.

    PubMed

    Devi, Parmila; Bajala, Vandana; Garg, V K; Mor, Suman; Ravindra, Khaiwal

    2016-02-01

    Children are vulnerable to heavy metal contamination through consumption of candies and chocolates. Considering this representative samples (69) of candies and chocolates based on cocoa, milk and sugar were analyzed for selected heavy metals by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The average concentration of Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cd was found to be 2.52 ± 2.49, 2.0 ± 1.20, 0.84 ± 1.35, and 0.17 ± 0.22 μg/g respectively. Results indicate that cocoa-based candies have higher metal content than milk- or sugar-based candies. The daily dietary intake of metals for children eating candies and chocolates was also calculated, and results indicated highest intake of Pb and Zn followed by Ni, Cd, and Cu. Comparison of the current study results with other studies around the globe shows that the heavy metal content in candies and chocolates is lower in India than reported elsewhere. However, to reduce the further dietary exposure of heavy metals through candies and chocolates, their content should be monitored regularly and particularly for Pb as children are highly susceptible to its toxicity. PMID:26759032

  11. Magntic susceptibility as a proxy to heavy metal content in the sediments of Anzali wetland, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal concentrations and magnetic susceptibility of sediment samples were analyzed as indicators of urban and industrial contamination in Anzali wetland in Gilan, Iran. The aim was to investigate the suitability of magnetic properties measurements for indicating heavy metal pollution. The concentration of six heavy metals (Ni, Cr, Cd, Zn, Fe, and Pb) was determined in different depths of four sediment core samples within four different regions of the wetland (Abkenar, Hendekhaleh, Shijan and Siakeshim). Average concentration of heavy metals in the sediment cores was higher than the severe effect level (SEL) for Ni, Cr and Fe (77.26, 113.63 ppm and 5.2%, respectively) and lower than SEL for Cd, Zn and Pb (0.84, 137.7, 29.77 ppm, respectively). It was found that the trend of metal concentrations with the depth is different in each core and is related to the pollution discharges into the rivers entering the wetland. Core magnetic susceptibility measurements also showed different magnetic properties in each core. Cluster analysis was applied using Pearson correlation coefficient between heavy metal concentrations and magnetic properties across each core. Significant relationship was found to exist between magnetic susceptibility and the concentration of Ni in Abkenar and the concentration of Fe in other regions. Whereas Abkenar is almost the isolated and uncontaminated region of the wetland, it revealed a difference in magnetic properties between contaminated and uncontaminated sediments. It was concluded that magnetic properties of samples from contaminated zone were mostly related to Fe content. The result of this study demonstrated that magnetic susceptibility measurements could be applied as a proxy method for heavy metal pollution determination in marine environments in Iran especially as a rapid and cost-effective introductory site assessments. PMID:23369299

  12. Risk assessment of mineral and heavy metal content of selected tea products from the Ghanaian market.

    PubMed

    Nkansah, Marian Asantewah; Opoku, Francis; Ackumey, Abiathar Abraham

    2016-06-01

    Food consumption is the most likely route of human exposure to metals. Tea (Camellia sinensis L.) is among the most widely consumed non-alcoholic beverages. Concentrations of heavy metals and minerals in tea from 15 different brands in Kumasi, Ghana were measured to assess the health risk associated with their consumption. The mineral and metal contents (Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd) were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Z-8100 polarized Zeeman). The results revealed that the mean concentrations were in the order: Ca > Fe > As > Cd > Zn > Pb. The average contents of Ca, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, and As in the samples were 94.08, 6.15, 0.20, 0.16, 0.36, and 1.66 mg/kg, respectively. All the minerals and heavy metals were below the maximum permissible limits stipulated by the World Health Organization (WHO) and US Pharmacopeia (USP). Metal-to-metal correlation indicated strong correlations between As/Zn, Cd/Zn, Cd/As, and Pb/As pairs. Factor analysis demonstrated a clear separation between minerals, grouped on one side, and heavy metals, clustered on another side. Both the target hazard quotient (THQ) and hazard index (HI) levels in green tea were far below 1, suggesting that consumption of green tea should pose no potential risk to human health. However, carcinogenic risk levels for arsenic were high; R > 10(-6). The results showed that residents in Kumasi consume tea could be at risk from exposure to these heavy metals and minerals. PMID:27154053

  13. The relationships between content of heavy metals in soil and in strawberries.

    PubMed

    Bystricka, Judita; Musilova, Janette; Trebichalsky, Pavol; Tomas, Jan; Stanovic, Radovan; Bajcan, Daniel; Kavalcova, Petra

    2016-06-01

    The work was aimed at assessment of quality of strawberry based on the contents of heavy metals as well as the possible correlations between selected heavy metals in soil and strawberries. The results revealed that from all observed metals in soil determined in aqua regia only in the case of cadmium the maximum permissible limit in comparison with the limit resulting from the Law No. 220/2004 as well as threshold values proposed by European Commission (EC) (2006) has been exceeded. In our paper the values of cadmium in the soil representing 1.86 to 2.41 times higher values than limit valid in the Slovak Republic (0.7 mg/kg) and 2.6 to 3.38 times higher in comparison to EC (0.5 mg/kg). In our study in 1 M NH4NO3 the values of lead ranged from 0.125 to 0.205 mg/kg representing values exceeded the limit valid in Slovak Republic (0.1 mg/kg) about 0.037-0.105 mg/kg. Despite exceeded values of heavy metals in soil, no values above the limit directly in strawberries when compared to Food Codex of Slovak Republic as well as to Commission Regulation 1881/2006 were recorded. Among the varieties statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) in intake of heavy metals were found. PMID:26479424

  14. Heavy Metal Contents of Soils, Durum and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büyükkılıç Yanardaǧ, Asuman

    2013-04-01

    Soils are vital for regulating the biological effects and mobility of metals in nature. Iron and zinc are some of the essential nutrients for plants and animals, while other metals are potentially toxic such as lead and cadmium. Toxic heavy metals (HMs) can be taken up easily by organisms. HMs inputs to soil via the application of metal-contained fertilizers often exceed outputs in crops and drainage waters, thus toxic HMs content in many agricultural soils tends to be gradually increasing. Thus adverse human health effects due to soil-plant and plant-human transfer of HMs have been enhanced. HMs may cause harmful effects on human health due to the ingestion of food grain grown in soils. The objectives of this study were (1) to understand the chemistry of metals in soils for managing their agricultural and ecological impacts, (2) to identify metal uptakes of different genotypes of wheat. Concentrations of HMs (Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Mo, Pb) in wheat were investigated in different agricultural areas in Southeast, Turkey. The results showed that concentrations of HMs were in following order: Mn>Ni>Zn>Cu>Pb>Mo>Cd in surface and next to surface soil and Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb> Ni>Mo>Cd in wheat, respectively. HMs concentrations of several soil samples exceeded the permissible limits of Europe standard except for Ni and Mn. In addition, concentration of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were higher in bread wheat than in durum wheat; however, concentration of Mn, Ni and Mo were higher in durum wheat than in bread wheat. Unusual amount of heavy metals found in some fertilizers used in the Southeast region of Turkey, it becomes an important subject to determine the amount of metals added to the soil every year. Heavy metals uptake by plants still remains to be an interest for researchers. As the heavy metals contents of plants were below the threshold levels, we conclude that the quality of wheat is high and it should receive attention in national and international markets. Keywords: Heavy Metals

  15. Red cabbage yield, heavy metal content, water use and soil chemical characteristics under wastewater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Tunc, Talip; Sahin, Ustun

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this 2-year field study was to evaluate the effects of drip irrigation with urban wastewaters reclaimed using primary (filtration) and secondary (filtration and aeration) processes on red cabbage growth and fresh yield, heavy metal content, water use and efficiency and soil chemical properties. Filtered wastewater (WW1), filtered and aerated wastewater (WW2), freshwater and filtered wastewater mix (1:1 by volume) (WW3) and freshwater (FW) were investigated as irrigation water treatments. Crop evapotranspiration decreased significantly, while water use efficiency increased under wastewater treatments compared to FW. WW1 treatment had the lowest value (474.2 mm), while FW treatments had the highest value (556.7 mm). The highest water use efficiency was found in the WW1 treatment as 8.41 kg m(-3), and there was a twofold increase with regard to the FW. Wastewater irrigation increased soil fertility and therefore red cabbage yield. WW2 treatment produced the highest total fresh yield (40.02 Mg ha(-1)). However, wastewater irrigation increased the heavy metal content in crops and soil. Cd content in red cabbage heads was above the safe limit, and WW1 treatment had the highest value (0.168 mg kg(-1)). WW3 treatment among wastewater treatments is less risky in terms of soil and crop heavy metal pollution and faecal coliform contamination. Therefore, WW3 wastewater irrigation for red cabbage could be recommended for higher yield and water efficiency with regard to freshwater irrigation. PMID:26611631

  16. Study on the Effects of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on the Content and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shibao; Wang, Jianhua; Pei, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Reclaimed water is an important resource for irrigation, and exploration in making full use of it is an important way to alleviate water shortage. This paper analyzes the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water through field trials on the content and distribution of heavy metals in both tomatoes and the soil. By exploring the effects of reclaimed water after secondary treatment on the content and distribution characteristics of heavy metals in tomatoes and the heavy metal balance in the soil-crop system under different conditions, the study shows that there are no significant differences in the heavy metal content when the quantity of reclaimed water for irrigation varies. Reclaimed water for short-term irrigation does not cause pollution to either the soil environment or the crops. Nor will it cause the accumulation of heavy metals, and the index for the heavy metal content is far below the critical value of the national standard, which indicates that the vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water during their growth turn out to be free of pollutants. The heavy metals brought into the soil by reclaimed water are less than that taken away by the crops. The input and output quantities have only small effects on the heavy metal balance in the soil. This paper provides a reference for the evaluation and safety control of irrigation with reclaimed water. PMID:27005639

  17. Study on the Effects of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on the Content and Distribution of Heavy Metals in Soil.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shibao; Wang, Jianhua; Pei, Liang

    2016-03-01

    Reclaimed water is an important resource for irrigation, and exploration in making full use of it is an important way to alleviate water shortage. This paper analyzes the effects of irrigation with reclaimed water through field trials on the content and distribution of heavy metals in both tomatoes and the soil. By exploring the effects of reclaimed water after secondary treatment on the content and distribution characteristics of heavy metals in tomatoes and the heavy metal balance in the soil-crop system under different conditions, the study shows that there are no significant differences in the heavy metal content when the quantity of reclaimed water for irrigation varies. Reclaimed water for short-term irrigation does not cause pollution to either the soil environment or the crops. Nor will it cause the accumulation of heavy metals, and the index for the heavy metal content is far below the critical value of the national standard, which indicates that the vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water during their growth turn out to be free of pollutants. The heavy metals brought into the soil by reclaimed water are less than that taken away by the crops. The input and output quantities have only small effects on the heavy metal balance in the soil. This paper provides a reference for the evaluation and safety control of irrigation with reclaimed water. PMID:27005639

  18. Heavy metal content in sediments along the Calore river: relationships with physical-chemical characteristics.

    PubMed

    Bartoli, G; Papa, S; Sagnella, E; Fioretto, A

    2012-03-01

    In the present study, trace metals contents (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) and physico-chemical parameters (nitrogen, organic and inorganic carbon, pH and particle size) in sediments samples along the Calore river were analyzed in two seasons. Sediment samples were collected in ten sites upstream and downstream of the city of Benevento and its industrial area, the confluence of Sabato and Tammaro tributaries, and the confluence of Calore and Volturno rivers. The highest contents of trace metals were found, generally, in the sites immediately downstream of industrial area and of Benevento city. The sites on the Tammaro and Sabato also showed relatively high contents of Ni and, only for Sabato sites, of Cr, and Fe. With the exception of Cd, the heavy metal contents were highest in the last site of Calore river, which therefore is a source of pollution to the Volturno river. Besides the sites downstream of Benevento city showed the higher pH values and also the highest contents of fine particles size and organic matter. Positive correlations among trace metals, organic substance, particle size sediments were found. The data obtained in this study were analyzed with reference to Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines and indicated moderate-to-high pollution by some trace metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu). PMID:21546150

  19. Heavy metal content (Cd, Ni, Cr and Pb) in soil amendment with a low polluted biosolid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Lucas, Ignacio; Lag Brotons, Alfonso; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose; Belén Almendro-Candel, Maria; Jordán, Manuel M.; Bech, Jaume; Roca, Nuria

    2016-04-01

    The progressively higher water quality standards in Europe has led to the generation of large quantities of sewage sludge derived from wastewater treatment (Fytili and Zabaniotou 2008). Composting is an effective method to minimize these risks, as pathogens are biodegraded and heavy metals are stabilized as a result of organic matter transformations (Barker and Bryson 2002; Noble and Roberts 2004). Most of the studies about sewage sludge pollution are centred in medium and high polluted wastes. However, the aim of this study was to assess the effects on soil heavy metal content of a low polluted sewage sludge compost in order to identify an optimal application rate based in heavy metal concentration under a period of cultivation of a Mediterranean horticultural plant (Cynara carducnculus). The experiment was done between January to June: rainfall was 71 mm, the volume of water supplied every week was 10.5 mm, mean air temperatures was 14.2, 20.4 (maximum), and 9.2◦C (minimum). The soil was a clay-loam anthrosol (WRB 2006). The experimental plot (60 m2) was divided into five subplots with five treatments corresponding to 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 kg compost/m2. Three top-soil (first 20 cm) samples from each treatment were taken (January, April and June) and these parameters were analysed: pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter and total content of heavy metals (microwave acid digestion followed by AAS-spectrometry determination). The results show that sewage sludge compost treatments increase the organic matter content and salinity (electrical conductivity of the soils) and diminish the pH. Cd and Ni total content in top-soil was affected and both slightly reduce their concentration. Pb and Cr show minor changes. In general, the application of this low polluted compost may affect the mobility of Cd and Ni due to the pH modification and the water added by irrigation along time but Pb and Cr remain their content in the top-soil. References Barker, A.V., and G.M. Bryson

  20. Investigation on the heavy-metal content of zinc-air button cells.

    PubMed

    Richter, Andrea; Richter, Silke; Recknagel, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    Within the framework of a German government project (initiated by the Federal Environment Agency) to check the compliance of commercially available batteries with the German Battery Ordinance concerning their heavy metal contents, 18 different types of commercially available zinc-air button cells were analysed for their cadmium, lead and mercury contents. After microwave assisted dissolution with aqua regia, Cd and Pb were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and Hg was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and atomic absorption spectrometry. Cd contents were found to be much lower than the permitted limits; Pb contents were also found to be below the limits. Hg contents were found to be near the limits, and in one case the limit was exceeded. PMID:18280730

  1. [Heavy metals contents and Hg adsorption characteristics of mosses in virgin forest of Gongga Mountain].

    PubMed

    Liang, Peng; Yang, Yong-Kui; He, Lei; Wang, Ding-Yong

    2008-06-01

    Seven main moss species in the Hailuogou virgin forest of Gongga Mountain were sampled to determine their heavy metals (Hg, Cr, Cd, Ni, Pb, Cu, Mn, Zn and Fe) content, and two widely distributed species, Pleurozium schreberi (Brid.) Mitt. and Racomitrium laetum Besch., were selected to study their Hg adsorption characteristics. The results showed that the heavy metals contents in the mosses were lower than the background values in Europe and America, except that the Cd had a comparable value, which indicated that the atmosphere in study area was not polluted by heavy metals and good in quality. The Hg adsorption by P. schreberi and R. laetum was an initiative and rapid process, with the equilibrium reached in about two hours, and could be well fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir equations. Based on Langmuir equation, the maximum Hg adsorption capacities of P. schreberi and R. laetum were 15.24 and 8.19 mg x g(-1), respectively, suggesting that the two mosses had a good capacity of Hg adsorption, and could be used as the bio-monitors of atmospheric Hg pollution. PMID:18808007

  2. Mineral and heavy metal contents of the outer and inner tissues of commonly used fruits.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Harmankaya, Mustafa; Gezgin, Sait

    2012-01-01

    The rate of heavy metal pollution in some minor fruit samples growing at roadsides in Turkey were determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The mineral contents of samples were found to be different depending on the several parts Citrus fruits. The highest minor and heavy metal levels for Citrus fruits were determined between 17.24 and 45.30 mg/kg boron, 2.08 and 15.05 mg/kg copper, 1.01 and 16.00 mg/kg iron and 2.35 and 9.87 mg/kg zinc. Boron content ranged from 16.54 mg/kg (Deveci pear inner pulp) to 89.89 mg/kg (Arjantin apple outer skin). The level of Fe ranged from 1.49 mg/kg (quince pulp) to 25.05 mg/kg (Ankara pear pulp). Cu content of fruits ranged between 2.52 mg/kg (Fuji apple skin) and 25.93 mg/kg quince skin). Zn content was found between 0.46 mg/kg (Golden apple pulp) and 14.34 mg/kg (quince skin). P contents ranged from 651 mg/kg (Golden apple pulp) to 1269 mg/kg (quince skin). Na was found between 500 mg/kg (Fuji apple skin) and 907 mg/kg (Arjantin apple skin). PMID:21409363

  3. Ecotoxicological hazard and risk assessment of heavy metal contents in agricultural soils of central Germany.

    PubMed

    Manz, M; Weissflog, L; Kühne, R; Schürmann, G

    1999-02-01

    Heavy metal content of agricultural topsoils has been experimentally determined at 14 areas in the German Leipzig-Halle-Bitterfeld region covering ca. 3700 km2. For most of the locations and elements, the contamination levels are comparable to those of other agricultural sites in Germany and Europe. Application of a sequential extraction technique revealed relatively low contamination levels in the mobile fractions, which indicates a correspondingly low degree of bioavailability of the heavy metals under the current milieu conditions. In contrast, acidification of the soil due to a drastic decrease in the deposition of calciferous fly ash would lead to a significantly increased ecotoxicological hazard potential, as is analyzed by a probabilistic distribution method that quantifies the overlap of normalized exposure and effect data. The discussion includes recommendations for further improvement of risk assessment schemes addressing soil contamination. PMID:10051370

  4. Relationship between heavy metal contents and clay mineral properties in surface sediments: Implications for metal pollution assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yueh-Min; Gao, Jin-bo; Yuan, Yong-Qiang; Ma, Jun; Yu, Shen

    2016-08-01

    Clay minerals in surface sediments can affect the adsorption of heavy metals. However, few historical studies have focused on the influence of fine clay mineral characteristics on metal sorption. Since the reactions between heavy metals and fine clay minerals in sediments remain obscure, this study investigates the influence of fine clay mineral characteristics on metal sorption in a typical urbanizing small watershed. Clay minerals, including nanoparticles with various size fractions ranging from 1000 to 2000 (clay), 450-1000 (fine clay), and 220-450 (very fine clay) nm were used to demonstrate their transformation from well crystalline to poorly crystalline. The nanoparticles were collected and evaluated by determination of their surface area, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analyses. The relationship between metal content and properties of the surface sediments was also revealed by canonical correlation analysis. With smaller particle sizes, nanoparticles (very fine clay) were observed to be poorly crystalline, possibly indicating few repetitions of unit cells as a result of preferential structural disruption of other crystal planes caused by pressure-induced phase transition in the fine-size fractions. The first canonical matrix (M) variables of metal contents can be predicted by both surface area and pore volume, followed by kaolinite and illite contents. On the other hand, the category of metal, i.e., Cu, Cr, Zn, or Pb, was significantly correlated with the first 'M' canonical variables. The data obtained in the present study are of fundamental significance in advancing our understanding of the reactions between heavy metals and fine clay minerals in the terrestrial ecosystem.

  5. Suspended sediment concentration and particle size distribution, and their relationship with heavy metal content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, S. H. R.; Harchegani, M. Kiani; Younesi, H. A.

    2012-02-01

    This paper aims at assessing the feasibility of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) estimation by using predictor variables of heavy metal concentration (HMC, viz., iron, chromium, zinc and nickel) transported in solution and solid. The study was conducted in the Research and Educational Forest Watershed of the Tarbiat Modares University (Kojour) which comprises an area of ca. 50000 ha. For this study, suspended sediment samples were collected from the left bank of the Kojour River twice a week, as well as during runoff events from November 2007 to June 2008. The samples were then prepared through direct digestion and finally analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). The relationship between SSC and particle size distribution (PSD) were correlated with HMC by using bivariate and multivariate regression models. Proposed models were then selected based on statistical criteria. The results showed high correlation between dissolved and particulate chromium content with efficiency coefficients beyond 77% ( P < 0.001). However, a lower relationship was found between SSC and nickel content. From these results, it is clearly shown that the HMC can practically be estimated by SSC in watersheds with different accuracy and vice versa. It is also understood that heavy metal pollution can be easily managed by controlling SSC.

  6. Salinity, organic content, micronutrients and heavy metals in pig slurries from South-eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Moral, R; Perez-Murcia, M D; Perez-Espinosa, A; Moreno-Caselles, J; Paredes, C; Rufete, B

    2008-01-01

    The increase in commercial pig production is an opportunity to reuse animal manures in arid and semiarid soils as a source of nutrients and organic matter. However, there are components in pig slurry that are potentially dangerous for the environment. In this study, pig slurries of 36 pig farms in South-eastern Spain were evaluated for salt content (electrical conductivity, chloride and sodium), organic load (BOD5 and COD), micronutrients (Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn), and heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb). Except for electrical conductivity, Cu and Zn, components in pig slurries did not vary considerably between animal production stages, indicating similar management of diverse animal types. Assuming an application rate based on the maximum input of nitrogen from animal manure (210 kg total N/ha/yr), the estimates for soil annual load of Cl and Na, 415 kg/ha, could be a significant salinisation risk. Cu and Zn seemed to be the metals that could be accumulated most in soils where application of pig slurries is common (4 and 15 kg/ha/yr, respectively). The estimated heavy metal (Cd, Co, Cr, Ni and Pb) input to soils would be 260 g/ha/yr, with a relative contribution of Cr>Ni>Pb>Co>Cd. PMID:17419044

  7. Heavy metals content in acid mine drainage at abandoned and active mining area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatar, Hazirah; Rahim, Sahibin Abd; Razi, Wan Mohd; Sahrani, Fathul Karim

    2013-11-01

    This study was conducted at former Barite Mine, Tasik Chini and former iron mine Sungai Lembing in Pahang, and also active gold mine at Lubuk Mandi, Terengganu. This study was conducted to determine heavy metals content in acid mine drainage (AMD) at the study areas. Fourteen water sampling stations within the study area were chosen for this purpose. In situ water characteristic determinations were carried out for pH, electrical conductivity (EC), redox potential (ORP) and total dissolved solid (TDS) using multi parameter YSI 556. Water samples were collected and analysed in the laboratory for sulfate, total acidity and heavy metals which follow the standard methods of APHA (1999) and HACH (2003). Heavy metals in the water samples were determined directly using Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Data obtained showed a highly acidic mean of pH values with pH ranged from 2.6 ± 0.3 to 3.2 ± 0.2. Mean of electrical conductivity ranged from 0.57 ± 0.25 to 1.01 ± 0.70 mS/cm. Redox potential mean ranged from 487.40 ± 13.68 to 579.9 ± 80.46 mV. Mean of total dissolved solids (TDS) in AMD ranged from 306.50 ± 125.16 to 608.14 ± 411.64 mg/L. Mean of sulfate concentration in AMD ranged from 32.33 ± 1.41 to 207.08 ± 85.06 mg/L, whereas the mean of total acidity ranged from 69.17 ± 5.89 to 205.12 ± 170.83 mgCaCO3/L. Heavy metals content in AMD is dominated by Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn with mean concentrations range from 2.16 ± 1.61 to 36.31 ± 41.02 mg/L, 0.17 ± 0.13 to 11.06 ± 2.85 mg/L, 1.12 ± 0.65 to 7.17 ± 6.05 mg/L and 0.62 ± 0.21 to 6.56 ± 4.11 mg/L, respectively. Mean concentrations of Ni, Co, As, Cd and Pb were less than 0.21, 0.51, 0.24, 0.05 and 0.45 mg/L, respectively. Significant correlation occurred between Fe and Mn, Cu, Zn, Co and Cd. Water pH correlated negatively with all the heavy metals, whereas total acidity, sulfate, total dissolved solid, and redox potential correlated positively. The concentration of heavy metals in the AMD

  8. The sorption of heavy metals on thermally treated sediments with high organic matter content.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xudong; Wang, Chi; Li, Hao; Wu, Min; Liao, Shaohua; Zhang, Di; Pan, Bo

    2014-05-01

    A sediment sample with organic matter higher than 60% was thermally treated and the sorption of Cu(II), Cd(II), and Pb(II) was investigated and compared to evaluate the potential use of sediments with high organic matter content to produce biochar. Cu(II) and Cd(II) sorption generally decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature, concurred with decreased oxygen-containing functional groups of the adsorbents. Sediment particles pyrolyzed at 400 and 500 °C showed higher sorption to Pb(II) than other temperatures. The small hydrated ionic radius of Pb(II) may enable its close contact with solid particles and thus facilitated the diffusion of Pb(II) into the pores and the formation of cation-π bond with aromatic structures generated by pyrolysis. The sorption of heavy metals in thermally treated sediment showed comparable sorption to or higher sorption than natural adsorbents and biochars from biomass, suggesting their possible significant impact on the transport and risk of heavy metals. PMID:24486102

  9. Assessment of essential elements and heavy metals content on Mytilus galloprovincialis from river Tagus estuary.

    PubMed

    Santos, I; Diniz, M S; Carvalho, M L; Santos, J P

    2014-06-01

    Trace elemental content was analysed in edible tissues of Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in five different sampling areas near the mouth of river Tagus estuary in Lisbon. The concentrations of essential elements (S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, As, Br and Sr) were determined by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry, while toxic elements (Cr, Cd, Hg, Se and Pb) were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the essential elements K and S are present at the highest concentrations in all the studied samples reaching 2,920 and 4,520 μg g(-1) (fresh weight), respectively. The highest levels of heavy metals found were in two areas close to the city for Pb and Cd, but below the maximum allowed values. PMID:24763710

  10. Studies on the content of heavy metals in Aries River using ICP-MS

    SciTech Connect

    Voica, Cezara Kovacs, Melinda Feher, Ioana

    2013-11-13

    Among the industrial branches, the mining industry has always been an important source of environmental pollution, both aesthetically and chemically. Through this paper results of ICP-MS characterization of Aries River Basin are reported. Mining activities from this area has resulted in contamination of environment and its surrounding biota. This is clearly evidenced in analyzed water samples, especially from Baia de Aries site where increased amount of trace elements as Cr, Zn, As, Se, Cd, Pb and U were founded. Also in this site greater amount of rare earth elements was evidenced also. Through monitoring of Aries River from other non-mining area it was observed that the quantitative content of heavy metals was below the maximum permissible levels which made us to conclude that the water table wasn't seriously affected (which possibly might be attributed to the cessation of mining activities in this area from a few years ago)

  11. Heavy metal contents, distribution, and prediction in a regional soil-wheat system.

    PubMed

    Ran, Jing; Wang, Dejian; Wang, Can; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Hailin

    2016-02-15

    The entry of heavy metals into the food chain is of concern for potential health risks. To investigate the spatial relationships of heavy metals in a regional soil-wheat system, 99 pairs of surface soil (0-15 cm) and wheat grain samples were collected from Changshu, China, a typical county in the Yangtze Delta region. Both soil and wheat grain samples were analyzed for total Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. DTPA-extractable metals and major physico-chemical properties were also determined for soil samples. Moderate accumulation of heavy metals was found in soils and wheat grains, especially Cd. However, the levels were within the target hazard quotients (THQ) safe values with respect to non-carcinogenic risks, but more attention should be paid to Cd. Spatially, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn in wheat grains and soils had similar geographical patterns, whereas Pb showed opposite trends. Cross-correlograms further quantitatively confirmed the spatial relationships of heavy metals in wheat grains and soils. In addition, heavy metals in wheat grains were significantly spatially correlated with most soil physio-chemical properties. Particularly, a set of regression models for Cd in wheat grains were established with a maximum predictive success of 65%. These models can be used to predict Cd in wheat grains, and thus allows farmers to decrease the threat by certain framing practices such as ameliorating soil pH or growing a less metal-accumulating cultivar. PMID:26657387

  12. Spatial and temporal variation in atmospheric heavy metal content of an urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Priyanka; Garg, Abhinav; Kumar, Shailender; Ghosh, Chirashree

    One of the major atmospheric pollutant stresses which are of great concern today is - particulate stress. Particulate matter is not only problematic in terms of its health effect, but also in terms of the major role it plays in aggravating the effect of other pollutants in atmosphere and thus the whole environment. Many studies have reported high enrichment factor for various heavy metals (HM) in particulate matter, which has an immense negative effect on different abiotic and biotic entities. The undertaken study tries to evaluate the spatial and temporal variation in atmospheric heavy metal concentration (Pb, Cr, Cu, Mn, Cd, Co, Ni, Zn, Fe) at three selected sites i.e Site I- Vegetated area, Site II- Commercial cum Institutional area and Site III- Traffic intersection area during summer and monsoon season. The result exhibit different pattern of heavy metal concentration at selected sites; high concentration was recorded at commercial cum institutional area (Summer- 2.214 ppm/g and Monsoon- 1.035ppm/g) followed by vegetated area (Summer-1.495 ppm/g and Monsoon- 1.258 ppm/g) and lowest at traffic intersection (Summer- 0.958 ppm/g and Monsoon- 0.937 ppm/g) in both the seasons. Also, significant seasonal difference was observed at all the sites with high summer HM concentration as compare to Monsoon concentration. Among all the studied heavy metals Zn, Cd and Fe were found to be the most abundant heavy metals at all the selected sites. Thus, the study highlight the fact that atmospheric heavy metals shows prominent spatial and temporal variation and it is important to understand their complex dynamics and monitor such elements in urban areas as they are persistent and toxic to the environment. Kewords: Heavy metal, Particulate matter, Spatial, Temporal.

  13. Process for hydroconversion and upgrading of heavy crudes of high metal and asphaltene content

    SciTech Connect

    Krasuk, J.H.; Silva, F.J.; Galiasso, R.E.; Souto, A.

    1986-05-27

    The process is described for hydroconverting a heavy hydrocarbon feedstock containing at least 200 ppm metals, having less than 20% API gravity and more than 8% Conradson carbon, which comprises contacting the feedstock in a hydroconversion reaction zone with hydrogen in the presence of a natural inorganic material as a catalyst, the organic material being selected from the group consisting of (1) iron laterite having a chemical formula consisting essentially of ((..gamma..FeOOH.(1-..gamma..)Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/.nH/sub 2/O..cap alpha..AlO(OH)) (SiO/sub 2/)/sub x/(FeTiO/sub 3/)/sub y/(TiO/sub 2/)/sub z/ with ..gamma.. much greater than (1-..gamma..)) with a Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ content of greater than or equal to 45.0 wt. %, (2) limonite having a chemical formula consisting essentially of ((..gamma..Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/.nH/sub 2/O)(1-..gamma..)Fe/sub 3/(PO/sub 4/)/sub 2/8H/sub 2/O ..cap alpha..Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/.nH/sub 2/O(SiO/sub 2/)/sub x/ with ..gamma.. much greater than (1-..gamma..)) with an Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ content of greater than or equal to 45.0 wt. % and (3) mixtures thereof.

  14. Heavy Metal and Pesticide Content in Commonly Prescribed Individual Raw Chinese Herbal Medicines

    PubMed Central

    HARRIS, Eric S. J.; CAO, Shugeng; LITTLEFIELD, Bruce A.; CRAYCROFT, Jane A.; SCHOLTEN, Robert; KAPTCHUK, Ted; FU, Yanling; WANG, Wenquan; LIU, Yong; CHEN, Hubiao; ZHAO, Zhongzhen; CLARDY, Jon; WOOLF, Alan D.; EISENBERG, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metal and pesticide contamination has previously been reported in Chinese Herbal Medicines (CHMs), in some cases at potentially toxic levels. This study was conducted to determine general patterns and toxicological significance of heavy metal and pesticide contamination in a broad sample of raw CHMs. Three-hundred-thirty-four samples representing 126 species of CHMs were collected throughout China and examined for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury. Of the total, 294 samples representing 112 species were also tested for 162 pesticides. At least 1 metal was detected in all 334 samples (100%) and 115 samples (34%) had detectable levels of all metals. Forty-two different pesticides were detected in 108 samples (36.7%), with 1 to 9 pesticides per sample. Contaminant levels were compared to toxicological reference values in the context of different exposure scenarios. According to a likely scenario of CHM consumption, only 3 samples (1%) with heavy metals and 14 samples (5%) with pesticides were found with concentrations that could contribute to elevated background levels of contaminant exposure. According to the most conservative scenario of CHM consumption, 231 samples (69%) with heavy metals and 81 samples (28%) with pesticides had contaminants that could contribute to elevated levels of exposure. Wild collected plants had higher contaminant levels than cultivated samples. Cadmium, chromium, lead, and chlorpyrifos contamination showed weak correlations with geographic location. Based on our assumptions of the likely mode of consumption of raw CHMs, the vast majority (95%) of the 334 samples in this study contained levels of heavy metals or pesticides that would be of negligible concern. However, given the number of samples with detectable contaminants and the range between the more likely and more conservative scenarios of contaminant exposure, more research and monitoring of heavy metals (especially cadmium and chromium) and pesticide residues

  15. Heavy metal contents in the sediments of astatic ponds: Influence of geomorphology, hydroperiod, water chemistry and vegetation.

    PubMed

    Gołdyn, Bartłomiej; Chudzińska, Maria; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Celewicz-Gołdyn, Sofia

    2015-08-01

    The contents of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn) were analysed in the bottom sediments of 30 small, astatic ponds located in the agricultural landscape of Western Poland. The samples were collected from 118 stations located in patches of four vegetation types. Relationships between the contents of particular elements and four groups of factors (geomorphology, hydroperiod, water quality and vegetation) were tested using Redundancy Analysis (RDA). The most important factors influencing the heavy metal contents were the maximum depth and area of the pond, its hydroperiod, water pH and conductivity values. In general, low quantities of heavy metals were recorded in the sediments of kettle-like ponds (small but located in deep depressions) and high in water bodies of the shore-bursting type (large but shallow). Moreover, quantities of particular elements were influenced by the structure of the vegetation covering the pond. Based on the results, we show which types of astatic ponds are most exposed to contamination and suggest some conservation practices that may reduce the influx of heavy metals. PMID:25919341

  16. Evaluation of site-specific factors influencing heavy metal contents in the topsoil of vegetated infiltration swales.

    PubMed

    Horstmeyer, Nils; Huber, Maximilian; Drewes, Jörg E; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2016-08-01

    Stormwater runoff of traffic areas is usually polluted by organic and inorganic substances and must be treated prior to discharge into groundwater. One widely used treatment method is infiltrating the runoff over the topsoil of vegetated swales. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors influencing the heavy metal contents in such topsoil layers of vegetated infiltration swales near highways, roads, and parking lots. In total, 262 topsoil samples were taken from 35 sampling sites, which varied in age, traffic volume, road design, driving style, and site-specific conditions. In the evaluation of all soil samples, the median heavy metal values of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, and zinc were yielding 0.36 (mean: 1.21) mg/kg DM, 37.0 (mean: 44.5) mg/kg DM, 28.0 (mean: 61.5) mg/kg DM, 27.0 (mean: 71.9) mg/kg DM, and 120 (mean: 257) mg/kg DM, respectively. The main purpose was to evaluate the site-specific data (i.e., surrounding land use characteristics, traffic area site data, and operational characteristics). In general, heavy metal contents increased with increasing traffic volumes. However, other factors also had a notable impact. Factors such as road design (e.g., curves, crossings, and roundabouts) and grade of congestion significantly influenced the heavy metal contents. High heavy metal contents were detected for stop-and-go areas, roundabouts, crossings, and sites with traffic lights, signs, and guardrails. Findings of this study can be used to identify highly polluted traffic areas and to verify or improve standards regarding the treatment of runoff from traffic areas. PMID:27093119

  17. Heavy metals and hydrocarbons contents in soils of urban areas of Yamal autonomous region (Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseev, Ivan; Abakumov, Evgeny; Shamilishvili, George

    2016-04-01

    This investigation is devoted to evaluation of heavy metals and hydrocarbons contents in soils of different functional localities within the Yamalo-Nenets autonomous region (YaNAR, North-Western Siberia, Russia). Geo-accumulation indices Igeo (Müller 1988) were calculated in order to assess soil contamination levels with heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, As, Hg) in the studied settlements: Harsaim, Aksarka, Labytnangy, Harp and Salekhard. The degree of soil pollution was assessed according to seven contamination classes (Förstner et al. 1990) in order of increasing numerical value of the index. Cd's regional soil background concentrations of the Yamal peninsula (Moskovchenko 2010), Hg's Earth crust clarke (Greenwood & Earnshaw 2008) and concentrations of the rest trace elements in natural sandy soil from the Beliy island, YaNAR (Tomashunas & Abakumov, 2014) were used in calculations. In general terms, obtained Igeo values in all samples were under or slightly above the 0 level, indicating low to moderate pollution of the studied soils. However, considerable Igeo values of Zn, Pb and Ni were revealed in several samples, suggesting different soil pollution levels, namely: Zn Igeo in Harsaim soil sample of 2.22 - moderate polluted to highly polluted soil; Pb Igeo in Aksarka soil sample of 4.04 - highly polluted to extremely polluted soil; Ni Igeo in Harp soil sample of 4.34 - highly polluted to extremely polluted soil. Soil contamination level was additionally evaluated, comparing with the maximal permissible concentrations (MPCs) of the trace elements in soil (SANPIN 4266-87), established by the national legislation. Almost all samples exceeded the MPC for As in soils (2 mg•kg-1). Concentrations of Ni in several soil samples taken in Harp were 19 times higher than recommended level (20 mg•kg-1). Moderate excess of Zn, Pb and Cu MPCs was also noted. Data obtained will be used in further environmental researches and environmental management purposes in this key

  18. Determination of heavy metal contents by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) in some medicinal plants from Pakistani and Malaysian origin.

    PubMed

    Akram, Sobia; Najam, Rahila; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Abbas, Syed Atif

    2015-09-01

    This study depicts a profile of existence of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Zn, Cd, Hg, Mn, Fe, Na, Ca, and Mg) in some important herbal plants like (H. Integrifolia, D. regia, R. communis, C. equisetifolia, N. oleander, T. populnea, M. elengi, H. schizopetalus, P. pterocarpum) from Pakistan and an antidiabetic Malaysian herbal drug product containing (Punica granatum L. (Mast) Hook, Momordica charantia L., Tamarindus indica L., Lawsonia inermis L.) using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Heavy metals in these herbal plants and Malaysian product were in the range of 0.02-0.10 ppm of Cu, 0.00-0.02 ppm of Ni, 0.02-0.29 ppm of Zn, 0.00-0.04 ppm of Cd, 0.00-1.33 ppm of Hg, 0.00-0.54 ppm of Mn, 0.22-3.16 ppm of Fe, 0.00-9.17 ppm of Na, 3.27-15.63 ppm of Ca and 1.85-2.03 ppm of Mg. All the metals under study were within the prescribed limits except mercury. Out of 10 medicinal plants/product under study 07 were beyond the limit of mercury permissible limits. Purpose of this study is to determine heavy metals contents in selected herbal plants and Malaysian product, also to highlight the health concerns related to the presence of toxic levels of heavy metals. PMID:26408897

  19. Assessment of heavy metal content and DNA damage in Hypsiboas faber (anuran amphibian) in coal open-casting mine.

    PubMed

    Zocche, Jairo José; Damiani, Adriani Paganini; Hainzenreder, Giana; Mendonça, Rodrigo Ávila; Peres, Poliana Bernardo; Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims Dos; Debastiani, Rafaela; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes de

    2013-07-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the heavy metal content in the tissues of Hypsiboas faber from a coal mining area and to compare the DNA damage in the blood cells of these animals with that of animals living in an unpolluted area. The heavy metal content was detected according to the technique of Particle-Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and the DNA damage was assessed by the Comet assay. Our results reveal that the specimens of H. faber collected from the coal mining area exhibited elements of order Fe>Cu>Al>Zn>Rb>Mn>Br, independently of the organ. The values of Comet assay parameters (DNA damage index and DNA damage frequency) were significantly higher in specimens collected from the coal mining area than in the reference animals. Our study concludes that the coal mining residues are genotoxic to amphibians and may have adverse effects on soil, water, vegetation and wild animals. PMID:23619523

  20. Heavy Metal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, W. Lee

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the advantages, both functional and economic, of using a standing-seam metal roof in both new roof installations and reroofing projects of educational facilities. Structural versus non-structural standing-seam roofs are described as are the types of insulation that can be added and roof finishes used. (GR)

  1. Effects of road runoff on plant growth and heavy metal content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponce, J.

    2013-12-01

    Previous studies have shown road runoff to be a source of heavy-metal contamination in ground water. My hypothesis was that this pollution would affect the plants grown nearby and its product. 30 Spinach seedlings were grown under four watering conditions: tap-water control, and three concentrations of 'artificial road runoff,' prepared with soil collected from the sides of highways. Plant weights decreased with increasing concentrations of roadside soil in the water used to grow the plants. Also, iron, cadmium, and lead concentrations seem to increase in plant tissues with more concentrated road runoff. The conclusion is that the irrigation canals do have heavy metals and that affects the growth and the plant itself and this my effect us as well.

  2. In vitro radiation induced alterations in heavy metals and metallothionein content in Plantago ovata Forsk.

    PubMed

    Saha, Priyanka; Mishra, Debadutta; Chakraborty, Anindita; Sudarshan, Mathummal; Raychaudhuri, Sarmistha Sen

    2008-09-01

    Proton Induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) have been used to study the effects of gamma irradiation on heavy metal accumulation in callus tissue of Plantago ovata-an important cash crop of India. PIXE analysis revealed radiation-induced alteration in trace element profile during developmental stages of the callus of P. ovata. Subsequent experiments showed antagonism between Fe and Cu and also Cu and Zn and synergistic effect between Fe and Zn. FACS analysis showed significant induction of the metallothionein (MT) protein following gamma-irradiation, and maximum induction was noted at the 50-Gy absorbed dose. This indicated a progressive increment of MTs as a measure for protection against gamma-rays, to combat alteration in the homeostasis of heavy metals like Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn. PMID:18493724

  3. Content of some heavy metal ions in various developmental stages of the social wasp

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalczyk, J.K.; Watala, C. )

    1989-09-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems insects play an important role in the transport and reintegration of both organic and inorganic matter. Thus, the usefulness of insects in monitoring toxicity is important, and their small size makes them convenient test organisms. It is of the utmost interest, therefore, to investigate heavy metal accumulation in such insects which occupy a high trophic levels and to which numerous herbivorous invertebrates are potential preys. Dolichovespula saxonica (Fabr.) is a common social wasp, of palearctic, boreal-alpine areas. It nests above-ground, preferably in trees or wood country cottages. The collection of water and various food, consisting of small insects, carrion, pollen, nectar, aphid-dew or food products, is accomplished only by imagines; larvae are fed and nourished by workers and females. Pretreated food is subsequently digested by larvae themselves. This paper deals with an estimation of the impact of selected heavy metal ions on the relative contamination in various developmental stages and castes of Dolichovespula saxonica (Fabr.). The possibility of ascribing the optionally selected caste as an indicator in monitoring of environmental heavy metal pollution was tested and considered.

  4. Heavy Metal Contents and Physical Parameters of Aegiceras corniculatum, Brassica juncea, and Litchi chinensis Honeys from Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Nandita; Chowdhury, Muhammed Alamgir Zaman; Fakhruddin, Abu Naieum Muhammad; Fardous, Zeenath; Moniruzzaman, Mohammed; Gan, Siew Hua

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the heavy metal levels and the physicochemical parameters (pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and ash, moisture, and total sugar content) of honeys from Bangladesh. Three different floral honeys were investigated, namely, khalsi (Aegiceras corniculatum), mustard (Brassica juncea), and litchi (Litchi chinensis) honeys. The heavy metals in the honeys were determined by using a High Temperature Dry Oxidation method followed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The mean pH, EC, and ash, moisture, and total sugar contents of the investigated honeys were 3.6, 0.51 mS/cm, 0.18%, 18.83%, and 68.30%, respectively. Iron was the most abundant among all the investigated heavy metals, ranging from 13.51 to 15.44 mg/kg. The mean concentrations of Mn and Zn in the investigated honeys were 0.28 mg/kg and 2.99 mg/kg, respectively. Cd was below the detection limit, and lead was found in some honey samples, but their contents were below the recommended Maximum Acceptable Level. Cr was also found in all of the samples, but its concentration was within the limit. The physicochemical analysis of the honey samples yielded levels within the limits set by the international honey legislation, indicating that the honey samples were of good quality and had acceptable values for maturity, purity, and freshness. PMID:26618176

  5. Heavy metal content in liver and kidneys of grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in various life stages correlated with metallothionein levels: Some metal-binding characteristics of this protein

    SciTech Connect

    Teigen, S.W.; Andersen, R.A.; Daae, H.L.; Skaare, J.U.

    1999-10-01

    Liver and kidneys from grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) in their natural habitats in Norwegian waters contain high levels of Cd and Hg as well as metallothionein (MT). The data show significant placental transfer of heavy metals in seals. The MT concentrations were higher in fetus liver and kidneys than in the liver and kidneys of juveniles and adults. A significantly higher proportion of the total Cd and Cu, as compared to Zn and Hg, in fetal liver was associated with MT. Only low amounts of metals and MT were found in juveniles. In kidneys, little metal was associated with MT, although high amounts of Cd were bound in fetal stages. Positive correlations were found between total metal, MT content, and MT-bound metals, particularly for Cd and Zn. Grey seal MT may have higher affinity to Zn than to Cd. The use of seal MT as a biomarker for environmental heavy metal exposure seems promising.

  6. [The content of heavy metals in soils of the Yamal Peninsula and thE Bely Island].

    PubMed

    Tomashunos, V M; Abakumov, E V

    2014-01-01

    In 2012 for the first time the Government of the Yamal-Nenets region in conjunction with the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute of RosHydromnet, performed the first comprehensive expedition for the examination of the Yamal Peninsula (KAEMB Arctic Yamal-2012). As key observation plots there were selected: settlement Novy Port, Ust Yuribey and the Island Bely. To the last section now there is attracted the maximum attention of the public, because it is selected for the starting of the program for the cleaning up Arctic from the debris and the wastes accumulated during the process of the functioning of polar infrastructure. Soil samples were selected from the prospecting pits in August, 2012. Heavy metals, as well as the content of oxides of silicon, aluminum, iron, titanium, manganese were detected with X-ray fluorescent analyzer "Spectroscan-MAX. The values obtained were compared with thre Approxible Permissible Concentrations and Maximum Allowable Concentrations adopted in Russia. Since the accumulation of heavy metals is related with their fixation by soil organic matter, concomitantly there was evaluated the content of organic carbon and nitrogen with the use of the device VARIO EL III. The application of the profile approach to the study of the chemical composition of soils helped to establish mid-ground and deep supra permafrost accumulation maximums of priority inorganic toxicants and other heavy metals. This is most likely related to the development of two groups of soil processes: eluvial-illuvial and cryogenic mass exchange. As a result of the eluvial-illuvial processes, some heavy metals are redistributed along the profile, and accumulating in the middle part of the profile. Meanwhile, in the tundra soils dominant processes are cryogenic mass exchange, leading to a strong mixing of the soil column and the accumulation of certain components in the chemical composition in the supra permafrost or surprapermafrost-gley horizon. This is the main reason for

  7. Influence of Some Heavy Metals on Growth, Alkaloid Content and Composition in Catharanthus roseus L.

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, N. K.; Srivastava, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Shoot biomass production, alkaloid content and composition as influence by cadmium, manganese, nickel and lead at uniform dose of 5 mM were investigated in Catharanthus roseus plants grown in sand culture. Treatment with Mn, Ni, and Pb significantly enhanced total root alkaloid accumulation. Cd and Ni treatment resulted in two-fold where as Pb treatment resulted in three fold increase in serpentine content of roots. The non-significant affect on biomass suggests that plants can withstand metal stress at the level tested with positive affect on root alkaloid content. PMID:21969751

  8. Heavy metal contents of paddy fields of Alcácer do Sal, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, J C; Henriques, F S

    1990-01-01

    Recent claims of metal contamination in the lower reaches of the Sado River, in the Alcácer do Sal region, Portugal, a major rice-producing area were investigated by carrying out metal surveys in the area. The elements Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu and Pb were measured in the soil and in rice plant parts--roots, shoots and grain--as well as in some weeds growing in the Sado banks, near the paddy fields. Results showed that the metal contents of paddy soils were similar to background concentrations, with the exception of Zn and Cu, which were above those concentrations and reached their highest levels at Vale de Guizo, the monitored station located furthest upstream in the Sado River. At some sites, plant roots accumulated relatively large amounts of Fe, Mn, Zn and Cu, but the shoot levels of these metals were within the normal range for rice plants. It is possible that varying, but significant, amounts of Fe associated with the roots were in the form of ferric hydroxide plaque covering their surfaces. Copper levels in the shoots of rice were below the normal contents cited for this plant in the literature. Metal levels of river sediments collected near Vale de Guizo seem to corroborate the possibility of some metal contamination in the Sado River, most probably derived from pyrites mining activity in the upper zone of the Sado basin. PMID:2305246

  9. [Nutrient contents and heavy metal pollutions in composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing region].

    PubMed

    Bai, Li-Ping; Qi, Hong-Tao; Fu, Ya-Ping; Li, Ping

    2014-12-01

    Changes of nutrient contents and heavy metal pollutions in composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants (as represented by CSS-A and CSS-B, respectively) in Beijing region were investigated. The results showed that the pH values, nutrient contents, trace elements and heavy metals in CSS-A and CSS-B depended on the sludge resources and particular years. The average of organic matter content in different years (203 338.0 mg x kg(-1)) from CSS-A met both the requirement of sludge quality standard for agricultural use (CJ/T 309-2009) and land improvement (GB/T 24600-2009) in China except the permitted limit of sludge quality standards for garden or park use (GB/T 23486-2009) in China. Moreover, the average of organic matter in different years (298531.5 mg x kg(-1)) from CSS-B and the averages of pH values (7.1 and 7.2, respectively) and NPK concentrations (41 111.7 mg x kg(-1) and 65 901.5 mg x kg(-1), respectively) in different years from CSS-A and CSS-B all met the requirements of sludge quality standards for the above-mentioned disposal types of sewage sludge from municipal wastewater treatment plants. The contents of heavy metals in CSS-A and CSS-B except Hg and Ni were below the permitted limits of the A-class sludge quality standard for agricultural use (CJ/T 309-2009) , being the most stringent standards in China. It was suggested that composted sewage sludge from different municipal wastewater treatment plants in Beijing region use as a fertilizer in agriculture, land improvement, and garden or park, but the top concern about potential environmental pollution of Hg and Ni should be considered. PMID:25826937

  10. Content and fractionation of heavy metals in soils of two contaminated sites in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, G.Y.; Liu, J.C. )

    1994-05-01

    The rice paddies near Taoyuan County, Taiwan, were contaminated with trace metals by the effluent from two plasticizer plants in the seventies. A study was conducted to: (i) determine the total metal contents, (ii) compare the extraction strength of different solutions, and (iii) investigate the metal speciation. Total soil metals at site 1 range from : Lead = 201 to 1995 mg Kg[sup [minus]1]; cadmium = 18 to 205 mg Kg[sup [minus]1]; and zinc = 131 to 282 mg Kg[sup [minus]1]. Total soil metals at site 2 ranged from: Lead = 80 to 148 mg Kg[sup [minus]1]; cadmium = 8 to 82 mg Kg[sup [minus]1]; and zinc = 55 to 65 mg Kg[sup [minus]1]. Five different extractants (4 N HNO[sub 3], aqua regia, 0.1 N HCl, 0.002 M EDTA, and 0.002 M NTA) were utilized and compared. Sequential extraction was conducted to assess the metal speciation in soil systems. Lead was found to be predominantly organic-bound or oxide-bound. The exchangeable fraction was the dominant form of cadmium in both sites. Zinc was mostly oxide-bound. The potential impacts on groundwater quality by cadmium were assessed. 21 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Mutagenicity of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.K.

    1988-04-01

    Certain heavy metals are required, as trace elements for normal cellular functions. However, heavy metals are toxic to cells once their levels exceed their low physiological values. The toxicity of heavy metals on microorganisms, and on animals has been well-documented. These interactions may induce the alteration of the primary as well as secondary structures of the DNA and result in mutation(s). The present communication reports the results in determining the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of ten heavy metals commonly found in polluted areas by using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test.

  12. Heavy Metal Content in Soils under Different Wastewater Irrigation Patterns in Chihuahua, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, V. M.; Rubio Arias, H. O.; Quintana, R.; Saucedo, R.A.; Gutierrez, M.; Ortega, J. A.; Nevarez, G.V.

    2008-01-01

    An area near the city of Chihuahua has been traditionally irrigated with wastewater to grow forage crops. It has been hypothesized that metal levels could be found in these soils high enough to cause potential health problems to the population. The objective of this study was to determine heavy metal concentrations in different soils due to irrigation practices. Four soil types were evaluated; a soil with a past and present history of wastewater irrigation (S1), a soil with a history of wastewater irrigation until 2003 (S2), a soil with no irrigation history (S3), and a soil similar to S1 and adjacent to the river where the wastewater is transported (S11). Three soil depths were evaluated; 0–15, 15–30 and 30–50 cm. Consequently, a total of 150 soil samples were analyzed evaluating pH, EC, OM and the following elements; Na, K, Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Cu and Fe. The pH (P=0.000) and EC (P=0.000) were different for each soil type but no differences were noted for soil depth and the interaction. Maximum pH levels were noted in S3 with a value of 8.74 while maximum EC was observed in S1 with a value of 0.850 dSm−1. The OM level was different for soil type (P=0.000), soil depth (P=0.005) and the interaction (P=0.014). S1 and S11 obtained maximum levels of OM while minimum levels were noted in S3. Maximum OM levels were observed at the 0–15 cm depth followed by the 15–30 cm depth and finally at the 30–50 cm depth. The highest concentration of metals was as follows: K in S1 (359.3 mg kg−1); Cd in S1 (4.48 mg kg−1); Pb in S11 (155.83 mg kg−1); Ni in S1 (10.74 mg kg−1); Cu in S1 (51.36 mg kg−1); B in S3 (41.5 mg kg−1); Fe in S3 (20,313.0 mg kg−1), Cr in S3 (44.26 mg kg−1) and Na in S3 (203.0 mg kg−1). The conclusion is that some metals are present in the soils due to anthropogenic activities but others are present in natural forms. PMID:19151441

  13. Heavy metal content in tea soils and their distribution in different parts of tea plants, Camellia sinensis (L). O. Kuntze.

    PubMed

    Seenivasan, Subbiah; Anderson, Todd Alan; Muraleedharan, Narayanannair

    2016-07-01

    Soils contaminated with heavy metals may pose a threat to environment and human health if metals enter the food chain over and above threshold levels. In general, there is a lack of information on the presence of heavy metals in tea [Camellia sinensis (L). O. Kuntze] plants and the soils in which they are grown. Therefore, an attempt was made to establish a database on the important heavy metals: cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and lead (Pb). For an initial survey on heavy metals, soil samples were collected randomly from tea-growing areas of Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Karnataka, India. Parallel studies were conducted in the greenhouse on uptake of Pb, Cd, and Ni from soils supplemented with these metals at different concentrations. Finally, metal distribution in the tea plants under field conditions was also documented to assess the accumulation potential and critical limit of uptake by plants. PMID:27334344

  14. Mutagenicity of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.K. )

    1988-05-01

    Certain heavy metals are required, as trace elements for normal cellular functions. However, heavy metals are toxic to cells once their levels exceed their low physiological values. The toxicity of heavy metals on microorganisms, on plants and on animals has been well-documented. These interactions may induce the alteration of the primary as well as secondary structures of the DNA and result in mutation(s). Though the rec assay with Bacillus subtilis and the reversion assay with Escherichia coli were used to assess the mutagenicity of some heavy metals, the present communication reports the results in determining the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of ten heavy metals commonly found in polluted areas by using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test.

  15. The effect of low-temperature transformation of mixtures of sewage sludge and plant materials on content, leachability and toxicity of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Gondek, Krzysztof; Baran, Agnieszka; Kopeć, Michał

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the influence of the process of low-temperature transformation and the addition of plant material to sewage sludge diversifying the content of mobile forms of heavy metals and their ecotoxicity. The experimental design included: sewage sludge+rape straw, sewage sludge+wheat straw, sewage sludge+sawdust, sewage sludge+bark and sewage sludge with no addition. The mixtures were subjected to thermal transformation in a chamber furnace, under conditions without air. The procedure consisted of two stages: the first stage (130°C for 40 min) focused on drying the material, whereas in the second stage (200°C for 30 min) proper thermal transformation of materials took place. Thermal transformation of the materials, caused an increase in total contents of heavy metals in comparison to the material before transformation. From among elements, the cadmium content changed the most in materials after thermal transformation. As a result of thermal transformation, the content of water soluble form of the heavy metals decreased significantly in all the prepared mixtures. Low toxicity of the extracts from materials for Vibrio fischeri and Lepidium sativum was found in the research, regardless of transformation process. L. sativum showed higher sensitivity to heavy metals occurring in the studied extracts from materials than V. fischeri, evidence of which are the positive significant correlations between the content of metals and the inhibition of root growth of L. sativum. PMID:25433992

  16. Land application of chemically treated sewage sludge. II. Effects on soil and plant heavy metal content

    SciTech Connect

    Soon, Y.K.; Bates, T.E.; Moyer, J.R.

    1980-07-01

    Anaerobically digested sewage sludges resulting from treatment of sewage with Ca(OH)/sub 2/, Al/sub 2/(SO/sub 4/)/sub 3/, or FeCl/sub 3/ for phosphorus precipitation were applied to corn (Zea mays L.) and bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leyess) grown on a soil having an initial pH of 7.3. Rates of sludge supplied 200, 400, 800, and and 1,600 kg N/ha each year for 5 years. Treatments with NH/sub 4/NO/sub 3/ supplying 0, 100, 20, and 400 kg N/ha were included for comparison. Plant tissue was analyzed for Cu, Zn, Mn, Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb. No toxicity or deficiency symptoms were noted. Soil Zn, Cd, and Ni extracted by NTA (nitrilotriacetic acid) were increased by continued sludge application. The NTA-extractable Zn and Cd were positively correlated with the Zn and Cd concentrations in corn stover. Soil pH was reduced by the Fe-sludge application, slightly affected by the Al-sludge, and increased by the Ca-sludge. Increases in Cu concentrations in bromegrass and corn stover were associated with increases in the N content rather than the source of N, and plant Cu concentrations remained relatively constant across years. Sewage sludge application increased Zn, Cd, and Ni concentrations in bromegrass and corn stover, and Zn and Ni concentrations in corn grain, particularly at the higher metal loadings from sludge application. Zinc and Cd concentrations, especially in corn stover, increased with continued sludge application during the 5-year period. The inclusion of soil pH as a factor, in addition to cummulative amounts of Zn or Cd added as a constituent of sludge, improved the regression equations predicting Zn or Cd uptake.

  17. Contents and toxicity of heavy metals in soils of the zone affected by aerial emissions from the Severonikel Enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evdokimova, G. A.; Kalabin, G. V.; Mozgova, N. P.

    2011-02-01

    In 2009, the zoning of the terrestrial ecosystems in the area exposed to aerial emissions from the Severonikel Enterprise (Murmansk oblast) was performed on the basis of the parameters characterizing the state of the soils, including the contents of the main heavy metal pollutants and exchangeable calcium and magnesium, the soils' pH, the ratio of the organic to mineral soil components, and the state of the soils' microbiota. Three zones differing in the degree of the soil pollution were delimited. These were the zones of heavy, moderate, and weak pollution, which extended for up to 3, 25, and 50 km from the emission source in the prevailing wind direction. The data on the amount of bacterial and fungal biomass provided evidence of the profound degradation of the soils in the heavily polluted zone. In particular, the biomass of the soil microbiota, including its prokaryotic and eukaryotic components, was two to six times lower in this zone than in the background (control) area. The soils of the heavily polluted zone can be classified as strongly toxic for plants, and most of the soils of the moderately polluted zone also fall into the same category.

  18. Mid term monitoring of heavy metals content in soils of Mediterranean coastal wetlands. La Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno-García, Eugenia

    2014-05-01

    Coastal wetlands, in general, and Mediterranean ones, in particular, suffer from differente anthropogenic pressures that may affect their intrinsic environmental and ecological functions. Most, if not all, Mediterranean wetlands are not natural spaces were preservation of habitat and wildlife is the only management policy achieved, bur rather their terriroty is a combination of land units with different activities and influences, such as farming, environmental protection and connectivities with urban and industrial areas. Therefore, the need of periodical monitoring is required whenever pressures and environmental health of wetlands is assessed, particularly of those processes that affect the interconnection of environmental compartiments involving water, soils and biota. In agro-ecological protected wetlands soils play and important role because they are potential sources of pollutants due to farming practices. In this case, presence of heavy metals in soils is and indicator of both environmental health and anthtopogenic direct (farming activities) and indirect (neighbour urban areas) pressures. In this work a mid term (17 year) monitoring of seven heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) in soils of coastal Mediterranean wetlands (La Albufera Natural Park, Spain) are analyzed. Two monitoring campaings were achieved in 1991 and 2008. In both cases the same 20 points were visited which were distributed in the natural park according two four different sectors of potential anthropogenic pressure and land use. At each point two soil samples were collected at differente depths (0 to 20 cm and 20 to 40 cm). The selected metals were analyzed to determine its total and extractable fractions by treatment with EDTA. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, using graphite furnace when necessary, was used for the determination of metals. In general, there is a reduction of metal contents in the study area in both dates. The trend of metals according to average concentration (mg

  19. Analysis of Mineral and Heavy Metal Content of Some Commercial Fruit Juices by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Dehelean, Adriana; Magdas, Dana Alina

    2013-01-01

    The presence of potentially toxic elements and compounds in foodstuffs is of intense public interest and thus requires rapid and accurate methods to determine the levels of these contaminants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for the determination of metals and nonmetals in fruit juices. In this study, 21 commercial fruit juices (apple, peach, apricot, orange, kiwi, pear, pineapple, and multifruit) present on Romanian market were investigated from the heavy metals and mineral content point of view by ICP-MS. Our obtained results were compared with those reported in literature and also with the maximum admissible limit in drinking water by USEPA and WHO. For Mn the obtained values exceeded the limits imposed by these international organizations. Co, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd concentrations were below the acceptable limit for drinking water for all samples while the concentrations of Ni and Pb exceeded the limits imposed by USEPA and WHO for some fruit juices. The results obtained in this study are comparable to those found in the literature. PMID:24453811

  20. Analysis of mineral and heavy metal content of some commercial fruit juices by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Dehelean, Adriana; Magdas, Dana Alina

    2013-01-01

    The presence of potentially toxic elements and compounds in foodstuffs is of intense public interest and thus requires rapid and accurate methods to determine the levels of these contaminants. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is a powerful tool for the determination of metals and nonmetals in fruit juices. In this study, 21 commercial fruit juices (apple, peach, apricot, orange, kiwi, pear, pineapple, and multifruit) present on Romanian market were investigated from the heavy metals and mineral content point of view by ICP-MS. Our obtained results were compared with those reported in literature and also with the maximum admissible limit in drinking water by USEPA and WHO. For Mn the obtained values exceeded the limits imposed by these international organizations. Co, Cu, Zn, As, and Cd concentrations were below the acceptable limit for drinking water for all samples while the concentrations of Ni and Pb exceeded the limits imposed by USEPA and WHO for some fruit juices. The results obtained in this study are comparable to those found in the literature. PMID:24453811

  1. Sources and Contents of Heavy Metals and Other Trace Elements in Animal Manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trace elements are natural and added components of livestock and poultry feeds. Appropriate amounts of these trace elements in the diet of livestock and poultry ensures both health and reproduction. Unfortunately, many times trace metals that are added to livestock diets by producers or feed compani...

  2. Heavy metal contents of epiphytic acrocarpous mosses within inhabited sites in southwest Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Onianwa, P.C.; Ajayi, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    The levels of the metals Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Fe accumulated in acrocarpous mosses within inhabited parts of villages and towns in the southwest region of Nigeria were determined, and then used for a classification of the area into relative pollution zones. Ibadan City was found to be the most polluted in the study area. Other zones of low and medium polluted villages and towns were identified. The zonations based on metal levels in these mosses were to some extent similar to that already obtained in a separate study of the same area with epiphytic forest mosses. The enrichment factors show that the gradients between zones of different pollution levels were higher in mosses within the inhabited sites.

  3. Heavy metals and metalloid content in vegetables and soil collected from the gardens of Zagreb, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Puntarić, Dinko; Vidosavljević, Domagoj; Gvozdić, Vlatka; Puntarić, Eda; Puntarić, Ida; Mayer, Dijana; Bosnir, Jasna; Lasić, Dario; Jergović, Matijana; Klarić, Ivana; Vidosavljević, Marina; Krivdić, Ivancica

    2013-09-01

    Aim of this study was to determine concentration of Pb, Cd, As and Hg in green leafy vegetables and soil in the urban area of Zagreb, Croatia and to determine if there is a connection between the contamination of soil and vegetables. Green leafy vegetables and soil samples were taken from the gardens located in the outskirts of the city. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, As and Hg were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry; showing that average concentrations of metals and metalloids in vegetables and in soil, regardless of the location of sampling were below the maximum allowed concentration (MAC). The analysis determined that metal concentrations in only nine vegetable samples (9%) were above maximum allowed values prescribed by national and European legislation (three with higher concentrations of Pb, one with a higher concentration of Cd and five with higher concentrations of Hg). Concentrations of contaminants present in the analysed samples, in general, are lower than the ones published in similar studies. The final distribution and concentration of contaminants in vegetables of Zagreb, besides industry and traffic, is affected by the dominant wind direction. PMID:24308243

  4. Studies on monitoring the heavy metal contents in water, sediment and snail species in Latipada reservoir.

    PubMed

    Waykar, Bhalchandra; Petare, Ram

    2016-07-01

    The concentrations of zinc, copper, cadmium and lead in surface water, sediments and two native snail species, Bellamya bengalensis and Melanoides tuberculata from Latipada reservoir were determined. The concentrations of cadmium and lead in surface water were higher than the WHO recommended limits for drinking water standards; where as those of zinc and copper were within the permissible limits. The concentrations of zinc, copper, cadmium and lead were higher in sediments than in water. The observed bioaccumulated level of zinc, copper, cadmium and lead in Bellamya bengalensis were Zn- 197.22, Cu- 172.14, Cd- 11.59 and Pb- 112.57 μg g(-1), while in Melanoides tuberculata were Zn- 136.59, Cu- 132.04, Cd- 13.25 and Pb- 27.69 μg g(-1). The metal concentrations in both species of snails were higher than those of the water and sediment. Bioaccumulated metal concentrations, Bio-Water Accumulation Factor (BWAF) and Bio-Sediment Accumulation Factor (BSAF) values indicated that Bellamya bengalensis had high potential for zinc, copper and lead bioaccumulation than Melanoides tuberculata, while Melanoides tuberculata had high potential for cadmium than Bellamya bengalensis. Therefore, Bellamya bengalensis is proposed as sentinel organism for monitoring zinc, copper and lead, while Melanoides tuberculata for monitoring cadmium in freshwater. PMID:27498505

  5. Analyses of Heavy Metal Contents in the Bulk Atmospheric Aerosols Simultaneously Collected at Okinawa Archipelago, Japan by Using X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Y.; ITOH, A.; Azechi, S.; Somada, Y.; Handa, D.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2012-12-01

    We studied heavy metal contents of bulk atmospheric aerosols using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF). The XRF method enables us to analyze heavy metal contents in the bulk aerosols rapidly without any chemical pretreatments. We used an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer that is compact and portable. We prepared several different amounts of standard reference materials (referred to "SRM", NIES No.28 of Japanese National Institute of Environmental Studies) on quartz filters for calibration curves in two different methods; 1) water-insoluble materials were collected after dispersing SRM in pure water and filtered with the quartz filters ("wet method"), and 2) SRM was dispersed in air in the plastic container and the aerosols were collected by using the low-volume air sampler ("dry method"). Good linear relationships between X-ray intensity and amount of aerosols on the filter were seen in the following 9 metals; Al, K, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Rb, Ba, and Pb (with wet method) and 12 metals; K, Ti, Fe, Ni, Rb, Ba, Pb, Sr, Ca, Mn, Zn, and Cu (with dry method). Furthermore, we evaluated quantitative responses of XRF method by comparing with the metal contents determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after acid-digestion. We then used XRF method to determine heavy metal contents in authentic atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa islands, Japan. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using identical high-volume air samplers at 3 islands; Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals determined by the XRF method in the bulk atmospheric aerosols collected at the three islands during June 2008 to June 2010, and for CHAAMS during June 2008 to October 2012.

  6. The content and toxicity of heavy metals in soils affected by aerial emissions from the Pechenganikel plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evdokimova, G. A.; Mozgova, N. P.; Korneikova, M. V.

    2014-05-01

    The zoning of the terrestrial ecosystems exposed to the aerial emissions from the Pechenganikel plant (Murmansk oblast) was performed; it was based on the state of the soil cover in 2012. The following parameters were determined: the pH, the contents of heavy metals (HMs) and exchangeable calcium and magnesium, the proportion between the organic and mineral soil components, and the state of the soil micro-biota. Three zones differing in the intensity of the soil pollution were distinguished: the zone of strong pollution (at a distance of 3 km from the source of the emission), the zone of medium pollution (16 km), and the zone of weak pollution (25-30 km to the southwest from the pollution source). In the last ten years, the soil pollution in the zone influenced by aerial emissions from the Pechenganikel plant has remained the same. The amount of bacteria and fungi in the air is directly related to that in the soil. The results obtained point to the bacterial pollution of the atmosphere nearby the industrial center. In the vicinity of the plant, gram-negative bacteria ( Gracilicutes) predominate in the air; in remote areas, gram-positive bacteria ( Fermicutes) are dominants. In the air nearby the industrial center, potentially pathogenic fungi ( Gongronella butleri and Alternaria alternata) were revealed.

  7. The evaluation of heavy metal content in water and sediments of small reservoirs in light of various environmental quality regulations.

    PubMed

    Michalec, Bogusław K; Lenart-Boroń, Anna M; Cupak, Agnieszka K; Wałęga, Andrzej S

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the heavy metal concentrations assessed both in bottom sediments and water flowing into two small reservoirs at Krempna and Zesławice, southern Poland. The experiments were carried out in spring, summer, autumn and winter 2010-2011. The resulting concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium and copper were compared with the Environmental Quality Standards, guidelines of the Regulation of the Minister of Environmental Protection, regulations of the Polish Geological Institute and State Institute of Environment Protection, Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, and with the regulations adopted in Germany, Denmark, the United States and Canada. Regarding the total heavy metal concentrations, water flowing into the examined reservoirs was not polluted. The highest concentrations of heavy metals were found in water flowing into the reservoirs in spring and summer. The heavy metal concentrations in sediments of the reservoirs at Krempna and Zesławice were much higher than the concentrations of the elements discussed present in waters flowing into these reservoirs. PMID:24679090

  8. Diverse genomic location and sequence content of a Listeria monocytogenes chromosomal island harboring heavy metal resistance and other genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes remains a major foodborne pathogen with three serotype 4b clonal groups (ECI, ECII, ECIa) repeatedly implicated in human listeriosis. For reasons that are unknown, many of these strains are also resistant to heavy metals, i.e. cadmium and arsenic. The acquisition and fitness i...

  9. Phytoavailability of Cd and Pb in crop straw biochar-amended soil is related to the heavy metal content of both biochar and soil.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xin; Huang, Dao-You; Ren, Xue-Fei; Zhu, Han-Hua; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Chao; He, Yan-Bing; Luo, Zun-Chang; Zhu, Qi-Hong

    2016-03-01

    Crop straw biochar incorporation may be a sustainable method of amending soil, but feedstock-related Cd and Pb content is a major concern. We investigated the effects of heavy metal-rich (RC) and -free biochar (FC) on the phytoavailability of Cd and Pb in two acidic metalliferous soils. Biochar significantly increased soil pH and improved plant growth. Pb in soil and plant tissues significantly decreased after biochar application, and a similar pattern was observed for Cd after FC application. RC significantly increased NH4NO3-extractable Cd in both lightly contaminated (YBS) and heavily contaminated soils (RS). The Cd content of plants grown on YBS increased, whereas it decreased on RS. The Cd and Pb input-output balance suggested that RC application to YBS might induce a soil Cd accumulation risk. Therefore, identifying heavy metal contamination in biochar is crucial before it is used as a soil amendment. PMID:26720720

  10. Blackberry wines mineral and heavy metal content determination after dry ashing: multivariate data analysis as a tool for fruit wine quality control.

    PubMed

    Amidžić Klarić, Daniela; Klarić, Ilija; Mornar, Ana; Velić, Darko; Velić, Natalija

    2015-08-01

    This study brings out the data on the content of 21 mineral and heavy metal in 15 blackberry wines made of conventionally and organically grown blackberries. The objective of this study was to classify the blackberry wine samples based on their mineral composition and the applied cultivation method of the starting raw material by using chemometric analysis. The metal content of Croatian blackberry wine samples was determined by AAS after dry ashing. The comparison between an organic and conventional group of investigated blackberry wines showed statistically significant difference in concentrations of Si and Li, where the organic group contained higher concentrations of these compounds. According to multivariate data analysis, the model based on the original metal content data set finally included seven original variables (K, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ba, Cd and Cr) and gave a satisfactory separation of two applied cultivation methods of the starting raw material. PMID:27163834

  11. Biosorption of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Volesky, B. |; Holan, Z.R.

    1995-05-01

    Only within the past decade has the potential of metal biosorption by biomass materials been well established. For economic reasons, of particular interest are abundant biomass types generated as a waste byproduct of large-scale industrial fermentations or certain metal-binding algae found in large quantities in the sea. These biomass types serve as a basis for newly developed metal biosorption processes foreseen particularly as a very competitive means for the detoxification of metal-bearing industrial effluents. The assessment of the metal-building capacity of some new biosorbents is discussed. Lead and cadmium, for instance, have been effectively removed from very dilute solutions by the dried biomass of some ubiquitous species of brown marine algae such as Ascophyllum and Sargassum, which accumulate more than 30% of biomass dry weight in the metal. Mycelia of the industrial steroid-transforming fungi Rhizopus and Absidia are excellent biosorbents for lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and uranium and also bind other heavy metals up to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Biosorption isotherm curves, derived from equilibrium batch sorption experiments, are used in the evaluation of metal uptake by different biosorbents. Further studies are focusing on the assessment of biosorbent performance in dynamic continuous-flow sorption systems. In the course of this work, new methodologies are being developed that are aimed at mathematical modeling of biosorption systems and their effective optimization. 115 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Bioaccessibility and content of Se in fish and shellfish widely consumed in Mediterranean countries: influence of proteins, fat and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Marval-León, Jean Rafael; Cámara-Martos, Fernando; Amaro-López, Manuel Angel; Moreno-Rojas, Rafael

    2014-09-01

    Twenty samples of fish and seafood products were selected for determination of total and bioaccessible Se (i.e. soluble and dialyzable). The Se contents ranged between 0.638-0.052 µg/g. The samples of fatty fish such as mackerel and tuna showed higher contents than the species of lean fish, and mainly the fresh water fish, such as salmon, trout and panga showed the lowest contents. The fraction of soluble Se ranged between 43-84% while that the fraction of dialyzable Se did not exceed 14%. No statistically significant correlation was observed between protein content and total and bioaccessible Se content. In contrast, a negative interaction was observed between bioaccessible Se and fat content, and between bioaccessible Se and presence of heavy metals like Cd. PMID:24725145

  13. Changes in the heavy metal and nutrient contents of dried feather mosses during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Poikolainen, Jarmo; Piispanen, Juha; Karhu, Jouni; Seppänen, Reijo; Kubin, Eero

    2014-07-01

    This study measured heavy metal and nutrient concentrations of two feather mosses during the periods of dry storage. Samples (Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi) were collected in the nationwide moss surveys carried out on the permanent sample plots of the 8th Finnish National Forest Inventory in 1985-86, 1990, 1995 and 2000. A small amount of each moss sample was analyzed soon after collection, and the remainder was dried and stored at the Paljakka environmental specimen bank (ESB). The 108 stored samples from 27 plots were reanalyzed in 2008. Concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Zn) and nutrients (Ca, K, Mg, P) were determined and compared for each survey year. Overall, Fe, Pb and Cr concentrations decreased, and Cu concentrations increased significantly during storage. The greatest decrease was observed in samples from plots where their initial concentrations were the highest. Changes in the concentrations of Cd, Ni and Zn were less pronounced. The loss of heavy metals is likely due to drying when cell membranes rupture and some of the surface material is lost. K, P and, to some extent, Mg concentrations increased during storage, whereas Ca did not change significantly. Nutrient increase is probably due to their movement from older to younger growths during the initial phase of drying. Ca is mostly bound to cell walls and is not easily released. Results emphasize the importance of establishing the intended use of a stored moss prior to sampling, in order to select and optimize an appropriate storage technique. PMID:24652377

  14. Stabilization of heavy metals in sludge ceramsite.

    PubMed

    Xu, G R; Zou, J L; Li, G B

    2010-05-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the stabilization behaviours of heavy metals in ceramsite made from wastewater treatment sludge (WWTS) and drinking-water treatment sludge (DWTS). Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of sintering temperature, (Fe(2)O(3) + CaO + MgO)/(SiO(2) + Al(2)O(3)) (defined as F/SA ratios), pH, and oxidative condition. Results show that sintering exhibits good binding capacity for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb in ceramsite and leaching contents of heavy metals will not change above 1000 degrees C. The main crystalline phases in ceramsite sintered at 1000 degrees C are kyanite, quartz, Na-Ca feldspars, sillimanite, and enstatite. The main compounds of heavy metals are crocoite, chrome oxide, cadmium silicate, and copper oxide. Leaching contents of Cd, Cu, and Pb increase as the F/SA ratios increase. Heavy metals in ceramsite with variation of F/SA ratios are also in same steady forms, which prove that stronger chemical bonds are formed between these heavy metals and the components. Leaching contents of heavy metals decrease as pH increases and increase as H(2)O(2) concentration increases. The results indicate that when subjected to rigorous leaching conditions, the crystalline structures still exhibit good chemical binding capacity for heavy metals. In conclusion, it is environmentally safe to use ceramsite in civil and construction fields. PMID:20219229

  15. Changes in fertility parameters and contents of heavy metals of soddy-podzolic soils upon the long-term application of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasbieva, M. T.; Kosolapova, A. I.

    2015-05-01

    The effect of the long-term sewage sludge (SS) application on the chemical, agrophysical, and biological properties of a soddy-podzolic soil ( Umbric Albeluvisols Abruptic) was studied. Regular SS application in the course of five crop rotations (1976-2013) ensured the improvement of the soil fertility parameters, i.e., a rise in the contents of humus, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium; a better state of the soil adsorption complex, bulk density, and aggregation; and higher cellulolytic, nitrification, and urease activities. The efficiencies of SS and the traditional organic fertilizer (cattle manure) were compared. The effect of the long-term application of SS on the accumulation of heavy metals in the soils was also studied. It was found that the application of SS caused a rise in the bulk content of heavy metals and in the contents of their acid-extractable and mobile forms by 1.1-6.0 times. However, the maximum permissible concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were not exceeded. In the soil subjected to the application of SS for more than 25 years, the cadmium concentration somewhat exceeded the maximum permissible concentration.

  16. Content of Heavy Metals in the Reed Canarygrass (Phalaris Arundinacea L.) in the First Year of Harvest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisa, Liena; Adamovics, Aleksandrs; Platace, Rasma

    2010-01-01

    One of the major factors in achieving more biofuel is the amount of crop yield, but that is not synonymous with the yield quality. Plants are contaminated by heavy metals not only through the soil, but also from atmospheric pollution. The aim of this research was to establish the amount of heavy metals in the dry matter of reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.). The Marathon variety of reed canarygrass was studied with two sowing periods and four N-fertilizer rate applications. The concentration level of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and titanium (Ti) in the samples of reed canarygrass were analysed with the coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer Perkin Elmer 2100 DV. The samples of reed canarygrass taken in April had a greater concentration of As, Cd, Pb, which means that the plants absorb the heavy metals also from the snow covering. The first year yield of reed canarygrass established a fundamental negative correlation between the amount of As, Cd, Pb and the ash content. The samples taken in April have a greater heavy metal contamination, than the samples taken in October. The sowing period fundamentally affected the concentration of lead in reed canarygrass samples, but the level of N-fertilizer rate application affected the amount of cadmium and arsenic.

  17. Plants absorb heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination of heavy metals-polluted soils remains one of the most intractable problems of cleanup technology. Currently available techniques include extraction of the metals by physical and chemical means, such as acid leaching and electroosmosis, or immobilization by vitrification. There are presently no techniques for cleanup which are low cost and retain soil fertility after metals removal. But a solution to the problem could be on the horizon. A small but growing number of plants native to metalliferous soils are known to be capable of accumulating extremely high concentrations of metals in their aboveground portions. These hyperaccumulators, as they are called, contain up to 1,000 times larger metal concentrations in their aboveground parts than normal species. Their distribution is global, including many different families of flowering plants of varying growth forms, from herbaceous plants to trees. Hyperaccumulators absorb metals they do not need for their own nutrition. The metals are accumulated in the leaf and stem vacuoles, and to a lesser extent in the roots.

  18. 28-Homobrassinolide Alters Protein Content and Activities of Glutathione-S-Transferase and Polyphenol Oxidase in Raphanus Sativus L. Plants Under Heavy Metal Stress

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neha; Hundal, Gurjinder Singh; Sharma, Indu; Bhardwaj, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The application of brassinosteroids (BRs), the plant steroidal hormones, results in an increased tolerance toward stress and thus helps improving the yield of crop plants. The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of 28-homobrassinolide (28-HBL) on the protein content as well as activities of antioxidant enzymes viz., glutathione-s-transferase (GST) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in radish plants grown under Cadmium (Cd) and Mercury (Hg) metal stress. Materials and Methods: Shoots of 60 and 90 days old radish plants, grown under Cd and Hg metal stress (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mM) and given the presowing treatment of 28-HBL (0, 10-7, 10-9, 10-11 M) to seeds for 8 h, were analyzed for protein content and GST and PPO enzyme activities. Results: Protein content showed decrease in plants given Cd and Hg metal treatment alone, while treatment with 28-HBL enhanced the protein content, suggesting its stress protective role. An increase in the activity of antioxidative enzymes was also observed in plants stressed with heavy metals as well as in those supplemented with 28-HBL. Conclusions: In the present investigation, the activity of antioxidative enzymes was found to increase due to metal stress and a further increase was noticed in plants given both metal and 28-HBL treatment, suggesting the stress protective role of 28-HBL via modulating the antioxidative enzymes. PMID:24748734

  19. Risks and benefits of gardening in urban soil; heavy metals and nutrient content in Los Angeles Community Gardens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, L. W.; Jenerette, D.; Bain, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    The availability of soil nutrients and heavy metals in urban community gardens can influence health of crops and participants. Interactions between garden history, management, and soils are understudied in cities. In July 2011, we collected soil samples from 45 plots at 6 Los Angeles community gardens. For comparison, 3 samples were collected from uncultivated garden soils and 3 more from outside soils. Samples were then tested for major nutrients- Nitrogen(N), Potassium (K), and Phosphorous (P)- and organic matter (SOM). We also measured concentrations of 29 metals in 3 gardens using Inductively Coupled Plasma- Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. Potassium and phosphorus exceeded optimum levels in all plots, with some over twice the maximum recommended levels. Over-fertilized soils may contribute to local watershed pollution and crop micronutrient deficiencies. Low soil SOM was observed in gardens in impoverished neighborhoods, possibly due to low quality amendments. Our metals analysis showed dangerous levels of lead (Pb)-- up to 1700 ppm in outside soils and 150 ppm in garden soils-- near older gardens, indicating lead deposition legacies. California lead safety standards indicate that children should not play near soils with Pb above 200 ppm, indicating need for long term monitoring of lead contaminated gardens. Arsenic (As) levels exceeded federal risk levels (0.3 ppm) and average CA background levels (2 ppm) in all areas, with some gardens exceeding 10 ppm. Heavy metal legacies in gardens may pose risks to participants with prolonged exposure and remediation of soils may be necessary.

  20. Monitoring of Heavy Metals Content in Soil Collected from City Centre and Industrial Areas of Misurata, Libya

    PubMed Central

    Elbagermi, M. A.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Alajtal, A. I.

    2013-01-01

    The present paper deals with the assessment of heavy metals in soil and roadside dust around Misurata City Centre and industrial areas/roads in the period of October 2011–May 2012. The levels of Pb, Fe, Zn, Ni, Cd, Cr, and Cu in settled dust samples collected near small streets, playgrounds, gas stations and main streets in the Misurata Area have been determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Also, the levels of same heavy metals in industrial areas have been determined. Metal concentration trend variation was also discussed in relation with traffic density and other sources of fugitive emission around different sites on each road/area. The overall mean concentration for main streets was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than for other small streets, where Misurata has been the centre of fierce fighting and is located in a frontline battle zone in the Libyan war; therefore most of metal concentrations in surface soil in the fighting area Tripoli Street and Benghazi Street were higher than those from the other sites (outside fighting area). PMID:23762061

  1. Heavy Metal Content in Airborne Dust of Childhood Leukemia Cluster Areas: Even Small Towns Have Air Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, P. R.; Witten, M. L.

    2004-12-01

    Currently in the US, there are at least two ongoing clusters of childhood leukemia, where the incidence rate over the last several years has exceeded the national norm. In Fallon, Nevada, a town of 8,000 people, 16 children have been diagnosed with leukemia since 1995, three of whom have died. In Sierra Vista, Arizona, a town of 38,000 people, 12 children have been diagnosed since 1998, two of whom have died. A possible third cluster of childhood leukemia and other cancers is being monitored in Elk Grove, California, a suburb of Sacramento. For the purpose of characterizing the heavy metal content of airborne dust of these three communities, total suspended particulate samples were collected from each town as well as from nearby towns that could be considered as control comparisons. Sampling was done using portable high-volume blowers and glass- or quartz-fiber filter media. Filters were measured for elemental concentrations using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. To date, our most notable results are from the Nevada region. Compared to other control towns in the region, Fallon had significantly more tungsten in its airborne dust. Uranium was also higher in dust of Fallon than in other control towns. Uranium is a known health hazard, though it is not necessarily specifically related to childhood leukemia. The role of tungsten in childhood leukemia has not been widely studied. However, other research has identified tungsten exposure as an environmental concern in Fallon. A CDC study of human tissue samples from Fallon has shown high tungsten levels in people of Fallon, and a USGS study of drinking water in Fallon also has shown high tungsten there. Tree-ring research on selected trees has shown high tungsten values in recent rings compared to earlier rings. While these multiple indications of tungsten in the Fallon environment do not directly lead to the conclusion that tungsten causes leukemia, they do combine to suggest that biomedical research on the

  2. [MONITORING OF THE CONTENT OF HEAVY METALS AND ELEMENTS IN THE SNOW COVER IN AGRICULTURAL SOILS AT THE TERRITORY OF THE MOSCOW REGION].

    PubMed

    Ermakov, A A; Karpova, E A; Malysheva, A G; Mikhaylova, R I; Ryzhova, I N

    2015-01-01

    The monitoring of snow cover pollution by heavy metals and elements (zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, arsenic, nickel, chromium, strontium, manganese, fluorine, lithium) was performed in 20 districts of the Moscow region in 2009, 2012 and 2013. The assessment of the levels of contamination by heavy metals and elements was given by means of comparison of them with the average values in the snow cover near Moscow in the end of the last century and in some areas of the world, that no exposed to technological environmental impact. 7 districts of Moscow region were characterized by a high content of lead and cadmium in the snow water. It requires the control of water, soil and agricultural products pollution. PMID:26625612

  3. Heavy metal content in vegetables and fruits cultivated in Baia Mare mining area (Romania) and health risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Roba, Carmen; Roşu, Cristina; Piştea, Ioana; Ozunu, Alexandru; Baciu, Călin

    2016-04-01

    Information about heavy metal concentrations in food products and their dietary intake are essential for assessing the health risk of local inhabitants. The main purposes of the present study were (1) to investigate the concentrations of Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd in several vegetables and fruits cultivated in Baia Mare mining area (Romania); (2) to assess the human health risk associated with the ingestion of contaminated vegetables and fruits by calculating the daily intake rate (DIR) and the target hazard quotient (THQ); and (3) to establish some recommendations on human diet in order to assure an improvement in food safety. The concentration order of heavy metals in the analyzed vegetable and fruit samples was Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. The results showed the heavy metals are more likely to accumulate in vegetables (10.8-630.6 mg/kg dw for Zn, 1.4-196.6 mg/kg dw for Cu, 0.2-155.7 mg/kg dw for Pb, and 0.03-6.61 mg/kg dw for Cd) than in fruits (4.9-55.9 mg/kg dw for Zn, 1.9-24.7 mg/kg dw for Cu, 0.04-8.82 mg/kg dw for Pb, and 0.01-0.81 mg/kg dw for Cd). Parsley, kohlrabi, and lettuce proved to be high heavy metal accumulators. By calculating DIR and THQ, the data indicated that consumption of parsley, kohlrabi, and lettuce from the area on a regular basis may pose high potential health risks to local inhabitants, especially in the area located close to non-ferrous metallurgical plants (Romplumb SA and Cuprom SA) and close to Tăuții de Sus tailings ponds. The DIR for Zn (85.3-231.6 μg/day kg body weight) and Cu (25.0-44.6 μg/day kg body weight) were higher in rural areas, while for Pb (0.6-3.1 μg/day kg body weight) and Cd (0.22-0.82 μg/day kg body weight), the DIR were higher in urban areas, close to the non-ferrous metallurgical plants SC Romplumb SA and SC Cuprom SA. The THQ for Zn, Cu, Pb, and Cd was higher than 5 for <1, <1, 12, and 6 % of samples which indicates that those consumers may experience major health risks. PMID:26062461

  4. Heavy Metal Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    thereafter dies as a burnt-out, dim "white dwarf" . Stars with masses between 0.8 and 8 times that of the Sun are believed to evolve to AGB-stars and to end their lives in this particular way. At the same time, they produce beautiful nebulae like the "Dumbbell Nebula". Our Sun will also end its active life this way, probably some 7 billion years from now. Low-metallicity stars The detailed understanding of the "s-process" and, in particular, where it takes place inside an AGB-star, has been an area of active research for many years. Current state-of-the-art computer-based stellar models predict that the s-process should be particularly efficient in stars with a comparatively low content of metals ("metal-poor" or "low-metallicity" stars) . In such stars - which were born at an early epoch in our Galaxy and are therefore quite old - the "s-process" is expected to effectively produce atomic nuclei all the way up to the most heavy, stable ones, like Lead (atomic number 82 [2]) and Bismuth (atomic number 83) - since more neutrons are available per Iron-seed nucleus when there are fewer such nuclei (as compared to the solar composition). Once these elements have been produced, the addition of more s-process neutrons to those nuclei will only produce unstable elements that decay back to Lead. Hence, when the s-process is sufficiently efficient, atomic nuclei with atomic numbers around 82, that is, the Lead region, just continue to pile up. As a result, when compared to stars with "normal" abundances of the metals (like our Sun), those low-metallicity stars should thus exhibit a significant "over-abundance" of those very heavy elements with respect to Iron, in particular of Lead . Looking for Lead Direct observational support for this theoretical prediction would be the discovery of some low-metallicity stars with a high abundance of Lead. At the same time, the measured amounts of all the heavy elements and their relative abundances would provide very valuable information and

  5. Characterization of Heavy Metal Contents in the Bulk Atmospheric Aerosols Simultaneously Collected at Three Islands in Okinawa, Japan by X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshiro, Y.; ITOH, A.; Azechi, S.; Somada, Y.; Handa, D.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2011-12-01

    We studied heavy metal contents of atmospheric aerosols using an X-ray fluorescence spectrometric method (XRF). The XRF method enables us to analyze heavy metal contents of bulk aerosols rapidly without any chemical pretreatments. We used an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer that is compact and portable. We prepared several different amounts of standard reference materials (NIES No.28) of Japanese National Institute of Environmental Studies on quartz filters for calibration curves. Then, we evaluated quantitative responses of XRF method by comparing with the metal contents determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after acid-digestion. Good linear relationships between X-ray intensity and amount of aerosol on filter were seen in the following 10 metals; Al, K, Ti, V, Fe, Ni, Rb, Ba, Pb and As. We then used XRF method to determine heavy metal contents in authentic atmospheric aerosols collected in Okinawa islands, Japan. Okinawa islands, consisting of many small islands, are situated east of Asian continent, and its location in Asian is well suited for studying long-range transport of air pollutants. Also, in Okinawa islands, maritime air mass prevails during summer, while Asian continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air mass which has been affected by anthropogenic activities such as industries and automobiles. Therefore, Okinawa region is suitable area for studying impacts of air pollutants from East Asia. We simultaneously collected bulk aerosol samples by using identical high-volume air samplers at 3 islands; Cape Hedo Atmospheric Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS, Okinawa island), Kume island (ca. 160 km south-west of CHAAMS), and Minami-Daitou island (ca. 320 km south-east of CHAAMS). We report and discuss spatial and temporal distribution of heavy metals

  6. Environmental impact of mercury and other heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindqvist, Oliver

    The environmental impact of heavy metals is reviewed. One significant source of emissions of heavy metals to air is waste incineration. Consumer batteries contributes significantly to this problem, as well as to heavy metal leakage to groundwater from landfill deposits. The situation in Sweden is used as an example to describe how the deposition from the atmosphere still is increasing the load of heavy metals, like mercury, cadmium and lead, in top soils and aquatic sediments. Critical factors and effect levels for Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and As are discussed. Specific questions like mercury contents in present battery waste and heavy metal contents in new and future secondary batteries are addressed.

  7. Compacted Sewage Sludge as a Barrier for Tailings: The Heavy Metal Speciation and Total Organic Carbon Content in the Compacted Sludge Specimen

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huyuan; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Bo; Wang, Jinfang

    2014-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) was the main environmental problem facing the mining industry. For AMD had high heavy metals content and low pH, the compacted sewage sludge might be a barrier for tailings whose oxidation and weathering produced AMD, with its own carbon source, microorganism reduction ability and impermeability. To study the heavy metals environmental risk, under the simulate AMD, the deionized water (DW), and the pH 2.1 sulfuric acid water (SA) seepage conditions, respectively, the changes of the chemical speciation of heavy metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and total organic carbon (TOC) content in the compacted sewage sludge were assessed in the different periods. The results indicated according to the distribution of heavy metals, the potential mobility was for Cd: 6.08 under AMD, 7.48 under SA, ∞ under DW; for Cu: 0.08 under AMD, 0.17 under SA, 0.59 under DW; for Fe: 0.15 under AMD, 0.22 under SA, 0.22 under DW; for Ni: 2.60 under AMD, 1.69 under SA, 1.67 under DW; and for Zn: 0.15 under AMD, 0.23 under SA and 0.21 under DW at the second checking time. TOC content firstly decreased from 67.62±0% to 66.29±0.35%, then increased to 67.74±0.65% under the AMD seepage while TOC decreased to 63.30±0.53%, then to 61.33±0.37% under the DW seepage, decreased to 63.86±0.41%, then to 63.28±0.49% under SA seepage. That indicated under the AMD seepage, the suitable microorganisms communities in the compacted sewage sludge were activated. And the heavy metals environmental risk of compacted sewage sludge was lower with AMD condition than with other two. So the compacted sewage sludge as a barrier for tailings was feasible as the aspect of environmental risk assessment. PMID:24979755

  8. Compacted sewage sludge as a barrier for tailings: the heavy metal speciation and total organic carbon content in the compacted sludge specimen.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huyuan; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Bo; Wang, Jinfang

    2014-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) was the main environmental problem facing the mining industry. For AMD had high heavy metals content and low pH, the compacted sewage sludge might be a barrier for tailings whose oxidation and weathering produced AMD, with its own carbon source, microorganism reduction ability and impermeability. To study the heavy metals environmental risk, under the simulate AMD, the deionized water (DW), and the pH 2.1 sulfuric acid water (SA) seepage conditions, respectively, the changes of the chemical speciation of heavy metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and total organic carbon (TOC) content in the compacted sewage sludge were assessed in the different periods. The results indicated according to the distribution of heavy metals, the potential mobility was for Cd: 6.08 under AMD, 7.48 under SA, ∞ under DW; for Cu: 0.08 under AMD, 0.17 under SA, 0.59 under DW; for Fe: 0.15 under AMD, 0.22 under SA, 0.22 under DW; for Ni: 2.60 under AMD, 1.69 under SA, 1.67 under DW; and for Zn: 0.15 under AMD, 0.23 under SA and 0.21 under DW at the second checking time. TOC content firstly decreased from 67.62±0% to 66.29±0.35%, then increased to 67.74±0.65% under the AMD seepage while TOC decreased to 63.30±0.53%, then to 61.33±0.37% under the DW seepage, decreased to 63.86±0.41%, then to 63.28±0.49% under SA seepage. That indicated under the AMD seepage, the suitable microorganisms communities in the compacted sewage sludge were activated. And the heavy metals environmental risk of compacted sewage sludge was lower with AMD condition than with other two. So the compacted sewage sludge as a barrier for tailings was feasible as the aspect of environmental risk assessment. PMID:24979755

  9. Heavy metal contents in water, sediment and fish in a karst aquatic ecosystem of the Plitvice Lakes National Park (Croatia).

    PubMed

    Vukosav, Petra; Mlakar, Marina; Cukrov, Neven; Kwokal, Zeljko; Pižeta, Ivanka; Pavlus, Natalija; Spoljarić, Ivanka; Vurnek, Maja; Brozinčević, Andrijana; Omanović, Dario

    2014-03-01

    An evaluation of the quality status of the pristine karst, tufa depositing aquatic environment of the Plitvice Lakes National Park based on the analysis of heavy (ecotoxic) metals was examined for the first time. Analyses of trace metals in water, sediment and fish (Salmo trutta, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Squalius cephalus) samples were conducted either by stripping voltammetry (Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu) or cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (Hg). The concentration of dissolved trace metals in water was very low revealing a pristine aquatic environment (averages were, in ng/L: 258 (Zn), 10.9 (Cd), 11.7 (Pb), 115 (Cu) and 1.22 (Hg)). Slightly enhanced concentrations of Cd (up to 50 ng/L) and Zn (up to 900 ng/L) were found in two main water springs and are considered as of natural origin. Observed downstream decrease in concentration of Cd, Zn and Cu in both water and sediments is a consequence of the self-purification process governed by the formation and settling of authigenic calcite. Anthropogenic pressure was spotted only in the Kozjak Lake: Hg concentrations in sediments were found to be up to four times higher than the baseline value, while at two locations, Pb concentrations exceeded even a probable effect concentration. The increase of Hg and Pb was not reflected on their levels in the fish tissues; however, significant correlations were found between Cd level in fish tissues (liver and muscle) and in the water/sediment compartments, while only partial correlations were estimated for Zn and Cu. A high discrepancy between values of potentially bioavailable metal fraction estimated by different modelling programs/models raised the question about the usefulness of these data as a parameter in understanding/relating the metal uptake and their levels in aquatic organism. The aquatic environment of the Plitvice Lakes National Park is characterized, in general, as a clean ecosystem. PMID:24288066

  10. HEAVY METAL PUMPS IN PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants have been proposed as a bioremediation tool to help remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated land and water. However, little is known about how plants take up heavy metals from the soil and transport them to different parts of the plant. An important long term goal is t...

  11. SULFIDE PRECIPITATION OF HEAVY METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program was initiated with the objective of evaluating a new process, the sulfide precipitation of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters. The process was expected to effect a more complete removal of heavy metals than conventional lime processing because of the mu...

  12. [Prediction of Cadmium Content in the Leaves of Navel Orange in Heavy Metal Contaminated Soil Using VIS-NIR Reflectance Spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Shi, Rong-jie; Pan, Xian-zhang; Wang, Chang-kun; Liu, Ya; Li, Yan-li; Li, Zhi-ting

    2015-11-01

    Visual and Near-infrared (VIS-NIR) reflectance spectroscopy had been used widely in monitoring agricultural pollution in recent years, however, it was rarely applied in monitoring the contamination of heavy metal in orchards. In the present paper, Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck cv. Newhall) were cultivated in the potted soil contaminated with cadmium (Cd) at different levels, and the spectral reflectance and Cd content in the leaves were measured simultaneously at different growing seasons, which then were used to establish the prediction model by partial least squares regression (PLSR) based on spectral reflectance and by linear regression based on spectral index. The results showed that Cd was more easily transferred to and cumulated in the new leaves, and this phenomenon was more obvious in heavily contaminated soils with Cd. Blue shift in red edge was found in the band of 700-730 nm in the new leaves, however, no such phenomenon was found in the old leaves. The coefficient of determination (R²) of linear regression model based on spectral index was nearly 0. 8, while the PLSR model had a better result in predicting Cd content in the new leaves than the linear regression with R²CV of approximately 0.9. Furthermore, the standard normal variate transformation(SNV) in spectral preprocessing can improve the precision significantly in PLSR model. These results suggest that the VIS-NIR method has a great potential in monitoring heavy metal pollution in the navel orange. PMID:26978924

  13. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W. ); Benemann, J.R. , Pinole, CA )

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  14. Seasonal and time variability of heavy metal content and of its chemical forms in sewage sludges from different wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    García-Delgado, M; Rodríguez-Cruz, M S; Lorenzo, L F; Arienzo, M; Sánchez-Martín, M J

    2007-08-15

    Sewage sludges obtained from seven wastewater treatment plants from the province of Salamanca, Spain, were periodically sampled to determine seasonal and time variation of their elemental composition over 2000 to 2002. The aim of this paper was to provide additional insight to evaluate the potential environmental impact following soil incorporation of these materials as amendments. Aqua regia extractable metals (pseudo total content) of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn were determined and furthermore, the main chemical forms of metals within the sludge were evaluated using a five-step fractionation procedure. All the studied sludges displayed high fertility properties due to their richness of OC, P and K. Total mean concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the sludges were within the regulation of the Spanish legislation. Using an multifactor analysis of variance, significant differences between Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn pseudo total contents (p<0.01) of sludges at different sites were found while the Cd content was statistically similar. Also significant differences were found between these pseudo total contents of heavy metals in samples collected along the time after three years (0.001metals Cd, Ni and Zn were observed to be in mobile or bioavailable fraction of the sludge up to 35% of total metal content. Cu and Pb distributed in the organically bound fraction up to 25% and 60%, respectively. The Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn in sludges were predominantly bound within the oxide or silicate components. Significant differences between distribution fractions of metals considered together (p<0.001) were found at different years, and for each individual metal, significant differences can be observed between distribution fractions of sludges collected at different sites, times and seasonal periods. The results showed that the studied sludges can

  15. Assessment of heavy metal contents in surface soil in the Lhasa-Shigatse-Nam Co area of the Tibetan Plateau, China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Huiting; Li, Ji; Zhang, Chengzhong; Tian, Zhenyu; Liu, Xin; Tang, Chen; Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin

    2014-08-01

    Eight important heavy metals (As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Hg) were investigated in surface soil samples collected from the Lhasa-Shigatse-Nam Co region, Tibetan Plateau, China. The mean contents of As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Mn, and Hg in the samples were 39.5, 57.4, 28.5, 48.2, 15.7, 79.2, 637 and 0.0175 mg/kg, respectively. All metals were divided into three clusters by cluster analysis. The results of geoaccumulation index indicated that no samples were polluted by Cr, Pb, Zn, and Mn, and samples were polluted with As, Cu, Ni, and Hg to different degrees. All surface soils had a low ecological risk with potential ecological risk index below 150, indicating a low ecological risk. As, Pb, and Hg were the primary contributors to potential ecological risk. PMID:24816867

  16. Heavy Metal Pumps in Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.F.

    2000-10-01

    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of these plants to help clean up toxic metals from soils. A rate limiting step is using plant for bioremediation is the normally poor capacity of plants to concentrate toxic metals. Our interest in metal ion transport systems includes those for essential mineral nutrients such as molybdenum, copper, iron, manganese, as well as toxic metals such as cerium, mercury, cesium, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Understanding the pathways by which toxic metals accumulate in plants will enable the engineering of plants to exclude toxic metals and create healthier food sources, or to extract toxic metals from the soil as a strategy to clean up polluted lands and water.

  17. Consequential species of heavy metals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yousef, Y.A.; Harper, H.H.; Wiseman, L.; Bateman, M.

    1985-02-01

    Highway stormwater runoff contains significantly higher concentrations of trace metals, particularly Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, and Ni than the water samples from adjacent receiving water bodies. The metals associated with highway runoff tend to be detoxified by the organic content and chemical conditions of natural waters and sediments. Most of the metals are retained by the bottom sediments on a permanent basis if aerobic conditions and high redax-potential (Eh) values are maintained. Retention/detention ponds similar to the Maitland Pond site are very effective in nutrient and heavy metal removal from highway runoff.

  18. Earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Diercxsens, P.; de Weck, D.; Borsinger, N.; Rosset, B.; Tarradellas, J.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison is made of soil and earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals between a nature reserve and two sites conditioned by the addition of sewage sludge and compost. The tissues and gut content of the earthworms shows a higher PCB concentration than that of the surrounding soil and also a difference in the fingerprint of some single PCB compounds. Earthworms display a selective accumulation of cadmium and zinc in their tissues and gut content.

  19. Heavy metal contaminants in yerberia shop products.

    PubMed

    Levine, Michael; Mihalic, Jason; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; French, Robert N E; Brooks, Daniel E

    2013-03-01

    Complementary and alternative medications, including the use of herbal medications, have become quite popular in the USA. Yerberias are found throughout the southwest and specialize in selling Hispanic herbal products. The products sold in these stores are not regulated by any governmental agency. Previous reports have found Ayurvedic medications contain high levels of lead, mercury, and arsenic. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of heavy metal contaminants sold at Yerberia stores in the southwest. Yerberias in the Phoenix, Arizona area were identified via search of an on-line search engine using the words "Yerberia Phoenix." Every second store was selected, and products were purchased using a standard script. The products were subsequently analyzed for mercury, lead, and arsenic. The main outcome is the prevalence of heavy metal content in over-the-counter "cold" medications purchased at a Yerberia. Twenty-two samples were purchased. One product contained pure camphor (2-camphone) and was subsequently not further analyzed. Of the 21 samples analyzed, lead was found in 4/21 (19.4 %). Arsenic and mercury were in 1/21 (4.8 %) each. Because two samples contained two heavy metals, the total prevalence of heavy metals was 4/21 (19.4). Heavy metal contaminants are commonly encountered in over-the-counter herbal "cold" medications purchased at Yerberias in the southwest. PMID:22562238

  20. [Beijing common green tree leaves' accumulation capacity for heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-Ning; Kong, Ling-Wei; Lu, Shao-Wei; Chen, Bo; Gao, Chen; Shi, Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal variation of heavy metal contents in leaves and their relationships with soil heavy metal pollution levels were studied through measuring and analyzing the leaves of the common tree species in Beijing and soil heavy metal contents, to detect heavy metal accumulation ability of plant leaves. The results showed that: (1) the contents of Cu, Pb, Zn in plant leaves first decreased and then increased, again declined with changing the seasons (from spring to winter). Cr concentration showed the trend of first increase and then decrease from spring to winter, and the highest in the autumn; the accumulation capacities of Cu for Babylonica and Japonica were higher in the spring, summer and autumn, while Tabuliformis was in winter; the higher accumulation capacities for Cr, Pb were Japonica and Platycladus, and in winter were Platycladus and Bungeana; the higher accumulation capacities for Zn were Babylonica and Bungeana, while Platycladus in winter; (2) the pollution degree of four kinds of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn) from downtown to suburbs showed that: Jingshan (C =2.48, C is contamination factor) > Olympic (C = 1.27) > Songshan (C = 1.20) > Shuiguan (C = 1. 18); (3) the heavy metals concentration of same plant leaves in the water of the Great Wall changed larger, but those in the other three areas showed that: Jingshan > Olympic > Songshan; the ability of same species leaf to absorb different sorts of heavy metals showed that: Zn >Cu >Pb >Cr; the difference between Zn content and Cr content was significant (P <0.01); (4) the relationship between heavy metal content in plant leaves and soil heavy metal pollution levels presented a quadratic polynomial relation; the significant correlation was found between other three heavy metal contents of plant samples and soil samples, but they were not the case for the Cu, and the correlation coefficients were above 0. 9. PMID:25055683

  1. Heavy metal (Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, and Cu) contents of plant foliage near the Anvil Range lead/zinc mine, Faro, Yukon Territory.

    PubMed

    Pugh, Rachel E; Dick, David G; Fredeen, Arthur L

    2002-07-01

    Mining and processing of lead (Pb)/zinc (Zn) ore at the Anvil Range mine occurred near the town of Faro in the Yukon Territory, Canada, for approximately 30 years, beginning in 1968. A study was undertaken to examine whether the mining activities had left a detectable "footprint" on the environment in the way of heavy metal phytoaccumulation. Foliage of three native plant species was sampled: bog blueberry (Vaccinium uliginosum), Labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), and willow (Salix sp.), at approximately 0.25, 2.5, 12, 30, and 200 (control) km distant from the mill (ore-processing facility at the mine). Foliage samples were oven-dried, wet- or dry-ashed, and analyzed for metal content using ICP-AES. In addition to Pb and Zn, the primary ore constituents, copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and cadmium (Cd), were also assayed. As expected, foliar Pb and Zn concentrations were elevated in plants at the sites closest to the mill, i.e., 0.25 and 2.5 km from the mine facility. Copper and Fe, both essential nutrients for plants, were also elevated in foliage at the sites closest to the mill, but not to a level that would be of concern. Foliar Cd levels were highest in Salix relative to the other species but were not affected by proximity to the mill. Results suggest that Ledum may be the best indicator of high environmental concentrations of Pb, while Salix may be the best indicator of elevated Zn and Cd. PMID:12297090

  2. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  3. Effects of soil water content and organic matter addition on the speciation and bioavailability of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C; Jimenez-Lopez, Jose C

    2012-04-15

    The mobility and bioavailability of cadmium, copper, lead and zinc were evaluated in three soils amended with different organic materials for two moisture regimes. Agricultural and reclamation activities impose fresh inputs of organic matter on soil while intensive irrigation and rainstorm increase soil waterlogging incidence. Moreover, scarcity of irrigation water has prompted the use of greywater, which contain variable concentrations of organic compounds such as anionic surfactants. Soils added with hay, maize straw or peat at 1% w/w were irrigated, at field capacity (FC) or saturated (S), with an aqueous solution of the anionic surfactant Aerosol 22 (A22), corresponding to an addition of 200 mgC/kgsoil/day. Soil solution was extracted after one month and analysed for total soluble metals, dissolved soil organic matter and UV absorbance at 254 nm. Speciation analyses were performed with WHAM VI for Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn. For selected scenarios, metal uptake by barley was determined. Metal mobility increased for all treatments and soils (Pb>Cu>Cd≥Zn) compared to control assays. The increase was significantly correlated (p<0.05) with soil organic matter solubilisation for Cd (R=0.68), Cu (R=0.73) and Zn (R=0.86). Otherwise, Pb release was related to aluminium solubilisation (R=0.75), which suggests that Pb was originally co-precipitated with Al-DOC complexes in the solid phase. The effect of A22 in metal bioavailability, determined as free ion activities (FIA), was mainly controlled by soil moisture regime. For soil 3, metal bioavailability was up to 20 times lower for soil amended with hay, peat or maize compared to soil treated only with A22. When soil was treated with A22 at FC barley yield significantly decreased (p<0.05) for the increase of Pb (R=0.71) and Zn (R=0.79) concentrations in shoot, while for saturated conditions such uptake was up to 3 times lower. Overall, metal bioavailability was controlled by solubilisation of soil organic matter and formation

  4. [FEATURES OF THE CONTENT OF MOVABLE FORMS OF HEAVY METALS AND SELENIUM IN SOILS OF THE YAROSLAVL REGION].

    PubMed

    Bakaeva, E A; Eremeyshvili, A V

    2016-01-01

    With the use of the method of inversion voltammetry there was analyzed the content of movableforms of trace elements: (selenium, zinc, copper lead, cadmium) in soils in the Yaroslavl district of the Yaroslavl region, and also content of zinc, copper lead, cadmium in soils and snow cover in the city of Yaroslavl. According to values of concentrations of movable compounds in soils determined trace elements can be ranked into the following row: zinc > lead > copper > selenium > cadmium. There was revealed insufficient if compared with literature data concentrations, content of movable compounds of selenium, copper and zinc in examined explored soils. The maximal concentrations of lead are revealed in the close proximity to both the city of Yaroslavl and large highways of the city. It indicates to the anthropogenic pollution of soils by this element. PMID:27430063

  5. Health risk assessment of abandoned agricultural soils based on heavy metal contents in Hong Kong, the world's most populated city.

    PubMed

    Man, Yu Bon; Sun, Xiao Lin; Zhao, Yin Ge; Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Chung, Shan Shan; Wu, Sheng Chun; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming H

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequence of changing and using agricultural soils to other purposes in Hong Kong with respect to risk to human health. This study established concentrations of the following priority elements: As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn in terms of total burden (using mixed acid microwave digestion) and with respect to metal bioaccessibility (using an in vitro simulated gastric solution). 55 locations were sampled representing 12 different land use types, namely, agricultural (A), abandoned agricultural (Ab), organic farm (OF), container storage (CS), construction waste (CW), e-waste storage (EW (S)), e-waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)), e-waste open burning site (EW (OBS)), open burning site (OBS), petrol station (PS), metal recycling workshop (MRW) and car dismantling workshop (CDW). The elemental concentrations were subsequently used to establish Hazard Indices (for adults and children). 95th percentile values of total elemental concentrations were used to derive a combined (ingestion, dermal and inhalation) Hazard Index (HI) only for adults where the EW (DW) land use type indicated the potential for increased harm (HI=1.16). On the other hand, where 5th percentile values of total elemental concentrations were used to derive a combined Hazard Index (HI) for children the HI values exceeded 1 for CS, MRW, PS, EW (DW), EW (OBS) and CDW land use types (respectively, 1.21, 1.19, 1.52, 1.21, 1.81 and 2.04). PMID:20552725

  6. Stabilization of heavy metals in ceramsite made with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xu, G R; Zou, J L; Li, G B

    2008-03-21

    In order to investigate stabilization of heavy metals in ceramsite made with sewage sludge as an additive, the configuration of heavy metals in ceramsite was analysed by XRD and while leaching tests were conducted to find out the effect of sintering temperature (850 degrees C, 900 degrees C, 950 degrees C, 1000 degrees C, 1100 degrees C, and 1200 degrees C), pH (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 12), and H2O2 concentration (0.5molL(-1), 1molL(-1), 1.5molL(-1), 3molL(-1), and 5molL(-1)) on stabilization of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb) in ceramsite. The results indicate that leaching contents of heavy metals do not change above 1000 degrees C and sintering temperature has a significant effect on stabilization of heavy metals in ceramsite; leaching contents of heavy metals decrease as pH increases and increase as H2O2 concentration increases. XRD analysis reveals that the heavy metals exist in steady forms, mainly Pb2O(CrO(4)), CdSiO3, and CuO at 1100 degrees C. It is therefore concluded that heavy metals are properly stabilized in ceramsite and cannot be easily released into the environment again to cause secondary pollution. PMID:17692459

  7. Combining multivariate analysis and human risk indices for assessing heavy metal contents in muscle tissues of commercially fish from Southern Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Idris, Abubakr M; Said, Tarek O; Omran, Ahmed A; Fawy, Khaled F

    2015-11-01

    Jizan fishers are the major fish source for more than 1.5 million populations in the southern region in Saudi Arabia. Despite the overgrowing of various man-made activities in Jizan City, no recent study on environmental monitoring was reported. In the current study, heavy metals were quantified in muscle tissues of 12 fish species, as the most edible, from Jizan fisheries. Electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry was used for quantification after microwave wet digestion. Acceptable recovery values (83.46-97.48%) for spiked fish samples with standard solutions were obtained. The following wide ranges of heavy metal concentrations (μg/g, wet weight) in studied fish species were recorded: V (0.004-0.561), Cr (0.013-0.477), Mn (0.073-0.128), As (0.002-0.935), Se (0.083-3.058), Sn (2.835-5.540), and Pb (0.150-0.386). Comparing with international permissible limits, lower levels were recorded in the current study. For total metal accumulation, the relationship between species was examined by cluster analysis, which showed that Epinephelinae was the farthest species from others. The principal component analysis shows one component indicating normal distribution of heavy metals in fish species. Different metal pollution indices (1.35-0.30), which shows the distribution of the total heavy metal concentrations in each species, were recorded. The hazard indices for muscle consumption were less than 1.0 for all studied metals at both ingestion rates except Sn which showed a marginal value of 28.9. PMID:26122578

  8. Phycoremediation of heavy metals using transgenic microalgae.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Sathish; Siripornadulsil, Surasak; Falcao, Vanessa; Torres, Moacir; Colepicolo, Pio; Sayre, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Microalgae account for most of the biologically sequestered trace metals in aquatic environments. Their ability to adsorb and metabolize trace metals is associated with their large surface:volume ratios, the presence of high-affinity, metal-binding groups on their cell surfaces, and efficient metal uptake and storage systems. Microalgae may bind up to 10% of their biomass as metals. In addition to essential trace metals required for metabolism, microalgae can efficiently sequester toxic heavy metals. Toxic heavy metals often compete with essential trace metals for binding to and uptake into cells. Recently, transgenic approaches have been developed to further enhance the heavy metal specificity and binding capacity of microalgae with the objective of using these microalgae for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated wastewaters and sediments. These transgenic strategies have included the over expression of enzymes whose metabolic products ameliorate the effects of heavy metal-induced stress, and the expression of high-affinity, heavy metal binding proteins on the surface and in the cytoplasm of transgenic cells. The most effective strategies have substantially reduced the toxicity of heavy metals allowing transgenic cells to grow at wild-type rates in the presence of lethal concentrations of heavy metals. In addition, the metal binding capacity of transgenic algae has been increased five-fold relative to wild-type cells. Recently, fluorescent heavy metal biosensors have been developed for expression in transgenic Chlamydomonas. These fluorescent biosensor strains can be used for the detection and quantification of bioavailable heavy metals in aquatic environments. The use of transgenic microalgae to monitor and remediate heavy metals in aquatic environments is not without risk, however. Strategies to prevent the release of live microalgae having enhanced metal binding properties are described. PMID:18161494

  9. Crater-lake Santa Maria del Oro as a Pristine Reference for Persistent Organic Pollutants (POP' s) and Heavy Metals Content in Environmental Investigations in Western Mexico (Project Conacyt-Semarnat 2002-C01-0463, in Progress).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarate-Del Valle, P. F.; Gomez-Hermosillo, C. M.; Venegas-Garcia, D. J.

    2007-12-01

    Santa Maria del Oro Lake ( SMO) (21.37° N, 104.57° W; 750 m a.s.l.) is a quaternary crater-lake located at western Mexico in the natural border between two geological provinces: the plio-quaternary Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the oligo-miocenic silicic volcanic province Sierra Madre Occidental. SMO, a tropical freshwater lake, is a warm-monomictic lake having a diameter of ca. 2 km and a mean depth at the depocenter of ca. 60 m, where three benthos cores were recovered. Contents of POP' s, total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC) and heavy metals were analyzed. Geochemistry and mineralogy also were studied in shallow sediments which corresponded to the decade of 50-60's, otherwise the beginning of industrial development of central Mexico; which is considered the possible source of emission of POP' s and heavy metals. Dioxin, furan, plaguicides and PCB' s contents were analyzed by a GC-MS applying USEPA methods. In the first 40 cm (n= 20) of the sedimentary column ( SC) the absence of POP' s was evidenced, applying a method detection limit ( MDL) of 5 μ g/ml for dioxin, furan and PCB' s. For plaguicides like chlordane and toxaphene the MDL was 0.5 μ g/ml and for plaguicides like DDT, aldrin, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlore and mirex the MDL was 5 μ g/ml. The MDL for HCB was 1 μ g/ml. The average (n= 30) for TIC, TOC and total carbon (TC) for the first 40 cm of the SC is as follows: TIC 2.4 %, TOC 3.7 % and TC 6.12 %. The average (n= 20) content (in ppm) of heavy metals for the first 20 cm of the SC is as follows: As 5.97, Cr 27.54, Cu 16.31, Ni 12.29, Pb 21.35 and Zn 82.46. These contents are roughly similar to the clarke of these metals in volcanic rocks. After the criteria of severe effect level ( SEL) of heavy metal in sediments, the content of these metals is below SEL levels. These results permit us to conclude that the sediments of SMO can be considered in unaffected state with respect to antropogenic contamination like POP' s and heavy

  10. Modeling heavy metal removal in wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Lung, W.S.; Light, R.N.

    1994-12-31

    Although the use of wetland ecosystems to purify water has gained increased attention only recently, it has been recognized as a wastewater treatment technique for centuries. While considerable research has occurred to quantify the nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) removal mechanisms of wetlands, relatively few investigators have focused on the mechanisms of heavy metal removal and uptake by wetland sediments and plants. The quantification of the assimilative capacity of heavy metals by wetland ecosystems is a critical component in the design and use of wetlands for this purpose. A computer model has been developed to simulate the fate and transport of heavy metals introduced to a wetland ecosystem. Modeled water quality variables include phytoplankton biomass and productivity; macrophyte (Nulumbo lutea) biomass; total phosphorus in the water column; dissolved copper in the water column and sediments; particulate copper in the water column and sediments; and suspended solids. These variables directly affect the calculated rate of copper uptake by macrophytes, and the rate of copper recycling as a function of the decomposition of copper-laden biomass litter. The model was calibrated using total phosphorus and chlorophyll a data from the Old Woman Creek Wetland in Ohio. Verification of the model was achieved using data on the copper content of the macrophyte Nelumbo lutea.

  11. Effect of heavy metals on bacterial transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Olson, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    Adsorption of metals onto bacteria and soil takes place as stormwater runoff infiltrates into the subsurface. Changes in both bacterial surfaces and soil elemental content have been observed, and may alter the attachment of bacteria to soil surfaces. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses were performed on soil samples equilibrated with synthetic stormwater amended with copper, lead and zinc. The results demonstrate the presence of copper and zinc on soil surfaces. To investigate bacterial attachment behavior, sets of batch sorption experiments were conducted on Escherichia Coli (E. coli) under different chemical conditions by varying solution compositions (nutrient solution vs synthetic stormwater). The adsorption data is best described using theoretical linear isotherms. The equilibrium coefficient (Kd) of E. coli is higher in synthetic stormwater than in nutrient solution without heavy metals. The adsorption of heavy metals onto bacterial surfaces significantly decreases their negative surface charge as determined via zeta potential measurements (-17.0±5.96mv for E. coli equilibrated with synthetic stormwater vs -21.6±5.45mv for E. coli equilibrated with nutrient solution), indicating that bacterial attachment may increase due to the attachment of metals onto bacterial surfaces and their subsequent change in surface charge. The attachment efficiency (α) of bacteria was also calculated and compared for both solution chemistries. Bacterial attachment efficiency (α) in synthetic stormwater is 0.997, which is twice as high as that in nutrient solution(α 0.465). The ratio of bacterial diameter : collector diameter suggests minimal soil straining during bacterial transport. Results suggest that the presence of metals in synthetic stormwater leads to an increase in bacterial attachment to soil surfaces. In terms of designing stormwater infiltration basins, the presence of heavy metals seems to

  12. The Heavy Metal Subculture and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed relationship between heavy metal music and suicide with data on heavy metal magazine subscriptions and youth suicide in 50 states. Found that, controlling for other predictors of suicide, greater strength of metal subculture, higher youth suicide rate, suggests that music perhaps nurtures suicidal tendencies already present in subculture.…

  13. Industrial hygiene of selected heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.L.

    1993-08-01

    The industrial hygiene of heavy metals consists of recognition, evaluation, and control of exposures in the occupational environment. Several of these metals have been in use since ancient times. Reports of health effects and poisonings from overexposures also have a long history. This report discusses the industrial hygiene of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium, mercury, and manganese.

  14. Heavy metals in Antarctic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.E.A. de; Moreno, V.J.; Gerpe, M.S.; Vodopivez, C.

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate levels of essential (zinc and copper) and non-essential (mercury and cadmium) heavy metals, 34 species of organisms from different areas close to the Antarctic Peninsula were analysed. These included algae, filter-feeders, omnivorous invertebrates and vertebrates. Mercury was not detected, while cadmium was found in the majority of organisms analysed (detection limit was 0.05 ppm for both metals). The highest cadmium concentration was observed in the starfish Odontaster validus. Anthozoans, sipunculids and nudibranchs showed maximum levels of zinc, while the highest copper level was found in the gastropod Trophon brevispira. Mercury and cadmium levels in fishes were below the detection limit. Concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in birds were highest in liver followed by muscle and eggs. Cadmium and mercury levels in muscle of southern elephant seals were above the detection limit, whereas in Antarctic fur seals they were below it. The objective of the study was to gather baseline information for metals in Antarctic Ocean biota that may be needed to detect, measure and monitor future environmental changes. 46 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  15. Transcriptomic response of the hydrothermal mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus in experimental exposure to heavy metals is modulated by the Pgm genotype and symbiont content.

    PubMed

    Bougerol, Marion; Boutet, Isabelle; LeGuen, Dominique; Jollivet, Didier; Tanguy, Arnaud

    2015-06-01

    Hydrothermal vent mussels belonging to the genus Bathymodiolus dominate communities at hydrothermal sites of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus harbors thiotrophic and methanotrophic symbiotic bacteria in its gills and evolves in naturally highly metal contaminated environments. In the context of investigations on metal tolerance/effect in B. azoricus, we focused our work on the short-term adaptive response (15days) of mussels to different metals exposure at a molecular level using metal concentrations chosen to mimic natural situations at three vents sites. The expression of a set of 38 genes involved in different steps of the metal uptake, detoxication and various metabolisms was analysed by qPCR. Mussels were also genotyped at 10 enzyme loci to explore the relationships among natural genetic variation and gene expression. Relation between symbiont content (both sulfur-oxidizing and methanogen bacteria) and gene expression was also analysed. Our study demonstrated the influence of metal cocktail composition and time exposure on the transcriptome regulation with a specific pattern of regulation observed for the three metal cocktail tested. We also evidenced the significant influence of some specific Pgm genotype on the global gene expression in our experimental populations and a general trend of a higher gene expression in individuals carrying a high symbiont content. PMID:25542630

  16. Hazards of heavy metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Järup, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. These metals have been extensively studied and their effects on human health regularly reviewed by international bodies such as the WHO. Heavy metals have been used by humans for thousands of years. Although several adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues, and is even increasing in some parts of the world, in particular in less developed countries, though emissions have declined in most developed countries over the last 100 years. Cadmium compounds are currently mainly used in re-chargeable nickel-cadmium batteries. Cadmium emissions have increased dramatically during the 20th century, one reason being that cadmium-containing products are rarely re-cycled, but often dumped together with household waste. Cigarette smoking is a major source of cadmium exposure. In non-smokers, food is the most important source of cadmium exposure. Recent data indicate that adverse health effects of cadmium exposure may occur at lower exposure levels than previously anticipated, primarily in the form of kidney damage but possibly also bone effects and fractures. Many individuals in Europe already exceed these exposure levels and the margin is very narrow for large groups. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce cadmium exposure in the general population in order to minimize the risk of adverse health effects. The general population is primarily exposed to mercury via food, fish being a major source of methyl mercury exposure, and dental amalgam. The general population does not face a significant health risk from methyl mercury, although certain groups with high fish consumption may attain blood levels associated with a low risk of neurological damage to adults. Since there is a risk to the fetus in particular, pregnant women should avoid a high intake of certain fish, such as shark, swordfish and

  17. Relationships between thiamine content of eggs and concentrations of lead and other heavy metals in water and survival of Atlantic salmon fry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ketola, H. George; Wedge, Leslie R.; Lary, Sandra J.; Grant, Edward C.; Rutzke, Michael A.

    2001-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were extirpated in much of New York state by the late 1800s. Currently, Atlantic salmon from Little Clear Pond (Saranac Lake, NY) are stocked in Cayuga Lake (Ithaca, NY) and Lake Ontario to support a fishery, but reproduction is severely impaired by thiamine deficiency in Cayuga Lake and probably in Lake Ontario--apparently caused by adults feeding on prey fish high in thiaminase. One study suggested that survival of these fry may be reduced by phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, copper, or lead in water. Thiamine deficiency is known to increase lead toxicity. Bringing gravid Atlantic salmon from Little Clear Pond and Cayuga Inlet into the laboratory, we examined the effect of exposing their fertilized eggs during water-hardening to water with and without added lead (0.1 to 100 mg lead·liter-1) and to other contaminated waters (from New York State) on the survival of their eggs and fry. Our results showed no significant influence of our water-hardening treatments on survival of eggs or fry; therefore, it appears that exposure of eggs (during water-hardening) to lead in water (concentrations up to 100 mg lead·liter-1) or to several contaminated waters was not detrimental to the survival of eggs or fry of Atlantic salmon. We also determined the mineral and heavy metal content of dried eggs and found that eggs from Cayuga Lake salmon had significantly higher concentrations of copper (1.9 vs. 0.5 mg·g-1) than did eggs from salmon from Little Clear Pond. All concentrations of copper appeared to be within the range observed in other normal salmon. There were no other significant differences in concentrations of other minerals tested. Concentrations of copper in Cayuga Lake water (mean, 1.16 mg·liter-1) were significantly higher than in Little Clear Pond water (mean, 0.17 mg·liter-1). The effect of copper in eggs of thiamine-deficient salmon is not known.

  18. Bioremoval of heavy metals by bacterial biomass.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Mahendra; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are among the most common pollutants found in the environment. Health problems due to the heavy metal pollution become a major concern throughout the world, and therefore, various treatment technologies such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange, solvent extraction, chemical precipitation, and adsorption are adopted to reduce or eliminate their concentration in the environment. Biosorption is a cost-effective and environmental friendly technique, and it can be used for detoxification of heavy metals in industrial effluents as an alternative treatment technology. Biosorption characteristics of various bacterial species are reviewed here with respect to the results reported so far. The role of physical, chemical, and biological modification of bacterial cells for heavy metal removal is presented. The paper evaluates the different kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic models used in bacterial sorption of heavy metals. Biomass characterization and sorption mechanisms as well as elution of metal ions and regeneration of biomass are also discussed. PMID:25471624

  19. Accumulation of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sarma, Hemen; Deka, Suresh; Deka, Hemen; Saikia, Rashmi Rekha

    2011-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate the reports published between 1993 and 2011 that address the heavy metal accumulation in 88 medicinal plant species. We compare the safe limits for heavy metals set by governmental agencies vs. the levels at which such metals actually exist in selected medicinal plants. We also evaluate the uses and effectiveness of medicinal plants in health care, and assess the hazards of medicinal plant uses, in view of the growing worldwide use of medicinal plants. From our extensive review of the literature, we discovered that a maximum permissible level (MPL) of Pb is exceeded in 21 plant medicine species, Cd in 44 species, and Hg in 10 species. Vetiveria zizanioides a potential candidate species for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases absorb a wide range of heavy metals from metal-contaminated soils. We believe that this species is the single most impressive example of a potentially hazardous medicinal plant. Based on our review, we endorse the hypothesis that heavy metal accumulation by medicinal plants is mainly caused by extraction of soluble metals from contaminated soil, sediments and air. One continuing problem in protecting consumers of plant-based medicines is that permissible levels of all heavy metals in herbal medicine have not yet been standardized by regulating governmental entities. Moreover, there are few limit tests that exist for heavy metal content of medicinal plants, or permissible limits for essential dietary minerals, in most medicinal plants. The dearth of such limits hamstrings development of medicinal plant research and delays the release of either new or improved versions of medicinal plants or their components. In the present review, we emphasize that medicinal plants are often subjected to heavy metal contamination and that the levels at which these heavy metals sometimes occur exceeds permissible levels for some species. Therefore, collecting medicinal plants from areas that are, or may be, contaminated should be

  20. Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidal Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacourse, Eric; Claes, Michel; Villeneuve, Martine

    2001-01-01

    Studied differentiating characteristics of youth who prefer heavy metal music, worship music, and use music for vicarious release. Data for 275 secondary school students suggest that heavy metal music preference and worshipping is not related to suicidal risk when controlling for other suicide factors. Discusses findings in the context of…

  1. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  2. FINAL REPORT. HEAVY METAL PUMPS IN PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of t...

  3. [Toxic heavy metals in foodstuffs (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Käferstein, F K

    1980-09-01

    1. In the Federal Republic of Germany two staple foodstuffs, cereals and milk, are regularly checked by means of monitoring programmes for their content of heavy metals, this check being representative for the whole country. Other foodstuffs are analysed in the laboratories of the Food Control Authorities, but these inspections are carried out rather sporadically and are not yet of a "monitoring" nature. 2. The measured values from a number of laboratories are fed into a central data bank (Datenbank-ZEBS) at the Federal Health Office and are thus available for statistical and hygienic evaluation. 3. At present, information is available on the lead, cadmium and mercury content of foodstuffs which represent roughly 70 to 80 per cent of the food consumed by an average adult. The intake of lead, cadmium and mercury due to the consumption of these foodstuffs has been calculated and extrapolated to the complete food consumption. It was found that the value ascertained are clearly lower than the toxicological threshold values published by FAO/WHO. 4. Nevertheless, the intake needs to be limited, because the average heavy metal content of some foodstuffs has increased, probably because of anthropogenic reasons. This is especially likely to apply to the cadmium content of wheat. To attempt a restriction by regulation, is at present not considered in Germany to be the optimal solution. Instead, the Federal Health Office has published guidance values which contain an appeal to the foodstuff industry and food control authorities to investigate the causes, whenever these guidance values are approached or exceeded, with the objective of avoiding high levels. PMID:7456855

  4. Effect of heavy metals on soil fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosak-Świderska, Bożena

    2010-05-01

    Fungi constitute a high proportion of the microbial biomass in soil.Being widespread in soil their large surface-to-volume ratio and high metabolic activity, fungi can contribute significantly to heavy metal dynamics in soil. At neutral pH heavy metals in soils tend to be immobilized to precipitation and/or absorption to cation exchange sites of clay minerals. In the acidic soils, metals are more mobile and enter food webs easier. Microbial production of acids and chelating agents can mobilize to toxic metals. Mobilization is often by uptake and intracellular accumulation of the heavy metlas, and in this way, the bioavailability of metals towards other organisms can be more reduced. Fungi were isolated from soils from Upper Silesia in Poland and belonged to widespread genera: Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Trichoderma. Fungi from different taxonomic groups differ greatly in their tolerance to heavy metals. This could be related to their wall structure and chemistry as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics of fungi. Localization of metals in fungal cells was studied using electron microscopy analysis. Metal biosorption in the cell wall can be complex as melanin granules. Fungal vacuoles have an important role in the regulation of the cytosolic concentration of metal ions, and may contribute to heavy metal tolerance.In polluted soils with heavy metals, fungal species composition can be changed and their physiological activity can be changed, too.

  5. Spatial variability in depth and landscape of heavy metal contents of volcanic soils of the National Cajas Park in the Azuay Andes (Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria; Boluda, Rafael; Gil, Carlos; Ramos-Miras, Joaquín; Rodríguez, Jose A.

    2015-04-01

    Although the soils in the Azuay Andes are thought to be generally non-contaminated, it is necessary to preserve them from anthropogenic pollution. This area supplies drinking water to Cuenca, the third city of Ecuador. At present, very little information is available on baseline metal concentrations in Latin American soils. Therefore, it is important to establish the baseline of elements in soils as reference values for evaluating potential changes in their concentrations and to be able to define their origins. The objectives of this study are: (1) to show morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of Andisols in the Azuay Andes (Ecuador); (2) to determine the concentrations of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and (3) to evaluate the relationship between metal concentration and soil properties. The study area is located in National Cajas Park in the Paramo area of the Andes at Azuay Province (Ecuador). The geological origin of the National Cajas Park dates back to the Quaternary age. This area is a U-shaped glaciated valley formed over a pre-existing volcanic basement which consists of rhyolite and andesite volcanic tuff. The moraines are covered by discontinuous patches of volcanic ash. The climate is characterized by rather high rainfall, between 1200 to 2000 mm per year, regularly distributed and generally of a low intensity with a yearly average constant temperature (7°C) with high diurnal amplitudes. The paramo is a high altitude neotropical grassland ecosystem, located between the continuous forest border (~3500 m) and the eternal snow line (~5000 m). Seven representative volcanic soil pedons of a toposequence were studied and sampled. All horizons were analysed for physical and chemical properties by standard and specific methods for volcanic soils. Total metal concentrations in soil horizons were determined by ICP-MS spectrometer. The background values were calculated using the 4σ-outlier test. This requires the elimination of

  6. Spatial variability in depth and landscape of heavy metal contents of volcanic soils of the National Cajas Park in the Azuay Andes (Ecuador)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bech, Jaume; Roca, Núria; Boluda, Rafael; Gil, Carlos; Ramos-Miras, Joaquín; Rodríguez, Jose A.

    2015-04-01

    Although the soils in the Azuay Andes are thought to be generally non-contaminated, it is necessary to preserve them from anthropogenic pollution. This area supplies drinking water to Cuenca, the third city of Ecuador. At present, very little information is available on baseline metal concentrations in Latin American soils. Therefore, it is important to establish the baseline of elements in soils as reference values for evaluating potential changes in their concentrations and to be able to define their origins. The objectives of this study are: (1) to show morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of Andisols in the Azuay Andes (Ecuador); (2) to determine the concentrations of six heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and (3) to evaluate the relationship between metal concentration and soil properties. The study area is located in National Cajas Park in the Paramo area of the Andes at Azuay Province (Ecuador). The geological origin of the National Cajas Park dates back to the Quaternary age. This area is a U-shaped glaciated valley formed over a pre-existing volcanic basement which consists of rhyolite and andesite volcanic tuff. The moraines are covered by discontinuous patches of volcanic ash. The climate is characterized by rather high rainfall, between 1200 to 2000 mm per year, regularly distributed and generally of a low intensity with a yearly average constant temperature (7°C) with high diurnal amplitudes. The paramo is a high altitude neotropical grassland ecosystem, located between the continuous forest border (~3500 m) and the eternal snow line (~5000 m). Seven representative volcanic soil pedons of a toposequence were studied and sampled. All horizons were analysed for physical and chemical properties by standard and specific methods for volcanic soils. Total metal concentrations in soil horizons were determined by ICP-MS spectrometer. The background values were calculated using the 4σ-outlier test. This requires the elimination of

  7. [The heavy metal content in the soft tissues and shells of specimens of 3 varieties of the Azov and Black Sea mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis].

    PubMed

    Pashkova, I M; Glushankova, M A

    1993-01-01

    In representatives of 15 micropopulations of the Black Sea mussels related to three varieties of Mytilus galloprovincialis var. dilatata, var. acrocyrta, var. frecviens the content of iron, zinc, lead, copper and cadmium in the soft tissues and shells has been determined with the use of atomic adsorption spectrophotometry. It has been found that of importance is the content of industrial wastes in the habitat of the micropopulation examined rather than its attribution to some or other variety. In representatives of all the varieties the accumulation of metals in soft tissues was higher than that is shells. By their concentration in tissues the metals examined can be aligned in the following row in decreasing order: iron, zinc, lead, copper and cadmium. PMID:8266565

  8. Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops*

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Ejaz ul; Yang, Xiao-e; He, Zhen-li; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals enter the human body mainly through two routes namely: inhalation and ingestion, ingestion being the main route of exposure to these elements in human population. Heavy metals intake by human populations through food chain has been reported in many countries. Soil threshold for heavy metal toxicity is an important factor affecting soil environmental capacity of heavy metal and determines heavy metal cumulative loading limits. For soil-plant system, heavy metal toxicity threshold is the highest permissible content in the soil (total or bioavailable concentration) that does not pose any phytotoxic effects or heavy metals in the edible parts of the crops does not exceed food hygiene standards. Factors affecting the thresholds of dietary toxicity of heavy metal in soil-crop system include: soil type which includes soil pH, organic matter content, clay mineral and other soil chemical and biochemical properties; and crop species or cultivars regulated by genetic basis for heavy metal transport and accumulation in plants. In addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-microbes play important roles in regulating heavy metal movement from soil to the edible parts of crops. Agronomic practices such as fertilizer and water managements as well as crop rotation system can affect bioavailability and crop accumulation of heavy metals, thus influencing the thresholds for assessing dietary toxicity of heavy metals in the food chain. This paper reviews the phytotoxic effects and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and food crops and assesses soil heavy metal thresholds for potential dietary

  9. Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops.

    PubMed

    Islam, Ejaz ul; Yang, Xiao-e; He, Zhen-li; Mahmood, Qaisar

    2007-01-01

    Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury, are important environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Their presence in the atmosphere, soil and water, even in traces can cause serious problems to all organisms, and heavy metal bioaccumulation in the food chain especially can be highly dangerous to human health. Heavy metals enter the human body mainly through two routes namely: inhalation and ingestion, ingestion being the main route of exposure to these elements in human population. Heavy metals intake by human populations through food chain has been reported in many countries. Soil threshold for heavy metal toxicity is an important factor affecting soil environmental capacity of heavy metal and determines heavy metal cumulative loading limits. For soil-plant system, heavy metal toxicity threshold is the highest permissible content in the soil (total or bioavailable concentration) that does not pose any phytotoxic effects or heavy metals in the edible parts of the crops does not exceed food hygiene standards. Factors affecting the thresholds of dietary toxicity of heavy metal in soil-crop system include: soil type which includes soil pH, organic matter content, clay mineral and other soil chemical and biochemical properties; and crop species or cultivars regulated by genetic basis for heavy metal transport and accumulation in plants. In addition, the interactions of soil-plant root-microbes play important roles in regulating heavy metal movement from soil to the edible parts of crops. Agronomic practices such as fertilizer and water managements as well as crop rotation system can affect bioavailability and crop accumulation of heavy metals, thus influencing the thresholds for assessing dietary toxicity of heavy metals in the food chain. This paper reviews the phytotoxic effects and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in vegetables and food crops and assesses soil heavy metal thresholds for potential dietary

  10. Heavy metal contents of road-deposited sediment along the urban-rural gradient around Beijing and its potential contribution to runoff pollution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xuyong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2011-09-01

    Understanding the contribution of road-deposited sediment (RDS) and its washoff process is essential for controlling urban runoff pollution. Ninety-seven RDS samples were collected along the urban-suburban-rural gradient from areas of five administrative units in the Beijing metropolitan region, including central urban (UCA), urban village (UVA), central suburban county (CSA), rural town (RTA), and rural village (RVA) areas. RDS washoff was evaluated with different particle sizes using a rainfall simulator. Heavy metal elements (i.e., Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) were estimated in both RDS and runoff samples. The RDS mass per unit area increased in the order UCA (21 ± 24 g/m(2)) ≈ CSA (20 ± 16 g/m(2)) < RTA (59 ± 63 g/m(2)) < RVA (147 ± 112 g/m(2)) ≈ UVA (147 ± 198 g/m(2)). Compared to RDS from the other administrative units, RDS from the UCA and CSA had higher metal concentrations and higher proportions of smaller particles, whereas that from the RVA and UVA had larger quantities of metals per unit area. UCA and CSA had lower potential runoff pollution contributions per unit area. Our findings imply that controlling the first flush in the UCA and CSA, and improving existing street cleaning methods and road surface conditions in the TRA, UVA, and RVA will be appropriate strategies for controlling runoff pollution from RDS. PMID:21819088

  11. Removal and recovery of heavy metals from incinerator ash residues

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, K.E.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents results of a novel and state-of-the-art patent-pending processes developed jointly by Forrester Environmental Services Inc. (FESI) and Brookhaven National Laboratories (BNL) for the extraction and recovery of lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and other heavy metals from heavy metal bearing wastes including but not limited to solid waste incinerator bottom ash, flyash and combined ash. The heavy metal extraction and recovery processes were found to be capable of high percentage of heavy metals extraction and recovery at a relatively low cost under bench scale and full-scale refuse incinerator facility conditions. This paper presents empirical data from bench scale studies only, as the full-scale data is currently under review. The ash product remaining after extraction passed all TCLP regulatory limits and retained only minimal Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn content and other water insoluble heavy metal compounds. Results of heavy metals recovery and low cost from ongoing field applications of this technology are consistent with the bench scale data presented within this paper.

  12. Dustfall Heavy Metal Pollution During Winter in North China.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qiu-lin; Zhao, Wen-ji; Guo, Xiao-yu; Shu, Tong-tong; Chen, Fan-tao; Zheng, Xiao-xia; Gong, Zhao-ning

    2015-10-01

    In order to study heavy metal pollution in dustfall during Winter in North China, forty-four dustfall samples were collected in North China Region from November 2013 to March 2014. Then forty trace elements content were measured for each sample by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Finally, the contamination characteristics of the main heavy metals were studied through a multi-method analysis, including variability analysis, Pearson correlation analysis and principal component analysis. Results showed that the relative contents of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), bismuth (Bi), lead (Pb) exceeded the standards stipulated in Chinese soil elements background values by amazing 4.9 times. In this study, conclusions were drawn that dustfall heavy metal pollution in the region was mainly caused by transport pollution, metallurgy industrial pollution, coal pollution and steel industrial pollution. PMID:26215458

  13. Heavy metals in the soil-crop system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il'in, V. B.

    2007-09-01

    Data on the bulk contents of heavy metals in polluted soils are not quite suitable to judge the ecological situation in an agrocenosis. According to the results of model experiments with artificial contamination of soil, the flux of zinc and lead from the starting point (from a medium loamy leached chernozem) to the final point (wheat grains) sharply decreases. It is possible to obtain an ecologically pure (uncontaminated) grain yield even on a strongly contaminated soil due to the buffering capacity of the latter and due to the self-protective capacity of agricultural crops. The ecological potential of the soil-crop system is formed mostly at the expense of the buffering capacity of soil to heavy metals; the barrier function of plants is less significant. It is argued that the existing ecological standards based on the total contents of heavy metals in soil are of little use for predicting the quality of crops.

  14. The nutrient, total petroleum hydrocarbon and heavy metal contents in the seawater of Bohai Bay, China: Temporal-spatial variations, sources, pollution statuses, and ecological risks.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shitao

    2015-06-15

    Seawater samples collected between 2007 and 2012 were determined the concentrations of nutrient (DIN and DIP), total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), and six different heavy metals (As, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg). The DIN, DIP, TPH, Pb, and Cd concentrations decreased from 2007 to 2009 or 2010 and increased after 2010. However, the Hg and Cu concentrations increased from 2007 to 2012. In contrast, the As and Zn gradually decreased during the study period. All of the pollutant concentrations gradually decreased from the shoreline to the offshore sites. PCA result showed that urban and port areas, agriculture, and atmospheric deposition were the main sources of pollutants in the bay. Although most of the pollutants were present at concentrations bellow the highest seawater quality standards in China, eutrophication was a risk in Bohai Bay. In addition, DIN was the main pollutant and was responsible for the eutrophication risk in Bohai Bay. PMID:25840871

  15. The influence of technogenic and natural factors on the content of heavy metals in soils of the Middle CisUrals region: The town of Chusovoi and its suburbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Vasil'Ev, A. A.; Savichev, A. T.; Chashchin, A. N.

    2010-09-01

    The content of heavy metals in the soils of the Middle CisUrals (the town of Chusovoi and its vicinities) is controlled by both natural and technogenic factors. The enrichment of the parent rocks in Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cu, which influences the chemical composition of the soils, is the most important among the natural factors. Among the other natural factors, the gleying and washing of the alluvial soils with flood water are significant. The technogenic contamination of the urban soils reaches its maximum in the technozems, where the content of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cr exceeds their clarkes by 4-8 times. The index of technogeneity (the share of technogenic metals referring to their total content) is high for the bulk of metals in technozems, in particular, ranging within 36-97%. The technogeneity sequence is the following for the urban soils: Cr > Zn = Mn > Pb > Cu > Fe. The soil contamination with metals is confined to the depression where the metallurgical plant is operating, and it significantly falls already at a distance of 2-3 km in the settlements located at higher topographic positions.

  16. Heavy metals in composts of separated municipal wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, W.P.; Huang, W.C.; Fan, W.H.; Hsu, C.C.

    1997-12-31

    This study is to examine the influence of the metal components on the contents of heavy metals in composts of Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW). Fresh MSW used in composting was obtained from the city landfill of Taichung in Taiwan. Compost 1 was from as-collected MSW; Compost 2 was from degradable fraction in MSW; Compost 3 was from MSW without metal. The results show that the total concentration of zinc is the highest among the five heavy metals examined. Paper wastes are main sources of lead and copper with average concentrations of 18.53 mg/kg and 26.92 mg/kg of compost on dry weight. The contents of nickel and cadmium are relatively low. The total concentrations of the five heavy metals in composts increase by typical ratios between 1.72 and 2.58 for Composts 2 and 3, but 3.16 to 4.69 for Compost 1. The increase of concentration around a ratio of 2.0 is due to the loss of degraded organic matter. For the ratios above 2.0, fractions of some heavy metals have corroded from the surfaces of metal components into the Compost 1 in the early phase of acidic fermentation.

  17. Plant productivity and heavy metal contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Guidi, G.V.; Petruzzelli, G.; Vallini, G.; Pera, A.

    1990-06-01

    This article describes the potential for use of composts from green waste and from municipal solid wastes for agricultural use in Italy. The accumulation of heavy metals in compost-amended soils and crops was evaluated and the influence of these composts on plant productivity was studied. Green compost was obtained from vegetable organic residues; municipal solid waste derived compost was obtained from the aerobic biostabilization of a mixture of the organic biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge. The two composts had good chemical characteristics and their use caused no pollution to soil and plants. The overall fertilizing effect was higher for green compost even though green compost and municipal solid waste derived compost had similar contents of primary elements of fertility.

  18. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen. PMID:27127923

  19. Effects of heavy metals (Pb2+ and Cd2+) on the ultrastructure, growth and pigment contents of the unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunakumara, K. K. I. U.; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2009-05-01

    The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, a model organism known for its unique combination of highly desirable molecular genetic, physiological and morphological characteristics, was employed in the present study. The species was cultured in BG11 liquid medium contained various initial concentrations of Pb2+ and Cd2+ (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 mg/L). The experiment was conducted for six days and the metal induced alterations in the ultrastructure, growth and pigment contents were assessed. Alterations in the ultrastructure of the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 cells became evident with the increased (>4 mg/L Pb2+) metal concentration. The photosynthetic apparatus (thylakoid membranes) were found to be the worst affected. Deteriorated or completely destroyed thylakoid membranes have made large empty spaces in the cell interior. In addition, at the highest concentration (8 mg/L Pb2+), the polyphosphate granules became more prominent both in size and number. Despite the initial slight stimulations (0.2, 3.8 and 6.5% respectively at 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/L Pb2+), both metals inhibited the growth in a dose-dependent manner as incubation progressed. Pigment contents (chlorophyll α, β carotene and phycocyanin) were also decreased with increasing metal concentration. Cells exposed to 6 mg/L Pb2+, resulted in 36.56, 37.39 and 29.34% reductions of chlorophyll α, β carotene and phycocyanin respectively over the control. Corresponding reductions for the same Cd2+concentrations were 57.83, 48.94 and 56.90%. Lethal concentration (96 h LC50) values (3.47 mg/L Cd2+ and 12.11 mg/L Pb2+) indicated that Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is more vulnerable to Cd2+ than Pb2+.

  20. Use of regulatory documents for assessing the contamination of soils with heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesterova, O. V.; Tregubova, V. G.; Semal, V. A.

    2014-11-01

    The chronological review and analysis of the existing regulatory documents relevant to the assessment of soil contamination with heavy metals have been presented. Attention has been given to the incorrect use of the term "total heavy metal content" and the method of its determination in a 5 M nitric acid solution recommended by some regulatory documents. The maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs) and tentatively permissible concentrations (TPCTPCs) for the total heavy metal contents are based on the above method; therefore, the conventional methods of determining the true total contents of heavy metals overestimate the degree of contamination. To avoid confusion, it has been proposed to call the content of a heavy metal in a 5 M nitric acid solution the "pseudototal" content and to compare the experimental results with the MPC or TPCTPC values only if the methods recommended by the regulatory documents were used.

  1. The relationship between magnetic parameters and heavy metal contents of indoor dust in e-waste recycling impacted area, Southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zongmin; Han, Zhixuan; Bi, Xiangyang; Yang, Wenlin

    2012-09-01

    Environmental contamination due to uncontrolled e-waste recycling is an emerging global problem. The aim of this study is to test the applicability of magnetic methods for detecting the metal pollutants emitted from e-waste recycling activities. Dust samples collected from a typical e-waste recycling region in Guiyu, Guangdong Province, China, were investigated using magnetic, geochemical, micro-morphological and mineralogical analysis. The values of mass-specific susceptibility (χ) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) in dusts from e-waste recycling impacted areas ranged from 101 to 636×10(-8) m(3) kg(-1) and from 10.5 to 85.2×10(-3) Am(2) kg(-1), respectively. There was a significant correlation between SIRM and χ (r(2)=0.747, p<0.001), indicating that ferrimagnetic minerals were dominating χ in the dust samples. The values of χ(fd)% varied from 2.6 to 4.6% with a mean of 3.4%, which suggested that magnetic carriers in the dusts are predominately coarse-grained particles. Two shapes of magnetic particles, spherule (10-150 μm) and angular-shaped particles (30-300 μm), were identified by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) analyses. κ-T curves, magnetic hysteresis loops and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that these magnetic particles were magnetite and goethite. There were significant correlations between SIRM and heavy metals (especially Cd, Co, Fe, Ni and Zn) as well as the Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) of the dust, indicating that SIRM can be used as an efficient proxy for metal pollution in the e-waste recycling impacted area. PMID:22796729

  2. Heavy metal contamination from geothermal sources.

    PubMed

    Sabadell, J E; Axtmann, R C

    1975-12-01

    Liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs, which contain saline fluids at high temperatures and pressures, have a significant potential for contamination of the environment by heavy metals. The design of the power conversion cycle in a liquid-dominated geothermal plant is a key factor in determining the impact of the installation. Reinjection of the fluid into the reservoir minimizes heavy metal effluents but is routinely practiced at few installations. Binary power cycles with reinjection would provide even cleaner systems but are not yet ready for commercial application. Vapor-dominated systems, which contain superheated steam, have less potential for contamination but are relatively uncommon. Field data on heavy metal effluents from geothermal plants are sparse and confounded by contributions from "natural" sources such as geysers and hot springs which often exist nearby. Insofar as geothermal power supplies are destined to multiply, much work is required on their environmental effects including those caused by heavy metals. PMID:1227849

  3. Removal of heavy metals from waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, M.D.; Kozaruk, J.M.; Melvin, M.; Gardocki, S.M.

    1988-07-19

    A method for removing heavy metals from effluent water is described comprising performing sequentially the following steps: (a) adding from 7-333 ppm of an anionic surfactant to the effluent water to provide coagulatable heavy metal ion; (b) adjusting the effluent water pH to within the range of 8 to 10, (c) providing from 10-200 ppm of a cationic coagulant to coagulate the heavy metal ion, (d) providing from 0.3 to 5.0 ppm of a polymeric flocculant whereby a heavy metal containing floc is formed for removal from the effluent water, and, (e) then removing the floc from the effluent water, wherein the anionic surfactant is sodium lauryl ether sulfate. The cationic coagulant is selected from the group consisting of diallyl dimethylammonium chloride polymer, epichlorohydrin dimethylamine polymer, ethylene amine polymer, polyaluminum chloride, and alum; and the flocculant is an acrylamide/sodium acrylate copolymer having an RSV greater than 23.

  4. Heavy metal contamination from geothermal sources.

    PubMed Central

    Sabadell, J E; Axtmann, R C

    1975-01-01

    Liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs, which contain saline fluids at high temperatures and pressures, have a significant potential for contamination of the environment by heavy metals. The design of the power conversion cycle in a liquid-dominated geothermal plant is a key factor in determining the impact of the installation. Reinjection of the fluid into the reservoir minimizes heavy metal effluents but is routinely practiced at few installations. Binary power cycles with reinjection would provide even cleaner systems but are not yet ready for commercial application. Vapor-dominated systems, which contain superheated steam, have less potential for contamination but are relatively uncommon. Field data on heavy metal effluents from geothermal plants are sparse and confounded by contributions from "natural" sources such as geysers and hot springs which often exist nearby. Insofar as geothermal power supplies are destined to multiply, much work is required on their environmental effects including those caused by heavy metals. PMID:1227849

  5. Heavy metals and living systems: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Reena; Gautam, Neetu; Mishra, Anurag; Gupta, Rajiv

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in accumulation of metals in plant parts having secondary metabolites, which is responsible for a particular pharmacological activity. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Molecular understanding of plant metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications also, the long term effects of which might not be yet known. PMID:21713085

  6. Biomonitoring heavy metal contaminations by moss visible parameters.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang-Er; Cui, Jun-Mei; Yang, Jin-Chuan; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Yuan, Ming; Song, Chun; Yang, Hui; Liu, Han-Mei; Wang, Chang-Quan; Zhang, Huai-Yu; Zeng, Xian-Yin; Yuan, Shu

    2015-10-15

    Traditional sampling for heavy metal monitoring is a time-consuming and inconvenient method, which also does not indicate contaminants non-invasively and instantaneously. Moss is sensitive to heavy metals and is therefore considered a pollution indicator. However, it is unknown what kind physiological parameters can indicate metal contaminations quickly and non-invasively. Here, we systematically examined the effects of six heavy metals on physiological parameters and photosynthetic activities of two moss species grown in aquatic media or moist soil surface. We suggest that a phenotype with anthocyanin accumulation pattern and chlorosis pattern and two chlorophyll fluorescence parameters with their images can roughly reflect metal species groups, concentrations and differences between the two moss species. In other words, metal contaminations could be roughly estimated visually using the naked eye. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidative abilities and photosynthetic protein contents of Eurhynchium eustegium were higher than those of Taxiphyllum taxirameum, indicating their differential metal tolerance. Neither anti-oxidative abilities nor photosynthetic proteins were found to be ideal indicators. This study provides new ideas to monitor heavy metals rapidly and non-invasively in water or on wetland and moist soil surface. PMID:25919648

  7. Heavy Metal Risk Management: Case Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Ae; Lee, Seung Ha; Choi, Seung Hyun; Jung, Ki Kyung; Park, Mi Sun; Jeong, Ji Yoon; Hwang, Myung Sil; Yoon, Hae Jung; Choi, Dal Woong

    2012-01-01

    To prepare measures for practical policy utilization and the control of heavy metals, hazard control related institutions by country, present states of control by country, and present states of control by heavy metals were examined. Hazard control cases by heavy metals in various countries were compared and analyzed. In certain countries (e.g., the U.S., the U.K., and Japan), hazardous substances found in foods (e.g., arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury) are controlled. In addition, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) recommends calculating the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of individual heavy metals instead of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) to compare their pollution levels considering their toxicity accumulated in the human body. In Korea, exposure assessments have been conducted, and in other countries, hazardous substances are controlled by various governing bodies. As such, in Korea and other countries, diverse food heavy metal monitoring and human body exposure assessments are conducted, and reducing measures are prepared accordingly. To reduce the danger of hazardous substances, many countries provide leaflets and guidelines, develop hazardous heavy metal intake recommendations, and take necessary actions. Hazard control case analyses can assist in securing consumer safety by establishing systematic and reliable hazard control methods. PMID:24278603

  8. Ion Mobility Spectrometry of Heavy Metals.

    PubMed

    Ilbeigi, Vahideh; Valadbeigi, Younes; Tabrizchi, Mahmoud

    2016-07-19

    A simple, fast, and inexpensive method was developed for detecting heavy metals via the ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) in the negative mode. In this method, Cl(-) ion produced by the thermal ionization of NaCl is employed as the dopant or the ionizing reagent to ionize heavy metals. In practice, a solution of mixed heavy metals and NaCl salts was directly deposited on a Nichrome filament and electrically heated to vaporize the salts. This produced the IMS spectra of several heavy-metal salts, including CdCl2, ZnSO4, NiCl2, HgSO4, HgCl2, PbI2, and Pb(Ac)2. For each heavy metal (M), one or two major peaks were observed, which were attributed to M·Cl(-) or [M·NaCl]Cl(-)complexes. The method proved to be useful for the analysis of mixed heavy metals. The absolute detection limits measured for ZnSO4 and HgSO4 were 0.1 and 0.05 μg, respectively. PMID:27321408

  9. Progress in heavy metal fluoride glasses for infrared fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexhage, M. G.; El-Bayoumi, O. H.; Moynihan, C. T.

    1982-12-01

    The optical and physical characteristics of heavy metal fluoride glasses are reviewed with reference to recent laboratory experiments. In particular, attention is given to comparative optical studies of fluorozirconate and fluorohafnate glasses, refractive index and material dispersion of fluoride glasses, and preliminary results of optical studies of heavy metal fluoride glasses not containing ZrF4 or HfF4. The latter sometimes exhibit extended transparency in the mid-IR relative to that observed in fluorozirconate and fluorohafnate glasses. The effect of the AlF4 content on the optical properties of BaF2/ThF4 glasses is discussed.

  10. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals and related trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.B.; Speigel, S.J.

    1983-06-01

    A literature review of bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals is presented. The most common heavy metals studied were Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Sn, Hg, and Pb. The studies dealt with heavy metals in the environment, bioconcentration, toxicity, and detoxification of heavy metals. (JMT)

  11. Characterisation and distribution of heavy metals at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichs, M.; Rymer, H.; Gillman, M.; Blake, S.

    2011-12-01

    Activity at Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, is characterised by periodic cycles of intense gas emission that last years to decades. The volcano entered its current phase of degassing in 1993, which resulted in a low-level persistent gas plume. As a result of this continuous emission, the substantial deposition of heavy metals onto the surrounding soils (andosols) is thought to be occurring (Delfosse et al., 2003). The deposition of these heavy metal plume components, and their incorporation into soil, is of key interest because once discharged to the environment they accumulate throughout the food chain and may pose a serious ecological threat (Alloway, 1995). Although many studies have focused on the impacts of volcanic gases on the environment, few have addressed the fate of the metals released by persistent gas plumes. This study therefore investigates the patterns of heavy metal transport, deposition and distribution at Masaya in order to provide additional information on the processes that govern the behaviour of volcanic heavy metals. A number of agricultural and non-agricultural soils at two horizons (A: 0-10 cm and B: 20-30 cm) were collected and their trace metal content analysed. Twenty sites were sampled from the active vent to ~5 km downwind, as well as two control sites upwind of the volcano. Preliminary data suggest that a rapid deposition of metals occurs close to the source, with metal concentrations in the soil generally decreasing with distance away from the active vent. Cr and As clearly follow this trend, with maximum concentrations of 20.71 and 7.61 mg/kg respectively occurring closest to the vent. Concentration peaks for Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn (959.30, 21.57, 13.44, 152.85, and 72.73 mg/kg respectively) occur slightly further away from the vent, implying that these metals are transported further. The concentration of Cr, Co, Al, Ni and Mn was found to increase from soil horizon A to B, whereas the abundance of Zn decreases with depth. Heavy metal

  12. Determination and chemometric evaluation of total aflatoxin, aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and heavy metals content in corn flours from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Algül, Işıl; Kara, Derya

    2014-08-15

    Concentrations of the total aflatoxin, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2, ochratoxin A, lead, cadmium, mercury, arsenic, copper, zinc and chromium in corn flour samples were determined. Eighteen corn flour samples that were obtained from different cities and villages in Turkey and 3 corn flour samples obtained from the UK. Determination of the different toxins was carried out using HPLC instrumentation after pre-separation using immunoaffinity columns that work through a mechanism of solid-phase extraction. An ICP-MS instrument was used for the heavy metal determinations. The results obtained from HPLC and ICP-MS analyses of the corn flour samples showed that these samples contain detectable levels of most of the analytes but the mercury was at undetectable levels. A very strong statistical relationship was observed between Cr and total Aflatoxin and Aflatoxin B1; whereas Ochratoxin A was related to Cu and Zn concentrations using correlation analyses and principal component analyses. PMID:24679753

  13. Study on PCBs, PCDD/Fs, organochlorine pesticides, heavy metals and arsenic content in freshwater fish species from the River Turia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Bordajandi, L R; Gómez, G; Fernández, M A; Abad, E; Rivera, J; González, M J

    2003-10-01

    In this study samples of common trout, European eel and barbel have been analysed for the levels of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and the metalloid arsenic (As). Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), including three non-ortho substituted PCBs, 2,3,7,8-substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and DDT and its two main metabolites were also analysed in some selected samples, in order to evaluate the extent of contamination of the River Turia basin. All samples presented detectable levels of the elements analysed, presenting zinc the highest concentrations. European eel was the species found to highly accumulate these contaminants. Regarding organochlorinated compounds, seven samples exhibited detectable levels of the most toxic PCDD/Fs congener, the 2,3,7,8-TCDD. Non-ortho PCBs were not detected or not quantified in almost all samples and the sum of the individual PCB congeners determined were low compared to other aquatic ecosystems with similar fish species. PMID:12892679

  14. ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS IN STORMWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater sampling for colloidal and dissolved metals and organic carbon has been initiated at six outfalls draining locally-designated, nonindustrial land uses in Monmouth County, NJ. Of the heavy metals, only Cu and Zn were found in all samples, mostly in dissolved form. Large...

  15. Heavy metals influence on ascorbic acid level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaldinov, E. V.; Patrashkov, S. A.; Batenyeva, E. V.; Korotkevich, O. S.

    2003-05-01

    It is well known that heavy metals (HM) are extremely dangerous pollutants influencing to metabolism in animals' organisms. The vitamin C is one of the most important metabolites taking part in many biochemical processes. We studied the influence of main essential HM-Zn and Cu as well as the based supertoxical elements - Cd and Pd on ascorbic acid level in serum. The studies were carried out in Tulinskoe farm of Novosibirsk region. The objects of investigations were piglets (2 month after weaning) and 6-month pigs of Early Ripe Meat breed. The levels of HM in bristle were found by stripping voltammetric analysis using the TA-2 analyzer. Vitamin C content was determined by I.P. Kondrakhin (1985) method using 2,2-dipyridyl. The significant negative correlations between Pb, Cd content and vitamin C (-0.46 ± 0.18, -0.47 ± 0.19) in 6-month pigs were determined. The tendencies of negative correlation between all HM levels in hair and ascorbic acid level in plasma of piglets were revealed. Thus, the obtained correlations let us to suppose that all studied HM influence on 1-gulono-gamma-lactone oxidase and other vitamin C metabolism enzymes activity.

  16. Heavy Metal Concentrations in Soils Downwind from Masaya Volcano (Nicaragua)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfosse, T.; Delmelle, P.; Iserentant, A.; Delvaux, B.

    2003-12-01

    Quiescently degassing volcanoes can significantly contribute to the global emission of heavy metals. In turn, substantial deposition of metals onto soils may result, possibly increasing the risk of phytotoxicity. In contrast to anthropogenic sources, the environmental impacts of airborne volcanic heavy metals and their accumulation in soils are poorly studied. Along with the degassing of S, Cl and F, Masaya volcano, Nicaragua, is also a strong source of heavy metals. Recent estimates indicate emission rates of e.g., 62 t As yr-1, 133 t Zn yr-1 and 306 t Cu yr-1 (Moune, 2002). Here, we report on the effects of heavy metal depositions on the total contents of As, Cr, Ni, Cu, Bi, Zn, Se, and Co in two groups of soils located 5 km and 15 km downwind from the volcano. These soils correspond to young Vitric Andosols and more weathered Eutric Andosols, respectively. As and Se were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry after soil digestion in a trace metal unit, and Cr, Ni, Cu, Co, Bi and Zn were determined after alkaline fusion in Li-metaborate/Li-tetraborate. Results suggest that prolonged metal inputs in the vicinity of Masaya volcano have significantly increased the As, Se and Zn contents of the soils. For these elements, concentrations are about 3-5 times those measured in the parent rock materials. However, maximum concentrations in soils (i.e., 5.4 mg As kg-1, 183 mg Zn kg-1 and 0.9 mg Se kg-1) never exceed critical concentration levels as defined for cultivated soils in the UK (10, 300 and 3 mg kg-1 for As, Zn and Se, respectively). We did not detect significant enrichments in Cr, Ni, Cu, Bi, and Co. The relatively low accumulation of metals in the Masaya Andosols contrasts with the high retention of volcanic F and S inputs (Delmelle et al., 2003). Since Andosols typically show a high affinity for heavy metals, which can be bound to organic matter as well as to oxides, oxyhydroxide and allophane minerals present in these soils, rapid

  17. The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Song, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Qiu, Guang-Lei

    2009-01-30

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide problem through disturbing the normal functions of rivers and lakes. Sediment, as the largest storage and resources of heavy metal, plays a rather important role in metal transformations. This paper provides a review on the geochemical forms, affecting factors and remediation technologies of heavy metal in sediment. The in situ remediation of sediment aims at increasing the stabilization of some metals such as the mobile and the exchangeable fractions; whereas, the ex situ remediation mainly aims at removing those potentially mobile metals, such as the Mn-oxides and the organic matter (OM) fraction. The pH and OM can directly change metals distribution in sediment; however oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), mainly through changing the pH values, indirectly alters metals distribution. Mainly ascribed to their simple operation mode, low costs and fast remediation effects, in situ remediation technologies, especially being fit for slight pollution sediment, are applied widely. However, for avoiding metal secondary pollution from sediment release, ex situ remediation should be the hot point in future research. PMID:18547718

  18. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alissa, Eman M.; Ferns, Gordon A.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed. PMID:21912545

  19. The use of dialdehyde starch derivatives in the phytoremediation of soils contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Antonkiewicz, Jacek; Para, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Products of the reaction between dialdehyde starch and Y-NH2 compounds (e.g. semicarbazide or hydrazine) are effective ligands for metal ions. The usefulness of these derivatives was tested in the experiment, both in terms of the immobilization of heavy metal ions in soil and the potential application in phytoextraction processes. The experimental model comprised maize and the ions of such metals as: Zn(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Ni(II). The amount of maize yield, as well as heavy metal content and uptake by the aboveground parts and roots of maize, were studied during a three-year pot experiment. The results of the study indicate the significant impact of heavy metals on reduced yield and increased heavy metal content in maize. Soil-applied dialdehyde starch derivatives resulted in lower yields, particularly disemicarbazone (DASS), but in heavy metal-contaminated soils they largely limited the negative impact of these metals both on yielding and heavy metal content in plants, particularly dihydrazone (DASH). It was demonstrated that the application of dihydrazone (DASH) to a soil polluted with heavy metals boosted the uptake of Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd from the soil, hence there is a possibility to use this compound in the phytoextraction of these metals from the soil. Decreased Ni uptake was also determined, hence the possibility of using this compound in the immobilization of this metal. The study showed that dialdehyde starch disemicarbazone was ineffective in the discussed processes. PMID:26280197

  20. Influence of heavy metals on the accumulation of trimethylglycine, putrescine and spermine in food plants.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, H; Machelett, B; Lippmann, B; Friedrich, Y

    2001-01-01

    Increased contents of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and other heavy metals in barley plants enhanced the accumulation of trimethylglycine (betaine), putrescine and spermine. Higher contents of heavy metals in barley were caused by soil enrichment with heavy metals and by soil salinity. The highest accumulation of spermine and betaine (increase 3-fold or 5-fold in comparison to untreated soil substrates) was obtained at the highest concentration of heavy metals in plants. Consequently the betaine-N/protein-N-ratio and the spermine-N/protein-N-quotient increased 3-fold in plants with high heavy metal contents. The biomass formation was not changed significantly by the different experimental treatments. PMID:11354608

  1. Community Heavy Metal Exposure, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, A.; Devine, M.; Ho, T.; Zapata, I.; Bissell, M.; Neiss, J.

    2008-12-01

    Heavy metals are natural elements that generally occur in minute concentrations in the earth's crust. While some of these elements, in small quantities, are vital to life, most are harmful in larger doses. Various industrial and agricultural processes can result in dangerously high concentrations of heavy metals in our environment. Consequently, humans can be exposed to unsafe levels of these elements via the air we breathe, the water and food we consume, and the many products we use. During a two week study we collected numerous samples of sediments, water, food, and household items from around the San Francisco Bay Area that represent industrial, agricultural, and urban/residential settings. We analyzed these samples for Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As). Our goal was to examine the extent of our exposure to heavy metals in our daily lives. We discovered that many of the common foods and materials in our lives have become contaminated with unhealthy concentrations of these metals. Of our food samples, many exceeded the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) set for each metal. Meats (fish, chicken, and beef) had higher amounts of each metal than did non-meat items. Heavy metals were also prevalent in varying concentrations in the environment. While many of our samples exceeded the EPA's Sediment Screening Level (SSL) for As, only two other samples surpassed the SSL set for Pb, and zero of our samples exceeded the SSL for Hg. Because of the serious health effects that can result from over-exposure to heavy metals, the information obtained in this study should be used to influence our future dietary and recreational habits.

  2. [Effect of heavy metals on activity of key enzymes of glyoxylate cycle and content of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the germinating soybean Glicine max L.seeds].

    PubMed

    Bezdudnaia, E F; Kaliman, P A

    2008-01-01

    The influence of CoCl2 and CdCl2 on the activity of isocytrate lyase, malate synthase and NAD-malate dehydrogenase in the seed lobes and the composition of malondialdehyde products at early stages of germinating of soybean seeds: after first 24-hours, 72 hours and 96 hours are investigated. It is shown that when germinating in the medium containing no metal salts, isocytrate lyase activity is greatly increased during 96 h and malate synthase is increased after 72 h and is decreased after 96 h of germination period. CoCl2 activated isocytrate lyase activity after 72 hours and decreased malate synthase activity after 96 hours. The lengthening of the primary root under such conditions is noted. CdCl2 inhibited isocytrate lyase activity during first 24 hours and suppressed malate synthase activity after 96 hours. During this process the germ growth is suppressed. CoCl2 increased the composition of malondialdehyde products during each period of germination, and CdCl2 increased malondialdehyde content after 72 and 96 hours. The role of glyoxylate cycle enzymes in transforming fatty acids into carbohydrates and in forming the primary root under the process of germination of seed lobes of soybean is discussed. PMID:18710031

  3. Heavy metal speciation in the composting process.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Gillian M; Song, Qi Jun

    2002-04-01

    Composting is one of the more efficient and environment friendly methods of solid waste disposal and has many advantages when compared with landfill disposal on which the UK and Ireland are currently heavily dependent. Composting is a very complicated process involving intensive microbial activity and the detailed mechanisms of the process have yet to be fully understood. Metal speciation information can provide an insight into the metal-microbial interaction and would help in the evaluation of the quality of compost. This would facilitate the exploitation of composts in remediation of heavy metal contaminated land. In this work a systematic approach to metal speciation in compost has been taken by applying the three-step method for operationally defined metal speciation of soils and sediments, developed by the European Commission's Standards, Measurement and Testing Programme to monitor the change in metal speciation with time (up to 106 days) for four different waste composting processes. The results have shown that in general metals become less available for the first extraction step as the composting process proceeds. This implies that composting tends to redistribute the metals from more labile forms to more fixed forms which may explain why the application of composts could be useful for with heavy metal contaminated land. There are exceptions to this trend and in some cases, certain metals appear to behave differently depending on the source of the compost. PMID:11993774

  4. Transformation of heavy metal speciation during sludge drying: mechanistic insights

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Huanxin; Ma, Xue-Wen; Fu, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Jin-Jun; Liu, Zan; Tian, Li-Xun; Liu, Chongxuan

    2014-01-30

    Speciation can fundamentally affect on the stability and toxicity of heavy metals in sludge from wastewater treatment plants. This research investigated the speciation of heavy metals in sludge from both municipal and industrial sources, and metal speciation change as a result of drying process to reduce sludge volume. The changes in sludge properties including sludge moisture content, temperature, density, and electrical conductivity were also monitored to provide insights into the mechanisms causing the change in heavy metal speciation. The results show that the drying process generally stabilized the Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb in sludge by transforming acid-soluble, reducible and oxidizable species into structurally stable forms. Such transformation and stabilization occurred regardless of the sludge source and type, and were primarily caused by the changes in sludge properties associated with decomposition of organic matter and sulfide. The results enhanced our understanding of the geochemical behavior of heavy metals in municipal sludge, and are useful for designing a treatment system for environment-friendly disposal of sludge.

  5. Heavy metal characterization of circulating fluidized bed derived biomass ash.

    PubMed

    Li, Lianming; Yu, Chunjiang; Bai, Jisong; Wang, Qinhui; Luo, Zhongyang

    2012-09-30

    Although the direct combustion of biomass for energy that applies circulating fluidized bed (CFB) technology is steadily expanding worldwide, only few studies have conducted an environmental assessment of biomass ash thus far. Therefore, this study aims to integrate information on the environmental effects of biomass ash. We investigated the concentration of heavy metal in biomass ash samples (bottom ash, cyclone ash, and filter ash) derived from a CFB boiler that combusted agricultural and forest residues at a biomass power plant (2×12 MW) in China. Ash samples were gathered for the digestion and leaching test. The heavy metal content in the solution and the leachate was studied via an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer and a Malvern Mastersizer 2000 mercury analyzer. Measurements for the chemical composition, particle size distribution, and the surface morphology were carried out. Most of the metals in cyclone ash particles were enriched, whereas Ti and Hg were enriched in filter ash. Residence time contributed most to heavy metal enrichment. Under HJ/T 300 conditions, the heavy metals showed serious leaching characteristics. Under EN 12457-2 conditions, leaching behavior was hardly detected. PMID:22840499

  6. Approaches for enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Atul; Carmona, Francisco F; Bhargava, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Shilpi

    2012-08-30

    The contamination of the environment with toxic metals has become a worldwide problem. Metal toxicity affects crop yields, soil biomass and fertility. Soils polluted with heavy metals pose a serious health hazard to humans as well as plants and animals, and often requires soil remediation practices. Phytoextraction refers to the uptake of contaminants from soil or water by plant roots and their translocation to any harvestable plant part. Phytoextraction has the potential to remove contaminants and promote long-term cleanup of soil or wastewater. The success of phytoextraction as a potential environmental cleanup technology depends on factors like metal availability for uptake, as well as plants ability to absorb and accumulate metals in aerial parts. Efforts are ongoing to understand the genetics and biochemistry of metal uptake, transport and storage in hyperaccumulator plants so as to be able to develop transgenic plants with improved phytoremediation capability. Many plant species are being investigated to determine their usefulness for phytoextraction, especially high biomass crops. The present review aims to give an updated version of information available with respect to metal tolerance and accumulation mechanisms in plants, as well as on the environmental and genetic factors affecting heavy metal uptake. The genetic tools of classical breeding and genetic engineering have opened the door to creation of 'remediation' cultivars. An overview is presented on the possible strategies for developing novel genotypes with increased metal accumulation and tolerance to toxicity. PMID:22542973

  7. Heavy metal detoxification in eukaryotic microalgae.

    PubMed

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Peña-Castro, Julián Mario; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2006-06-01

    Microalgae are aquatic organisms possessing molecular mechanisms that allow them to discriminate non-essential heavy metals from those essential ones for their growth. The different detoxification processes executed by algae are reviewed with special emphasis on those involving the peptides metallothioneins, mainly the post transcriptionally synthesized class III metallothioneins or phytochelatins. Also, the features that make microalgae suitable organisms technologies specially to treat water that is heavily polluted with metals is discussed. PMID:16405948

  8. Heavy metal mining using microbes.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, Douglas E

    2002-01-01

    The use of acidiphilic, chemolithotrophic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microbes in processes to recover metals from certain types of copper, uranium, and gold-bearing minerals or mineral concentrates is now well established. During these processes insoluble metal sulfides are oxidized to soluble metal sulfates. Mineral decomposition is believed to be mostly due to chemical attack by ferric iron, with the main role of the microorganisms being to reoxidize the resultant ferrous iron back to ferric iron. Currently operating industrial biomining processes have used bacteria that grow optimally from ambient to 50 degrees C, but thermophilic microbes have been isolated that have the potential to enable mineral biooxidation to be carried out at temperatures of 80 degrees C or higher. The development of higher-temperature processes will extend the variety of minerals that can be commercially processed. PMID:12142493

  9. Bacterial sorption of heavy metals.

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, M D; Wolf, D C; Ferris, F G; Beveridge, T J; Flemming, C A; Bailey, G W

    1989-01-01

    Four bacteria, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were examined for the ability to remove Ag+, Cd2+, Cu2+, and La3+ from solution by batch equilibration methods. Cd and Cu sorption over the concentration range 0.001 to 1 mM was described by Freundlich isotherms. At 1 mM concentrations of both Cd2+ and Cu2+, P. aeruginosa and B. cereus were the most and least efficient at metal removal, respectively. Freundlich K constants indicated that E. coli was most efficient at Cd2+ removal and B. subtilis removed the most Cu2+. Removal of Ag+ from solution by bacteria was very efficient; an average of 89% of the total Ag+ was removed from the 1 mM solution, while only 12, 29, and 27% of the total Cd2+, Cu2+, and La3+, respectively, were sorbed from 1 mM solutions. Electron microscopy indicated that La3+ accumulated at the cell surface as needlelike, crystalline precipitates. Silver precipitated as discrete colloidal aggregates at the cell surface and occasionally in the cytoplasm. Neither Cd2+ nor Cu2+ provided enough electron scattering to identify the location of sorption. The affinity series for bacterial removal of these metals decreased in the order Ag greater than La greater than Cu greater than Cd. The results indicate that bacterial cells are capable of binding large quantities of different metals. Adsorption equations may be useful for describing bacterium-metal interactions with metals such as Cd and Cu; however, this approach may not be adequate when precipitation of metals occurs. Images PMID:2515800

  10. Heavy metals in garden soils along roads in Szeged, Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szolnoki, Zsuzsanna; Farsang, Andrea

    2010-05-01

    The soils of the urban environment, owing to the various anthropogenic activities, can be contaminated by heavy metals. The traffic is well-known for more decades to be main source of heavy metals mostly in cities. The accumulation of these elements can have different effects, either directly endangering the natural soil functions, or indirectly endangering the biosphere by bio-accumulation and inclusion in the food chain. The hobby gardens and the vegetable gardens directly along roads can be potential risky for people since unknown amount of heavy metals can be accumulated into organization of local residents due to consumption of vegetables and fruits grown in their own garden. The aim of this study was to determine the heavy metal content of garden soils directly along roads with heavy traffic in order to assess possible risk for human health. The total content and the mobile content of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn have been determined in samples from garden soils along 5 busy roads of Szeged, South Hungary. Enrichment factor has been calculated with the help of control soil samples far from roads. The soil properties basically influencing on metal mobility have also been examined. Finally, the human health risk of these garden soils has been modelled by determination of health risk quotient (HRQ). As a result of our investigations, it can be claimed that mostly Cu, Zn and to a lesser degree the Ni, Cr and Pb accumulated in garden soils along roads depending on the traffic density. In general, the topsoils (0-10 cm) had higher amount of these metals rather than the subsoils (40-50 cm). Ni of these metals has approached; Cu has exceeded limit value while Pb is under it. Cd is very high in both soils along roads and control ones far from roads. Garden soils along the roads have such basic soil parameters (pH, mechanical soil type, humus content) that prove fairly high metal-binding capacity for these soils. Total risk of usage of these gardens (ingestion of soil

  11. DECONTAMINATION OF HEAVY METALS WITH BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory



    OBJECTIVES: To discover, improve, understand the mechanisms and use naturally occurring bacteria to decontiminate in situ heavy metals from the soils, sediments and waters to protect human health and the environment.


    ABSTRACT: Our laboratory (Vesper et al. ...

  12. ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS IN STORMWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling has been undertaken to determine the concentrations of heavy metals, both particle-associated and dissolved, in stormwater from several storm sewer outfalls in Monmouth County, NJ. This project is ongoing in concert with coordinated studies of pathogen and nutrient input...

  13. Heavy Metals and Related Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Harry V.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of heavy metals and related trace elements in the environment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) trace treatment in natural water and in sediments; and (2) bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace elements. A list of 466 references is presented. (HM)

  14. REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS BY ARTIFICIAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Artificial wetlands have been operated successfully for treatment of municipal wastewater for a number of years at several locations in this country. However, the capability of these systems to treat heavy metal laden municipal wastewater had not previously been investigated. The...

  15. Superoxide dismutases of heavy metal resistant streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Astrid; Schmidt, André; Haferburg, Götz; Kothe, Erika

    2007-02-01

    Heavy metal tolerant and resistant strains of streptomycetes isolated from a former uranium mining site were screened for their superoxide dismutase expression. From the strains tolerating high concentrations of different heavy metals, one was selected for its tolerance of concentrations of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, Zn, Fe). This strain, Streptomyces acidiscabies E13, was chosen for the purpose of superoxide dismutase analysis. Gel electrophoresis and activity staining revealed only one each of a nickel (NiSOD) and an iron (FeZnSOD) containing superoxide dismutase as shown by differential enzymatic repression studies. The gene for nickel containing superoxide dismutase, sodN, was cloned and sequenced from this strain. The genomic sequence shows 92.7% nucleotide identity and 96.1% amino acid identity to sodN of S. coelicolor. Expression can be activated by nickel as well as other heavy metals and active enzyme is produced in media lacking nickel but containing copper, iron or zinc. Thus, the selected strain is well suited for further characterization of the enzyme encoded by sodN. PMID:17304620

  16. Heavy metals in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, G.L.; Fosmire, G.J.; Bellis, E.D.

    1994-05-01

    Concentration (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) in soil and wildlife at the Palmerton zinc smelter site in eastern Pennsylvania were determined 6 yr after zinc smelting was terminated in 1980. Levels of the four metals were higher in litter (01 and 02 horizon) than in soil (A1 horizon), and the metals were at or near levels when the smelters were still in operation. Levels of metals in sod weft highest at sites close to the smelters and decreased as distances from the smelters increased. The relation of decreasing amounts of metals in body tissues with increasing distance from the smelters also held true for amphibians and mammals. An exception to this relation was higher level of Cu in red-lacked salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) captured {approx}17 km downwind than those captured {approx}12 km downwind. Levels of Zn, Pb, and Co in liver, kidney, and muscle tissue of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were not different (P >0.05) among sites. Cadmium in kidneys in white-footed mice exceeded 10 mg&& which is reportedly considered an indication of environmental contamination. Levels of Cd in kidneys and liver of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at Palmerton were five times higher than those for white-tailed deer collected 180 km southwest of Palmerton in southcentral Pennsylvania. The abnormal amounts of metals in the tissues of terrestrial vertebrates, and the absence or low abundance of wildlife at Palmerton indicated that ecological processes within 5 km of the smelters were markedly influenced 6 yr after zinc smelting was discontinued. 41 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. [Application of ICP-MS to detecting ten kinds of heavy metals in KCl fertilizer].

    PubMed

    Rui, Yu-kui; Shen, Jian-bo; Zhang, Fu-suo; Yan, Yun; Jing, Jing-ying; Meng, Qing-feng

    2008-10-01

    With the rapid development of society, more and more attention has been focused on environmental safety, especially on the pollutions of heavy metals, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants and deleterious microorganism. Heavy metals are difficult to metabolize in human body are quite harmful, so research on the pollution of heavy metals is increasingly important. There are many pollution sources of heavy metals, including waste residue, waste water and exhaust gas from industry and automobile, and garbage from human life. The contents of 10 kinds of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl and Pb) in potassium fertilizer (KCl) from Russia were analyzed by ICP-MS. The results showed that potassium fertilizer (KCl) contained less heavy metals than organic-inorganic compound fertilizer; the content of heavy metals Cr, Ni, Cu, As, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl and Pb is 0.00, 65.54, 238.85, 190.60, 0.98, 14.98, 2.97, 10.04, 1.28 and 97.42 ng x g(-1), respectively, which accords with the correlative standards. All the data showed that if potassium fertilizer (KCl) is manufactured through normal channel, the content of heavy metals should be little and safe. PMID:19123423

  18. Nutrients and heavy metals distribution in thermally treated pig manure.

    PubMed

    Kuligowski, Ksawery; Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Stoholm, Peder; Pind, Niels; Laursen, Jens

    2008-08-01

    Ash from pig manure treated by combustion and thermal gasification was characterized and compared in terms of nutrient, i.e., potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and heavy metal, i.e., cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) contents. Total nutrient and metal concentrations were measured using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. Acid (HNO3, H2SO4) and water-extractable concentrations were also measured both in non-classified ash and in selected ash particle size fractions using flame atomic absorption spectrometry and colorimetric spectrometry. Results indicate that ash from gasified manure contained more water-extractable K in comparison with combusted manure whereas the opposite was the case with respect to P. Heavy metals Ni, Cr and Cd were present in higher concentrations in the fine particle size fractions (< 30 microm of particle diameter), whereas K, P, Zn and Cu exhibited higher concentrations in the coarser particle size fractions (> 30 microm). PMID:18727326

  19. Utilization of pulp and paper industrial wastes to remove heavy metals from metal finishing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Sreesai, Siranee

    2009-08-01

    Two pulp and paper industrial wastes, lime mud (LM) and recovery boiler ash (RB), have low moisture contents, low heavy metal contaminations and contain various carbonate compounds which contribute to a high pH. Metal finishing wastewater (MF-WW) has a low pH, high levels of TDS and high contaminations from Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. The heavy metals from MF-WW were removed by sorption and precipitation mechanisms. LM gave better results in removing heavy metals from MF-WW than RB. At a reaction time of 45min, the maximum removal efficiencies for Cr (93%) and Cu (99%) were obtained at 110gL(-1) of LM, but at 80gL(-1) for Pb (96%) and Zn (99%). Treatment with LM gives a higher sludge volume than with RB. However, the leachability of heavy metals from LM is lower. Leachability of heavy metals in the sediment for all selected treatment conditions is within government standards. PMID:19501952

  20. The Distribution of Heavy Metals in the Lower River Basin, Lebanon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehme, Nada; Haydar, Chaden; Koubaissy, Bachar; Fakih, Mohamad; Awad, Sadek; Toufaily, Joumana; Villieras, Frederic; Hamieh, Tayssir

    The distributions of heavy metals were measured in the bed sediments of the Lower Litani River Basin (LLRB). The main objectives of this study were to identify possible sources of metals (i.e. geological and/or anthropogenic) and then to investigate the effect of the seasonal variations in content of metals in the bed sediments. The heavy metal concentrations in the river sediments were remarkably high according to the permissible limits. The metal contents in bed sediment were highest during dry seasons. This was accomplished by applying the correlation coefficient analysis applied to total heavy metal contents as a tool for studying metal pollution in the LLRB and their origins. It was useful to distinguish between anthropogenic and natural sources.

  1. [Heavy Metals Pollution in Topsoil from Dagang Industry Area and Its Ecological Risk Assessment].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Chen, Zong-juan; Peng, Chang-sheng; Li, Fa-sheng; Gu, Qing-bao

    2015-11-01

    Based on previous studies and field investigation of Dagang industry area in Tianjin, a total of 128 topsoil samples were collected, and contents of 10 heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, V, Zn and Hg) were determined. The geoaccumulation index and geostatistics were applied to examine the degree of contamination and spatial distribution of heavy metals in topsoil. The assessment on ecological risk of heavy metals was carried out using Hakanson's method, and the main resources of the heavy metals were analyzed as well. It was found that As, Cd and Co had the highest proportions exceeding Tianjin background value, which were 100%, 97.66% and 96.88%, respectively; the heavy-metal content increased to some extent comparing with that in 2004, and the pollutions of As and Cd were the worst, and other metals were at moderate pollution level or below. The ecological risks of heavy metals were different in topsoil with different land use types, the farmland soil in the southwest as well as soils adjacent to the industrial land were at relatively high potential ecological risk level, and the integrated ecological risk index reached up to 1 437.37. Analysis of correlation and principal component showed that traffic and transportation as well as agricultural activities might be the main resources of heavy metals in the area, besides, the industrial activities in the region might also affect the accumulation of heavy metals. PMID:26911014

  2. Concentration and speciation of heavy metals during water hyacinth composting.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jiwan; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2012-11-01

    The Tessier sequential extraction method was employed to investigate the changes in heavy metals speciation (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Pb, Ni, Cd and Cr) during water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) composting. Results showed that, the contents of total metals concentration were increased during the composting process. The largest proportion of metals was found in the residual fraction which was in more stable form and is consequently considered unavailable for plant uptake. Reducible and oxidizable fractions of Ni, Pb and Cd were not found in all trials during water hyacinth composting. The concentrations of Cu and Cd were very low comparative to the other metals, but the percentage of exchangeable and carbonate fractions were similar as other metals. From this study it can be concluded that the appropriate proportion of cattle manure addition (Trial 4) significantly reduced the mobile and easily available fractions (exchangeable and carbonate fractions) during the composting process. PMID:22989643

  3. Minor heavy metal: A review on occupational and environmental intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal is widely used in industries and presents as a problematic environmental pollution. Some heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, are well described for their occupational and environmental intoxication whereas the other minor heavy metals are less concerned. In this article, the author will present the details of occupational and environmental minor heavy metal intoxication. This review focuses mainly on aluminum, tin, copper, manganese, chromium, cadmium and nickel. PMID:20040969

  4. Crabs tell the difference--Relating trace metal content with land use and landscape attributes.

    PubMed

    Álvaro, Nuno V; Neto, Ana I; Couto, Ruben P; Azevedo, José M N; Rodrigues, Armindo S

    2016-02-01

    Heavy metal concentration in a given locality depends upon its natural characteristics and level of anthropogenic pressure. Volcanic sites have a different heavy metal footprint from agriculture soils and both differ from urban centres. Different animal species absorb heavy metals differently according to their feeding behaviour and physiology. Depending on the capability to accumulate heavy metals, some species can be used in biomonitoring programs for the identification of disturbed areas. Crabs are included in these species and known to accumulate heavy metals. The present study investigates the potential of Pachygrapsus marmoratus (Fabricius, 1787), a small crab abundant in the Azores intertidal, as an indicator of the presence of heavy metals in Azorean coastal environments, comparing hydrothermal vent locations, urban centres and locations adjacent to agricultural activity. Specimens were collected in the same period and had their hepatopancreas removed, dried and analysed for heavy metals. Results revealed differences in concentration of the studied elements between all sampling sites, each one revealing a distinct heavy metal content. Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn and Cd are the metals responsible for separating the various sites. The concentration levels of the heavy metals recorded in the present study reflect the environmental available metals where the organisms live. This, associated to the large availability of P. marmoratus specimens in the Azores, and to the fact that these animals are easy to capture and handle, suggests this species as a potential bioindicator for heavy metal concentration in Azorean coastal areas, both humanized and naturally disturbed. PMID:26492424

  5. Heavy metal tolerance in metal hyperaccumulator plant, Salvinia natans.

    PubMed

    Dhir, B; Srivastava, S

    2013-06-01

    Metal tolerance capacity of Salvinia natans, a metal hyperaccumulator, was evaluated. Plants were exposed to 10, 30 and 50 mg L⁻¹ of Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Cu, Pb, and Ni. Plant biomass, photosynthetic efficiency, quantum yield, photochemical quenching, electron transport rate and elemental (%C, H and N) constitution remained unaffected in Salvinia exposed to 30 mg L⁻¹ of heavy metals, except for Cu and Zn exposed plants, where significant reductions were noted in some of the measured parameters. However, a significant decline was noted in most of the measured parameters in plants exposed to 50 mg L⁻¹ of metal concentration. Results suggest that Salvinia has fairly high levels of tolerance to all the metals tested, but the level of tolerance varied from metal to metal. PMID:23553503

  6. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgy, David

    2012-01-01

    Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

  7. Heavy metals and the origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nriagu, J.

    2003-05-01

    The functional value of heavy metals in proto-cells was immense and involved critical roles in catalysis of molecular synthesis, translation, electrical neutrality and conduction, energy capture, cross-linking and precipitation (stabilizers of protective cell walls), and to a limited extent, osmotic pressure control. Metals must have modulated the evolutionary choices of the types of building blocks, such as ribose sugars as a constituent of RNA, or the the chirality and enantiopurity of many biomolecules. The formation of an enclosing membrane led to intracellular prokaryotic life (believed to have originated in an anaerobic environment) and much enhanced control over primary metabolism, the uptake and incorporation of heavy metals and the management of biomolecules (especially RNA, DNA and proteins) that were formed. Cells of the most primitive organisms (archaebacteria) reveal complex mechanisms designed specifically to deal with selective pressures from metal-containing environments including intra- and extra-cellular sequestration, exclusion by cell wall barrier, removal through active efflux pumps, enzymatic detoxification, and reduction in sensitivity of cellular targets to metal ions. Adaptation to metals using a variety of chromosomal, and transposon and plasmid-mediated systems began early in the evolution of life on Earth. Recent studies, however, show that the roles played by many heavy metals have changed over time. Divalent lead, for instance, has relinquished its unique catalytic role in the conversion of carbohydrates into ribose in the prebiotic world. The putative elements that dominated the primordial biochemistry were V, Mo, W, Co, Fe(II) and Ni; with the development of oxygenated atmosphere, these elements gave way to Zn, Cu and Fe(Ill) in their metabolic functions.

  8. [Study on pollution evaluation of heavy metal in surface soil of the original site of Qingdao North Station].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Jia, Yong-gang; Pan, Yu-ying

    2013-09-01

    The determination of pollution extent and health risk assessment are the premise of heavy metal contaminated site remediation. The content of Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni in Qingdao North Station was detected, and the correlation of the 6 kinds of heavy metal content was analyzed. The pollution extent in excess of background values was characterized by anthropogenic influence multiple, and the pollution of heavy metal in soil was evaluated using geoaccumulation index and a new method which connects geoaccumulation index with Nemero index. Finally, human health risk assessment was carried out with health risk assessment model for heavy metal content. The results showed that Qingdao North Station soil were polluted by heavy metals. Six heavy metal pollution levels were: Cd > Cu > Ni > Pb > Cr > Zn, and Cd had reached the severity pollution level, Cu and Ni followed by, Cr, Pb and Zn were in minor pollution level. The order of coefficient variation in all heavy metals was: Cd > Ni > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. Within the study area soil heavy metal distribution was different, but overall discrepancy was small. The order of non-cancer hazards of heavy metals in soil was Cr > Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Zn, and the order of carcinogen risks of heavy metals was Ni > Cd. The non-cancer hazard and carcinogen risks values of metals were both lower than that their threshold values. They were not the direct threats to human health. PMID:24289020

  9. Use of quality indicators for long-term evaluation of heavy metals content in soils of an agro-ecological protected wetland: L'Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, Valencia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Palop, Carla

    2015-04-01

    Due to the social, economical and environmental importance of agro-ecological wetlands, strategies for periodical evaluation of their environmental quality should be developed, particularly in those areas were a mixture of land uses are supporting the survival of wildlife and migrant species as is the case of most Mediterranean coastal wetlands. The aim of this work is to develop a strategy for a long-term assessment of the environmental quality of soils in a rice-wetland: L'Albufera Natural Park, Spain, in the surroundings of the metropolitan area of Valencia. The area was officially declared as Natural Park in 1986, integrating both the traditional irrigation system and the ecological importance derived from being a Mediterranean Wetland that is now transformed to a large extent in a rice-wetland allowing the presence of a large variety of migrant spices. The methodology consisted in the monitoring of 20 sites distributed in 5 sectors in and around the natural park of potentially contrasting anthropogenic pressure and land use. Soil samples collection were instrumented in two campaigns. The first one was in 1989 (three years after the official declaration as Natural Park of the wetland), and the second 19 years later in 2008. Seven heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analyzed to determine its total and extractable fractions by treatment with EDTA. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, using graphite furnace when necessary, was used for the determination of metals. To evaluate the quality of soils at each sampling date four indicators were obtained, namely, Contamination Factor (CF), Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI). Results obtained with quality indicators were further compared to obtain temporal and spatial trends using Geographical Information systems procedures. In general, there is a reduction of metal contents in the study area in both dates. The trend of metals according to average

  10. Heavy metal resistance in halophilic Bacteria and Archaea.

    PubMed

    Voica, Doriana Mădălina; Bartha, Laszlo; Banciu, Horia Leonard; Oren, Aharon

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metals are dense chemicals with dual biological role as micronutrients and intoxicants. A few hypersaline environmental systems are naturally enriched with heavy metals, while most metal-contaminated sites are a consequence of human activities. Numerous halotolerant and moderately halophilic Bacteria possess metal tolerance, whereas a few archaeal counterparts share similar features. The main mechanisms underlying heavy metal resistance in halophilic Bacteria and Archaea include extracellular metal sequestration by biopolymers, metal efflux mediated by specific transporters and enzymatic detoxification. Biotransformation of metals by halophiles has implications both for trace metal turnover in natural saline ecosystems and for development of novel bioremediation strategies. PMID:27279625

  11. Performance of rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) in heavy metal polluted soil vis-à-vis phytoaccumulation of metals.

    PubMed

    Chand, Sukhmal; Singh, Geetu; Patra, D D

    2016-08-01

    An investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of heavy metal toxicity on growth, herb, oil yield and quality and metal accumulation in rose scented geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) grown in heavy metal enriched soils. Four heavy metals (Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb) each at two levels (10 and 20 mg kg-1 soil) were tested on geranium. Results indicated that Cr concentration in soil at 20 mg kg-1 reduced leaves, stem and root yield by 70, 83, and 45%, respectively, over control. Root growth was significantly affected in Cr stressed soil. Nickel, Cr, and Cd concentration and accumulation in plant increased with higher application of these metals. Chromium, nickel and cadmium uptake was observed to be higher in leaves than in stem and roots. Essential oil constituents were generally not significantly affected by heavy metals except Pb at 10 and 20 ppm, which significantly increased the content of citronellol and Ni at 20 ppm increased the content of geraniol. Looking in to the higher accumulation of toxic metals by geranium and the minimal impact of heavy metals on quality of essential oil, geranium can be commercially cultivated in heavy metal polluted soil for production of high value essential oil. PMID:26696243

  12. Heavy metal speciation and toxicity characteristics of tannery sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juel, Md. Ariful Islam; Chowdhury, Zia Uddin Md.; Ahmed, Tanvir

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metals present in tannery sludge can get mobilized in the environment in various forms and can be a cause for concern for the natural ecosystem and human health. The speciation of metals in sludge provides valuable information regarding their toxicity in the environment and determines their suitability for land application or disposal in landfills. Concentrations of seven heavy metals (Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, As and Cu) in tannery sludge were determined to evaluate their toxicity levels. Metal contents ranged over the following intervals: As: 1.52-2.07 mg/kg; Pb: 57.5-67 mg/kg; Cr: 15339-26501 mg/kg; Cu: 261.3-579.5 mg/kg; Zn: 210.2-329.1 mg/kg and Ni: 137.5-141.3 mg/kg (dry weight basis). The concentrations of all heavy metals in the sludge samples were lower compared to EPA guidelines except chromium which was found to be several orders of magnitude higher than the guideline value. Toxicity Characteristics Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test indicated that the leaching potential of chromium was higher compared to the other heavy metals and exceeded the EPA land disposal restriction limits. To quantitatively assess the environmental burden of the chromium associated with tannery sludge, the IMPACT 2002+ methodology was adopted under the SimaPro software environment. Considering the USEPA limit for chromium as the baseline scenario, it was found that chromium in the tannery sludge had 6.41 times higher impact than the baseline in the categories of aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity and non-carcinogens. Chromium has the highest contribution to toxicity in the category of aquatic ecotoxicity while copper is the major contributor to the category of terrestrial ecotoxicity in the tannery sludge.

  13. Multiple heavy metal removal using an entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Gola, Deepak; Dey, Priyadarshini; Bhattacharya, Arghya; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2016-10-01

    Towards the development of a potential remediation technology for multiple heavy metals [Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Ni(II)] from contaminated water, present study examined the growth kinetics and heavy metal removal ability of Beauveria bassiana in individual and multi metals. The specific growth rate of B. bassiana varied from 0.025h(-1) to 0.039h(-1) in presence of individual/multi heavy metals. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of different surface functional groups in biosorption of different metals, while cellular changes in fungus was reflected by various microscopic (SEM, AFM and TEM) analysis. TEM studies proved removal of heavy metals via sorption and accumulation processes, whereas AFM studies revealed increase in cell surface roughness in fungal cells exposed to heavy metals. Present study delivers first report on the mechanism of bioremediation of heavy metals when present individually as well as multi metal mixture by entomopathogenic fungi. PMID:27387415

  14. Sublethal Heavy Metal Stress Stimulates Innate Immunity in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Swarnendu; Acharya, Krishnendu

    2015-01-01

    Effect of sublethal heavy metal stress as plant biotic elicitor for triggering innate immunity in tomato plant was investigated. Copper in in vivo condition induced accumulation of defense enzymes like peroxidase (PO), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), and β-1,3 glucanase along with higher accumulation of total phenol, antioxidative enzymes (catalase and ascorbate peroxidase), and total chlorophyll content. Furthermore, the treatment also induced nitric oxide (NO) production which was confirmed by realtime visualization of NO burst using a fluorescent probe 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) and spectrophotometric analysis. The result suggested that the sublethal dose of heavy metal can induce an array of plant defense responses that lead to the improvement of innate immunity in plants. PMID:25729768

  15. Phytoaccumulation of heavy metals by aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M; Ghaly, A E; Mahmoud, N; Côté, R

    2004-02-01

    Three aquatic plants were examined for their ability to remove heavy metals from contaminated water: parrot feather (Myriophylhum aquaticum), creeping primrose (Ludwigina palustris), and water mint (Mentha aquatic). The plants were obtained from a Solar Aquatic System treating municipal wastewater. All the three plants were able to remove Fe, Zn, Cu, and Hg from the contaminated water. The average removal efficiency for the three plant species was 99.8%, 76.7%, 41.62%, and 33.9% of Hg, Fe, Cu, and Zn, respectively. The removal rates of zinc and copper were constant (0.48 mg/l/day for Zn and 0.11 mg/l/day for Cu), whereas those of iron and mercury were dependent on the concentration of these elements in the contaminated water and ranged from 7.00 to 0.41 mg/l/day for Fe and 0.0787 to 0.0002 mg/l/day for Hg. Parrot feather showed greater tolerance to toxicity followed by water mint and creeping primrose. The growth of creeping primrose was significantly affected by heavy metal toxicity. The selectivity of heavy metals for the three plant species was the same (Hg>Fe>Cu>Zn). The mass balance preformed on the system showed that about 60.45-82.61% of the zinc and 38.96-60.75% of the copper were removed by precipitation as zinc phosphate and copper phosphate, respectively. PMID:14680885

  16. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOEpatents

    O`Neill, M.A.; Pellerin, P.J.M.; Warrenfeltz, D.; Vidal, S.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.

    1999-03-02

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations. 15 figs.

  17. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOEpatents

    O'Neill, Malcolm A.; Pellerin, Patrice J. M.; Warrenfeltz, Dennis; Vidal, Stephane; Darvill, Alan G.; Albersheim, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations.

  18. Concentration of heavy metals in ash produced from Lithuanian forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltrenaite, Edita; Pereira, Paulo; Butkus, Donatas; Úbeda, Xavier

    2010-05-01

    Wood ash contains important amounts of heavy metals. This quantity depends on burned specie, temperature of exposition and heat duration time. Due the high mineralization imposed by the temperatures, ash is used as lime product in agriculture and forests. Also, after a forest fire large quantities of ash are produced and distributed in soil surface. This mineralized organic matter can induce important environmental problems, including soil toxicity provoked by heavy metals leachates from ash. There is an extensive literature about heavy metals contents on ash in different species. However, it recently highlighted that the same species placed in different environments can respond diversely to same temperatures. This question is of major importance because temperature effects on severity can be a function of the plant communities instead of specie characteristics. These findings add a higher degree of complexity in the understanding of temperature effects on ash composition and consequent availability of heavy metals. The aim of this study is to compare the ash chemical heavy metal composition, Cobalt (Co), Chromium (Cr), Cooper (Cu), Silver (Ag), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), Manganese (Mn) and Zinc (Zn), from Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula, collected in key and representative areas of Lithuanian forests, located in southern, coastal and central part. Samples were collected from alive trees, taken to laboratory and air dried. Subsequently were crushed and submitted to muffle furnace at temperature of 550°C during two hours. The ash samples were digested and in a HNO3-HCl solution and then analysed with AAS. Comparisons between species and sites were performed with a Non-parametric one-way ANOVA‘s on rank transformed data followed by Tukey‘s HSD, significant at a p<0.05. Results showed significant difference between Co and Ag concentrations between Pinus sylvestris and Betula pendula. Also, significantly different concentrations of Pb, Cu, Ni and Mn were

  19. Heavy metal content in ash of energy crops growing in sewage-contaminated natural wetlands: potential applications in agriculture and forestry?

    PubMed

    Bonanno, Giuseppe; Cirelli, Giuseppe Luigi; Toscano, Attilio; Lo Giudice, Rosa; Pavone, Pietro

    2013-05-01

    One of the greatest current challenges is to find cost-effective and eco-friendly solutions to the ever increasing needs of modern society. Some plant species are suitable for a multitude of biotechnological applications such as bioenergy production and phytoremediation. A sustainable practice is to use energy crops to clean up polluted lands or to treat wastewater in constructed wetlands without claiming further arable land for biofuel production. However, the disposal of combustion by-products may add significant costs to the whole process, especially when it deals with toxic waste. This study aimed to investigate the possibility of recycling ash from energy biomass as a fertilizer for agriculture and forestry. In particular, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn were analyzed in the plant tissues and corresponding ash of the grasses Phragmites australis and Arundo donax, collected in an urban stream affected by domestic sewage. Results showed that the metal concentration in ash is 1.5-3 times as high as the values in plant tissues. However, metal enriched ash showed much lower element concentrations than the legal limits for ash reutilization in agriculture and forestry. This study found that biomass ash from constructed wetlands may be considered as a potential fertilizer rather than hazardous waste. Energy from biomass can be a really sustainable and clean option not only through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but also through ash recycling for beneficial purposes, thus minimizing the negative impacts of disposal. PMID:23534998

  20. Native Australian species are effective in extracting multiple heavy metals from biosolids.

    PubMed

    Mok, Hoi-Fei; Majumder, Ramaprasad; Laidlaw, W Scott; Gregory, David; Baker, Alan J M; Arndt, Stefan K

    2013-01-01

    Selecting native plant species with characteristics suitable for extraction of heavy metals may have multiple advantages over non-native plants. Six Australian perennial woody plant species and one willow were grown in a pot trial in heavy metal-contaminated biosolids and a potting mix. The plants were harvested after fourteen months and above-ground parts were analysed for heavy metal concentrations and total metal contents. All native species were capable of growing in biosolids and extracted heavy metals to varying degrees. No single species was able to accumulate heavy metals at particularly high levels and metal extraction depended upon the bioavailability of the metal in the substrate. Metal extraction efficiency was driven by biomass accumulation, with the species extracting the most metals also having the greatest biomass yield. The study demonstrated that Grevillea robusta, Acacia mearnsii, Eucalyptus polybractea, and E. cladocalyx have the greatest potential as phytoextractor species in the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated biosolids. Species survival and growth were the main determinants of metal extraction efficiency and these traits will be important for future screening of native species. PMID:23819263

  1. Study on the law of heavy metal leaching in municipal solid waste landfill.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui-Hu; Sang, Shu-Xun

    2010-06-01

    Comparative leaching experiments were carried out using leaching medium with different pH to municipal solid waste in the landfill columns in order to investigate the mobility of heavy metals. The leachate pH and oxidation-reduction potential were measured by oxidation-reduction potential analyzer; the contents of heavy metals were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. It is very different in leaching concentrations of heavy metals; the dynamic leaching of heavy metals decreased with the rise of the leaching amount on the whole. Acid leaching medium had definite influence on the leaching of heavy metals in the early landfill, but it had the obvious inhibition effect on the leaching in the middle and late period of landfill; the neutral and alkaline leaching medium are more beneficial to the leaching of heavy metals. Due to the influence of the environment of landfill, the differences of the results in cumulative leaching amount, leaching rate, and leaching intensity of heavy metals are very big. The calculation results of the release rates of heavy metals prove that the orders of the release rates are not identical under different leaching conditions. Acid rain made heavy metals migrate from municipal solid waste to soil and detain in soil more easily; approached neutral and alkaline leaching mediums are more beneficial to leaching of heavy metals in the municipal solid waste and soil with leachate. The field verification of experimental data showed that the law of heavy metal leaching in municipal solid waste revealed by the experiment has a good consistency with the data obtained by municipal solid waste landfill. PMID:19466573

  2. [Pollution Characteristics and Potential Ecological Risk of Heavy Metals in Urban Surface Water Sediments from Yongkang].

    PubMed

    Qi, Peng; Yu, Shu-quan; Zhang, Chao; Liang, Li-cheng; Che, Ji-lu

    2015-12-01

    In order to understand the pollution characteristics of heavy metals in surface water sediments of Yongkang, we analyzed the concentrations of 10 heavy metals including Ti, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Fe in 122 sediment samples, explored the underlying source of heavy metals and then assessed the potential ecological risks of those metals by methods of the index of geo-accumulation and the potential ecological risk. The study results showed that: 10 heavy metal contents followed the order: Fe > Ti > Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ph > Ni > As > Co, all heavy metals except for Ti were 1. 17 to 3.78 times higher than those of Zhejiang Jinhua- Quzhou basin natural soils background values; The concentrations of all heavy metals had a significantly correlation between each other, indicating that those heavy metals had similar sources of pollution, and it mainly came from industrial and vehicle pollutions; The pollution extent of heavy metals in sediments by geo-accumulation index (Igeo) followed the order: Cr > Zn > Ni > Cu > Fe > As > Pb >Mn > Ti, thereinto, Cr, Zn, Cu and Ni were moderately polluted or heavily polluted at some sampling sites; The potential ecological risk of 9 heavy metals in sediments were in the following order: Cu > As > Ni > Cr > Pb > Co > Zn > Mn > Ti, Cu and As contributed the most to the total potential ecological risk, accounting for 22.84% and 21. 62% , others had a total of 55.54% , through the ecological risk assessment, 89. 34% of the potential ecological risk indexes ( RI) were low and 10. 66% were higher. The contamination level of heavy metals in Yongkang was slight in total, but was heavy in local areas. PMID:27011984

  3. [Characteristics of speciation and evaluation of ecological risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge of Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng-Ran; Lei, Yong-Qian; Cai, Da-Chuan; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Rui; Pan, Jia-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    Contents of heavy metals in different sewage sludges were analyzed and the speciation distribution and bioavailability of heavy metals were investigated, and the risk assessment code (RAC) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure for solid waste were used to evaluate the potential ecological risk and leaching toxicity risk of heavy metals in sludge samples, respectively. The results showed that contents of Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn were high and presented a great difference by different sources in sewage sludges. Most of heavy metals existed in non-residual fractions and percentages of the mobile fraction (acid soluble fraction) of heavy metals in acidic sludge were higher. According to the results of single extraction, 1 mol x L(-1) NaOAc solution (pH 5.0) and 0.02 mol x L(-1) EDTA + 0.5 mol x L(-1) NH4OAc solution (pH 4.6) were suitable for evaluating bioavailable heavy metals in acidic and alkaline sludge, respectively. Percentages of bioavailable heavy metals were higher with the stronger of sludge acidity. The mobile ability of heavy metals resulted in the high ecological risk of sludge samples, and the bioavailability of heavy metals caused acidic sludges with a very high ecological risk but alkaline sludges with the middle ecological risk. Leaching toxicity risk was very high in sludge samples except domestic sewage sludge. After the removal of bioavailable heavy metals, leaching toxicity risk of sludge samples was still high in spite of its decrease; however, part type of sludges could be implemented landfill disposal. PMID:24812965

  4. Geochemical flows of heavy metals in the Don and Kuban Rivers deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, Oleg; Tkachenko, Anna; Lychagin, Mikhael

    2015-04-01

    Don and Kuban are the two biggest rivers of the Azov sea basin. Deltaic areas of Don and Kuban Rivers have been influenced by agricultural and industry for a long time. A significant amount of heavy metals and biogenic elements comes into the rivers downstream annually. However, in the deltaic areas these geochemical flows are transformed due to changing of the environment conditions, some pollutions are excluded from the flows and accumulated in the deltaic landscapes. In this way Don and Kuban Rivers deltas can be considered as the biogeochemical filters on the way of the heavy metals and biogenic elements flows in to the Azov Sea. The paper presents the results of the heavy metals flows investigation in the Don and Kuban Rivers deltas. This investigation is based on the field studies of the water flow and sediment load distributions and heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni, Cr, Co, Pb) content in the water and suspended matter of the deltas. Quantities arriving of heavy metals in the delta apex in the low water period are calculated; seasonal patterns of flows are considered. Is shown that greater number of heavy metals flow into the delta during the flood period, especially with respect to the dissolved forms of zinc and copper; it is also shown a significant increase of the heavy metals flows downstream of the large cities (Rostov-on-Don, Azov, Temryuk). All these facts indicate anthropogenic impact on the heavy metals inflow. In comparing the heavy metals flow in the Don and Kuban Rivers deltas investigated that Don River flows is an order of magnitude greater than the Kuban River flows. When it comes about the structure of the flows, shown that Don River characterized increased content of dissolved form of heavy metals; Kuban River originates in the Caucasus Mountains so the proportion of suspended forms is higher.

  5. Heavy metal enrichment in the riparian sediments and soils of the Three Gorges Reservoir, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Q.; Bao, Y.; He, X.; Wen, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir encompasses a riparian zone with a vertical height of 30 m and a total area of 349 km2 that has been subjected to alternate inundation and exposure due to regular impoundment. Sedimentation on the riparian landforms constitutes an important pathway for riverine contaminant redistribution. In an attempt to understand heavy metal enrichment since water inundation, riparian sediments and soils were sampled along five transects in a typical riparian zone composed of cultivated bench terraces in the middle reaches. Heavy metals (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd and Pb) were determined to characterize the lateral distribution and vertical transfer ratio. The results indicated that all heavy metals were enriched to varying extents both in the riparian sediments and soils, compared with regional background contents in soils and the reference levels in sediments. However, heavy metal levels in the riparian sediments were generally higher than those in the riparian soils, while those in the upper riparian soils (0-5 cm) were overall slightly higher than those in the lower riparian soils (5-10 cm). There was a decreasing trend of heavy metal contents with increasing elevation. The elevated levels of heavy metals in the riparian sediments may be attributed to sediment yields from upstream anthropogenic sources, especially during major rainstorms in the wet season when large loads of contaminated sediment may be produced from diffuse source areas. Heavy metals can also be adsorbed to pure sediment in the course of mobilization or after deposition. Considering that the riparian soils are local weathering products without mobilization, the enrichment of heavy metals may principally be ascribed to chemical adsorption from dissolved fractions or vertical transfer from overlaid sediments. Heavy metal enrichment may further be affected by the specific type of hydrologic regime such that relatively long flooding duration caused by water impoundment and natural floods

  6. Chitosan removes toxic heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Xu, Ying; Wang, Dongfeng; Zhou, Shilu

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the removal of heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke using chitosan. Chitosan of various deacetylation degrees and molecular weights were manually added to cigarette filters in different dosages. The mainstream smoke particulate matter was collected by a Cambridge filter pad, digested by a microwave digestor, and then analyzed for contents of heavy metal ions, including As(III/V), Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The results showed that chitosan had a removal effect on Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II). Of these, the percent removal of Ni(II) was elevated with an increasing dosage of chitosan. Chitosan of a high deace tylation degree exhibited good binding performance toward Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), though with poor efficiency for Pb(II). Except As(III/V), all the tested metal ions showed similar tendencies in the growing contents with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Nonetheless, the percent removal of Cr(III/VI) peaked with a chitosan molecular weight of 200 kDa, followed by a dramatic decrease with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Generally, chitosan had different removal effects on four out of five tested metal ions, and the percent removal of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II) was approximately 55%, 45%, 50%, and 16%, respectively. In a word, chitosan used in cigarette filter can remove toxic heavy metal ions in the mainstream smoke, improve cigarette safety, and reduce the harm to smokers.

  7. Magnetotactic bacteria: promising biosorbents for heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yanzong; Ding, Xiaohui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Gang; Peng, Hong

    2012-09-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), which can orient and migrate along a magnetic line of force due to intracellular nanosized magnetosomes, have been a subject of research in the medical field, in dating environmental changes, and in environmental remediation. This paper reviews the recent development of MTB as biosorbents for heavy metals. Ultrastructures and taxis of MTB are investigated. Adsorptions in systems of unitary and binary ions are highlighted, as well as adsorption conditions (temperature, pH value, biomass concentration, and pretreatments). The separation and desorption of MTB in magnetic separators are also discussed. A green method to produce metal nanoparticles is provided, and an energy-efficient way to recover precious metals is put forward during biosorption. PMID:22763846

  8. Material Removes Heavy Metal Ions From Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W.; Hill, Carol; Savino, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    New high capacity ion-exchange polymer material removes toxic metal cations from contaminated water. Offers several advantages. High sensitivities for such heavy metals as lead, cadmium, and copper and capable of reducing concentrations in aqueous solutions to parts-per-billion range. Removes cations even when calcium present. Material made into variety of forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As result, adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water, usually hard wherever found, whether in wastewater-treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or homes. Another important feature that adsorbed metals easily reclaimed by either destructive or nondestructive process. Other tests show ion-exchange polymer made inexpensively; easy to use; strong, flexible, not easily torn; and chemically stable in storage, in aqueous solutions, and in acidic or basic solution.

  9. Stabilization/solidification of heavy metals in sludge ceramsite and leachability affected by oxide substances.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guoren; Zou, Jinlong; Li, Guibai

    2009-08-01

    To investigate stabilization of heavy metals in ceramsite made from wastewater treatment sludge (WWTS) and drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS), leaching tests were conducted to find out the effect of SiO2:Al2O3, acidic oxides (SiO2 and Al2O3), Fe2O3: CaO:MgO, and basic oxides (Fe2O3, CaO, and MgO) on the binding ability of heavy metals. Results show that as ratios of SiO2: Al2O3 decrease, leaching contents of Cu and Pb increase, while leaching contents of Cd and Cr first decrease and then increase; under the variation of Fe2O3:CaO:MgO (Fe2O3 contents decrease), leaching contents of Cd, Cu, and Pb increase, while leaching contents of Cr decrease. Acidic and basic oxide leaching results show that higher contents of Al2O3, Fe2O3, and MgO are advantageous to improve the stability of heavy metals, while the binding capacity for Cd, Cu, and Pb is significantly reduced at higher contents of SiO2 and CaO. The solidifying efficiencies of heavy metals are improved by crystallization, and the main compounds in ceramsite are crocoite, chrome oxide, cadmium silicate, and copper oxide. These results can be considered as a basic understanding for new technologies of stabilization of heavy metals in heavily polluted WWTS. PMID:19731695

  10. [Heavy Metals Accmultio in the Caofeidian Reclamation Soils: Indicated by Soil Magnetic Susceptibility].

    PubMed

    Xue, Yong; Zhou, Qian; Li, Yuan; Zhang, Hai-bo; Hu, Xue-feng; Luo, Yong-ming

    2016-04-15

    The environmental magnetism method has been widely applied to identify soil heavy metal pollution, which is characterized by simplicity, efficiency, non-destructivity and sensitivity. The present study used magnetic susceptibility to assess the accumulation of heavy metals in soils of the Caofeidian industrial zone which is a typical reclamation area in northern China. The study area was divided into three sub-zones based on the function, including industrial zone, living zone, natural tidal flat and wetland. A total of 35 topsoil samples (0-10 cm) and 3 soil profiles were collected from the three sub-zones. Magnetic susceptibility (X(lf)), iron oxide (Fe2O3) contents and heavy metals contents (Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Pb, Mn and V) of the samples were analyzed. The results showed that X(lf) values and heavy metals contents exhibited higher spatial variability in the top soil of the industrial zone, indicating the severe impacts of industrial activities. In the soil profiles of the industrial and living zones, all heavy metals were enriched to different degrees in the upper layer (0-20 cm). However, there was no significant change of heavy metal contents in the soil profiles of tidal flat which was far from the industrial area. The X(lf) value was significantly (P < 0.01) positively correlated with the contents of Fe2O3, Ni, Cu, As and V in the industrial top soil. This indicated that X(lf) could be used as an indicator for heavy metal accumulation in the industrial zone. However, the X(lf) value was not suitable to be an indicator to show the heavy metal accumulation in the soils of living zone and natural tidal flat. This might be associated with the different sources of magnetic materials among the different sub-zones and the special characteristics of the soils in the tidal flat and wetland. PMID:27548950

  11. Black water sludge reuse in agriculture: are heavy metals a problem?

    PubMed

    Tervahauta, Taina; Rani, Sonia; Hernández Leal, Lucía; Buisman, Cees J N; Zeeman, Grietje

    2014-06-15

    Heavy metal content of sewage sludge is currently the most significant factor limiting its reuse in agriculture within the European Union. In the Netherlands most of the produced sewage sludge is incinerated, mineralizing the organic carbon into the atmosphere rather than returning it back to the soil. Source-separation of black water (toilet water) excludes external heavy metal inputs, such as industrial effluents and surface run-offs, producing sludge with reduced heavy metal content that is a more favorable source for resource recovery. The results presented in this paper show that feces is the main contributor to the heavy metal loading of vacuum collected black water (52-84%), while in sewage the contribution of feces is less than 10%. To distinguish black water from sewage in the sludge reuse regulation, a control parameter should be implemented, such as the Hg and Pb content that is significantly higher in sewage sludge compared to black water sludge (from 50- to 200-fold). The heavy metals in feces and urine are primarily from dietary sources, and promotion of the soil application of black water sludge over livestock manure and artificial fertilizers could further reduce the heavy metal content in the soil/food cycle. PMID:24794814

  12. [Soil Heavy Metal Spatial Distribution and Source Analysis Around an Aluminum Plant in Baotou].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lian-ke; Li, Hai-peng; Huang, Xue-min; Li, Yu-mei; Jiao, Kun-ling; Sun, Peng; Wang, Wei-da

    2016-03-15

    The soil with 500 m distance from an aluminum plant in Baotou was studied. A total of 64 soil samples were taken from the 0-5 cm, 5-20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40-60 cm layers, and the contents of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni and Mn were tested, respectively. The correlation analysis and principal component analysis were used to identify the sources of these heavy metals in soils. The results suggested that the contents of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cd, Ni and Mn in study area were 32.9, 50.35, 69.92, 43.78, 0.54, 554.42 and 36.65 mg · kg⁻¹ respectively. All seven heavy metals tested were overweight compared with the background values of soil in Inner Mongolia. The spatial distribution of heavy metals showed that the horizontal distribution of heavy metals was obviously enriched in the southwest, while in vertical distribution, the heavy metal content (0 to 5 cm) was highest in the surface soil, and the heavy metal content decreased with increasing depth and tended to be stabilized when the depth was over 20 cm. Source analysis showed that the source of Cu, Zn, Cr and Mn might be influenced by the aluminum plant and the surrounding industrial activity. The source of Pb and Cd might be mainly related to road transportation. The source of Ni may be affected by agricultural activities and soil parent material together. PMID:27337911

  13. Effect of heavy metals on soil enzyme activity at different field conditions in Middle Spis mining area (Slovakia).

    PubMed

    Angelovičová, Lenka; Lodenius, Martin; Tulisalo, Esa; Fazekašová, Danica

    2014-12-01

    Heavy metals concentrations were measured in the former mining area located in Hornad river valley (Slovakia). Soil samples were taken in 2012 from 20 sites at two field types (grasslands, heaps of waste material) and two different areas. Total content of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Hg), urease (URE), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), soil reaction (pH) were changing depending on the field/area type. The tailing pond and processing plants have been found as the biggest sources of pollution. URE, ACP and ALP activities significantly decreased while the heavy metal contents increased. Significant differences were found among area types in the heavy metal contents and activity of URE. No statistical differences in the content of heavy metals but significant statistical differences for soil pH were found for field types (grassland and heaps). Significant negative correlation was found for URE-Pb, URE-Zn and also between soil reaction and ACP and ALP. PMID:25293393

  14. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monge, Guadalupe; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; García-Alix, Antonio; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Mattielli, Nadine; Finlayson, Clive; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Sánchez, Miguel Cortés; de Castro, Jose María Bermúdez; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Carrión, José; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Finlayson, Geraldine

    2015-09-01

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution evidence is related to Neanderthal hearths from Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar), being one of the first milestones in the so-called “Anthropocene”. According to its heavy metal concentration, these sediments meet the present-day standards of “contaminated soil”. Together with the former, the Gibraltar Vanguard Cave, shows Zn and Cu pollution ubiquitous across highly anthropic levels pointing to these elements as potential proxies for human activities. Pb concentrations in Magdalenian and Bronze age levels at El Pirulejo site can be similarly interpreted. Despite these high pollution levels, the contaminated soils might not have posed a major threat to Homo populations. Altogether, the data presented here indicate a long-term exposure of Homo to these elements, via fires, fumes and their ashes, which could have played certain role in environmental-pollution tolerance, a hitherto neglected influence.

  15. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites.

    PubMed

    Monge, Guadalupe; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J; García-Alix, Antonio; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Mattielli, Nadine; Finlayson, Clive; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Sánchez, Miguel Cortés; de Castro, Jose María Bermúdez; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Carrión, José; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Finlayson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution evidence is related to Neanderthal hearths from Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar), being one of the first milestones in the so-called "Anthropocene". According to its heavy metal concentration, these sediments meet the present-day standards of "contaminated soil". Together with the former, the Gibraltar Vanguard Cave, shows Zn and Cu pollution ubiquitous across highly anthropic levels pointing to these elements as potential proxies for human activities. Pb concentrations in Magdalenian and Bronze age levels at El Pirulejo site can be similarly interpreted. Despite these high pollution levels, the contaminated soils might not have posed a major threat to Homo populations. Altogether, the data presented here indicate a long-term exposure of Homo to these elements, via fires, fumes and their ashes, which could have played certain role in environmental-pollution tolerance, a hitherto neglected influence. PMID:26388184

  16. Heavy metal concentrations in Louisiana waterways, sediments, and biota

    SciTech Connect

    Bundy, K.J.; Berzins, D.

    1994-12-31

    In this investigation polarographic methods (along with GFAAS and ICP) have been used to study the distribution of lead and chromium in Bayou Trepagnier and Devil`s Swamp. Both laboratory and field research have been conducted. Separation and extraction methodology appropriate for analysis of the contaminants at these sites have been developed. Particular attention has been paid to extraction methods for chromium which do not lead to valence state conversion. The availability of such techniques is essential to take full advantage of polarography, a method capable of performing speciation analysis. The results indicate that there is a very inhomogeneous distribution of heavy metals in these environments. In Devil`s Swamp, for example, separation and analysis of aqueous and variously sized particulate moieties in the water and sediment compartments were conducted to determine the partition of lead between them. The results showed that the average lead content was 14.7 ppb and 19.8 ppm, respectively, in these compartments. Apparently bull frogs in Devil`s Swamp can bioaccumulate lead (compared to the measured water level), since the muscle concentration was found to be about 0.6 ppm. This phenomenon is being investigated in a Xenopus frog laboratory model of heavy metal uptake. The basic methodology validated in this study should be fairly generally applicable to assays of other heavy metals.

  17. Earliest evidence of pollution by heavy metals in archaeological sites

    PubMed Central

    Monge, Guadalupe; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; García-Alix, Antonio; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisca; Mattielli, Nadine; Finlayson, Clive; Ohkouchi, Naohiko; Sánchez, Miguel Cortés; de Castro, Jose María Bermúdez; Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Carrión, José; Rodríguez-Vidal, Joaquín; Finlayson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Homo species were exposed to a new biogeochemical environment when they began to occupy caves. Here we report the first evidence of palaeopollution through geochemical analyses of heavy metals in four renowned archaeological caves of the Iberian Peninsula spanning the last million years of human evolution. Heavy metal contents reached high values due to natural (guano deposition) and anthropogenic factors (e.g. combustion) in restricted cave environments. The earliest anthropogenic pollution evidence is related to Neanderthal hearths from Gorham's Cave (Gibraltar), being one of the first milestones in the so-called “Anthropocene”. According to its heavy metal concentration, these sediments meet the present-day standards of “contaminated soil”. Together with the former, the Gibraltar Vanguard Cave, shows Zn and Cu pollution ubiquitous across highly anthropic levels pointing to these elements as potential proxies for human activities. Pb concentrations in Magdalenian and Bronze age levels at El Pirulejo site can be similarly interpreted. Despite these high pollution levels, the contaminated soils might not have posed a major threat to Homo populations. Altogether, the data presented here indicate a long-term exposure of Homo to these elements, via fires, fumes and their ashes, which could have played certain role in environmental-pollution tolerance, a hitherto neglected influence. PMID:26388184

  18. Multivariate-Statistical Assessment of Heavy Metals for Agricultural Soils in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pingguo; Yang, Miao; Mao, Renzhao; Shao, Hongbo

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated eight heavy metals content and soil pollution from agricultural soils in northern China. Multivariate and geostatistical analysis approaches were used to determine the anthropogenic and natural contribution of soil heavy metal concentrations. Single pollution index and integrated pollution index could be used to evaluate soil heavy metal risk. The results show that the first factor explains 27.3% of the eight soil heavy metals with strong positive loadings on Cu, Zn, and Cd, which indicates that Cu, Zn, and Cd are associated with and controlled by anthropic activities. The average value of heavy metal is lower than the second grade standard values of soil environmental quality standards in China. Single pollution index is lower than 1, and the Nemerow integrated pollution index is 0.305, which means that study area has not been polluted. The semivariograms of soil heavy metal single pollution index fitted spherical and exponential models. The variable ratio of single pollution index showed moderately spatial dependence. Heavy metal contents showed relative safety in the study area. PMID:24892058

  19. Assessment of heavy metals in Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola fruit samples at two developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Soumya, S L; Nair, Bindu R

    2016-05-01

    Though the fruits of Averrhoa bilimbi and A. carambola are economically and medicinally important, they remain underutilized. The present study reports heavy metal quantitation in the fruit samples of A. bilimbi and A. carambola (Oxalidaceae), collected at two stages of maturity. Heavy metals are known to interfere with the functioning of vital cellular components. Although toxic, some elements are considered essential for human health, in trace quantities. Heavy metals such as Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Pb, and Cd were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The samples under investigation included, A. bilimbi unripe (BU) and ripe (BR), A. carambola sour unripe (CSU) and ripe (CSR), and A. carambola sweet unripe (CTU) and ripe (CTR). Heavy metal analysis showed that relatively higher level of heavy metals was present in BR samples compared to the rest of the samples. The highest amount of As and Se were recorded in BU samples while Mn content was highest in CSU samples and Co in CSR. Least amounts of Cr, Zn, Se, Cd, and Pb were noted in CTU while, Mn, Cu, and As were least in CTR. Thus, the sweet types of A. carambola (CTU, CTR) had comparatively lower heavy metal content. There appears to be no reason for concern since different fruit samples of Averrhoa studied presently showed the presence of various heavy metals in trace quantities. PMID:27080855

  20. Biosorption of heavy metals by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Volesky, B; May-Phillips, H A

    1995-01-01

    Abundant and common yeast biomass has been examined for its capacity to sequester heavy metals from dilute aqueous solutions. Live and non-living biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae differs in the uptake of uranium, zinc and copper at the optimum pH 4-5. Culture growth conditions can influence the biosorbent metal uptake capacity which normally was: living and non-living brewer's yeast: U > Zn > Cd > Cu; non-living baker's yeast: Zn > (Cd) > U > Cu; living baker's yeast: Zn > Cu approximately (Cd) > U. Non-living brewer's yeast biomass accumulated 0.58 mmol U/g. The best biosorbent of zinc was non-living baker's yeast (approximately 0.56 mmol Zn/g). Dead cells of S. cerevisiae removed approximately 40% more uranium or zinc than the corresponding live cultures. Biosorption of uranium by S. cerevisiae was a rapid process reaching 60% of the final uptake value within the first 15 min of contact. Its deposition differing from that of other heavy metals more associated with the cell wall, uranium was deposited as fine needle-like crystals both on the inside and outside of the S. cerevisiae cells. PMID:7765919

  1. Contamination of environment with heavy metals emitted from automotives

    SciTech Connect

    Falahi-Ardakani, A.

    1984-04-01

    Interest has arisen in heavy-metal contamination of the environment, mostly because of potential hazards to the health of animals and human (directly and/or indirectly). High levels of heavy metals in soil, plants, and the atmosphere are often related to industries, highways, chemical dumping, impure chemical fertilizers, and pesticides containing metals. An important source of heavy metals, especially lead, is from the combustion of leaded gasoline used for transportation. Other heavy metals associated with transportation include nickel, which is also added to gasoline and is contained in engine parts, zinc, and cadmium from tires, lubricating oils, and galvanized parts such as fuel tanks.

  2. Heavy Metals Behavior During Thermal Plasma Vitrification Of Incineration Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Cerqueira, Nuno; Vandensteendam, Colette; Baronnet, Jean Marie

    2006-01-15

    Incineration of wastes, widely and increasingly used nowadays, produces residues, mainly bottom ash and filter fly ash. Fly ash is especially problematic because of its high content in heavy metals easily drawn out. Thermal processes, based mainly on electrical arc processes, are used to melt the residues at high temperature and convert them into a relatively inert glass. Consequently, to improve the process and get a glass satisfying regulation, control of heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium and chromium...) volatility during plasma fly ash melting and vitrification is needed and basic data concerning vaporization of these metals are required. According to the volatility of these compounds observed during vitrification of fly ash, a predictive model has been used to simulate the elimination of Pb, Zn and S from the melt as a function of time and temperature for a system including chlorides, oxides and sulfates. The objective of this work was the experimental study of heavy metals volatility using optical emission spectroscopy. A twin torch plasma system, mounted above a cold crucible with Ar (or Ar + O2) as plasma gas, has been used. The crucible was filled with synthetic glass in which known amounts of metallic salts were added to obtain the same chemical composition as used in the model. From spectral lines intensities of Ar, the plasma temperature profiles along the observation direction has been first established, before using ratios of spectral lines of Ar and metallic (Pb, Zn) or Cl vapors to reach the evolution of the elements concentrations above the melt. Off-gases have been analyzed by mass spectrometry. The influence of the atmosphere (Ar or Ar + O2) above the crucible has been studied and differences in elements behaviors have been pointed out. The results of the spectroscopic measurements have been compared to the ones issued of modeling, in order to validate our model of vaporization.

  3. Heavy Metals Behavior During Thermal Plasma Vitrification Of Incineration Residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, Nuno; Vandensteendam, Colette; Baronnet, Jean Marie

    2006-01-01

    Incineration of wastes, widely and increasingly used nowadays, produces residues, mainly bottom ash and filter fly ash. Fly ash is especially problematic because of its high content in heavy metals easily drawn out. Thermal processes, based mainly on electrical arc processes, are used to melt the residues at high temperature and convert them into a relatively inert glass. Consequently, to improve the process and get a glass satisfying regulation, control of heavy metals (lead, zinc, cadmium and chromium…) volatility during plasma fly ash melting and vitrification is needed and basic data concerning vaporization of these metals are required. According to the volatility of these compounds observed during vitrification of fly ash, a predictive model has been used to simulate the elimination of Pb, Zn and S from the melt as a function of time and temperature for a system including chlorides, oxides and sulfates. The objective of this work was the experimental study of heavy metals volatility using optical emission spectroscopy. A twin torch plasma system, mounted above a cold crucible with Ar (or Ar + O2) as plasma gas, has been used. The crucible was filled with synthetic glass in which known amounts of metallic salts were added to obtain the same chemical composition as used in the model. From spectral lines intensities of Ar, the plasma temperature profiles along the observation direction has been first established, before using ratios of spectral lines of Ar and metallic (Pb, Zn) or Cl vapors to reach the evolution of the elements concentrations above the melt. Off-gases have been analyzed by mass spectrometry. The influence of the atmosphere (Ar or Ar + O2) above the crucible has been studied and differences in elements behaviors have been pointed out. The results of the spectroscopic measurements have been compared to the ones issued of modeling, in order to validate our model of vaporization.

  4. Anthropogenic impact on the sediment record from Lake Czechowskie (N-Poland) based on heavy metal contents in combination with high-resolution pollen and varve data: Geochemical background vs enrichment history and landsurface changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoelzmann, Philipp; Słowiński, Michał; Obremska, Milena; Ott, Florian; Brauer, Achim

    2016-04-01

    For Czechowskie Lake, situated in a rural environment in N-Poland, we present a detailed heavy metal enrichment history for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn for the last two hundred years at 1 cm intervals from an annually laminated sediment core and the near-by lake sediment record of Lake Głęboczek. To determine local geogenic background values for the lake different types of Holocene lake sediments (e.g. calcareous gyttja, organic gyttja etc.) were analyzed for their heavy metal concentrations. On the base of these results enrichment factors were calculated that represent the anthropogenic heavy metal deposition. This data is supplemented by on average five year resolution pollen record for the last 700 years. Based on vegetation changes (e.g. arboreal % such as Pinus and Carpinus betulus; Cerealia %; charcoal pieces), heavy metal input (mainly Pb, Zn and Cd), varve thickness, and precise varve dating (±3a years for the last 200a and ±8a years for the last 700a) five phases of significantly lower human activity interrupted by stronger human impact were distinguished. Strongest declines in anthropogenic pressure on the landscape are related to periods following war or economic regression and subsequent regeneration. Our results provide means to calculate and quantify with sub-decadal resolution anthropogenic impact as well as to define regional measures for a state of reference, reflecting natural conditions without human impact.

  5. Visualizing plumes of heavy metals and radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigiobbe, V.; Liu, T.; Bryant, S. L.; Hesse, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The understanding of the transport behaviors in porous media resides on the ability to reproduce fundamental phenomena in a lab setting. Experiments with quasi 2D tanks filled with beads are performed to study physical phenomena induced by chemical and fluid dynamic processes. When an alkaline solution containing heavy metals or radionuclides invades a low pH region, mixing due to longitudinal dispersion induces destabilization of the front forming a fast travelling pulse [1]. When the two fluids travel in parallel, instead, mixing induced by transverse dispersion creates a continuous leakage from the alkaline region into the acidic one forming a fast travelling plume [2] (Figure 1). Impact of these phenomena are on aquifers upon leaking of alkaline fluids, rich in heavy metals and radionuclides, from waste storage sites. Here, we report the results from a study where experiments with a quasi 2D tank are performed to analyze the effect of transverse mixing on strontium (Sr2+) transport. To visualize the leaking plume, a fluorescent dye (Fura-2) is added the acidic solution, which has been widely used in biomedical applications [3]. It is the aim of this work to optimize its application under the conditions relevant to this work. Spectrometric measurements of absorption and fluorescence show sensitivity of the dye to the presence of Sr2+ throughout a broad range of pH and Sr2+ concentration (Figure 2). In the absence of Sr2+, no significant absorption and fluorescence was measured, but as Sr2+ was added the relevant peaks increase significantly and sample dilution of tenfold was required to remain within the measuring threshold. These results show a strong sensitivity of the dye to the cation opening the opportunity to use Fura-2 as a tool to visualize heavy metals and radionuclides plumes. References[1] Prigiobbe et al. (2012) GRL 39, L18401. [2] Prigiobbe and Hesse (2015) in preparation. [3] Xu-Friedman and Regehr (2000) J. Neurosci. 20(12) 4414-4422.

  6. Synthesis and heavy metal immobilization behaviors of slag based geopolymer.

    PubMed

    Yunsheng, Zhang; Wei, Sun; Qianli, Chen; Lin, Chen

    2007-05-01

    In this paper, two aspects of studies are carried out: (1) synthesis of geopolymer by using slag and metakaolin; (2) immobilization behaviors of slag based geopolymer in a presence of Pb and Cu ions. As for the synthesis of slag based geopolymer, four different slag content (10%, 30%, 50%, 70%) and three types of curing regimes (standard curing, steam curing and autoclave curing) are investigated to obtain the optimum synthesis condition based on the compressive and flexural strength. The testing results showed that geopolymer mortar containing 50% slag that is synthesized at steam curing (80 degrees C for 8h), exhibits higher mechanical strengths. The compressive and flexural strengths of slag based geopolymer mortar are 75.2 MPa and 10.1 MPa, respectively. Additionally, Infrared (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques are used to characterize the microstructure of the slag based geopolymer paste. IR spectra show that the absorptive band at 1086 cm(-1) shifts to lower wave number around 1007 cm(-1), and some six-coordinated Als transforms into four-coordination during the synthesis of slag based geopolymer paste. The resulting slag based geopolymeric products are X-ray amorphous materials. SEM observation shows that it is possible to have geopolymeric gel and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel forming simultaneously within slag based geopolymer paste. As for immobilization of heavy metals, the leaching tests are employed to investigate the immobilization behaviors of the slag based geopolymer mortar synthesized under the above optimum condition. The leaching tests show that slag based geopolymer mortar can effectively immobilize Cu and Pb heavy metal ions, and the immobilization efficiency reach 98.5% greater when heavy metals are incorporated in the slag geopolymeric matrix in the range of 0.1-0.3%. The Pb exhibits better immobilization efficiency than the Cu in the case of large dosages of heavy metals. PMID:17034943

  7. Heavy Metals in the Vegetables Collected from Production Sites

    PubMed Central

    Taghipour, Hassan; Mosaferi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Contamination of vegetable crops (as an important part of people's diet) with heavy metals is a health concern. Therefore, monitoring levels of heavy metals in vegetables can provide useful information for promoting food safety. The present study was carried out in north-west of Iran (Tabriz) on the content of heavy metals in vegetable crops. Methods: Samples of vegetables including kurrat (n=20) (Allium ampeloprasumssp. Persicum), onion (n=20) (Allium cepa) and tomato (n=18) (Lycopersiconesculentum var. esculentum), were collected from production sites in west of Tabriz and analyzed for presence of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) after extraction by aqua regia method (drying, grounding and acid diges­tion). Results: Mean ± SD (mg/kg DW) concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn were 0.32 ± 0.58, 28.86 ± 28.79, 1.75 ± 2.05, 6.37± 5.61 and 58.01 ± 27.45, respec­tively. Cr, Cu and Zn were present in all the samples and the highest concentra­tions were observed in kurrat (leek). Levels of Cd, Cr and Cu were higher than the acceptable limits. There was significant difference in levels of Cr (P<0.05) and Zn (P<0.001) among the studied vegetables. Positive correlation was observed be­tween Cd:Cu (R=0.659, P<0.001) Cr:Ni (R=0.326, P<0.05) and Cr:Zn (R=0.308, P<0.05).   Conclusion: Level of heavy metals in some of the analyzed vegetables, especially kurrat samples, was higher than the standard levels. Considering the possi­ble health outcomes due to the consumption of contaminated vegetables, it is re­quired to take proper actions for avoiding people's chronic exposure. PMID:24688968

  8. Heavy metals in urban soils of the Granada city (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Gabriel; Sánchez-Marañón, Manuel; Bech, Jaume; Sartini, Alessandra; Martín-García, Juan Manuel; Delgado, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    Urban soils (Anthrosols, Technosols, and the remaining natural patches) are essential components of the city ecosystems influencing the quality of life for people. Unfortunately, because of the high concentration of matter and energy that occurs in any city, these soils might accumulate potentially toxic pollutants such as heavy metals, organic compounds, pathogens, pharmaceuticals, and soluble salts. Contamination by heavy metals has been considered especially dangerous because they can affect human health via inhalation of dust, ingestion, or skin contact with soils. Children are the more exposed citizens in gardens and parks. Accordingly, our objective was to analyze the content of heavy metals in soils of the two most emblematic, extensive, and visited landscaped areas of the Granada city (Salón Garden, which dates back to 1612, and Federico García Lorca Park, opened since 1993) for assessing the health hazard. Using a composite sampling of 20-30 points chosen at random, we collected the upper soil (10 cm) of five representative plots for each landscaped area. We determined soil characteristics by routine procedures and metal elements using ICP-mass. From high to low concentration we found Mn, Ba, Pb, Zn, V, Sn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Sb, Y, As, Sc, Co, Th, Au, U, Mo, Be, Bi, Tl, Cd, and In; the first 10 metals ranging between 478 and 22 ppm. Mn, Ba, and other trace elements were strongly correlated with soil properties suggesting the inheritance as a possible source of metal variation, especially in the soils of younger Park, where the materials used to build gardens in the five sampled plots seemed to be more variable (carbonates: 10-40%, clay: 18-26%, pH: 7.6-7.9, organic matter: 3-7%, free iron 0.5-1.1%). The content of many other metals measured in the sampled plots, however, were independent of soil material and management. On the other hand, compared to agricultural and native soils of the surroundings, our urban soils had obviously greater content in organic

  9. Heavy metal adsorption by sulphide mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Gilles E.; Bancroft, G. Michael

    1986-07-01

    The adsorption of aqueous Hg 2+, Pb 2+, Zn 2+ and Cd 2+ complexes on a variety of sulphide minerals has been studied as a function of the solution pH and also as a function of the nature of the ligands in solution. Sulphide minerals are excellent scavengers for these heavy metals. The adsorption is strongly pH dependent, i.e. there is a critical pH at which the adsorption increases dramatically. The pH dependence is related to the hydrolysis of the metal ions. Indirect evidence suggests that the hydrolyzed species are adsorbed directly on the sulphide groups, probably as a monolayer. The results also suggest the presence of MCI n2- n species physisorbed on the adsorbed monolayer. A positive identification of the adsorbed species was not possible using ESCA/XPS.

  10. Lichens as bioindicators of aerial fallout of heavy metals in Zaria, Nigeria

    SciTech Connect

    Kapu, M.M. Ahmadu Bello Univ., Zaria ); Ipaye, M.M.; Ega, R.A.I.; Balarabe, M.L. ); Akanya, H.O. ); Schaeffer, D.J. )

    1991-09-01

    Lichens and other epiphytic cryptogams possess efficient ion-exchange mechanisms which enable many species to accumulate airborne metals and which probably contribute to their tolerating metals at concentrations high enough to cause death to other plant species. A direct relationship between the distribution pattern of lichens and the trace metal content of the surrounding air has been demonstrated. The present study used lichens to assess the aerial fallout of heavy metals from traffic in Zaria, northern Nigeria.

  11. Accumulation rates of airborne heavy metals in wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Souch, C.J.; Filippelli, G.M.; Dollar, N.; Perkins, S.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Accumulation rates of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn) retained in wetland sediments in northwest Indiana-downwind of the Chicago-Gary-Hammond industrial area-are quantified to assess anthropogenic influences on atmospheric fluxes. Metal concentrations for 22 sediment cores are determined by ICP-AES after ashing and strong acid extraction. Relations between organic content and metal concentrations at depth are used to separate natural and anthropogenic sources. Accumulation rates over the lifetime of the wetlands (???4500 years) have averaged 0.2 (Cd), 1.4 (Cu), 1.7 (Cr), 13.4 (Mn), 4.8 (Pb), and 18.7 (Zn) mg m-2 y-1. Rates for the last 100 years have increased on average by factors of 6 (Cd), 8 (Cu), 10 (Mn), 15 (Pb), and 30 (Zn), remaining effectively constant for Cr. Where the wetlands have been drained, metals have been lost from the sediments, owing to changes in organic content and local hydrochemistry (exposure to acidic rainfall). Sediment-based accumulation rates at the undrained sites are higher, though generally consistent, with measured and modeled atmospheric fluxes documented by short-term studies conducted over the last three decades. The fraction of the total metals in the wetlands estimated to be of anthropogenic origin ranges from approximately 3% for Cr, up to approximately 35% for Pb, and 70% for Zn. This historic legacy of contamination must be considered in land management decisions, particularly when wetlands are drained.

  12. The spectral and image characteristics of vegetation in the presence of heavy metals in southern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fengjie; Li, Na; Zhou, Guangzhu; Song, Cuiyu; Li, Qingting

    2008-10-01

    The principle and methodology to monitor the heavy metal pollution using hyperspectral remote sensing are put forward based on the study areas, copper mine in De-Xing and tin ore in GeJiu, and selected plants, China Sumac, Sweet Wormwood Herb, and Nephrolepis Cordifolia. In the areas defined by former information, vegetation samples and corresponding spectral data are gathered. The samples are then analyzed in chemical lab, telling us to what extent the vegetation is polluted by heavy metal. The spectral curves are also processed, and some spectral parameters are extracted, such as reflectance, blue-shift extent, position of red-edge, vegetation index, band-depth. Then the regression model from spectral characteristic parameters to heavy metal content can be built. At last, the conclusion can be attained. In copper mine area, the vegetation is polluted by seven kinds of heavy metals. As far as China Sumac, the reflectance of red band correlates the Pb content well. The reflectance of all study plants at 1240nm and 725/675(nm) correlates heavy metal content well. The reflectance of 450nm, 550nm, 670nm, 760nm, and 1240nm can be liner combined as a parameter to monitor heavy metal pollution. Besides, some band-depth can also be combined as parameters using "Enter". In a word, as an advanced technique to monitor environmental pollution, hyperspectral remote sensing has wild perspective.

  13. Assessment of heavy metal pollution in vegetables and relationships with soil heavy metal distribution in Zhejiang province, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xuezhu; Xiao, Wendan; Zhang, Yongzhi; Zhao, Shouping; Wang, Gangjun; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Qiang

    2015-06-01

    There are increasing concerns on heavy metal contaminant in soils and vegetables. In this study, we investigated heavy metal pollution in vegetables and the corresponding soils in the main vegetable production regions of Zhejiang province, China. A total of 97 vegetable samples and 202 agricultural soil samples were analyzed for the concentrations of Cd, Pb, As, Hg, and Cr. The average levels of Cd, Pb, and Cr in vegetable samples [Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris spp. Pekinensis), pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.), celery (Apium graveolens), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), cucumber (Colletotrichum lagenarium), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.), and eggplant (Solanum melongena)] were 0.020, 0.048, and 0.043 mg kg(-1), respectively. The Pb and Cr concentrations in all vegetable samples were below the threshold levels of the Food Quality Standard (0.3 and 0.5 mg kg(-1), respectively), except that two eggplant samples exceeded the threshold levels for Cd concentrations (0.05 mg kg(-1)). As and Hg contents in vegetables were below the detection level (0.005 and 0.002 mg kg(-1), respectively). Soil pollution conditions were assessed in accordance with the Chinese Soil Quality Criterion (GB15618-1995, Grade II); 50 and 68 soil samples from the investigated area exceeded the maximum allowable contents for Cd and Hg, respectively. Simple correlation analysis revealed that there were significantly positive correlations between the metal concentrations in vegetables and the corresponding soils, especially for the leafy and stem vegetables such as pakchoi, cabbage, and celery. Bio-concentration factor values for Cd are higher than those for Pb and Cr, which indicates that Cd is more readily absorbed by vegetables than Pb and Cr. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the possible pollution of heavy metals in vegetables, especially Cd. PMID:26013654

  14. The Distributional Characteristics of Heavy Metal in Jiangsu Province Shoal Sea

    PubMed Central

    Wenjin, Yu; Xinqing, Zou

    2013-01-01

    After the analysis of surface samples and core samples collected in Xinyanggang tidal land, the contents of Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cr were obtained and analyzed in this paper. The heavy metal accumulation rule and pollution status were studied by Index of geo-accumulation, latent ecological risk index method, and elements accumulation index method. The research suggests that (1) the contents of heavy metal Pb, Cu, Zn, and Cr in Xinyanggang tidal land have the same change trend, and such trend remains unchanged after the data were normalized, while the fluctuation range becomes smaller. (2) After analyzing the heavy metal content in the surface samples, it was revealed that the contents of heavy metals are getting lower from high tidal zone to low tidal zone, but the ranges of the change were different. Cu, Ni, and Zn emerge obvious decline from supratidal zone to subtidal zone, while the changes of Cr and Pb are not obvious. (3) Pb and Cr contents in Xinyanggang tidal land present accumulative character, as Pb in Xinyanggang is 3 times as much as the local background value, whose EF reaches 3.774. (4) RI value in Xinyanggang is 23.552, which indicates that though Xinyanggang tidal land has some heavy metal pollution and accumulation, there are no ecosystem risks, and the whole Xinyanggang core area environment quality is relatively good. PMID:23737807

  15. Heavy metal contamination of river Yamuna, Haryana, India: Assessment by Metal Enrichment Factor of the Sediments.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, A; Kansal, Ankur; Santosh; Meena; Kumari, Shiv; Kaushik, C P

    2009-05-15

    Concentration of Heavy Metals (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni) in water, plants and sediments of river Yamuna flowing in Haryana through Delhi are reported here selecting 14 stations covering the upstream and downstream sites of major industrial complexes of the State. Some important characteristics of river water and sediments (pH, EC, Cl(-), SO(3)(2-), and PO(4)(3-) in water and sediments, COD of water and organic matter content of sediments) were also analysed and inter-relationships of all these parameters with heavy metal concentration in different compartments were examined. The sediments of the river show significant enrichment with Cd and Ni indicating inputs from industrial sources. Concentrations of Cr are moderate and show high enrichment values only at a few sites. Enrichment factor for Fe is found to be <1, showing insignificant effect of anthropogenic flux. Concentrations of these metals in river water are generally high exceeding the standard maximum permissible limits prescribed for drinking water, particularly in the downstream sites. The aquatic plants show maximum accumulation of Fe. The other heavy metals Cd, Cr and Ni, though less in concentration, show some accumulation in the plants growing in contaminated sites. Interrelationships of metal concentration with important characteristics of water and sediment have been analysed. Analysis of heavy metals in water, sediments and littoral flora in the stretch of river Yamuna is first study of itself and interrelationship of metal concentration and other important characteristics make the study significant and interesting in analysing the pollution load at different points of the river body. PMID:18809251

  16. Stabilization and separation of heavy metals in incineration fly ash during the hydrothermal treatment process.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuyan; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Jianping; Chen, Dezhen

    2015-12-15

    In the paper, hydrothermal treatment (HT) of MSWI fly ashes was performed to stabilize and separate heavy metals. Influences of pre-treatment, types of ferric and/or ferrous additives, and subsequent heavy metal stabilization procedure by adding phosphate were investigated. The chemical stability of hydrothermal products was examined by solid waste extraction procedure with acetic acid buffer solution. Mineralogical investigation of selected hydrothermal product was carried out by XRD. FEGE SEM- -EDX was used to study the morphology and surface compositions of the ash particles. Experimental results revealed that HT process facilitated heavy metal exposure to leaching solution. FEGE SEM-EDX images revealed that fly ash particles were re-organized during hydrothermal process and that the minerals with special shapes and containing high levels of heavy metals were formed. A mild acid washing treatment with final pH around 6.20 could remove soluble heavy metals. Therefore, it may be a proper pre- or post-treatment method for fly ash particles for the purpose of reducing heavy metal contents. For the purpose of stabilizing heavy metals, the addition of ferric/ferrous salts in the HT process or phosphate stabilization after HT is recommended. The HT process may be applied to realize the environmentally sound management of MSWI fly ash or to recover and utilize MSWI fly ash. PMID:26100935

  17. [Biological activity of selenorganic compounds at heavy metal salts intoxication].

    PubMed

    Rusetskaya, N Y; Borodulin, V B

    2015-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of the antitoxic action of organoselenium compounds in heavy metal poisoning have been considered. Heavy metal toxicity associated with intensification of free radical oxidation, suppression of the antioxidant system, damage to macromolecules, mitochondria and the genetic material can cause apoptotic cell death or the development of carcinogenesis. Organic selenium compounds are effective antioxidants during heavy metal poisoning; they exhibit higher bioavailability in mammals than inorganic ones and they are able to activate antioxidant defense, bind heavy metal ions and reactive oxygen species formed during metal-induced oxidative stress. One of promising organoselenium compounds is diacetophenonyl selenide (DAPS-25), which is characterized by antioxidant and antitoxic activity, under conditions including heavy metal intoxication. PMID:26350735

  18. Toxic heavy metals: materials cycle optimization.

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, R U

    1992-01-01

    Long-term ecological sustainability is incompatible with an open materials cycle. The toxic heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, uranium/plutonium, zinc) exemplify the problem. These metals are being mobilized and dispersed into the environment by industrial activity at a rate far higher than by natural processes. Apart from losses to the environment resulting from mine wastes and primary processing, many of these metals are utilized in products that are inherently dissipative. Examples of such uses include fuels, lubricants, solvents, fire retardants, stabilizers, flocculants, pigments, biocides, and preservatives. To close the materials cycle, it will be necessary to accomplish two things. The first is to ban or otherwise discourage (e.g., by means of high severance taxes on virgin materials) dissipative uses of the above type. The second is to increase the efficiency of recycling of those materials that are not replaceable in principle. Here, also, economic instruments (such as returnable deposits) can be effective in some cases. A systems view of the problem is essential to assess the cost and effectiveness of alternative strategies. PMID:11607259

  19. Heavy metal toxicity and the environment.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, Paul B; Yedjou, Clement G; Patlolla, Anita K; Sutton, Dwayne J

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals are naturally occurring elements that have a high atomic weight and a density at least five times greater than that of water. Their multiple industrial, domestic, agricultural, medical, and technological applications have led to their wide distribution in the environment, raising concerns over their potential effects on human health and the environment. Their toxicity depends on several factors including the dose, route of exposure, and chemical species, as well as the age, gender, genetics, and nutritional status of exposed individuals. Because of their high degree of toxicity, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury rank among the priority metals that are of public health significance. These metallic elements are considered systemic toxicants that are known to induce multiple organ damage, even at lower levels of exposure. They are also classified as human carcinogens (known or probable) according to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This review provides an analysis of their environmental occurrence, production and use, potential for human exposure, and molecular mechanisms of toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. PMID:22945569

  20. Heavy Metals Toxicity and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tchounwou, Paul B; Yedjou, Clement G; Patlolla, Anita K; Sutton, Dwayne J

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals are naturally occurring elements that have a high atomic weight and a density at least 5 times greater than that of water. Their multiple industrial, domestic, agricultural, medical and technological applications have led to their wide distribution in the environment; raising concerns over their potential effects on human health and the environment. Their toxicity depends on several factors including the dose, route of exposure, and chemical species, as well as the age, gender, genetics, and nutritional status of exposed individuals. Because of their high degree of toxicity, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury rank among the priority metals that are of public health significance. These metallic elements are considered systemic toxicants that are known to induce multiple organ damage, even at lower levels of exposure. They are also classified as human carcinogens (known or probable) according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This review provides an analysis of their environmental occurrence, production and use, potential for human exposure, and molecular mechanisms of toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. PMID:22945569

  1. Heavy Metal Induced Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterium LSJC7.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songcan; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Guoxin; Zhang, Yingjiao; Su, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Co-contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals prevails in the environment, and may play an important role in disseminating bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the selective effects of heavy metals on bacterial antibiotic resistance is largely unclear. To investigate this, the effects of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance were studied in a genome-sequenced bacterium, LSJC7. The results showed that the presence of arsenate, copper, and zinc were implicated in fortifying the resistance of LSJC7 towards tetracycline. The concentrations of heavy metals required to induce antibiotic resistance, i.e., the minimum heavy metal concentrations (MHCs), were far below (up to 64-fold) the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of LSJC7. This finding indicates that the relatively low heavy metal levels in polluted environments and in treated humans and animals might be sufficient to induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. In addition, heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance was also observed for a combination of arsenate and chloramphenicol in LSJC7, and copper/zinc and tetracycline in antibiotic susceptible strain Escherichia coli DH5α. Overall, this study implies that heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance might be ubiquitous among various microbial species and suggests that it might play a role in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in metal and antibiotic co-contaminated environments. PMID:26426011

  2. Heavy Metal Induced Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterium LSJC7

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Songcan; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Guoxin; Zhang, Yingjiao; Su, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Co-contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals prevails in the environment, and may play an important role in disseminating bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the selective effects of heavy metals on bacterial antibiotic resistance is largely unclear. To investigate this, the effects of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance were studied in a genome-sequenced bacterium, LSJC7. The results showed that the presence of arsenate, copper, and zinc were implicated in fortifying the resistance of LSJC7 towards tetracycline. The concentrations of heavy metals required to induce antibiotic resistance, i.e., the minimum heavy metal concentrations (MHCs), were far below (up to 64-fold) the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of LSJC7. This finding indicates that the relatively low heavy metal levels in polluted environments and in treated humans and animals might be sufficient to induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. In addition, heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance was also observed for a combination of arsenate and chloramphenicol in LSJC7, and copper/zinc and tetracycline in antibiotic susceptible strain Escherichia coli DH5α. Overall, this study implies that heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance might be ubiquitous among various microbial species and suggests that it might play a role in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in metal and antibiotic co-contaminated environments. PMID:26426011

  3. Growth and heavy metals accumulation potential of microalgae grown in sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluents.

    PubMed

    Ajayan, K V; Selvaraju, M; Thirugnanamoorthy, K

    2011-08-15

    Microalgae exhibit a number of heavy metal uptake process by different metabolism. In this study, the ability of microalgae for removal of heavy metal from wastewater was studied. Growth and biochemical contents of microalgae were determined by spectrophotometer. Heavy metal analysis of wastewater effluents were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after treatment at laboratory scale. The growth of Scenedesmus bijuga and Oscillatoria quadripunctulata in sewage wastewater was higher than those grown in synthetic medium. Whereas, the growth of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata in sterilized petrochemical effluents was slightly lower than that grown in the standard synthetic medium. The chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein content of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized sewage wastewater were higher than those grown in the standard medium. Similarly S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized petrochemical effluents showed lower contents of pigments and protein than those grown in sewage and synthetic medium. Heavy metals copper, cobalt, lead and zinc were removed by 37-50, 20.3-33.3, 34.6-100 and 32.1-100%, respectively from sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluent using Ocillatoria culture. The metal absorption by S. bijuga were (Cu, Co, Pb, Zn) 60-50, 29.6-66, 15.4-25 and 42.9-50%, respectively from sewage and petrochemical effluents. Both species showed high level of heavy metal removal efficiency and metal sorption efficiency of both microalgae depended on the type of biosorbent, the physiological status of the cells, availability of heavy metal, concentration of heavy metal and chemical composition of wastewater. PMID:22545355

  4. [Concentrations and Speciation of Dissolved Heavy Metal in Rainwater in Guiyang, China].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhao-zhou; Li, Jun; Wang, Zhi-ru

    2015-06-01

    In order to understand the pollution situation, as well as seasonal changes in characteristics and speciation of dissolved heavy metals in acid rain control zone, the concentrations of dissolved heavy metals in rainwater collected at Guiyang were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). And the speciation of dissolved heavy metals was further simulated by PHREEQC model. The results showed that the dissolved Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd concentrations were low and not higher than the national standards for drinking water quality in China. The dissolved Pd concentrations were high in fall and winter and higher than the national standards for drinking water quality in China. The Co and Ni in rainwater mainly came from the crust and there was almost no human impact. The Cu, Zn, Cd and Pd pollutions in rainwater were affected by human activity with different levels. The degrees of contamination in autumn and winter were more serious than those in spring and summer. The free metal ion species was the dominant form of dissolved heavy metal, accounting for 47.27%-95.28% of the dissolved metal in rainwater from Guiyang city. The free metal ion species was followed in abundance by Metal-Oxalate and Metal-sulfate complexes that accounted for 0.72% -51.87% and 0.50%-7.66%, respectively. The acidity of rainwater, acid type as well as content of ligand more likely controlled the distribution of dissolved heavy metal in precipitation. PMID:26387294

  5. Comparative characterization of sewage sludge compost and soil: Heavy metal leaching characteristics.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wen; Wei, Yonghong; Liu, Jianguo

    2016-06-01

    The leaching and accumulation of heavy metals are major concerns following the land application of sewage sludge compost (SSC). We comparatively characterized SSC, the reference soil, and the SSC amended soil to investigate their similarities and differences regarding heavy metal leaching behavior and then to evaluate the effect of SSC land application on the leaching behavior of soil. Results showed that organic matter, including both of particulate organic matter (POM) and dissolved organic matter (DOM), were critical factors influencing heavy metal leaching from both of SSC and the soil. When SSC was applied to soil at the application rate of 48t/ha, the increase of DOM content slightly enhanced heavy metal leaching from the amended soil over the applicable pH domain (6content with the SSC application had less influence on the leaching behavior of heavy metals. The geochemical speciation modeling revealed that heavy metal speciation in the solid phase were similar between the reference soil and the amended soil. PMID:26897569

  6. Study of heavy metal poisoning in frequent users of Chinese medicines in Hong Kong and Macau.

    PubMed

    Chui, S H; Wong, Y H; Chio, H I; Fong, M Y; Chiu, Y M; Szeto, Y T; Vong, W T; Lam, C W K

    2013-06-01

    This study is a direct assessment of blood heavy metal concentrations of frequent users of Chinese medicines (CM), who had been taking prescribed CM at least 6 days per week for not less than 3 months, to determine whether their intake of CM could cause an increased load of toxic heavy metals in the body. From November 2009 to June 2010, 85 subjects were recruited with informed consent, and their blood samples were collected for measurement of arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury concentrations. Results showed that blood concentrations of four heavy metals of nearly all 85 subjects were within reference ranges. Only one subject who had consumed plentiful seafood was found to have transiently increased blood arsenic concentration (29% higher than the upper limit of the reference range). However, after refraining from eating seafood for 1 month, his blood arsenic concentration returned to normal. Eighty commonly prescribed CM in both raw medicine and powder concentrate supplied by local distributors were also tested for the four heavy metals. Twelve out of the 80 raw medicines were found to contain one or more of the heavy metals that exceeded the respective maximum permitted content. Cadmium was most frequently found in the contaminated samples. None of the powder concentrates had heavy metal content exceeding their respective maximum permitted level. PMID:22899484

  7. Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Grown in a Controlled Environment.

    PubMed

    Alia, Naz; Sardar, Khan; Said, Muhammad; Salma, Khalid; Sadia, Alam; Sadaf, Siddique; Toqeer, Ahmed; Miklas, Scholz

    2015-07-01

    The impact of heavy metal toxicity on the shoot and root lengths, total protein, fiber characteristics, moisture content and nutrient composition of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) was evaluated. Plants were grown in pots containing soil and treated with different concentrations (mg/kg) of lead (Pb; 300, 400 and 500), cadmium (Cd; 0.5, 1 and 1.5) and zinc (Zn; 250, 500, and 700) as well as mixtures of Cd and Pb (0.5/300, 1/400, 1.5/500), Cd and Zn (0.5/250, 1/500, 1.5/700), and Pb and Zn (300/250, 400/500, 500/700). Soil contaminated by long-term irrigation with wastewater containing heavy metals was simulated. An increase in concentrations of heavy metals both individually and as mixtures significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the growth parameters and nutrient contents of S. oleracea. The uptake patterns of heavy metals in mixtures showed antagonistic impacts on each other. The toxicities of the mixtures Cd and Pb, Cd and Zn as well as Pb and Zn were higher than those observed in separate heavy metal applications but less than their additive sums. The toxicity caused by individual heavy metals was the highest for Cd followed by Pb and Zn. The highest toxicity was observed in plants grown in soil contaminated by Cd and Pb. PMID:26133131

  8. Toxicity and Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) Grown in a Controlled Environment

    PubMed Central

    Alia, Naz; Sardar, Khan; Said, Muhammad; Salma, Khalid; Sadia, Alam; Sadaf, Siddique; Toqeer, Ahmed; Miklas, Scholz

    2015-01-01

    The impact of heavy metal toxicity on the shoot and root lengths, total protein, fiber characteristics, moisture content and nutrient composition of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) was evaluated. Plants were grown in pots containing soil and treated with different concentrations (mg/kg) of lead (Pb; 300, 400 and 500), cadmium (Cd; 0.5, 1 and 1.5) and zinc (Zn; 250, 500, and 700) as well as mixtures of Cd and Pb (0.5/300, 1/400, 1.5/500), Cd and Zn (0.5/250, 1/500, 1.5/700), and Pb and Zn (300/250, 400/500, 500/700). Soil contaminated by long-term irrigation with wastewater containing heavy metals was simulated. An increase in concentrations of heavy metals both individually and as mixtures significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the growth parameters and nutrient contents of S. oleracea. The uptake patterns of heavy metals in mixtures showed antagonistic impacts on each other. The toxicities of the mixtures Cd and Pb, Cd and Zn as well as Pb and Zn were higher than those observed in separate heavy metal applications but less than their additive sums. The toxicity caused by individual heavy metals was the highest for Cd followed by Pb and Zn. The highest toxicity was observed in plants grown in soil contaminated by Cd and Pb. PMID:26133131

  9. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.

    1998-07-01

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

  10. Intrinsic Instabilities Of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, A. J.; Moynihan, C. T.; Loehr, S. R.; Opalka, S. M.; Mossadegh, R.; Perazzo, N. L.; Bansal, N. P.; Doremus, R. H.; Doremus; Drexhage, M. G.

    1985-06-01

    Heavy metal fluoride glasses (HMFG) are potentially useful as optical components in a wide range of devices. Their utilization has so far been delayed mainly because of insufficient material purity and inadequate processing conditions. However, as the result of numerous research efforts, these problems are gradually diminishing, and it now seems likely that the ultimate limitations for use of HMFG components, at least in those applications in which high optical transparency is not a prerequisite, will be imposed by more intrinsic instabilities of the glasses themselves. These include their strong tendency to crystallize on quenching and subsequent reheating, low mechanical and chemical durability, and the possibility that they will undergo significant physical aging in situ. Experimental data relating to these problems have now been obtained, and their relative importance is assessed in this paper.