Science.gov

Sample records for heavy metals removal

  1. Process for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.; Boysen, John E.; Branthaver, Jan F.

    1991-01-01

    A process is provided for removing heavy metal compounds from heavy crude oil by mixing the heavy crude oil with tar sand; preheating the mixture to a temperature of about 650.degree. F.; heating said mixture to up to 800.degree. F.; and separating tar sand from the light oils formed during said heating. The heavy metals removed from the heavy oils can be recovered from the spent sand for other uses.

  2. Removal of heavy metals from waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, M.D.; Kozaruk, J.M.; Melvin, M.; Gardocki, S.M.

    1988-07-19

    A method for removing heavy metals from effluent water is described comprising performing sequentially the following steps: (a) adding from 7-333 ppm of an anionic surfactant to the effluent water to provide coagulatable heavy metal ion; (b) adjusting the effluent water pH to within the range of 8 to 10, (c) providing from 10-200 ppm of a cationic coagulant to coagulate the heavy metal ion, (d) providing from 0.3 to 5.0 ppm of a polymeric flocculant whereby a heavy metal containing floc is formed for removal from the effluent water, and, (e) then removing the floc from the effluent water, wherein the anionic surfactant is sodium lauryl ether sulfate. The cationic coagulant is selected from the group consisting of diallyl dimethylammonium chloride polymer, epichlorohydrin dimethylamine polymer, ethylene amine polymer, polyaluminum chloride, and alum; and the flocculant is an acrylamide/sodium acrylate copolymer having an RSV greater than 23.

  3. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W. ); Benemann, J.R. , Pinole, CA )

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  4. Material Removes Heavy Metal Ions From Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W.; Hill, Carol; Savino, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    New high capacity ion-exchange polymer material removes toxic metal cations from contaminated water. Offers several advantages. High sensitivities for such heavy metals as lead, cadmium, and copper and capable of reducing concentrations in aqueous solutions to parts-per-billion range. Removes cations even when calcium present. Material made into variety of forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As result, adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water, usually hard wherever found, whether in wastewater-treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or homes. Another important feature that adsorbed metals easily reclaimed by either destructive or nondestructive process. Other tests show ion-exchange polymer made inexpensively; easy to use; strong, flexible, not easily torn; and chemically stable in storage, in aqueous solutions, and in acidic or basic solution.

  5. Modeling heavy metal removal in wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Lung, W.S.; Light, R.N.

    1994-12-31

    Although the use of wetland ecosystems to purify water has gained increased attention only recently, it has been recognized as a wastewater treatment technique for centuries. While considerable research has occurred to quantify the nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus) removal mechanisms of wetlands, relatively few investigators have focused on the mechanisms of heavy metal removal and uptake by wetland sediments and plants. The quantification of the assimilative capacity of heavy metals by wetland ecosystems is a critical component in the design and use of wetlands for this purpose. A computer model has been developed to simulate the fate and transport of heavy metals introduced to a wetland ecosystem. Modeled water quality variables include phytoplankton biomass and productivity; macrophyte (Nulumbo lutea) biomass; total phosphorus in the water column; dissolved copper in the water column and sediments; particulate copper in the water column and sediments; and suspended solids. These variables directly affect the calculated rate of copper uptake by macrophytes, and the rate of copper recycling as a function of the decomposition of copper-laden biomass litter. The model was calibrated using total phosphorus and chlorophyll a data from the Old Woman Creek Wetland in Ohio. Verification of the model was achieved using data on the copper content of the macrophyte Nelumbo lutea.

  6. Multiple heavy metal removal using an entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Gola, Deepak; Dey, Priyadarshini; Bhattacharya, Arghya; Mishra, Abhishek; Malik, Anushree; Namburath, Maneesh; Ahammad, Shaikh Ziauddin

    2016-10-01

    Towards the development of a potential remediation technology for multiple heavy metals [Zn(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(VI) and Ni(II)] from contaminated water, present study examined the growth kinetics and heavy metal removal ability of Beauveria bassiana in individual and multi metals. The specific growth rate of B. bassiana varied from 0.025h(-1) to 0.039h(-1) in presence of individual/multi heavy metals. FTIR analysis indicated the involvement of different surface functional groups in biosorption of different metals, while cellular changes in fungus was reflected by various microscopic (SEM, AFM and TEM) analysis. TEM studies proved removal of heavy metals via sorption and accumulation processes, whereas AFM studies revealed increase in cell surface roughness in fungal cells exposed to heavy metals. Present study delivers first report on the mechanism of bioremediation of heavy metals when present individually as well as multi metal mixture by entomopathogenic fungi. PMID:27387415

  7. REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS BY ARTIFICIAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Artificial wetlands have been operated successfully for treatment of municipal wastewater for a number of years at several locations in this country. However, the capability of these systems to treat heavy metal laden municipal wastewater had not previously been investigated. The...

  8. Heavy metal removal using peat/wetland treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Murawski, S.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the mechanisms and application of a peat/wetland treatment system for heavy metal removal from wastewater. The mechanisms involved in the removal of heavy metals are complex and difficult to predict, however, peat has been proven to be an effective medium to remove metals. The successful design of a peat/wetland treatment system for acid mine drainage is presented to emphasize the low cost and minimal maintenance involved in this passive metal removal technique.

  9. Magnetic process for removing heavy metals from water employing magnetites

    DOEpatents

    Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D.; Padilla, Dennis D.; Wingo, Robert M.; Worl, Laura A.; Johnson, Michael D.

    2003-07-22

    A process for removing heavy metals from water is provided. The process includes the steps of introducing magnetite to a quantity of water containing heavy metal. The magnetite is mixed with the water such that at least a portion of, and preferably the majority of, the heavy metal in the water is bound to the magnetite. Once this occurs the magnetite and absorbed metal is removed from the water by application of a magnetic field. In most applications the process is achieved by flowing the water through a solid magnetized matrix, such as steel wool, such that the magnetite magnetically binds to the solid matrix. The magnetized matrix preferably has remnant magnetism, but may also be subject to an externally applied magnetic field. Once the magnetite and associated heavy metal is bound to the matrix, it can be removed and disposed of, such as by reverse water or air and water flow through the matrix. The magnetite may be formed in-situ by the addition of the necessary quantities of Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions, or pre-formed magnetite may be added, or a combination of seed and in-situ formation may be used. The invention also relates to an apparatus for performing the removal of heavy metals from water using the process outlined above.

  10. Magnetic process for removing heavy metals from water employing magnetites

    DOEpatents

    Prenger, F. Coyne; Hill, Dallas D.

    2006-12-26

    A process for removing heavy metals from water is provided. The process includes the steps of introducing magnetite to a quantity of water containing heavy metal. The magnetite is mixed with the water such that at least a portion of, and preferably the majority of, the heavy metal in the water is bound to the magnetite. Once this occurs the magnetite and absorbed metal is removed from the water by application of a magnetic field. In most applications the process is achieved by flowing the water through a solid magnetized matrix, such as steel wool, such that the magnetite magnetically binds to the solid matrix. The magnetized matrix preferably has remnant magnetism, but may also be subject to an externally applied magnetic field. Once the magnetite and associated heavy metal is bound to the matrix, it can be removed and disposed of, such as by reverse water or air and water flow through the matrix. The magnetite may be formed in-situ by the addition of the necessary quantities of Fe(II) and Fe(III) ions, or pre-formed magnetite may be added, or a combination of seed and in-situ formation may be used. The invention also relates to an apparatus for performing the removal of heavy metals from water using the process outlined above.

  11. New trends in removing heavy metals from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meihua; Xu, Ying; Zhang, Chaosheng; Rong, Hongwei; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-08-01

    With the development of researches, the treatments of wastewater have reached a certain level. Whereas, heavy metals in wastewater cause special concern in recent times due to their recalcitrance and persistence in the environment. Therefore, it is important to get rid of the heavy metals in wastewater. The previous studies have provided many alternative processes in removing heavy metals from wastewater. This paper reviews the recent developments and various methods for the removal of heavy metals from wastewater. It also evaluates the advantages and limitations in application of these techniques. A particular focus is given to innovative removal processes including adsorption on abiological adsorbents, biosorption, and photocatalysis. Because these processes have leaded the new trends and attracted more and more researches in removing heavy metals from wastewater due to their high efficency, pluripotency and availability in a copious amount. In general, the applicability, characteristic of wastewater, cost-effectiveness, and plant simplicity are the key factors in selecting the most suitable method for the contaminated wastewater. PMID:27318819

  12. Plasma polymer-functionalized silica particles for heavy metals removal.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Behnam; Jarvis, Karyn; Majewski, Peter

    2015-02-25

    Highly negatively charged particles were fabricated via an innovative plasma-assisted approach for the removal of heavy metal ions. Thiophene plasma polymerization was used to deposit sulfur-rich films onto silica particles followed by the introduction of oxidized sulfur functionalities, such as sulfonate and sulfonic acid, via water-plasma treatments. Surface chemistry analyses were conducted by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Electrokinetic measurements quantified the zeta potentials and isoelectric points (IEPs) of modified particles and indicated significant decreases of zeta potentials and IEPs upon plasma modification of particles. Plasma polymerized thiophene-coated particles treated with water plasma for 10 min exhibited an IEP of less than 3.5. The effectiveness of developed surfaces in the adsorption of heavy metal ions was demonstrated through copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) removal experiments. The removal of metal ions was examined through changing initial pH of solution, removal time, and mass of particles. Increasing the water plasma treatment time to 20 min significantly increased the metal removal efficiency (MRE) of modified particles, whereas further increasing the plasma treatment time reduced the MRE due to the influence of an ablation mechanism. The developed particulate surfaces were capable of removing more than 96.7% of both Cu and Zn ions in 1 h. The combination of plasma polymerization and oxidative plasma treatment is an effective method for the fabrication of new adsorbents for the removal of heavy metals. PMID:25603034

  13. Removal of heavy metal from industrial effluents using Baker's yeast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdous, Anika; Maisha, Nuzhat; Sultana, Nayer; Ahmed, Shoeb

    2016-07-01

    Bioremediation of wastewater containing heavy metals is one of the major challenges in environmental biotechnology. Heavy metals are not degraded and as a result they remain in the ecosystem, and pose serious health hazards as it comes in contact with human due to anthropogenic activities. Biological treatment with various microorganisms has been practiced widely in recent past, however, accessing and maintaining the microorganisms have always been a challenge. Microorganisms like Baker's yeast can be very promising biosorbents as they offer high surface to volume ratio, large availability, rapid kinetics of adsorption and desorption and low cost. The main aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of the biosorption process using baker's yeast. Here we present an experimental investigation of biosorption of Chromium (Cr) from water using commercial Baker's Yeast. It was envisaged that yeast, dead or alive, would adsorb heavy metals, however, operating parameters could play vital roles in determining the removal efficiency. Parameters, such as incubation time, pH, amount of biosorbent and heavy metal concentration were varied to investigate the impacts of those parameters on removal efficiency. Rate of removal was found to be inversely proportional to the initial Cr (+6) concentrations but the removal rate per unit biomass was a weakly dependent on initial Cr(+6) concentrations. Biosorption process was found to be more efficient at lower pH and it exhibited lower removal with the increase in solution pH. The optimum incubation time was found to be between 6-8 hours and optimum pH for the metal ion solution was 2. The effluents produced in leather industries are the major source of chromium pollution in Bangladesh and this study has presented a very cost effective yet efficient heavy metal removal approach that can be adopted for such kind of wastewater.

  14. Simultaneous heavy metal removal mechanism by dead macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Miretzky, Patricia; Saralegui, Andrea; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia

    2006-01-01

    The use of dead, dried aquatic plants, for water removal of metals derived from industrial activities as a simple biosorbent material has been increasing in the last years. The mechanism of simultaneous metal removal (Cd2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+) by 3 macrophytes biomass (Spirodela intermedia, Lemna minor and Pistia stratiotes) was investigated. L. minor biomass presented the highest mean removal percentage and P. stratiotes the lowest for all metals tested. Pb2+ and Cd2+ were more efficiently removed by the three of them. The simultaneous metal sorption data were analysed according to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. Data fitted the Langmuir model only for Ni and Cd, but Freundlich isotherm for all metals tested, as it was expected. The K(F) values showed that Pb was the metal more efficiently removed from water solution. The adsorption process for the three species studied followed first order kinetics. The mechanism involved in biosorption resulted ion exchange between monovalent metals as counter ions present in the macrophytes biomass and heavy metal ions and protons taken up from water. No significant differences were observed in the metal exchange amounts while using multi-metal or individual metal solutions. PMID:15990152

  15. Removal of heavy metals by hybrid electrocoagulation and microfiltration processes.

    PubMed

    Keerthi; Vinduja, V; Balasubramanian, N

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on the investigation of the performance of electrocoagulation (EC), followed by the microfiltration process for heavy metal removal in synthetic model waste water containing Zn2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ ions. Effects of initial concentration, current density and pH on metal removal were analysed to optimize the EC process. The optimized EC process was then integrated with dead-end microfiltration (MF) and was found that the hybrid process was capable of 99% removal of heavy metals. The cake layer formed over the membrane by the hybrid process was analysed through scanning electron microscope-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The particle size analysis of the sludge formed during EC was done to investigate the fouling caused during the process. PMID:24527655

  16. ULTRASONIC ENHANCEMENT OF THE REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA GRANT NUMBER: R828598C020
    Title: Ultrasonic Enhancement of the Removal of Heavy Metals
    Investigators: Dennis Truax, Krishnan Balasubramaniam
    Institution: Mississippi State University
    EPA Project Officer: S. Bala Krishnan
    ...

  17. Removal of Trichloroethylene and Heavy Metals by Zerovalent Iron Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boparai, H. K.; O'Carroll, D. M.

    2009-05-01

    Heavy metals combined with chlorinated solvents are one class of mixed waste found at various hazardous waste sites in North America. Nano zerovalent iron (nZVI), an emerging technology, is being successfully used for treating chlorinated solvents and heavy metals independently, however comparatively little research has investigated the remediation of the wastes when they are present in the same mixture. The remediation of trichloroethylene (TCE)/heavy metal waste mixtures via nZVI has been investigated in the present study. Results suggest that some metals are reduced by nZVI to their zerovalent state and thus precipitate on nZVI particles. This improves the contaminant removal performance of nZVI by forming bimetallic iron nanoparticles. Other metals are directly precipitated or adsorbed on the nZVI particles in their original oxidation state and are rendered immobile. In some cases the presence of the heavy metals in the waste mixture enhanced the dechlorination of TCE while in other cases it did not. This study suggests that nano zerovalent iron particles can be effectively used for the remediation of mixed contamination of heavy metals and chlorinated solvents. Results have been supported by a variety of techniques including X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis.

  18. Two-stage anaerobic digestion enables heavy metal removal.

    PubMed

    Selling, Robert; Håkansson, Torbjörn; Björnsson, Lovisa

    2008-01-01

    To fully exploit the environmental benefits of the biogas process, the digestate should be recycled as biofertiliser to agriculture. This practice can however be jeopardized by the presence of unwanted compounds such as heavy metals in the digestate. By using two-stage digestion, where the first stage includes hydrolysis/acidification and liquefaction of the substrate, heavy metals can be transferred to the leachate. From the leachate, metals can then be removed by adsorption. In this study, up to 70% of the Ni, 40% of the Zn and 25% of the Cd present in maize was removed when the leachate from hydrolysis was circulated over a macroporous polyacrylamide column for 6 days. For Cu and Pb, the mobilization in the hydrolytic stage was lower which resulted in a low removal. A more efficient two-stage process with improved substrate hydrolysis would give lower pH and/or longer periods with low pH in the hydrolytic stage. This is likely to increase metal mobilisation, and would open up for an excellent opportunity of heavy metal removal. PMID:18359995

  19. Chitosan removes toxic heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Wen; Xu, Ying; Wang, Dongfeng; Zhou, Shilu

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the removal of heavy metal ions from cigarette mainstream smoke using chitosan. Chitosan of various deacetylation degrees and molecular weights were manually added to cigarette filters in different dosages. The mainstream smoke particulate matter was collected by a Cambridge filter pad, digested by a microwave digestor, and then analyzed for contents of heavy metal ions, including As(III/V), Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). The results showed that chitosan had a removal effect on Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II). Of these, the percent removal of Ni(II) was elevated with an increasing dosage of chitosan. Chitosan of a high deace tylation degree exhibited good binding performance toward Cd(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II), though with poor efficiency for Pb(II). Except As(III/V), all the tested metal ions showed similar tendencies in the growing contents with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Nonetheless, the percent removal of Cr(III/VI) peaked with a chitosan molecular weight of 200 kDa, followed by a dramatic decrease with an increasing chitosan molecular weight. Generally, chitosan had different removal effects on four out of five tested metal ions, and the percent removal of Cd(II), Pb(II), Cr(III/VI) and Ni(II) was approximately 55%, 45%, 50%, and 16%, respectively. In a word, chitosan used in cigarette filter can remove toxic heavy metal ions in the mainstream smoke, improve cigarette safety, and reduce the harm to smokers.

  20. Individual and competitive removal of heavy metals using capacitive deionization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhe; Lu, Lu; Cai, Zhenxiao; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2016-01-25

    This study presents the viability and preference of capacitive deionization (CDI) for removing different heavy metal ions in various conditions. The removal performance and mechanisms of three ions, cadmium (Cd(2+)), lead (Pb(2+)) and chromium (Cr(3+)) were investigated individually and as a mixture under different applied voltages and ion concentrations. It was found that CDI could effectively remove these metals, and the performance was positively correlated with the applied voltage. When 1.2 V was applied into solution containing 0.5mM individual ions, the Cd(2+), Pb(2+), and Cr(3+) removal was 32%, 43%, and 52%, respectively, and the electrosorption played a bigger role in Cd(2+) removal than for the other two ions. Interestingly, while the removal of Pb(2+) and Cr(3+) remained at a similar level of 46% in the mixture of three ions, the Cd(2+) removal significantly decreased to 14%. Similar patterns were observed when 0.05 mM was used to simulate natural contaminated water condition, but the removal efficiencies were much higher, with the removal of Pb(2+), Cr(3+), and Cd(2+) increased to 81%, 78%, and 42%, respectively. The low valence charge and lack of physical sorption of Cd(2+) were believed to be the reason for the removal behavior, and advanced microscopic analysis showed clear deposits of metal ions on the cathode surface after operation. PMID:26476320

  1. Effective Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater Using Modified Clay.

    PubMed

    Song, Mun-Seon; Vijayarangamuthu, K; Han, EunJi; Jeon, Ki-Joon

    2016-05-01

    We report an economical and eco-friendly way to remove the heavy metal pollutant using modified clay. The modification of clay was done by calcining the natural clay from Kyushu region in Japan. Further, the removal efficiency for various pH and contact time was evaluated. The morphology of the clays was studied using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The structural and chemical analyses of modified clay were done by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and Energy dispersion analysis (EDAX) to understand the properties related to the removal of heavy metal pollutant. Further, we studied the absorption efficiency of clay for various pH and contacting time using Ni polluted water. The modified clays show better removal efficiency for all pH with different saturation time. The adsorption follows pseudo-second order kinetics and the adsorption capacity of modified clay is 1.5 times larger than that of natural clay. The increase in the adsorption efficiency of modified clay was correlated to the increase in hematite phase along with increase in surface area due to surface morphological changes. PMID:27483775

  2. Removal Of Heavy Metals From Electroplating Wastewater By Anaerobic Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wanggang; Sun, Peide; Song, Yingqi; Zhang, Yi; Yin, Jun

    2010-11-01

    Biosorption of heavy metals from simulated wastewater and the raw electroplating wastewater with "BM (Biosorption of Metals) bacteria" were investigated in this study. The influence of initial pH, biosorbents dose, concentration of ions, contact time and temperature on biosorption capacity of Cr(VI) and Ni(II) were studied. The optimum pH for biosorption of Cr(VI) was found to be low, and the removal efficiency of Cr(VI) was 98.60% with "BM bacteria" at pH 2. The removal efficiency of Ni(II) was increased with increasing the pH, and was enhanced up to 115% compared with the wastewater without BM bacteria. In this experiment, the "BM bacteria" efficiently removed Cu(II), Ni(II), Cr(VI), Zn(II) and COD from the raw electroplating wastewater, and the removal efficiencies were 98.92%, 99.92%, 99.86%, 99.93% and 45.20% respectively.

  3. Utilization of pulp and paper industrial wastes to remove heavy metals from metal finishing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Sreesai, Siranee

    2009-08-01

    Two pulp and paper industrial wastes, lime mud (LM) and recovery boiler ash (RB), have low moisture contents, low heavy metal contaminations and contain various carbonate compounds which contribute to a high pH. Metal finishing wastewater (MF-WW) has a low pH, high levels of TDS and high contaminations from Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn. The heavy metals from MF-WW were removed by sorption and precipitation mechanisms. LM gave better results in removing heavy metals from MF-WW than RB. At a reaction time of 45min, the maximum removal efficiencies for Cr (93%) and Cu (99%) were obtained at 110gL(-1) of LM, but at 80gL(-1) for Pb (96%) and Zn (99%). Treatment with LM gives a higher sludge volume than with RB. However, the leachability of heavy metals from LM is lower. Leachability of heavy metals in the sediment for all selected treatment conditions is within government standards. PMID:19501952

  4. Removal and recovery of heavy metals from incinerator ash residues

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, K.E.

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents results of a novel and state-of-the-art patent-pending processes developed jointly by Forrester Environmental Services Inc. (FESI) and Brookhaven National Laboratories (BNL) for the extraction and recovery of lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn) and other heavy metals from heavy metal bearing wastes including but not limited to solid waste incinerator bottom ash, flyash and combined ash. The heavy metal extraction and recovery processes were found to be capable of high percentage of heavy metals extraction and recovery at a relatively low cost under bench scale and full-scale refuse incinerator facility conditions. This paper presents empirical data from bench scale studies only, as the full-scale data is currently under review. The ash product remaining after extraction passed all TCLP regulatory limits and retained only minimal Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn content and other water insoluble heavy metal compounds. Results of heavy metals recovery and low cost from ongoing field applications of this technology are consistent with the bench scale data presented within this paper.

  5. Triboelectrification-Enabled Self-Powered Detection and Removal of Heavy Metal Ions in Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhaoling; Chen, Jun; Guo, Hengyu; Fan, Xing; Wen, Zhen; Yeh, Min-Hsin; Yu, Chongwen; Cao, Xia; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-04-01

    A fundamentally new working principle into the field of self-powered heavy-metal-ion detection and removal using the triboelectrification effect is introduced. The as-developed tribo-nanosensors can selectively detect common heavy metal ions. The water-driven triboelectric nanogenerator is taken as a sustainable power source for heavy-metal-ion removal by recycling the kinetic energy from flowing wastewater. PMID:26913810

  6. To study the recovery of L-Cysteine using halloysite nanotubes after heavy metal removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakur, Juhi

    2016-04-01

    Industrial wastes are a major source of soil and water pollution that originate from mining industries, chemical industries, metal processing industries, etc. These wastes consist of a variety of chemicals including phenolics, heavy metals, etc. Use of industrial effluent and sewage sludge on agricultural land has become a common practice in the world which results in these toxic metals being transferred and ultimately concentrate in plant tissues from water and the soil. The metals that get accumulated, prove detrimental to plants themselves and may also cause damage to the healths of animals as well as man. This is because the heavy metals become toxins above certain concentrations, over a narrow range. As a further matter, these metals negatively affect the natural microbial populations as well, that leads to the disruption of fundamental ecological processes. However, many techniques and methods have been advanced to clear the heavy metal polluted soils and waters. One important method is by removing heavy metals with the help of amino acids like L-Cysteine and L-Penicillamine. But also, economy of removal of pollutant heavy metals from soils and waters is a major concern. Present study helps in decreasing the cost for large-scale removal of heavy metals from polluted water by recovering the amino acid (L-Cysteine) after removal of nickel (Ni+2) at a fixed pH, by binding the Ni+2 with halloysite nanotubes(HNT), so that L-Cysteine can be reused again for removal of heavy metals.

  7. Heavy metal removal from water/wastewater by nanosized metal oxides: a review.

    PubMed

    Hua, Ming; Zhang, Shujuan; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weiming; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Quanxing

    2012-04-15

    Nanosized metal oxides (NMOs), including nanosized ferric oxides, manganese oxides, aluminum oxides, titanium oxides, magnesium oxides and cerium oxides, provide high surface area and specific affinity for heavy metal adsorption from aqueous systems. To date, it has become a hot topic to develop new technologies to synthesize NMOs, to evaluate their removal of heavy metals under varying experimental conditions, to reveal the underlying mechanism responsible for metal removal based on modern analytical techniques (XAS, ATR-FT-IR, NMR, etc.) or mathematical models, and to develop metal oxide-based materials of better applicability for practical use (such as granular oxides or composite materials). The present review mainly focuses on NMOs' preparation, their physicochemical properties, adsorption characteristics and mechanism, as well as their application in heavy metal removal. In addition, porous host supported NMOs are particularly concerned because of their great advantages for practical application as compared to the original NMOs. Also, some magnetic NMOs were included due to their unique separation performance. PMID:22018872

  8. Mechanisms of heavy metal removal using microorganisms as biosorbent.

    PubMed

    Javanbakht, Vahid; Alavi, Seyed Amir; Zilouei, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Release and distribution of heavy metals through industrial wastewaters has adverse affects on the environment via contamination of surface- and ground-water resources. Biosorption of heavy metals from aqueous solutions has been proved to be very promising, offering significant advantages such as low cost, availability, profitability, ease of operation, and high efficiency, especially when dealing with low concentrations. Residual biomasses of industrial microorganisms including bacteria, algae, fungi, and yeast have been found to be capable of efficiently accumulating heavy metals as biosorbent. This paper presents and investigates major mechanisms of biosorption and most of the functional groups involved. The biosorption process includes the following mechanisms: transport across cell membrane, complexation, ion exchange, precipitation, and physical adsorption. In order to understand how metals bind to the biomass, it is essential to identify the functional groups responsible for metal binding. Most of these groups have been characterized on the cell walls. The biosorbent contains a variety of functional sites including carboxyl, imidazole, sulfydryl, amino, phosphate, sulfate, thioether, phenol, carbonyl, amide, and hydroxyl moieties that are responsible for metal adsorption. These could be helpful to improve biosorbents through modification of surface reactive sites via surface grafting and/or exchange of functional groups. PMID:24804650

  9. Using biopolymers to remove heavy metals from soil and water

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnamurthy, S.; Frederick, R.M.

    1993-11-19

    Chemical remediation of soil may involve the use of harsh chemicals that generate waste streams, which may adversely affect the soil's integrity and ability to support vegetation. This article reviews the potential use of benign reagents, such as biopolymers, to extract heavy metals. The biopolymers discussed are chitin and chitosan, modified starch, cellulose, and polymer-containing algae. (Copyright (c) Remediation 1994.)

  10. ENGINEERING ASSESSMENT OF HOT-ACID TREATMENT OF MUNICIPAL SLUDGE FOR HEAVY METALS REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hot-acid method for treating sludge was developed by the Walden Division of Abcor, Inc., to remove heavy metals from municipal wastewater sludge. Investigations by Walden have demonstrated the degrees to which heavy metals are solubilized. Sulfuric acid dosage at about 20 to ...

  11. Aquatic macrophytes potential for the simultaneous removal of heavy metals (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Miretzky, Patricia; Saralegui, Andrea; Cirelli, Alicia Fernández

    2004-11-01

    Heavy metal removal from water has been approached by using different technologies. Phytotechnologies, with an increasing development during the last two decades, involve using plants for metal removal. Three autochthonous floating macrophytes, common in pampean shallow lakes (Argentina), Pista stratiotes, Spirodela intermedia and Lemna minor were used in laboratory experiences for the simultaneously removal of several heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr and Pb) resulting from anthropogenic activity, in order to simulate a naturally polluted environment. The experiences were performed for different concentrations of metals along 15 days. High metal removal percentages were obtained for the 3 species and metals. L. minor did not survive the conditions of the experiment. High correlation between the final water and the macrophytes metal concentration was obtained, deviations were due to PbCrO(4) precipitation. The rate of metal uptake was dependent on the metal concentration for the 3 species studied. PMID:15488590

  12. Heavy metals removal from mine runoff using compost bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Christian, David; Wong, Edmund; Crawford, Ronald L; Cheng, I Francis; Hess, Thomas F

    2010-12-14

    Permeable bioreactors have gained both research and management attention as viable methods for treating mine runoff waters. We examined the operation of a field-scale bioreactor (containing mixed compost, straw and gravel) for treatment of runoff from the Mother Load (ML) mine in northern Idaho, U.S. and compared it to an experimental laboratory-scale reactor, containing a similar matrix and treating similar mine runoff water. In general both reactors were efficient in removing most of the metals assayed, Al, As, Cd, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn, with the exception of Mn. Both systems showed evidence of bacterial-mediated sulphate reduction and concomitant metal sulphide complexes. However, the experimental laboratory bioreactor showed greater proportions of immobile metals reductions than did the ML bioreactor, presumably due to the greater action of sulphate-reducing bacteria. The major metal removal mechanism in the ML bioreactor was surmised to be adsorption. Differences in metal removal mechanisms between the reactors were hypothesized to be due to fluctuating hydraulic residence times at the ML site, in turn, due to unregulated runoff flow. PMID:21275250

  13. Cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the removal of heavy metal mixtures from aqueous solutions

    PubMed Central

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M.; Hradil, George

    2011-01-01

    The description and operation of a novel cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the simultaneous removal of mixtures of heavy metals from aqueous solutions are presented. CEP combines the advantages of electrowinning in a spouted particulate electrode (SPE) with that of chemical precipitation and redissolution, to remove heavy metals at low concentrations as solid metal deposits on particulate cathode particles without exporting toxic metal precipitate sludges from the process. The overall result is very large volume reduction of the heavy metal contaminants as a solid metal deposit on particles that can either be safely discarded as such, or further processed to recover particular metals. The performance of this system is demonstrated with data on the removal of mixtures of copper, nickel, and cadmium from aqueous solutions. PMID:22102792

  14. Cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the removal of heavy metal mixtures from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Grimshaw, Pengpeng; Calo, Joseph M; Hradil, George

    2011-11-15

    The description and operation of a novel cyclic electrowinning/precipitation (CEP) system for the simultaneous removal of mixtures of heavy metals from aqueous solutions are presented. CEP combines the advantages of electrowinning in a spouted particulate electrode (SPE) with that of chemical precipitation and redissolution, to remove heavy metals at low concentrations as solid metal deposits on particulate cathode particles without exporting toxic metal precipitate sludges from the process. The overall result is very large volume reduction of the heavy metal contaminants as a solid metal deposit on particles that can either be safely discarded as such, or further processed to recover particular metals. The performance of this system is demonstrated with data on the removal of mixtures of copper, nickel, and cadmium from aqueous solutions. PMID:22102792

  15. Removal and recovery of heavy metals from wastewaters by supported liquid membranes.

    PubMed

    Yang, X J; Fane, A G; MacNaughton, S

    2001-01-01

    The removal and recovery of Cu, Cr and Zn from plating rinse wastewater using supported liquid membranes (SLM) are investigated. SLMs with specific organic extractants as the liquid membrane carriers in series are able to remove and concentrate heavy metals with very high purity, which is very promising for recycling of heavy metals in the electroplating industry. A technical comparison between the membrane process and the conventional chemical precipitation process was made. PMID:11380200

  16. Understanding the factors influencing the removal of heavy metals in urban stormwater runoff.

    PubMed

    Maniquiz-Redillas, Marla C; Kim, Lee-Hyung

    2016-01-01

    In this research, an infiltration trench equipped with an extensive pretreatment and filter bed consisting of woodchip, sand and gravel was utilized as a low impact development technique to manage stormwater runoff from a highly impervious road with particular emphasis on heavy metal removal. Findings revealed that the major factors influencing the removal of heavy metals were the concentration of the particulate matters and heavy metals in runoff, runoff volume and flow rates. The reduction of heavy metals was enhanced by sedimentation of particulates through pretreatment. Fine particles (<2 mm) had the most significant amount of heavy metals, thus, enhanced adsorption and filtration using various filter media were important design considerations. Sediment was most highly attached on the surface area of woodchip than to other filter media like sand, gravel and geotextile. It is suggested that maintenance must be performed after the end of the winter season wherein high sediment rate was observed to maintain the efficiency of the treatment system. PMID:27332837

  17. Concurrent removal and accumulation of heavy metals by the three aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Virendra Kumar; Tripathi, B D

    2008-10-01

    Under the present investigation effectiveness of three aquatic macrophytes Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce), Spirodela polyrrhiza W. Koch (duckweed) and Eichhornia crassipes were tested for the removal of five heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr and Cd). These plants were grown at three different concentrations (1.0, 2.0 and 5.0mgl(-1)) of metals in laboratory experiment. Result revealed high removal (>90%) of different metals during 15 days experiment. Highest removal was observed on 12th day of experiment, thereafter it decreased. Results revealed E. crassipes as the most efficient for the removal of selected heavy metals followed by P. stratiotes and S. polyrrhiza. Results from analysis confirmed the accumulation of different metals within the plant and a corresponding decrease of metals in the water. Significant correlations between metal concentration in final water and macrophytes were obtained. Plants have accumulated heavy metals in its body without the production of any toxicity or reduction in growth. Selected plants shown a wide range of tolerance to all of the selected metals and therefore can be used for large scale removal of heavy metals from waste water. PMID:18296043

  18. Heavy metal removal from MSS fly ash by thermal and chlorination treatments

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingyong; Chen, Jiacong; Huang, Limao

    2015-01-01

    The thermal behavior of heavy metals in the co-incineration of municipal solid waste-sludge incinerator fly ash (MSS fly ash) was studied using a laboratory-scale tube furnace. The results indicate that without the addition of chlorinating agents, temperature was an important parameter and had significantly influenced on heavy metal removal, whereas the residence time had a weak effect. Between 900 and 1000 °C for 60 to 300 min, heavy metals reacted with chloride-inherent in the fly ash, and approximately 80 to 89% of Pb, 48% to 56% of Cd, 27% to 36% of Zn and 6% to 24% of Cu were removed. After the adding chlorinating agents, the evaporation rate of the heavy metals improved dramatically, where the evaporation rates of Cu and Zn were larger than that of Pb and Cd. As the amount of added chlorinating agents increased, the removal rate of heavy metals increased. However, the effect of the type of chlorinating agent on the chlorination of heavy metals differed considerably, where NaCl had the weakest effect on the removal rate of Cu, Cd and Zn. In terms of resource recovery and decontamination, MgCl2 and CaCl2 are the best choices due to their efficient removal of Zn. PMID:26602592

  19. Heavy metal removal from MSS fly ash by thermal and chlorination treatments.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingyong; Chen, Jiacong; Huang, Limao

    2015-01-01

    The thermal behavior of heavy metals in the co-incineration of municipal solid waste-sludge incinerator fly ash (MSS fly ash) was studied using a laboratory-scale tube furnace. The results indicate that without the addition of chlorinating agents, temperature was an important parameter and had significantly influenced on heavy metal removal, whereas the residence time had a weak effect. Between 900 and 1000 °C for 60 to 300 min, heavy metals reacted with chloride-inherent in the fly ash, and approximately 80 to 89% of Pb, 48% to 56% of Cd, 27% to 36% of Zn and 6% to 24% of Cu were removed. After the adding chlorinating agents, the evaporation rate of the heavy metals improved dramatically, where the evaporation rates of Cu and Zn were larger than that of Pb and Cd. As the amount of added chlorinating agents increased, the removal rate of heavy metals increased. However, the effect of the type of chlorinating agent on the chlorination of heavy metals differed considerably, where NaCl had the weakest effect on the removal rate of Cu, Cd and Zn. In terms of resource recovery and decontamination, MgCl2 and CaCl2 are the best choices due to their efficient removal of Zn. PMID:26602592

  20. Heavy metal removal from MSS fly ash by thermal and chlorination treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingyong; Chen, Jiacong; Huang, Limao

    2015-11-01

    The thermal behavior of heavy metals in the co-incineration of municipal solid waste-sludge incinerator fly ash (MSS fly ash) was studied using a laboratory-scale tube furnace. The results indicate that without the addition of chlorinating agents, temperature was an important parameter and had significantly influenced on heavy metal removal, whereas the residence time had a weak effect. Between 900 and 1000 °C for 60 to 300 min, heavy metals reacted with chloride-inherent in the fly ash, and approximately 80 to 89% of Pb, 48% to 56% of Cd, 27% to 36% of Zn and 6% to 24% of Cu were removed. After the adding chlorinating agents, the evaporation rate of the heavy metals improved dramatically, where the evaporation rates of Cu and Zn were larger than that of Pb and Cd. As the amount of added chlorinating agents increased, the removal rate of heavy metals increased. However, the effect of the type of chlorinating agent on the chlorination of heavy metals differed considerably, where NaCl had the weakest effect on the removal rate of Cu, Cd and Zn. In terms of resource recovery and decontamination, MgCl2 and CaCl2 are the best choices due to their efficient removal of Zn.

  1. Removing heavy metals from synthetic effluents using "kamikaze" Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells.

    PubMed

    Ruta, Lavinia; Paraschivescu, Codruta; Matache, Mihaela; Avramescu, Sorin; Farcasanu, Ileana Cornelia

    2010-01-01

    One key step of the bioremediation processes designed to clean up heavy metal contaminated environments is growing resistant cells that accumulate the heavy metals to ensure better removal through a combination of biosorption and continuous metabolic uptake after physical adsorption. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells can easily act as cation biosorbents, but isolation of mutants that are both hyperaccumulating and tolerant to heavy metals proved extremely difficult. Instead, mutants that are hypersensitive to heavy metals due to increased and continuous uptake from the environment were considered, aiming to use such mutants to reduce the heavy metal content of contaminated waters. In this study, the heavy metal hypersensitive yeast strain pmr1Delta was investigated for the ability to remove Mn2+, Cu2+, Co2+, or Cd2+ from synthetic effluents. Due to increased metal accumulation, the mutant strain was more efficient than the wild-type in removing Mn2+, Cu2+, or Co2+ from synthetic effluents containing 1-2 mM cations, with a selectivity and also in removing Mn2+ and Cd2+ from synthetic effluents containing 20-50 microM cations, with a selectivity Mn2+ > Cd2+. PMID:19795117

  2. A new material for removing heavy metals from water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philipp, Warren H., Jr.; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center developed and is patenting a new high capacity ion exchange material (IEM) that removes toxic metals from contaminated water in laboratory tests. The IEM can be made into many forms, such as thin films, coatings, pellets, and fibers. As a result, it can be adapted to many applications to purify contaminated water wherever it is found, be it in waste water treatment systems, lakes, ponds, industrial plants, or in homes. Laboratory tests have been conducted on aqueous solutions containing only one of the following metal cations: lead, copper, mercury, cadmium, silver, chromium (III), nickel, zinc, and yttrium. Tests were also conducted with: (1) calcium present to determine its effects on the uptake of cadmium and copper, and (2) uranium and lanthanides which are stand-ins for other radioactive elements, (3) drinking water for the removal of copper and lead, and (3) others compositions. The results revealed that the IEM removes all these cations, even in the presence of the calcium. Of particular interest are the results of the tests with the drinking water: the lead concentration was reduced from 142 ppb down to 2.8 ppb (well below the accepted EPA standard).

  3. Removal of heavy metals from kaolin using an upward electrokinetic soil remedial (UESR) technology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Yuan; Huang, Xiang-Jun; Kao, Jimmy C M; Stabnikova, Olena

    2006-08-25

    An upward electrokinetic soil remedial (UESR) technology was proposed to remove heavy metals from contaminated kaolin. Unlike conventional electrokinetic treatment that uses boreholes or trenches for horizontal migration of heavy metals, the UESR technology, applying vertical non-uniform electric fields, caused upward transportation of heavy metals to the top surface of the treated soil. The effects of current density, treatment duration, cell diameter, and different cathode chamber influent (distilled water or 0.01 M nitric acid) were studied. The removal efficiencies of heavy metals positively correlated to current density and treatment duration. Higher heavy metals removal efficiency was observed for the reactor cell with smaller diameter. A substantial amount of heavy metals was accumulated in the nearest to cathode 2 cm layer of kaolin when distilled water was continuously supplied to the cathode chamber. Heavy metals accumulated in this layer of kaolin can be easily excavated and disposed off. The main part of the removed heavy metals was dissolved in cathode chamber influent and moved away with cathode chamber effluent when 0.01 M nitric acid was used, instead of distilled water. Energy saving treatment by UESR technology with highest metal removal efficiencies was provided by two regimes: (1) by application of 0.01 M nitric acid as cathode chamber influent, cell diameter of 100 mm, duration of 18 days, and constant voltage of 3.5 V (19.7 k Wh/m(3) of kaolin) and (2) by application of 0.01 M nitric acid as cathode chamber influent, cell diameter of 100 cm, duration of 6 days, and constant current density of 0.191 mA/cm(2) (19.1 k Wh/m(3) of kaolin). PMID:16504386

  4. Removal of heavy metals from mine waters by natural zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Ulla Wingenfelder; Carsten Hansen; Gerhard Furrer; Rainer Schulin

    2005-06-15

    The study investigated the removal of Fe, Pb, Cd, and Zn from synthetic mine waters by a natural zeolite. The emphasis was given to the zeolite's behavior toward a few cations in competition with each other. Pb was removed efficiently from neutral as well as from acidic solutions, whereas the uptake of Zn and Cd decreased with low pH and high iron concentrations. With increasing Ca concentrations in solution, elimination of Zn and Cd became poorer while removal of Pb remained virtually unchanged. The zeolite was stable in acidic solutions. Disintegration was only observed below pH 2.0. Forward- and back-titration of synthetic acidic mine water were carried out in the presence and absence of zeolite to simulate the effects of a pH increase by addition of neutralizing agents and a re-acidification which can be caused by subsequent mixing with acidic water. The pH increase during neutralization causes precipitation of hydrous ferric oxides and decreased dissolved metal concentrations. Zeolite addition further diminished Pb concentrations but did not have an effect on Zn and Cd concentrations in solution. During re-acidification of the solution, remobilization of Pb was weaker in the presence than in the absence of zeolite. No substantial differences were observed for Fe, Cd, and Zn immobilization. The immobilization of the metals during pH increase and the subsequent remobilization caused by re-acidification can be well described by a geochemical equilibrium speciation model that accounts for metal complexation at hydrous ferric oxides, for ion exchange on the zeolite surfaces, as well as for dissolution and precipitation processes. 42 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Effective removal of heavy metal by biochar colloids under different pyrolysis temperatures.

    PubMed

    Qian, Linbo; Zhang, Wenying; Yan, Jingchun; Han, Lu; Gao, Weiguo; Liu, Rongqin; Chen, Mengfang

    2016-04-01

    Biochar colloids' association with heavy metal needs be studied to precisely evaluate the effectiveness of biochar as sorbents. The structure of biochar colloids and their roles in heavy metal removal were investigated by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray Diffraction and batch adsorption experiments, respectively. Due to the numerous oxygen function groups and mineral matters contained in biochar colloids, the removal capacity of chromium (Cr) and cadmium (Cd) to biochar colloids was much greater than that of biochar residues. The highest adsorption capacities of Cr(III) and Cd(II) under initial pH 3.5 were obtained by RS400, which were mainly attributed to the presence of oxygen function groups and mineral matters simultaneously. The highest removal capacity of Cr(VI) was observed by RS300 due to the additional reduction by phenolic functional groups of RS300C. Therefore, the functions of biochar colloids for heavy metal removal should be considered. PMID:26859330

  6. Heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash by thermochemical treatment with gaseous hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christian; Adam, Christian

    2011-09-01

    Sewage sludge ash (SSA) is a suitable raw material for fertilizers due to its high phosphorus (P) content. However, heavy metals must be removed before agricultural application and P should be transferred into a bioavailable form. The utilization of gaseous hydrochloric acid for thermochemical heavy metal removal from SSA at approximately 1000 °C was investigated and compared to the utilization of alkaline earth metal chlorides. The heavy metal removal efficiency increased as expected with higher gas concentration, longer retention time and higher temperature. Equivalent heavy metal removal efficiency were achieved with these different Cl-donors under comparable conditions (150 g Cl/kg SSA, 1000 °C). In contrast, the bioavailability of the P-bearing compounds present in the SSA after thermal treatment with gaseous HCl was not as good as the bioavailability of the P-bearing compounds formed by the utilization of magnesium chloride. This disadvantage was overcome by mixing MgCO(3) as an Mg-donor to the SSA before thermochemical treatment with the gaseous Cl-donor. A test series under systematic variation of the operational parameters showed that copper removal is more depending on the retention time than the removal of zinc. Zn-removal was declined by a decreasing ratio of the partial pressures of ZnCl(2) and water. PMID:21819089

  7. REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS FROM INDUSTRIAL WASTEWATERS USING INSOLUBLE STARCH XANTHATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Northern Regional Research Center developed an effective process to remove heavy metals from wastewaters of two nonferrous metal industries and insoluble starch xanthate (ISX). The study included bench-scale evaluation of wastewaters from two lead battery and one brass mill w...

  8. Treatment of oil well "produced water" by waste stabilization ponds: removal of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Shpiner, R; Vathi, S; Stuckey, D C

    2009-09-01

    Oil well produced water (PW) can serve as an alternative water resource for restricted halotolerant agricultural purposes if the main pollutants, hydrocarbons and heavy metals, can be removed to below the irrigation standards. In this work, the potential removal of cadmium(II), chromium(III) and nickel(II) from PW by chemical precipitation in biological treatment was evaluated. Precipitation as a sulphide salt was found to be a very effective mechanism, which together with biosorption, biological metal uptake, precipitation as hydroxides and carbonates could remove heavy metals down to below irrigation standards. The existence and capability of these various mechanisms was demonstrated in the performance of a continuous artificial pond followed by intermittent sand filter, achieving removals of around 95% for nickel(II) and even higher removal rates for cadmium(II), chromium(III) from artificial PW after the installation of an anaerobic stage. The treated effluent quality was higher than that required by current European standards. PMID:19580985

  9. Efficiency of SPIONs functionalized with polyethylene glycol bis(amine) for heavy metal removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanna, Yongyuth; Chindaduang, Anon; Tumcharern, Gamolwan; Phromyothin, Darinee; Porntheerapat, Supanit; Nukeaw, Jiti; Hofmann, Heirich; Pratontep, Sirapat

    2016-09-01

    Hybrid magnetic nanoparticles based on poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) and super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanopaticles (SPIONs) with selective surface modification has been developed for heavy metal removal by applying external magnetic fields. The nanoparticles were prepared by the emulsion polymerization technique in an aqueous suspension of SPIONs. The hydrolysis of carboxyl functional group was then applied for grafting polyethylene glycol bis(amine)(PEG-bis(amine)) onto the PMMA-coated SPIONs. The morphology, the chemical structure and the magnetic properties of the grafted nanoparticles were investigated. The efficiency of the hybrid nanoparticles for heavy metal removal were conducted on Pb(II), Hg(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) in aqueous solutions.The metal concentration in the solutions after separation by the hybrid nanoparticles was determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). The results show the heavy metal uptake ratios of 0.08, 0.04, 0.03, and 0.01 mM per gramme of the grafted SPIONs for Pb(II), Hg(II), Cu(II), and Co(II), respectively. A competitive removal of Cu(II), Pb(II), Co(II) and Hg(II) ions in mixed metal salt solutions has also been studied.The heavy metal removal efficiency of the hybrid nanoparitcles was found to depend on the cation radius, in accordance with capture of metal ions by the amine group.

  10. Comparison of filter media materials for heavy metal removal from urban stormwater runoff using biofiltration systems.

    PubMed

    Lim, H S; Lim, W; Hu, J Y; Ziegler, A; Ong, S L

    2015-01-01

    The filter media in biofiltration systems play an important role in removing potentially harmful pollutants from urban stormwater runoff. This study compares the heavy metal removal potential (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) of five materials (potting soil, compost, coconut coir, sludge and a commercial mix) using laboratory columns. Total/dissolved organic carbon (TOC/DOC) was also analysed because some of the test materials had high carbon content which affects heavy metal uptake/release. Potting soil and the commercial mix offered the best metal uptake when dosed with low (Cu: 44.78 μg/L, Zn: 436.4 μg/L, Cd, 1.82 μg/L, Pb: 51.32 μg/L) and high concentrations of heavy metals (Cu: 241 μg/L, Zn: 1127 μg/L, Cd: 4.57 μg/L, Pb: 90.25 μg/L). Compost and sludge also had high removal efficiencies (>90%). Heavy metal leaching from these materials was negligible. A one-month dry period between dosing experiments did not affect metal removal efficiencies. TOC concentrations from all materials increased after the dry period. Heavy metal removal was not affected by filter media depth (600 mm vs. 300 mm). Heavy metals tended to accumulate at the upper 5 cm of the filter media although potting soil showed bottom-enriched concentrations. We recommend using potting soil as the principal media mixed with compost or sludge since these materials perform well and are readily available. The use of renewable materials commonly found in Singapore supports a sustainable approach to urban water management. PMID:25261749

  11. Removal performance of heavy metals in MBR systems and their influence in water reuse.

    PubMed

    Arévalo, Juan; Ruiz, Luz Marina; Pérez, Jorge; Moreno, Begoña; Gómez, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    The removal performance of heavy metals by two experimental full-scale membrane bioreactors (microfiltration and ultrafiltration) and the influence of activated sludge total suspended solid (TSS) concentration were studied under real operational conditions. Influent and effluent Be, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, Cd, Ba, Sn, Sb, Pb and U concentrations were analysed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. An average contamination rate for most of the analysed heavy metals was observed in raw wastewater, resulting in effluents without limitation for reuse in agricultural destinations according to Spanish law. Removal efficiencies up to 80% were obtained regardless of whether microfiltration or ultrafiltration membranes were used, except for As, Mo and Sb. The removal yields of different heavy metals can be strengthened by increasing the activated sludge TSS concentration, mainly at concentrations above 10 g/L. PMID:23306270

  12. Removal and selective recovery of heavy-metal ions from industrial waste waters. Technical completion report

    SciTech Connect

    Darnall, D.W.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.

    1989-02-01

    Accumulation of toxic metal ions in water supplies is a matter of increasingly grave concern. Primarily the undesirable by-products of mining and industrial activity, these ions can cause acute and chronic illnesses in humans and other animals. In an effort to limit further contamination, development of efficient, widely applicable, low-cost methods for removal of heavy-metal ions from waters deserves high priority. One new method that has allowed both the removal and recovery of metal ions from water has been the utilization of microorganisms such as algae. This metal-ion sorption process is based upon the natural, very strong affinity of the cell walls of algae for heavy metal ions. There appear to be distinct advantages of the immobilized algal system over other technology currently used for heavy-metal-ion cleanup from waste waters. The goals of the project were (1) to examine the effects of calcium(II) and magnesium(II) on transition metal binding to the algae, (2) to test the immobilized silica-algal polymers for removal of metal ions from electroplating plant waste waters, (3) to evaluate the effects of culturing conditions on the metal binding capacity of the resulting biomass, and (4) to investigate the mechanism of metal-ion binding to different algae.

  13. Literature review on the use of bioaccumulation for heavy metal removal and recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R. , Pinole, CA ); Wilde, E.W. )

    1991-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of metals by microbes -- bioremoval'' -- is a powerful new technology for the concentration, recovery, and removal of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from waste streams and contaminated environments. Algae are particularly well suited for metal bioremoval. A recent commercial application of bioremoval utilizes inert (dead) immobilized microalgae biomass as ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metals from industrial waste waters. Also, living microalgal cultures have been used to remove metals from mine effluents. Microbial cells and biomass can bioaccumulate metals and radionuclides by a large variety of mechanisms, both dependent and independent of cell metabolism. Microbial cell walls can act as ion exchange and metal complexation agents. Heavy metals can precipitate and even crystallize on cell surfaces. Metabolically produced hydrogen sulfide or other metabolic products can bioprecipitate heavy metals. Many microbes produce both intra- and extracellular metal complexing agents which could be considered in practical metal removal processes. Bioremoval processes are greatly affected by the microbial species and even strain used, pH, redox potential, temperature, and other conditions under which the microbes are grown. Development of practical applications of bioremoval requires applies research using the particular waste solutions to be treated, or close simulations thereof. From a practical perspective, the selection of the microbial biomass and the process for contacting the microbial biomass with the metal containing solutions are the key issues. Much of the recent commercial R D has emphasized commercially available, inert, microbial biomass sources as these can be acquired in sufficient quantities at affordable costs. The fundamental research and practical applications of bioaccumulation by microalgae suggests these organisms warrant a high priority in the development of advanced bioremoval processes.

  14. Literature review on the use of bioaccumulation for heavy metal removal and recovery. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Benemann, J.R.; Wilde, E.W.

    1991-02-01

    Bioaccumulation of metals by microbes -- `` bioremoval`` -- is a powerful new technology for the concentration, recovery, and removal of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from waste streams and contaminated environments. Algae are particularly well suited for metal bioremoval. A recent commercial application of bioremoval utilizes inert (dead) immobilized microalgae biomass as ion exchange materials for the removal of heavy metals from industrial waste waters. Also, living microalgal cultures have been used to remove metals from mine effluents. Microbial cells and biomass can bioaccumulate metals and radionuclides by a large variety of mechanisms, both dependent and independent of cell metabolism. Microbial cell walls can act as ion exchange and metal complexation agents. Heavy metals can precipitate and even crystallize on cell surfaces. Metabolically produced hydrogen sulfide or other metabolic products can bioprecipitate heavy metals. Many microbes produce both intra- and extracellular metal complexing agents which could be considered in practical metal removal processes. Bioremoval processes are greatly affected by the microbial species and even strain used, pH, redox potential, temperature, and other conditions under which the microbes are grown. Development of practical applications of bioremoval requires applies research using the particular waste solutions to be treated, or close simulations thereof. From a practical perspective, the selection of the microbial biomass and the process for contacting the microbial biomass with the metal containing solutions are the key issues. Much of the recent commercial R&D has emphasized commercially available, inert, microbial biomass sources as these can be acquired in sufficient quantities at affordable costs. The fundamental research and practical applications of bioaccumulation by microalgae suggests these organisms warrant a high priority in the development of advanced bioremoval processes.

  15. Toxicity, accumulation, and removal of heavy metals by three aquatic macrophytes.

    PubMed

    Basile, A; Sorbo, S; Conte, B; Cobianchi, R Castaldo; Trinchella, F; Capasso, C; Carginale, V

    2012-04-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the uptake, tolerance, and transport of heavy metals by plants will be essential for the development of phytoremediation technologies. In the present paper, we investigated accumulation, tissue and intracellular localization, and toxic effects of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) in three aquatic macrophytes (the angiosperms Lemna minor and Elodea canadensis, and the moss Leptodictyum riparium). We also tested and compared their capacity to absorb heavy metal from water under laboratory conditions. Our data showed that all the three species examined could be considered good bioaccumulators for the heavy metals tested. L. riparium was the most resistant species and the most effective in accumulating Cu, Zn, and Pb, whereas L. minor was the most effective in accumulating Cd. Cd was the most toxic metal, followed by Pb, Cu, and Zn. At the ultrastructural level, sublethal concentrations of the heavy metals tested caused induced cell plasmolysis and alterations of the chloroplast arrangement. Heavy metal removal experiments revealed that the three macrophytes showed excellent performance in removing the selected metals from the solutions in which they are maintained, thus suggesting that they could be considered good candidates for wastewaters remediation purpose. PMID:22567718

  16. Heavy metal removal by novel CBD-EC20 sorbents immobilized on cellulose.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhaohui; Bae, Weon; Mulchandani, Ashok; Mehra, Rajesh K; Chen, Wilfred

    2002-01-01

    Heavy metals are major contributors to pollution of the biosphere, and their efficient removal from contaminated water is required. Biosorption is an emerging technology that has been shown to be effective in removing very low levels of heavy metal from wastewater. Although peptides such as metallothioneins or phytotchelatins are known to immobilize heavy metals, peptide-based biosorbents have not been extensively investigated. In this paper, we describe the construction and expression of bifunctional fusion proteins consisting of synthetic phytochelatin (EC20) linked to a Clostridium-derived cellulose-binding domain (CBD(clos)), enabling purification and immobilization of the fusions onto different cellulose materials in essentially a single step. The immobilized sorbents were shown to be highly effective in removing cadmium at parts per million levels. Repeated removal of cadmium was demonstrated in an immobilized column. The ability to genetically engineer biosorbents with precisely defined properties could provide an attractive strategy for developing high-affinity bioadsorbents suitable for heavy metal removal. PMID:12005515

  17. Removal of heavy metal ions by biogenic hydroxyapatite: Morphology influence and mechanism study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dandan; Guan, Xiaomei; Huang, Fangzhi; Li, Shikuo; Shen, Yuhua; Chen, Jun; Long, Haibo

    2016-08-01

    Based on the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) with different morphologies, such as nanorod-like, flower-like and sphere-like assembled HA nanorods, a new strategy has been developed for the removal of heavy metal ions such as Pb2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Zn2+. The dependence of removal efficiency on the morphology and the suspended concentration of trapping agent, the removal time and selectivity were evaluated and discussed. The experimental results proved that the removal capacity of flower-like assembled HA nanorods (NAFL-HA) was the best, and the maximum removal ratio for Pb2+ ion was 99.97%. The mechanism of Pb2+ removal was studied in detail, noting that some metal ions were completely incorporated into hydroxyapatitie to produce Pb-HA. It reveals that the metal ions capture by HA is mainly controlled by sample surface adsorption and co-precipitation, which are directly controlled by sample morphology.

  18. Performance evaluation of intermediate cover soil barrier for removal of heavy metals in landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kazuyuki; Anegawa, Aya; Endo, Kazuto; Yamada, Masato; Ono, Yusaku; Ono, Yoshiro

    2008-11-01

    This pilot-scale study evaluated the use of intermediate cover soil barriers for removing heavy metals in leachate generated from test cells for co-disposed fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators, ash melting plants, and shredder residue. Cover soil barriers were mixtures of Andisol (volcanic ash soil), waste iron powder, (grinder dust waste from iron foundries), and slag fragments. The cover soil barriers were installed in the test cells' bottom layer. Sorption/desorption is an important process in cover soil bottom barrier for removal of heavy metals in landfill leachate. Salt concentrations such as those of Na, K, and Ca in leachate were extremely high (often greater than 30 gL(-1)) because of high salt content in fly ash from ash melting plants. Concentrations of all heavy metals (nickel, manganese, copper, zinc, lead, and cadmium) in test cell leachates with a cover soil barrier were lower than those of the test cell without a cover soil barrier and were mostly below the discharge limit, probably because of dilution caused by the amount of leachate and heavy metal removal by the cover soil barrier. The cover soil barriers' heavy metal removal efficiency was calculated. About 50% of copper, nickel, and manganese were removed. About 20% of the zinc and boron were removed, but lead and cadmium were removed only slightly. Based on results of calculation of the Langelier saturation index and analyses of core samples, the reactivity of the cover soil barrier apparently decreases because of calcium carbonate precipitation on the cover soil barriers' surfaces. PMID:18842283

  19. Use of electrocoagulation for removal of heavy metals in industrial wastewaters

    SciTech Connect

    Dalrymple, C.W.

    1995-07-01

    A wide variety of contaminants (heavy metals, suspended solids, colloids, oils, organics) have been successfully removed from wastewater using an electrocoagulation process. An innovative electrocoagulation system is described. This process involves a procedure which subjects dissolved and suspended wastewater contaminants to the simultaneous addition of metal ions in the presence of direct current. During the treatment process ionic and other charged particles in the wastewater are neutralized with oppositely charged ions generating the coagulation of contaminants: The process is called CURE, and presented here with application to wastewaters containing mainly heavy metals.

  20. Heavy metals removal from aqueous solutions and wastewaters by using various byproducts.

    PubMed

    Shaheen, Sabry M; Eissa, Fawzy I; Ghanem, Khaled M; Gamal El-Din, Hala M; Al Anany, Fathia S

    2013-10-15

    Water contamination with heavy metals (HM) represents a potential threat to humans, animals and plants, and thus removal of these metals from contaminated waters has received increasing attention. The present study aimed to assess the efficiency of some low cost sorbents i.e., chitosan (CH), egg shell (ES), humate potassium (HK), and sugar beet factory lime (SBFL) for removal of cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) from wastewaters. For this purpose batch equilibrium experiments were conducted with aqueous solutions containing various concentrations of the metals and sorbents in a mono-metal and competitive sorption system. Sorption isotherms were developed, and sorption parameters were determined. The potential applicability of the tested sorbents in the removal of Cd, Cu, and Zn from contaminated wastewaters was also investigated by equilibrating different sorbents and water ratios. Chitosan expressed the highest affinity for the metals followed by SBFL, ES, and HK. Nearly 100% of the metals were removed from aqueous solutions with the lowest initial metal concentrations by the sorbents especially CH and SBFL. However, the sorption efficiency decreased as the initial metal concentrations increased. Competition among the four metals changed significantly their distribution coefficient (Kd) values with the sorbents. The selectivity sequence of the metals was: Pb > Cu > Zn > Cd. The metal removal from the wastewaters varied from 72, 69, and 60 to nearly 100% for Cd, Cu and Zn, respectively. The efficiency of the studied byproducts in removing metals from the wastewaters differed based on the source of contamination and metal concentrations. Cadmium removal percentages by HK and CH were higher than SBFL and ES. The HK and CH exhibited the highest removal percentage of Cu from water with high concentrations. The SBFL and ES revealed the highest removal percentage of Zn from water with high concentrations. The results, demonstrate a high potential

  1. A review on progress of heavy metal removal using adsorbents of microbial and plant origin.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shalini; Agrawal, S B; Mondal, M K

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metals released into the water bodies and on land surfaces by industries are highly toxic and carcinogenic in nature. These heavy metals create serious threats to all the flora and fauna due to their bioaccumulatory and biomagnifying nature at various levels of food chain. Existing conventional technologies for heavy metal removal are witnessing a downfall due to high operational cost and generation of huge quantity of chemical sludge. Adsorption by various adsorbents appears to be a potential alternative of conventional technologies. Its low cost, high efficiency, and possibility of adsorbent regeneration for reuse and recovery of metal ions for various purposes have allured the scientists to work on this technique. The present review compiles the exhaustive information available on the utilization of bacteria, algae, fungi, endophytes, aquatic plants, and agrowastes as source of adsorbent in adsorption process for removal of heavy metals from aquatic medium. During the last few years, a lot of work has been conducted on development of adsorbents after modification with various chemical and physical techniques. Adsorption of heavy metal ions is a complex process affected by operating conditions. As evident from the literature, Langmuir and Freundlich are the most widely used isotherm models, while pseudo first and second order are popularly studied kinetic models. Further, more researches are required in continuous column system and its practical application in wastewater treatment. PMID:26315592

  2. Enhanced removal of heavy metals in primary treatment using coagulation and flocculation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pauline D; Girinathannair, Padmanabhan; Ohlinger, Kurt N; Ritchie, Stephen; Teuber, Leah; Kirby, Jason

    2008-05-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the removal efficiencies of chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc from raw wastewater by chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) and to attain a total suspended solids removal goal of 80%. Operating parameters and chemical doses were optimized by bench-scale tests. Locally obtained raw wastewater samples were spiked with heavy metal solutions to obtain representative concentrations of metals in wastewater. Jar tests were conducted to compare the metals removal efficiencies of the chemical treatment options using ferric chloride, alum, and anionic polymer. The results obtained were compared with those from other studies. It was concluded that CEPT using ferric chloride and anionic polymer is more effective than CEPT using alum for metals removal. The CEPT dosing of 40 mg/L ferric chloride and 0.5 mg/L polymer enhanced heavy metals removal efficiencies by over 200% for chromium, copper, zinc, and nickel and 475% for lead, compared with traditional primary treatment. Efficient metals capture during CEPT can result in increased allowable headworks loadings or lower metal levels in the outfall. PMID:18605386

  3. USING BIOPOLYMERS TO REMOVE HEAVY METALS FROM SOIL AND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical remediation of soil may involve the use of harsh chemicals that generate waste streams, which may adversely affect the soil's integrity and ability to support vegetation. This article reviews the potential use of benign reagents, such as biopolymers, to extract heavy me...

  4. Graphene-Based Microbots for Toxic Heavy Metal Removal and Recovery from Water

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal contamination in water is a serious risk to the public health and other life forms on earth. Current research in nanotechnology is developing new nanosystems and nanomaterials for the fast and efficient removal of pollutants and heavy metals from water. Here, we report graphene oxide-based microbots (GOx-microbots) as active self-propelled systems for the capture, transfer, and removal of a heavy metal (i.e., lead) and its subsequent recovery for recycling purposes. Microbots’ structure consists of nanosized multilayers of graphene oxide, nickel, and platinum, providing different functionalities. The outer layer of graphene oxide captures lead on the surface, and the inner layer of platinum functions as the engine decomposing hydrogen peroxide fuel for self-propulsion, while the middle layer of nickel enables external magnetic control of the microbots. Mobile GOx-microbots remove lead 10 times more efficiently than nonmotile GOx-microbots, cleaning water from 1000 ppb down to below 50 ppb in 60 min. Furthermore, after chemical detachment of lead from the surface of GOx-microbots, the microbots can be reused. Finally, we demonstrate the magnetic control of the GOx-microbots inside a microfluidic system as a proof-of-concept for automatic microbots-based system to remove and recover heavy metals. PMID:26998896

  5. Graphene-Based Microbots for Toxic Heavy Metal Removal and Recovery from Water.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Diana; Parmar, Jemish; Zeng, Yongfei; Zhao, Yanli; Sánchez, Samuel

    2016-04-13

    Heavy metal contamination in water is a serious risk to the public health and other life forms on earth. Current research in nanotechnology is developing new nanosystems and nanomaterials for the fast and efficient removal of pollutants and heavy metals from water. Here, we report graphene oxide-based microbots (GOx-microbots) as active self-propelled systems for the capture, transfer, and removal of a heavy metal (i.e., lead) and its subsequent recovery for recycling purposes. Microbots' structure consists of nanosized multilayers of graphene oxide, nickel, and platinum, providing different functionalities. The outer layer of graphene oxide captures lead on the surface, and the inner layer of platinum functions as the engine decomposing hydrogen peroxide fuel for self-propulsion, while the middle layer of nickel enables external magnetic control of the microbots. Mobile GOx-microbots remove lead 10 times more efficiently than nonmotile GOx-microbots, cleaning water from 1000 ppb down to below 50 ppb in 60 min. Furthermore, after chemical detachment of lead from the surface of GOx-microbots, the microbots can be reused. Finally, we demonstrate the magnetic control of the GOx-microbots inside a microfluidic system as a proof-of-concept for automatic microbots-based system to remove and recover heavy metals. PMID:26998896

  6. Evaluation of Heavy Metal Removal from Wastewater in a Modified Packed Bed Biofilm Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Shohreh; Kamika, Ilunga; Tekere, Memory

    2016-01-01

    For the effective application of a modified packed bed biofilm reactor (PBBR) in wastewater industrial practice, it is essential to distinguish the tolerance of the system for heavy metals removal. The industrial contamination of wastewater from various sources (e.g. Zn, Cu, Cd and Ni) was studied to assess the impacts on a PBBR. This biological system was examined by evaluating the tolerance of different strengths of composite heavy metals at the optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 hours. The heavy metal content of the wastewater outlet stream was then compared to the source material. Different biomass concentrations in the reactor were assessed. The results show that the system can efficiently treat 20 (mg/l) concentrations of combined heavy metals at an optimum HRT condition (2 hours), while above this strength there should be a substantially negative impact on treatment efficiency. Average organic reduction, in terms of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the system, is reduced above the tolerance limits for heavy metals as mentioned above. The PBBR biological system, in the presence of high surface area carrier media and a high microbial population to the tune of 10 000 (mg/l), is capable of removing the industrial contamination in wastewater. PMID:27186636

  7. Evaluation of Heavy Metal Removal from Wastewater in a Modified Packed Bed Biofilm Reactor.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Shohreh; Kamika, Ilunga; Tekere, Memory

    2016-01-01

    For the effective application of a modified packed bed biofilm reactor (PBBR) in wastewater industrial practice, it is essential to distinguish the tolerance of the system for heavy metals removal. The industrial contamination of wastewater from various sources (e.g. Zn, Cu, Cd and Ni) was studied to assess the impacts on a PBBR. This biological system was examined by evaluating the tolerance of different strengths of composite heavy metals at the optimum hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 hours. The heavy metal content of the wastewater outlet stream was then compared to the source material. Different biomass concentrations in the reactor were assessed. The results show that the system can efficiently treat 20 (mg/l) concentrations of combined heavy metals at an optimum HRT condition (2 hours), while above this strength there should be a substantially negative impact on treatment efficiency. Average organic reduction, in terms of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the system, is reduced above the tolerance limits for heavy metals as mentioned above. The PBBR biological system, in the presence of high surface area carrier media and a high microbial population to the tune of 10 000 (mg/l), is capable of removing the industrial contamination in wastewater. PMID:27186636

  8. Heavy metal removal from municipal solid waste fly ash by chlorination and thermal treatment.

    PubMed

    Nowak, B; Pessl, A; Aschenbrenner, P; Szentannai, P; Mattenberger, H; Rechberger, H; Hermann, L; Winter, F

    2010-07-15

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) fly ash is classified as a hazardous material because it contains high amounts of heavy metals. For decontamination, MSW fly ash is first mixed with alkali or alkaline earth metal chlorides (e.g. calcium chloride) and water, and then the mixture is pelletized and treated in a rotary reactor at about 1000 degrees C. Volatile heavy metal compounds are formed and evaporate. In this paper, the effect of calcium chloride addition, gas velocity, temperature and residence time on the separation of heavy metals are studied. The fly ash was sampled at the waste-to-energy plant Fernwärme Wien/Spittelau (Vienna, Austria). The results were obtained from batch tests performed in an indirectly heated laboratory-scale rotary reactor. More than 90% of Cd and Pb and about 60% of Cu and 80% of Zn could be removed in the experiments. PMID:20356672

  9. Distribution and removal efficiency of heavy metals in two constructed wetlands treating landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Wojciechowska, Ewa; Waara, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    The results of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd) removal and partitioning between aqueous and solid phases at two treatment wetlands (TWs) treating municipal landfill leachates are presented. One of the TWs is a surface flow facility consisting of 10 ponds. The other TW is a newly constructed pilot-scale facility consisting of three beds with alternately vertical and horizontal subsurface flow. The metals concentrations were analysed in leachate (both TWs) and bottom sediments (surface flow TW). Very high (90.9-99.9%) removal rates of metals were observed in a mature surface flow TW. The effectiveness of metals removal in a newly constructed pilot-scale sub-surface flow wetland were considerably lower (range 0-73%). This is attributed to young age of the TW, different hydraulic conditions (sub-surface flow system with much shorter retention time, unoxic conditions) and presence of metallic complexes with refractory organic matter. PMID:22335101

  10. Equilibrium analysis for heavy metal cation removal using cement kiln dust.

    PubMed

    El Zayat, Mohamed; Elagroudy, Sherien; El Haggar, Salah

    2014-01-01

    Ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and chemical precipitation have been investigated extensively for heavy metal uptake. However, they are deemed too expensive to meet stringent effluent characteristics. In this study, cement kiln dust (CKD) was examined for the removal of target heavy metals. Adsorption studies in completely mixed batch reactors were used to generate equilibrium pH adsorption edges. Studies showed the ability of CKD to remove the target heavy metals in a pH range below that of precipitation after an equilibrium reaction time of 24 h. A surface titration experiment indicated negative surface charge of the CKD at pH below 10, meaning that electrostatic attraction of the divalent metals can occur below the pH required for precipitation. However, surface complexation was also important due to the substantive metal removal. Accordingly, a surface complexation model approach that utilizes an electrostatic term in the double-layer description was used to estimate equilibrium constants for the protolysis interactions of the CKD surface as well as equilibria between background ions and the sorbent surface. It was concluded that the removal strength of adsorption is in the order: Pb > Cu > Cd. The experiments were also supported by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). PMID:25259489

  11. USING BIOPOLYMERS TO REMOVE HEAVY METALS FROM SOIL AND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical remediation of soils may involve the use of harsh chemicals that generate waste streams and may adversely affect the soil's integrity and ability to support vegetation. his paper reviews the promise of benign reagents such as biopolymers to extract metals. he biopolymers...

  12. Method for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas, device for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hann-Sheng; Livengood, Charles David

    1997-12-01

    A method for the simultaneous removal of oxides and heavy metals from a fluid is provided comprising combining the fluid with compounds containing alkali and sulfur to create a mixture; spray drying the mixture to create a vapor phase and a solid phase; and isolating the vapor phase from the solid phase. A device is also provided comprising a means for spray-drying flue gas with alkali-sulfide containing liquor at a temperature sufficient to cause the flue gas to react with the compounds so as to create a gaseous fraction and a solid fraction and a means for directing the gaseous fraction to a fabric filter.

  13. Chelating capture and magnetic removal of non-magnetic heavy metal substances from soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Liren; Song, Jiqing; Bai, Wenbo; Wang, Shengping; Zeng, Ming; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yang; Li, Haifeng; Lu, Haiwei

    2016-02-01

    A soil remediation method based on magnetic beneficiation is reported. A new magnetic solid chelator powder, FS@IDA (core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles coated with iminodiacetic acid chelators), was used as a reactive magnetic carrier to selectively capture non-magnetic heavy metals in soil by chelation and removal by magnetic separation. FS@IDA was prepared via inorganic-organic and organic synthesis reactions that generated chelating groups on the surface of magnetic, multi-core, core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 (FS) nanoparticles. These reactions used a silane coupling agent and sodium chloroacetate. The results show that FS@IDA could chelate the heavy metal component of Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Ni carbonates, lead sulfate and lead chloride in water-insoluble salt systems. The resulting FS@IDA-Cd and FS@IDA-Pb chelates could be magnetically separated, resulting in removal rates of approximately 84.9% and 72.2% for Cd and Pb, respectively. FS@IDA could not remove the residual heavy metals and those bound to organic matter in the soil. FS@IDA did not significantly alter the chemical composition of the soil, and it allowed for fast chelating capture, simple magnetic separation and facilitated heavy metal elution. FS@IDA could also be easily prepared and reprocessed.

  14. Chelating capture and magnetic removal of non-magnetic heavy metal substances from soil

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Liren; Song, Jiqing; Bai, Wenbo; Wang, Shengping; Zeng, Ming; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yang; Li, Haifeng; Lu, Haiwei

    2016-01-01

    A soil remediation method based on magnetic beneficiation is reported. A new magnetic solid chelator powder, FS@IDA (core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles coated with iminodiacetic acid chelators), was used as a reactive magnetic carrier to selectively capture non-magnetic heavy metals in soil by chelation and removal by magnetic separation. FS@IDA was prepared via inorganic-organic and organic synthesis reactions that generated chelating groups on the surface of magnetic, multi-core, core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 (FS) nanoparticles. These reactions used a silane coupling agent and sodium chloroacetate. The results show that FS@IDA could chelate the heavy metal component of Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Ni carbonates, lead sulfate and lead chloride in water-insoluble salt systems. The resulting FS@IDA-Cd and FS@IDA-Pb chelates could be magnetically separated, resulting in removal rates of approximately 84.9% and 72.2% for Cd and Pb, respectively. FS@IDA could not remove the residual heavy metals and those bound to organic matter in the soil. FS@IDA did not significantly alter the chemical composition of the soil, and it allowed for fast chelating capture, simple magnetic separation and facilitated heavy metal elution. FS@IDA could also be easily prepared and reprocessed. PMID:26878770

  15. Chelating capture and magnetic removal of non-magnetic heavy metal substances from soil.

    PubMed

    Fan, Liren; Song, Jiqing; Bai, Wenbo; Wang, Shengping; Zeng, Ming; Li, Xiaoming; Zhou, Yang; Li, Haifeng; Lu, Haiwei

    2016-01-01

    A soil remediation method based on magnetic beneficiation is reported. A new magnetic solid chelator powder, FS@IDA (core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 nanoparticles coated with iminodiacetic acid chelators), was used as a reactive magnetic carrier to selectively capture non-magnetic heavy metals in soil by chelation and removal by magnetic separation. FS@IDA was prepared via inorganic-organic and organic synthesis reactions that generated chelating groups on the surface of magnetic, multi-core, core-shell Fe3O4@SiO2 (FS) nanoparticles. These reactions used a silane coupling agent and sodium chloroacetate. The results show that FS@IDA could chelate the heavy metal component of Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Ni carbonates, lead sulfate and lead chloride in water-insoluble salt systems. The resulting FS@IDA-Cd and FS@IDA-Pb chelates could be magnetically separated, resulting in removal rates of approximately 84.9% and 72.2% for Cd and Pb, respectively. FS@IDA could not remove the residual heavy metals and those bound to organic matter in the soil. FS@IDA did not significantly alter the chemical composition of the soil, and it allowed for fast chelating capture, simple magnetic separation and facilitated heavy metal elution. FS@IDA could also be easily prepared and reprocessed. PMID:26878770

  16. Heavy metal removal from acid mine drainage by calcined eggshell and microalgae hybrid system.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the use of calcined eggshells and microalgae for the removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage (AMD) and the simultaneous enhancement of biomass productivity. The experiment was conducted over a period of 6 days in a hybrid system containing calcined eggshells and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris. The results show that the biomass productivity increased to ~8.04 times its initial concentration of 0.367 g/L as measured by an optical panel photobioreactor (OPPBR) and had a light transmittance of 95 % at a depth of 305 mm. On the other hand, the simultaneous percent removal of Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, As, and Cd from the AMD effluent was found to be 99.47 to 100 %. These results indicate that the hybrid system with calcined eggshells and microalgae was highly effective for heavy metal removal in the AMD. PMID:25940497

  17. Comprehensive review on phytotechnology: Heavy metals removal by diverse aquatic plants species from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Dahalan, Farrah Aini; Kamyab, Hesam

    2016-11-15

    Environmental pollution specifically water pollution is alarming both in the developed and developing countries. Heavy metal contamination of water resources is a critical issue which adversely affects humans, plants and animals. Phytoremediation is a cost-effective remediation technology which able to treat heavy metal polluted sites. This environmental friendly method has been successfully implemented in constructed wetland (CWs) which is able to restore the aquatic biosystem naturally. Nowadays, many aquatic plant species are being investigated to determine their potential and effectiveness for phytoremediation application, especially high growth rate plants i.e. macrophytes. Based on the findings, phytofiltration (rhizofiltration) is the sole method which defined as heavy metals removal from water by aquatic plants. Due to specific morphology and higher growth rate, free-floating plants were more efficient to uptake heavy metals in comparison with submerged and emergent plants. In this review, the potential of wide range of aquatic plant species with main focus on four well known species (hyper-accumulators): Pistia stratiotes, Eicchornia spp., Lemna spp. and Salvinia spp. was investigated. Moreover, we discussed about the history, methods and future prospects in phytoremediation of heavy metals by aquatic plants comprehensively. PMID:27474848

  18. Potential immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae as heavy metal removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffar, Nur Izzati Abdul; Rahman, Nadhratul Nur Ain Abdul; Alrozi, Rasyidah; Senusi, Faraziehan; Chang, Siu Hua

    2015-05-01

    Biosorption of copper ion using treated and untreated immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae from aqueous solution was investigate in this study. S.cerevisiae has been choosing as biosorbent due to low cost, easy and continuously available from various industries. In this study, the ability of treated and untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae in removing copper ion influence by the effect of pH solution, and initial concentration of copper ion with contact time. Besides, adsorption isotherm and kinetic model also studied. The result indicated that the copper ion uptake on treated and untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae was increased with increasing of contact time and initial concentration of copper ion. The optimum pH for copper ion uptake on untreated and treated immobilized S.cerevisiae at 4 and 6. From the data obtained of copper ion uptake, the adsorption isotherm was fitted well by Freundlich model for treated immobilized S.cerevisiae and Langmuir model for untreated immobilized S.cerevisiae according to high correlation coefficient. Meanwhile, the pseudo second order was described as suitable model present according to high correlation coefficient. Since the application of biosorption process has been received more attention from numerous researchers as a potential process to be applied in the industry, future study will be conducted to investigate the potential of immobilized S.cerevisiae in continuous process.

  19. Removal of heavy metals from wastewater with Bigadic (Tuerkiye) clinoptilolite

    SciTech Connect

    Kurama, Haldun; Kaya, Muammer

    1995-07-01

    In this study, Bigadic upper zone zeolitic tuff, which contains about 87% clinoptilolite was used as an ion exchanger for removal of Pb{sup ++}, Cu{sup ++}, Cd{sup ++} and Hg{sup ++}ions from wastewater. Bench scale experiments with two different glass columns, were carried out continuously under the closed/open circuit conditions. Before ion exchange tests, zeolite samples were treated with NaCl (6ml/min. and 42BV). The effects of particle size, bed volume, pH and flow rate on the ion exchange capacity were determined. Under the best operation conditions, the effect of initial influent solution concentration on ion exchange selectivity was tested. As a result, it was found that the Bigadic clinoptilolite had the following ion exchange capacities; Pb{sup ++}, 0.7540 meg/g; Cu{sup ++}, 0.6986 meg/g; Cd{sup ++}, 0.6580 meg/g; Hg{sup ++}, 0.5530 meg/g.

  20. Heavy metals removal from aqueous environments by electrocoagulation process- a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Mohammadi, Leili; Ansari-Moghaddam, Alireza; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals pollution has become a more serious environmental problem in the last several decades as a result releasing toxic materials into the environment. Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical processes were used for the treatment of domestic, industrial and agricultural effluents. The commonly used conventional biological treatments processes are not only time consuming but also need large operational area. Accordingly, it seems that these methods are not cost-effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation is an electrochemical technique with many applications. This process has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial wastewater due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This process has been applied for the treatment of many kinds of wastewater such as landfill leachate, restaurant, carwash, slaughterhouse, textile, laundry, tannery, petroleum refinery wastewater and for removal of bacteria, arsenic, fluoride, pesticides and heavy metals from aqueous environments. The objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation process for the treatment of domestic, industrial and agricultural effluents, especially removal of heavy metals from aqueous environments. About 100 published studies (1977-2016) are reviewed in this paper. It is evident from the literature survey articles that electrocoagulation are the most frequently studied for the treatment of heavy metal wastewater. PMID:26512324

  1. Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertiliser: Variables influencing heavy metal removal during thermochemical treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Mattenberger, H.; Fraissler, G.; Brunner, T. Herk, P.; Hermann, L.

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to improve the removal of heavy metals from sewage sludge ash by a thermochemical process. The resulting detoxified ash was intended for use as a raw material rich in phosphorus (P) for inorganic fertiliser production. The thermochemical treatment was performed in a rotary kiln where the evaporation of relevant heavy metals was enhanced by additives. The four variables investigated for process optimisation were treatment temperature, type of additive (KCl, MgCl{sub 2}) and its amount, as well as type of reactor (directly or indirectly heated rotary kiln). The removal rates of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn and of Ca, P and Cl were investigated. The best overall removal efficiency for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn could be found for the indirectly heated system. The type of additive was critical, since MgCl{sub 2} favours Zn- over Cu-removal, while KCl acts conversely. The use of MgCl{sub 2} caused less particle abrasion from the pellets in the kiln than KCl. In the case of the additive KCl, liquid KCl - temporarily formed in the pellets - acted as a barrier to heavy metal evaporation as long as treatment temperatures were not sufficiently high to enhance its reaction or evaporation.

  2. Heavy metal removal by GLDA washing: Optimization, redistribution, recycling, and changes in soil fertility.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiyin; Zhang, Shirong; Xu, Xiaoxun; Zhong, Qinmei; Zhang, Chuer; Jia, Yongxia; Li, Ting; Deng, Ouping; Li, Yun

    2016-11-01

    Soil washing, an emerging method for treating soils contaminated by heavy metals, requires an evaluation of its efficiency in simultaneously removing different metals, the quality of the soil following remediation, and the reusability of the recycled washing agent. In this study, we employed N,N-bis (carboxymethyl)-l-glutamic acid (GLDA), a novel and readily biodegradable chelator to remove Cd, Pb, and Zn from polluted soils. We investigated the influence of washing conditions, including GLDA concentration, pH, and contact time on their removal efficiencies. The single factor experiments showed that Cd, Pb, and Zn removal efficiencies reached 70.62, 74.45, and 34.43% in mine soil at a GLDA concentration of 75mM, a pH of 4.0, and a contact time of 60min, and in polluted farmland soil, removal efficiencies were 69.12, 78.30, and 39.50%, respectively. We then employed response surface methodology to optimize the washing parameters. The optimization process showed that the removal efficiencies were 69.50, 88.09, and 40.45% in mine soil and 71.34, 81.02, and 50.95% in polluted farmland soil for Cd, Pb, and Zn, respectively. Moreover, the overall highly effective removal of Cd and Pb was connected mainly to their highly effective removal from the water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fractions. GLDA-washing eliminated the same amount of metals as EDTA-washing, while simultaneously retaining most of the soil nutrients. Removal efficiencies of recycled GLDA were no >5% lower than those of the fresh GLDA. Therefore, GLDA could potentially be used for the rehabilitation of soil contaminated by heavy metals. PMID:27371771

  3. Removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution by zeolite synthesized from fly ash.

    PubMed

    He, Kuang; Chen, Yuancai; Tang, Zhenghua; Hu, Yongyou

    2016-02-01

    Zeolite was synthesized from coal fly ash by a fusion method and was used for the removal of heavy metal ions (Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), and Mn(2+)) in aqueous solutions. Batch method was employed to study the influential parameters such as adsorbent dosage, pH, and coexisting cations. Adsorption isotherms and kinetics studies were carried out in single-heavy and multiheavy metal systems, respectively. The Langmuir isotherm model fitted to the equilibrium data better than the Freundlich model did, and the kinetics of the adsorption were well described by the pseudo-second-order model, except for Cd(2+) and Ni(2+) ions which were fitted for the pseudo-first-order model in the multiheavy metal system. The maximum adsorption capacity and the distribution coefficients exhibited the same sequence for Pb(2+) > Cu(2+) > Cd(2+) > Ni(2+) > Mn(2+) in both single- and multiheavy metal systems. In the end, the adsorption capacity of zeolite was tested using industrial wastewaters and the results demonstrated that zeolite could be used as an alternative adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater. PMID:26446735

  4. Silver-modified clinoptilolite for the removal of Escherichia coli and heavy metals from aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Akhigbe, Lulu; Ouki, Sabeha; Saroj, Devendra; Lim, Xiang Min

    2014-09-01

    This paper investigates the potential of using the silver antibacterial properties combined with the metal ion exchange characteristics of silver-modified clinoptilolite to produce a treatment system capable of removing both contaminants from aqueous streams. The results have shown that silver-modified clinoptilolite is capable of completely eliminating Escherichia coli after 30-min contact time demonstrating its effectiveness as a disinfectant. Systems containing both E. coli and metals exhibited 100 % E. coli reduction after 15-min contact time and maximum metal adsorption removal efficiencies of 97, 98, and 99 % for Pb(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+) respectively after 60 min; 0.182-0.266 mg/g of metal ions were adsorbed by the zeolites in the single- and mixed-metal-containing solutions. Nonmodified clinoptilolite showed no antibacterial properties. This study demonstrated that silver-modified clinoptilolite exhibited high disinfection and heavy metal removal efficiencies and consequently could provide an effective combined treatment system for the removal of E. coli and metals from contaminated water streams. PMID:24756684

  5. Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin

    DOEpatents

    Kochen, Robert L.; Navratil, James D.

    1997-01-21

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately.

  6. Removal of radioactive materials and heavy metals from water using magnetic resin

    DOEpatents

    Kochen, R.L.; Navratil, J.D.

    1997-01-21

    Magnetic polymer resins capable of efficient removal of actinides and heavy metals from contaminated water are disclosed together with methods for making, using, and regenerating them. The resins comprise polyamine-epichlorohydrin resin beads with ferrites attached to the surfaces of the beads. Markedly improved water decontamination is demonstrated using these magnetic polymer resins of the invention in the presence of a magnetic field, as compared with water decontamination methods employing ordinary ion exchange resins or ferrites taken separately. 9 figs.

  7. Application of lactic acid bacteria in removing heavy metals and aflatoxin B1 from contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Elsanhoty, Rafaat M; Al-Turki, I A; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2016-01-01

    In this study selected lactic acid bacteria (LAB, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantrium and Streptococcus thermophiles) and probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium angulatum) were tested for their ability in removing heavy metals (HM) including cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) as well as aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from contaminated water. The biosorption parameters (pH, bacterial concentration, contact time and temperature) of removal using individual as well as mixed LAB and probiotic bacteria were studied. Removal of HM and AFB1 depended on the strain, wherein the process was strongly pH-dependent with high removal ability at a pH close to neutral. The increase in bacterial concentration enhanced the removal of Cd, Pb and As. Also, increasing of contact time and temperature increased the ability of LAB to remove HM. The effect of contact time on Cd removal was slightly different when freshly cultured cells were used. The removal of Cd, Pb and As decreased with the increase in the initial metal concentration. The most effective HM removers were Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium angulatum. The system was found to be adequate for concentrations of HM under investigation. At the end of the operation, the concentration of HM reached the level allowed by the World Health Organization regulations. PMID:27508367

  8. A feasibility study on bioelectrokinetics for the removal of heavy metals from tailing soil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keun-Young; Kim, Hyun-A; Lee, Byung-Tae; Kim, Soon-Oh; Kwon, Young-Ho; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2011-01-01

    The combination of bioremediation and electrokinetics, termed bioelectrokinetics, has been studied constantly to enhance the removal of organic and inorganic contaminants from soil. The use of the bioleaching process originating from Fe- and/or S-oxidizing bacteria may be a feasible technology for the remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils. In this study, the bioleaching process driven by injection of S-oxidizing bacteria, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans, was evaluated as a pre-treatment step. The bioleaching process was sequentially integrated with the electrokinetic soil process, and the final removal efficiency of the combined process was compared with those of individual processes. Tailing soil, heavily contaminated with Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Co, and As, was collected from an abandoned mine area in Korea. The results of geochemical studies supported that this tailing soil contains the reduced forms of sulfur that can be an energy source for A. thiooxidans. From the result of the combined process, we could conclude that the bioleaching process might be a good pre-treatment step to mobilize heavy metals in tailing soil. Additionally, the electrokinetic process can be an effective technology for the removal of heavy metals from tailing soil. For the sake of generalizing the proposed bioelectrokinetic process, however, the site-specific differences in soil should be taken into account in future studies. PMID:21046430

  9. A preliminary study for removal of heavy metals from acidic synthetic wastewater by using pressmud-rice husk mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, H.; Ee, C. J.; Baharudin, N. S.

    2016-06-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the effect of combining pressmud and rice husk in the removal efficiencies of heavy metals in acidic synthetic wastewater. The ratios of pressmud to rice husk were varied at different percentages of weight ratio (0%, 20%, 40%, 60% 80% and 100%) and removal of heavy metals concentrations was observed. The result showed that the removal efficiency was increased with the addition of pressmud by up to almost 100%. Pressmud alone was able to remove 95% to 100% of heavy metals while rice husk alone managed to remove only 10% to 20% of heavy metals. The study also demonstrated that pressmud behaved as a natural acid neutralizer. Hence, the initial pH of the synthetically prepared acidic wastewater which was below 2 also was increased to pH ranging from 6 to 8.

  10. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W. . Mineral Resources Inst.)

    1991-01-01

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  11. Removal of heavy metal ions from oil shale beneficiation process water by ferrite process

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhang, L.; Lamont, W.E.; Schultz, C.W.

    1991-12-31

    The ferrite process is an established technique for removing heavy metals from waste water. Because the process water resulting from oil shale beneficiation falls into the category of industrial waste water, it is anticipated that this process may turn out to be a potential viable treatment for oil shale beneficiation process water containing many heave metal ions. The process is chemoremedial because not only effluent water comply with quality standards, but harmful heavy metals are converted into a valuable, chemically stable by-product known as ferrite. These spinel ferrites have magnetic properties, and therefore can be use in applications such as magnetic marker, ferrofluid, microwave absorbing and scavenging material. Experimental results from this process are presented along with results of treatment technique such as sulfide precipitation.

  12. A comparative review towards potential of microbial cells for heavy metal removal with emphasis on biosorption and bioaccumulation.

    PubMed

    Hansda, Arti; Kumar, Vipin; Anshumali

    2016-10-01

    The threat of heavy metal pollution to environmental health is getting worldwide attention due to their persistence and non-biodegradable nature. Ineffectiveness of various physicochemical methods due to economical and technical constraints resulted in the search for a cost-effective and eco-friendly biological technique for heavy metal removal from the environment. The two effective biotic methods used are biosorption and bioaccumulation. A comparison between these two processes demonstrated that biosorption is a better heavy metal removal process than bioaccumulation. This is due to the intoxication of heavy metal by inhibiting their entry into the microbial cell. Genes and enzymes related to bioremoval process are also discussed. On comparing the removal rate, bacteria are surpassed by algae and fungi. The aim of this review is to understand the biotic processes and to compare their metal removal efficiency. PMID:27565780

  13. Investigation of Media Effects on Removal of Heavy Metals in Bioretention Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülbaz, Sezar; Melek Kazezyilmaz-Alhan, Cevza; Copty, Nadim K.

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals are the most toxic elements at high concentrations, although some of them such as Cu and Zn are essential to plants, humans, and animals within a limited value. However, some heavy metals, such as Pb, have adverse effects even at low concentrations. Therefore, it is known that the toxic metals such as Zn, Cu and Pb in storm water runoff are serious threat for aquatic organisms. It is very important to control and reduce heavy metal concentration in urban storm water runoff. There are several methods to remove the aforementioned toxic metals such as electrolyte extraction, chemical precipitation, ion-exchange, reverse osmosis, membrane filtration, adsorption, cementation, and electrochemical treatment technologies. However, these methods are highly expensive and hard to implement for treatment of big volumes of water such as storm water. For this purpose, Low Impact Development (LID) Best Management Practices (BMPs) have become popular to collect, infiltrate, and treat toxic metals in storm water runoff in recent years. LID-BMP is a land planning method which is used to manage storm water runoff and improve water quality by reducing contaminant in storm water runoff. Bioretention is an example of LID-BMP application of which usage has recently been started in storm water treatment. Researchers have been investigating the advantages of bioretention systems and this study contributes to these research efforts by seeking for the media effects of bioretention on heavy metal removal. For this purpose, batch sorption experiments were performed to determine the distribution coefficients and retardation factor of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) for bioretention media such as mulch, turf, local or vegetative soil, sand and gravel. Furthermore, sorption reaction kinetics of Cu, Pb and Zn are tested in order to assess the sorption equilibrium time of these metals for 5 bioretention media. The results of sorption test show that turf has higher sorption

  14. The removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution using natural Jordanian zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taamneh, Yazan; Sharadqah, Suhail

    2016-02-01

    In this article, the adsorption process of cadmium and copper using natural Jordanian (NJ) zeolite as adsorbent has been experimentally estimated. The samples of NJ zeolite were obtained from Al Mafraq discrete, north east of Jordan. The influence of the bulk concentration (C o), contact time (t) and different adsorbent masses (m) of NJ zeolite on the removal of heavy metal were evaluated. These variables had a considerable function in promoting the sorption process of heavy metal using the NJ zeolite. The initial concentration of heavy metals in the stock solution was extended between 80 and 600 mg/L. The batch adsorption method was employed to investigate the adsorption process. The experimental data were correlated using Freundlich and Langmuir empirical formula. The ability of NJ zeolite to eliminate cadmium and copper was estimated according to Langmuir isotherm empirical formula and found 25.9 and 14.3 mg/g for cadmium and copper, respectively. The kinetics of adsorption of cadmium and copper have been analyzed and correlated by first-order and second-order reaction model. It was noticed that adsorption of cadmium and copper was better correlated with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The results presented that NJ zeolite is practical adsorbent for removing cadmium and copper ion metal.

  15. A novel biodegradable β-cyclodextrin-based hydrogel for the removal of heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhanhua; Wu, Qinglin; Liu, Shouxin; Liu, Tian; Zhang, Bin

    2013-09-12

    A novel biodegradable β-cyclodextrin-based gel (CAM) was prepared and applied to the removal of Cd(2+), Pb(2+) and Cu(2+) ions from aqueous solutions. CAM hydrogel has a typical three-dimensional network structure, and showed excellent capability for the removal of heavy metal ions. The effect of different experimental parameters, such as initial pH, adsorbent dosage and initial metal ion concentration, were investigated. The adsorption isotherm data fitted well to the Freundlich model. The adsorption capacity was in the order Pb(2+)>Cu(2+)>Cd(2+) under the same experimental conditions. The maximum adsorption capacities for the metal ions in terms of mg/g of dry gel were 210.6 for Pb(2+), 116.41 for Cu(2+), and 98.88 for Cd(2+). The biodegradation efficiency of the resin reached 79.4% for Gloeophyllum trabeum. The high adsorption capacity and kinetics results indicate that CAM can be used as an alternative adsorbent to remove heavy metals from aqueous solution. PMID:23911476

  16. Novel nanofiltration membranes consisting of a sulfonated pentablock copolymer rejection layer for heavy metal removal.

    PubMed

    Thong, Zhiwei; Han, Gang; Cui, Yue; Gao, Jie; Chung, Tai-Shung; Chan, Sui Yung; Wei, Shawn

    2014-12-01

    Facing stringent regulations on wastewater discharge containing heavy metal ions, various industries are demanding more efficient and effective treatment methods. Among the methods available, nanofiltration (NF) is a feasible and promising option. However, the development of new membrane materials is constantly required for the advancement of this technology. This is a report of the first attempt to develop a composite NF membrane comprising a molecularly designed pentablock copolymer selective layer for the removal of heavy metal ions. The resultant NF membrane has a mean effective pore diameter of 0.50 nm, a molecular weight cutoff of 255 Da, and a reasonably high pure water permeability (A) of 2.4 LMH/bar. The newly developed NF membrane can effectively remove heavy metal cations such as Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), and Ni(2+) with a rejection of >98.0%. On the other hand, the membrane also shows reasonably high rejections toward anions such as HAsO4(2-) (99.9%) and HCrO4(-) (92.3%). This performance can be attributed to (1) the pentablock copolymer's unique ability to form a continuous water transport passageway with a defined pore size and (2) the incorporation of polyethylenimine as a gutter layer between the selective layer and the substrate. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported NF membrane comprising this pentablock copolymer as the selective material. The promising preliminary results achieved in this study provide a useful platform for the development of new NF membranes for heavy metal removal. PMID:25369240

  17. Innovative use of activated carbon for the removal of heavy metals from ground water sources

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, T. III

    1996-12-31

    This report discusses the evaluation of the ENVIRO-CLEAN PROCESS, a technology developed by Lewis Environmental Services, Inc. for the recovery of metals such as chromium, mercury, copper, cadmium, lead, and zinc from surface and groundwater streams. This new heavy metal removal process (patent-pending) utilizes granular activated carbon with a proprietary conditioning pretreatment to enhance heavy metal adsorption combined with electrolytic metal recovery to produce a saleable metallic product. The process generates no sludge or hazardous waste and the effluent meets EPA limits. A 50 gpm system was installed for recovering hexavalent chromium from a ground water stream at a site located in Fresno, California. The effluent from the activated carbon system was reinjected into the ground water table with the hexavalent chromium concentration < 10 ppb. The system simultaneously removed trichloroethylene (TCE) to concentrations levels < 05 ppb. The activated carbon is regenerated off-site and the chromium electrolytically recovered. The full scale system has treated over 5 million gallons of ground water since installation. 5 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  18. Heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash by thermochemical treatment with polyvinylchloride.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Christian; Exner, Robert M; Adam, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Sewage sludge ash (SSA) is a prospective phosphorus source for the future production of recycling P-fertilizers. Due to its high heavy metals contents and the relatively low P plant-availability, SSA must be treated before agricultural utilisation. In this paper SSA was thermochemically treated with PVC in a bench-scale rotary furnace in order to remove heavy metals via the chloride pathway. PVC has a high Cl-content of 52-53% and a high heating value that can be beneficially used for the thermochemical process. Large amounts of waste PVC are already recovered in recycling processes, but there are still some fractions that would be available for the proposed thermochemical process, for example, the low quality near-infrared(NIR)-fraction from waste separation facilities. Heavy metals were effectively removed at temperatures in the range of 800-950 °C via the gas phase by utilisation of PVC as Cl-donor. The resulting P plant-availability was comparable to SSA thermochemically treated with MgCl(2) as Cl-donor if MgO was used as an additive (Mg-donor). A further increase of the plant availability of phosphorus was achieved by acid post-treatment of the thermochemically treated SSA. PMID:23189972

  19. Removing heavy metals from Isfahan composting leachate by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetland.

    PubMed

    Bakhshoodeh, Reza; Alavi, Nadali; Soltani Mohammadi, Amir; Ghanavati, Hossein

    2016-06-01

    Composting facility leachate usually contains high concentrations of pollutants including heavy metals that are seriously harmful to the environment and public health. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate heavy metals removal from Isfahan composting facility (ICF) leachate by a horizontal flow constructed wetland (HFCWs) system. Two horizontal systems were constructed, one planted with vetiver and the other without plant as a control. They both operated at a flow rate of 24 L/day with a 5-day hydraulic retention time (HRT). The average removal efficiencies for Cr (53 %), Cd (40 %), Ni (35 %), Pb (30 %), Zn (35 %), and Cu (40 %) in vetiver constructed wetland were significantly higher than those of the control (P < 0.05). Accumulations of heavy metals in roots were higher than shoots. Cd and Zn showed the highest and the lowest bioconcentration factor (BCF), respectively. Vetiver tolerates the extreme condition in leachate including high total dissolved solids. PMID:26983810

  20. Functionalized Nanoporous Silica for the Removal of Heavy Metals from Biological Systems: Adsorption and Application

    PubMed Central

    Yantasee, Wassana; Rutledge, Ryan D.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Orr, Galya; Warner, Cynthia L.; Warner, Marvin G.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Wiacek, Robert J.; Timchalk, Charles; Addleman, R. Shane

    2012-01-01

    Surface-functionalized nanoporous silica, often referred to as self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports (SAMMS), has previously demonstrated the ability to serve as very effective heavy metal sorbents in a range of aquatic and environmental systems, suggesting that they may be advantageously utilized for biomedical applications such as chelation therapy. Herein we evaluate surface chemistries for heavy metal capture from biological fluids, various facets of the materials’ biocompatibility, and the suitability of these materials as potential therapeutics. Of the materials tested, thiol-functionalized SAMMS proved most capable of removing selected heavy metals from biological solutions (i.e., blood, urine, etc.) Consequentially, thiol-functionalized SAMMS was further analyzed to assess the material’s performance under a number of different biologically relevant conditions (i.e., variable pH and ionic strength) to gauge any potentially negative effects resulting from interaction with the sorbent, such as cellular toxicity or the removal of essential minerals. Additionally, cellular uptake studies demonstrated no cell membrane permeation by the silica-based materials generally highlighting their ability to remain cellularly inert and thus nontoxic. The results show that organic ligand functionalized nanoporous silica could be a valuable material for a range of detoxification therapies and potentially other biomedical applications. PMID:20939537

  1. Hydrothermally modified fly ash for heavy metals and dyes removal in advanced wastewater treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visa, Maria; Chelaru, Andreea-Maria

    2014-06-01

    Fly ash resulted from coal burning is a waste that can be used in wastewater treatment for removal of dyes and heavy metals by adsorption. Class “F” fly ash (FA), collected from the Central Heat and Power (CHP) Plant Brasov (Romania), with oxides composition SiO2/Al2O3 over 2.4 was used for obtaining a new substrate with good adsorption capacity for dyes and heavy metals from wastewater. A new material was obtained from modified fly ash with NaOH and hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) a cationic surfactant. Contact time, optimum amount of substrate and the pH corresponding to 50 mL solution of pollutants were the parameters optimized for obtaining the maximum efficiency in the adsorption process. The optimized adsorption parameters were further used in thermodynamic and kinetic studies of the adsorption processes. The adsorption kinetic mechanisms, and the substrate capacities are further discussed correlated with the surface structure (XRD), composition (EDS, FTIR), and morphology (SEM, AFM). The results indicate that the novel nano-substrate composite with fly ash modified can be used as an efficient and low cost adsorbent for simultaneous removal of dyes and heavy metals, the resulted water respects the discharge regulations.

  2. Simultaneous heavy metals removal and municipal sewage sludge dewaterability improvement in bioleaching processes by various inoculums.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chaohong; Zhu, Nengwu; Shang, Ru; Kang, Naixin; Wu, Pingxiao

    2015-11-01

    The heavy metals content and dewaterability of municipal sewage sludge (MSS) are important parameters affecting its subsequent disposal and land application. Six kinds of inoculums were prepared to examine the characteristics of heavy metals removal and MSS dewaterability improvement in bioleaching processes. The results showed that Cu, Zn and Cd bioleaching efficiencies (12 days) were 81-91, 87-93 and 81-89%, respectively, which were significantly higher than those of Fe-S control (P < 0.05) and blank control (P < 0.01). The bioleaching boosted by the prepared inoculums could also significantly enhance MSS dewaterability (P < 0.01). The centrifugal dehydration efficiency of MSS rose from 73.00 to 90.00% at day 12. Microscopic observations and energy dispersive spectrum analysis demonstrated that the dewaterability improvement might be attributed to the changes of sludge structure from flocculent to obvious granular and the formation of secondary minerals mainly consisting of iron, oxygen and sulfur elements. The results above demonstrated that bacterial consortium enriched from acid mine drainage (AMD) was suitable to boost sludge bioleaching for heavy metals removal and dewaterability improvement. It also suggested that the synergy of sulfur/ferrous-oxidizing bacteria (SFOB) enriched from AMD and the cooperation of exogenous and indigenous SFOB significantly promoted bioleaching efficiencies. PMID:26271772

  3. Chelating polymer modified P84 nanofiltration (NF) hollow fiber membranes for high efficient heavy metal removal.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Sun, Shi-Peng; Zhu, Wen-Ping; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2014-10-15

    High performance nanofiltration (NF) membranes for heavy metal removal have been molecularly designed by adsorption of chelating polymers containing negatively charged functional groups such as poly (acrylic acid-co-maleic acid) (PAM), poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) and poly (dimethylamine-co-epichlorohydrin-co-ethylenediamine) (PDMED) on the positively charged polyethyleneimine (PEI) cross-linked P84 hollow fiber substrates. Not only do these chelating polymers change the membrane surface charge and pore size, but also provide an extra mean to remove heavy metal ions through adsorption in addition to traditional steric effect and Donnan exclusion. The adsorbed membranes have comparable water permeability and superior rejections to heavy metals, for instance, Pb(NO3)2, CuSO4, NiCl2, CdCl2, ZnCl2, Na2Cr2O7 and Na2HAsO4, with rejections higher than 98%. The membranes also display excellent rejections to mixed ions with rejections more than 99%. The newly developed membranes show reasonably stability during 60-h tests as well as multiple washes. PMID:25016298

  4. Removal of heavy metals and lanthanides from industrial phosphoric acid process liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, C.; Witkamp, G.J.; Van Rosmalen, G.M.

    1999-11-01

    To diminish the discharge of heavy metals and lanthanides by the phosphoric acid industry, these impurities have to be removed from the mother liquor before their incorporation in the gypsum crystals. This can best be achieved by means of solvent extraction or ion exchange during the recrystallization of hemihydrate to dihydrate gypsum. Various commercial carriers and two ion-exchange resins were screened for their efficiency and selectivity. Light and heavy lanthanide ions are extracted from the recrystallization acid by didodecylnaphthalenesulfonic acid (Nacure 1052) and di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (D2EHPA), and the heavy-metal ions by bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinic acid (Cyanex 301) and by bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)monothiophosphinic acid (Cyanex 302). Mercury is also extracted by the anion carriers tri(C{sub 8}-C{sub 10})amine (Alamine 336) and tri(C{sub 8}-C{sub 10}) monomethyl ammonium chloride (Aliquat 336). Both Dowex C-500 and Amberlite IR-120 extract lanthanide and heavy-metal ions. Unfortunately, D2EHPA, Nacure 1052, and the two ion-exchange resins also show affinity for ions present in much higher concentrations, like calcium or iron ions.

  5. Chemical coagulation of combined sewer overflow: heavy metal removal and treatment optimization.

    PubMed

    El Samrani, A G; Lartiges, B S; Villiéras, F

    2008-02-01

    The coagulation of combined sewer overflow (CSO) was investigated by jar-testing with two commercial coagulants, a ferric chloride solution (CLARFER) and a polyaluminium chloride (WAC HB). CSO samples were collected as a function of time during various wet-weather events from the inlet of Boudonville retention basin, Nancy, France. Jar-tests showed that an efficient turbidity removal can be achieved with both coagulants, though lower optimum dosages and higher re-stabilization concentrations were obtained with the aluminum-based coagulant. Optimum turbidity removal also yielded effective heavy metal elimination. However, the evolution with coagulant dosage of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cr, soluble and suspended solids contents followed various patterns. The removal behaviors can be explained by a selective aggregation of heavy metal carriers present in CSO and a specific interaction between hydrolyzed coagulant species and soluble metals. Stoichiometric relationships were established between optimal coagulant concentration, range of optimal dosing, and CSO conductivity, thus providing useful guidelines to adjust the coagulant demand during the course of CSO events. PMID:17961629

  6. A novel route for the removal of bodily heavy metal lead (II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Weirong; Zhang, Penghua; Xu, Hui; Chang, Shengli; He, Yongju; Wang, Fei; Liang, Gaowei

    2015-09-01

    The lead ion concentration in bile is considerably higher than in blood, and bile is released into the alimentary tract. Thiol-modified SBA-15 administered orally can combine with lead ions in the alimentary tract. In this paper, the in vitro lead absorption of bile was investigated. This thiol-modified SBA-15 material was used in pharmacodynamics studies on rabbits. The result that the lead content in faeces was notably higher indicates that thiol-modified SBA-15 can efficiently remove lead. The mechanism could include the following: thiol-modified SBA-15 material cuts off the heavy metal lead recirculation in the process of bile enterohepatic circulation by chelating the lead in the alimentary tract, causing a certain proportion of lead to be removed by the thiol mesoporous material, and the lead is subsequently egested out of the body in faeces. The results indicate that this material might be a potential non-injection material for the removal bodily heavy metal lead in the alimentary tract. This material may also be a useful means of lead removal, especially for non-acute sub-poisoning symptoms.

  7. Removal of Heavy Metals from Industrial Wastewaters Using Local Alum and Other Conventional Coagulants-A Comparative Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunfowokan, A. O.; Durosinmi, L. M.; Oyekunle, J. A. O.; Ogunkunle, O. A.; Igbafe, I. T.

    The present study aimed at effective management and purification of industrial wastewaters using cheaper and locally available local alum for removal of heavy metals as a substitute to convectional coagulants. The effect of local alum, aluminum sulphate and ferric chloride on the metal contents of industrial wastewaters was investigated in the pH range of 5.9-7.5. Wastewater samples from battery, paint and textile industries were treated with different doses of locally available alum, aluminum sulphate and ferric chloride in order to determine and compare their effectiveness in removing heavy metal contents of the wastewaters. The percentage removal of the metals from the industrial wastewaters increased with mg L-l dosage of the coagulants used with optimal performance generally at a slightly alkaline pH. Local alum proved to be equally effective in removing heavy metals from the industrial wastewater samples compared with the conventional aluminum sulphate and ferric chloride.

  8. A new efficient forest biowaste as biosorbent for removal of cationic heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namgyu; Park, Munsik; Park, Donghee

    2014-10-25

    Among various forest biowastes, chestnut bur had the highest uptake values of Cd(II) and Pb(II), and these values were higher than those of agricultural biowastes used as comparable biosorbents. This study is the first report showing the high potential of chestnut bur as biosorbent for the removal of cationic heavy metals. Pseudo-second-order equation satisfactorily described the biosorption behaviors of both metals. Biosorption rate of Pb(II) was 3.12 times higher than that of Cd(II). Langmuir model could fit the equilibrium isotherm data better than Freundlich model. The maximum uptake capacities of Cd(II) and Pb(II) were determined to be 34.77mg/g and 74.35mg/g, respectively. FTIR study showed that carboxyl group on the biosorbent was involved in biosorbing the cationic metals. In conclusion, abundant and cheap forest biowastes, especially chestnut bur, is a potent candidate for efficient biosorbent capable of removing toxic heavy metals from aqueous solutions. PMID:25467000

  9. Electrochemical iron generation: The ideal process for simultaneous removal of heavy metals from contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, M.D.

    1993-12-31

    At most Superfund sites, many heavy metals must be removed from contaminated groundwater. Simultaneous extraction is complicated due to the various chemical properties that metals exhibit. A comprehensive understanding of solubilities, oxidation states, and adsorptive mechanisms is needed to accomplish treatment objectives. This paper uses data from treatability tests conducted on groundwater from the King of Prussia Technical Corporation Site to discuss the electrochemical iron generation process developed by Andco Environmental Processes, Inc. Electrical current and sacrificial steel electrodes were used to put ferrous ions into solution. The chemistry was properly manipulated to provide adsorption and coprecipitation conditions capable of simultaneously removing beryllium, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, mercury, nickel, and zinc. Strict cleanup levels were required since the site is located within Pinelands National Reserve and adjacent to New Jersey`s Winslow Wildlife Refuge. System design, operating costs, and sludge production rate are also discussed.

  10. Adsorptive removal of heavy metals by magnetic nanoadsorbent: an equilibrium and thermodynamic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirsath, D. S.; Shirivastava, V. S.

    2015-11-01

    An efficient and new magnetic nanoadsorbent photocatalyst was fabricated by co-precipitation technique. This research focuses on understanding metal removal process and developing a cost-effective technology for treatment of heavy metal-contaminated industrial wastewater. In this investigation, magnetic nanoadsorbent has been employed for the removal of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solutions by a batch adsorption technique. The adsorption equilibrium data fitted very well to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherm models. The thermodynamics of Zn(II) ions adsorption onto the magnetic nanoadsorbents indicated that the adsorption was spontaneous, endothermic and physical in nature. Surface morphology of magnetic nanoadsorbent by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis by EDX technique. The structural and photocatalytic properties of magnetic nanoadsorbent were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR techniques. Also, the magnetic properties of synthesized magnetic nanoadsorbent were determined by vibrating spinning magnetometer (VSM).

  11. Simultaneous removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater by foam separation techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.D.; Huang, M.K.; Gua, J.Y.; Wu, T.P.; Huang, J.Y.

    1988-04-01

    The objective of the present work is to extend the application of adsorbing colloid flotation techniques to remove mixtures of metal ions. The systems studied are: 1) Co(II) and Cr(VI); 2) Co(II), Ni(II), and Cr(VI); 3) Cr(VI), Cu(II), and Zn(II); 4) Cr(VI), Cu(II), Zn(II), and Ni(II); 5) Cd(II), Pd(II), and Cu(II). Ferric hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide were used as the coprecipitant, and sodium lauryl sulfate was used as the collector and frother. The ionic strength of the solution was adjusted with NaNO/sub 3/ or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It was found that all the heavy metals can be removed effectively by a single step foam flotation treatment.

  12. Efficiency of Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia for heavy metal removal from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Menka; Tripathi, B D

    2015-02-01

    A cost-effective and promising technology has been demonstrated for the removal of copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), iron (Fe), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) from urban sewage mixed with industrial effluents within 14 days. With the help of P. australis and T. latifolia grown alone and in combination batch experiments were designed to assess the removal of heavy metals from the wastewater collected from 5 sampling stations. The results revealed that P. australis performed better than T. latifolia for Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn removal, while mixing of the plant species further enhanced the removal of Cu to 78.0±1.2%, Cd to 60.0±1.2%, Cr to 68.1±0.4%, Ni to 73.8±0.6%, Fe to 80.1±0.3%, Pb to 61.0±1.2% and Zn to 61.0±1.2% for wastewater samples from Raj Ghat. Negative correlation coefficients of Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn concentrations in wastewater with the retention time revealed that there was an increase in the heavy metal removal rate with retention time. P. australis showed higher accumulative capacities for Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni and Fe than T. latifolia. P. australis and T. latifolia grown in combination can be used for the removal of Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, Fe, Pb and Zn from the urban sewage mixed with industrial effluents within 14 days. PMID:25463857

  13. Removal mechanisms of heavy metal pollution from urban runoff in wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhiming; Cui, Baoshan; Fan, Xiaoyun

    2012-12-01

    Solid particles, particularly urban surface dust in urban environments contain large quantities of pollutants. It is considered that urban surface dust is a major pollution source of urban stormwater runoff. The stormwater runoff washes away urban surface dust and dissolves pollutants adsorbed onto the dust and finally discharges into receiving water bodies. The quality of receiving water bodies can be deteriorated by the dust and pollutants in it. Polluted waters can be purified by wetlands with various physical, chemical, and biologic processes. These processes have been employed to treat pollutants in urban stormwater runoff for many years because purification of treatment wetlands is a natural process and a low-cost method. In this paper, we reviewed the processes involved during pollutants transport in urban environments. Particularly, when the urban stormwater runoff enters into wetlands, their removal mechanisms involving various physical, chemical and biologic processes should been understood. Wetlands can remove heavy metals by absorbing and binding them and make them form a part of sediment. However, heavy metals can be released into water when the conditions changed. This information is important for the use of wetlands for removing of pollutants and reusing stormwater.

  14. Functionalized Nanoporous Silica for Removal of Heavy Metals from Biological Systems; Adsorption and Application

    SciTech Connect

    Yantasee, Wassana; Rutledge, Ryan D.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Sukwarotwat, Vichaya; Orr, Galya; Warner, Cynthia L.; Warner, Marvin G.; Fryxell, Glen E.; Wiacek, Robert J.; Timchalk, Charles; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2010-10-01

    Functionalized nanoporous silica, often referred to as self-assembled monolayers on mesoporous supports (SAMMS) have previously demonstrated the ability to serve as very effective heavy metal sorbents in a range of aquatic and environmental systems suggesting they may be advantageously utilized for biomedical applications such as chelation therapy. Herein we evaluate surface chemistries for heavy metal capture from biological fluids, various facets of the materials biocompatibility and the suitability of these materials as potential therapeutics. Of the materials tested, thiol-functionalized SAMMS proved most capable of removing selected heavy metals from biological solutions (i.e. blood, urine, etc.) As a result, thiol SAMMS was further analyzed to assess the material’s performance under a number of different biologically relevant conditions (i.e. variable pH and ionic strength) as well to gauge any potentially negative cellular effects resulting from interaction with the sorbent, such as cellular toxicity or possible chelation of essential minerals. Additionally, cellular uptake studies demonstrated no cell membrane permeation by the silica-based materials generally highlighting their ability to remain cellularly inert and thus non-toxic. As a result, it has been determined that organic ligand-functionalized nanoporous silica materials could be a valuable material for detoxification therapeutics and potentially other biomedical applications as needed.

  15. Aquatic and terrestrial plant species with potential to remove heavy metals from storm-water.

    PubMed

    Fritioff, Asa; Greger, Maria

    2003-01-01

    Remediation of storm-water polluted with heavy metals should be possible in percolation systems, ponds, or wetlands. The aim of this work was to find plant species for such systems that are efficient in the uptake of Zn, Cu, Cd, and Pb. Plants were collected from percolation and wetland areas and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. Results showed that submersed and free-floating plants had the capacity to take up high levels of Cu, Zn, and Pb into their shoots. With roots having a concentration factor above 1, the terrestrial plants show efficient stabilization of Cd and Zn and emergent plants show corresponding stabilisation of Zn. In addition, Potamogeton natans, Alisma plantago-aquatica, and Filipendula ulmaria were used in a controlled experiment. The shoots of P. natans and the roots of A. plantago-aquatica were found to accumulate even higher concentrations of Zn, Cu, and Pb than found in the field-harvested plants. Similar results were found for Cd in shoots and Pb in roots of F. ulmaria. Our conclusion is that submersed plant species seem to be the most efficient for removal of heavy metals from storm-water. PMID:14750429

  16. Effect of large pore size of multifunctional mesoporous microsphere on removal of heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Qing; Li, Nan; Chi, Yue; Geng, Wangchang; Yan, Wenfu; Zhao, Ying; Li, Xiaotian; Dong, Bin

    2013-06-15

    Pore size of mesoporous materials is crucial for their surface grafting. This article develops a novel multifunctional microsphere with a large pore size mesoporous silica shell (ca. 10.3 nm) and a magnetic core (Fe₃O₄), which is fabricated using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as pore-forming agents, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as silicon source through a sol-gel process. Compared with small pore size mesoporous silica magnetic microspheres (ca. 2-4 nm), the large pore size one can graft 447 mg/g amino groups in order to adsorb more heavy metal ions (Pb(2+): 880.6 mg/g, Cu(2+): 628.3mg/g, Cd(2+): 492.4 mg/g). The metal-loaded multifunctional microspheres could be easily removed from aqueous solution by magnetic separation and regenerated easily by acid treatment. The results suggest that the large pore size multifunctional microspheres are potentially useful materials for high effectively adsorbing and removing different heavy metal ions in aqueous solution. PMID:23618656

  17. Separation of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.W.; Shem, L.

    1993-03-01

    This paper reviews the applicable separation technologies relating to removal of heavy metals from solution and from soils in order to present the state-of-the-art in the field. Each technology is briefly described and typical operating conditions and technology performance are presented. Technologies described include chemical precipitation (including hydroxide, carbonate, or sulfide reagents), coagulation/flocculation, ion exchange, solvent extraction, extraction with chelating agents, complexation, electrochemical operation, cementation, membrane operations, evaporation, adsorption, solidification/stabilization, and vitrification. Several case histories are described, with a focus on waste reduction techniques and remediation of lead-contaminated soils. The paper concludes with a short discussion of important research needs in the field.

  18. Separation of heavy metals: Removal from industrial wastewaters and contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.W.; Shem, L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper reviews the applicable separation technologies relating to removal of heavy metals from solution and from soils in order to present the state-of-the-art in the field. Each technology is briefly described and typical operating conditions and technology performance are presented. Technologies described include chemical precipitation (including hydroxide, carbonate, or sulfide reagents), coagulation/flocculation, ion exchange, solvent extraction, extraction with chelating agents, complexation, electrochemical operation, cementation, membrane operations, evaporation, adsorption, solidification/stabilization, and vitrification. Several case histories are described, with a focus on waste reduction techniques and remediation of lead-contaminated soils. The paper concludes with a short discussion of important research needs in the field.

  19. Eggshell: A green adsorbent for heavy metal removal in an MBR system.

    PubMed

    Pettinato, M; Chakraborty, S; Arafat, Hassan A; Calabro', V

    2015-11-01

    Presence of heavy metals as well as different metal ions in treated wastewater is a problem for the environment as well as human health. This paper aims to investigate the possibility to combine an MBR (membrane biological reactor) with an adsorption process onto powdered eggshell and eggshell membrane in order to improve metal removal from wastewater. The first step of the experimental analysis consists of the evaluation of the compatibility between the two processes. Then, a study about sorbent concentration and size effect on fouling was conducted, because the use of this kind of sorbent could affect membrane performance. The second step of the work concerns the check up of eggshell removal capacity as a function of sorbent size, achieved treating an aqueous solution containing Al(3+), Fe(2+) and Zn(2+) as water pollutants. Finally, synthetic wastewater, containing the metal species, was treated by two alternative process schemes: one of them performs the metal uptake in a dedicated adsorption unit, before the MBR. In the second, the two processes take place in the same unit. Results demonstrate that the optimization of the first option could be a solution to MBR upgrading. PMID:26117278

  20. Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Eddie C.

    1995-01-01

    An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500.degree. C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

  1. Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Gay, E.C.

    1993-12-23

    An electrochemical method of separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500{degree}C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li-Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode.

  2. Metallothionein-cross-linked hydrogels for the selective removal of heavy metals from water.

    PubMed

    Esser-Kahn, Aaron P; Iavarone, Anthony T; Francis, Matthew B

    2008-11-26

    The diverse functional repertoire of proteins promises to yield new materials with unprecedented capabilities, so long as versatile chemical methods are available to integrate biomolecules with synthetic components. As a demonstration of this potential, we have used site-selective strategies to cross-link polymer chains using the N- and C-termini of a metallothionein derived from a pea plant. This arrangement directly relates the swelling volume of the polymer to the folded state of the protein. The material retains the protein's ability to remove heavy metal ions from contaminated water samples, and can be regenerated through the subsequent addition of inexpensive chelators. The change in hydrogel volume that occurs as metal ions are bound allows the detection of contaminants through simple visual inspection. The utility of this bulk property change is demonstrated in the construction of a low-cost device that can report heavy metal contamination with no external power requirements. Most importantly, the generality of the protein modification chemistry allows the immediate generation of new hybrid materials from a wide range of protein sequences. PMID:18980305

  3. Feasibility/treatability studies for removal of heavy metals from training range soils at the Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    A feasibility/treatability study was performed to investigate the leaching potential of heavy metals (particularly lead) from soils at the Grafenw6hr Training Area (GTA) in Germany. The study included an evaluation of the effectiveness of chelant extraction to remediate the heavy-metal-contarninated soils. Batch shaker tests indicated that ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (0.01M) was more effective than citric acid (0.01M) at removing cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. EDTA and citric acid were equally effective in mobilizing chromium and barium from the soil. The batch shaker technique with chelant extraction offers promise as a remediation technique for heavy-metal-contaninated soil at the GTA. Columnar flooding tests conducted as part of the study revealed that deionized water was the least effective leaching solution for mobilization of the heavy metals; the maximum solubilization obtained was 3.72% for cadmium. EDTA (0.05M) achieved the greatest removal of lead (average removal of 17.6%). The difficulty of extraction using deionized water indicates that all of the heavy metals are very tightly bound to the soil; therefore, they are very stable in the GTA soils and do not pose a serious threat to the groundwater system. Columnar flooding probably does not represent a viable remediation technique for in-situ cleanup of heavy-metal-contaminated soils at the GTA.

  4. Remediation of heavy metal polluted sediment by suspension and solid-bed leaching: estimate of metal removal efficiency.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Zehnsdorf, Andreas; Hoffmann, Petra; Seidel, Heinz

    2007-01-01

    Remediation of heavy metal polluted sediment by extracting the metals with sulfuric acid can be performed as follows: abiotic suspension leaching, microbial suspension leaching, abiotic solid-bed leaching, and microbial solid-bed leaching. Abiotic leaching means that the acid is directly added, while microbial leaching means that the acid is generated from sulfur by microbes (bioleaching). These four principles were compared to each other with special emphasis on the effectiveness of metal solubilization and metal removal by subsequent washing. Abiotic suspension leaching was fastest, but suspending the solids exhibits some disadvantages (low solid content, costly reactors, permanent input of energy, high water consumption, special equipment required for solid separation, large amounts of waste water, sediment properties hinder reuse), which prevent suspension leaching in practice. Abiotic solid-bed leaching implies the supply of acid by percolating water which proceeds slowly due to a limited bed permeability. Microbial solid-bed leaching means the generation of acid within the bed and has been proven to be the only principle applicable to practice. Metal removal from leached sediment requires washing with water. Washing of solid beds was much more effective than washing of suspended sediment. The kinetics of metal removal from solid beds 0.3, 0.6 or 1.2m in height were similar; when using a percolation flow of 20lm(-2)h(-1), the removal of 98% of the mobile metals lasted 57-61h and required 8.5, 4.2 or 2.3lkg(-1) water. This means, the higher the solid bed, the lower the sediment-mass-specific demand for time and water. PMID:16908047

  5. Growth and heavy metal removal by Klebsiella aerogenes at different pH and temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Shahwani, M.F.; Jazrawi, S.F.; Al-Rawi, E.H.; Ayar, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    A strain of Klebsiella aerogenes isolated from Rustamiyah Station for treatment of wastewater was examined for its ability to grow in a media supplemented with maximum tolerance concentrations of Pb/sup + +/, Zn/sup + +/, Ni/sup + +/, and Cd/sup + +/, separately, at different temperatures and initial pH. The results indicated that at 28/sup 0/C during the first 24 hr, Pb/sup + +/ and Ni/sup + +/ had no effect on the growth of the bacteria, while the presence of Zn/sup + +/ and Cd/sup + +/ decreased the cell count. The growth reached a maximum level after the second day and started to decrease gradually. The bacterial count at 37/sup 0/C was less than that at 28/sup 0/C. No bacterial multiplication occurred at 44/sup 0/C. There was little difference between heavy metal removal at 28 and 37/sup 0/C. At 44/sup 0/C, little removal took place. In general, slightly acidic or neutral medium was better for both bacterial growth and metal removal.

  6. Simultaneous removal of organic contaminants and heavy metals from kaolin using an upward electrokinetic soil remediation process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Yuan; Huang, Xiang-Jun; Kao, Jimmy C M; Stabnikova, Olena

    2007-06-01

    Kaolins contaminated with heavy metals, Cu and Pb, and organic compounds, p-xylene and phenanthrene, were treated with an upward electrokinetic soil remediation (UESR) process. The effects of current density, cathode chamber flushing fluid, treatment duration, reactor size, and the type of contaminants under the vertical non-uniform electric field of UESR on the simultaneous removal of the heavy metals and organic contaminants were studied. The removal efficiencies of p-xylene and phenanthrene were higher in the experiments with cells of smaller diameter or larger height, and with distilled water flow in the cathode chamber. The removal efficiency of Cu and Pb were higher in the experiments with smaller diameter or shorter height cells and 0.01M HNO(3) solution as cathode chamber flow. In spite of different conditions for removal of heavy metals and organics, it is possible to use the upward electrokinetic soil remediation process for their simultaneous removal. Thus, in the experiments with duration of 6 days removal efficiencies of phenanthrene, p-xylene, Cu and Pb were 67%, 93%, 62% and 35%, respectively. The experiment demonstrated the feasibility of simultaneous removal of organic contaminants and heavy metals from kaolin using the upward electrokinetic soil remediation process. PMID:17110023

  7. Influences of thermal decontamination on mercury removal, soil properties, and repartitioning of coexisting heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Tuan; Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2011-08-01

    Thermal treatment is a useful tool to remove Hg from contaminated soils. However, thermal treatment may greatly alter the soil properties and cause the coexisting contaminants, especially trace metals, to transform and repartition. The metal repartitioning may increase the difficulty in the subsequent process of a treatment train approach. In this study, three Hg-contaminated soils were thermally treated to evaluate the effects of treating temperature and duration on Hg removal. Thermogravimetric analysis was performed to project the suitable heating parameters for subsequent bench-scale fixed-bed operation. Results showed that thermal decontamination at temperature>400°C successfully lowered the Hg content to<20 mg kg(-1). The organic carbon content decreased by 0.06-0.11% and the change in soil particle size was less significant, even when the soils were thermally treated to 550°C. Soil clay minerals such as kaolinite were shown to be decomposed. Aggregates were observed on the surface of soil particles after the treatment. The heavy metals tended to transform into acid-extractable, organic-matter bound, and residual forms from the Fe/Mn oxide bound form. These results suggest that thermal treatment may markedly influence the effectiveness of subsequent decontamination methods, such as acid washing or solvent extraction. PMID:21624629

  8. Organic substrates as electron donors in permeable reactive barriers for removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage.

    PubMed

    Kijjanapanich, P; Pakdeerattanamint, K; Lens, P N L; Annachhatre, A P

    2012-12-01

    This research was conducted to select suitable natural organic substrates as potential carbon sources for use as electron donors for biological sulphate reduction in a permeable reactive barrier (PRB). A number of organic substrates were assessed through batch and continuous column experiments under anaerobic conditions with acid mine drainage (AMD) obtained from an abandoned lignite coal mine. To keep the heavy metal concentration at a constant level, the AMD was supplemented with heavy metals whenever necessary. Under anaerobic conditions, sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) converted sulphate into sulphide using the organic substrates as electron donors. The sulphide that was generated precipitated heavy metals as metal sulphides. Organic substrates, which yielded the highest sulphate reduction in batch tests, were selected for continuous column experiments which lasted over 200 days. A mixture of pig-farm wastewater treatment sludge, rice husk and coconut husk chips yielded the best heavy metal (Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) removal efficiencies of over 90%. PMID:23437664

  9. High-Performance, Superparamagnetic, Nanoparticle-Based Heavy Metal Sorbents for Removal of Contaminants from Natural Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Warner, Cynthia L.; Addleman, Shane; Cinson, Anthony D.; Droubay, Timothy C.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Nash, Michael A.; Yantasee, Wassana; Warner, Marvin G.

    2010-06-01

    We describe the synthesis and characterization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle based heavy metal sorbents with various surface chemistries that demonstrate an excellent affinity for the separation of heavy metals in contaminated water systems (i.e. spiked Columbia river water). The magnetic nanoparticle sorbents are prepared from an easy to synthesize iron oxide precursor, followed by a simple, one-step ligand exchange technique to introduce the organic surface functionality of interest chosen to target either specific or broader classes of heavy metals. Functionalized superparamagnetic nanoparticles are excellent sorbent materials for the extraction of heavy metal contaminants from environmental and clinical samples since they are easily removed from the media once bound to the contaminant by simply applying a magnetic field. These engineered magnetic nanoparticle sorbents have an inherently high active surface area (often > 100 m2/g), allowing for increased binding capacity. To demonstrate the potential sorbent performance of each of the surface modified magnetic nanoparticles, river water was spiked with Hg, Pb, Cd, Ag, Co, Cu, and Tl and exposed to low concentrations of the functionalized nanoparticles. The samples were analyzed to determine the metal content before and after exposure to the magnetic nanoparticle sorbents. In almost all cases reported here the nanoparticles were found to be superior to commercially available sorbents binding a wide range of different heavy metals with extremely high affinity. Detailed characterization of the functionalized magnetic nanoparticle sorbents including FT-IR, BET surface analysis, TGA, XPS and VSM as well as the heavy metal removal experiments are presented.

  10. Removal and bioaccumulation of heavy metals from aqueous solutions using freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Shamshad, Isha; Khan, Sardar; Waqas, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nadeem; Khushnood-Ur-Rehman; Khan, Kifayatullah

    2015-01-01

    Four freshwater algae, including Cladophora glomerata, Oedogonium westii, Vaucheria debaryana and Zygnema insigne, were tested for their bioaccumulation capacity for cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in a controlled environment with an average temperature of 18 °C, and light/dark duration of 12:12 h. Experiments were performed in aqueous solutions containing selected heavy metals (HM) (ranging from 0.05 to 1.5 mg L(-1)) with 0.5 g of living algae at 18 °C and pH 6.8. The results indicated that C. glomerata was observed to be the most competent species for the removal of Cr, Cd and Pb from aqueous solutions. HM removal trends were in the order of Cd>Cr>Pb while the removal efficiency of selected algae species was in the order of C. glomerata, O. westii, V. debaryana and Z. insigne. The bioaccumulation capacity of C. glomerata, V. debaryana and Z. insigne was observed for different HM. Removal of HM was higher with low levels of HM in aqueous solutions. The results indicated that C. glomerata, O. westii, V. debaryana and Z. insigne had significant (P≤0.01) diverse bioaccumulation capacity for Cr, Cd and Pb. PMID:25607667

  11. Evaluation of the capability of low-impact development practices for the removal of heavy metal from urban stormwater runoff.

    PubMed

    Maniquiz-Redillas, Marla C; Kim, Lee-Hyung

    2016-09-01

    Low-impact development (LID) and green infrastructure (GI) have recently become well-known methods to capture, collect, retain, and remove pollutants in stormwater runoff. The research was conducted to assess the efficiency of LID/GI systems applied in removing the particulate and dissolved heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd, and Fe) from urban stormwater runoff. A total of 82 storm events were monitored over a four-year period (2010-2014) on six LID/GI systems including infiltration trenches, tree box filter, rain garden, and hybrid constructed wetlands employed for the management of road, parking lot, and roof runoff. It was observed that the heavy metal concentration increased proportionally with the total suspended solids concentration. Among the heavy metal constituents, Fe appeared to be highly particulate-bound and was the easiest to remove followed by Zn and Pb; while metals such as Cr, Ni, Cu, and Cd were mostly dissolved and more difficult to remove. The mass fraction ratios of metal constituents at the effluent were increased relative to the influent. All the systems performed well in the removal of particulate-bound metals and were more efficient for larger storms greater than 15 mm wherein more particulate-bound metals were generated compared to smaller storms less than 5 mm that produced more dissolved metals. The efficiency of the systems in removing the particulate-bound metals was restricted during high average/peak flows; that is, high-intensity storms events and when heavy metals have low concentration levels. PMID:26862669

  12. Multivariate methods for evaluating the efficiency of electrodialytic removal of heavy metals from polluted harbour sediments.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Kristine Bondo; Kirkelund, Gunvor M; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Jensen, Pernille E; Lejon, Tore

    2015-01-01

    Chemometrics was used to develop a multivariate model based on 46 previously reported electrodialytic remediation experiments (EDR) of five different harbour sediments. The model predicted final concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn as a function of current density, remediation time, stirring rate, dry/wet sediment, cell set-up as well as sediment properties. Evaluation of the model showed that remediation time and current density had the highest comparative influence on the clean-up levels. Individual models for each heavy metal showed variance in the variable importance, indicating that the targeted heavy metals were bound to different sediment fractions. Based on the results, a PLS model was used to design five new EDR experiments of a sixth sediment to achieve specified clean-up levels of Cu and Pb. The removal efficiencies were up to 82% for Cu and 87% for Pb and the targeted clean-up levels were met in four out of five experiments. The clean-up levels were better than predicted by the model, which could hence be used for predicting an approximate remediation strategy; the modelling power will however improve with more data included. PMID:25464314

  13. Mathematically modeling the removal of heavy metals from a wastewater using immobilized biomass

    SciTech Connect

    Trujillo, E.M. ); Jeffers, T.H.; Ferguson, C.; Stevenson, H.Q. )

    1991-09-01

    A technique developed by the US Bureau of Mines using biomass, sphagnum peat moss, immobilized in porous polysulfone beads selectively removed Zn, Cd, and other metals from a zinc mining wastewater to concentrations well below the National Drinking Water Standards. The objective of this paper was to obtain experimental data on the biosorption of several heavy metals onto the beads containing sphagnum peat moss and to develop the appropriate mathematical models that might be used to describe the multicomponent phenomena. Nonequilibrium multicomponent mathematical models were developed and experimental data obtained for the simultaneous, competitive adsorption of six metal ions from an actual wastewater for both batch kinetic and semicontinuous packed-bed experiments. Experimental results indicated a selectivity order of Al > Cd > Zn > Ca > Mn > Mg and that metal ion breakthroughs were quite sensitive to ionic concentrations and adsorptive capacity. In addition, it was observed that, for the packed-bed experiments, the adsorptive capacity of the beads appeared to increase after the first few cycles. Mathematical models provided effective multicomponent equilibrium constants, adsorptive capacities, and reduced overall mass-transfer coefficients. The constants obtained from the packed-bed model were in reasonable agreement with those obtained from the batch kinetic model.

  14. Removing adsorbed heavy metal ions from sand surfaces via applying interfacial properties of rhamnolipid.

    PubMed

    Haryanto, Bode; Chang, Chien-Hsiang

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the interfacial properties of biosurfactant rhamnolipid were investigated and were applied to remove adsorbed heavy metal ions from sand surfaces with flushing operations. The surface tension-lowering activity, micelle charge characteristic, and foaming ability of rhamnolipid were identified first. For rhamnolipid in water, the negatively charged characteristic of micelles or aggregates was confirmed and the foaming ability at concentrations higher than 40 mg/L was evaluated. By using the rhamnolipid solutions in a batch washing approach, the potential of applying the interfacial properties of rhamnolipid to remove adsorbed copper ions from sand surfaces was then demonstrated. In rhamnolipid solution flushing operations for sand-packed medium, higher efficiency was found for the removal of adsorbed copper ions with residual type than with inner-sphere interaction type, implying the important role of interaction type between the copper ion and the sand surface in the removal efficiency. In addition, the channeling effect of rhamnolipid solution flow in the sand-packed medium was clearly observed in the solution flushing operations and was responsible for the low removal efficiency with low contact areas between solution and sand. By using rhamnolipid solution with foam to flush the sand-packed medium, one could find that the channeling effect of the solution flow was reduced and became less pronounced with the increase in the rhamnolipid concentration, or with the enhanced foaming ability. With the reduced channeling effect in the flushing operations, the removal efficiency for adsorbed copper ions was significantly improved. The results suggested that the foam-enhanced rhamnolipid solution flushing operation was efficient in terms of surfactant usage and operation time. PMID:25748376

  15. Removal of heavy metals and arsenic from a co-contaminated soil by sieving combined with washing process.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaoyong; Li, You; Yan, Xiulan

    2016-03-01

    Batch experiments were conducted with a heavy metals and arsenic co-contaminated soil from an abandoned mine to evaluate the feasibility of a remediation technology that combines sieving with soil washing. Leaching of the arsenic and heavy metals from the different particle size fractions was found to decrease in the order: <0.1, 2-0.1, and >2mm. With increased contact time, the concentration of heavy metals in the leachate was significantly decreased for small particles, probably because of adsorption by the clay soil component. For the different particle sizes, the removal efficiencies for Pb and Cd were 75%-87%, and 61%-77% for Zn and Cu, although the extent of removal was decreased for As and Cr at <45%. The highest efficiency by washing for Pb, Cd, Zn, and As was from the soil particles >2mm, although good metal removal efficiencies were also achieved in the small particle size fractions. Through SEM-EDS observations and correlation analysis, the leaching regularity of the heavy metals and arsenic was found to be closely related to Fe, Mn, and Ca contents of the soil fractions. The remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soil by sieving combined with soil washing was proven to be efficient, and practical remediation parameters were also recommended. PMID:26969066

  16. Microfungal spores (Ustilago maydis and U. digitariae) immobilised chitosan microcapsules for heavy metal removal.

    PubMed

    Sargın, İdris; Arslan, Gulsin; Kaya, Murat

    2016-03-15

    Designing effective chitosan-based biosorbents from unexploited biomass for heavy metal removal has received much attention over the past decade. Ustilago, loose smut, is a ubiquitous fungal plant pathogen infecting over 4000 species including maize and weed. This study aimed to establish whether the spores of the phytopathogenic microfungi Ustilago spores can be immobilised in cross-linked chitosan matrix, and it reports findings on heavy metal sorption performance of chitosan/Ustilago composite microcapsules. Immobilisation of Ustilago maydis and U. digitariae spores (from maize and weed) in chitosan microcapsules was achieved via glutaraldehyde cross-linking. The cross-linked microcapsules were characterised using scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Sorption capacities of chitosan-U. maydis and chitosan-U. digitariae microcapsules were investigated and compared to cross-linked chitosan beads: Cu(II): 66.72, 69.26, 42.57; Cd(II): 49.46, 53.96, 7.87; Cr(III): 35.88, 49.40, 43.68; Ni(II): 41.67, 33.46, 16.43 and Zn(II): 30.73, 60.81, 15.04mg/g, respectively. Sorption experiments were conducted as a function of initial metal ion concentration (2-10mg/L), contact time (60-480min), temperature (25, 35 and 45°C), amount of the sorbent (0.05-0.25g) and pH of the metal solution. The microcapsules with spores exhibited better performance over the plain chitosan beads, demonstrating their potential use in water treatment. PMID:26794753

  17. Removal of eutrophication factors and heavy metal from a closed cultivation system using the macroalgae, Gracilaria sp. (Rhodophyta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Sui, Zhenghong

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the ability of macroalgae Gracilaria sp. of removing eutrophication factors and toxic heavy metals Al, Cr, and Zn in a closed cultivation system is reported. The results show that the concentration of the three heavy metals decreased significantly during the experimental period in an algal biomass dependent manner. The biofiltration capacity of the alga for Al, Cr, and Zn is 10.1%-72.6%, 52.5%-83.4% and 36.5%-91.7%, respectively. Using more materials resulted in stronger heavy metal removal. Additionally, the concentration of chl- a, TN, TP and DIN of water samples from aquariums involving large, medium, and small algal biomass cultivation increased first and then decreased during the experiment. COD value of all three groups decreased with time and displayed algal biomass dependency: more algae resulting in a greater COD value than those of less biomass. Furthermore, changes in COD reflect an obvious organic particles deprivation process of algae. This is the first report on heavy metal removal effect by Gracilaria species. The results suggest that macroalgae can be used as a biofilter for the treatment of nutrient-enriched or heavy-metal polluted water, to which an appropriate time range should be carefully determined.

  18. Lignocellulosic Wheat Straw-Derived Ion-Exchange Adsorbent for Heavy Metals Removal.

    PubMed

    Krishnani, K K

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this work is to develop partially delignified Ca(2+)-and-Mg(2+)-ion-exchanged product from lignocellulosic wheat straw for the removal of eight different heavy metals Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Hg(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+), Zn(2+), and Cu(2+) and for detoxification of Cr(VI). Maximum fixation capacity, pH, and initial metal concentration dependence were determined to confirm strong affinity of Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and Hg(2+) ions onto the product, whereas Co(2+), Ni(2+), and Mn(2+) were the least fixed. Morphology of the product characterized by scanning electron microscope showed its physical integrity. Different experimental approaches were applied to determine the role of cations such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+) and several functional groups present in the product in an ion exchange for the fixation of metal ions. Potentiometric titration and Scatchard and Dahlquist interpretation were employed for determination of binding site heterogeneity. Results showed strong and weak binding sites in the product. This product has advantages over other conventional processes by virtue of abundance, easy operational process, and cost reduction in waste disposal of its raw material. PMID:26494139

  19. Contemplating the feasibility of vermiculate blended chitosan for heavy metal removal from simulated industrial wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, N.; Soundarrajan, M.; Arungalai Vendan, S.; Sudha, P. N.; Renganathan, N. G.

    2015-12-01

    Wastewater contaminated by heavy metals pose great challenges as they are non biodegradable, toxic and carcinogenic to the soil and aquifers. Vermiculite blended with chitosan have been used to remove Cr(VI) and Cd(II) from the industrial wastewater. The results indicate that the vermiculite blended with chitosan adsorb Cr(VI) and Cd(II) from industrial waste water. Batch adsorption experiments were performed as a function of pH 5.0 and 5.5 respectively for chromium and cadmium. The adsorption rate was observed to be 72 and 71 % of chromium and cadmium respectively. The initial optimum contact time for Cr(VI) was 300 min with 59.2 % adsorption and 300 min for Cd(II) with 71.5 % adsorption. Whereas, at 4-6 there is saturation, increasing the solid to liquid ratio for chitosan biopolymers increases the number of active sites available for adsorption. The optimum pH required for maximum adsorption was found to be 5.0 and 5.5 for chromium and cadmium respectively. The experimental equilibrium adsorption data were fitted using Langmuir and Freundlich equations. It was observed that adsorption kinetics of both the metal ions on vermiculite blended chitosan is well be analyzed with pseudo-second-order model. The negative free energy change of adsorption indicates that the process was spontaneous and vermiculite blended chitosan was a favourable adsorbent for both the metals.

  20. Removal turbidity and separation of heavy metals using electrocoagulation-electroflotation technique A case study.

    PubMed

    Merzouk, B; Gourich, B; Sekki, A; Madani, K; Chibane, M

    2009-05-15

    The electrocoagulation (EC) process was developed to overcome the drawbacks of conventional wastewater treatment technologies. This process is very effective in removing organic pollutants including dyestuff wastewater and allows for the reduction of sludge generation. The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of the operating parameters, such as pH, initial concentration (C(0)), duration of treatment (t), current density (j), interelectrode distance (d) and conductivity (kappa) on a synthetic wastewater in the batch electrocoagulation-electroflotation (EF) process. The optimal operating conditions were determined and applied to a textile wastewater and separation of some heavy metals. Initially a batch-type EC-EF reactor was operated at various current densities (11.55, 18.6, 35.94, 56.64, 74.07 and 91.5mA/cm(2)) and various interelectrode distance (1, 2 and 3cm). For solutions with 300mg/L of silica gel, high turbidity removal (89.54%) was obtained without any coagulants when the current density was 11.55mA/cm(2), initial pH was 7.6, conductivity was 2.1mS/cm, duration of treatment was 10min and interelectrode distance was 1cm. The application of the optimal operating parameters on a textile wastewater showed a high removal efficiency for various items: suspended solid (SS) 86.5%, turbidity 81.56%, biological oxygen demand (BOD(5)) 83%, chemical oxygen demand (COD) 68%, and color over 92.5%. During the EC process under these conditions, we have studied the separation of some heavy metal ions such as iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) with different initial concentrations in the range of 50-600mg/L and initial pH between 7.5 and 7.8. This allowed us to show that the kinetics of electrocoagulation-electroflotation is very quick (<15min), and the removal rate reaches 95%. PMID:18799259

  1. Chitosan/sporopollenin microcapsules: preparation, characterisation and application in heavy metal removal.

    PubMed

    Sargın, İdris; Arslan, Gulsin

    2015-04-01

    Use of natural polymers as biosorbents for heavy metal removal is advantageous. This paper reports a study aiming to design a novel biosorbent from two biomacromolecules; chitosan, a versatile derivative of chitin, and sporopollenin, a biopolymer with excellent mechanical properties and great resistance to chemical and biological attack. Chitosan/sporopollenin microcapsules were prepared via cross-linking and characterised by employing scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Sorption performance of the microcapsules and the plain chitosan beads were tested for Cu(II), Cd(II), Cr(III), Ni(II) and Zn(II) ions at different metal ion concentration, pH, amount of sorbent, temperature and sorption time. The adsorption pattern followed Langmuir isotherm model and the sorption capacity of the chitosan/sporopollenin microcapsules was found to be Cu(II): 1.34, Cd(II): 0.77, Cr(III): 0.99, Ni(II): 0.58 and Zn(II): 0.71 mmol g(-1). Plain chitosan beads showed higher affinity for the ions; Cu(II): 1.46, Cr(III): 1.16 and Ni(II): 0.81 mmol g(-1) but lower for Cd(II): 0.15 and Zn(II): 0.25 mmol g(-1). Sporopollenin enhanced Cd(II) and Zn(II) ions sorption capacity of the chitosan microcapsules. Chitosan/sporopollenin microcapsules can be used in Cd(II) and Zn(II) metal removal. PMID:25660654

  2. Method of removal of heavy metal from molten salt in IFR fuel pyroprocessing

    DOEpatents

    Gay, E.C.

    1995-10-03

    An electrochemical method is described for separating heavy metal values from a radioactive molten salt including Li halide at temperatures of about 500 C. The method comprises positioning a solid Li--Cd alloy anode in the molten salt containing the heavy metal values, positioning a Cd-containing cathode or a solid cathode positioned above a catch crucible in the molten salt to recover the heavy metal values, establishing a voltage drop between the anode and the cathode to deposit material at the cathode to reduce the concentration of heavy metals in the salt, and controlling the deposition rate at the cathode by controlling the current between the anode and cathode. 3 figs.

  3. Heavy metal removal and recovery using microorganisms. Volume 1, State-of-the-art and potential applications at the SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.; Benemann, J.R.

    1991-02-01

    Microorganisms -- bacteria, fungi, and microalgae -- can accumulate relatively large amounts of toxic heavy metals and radionuclides from the environment. These organisms often exhibit specificity for particular metals. The metal content of microbial biomass can be a substantial fraction of total dry weight with concentration factors (metal in dry biomass to metal in solution) exceeding one million in some cases. Both living and inert (dead) microbial biomass can be used to reduce heavy metal concentrations in contaminated waters to very low levels -- parts per billion and even lower. In many respects (e.g. specificity, residual metal concentrations, accumulation factors, and economics) microbial bioremoval processes can be superior to conventional processes, such as ion exchange and caustic (lime or hydroxide) precipitation for heavy metals removal from waste and contaminated waters. Thus, bioremoval could be developed to contribute to the clean-up of wastes at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and other DOE facilities. However, the potential advantages of bioremoval processes must still be developed into practical operating systems. A detailed review of the literature suggests that appropriate bioremoval processes could be developed for the SRS. There is great variability from one biomass source to another in bioremoval capabilities. Bioremoval is affected by pH, other ions, temperature, and many other factors. The biological (living vs. dead) and physical (immobilized vs. dispersed) characteristics of the biomass also greatly affect metal binding. Even subtle differences in the microbial biomass, such as the conditions under which it was cultivated, can have major effects on heavy metal binding.

  4. Removal of cationic heavy metal from aqueous solution by activated carbon impregnated with anionic surfactants.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Chi K; Park, Donghee; Woo, Seung H; Park, Jong M

    2009-05-30

    To increase their capacity to adsorb heavy metals, activated carbons were impregnated with the anionic surfactants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS), or dioctyl sulfosuccinate sodium (DSS). Surfactant-impregnated activated carbons removed Cd(II) at up to 0.198 mmol g(-1), which was more than an order of magnitude better than the Cd(II) removal performance of activated carbon without surfactant (i.e., 0.016 mmol g(-1)) even at optimal pH (i.e., pH 6). The capacity of the activated carbon to adsorb Cd(II) increased in proportion to the quantity of surfactant with which they were impregnated. The kinetics of the adsorption of Cd(II) onto the surfactant-impregnated activated carbon was best described by a pseudo-second-order model, and was described better by the Freundlich adsorption isotherm than by the Langmuir isotherm. The surface charge of activated carbon was negative in all pH ranges tested (2-6). These results indicate that surface modification with anionic surfactant could be used to significantly enhance the capacity of activated carbon to adsorb cations. PMID:19022570

  5. Simultaneous removal of oil and grease, and heavy metals from artificial bilge water using electro-coagulation/flotation.

    PubMed

    Rincón, Guillermo J; La Motta, Enrique J

    2014-11-01

    US and international regulations pertaining to the control of bilge water discharges from ships have concentrated their attention to the levels of oil and grease rather than to the heavy metal concentrations. The consensus is that any discharge of bilge water (and oily water emulsion within 12 nautical miles from the nearest land cannot exceed 15 parts per million (ppm). Since there is no specific regulation for metal pollutants under the bilge water section, reference standards regulating heavy metal concentrations are taken from the ambient water quality criteria to protect aquatic life. The research herein presented discusses electro-coagulation (EC) as a method to treat bilge water, with a focus on oily emulsions and heavy metals (copper, nickel and zinc) removal efficiency. Experiments were run using a continuous flow reactor, manufactured by Ecolotron, Inc., and a synthetic emulsion as artificial bilge water. The synthetic emulsion contained 5000 mg/L of oil and grease, 5 mg/L of copper, 1.5 mg/L of nickel, and 2.5 mg/l of zinc. The experimental results demonstrate that EC is very efficient in removing oil and grease. For oil and grease removal, the best treatment and cost efficiency was obtained when using a combination of carbon steel and aluminum electrodes, at a detention time less than one minute, a flow rate of 1 L/min and 0.6 A/cm(2) of current density. The final effluent oil and grease concentration, before filtration, was always less than 10 mg/L. For heavy metal removal, the combination of aluminum and carbon steel electrodes, flow rate of 1 L/min, effluent recycling, and 7.5 amps produced 99% zinc removal efficiency. Copper and nickel are harder to remove, and a removal efficiency of 70% was achieved. PMID:24908614

  6. Dendrimers, mesoporous silicas and chitosan-based nanosorbents for the removal of heavy-metal ions: A review.

    PubMed

    Vunain, E; Mishra, A K; Mamba, B B

    2016-05-01

    The application of nanomaterials as nanosorbents in solving environmental problems such as the removal of heavy metals from wastewater has received a lot of attention due to their unique physical and chemical properties. These properties make them more superior and useful in various fields than traditional adsorbents. The present mini-review focuses on the use of nanomaterials such as dendrimers, mesoporous silicas and chitosan nanosorbents in the treatment of wastewater contaminated with toxic heavy-metal ions. Recent advances in the fabrication of these nanoscale materials and processes for the removal of heavy-metal ions from drinking water and wastewater are highlighted, and in some cases their advantages and limitations are given. These next-generation adsorbents have been found to perform very well in environmental remediation and control of heavy-metal ions in wastewater. The main objective of this review is to provide up-to-date information on the research and development in this particular field and to give an account of the applications, advantages and limitations of these particular nanosorbents in the treatment of aqueous solutions contaminated with heavy-metal ions. PMID:26851359

  7. Enhanced chitosan beads-supported Fe(0)-nanoparticles for removal of heavy metals from electroplating wastewater in permeable reactive barriers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tingyi; Yang, Xi; Wang, Zhong-Liang; Yan, Xiaoxing

    2013-11-01

    The removal of heavy metals from electroplating wastewater is a matter of paramount importance due to their high toxicity causing major environmental pollution problems. Nanoscale zero-valent iron (NZVI) became more effective to remove heavy metals from electroplating wastewater when enhanced chitosan (CS) beads were introduced as a support material in permeable reactive barriers (PRBs). The removal rate of Cr (VI) decreased with an increase of pH and initial Cr (VI) concentration. However, the removal rates of Cu (II), Cd (II) and Pb (II) increased with an increase of pH while decreased with an increase of their initial concentrations. The initial concentrations of heavy metals showed an effect on their removal sequence. Scanning electron microscope images showed that CS-NZVI beads enhanced by ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether (EGDE) had a loose and porous surface with a nucleus-shell structure. The pore size of the nucleus ranged from 19.2 to 138.6 μm with an average aperture size of around 58.6 μm. The shell showed a tube structure and electroplating wastewaters may reach NZVI through these tubes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) demonstrated that the reduction of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) was complete in less than 2 h. Cu (II) and Pb (II) were removed via predominant reduction and auxiliary adsorption. However, main adsorption and auxiliary reduction worked for the removal of Cd (II). The removal rate of total Cr, Cu (II), Cd (II) and Pb (II) from actual electroplating wastewater was 89.4%, 98.9%, 94.9% and 99.4%, respectively. The findings revealed that EGDE-CS-NZVI-beads PRBs had the capacity to remediate actual electroplating wastewater and may become an effective and promising technology for in situ remediation of heavy metals. PMID:24075723

  8. Removal of a hazardous heavy metal from aqueous solution using functionalized graphene and boron nitride nanosheets: Insights from simulations.

    PubMed

    Azamat, Jafar; Sattary, Batoul Shirforush; Khataee, Alireza; Joo, Sang Woo

    2015-09-01

    A computer simulation was performed to investigate the removal of Zn(2+) as a heavy metal from aqueous solution using the functionalized pore of a graphene nanosheet and boron nitride nanosheet (BNNS). The simulated systems were comprised of a graphene nanosheet or BNNS with a functionalized pore containing an aqueous ionic solution of zinc chloride. In order to remove heavy metal from an aqueous solution using the functionalized pore of a graphene nanosheet and BNNS, an external voltage was applied along the z-axis of the simulated box. For the selective removal of zinc ions, the pores of graphene and BNNS were functionalized by passivating each atom at the pore edge with appropriate atoms. For complete analysis systems, we calculated the potential of the mean force of ions, the radial distribution function of ion-water, the residence time of ions, the hydrogen bond, and the autocorrelation function of the hydrogen bond. PMID:26186492

  9. Immobilization of Thiadiazole Derivatives on Magnetite Mesoporous Silica Shell Nanoparticles in Application to Heavy Metal Removal from Biological Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Emadi, Masoomeh; Shams, Esmaeil

    2010-12-02

    In this report magnetite was synthesized by a coprecipitation method, then coated with a layer of silica. Another layer of mesoporous silica was added by a sol-gel method, then 5-amino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-thiol (ATT) was immobilized onto the synthesized nanoparticles with a simple procedure. This was followed by a series of characterizations, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), FT-IR spectrum, elemental analysis and XRD. Heavy metal uptake of the modified nanoparticles was examined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. For further investigation we chose Cu{sup 2+} as the preferred heavy metal to evaluate the amount of adsorption, as well as the kinetics and mechanism of adsorption. Finally, the capacity of our nanoparticles for the heavy metal removal from blood was shown. We found that the kinetic rate of Cu{sup 2+} adsorption was 0.05 g/mg/min, and the best binding model was the Freundlich isotherm.

  10. Removal of heavy metals from aqueous waste streams using surface-modified nanosized TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts.

    SciTech Connect

    Meshkov, N. K.

    1998-08-27

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) colloidal particles ({approximately}45{angstrom}) whose surfaces were modified with chelating agents for photocatalytic removal of heavy-metal ions and their subsequent reduction to metallic form were investigated. Experiments were performed on nanoparticle TiO{sub 2} colloids derivatized with bidentate and tridentate ligands (thiolactic acid [TLA], cysteine, and alanine [ALA]) in batch mode in a photoreactor with 254nm light. We used catalysts designed and synthesized for selective and efficient removal of Pb and Cu with and without added hole scavenger (methanol). Parallel experiments also have been carried out in the dark to study metal ion adsorption properties. Solutions have been filtered to remove TiO{sub 2}, and metal particulates. Both the native solution and the metal deposited on the nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} particles were analyzed. Results demonstrate that for the case of lead, the most effective TiO{sub 2} surface modifier was TLA (>99% Pb(II) removed from solution). Experiments performed to study Cn removal using TiO{sub 2} colloids modified with alanine showed that copper ions were effectively removed and reduced to metallic form in the presence of methanol.

  11. Simultaneous removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by natural limestones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sdiri, Ali; Higashi, Teruo

    2013-03-01

    Two natural limestone samples, collected from the Campanian-Maastrichtian limestones, Tunisia, were used as adsorbents for the removal of toxic metals in aqueous systems. The results indicated that high removal efficiency could be achieved by the present natural limestones. Among the metal ions studied, Pb2+ was the most preferably removed cation because of its high affinity to calcite surface. In binary system, the presence of Cu2+ effectively depressed the sorption of Cd2+ and Zn2+. Similarly Cu2+ strongly competed with Pb2+ to limestone surface. In ternary system, the removal further decreased, but considerable amount of Pb2+ and Cu2+ still occurred regardless of the limestone sample. The same behavior was observed in quadruple system, where the selectivity sequence was Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+ > Zn2+. From these results, it was concluded that the studied limestones have the required technical specifications to be used for the removal of toxic metals from wastewaters.

  12. Sewage sludge ash to phosphorus fertiliser (II): Influences of ash and granulate type on heavy metal removal.

    PubMed

    Mattenberger, H; Fraissler, G; Jöller, M; Brunner, T; Obernberger, I; Herk, P; Hermann, L

    2010-01-01

    Ashes from monoincineration of sewage sludge suggest themselves as an ideal base for inorganic fertiliser production due to their relatively high phosphorus (P)-content. However, previously they need to be detoxified by reducing their heavy metal content. The core process considered in this paper consists of three steps: mixing of the ashes with suitable chlorine-containing additives, granulation of the mixture and thermochemical treatment in a rotary kiln. Here relevant heavy metal compounds are first transformed into volatile species with the help of the additives and then evaporated from the granules. In this study two chemically different ashes and their mixture were agglomerated to two different granulate types, briquettes and rolled pellets. The resulting six different materials were subjected to thermal treatment at different temperatures. The heavy metals examined were Cu and Zn due to their strong dependence on treatment conditions and their relevance concerning thermal treatment of sewage sludge ashes. Besides, the behaviour of Cl and K was monitored and evaluated. The experiments showed that ash type and temperature are more influential on Cl and heavy metal chemistry than granulate type. Temperature is a primary variable for controlling removal in both cases. Cu removal was less dependent on both ash and granulate type than Zn. The Cl utilization was more effective for Cu than for Zn. Depending on the treatment conditions some K could be retained, whereas always all P remained in the treated material. This satisfies the requirement for complete P recycling. PMID:20418087

  13. Application of carbon foam for heavy metal removal from industrial plating wastewater and toxicity evaluation of the adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Gu; Song, Mi-Kyung; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Park, Chanhyuk; Choi, Jae-Woo; Lee, Sang-Hyup

    2016-06-01

    Electroplating wastewater contains various types of toxic substances, such as heavy metals, solvents, and cleaning agents. Carbon foam was used as an adsorbent for the removal of heavy metals from real industrial plating wastewater. Its sorption capacity was compared with those of a commercial ion-exchange resin (BC258) and a heavy metal adsorbent (CupriSorb™) in a batch system. The experimental carbon foam has a considerably higher sorption capacity for Cr and Cu than commercial adsorbents for acid/alkali wastewater and cyanide wastewater. Additionally, cytotoxicity test showed that the newly developed adsorbent has low cytotoxic effects on three kinds of human cells. In a pilot plant, the carbon foam had higher sorption capacity for Cr (73.64 g kg(-1)) than for Cu (14.86 g kg(-1)) and Ni (7.74 g kg(-1)) during 350 h of operation time. Oxidation pretreatments using UV/hydrogen peroxide enhance heavy metal removal from plating wastewater containing cyanide compounds. PMID:26999028

  14. Plant-driven removal of heavy metals from soil: uptake, translocation, tolerance mechanism, challenges, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Sveta; Singh, Lakhveer; Wahid, Zularisam Ab; Siddiqui, Muhammad Faisal; Atnaw, Samson Mekbib; Din, Mohd Fadhil Md

    2016-04-01

    Increasing heavy metal (HM) concentrations in the soil have become a significant problem in the modern industrialized world due to several anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals (HMs) are non-biodegradable and have long biological half lives; thus, once entered in food chain, their concentrations keep on increasing through biomagnification. The increased concentrations of heavy metals ultimately pose threat on human life also. The one captivating solution for this problem is to use green plants for HM removal from soil and render it harmless and reusable. Although this green technology called phytoremediation has many advantages over conventional methods of HM removal from soils, there are also many challenges that need to be addressed before making this technique practically feasible and useful on a large scale. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms of HM uptake, transport, and plant tolerance mechanisms to cope with increased HM concentrations. This review article also comprehensively discusses the advantages, major challenges, and future perspectives of phytoremediation of heavy metals from the soil. PMID:26940329

  15. Sewage sludge ash to phosphate fertilizer by chlorination and thermal treatment: residence time requirements for heavy metal removal.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Benedikt; Wegerer, Harald; Aschenbrenner, Philipp; Rechberger, Helmut; Winter, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash can be performed by mixing the ash with environmentally compatible chlorides (e.g. CaCl2 or MgCl2) and water, pelletizing the mixture and treating the pellets in a rotary reactor at about 1000 degrees C. Thermogravimetry-mass spectroscopy, muffle oven tests (500-1150 degrees C) and investigations in a laboratory-scale rotary reactor (950-1050 degrees C, residence time 1-25 min) were carried out. In the rotary reactor, up to 97% of Cu, 95% Pb and 95% Zn can be removed at 1050 degrees C. As Cl release starts from 400 degrees C (obtained from thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry experiments), heavy metals are already removed partially within the heating period. This heavy metal removal can be described as being similar to a first-order rate law. To meet the limit values specified in the Austrian and German fertilizer ordinances, residence times of the order of minutes are sufficient at 950 degrees C. PMID:23393980

  16. Applicability of agricultural waste and by-products for adsorptive removal of heavy metals from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T A H; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Zhang, J; Liang, S; Yue, Q Y; Li, Q; Nguyen, T V

    2013-11-01

    This critical review discusses the potential use of agricultural waste based biosorbents (AWBs) for sequestering heavy metals in terms of their adsorption capacities, binding mechanisms, operating factors and pretreatment methods. The literature survey indicates that AWBs have shown equal or even greater adsorption capacities compared to conventional adsorbents. Thanks to modern molecular biotechnologies, the roles of functional groups in biosorption process are better understood. Of process factors, pH appears to be the most influential. In most cases, chemical pretreatments bring about an obvious improvement in metal uptake capacity. However, there are still several gaps, which require further investigation, such as (i) searching for novel, multi-function AWBs, (ii) developing cost-effective modification methods and (iii) assessing AWBs under multi-metal and real wastewater systems. Once these challenges are settled, the replacement of traditional adsorbents by AWBs in decontaminating heavy metals from wastewater can be expected in the future. PMID:24045220

  17. Investigation of novel adsorptive-separation methods for removal of trace heavy metals from polluted areas. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Carleson, T.E.; Moussavi, M.

    1988-05-01

    The removal of trace amounts of cadmium and zinc from waste-water samples from the Bunker Hill mine and from synthetic waste-waters was evaluated. The heavy metals were chelated with the surfactants sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium lauryl benzene sulfate, and cetyl pyridinium chloride. The chelated metals were then separated by the generation of a form with sparged air or dissolved air. As much as 95% of the metal entering the foam generation unit was removed and carried out with the foam. The foam constituted about 25% of the feed. The removal efficiency was correlated with feed flow rate and foam drainage height by means of a simple equilibrium model. Qualitative predictions based upon the model fit the experimental results, although quantitative agreement was not good. Recommendations for further experimental work are presented.

  18. Metal oxide/hydroxide-coated dual-media filter for simultaneous removal of bacteria and heavy metals from natural waters.

    PubMed

    Ahammed, M Mansoor; Meera, V

    2010-09-15

    The present study was conducted to compare the performance of a dual-media filter consisting of manganese oxide-coated (MOCS) and iron hydroxide-coated sand (IOCS) with that of IOCS filter and uncoated sand filter in treating water contaminated by microorganisms, heavy metals and turbidity with a view to its use in simple household water purification devices in developing countries. Long-duration column tests were conducted using two natural waters namely, roof-harvested rainwater and canal water. Performance of the filters showed that dual-media filter was more efficient in removing bacteria and heavy metals compared to IOCS filter, while uncoated sand filter showed very poor performance. The average effluent levels for dual-media filter when tested with rainwater were: turbidity 1.0+/-0.1 NTU; total coliforms 3+/-2 MPN/100 mL; heterotrophic plate count 170+/-20 CFU/mL; zinc 0.06+/-0.01 mg/L, while that for IOCS filter were: turbidity 1.0+/-0.1 NTU; total coliforms 4+/-2 MPN/100 mL; heterotrophic plate count 181+/-37 CFU/mL; zinc 0.20+/-0.07 mg/L. Similar results were obtained for canal water also. Up to 900 bed volumes (BV) could be treated without affecting the efficiency in the case of rainwater, while the filter operation had to be terminated after 500 BV due to excessive headloss in the case of canal water. The study thus showed the potential of the dual-media for use in low-cost household water filters for purification of natural waters. PMID:20566239

  19. Soil amendments for heavy metals removal from stormwater runoff discharging to environmentally sensitive areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trenouth, William R.; Gharabaghi, Bahram

    2015-10-01

    Concentrations of dissolved metals in stormwater runoff from urbanized watersheds are much higher than established guidelines for the protection of aquatic life. Five potential soil amendment materials derived from affordable, abundant sources have been tested as filter media using shaker tests and were found to remove dissolved metals in stormwater runoff. Blast furnace (BF) slag and basic oxygenated furnace (BOF) slag from a steel mill, a drinking water treatment residual (DWTR) from a surface water treatment plant, goethite-rich overburden (IRON) from a coal mine, and woodchips (WC) were tested. The IRON and BOF amendments were shown to remove 46-98% of dissolved metals (Cr, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, Zn) in repacked soil columns. Freundlich adsorption isotherm constants for six metals across five materials were calculated. Breakthrough curves of dissolved metals and total metal accumulation within the filter media were measured in column tests using synthetic runoff. A reduction in system performance over time occurred due to progressive saturation of the treatment media. Despite this, the top 7 cm of each filter media removed up to 72% of the dissolved metals. A calibrated HYDRUS-1D model was used to simulate long-term metal accumulation in the filter media, and model results suggest that for these metals a BOF filter media thickness as low as 15 cm can be used to improve stormwater quality to meet standards for up to twenty years. The treatment media evaluated in this research can be used to improve urban stormwater runoff discharging to environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs).

  20. MECHANISMS OF HEAVY METAL REMOVAL FROM ACID MINE DRAINAGE USING CHITIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) emanating from inactive or active mine sites contains elevated levels of toxic heavy metals, which can have an adverse impact to the surrounding environment. The major pathway involved in generation of AMD is weathering of pyritic mineral ores, where in s...

  1. Removal of heavy metal contamination from peanut skin extracts by waste biomass adsorption

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polyphenols are a rapidly increasing portion of the nutraceutical and functional food marketplace. Peanut skins are a waste product which have potential as a low-cost source of polyphenols. Extraction and concentration of peanut skin extracts can cause normally innocuous levels of the heavy metal co...

  2. Removal of heavy metals from tannery effluents of Ambur industrial area, Tamilnadu by Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis.

    PubMed

    Balaji, S; Kalaivani, T; Rajasekaran, C; Shalini, M; Vinodhini, S; Priyadharshini, S Sunitha; Vidya, A G

    2015-06-01

    The present study was carried out with the tannery effluent contaminated with heavy metals collected from Ambur industrial area to determine the phycoremediation potential of Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis. Two different concentrations (50 and 100 %) of heavy metals containing tannery effluent treated with A. platensis were analysed for growth, absorption spectra, biochemical properties and antioxidant enzyme activity levels. The effluent treatments revealed dose-dependent decrease in the levels of A. platensis growth (65.37 % for 50 % effluent and 49.32 % for 100 % effluent), chlorophyll content (97.43 % for 50 % effluent and 71.05 % for 100 % effluent) and total protein content (82.63 % for 50 % effluent and 62.10 % for 100 % effluent) that leads to the reduction of total solids, total dissolved solids and total suspended solids. A. platensis with lower effluent concentration was effective than at higher concentration. Treatment with the effluent also resulted in increased activity levels of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (14.58 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 24.57 units/g fresh weight for 100 %) and catalase (0.963 units/g fresh weight for 50 % and 1.263 units/g fresh weight for 100 %). Furthermore, heavy metal content was determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. These results indicated that A. platensis has the ability to combat heavy metal stress by the induction of antioxidant enzymes demonstrating its potential usefulness in phycoremediation of tannery effluent. PMID:25944749

  3. Enzyme-based glucose delivery: a possible tool for biosorbent preparation for heavy metal removal from polluted environments.

    PubMed

    Palela, Mihaela; Bahrim, Gabriela Elena; Glazyrina, Julia; Brand, Eva; Neubauer, Peter

    2013-11-01

    This study was performed to examine the influence of the controlled glucose supply technology, EnBase(®) Flo, on growth and heavy metals uptake capacity of two Bacillus strains isolated from food industry wastewater. Bacillus sp. growth on EnBase Flo (mineral salt complex medium containing starch-derived polymer as substrate) was examined in 24 deep well plates, controlling the glucose amount release by adding two amyloglucosidase concentrations (3 and 6 UL(-1)). Adsorption of the heavy metals Zn(2+), Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) was assessed in a single component system using synthetic metal solutions and as a function of the initial concentration of adsorbate, equilibrium time and removal efficiency. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the biosorption equilibrium and isotherm constants. A pseudo second-order model was applied to describe the uptake rate for two isolates. The EnBase(®) Flo technology improved the cells growth over ten times after 24 h of fed-batch cultivation. The EnBase(®) Flo technology improved the Cd(2+) and Pb(2+) uptake capacity of the bacterial strains by approximately 55 and 44 %, respectively. The biosorption of each metal was fairly rapid (within 30 min), which could be an advantage for large scale treatment of contaminated sites. This initial study may be a basis for future developments to apply EnBase Flo for the biomass production used further as biosorbent for heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions. PMID:23456253

  4. Efficiency of compost in the removal of heavy metals from the industrial wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocasoy, Günay; Güvener, Zeynep

    2009-03-01

    Authorities have been applying very strict regulations for the treatment of industrial wastewater recently because of the threatening level of the environmental pollution faced. Industrial wastewater containing heavy metals is a threat to the public health because of the accumulation of the heavy metals in the aquatic life which is transferred to human bodies through the food chain. Therefore, recently, researchers have been oriented toward the practical use of adsorbents for the treatment of wastewater polluted by heavy metals. The aim of this research was to determine the retention capacity of compost for copper, zinc, nickel and chromium. For this purpose, experiments in batch-mixing reactors with initial metal concentrations ranging from 100 to 1,000 mg/l were carried. It was also observed that compost could repeatedly be used in metal sorption processes. The experiments conducted indicated that compost has high retention capacities for copper, zinc and nickel, but not for chromium. Thus, compost has been approved as a potential sorbent for copper, zinc and nickel and may find place in industrial applications. Thus, solid waste which is another source of significant environmental pollution will be reduced by being converted into a beneficial product compost.

  5. Validity of manganese as a surrogate of heavy metals removal in constructed wetlands treating acidic mine water

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, E.; Unz, R.F.; Hellier, W.W.

    1998-12-31

    The evaluation of manganese as a surrogate for heavy metal behavior in two wetland treatment systems receiving acidic coal mine drainage in central Pennsylvania was investigated. The use of manganese as an indicator is based on physical/chemical treatment processes quite different from wetland treatment. The treatment systems represented one anoxic, subsurface flow system and one oxic surface flow system. Water quality parameters measured included pH, alkalinity, acidity, and a suite of metals. Correlation and linear regression analysis were used to evaluate the ability of a candidate predictor variable (indicator) to predict heavy metal concentrations and removal. The use of manganese as a predictor of effluent quality proved to be poor in both wetland treatment systems, as evidenced by low linear R{sup 2} values and negative correlations. Zinc emerged as the best predictor of the detectable heavy metals at the anoxic wetland. Zinc exhibited positive strong linear correlations with copper, cobalt, and nickel (R{sup 2} values of 0.843, 0.881, and 0.970, respectively). Effluent pH was a slightly better predictor of effluent copper levels in the anoxic wetland. Iron and cobalt effluent concentrations showed the only strong relationship (R{sup 2} value = 0.778) in the oxic system. The lack of good correlations with manganese strongly challenges its appropriateness as a surrogate for heavy metals in these systems.

  6. Removal of heavy metals from acid mine drainage (AMD) using coal fly ash, natural clinker and synthetic zeolites.

    PubMed

    Ríos, C A; Williams, C D; Roberts, C L

    2008-08-15

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a widespread environmental problem associated with both working and abandoned mining operations, resulting from the microbial oxidation of pyrite in presence of water and air, affording an acidic solution that contains toxic metal ions. The generation of AMD and release of dissolved heavy metals is an important concern facing the mining industry. The present study aimed at evaluating the use of low-cost sorbents like coal fly ash, natural clinker and synthetic zeolites to clean-up AMD generated at the Parys Mountain copper-lead-zinc deposit, Anglesey (North Wales), and to remove heavy metals and ammonium from AMD. pH played a very important role in the sorption/removal of the contaminants and a higher adsorbent ratio in the treatment of AMD promoted the increase of the pH, particularly using natural clinker-based faujasite (7.70-9.43) and the reduction of metal concentration. Na-phillipsite showed a lower efficiency as compared to that of faujasite. Selectivity of faujasite for metal removal was, in decreasing order, Fe>As>Pb>Zn>Cu>Ni>Cr. Based on these results, the use of these materials has the potential to provide improved methods for the treatment of AMD. PMID:18221835

  7. Evaluation of biosurfactants grown in corn oil by Rhodococcus rhodochrous on removing of heavy metal ion from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryanti, Venty; Hastuti, Sri; Pujiastuti, Dwi

    2016-02-01

    The potential application of biosurfactants to remove heavy metal ion from aqueous solution by batch technique was examined. The glycolipids type biosurfactants were grown in a media containing of 20% v/v corn oil with 7 days of fermentation by Rhodococcus rhodochrous. The biosurfactants reduced the surface tension of water of about 51% from 62 mN/m to 30 mN/m. The biosurfactant increased the E24 of water-palm oil emulsion of about 55% from 43% to 97% and could maintain this E24 value of above 50% for up to 9 days. Heavy metal ion removal, in this case cadmium ion, by crude and patially purified biosurfactants has been investigated from aqueous solution at pH 6. Adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by crude biosurfactant with 5 and 10 minutes of contact times were 1.74 and 1.82 mg/g, respectively. Additionally, the adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by partially purified biosurfactant with 5 and 10 minutes of contact times were 0.79 and 1.34 mg/g, respectively. The results demonstrated that the adsorption capacity of Cd(II) ion by crude biosurfactant was higher than that of by partially purified biosurfactant. The results suggested that the biosurfactant could be used in the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution.

  8. WasteWater Treatment And Heavy Metals Removal In The A-01 Constructed Wetland 2003 Report

    SciTech Connect

    ANNA, KNOX

    2004-08-01

    The A-01 wetland treatment system (WTS) was designed to remove metals from the effluent at the A-01 NPDES outfall. The purpose of research conducted during 2003 was to evaluate (1) the ability of the A-01 wetland treatment system to remediate waste water, (2) retention of the removed contaminants in wetland sediment, and (3) the potential remobilization of these contaminants from the sediment into the water column. Surface water and sediment samples were collected and analyzed in this study.

  9. Selective removals of heavy metals (Pb(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+)) from wastewater by gelation with alginate for effective metal recovery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Lu, Xingwen; Li, Xiao-Yan

    2016-05-01

    A novel method that uses the aqueous sodium alginate solution for direct gelation with metal ions is developed for effective removal and recovery of heavy metals from industrial wastewater. The experimental study was conducted on Pb(2+), Cu(2+), and Cd(2+) as the model heavy metals. The results show that gels can be formed rapidly between the metals and alginate in less than 10min and the gelation rates fit well with the pseudo second-order kinetic model. The optimum dosing ratio of alginate to the metal ions was found to be between 2:1 and 3:1 for removing Pb(2+) and around 4:1 for removing Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) from wastewater, and the metal removal efficiency by gelation increased as the solution pH increased. Alginate exhibited a higher gelation affinity toward Pb(2+) than Cu(2+) and Cd(2+), which allowed a selective removal of Pb(2+) from the wastewater in the presence of Cu(2+) and Cd(2+) ions. Chemical analysis of the gels suggests that the gelation mainly occurred between the metal ions and the COO(-) and OH groups on alginate. By simple calcination of the metal-laden gels at 700°C for 1h, the heavy metals can be well recovered as valuable resources. The metals obtained after the thermal treatment are in the form of PbO, CuO, and CdO nanopowders with crystal sizes of around 150, 50, and 100nm, respectively. PMID:26808245

  10. Heavy metal removal from industrial effluents by sorption on cross-linked starch: chemical study and impact on water toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sancey, Bertrand; Trunfio, Giuseppe; Charles, Jérémie; Minary, Jean-François; Gavoille, Sophie; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Crini, Grégorio

    2011-03-01

    Batch sorption experiments using a starch-based sorbent were carried out for the removal of heavy metals present in industrial water discharges. The influence of contact time, mass of sorbent and pollutant load was investigated. Pollutant removal was dependent on the mass of sorbent and contact time, but independent of the contaminant load. The process was uniform, rapid and efficient. Sorption reached equilibrium in 60 min irrespective of the metal considered (e.g. Zn, Pb, Cu, Ni, Fe and Cd), reducing concentrations below those permitted by law. The material also removed residual turbidity and led to a significant decrease in the residual chemical oxygen demand (COD) present in the industrial water discharge. The germination success of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was used as a laboratory indicator of phytotoxicity. The results show that the sorption using a starch-based sorbent as non-conventional material, is a viable alternative for treating industrial wastewaters. PMID:21067859

  11. Highly efficient removal of heavy metals by polymer-supported nanosized hydrated Fe(III) oxides: behavior and XPS study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bingjun; Qiu, Hui; Pan, Bingcai; Nie, Guangze; Xiao, Lili; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Weiming; Zhang, Quanxing; Zheng, Shourong

    2010-02-01

    The present study developed a polymer-based hybrid sorbent (HFO-001) for highly efficient removal of heavy metals [e.g., Pb(II), Cd(II), and Cu(II)] by irreversibly impregnating hydrated Fe(III) oxide (HFO) nanoparticles within a cation-exchange resin D-001 (R-SO(3)Na), and revealed the underlying mechanism based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study. HFO-001 combines the excellent handling, flow characteristics, and attrition resistance of conventional cation-exchange resins with the specific affinity of HFOs toward heavy metal cations. As compared to D-001, sorption selectivity of HFO-001 toward Pb(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) was greatly improved from the Ca(II) competition at greater concentration. Column sorption results indicated that the working capacity of HFO-001 was about 4-6 times more than D-001 with respect to removal of three heavy metals from simulated electroplating water (pH approximately 4.0). Also, HFO-001 is particularly effective in removing trace Pb(II) and Cd(II) from simulated natural waters to meet the drinking water standard, with treatment volume orders of magnitude higher than D-001. The superior performance of HFO-001 was attributed to the Donnan membrane effect exerted by the host D-001 as well as to the impregnated HFO nanoparticles of specific interaction toward heavy metal cations, as further confirmed by XPS study on lead sorption. More attractively, the exhausted HFO-001 beads can be effectively regenerated by HCl-NaCl solution (pH 3) for repeated use without any significant capacity loss. PMID:19906397

  12. Phytoextraction - thte use of plants to remove heavy metals from soils

    SciTech Connect

    Raskin, I.; Kumar, P.B.A.N.; Dushenkov, V.; Motto, H.

    1995-12-31

    A small number of wild plants which grow on metal contaminated soil accumulate large amounts of heavy metals in their roots and shoots. This property may be exploited for soil reclamation if an easily cultivated, high biomass crop plant able to accumulate heavy metals is identified. Therefore, the ability of various crop plants to accumulate Pb in shoots and roots was compared. While all crop Brassicas tested accumulated Pb, some cultivars of Brassica juncea (L). Czern. showed a strong ability to accumulate Pb in roots and to transport Pb to the shoots (108.3 mg Pb/g DW in the roots and 34.5 mg Pb/g DW in the shoots). B. juncea was also able to concentrate Cr{sup -6}, Cd, Ni, Zn, and Cu in the shoots 58, 52, 31, 17, and 7 fold, respectively, from a substrate containing sulfates and phosphates as fertilizers. The high metal accumulation by some cultivars of B. juncea suggests that these plants may be used to clean up toxic metal-contaminated sites in a process termed phytoextraction.

  13. Heavy metal removal mechanisms of sorptive filter materials for road runoff treatment and remobilization under de-icing salt applications.

    PubMed

    Huber, Maximilian; Hilbig, Harald; Badenberg, Sophia C; Fassnacht, Julius; Drewes, Jörg E; Helmreich, Brigitte

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this research study was to elucidate the removal and remobilization behaviors of five heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) that had been fixed onto sorptive filter materials used in decentralized stormwater treatment systems receiving traffic area runoff. Six filter materials (i.e., granular activated carbon, a mixture of granular activated alumina and porous concrete, granular activated lignite, half-burnt dolomite, and two granular ferric hydroxides) were evaluated in column experiments. First, a simultaneous preloading with the heavy metals was performed for each filter material. Subsequently, the remobilization effect was tested by three de-icing salt experiments in duplicate using pure NaCl, a mixture of NaCl and CaCl2, and a mixture of NaCl and MgCl2. Three layers of each column were separated to specify the attenuation of heavy metals as a function of depth. Cu and Pb were retained best by most of the selected filter materials, and Cu was often released the least of all metals by the three de-icing salts. The mixture of NaCl and CaCl2 resulted in a stronger effect upon remobilization than the other two de-icing salts. For the material with the highest retention, the effect of the preloading level upon remobilization was measured. The removal mechanisms of all filter materials were determined by advanced laboratory methods. For example, the different intrusions of heavy metals into the particles were determined. Findings of this study can result in improved filter materials used in decentralized stormwater treatment systems. PMID:27423405

  14. An analysis of manganese as an indicator for heavy metal removal in passive treatment using laboratory spent mushroom compost columns

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobson, B.A.; Unz, R.F.; Dempsey, B.A.

    1999-07-01

    The National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) dictates removal of manganese in mine drainage to less than 4 mg/1 daily or less than 2 mg/1 on a monthly average. Owing to its high solubility at low and circumneutral pH, removal of manganese is often the most difficult of the NPDES discharge standards. This has lead to the use of Mn(II) as a surrogate for metal removal. However, recent studies concluded that zinc or nickel may be more appropriate indicators for removal of other metals. Previous field studies showed zinc removal to be highly correlated to the removal of copper, cobalt, and nickel in a sulfate reducing subsurface loaded wetland, whereas manganese removal was poorly correlated. The objective of this study was to evaluate zinc and manganese retention under sulfate reducing conditions in bench scale columns containing fresh spent mushroom compost. Column effluent data were analyzed using an EPA geochemical computer model (MINTEQ) over the pH range of 6.0 to 6.8. Under these conditions, zinc and manganese displayed distinctly reactivities. Zn(II) was supersaturated with respect to ZnS{sub s} and the Zn(HS){sub 2}{degree} and Zn(HS){sub 3}{sup minus} complexes dominated solubility. Soluble zinc concentrations were inversely correlated to sulfide. Mn(II) remained as soluble Mn{sup +2}. During early column operation at pH > 7, MnCO{sup 3(s)} was supersaturated. Manganese concentrations did not correlate with pH or sulfide. Given these fundamental differences in removal mechanisms between Zn and Mn under sulfate reducing conditions, the use of manganese removal as a surrogate for heavy metal removal in passive treatment of mine drainage seems unjustified.

  15. Polydopamine-mediated surface-functionalization of graphene oxide for heavy metal ions removal

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Zhihui; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Dong; Liu, Xia; Jin, Jian

    2015-04-15

    By utilizing polydopamine (PD) nano-thick interlayer as mediator, polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes with abundant amine groups were grafted onto the surface of PD coated graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction and produced a PEI–PD/GO composite nanosheets. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions as compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. The adsorption capacities for Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Hg{sup 2+} are up to 87, 106, 197, and 110 mg/g, respectively. To further make the GO based composite operable, PEI–PD/RGO aerogel was prepared through hydrothermal and achieved a high surface area up to 373 m{sup 2}/g. Although the adsorption capacity of PEI–PD/RGO aerogel for heavy metal ions decreases a little as compared to PEI–PD/GO composite dispersion (38, 32, 95, 113 mg/g corresponding to Cu{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, and Hg{sup 2+}, respectively), it could be recycled several times in a simple way by releasing adsorbed metal ions, indicating its potential application for cleaning wastewater. - Graphical abstract: Polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes were grafted onto the surface of graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction between the PEI and polydopamine interlayer coated on GO surface. The PEI–PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. - Highlights: • We prepared polyethylenimine grafted polydopamine-mediated graphene oxide composites. • Introduction of PD layer increases metal ions adsorption capacity. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel exhibited a superior adsorption performance. • PEI–PD/RGO aerogel can be recycled several times in a simple way.

  16. Effects of modified zeolite on the removal and stabilization of heavy metals in contaminated lake sediment using BCR sequential extraction.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jia; Yi, Yuanjie; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-08-01

    Sediment can be applied on land as a soil conditioner. However, toxic substances such as heavy metals within the sediment often lead to soil contamination if no proper management is conducted prior to land application. In order to reduce the bioavailable portion of heavy metals such as Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd, zeolite as a kind of stabilizer was investigated on the effect of metal stabilization in sediment. Zeolite was firstly modified and screened to get the best condition for removal of heavy metals. Results showed that the granulated zeolite with NaCl conditioning had the highest CEC and metal sorption. Using BCR sequential extraction, the selected modified zeolite effectively stabilized Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd in sediment to different extents. It was most suitable for Cd stabilization by reducing its acid exchangeable fraction while increasing the contents of the reducible and residual fractions. Modified zeolite also immobilized Cu, Zn and Pb in sediment by enhancing one stable fraction while decreasing the acid exchangeable fraction. PMID:27136618

  17. HEAVY METAL PUMPS IN PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plants have been proposed as a bioremediation tool to help remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated land and water. However, little is known about how plants take up heavy metals from the soil and transport them to different parts of the plant. An important long term goal is t...

  18. SULFIDE PRECIPITATION OF HEAVY METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research program was initiated with the objective of evaluating a new process, the sulfide precipitation of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters. The process was expected to effect a more complete removal of heavy metals than conventional lime processing because of the mu...

  19. Hydrogen peroxide modification enhances the ability of biochar (hydrochar) produced from hydrothermal carbonization of peanut hull to remove aqueous heavy metals: Batch and column tests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experimental and modeling investigations were conducted to examine the effect of hydrogen peroxide treatment on hydrothermally produced biochar (hydrochar) from peanut hull to remove aqueous heavy metals. Characterization measurements showed that hydrogen peroxide modification increased the oxygen-c...

  20. Novel biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite foams for removing heavy-metals from polluted water.

    PubMed

    Vila, M; Sánchez-Salcedo, S; Cicuéndez, M; Izquierdo-Barba, I; Vallet-Regí, María

    2011-08-15

    3D-macroporous biopolymer-coated hydroxyapatite (HA) foams have been developed as potential devices for the treatment of lead, cadmium and copper contamination of consumable waters. These foams have exhibited a fast and effective ion metal immobilization into the HA structure after an in vitro treatment mimicking a serious water contamination case. To improve HA foam stability at contaminated aqueous solutions pH, as well as its handling and shape integrity the 3D-macroporous foams have been coated with biopolymers polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatine cross-linked with glutaraldehyde (G/Glu). Metal ion immobilization tests have shown higher and fast heavy metals captured as function of hydrophilicity rate of biopolymer used. After an in vitro treatment, foam morphology integrity is guaranteed and the uptake of heavy metal ions rises up to 405 μmol/g in the case of Pb(2+), 378 μmol/g of Cu(2+) and 316 μmol/g of Cd(2+). These novel materials promise a feasible advance in development of new, easy to handle and low cost water purifying methods. PMID:21616595

  1. Synthesis and characterization of radiation grafted films for removal of arsenic and some heavy metals from contaminated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, M. N. K.; Khan, M. W.; Mina, M. F.; Beg, M. D. H.; Khan, Maksudur R.; Alam, A. K. M. M.

    2012-10-01

    Grafting of styrene/maleic anhydride and methyl methacrylate/maleic anhydride binary monomers onto the low density polyethylene film was performed using the γ-ray irradiation technique. Then, the synthesized grafted films were treated with different ammonia derivatives for developing chelating functionalization. These chelating products were characterized by the gravimetric method as well as by the Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopic method, and were used for removal of arsenic and some heavy metals from aqueous solutions. The optimum absorbed dose of 30 kGy reveals the graft yielding of about 325% in the films. Uptake of arsenic and some heavy-metal ions (Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Pb(II)) from contaminated water by the chelating functionalized films (CFF) was examined by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The maximum arsenic removal capacity of 5062 mg/kg has been observed for the film treated with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The CFF prepared by semicarbazide and thiol analogs show affinity toward the metal ions with an order: Cu(II)>Fe(III)>Mn(II) etc. The results obtained from this study indicate that the functionalized films show good chelating and ion-exchange property for metal ions.

  2. Polydopamine-mediated surface-functionalization of graphene oxide for heavy metal ions removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhihui; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Dong; Liu, Xia; Jin, Jian

    2015-04-01

    By utilizing polydopamine (PD) nano-thick interlayer as mediator, polyethylenimine (PEI) brushes with abundant amine groups were grafted onto the surface of PD coated graphene oxide (GO) uniformly via a Michael-Addition reaction and produced a PEI-PD/GO composite nanosheets. The PEI-PD/GO composite exhibited an improved performance for adsorption of heavy metal ions as compared to PEI-coated GO and pure GO. The adsorption capacities for Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Hg2+ are up to 87, 106, 197, and 110 mg/g, respectively. To further make the GO based composite operable, PEI-PD/RGO aerogel was prepared through hydrothermal and achieved a high surface area up to 373 m2/g. Although the adsorption capacity of PEI-PD/RGO aerogel for heavy metal ions decreases a little as compared to PEI-PD/GO composite dispersion (38, 32, 95, 113 mg/g corresponding to Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, and Hg2+, respectively), it could be recycled several times in a simple way by releasing adsorbed metal ions, indicating its potential application for cleaning wastewater.

  3. Assessment of electrokinetic removal of heavy metals from soils by sequential extraction analysis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K R; Xu, C Y; Chinthamreddy, S

    2001-06-29

    Electrokinetic remediation of metal-contaminated soils is strongly affected by soil-type and chemical species of contaminants. This paper investigates the speciation and extent of migration of heavy metals in soils during electrokinetic remediation. Laboratory electrokinetic experiments were conducted using two diverse soils, kaolin and glacial till, contaminated with chromium as either Cr(III) or Cr(VI). Initial total chromium concentrations were maintained at 1000mg/kg. In addition, Ni(II) and Cd(II) were used in concentrations of 500 and 250mg/kg, respectively. The contaminated soils were subjected to a voltage gradient of 1 VDC/cm for over 200h. The extent of migration of contaminants after the electric potential application was determined. Sequential extractions were performed on the contaminated soils before and after electrokinetic treatment to provide an understanding of the distribution of the contaminants in the soils. The initial speciation of contaminants was found to depend on the soil composition as well as the type and amounts of different contaminants present. When the initial form of chromium was Cr(III), exchangeable and soluble fractions of Cr, Ni, and Cd ranged from 10 to 65% in kaolin; however, these fractions ranged from 0 to 4% in glacial till. When the initial form of chromium was Cr(VI), the exchangeable and soluble fractions of Cr, Ni and Cd ranged from 66 to 80% in kaolin. In glacial till, however, the exchangeable and soluble fraction for Cr was 38% and Ni and Cd fractions were 2 and 10%, respectively. The remainder of the contaminants existed as the complex and precipitate fractions. During electrokinetic remediation, Cr(VI) migrated towards the anode, whereas Cr(III), Ni(II) and Cd(II) migrated towards the cathode. The speciation of contaminants after electrokinetic treatment showed that significant change in exchangeable and soluble fractions occurred. In kaolin, exchangeable and soluble Cr(III), Ni(II), and Cd(II) decreased near the

  4. Effects of humic substances on the heavy metal removal and the phytotoxicity of pesticide

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.E.; Shin, Y.K.; Rhee, H.I.; Kim, J.J.

    1995-12-31

    Efficiency of humic (HA) or fulvic acid (FA) on the removal of Cu or Pb from aqueous solution and phytotoxicity of Paraquat were assessed using the principle of contaminant-ligand complexation. Increasing HA concentrations enhanced the efficiency of Cu or Pb removal, up to a critical ligand concentration capable of forming a maximum HA-metal complex. Removal efficiency ranged from 70 to 95% for Pb, but only 13 to 65% for Cu. HA of 100mg was estimated to complex with 7.5 mg of Cu and 34.1 mg of Pb. Fulvic acid removed nearly 100% of Pb, but only 13 to 29% of Cu. The reactions followed the first- or multiple first-order kinetics depending on the concentrations of metal and ligand, pH and temperature. Paraquat alone exerted a high degree of phytotoxicity at low concentration to the hydroponically grown rye (Secale cereale L.), but the presence of HA or FA decreased the Paraquat toxicity up to 40% and enhanced the yield and growth of rye up to 20% indicating that humic substances reduced the bioavailability of paraquat to rye due to the complexation.

  5. Removal of heavy metals from a chelated solution with electrolytic foam separation

    SciTech Connect

    Min-Her Leu; Juu-En Chang; Ming-Sheng Ko

    1994-11-01

    An experimental study was conducted on the chelation and electrolytic foam separation of trace amounts of copper, nickel, zinc, and cadmium from a synthetic chelated metal wastewater. Sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), citrate, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (NDDTC), and potassium ethyl xanthate (KEtX) were used with sodium dodecylsulfate (NaDS) as a foam-producing agent. Experimental results from an electrolytic foam separation process showed that chelating agents NDDTC and KEtX, due to their higher chelating strength and hydrophobic property, can efficiently separate Cu and Ni from chelated compounds (Cu, Ni/EDTA, and Cu, Ni/citrate). In a Cu-EDTA-NDDTC system with a chelating agent/metal ratio of 4, the residual Cu(II) concentration is 0.7 mg/L. The effects of chelating agent types and different chelating agents concentrations on the removal of metal ions were studied. The effect of NaDS dosage on flotation behavior and the efficiency of metal removal were also investigated.

  6. Removal of heavy metals from contaminated water using ethylenediamine-modified green seaweed (Caulerpa serrulata)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwangi, Isaac W.; Ngila, J. Catherine

    The demand for clean water is on the increase as the population increases. One of the ways to address the water shortage is to treat the polluted water through removal of the contaminants. The use of adsorbents for pollutant removal is one of the promising methods. Seaweed is an aquatic plant and its sorption ability for selected metals in water was investigated in this study. We report the performance of the seaweed (Caulerpa serrulata) before and after modification with ethylenediamine (EDA), on adsorption of copper, lead and cadmium in aqueous solution. The adsorption capacities for Cu, Cd and Pb were 5.27 mg g-1, 2.12 mg g-1 and 2.16 mg g-1, respectively, with the EDA-modified seaweed, and 3.29 mg g-1, 4.57 mg g-1 and 1.06 mg g-1, with the unmodified weed, respectively. The pH for maximum adsorption was found to be within the range of pH 4-pH 6. In a separate investigation, it was found that 0.1 g of dried seaweed leached 20 mg of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) using 100 ml of distilled-deionised water. The resulting solution was green. The leaching phenomenon contributes to secondary pollution. Modification of the seaweed with EDA reduced the DOC content by half (50%) and also removed the green colouration. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorbent was able to take up to 95% of the metals (in synthetic standard solutions) in less than 10 min. The adsorbed metals were then stripped using a solution of 0.5 M HNO3 indicating that the adsorbent can be regenerated. In addition, the study revealed that modification improved the thermal stability of the adsorbent such that even when the temperature was raised to 1000 °C, more than 80% (compared to <50% for unmodified weed) of the modified adsorbent was not degraded, indicating that modification had a significant influence on the thermal stability of seaweed. The modified seaweed has been shown to have great potential for the removal of metals and DOC in polluted water. The modified adsorbent can therefore be applied

  7. Environmental Remediation and Application of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron and Its Composites for the Removal of Heavy Metal Ions: A Review.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yidong; Wang, Xiangxue; Khan, Ayub; Wang, Pengyi; Liu, Yunhai; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Hayat, Tasawar; Wang, Xiangke

    2016-07-19

    The presence of heavy metals in the industrial effluents has recently been a challenging issue for human health. Efficient removal of heavy metal ions from environment is one of the most important issues from biological and environmental point of view, and many studies have been devoted to investigate the environmental behavior of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) for the removal of toxic heavy metal ions, present both in the surface and underground wastewater. The aim of this review is to show the excellent removal capacity and environmental remediation of NZVI-based materials for various heavy metal ions. A new look on NZVI-based materials (e.g., modified or matrix-supported NZVI materials) and possible interaction mechanism (e.g., adsorption, reduction and oxidation) and the latest environmental application. The effects of various environmental conditions (e.g., pH, temperature, coexisting oxy-anions and cations) and potential problems for the removal of heavy metal ions on NZVI-based materials with the DFT theoretical calculations and EXAFS technology are discussed. Research shows that NZVI-based materials have satisfactory removal capacities for heavy metal ions and play an important role in the environmental pollution cleanup. Possible improvement of NZVI-based materials and potential areas for future applications in environment remediation are also proposed. PMID:27331413

  8. Simultaneous removal of organic compounds and heavy metals from soils by electrokinetic remediation with a modified cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Maturi, Kranti; Reddy, Krishna R

    2006-05-01

    Thousands of sites are contaminated with both heavy metals and organic compounds and these sites pose a major threat to public health and the environment. Previous studies have shown that electrokinetic remediation has potential to remove heavy metals and organic compounds when they exist individually in low permeability soils. This paper presents the feasibility of using cyclodextrins in electrokinetic remediation for the simultaneous removal of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from low permeability soils. Kaolin was selected as a model low permeability soil and it was spiked with phenanthrene as well as nickel at concentrations of 500 mg kg-1 each to simulate typical mixed field contamination. Bench-scale electrokinetic experiments were conducted using hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) at low (1%) and high (10%) concentrations and using deionized water in control test. A periodic voltage gradient of 2VDC cm-1 (with 5 d on and 2 d off) was applied to all the tests, and 0.01 M NaOH was added during the experiments to maintain neutral pH conditions at anode. In all tests, nickel migrated as Ni2+ ions towards the cathode and most of it was precipitated as Ni(OH)2 within the soil close to the cathode due to high pH condition generated by electrolysis reaction. The solubility of phenanthrene in the flushing solution and the amount of electroosmotic flow controlled the migration and removal of phenanthrene in all the tests. Even though high flow was generated in tests using deionized water and 1% HPCD, migration and removal of phenanthrene was low due to low solubility of phenanthrene in these solutions. The test with 10% HPCD solution showed higher solubility of phenanthrene which caused it migrate towards the cathode, but further migration and removal was retarded due to reduced electric current and electroosmotic flow. Approximately one pore volume of flushing resulted in approximately 50% removal of phenanthrene from the soil near the

  9. Removal of heavy metals from emerging cellulosic low-cost adsorbents: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, D. S.; Jain, C. K.; Yadav, Anuj K.

    2016-04-01

    Heavy metal pollution is a major problems in the environment. The impact of toxic metal ions can be minimized by different technologies, viz., chemical precipitation, membrane filtration, oxidation, reverse osmosis, flotation and adsorption. But among them, adsorption was found to be very efficient and common due to the low concentration of metal uptake and economically feasible properties. Cellulosic materials are of low cost and widely used, and very promising for the future. These are available in abundant quantity, are cheap and have low or little economic value. Different forms of cellulosic materials are used as adsorbents such as fibers, leaves, roots, shells, barks, husks, stems and seed as well as other parts also. Natural and modified types of cellulosic materials are used in different metal detoxifications in water and wastewater. In this review paper, the most common and recent materials are reviewed as cellulosic low-cost adsorbents. The elemental properties of cellulosic materials are also discussed along with their cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin contents.

  10. Removal of heteroatoms and metals from heavy oils by bioconversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, E.N.

    1996-06-01

    Biocatalysts, either appropriate microorganisms or isolated enzymes, will be used in an aqueous phase in contact with the heavy oil phase to extract heteroatoms such as sulfur from the oil phase by bioconversion processes. Somewhat similar work on coal processing will be adapted and extended for this application. Bacteria such as Desulfovibrio desulfuricans will be studied for the reductive removal of organically-bound sulfur and bacteria such as Rhodococcus rhodochrum will be investigated for the oxidative removal of sulfur. Isolated bacteria from either oil field co-produced sour water or from soil contaminated by oil spills will also be tested. At a later time, bacteria that interact with organic nitrogen may also be studied. This type of interaction will be carried out in advanced bioreactor systems where organic and aqueous phases are contacted. One new concept of emulsion-phase contacting, which will be investigated, disperses the aqueous phase in the organic phase and is then recoalesced for removal of the contaminants and recycled back to the reactor. This program is a cooperative research and development program with the following companies: Baker Performance Chemicals, Chevron, Energy BioSystems, Exxon, Texaco, and UNOCAL. After verification of the bioprocessing concepts on a laboratory-scale, the end-product will be a demonstration of the technology at an industrial site. This should result in rapid transfer of the technology to industry.

  11. Subcritical water treatment of explosive and heavy metals co-contaminated soil: Removal of the explosive, and immobilization and risk assessment of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Islam, Mohammad Nazrul; Jung, Ho-Young; Park, Jeong-Hun

    2015-11-01

    Co-contamination of explosives and heavy metals (HMs) in soil, particularly army shooting range soil, has received increasing environmental concern due to toxicity and risks to ecological systems. In this study, a subcritical water (SCW) extraction process was used to remediate the explosives-plus-HMs-co-contaminated soil. A quantitative evaluation of explosives in the treated soil, compared with untreated soil, was applied to assess explosive removal. The immobilization of HMs was assessed by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, and by investigating the migration of HMs fractions. The environmental risk of HMs in the soil residue was assessed according to the risk assessment code (RAC) and ecological risk indices (Er and RI). The results indicated that SCW treatment could eliminate the explosives, >99%, during the remediation, while the HM was effectively immobilized. The effect of water temperature on reducing the explosives and the risk of HMs in soil was observed. A marked increase in the non-bioavailable concentration of each HM was observed, and the leaching rate of HMs was decreased by 70-97% after SCW treatment at 250 °C, showing the effective immobilization of HMs. According to the RAC or RI, each tested HM showed no or low risk to the environment after treatment. PMID:26340419

  12. A breakthrough biosorbent in removing heavy metals: Equilibrium, kinetic, thermodynamic and mechanism analyses in a lab-scale study.

    PubMed

    Abdolali, Atefeh; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Lu, Shaoyong; Chen, Shiao-Shing; Nguyen, Nguyen Cong; Zhang, Xinbo; Wang, Jie; Wu, Yun

    2016-01-15

    A breakthrough biosorbent namely multi-metal binding biosorbent (MMBB) made from a combination of tea wastes, maple leaves and mandarin peels, was prepared to evaluate their biosorptive potential for removal of Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) from multi-metal aqueous solutions. FTIR and SEM were conducted, before and after biosorption, to explore the intensity and position of the available functional groups and changes in adsorbent surface morphology. Carboxylic, hydroxyl and amine groups were found to be the principal functional groups for the sorption of metals. MMBB exhibited best performance at pH 5.5 with maximum sorption capacities of 31.73, 41.06, 76.25 and 26.63 mg/g for Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II), respectively. Pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order models represented the kinetic experimental data in different initial metal concentrations very well. Among two-parameter adsorption isotherm models, the Langmuir equation gave a better fit of the equilibrium data. For Cu(II) and Zn(II), the Khan isotherm describes better biosorption conditions while for Cd(II) and Pb(II), the Sips model was found to provide the best correlation of the biosorption equilibrium data. The calculated thermodynamic parameters indicated feasible, spontaneous and exothermic biosorption process. Overall, this novel MMBB can effectively be utilized as an adsorbent to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. PMID:26544889

  13. Removing heavy metals in water: the interaction of cactus mucilage and arsenate (As (V)).

    PubMed

    Fox, Dawn I; Pichler, Thomas; Yeh, Daniel H; Alcantar, Norma A

    2012-04-17

    High concentrations of arsenic in groundwater continue to present health threats to millions of consumers worldwide. Particularly, affected communities in the developing world need accessible technologies for arsenic removal from drinking water. We explore the application of cactus mucilage, pectic polysaccharide extracts from Opuntia ficus-indica for arsenic removal. Synthetic arsenate (As (V)) solutions were treated with two extracts, a gelling extract (GE) and a nongelling extract (NE) in batch trials. The arsenic concentration at the air-water interface was measured after equilibration. The GE and NE treated solutions showed on average 14% and 9% increases in arsenic concentration at the air-water interface respectively indicating that the mucilage bonded and transported the arsenic to the air-water interface. FTIR studies showed that the -CO groups (carboxyl and carbonyl groups) and -OH (hydroxyl) functional groups of the mucilage were involved in the interaction with the arsenate. Mucilage activity was greater in weakly basic (pH 9) and weakly acidic (pH 5.5) pH. This interaction can be optimized and harnessed for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. This work breaks the ground for the application of natural pectic materials to the removal of anionic metallic species from water. PMID:22401577

  14. Thermodynamics Study of Removal of Heavy Metal by TiN-Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdavian, Leila

    2015-12-01

    The ability of TiN-nanotube to remove lead (Pb(II)) and arsenic (As(III)) ions from aqueous solutions is investigated. The thermodynamics properties of Pb(II) and As(III) ions passing through TiN-nanotubes (TiN-NTs) is calculated in basis set (B3LYP/6-31G**) DFT-IR method by Gaussian program package. The results showed, Pb(II) and As(III) passing through had low potential in middle nanotubes, and are trapped in this place. The thermodynamic properties showed; the passing through are spontaneous and favorable because ΔGele (MJ/mol) is negative for them. The goal of this study is the detection of surface species of TiN-NTs for metal ions removal by using computer calculations. The structural and thermodynamic properties studied ions absorption on TiN-NTs at room temperature.

  15. Heavy metal removal by chemical reduction with sodium borohydride. A pilot-plant study

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Lahoz, C.; Garcia-Herruzo, F.; Rodriguez-Maroto, J.M.; Rodriguez, J.J. )

    1992-10-01

    A 1,000/h continuous pilot-plant study dealing with Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} removal from simulated industrial wastewater by means of chemical reduction with sodium borohydride is presented. Initial metal concentrations in the 25 to 40 mg range have been tested. Residual concentrations lower than 0.1 mg have been achieved when operating under optimal conditions. Prior addition of sodium dithionite was required to avoid reoxidation problems arising from dissolved oxygen. Flocculation-sedimentation and sand filtration have been studied for sludge separation.

  16. Organic matter and heavy metal removals from complexed metal plating effluent by the combined electrocoagulation/Fenton process.

    PubMed

    Kabdaşli, I; Arslan, T; Arslan-Alaton, I; Olmez-Hanci, T; Tünay, O

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the treatment of metal plating wastewater containing complexed metals originating from the nickel and zinc plating process by electrocoagulation (EC) using stainless steel electrodes was explored. In order to improve the organic matter removal efficiency, the effect of H(2)O(2) addition to the electrocoagulation (the combined EC/Fenton process) application was investigated. For this purpose, a wide range of H(2)O(2) concentrations varying between 15 and 230 mM was tested. All EC and EC/Fenton processes were performed at an initial pH of 2.6 and at an optimized current density of 22 mA/cm(2). Although up to 30 mM H(2)O(2) addition improved the EC process performance in terms of organic matter abatement, the highest COD and TOC removal efficiencies were obtained for the combined EC/Fenton process in the presence of 20 mM H(2)O(2). Nickel and zinc were completely removed for all runs tested in the present study after pH adjustments. At the optimized operation conditions, the combined EC/Fenton process proved to be an alternative treatment method for the improvement of organic matter reduction as well as complexed metal removal from metal plating industry wastewater. PMID:20453336

  17. Heavy Metal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoemaker, W. Lee

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the advantages, both functional and economic, of using a standing-seam metal roof in both new roof installations and reroofing projects of educational facilities. Structural versus non-structural standing-seam roofs are described as are the types of insulation that can be added and roof finishes used. (GR)

  18. Modeling heavy-metal removal in wetlands (final report). Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Light, R.N.

    1992-05-01

    A computer model has been developed to simulate the fate transport of heavy metals introduced to a wetland ecosystem. Modeled water quality variables include plankton biomass and productivity; macrophyte (Nuiumbo lutea) biomass; total phosphorus in the water column; dissolved copper in the water column and sediments; particulate copper in the water column and sediments; and suspended solids. These variables directly affect the modeled rate of copper uptake by macrophytes, and the rate of copper recycling as a function of the decomposition of copper-laden biomass litter. The model was calibrated using total phosphorus and chlorophyll-a data from the Old Woman Creek Wetland in Ohio. Verification of the model was achieved using data on the copper content of the macrophyte Nelumbo lutea. The effects of harvesting copper-laden biomass on the longevity of the wetland ecosystem were also evaluated.

  19. Scaling up a treatment to simultaneously remove persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Rivero-Huguet, Mario; Marshall, William D

    2011-04-01

    Soil washing is a treatment process that can be used to remediate both organic and inorganic pollutants from contaminated soils, sludges, and sediments. A soil washing procedure was evaluated utilizing about 100g samples of soil that had been field-contaminated with arsenic, chromium, copper, pentachlorophenol (PCP), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs). The highest level of mobilization/detoxification was achieved in three soil washes with a mixture of 0.1M [S,S]-ethyelnediaminedisuccinate ([S,S]-EDDS) and 2% Brij 98 at pH 9 with 20 min of ultrasonication treatment at room temperature. This combination mobilized 70% of arsenic, 75% of chromium, 80% of copper, 90% of PCP, and 79% of PCDDs and PCDFs, so that the decontaminated soil met the maximum acceptable concentrations of the generic C-level criteria regulated by the Ministère du Développement Durable, de l'Environnement et des Parcs for the Province of Québec, Canada. The organic pollutants were back-extracted from the aqueous suspension with hexane. Heavy metals were virtually completely precipitated from the aqueous washing suspension with Mg(0) particles at room temperature. The PCP was detoxified by catalytic hydrodechlorination with a stream of 5% (v/v) H(2)-supercritical CO(2) that transported the organosoluble fraction through a reaction chamber containing 2% Pd/γ-Al(2)O(3). In toto, this soil washing procedure demonstrates that persistent organic pollutants and selected heavy metals can be co-extracted efficiently from a field-contaminated soil with three successive washes with the same soil washing solution containing [S,S]-EDDS and a non-ionic surfactant (Brij 98) in admixture. An industrial-scale ex situ soil washing procedure with a combination of a non-ionic surfactant and a complexing reagent seems to be a plausible remediation technique for this former wooden utility pole storage facility. PMID:21354593

  20. Removal of bisphenol A and some heavy metal ions by polydivinylbenzene magnetic latex particles.

    PubMed

    Marzougui, Zied; Chaabouni, Amel; Elleuch, Boubaker; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2016-08-01

    In this study, magnetic polydivinylbenzene latex particles MPDVB with a core-shell structure were tested for the removal of bisphenol A (BPA), copper Cu(II), lead Pb(II), and zinc Zn(II) from aqueous solutions by a batch-adsorption technique. The effect of different parameters, such as initial concentration of pollutant, contact time, adsorbent dose, and initial pH solution on the adsorption of the different adsorbates considered was investigated. The adsorption of BPA, Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) was found to be fast, and the equilibrium was achieved within 30 min. The pH 5-5.5 was found to be the most suitable pH for metal removal. The presence of electrolytes and their increasing concentration reduced the metal adsorption capacity of the adsorbent. Whereas, the optimal pH for BPA adsorption was found 7, both hydrogen bonds and π-π interaction were thought responsible for the adsorption of BPA on MPDVB. The adsorption kinetics of BPA, Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) were found to follow a pseudo-second-order kinetic model. Equilibrium data for BPA, Cu(II), Pb(II), and Zn(II) adsorption were fitted well by the Langmuir isotherm model. Furthermore, the desorption and regeneration studies have proven that MPDVB can be employed repeatedly without impacting its adsorption capacity. PMID:26396007

  1. Cesium and heavy metal removal from flue dusts and other matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Soderstrom, D.J.; May, R.; Spaulding, S.

    1994-12-31

    A problem exists in the steel industry because of the generation of radioactive waste that is caused by the accidental destruction of nuclear detection instruments. The flue dust from electric Arc Furnaces (EAF) becomes contaminated with the radionuclide used. Typically the radionuclide is cesium 137. The problem is a concern to the industry since the contamination results in the generation of a mixed waste which is costly to dispose of properly. In the interest of providing a viable solution to the problem, Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies has developed a process for removal of cesium from flue dust. While removing the cesium from the treatment residue, the process also isolates the other major elements of concern and renders them innocuous, saleable, or readily disposable. However, several innovative techniques have been applied which make the process far more economical, and in addition, the changes simplify the operation and render it controllable. The process involves the dissolution of the various metallic and non-metallic constituents through the use of a mild mineral acid leach. This treatment solubilizes the majority of the constituents including the cesium.

  2. Removal of Heavy Metals and Organic Contaminants from Aqueous Streams by Novel Filtration Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, N.M.

    2000-08-01

    The removal of hazardous waste, generated by the dismantling of nuclear weapons is a problem that requires urgent attention by the US Department of Energy. Low levels of radioactive contaminants combined with organic solvent residues have leaked from aging containers into the soil and underground water in the surrounding area. Due to the complexity of the problem, it is evident that traditional adsorption methods are ineffective, since the adsorbent tends to saturate with the aqueous component. It has become apparent that a much more aggressive approach is required which involves the use of specially designed materials. We have investigated the potential of solids that combine high surface area/high pore volume and high electrical conductivity, a rare combination of properties found in a single material. In this program we examined the potential of newly developed materials for the trapping of organic solvents within specially engineered cavities without allowing the material to become saturated with water. Catalytically grown carbon nanofibers are a set of novel structures that are produced by the decomposition of selected carbon-containing gases over metal particles. These materials consist of extremely small graphite platelets stacked in various orientations with respect to the fiber axis. Such an arrangement results in a unique structure that is composed of an infinite number of extremely short and narrow pores, suitable for sequestering small molecules. In addition, when the graphene layers are aligned parallel to the fiber axis, an unusual combination of high surface area and low electrical resistivity solids are attained. We have attempted to capitalize on this blend of properties by using such structures for the selective removal of organic contaminants from aqueous streams. Experimental results indicate that nanofibers possessing a structure in which the graphite platelets are aligned perpendicular to the fiber axis and possessing a high degree of

  3. Novel polyvinylidene fluoride nanofiltration membrane blended with functionalized halloysite nanotubes for dye and heavy metal ions removal.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Guangyong; He, Yi; Zhan, Yingqing; Zhang, Lei; Pan, Yang; Zhang, Chunli; Yu, Zongxue

    2016-11-01

    Membrane separation is an effective method for the removal of hazardous materials from wastewater. Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), and novel polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) nanofiltration membranes were prepared by blending with various concentrations of APTES grafted HNTs (A-HNTs). The morphology structure of the membranes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The contact angle (CA), pure water flux (PWF) and antifouling capacity of membranes were investigated in detail. In addition, the separation performance of membranes were reflected by the removal of dye and heavy metal ions in simulated wastewater. The results revealed that the hydrophilicity of A-HNTs blended PVDF membrane (A-HNTs@PVDF) was enhanced significantly. Owing to the electrostatic interaction between membrane surface and dye molecules, the dye rejection ratio of 3% A-HNTs@PVDF membrane reached 94.9%. The heavy metal ions rejection ratio and adsorption capacity of membrane were also improved with the addition of A-HNTs. More importantly, A-HNTs@PVDF membrane exhibited excellent rejection stability and reuse performances after several times fouling and washing tests. It can be expected that the present work will provide insight into a new method for membrane modification in the field of wastewater treatment. PMID:27262273

  4. High-density three-dimension graphene macroscopic objects for high-capacity removal of heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Weiwei; Gao, Song; Wu, Liqiong; Qiu, Shengqiang; Guo, Yufen; Geng, Xiumei; Chen, Mingliang; Liao, Shutian; Zhu, Chao; Gong, Youpin; Long, Mingsheng; Xu, Jianbao; Wei, Xiangfei; Sun, Mengtao; Liu, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) fabrication of high-density three-dimension graphene macroscopic objects (3D-GMOs) with a relatively low porosity has not yet been realized, although they are desirable for applications in which high mechanical and electrical properties are required. Here, we explore a method to rapidly prepare the high-density 3D-GMOs using nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl₂·6H₂O) as a catalyst precursor by CVD process at atmospheric pressure. Further, the free-standing 3D-GMOs are employed as electrolytic electrodes to remove various heavy metal ions. The robust 3D structure, high conductivity (~12 S/cm) and large specific surface area (~560 m²/g) enable ultra-high electrical adsorption capacities (Cd²⁺ ~ 434 mg/g, Pb²⁺~ 882 mg/g, Ni²⁺ ~ 1,683 mg/g, Cu²⁺ ~ 3,820 mg/g) from aqueous solutions and fast desorption. The current work has significance in the studies of both the fabrication of high-density 3D-GMOs and the removal of heavy metal ions. PMID:23821107

  5. High-Density Three-Dimension Graphene Macroscopic Objects for High-Capacity Removal of Heavy Metal Ions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weiwei; Gao, Song; Wu, Liqiong; Qiu, Shengqiang; Guo, Yufen; Geng, Xiumei; Chen, Mingliang; Liao, Shutian; Zhu, Chao; Gong, Youpin; Long, Mingsheng; Xu, Jianbao; Wei, Xiangfei; Sun, Mengtao; Liu, Liwei

    2013-01-01

    The chemical vapor deposition (CVD) fabrication of high-density three-dimension graphene macroscopic objects (3D-GMOs) with a relatively low porosity has not yet been realized, although they are desirable for applications in which high mechanical and electrical properties are required. Here, we explore a method to rapidly prepare the high-density 3D-GMOs using nickel chloride hexahydrate (NiCl2·6H2O) as a catalyst precursor by CVD process at atmospheric pressure. Further, the free-standing 3D-GMOs are employed as electrolytic electrodes to remove various heavy metal ions. The robust 3D structure, high conductivity (~12 S/cm) and large specific surface area (~560 m2/g) enable ultra-high electrical adsorption capacities (Cd2+ ~ 434 mg/g, Pb2+ ~ 882 mg/g, Ni2+ ~ 1,683 mg/g, Cu2+ ~ 3,820 mg/g) from aqueous solutions and fast desorption. The current work has significance in the studies of both the fabrication of high-density 3D-GMOs and the removal of heavy metal ions. PMID:23821107

  6. Biological removal of heavy metals by sulfate reduction using a submerged packed tower

    SciTech Connect

    Neserke, G.; Figueroa, L.; Cook, N.

    1994-12-31

    The Coors Brewing Co. owns and operates two wastewater treatment plants which handle the combined waste of the City of Golden and the Brewery. The discharge permit for Coors contains very strict limits for metals. Silver and mercury are prohibited from discharge at all and copper and zinc are both at low limits. The copper and zinc limits cannot be achieved with the present plant configuration and several programs are underway to reduce the source concentrations to meet the respective limits. Most of the programs are either very expensive or unlikely to produce the needed results soon enough. One possible treatment alternative that has been described in literature is sulfate reduction leading to the generation of hydrogen sulfide. The hydrogen sulfide in turn can precipitate most divalent metals that are available, though there are limits on the precipitation process. The purpose of this research has been to investigate the use of sulfate reduction to remove metals from the effluent of the Coors` Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP).

  7. Effects of Humic Acid and Suspended Solids on the Removal of Heavy Metals from Water by Adsorption onto Granular Activated Carbon

    PubMed Central

    Sounthararajah, Danious P.; Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Kandasamy, Jaya; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals constitute some of the most dangerous pollutants of water, as they are toxic to humans, animals, and aquatic organisms. These metals are considered to be of major public health concern and, therefore, need to be removed. Adsorption is a common physico-chemical process used to remove heavy metals. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and suspended solids (SS) are associated pollutants in water systems that can interact with heavy metals during the treatment process. The interactions of DOC and SS during the removal of heavy metals by granular activated carbon were investigated in batch and fixed-bed column experiments. Batch adsorption studies indicated that Langmuir adsorption maxima for Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Ni at pH 6.5 were 11.9, 11.8, 3.3, 2.0, and 1.8 mg/g, respectively. With the addition of humic acid (HA) (DOC representative), they were 7.5, 3.7, 3.2, 1.6, and 2.5 mg/g, respectively. In the column experiment, no breakthrough (complete removal) was obtained for Pb and Cu, but adding HA provided a breakthrough in removing these metals. For Zn, Cd and Ni, this breakthrough occurred even without HA being added. Adding kaolinite (representative of SS) had no effect on Pb and Cu, but it did on the other metals. PMID:26343692

  8. Highway runoff and potential for removal of heavy metals in an infiltration pond in Portugal

    PubMed

    Barbosa; Hvitved-Jacobsen

    1999-09-01

    Highway runoff from IP 4, a mountain road in the north-east of Portugal, has been monitored using a system integrating a raingauge, a flowmeter and an automatic water sampler. Average daily traffic (ADT) is 6000 and the study catchment has 5970 m2 of total area and 2500 m2 of road pavement. A single stormwater outlet discharges into an infiltration pond with overflow to a creek. Sampling was carried out before the runoff water entered the pond. Among the parameters analysed in the runoff water, the heavy metals cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were emphasised because of their toxicity. Concentrations of Cd and Cr were usually lower than the detection limit (1 microgram/l). Copper levels found were between 1 and 54 micrograms/l; lead from 1 to 200 micrograms/l and zinc from 50 to 1460 micrograms/l. A first flush effect was observed, meaning that the first 50% of the runoff volume for each event typically transported between 61 and 69% of the total suspended solids, Zn, Cu and Pb loads. Runoff water is totally infiltrated into the pond and heavy metals are being sorbed to the soil. Soils used in infiltration ponds should have specific characteristics in order to perform effectively and ensure groundwater protection. Not only well-known soil texture and composition characteristics are relevant: the soil sorption capacity--the extension and reversibility of the processes--is of main importance in this kind of highway runoff treatment. Experiments concerning the sorption of Zn, Cu and Pb to soils, followed by desorption at pH values of 2, 4 and 6 were conducted in the laboratory. These experiments were performed with the soil existing at the highway IP 4 infiltration pond and with two other common types of Portuguese soils. The three types of soil showed different behaviours, which must be related to their characteristics; the soil pH seemed to play a significant role in controlling the Zn, Cu and Pb sorption processes. As expected, as

  9. Fe3O4/cyclodextrin polymer nanocomposites for selective heavy metals removal from industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Badruddoza, Abu Zayed M; Shawon, Zayed Bin Zakir; Tay, Wei Jin Daniel; Hidajat, Kus; Uddin, Mohammad Shahab

    2013-01-01

    In this work, carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CM-β-CD) polymer modified Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (CDpoly-MNPs) was synthesized for selective removal of Pb(2+), Cd(2+), Ni(2+) ions from water. This magnetic adsorbent was characterized by TEM, FTIR, XPS and VSM. The adsorption of all studied metal ions onto CDpoly-MNPs was found to be dependent on pH, ionic strength, and temperature. Batch adsorption equilibrium was reached in 45 min and maximum uptakes for Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Ni(2+) in non-competitive adsorption mode were 64.5, 27.7 and 13.2 mg g(-1), respectively at 25 °C. Adsorption data were fitted well to Langmuir isotherm and pseudo-second-order models for kinetic study. The polymer grafted on MNPs enhanced the adsorption capacity because of the complexing abilities of the multiple hydroxyl and carboxyl groups in polymer backbone with metal ions. In competitive adsorption experiments, CDpoly-MNPs could preferentially adsorb Pb(2+) ions with an affinity order of Pb(2+)>Cd(2+)>Ni(2+) which can be explained by hard and soft acids and bases (HASB) theory. Furthermore, we explored the recyclability of CDpoly-MNPs. PMID:23044139

  10. Pumice Characteristics and Their Utilization on the Synthesis of Mesoporous Minerals and on the Removal of Heavy Metals.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A I M; El-Shafey, O I; Amr, M H A; El-Maghraby, M S

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater treatment of some heavy metals was carried out by synthetic zeolite P1, which was prepared by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of the pumice. Both of the pumice raw materials and synthetic zeolite were investigated for their chemical phase composition, physical properties, and microstructure. The adsorption behavior of Na-zeolite P1 with respect to Co(+2), Cu(+2), Fe(+2), and Cd(+2) has been studied to be applied in the industrial wastewater treatment. Metal removal was investigated using synthetic solutions at different ions concentrations, time, and Na-P1 zeolite doses as well as constant temperature and pH. It is concluded that the optimum conditions for synthesis of highly active Na-P1 zeolite from natural pumice raw material are one molar NaOH concentration, temperature at 80°C, and one week as a crystallization time. In addition to the effect of time and zeolite dose as well as the ion concentration of the reaction efficiency for metals removals are recorded. PMID:27355006

  11. Pumice Characteristics and Their Utilization on the Synthesis of Mesoporous Minerals and on the Removal of Heavy Metals

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, A. I. M.; El-Shafey, O. I.; Amr, M. H. A.; El-Maghraby, M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater treatment of some heavy metals was carried out by synthetic zeolite P1, which was prepared by alkaline hydrothermal treatment of the pumice. Both of the pumice raw materials and synthetic zeolite were investigated for their chemical phase composition, physical properties, and microstructure. The adsorption behavior of Na-zeolite P1 with respect to Co+2, Cu+2, Fe+2, and Cd+2 has been studied to be applied in the industrial wastewater treatment. Metal removal was investigated using synthetic solutions at different ions concentrations, time, and Na-P1 zeolite doses as well as constant temperature and pH. It is concluded that the optimum conditions for synthesis of highly active Na-P1 zeolite from natural pumice raw material are one molar NaOH concentration, temperature at 80°C, and one week as a crystallization time. In addition to the effect of time and zeolite dose as well as the ion concentration of the reaction efficiency for metals removals are recorded. PMID:27355006

  12. A highly efficient polyampholyte hydrogel sorbent based fixed-bed process for heavy metal removal in actual industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guiyin; Luo, Jinming; Liu, Chengbin; Chu, Lin; Ma, Jianhong; Tang, Yanhong; Zeng, Zebing; Luo, Shenglian

    2016-02-01

    High sorption capacity, high sorption rate, and fast separation and regeneration for qualified sorbents used in removing heavy metals from wastewater are urgently needed. In this study, a polyampholyte hydrogel was well designed and prepared via a simple radical polymerization procedure. Due to the remarkable mechanical strength, the three-dimensional polyampholyte hydrogel could be fast separated, easily regenerated and highly reused. The sorption capacities were as high as 216.1 mg/g for Pb(II) and 153.8 mg/g for Cd(II) owing to the existence of the large number of active groups. The adsorption could be conducted in a wide pH range of 3-6 and the equilibrium fast reached in 30 min due to its excellent water penetration for highly accessible to metal ions. The fixed-bed column sorption results indicated that the polyampholyte hydrogel was particularly effective in removing Pb(II) and Cd(II) from actual industrial effluent to meet the regulatory requirements. The treatment volumes of actual smelting effluent using one fixed bed column were as high as 684 bed volumes (BV) (7736 mL) for Pb(II) and 200 BV (2262 mL) for Cd(II). Furthermore, the treatment volumes of actual smelting effluent using tandem three columns reached 924 BV (31,351 mL) for Pb(II) and 250 BV (8483 mL) for Cd(II), producing only 4 BV (136 mL) eluent. Compared with the traditional high density slurry (HDS) process with large amount of sludge, the proposed process would be expected to produce only a small amount of sludge. When the treatment volume was controlled below 209.3 BV (7103 mL), all metal ions in the actual industrial effluent could be effectively removed (<0.01 mg/L). This wok develops a highly practical process based on polyampholyte hydrogel sorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions from practical wastewater. PMID:26650450

  13. Biosorption of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Volesky, B. |; Holan, Z.R.

    1995-05-01

    Only within the past decade has the potential of metal biosorption by biomass materials been well established. For economic reasons, of particular interest are abundant biomass types generated as a waste byproduct of large-scale industrial fermentations or certain metal-binding algae found in large quantities in the sea. These biomass types serve as a basis for newly developed metal biosorption processes foreseen particularly as a very competitive means for the detoxification of metal-bearing industrial effluents. The assessment of the metal-building capacity of some new biosorbents is discussed. Lead and cadmium, for instance, have been effectively removed from very dilute solutions by the dried biomass of some ubiquitous species of brown marine algae such as Ascophyllum and Sargassum, which accumulate more than 30% of biomass dry weight in the metal. Mycelia of the industrial steroid-transforming fungi Rhizopus and Absidia are excellent biosorbents for lead, cadmium, copper, zinc, and uranium and also bind other heavy metals up to 25% of the biomass dry weight. Biosorption isotherm curves, derived from equilibrium batch sorption experiments, are used in the evaluation of metal uptake by different biosorbents. Further studies are focusing on the assessment of biosorbent performance in dynamic continuous-flow sorption systems. In the course of this work, new methodologies are being developed that are aimed at mathematical modeling of biosorption systems and their effective optimization. 115 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Role of Organic Matter in the Removal of Heavy Metals in Stormwater Runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, M.; Ingenloff, C.; Katz, L.

    2011-12-01

    Heavy metals (copper, zinc, and lead) are common constituents in highway runoff and concentrations in runoff from highway facilities are particularly high. These concentrations are also generally higher than observed in natural water bodies and several studies have demonstrated acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic ecosystems. One focus of this project is to assess the potential of sorption to reduce the concentration of metals in runoff. The difficulty evaluating adsorption in multi-component systems is to capture the impacts of background organic matter and other complexing ions on adsorption behavior. Very few studies have evaluated the ability of surface complexation models to predict adsorption in systems that contain organic matter from highway runoff. Moreover, the composition of the organic matter in stormwater runoff can be significantly different from natural organic matter typically used to assess the impact of background organics on metal ion adsorption. This research project specifically addresses these concerns and examines the impact of highway runoff on the adsorption behavior to determine whether existing surface complexation and chemical speciation models and parameter databases can be used to predict adsorption of target metal ions in these waters. Previous research has employed both actual storm water that has been obtained from actual field highway runoff sites as well as synthetic storm water compositions that have attempted to mimic the major components of natural storm water. Researchers and practitioners in the field generally agree on the importance of capturing the background water matrix; however, concerns associated with required volumes, holding times, aging, consistency and temporal and spatial variability often favor the use of synthetic formulations. While synthetic storm water can achieve the required consistency, numerous artifacts can be introduced due to the high reactivity of trace metal ions with background inorganic and

  15. Adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions from industrial effluents using activated carbon derived from waste coconut buttons.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, T S; Sreekumari, S S

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) derived from waste coconut buttons (CB) was investigated as a suitable adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions such as Pb(II), Hg(II) and Cu(II) from industrial effluents through batch adsorption process. The AC was characterized by elemental analysis, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis, surface area analyzer and potentiometric titrations. The effects of initial metal concentration, contact time, pH and adsorbent dose on the adsorption of metal ions were studied. The adsorbent revealed a good adsorption potential for Pb(II) and Cu(II) at pH 6.0 and for Hg(II) at pH 7.0. The experimental kinetic data were a better fit with pseudo second-order equation rather than pseudo first-order equation. The Freundlich isotherm model was found to be more suitable to represent the experimental equilibrium isotherm results for the three metals than the Langmuir model. The adsorption capacities of the AC decreased in the order: Pb(II) > Hg(II) > Cu(II). PMID:22432329

  16. Removal of divalent heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and arsenic(III) from aqueous solutions using scoria: kinetics and equilibria of sorption.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jang-Soon; Yun, Seong-Taek; Lee, Jong-Hwa; Kim, Soon-Oh; Jo, Ho Young

    2010-02-15

    Kinetic and equilibrium sorption experiments were conducted on removal of divalent heavy metals (Pb(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II)) and trivalent arsenic (As(III)) from aqueous solutions by scoria (a vesicular pyroclastic rock with basaltic composition) from Jeju Island, Korea, in order to examine its potential use as an efficient sorbent. The removal efficiencies of Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, and As by the scoria (size=0.1-0.2mm, dose=60gL(-1)) were 94, 70, 63, 59, and 14%, respectively, after a reaction time of 24h under a sorbate concentration of 1mM and the solution pH of 5.0. A careful examination on ionic concentrations in sorption batches suggested that sorption behaviors of heavy metals onto scoria are mainly controlled by cation exchange. On the other hand, arsenic appeared to be sensitive to specific sorption onto hematite (a minor constituent of scoria). Equilibrium sorption tests indicated that the removal efficiency for heavy metals increases with increasing pH of aqueous solutions, which is resulted from precipitation as hydroxides. Similarly, multi-component systems containing heavy metals and arsenic showed that the arsenic removal increases with increasing pH of aqueous solutions, which can be attributed to coprecipitation with metal hydroxides. The empirically determined sorption kinetics were well fitted to a pseudo-second order model, while equilibrium sorption data for heavy metals and arsenic onto scoria were consistent with the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms, respectively. Natural scoria studied in this work is an efficient sorbent for concurrent removal of divalent heavy metals and arsenic. PMID:19828237

  17. Removal of heavy metals in wastewater by using zeolite nano-particles impregnated polysulfone membranes.

    PubMed

    Yurekli, Yilmaz

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the adsorption and the filtration processes were coupled by a zeolite nanoparticle impregnated polysulfone (PSf) membrane which was used to remove the lead and the nickel cations from synthetically prepared solutions. The results obtained from X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated that the synthesized zeolite nanoparticles, using conventional hydrothermal method, produced a pure NaX with ultrafine and uniform particles. The performance of the hybrid membrane was determined under dynamic conditions. The results also revealed that the sorption capacity as well as the water hydraulic permeability of the membranes could both be improved by simply tuning the membrane fabricating conditions such as evaporation period of the casting film and NaX loading. The maximum sorption capacity of the hybrid membrane for the lead and nickel ions was measured as 682 and 122 mg/g respectively at the end of 60 min of filtration, under 1 bar of transmembrane pressure. The coupling process suggested that the membrane architecture could be efficiently used for treating metal solutions with low concentrations and transmembrane pressures. PMID:26874311

  18. Nanometric Graphene Oxide Framework Membranes with Enhanced Heavy Metal Removal via Nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Sui; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2015-08-18

    A novel dual-modification strategy, including (1) the cross-linking and construction of a GO framework by ethylenediamine (EDA) and (2) the amine-enrichment modification by hyperbranched polyethylenimine (HPEI), has been proposed to design stable and highly charged GO framework membranes with the GO selective layer thickness of 70 nm for effective heave metal removal via nanofiltration (NF). Results from sonication experiments and positron annihilation spectroscopy confirmed that EDA cross-linking not only enhanced structural stability but also enlarged the nanochannels among the laminated GO nanosheets for higher water permeability. HPEI 60K was found to be the most effective post-treatment agent that resulted in GO framework membranes with a higher surface charge and lower transport resistance. The newly developed membrane exhibited a high pure water permeability of 5.01 L m(-2) h(-1) bar(-1) and comparably high rejections toward Mg(2+), Pb(2+), Ni(2+), Cd(2+), and Zn(2+). These results have demonstrated the great potential of GO framework materials in wastewater treatment and may provide insights for the design and fabrication of the next generation two-dimensional (2D)-based NF membranes. PMID:26197200

  19. Plants absorb heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, J.

    1995-02-01

    Decontamination of heavy metals-polluted soils remains one of the most intractable problems of cleanup technology. Currently available techniques include extraction of the metals by physical and chemical means, such as acid leaching and electroosmosis, or immobilization by vitrification. There are presently no techniques for cleanup which are low cost and retain soil fertility after metals removal. But a solution to the problem could be on the horizon. A small but growing number of plants native to metalliferous soils are known to be capable of accumulating extremely high concentrations of metals in their aboveground portions. These hyperaccumulators, as they are called, contain up to 1,000 times larger metal concentrations in their aboveground parts than normal species. Their distribution is global, including many different families of flowering plants of varying growth forms, from herbaceous plants to trees. Hyperaccumulators absorb metals they do not need for their own nutrition. The metals are accumulated in the leaf and stem vacuoles, and to a lesser extent in the roots.

  20. An effective and recyclable adsorbent for the removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous system: Magnetic chitosan/cellulose microspheres.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaogang; Zeng, Jian; Liu, Shilin; Zhang, Lina

    2015-10-01

    Development of highly cost-effective, highly operation-convenient and highly efficient natural polymer-based adsorbents for their biodegradability and biocompatibility, and supply of safe drinking water are the most threatening problems in water treatment field. To tackle the challenges, a new kind of efficient recyclable magnetic chitosan/cellulose hybrid microspheres was prepared by sol-gel method. By embedding magnetic γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles in chitosan/cellulose matrix drops in NaOH/urea aqueous solution, it combined renewability and biocompatibility of chitosan and cellulose as well as magnetic properties of γ-Fe2O3 to create a hybrid system in heavy metal ions removal. PMID:26216781

  1. Agricultural by-products as low-cost sorbents for the removal of heavy metals from dilute wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Humelnicu, D; Ignat, M; Doroftei, F

    2015-05-01

    n the last years, much attention has been focused on the use of low-cost adsorbents for the removal of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from contaminated waters. In this context, we studied the sorption performances of two kinds of by-products resulted from the agriculture: soy bran and mustard husk. The effects of contact time, the initial metal ion concentration, pH, sorbent mass, and temperature on the adsorption capacity of the agricultural by-products as sorbents were investigated. The thermodynamic parameters associated with the adsorption process indicated that the process is spontaneous and endothermic. Modeling of experimental adsorption isotherm data showed that non-linear Langmuir isotherm fits better than other isotherms. The obtained values for the separation factor, R L were less than one which supports that the adsorption process was favorable. The obtained results indicated that the soy bran has a higher sorption capacity toward zinc ions (74.02 mg g(-1)) than mustard husk (63.69 mg g(-1)). Therefore, there is a great requirement for the search of biomaterials that are cheap and easily available for the removal of heavy metal ions from wastewater. The studied sorbents have the advantage of very low cost and great availability for simple operational experiments. PMID:25832011

  2. Functionalized paper--A readily accessible adsorbent for removal of dissolved heavy metal salts and nanoparticles from water.

    PubMed

    Setyono, Daisy; Valiyaveettil, Suresh

    2016-01-25

    Paper, a readily available renewable resource, comprises of interwoven cellulosic fibers, which can be functionalized to develop interesting low-cost adsorbent material for water purification. In this study, polyethyleneimine (PEI)-functionalized paper was used for the removal of hazardous pollutants such as Au and Ag nanoparticles, Cr(VI) anions, Ni(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) cations from spiked water samples. Compared to untreated paper, the PEI-coated paper showed significant improvement in adsorption capacities toward the pollutants investigated in this study. Kinetics, isotherm models, pH, and desorption studies were carried out to study the adsorption mechanism of pollutants on the adsorbent surface. Adsorption of pollutants was better described by pseudo-second order kinetics and Langmuir isotherm model. Maximum adsorption of anionic pollutants was achieved at pH 5 while that of cations was at pH>6. Overall, the PEI-functionalized paper showed interesting Langmuir adsorption capacities for heavy metal ions such as Cr(VI) (68 mg/g), Ni(2+) (208 mg/g), Cd(2+) (370 mg/g), and Cu(2+) (435 mg/g) ions at neutral pH. In addition, the modified paper was also used to remove Ag-citrate (79 mg/g), Ag-PVP (46 mg/g), Au-citrate (30 mg/g), Au-PVP (17 mg/g) nanoparticles from water. Desorption of NPs from the adsorbent was done by washing with 2 M HCl or thiourea solution, while heavy metal ions were desorbed using 1 M NaOH or HNO3 solution. The modified paper retained its extraction efficiencies upon desorption of pollutants. PMID:26452090

  3. Coating Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles with humic acid for high efficient removal of heavy metals in water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing-fu; Zhao, Zong-shan; Jiang, Gui-bin

    2008-09-15

    Humic acid (HA) coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (Fe3O4/HA) were developed for the removal of toxic Hg(II), Pb(II), Cd(II), and Cu(II) from water. Fe3O4/HA were prepared by a coprecipitation procedure with cheap and environmentally friendly iron salts and HA. TOC and XPS analysis showed the as-prepared Fe3O4/HA contains approximately 11% (w/w) of HA which are fractions abundant in O and N-based functional groups. TEM images and laser particle size analysis revealed the Fe3O4/HA (with approximately 10 nm Fe3O4 cores) aggregated in aqueous suspensions to form aggregates with an average hydrodynamic size of approximately 140 nm. With a saturation magnetization of 79.6 emu/g, the Fe3O4/HA can be simply recovered from water with magnetic separations at low magnetic field gradients within a few minutes. Sorption of the heavy metals to Fe3O4/HA reached equilibrium in less than 15 min, and agreed well to the Langmuir adsorption model with maximum adsorption capacities from 46.3 to 97.7 mg/g. The Fe3O4/HA was stable in tap water, natural waters, and acidic/ basic solutions ranging from 0.1 M HCl to 2 M NaOH with low leaching of Fe (< or = 3.7%) and HA (< or = 5.3%). The Fe3O4/HA was able to remove over 99% of Hg(ll) and Pb(ll) and over 95% of Cu(II) and Cd(II) in natural and tap water at optimized pH. Leaching back of the Fe3O4/HA sorbed heavy metals in water was found to be negligible. PMID:18853814

  4. Influence of the composition and removal characteristics of organic matter on heavy metal distribution in compost leachates.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Song; Xi, Bei-Dou; Li, Dan; Guo, Xu-Jing; Cui, Dong-Yu; Pan, Hong-Wei; Ma, Yan

    2014-06-01

    Compost leachates were collected to investigate the influence of the composition and removal of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), humic-like substances (HSs), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) on heavy metal distribution during the leachate treatment process. The results showed that acetic and propionic acids accounted for 81.3 to 93.84% of VFAs, and that these acids were removed by the anaerobic-aerobic process. Humic- and fulvic-like substances were detected by excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy coupled with parallel factor analysis, and their content significantly decreased after the anaerobic and membrane treatments. DON in compost leachates ranged from 26.53 mg L(-1) to 919.46 mg L(-1), comprised of dissolved free amino acids and the protein-like matter bound to humic- and fulvic-like substances, and was removed by the aerobic process. Correlation analysis showed that Mn, Ni, and Pb were bound to VFAs and protein-, fulvic-, and humic-like substances in the leachates. Co was primarily bound to fulvic- and humic-like matter and inorganic sulfurs, whereas Cu, Zn, and Cd interacted with inorganic sulfur. PMID:24595753

  5. Coupled electrokinetics-adsorption technique for simultaneous removal of heavy metals and organics from saline-sodic soil.

    PubMed

    Lukman, Salihu; Essa, Mohammed Hussain; Mu'azu, Nuhu Dalhat; Bukhari, Alaadin

    2013-01-01

    In situ remediation technologies for contaminated soils are faced with significant technical challenges when the contaminated soil has low permeability. Popular traditional technologies are rendered ineffective due to the difficulty encountered in accessing the contaminants as well as when employed in settings where the soil contains mixed contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and polar organics. In this study, an integrated in situ remediation technique that couples electrokinetics with adsorption, using locally produced granular activated carbon from date palm pits in the treatment zones that are installed directly to bracket the contaminated soils at bench-scale, is investigated. Natural saline-sodic soil, spiked with contaminant mixture (kerosene, phenol, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg), was used in this study to investigate the efficiency of contaminant removal. For the 21-day period of continuous electrokinetics-adsorption experimental run, efficiency for the removal of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg, phenol, and kerosene was found to reach 26.8, 55.8, 41.0, 34.4, 75.9, 92.49, 100.0, and 49.8%, respectively. The results obtained suggest that integrating adsorption into electrokinetic technology is a promising solution for removal of contaminant mixture from saline-sodic soils. PMID:24235885

  6. Coupled Electrokinetics-Adsorption Technique for Simultaneous Removal of Heavy Metals and Organics from Saline-Sodic Soil

    PubMed Central

    Lukman, Salihu; Essa, Mohammed Hussain; Mu'azu, Nuhu Dalhat; Bukhari, Alaadin

    2013-01-01

    In situ remediation technologies for contaminated soils are faced with significant technical challenges when the contaminated soil has low permeability. Popular traditional technologies are rendered ineffective due to the difficulty encountered in accessing the contaminants as well as when employed in settings where the soil contains mixed contaminants such as petroleum hydrocarbons, heavy metals, and polar organics. In this study, an integrated in situ remediation technique that couples electrokinetics with adsorption, using locally produced granular activated carbon from date palm pits in the treatment zones that are installed directly to bracket the contaminated soils at bench-scale, is investigated. Natural saline-sodic soil, spiked with contaminant mixture (kerosene, phenol, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Hg), was used in this study to investigate the efficiency of contaminant removal. For the 21-day period of continuous electrokinetics-adsorption experimental run, efficiency for the removal of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, Hg, phenol, and kerosene was found to reach 26.8, 55.8, 41.0, 34.4, 75.9, 92.49, 100.0, and 49.8%, respectively. The results obtained suggest that integrating adsorption into electrokinetic technology is a promising solution for removal of contaminant mixture from saline-sodic soils. PMID:24235885

  7. Impact of carbonate on the efficiency of heavy metal removal from kaolinite soil by the electrokinetic soil remediation method.

    PubMed

    Ouhadi, V R; Yong, R N; Shariatmadari, N; Saeidijam, S; Goodarzi, A R; Safari-Zanjani, M

    2010-01-15

    While the feasibility of using electrokinetics to decontaminate soils has been studied by several authors, the effects of soil composition on the efficiency of this method of decontamination has yet to be fully studied. This study focuses its attention on the effect of "calcite or carbonate" (CaCO(3)) on removal efficiency in electrokinetic soil remediation. Bench scale experiments were conducted on two soils: kaolinite and natural-soil of a landfill in Hamedan, Iran. Prescribed quantities of carbonates were mixed with these soils which were subsequently contaminated with zinc nitrate. After that, electrokinetic experiments were conducted to determine the efficiency of electrokinetic remediation. The results showed that an increase in the quantity of carbonate caused a noticeable increase on the contaminant retention of soil and on the resistance of soil to the contaminant removal by electrokinetic method. Because the presence of carbonates in the soil increases its buffering capacity, acidification is reduced, resulting in a decrease in the rate of heavy metal removed from the contaminant soil. This conclusion was validated by the evaluation of efficiency of electrokinetic method on a soil sample from the liner of a waste disposal site, with 28% carbonates. PMID:19733966

  8. Investigating the Effectiveness of Mineral Precipitate as a Tool in the Removal of Heavy Metals from Mine Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abongwa, P. T.; Geyer, C.; Puckette, J.

    2014-12-01

    Mine water from a precious metal mine in Colorado drains into an underground tunnel and flows for about 8 km before being discharged into a series of sequentially connected settling ponds (5) aimed at removing suspended particulate. Our results suggest these ponds also remove heavy metals from solution through adsorption and mineral precipitation. Analyses of the precipitates and water in the settling ponds showed relatively higher metal concentration on the precipitates than in the corresponding aqueous solutions. Speciation modeling showed that the precipitates were mainly travertine, ferrihydrite, fe-oxyhdroxide and gypsum and these are expected to provide surfaces for metal adsorption. Overall, the average concentrations of trace metals were such that, Al concentration was 0.0 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 9.4 mg/L for the precipitate; Fe concentration was 0.04 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 20.1 mg/L for the precipitate; Mn concentration was 0.2 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 10.2 mg/L for the precipitate; Sr concentration was 3 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 8 mg/L for the precipitate; Zn concentration was 0.1 mg/L for the aqueous sample and 1.4 mg/L for the precipitate. Sulfate concentrations in solutions (1346 mg/L) were about seventeen times higher than on the precipitate (80 mg/L). As the water exits the tunnel, its carbon is expected to consistently decrease over space as it moves along the settling ponds while precipitating carbonates. The dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) concentrations showed consistent drop from 109 mg/L at the tunnel exit to 96 mg/L at middle pond and 92 mg/L at the exit pond, which corresponds to decreasing pCO2 and removal of carbon from solution through travertine precipitation and CO2 outgassing. This data indicate a strong influence of mineral precipitate as an effective component in the attenuation of metals in mine

  9. Comparative studies on the removal of heavy metals ions onto cross linked chitosan-g-acrylonitrile copolymer.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P; Gomathi, Thandapani; Vijayalakshmi, K; Sudha, P N

    2014-06-01

    The graft copolymerization of acrylonitrile onto cross linked chitosan was carried out using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The prepared cross linked chitosan-g-acrylonitrile copolymer was characterized using FT-IR and XRD studies. The adsorption behavior of chromium(VI), copper(II) and nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution onto cross linked chitosan graft acrylonitrile copolymer was investigated through batch method. The efficiency of the adsorbent was identified from the varying the contact time, adsorbent dose and pH. The results evident that the adsorption of metal ions increases with the increase of shaking time and metal ion concentration. An optimum pH was found to be 5.0 for both Cr(VI) and Cu(II), whereas the optimum pH is 5.5 for the adsorption of Ni(II) onto cross linked chitosan-g-acrylonitrile copolymer. The Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models were applied to describe the isotherms and isotherm constants. Adsorption isothermal data could be well interpreted by the Freundlich model. The kinetic experimental data properly correlated with the second-order kinetic model. From the above results it was concluded that the cross linked chitosan graft acrylonitrile copolymer was found to be the efficient adsorbent for removing the heavy metals under optimum conditions. PMID:24680901

  10. Mutagenicity of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.K.

    1988-04-01

    Certain heavy metals are required, as trace elements for normal cellular functions. However, heavy metals are toxic to cells once their levels exceed their low physiological values. The toxicity of heavy metals on microorganisms, and on animals has been well-documented. These interactions may induce the alteration of the primary as well as secondary structures of the DNA and result in mutation(s). The present communication reports the results in determining the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of ten heavy metals commonly found in polluted areas by using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test.

  11. Sequential removal of heavy metals ions and organic pollutants using an algal-bacterial consortium.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Raul; Alvarez, Maria Teresa; Muñoz, Adriana; Terrazas, Enrique; Guieysse, Benoit; Mattiasson, Bo

    2006-05-01

    The residual algal-bacterial biomass from photosynthetically supported, organic pollutant biodegradation processes, in enclosed photobioreactors, was tested for its ability to accumulate Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II). Salicylate was chosen as a model contaminant. The algal-bacterial biomass combined the high adsorption capacity of microalgae with the low cost of the residual biomass, which makes it an attractive biosorbent for environmental applications. Cu(II) was preferentially taken-up from the medium when the metals were present both separately and in combination. There was no observed competition for adsorption sites, which suggested that Cu(II), Ni(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) bind to different sites and that active Ni(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) binding groups were present at very low concentrations. Therefore, special focus was given to Cu(II) biosorption. Cu(II) biosorption by the algal-bacterial biomass was characterized by an initial fast cell surface adsorption followed by a slower metabolically driven uptake. pH, Cu(II), and algal-bacterial concentration significantly affected the biosorption capacity for Cu(II). Maximum Cu(II) adsorption capacities of 8.5+/-0.4 mg g-1 were achieved at an initial Cu(II) concentration of 20 mg l-1 and at pH 5 for the tested algal-bacterial biomass. These are consistent with values reported for other microbial sorbents under similar conditions. The desorption of Cu(II) from saturated biomass was feasible by elution with a 0.0125 M HCl solution. Simultaneous Cu(II) and salicylate removal in a continuous stirred tank photobioreactor was not feasible due to the high toxicity of Cu(II) towards the microbial culture. The introduction of an adsorption column, packed with the algal-bacterial biomass, prior to the photobioreactor reduced Cu(II) concentration, thereby allowing the subsequent salicylate biodegradation in the photobioreactor. PMID:16307789

  12. Highly effective removal of heavy metals by polymer-based zirconium phosphate: a case study of lead ion.

    PubMed

    Pan, B C; Zhang, Q R; Zhang, W M; Pan, B J; Du, W; Lv, L; Zhang, Q J; Xu, Z W; Zhang, Q X

    2007-06-01

    Zirconium phosphate (ZrP) has recently been demonstrated as an excellent sorbent for heavy metals due to its high selectivity, high thermal stability, and absolute insolubility in water. However, it cannot be readily adopted in fixed beds or any other flowthrough system due to the excessive pressure drop and poor mechanical strength resulting from its fine submicrometer particle sizes. In the present study a hybrid sorbent, i.e., polymer-supported ZrP, was prepared by dispersing ZrP within a strongly acidic cation exchanger D-001 and used for enhanced lead removal from contaminated waters. D-001 was selected as a host material for sorbent preparation mainly because of the Donnan membrane effect resulting from the nondiffusible negatively charged sulfonic acid group on the exchanger surface, which would enhance permeation of the targeted metal ions. The hybrid sorbent (hereafter denoted ZrP-001) was characterized using a nitrogen adsorption technique, scanning electron microscope (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Lead sorption onto ZrP-001 was found to be pH dependent due to the ion-exchange mechanism, and its sorption kinetics onto ZrP-001 followed the pseudo-first-order model. Compared to D-001, ZrP-001 exhibited more favorable lead sorption particularly in terms of high selectivity, as indicated by its substantially larger distribution coefficients when other competing cations Na(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) coexisted at a high level in solution. Fixed-bed column runs showed that lead sorption on ZrP-001 resulted in a conspicuous decrease of this toxic metal from 40 mg/L to below 0.05 mg/L. By comparison with D-001 and ZrP-CP (ZrP dispersion within a neutrally charged polymer CP), enhanced removal efficiency of ZrP-001 resulted from the Donnan membrane effect of the host material D-001. Moreover, its feasible regeneration by diluted acid solution and negligible ZrP loss during operation also helps ZrP-001 to be a potential candidate for lead removal from water. Thus

  13. The potential of melt-mixed polypropylene-zeolite blends in the removal of heavy metals from aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motsa, Machawe M.; Thwala, Justice M.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    The continued deterioration of the water quality in natural water sources such as rivers and lakes has led to tensions amongst relevant stakeholders to such an extent that cooperative water resource management is being regarded as an ideal solution to culminate conflicts and maximise the benefits. The desire to develop technologies that combine the three most important aspects of integrated water resource management (namely social, economic and environmental) has been encouraged by relevant authorities. This paper therefore reports the application of clinoptilolite-polypropylene (CLI-PP) blends/composites for the removal of lead from aqueous media. Just like many other heavy metals, lead poses a threat to water and soil quality as well as to plant and animal health. The findings on the adsorption behaviour of clinoptilolite-polypropylene composites with respect to Pb 2+ are also reported here, with the aim of extending its application to wastewater and environmental water purification. The batch equilibrium adsorption method was employed and the influence of contact time, pH, initial metal-ion concentration, temperature and pretreatment was determined. The optimum pH was found to be between pH 6 and pH 8 while the maximum sorption of lead at optimal pH was 95%. No big difference was observed between the adsorption behaviour of composites functionalised with 20% and 30% clinoptilolite, respectively. The pretreatment with HCl and NaCl made a slight difference to the adsorption capacity of composites.

  14. Biosorption process for removing heavy metal ions using water milfoil (Myriophyllum Spicatum) in contaminated water

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, T.C.; Weissman, J.C.; Varadarajan, R.

    1995-12-31

    A small scale biomass metal contacting experiment was performed to screen the optimal plant species for biosorption and bioaccumulation of cadmium, zinc, nickel, lead, and copper. Experiments were also conducted to test the ability of the biomass to lower the metal concentrations below the US Environmental Protection Agency surface water discharge criteria. The minimum residual concentration was 0.1 mg/L for zinc, 0.004 mg/L for lead, and about 0.01 mg/L for cadmium, nickel, and lead. Results indicate that water milfoil can be used for bioremoval of metals.

  15. Mutagenicity of heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, P.K. )

    1988-05-01

    Certain heavy metals are required, as trace elements for normal cellular functions. However, heavy metals are toxic to cells once their levels exceed their low physiological values. The toxicity of heavy metals on microorganisms, on plants and on animals has been well-documented. These interactions may induce the alteration of the primary as well as secondary structures of the DNA and result in mutation(s). Though the rec assay with Bacillus subtilis and the reversion assay with Escherichia coli were used to assess the mutagenicity of some heavy metals, the present communication reports the results in determining the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of ten heavy metals commonly found in polluted areas by using the Salmonella/mammalian-microsome mutagenicity test.

  16. Perspectives of phytoremediation using water hyacinth for removal of heavy metals, organic and inorganic pollutants in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rezania, Shahabaldin; Ponraj, Mohanadoss; Talaiekhozani, Amirreza; Mohamad, Shaza Eva; Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Taib, Shazwin Mat; Sabbagh, Farzaneh; Sairan, Fadzlin Md

    2015-11-01

    The development of eco-friendly and efficient technologies for treating wastewater is one of the attractive research area. Phytoremediation is considered to be a possible method for the removal of pollutants present in wastewater and recognized as a better green remediation technology. Nowadays the focus is to look for a sustainable approach in developing wastewater treatment capability. Water hyacinth is one of the ancient technology that has been still used in the modern era. Although, many papers in relation to wastewater treatment using water hyacinth have been published, recently removal of organic, inorganic and heavy metal have not been reviewed extensively. The main objective of this paper is to review the possibility of using water hyacinth for the removal of pollutants present in different types of wastewater. Water hyacinth is although reported to be as one of the most problematic plants worldwide due to its uncontrollable growth in water bodies but its quest for nutrient absorption has provided way for its usage in phytoremediation, along with the combination of herbicidal control, integratated biological control and watershed management controlling nutrient supply to control its growth. Moreover as a part of solving wastewater treatment problems in urban or industrial areas using this plant, a large number of useful byproducts can be developed like animal and fish feed, power plant energy (briquette), ethanol, biogas, composting and fiber board making. In focus to the future aspects of phytoremediation, the utilization of invasive plants in pollution abatement phytotechnologies can certainly assist for their sustainable management in treating waste water. PMID:26311085

  17. Removal of organic pollutants and heavy metals in soils by electrokinetic remediation.

    PubMed

    Ricart, M T; Pazos, M; Gouveia, S; Cameselle, C; Sanroman, M A

    2008-07-01

    In this work, the feasibility of electrokinetic remediation for the restoration of polluted soil with organic and inorganic compounds had been development and evaluated using a model soil sample. The model soil was prepared with kaolinite clay artificially polluted in the laboratory with chromium and an azo dye: Reactive Black 5 (RB5). The electromigration of Cr in a spiked kaolinite sample was studied in alkaline conditions. Despite of the high pH registered in the kaolinite sample (around pH 9.5), Cr migrated towards the cathode and it was accumulated in the cathode chamber forming a white precipitate. The removal was not complete, and 23% of the initial Cr was retained into the kaolinite sample close to the cathode side. The azo dye RB5 could be effectively removed from kaolinite by electrokinetics and the complete cleanup of the kaolinite could be achieved in alkaline environment. In this condition, RB5 formed an anion that migrated towards the anode where it was accumulated and quickly degraded upon the electrode surface. The electrokinetic treatment of a kaolinite sample polluted with both Cr and RB5 yielded very good results. The removal of Cr was improved compared to the experiment where Cr was the only pollutant, and RB5 reached a removal as high as 95%. RB5 was removed by electromigration towards the anode, where the dye was degraded upon the surface of the electrode by electrochemical oxidation. Cr was transported towards the cathode by electromigration and electroosmosis. It is supposed that the interaction among RB5 and Cr into the kaolinite sample prevented premature precipitation and allow Cr to migrate and concentrate in the cathode chamber. PMID:18569297

  18. REMOVAL OF HEAVY METALS AND ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM AQUEOUS STREAMS BY NOVEL FILTRATION METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Catalytically grown carbon nanofibers are a novel material that is produced by the decomposition of selected hydrocarbons over metal particles. The material consists of graphite platelets perfectly aligned and stacked in various directions with respect to the fiber axis. Such an ...

  19. Fast microwave-assisted preparation of a low-cost and recyclable carboxyl modified lignocellulose-biomass jute fiber for enhanced heavy metal removal from water.

    PubMed

    Du, Zhaolin; Zheng, Tong; Wang, Peng; Hao, Linlin; Wang, Yanxia

    2016-02-01

    A low-cost and recyclable biosorbent derived from jute fiber was developed for high efficient adsorption of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II) from water. The jute fiber was rapidly pretreated and grafted with metal binding groups (COOH) under microwave heating (MH). The adsorption behavior of carboxyl-modified jute fiber under MH treatment (CMJFMH) toward heavy metal ions followed Langmuir isotherm model (R(2)>0.99) with remarkably high adsorption capacity (157.21, 88.98 and 43.98mg/g for Pb(II), Cd(II) and Cu(II), respectively). Also, CMJFMH showed fast removal ability for heavy metals in a highly significant correlation with pseudo second-order kinetics model. Besides, CMJFMH can be easily regenerated with EDTA-2Na solution and reused up to at least four times with equivalent high adsorption capacity. Overall, cheap and abundant production, rapid and facile preparation, fast and efficient adsorption of heavy metals and high regeneration ability can make the CMJFMH a preferred biosorbent for heavy metal removal from water. PMID:26630582

  20. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.J.; Delhaize, E.; Robinson, N.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Furlong, C.

    1990-03-20

    This patent describes a method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting the removal, and apparatus used in effecting the removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly ({gamma}-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly ({gamma}-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  1. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  2. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.J.; Delhaize, E.; Robinson, N.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Furlong, C.

    1988-08-26

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly ({gamma}-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly ({gamma}-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  3. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.J.; Delhaize, E.; Robinson, N.J.; Unkefer, C.J.; Furlong, C.

    1990-11-13

    A method is disclosed of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly ([gamma]glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat unit for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form. 1 fig.

  4. Removal of heteroatoms and metals from heavy oils by bioconversion processes. CRADA final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, E N; Borole, A P

    1999-03-01

    The objective of this Cooperative research and Development Agreement project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory ( O W ) and Baker Performance Chemicals (BPC), Chevron, Energy BioSystems, Exxon, UNOCAL and Texaco is to investigate the biological desukrization of crude oil. Biological removal of organic s&%r fiom crude oil offers an attractive alternative to conventional thermochemical treatment due to the mild operating conditions afforded by the biocatalyst. In order for biodesulfbrization to realize commercial success, reactors must be designed which allow for sufficient liquid / liquid and gas / liquid mass transfer while simultaneously reducing operating costs. To this end we have been developing advanced bioreactors for biodesufirization and have been studying their performance using both actual crude oil as well as more easily characterized model systems.

  5. Environmental effects and desorption characteristics on heavy metal removal using carboxylated alginic acid.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Choong; Je Yoo, Young; Hoell, Wolfgang H

    2005-01-01

    Effects of ionic strength and organic materials on copper ion uptake capacity using carboxylated alginic acid which showed very high metal ion uptake capacity were investigated. The ionic strength only had a slight effect on the decrease of copper ion uptake capacity regardless of NaCl concentration. And, the effect of organic materials such as NTA (nitrilotriaceticacid) and sodium hypophosphite on the copper ion uptake capacity was negligible. When the lead ion adsorbed on carboxylated alginic acid was desorbed by NTA, which showed high desorption efficiency, the best optimum concentration of NTA was about 0.01 M. Also desorption efficiency decreased, however, concentration factor increased as S/L ratio which is defined as the ratio of adding amount of adsorbed and volume of desorbing agent increased. In sequential adsorption and desorption cycles, the lead uptake capacity on carboxylated alginic acid was relatively maintained through cycles 1-5. PMID:15364075

  6. The effect of surface modification on heavy metal ion removal from water by carbon nanoporous adsorbent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baniamerian, M. J.; Moradi, S. E.; Noori, A.; Salahi, H.

    2009-12-01

    In this work, chemically oxidized mesoporous carbon (COMC) with excellent lead adsorption performance was prepared by an acid surface modification method from mesoporous carbon (MC) by wet impregnation method. The structural order and textural properties of the mesoporous materials were studied by XRD, SEM, and nitrogen adsorption. The presence of carboxylic functional groups on the carbon surface was confirmed by FT-IR analysis. Batch adsorption experiments were conducted to study the effect of adsorbent dose, initial concentration and temperature for the removal of Pb(II) from aqueous systems. The adsorption was maximum for the initial pH in the range of 6.5-8.0. The kinetic data were best fitted to the pseudo-second order model. The adsorption of chemically oxidized mesoporous carbon to Pb(II) fits to the Langmuir model. The larger adsorption capacity of chemically oxidized mesoporous carbon for Pb(II) is mainly due to the oxygenous functional groups formed on the surface of COMC which can react with Pb(II) to form salt or complex deposited on the surface of MC.

  7. Potential application of activated carbon from maize tassel for the removal of heavy metals in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olorundare, O. F.; Krause, R. W. M.; Okonkwo, J. O.; Mamba, B. B.

    Water-pollution problems worldwide have led to an acute shortage of clean and pure water for both domestic and human consumption. Various technologies and techniques are available for water treatment which includes the use of activated carbon. In this study activated carbons used for the removal of lead (II) ions from water samples were prepared from maize tassels (an agricultural waste residue) which were modified using physical and chemical activation. In the physical activation CO2 was used as the activating agent, while in chemical activation H3PO4 with an impregnation ratio ranging from 1 to 4 was employed. The maize tassel was pyrolysed at different temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 700 °C in an inert atmosphere for a period of 60 min and activated at 700 °C for 30 min. The effects of activation temperature, impregnation ratio and duration were examined. The resultant modified tassels were characterised by measuring their particle-size distribution, porosities, pore volume, and pore-size distribution using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The activated carbon produced by chemical activation had the highest BET surface area ranging from 623 m2 g-1 to 1 262 m2 g-1. The surface chemistry characteristics of the modified tassels were determined by FT-IR spectroscopy and Boehm’s titration method. The experimental data proved that properties of activated carbon depend on final temperature of the process, impregnation ratio and duration of the treatment at final temperature. The adsorption studies showed that chemically prepared activated carbon performed better than physically prepared activated carbon.

  8. Post-annealing treatment for Cu-TiO2 nanotubes and their use in photocatalytic methyl orange degradation and Pb(II) heavy metal ions removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekantan, Srimala; Mohd Zaki, Syazwani; Lai, Chin Wei; Tzu, Teoh Wah

    2014-07-01

    TiO2 nanotubes were synthesized via electrochemical anodization of Ti foil at 60 V for 1 h in a bath with electrolytes composed of ethylene glycol containing 5 wt.% of NH4F and 1 vol.% of H2O2. The incorporation of optimum Cu2+ ions (1.30 at.%) into TiO2 nanotubes were prepared by using wet impregnation method to improve their photocatalytic methyl orange degradation and Pb(II) heavy metal removal. The small Cu2+ ions were successfully diffused into lattice of TiO2 nanotubes by conducting post-annealing treatment at 400 °C for 4 h in argon atmosphere after wet impregnation. In this manner, optimum Cu2+ ions played a crucial role in suppressing the recombination of charge carriers by forming inter-band states (mismatch of the band energies) within the lattice of Cu-TiO2. The experimental results showed that a maximum of 80% methyl orange removal and 97.3% Pb(II) heavy metal removal at pH 11 under UV irradiation for 5 h. Besides, it was noticed that photocatalytic Pb(II) heavy metal removal was strong dependence on pH of the solution because of the amphoteric character of Cu-TiO2 in an aqueous medium.

  9. Effect of soil washing with only chelators or combining with ferric chloride on soil heavy metal removal and phytoavailability: Field experiments.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaofang; Wei, Zebin; Wu, Qitang; Li, Chunping; Qian, Tianwei; Zheng, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In a field experiment on multi-metal contaminated soil, we investigated the efficiency of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu removal by only mixture of chelators (MC) or combining with FeCl3. After washing treatment, a co-cropping system was performed for heavy metals to be extracted by Sedum alfredii and to produce safe food from Zea mays. We analyzed the concentration of heavy metals in groundwater to evaluate the leashing risk of soil washing with FeCl3 and MC. Results showed that addition of FeCl3 was favorable to the removal of heavy metals in the topsoil. Metal leaching occurred mainly in rain season during the first co-cropping. The removal rates of Cd, Zn, Pb, and Cu in topsoil were 28%, 53%, 41%, and 21% with washing by FeCl3+MC after first harvest. The application of FeCl3 reduced the yield of S. alfredii and increased the metals concentration of Z. mays in first harvest. However, after amending soil, the metals concentration of Z. mays in FeCl3+MC treatment were similar to that only washing by MC. The grains and shoots of Z. mays were safe for use in feed production. Soil washing did not worsen groundwater contamination during the study period. But the concentration of Cd in groundwater was higher than the limit value of Standard concentrations for Groundwater IV. This study suggests that soil washing using FeCl3 and MC for the remediation of multi-metal contaminated soil is potential feasibility. However, the subsequent measure to improve the washed soil environment for planting crop is considered. PMID:26774307

  10. Molecular and ionic-scale chemical mechanisms behind the role of nitrocyl group in the electrochemical removal of heavy metals from sludge

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, S. W.; Ahmed, I.; Housani, A. A.; Giwa, A.

    2016-01-01

    The chemical basis for improved removal rates of toxic heavy metals such as Zn and Cu from wastewater secondary sludge has been demonstrated in this study. Instead of using excess corrosive chemicals as the source of free nitrous acid (FNA) for improved solubility of heavy metals in the sludge (in order to enhance electrokinetics), an optimized use of aqua regia has been proposed as an alternative. Fragments of nitrocyl group originated from aqua regia are responsible for the disruption of biogenic mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and this disruption resulted in enhanced removal of exposed and oxidized metal ions. A diversity of nitric oxide (NO), peroxy nitrous acid, and peroxy nitroso group are expected to be introduced in the mixed liquor by the aqua regia for enhanced electrochemical treatment. The effects of pectin as a post treatment on the Zn removal from sludge were also presented for the first time. Results revealed 63.6% Cu and 93.7% Zn removal efficiencies, as compared to 49% Cu and 74% Zn removal efficiencies reported in a recent study. Also, 93.3% reduction of time-to-filter (TTF), and 95 mL/g of sludge volume index (SVI) were reported. The total operating cost obtained was USD 1.972/wet ton. PMID:27550724

  11. Molecular and ionic-scale chemical mechanisms behind the role of nitrocyl group in the electrochemical removal of heavy metals from sludge.

    PubMed

    Hasan, S W; Ahmed, I; Housani, A A; Giwa, A

    2016-01-01

    The chemical basis for improved removal rates of toxic heavy metals such as Zn and Cu from wastewater secondary sludge has been demonstrated in this study. Instead of using excess corrosive chemicals as the source of free nitrous acid (FNA) for improved solubility of heavy metals in the sludge (in order to enhance electrokinetics), an optimized use of aqua regia has been proposed as an alternative. Fragments of nitrocyl group originated from aqua regia are responsible for the disruption of biogenic mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS) and this disruption resulted in enhanced removal of exposed and oxidized metal ions. A diversity of nitric oxide (NO), peroxy nitrous acid, and peroxy nitroso group are expected to be introduced in the mixed liquor by the aqua regia for enhanced electrochemical treatment. The effects of pectin as a post treatment on the Zn removal from sludge were also presented for the first time. Results revealed 63.6% Cu and 93.7% Zn removal efficiencies, as compared to 49% Cu and 74% Zn removal efficiencies reported in a recent study. Also, 93.3% reduction of time-to-filter (TTF), and 95 mL/g of sludge volume index (SVI) were reported. The total operating cost obtained was USD 1.972/wet ton. PMID:27550724

  12. A novel reusable nanocomposite for complete removal of dyes, heavy metals and microbial load from water based on nanocellulose and silver nano-embedded pebbles.

    PubMed

    Suman; Kardam, Abhishek; Gera, Meeta; Jain, V K

    2015-01-01

    The present work proposed a nanocellulose (NC)-silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) embedded pebbles-based composite material as a novel reusable cost-effective water purification device for complete removal of dyes, heavy metals and microbes. NC was prepared using acid hydrolysis of cellulose. The AgNPs were generated in situ using glucose and embedded within the porous concrete pebbles by the technique of inter-diffusion of ion, providing a very strong binding of nanoparticles within the porous pebbles and thus preventing any nanomaterials leaching. Fabrication of a continual running water purifier was achieved by making different layering of NC and Ag nano-embedded pebbles in a glass column. The water purifier exhibited not only excellent dye and heavy metal adsorption capacity, but also long-term antibacterial activity against pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial strains. The adsorption mainly occurred through electrostatic interaction and pore diffusion also contributed to the process. The bed column purifier has shown 99.48% Pb(II) and 98.30% Cr(III) removal efficiency along with 99% decontamination of microbial load at an optimum working pH of 6.0. The high adsorption capacity and reusability, with complete removal of dyes, heavy metals and Escherichia coli from the simulated contaminated water of composite material, will provide new opportunities to develop a cost-effective and eco-friendly water purifier for commercial application. PMID:25243917

  13. Effects of particulates, heavy metals and acid gas on the removals of NO and PAHs by V2O5-WO3 catalysts in waste incineration system.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng-Yim; Chen, Jyh-Cherng; Wey, Ming-Yen; Tsai, Shih-An

    2009-10-15

    This study investigated the activities of prepared and commercial V(2)O(5)-WO(3) catalysts for simultaneous removals of NO and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the influences of particulates, heavy metals, SO(2), and HCl on the performances of catalysts. The experiments were carried out in a laboratory-scale waste incineration system equipped with a catalyst reactor. The DREs of PAHs by prepared and commercial V(2)O(5)-WO(3) catalysts were 64% and 72%, respectively. Increasing the particulate concentrations in flue gas suppressed the DRE of PAHs, but increasing the carbon content on surface of catalysts promotes the NO conversions. The DRE of PAHs by the catalysts was significantly decreased by the increased concentrations of heavy metal Cd, but was promoted by high concentration of Pb. The influence level of SO(2) was higher than HCl on the performances of V(2)O(5)-WO(3) catalysts for PAHs removal, but was lower than HCl for NO removal. Prepared and commercial V(2)O(5)-WO(3) catalysts have similar trends on the effects of particulates, heavy metals, SO(2), and HCl. The results of ESCA analysis reveal that the presence of these pollutants on the surface of catalysts did not change the chemical state of V and W. PMID:19500905

  14. Cr(VI) removal from aqueous solution by thermophilic denitrifying bacterium Chelatococcus daeguensis TAD1 in the presence of single and multiple heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Huang, Shaobin; Zhang, Yongqing

    2016-09-01

    Cr(VI) pollution is increasing continuously as a result of ongoing industrialization. In this study, we investigated the thermophilic denitrifying bacterium Chelatococcus daeguensis TAD1, isolated from the biofilm of a biotrickling filter used in nitrogen oxides (NOX) removal, with respect to its ability to remove Cr(VI) from an aqueous solution. TAD1 was capable of reducing Cr(VI) from an initial concentration of 10 mg/L to non-detectable levels over a pH range of 7-9 and at a temperature range of 30-50°C. TAD1 simultaneously removed both Cr(VI) and NO3 (-)-N at 50°C, when the pH was 7 and the initial Cr(VI) concentration was 15 mg/L. The reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) correlated with the growth metabolic activity of TAD1. The presence of other heavy metals (Cu, Zn, and Ni) inhibited the ability of TAD1 to remove Cr(VI). The metals each individually inhibited Cr(VI) removal, and the extent of inhibition increased in a cooperative manner in the presence of a combination of the metals. The addition of biodegradable cellulose acetate microspheres (an adsorption material) weakened the toxicity of the heavy metals; in their presence, the Cr(VI) removal efficiency returned to a high level. The feasibility and applicability of simultaneous nitrate removal and Cr(VI) reduction by strain TAD1 is promising, and may be an effective biological method for the clean-up of wastewater. PMID:27572509

  15. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1990-11-13

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat unit for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heayv metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  16. A study on stack configuration of continuous electrodeionization for removal of heavy metal ions from the primary coolant of a nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Yeon, Kyeong-Ho; Song, Jung-Hoon; Moon, Seung-Hyeon

    2004-04-01

    This study investigated the production of high-purity water in the primary coolant of a nuclear power plant via the continuous electrodeionization (CEDI) process, using ion exchange resins as ion-conducting media between ion exchange membranes. The effectiveness of this method was examined with respect to the removal of heavy metals. The study was carried out on a laboratory scale with an effective area of 20 cm(2). The CEDI system was operated with a layered bed of cation exchange resins, anion exchange resins, and mixed-bed ion exchange resins. The stack configuration was designed to prevent a reaction between metal ions and hydroxide ions. The CEDI operation with the layered bed removed more than 99% of the ions at 30% of the current efficiency. The results showed that, with an inlet conductivity of 40 microScm(-1), a linear velocity of 4.17 cms(-1), and an applied current density of 17 mAcm(-2), the CEDI process yielded an outlet conductivity of 0.5 microScm(-1), thereby preventing the precipitation of metal ions. This study therefore successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the CEDI operation for the removal of heavy metals at a very low concentration. PMID:15026246

  17. Efficient removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous systems with the assembly of anisotropic layered double hydroxide nanocrystals@carbon nanosphere.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jingming; Liu, Ting; Wang, Xiaoqing; Hu, Xianluo; Zhang, Lizhi

    2011-07-15

    We report on the efficient removal of heavy metal ions from simulated wastewater with a nanostructured assembly. The nanoassembly was obtained via direct assembling the performed anisotropic layered double hydroxide nanocrystals (LDH-NCs) onto the surface of carbon nanospheres (labeled as LDH-NCs@CNs). It was found that the maximum adsorption capacity of the nanoassembly toward Cu(2+) was ∼ 19.93 mg g(-1) when the initial Cu(2+) concentration was 10.0 mg L(-1), displaying a high efficiency for the removal of heavy metal ions. The Freundlich adsorption isotherm was applicable to describe the removal processes. Kinetics of the Cu(2+) removal was found to follow pseudo-second-order rate equation. Furthermore, the as-prepared building unit of the assembly, including LDH-NCs, CNs, and the assembly, as well as Cu(2+)-adsorbed assembly, were carefully examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), nitrogen sorption measurements, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Based on the characterization results, a possible mechanism of Cu(2+) removal with the assembly of LDH-NCs@CNs was proposed. Comparison experiments show that the adsorption capacity of the resulting LDH-NCs@CNs assembly was much higher than its any building unit alone (CNs or LDH-NCs), exhibiting the deliberation of the assembly on water decontamination. This work provides a very efficient, fast and convenient approach for exploring promising nanoassembly materials for water treatment. PMID:21692502

  18. Facile preparation of highly hydrophilic, recyclable high-performance polyimide adsorbents for the removal of heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jieyang; Zheng, Yaxin; Luo, Longbo; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Chaoliang; Wang, Xu; Liu, Xiangyang

    2016-04-01

    To obtain high-performance adsorbents that combine excellent adsorption ability, thermal stability, service life and recycling ability, polyimide (PI)/silica powders were prepared via a facile one-pot coprecipitation process. A benzimidazole unit was introduced into the PI backbone as the adsorption site. The benzimidazole unit induced more hydroxyls onto the silica, which provided hydrophilic sites for access by heavy metal ions. By comprehensively analyzing the effect of hydrophilcity, agglomeration, silica polycondensation, specific surface area and PI crystallinity, 10% was demonstrated to be the most proper feed silica content. The equilibrium adsorption amount (Qe) for Cu(2+) of PI/silica adsorbents was 77 times higher than that of pure PI. Hydrogen chloride (HCl) was used as a desorbent for heavy metal ions and could be decomplexed with benzimidazole unit at around 300°C, which was lower than the glass transition temperature of PI. The complexation and decomplexation process of HCl made PI/silica adsorbents recyclable, and the adsorption ability remained steady for more than 50 recycling processes. As PI/silica adsorbents possess excellent thermal stability, chemical resistance and radiation resistance and hydrophilicity, they have potential as superior recyclable adsorbents for collecting heavy metal ions from waste water in extreme environments. PMID:26736172

  19. Biofilm establishment and heavy metal removal capacity of an indigenous mining algal-microbial consortium in a photo-rotating biological contactor.

    PubMed

    Orandi, S; Lewis, D M; Moheimani, N R

    2012-09-01

    An indigenous mining algal-microbial consortium was immobilised within a laboratory-scale photo-rotating biological contactor (PRBC) that was used to investigate the potential for heavy metal removal from acid mine drainage (AMD). The microbial consortium, dominated by Ulothrix sp., was collected from the AMD at the Sar Cheshmeh copper mine in Iran. This paper discusses the parameters required to establish an algal-microbial biofilm used for heavy metal removal, including nutrient requirements and rotational speed. The PRBC was tested using synthesised AMD with the multi-ion and acidic composition of wastewater (containing 18 elements, and with a pH of 3.5 ± 0.5), from which the microbial consortium was collected. The biofilm was successfully developed on the PRBC's disc consortium over 60 days of batch-mode operation. The PRBC was then run continuously with a 24 h hydraulic residence time (HRT) over a ten-week period. Water analysis, performed on a weekly basis, demonstrated the ability of the algal-microbial biofilm to remove 20-50 % of the various metals in the order Cu > Ni > Mn > Zn > Sb > Se > Co > Al. These results clearly indicate the significant potential for indigenous AMD microorganisms to be exploited within a PRBC for AMD treatment. PMID:22644382

  20. Recycling of agricultural solid waste, coir pith: removal of anions, heavy metals, organics and dyes from water by adsorption onto ZnCl2 activated coir pith carbon.

    PubMed

    Namasivayam, C; Sangeetha, D

    2006-07-31

    The abundant lignocellulosic agricultural waste, coir pith is used to develop ZnCl(2) activated carbon and applied to the removal of toxic anions, heavy metals, organic compounds and dyes from water. Sorption of inorganic anions such as nitrate, thiocyanate, selenite, chromium(VI), vanadium(V), sulfate, molybdate, phosphate and heavy metals such as nickel(II) and mercury(II) has been studied. Removal of organics such as resorcinol, 4-nitrophenol, catechol, bisphenol A, 2-aminophenol, quinol, O-cresol, phenol and 2-chlorophenol has also been investigated. Uptake of acidic dyes such as acid brilliant blue, acid violet, basic dyes such as methylene blue, rhodamine B, direct dyes such as direct red 12B, congo red and reactive dyes such as procion red, procion orange were also examined to assess the possible use of the adsorbent for the treatment of contaminated ground water. Favorable conditions for maximum removal of all adsorbates at the adsorbate concentration of 20 mg/L were used. Results show that ZnCl(2) activated coir pith carbon is effective for the removal of toxic pollutants from water. PMID:16406295

  1. Bioremoval of heavy metals by bacterial biomass.

    PubMed

    Aryal, Mahendra; Liakopoulou-Kyriakides, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Heavy metals are among the most common pollutants found in the environment. Health problems due to the heavy metal pollution become a major concern throughout the world, and therefore, various treatment technologies such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange, solvent extraction, chemical precipitation, and adsorption are adopted to reduce or eliminate their concentration in the environment. Biosorption is a cost-effective and environmental friendly technique, and it can be used for detoxification of heavy metals in industrial effluents as an alternative treatment technology. Biosorption characteristics of various bacterial species are reviewed here with respect to the results reported so far. The role of physical, chemical, and biological modification of bacterial cells for heavy metal removal is presented. The paper evaluates the different kinetic, equilibrium, and thermodynamic models used in bacterial sorption of heavy metals. Biomass characterization and sorption mechanisms as well as elution of metal ions and regeneration of biomass are also discussed. PMID:25471624

  2. Removal of heavy metals and organic contaminants from aqueous streams by novel filtration methods. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez, N.M.

    1998-06-01

    'Graphite nanofibers are a new type of material consisting of nanosized graphite platelets where only edges are exposed. Taking advantage of this unique configuration the authors objective is: (1) To produce graphite nanofibers with structural properties suitable for the removal of contaminants from water. (2) To test the suitability of the material in the removal of organic from aqueous solutions. (3) To determine the ability of the nanofibers to function as an electrochemical separation medium the selective removal of metal contaminants from solutions. This report summarizes work after 1.5 of a 3-year project. During this period, efforts have been concentrated on the production, characterization and optimization of graphite nanofibers (GNF). This novel material has been developed in the laboratory from the metal catalyzed decomposition of certain hydrocarbons (1). The structures possess a cross-sectional area that varies between 5 to 100 nm and have lengths ranging from 5 to 100 mm (2). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy studies have revealed that the nanofibers consist of extremely well-ordered graphite platelets, which are oriented in various directions with respect to the fiber axis (3). The arrangement of the graphene layers can be tailored to a desired geometry by choice of the correct catalyst system and reaction conditions, and it is therefore possible to generate structures where the layers are stacked in a ribbon, herring-bone, or stacked orientation. The research has been directed on two fronts: (a) the use of the material for the removal of organic contaminants, and (b) taking advantage of the high electrical conductivity as well as high surface area of the material to use it as electrode for the electrochemical removal of metal pollutants from aqueous streams.'

  3. Aluminosilicate-based adsorbent in equimolar and non-equimolar binary-component heavy metal removal systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Hadi, Pejman; Ning, Chao; Barford, John; An, Kyoung Jin; McKay, Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are toxic heavy metals commonly used in various industries. The simultaneous presence of these metals in wastewater amplifies the toxicity of wastewater and the complexity of the treatment process. This study has investigated the selective behavior of an aluminosilicate-based mesoporous adsorbent. It has been demonstrated that when equimolar quantities of the metals are present in wastewater, the adsorbent uptakes the Pb²⁺ ions selectively. This has been attributed to the higher electronegativity value of Pb²⁺ compared to Cd²⁺ which can be more readily adsorbed on the adsorbent surface, displacing the Cd²⁺ ions. The selectivity can be advantageous when the objective is the separation and reuse of the metals besides wastewater treatment. In non-equimolar solutions, a complete selectivity can be observed up to a threshold Pb²⁺ molar ratio of 30%. Below this threshold value, the Cd²⁺ and Pb²⁺ ions are uptaken simultaneously due to the abundance of Cd²⁺ ions and the availability of adsorption sites at very low Pb²⁺ molar ratios. Moreover, the total adsorption capacities of the adsorbent for the multi-component system have been shown to be in the same range as the single-component system for each metal ion which can be of high value for industrial applications. PMID:26676004

  4. Polyacrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid-grafted-natural rubber as bio-adsorbent for heavy metal removal from aqueous standard solution and industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Phetphaisit, Chor Wayakron; Yuanyang, Siriwan; Chaiyasith, Wipharat Chuachuad

    2016-01-15

    Bio-adsorbent modified natural rubber (modified NR) was prepared, by placing the sulfonic acid functional group on the isoprene chain. This modification was carried out with the aim to prepare material capable to remove heavy metals from aqueous solution. The structures of modified NR materials were characterized by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopies. Thermal gravimetric analysis of modified NR showed that the initial degradation temperature of rubber decreases with increasing amount of polyacrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulfonic acid (PAMPS) in the structure. In addition, water uptake of the rubber based materials was studied as a function of time and content of PAMPS. The influence of the amount of PAMPS grafted onto NR, time, pH, concentration of metal ions, temperature, and regeneration were studied in terms of their influence on the adsorption of heavy metals (Pb(2+), Cd(2+) and Cu(2+)). The adsorption isotherms of Pb(2+) and Cd(2+) were fitted to the Freundlich isotherm model, while Cu(2+) was fitted to the Langmuir isotherm. However, the results from these two isotherms resulted in a similar behavior. The adsorption capacity of the modified NR for the various heavy metals was in the following order: Pb(2+)∼Cd(2+)>Cu(2+). The maximum adsorption capacities of Pb(2+), Cd(2+), and Cu(2+) were 272.7, 267.2, and 89.7 mg/g of modified rubber, respectively. Moreover, the modified natural rubber was used for the removal of metal ions in real samples of industrial effluents where the efficiency and regeneration were also investigated. PMID:26348149

  5. Highly Selective and Efficient Removal of Heavy Metals by Layered Double Hydroxide Intercalated with the MoS4(2-) Ion.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lijiao; Wang, Qing; Islam, Saiful M; Liu, Yingchun; Ma, Shulan; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2016-03-01

    The MoS4(2-) ion was intercalated into magnesium-aluminum layered double hydroxide (MgAl-NO3-LDH) to produce a single phase material of Mg0.66Al0.34(OH)2(MoS4)0.17·nH2O (MgAl-MoS4-LDH), which demonstrates highly selective binding and extremely efficient removal of heavy metal ions such as Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Ag(+), and Hg(2+). The MoS4-LDH displays a selectivity order of Co(2+), Ni(2+), Zn(2+) < Cd(2+) ≪ Pb(2+) < Cu(2+) < Hg(2+) < Ag(+) for the metal ions. The enormous capacities for Hg(2+) (∼500 mg/g) and Ag(+) (450 mg/g) and very high distribution coefficients (Kd) of ∼10(7) mL/g place the MoS4-LDH at the top of materials known for such removal. Sorption isotherm for Ag(+) agrees with the Langmuir model suggesting a monolayer adsorption. It can rapidly lower the concentrations of Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Hg(2+), and Ag(+) from ppm levels to trace levels of ≤1 ppb. For the highly toxic Hg(2+) (at ∼30 ppm concentration), the adsorption is exceptionally rapid and highly selective, showing a 97.3% removal within 5 min, 99.7% removal within 30 min, and ∼100% removal within 1 h. The sorption kinetics for Cu(2+), Ag(+), Pb(2+), and Hg(2+) follows a pseudo-second-order model suggesting a chemisorption with the adsorption mechanism via M-S bonding. X-ray diffraction patterns of the samples after adsorption demonstrate the coordination and intercalation structures depending on the metal ions and their concentration. After the capture of heavy metals, the crystallites of the MoS4-LDH material retain the original hexagonal prismatic shape and are stable at pH ≈ 2-10. The MoS4-LDH material is thus promising for the remediation of heavy metal polluted water. PMID:26829617

  6. Preparation of hybrid CaCO 3-pepsin hemisphere with ordered hierarchical structure and the application for removal of heavy metal ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoming; Li, Liping; Yang, Lin; Su, Caiyun; Wang, Kui; Jiang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a simple way for preparation of hybrid CaCO 3-pepsin material with ordered hierarchical structure was reported. It could be observed that the nanoparticles self-assembled into a lot of tetrahedral calcite crystals, which assembled into highly ordered surfaces of hemisphere-shaped CaCO 3 with hierarchical structures. These products were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetry-differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA) and photoluminescence (PL). A rational mechanism was proposed for the formation of hybrid CaCO 3-pepsin material ordered hierarchical structure. Functional study using the hybrid CaCO 3-pepsin material as an adsorbent for removal of heavy metal ions demonstrates that its distinguishing features in water treatment involve not only high removal capacities, but also decontamination of trace ions. The acquired experimental data show that both the functional and hierarchical structural features of hybrid CaCO 3-pepsin material provide a promising adsorbent for removal of heavy metal ions.

  7. One step solvothermal synthesis of functional hybrid γ-Fe2O3/carbon hollow spheres with superior capacities for heavy metal removal.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hao-Jie; Cai, Jie-Kui; Zhao, Huan; Yuan, Baoling; Ai, Cuiling; Fu, Ming-Lai

    2014-07-01

    One-step hydrothermal method was developed to prepare hybrid γ-Fe2O3/carbon hollow spheres with a predominant orientation (111) plane of γ-Fe2O3 and rich oxygen-containing functional groups on carbon. The resulting functional hybrid exhibited extremely high adsorption capacities for toxic Pb(II) and Cr(VI) ions in solutions with easy magnetic separation. The ease of synthesis and low cost, coupled with the efficient and rapid removal of toxic heavy metal ions, make hybrid γ-Fe2O3/carbon hollow spheres an attractive adsorbent for the purification of waste and contaminated water. PMID:24776674

  8. Simultaneous removal of heavy-metal ions in wastewater samples using nano-alumina modified with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Afkhami, Abbas; Saber-Tehrani, Mohammad; Bagheri, Hasan

    2010-09-15

    2,4-Dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) immobilized on sodium dodecyl sulfate coated nano-alumina was developed for the removal of metal cations Pb(II), Cd(II), Cr(III), Co(II), Ni(II) and Mn(II) from water samples. The research results displayed that adsorbent has the highest adsorption capacity for Pb(II), Cr(III) and Cd(II) in ions mixture system. Optimal experimental conditions including pH, adsorbent dosage and contact time have been established. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to analyze the experimental data. The best interpretation for the experimental data was given by the Freundlich adsorption isotherm equation for Mn(II), Pb(II), Cr(III) and Cd(II) ions and by Langmuir isotherm equation for Ni(II) and Co(II) ions. Desorption experiments by elution of the adsorbent with a mixture of nitric acid and methanol show that the modified alumina nanoparticles could be reused without significant losses of its initial properties even after three adsorption-desorption cycles. Thus, modified nano-alumina with DNPH is favorable and useful for the removal of these metal ions, and the high adsorption capacity makes it a good promising candidate material for Pb(II),Cr(III) and Cd(II) removal. PMID:20542378

  9. Evaluation of the potential of indigenous calcareous shale for neutralization and removal of arsenic and heavy metals from acid mine drainage in the Taxco mining area, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Romero, F M; Núñez, L; Gutiérrez, M E; Armienta, M A; Ceniceros-Gómez, A E

    2011-02-01

    In the Taxco mining area, sulfide mineral oxidation from inactive tailings impoundments and abandoned underground mines has produced acid mine drainage (AMD; pH 2.2-2.9) enriched in dissolved concentrations (mg l⁻¹) sulfate, heavy metals, and arsenic (As): SO₄²⁻ (pH 1470-5454), zinc (Zn; 3.0-859), iron (Fe; pH 5.5-504), copper (Cu; pH 0.7-16.3), cadmium (Cd; pH 0.3-6.7), lead (Pb; pH < 0.05-1.8), and As (pH < 0.002-0.6). Passive-treatment systems using limestone have been widely used to remediate AMD in many parts of the world. In limestone-treatment systems, calcite simultaneously plays the role of neutralizing and precipitating agent. However, the acid-neutralizing potential of limestone decreases when surfaces of the calcite particles become less reactive as they are progressively coated by metal precipitates. This study constitutes first-stage development of passive-treatment systems for treating AMD in the Taxco mine area using indigenous calcareous shale. This geologic material consists of a mixture of calcite, quartz, muscovite, albite, and montmorillonite. Results of batch leaching test indicate that calcareous shale significantly increased the pH (to values of 6.6-7.4) and decreased heavy metal and As concentrations in treated mine leachates. Calcareous shale had maximum removal efficiency (100%) for As, Pb, Cu, and Fe. The most mobile metals ions were Cd and Zn, and their average percentage removal was 87% and 89%, respectively. In this natural system (calcareous shale), calcite provides a source of alkalinity, whereas the surfaces of quartz and aluminosilicate minerals possibly serve as a preferred locus of deposition for metals, resulting in the neutralizing agent (calcite) beings less rapidly coated with the precipitating metals and therefore able to continue its neutralizing function for a longer time. PMID:20523977

  10. Photoactivated metal removal

    SciTech Connect

    Nimlos, M.R.; Filley, J.; Ibrahim, M.A.; Watt, A.S.; Blake, D.M.

    1999-07-01

    The authors propose the use of photochromic dyes as light activated switches to bind and release metal ions. This process, which can be driven by solar energy, can be used in environmental and industrial processes to remove metals from organic and aqueous solutions. Because the metals can be released from the ligands when irradiated with visible light, regeneration of the ligands and concentration of the metals may be easier than with conventional ion exchange resins. Thus, the process has the potential to be less expensive than currently used metal extraction techniques. In this paper, the authors report on their studies of the metal binding of spirogyran dyes and the hydrolytic stability of these dyes. They have prepared a number of spirogyrans and measured their binding constants for calcium and magnesium. They discuss the relationship of the structure of the dyes to their binding strengths. These studies are necessary towards determining the viability of this technique.

  11. Application of mucilage from Dicerocaryum eriocarpum plant as biosorption medium in the removal of selected heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bassey O; John, Odiyo O; Luke, Chimuka; Ochieng, Aoyi; Bassey, Bridget J

    2016-07-15

    The ability of mucilage from Dicerocaryum eriocarpum (DE) plant to act as biosorption medium in the removal of metals ions from aqueous solution was investigated. Functional groups present in the mucilage were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Mucilage was modified with sodium and potassium chlorides. This was aimed at assessing the biosorption efficiency of modified mucilage: potassium mucilage (PCE) and sodium mucilage (SCE) and comparing it with non-modified deionised water mucilage (DCE) in the uptake of metal ions. FTIR results showed that the functional groups providing the active sites in PCE and SCE and DCE include: carboxyl, hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. The chloride used in the modification of the mucilage did not introduce new functional groups but increased the intensity of the already existing functional groups in the mucilage. Results from biosorption experiment showed that DE mucilage displays good binding affinity with metals ions [Zn(II), Cd(II) Ni(II), Cr(III) and Fe(II)] in the aqueous solution. Increase in the aqueous solution pH, metal ions initial concentration and mucilage concentration increased the biosorption efficiency of DE mucilage. The maximum contact time varied with each species of metal ions. Optimum pH for [Zn(II), Cd(II) Ni(II) and Fe(II)] occurred at pH 4 and pH 6 for Cr(III). Kinetic models result fitted well to pseudo-second-order with a coefficient values of R(2) = 1 for Cd(II), Ni(II), Cr(III), Fe(II) and R(2) = 0.9974 for Zn(II). Biosorption isotherms conforms best with Freundlich model for all the metal ions with correlation factors of 0.9994, 0.9987, 0.9554, 0.9621 and 0.937 for Zn(II), Ni(II), Fe(II), Cr(III) and Cd(II), respectively. Biosorption capacity of DE mucilage was 0.010, 2.387, 4.902, 0688 and 0.125 for Zn(II), Cr(III), Fe(II), Cd(II) and Ni(II) respectively. The modified mucilage was found to be highly efficient in the removal of metal ions than the unmodified mucilage. PMID

  12. Optimization of process parameters for removal of heavy metals by biomass of Cu and Co-doped alginate-coated chitosan nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili, Akbar; Khoshnevisan, Najmeh

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the efficiency of alginate-coated chitosan nanoparticles (Alg-CS-NPs) for removal of heavy metals from industrial effluents was investigated. To this end, the researchers constructed a reactor containing biomass, using response surface methodology (RSM) for process optimization. Reactor tests were carried out with both synthetic and industrial effluents containing nickel. The optimum conditions to achieve maximum removal efficiency (RE) rates for both synthetic and industrial effluents were specified for contact time (0-120min), pH level (1-9), biomass dose (0.1-0.9g), and initial metal ion concentration (10-90mg/L). It was determined that 94.48% of the nickel could be removed at pH=3, 70mg/L initial nickel concentration, a dose of 0.3g biomass, and 30min contact time. The kinetic data fit well to a pseudo second-order model and the equilibrium data of the metal ions could be described well with Freundlich isotherm models. PMID:27416515

  13. Design of a new integrated chitosan-PAMAM dendrimer biosorbent for heavy metals removing and study of its adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics.

    PubMed

    Zarghami, Zabihullah; Akbari, Ahmad; Latifi, Ali Mohammad; Amani, Mohammad Ali

    2016-04-01

    In this research, different generations of PAMAM-grafted chitosan as integrated biosorbents were successfully synthesized via step by step divergent growth approach of dendrimer. The synthesized products were utilized as adsorbents for heavy metals (Pb(2+) in this study) removing from aqueous solution and their reactive Pb(2+) removal potential was evaluated. The results showed that as-synthesized products with higher generations of dendrimer, have more adsorption capacity compared to products with lower generations of dendrimer and sole chitosan. Adsorption capacity of as-prepared product with generation 3 of dendrimer is 18times more than sole chitosan. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies were performed for understanding equilibrium data of the uptake capacity and kinetic rate uptake, respectively. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies showed that Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo second order kinetic model are more compatible for describing equilibrium data of the uptake capacity and kinetic rate of the Pb(2+) uptake, respectively. PMID:26836608

  14. Application of a new generation of complexing agents in removal of heavy metal ions from different wastes.

    PubMed

    Kołodyńska, Dorota

    2013-09-01

    Complexing agents are extensively applied in many fields of industry. They are used to provide effective controlling trace metal ions in cleaning industries, textile, pulp and paper production, water treatment, agriculture, food industries, etc. Recently, the low biodegradability of these ligands and their accumulation in the environment has become a cause for concern. Therefore, replacement of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid by more environmentally friendly chelating agents is highly desirable. So far, these acids and their salts have been applied as components of household chemistry, cosmetics, modern microelement fertilizers and agrochemicals. This paper reviews the sorption of heavy metal ions such as Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) in the presence of the above-mentioned complexing agents on commercially available anion exchangers of different matrix. The obtained sorption results were fitted using the Langmuir and Freundlich sorption isotherm models. The kinetic data were also analysed using the Lagergren, Ho and McKay sorption kinetic equations. The studies were carried out considering the effects of such important parameters as phase contact time, initial concentration, pH and temperature. PMID:23463276

  15. Improvement of oxygen-containing functional groups on olive stones activated carbon by ozone and nitric acid for heavy metals removal from aqueous phase.

    PubMed

    Bohli, Thouraya; Ouederni, Abdelmottaleb

    2016-08-01

    Recently, modification of surface structure of activated carbons in order to improve their adsorption performance toward especial pollutants has gained great interest. Oxygen-containing functional groups have been devoted as the main responsible for heavy metal binding on the activated carbon surface; their introduction or enhancement needs specific modification and impregnation methods. In the present work, olive stones activated carbon (COSAC) undergoes surface modifications in gaseous phase using ozone (O3) and in liquid phase using nitric acid (HNO3). The activated carbon samples were characterized using N2 adsorption-desorption isotherm, SEM, pHpzc, FTIR, and Boehm titration. The activated carbon parent (COSAC) has a high surface area of 1194 m(2)/g and shows a predominantly microporous structure. Oxidation treatments with nitric acid and ozone show a decrease in both specific surface area and micropore volumes, whereas these acidic treatments have led to a fixation of high amount of surface oxygen functional groups, thus making the carbon surface more hydrophilic. Activated carbon samples were used as an adsorbent matrix for the removal of Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II) heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Adsorption isotherms were obtained at 30 °C, and the data are well fitted to the Redlich-Peterson and Langmuir equation. Results show that oxidized COSACs, especially COSAC(HNO3), are capable to remove more Co(II), Cu(II), and Ni(II) from aqueous solution. Nitric acid-oxidized olive stones activated carbon was tested in its ability to remove metal ions from binary systems and results show an important maximum adsorbed amount as compared to single systems. PMID:25794582

  16. Removal of nickel and cadmium heavy metals using nanofiber membranes functionalized with (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (TMPTMS).

    PubMed

    Zahabi, Saeed Reza; Hosseini Ravandi, Seyed Abdolkarim; Allafchian, Alireza

    2016-08-01

    Functionalized nanofibrous membranes have been produced via electrospinning with a polymer solution of 19% (w/w) of nylon 66 prepared in a formic acid/chloroform mixture (75:25 v/v). The optimum parameters of electrospinning, like voltage, flow rate, tip and collector distances, were achieved and produced nanofiber membranes with a thickness of 287 nm. Then the nanofiber membranes were functionalized by (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane (TMPTMS) at various amounts. Three different initial concentrations of metal ions and three different levels of pH were chosen. The effect of filtration process parameters such as the initial concentration of metal solution, pH of the solution, and the amount of functionalizer trimethoxysilane (TMPTMS) on the adsorption was studied. In surveying filtration process parameters, the results showed that metal ion rejection increased by increasing the pH of the solution and decreased by increasing the initial concentration of the effluent. By increasing the amount of functionalizer, removal efficiency increased. The results showed that the maximum efficiency of absorption of cadmium and nickel were 93.0 and 97.6%, respectively, and the filtering mechanism of the membrane is the blocking pores type. The adsorption data of cadmium and nickel ions fitted particularly well with the Freundlich isotherm. PMID:27441858

  17. Potato peels as solid waste for the removal of heavy metal copper(II) from waste water/industrial effluent.

    PubMed

    Aman, Tehseen; Kazi, Asrar Ahmad; Sabri, Muhammad Usman; Bano, Qudsia

    2008-05-01

    A new sorbent potato peels, which are normally discarded as solid waste for removing toxic metal ion Cu(II) from water/industrial waste water have been studied. Potato peels charcoal (PPC) was investigated as an adsorbent of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. Kinetic and isotherm studies were carried out by studying the effects of various parameters such as temperature, pH and solid liquid ratios. The optimum pH value for Cu(II) adsorption onto potato peels charcoal (PPC) was found to be 6.0. The thermodynamic parameters such as standard Gibb's free energy (Delta G degrees ), standard enthalpy (Delta H degrees ) and standard entropy (DeltaS degrees ) were evaluated by applying the Van't Hoff equation. The thermodynamics of Cu(II) adsorption onto PPC indicates its spontaneous and exothermic nature. The equilibrium data at different temperatures were analyzed by Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. PMID:18215510

  18. Heavy metal removal from sludge with organic chelators: Comparative study of N, N-bis(carboxymethyl) glutamic acid and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Suanon, Fidèle; Sun, Qian; Dimon, Biaou; Mama, Daouda; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2016-01-15

    The applicability and performance of a new generation of biodegradable chelator, N, N-Bis(carboxymethyl) glutamic acid (GLDA), for extracting heavy metals from sewage sludge was carried out and compared with citric acid (CA). Targeted metals included Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr, and their contents in the raw sludge were 63.1, 73.4, 1103.2, 2060.3, 483.9 and 604.1 mg kg(-1) (dry sludge basis), respectively. Metals were divided into six fractions including water soluble, exchangeable, carbonates bound, Fe-Mn bound, organic matters bound and residual fraction via chemical fractionation. Washing results showed that in general GLDA exhibited better performance compared with CA, with removal efficiency of 83.9, 87.3, 81.2, 85.6, 89.3 and 90.2% for Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Ni and Cr, respectively at equilibrium pH = 3.3. Residual metals were better stabilized in the GLAD-washed sludge than in the CA-washed sludge, and were mostly tightly bonded to the residual fraction. Furthermore, CA promoted phosphorus (P) release while GLDA had an opposite effect and tended to retain P within sludge, which could be beneficial for further application in agricultural use. Findings from this study suggested that GLDA could be a potential replacement for refractory and less environmentally-friendly chelators in the extraction of metals from sludge. PMID:26520041

  19. Metals removal and recovery from municipal sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.L.; Scheybeler, B.J.; Smith, M.L.; Baird, R.; Lo, M.P.; Haug, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of metals removal from municipal sludges that may be disposed of on agricultural land was studied. Heavy metal accumulation in such vegetables as lettuce and heavy metal toxicity to such crops as oats, beans, corn, and radishes is of concern. The purpose of the study was to assess metal removal systems for sludges obtained from the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant, Carson, Calif. Primary sludge, waste activated sludge, and their anaerobically digested counterparts were dosed with sulfuric acid and the chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), to effect metal solubilization. Seven metals were examined for removal from sludge: Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Recovery of metals from the sludges was also examined. Using an acid dosage to effect pH decrease to pH 2 and a-stirring time of 24 hours, the removal efficiencies for Fe, Zn, Ni, and Cr were found to be upwards of 75%. Removal efficiencies for Pb and Cd were less, at about 30 to 70%. At less than 10%, Cu was hardly removed. Metal extraction using EDTA gave slightly higher removal efficiencies for Cd, Pb, and Cu. The recovery of solubilized metals from solution with lime was very successful at greater than 90% efficiencies. Examination of the dewaterability of the acid-treated sludge found no significant difference between treated and untreated. Preliminary estimates indicated that about 0.5 metric ton of acid would be required for each dry metric ton of sludge solids to effect significant metal removal of better than 50% of the cadmium and 33% of the lead. To precipitate the metals from the acid filtrate, 1 metric ton of lime per dry metric ton of sludge would be needed. Considering the chemical costs and metal removal efficiency by sludge acidification, it would seem that industrial source control would be a more practical approach, although its full economic impact on the industries has not been estimated.

  20. Functionalized calcium silicate nanofibers with hierarchical structure derived from oyster shells and their application in heavy metal ions removal.

    PubMed

    You, Weijie; Hong, Mingzhu; Zhang, HaiFeng; Wu, Qiuping; Zhuang, Zanyong; Yu, Yan

    2016-06-21

    Inorganic hierarchical nanostructures have remarkable potential applications in environmental metal remediation; however, their applications usually suffer from low capacity, high cost, and difficulties in the recycling of adsorbents. We previously reported a facile strategy to synthesize acid-insoluble calcium silicate hydrates (CSH) from oyster shells, a representative kind of biowaste. However, little is known of the structure, size, and morphology of the as-prepared CSH, which hampers the improvement of their adsorption capacities. In this work, systematic investigation of the structures of as-generated CSH demonstrate that they have a hierarchically porous structure composed of thin nano-sheets, where each nano-sheet is assembled by nano-fibers with width of around ten nanometers. The hierarchical nanostructures with pore size of ∼12 nm provide a significant amount of active sites to graft polyethyleneimine (PEI), which enables the efficient extraction of both Cu(ii) cations and Cr(vi) anions from the aqueous solution. Batch experiments further indicate that the PEI-modified PCSH exhibit a maximum adsorption capacity of 203 and 256 mg g(-1) for Cu(ii) and Cr(vi), respectively, much higher than that of CSH, OS and many other adsorbents in literature. The adsorption of Cu(ii) and Cr(vi) proved to be spontaneous and exothermic. Combining the pH-dependent experiments with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, the underlying mechanism is discussed. PCSH derived from OS biowaste maintains an efficient extraction ability toward Cu(ii) and Cr(vi) after five adsorption-desorption cycles. It is also applicable for treating various kinds of heavy metal ions and organic pollutants, showing potentially wide applications in water treatment. PMID:27221228

  1. Synthesis of MnFe2O4@Mn-Co oxide core-shell nanoparticles and their excellent performance for heavy metal removal.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zichuan; Zhao, Dongyuan; Chang, Yongfang; Xing, Shengtao; Wu, Yinsu; Gao, Yuanzhe

    2013-10-21

    Magnetic nanomaterials that can be easily separated and recycled due to their magnetic properties have received considerable attention in the field of water treatment. However, these nanomaterials usually tend to aggregate and alter their properties. Herein, we report an economical and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with core-shell structure. MnFe2O4 nanoparticles have been successfully coated with amorphous Mn-Co oxide shells. The synthesized MnFe2O4@Mn-Co oxide nanoparticles have highly negatively charged surface in aqueous solution over a wide pH range, thus preventing their aggregation and enhancing their performance for heavy metal cation removal. The adsorption isotherms are well fitted to a Langmuir adsorption model, and the maximal adsorption capacities of Pb(II), Cu(II) and Cd(II) on MnFe2O4@Mn-Co oxide are 481.2, 386.2 and 345.5 mg g(-1), respectively. All the metal ions can be completely removed from the mixed metal ion solutions in a short time. Desorption studies confirm that the adsorbent can be effectively regenerated and reused. PMID:23945878

  2. Application of novel consortium TSR for treatment of industrial dye manufacturing effluent with concurrent removal of ADMI, COD, heavy metals and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tallika L; Patel, Bhargav C; Kadam, Avinash A; Tipre, Devayani R; Dave, Shailesh R

    2015-01-01

    The present study was aimed towards the effective bio-treatment of actual industrial effluent containing as high as 42,000 mg/L COD (chemical oxygen demand), >28,000 ADMI (American Dye Manufacturers Institute) color value and four heavy metals using indigenous developed bacterial consortium TSR. Mineral salt medium supplemented with as low as 0.02% (w/v) yeast extract and glucose was found to remove 70% ADMI, 69% COD and >99% sorption of heavy metals in 24 h from the effluent by consortium TSR. The biodegradation of effluent was monitored by UV-vis light, HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography), HPTLC (high performance thin layer chromotography) and FTIR (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) and showed significant differences in spectra of untreated and treated effluent, confirming degradation of the effluent. Induction of intracellular azoreductase (107%) and NADH-DCIP reductase (128%) in addition to extracellular laccase (489%) indicates the vital role of the consortium TSR in the degradation process. Toxicity study of the effluent using Allium cepa by single cell gel electrophoresis showed detoxification of the effluent. Ninety per cent germination of plant seeds, Triticum aestivum and Phaseolus mungo, was achieved after treatment by consortium TSR in contrast to only 20% and 30% germination of the respective plants in case of untreated effluent. PMID:25945844

  3. Removal of chemical oxygen demand, nitrogen, and heavy metals using a sequenced anaerobic-aerobic treatment of landfill leachates at 10-30 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Kalyuzhnyi, Sergey; Gladchenko, Marina; Epov, Andrey; Appanna, Vasu

    2003-01-01

    As a first step of treatment of landfill leachates (total chemical oxygen demand [COD]: 1.43-3.81 g/L; total nitrogen: 90-162 mg/L), performance of laboratory upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors was investigated under mesophilic (30 degrees C), submesophilic (20 degrees C), and psychrophilic (10 degrees C) conditions. Under hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of about 0.3 d, when the average organic loading rates (OLRs) were about 5 g of COD/(L.d), the total COD removal accounted for 81% (on average) with the effluent concentrations close to the anaerobic biodegradability limit (0.25 g of COD/L) for mesophilic and submesophilic regimes. The psychrophilic treatment conducted under an average HRT of 0.34 d and an average OLR of 4.22 g of COD/(L.d) showed a total COD removal of 47%, giving effluents (0.75 g of COD/L) more suitable for subsequent biologic nitrogen removal. All three anaerobic regimes used for leachate treatment were quite efficient for elimination of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd) by concomitant precipitation in the form of insoluble sulfides inside the sludge bed. The application of aerobic/ anoxic biofilter as a sole polishing step for psychrophilic anaerobic effluents was acceptable for elimination of biodegradable COD and nitrogen approaching the current standards for direct discharge of treated wastewater. PMID:12794293

  4. Prediction of Heavy Metal Removal by Different Liner Materials from Landfill Leachate: Modeling of Experimental Results Using Artificial Intelligence Technique

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Nurdan Gamze; Gümüşel, Emine Beril; Ozgonenel, Okan

    2013-01-01

    An intensive study has been made to see the performance of the different liner materials with bentonite on the removal efficiency of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from industrial leachate. An artificial neural network (ANN) was used to display the significant levels of the analyzed liner materials on the removal efficiency. The statistical analysis proves that the effect of natural zeolite was significant by a cubic spline model with a 99.93% removal efficiency. Optimization of liner materials was achieved by minimizing bentonite mixtures, which were costly, and maximizing Cu(II) and Zn(II) removal efficiency. The removal efficiencies were calculated as 45.07% and 48.19% for Cu(II) and Zn(II), respectively, when only bentonite was used as liner material. However, 60% of natural zeolite with 40% of bentonite combination was found to be the best for Cu(II) removal (95%), and 80% of vermiculite and pumice with 20% of bentonite combination was found to be the best for Zn(II) removal (61.24% and 65.09%). Similarly, 60% of natural zeolite with 40% of bentonite combination was found to be the best for Zn(II) removal (89.19%), and 80% of vermiculite and pumice with 20% of bentonite combination was found to be the best for Zn(II) removal (82.76% and 74.89%). PMID:23844384

  5. Prediction of heavy metal removal by different liner materials from landfill leachate: modeling of experimental results using artificial intelligence technique.

    PubMed

    Turan, Nurdan Gamze; Gümüşel, Emine Beril; Ozgonenel, Okan

    2013-01-01

    An intensive study has been made to see the performance of the different liner materials with bentonite on the removal efficiency of Cu(II) and Zn(II) from industrial leachate. An artificial neural network (ANN) was used to display the significant levels of the analyzed liner materials on the removal efficiency. The statistical analysis proves that the effect of natural zeolite was significant by a cubic spline model with a 99.93% removal efficiency. Optimization of liner materials was achieved by minimizing bentonite mixtures, which were costly, and maximizing Cu(II) and Zn(II) removal efficiency. The removal efficiencies were calculated as 45.07% and 48.19% for Cu(II) and Zn(II), respectively, when only bentonite was used as liner material. However, 60% of natural zeolite with 40% of bentonite combination was found to be the best for Cu(II) removal (95%), and 80% of vermiculite and pumice with 20% of bentonite combination was found to be the best for Zn(II) removal (61.24% and 65.09%). Similarly, 60% of natural zeolite with 40% of bentonite combination was found to be the best for Zn(II) removal (89.19%), and 80% of vermiculite and pumice with 20% of bentonite combination was found to be the best for Zn(II) removal (82.76% and 74.89%). PMID:23844384

  6. Simple combination of oxidants with zero-valent-iron (ZVI) achieved very rapid and highly efficient removal of heavy metals from water.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xuejun; Yang, Zhe; Dong, Haiyang; Guan, Xiaohong; Ren, Qidong; Lv, Xiaofang; Jin, Xin

    2016-01-01

    This study, for the first time, demonstrated a continuously accelerated Fe(0) corrosion driven by common oxidants (i.e., NaClO, KMnO4 or H2O2) and thereby the rapid and efficient removal of heavy metals (HMs) by zero-valent iron (ZVI) under the experimental conditions of jar tests and column running. ZVI simply coupled with NaClO, KMnO4 or H2O2 (0.5 mM) resulted in almost complete As(V) removal within only 10 min with 1000 μg/L of initial As(V) at initial pH of 7.5(±0.1) and liquid solid ratio of 200:1. Simultaneous removal of 200 μg/L of initial Cd(II) and Hg(II) to 2.4-4.4 μg/L for Cd(II) and to 4.0-5.0 μg/L for Hg(II) were achieved within 30 min. No deterioration of HM removal was observed during the ten recycles of jar tests. The ZVI columns activated by 0.1 mM of oxidants had stably treated 40,200 (NaClO), 20,295 (KMnO4) and 40,200 (H2O2) bed volumes (BV) of HM-contaminated drinking water, but with no any indication of As breakthrough (<10 μg/L) even at short empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 8.0 min. The high efficiency of HMs removal from both the jar tests and column running implied a continuous and stable activation (overcoming of iron passivation) of Fe(0) surface by the oxidants. Via the proper increase in oxidant dosing, the ZVI/oxidant combination was applicable to treat highly As(V)-contaminated wastewater. During Fe(0) surface corrosion accelerated by oxidants, a large amount of fresh and reactive iron oxides and oxyhydroxides were continuously generated, which were responsible for the rapid and efficient removal of HMs through multiple mechanisms including adsorption and co-precipitation. A steady state of Fe(0) surface activation and HM removal enabled this simply coupled system to remove HMs with high speed, efficiency and perdurability. PMID:26575476

  7. Removal Efficiency of the Heavy Metals Zn(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) by Saprolegnia delica and Trichoderma viride at Different pH Values and Temperature Degrees

    PubMed Central

    Hashem, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    The removal efficiency of the heavy metals Zn, Pb and Cd by the zoosporic fungal species Saprolegnia delica and the terrestrial fungus Trichoderma viride, isolated from polluted water drainages in the Delta of Nile in Egypt, as affected by various ranges of pH values and different temperature degrees,was extensively investigated. The maximum removal efficiency of S. delica for Zn(II) and Cd(II) was obtained at pH 8 and for Pb(II) was at pH 6 whilst the removal efficiency of T. viride was found to be optimum at pH 6 for the three applied heavy metals. Regardless the median lethal doses of the three heavy metals, Zn recorded the highest bioaccumulation potency by S. delica at all pH values except at pH 4, followed by Pb whereas Cd showed the lowest removal potency by the fungal species and vice versa in case of T. viride. The optimum biomass dry weight production by S. delica was found when the fungus was grown in the medium treated with the heavy metal Pb at pH 6, followed by Zn at pH 8 and Cd at pH 8. The optimum biomass dry weight yield by T. viride amended with Zn,Pb and Cd was obtained at pH 6 for the three heavy metals with the maximum value at Zn. The highest yield of biomass dry weight was found when T. viride treated with Cd at all different pH values followed by Pb whilst Zn output was the lowest and this result was reversed in case of S. delica. The maximum removal efficiency and the biomass dry weight production for the three tested heavy metals was obtained at the incubation temperature 20℃ in case of S. delica while it was 25℃ for T. viride. Incubation of T. viride at higher temperatures (30℃ and 35℃) enhanced the removal efficiency of Pb and Cd than low temperatures (15℃ and 20℃) and vice versa in case of Zn removal. At all tested incubation temperatures, the maximum yield of biomass dry weight was attained at Zn treatment by the two tested fungal species. The bioaccumulation potency of S. delica for Zn was higher than that for Pb at all

  8. A critical review on the bio-removal of hazardous heavy metals from contaminated soils: issues, progress, eco-environmental concerns and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Wu, Gang; Kang, Hubiao; Zhang, Xiaoyang; Shao, Hongbo; Chu, Liye; Ruan, Chengjiang

    2010-02-15

    Mechanism of four methods for removing hazardous heavy metal are detailed and compared-chemical/physical remediation, animal remediation, phytoremediation and microremediation with emphasis on bio-removal aspects. The latter two, namely the use of plants and microbes, are preferred because of their cost-effectiveness, environmental friendliness and fewer side effects. Also the obvious disadvantages of other alternatives are listed. In the future the application of genetic engineering or cell engineering to create an expected and ideal species would become popular and necessary. However, a concomitant and latent danger of genetic pollution is realized by a few persons. To cope with this potential harm, several suggestions are put forward including choosing self-pollinated plants, creating infertile polyploid species and carefully selecting easy-controlled microbe species. Bravely, the authors point out that current investigation of noncrop hyperaccumulators is of little significance in application. Pragmatic development in the future should be crop hyperaccumulators (newly termed as "cropaccumulators") by transgenic or symbiotic approach. Considering no effective plan has been put forward by others about concrete steps of applying a hyperaccumulator to practice, the authors bring forward a set of universal procedures, which is novel, tentative and adaptive to evaluate hyperaccumulators' feasibility before large-scale commercialization. PMID:19864055

  9. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOEpatents

    O`Neill, M.A.; Pellerin, P.J.M.; Warrenfeltz, D.; Vidal, S.; Darvill, A.G.; Albersheim, P.

    1999-03-02

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations. 15 figs.

  10. Plant rhamnogalacturonan II complexation of heavy metal cations

    DOEpatents

    O'Neill, Malcolm A.; Pellerin, Patrice J. M.; Warrenfeltz, Dennis; Vidal, Stephane; Darvill, Alan G.; Albersheim, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) and relates to its ability to complex specific multivalent heavy metal cations. In the presence of boric acid, RG-II monomers form dimers that are cross-linked by a borate ester. The yield of such borate ester cross-linked dimers of RG-II is enhanced in the presence of specific heavy metal cations. The present invention further relates to the utility of RG-II in assays for the detection of specific heavy metal contamination; as a reagent useful in the removal of specific heavy metal cations contaminating foods and liquids, for example, fish, wines, etc.; as a pharmaceutical composition useful as an antidote in specific heavy metal cation poisoning; as a treatment for the detoxification of specific heavy metal cations from blood and/or tissues; and in a method of remediation of waters and soils contaminated with specific heavy metal cations.

  11. Consequential species of heavy metals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yousef, Y.A.; Harper, H.H.; Wiseman, L.; Bateman, M.

    1985-02-01

    Highway stormwater runoff contains significantly higher concentrations of trace metals, particularly Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, and Ni than the water samples from adjacent receiving water bodies. The metals associated with highway runoff tend to be detoxified by the organic content and chemical conditions of natural waters and sediments. Most of the metals are retained by the bottom sediments on a permanent basis if aerobic conditions and high redax-potential (Eh) values are maintained. Retention/detention ponds similar to the Maitland Pond site are very effective in nutrient and heavy metal removal from highway runoff.

  12. Heavy Metal Pumps in Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Harper, J.F.

    2000-10-01

    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of these plants to help clean up toxic metals from soils. A rate limiting step is using plant for bioremediation is the normally poor capacity of plants to concentrate toxic metals. Our interest in metal ion transport systems includes those for essential mineral nutrients such as molybdenum, copper, iron, manganese, as well as toxic metals such as cerium, mercury, cesium, cadmium, arsenic and selenium. Understanding the pathways by which toxic metals accumulate in plants will enable the engineering of plants to exclude toxic metals and create healthier food sources, or to extract toxic metals from the soil as a strategy to clean up polluted lands and water.

  13. Phytoaccumulation of heavy metals by aquatic plants.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M; Ghaly, A E; Mahmoud, N; Côté, R

    2004-02-01

    Three aquatic plants were examined for their ability to remove heavy metals from contaminated water: parrot feather (Myriophylhum aquaticum), creeping primrose (Ludwigina palustris), and water mint (Mentha aquatic). The plants were obtained from a Solar Aquatic System treating municipal wastewater. All the three plants were able to remove Fe, Zn, Cu, and Hg from the contaminated water. The average removal efficiency for the three plant species was 99.8%, 76.7%, 41.62%, and 33.9% of Hg, Fe, Cu, and Zn, respectively. The removal rates of zinc and copper were constant (0.48 mg/l/day for Zn and 0.11 mg/l/day for Cu), whereas those of iron and mercury were dependent on the concentration of these elements in the contaminated water and ranged from 7.00 to 0.41 mg/l/day for Fe and 0.0787 to 0.0002 mg/l/day for Hg. Parrot feather showed greater tolerance to toxicity followed by water mint and creeping primrose. The growth of creeping primrose was significantly affected by heavy metal toxicity. The selectivity of heavy metals for the three plant species was the same (Hg>Fe>Cu>Zn). The mass balance preformed on the system showed that about 60.45-82.61% of the zinc and 38.96-60.75% of the copper were removed by precipitation as zinc phosphate and copper phosphate, respectively. PMID:14680885

  14. Heavy Metal Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-08-01

    thereafter dies as a burnt-out, dim "white dwarf" . Stars with masses between 0.8 and 8 times that of the Sun are believed to evolve to AGB-stars and to end their lives in this particular way. At the same time, they produce beautiful nebulae like the "Dumbbell Nebula". Our Sun will also end its active life this way, probably some 7 billion years from now. Low-metallicity stars The detailed understanding of the "s-process" and, in particular, where it takes place inside an AGB-star, has been an area of active research for many years. Current state-of-the-art computer-based stellar models predict that the s-process should be particularly efficient in stars with a comparatively low content of metals ("metal-poor" or "low-metallicity" stars) . In such stars - which were born at an early epoch in our Galaxy and are therefore quite old - the "s-process" is expected to effectively produce atomic nuclei all the way up to the most heavy, stable ones, like Lead (atomic number 82 [2]) and Bismuth (atomic number 83) - since more neutrons are available per Iron-seed nucleus when there are fewer such nuclei (as compared to the solar composition). Once these elements have been produced, the addition of more s-process neutrons to those nuclei will only produce unstable elements that decay back to Lead. Hence, when the s-process is sufficiently efficient, atomic nuclei with atomic numbers around 82, that is, the Lead region, just continue to pile up. As a result, when compared to stars with "normal" abundances of the metals (like our Sun), those low-metallicity stars should thus exhibit a significant "over-abundance" of those very heavy elements with respect to Iron, in particular of Lead . Looking for Lead Direct observational support for this theoretical prediction would be the discovery of some low-metallicity stars with a high abundance of Lead. At the same time, the measured amounts of all the heavy elements and their relative abundances would provide very valuable information and

  15. Heavy metal removal from MSWI fly ash by electrokinetic remediation coupled with a permeable activated charcoal reactive barrier

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Li, Dongwei; Kexiang, Liu; Zhang, Yuewei

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the investigations into the feasibility of the application of a remediation system that couples electrokinetic remediation (EKR) with the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) concept for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash with activated charcoal as the PRB material. The experimental results of this study showed that the proposed combined method can effectively improve the remediation efficiency and that the addition of the oxalic acid to the PRB media before the coupled system can further enhance the remediation process. In the optimization tests, the maximum removals of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd were achieved under different experimental conditions. The voltage gradient and processing time were shown to have significant effects on the removal of Cu and Cd, whereas the addition of the oxalic acid had a more significant influence on the removal of Pb. Generally, the processing time is the most significant factor in changing the removal rates of HMs in the enhanced coupled system. In terms of the leaching toxicity, the specimen remediated by ENEKR + PRB showed the lowest leaching value for each HM in the S2 and S3 regions. PMID:26486449

  16. Heavy metal removal from MSWI fly ash by electrokinetic remediation coupled with a permeable activated charcoal reactive barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Li, Dongwei; Kexiang, Liu; Zhang, Yuewei

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the investigations into the feasibility of the application of a remediation system that couples electrokinetic remediation (EKR) with the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) concept for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash with activated charcoal as the PRB material. The experimental results of this study showed that the proposed combined method can effectively improve the remediation efficiency and that the addition of the oxalic acid to the PRB media before the coupled system can further enhance the remediation process. In the optimization tests, the maximum removals of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd were achieved under different experimental conditions. The voltage gradient and processing time were shown to have significant effects on the removal of Cu and Cd, whereas the addition of the oxalic acid had a more significant influence on the removal of Pb. Generally, the processing time is the most significant factor in changing the removal rates of HMs in the enhanced coupled system. In terms of the leaching toxicity, the specimen remediated by ENEKR + PRB showed the lowest leaching value for each HM in the S2 and S3 regions.

  17. Heavy metal removal from MSWI fly ash by electrokinetic remediation coupled with a permeable activated charcoal reactive barrier.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Li, Dongwei; Kexiang, Liu; Zhang, Yuewei

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the investigations into the feasibility of the application of a remediation system that couples electrokinetic remediation (EKR) with the permeable reactive barrier (PRB) concept for municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash with activated charcoal as the PRB material. The experimental results of this study showed that the proposed combined method can effectively improve the remediation efficiency and that the addition of the oxalic acid to the PRB media before the coupled system can further enhance the remediation process. In the optimization tests, the maximum removals of Zn, Pb, Cu and Cd were achieved under different experimental conditions. The voltage gradient and processing time were shown to have significant effects on the removal of Cu and Cd, whereas the addition of the oxalic acid had a more significant influence on the removal of Pb. Generally, the processing time is the most significant factor in changing the removal rates of HMs in the enhanced coupled system. In terms of the leaching toxicity, the specimen remediated by ENEKR + PRB showed the lowest leaching value for each HM in the S2 and S3 regions. PMID:26486449

  18. The remediation of heavy metals contaminated sediment.

    PubMed

    Peng, Jian-Feng; Song, Yong-Hui; Yuan, Peng; Cui, Xiao-Yu; Qiu, Guang-Lei

    2009-01-30

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide problem through disturbing the normal functions of rivers and lakes. Sediment, as the largest storage and resources of heavy metal, plays a rather important role in metal transformations. This paper provides a review on the geochemical forms, affecting factors and remediation technologies of heavy metal in sediment. The in situ remediation of sediment aims at increasing the stabilization of some metals such as the mobile and the exchangeable fractions; whereas, the ex situ remediation mainly aims at removing those potentially mobile metals, such as the Mn-oxides and the organic matter (OM) fraction. The pH and OM can directly change metals distribution in sediment; however oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), mainly through changing the pH values, indirectly alters metals distribution. Mainly ascribed to their simple operation mode, low costs and fast remediation effects, in situ remediation technologies, especially being fit for slight pollution sediment, are applied widely. However, for avoiding metal secondary pollution from sediment release, ex situ remediation should be the hot point in future research. PMID:18547718

  19. Efficient removal of dyes by a novel magnetic Fe3O4/ZnCr-layered double hydroxide adsorbent from heavy metal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Jia; Li, Wenhui; Zhou, Jizhi; Shao, Li; Qian, Guangren

    2012-12-01

    A novel magnetic Fe(3)O(4)/ZnCr-layered double hydroxide adsorbent was produced from electroplating wastewater and pickling waste liquor via a two-step microwave hydrothermal method. Adsorption of methyl orange (MO) from water was studied using this material. The effects of three variables have been investigated by a single-factor method. The response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design was successfully applied to the optimization of the preparation conditions. The maximum adsorption capacity of MO was found to be 240.16 mg/g, indicating that this material may be an effective adsorbent. It was shown that 99% of heavy metal ions (Fe(2+), Fe(3+), Cr(3+), and Zn(2+)) can be effectively removed into precipitates and released far less in the adsorption process. In addition, this material with adsorbed dye can be easily separated by a magnetic field and recycled after catalytic regeneration with advanced oxidation technology. Meanwhile, kinetic models, FTIR spectra and X-ray diffraction pattern were applied to the experimental data to examine uptake mechanism. The boundary layer and intra-particle diffusion played important roles in the adsorption mechanisms. PMID:23122732

  20. Post-crosslinking towards stimuli-responsive sodium alginate beads for the removal of dye and heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ting; Xiang, Tao; Huang, Xue-Lian; Li, Cheng; Zhao, Wei-Feng; Zhang, Qian; Zhao, Chang-Sheng

    2015-11-20

    Post-crosslinking as a new strategy to prepare sodium alginate (SA) beads with controllable swelling behavior, pH sensitivity and adsorption capacity was developed by using the solution of glutaraldehyde (GA), acetic acid and hydrochloric acid as the coagulating agent, for which could be used to fabricate polysaccharide beads in a large scale. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis convinced the successful cross-linking of SA by GA. The macro-porous structures of the beads were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Both acetic acid and hydrochloric acid had great effects on the swelling behavior and pH sensitivity of the SA beads. The SA beads could adsorb cationic dye (methylene blue) as high as 572mg/g and other metal ions (Cu(2+), Ag(+) and Fe(3+)). The adsorption processes fitted well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model and the Freundlich isotherm. The large-scale production of SA beads with tunable properties opens a new route to industrially utilize polysaccharide beads in wastewater treatments, intelligent separation and so on. PMID:26344317

  1. CONSTRUCTED WETLANDS FOR TREATMENT OF HEAVY METALS IN URBAN STORMWATER RUNOFF: CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF WETLAND SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metals in urban stormwater runoff are primarily removed by sedimentation in stormwater best management practices (BMPs) such as constructed wetlands. Heavy metals accumulated in wetland sediments may be potentially toxic to benthic invertebrates and aquatic microorganisms, ...

  2. Approaches for enhanced phytoextraction of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Atul; Carmona, Francisco F; Bhargava, Meenakshi; Srivastava, Shilpi

    2012-08-30

    The contamination of the environment with toxic metals has become a worldwide problem. Metal toxicity affects crop yields, soil biomass and fertility. Soils polluted with heavy metals pose a serious health hazard to humans as well as plants and animals, and often requires soil remediation practices. Phytoextraction refers to the uptake of contaminants from soil or water by plant roots and their translocation to any harvestable plant part. Phytoextraction has the potential to remove contaminants and promote long-term cleanup of soil or wastewater. The success of phytoextraction as a potential environmental cleanup technology depends on factors like metal availability for uptake, as well as plants ability to absorb and accumulate metals in aerial parts. Efforts are ongoing to understand the genetics and biochemistry of metal uptake, transport and storage in hyperaccumulator plants so as to be able to develop transgenic plants with improved phytoremediation capability. Many plant species are being investigated to determine their usefulness for phytoextraction, especially high biomass crops. The present review aims to give an updated version of information available with respect to metal tolerance and accumulation mechanisms in plants, as well as on the environmental and genetic factors affecting heavy metal uptake. The genetic tools of classical breeding and genetic engineering have opened the door to creation of 'remediation' cultivars. An overview is presented on the possible strategies for developing novel genotypes with increased metal accumulation and tolerance to toxicity. PMID:22542973

  3. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  4. Cell surface engineering of microorganisms towards adsorption of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng-Song; Tao, Hu-Chun

    2015-06-01

    Heavy metal contamination has become a worldwide environmental concern due to its toxicity, non-degradability and food-chain bioaccumulation. Conventional physical and chemical treatment methods for heavy metal removal have disadvantages such as cost-intensiveness, incomplete removal, secondary pollution and the lack of metal specificity. Microbial biomass-based biosorption is one of the approaches gaining increasing attention because it is effective, cheap, and environmental friendly and can work well at low concentrations. To enhance the adsorption properties of microbial cells to heavy metal ions, the cell surface display of various metal-binding proteins/peptides have been performed using a cell surface engineering approach. The surface engineering of Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and yeast towards the adsorption of heavy metals are reviewed in this article. The problems and future perspectives of this technology are discussed. PMID:23915280

  5. Metal removal by natural glauconite

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, W.; Smith, E.H.

    1995-12-31

    Removal of cadmium, lead, zinc copper, and chromium by a natural clay mineral, glauconite, was studied using potentiometric titrations, continuous flow-through column reactors, and batch adsorption-desorption experiments and successfully modeled by surface complexation models (SCM). Potentiometric titration data were modeled using a simple single-site non-electrostatic model and a multi-site constant capacitance model. Important model parameters, such as surface site density and surface protonation-deprotonation constants, were also derived by fitting the titration data to SCMs. The metals compete effectively with protons for the surface sites, and bind strongly onto the surface of the mineral as shown by the significant shift in the potentiometric titration curves with or without these metals in glauconite suspension. Metal removal is primarily controlled by pH and can be modeled successfully by a single-site triple layer model along with the pH speciation of the metals. The successful application of SCMs in modeling titration and adsorption data of glauconite indicates that surface complexation is the primary mechanism in metal removal. Therefore, the theory of surface complexation can be used in predicting metal removal under different conditions such as pH, ionic strength, sorbent/sorbate ratio, and surface site density. The high metal removal capacities of glauconite are considered to be promising in treating some waste water.

  6. Removal of sulfate and heavy metals by sulfate reducing bacteria in short-term bench scale upflow anaerobic packed bed reactor runs.

    PubMed

    Jong, Tony; Parry, David L

    2003-08-01

    Mildly acidic metal (Cu, Zn, Ni, Fe, Al and Mg), arsenic and sulfate contaminated waters were treated, over a 14 day period at 25 degrees C, in a bench-scale upflow anaerobic packed bed reactor filled with silica sand and employing a mixed population of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). The activity of SRB increased the water pH from approximately 4.5 to 7.0, and enhanced the removal of sulfate and metals in comparison to controls not inoculated with SRB. Addition of organic substrate and sulfate at loading rates of 7.43 and 3.71 kg d(-1) m(-3), respectively, resulted in >82% reduction in sulfate concentration. The reactor removed more than 97.5% of the initial concentrations of Cu, Zn and Ni, while only >77.5% and >82% of As and Fe were removed, respectively. In contrast, Mg and Al levels remained unchanged during the whole treatment process. The removal patterns for Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe reflected the trend in their solubility for their respective metal sulfides, while As removal appeared to coincide with decreasing Cu, Zn, Ni and Fe concentrations, which suggests adsorption or concomitant precipitation with the other metal sulfides. PMID:12834731

  7. The use of hollow fiber cross-flow microfiltration in bioaccumulation and continuous removal of heavy metals from solution by Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, D.; Rose, P.D.; Duncan, J.R. . Dept. of Biochemistry and Microbiology)

    1994-12-01

    Cross-flow microfiltration was shown to retain Saacharomyces cerevisiae biomass utilized for heavy metal bioaccumulation. The passage of metal-laden influent through a series of sequential bioaccumulation systems allowed for further reductions in the levels of copper, cadmium, and cobalt in the final effluent than that afforded by a single bioaccumulation process. Serial bioaccumulation systems also allowed for partial separation of metals from dual metal influents. More than one elemental metal cation could be accumulation simultaneously and in greater quantities than when a single metal was present in the effluent (Cu[sup 2+] 0.43 mmol, Cu[sup 2+] + Cd[sup 2+] 0.67 mmol, and Cu[sup 2+] + Co[sup 2+] 0.83 mmol/g yeast dry mass when the initial concentration of each of the metal species was 0.2 mmol[center dot]L[sup [minus]1]). Co-accumulation of two different metal cations allowed higher total levels of bioaccumulation than found with a single metal. The flux rate was 2.9 [times] 10[sup 2] L[center dot]h[sup [minus]2][center dot]m[sup [minus]2] using a polypropylene microfiltration membrane.

  8. Studies on the optimum conditions using acid-washed zero-valent iron/aluminum mixtures in permeable reactive barriers for the removal of different heavy metal ions from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Han, Weijiang; Fu, Fenglian; Cheng, Zihang; Tang, Bing; Wu, Shijiao

    2016-01-25

    The method of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) is considered as one of the most practicable approaches in treating heavy metals contaminated surface and groundwater. The mixture of acid-washed zero-valent iron (ZVI) and zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) as reactive medium in PRBs to treat heavy metal wastewater containing Cr(VI), Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+) was investigated. The performance of column filled with the mixture of acid-washed ZVI and ZVAl was much better than the column filled with ZVI or ZVAl alone. At initial pH 5.4 and flow rates of 1.0 mL/min, the time that the removal efficiencies of Cr(VI), Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+) were all above 99.5% can keep about 300 h using 80 g/40 g acid-washed ZVI/ZVAl when treating wastewater containing each heavy metal ions (Cr(VI), Cd(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+)) concentration of 20.0 mg/L. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to characterize ZVI/ZVAl before and after reaction and the reaction mechanism of the heavy metal ions with ZVI/ZVAl was discussed. PMID:26521089

  9. Bacterial sorption of heavy metals.

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, M D; Wolf, D C; Ferris, F G; Beveridge, T J; Flemming, C A; Bailey, G W

    1989-01-01

    Four bacteria, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were examined for the ability to remove Ag+, Cd2+, Cu2+, and La3+ from solution by batch equilibration methods. Cd and Cu sorption over the concentration range 0.001 to 1 mM was described by Freundlich isotherms. At 1 mM concentrations of both Cd2+ and Cu2+, P. aeruginosa and B. cereus were the most and least efficient at metal removal, respectively. Freundlich K constants indicated that E. coli was most efficient at Cd2+ removal and B. subtilis removed the most Cu2+. Removal of Ag+ from solution by bacteria was very efficient; an average of 89% of the total Ag+ was removed from the 1 mM solution, while only 12, 29, and 27% of the total Cd2+, Cu2+, and La3+, respectively, were sorbed from 1 mM solutions. Electron microscopy indicated that La3+ accumulated at the cell surface as needlelike, crystalline precipitates. Silver precipitated as discrete colloidal aggregates at the cell surface and occasionally in the cytoplasm. Neither Cd2+ nor Cu2+ provided enough electron scattering to identify the location of sorption. The affinity series for bacterial removal of these metals decreased in the order Ag greater than La greater than Cu greater than Cd. The results indicate that bacterial cells are capable of binding large quantities of different metals. Adsorption equations may be useful for describing bacterium-metal interactions with metals such as Cd and Cu; however, this approach may not be adequate when precipitation of metals occurs. Images PMID:2515800

  10. Heavy metals and the origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nriagu, J.

    2003-05-01

    The functional value of heavy metals in proto-cells was immense and involved critical roles in catalysis of molecular synthesis, translation, electrical neutrality and conduction, energy capture, cross-linking and precipitation (stabilizers of protective cell walls), and to a limited extent, osmotic pressure control. Metals must have modulated the evolutionary choices of the types of building blocks, such as ribose sugars as a constituent of RNA, or the the chirality and enantiopurity of many biomolecules. The formation of an enclosing membrane led to intracellular prokaryotic life (believed to have originated in an anaerobic environment) and much enhanced control over primary metabolism, the uptake and incorporation of heavy metals and the management of biomolecules (especially RNA, DNA and proteins) that were formed. Cells of the most primitive organisms (archaebacteria) reveal complex mechanisms designed specifically to deal with selective pressures from metal-containing environments including intra- and extra-cellular sequestration, exclusion by cell wall barrier, removal through active efflux pumps, enzymatic detoxification, and reduction in sensitivity of cellular targets to metal ions. Adaptation to metals using a variety of chromosomal, and transposon and plasmid-mediated systems began early in the evolution of life on Earth. Recent studies, however, show that the roles played by many heavy metals have changed over time. Divalent lead, for instance, has relinquished its unique catalytic role in the conversion of carbohydrates into ribose in the prebiotic world. The putative elements that dominated the primordial biochemistry were V, Mo, W, Co, Fe(II) and Ni; with the development of oxygenated atmosphere, these elements gave way to Zn, Cu and Fe(Ill) in their metabolic functions.

  11. Development and evaluation of Mn oxide-coated composite adsorbent for the removal and recovery of heavy metals from coal processing wastewater. Final report, December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Huan Jung; Anderson, P.R.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of this research was to evaluate a Mn oxide-coated granular activated carbon (MnGAC) for the removal and recovery of metals from wastewaters. The composite adsorbent was prepared by coating M-n-oxide onto granular activated carbon. Three coating methods (adsorption, precipitation, and dry oxidation) were developed and studied in this research. The adsorbent (MnTOG) prepared by a dry oxidation method had the highest Cu(II) adsorption capacity of the three synthesis methods. In multiple adsorption/regeneration cycle tests, MnTOG had better Cu(II) removal relative to those adsorbents prepared by other methods. MnTOG had the ability to remove Cu(II) and Cd(II) to trace level (< 4 ug/L) in a column process at least through 3000 and 1400 BV, respectively. Cd(II) removal was hindered by the presence of Cu(II). However, Cu(II) removal was only slightly reduced by the presence of Cd(II). Cu(II) adsorption in batch and fixed-bed processes onto MnTOG was successfully modeled with a homogeneous surface diffusion model (HSDM). However, the HSDM could only successfully describe the adsorption of Cd(II) onto MnTOG in the batch process, but not the fixed-bed process. M-n oxide can be deposited on GAC to create a composite adsorbent with an increased Cu(II) or Cd(II) adsorption capacity. Composite adsorbent (MnGAC) has the potential to become an efficient way to remove metals from metal contaminated wastewater.

  12. Phycoremediation of heavy metals using transgenic microalgae.

    PubMed

    Rajamani, Sathish; Siripornadulsil, Surasak; Falcao, Vanessa; Torres, Moacir; Colepicolo, Pio; Sayre, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Microalgae account for most of the biologically sequestered trace metals in aquatic environments. Their ability to adsorb and metabolize trace metals is associated with their large surface:volume ratios, the presence of high-affinity, metal-binding groups on their cell surfaces, and efficient metal uptake and storage systems. Microalgae may bind up to 10% of their biomass as metals. In addition to essential trace metals required for metabolism, microalgae can efficiently sequester toxic heavy metals. Toxic heavy metals often compete with essential trace metals for binding to and uptake into cells. Recently, transgenic approaches have been developed to further enhance the heavy metal specificity and binding capacity of microalgae with the objective of using these microalgae for the treatment of heavy metal contaminated wastewaters and sediments. These transgenic strategies have included the over expression of enzymes whose metabolic products ameliorate the effects of heavy metal-induced stress, and the expression of high-affinity, heavy metal binding proteins on the surface and in the cytoplasm of transgenic cells. The most effective strategies have substantially reduced the toxicity of heavy metals allowing transgenic cells to grow at wild-type rates in the presence of lethal concentrations of heavy metals. In addition, the metal binding capacity of transgenic algae has been increased five-fold relative to wild-type cells. Recently, fluorescent heavy metal biosensors have been developed for expression in transgenic Chlamydomonas. These fluorescent biosensor strains can be used for the detection and quantification of bioavailable heavy metals in aquatic environments. The use of transgenic microalgae to monitor and remediate heavy metals in aquatic environments is not without risk, however. Strategies to prevent the release of live microalgae having enhanced metal binding properties are described. PMID:18161494

  13. [Inhibition of Low Molecular Organic Acids on the Activity of Acidithiobacillus Species and Its Effect on the Removal of Heavy Metals from Contaminated Soil].

    PubMed

    Song, Yong-wei; Wang, He-rul; Cao, Yan-xiao; Li, Fei; Cui, Chun-hong; Zhou, Li

    2016-05-15

    Application of organic fertilizer can reduce the solubility and bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soil, but in the flooded anaerobic environment, organic fertilizer will be decomposed to produce a large number of low molecular organic acids, which can inhibit the biological activity of Acidithiobacillus species. Batch cultures studies showed that the monocarboxylic organic acids including formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid exhibited a marked toxicity to Acidithiobacillus species, as indicated by that 90% of inhibitory rate for Fe2 and So oxidation in 72 h were achieved at extremely low concentrations of 41.2 mg · L⁻¹, 78.3 mg · L⁻¹, 43.2 mg · L⁻¹, 123.4 mg · L⁻¹ and 81.9 mg 230. 4 mg · L⁻¹, 170.1 mg · L⁻¹, 123.4 mg · L⁻¹ respectively. Of these organic acids, formic acid was the most toxic one as indicated by that Fe2 and So oxidation was almost entirely inhibited at a low concentration. In addition, it was found that Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was more sensitive to low molecular organic acids than Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. What's more, there was little effect on biological acidification process of heavy metal contaminated soil when organic acids were added at initial stage (Oh), but it was completely inhibited when these acids were added after 12 h of conventional biological acidification, thus decreasing the efficiency of heavy metals dissolution from soil. PMID:27506054

  14. A Novel Permeable Reactive Barrier (PRB) for Simultaneous and Rapid Removal of Heavy Metal and Organic Matter - A Systematic Chemical Speciation Approach on Sustainable Technique for Pallikarani Marshland Remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvaraj, A.; Nambi, I. M.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, an innovative technique of ZVI mediated 'coupling of Fenton like oxidation of phenol and Cr(VI) reduction technique' was attempted. The hypothesis is that Fe3+ generated from Cr(VI) reduction process acts as electron acceptor and catalyst for Fenton's Phenol oxidation process. The Fe2+ formed from Fenton reactions can be reused for Cr(VI) reduction. Thus iron can be made to recycle between two reactions, changing back and forth between Fe2+ and Fe3+ forms, makes treatment sustainable.(Fig 1) This approach advances current Fenton like oxidation process by (i)single system removal of heavy metal and organic matter (ii)recycling of iron species; hence no additional iron required (iii)more contaminant removal to ZVI ratio (iv)eliminating sludge related issues. Preliminary batch studies were conducted at different modes i) concurrent removal ii) sequential removal. The sequential removal was found better for in-situ PRB applications. PRB was designed based on kinetic rate slope and half-life time, obtained from primary column study. This PRB has two segments (i)ZVI segment[Cr(VI)] (ii)iron species segment[phenol]. This makes treatment sustainable by (i) having no iron ions in outlet stream (ii)meeting hypothesis and elongates the life span of PRB. Sequential removal of contaminates were tested in pilot scale PRB(Fig 2) and its life span was calculated based on the exhaustion of filling material. Aqueous, sand and iron aliquots were collected at various segments of PRB and analyzed for precipitation and chemical speciation thoroughly (UV spectrometer, XRD, FTIR, electron microscope). Chemical speciation profile eliminates the uncertainties over in-situ PRB's long term performance. Based on the pilot scale PRB study, 'field level PRB wall construction' was suggested to remove heavy metal and organic compounds from Pallikaranai marshland(Fig 3)., which is contaminated with leachate coming from nearby Perungudi dumpsite. This research provides (i

  15. Effect of heavy metals on bacterial transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Olson, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    Adsorption of metals onto bacteria and soil takes place as stormwater runoff infiltrates into the subsurface. Changes in both bacterial surfaces and soil elemental content have been observed, and may alter the attachment of bacteria to soil surfaces. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses were performed on soil samples equilibrated with synthetic stormwater amended with copper, lead and zinc. The results demonstrate the presence of copper and zinc on soil surfaces. To investigate bacterial attachment behavior, sets of batch sorption experiments were conducted on Escherichia Coli (E. coli) under different chemical conditions by varying solution compositions (nutrient solution vs synthetic stormwater). The adsorption data is best described using theoretical linear isotherms. The equilibrium coefficient (Kd) of E. coli is higher in synthetic stormwater than in nutrient solution without heavy metals. The adsorption of heavy metals onto bacterial surfaces significantly decreases their negative surface charge as determined via zeta potential measurements (-17.0±5.96mv for E. coli equilibrated with synthetic stormwater vs -21.6±5.45mv for E. coli equilibrated with nutrient solution), indicating that bacterial attachment may increase due to the attachment of metals onto bacterial surfaces and their subsequent change in surface charge. The attachment efficiency (α) of bacteria was also calculated and compared for both solution chemistries. Bacterial attachment efficiency (α) in synthetic stormwater is 0.997, which is twice as high as that in nutrient solution(α 0.465). The ratio of bacterial diameter : collector diameter suggests minimal soil straining during bacterial transport. Results suggest that the presence of metals in synthetic stormwater leads to an increase in bacterial attachment to soil surfaces. In terms of designing stormwater infiltration basins, the presence of heavy metals seems to

  16. Bioremediation of heavy metals in liquid media through fungi isolated from contaminated sources.

    PubMed

    Joshi, P K; Swarup, Anand; Maheshwari, Sonu; Kumar, Raman; Singh, Namita

    2011-10-01

    Wastewater particularly from electroplating, paint, leather, metal and tanning industries contain enormous amount of heavy metals. Microorganisms including fungi have been reported to exclude heavy metals from wastewater through bioaccumulation and biosorption at low cost and in eco-friendly way. An attempt was, therefore, made to isolate fungi from sites contaminated with heavy metals for higher tolerance and removal of heavy metals from wastewater. Seventy-six fungal isolates tolerant to heavy metals like Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni were isolated from sewage, sludge and industrial effluents containing heavy metals. Four fungi (Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Aspegillus awamori, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma viride) also were included in this study. The majority of the fungal isolates were able to tolerate up to 400 ppm concentration of Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni. The most heavy metal tolerant fungi were studied for removal of heavy metals from liquid media at 50 ppm concentration. Results indicated removal of substantial amount of heavy metals by some of the fungi. With respect to Pb, Cd, Cr and Ni, maximum uptake of 59.67, 16.25, 0.55, and 0.55 mg/g was observed by fungi Pb3 (Aspergillus terreus), Trichoderma viride, Cr8 (Trichoderma longibrachiatum), and isolate Ni27 (A. niger) respectively. This indicated the potential of these fungi as biosorbent for removal of heavy metals from wastewater and industrial effluents containing higher concentration of heavy metals. PMID:23024411

  17. Coupling bioleaching and electrokinetics to remediate heavy metal contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingyun; Yu, Zhen; Pang, Ya; Wang, Yueqiang; Cai, Zhihong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, bioleaching was coupled with electrokinetics (BE) to remove heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb) from contaminated soil. For comparison, bioleaching (BL), electrokinetics (EK), and the chemical extraction method were also applied alone to remove the metals. The results showed that the BE method removed more heavy metals from the contaminated soil than the BL method or the EK method alone. The BE method was able to achieve metal solubilization rates of more than 70 % for Cu, Zn and Cr and of more than 40 % for Pb. Within the range of low current densities (<1 mA cm(-2)), higher current density led to more metal removal. However, the metal solubilization rates did not increase with increasing current density when the current density was higher than 1 mA cm(-2). Therefore, it is suggested that bioleaching coupled with electrokinetics can effectively remediate heavy metal-contaminated soils and that preliminary tests should be conducted before field operation to detect the lowest current density for the greatest metal removal. PMID:25680933

  18. The Heavy Metal Subculture and Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Assessed relationship between heavy metal music and suicide with data on heavy metal magazine subscriptions and youth suicide in 50 states. Found that, controlling for other predictors of suicide, greater strength of metal subculture, higher youth suicide rate, suggests that music perhaps nurtures suicidal tendencies already present in subculture.…

  19. Industrial hygiene of selected heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Woodring, J.L.

    1993-08-01

    The industrial hygiene of heavy metals consists of recognition, evaluation, and control of exposures in the occupational environment. Several of these metals have been in use since ancient times. Reports of health effects and poisonings from overexposures also have a long history. This report discusses the industrial hygiene of the heavy metals, lead, cadmium, mercury, and manganese.

  20. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on heavy metal decontamination in milk.

    PubMed

    Porova, Nataliya; Botvinnikova, Valentina; Krasulya, Olga; Cherepanov, Pavel; Potoroko, Irina

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasound has been found useful in increasing the efficiency and consumer safety in food processing. Removal of heavy metal (lead, mercury, and arsenic) contamination in milk is extremely important in regions of poor ecological environment - urban areas with heavy motor traffic or well established metallurgical/cement industry. In this communication, we report on the preliminary studies on the application of low frequency (20kHz) ultrasound for heavy metal decontamination of milk without affecting its physical, chemical, and microbiological properties. PMID:24746508

  1. Heavy metal displacement in chelate-irrigated soil during phytoremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madrid, F.; Liphadzi, M. S.; Kirkham, M. B.

    2003-03-01

    Heavy metals in wastewater sewage sludge (biosolids), applied to land, contaminate soils. Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up toxic heavy metals, might remove them. Chelating agents are added to soil to solubilize the metals for enhanced phytoextraction. Yet no studies follow the displacement and leaching of heavy metals in soil with and without roots following solubilization with chelates. The objective of this work was to determine the mobility of heavy metals in biosolids applied to the surface of soil columns (76 cm long; 17 cm diam.) with or without plants (barley; Hordeum vulgare L.). Three weeks after barley was planted, all columns were irrigated with the disodium salt of the chelating agent, EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid) (0.5 g/kg soil). Drainage water, soil, and plants were analyzed for heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn). Total concentrations of the heavy metals in all columns at the end of the experiment generally were lower in the top 30 cm of soil with EDTA than without EDTA. The chelate increased concentrations of heavy metals in shoots. With or without plants, the EDTA mobilized Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn, which leached to drainage water. Drainage water from columns without EDTA had concentrations of these heavy metals below detection limits. Only Cu did not leach in the presence of EDTA. Even though roots retarded the movement of Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn through the EDTA-treated soil from 1 d (Cd) to 5 d (Fe), the drainage water from columns with EDTA had concentrations of Cd, Fe, Mn, and Pb that exceeded drinking water standards by 1.3, 500, 620, and 8.6 times, respectively. Because the chelate rendered Cd, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn mobile, it is suggested that the theory for leaching of soluble salts, put forward by Nielsen and associates in 1965, could be applied to control movement of the heavy metals for maximum uptake during chelate-assisted phytoremediation.

  2. Heavy metals in Antarctic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, J.E.A. de; Moreno, V.J.; Gerpe, M.S.; Vodopivez, C.

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate levels of essential (zinc and copper) and non-essential (mercury and cadmium) heavy metals, 34 species of organisms from different areas close to the Antarctic Peninsula were analysed. These included algae, filter-feeders, omnivorous invertebrates and vertebrates. Mercury was not detected, while cadmium was found in the majority of organisms analysed (detection limit was 0.05 ppm for both metals). The highest cadmium concentration was observed in the starfish Odontaster validus. Anthozoans, sipunculids and nudibranchs showed maximum levels of zinc, while the highest copper level was found in the gastropod Trophon brevispira. Mercury and cadmium levels in fishes were below the detection limit. Concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in birds were highest in liver followed by muscle and eggs. Cadmium and mercury levels in muscle of southern elephant seals were above the detection limit, whereas in Antarctic fur seals they were below it. The objective of the study was to gather baseline information for metals in Antarctic Ocean biota that may be needed to detect, measure and monitor future environmental changes. 46 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Biosorption of heavy metals by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Volesky, B; May-Phillips, H A

    1995-01-01

    Abundant and common yeast biomass has been examined for its capacity to sequester heavy metals from dilute aqueous solutions. Live and non-living biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae differs in the uptake of uranium, zinc and copper at the optimum pH 4-5. Culture growth conditions can influence the biosorbent metal uptake capacity which normally was: living and non-living brewer's yeast: U > Zn > Cd > Cu; non-living baker's yeast: Zn > (Cd) > U > Cu; living baker's yeast: Zn > Cu approximately (Cd) > U. Non-living brewer's yeast biomass accumulated 0.58 mmol U/g. The best biosorbent of zinc was non-living baker's yeast (approximately 0.56 mmol Zn/g). Dead cells of S. cerevisiae removed approximately 40% more uranium or zinc than the corresponding live cultures. Biosorption of uranium by S. cerevisiae was a rapid process reaching 60% of the final uptake value within the first 15 min of contact. Its deposition differing from that of other heavy metals more associated with the cell wall, uranium was deposited as fine needle-like crystals both on the inside and outside of the S. cerevisiae cells. PMID:7765919

  4. Electrokinetic treatment of an agricultural soil contaminated with heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Arylein; Cameselle, Claudio; Gouveia, Susana; Hansen, Henrik K

    2016-07-28

    The high organic matter content in agricultural soils tends to complex and retain contaminants such as heavy metals. Electrokinetic remediation was tested in an agricultural soil contaminated with Co(+2), Zn(+2), Cd(+2), Cu(+2), Cr(VI), Pb(+2) and Hg(+2). The unenhanced electrokinetic treatment was not able to remove heavy metals from the soil due to the formation of precipitates in the alkaline environment in the soil section close to the cathode. Moreover, the interaction between metals and organic matter probably limited metal transportation under the effect of the electric field. Citric acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used in the catholyte as complexing agents in order to enhance the extractability and removal of heavy metals from soil. These complexing agents formed negatively charged complexes that migrated towards the anode. The acid front electrogenerated at the anode favored the dissolution of heavy metals that were transported towards the cathode. The combined effect of the soil pH and the complexing agents resulted in the accumulation of heavy metals in the center of the soil specimen. PMID:27127923

  5. Hazards of heavy metal contamination.

    PubMed

    Järup, Lars

    2003-01-01

    The main threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to lead, cadmium, mercury and arsenic. These metals have been extensively studied and their effects on human health regularly reviewed by international bodies such as the WHO. Heavy metals have been used by humans for thousands of years. Although several adverse health effects of heavy metals have been known for a long time, exposure to heavy metals continues, and is even increasing in some parts of the world, in particular in less developed countries, though emissions have declined in most developed countries over the last 100 years. Cadmium compounds are currently mainly used in re-chargeable nickel-cadmium batteries. Cadmium emissions have increased dramatically during the 20th century, one reason being that cadmium-containing products are rarely re-cycled, but often dumped together with household waste. Cigarette smoking is a major source of cadmium exposure. In non-smokers, food is the most important source of cadmium exposure. Recent data indicate that adverse health effects of cadmium exposure may occur at lower exposure levels than previously anticipated, primarily in the form of kidney damage but possibly also bone effects and fractures. Many individuals in Europe already exceed these exposure levels and the margin is very narrow for large groups. Therefore, measures should be taken to reduce cadmium exposure in the general population in order to minimize the risk of adverse health effects. The general population is primarily exposed to mercury via food, fish being a major source of methyl mercury exposure, and dental amalgam. The general population does not face a significant health risk from methyl mercury, although certain groups with high fish consumption may attain blood levels associated with a low risk of neurological damage to adults. Since there is a risk to the fetus in particular, pregnant women should avoid a high intake of certain fish, such as shark, swordfish and

  6. Removal of metals by sorghum plants from contaminated land.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Ping; Shu, Wensheng; Li, Zhian; Liao, Bin; Li, Jintian; Shao, Jingsong

    2009-01-01

    The growth of high biomass crops facilitated by optimal of agronomic practices has been considered as an alternative to phytoremediation of soils contaminated by heavy metals. A field trial was carried out to evaluate the phytoextraction efficiency of heavy metals by three varieties of sweet sorghum (Sorghum biocolor L.), a high biomass energy plant. Ethylene diamine tetraacetate (EDTA), ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) were tested for their abilities to enhance the removal of heavy metals Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu by sweet sorghum from a contaminated agricultural soil. Sorghum plants always achieved the greatest removal of Pb by leaves and the greatest removal of Cd, Zn and Cu by stems. There was no significant difference among the Keller, Rio and Mray varieties of sweet sorghums in accumulating heavy metals. EDTA treatment was more efficient than ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate in promoting Pb accumulation in sweet sorghum from the contaminated agricultural soil. The application of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulphate increased the accumulation of both Zn and Cd in roots of sorghum plants. Results from this study suggest that cropping of sorghum plants facilitated by agronomic practices may be a sustainable technique for partial decontamination of heavy metal contaminated soils. PMID:19999999

  7. Heavy-metal complexation by de novo peptide design.

    PubMed

    Farrer, Brian T; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2002-11-01

    From poisoning caused by lead-based paint on domestic buildings to groundwater contamination by naturally occurring arsenic deposits in India, heavy-metal toxicity is a global health problem. Contaminated ground water and acute cases of heavy-metal poisoning are treated with chelators to remove the heavy metals from the contaminated site or person. This review discusses the effort to generate heavy-metal chelators through peptide de novo design. De novo design entails the design of a primary sequence that will precisely fold into a predetermined secondary and tertiary protein structure. The first-generation peptide chelator used to initiate this investigation is the three-stranded coild coil containing Cys. Cys provides a potential trigonal binding site with soft thiolate ligands, which has been proposed to provide specific interactions with heavy metals. This hypothesis derives from the observation that similar sites on natural proteins show selectivity for heavy metals over other essential metals, such as Zn or Mg. A description of two systems, the TRI series and the IZ-AC peptide, is given, highlighting the interaction of these peptides with Hg, Cd, As and Pb. Arguments are also presented for the potential use of three-helix bundles as a second-generation design. PMID:12478724

  8. REMOVAL OF METALS IN COMBINED TREATMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project assessed the variables influencing the removal of eight metals through combined industrial-municipal treatment plants. The eight metals investigated were: aluminum, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, nickel, and zinc. The metals were studied at subtoxic influent ...

  9. FINAL REPORT. HEAVY METAL PUMPS IN PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The long term goal of the funded research is to understand how heavy metals are taken up from the soil and translocated throughout the plant. The potential application of this research is to create plants with better heavy metal uptake systems and thereby improve the ability of t...

  10. Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidal Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacourse, Eric; Claes, Michel; Villeneuve, Martine

    2001-01-01

    Studied differentiating characteristics of youth who prefer heavy metal music, worship music, and use music for vicarious release. Data for 275 secondary school students suggest that heavy metal music preference and worshipping is not related to suicidal risk when controlling for other suicide factors. Discusses findings in the context of…

  11. Heavy Metal, Religiosity, and Suicide Acceptability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stack, Steven

    1998-01-01

    Reports on data taken from the General Social Survey that found a link between "heavy metal" rock fanship and suicide acceptability. Finds that relationship becomes nonsignificant once level of religiosity is controlled. Heavy metal fans are low in religiosity, which contributes to greater suicide acceptability. (Author/JDM)

  12. Effect of heavy metals on soil fungi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosak-Świderska, Bożena

    2010-05-01

    Fungi constitute a high proportion of the microbial biomass in soil.Being widespread in soil their large surface-to-volume ratio and high metabolic activity, fungi can contribute significantly to heavy metal dynamics in soil. At neutral pH heavy metals in soils tend to be immobilized to precipitation and/or absorption to cation exchange sites of clay minerals. In the acidic soils, metals are more mobile and enter food webs easier. Microbial production of acids and chelating agents can mobilize to toxic metals. Mobilization is often by uptake and intracellular accumulation of the heavy metlas, and in this way, the bioavailability of metals towards other organisms can be more reduced. Fungi were isolated from soils from Upper Silesia in Poland and belonged to widespread genera: Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Penicillium and Trichoderma. Fungi from different taxonomic groups differ greatly in their tolerance to heavy metals. This could be related to their wall structure and chemistry as well as biochemical and physiological characteristics of fungi. Localization of metals in fungal cells was studied using electron microscopy analysis. Metal biosorption in the cell wall can be complex as melanin granules. Fungal vacuoles have an important role in the regulation of the cytosolic concentration of metal ions, and may contribute to heavy metal tolerance.In polluted soils with heavy metals, fungal species composition can be changed and their physiological activity can be changed, too.

  13. Oil palm biomass as an adsorbent for heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Mohammadtaghi; Rafatullah, Mohd; Ibrahim, Mahamad Hakimi; Abdullah, Ahmad Zuhairi; Salamatinia, Babak; Gholami, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Many industries discharge untreated wastewater into the environment. Heavy metals from many industrial processes end up as hazardous pollutants of wastewaters.Heavy metal pollution has increased in recent decades and there is a growing concern for the public health risk they may pose. To remove heavy metal ions from polluted waste streams, adsorption processes are among the most common and effective treatment methods. The adsorbents that are used to remove heavy metal ions from aqueous media have both advantages and disadvantages. Cost and effectiveness are two of the most prominent criteria for choosing adsorbents. Because cost is so important, great effort has been extended to study and find effective lower cost adsorbents.One class of adsorbents that is gaining considerable attention is agricultural wastes. Among many alternatives, palm oil biomasses have shown promise as effective adsorbents for removing heavy metals from wastewater. The palm oil industry has rapidly expanded in recent years, and a large amount of palm oil biomass is available. This biomass is a low-cost agricultural waste that exhibits, either in its raw form or after being processed, the potential for eliminating heavy metal ions from wastewater. In this article, we provide background information on oil palm biomass and describe studies that indicate its potential as an alternative adsorbent for removing heavy metal ions from wastewater. From having reviewed the cogent literature on this topic we are encouraged that low-cost oil-palm-related adsorbents have already demonstrated outstanding removal capabilities for various pollutants.Because cost is so important to those who choose to clean waste streams by using adsorbents, the use of cheap sources of unconventional adsorbents is increasingly being investigated. An adsorbent is considered to be inexpensive when it is readily available, is environmentally friendly, is cost-effective and be effectively used in economical processes. The

  14. Phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by Jatropha curcas.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fang-Chih; Ko, Chun-Han; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Wang, Ya-Nang; Chung, Chin-Yi

    2014-12-01

    This study employed Jatropha curcas (bioenergy crop plant) to assist in the removal of heavy metals from contaminated field soils. Analyses were conducted on the concentrations of the individual metals in the soil and in the plants, and their differences over the growth periods of the plants were determined. The calculation of plant biomass after 2 years yielded the total amount of each metal that was removed from the soil. In terms of the absorption of heavy metal contaminants by the roots and their transfer to aerial plant parts, Cd, Ni, and Zn exhibited the greatest ease of absorption, whereas Cu, Cr, and Pb interacted strongly with the root cells and remained in the roots of the plants. J. curcas showed the best absorption capability for Cd, Cr, Ni, and Zn. This study pioneered the concept of combining both bioremediation and afforestation by J. curcas, demonstrated at a field scale. PMID:25236867

  15. Ecological risk and pollution history of heavy metals in Nansha mangrove, South China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qihang; Tam, Nora F Y; Leung, Jonathan Y S; Zhou, Xizhen; Fu, Jie; Yao, Bo; Huang, Xuexia; Xia, Lihua

    2014-06-01

    Owing to the Industrial Revolution in the late 1970s, heavy metal pollution has been regarded as a serious threat to mangrove ecosystems in the region of the Pearl River Estuary, potentially affecting human health. The present study attempted to characterize the ecological risk of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in Nansha mangrove, South China, by estimating their concentrations in the surface sediment. In addition, the pollution history of heavy metals was examined by determining the concentrations of heavy metals along the depth gradient. The phytoremediation potential of heavy metals by the dominant plants in Nansha mangrove, namely Sonneratia apetala and Cyperus malaccensis, was also studied. Results found that the surface sediment was severely contaminated with heavy metals, probably due to the discharge of industrial sewage into the Pearl River Estuary. Spatial variation of heavy metals was generally unobvious. The ecological risk of heavy metals was very high, largely due to Cd contamination. All heavy metals, except Mn, decreased with depth, indicating that heavy metal pollution has been deteriorating since 1979. Worse still, the dominant plants in Nansha mangrove had limited capability to remove the heavy metals from sediment. Therefore, we propose that immediate actions, such as regulation of discharge standards of industrial sewage, should be taken by the authorities concerned to mitigate the ecological risk posed by heavy metals. PMID:24675443

  16. Stabilization of heavy metals in sludge ceramsite.

    PubMed

    Xu, G R; Zou, J L; Li, G B

    2010-05-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the stabilization behaviours of heavy metals in ceramsite made from wastewater treatment sludge (WWTS) and drinking-water treatment sludge (DWTS). Leaching tests were conducted to find out the effects of sintering temperature, (Fe(2)O(3) + CaO + MgO)/(SiO(2) + Al(2)O(3)) (defined as F/SA ratios), pH, and oxidative condition. Results show that sintering exhibits good binding capacity for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb in ceramsite and leaching contents of heavy metals will not change above 1000 degrees C. The main crystalline phases in ceramsite sintered at 1000 degrees C are kyanite, quartz, Na-Ca feldspars, sillimanite, and enstatite. The main compounds of heavy metals are crocoite, chrome oxide, cadmium silicate, and copper oxide. Leaching contents of Cd, Cu, and Pb increase as the F/SA ratios increase. Heavy metals in ceramsite with variation of F/SA ratios are also in same steady forms, which prove that stronger chemical bonds are formed between these heavy metals and the components. Leaching contents of heavy metals decrease as pH increases and increase as H(2)O(2) concentration increases. The results indicate that when subjected to rigorous leaching conditions, the crystalline structures still exhibit good chemical binding capacity for heavy metals. In conclusion, it is environmentally safe to use ceramsite in civil and construction fields. PMID:20219229

  17. Mechanisms of bacterial metals removal from solids

    SciTech Connect

    Torma, A.E.; Pryfogle, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Great Lakes area sediments are contaminated with varying amounts of heavy metals and polychlorinated organic matter. With respect to the bioremediation of metallic contents of these sediments, it was shown that a number of microorganisms exist which can effectively solubilize heavy metals. The basic reaction mechanisms of bioleaching processes were discussed and the effects of semiconductor character of the sulfide substrate explained. A special emphasis was made to comment on INEL's bioremediation capability. 37 refs.

  18. Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Gangwal, S.; Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-07-27

    A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption process, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gases from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or passivating the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

  19. Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Gangwal, Santosh; Jothimurugesan, Kandaswamy

    1999-01-01

    A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption processes, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gasses from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or "passivating" the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

  20. Heavy metals in drinking water: Occurrences, implications, and future needs in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Mazumder, M A Jafar; Al-Attas, Omar; Husain, Tahir

    2016-11-01

    Heavy metals in drinking water pose a threat to human health. Populations are exposed to heavy metals primarily through water consumption, but few heavy metals can bioaccumulate in the human body (e.g., in lipids and the gastrointestinal system) and may induce cancer and other risks. To date, few thousand publications have reported various aspects of heavy metals in drinking water, including the types and quantities of metals in drinking water, their sources, factors affecting their concentrations at exposure points, human exposure, potential risks, and their removal from drinking water. Many developing countries are faced with the challenge of reducing human exposure to heavy metals, mainly due to their limited economic capacities to use advanced technologies for heavy metal removal. This paper aims to review the state of research on heavy metals in drinking water in developing countries; understand their types and variability, sources, exposure, possible health effects, and removal; and analyze the factors contributing to heavy metals in drinking water. This study identifies the current challenges in developing countries, and future research needs to reduce the levels of heavy metals in drinking water. PMID:27355520

  1. Robust removal of heavy metals from water by intercalation chalcogenide [CH3NH3]2xMnxSn3-xS6·0.5H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian-Rong; Wang, Xu; Yuan, Baoling; Fu, Ming-Lai; Cui, Hao-Jie

    2014-11-01

    The intercalation chalcogenide, [CH3NH3]2xMnxSn3-xS6·0.5H2O (x = 0.5-1.1) (CMS), was synthesized by simply hydrothermal method, which exhibited excellent adsorption properties for the removal of Cd2+/Pb2+. CNS analysis, SEM-EDX, ICP-OES, TG-DTG, XPS, N2 physical-adsorption and XRD were used to characterize the crystal structure, chemical composition and micro-morphologies of CMS material. The results indicated that the CH3NH3+ ions intercalated between the layers can exchange with heavy metal ions in the solution. The pH effect on Cd2+/Pb2+ adsorption was slight and the suitable pH value for Cd2+/Pb2+ removal by CMS materials was between 2 to 7. The equilibrium times were 7 h for 200 mg/L Cd2+ and 2 h for 400 mg/L Pb2+, respectively, and the adsorption kinetics was in agreement with pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The adsorption capacities of the CMS for Cd2+ and Pb2+ were 515 mg/g for Cd2+ and 1053 mg/g at 20 °C, respectively. The Freundlich isotherm was applied to describe the adsorption process, which fit the experimental dates well. Competitive adsorption results showed that the presence of 1 M Na+, Ca2+ or Mg2+ exerted slightly inhibiting effect on Cd2+/Pb2+ adsorption. The reaction temperature also affected the adsorption capacity of CMS. The adsorbed CMS can be considered as an excellent permanent waste form without the risk of lease of heavy metals.

  2. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF A NOVEL HEAVY METAL UPTAKE TRANSPORTER FROM HIGHER PLANTS & ITS POTENTIAL FOR USE IN PHYTOREMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils with high levels of heavy metals such as Cd, Cr and Pb are detrimental to human and animal health. Many human disorders have been attributed to environmental contamination by heavy metals. Removal of heavy metals from highly contaminated soils is therefore a very costly but...

  3. Community responses of aquatic insects to heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, W.H.; Cherry, D.S.; Cairns, J.

    1987-07-01

    Community level toxicity tests were conducted in outdoor experimental streams to examine the responses of aquatic insects to heavy metals. Introduced substrates (plastic trays filled with small cobble) were colonized at several locations in a river impacted by heavy metals. After 30 d, 4delta trays from an upstream control site were transferred to 12 outdoor experimental streams. Each stream was randomly assigned to one of three treatments: control, low metals, and high metals. Two trays were removed from each stream after 4 and 10 d exposure. Community structure on these trays was compared to field data collected from control and impacted sites. Macroinvertebrate density and number of taxa were reduced in both treated streams and at impacted field sites. Owing to differences in relative sensitivity to metals, the percent composition of dominant taxa also varied among treatments.

  4. Heavy metal contamination from geothermal sources.

    PubMed Central

    Sabadell, J E; Axtmann, R C

    1975-01-01

    Liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs, which contain saline fluids at high temperatures and pressures, have a significant potential for contamination of the environment by heavy metals. The design of the power conversion cycle in a liquid-dominated geothermal plant is a key factor in determining the impact of the installation. Reinjection of the fluid into the reservoir minimizes heavy metal effluents but is routinely practiced at few installations. Binary power cycles with reinjection would provide even cleaner systems but are not yet ready for commercial application. Vapor-dominated systems, which contain superheated steam, have less potential for contamination but are relatively uncommon. Field data on heavy metal effluents from geothermal plants are sparse and confounded by contributions from "natural" sources such as geysers and hot springs which often exist nearby. Insofar as geothermal power supplies are destined to multiply, much work is required on their environmental effects including those caused by heavy metals. PMID:1227849

  5. Heavy metal contamination from geothermal sources.

    PubMed

    Sabadell, J E; Axtmann, R C

    1975-12-01

    Liquid-dominated hydrothermal reservoirs, which contain saline fluids at high temperatures and pressures, have a significant potential for contamination of the environment by heavy metals. The design of the power conversion cycle in a liquid-dominated geothermal plant is a key factor in determining the impact of the installation. Reinjection of the fluid into the reservoir minimizes heavy metal effluents but is routinely practiced at few installations. Binary power cycles with reinjection would provide even cleaner systems but are not yet ready for commercial application. Vapor-dominated systems, which contain superheated steam, have less potential for contamination but are relatively uncommon. Field data on heavy metal effluents from geothermal plants are sparse and confounded by contributions from "natural" sources such as geysers and hot springs which often exist nearby. Insofar as geothermal power supplies are destined to multiply, much work is required on their environmental effects including those caused by heavy metals. PMID:1227849

  6. Enhanced metal removal from wastewater by coagulant addition

    SciTech Connect

    Karthikeyan, K.G.; Elliott, H.A.; Cannon, F.S.

    1996-11-01

    Besides metallurgical industries, metal-containing wastewaters are generated in the manufacturing/processing of batteries, petroleum, photographic materials, paints, inks, leather, and wood. The toxic nature of the heavy metals has resulted in the promulgation of standards requiring very low concentration of metals in the treated effluent. To comply with the strict regulatory requirements, it is necessary to treat the wastewaters (both industrial and municipal) before discharging them into natural water bodies. The objective of this study was to compare the pH-dependent Cu and Cd removal profiles for simple precipitation, adsorption, and coprecipitation in the presence of freshly-formed hydrous oxides of Fe and Al. Because of the significantly different pH at which hydrolysis/precipitation occurs, Cu and Cd were chosen as representative heavy metals. The results have been interpreted in the context of investing the use of coagulants to achieve low metal concentrations in wastewater effluents.

  7. Heavy metals and living systems: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Reena; Gautam, Neetu; Mishra, Anurag; Gupta, Rajiv

    2011-01-01

    Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. This results in accumulation of metals in plant parts having secondary metabolites, which is responsible for a particular pharmacological activity. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Molecular understanding of plant metal accumulation has numerous biotechnological implications also, the long term effects of which might not be yet known. PMID:21713085

  8. Development of a Microbe-Zeolite Carrier for the Effective Elimination of Heavy Metals from Seawater.

    PubMed

    Kim, In Hwa; Choi, Jin-Ha; Joo, Jeong Ock; Kim, Young-Kee; Choi, Jeong-Woo; Oh, Byung-Keun

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of zeolite-supported sulfatereducing bacteria (SRB) in enhancing the removal of Cu(2+), Ni(2+), and Cr(6+) in contaminated seawater. Our results show that SRB-immobilized zeolite carriers can enhance the removal of heavy metals. In addition, heavy metals were generally better removed at conditions of 37°C. Cu(2+), Ni(2+), and Cr(6+) were effectively removed by 98.2%, 90.1%, and 99.8% at 100 parts per million concentration of the heavy metals, respectively. These results indicate that SRB-zeolite carriers hold great potential for use in the removal of cationic heavy metal species from marine environment. PMID:26032363

  9. Phytoremediation potential of Lemna minor L. for heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Bokhari, Syeda Huma; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Mahmood-Ul-Hassan, Muhammad; Mohammad, Ashiq

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation potential of L. minor for cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and nickel (Ni) from two different types of effluent in raw form was evaluated in a glass house experiment using hydroponic studies for a period of 31 days. Heavy metals concentration in water and plant sample was analyzed at 3, 10, 17, 24, and 31 day. Removal efficiency, metal uptake and bio-concentration factor were also calculated. Effluents were initially analyzed for physical, chemical and microbiological parameters and results indicated that municipal effluent (ME) was highly contaminated in terms of nutrient and organic load than sewage mixed industrial effluent (SMIE). Results confirmed the accumulation of heavy metals within plant and subsequent decrease in the effluents. Removal efficiency was greater than 80% for all metals and maximum removal was observed for nickel (99%) from SMIE. Accumulation and uptake of lead in dry biomass was significantly higher than other metals. Bio-concentration factors were less than 1000 and maximum BCFs were found for copper (558) and lead (523.1) indicated that plant is a moderate accumulator of both metals. Overall, L. minor showed better performance from SMIE and was more effective in extracting lead than other metals. PMID:26114480

  10. Heavy Metal Risk Management: Case Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Ae; Lee, Seung Ha; Choi, Seung Hyun; Jung, Ki Kyung; Park, Mi Sun; Jeong, Ji Yoon; Hwang, Myung Sil; Yoon, Hae Jung; Choi, Dal Woong

    2012-01-01

    To prepare measures for practical policy utilization and the control of heavy metals, hazard control related institutions by country, present states of control by country, and present states of control by heavy metals were examined. Hazard control cases by heavy metals in various countries were compared and analyzed. In certain countries (e.g., the U.S., the U.K., and Japan), hazardous substances found in foods (e.g., arsenic, lead, cadmium, and mercury) are controlled. In addition, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) recommends calculating the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of individual heavy metals instead of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) to compare their pollution levels considering their toxicity accumulated in the human body. In Korea, exposure assessments have been conducted, and in other countries, hazardous substances are controlled by various governing bodies. As such, in Korea and other countries, diverse food heavy metal monitoring and human body exposure assessments are conducted, and reducing measures are prepared accordingly. To reduce the danger of hazardous substances, many countries provide leaflets and guidelines, develop hazardous heavy metal intake recommendations, and take necessary actions. Hazard control case analyses can assist in securing consumer safety by establishing systematic and reliable hazard control methods. PMID:24278603

  11. Ion Mobility Spectrometry of Heavy Metals.

    PubMed

    Ilbeigi, Vahideh; Valadbeigi, Younes; Tabrizchi, Mahmoud

    2016-07-19

    A simple, fast, and inexpensive method was developed for detecting heavy metals via the ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) in the negative mode. In this method, Cl(-) ion produced by the thermal ionization of NaCl is employed as the dopant or the ionizing reagent to ionize heavy metals. In practice, a solution of mixed heavy metals and NaCl salts was directly deposited on a Nichrome filament and electrically heated to vaporize the salts. This produced the IMS spectra of several heavy-metal salts, including CdCl2, ZnSO4, NiCl2, HgSO4, HgCl2, PbI2, and Pb(Ac)2. For each heavy metal (M), one or two major peaks were observed, which were attributed to M·Cl(-) or [M·NaCl]Cl(-)complexes. The method proved to be useful for the analysis of mixed heavy metals. The absolute detection limits measured for ZnSO4 and HgSO4 were 0.1 and 0.05 μg, respectively. PMID:27321408

  12. Hydrate-based heavy metal separation from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yongchen; Dong, Hongsheng; Yang, Lei; Yang, Mingjun; Li, Yanghui; Ling, Zheng; Zhao, Jiafei

    2016-02-01

    A novel hydrate-based method is proposed for separating heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. We report the first batch of experiments and removal characteristics in this paper, the effectiveness and feasibility of which are verified by Raman spectroscopy analysis and cross-experiment. 88.01-90.82% of removal efficiencies for Cr3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ were obtained. Further study showed that higher R141b-effluent volume ratio contributed to higher enrichment factor and yield of dissociated water, while lower R141b-effluent volume ratio resulted in higher removal efficiency. This study provides insights into low-energy, intensive treatment of wastewater.

  13. Bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals and related trace elements

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, C.B.; Speigel, S.J.

    1983-06-01

    A literature review of bioaccumulation and toxicity of heavy metals is presented. The most common heavy metals studied were Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Sn, Hg, and Pb. The studies dealt with heavy metals in the environment, bioconcentration, toxicity, and detoxification of heavy metals. (JMT)

  14. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOEpatents

    Royer, L.T.

    1987-03-20

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  15. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOEpatents

    Royer, Lamar T.

    1988-01-01

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  16. ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS IN STORMWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Stormwater sampling for colloidal and dissolved metals and organic carbon has been initiated at six outfalls draining locally-designated, nonindustrial land uses in Monmouth County, NJ. Of the heavy metals, only Cu and Zn were found in all samples, mostly in dissolved form. Large...

  17. Phytomining of heavy metals from soil by Croton bonplandianum using phytoremediation technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchal, K. J.; Dave, B. R.; Parmar, P. P.; Subramanian, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    Metal ions are not only valuable intermediates in metal extraction, but also important raw materials for technical applications. They possess some unique but, identical physical and chemical properties, which make them useful probes of low temperature geochemical reactions. Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth's crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. Metal concentration in soil typically ranges from less than one to as high as 100,000 mg/kg. Heavy metal contaminations of land resources continue to be the focus of numerous environmental studies and attract a great deal of attention worldwide. This is attributed to no--biodegradability and persistence of heavy metals in soils. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in humans. Complexation, separation, and removal of metal ions have become increasingly attractive areas of research and have led to new technical developments like phytoremediation that has numerous biotechnological implications of understanding of plant metal accumulation. Croton bonplandianum is newly identified as a potential heavy metal hypreaccumulator. In this study Croton bonplandianum was subjected for in vitro heavy metal accumulation, to explore the accumulation pattern of four heavy metals viz Cadmium, Lead, Nickel and Zinc in various parts of Croton bonplandianum plant parts. It was found that the efficiency of Croton bonplandianum to accumulate heavy metals is Cd>Pb>Zn>Ni. The absorption of these heavy metals in plant parts revealed that the highest translocation of metals from ground to root was ground to be in the order of Pb (1.12) > Zn (0.26) > Ni (0.18) > Cd (0.15). The distribution of Cd in Croton bonplandianum followed the trend Root>Stem>Leaf; with Ni it was Root>Leaf>Stem, while Pb showed leaf>stem>root. Translocation of metals in Croton bonplandianum plant parts

  18. Contribution of the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis to heavy metal phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Göhre, Vera; Paszkowski, Uta

    2006-05-01

    High concentrations of heavy metals (HM) in the soil have detrimental effects on ecosystems and are a risk to human health as they can enter the food chain via agricultural products or contaminated drinking water. Phytoremediation, a sustainable and inexpensive technology based on the removal of pollutants from the environment by plants, is becoming an increasingly important objective in plant research. However, as phytoremediation is a slow process, improvement of efficiency and thus increased stabilization or removal of HMs from soils is an important goal. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi provide an attractive system to advance plant-based environmental clean-up. During symbiotic interaction the hyphal network functionally extends the root system of their hosts. Thus, plants in symbiosis with AM fungi have the potential to take up HM from an enlarged soil volume. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about the contribution of the AM symbiosis to phytoremediation of heavy metals. PMID:16555102

  19. Heavy metal contaminants in yerberia shop products.

    PubMed

    Levine, Michael; Mihalic, Jason; Ruha, Anne-Michelle; French, Robert N E; Brooks, Daniel E

    2013-03-01

    Complementary and alternative medications, including the use of herbal medications, have become quite popular in the USA. Yerberias are found throughout the southwest and specialize in selling Hispanic herbal products. The products sold in these stores are not regulated by any governmental agency. Previous reports have found Ayurvedic medications contain high levels of lead, mercury, and arsenic. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the prevalence of heavy metal contaminants sold at Yerberia stores in the southwest. Yerberias in the Phoenix, Arizona area were identified via search of an on-line search engine using the words "Yerberia Phoenix." Every second store was selected, and products were purchased using a standard script. The products were subsequently analyzed for mercury, lead, and arsenic. The main outcome is the prevalence of heavy metal content in over-the-counter "cold" medications purchased at a Yerberia. Twenty-two samples were purchased. One product contained pure camphor (2-camphone) and was subsequently not further analyzed. Of the 21 samples analyzed, lead was found in 4/21 (19.4 %). Arsenic and mercury were in 1/21 (4.8 %) each. Because two samples contained two heavy metals, the total prevalence of heavy metals was 4/21 (19.4). Heavy metal contaminants are commonly encountered in over-the-counter herbal "cold" medications purchased at Yerberias in the southwest. PMID:22562238

  20. Heavy Metal Poisoning and Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Alissa, Eman M.; Ferns, Gordon A.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an increasing world health problem. Traditional risk factors fail to account for all deaths from CVD. It is mainly the environmental, dietary and lifestyle behavioral factors that are the control keys in the progress of this disease. The potential association between chronic heavy metal exposure, like arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, and CVD has been less well defined. The mechanism through which heavy metals act to increase cardiovascular risk factors may act still remains unknown, although impaired antioxidants metabolism and oxidative stress may play a role. However, the exact mechanism of CVD induced by heavy metals deserves further investigation either through animal experiments or through molecular and cellular studies. Furthermore, large-scale prospective studies with follow up on general populations using appropriate biomarkers and cardiovascular endpoints might be recommended to identify the factors that predispose to heavy metals toxicity in CVD. In this review, we will give a brief summary of heavy metals homeostasis, followed by a description of the available evidence for their link with CVD and the proposed mechanisms of action by which their toxic effects might be explained. Finally, suspected interactions between genetic, nutritional and environmental factors are discussed. PMID:21912545

  1. Catalyst regeneration process including metal contaminants removal

    DOEpatents

    Ganguli, Partha S.

    1984-01-01

    Spent catalysts removed from a catalytic hydrogenation process for hydrocarbon feedstocks, and containing undesired metals contaminants deposits, are regenerated. Following solvent washing to remove process oils, the catalyst is treated either with chemicals which form sulfate or oxysulfate compounds with the metals contaminants, or with acids which remove the metal contaminants, such as 5-50 W % sulfuric acid in aqueous solution and 0-10 W % ammonium ion solutions to substantially remove the metals deposits. The acid treating occurs within the temperature range of 60.degree.-250.degree. F. for 5-120 minutes at substantially atmospheric pressure. Carbon deposits are removed from the treated catalyst by carbon burnoff at 800.degree.-900.degree. F. temperature, using 1-6 V % oxygen in an inert gas mixture, after which the regenerated catalyst can be effectively reused in the catalytic process.

  2. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOEpatents

    Brigmon, Robin L.; Story, Sandra; Altman, Denis; Berry, Christopher J.

    2009-01-06

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  3. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOEpatents

    Brigmon, Robin L.; Story, Sandra; Altman, Denis J.; Berry, Christopher J.

    2011-03-15

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  4. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOEpatents

    Brigmon, Robin L.; Story, Sandra; Altman; Denis J.; Berry, Christopher J.

    2011-03-29

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  5. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOEpatents

    Brigmon, Robin L.; Story, Sandra; Altman, Denis J.; Berry, Christopher J.

    2011-05-03

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  6. A biosystem for removal of metal ions from water

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II.

    1990-01-01

    The presence of heavy metal ions in ground and surface waters constitutes a potential health risk and is an environmental concern. Moreover, processes for the recovery of valuable metal ions are of interest. Bioaccumulation or biosorption is not only a factor in assessing the environmental risk posed by metal ions; it can also be used as a means of decontamination. A biological system for the removal and recovery of metal ions from contaminated water is reported here. Exopolysaccharide-producing microorganisms, including a methanotrophic culture, are demonstrated to have superior metal binding ability, compared with other microbial cultures. This paper describes a biosorption process in which dried biomass obtained from exopolysaccharide-producing microorganisms is encapsulated in porous plastic beads and is used for metal ion binding and recovery. 22 refs., 13 figs.

  7. Adsorption behavior of heavy metals on biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Minamisawa, Mayumi; Minamisawa, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Shoichiro; Takai, Nobuharu

    2004-09-01

    We have investigated adsorption of Cd(II) and Pb(II) at pH 2-6.7 onto the biomaterials chitosan, coffee, green tea, tea, yuzu, aloe, and Japanese coarse tea, and onto the inorganic adsorbents, activated carbon and zeolite. High adsorptive capabilities were observed for all of the biomaterials at pH 4 and 6.7. In the adsorption of Cd(II), blend coffee, tea, green tea, and coarse tea have comparable loading capacities to activated carbon and zeolite. Although activated carbon, zeolite, and chitosan are utilized in a variety of fields such as wastewater treatment, chemical and metallurgical engineering, and analytical chemistry, these adsorbents are costly. On the other hand, processing of the test biomaterials was inexpensive, and all the biomaterials except for chitosan were able to adsorb large amounts of Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions after a convenient pretreatment of washing with water followed by drying. The high adsorption capability of the biomaterials prepared from plant materials is promising in the development of a novel, low-cost adsorbent. From these results, it is concluded that heavy metal removal using biomaterials would be an effective method for the economic treatment of wastewater. The proposed adsorption method was applied to the determination of amounts of Cd(II) and Pb(II) in water samples. PMID:15373400

  8. Removal of metal cations from water using zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Zamzow, M.J.; Murphy, J.E. )

    1992-11-01

    Zeolites from abundant natural deposits were investigated by the Bureau of Mines for efficiently cleaning up mining industry wastewaters. Twenty-four zeolite samples were analyzed by x-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma. These included clinoptilolite, mordenite, chabazite, erionite, and phillipsite. Bulk densities of a sized fraction ([minus]40, +65 mesh) varied from 0.48 to 0.93 g/ml. Attrition losses ranged from 1 to 18% during an hour-long shake test. The 24 zeolites and an ion-exchange resin were tested for the uptake of Cd, Cu, and Zn. Of the natural zeolites, phillipsite proved to be the most efficient, while the mordenites had the lowest uptakes. Sodium was the most effective exchangeable ion for exchange of heavy metals. Wastewater from an abandoned copper mine in Nevada was used to test the effectiveness of clinoptilolite for treating a multi-ion wastewater. The metal ions Fe[sup 3+], Cu[sup 2+], and Zn[sup 2+] in the copper mine wastewater were removed to below drinking water standards, but Mn[sup 2+] and Ni[sup 2+] were not. Calcium and NH[sub 4][sup +] interfered with the uptake of heavy metals. Adsorbed heavy metals were eluted from zeolites with a 3% NaCl solution. Heavy metals were concentrated in the eluates up to 30-fold relative to the waste solution. Anions were not adsorbed by the zeolites.

  9. Community Heavy Metal Exposure, San Francisco, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavez, A.; Devine, M.; Ho, T.; Zapata, I.; Bissell, M.; Neiss, J.

    2008-12-01

    Heavy metals are natural elements that generally occur in minute concentrations in the earth's crust. While some of these elements, in small quantities, are vital to life, most are harmful in larger doses. Various industrial and agricultural processes can result in dangerously high concentrations of heavy metals in our environment. Consequently, humans can be exposed to unsafe levels of these elements via the air we breathe, the water and food we consume, and the many products we use. During a two week study we collected numerous samples of sediments, water, food, and household items from around the San Francisco Bay Area that represent industrial, agricultural, and urban/residential settings. We analyzed these samples for Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb), and Arsenic (As). Our goal was to examine the extent of our exposure to heavy metals in our daily lives. We discovered that many of the common foods and materials in our lives have become contaminated with unhealthy concentrations of these metals. Of our food samples, many exceeded the EPA's Maximum Contaminant Levels (MCL) set for each metal. Meats (fish, chicken, and beef) had higher amounts of each metal than did non-meat items. Heavy metals were also prevalent in varying concentrations in the environment. While many of our samples exceeded the EPA's Sediment Screening Level (SSL) for As, only two other samples surpassed the SSL set for Pb, and zero of our samples exceeded the SSL for Hg. Because of the serious health effects that can result from over-exposure to heavy metals, the information obtained in this study should be used to influence our future dietary and recreational habits.

  10. Heavy metal speciation in the composting process.

    PubMed

    Greenway, Gillian M; Song, Qi Jun

    2002-04-01

    Composting is one of the more efficient and environment friendly methods of solid waste disposal and has many advantages when compared with landfill disposal on which the UK and Ireland are currently heavily dependent. Composting is a very complicated process involving intensive microbial activity and the detailed mechanisms of the process have yet to be fully understood. Metal speciation information can provide an insight into the metal-microbial interaction and would help in the evaluation of the quality of compost. This would facilitate the exploitation of composts in remediation of heavy metal contaminated land. In this work a systematic approach to metal speciation in compost has been taken by applying the three-step method for operationally defined metal speciation of soils and sediments, developed by the European Commission's Standards, Measurement and Testing Programme to monitor the change in metal speciation with time (up to 106 days) for four different waste composting processes. The results have shown that in general metals become less available for the first extraction step as the composting process proceeds. This implies that composting tends to redistribute the metals from more labile forms to more fixed forms which may explain why the application of composts could be useful for with heavy metal contaminated land. There are exceptions to this trend and in some cases, certain metals appear to behave differently depending on the source of the compost. PMID:11993774

  11. A comparative study of the removal of heavy metal ions from water using a silica-polyamine composite and a polystyrene chelator resin

    SciTech Connect

    Beatty, S.T.; Fischer, R.J.; Hagers, D.L.; Rosenberg, E.

    1999-11-01

    The maximum Cu(II), Ni(II), and Co(II) ion capacities of a silica-poly(ethyleneimine) composite (WP-1) are compared with those of the commercially available iminodiacetic acid chelator resin Amberlite IRC-718. Under batch (static) conditions, IRC-718 exhibits better capacities for these metals than WP-1. Dynamic studies, however, revealed that WP-1 possessed a much higher capacity for all three divalent metals than IRC-718, with relative metal capacities in the order CU(II) {gt} CO(II) {approximately} Ni(II). In the presence of the competing chelator ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, the Cu(II) capacities of WP-1 and IRC-718 lost 48% and 45%, respectively, of their original adsorption values. Even with this decrease, however, WP-1 maintained a higher CU(II) capacity than IRC-718. Repeated cycle testing, using CU(II) solutions at both room temperature and 97 C, was conducted to compare the long-term stability of each material. WP-1 maintained 94% of its original Cu(II) capacity and maintained structural integrity after 3,000 cycles using room temperature copper solutions, while IRC-718 compressed and dropped to 64% of its original capacity. When boiling copper solutions were used, the capacity of WP-1 increased slightly over 1500 cycles, while IRC-718 lost 13% of its original copper capacity and again became compressed, indicating degradation of the polystyrene beads.

  12. Single and binary dye and heavy metal bioaccumulation properties of Candida tropicalis: use of response surface methodology (RSM) for the estimation of removal yields.

    PubMed

    Gönen, Ferda; Aksu, Zümriye

    2009-12-30

    The single and binary effects of initial Remazol Turquoise Blue-G (RTBG) reactive dye and initial copper(II) concentrations on the dye or/and copper(II) bioaccumulation efficiency of C. tropicalis was investigated in 10 g l(-1) molasses sucrose containing growth medium at an initial pH value of 4.0 and optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). A 2(2) full factorial central composite design was successfully used for experimental design and analyses of the results. Two numerical correlations fitted to a second-order quadratic equation were obtained to estimate the responses of dye and copper(II) removal yields. The statistical analysis indicated that although relatively high accumulation efficiency of C. tropicalis was obtained for the single removal of dye and copper(II), individual uptake of both the components from binary mixture was affected negatively by the addition of other component up to 500 mg l(-1) due to inhibition caused by high concentrations of RTBG dye and copper(II). The optimum combination predicted via RSM confirmed that growing C. tropicalis was capable of bioaccumulating RTBG and copper(II) with the maximum yields of 59.2% and 21.3% in the growth medium containing 50 mg l(-1) RTBG and 50 mg l(-1) copper(II) together, respectively. PMID:19720462

  13. Efficacy of chitosan and other natural polymers in removing COD, TSS, heavy metals and pahs from municipal wastewater at Deer Island, Massachusetts. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Murcott, S.; Harleman, D.R.F.

    1992-10-01

    A series of tests was conducted at the Deer Island Primary Treatment Plant during the spring and summer of 1992 to determine the efficacy of chitosan and other natural polymers as coagulants, coagulant aids and flocculents in wastewater treatment. Prior to this undertaking, as part of the MIT Investigation of Chemically Enhanced Primary Treatment at the MWRA Project, the efficacy of metal salts and synthetic polymers had been studied at Deer Island. Those tests provided the standard against which to measure the viability of natural polymer use in municipal wastewater treatment. The major conclusions of the chitosan and other natural polymers study for Deer Island wastewater are included.

  14. BACTERIAL SORPTION OF HEAVY METALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four bacteria, Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were examined for the ability to remove Ag+, Cd2+, Cu2+, and La3+ from solution by batch equilibration methods. d and Cu sorption over the concentration range 0.001 to 1 mM was described by...

  15. Removal of metals in constructed wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Crites, R.W.; Watson, R.C.; Williams, C.R.

    1996-12-31

    Trace metals are difficult to remove from municipal wastewater by conventional wastewater treatment methods. Constructed wetlands have the potential to trap and remove metals from the water column. Long term removal is expected to occur by accumulation and burial in the plant detritus in a manner similar to the removal of phosphorus. Few data are available in the literature on removal of metals by constructed wetlands. A free water surface constructed wetland at Sacramento Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant treating secondary municipal effluent has been operating since the spring of 1994. Removal data for 13 metals are presented for the period from August 1994 to May 1995. About 3,785 m{sup 3}/d (1 mgd) of pure oxygen activated sludge effluent, disinfected using UV light, is further treated through a 8 ha (20 acre) constructed wetlands Ten separate, parallel treatment cells are available to demonstrate the effects of detention time, vegetation management, and application frequency on the removal of metals, organics and ammonia. Detention time can be varied from 3 to 13 days by varying the flow and the water depth. The vegetation, primarily bulrush with some cattails, will be managed by different techniques to minimize mosquito production. Application frequency varies from continuous flow to batch flow (1 to 2 days of loading with 1 day of discharge).

  16. Removal of gadolinium nitrate from heavy water

    SciTech Connect

    Wilde, E.W.

    2000-03-22

    Work was conducted to develop a cost-effective process to purify 181 55-gallon drums containing spent heavy water moderator (D2O) contaminated with high concentrations of gadolinium nitrate, a chemical used as a neutron poison during former nuclear reactor operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS). These drums also contain low level radioactive contamination, including tritium, which complicates treatment options. Presently, the drums of degraded moderator are being stored on site. It was suggested that a process utilizing biological mechanisms could potentially lower the total cost of heavy water purification by allowing the use of smaller equipment with less product loss and a reduction in the quantity of secondary waste materials produced by the current baseline process (ion exchange).

  17. Heavy metal detoxification in eukaryotic microalgae.

    PubMed

    Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Peña-Castro, Julián Mario; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2006-06-01

    Microalgae are aquatic organisms possessing molecular mechanisms that allow them to discriminate non-essential heavy metals from those essential ones for their growth. The different detoxification processes executed by algae are reviewed with special emphasis on those involving the peptides metallothioneins, mainly the post transcriptionally synthesized class III metallothioneins or phytochelatins. Also, the features that make microalgae suitable organisms technologies specially to treat water that is heavily polluted with metals is discussed. PMID:16405948

  18. Physical properties and heavy metal uptake of encapsulated Escherichia coli expressing a metal binding gene (NCP).

    PubMed

    Bang, S S; Pazirandeh, M

    1999-01-01

    A recombinant Escherichia coli expressing the Neurospora crassa metallothionein gene (NCP) has previously been shown to remove low levels of Cd and other metals from solution. For further development as a biosorbent, the encapsulation of the NCP is investigated by various matrices. The NCP was encapsulated in alginate, chitosan-alginate or kappa-carrageenan, and its physical properties characterized. Results indicated that encapsulation in alginate resulted in fragile beads, whereas encapsulation in kappa-carrageenan or chitosan-alginate provided more physical and chemical integrity to the beads. Maximal heavy metal removal by cells encapsulated in carrageenan occurred within 3 h, while a gradual increase in removal was observed up to 24 h for cells encapsulated in chitosan-alginate. Metal removal by cells encapsulated in alginate beads was lower than those encapsulated in carrageenan or chitosan-alginate. PMID:10420333

  19. Heavy metal mining using microbes.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, Douglas E

    2002-01-01

    The use of acidiphilic, chemolithotrophic iron- and sulfur-oxidizing microbes in processes to recover metals from certain types of copper, uranium, and gold-bearing minerals or mineral concentrates is now well established. During these processes insoluble metal sulfides are oxidized to soluble metal sulfates. Mineral decomposition is believed to be mostly due to chemical attack by ferric iron, with the main role of the microorganisms being to reoxidize the resultant ferrous iron back to ferric iron. Currently operating industrial biomining processes have used bacteria that grow optimally from ambient to 50 degrees C, but thermophilic microbes have been isolated that have the potential to enable mineral biooxidation to be carried out at temperatures of 80 degrees C or higher. The development of higher-temperature processes will extend the variety of minerals that can be commercially processed. PMID:12142493

  20. Preparation of silica-supported porous sorbent for heavy metal ions removal in wastewater treatment by organic-inorganic hybridization combined with sucrose and polyethylene glycol imprinting.

    PubMed

    Li, Feng; Du, Ping; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Shusheng

    2007-03-01

    A new porous sorbent for wastewater treatment of metal ions was synthesized by covalent grafting of molecularly imprinted organic-inorganic hybrid on silica gel. With sucrose and polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000) being synergic imprinting molecules, covalent surface coating on silica gel was achieved by using polysaccharide-incorporated sol-gel process starting from the functional biopolymer, chitosan and an inorganic epoxy-precursor, gamma-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysiloxane (GPTMS) at room temperature. The prepared porous sorbent was characterized by using simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimeter (TG/DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption porosimetry measurement and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Copper ion, Cu(2+), was chosen as the model metal ion to evaluate the effectiveness of the new biosorbent in wastewater treatment. The influence of epoxy-siloxane dose, buffer pH and co-existed ions on Cu(2+) adsorption was assessed through batch experiments. The imprinted composite sorbent offered a fast kinetics for the adsorption of Cu(2+). The uptake capacity of the sorbent imprinted by two pore-building components was higher than those imprinted with only a single component. The dynamic adsorption in column underwent a good elimination of Cu(2+) in treating electric plating wastewater. The prepared composite sorbent exhibited high reusability. Easy preparation of the described porous composite sorbent, absence of organic solvents, cost-effectiveness and high stability make this approach attractive in biosorption. PMID:17386667

  1. Comparative studies on adsorptive removal of heavy metal ions by biosorbent, bio-char and activated carbon obtained from low cost agro-residue.

    PubMed

    Kırbıyık, Çisem; Pütün, Ayşe Eren; Pütün, Ersan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Fe(III) and Cr(III) metal ion adsorption processes were carried out with three adsorbents in batch experiments and their adsorption performance was compared. These adsorbents were sesame stalk without pretreatment, bio-char derived from thermal decomposition of biomass, and activated carbon which was obtained from chemical activation of biomass. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform-infrared techniques were used for characterization of adsorbents. The optimum conditions for the adsorption process were obtained by observing the influences of solution pH, adsorbent dosage, initial solution concentration, contact time and temperature. The optimum adsorption efficiencies were determined at pH 2.8 and pH 4.0 for Fe(III) and Cr(III) metal ion solutions, respectively. The experimental data were modelled by different isotherm models and the equilibriums were well described by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order kinetic, intra-particle diffusion and Elovich models were applied to analyze the kinetic data and to evaluate rate constants. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model gave a better fit than the others. The thermodynamic parameters, such as Gibbs free energy change ΔG°, standard enthalpy change ΔH° and standard entropy change ΔS° were evaluated. The thermodynamic study showed the adsorption was a spontaneous endothermic process. PMID:26819399

  2. Regenerative process for removal of mercury and other heavy metals from gases containing H.sub.2 and/or CO

    DOEpatents

    Jadhav, Raja A.

    2009-07-07

    A method for removal of mercury from a gaseous stream containing the mercury, hydrogen and/or CO, and hydrogen sulfide and/or carbonyl sulfide in which a dispersed Cu-containing sorbent is contacted with the gaseous stream at a temperature in the range of about 25.degree. C. to about 300.degree. C. until the sorbent is spent. The spent sorbent is contacted with a desorbing gaseous stream at a temperature equal to or higher than the temperature at which the mercury adsorption is carried out, producing a regenerated sorbent and an exhaust gas comprising released mercury. The released mercury in the exhaust gas is captured using a high-capacity sorbent, such as sulfur-impregnated activated carbon, at a temperature less than about 100.degree. C. The regenerated sorbent may then be used to capture additional mercury from the mercury-containing gaseous stream.

  3. ANALYSIS OF HEAVY METALS IN STORMWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sampling has been undertaken to determine the concentrations of heavy metals, both particle-associated and dissolved, in stormwater from several storm sewer outfalls in Monmouth County, NJ. This project is ongoing in concert with coordinated studies of pathogen and nutrient input...

  4. Heavy Metals and Related Trace Elements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Harry V.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of heavy metals and related trace elements in the environment, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) trace treatment in natural water and in sediments; and (2) bioaccumulation and toxicity of trace elements. A list of 466 references is presented. (HM)

  5. Superoxide dismutases of heavy metal resistant streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Astrid; Schmidt, André; Haferburg, Götz; Kothe, Erika

    2007-02-01

    Heavy metal tolerant and resistant strains of streptomycetes isolated from a former uranium mining site were screened for their superoxide dismutase expression. From the strains tolerating high concentrations of different heavy metals, one was selected for its tolerance of concentrations of heavy metals (Ni, Cu, Cd, Cr, Mn, Zn, Fe). This strain, Streptomyces acidiscabies E13, was chosen for the purpose of superoxide dismutase analysis. Gel electrophoresis and activity staining revealed only one each of a nickel (NiSOD) and an iron (FeZnSOD) containing superoxide dismutase as shown by differential enzymatic repression studies. The gene for nickel containing superoxide dismutase, sodN, was cloned and sequenced from this strain. The genomic sequence shows 92.7% nucleotide identity and 96.1% amino acid identity to sodN of S. coelicolor. Expression can be activated by nickel as well as other heavy metals and active enzyme is produced in media lacking nickel but containing copper, iron or zinc. Thus, the selected strain is well suited for further characterization of the enzyme encoded by sodN. PMID:17304620

  6. DECONTAMINATION OF HEAVY METALS WITH BACTERIA

    EPA Science Inventory



    OBJECTIVES: To discover, improve, understand the mechanisms and use naturally occurring bacteria to decontiminate in situ heavy metals from the soils, sediments and waters to protect human health and the environment.


    ABSTRACT: Our laboratory (Vesper et al. ...

  7. Heavy metals in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, G.L.; Fosmire, G.J.; Bellis, E.D.

    1994-05-01

    Concentration (Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu) in soil and wildlife at the Palmerton zinc smelter site in eastern Pennsylvania were determined 6 yr after zinc smelting was terminated in 1980. Levels of the four metals were higher in litter (01 and 02 horizon) than in soil (A1 horizon), and the metals were at or near levels when the smelters were still in operation. Levels of metals in sod weft highest at sites close to the smelters and decreased as distances from the smelters increased. The relation of decreasing amounts of metals in body tissues with increasing distance from the smelters also held true for amphibians and mammals. An exception to this relation was higher level of Cu in red-lacked salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) captured {approx}17 km downwind than those captured {approx}12 km downwind. Levels of Zn, Pb, and Co in liver, kidney, and muscle tissue of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) were not different (P >0.05) among sites. Cadmium in kidneys in white-footed mice exceeded 10 mg&& which is reportedly considered an indication of environmental contamination. Levels of Cd in kidneys and liver of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) at Palmerton were five times higher than those for white-tailed deer collected 180 km southwest of Palmerton in southcentral Pennsylvania. The abnormal amounts of metals in the tissues of terrestrial vertebrates, and the absence or low abundance of wildlife at Palmerton indicated that ecological processes within 5 km of the smelters were markedly influenced 6 yr after zinc smelting was discontinued. 41 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Method for removing metal ions from solution with titanate sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Lundquist, Susan H.; White, Lloyd R.

    1999-01-01

    A method for removing metal ions from solution comprises the steps of providing titanate particles by spray-drying a solution or slurry comprising sorbent titanates having a particle size up to 20 micrometers, optionally in the presence of polymer free of cellulose functionality as binder, said sorbent being active towards heavy metals from Periodic Table (CAS version) Groups IA, IIA, IB, IIB, IIIB, and VIII, to provide monodisperse, substantially spherical particles in a yield of at least 70 percent of theoretical yield and having a particle size distribution in the range of 1 to 500 micrometers. The particles can be used free flowing in columns or beds, or entrapped in a nonwoven, fibrous web or matrix or a cast porous membrane, to selectively remove metal ions from aqueous or organic liquid.

  9. Heavy metals in water, sediments and submerged macrophytes in ponds around the Dianchi Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhixiu; Yao, Lu; Liu, Guihua; Liu, Wenzhi

    2014-09-01

    Through retaining runoff and pollutants such as heavy metals from surrounding landscapes, ponds around a lake play an important role in mitigating the impacts of human activities on lake ecosystems. In order to determine the potential for heavy metal accumulation of submerged macrophytes, we investigated the concentrations of 10 heavy metals (i.e., As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in water, sediments, and submerged macrophytes collected from 37 ponds around the Dianchi Lake in China. Our results showed that both water and sediments of these ponds were polluted by Pb. Water and sediments heavy metal concentrations in ponds received urban and agricultural runoff were not significantly higher than those in ponds received forest runoff. This result indicates that a large portion of heavy metals in these ponds may originate from atmospheric deposition and weathering of background soils. Positive relationships were found among heavy metal concentrations in submerged macrophytes, probably due to the coaccumulation of heavy metals. For most heavy metals, no significant relationships were found between submerged macrophytes and their water and sediment environments. The maximum concentrations of Cr, Fe and Ni in Ceratophyllum demersum were 4242, 16,429 and 2662mgkg(-1), respectively. The result suggests that C. demersum is a good candidate species for removing heavy metals from polluted aquatic environments. PMID:25011115

  10. Process for removing metals from water

    DOEpatents

    Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

    1987-06-29

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

  11. Process for removing metals from water

    DOEpatents

    Napier, John M.; Hancher, Charles M.; Hackett, Gail D.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a flocculating agent, separating precipitate-containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions.

  12. Superhydrogels of nanotubes capable of capturing heavy-metal ions.

    PubMed

    Song, Shasha; Wang, Haiqiao; Song, Aixin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembly regulated by hydrogen bonds was successfully achieved in the system of lithocholic acid (LCA) mixed with three organic amines, ethanolamine (EA), diethanolamine (DEA), and triethanolamine (TEA), in aqueous solutions. The mixtures of DEA/LCA exhibit supergelation capability and the hydrogels consist of plenty of network nanotubes with uniform diameters of about 60 nm determined by cryogenic TEM. Interestingly, the sample with the same concentration in a system of EA and LCA is a birefringent solution, in which spherical vesicles and can be transformed into nanotubes as the amount of LCA increases. The formation of hydrogels could be driven by the delicate balance of diverse noncovalent interactions, including electrostatic interactions, hydrophobic interactions, steric effects, van der Waals forces, and mainly hydrogen bonds. The mechanism of self-assembly from spherical bilayer vesicles into nanotubes was proposed. The dried hydrogels with nanotubes were explored to exhibit the excellent capability for capturing heavy-metal ions, for example, Cu(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Pb(2+), and Hg(2+). The superhydrogels of nanotubes from the self-assembly of low-molecular-weight gelators mainly regulated by hydrogen bonds used for the removal of heavy-metal ions is simple, green, and high efficiency, and provide a strategic approach to removing heavy-metal ions from industrial sewage. PMID:24136830

  13. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals

    PubMed Central

    Jaishankar, Monisha; Tseten, Tenzin; Anbalagan, Naresh; Beeregowda, Krishnamurthy N.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metal toxicity has proven to be a major threat and there are several health risks associated with it. The toxic effects of these metals, even though they do not have any biological role, remain present in some or the other form harmful for the human body and its proper functioning. They sometimes act as a pseudo element of the body while at certain times they may even interfere with metabolic processes. Few metals, such as aluminium, can be removed through elimination activities, while some metals get accumulated in the body and food chain, exhibiting a chronic nature. Various public health measures have been undertaken to control, prevent and treat metal toxicity occurring at various levels, such as occupational exposure, accidents and environmental factors. Metal toxicity depends upon the absorbed dose, the route of exposure and duration of exposure, i.e. acute or chronic. This can lead to various disorders and can also result in excessive damage due to oxidative stress induced by free radical formation. This review gives details about some heavy metals and their toxicity mechanisms, along with their health effects. PMID:26109881

  14. Heavy Metal Stress and Some Mechanisms of Plant Defense Response

    PubMed Central

    Emamverdian, Abolghassem; Ding, Yulong; Mokhberdoran, Farzad; Xie, Yinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment have become a dilemma for all living organisms including plants. HMs at toxic levels have the capability to interact with several vital cellular biomolecules such as nuclear proteins and DNA, leading to excessive augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This would inflict serious morphological, metabolic, and physiological anomalies in plants ranging from chlorosis of shoot to lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. In response, plants are equipped with a repertoire of mechanisms to counteract heavy metal (HM) toxicity. The key elements of these are chelating metals by forming phytochelatins (PCs) or metallothioneins (MTs) metal complex at the intra- and intercellular level, which is followed by the removal of HM ions from sensitive sites or vacuolar sequestration of ligand-metal complex. Nonenzymatically synthesized compounds such as proline (Pro) are able to strengthen metal-detoxification capacity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Another important additive component of plant defense system is symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. AM can effectively immobilize HMs and reduce their uptake by host plants via binding metal ions to hyphal cell wall and excreting several extracellular biomolecules. Additionally, AM fungi can enhance activities of antioxidant defense machinery of plants. PMID:25688377

  15. Heavy metal stress and some mechanisms of plant defense response.

    PubMed

    Emamverdian, Abolghassem; Ding, Yulong; Mokhberdoran, Farzad; Xie, Yinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Unprecedented bioaccumulation and biomagnification of heavy metals (HMs) in the environment have become a dilemma for all living organisms including plants. HMs at toxic levels have the capability to interact with several vital cellular biomolecules such as nuclear proteins and DNA, leading to excessive augmentation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This would inflict serious morphological, metabolic, and physiological anomalies in plants ranging from chlorosis of shoot to lipid peroxidation and protein degradation. In response, plants are equipped with a repertoire of mechanisms to counteract heavy metal (HM) toxicity. The key elements of these are chelating metals by forming phytochelatins (PCs) or metallothioneins (MTs) metal complex at the intra- and intercellular level, which is followed by the removal of HM ions from sensitive sites or vacuolar sequestration of ligand-metal complex. Nonenzymatically synthesized compounds such as proline (Pro) are able to strengthen metal-detoxification capacity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. Another important additive component of plant defense system is symbiotic association with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. AM can effectively immobilize HMs and reduce their uptake by host plants via binding metal ions to hyphal cell wall and excreting several extracellular biomolecules. Additionally, AM fungi can enhance activities of antioxidant defense machinery of plants. PMID:25688377

  16. Removal Efficiency of Faecal Indicator Organisms, Nutrients and Heavy Metals from a Peri-Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant in Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Edokpayi, Joshua N.; Odiyo, John O.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Popoola, Elizabeth O.

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities are known sources of fresh water pollution. This study was carried out from January to June 2014 to assess the reduction efficiency of some selected contaminants in the Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The pH and electrical conductivity of the effluent fell within the South African wastewater discharge guidelines. The WWTP showed the chemical oxygen demand reduction efficiency required by the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) guidelines of 75 mg/L for the months of April and June, although it was below this standard in March and May. Free chlorine concentration varied between 0.26–0.96 mg/L and exceeded the DWA guideline value of 0.25 mg/L. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3− N) in the influent and effluent varied between 0.499–2.31 mg/L and 7.545–19.413 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of NO3− N in the effluent complied with DWA effluent discharge standard of 15 mg/L, except in April and May. Phosphate concentrations in the influent and effluent were in the ranges of 0.552–42.646 mg/L and 1.572–32.554 mg/L, respectively. The WWTP showed reduction efficiencies of E. coli and Enterococci during some sampling periods but the level found in the effluent exceeded the recommended guideline value of 1000 cfu/100 mL for faecal indicator organisms in wastewater effluents. Consistent removal efficiencies were observed for Al (32–74%), Fe (7–32%) and Zn (24–94%) in most of the sampling months. In conclusion, the Thohoyandou WWTP is inefficient in treating wastewater to the acceptable quality before discharge. PMID:26132481

  17. Removal Efficiency of Faecal Indicator Organisms, Nutrients and Heavy Metals from a Peri-Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant in Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Edokpayi, Joshua N; Odiyo, John O; Msagati, Titus A M; Popoola, Elizabeth O

    2015-07-01

    Wastewater treatment facilities are known sources of fresh water pollution. This study was carried out from January to June 2014 to assess the reduction efficiency of some selected contaminants in the Thohoyandou wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The pH and electrical conductivity of the effluent fell within the South African wastewater discharge guidelines. The WWTP showed the chemical oxygen demand reduction efficiency required by the Department of Water Affairs (DWA) guidelines of 75 mg/L for the months of April and June, although it was below this standard in March and May. Free chlorine concentration varied between 0.26-0.96 mg/L and exceeded the DWA guideline value of 0.25 mg/L. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-) N) in the influent and effluent varied between 0.499-2.31 mg/L and 7.545-19.413 mg/L, respectively. The concentration of NO3- N in the effluent complied with DWA effluent discharge standard of 15 mg/L, except in April and May. Phosphate concentrations in the influent and effluent were in the ranges of 0.552-42.646 mg/L and 1.572-32.554 mg/L, respectively. The WWTP showed reduction efficiencies of E. coli and Enterococci during some sampling periods but the level found in the effluent exceeded the recommended guideline value of 1000 cfu/100 mL for faecal indicator organisms in wastewater effluents. Consistent removal efficiencies were observed for Al (32-74%), Fe (7-32%) and Zn (24-94%) in most of the sampling months. In conclusion, the Thohoyandou WWTP is inefficient in treating wastewater to the acceptable quality before discharge. PMID:26132481

  18. Situ formation of apatite for sequestering radionuclides and heavy metals

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C.

    2003-07-15

    Methods for in situ formation in soil of a permeable reactive barrier or zone comprising a phosphate precipitate, such as apatite or hydroxyapatite, which is capable of selectively trapping and removing radionuclides and heavy metal contaminants from the soil, while allowing water or other compounds to pass through. A preparation of a phosphate reagent and a chelated calcium reagent is mixed aboveground and injected into the soil. Subsequently, the chelated calcium reagent biodegrades and slowly releases free calcium. The free calcium reacts with the phosphate reagent to form a phosphate precipitate. Under the proper chemical conditions, apatite or hydroxyapatite can form. Radionuclide and heavy metal contaminants, including lead, strontium, lanthanides, and uranium are then selectively sequestered by sorbing them onto the phosphate precipitate. A reducing agent can be added for reduction and selective sequestration of technetium or selenium contaminants.

  19. Minor heavy metal: A review on occupational and environmental intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal is widely used in industries and presents as a problematic environmental pollution. Some heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, are well described for their occupational and environmental intoxication whereas the other minor heavy metals are less concerned. In this article, the author will present the details of occupational and environmental minor heavy metal intoxication. This review focuses mainly on aluminum, tin, copper, manganese, chromium, cadmium and nickel. PMID:20040969

  20. Heavy metal tolerance in metal hyperaccumulator plant, Salvinia natans.

    PubMed

    Dhir, B; Srivastava, S

    2013-06-01

    Metal tolerance capacity of Salvinia natans, a metal hyperaccumulator, was evaluated. Plants were exposed to 10, 30 and 50 mg L⁻¹ of Zn, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Cu, Pb, and Ni. Plant biomass, photosynthetic efficiency, quantum yield, photochemical quenching, electron transport rate and elemental (%C, H and N) constitution remained unaffected in Salvinia exposed to 30 mg L⁻¹ of heavy metals, except for Cu and Zn exposed plants, where significant reductions were noted in some of the measured parameters. However, a significant decline was noted in most of the measured parameters in plants exposed to 50 mg L⁻¹ of metal concentration. Results suggest that Salvinia has fairly high levels of tolerance to all the metals tested, but the level of tolerance varied from metal to metal. PMID:23553503

  1. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Can Benefit Heavy Metal Tolerance and Phytoremediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forgy, David

    2012-01-01

    Sites contaminated by heavy metals, such as industrial waste sites, create unwelcoming environments for plant growth. Heavy metals can have a wide range of toxic effects such as replacing essential elements or disrupting enzyme function. While some heavy metals are essential to plant nutrition at low concentrations, high concentrations of any…

  2. Some Case Studies on Metal-Microbe Interactions to Remediate Heavy Metals- Contaminated Soils in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chon, Hyo-Taek

    2015-04-01

    Conventional physicochemical technologies to remediate heavy metals-contaminated soil have many problems such as low efficiency, high cost and occurrence of byproducts. Recently bioremediation technology is getting more and more attention. Bioremediation is defined as the use of biological methods to remediate and/or restore the contaminated land. The objectives of bioremediation are to degrade hazardous organic contaminants and to convert hazardous inorganic contaminants to less toxic compounds of safe levels. The use of bioremediation in the treatment of heavy metals in soils is a relatively new concept. Bioremediation using microbes has been developed to remove toxic heavy metals from contaminated soils in laboratory scale to the contaminated field sites. Recently the application of cost-effective and environment-friendly bioremediation technology to the heavy metals-contaminated sites has been gradually realized in Korea. The merits of bioremediation include low cost, natural process, minimal exposure to the contaminants, and minimum amount of equipment. The limitations of bioremediation are length of remediation, long monitoring time, and, sometimes, toxicity of byproducts for especially organic contaminants. From now on, it is necessary to prove applicability of the technologies to contaminated sites and to establish highly effective, low-cost and easy bioremediation technology. Four categories of metal-microbe interactions are generally biosorption, bioreduction, biomineralization and bioleaching. In this paper, some case studies of the above metal-microbe interactions in author's lab which were published recently in domestic and international journals will be introduced and summarized.

  3. Immobilization of heavy metals and phenol on altered bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect

    Taraba, B.; Marsalek, R.

    2007-07-01

    This article evaluates adsorption ability of the altered bituminous coals to remove heavy metals and/or phenol from aqueous solutions. As for heavy metals, copper (II), cadmium (II) and lead (II) cations were used. In addition to phenol, cyclohexanol and 2-cyclohexen-1-ol were also examined. Adsorption experiments were conducted in the batch mode at room temperature and at pH 3 and 5. To characterize the texture of coal samples, adsorption isotherms of nitrogen at - 196{sup o}C, enthalpies of the immersion in water, and pH values in aqueous dispersions were measured. Coal hydrogen aromaticities were evaluated from the infrared spectrometric examinations (DRIFTS). Based on the investigations performed, cation exchange was confirmed as the principal mechanism to immobilize heavy metallic ions on coals. However, apart from carboxylic groups, other functionalities (hydroxyl groups) were found to be involved in the adsorption process. During adsorption of phenol, {pi}-{pi} interactions between {pi}-electrons of phenol and aromatic rings of coal proved to play the important role; however, no distinct correlation between adsorption capacities for phenol and hydrogen aromaticities of the coal was found. Probable involvement of oxygenated surface groups in the immobilization of phenol on coal was deduced. As a result, for waste water treatment, oxidative altered bituminous coal can be recommended as a suitable precursor, with the largest immobilization capacities both for metallic ions and phenol, as found in the studied samples.

  4. Use of dried aquatic plant roots to adsorb heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Robichaud, K.D.

    1996-12-31

    The removal of heavy metal ions by dried aquatic macrophytes was investigated. The ability of the biomass, Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth), Typha latifolia (cattail), Sparganium minimum (burr reed) and Menyanthes trifoliata to abstract lead and mercury ions is presented here, along with a conceptual filter design. This paper examines an alternative to both the traditional and recent systems designed for metal removal. It involves the use of dried aquatic macrophytes. There are numerous advantages for the use of dried macrophytes in the treatment of industrial wastewater. First, it is cost-effective. There are also funding opportunities through a variety of Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) programs. It is more environmentally conscious because a wetland, the harvesting pond, has been created. And, it creates public goodwill by providing a more appealing, less hardware-intensive, natural system.

  5. Effects of remediation train sequence on decontamination of heavy metal-contaminated soil containing mercury.

    PubMed

    Hseu, Zeng-Yei; Huang, Yu-Tuan; Hsi, Hsing-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    When a contaminated site contains pollutants including both nonvolatile metals and Hg, one single remediation technology may not satisfactorily remove all contaminants. Therefore, in this study, chemical extraction and thermal treatment were combined as a remediation train to remove heavy metals, including Hg, from contaminated soil. A 0.2 M solution of ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) was shown to be the most effective reagent for extraction of considerable amounts of Cu, Pb, and Zn (> 50%). Hg removal was ineffective using 0.2 M EDTA, but thermogravimetric analysis suggested that heating to 550 degrees C with a heating rate of 5 degrees C/min for a duration of 1 hr appeared to be an effective approach for Hg removal. With the employment of thermal treatment, up to 99% of Hg could be removed. However executing thermal treatment prior to chemical extraction reduced the effectiveness of the subsequent EDTA extraction because nonvolatile heavy metals were immobilized in soil aggregates after the 550 degrees C treatment. The remediation train of chemical extraction followed by thermal treatment appears to remediate soils that have been contaminated by many nonvolatile heavy metals and Hg. Implications: A remediation train conjoining two or more techniques has been initialized to remove multiple metals. Better understandings of the impacts of treatment sequences, namely, which technique should be employed first on the soil properties and the decontamination efficiency, are in high demand. This study provides a strategy to remove multiple heavy metals including Hg from a contaminated soil. The interactions between thermal treatment and chemical extraction on repartitioning of heavy metals was revealed. The obtained results could offer an integrating strategy to remediate the soil contaminated with both heavy metals and volatile contaminants. PMID:25282998

  6. Removal of Selected Metals from Wastewater Using a Constructed Wetland.

    PubMed

    Šíma, Jan; Svoboda, Lubomír; Pomijová, Zuzana

    2016-05-01

    Removal of selected metals from municipal wastewater using a constructed wetland with a horizontal subsurface flow was studied. The objective of the work was to determine the efficiency of Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Sr, Li, and Rb removal, and to describe the main removal mechanisms. The highest removal efficiencies were attained for zinc and copper (89.8 and 81.5%, respectively). It is apparently due to the precipitation of insoluble sulfides (ZnS, CuS) in the vegetation bed where the sulfate reduction takes place. Significantly lower removal efficiencies (43.9, 27.7, and 21.5%) were observed for Li, Sr, and Rb, respectively. Rather, low removal efficiencies were also attained for Ni and Co (39.8 and 20.9%). However, the concentrations of these metals in treated water were significantly lower compared to Cu and Zn (e.g., 2.8 ± 0.5 and 1.7 ± 0.3 μg/l for Ni at the inflow and outflow from the wetland compared to 27.6 ± 12.0 and 5.1 ± 4.7 μg/l obtained for Cu, respectively). The main perspective of the constructed wetland is the removal of toxic heavy metals forming insoluble compounds depositing in the wetland bed. Metal uptake occurs preferentially in wetland sediments and is closely associated with the chemism of sulfur and iron. PMID:27119624

  7. Heavy metal vaporization and abatement during thermal treatment of modified wastes.

    PubMed

    Rio, S; Verwilghen, C; Ramaroson, J; Nzihou, A; Sharrock, P

    2007-09-30

    This study examines the vaporization percentage and partitioning of heavy metals Cd, Pb and Zn during thermal treatment of wastes with added PVC, heavy metals or phosphate, and the efficiency of sorbents for removal of these metallic compounds in flue gas of an industrial solid waste incinerator. Firstly, vaporization experiments were carried out to determine the behavior of heavy metals during combustion under various conditions (type of waste, temperature, presence of chloride or phosphate ...). The experimental results show relatively high vaporization percentage of metallic compounds within fly ash and limestone matrix while heavy metals within sediments treated with phosphoric acid are less volatile. Vaporization of metals increases with increasing temperature and with chloride addition. The thermal behavior of the selected heavy metals and their removal by sorbents (sodium bicarbonate, activated carbon) was also studied in an industrial solid waste incinerator. These pilot scale experiments confirm that heavy metals are concentrated in fly ashes and cyclone residues, thus effectively controlling their release to the atmosphere. PMID:17467894

  8. Heavy metal resistance in halophilic Bacteria and Archaea.

    PubMed

    Voica, Doriana Mădălina; Bartha, Laszlo; Banciu, Horia Leonard; Oren, Aharon

    2016-07-01

    Heavy metals are dense chemicals with dual biological role as micronutrients and intoxicants. A few hypersaline environmental systems are naturally enriched with heavy metals, while most metal-contaminated sites are a consequence of human activities. Numerous halotolerant and moderately halophilic Bacteria possess metal tolerance, whereas a few archaeal counterparts share similar features. The main mechanisms underlying heavy metal resistance in halophilic Bacteria and Archaea include extracellular metal sequestration by biopolymers, metal efflux mediated by specific transporters and enzymatic detoxification. Biotransformation of metals by halophiles has implications both for trace metal turnover in natural saline ecosystems and for development of novel bioremediation strategies. PMID:27279625

  9. Perspectives of plant-associated microbes in heavy metal phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, M; Sandhya, S; Prasad, M N V; Freitas, H

    2012-01-01

    "Phytoremediation" know-how to do-how is rapidly expanding and is being commercialized by harnessing the phyto-microbial diversity. This technology employs biodiversity to remove/contain pollutants from the air, soil and water. In recent years, there has been a considerable knowledge explosion in understanding plant-microbes-heavy metals interactions. Novel applications of plant-associated microbes have opened up promising areas of research in the field of phytoremediation technology. Various metabolites (e.g., 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, organic acids, etc.) produced by plant-associated microbes (e.g., plant growth promoting bacteria, mycorrhizae) have been proposed to be involved in many biogeochemical processes operating in the rhizosphere. The salient functions include nutrient acquisition, cell elongation, metal detoxification and alleviation of biotic/abiotic stress in plants. Rhizosphere microbes accelerate metal mobility, or immobilization. Plants and associated microbes release inorganic and organic compounds possessing acidifying, chelating and/or reductive power. These functions are implicated to play an essential role in plant metal uptake. Overall the plant-associated beneficial microbes enhance the efficiency of phytoremediation process directly by altering the metal accumulation in plant tissues and indirectly by promoting the shoot and root biomass production. The present work aims to provide a comprehensive review of some of the promising processes mediated by plant-associated microbes and to illustrate how such processes influence heavy metal uptake through various biogeochemical processes including translocation, transformation, chelation, immobilization, solubilization, precipitation, volatilization and complexation of heavy metals ultimately facilitating phytoremediation. PMID:22580219

  10. Evaluation of uptake rate of heavy metals by Eichhornia crassipes and Hydrilla verticillata.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Savita; Dhote, Sangeeta

    2010-10-01

    Lakes, ponds, and streams are the sources of surface water, which anchorage the survival of aquatic life flora and fauna and maintain ecological balance. Due to urbanization, population explosion, and industrialization, these natural sources are getting polluted. Present paper is an attempt to evaluate the uptake rate of heavy metals namely lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and chromium (Cr) by the macrophytes. The two macrophytes taken for the study are Eichhornia crassipes and Hydrilla verticillata. Both macrophytes have the capacity to absorb heavy metals from contaminated water. The present experimental study was conducted to compare and identify their potential to improve the water quality by removing the heavy metals. The paper critically evaluates the water-purifying capacity of submerged macrophyte (H. verticillata) and free-floating macrophyte (E. crassipes). It also evaluates the extent up to which heavy metal can be removed by macrophyte in a given period of time. PMID:19890730

  11. Environmental impact of mercury and other heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindqvist, Oliver

    The environmental impact of heavy metals is reviewed. One significant source of emissions of heavy metals to air is waste incineration. Consumer batteries contributes significantly to this problem, as well as to heavy metal leakage to groundwater from landfill deposits. The situation in Sweden is used as an example to describe how the deposition from the atmosphere still is increasing the load of heavy metals, like mercury, cadmium and lead, in top soils and aquatic sediments. Critical factors and effect levels for Hg, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn and As are discussed. Specific questions like mercury contents in present battery waste and heavy metal contents in new and future secondary batteries are addressed.

  12. Hydrate-based heavy metal separation from aqueous solution

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yongchen; Dong, Hongsheng; Yang, Lei; Yang, Mingjun; Li, Yanghui; Ling, Zheng; Zhao, Jiafei

    2016-01-01

    A novel hydrate-based method is proposed for separating heavy metal ions from aqueous solution. We report the first batch of experiments and removal characteristics in this paper, the effectiveness and feasibility of which are verified by Raman spectroscopy analysis and cross-experiment. 88.01–90.82% of removal efficiencies for Cr3+, Cu2+, Ni2+, and Zn2+ were obtained. Further study showed that higher R141b–effluent volume ratio contributed to higher enrichment factor and yield of dissociated water, while lower R141b–effluent volume ratio resulted in higher removal efficiency. This study provides insights into low-energy, intensive treatment of wastewater. PMID:26887357

  13. Earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals

    SciTech Connect

    Diercxsens, P.; de Weck, D.; Borsinger, N.; Rosset, B.; Tarradellas, J.

    1985-01-01

    A comparison is made of soil and earthworm contamination by PCBs and heavy metals between a nature reserve and two sites conditioned by the addition of sewage sludge and compost. The tissues and gut content of the earthworms shows a higher PCB concentration than that of the surrounding soil and also a difference in the fingerprint of some single PCB compounds. Earthworms display a selective accumulation of cadmium and zinc in their tissues and gut content.

  14. Membranes Remove Metal Ions Fron Industrial Liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, W. P. L.; May, C.

    1983-01-01

    Use of membrane films affords convenient and economical alternative for removing and recovering metal cations present in low concentrations from large quantities of liquid solutions. Possible applications of membrane films include use in analytical chemistry for determination of small amounts of toxic metallic impurities in lakes, streams, and municipal effluents. Also suitable for use as absorber of certain pollutant gases and odors present in confined areas.

  15. Chelant extraction of heavy metals from contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Peters, R W

    1999-04-23

    The current state of the art regarding the use of chelating agents to extract heavy metal contaminants has been addressed. Results are presented for treatability studies conducted as worst-case and representative soils from Aberdeen Proving Ground's J-Field for extraction of copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). The particle size distribution characteristics of the soils determined from hydrometer tests are approximately 60% sand, 30% silt, and 10% clay. Sequential extractions were performed on the 'as-received' soils (worst case and representative) to determine the speciation of the metal forms. The technique speciates the heavy metal distribution into an easily extractable (exchangeable) form, carbonates, reducible oxides, organically-bound, and residual forms. The results indicated that most of the metals are in forms that are amenable to soil washing (i.e. exchangeable+carbonate+reducible oxides). The metals Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cr have greater than 70% of their distribution in forms amenable to soil washing techniques, while Cd, Mn, and Fe are somewhat less amenable to soil washing using chelant extraction. However, the concentrations of Cd and Mn are low in the contaminated soil. From the batch chelant extraction studies, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) were all effective in removing copper, lead, and zinc from the J-Field soils. Due to NTA being a Class II carcinogen, it is not recommended for use in remediating contaminated soils. EDTA and citric acid appear to offer the greatest potential as chelating agents to use in soil washing the Aberdeen Proving Ground soils. The other chelating agents studied (gluconate, oxalate, Citranox, ammonium acetate, and phosphoric acid, along with pH-adjusted water) were generally ineffective in mobilizing the heavy metals from the soils. The chelant solution removes the heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Cr, As, and Hg) simultaneously. Using a multiple-stage batch extraction

  16. Biochar-attenuated desorption of heavy metals in small arms range soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stabilization (capping/solidification) and dilution (e.g., washing, chelate-assisted phytoremediation) represent non-removal and removal remediation technologies for heavy metal contaminated soils. Biochar is stable in soil, and contains carboxyl and other surface ligands; these properties are usef...

  17. Surface binding of toxins and heavy metals by probiotics.

    PubMed

    Zoghi, Alaleh; Khosravi-Darani, Kianoush; Sohrabvandi, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Removal of toxic metals and toxins using microbial biomass has been introduced as an inexpensive, new promising method on top of conventional methods for decontamination of food, raw material and concentrated. In this article the potential application of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts as the most familiar probiotics to eliminate, inactivate or reduce bioavailability of contamination in foods and feed has been reviewed. After fast glance to beneficial health effects and preservative properties of lactic acid bacteria, the mechanisms which explain antibacterial and antifungal efficiency as well as their antifungal metabolites are mentioned. Then the article has been focused on potential application of single strain or combination of lactic acid bacteria for removal of heavy metals (copper, lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic), cyanotoxins (microcystin-LR, -RR, -LF) and mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, B2, B2a, M1, M2, G1, G2, patulin, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, fumonisin B1 and B2, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon, nivalenol, diacetoxyscirpenol, HT-2 and T-2 toxin, zearalenone and its derivative, etc) from aqueous solutions in vitro. Wherever possible the mechanism of decontamination and the factors influencing yield of removal are discussed. Some factors which can facilitate metal removal capacity of lactic acid bacteria including the strains, surface charge, pH, temperature, presence of other cations are introduced. The cell wall structure of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts are also introduced for further explanation of mechanism of action in complex binding of probiotic to contaminants and strength of mycotoxin- bacterium interaction. PMID:24329992

  18. Assessing fly ash treatment: remediation and stabilization of heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Lima, A T; Ottosen, Lisbeth M; Ribeiro, Alexandra B

    2012-03-01

    Fly ashes from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), straw (ST) and co-combustion of wood (CW) are here analyzed with the intent of reusing them. Two techniques are assessed, a remediation technique and a solidification/stabilization one. The removal of heavy metals from fly ashes through the electrodialytic process (EDR) has been tried out before. The goal of removing heavy metals has always been the reuse of fly ash, for instance in agricultural fields (BEK). The best removal rates are here summarized and some new results have been added. MSW fly ashes are still too hazardous after treatment to even consider application to the soil. ST ash is the only residue that gets concentrations low enough to be reused, but its fertilizing value might be questioned. An alternative reuse for the three ashes is here preliminary tested, the combination of fly ash with mortar. Fly ashes have been substituted by cement fraction or aggregate fraction. Surprisingly, better compressive strengths were obtained by replacing the aggregate fraction. CW ashes presented promising results for the substitution of aggregate in mortar and possibly in concrete. PMID:21167631

  19. Heavy metal interactions with phosphatic clay: sorption and desorption behavior.

    PubMed

    Singh, S P; Ma, L Q; Harris, W G

    2001-01-01

    Heavy metals produced and released during agricultural and industrial activities may pose a serious threat to the environment. This study investigated the effectiveness of phosphatic clay, a by-product of the phosphate mining industry, for immobilizing heavy metals (Pb(+2), Cd(+2), and Zn(+2)) from aqueous solutions. A batch equilibrium technique was adopted to evaluate metal sorption in the presence of 0.05 M KNO3 background electrolyte solution. The amounts of metals sorbed onto phosphatic clay decreased in the order Pb(+2) > Cd(+2) > Zn(+2). Desorption data suggest that a large fraction of metals sorbed onto phosphatic clay stayed intact under a wide variation in extracting solution pH (ranging from 3 to 10). Desorption rates were slowest for Pb followed by Cd and Zn. Only 8.1 to 23.1% of Pb, 8.4 to 45% of Cd, and 21.9 to 73.9% of Zn sorbed on phosphatic clay was mobilized by USEPA toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) solutions at pH 2.93+/-0.05 and 4.93+/-0.05, respectively. Formation of fluoropyromorphite [Pb10(PO4)6(F2)], confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), after reaction of aqueous Pb with phosphatic clay suggested that precipitation remained the dominant mechanism for Pb removal from aqueous solution. In the case of aqueous Cd and Zn interaction with phosphatic clay, we are not able to confirm the formation of a new amorphous and/or crystalline phase on the basis of available information. Other possible sorption mechanisms for Cd and Zn may include sorption and coprecipitation. Thus, phosphatic clay may be an effective amendment for in situ immobilization of heavy metals in contaminated soils and sediments. PMID:11790002

  20. Uptake of certain heavy metals from contaminated soil by mushroom--Galerina vittiformis.

    PubMed

    Damodaran, Dilna; Vidya Shetty, K; Raj Mohan, B

    2014-06-01

    Remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals has received considerable attention in recent years. In this study, the heavy metal uptake potential of the mushroom, Galerina vittiformis, was studied in soil artificially contaminated with Cu (II), Cd (II), Cr (VI), Pb (II) and Zn (II) at concentrations of 50 and 100mg/kg. G. vittiformis was found to be effective in removing the metals from soil within 30 days. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) for both mycelia and fruiting bodies with respect to these heavy metals at 50mg/kg concentrations were found to be greater than one, indicating hyper accumulating nature by the mushroom. The metal removal rates by G. vittiformis was analyzed using different kinetic rate constants and found to follow the second order kinetic rate equation except for Cd (II), which followed the first order rate kinetics. PMID:24655915

  1. Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems

    SciTech Connect

    BREHM, W.F.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

  2. Removal of Retired Alkali Metal Test Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Brehm, W. F.; Church, W. R.; Biglin, J. W.

    2003-02-26

    This paper describes the successful effort to remove alkali metals, alkali metal residues, and piping and structures from retired non-radioactive test systems on the Hanford Site. These test systems were used between 1965 and 1982 to support the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. A considerable volume of sodium and sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) was successfully recycled to the commercial sector; structural material and electrical material such as wiring was also recycled. Innovative techniques were used to safely remove NaK and its residues from a test system that could not be gravity-drained. The work was done safely, with no environmental issues or significant schedule delays.

  3. Magnetotactic bacteria: promising biosorbents for heavy metals.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Yanzong; Ding, Xiaohui; Liu, Yan; Shen, Fei; Zhang, Xiaohong; Deng, Shihuai; Xiao, Hong; Yang, Gang; Peng, Hong

    2012-09-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB), which can orient and migrate along a magnetic line of force due to intracellular nanosized magnetosomes, have been a subject of research in the medical field, in dating environmental changes, and in environmental remediation. This paper reviews the recent development of MTB as biosorbents for heavy metals. Ultrastructures and taxis of MTB are investigated. Adsorptions in systems of unitary and binary ions are highlighted, as well as adsorption conditions (temperature, pH value, biomass concentration, and pretreatments). The separation and desorption of MTB in magnetic separators are also discussed. A green method to produce metal nanoparticles is provided, and an energy-efficient way to recover precious metals is put forward during biosorption. PMID:22763846

  4. Broom fibre PRB for heavy metals groundwater remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, A.; Troisi, S.; Fallico, C.; Paparella, A.; Straface, S.

    2009-04-01

    human being. One of the most interesting techniques applied in contaminated aquifer by heavy metals is the PRBs (Troisi et al., 2002; Calvin et al., 2006), in particular broom fibers PRB (Troisi et al., 2008). The first results highlight an optimum removal capacity for contaminants underlined from following removal percentage: 98.01% (Cd), 99.95% (Cu), 97.35% (Pb) and 99.53% (Zn). A fundamental parameter for PRB design is the decay coefficient who indicates the removal capacity (degradation, transformation, adsorption/absorption, mass transport, etc.). This parameter has been determined for four heavy metals: Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Lead (Pb) and Zinc (Zn) carrying out column tests. Besides, for real use of broom fibers PRB same tests have been performed, using flow cells, to estimate a relation between hydraulic conductivity of fiber and its density. References Chien C. C., H. I. Inyang and L.G. Everett (2006). Barrier Systems for Environmental Contaminant Containment and Treatment. Taylor and Francis Group eds. Troisi S., C. Fallico, S. Straface S. e L. Mazzuca. (2008). Biodreni per la bonifica di siti contaminati realizzati con fibre naturali liberiane ad elevato sviluppo superficiale. CS2008A00018. Università della Calabria. Troisi S, E. Migliari and S. Straface (2002). Soil and groundwater contamination by heavy metals in the industrial area of Crotone. Third International Conference Risk Analysis III. Sintra, Ed. by C.A. Brebbia. WIT Press.

  5. Biochar Mechanisms of Heavy Metal Sorption and Potential Utility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ippolito, J.

    2015-12-01

    Mining-affected lands are a global issue; in the USA alone there are an estimated 500,000 abandoned mines encompassing hundreds of thousands of hectares. Many of these sites generate acidic mine drainage that causes release of heavy metals, and subsequently degradation in environmental quality. Because of its potential liming characteristics, biochar may play a pivotal role as a soil amendment in future mine land reclamation. However, to date, most studies have focused on the use of biochar to sorb metals from solution. Previous studies suggest that metals are complexed by biochar surface function groups (leading to ion exchange, complexation), coordination with Pi electrons (C=C) of carbon, and precipitation of inorganic mineral phases. Several recent studies have focused on the use of biochar for amending mine land soils, showing that biochar can indeed reduce heavy metal lability, yet the mechanism(s) behind labile metal reduction have yet to be established. In a proof-of-concept study, we added lodgepole pine, tamarisk, and switchgrass biochar (0, 5, 10, 15% by weight; 500 oC) to four different western US mine land soils affected by various heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn). Extraction with 0.01M CaCl2 showed that increasing biochar application rate significantly decreased 'bioaccessible' metals in almost all instances. A concomitant increase in solution pH was observed, suggesting that metals may be rendered bio-inaccessible through precipitation as carbonate or (hydr)oxide phases, or sorbed onto mineral surfaces. However, this was only supposition and required further research. Thus, following the 0.01M CaCl2 extraction, biochar-soil mixtures were air-dried and metals were further extracted using the four-step BCR sequential removal procedure. Results from selective extraction suggest that, as compared to the controls, most metals in the biochar-amended mine land soils were associated with exchange sites, carbonate, and oxide phases. Biochar may play a

  6. [Characteristics of speciation and evaluation of ecological risk of heavy metals in sewage sludge of Guangzhou].

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng-Ran; Lei, Yong-Qian; Cai, Da-Chuan; Zhang, Tao; Wu, Rui; Pan, Jia-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    Contents of heavy metals in different sewage sludges were analyzed and the speciation distribution and bioavailability of heavy metals were investigated, and the risk assessment code (RAC) and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure for solid waste were used to evaluate the potential ecological risk and leaching toxicity risk of heavy metals in sludge samples, respectively. The results showed that contents of Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn were high and presented a great difference by different sources in sewage sludges. Most of heavy metals existed in non-residual fractions and percentages of the mobile fraction (acid soluble fraction) of heavy metals in acidic sludge were higher. According to the results of single extraction, 1 mol x L(-1) NaOAc solution (pH 5.0) and 0.02 mol x L(-1) EDTA + 0.5 mol x L(-1) NH4OAc solution (pH 4.6) were suitable for evaluating bioavailable heavy metals in acidic and alkaline sludge, respectively. Percentages of bioavailable heavy metals were higher with the stronger of sludge acidity. The mobile ability of heavy metals resulted in the high ecological risk of sludge samples, and the bioavailability of heavy metals caused acidic sludges with a very high ecological risk but alkaline sludges with the middle ecological risk. Leaching toxicity risk was very high in sludge samples except domestic sewage sludge. After the removal of bioavailable heavy metals, leaching toxicity risk of sludge samples was still high in spite of its decrease; however, part type of sludges could be implemented landfill disposal. PMID:24812965

  7. Contamination of environment with heavy metals emitted from automotives

    SciTech Connect

    Falahi-Ardakani, A.

    1984-04-01

    Interest has arisen in heavy-metal contamination of the environment, mostly because of potential hazards to the health of animals and human (directly and/or indirectly). High levels of heavy metals in soil, plants, and the atmosphere are often related to industries, highways, chemical dumping, impure chemical fertilizers, and pesticides containing metals. An important source of heavy metals, especially lead, is from the combustion of leaded gasoline used for transportation. Other heavy metals associated with transportation include nickel, which is also added to gasoline and is contained in engine parts, zinc, and cadmium from tires, lubricating oils, and galvanized parts such as fuel tanks.

  8. Method for producing hydrocarbon fuels from heavy polynuclear hydrocarbons by use of molten metal halide catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett

    1979-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating at least a substantial portion of the carbonaceous material associated with the reaction mixture from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the metal halide catalyst, an improvement comprising contacting the spent molten metal halide catalyst after removal of a major portion of the carbonaceous material therefrom with an additional quantity of hydrogen is disclosed.

  9. Efficiency of non-ionic surfactants - EDTA for treating TPH and heavy metals from contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction of fuel hydrocarbons and inorganic compounds (heavy metals) into the soil, resulting in a change of the soil quality, which is likely to affect use of the soil or endangering public health and ground water. This study aimed to determine a series of parameters to remediation of TPH and heavy metals contaminated soil by non-ionic surfactants- chelating agents washing process. In this experimental study, the effects of soil washing time, agitation speed, concentration of surfactant, chelating agent and pH on the removal efficiency were studied. The results showed that TPH removal by nonionic surfactants (Tween 80, Brij 35) in optimal condition were 70–80% and 60–65%, respectively. Addition of chelating agent (EDTA) significantly increases Cd and Pb removal. The washing of soil by non- ionic surfactants and EDTA was effective in remediation of TPH and heavy metals from contaminated soil, thus it can be recommended for remediation of contaminated soil. PMID:24359927

  10. Environmental remediation of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution through hydrogel adsorption: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Muya, Francis Ntumba; Sunday, Christopher Edoze; Baker, Priscilla; Iwuoha, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Heavy metal ions such as Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Mg(2+), and Hg(2+) from industrial waste water constitute a major cause of pollution for ground water sources. These ions are toxic to man and aquatic life as well, and should be removed from wastewater before disposal. Various treatment technologies have been reported to remediate the potential toxic elements from aqueous media, such as adsorption, precipitation and coagulation. Most of these technologies are associated with some shortcomings, and challenges in terms of applicability, effectiveness and cost. However, adsorption techniques have the capability of effectively removing heavy metals at very low concentration (1-100 mg/L). Various adsorbents have been reported in the literature for this purpose, including, to a lesser extent, the use of hydrogel adsorbents for heavy metal removal in aqueous phase. Here, we provide an in-depth perspective on the design, application and efficiency of hydrogel systems as adsorbents. PMID:26942518

  11. Visualizing plumes of heavy metals and radionuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prigiobbe, V.; Liu, T.; Bryant, S. L.; Hesse, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The understanding of the transport behaviors in porous media resides on the ability to reproduce fundamental phenomena in a lab setting. Experiments with quasi 2D tanks filled with beads are performed to study physical phenomena induced by chemical and fluid dynamic processes. When an alkaline solution containing heavy metals or radionuclides invades a low pH region, mixing due to longitudinal dispersion induces destabilization of the front forming a fast travelling pulse [1]. When the two fluids travel in parallel, instead, mixing induced by transverse dispersion creates a continuous leakage from the alkaline region into the acidic one forming a fast travelling plume [2] (Figure 1). Impact of these phenomena are on aquifers upon leaking of alkaline fluids, rich in heavy metals and radionuclides, from waste storage sites. Here, we report the results from a study where experiments with a quasi 2D tank are performed to analyze the effect of transverse mixing on strontium (Sr2+) transport. To visualize the leaking plume, a fluorescent dye (Fura-2) is added the acidic solution, which has been widely used in biomedical applications [3]. It is the aim of this work to optimize its application under the conditions relevant to this work. Spectrometric measurements of absorption and fluorescence show sensitivity of the dye to the presence of Sr2+ throughout a broad range of pH and Sr2+ concentration (Figure 2). In the absence of Sr2+, no significant absorption and fluorescence was measured, but as Sr2+ was added the relevant peaks increase significantly and sample dilution of tenfold was required to remain within the measuring threshold. These results show a strong sensitivity of the dye to the cation opening the opportunity to use Fura-2 as a tool to visualize heavy metals and radionuclides plumes. References[1] Prigiobbe et al. (2012) GRL 39, L18401. [2] Prigiobbe and Hesse (2015) in preparation. [3] Xu-Friedman and Regehr (2000) J. Neurosci. 20(12) 4414-4422.

  12. Growth and heavy metals accumulation potential of microalgae grown in sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluents.

    PubMed

    Ajayan, K V; Selvaraju, M; Thirugnanamoorthy, K

    2011-08-15

    Microalgae exhibit a number of heavy metal uptake process by different metabolism. In this study, the ability of microalgae for removal of heavy metal from wastewater was studied. Growth and biochemical contents of microalgae were determined by spectrophotometer. Heavy metal analysis of wastewater effluents were performed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer before and after treatment at laboratory scale. The growth of Scenedesmus bijuga and Oscillatoria quadripunctulata in sewage wastewater was higher than those grown in synthetic medium. Whereas, the growth of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata in sterilized petrochemical effluents was slightly lower than that grown in the standard synthetic medium. The chlorophyll, carotenoid and protein content of S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized sewage wastewater were higher than those grown in the standard medium. Similarly S. bijuga and O. quadripunctulata grown in sterilized petrochemical effluents showed lower contents of pigments and protein than those grown in sewage and synthetic medium. Heavy metals copper, cobalt, lead and zinc were removed by 37-50, 20.3-33.3, 34.6-100 and 32.1-100%, respectively from sewage wastewater and petrochemical effluent using Ocillatoria culture. The metal absorption by S. bijuga were (Cu, Co, Pb, Zn) 60-50, 29.6-66, 15.4-25 and 42.9-50%, respectively from sewage and petrochemical effluents. Both species showed high level of heavy metal removal efficiency and metal sorption efficiency of both microalgae depended on the type of biosorbent, the physiological status of the cells, availability of heavy metal, concentration of heavy metal and chemical composition of wastewater. PMID:22545355

  13. Bioleaching remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils using Burkholderia sp. Z-90.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Zhi; Chai, Liyuan; Wang, Yong; Liu, Yi; Xiao, Ruiyang

    2016-01-15

    Bioleaching is an environment-friendly and economical technology to remove heavy metals from contaminated soils. In this study, a biosurfactant-producing strain with capacity of alkaline production was isolated from cafeteria sewer sludge and its capability for removing Zn, Pb, Mn, Cd, Cu, and As was investigated. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA gene sequences confirmed that the strain belonged to Burkholderia sp. and named as Z-90. The biosurfactant was glycolipid confirmed by thin layer chromatography and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Z-90 broth was then used for bioleaching remediation of heavy metal-contaminated soils. The removal efficiency was 44.0% for Zn, 32.5% for Pb, 52.2% for Mn, 37.7% for Cd, 24.1% for Cu and 31.6% for As, respectively. Mn, Zn and Cd were more easily removed from soil than Cu, Pb and As, which was attributed to the presence of high acid-soluble fraction of Mn, Zn and Cd and high residual fraction of Cu, Pb and As. The heavy metal removal in soils was contributed to the adhesion of heavy metal-contaminated soil minerals with strain Z-90 and the formation of a metal complex with biosurfactant. PMID:26348147

  14. Leaching heavy metals from the surface soil of reclaimed tidal flat by alternating seawater inundation and air drying.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shi-Hong; Liu, Zhen-Ling; Li, Qu-Sheng; Yang, Ping; Wang, Li-Li; He, Bao-Yan; Xu, Zhi-Min; Ye, Jin-Shao; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-08-01

    Leaching experiments were conducted in a greenhouse to simulate seawater leaching combined with alternating seawater inundation and air drying. We investigated the heavy metal release of soils caused by changes associated with seawater inundation/air drying cycles in the reclaimed soils. After the treatment, the contents of all heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, and Cu), except Zn, in surface soil significantly decreased (P < 0.05), with removal rates ranging from 10% to 51%. The amounts of the exchangeable, carbonate, reducible, and oxidizable fractions also significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Moreover, prolonged seawater inundation enhanced the release of heavy metals. Measurement of diffusive gradients in thin films indicated that seawater inundation significantly increased the re-mobility of heavy metals. During seawater inundation, iron oxide reduction induced the release of heavy metals in the reducible fraction. Decomposition of organic matter, and complexation with dissolved organic carbon decreased the amount of heavy metals in the oxidizable fraction. Furthermore, complexation of chloride ions and competition of cations during seawater inundation and/or leaching decreased the levels of heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction. By contrast, air drying significantly enhanced the concentration of heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction. Therefore, the removal of heavy metals in the exchangeable fraction can be enhanced during subsequent leaching with seawater. PMID:27236846

  15. Heavy metal adsorption by sulphide mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Gilles E.; Bancroft, G. Michael

    1986-07-01

    The adsorption of aqueous Hg 2+, Pb 2+, Zn 2+ and Cd 2+ complexes on a variety of sulphide minerals has been studied as a function of the solution pH and also as a function of the nature of the ligands in solution. Sulphide minerals are excellent scavengers for these heavy metals. The adsorption is strongly pH dependent, i.e. there is a critical pH at which the adsorption increases dramatically. The pH dependence is related to the hydrolysis of the metal ions. Indirect evidence suggests that the hydrolyzed species are adsorbed directly on the sulphide groups, probably as a monolayer. The results also suggest the presence of MCI n2- n species physisorbed on the adsorbed monolayer. A positive identification of the adsorbed species was not possible using ESCA/XPS.

  16. Behavior and Distribution of Heavy Metals Including Rare Earth Elements, Thorium, and Uranium in Sludge from Industry Water Treatment Plant and Recovery Method of Metals by Biosurfactants Application

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lidi; Kano, Naoki; Sato, Yuichi; Li, Chong; Zhang, Shuang; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the behavior, distribution, and characteristics of heavy metals including rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in sludge, the total and fractional concentrations of these elements in sludge collected from an industry water treatment plant were determined and compared with those in natural soil. In addition, the removal/recovery process of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, and Ni) from the polluted sludge was studied with biosurfactant (saponin and sophorolipid) elution by batch and column experiments to evaluate the efficiency of biosurfactant for the removal of heavy metals. Consequently, the following matters have been largely clarified. (1) Heavy metallic elements in sludge have generally larger concentrations and exist as more unstable fraction than those in natural soil. (2) Nonionic saponin including carboxyl group is more efficient than sophorolipid for the removal of heavy metals in polluted sludge. Saponin has selectivity for the mobilization of heavy metals and mainly reacts with heavy metals in F3 (the fraction bound to carbonates) and F5 (the fraction bound to Fe-Mn oxides). (3) The recovery efficiency of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, and Cr) reached about 90–100% using a precipitation method with alkaline solution. PMID:22693485

  17. Stabilization and separation of heavy metals in incineration fly ash during the hydrothermal treatment process.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuyan; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Jianping; Chen, Dezhen

    2015-12-15

    In the paper, hydrothermal treatment (HT) of MSWI fly ashes was performed to stabilize and separate heavy metals. Influences of pre-treatment, types of ferric and/or ferrous additives, and subsequent heavy metal stabilization procedure by adding phosphate were investigated. The chemical stability of hydrothermal products was examined by solid waste extraction procedure with acetic acid buffer solution. Mineralogical investigation of selected hydrothermal product was carried out by XRD. FEGE SEM- -EDX was used to study the morphology and surface compositions of the ash particles. Experimental results revealed that HT process facilitated heavy metal exposure to leaching solution. FEGE SEM-EDX images revealed that fly ash particles were re-organized during hydrothermal process and that the minerals with special shapes and containing high levels of heavy metals were formed. A mild acid washing treatment with final pH around 6.20 could remove soluble heavy metals. Therefore, it may be a proper pre- or post-treatment method for fly ash particles for the purpose of reducing heavy metal contents. For the purpose of stabilizing heavy metals, the addition of ferric/ferrous salts in the HT process or phosphate stabilization after HT is recommended. The HT process may be applied to realize the environmentally sound management of MSWI fly ash or to recover and utilize MSWI fly ash. PMID:26100935

  18. Biosorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution by red macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Wael M

    2011-09-15

    Biosorption is an effective process for the removal and recovery of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. The biomass of marine algae has been reported to have high biosorption capacities for a number of heavy metal ions. In this study, four species of red seaweeds Corallina mediterranea, Galaxaura oblongata, Jania rubens and Pterocladia capillacea were examined to remove Co(II), Cd(II), Cr(III) and Pb(II) ions from aqueous solution. The experimental parameters that affect the biosorption process such as pH, contact time and biomass dosage were studied. The maximum biosorption capacity of metal ions was 105.2mg/g at biomass dosage 10 g/L, pH 5 and contact time 60 min. The biosorption efficiency of algal biomass for the removal of heavy metal ions from industrial wastewater was evaluated for two successive cycles. Galaxaura oblongata biomass was relatively more efficient to remove metal ions with mean biosorption efficiency of 84%. This study demonstrated that these seaweeds constitute a promising, efficient, cheap and biodegradable sorbent biomaterial for lowering the heavy metal pollution in the environment. PMID:21798665

  19. Removal of Metallic Iron on Oxide Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, George N.; Fruehan, R. J.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2009-10-01

    It is possible, in some cases, for ground coal particles to react with gasifier gas during combustion, allowing the ash material in the coal to form phases besides the expected slag phase. One of these phases is metallic iron, because some gasifiers are designed to operate under a reducing atmosphere ({p_{O2}} of approximately 10-4 atm). Metallic iron can become entrained in the gas stream and deposit on, and foul, downstream equipment. To improve the understanding of the reaction between different metallic iron particles and gas, which eventually oxidizes them, and the slag that the resulting oxide dissolves in, the kinetics of iron reaction on slag were predicted using gas-phase mass-transfer limitations for the reaction and were compared with diffusion in the slag; the reaction itself was observed under confocal scanning laser microscopy. The expected rates for iron droplet removal are provided based on the size and effective partial pressure of oxygen, and it is found that decarburization occurs before iron reaction, leading to an extra 30- to 100-second delay for carbon-saturated particles vs pure iron particles. A pure metallic iron particle of 0.5 mg should be removed in about 220 seconds at 1400 °C and in 160 seconds at 1600 °C.

  20. Removal of metallic iron on oxide slags

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, G.N.; Fruehan, R.J.; Sridhar, S.

    2009-10-15

    It is possible, in some cases, for ground coal particles to react with gasifier gas during combustion, allowing the ash material in the coal to form phases besides the expected slag phase. One of these phases is metallic iron, because some gasifiers are designed to operate under a reducing atmosphere (pO{sub 2}) of approximately 10{sup -4} atm). Metallic iron can become entrained in the gas stream and deposit on, and foul, downstream equipment. To improve the understanding of the reaction between different metallic iron particles and gas, which eventually oxidizes them, and the slag that the resulting oxide dissolves in, the kinetics of iron reaction on slag were predicted using gas-phase mass-transfer limitations for the reaction and were compared with diffusion in the slag; the reaction itself was observed under confocal scanning laser microscopy. The expected rates for iron droplet removal are provided based on the size and effective partial pressure of oxygen, and it is found that decarburization occurs before iron reaction, leading to an extra 30- to 100-second delay for carbon-saturated particles vs pure iron particles. A pure metallic iron particle of 0.5 mg should be removed in about 220 seconds at 1400{sup o}C and in 160 seconds at 1600{sup o}C.

  1. Extraction kinetics of heavy metal-containing sludge.

    PubMed

    Lee, I-Hsien; Wang, Yi-Jing; Chern, Jia-Ming

    2005-08-31

    In order to remove and recover copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium from the wastewater treatment sludge generated by an electroplating process, the heavy metal extraction kinetics was studied in a batch reactor using two different extraction agents (nitric and citric acid) at constant agitation speed (150 rpm) and solid to liquid ratio (10 g/L), but varying acid concentrations (0.02-0.10 N), temperatures (25-85 degrees C in nitric acid solution, 25-95 degrees C in citric acid solution), and sludge particle sizes. The shrinking-core model and empirical kinetic model were adopted to analyze the experimental data. Although both models could fit the experimental kinetic data well, the obtained parameters of the shrinking-core model did not show reasonable trends varying with the experimental variables while the empirical model parameters showed significant trends. The experimental and modeling results showed that the metal extraction rates increased with acid concentration, temperature, but decreased with increasing particle size. Nitric acid was found to be more effective than citric acid to extract the heavy metals from the sludge. The extraction activation energies obtained in this study suggested that both a physical diffusion process and a chemical reaction process might play important roles in the overall extraction process. PMID:15993295

  2. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOEpatents

    Leitnaker, J.M.; Trowbridge, L.D.

    1999-03-23

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag. 4 figs.

  3. Process for removing technetium from iron and other metals

    DOEpatents

    Leitnaker, James M.; Trowbridge, Lee D.

    1999-01-01

    A process for removing technetium from iron and other metals comprises the steps of converting the molten, alloyed technetium to a sulfide dissolved in manganese sulfide, and removing the sulfide from the molten metal as a slag.

  4. Separation and removal of metal cyanides

    SciTech Connect

    Hammen, R.F.; Van Der Sluys, W.G.

    1995-09-01

    Metal ion capture media have been developed which are capable of rapidly and effectively reducing metal cyanide concentrations to sub- part per million levels. These media were developed to meet the growing need for compliance with increasingly stringent disposal regulations and the need for cost-effective treatment of metal cyanide waste streams produced by the gold mining and electroplating industries. The extraction media are produced by modifying porous silica with covalently attached, long, and hydrophilic spacer molecules. The termini of the spacer molecules are activated and coupled with a variety of ion exchange and chelating reagents. By placing the functionality away from the surface of the solid support, a combination of the benefits of solution phase equilibration kinetics and heterogeneous support media is obtained. This paper describes column extraction tests performed with the media to remove iron, zinc, copper, and gold cyanide complexes from solution to levels below one part per million. Additional tests were performed with these columns to selectively extract these metal cyanides and/or selectively desorb the cyanide complexes from the media. One column was effective in extracting gold cyanide from solution and recovering the gold by elution with carbonate buffer. The other metal cyanides showed distinctively different adsorption isotherms. By using a combination of two extraction media chemistries, it is possible to separate gold cyanide from a complex solution of mixed metal cyanide species.

  5. Effect of NaCl on the heavy metal tolerance and bioaccumulation of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Liu, Bingjie

    2013-09-01

    Application of microorganisms as bioremediators for heavy metal removal in high salt environment is usually restricted by high salt concentrations. The effect of NaCl on the heavy metal tolerance and bioaccumulation of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. For both yeasts, NaCl improved the cadmium and zinc tolerance, reduced the copper tolerance, and showed no obvious effect on the lead and iron tolerance. The bioaccumulation capacities of copper, zinc, and iron increased but the cadmium bioaccumulation capacities decreased after the addition of NaCl. NaCl obviously affected the amount of heavy metals removed intracellularly and on the cell surface. The heavy metal removal was not overwhelmingly inhibited by elevated NaCl concentrations, especially for Z. rouxii, and in some cases NaCl improved their removal ability. The salt-tolerant Z. rouxii that showed more powerful heavy metal tolerance and removal ability might be more suitable for heavy metal removal in high salt environment. PMID:23774294

  6. pH, dissolved oxygen, and adsorption effects on metal removal in anaerobic bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Willow, Mark A; Cohen, Ronald R H

    2003-01-01

    Anaerobic bioreactors were used to test the effect of the pH of influent on the removal efficiency of heavy metals from acid-rock drainage. Two studies used a near-neutral-pH, metal-laden influent to examine the heavy metal removal efficiency and hydraulic residence time requirements of the reactors. Another study used the more typical low-pH mine drainage influent. Experiments also were done to (i) test the effects of oxygen content of feed water on metal removal and (ii) the adsorptive capacity of the reactor organic substrate. Analysis of the results indicates that bacterial sulfate reduction may be a zero-order kinetic reaction relative to sulfate concentrations used in the experiments, and may be the factor that controls the metal mass removal efficiency in the anaerobic treatment systems. The sorptive capacities of the organic substrate used in the experiments had not been exhausted during the experiments as indicated by the loading rates of removal of metals exceeding the mass production rates of sulfide. Microbial sulfate reduction was less in the reactors receiving low-pH influent during experiments with short residence times. Sulfate-reducing bacteria may have been inhibited by high flows of low-pH water. Dissolved oxygen content of the feed waters had little effect on sulfate reduction and metal removal capacity. PMID:12931874

  7. [Biological activity of selenorganic compounds at heavy metal salts intoxication].

    PubMed

    Rusetskaya, N Y; Borodulin, V B

    2015-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of the antitoxic action of organoselenium compounds in heavy metal poisoning have been considered. Heavy metal toxicity associated with intensification of free radical oxidation, suppression of the antioxidant system, damage to macromolecules, mitochondria and the genetic material can cause apoptotic cell death or the development of carcinogenesis. Organic selenium compounds are effective antioxidants during heavy metal poisoning; they exhibit higher bioavailability in mammals than inorganic ones and they are able to activate antioxidant defense, bind heavy metal ions and reactive oxygen species formed during metal-induced oxidative stress. One of promising organoselenium compounds is diacetophenonyl selenide (DAPS-25), which is characterized by antioxidant and antitoxic activity, under conditions including heavy metal intoxication. PMID:26350735

  8. Heavy Metals Toxicity and the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Tchounwou, Paul B; Yedjou, Clement G; Patlolla, Anita K; Sutton, Dwayne J

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals are naturally occurring elements that have a high atomic weight and a density at least 5 times greater than that of water. Their multiple industrial, domestic, agricultural, medical and technological applications have led to their wide distribution in the environment; raising concerns over their potential effects on human health and the environment. Their toxicity depends on several factors including the dose, route of exposure, and chemical species, as well as the age, gender, genetics, and nutritional status of exposed individuals. Because of their high degree of toxicity, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury rank among the priority metals that are of public health significance. These metallic elements are considered systemic toxicants that are known to induce multiple organ damage, even at lower levels of exposure. They are also classified as human carcinogens (known or probable) according to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This review provides an analysis of their environmental occurrence, production and use, potential for human exposure, and molecular mechanisms of toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. PMID:22945569

  9. Toxic heavy metals: materials cycle optimization.

    PubMed Central

    Ayres, R U

    1992-01-01

    Long-term ecological sustainability is incompatible with an open materials cycle. The toxic heavy metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, silver, uranium/plutonium, zinc) exemplify the problem. These metals are being mobilized and dispersed into the environment by industrial activity at a rate far higher than by natural processes. Apart from losses to the environment resulting from mine wastes and primary processing, many of these metals are utilized in products that are inherently dissipative. Examples of such uses include fuels, lubricants, solvents, fire retardants, stabilizers, flocculants, pigments, biocides, and preservatives. To close the materials cycle, it will be necessary to accomplish two things. The first is to ban or otherwise discourage (e.g., by means of high severance taxes on virgin materials) dissipative uses of the above type. The second is to increase the efficiency of recycling of those materials that are not replaceable in principle. Here, also, economic instruments (such as returnable deposits) can be effective in some cases. A systems view of the problem is essential to assess the cost and effectiveness of alternative strategies. PMID:11607259

  10. Heavy metal toxicity and the environment.

    PubMed

    Tchounwou, Paul B; Yedjou, Clement G; Patlolla, Anita K; Sutton, Dwayne J

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals are naturally occurring elements that have a high atomic weight and a density at least five times greater than that of water. Their multiple industrial, domestic, agricultural, medical, and technological applications have led to their wide distribution in the environment, raising concerns over their potential effects on human health and the environment. Their toxicity depends on several factors including the dose, route of exposure, and chemical species, as well as the age, gender, genetics, and nutritional status of exposed individuals. Because of their high degree of toxicity, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury rank among the priority metals that are of public health significance. These metallic elements are considered systemic toxicants that are known to induce multiple organ damage, even at lower levels of exposure. They are also classified as human carcinogens (known or probable) according to the US Environmental Protection Agency and the International Agency for Research on Cancer. This review provides an analysis of their environmental occurrence, production and use, potential for human exposure, and molecular mechanisms of toxicity, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. PMID:22945569

  11. Heavy Metal Induced Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterium LSJC7

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Songcan; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Guoxin; Zhang, Yingjiao; Su, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Co-contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals prevails in the environment, and may play an important role in disseminating bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the selective effects of heavy metals on bacterial antibiotic resistance is largely unclear. To investigate this, the effects of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance were studied in a genome-sequenced bacterium, LSJC7. The results showed that the presence of arsenate, copper, and zinc were implicated in fortifying the resistance of LSJC7 towards tetracycline. The concentrations of heavy metals required to induce antibiotic resistance, i.e., the minimum heavy metal concentrations (MHCs), were far below (up to 64-fold) the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of LSJC7. This finding indicates that the relatively low heavy metal levels in polluted environments and in treated humans and animals might be sufficient to induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. In addition, heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance was also observed for a combination of arsenate and chloramphenicol in LSJC7, and copper/zinc and tetracycline in antibiotic susceptible strain Escherichia coli DH5α. Overall, this study implies that heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance might be ubiquitous among various microbial species and suggests that it might play a role in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in metal and antibiotic co-contaminated environments. PMID:26426011

  12. Heavy Metal Induced Antibiotic Resistance in Bacterium LSJC7.

    PubMed

    Chen, Songcan; Li, Xiaomin; Sun, Guoxin; Zhang, Yingjiao; Su, Jianqiang; Ye, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Co-contamination of antibiotics and heavy metals prevails in the environment, and may play an important role in disseminating bacterial antibiotic resistance, but the selective effects of heavy metals on bacterial antibiotic resistance is largely unclear. To investigate this, the effects of heavy metals on antibiotic resistance were studied in a genome-sequenced bacterium, LSJC7. The results showed that the presence of arsenate, copper, and zinc were implicated in fortifying the resistance of LSJC7 towards tetracycline. The concentrations of heavy metals required to induce antibiotic resistance, i.e., the minimum heavy metal concentrations (MHCs), were far below (up to 64-fold) the minimum inhibition concentrations (MIC) of LSJC7. This finding indicates that the relatively low heavy metal levels in polluted environments and in treated humans and animals might be sufficient to induce bacterial antibiotic resistance. In addition, heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance was also observed for a combination of arsenate and chloramphenicol in LSJC7, and copper/zinc and tetracycline in antibiotic susceptible strain Escherichia coli DH5α. Overall, this study implies that heavy metal induced antibiotic resistance might be ubiquitous among various microbial species and suggests that it might play a role in the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in metal and antibiotic co-contaminated environments. PMID:26426011

  13. SITE demonstration of the Dynaphore/Forager Sponge technology to remove dissolved metals from contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Esposito, C.R.; Vaccaro, G.

    1995-10-01

    A Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) demonstration was conducted of the Dynaphore/Forager Sponge technology during the week of April 3, 1994 at the N.L. Industries Superfund Site in Pedricktown, New Jersey. The Forager Sponge is an open-celled cellulose sponge incorporating an amine-containing chelating polymer that selectively absorbs dissolved heavy metals in both cationic and anionic states. This technology is a volume reduction technology in which heavy metal contaminants from an aqueous medium are concentrated into a smaller volume for facilitated disposal. The developer states that the technology can be used to remove heavy metals from a wide variety of aqueous media, such as groundwater, surface waters and process waters. The sponge matrix can be directly disposed, or regenerated with chemical solutions. For this demonstration the sponge was set up as a mobile pump-and-treat system which treated groundwater contaminated with heavy metals. The demonstration focused on the system`s ability to remove lead, cadmium, chromium and copper from the contaminated groundwater over a continuous 72-hour test. The removal of heavy metals proceeded in the presence of significantly higher concentrations of innocuous cations such as calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and aluminum.

  14. PROCESS FOR SEPARATION OF HEAVY METALS

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-04-29

    A method is described for separating plutonium from aqueous acidic solutions of neutron-irradiated uranium and the impurities associated therewith. The separation is effected by adding, to the solution containing hexavalent uranium and plutonium, acetate ions and the ions of an alkali metal and those of a divalent metal and thus forming a complex plutonium acetate salt which is carried by the corresponding complex of uranium, such as sodium magnesium uranyl acetate. The plutonium may be separated from the precipitated salt by taking the same back into solution, reducing the plutonium to a lower valent state on reprecipitating the sodium magnesium uranyl salt, removing the latter, and then carrying the plutonium from ihe solution by means of lanthanum fluoride.

  15. New biosorbent in removing some metals from industrial wastewater in El Mex Bay, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdallah, Maha Ahmed Mohamed; Mahmoud, Mohamed E.; Osman, Maher M.; Ahmed, Somaia B.

    2015-12-01

    Biosorption is an extensive technology applied for the removal of heavy metal ions and other pollutants from aqueous solutions. In the present study, the biosorption of cadmium, lead, chromium and mercury ions from polluted surface seawater in El-Max Bay was determined using hybrid active carbon sorbents. These sorbents were treated chemically by acid, base and redox reaction followed by surface loading of baker's yeast biomass for increasing their biosorption capacity and the highest metal uptake values. The surface function and morphology of the hybrid immobilized sorbents were studied by Fourier Transform Infrared analysis and scanning electron microscope imaging. Metal removal values proved that the vital role of baker's yeast as a significant high removable due to functional groups at baker's yeast cell wall surface that have the ability to forming various coordination complexes with metal ions. A noticeable increase in the removal of all studied metals was observed and reached to 100 %.

  16. Plant productivity and heavy metal contamination

    SciTech Connect

    Guidi, G.V.; Petruzzelli, G.; Vallini, G.; Pera, A.

    1990-06-01

    This article describes the potential for use of composts from green waste and from municipal solid wastes for agricultural use in Italy. The accumulation of heavy metals in compost-amended soils and crops was evaluated and the influence of these composts on plant productivity was studied. Green compost was obtained from vegetable organic residues; municipal solid waste derived compost was obtained from the aerobic biostabilization of a mixture of the organic biodegradable fraction of municipal solid waste and sewage sludge. The two composts had good chemical characteristics and their use caused no pollution to soil and plants. The overall fertilizing effect was higher for green compost even though green compost and municipal solid waste derived compost had similar contents of primary elements of fertility.

  17. Intrinsic Instabilities Of Heavy Metal Fluoride Glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, A. J.; Moynihan, C. T.; Loehr, S. R.; Opalka, S. M.; Mossadegh, R.; Perazzo, N. L.; Bansal, N. P.; Doremus, R. H.; Doremus; Drexhage, M. G.

    1985-06-01

    Heavy metal fluoride glasses (HMFG) are potentially useful as optical components in a wide range of devices. Their utilization has so far been delayed mainly because of insufficient material purity and inadequate processing conditions. However, as the result of numerous research efforts, these problems are gradually diminishing, and it now seems likely that the ultimate limitations for use of HMFG components, at least in those applications in which high optical transparency is not a prerequisite, will be imposed by more intrinsic instabilities of the glasses themselves. These include their strong tendency to crystallize on quenching and subsequent reheating, low mechanical and chemical durability, and the possibility that they will undergo significant physical aging in situ. Experimental data relating to these problems have now been obtained, and their relative importance is assessed in this paper.

  18. Hydroponic phytoremediation of heavy metals and radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Hartong, J.; Szpak, J.; Hamric, T.; Cutright, T.

    1998-07-01

    It is estimated that the Departments of Defense, Energy, and Agriculture will spend up to 300 billion federal dollars on environmental remediation during the next century. Current remediation processes can be expensive, non-aesthetic, and non-versatile. Therefore, the need exists for more innovative and cost effective solutions. Phytoremediation, the use of vegetation for the remediation of contaminated sediments, soils, and ground water, is an emerging technology for treating several categories of persistent, toxic contaminants. Although effective, phytoremediation is still in a developmental stage, and therefore is not a widely accepted technology by regulatory agencies and public groups. Research is currently being conducted to validate the processes effectiveness as well as increase regulatory and community acceptance. This research will focus on the ability of plants to treat an aquifer contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. Specifically, the effectiveness of hydroponically grown dwarf sunflowers and mustard seed will be investigated.

  19. Separation of heavy metal from water samples--The study of the synthesis of complex compounds of heavy metal with dithiocarbamates.

    PubMed

    Kane, Sonila; Lazo, Pranvera; Ylli, Fatos; Stafilov, Trajce; Qarri, Flora; Marku, Elda

    2016-01-01

    The toxicity and persistence of heavy metal (HM) ions may cause several problems to marine organisms and human beings. For this reason, it is growing the interest in the chemistry of sulphur donor ligands such as dithiocarbamates (DDTC), due to their applications particularly in analytical chemistry sciences. The aim of this work has been the study of heavy metal complexes with DDTC and their application in separation techniques for the preconcentration and/or removing of heavy metals from the water solutions or the water ecosystems prior to their analysis. The HM-DDTC complexes were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods. The elemental analysis and the yield of the synthesis (97.5-99.9%) revealed a good purity of the complexes. High values of complex formation yields of HM-DDTC complexes is an important parameter for quantitatively removing/and or preconcentration of heavy metal ions from water solution even at low concentration of heavy metals. Significant differences founded between the characteristic parameters of UV/Vis (λmax and ϵmax) and FTIR absorption spectra of the parent DDTC and HM-DDTC complexes revealed the complex formation. The presence of the peaks at the visible spectral zone is important to M(nd(10-m))-L electron charge transfer of the new complexes. The (C=N) (1450-1500 cm(-1)) and the un-splitting (C-S) band (950-1002 cm(-1)) in HM-DDTC FTIR spectra are important to the identification of their bidentate mode (HM[S2CNC4H10]2). The total CHCl3 extraction of trace level heavy metals from water samples after their complex formation with DDTC is reported in this article. PMID:26761072

  20. [Toxic heavy metals in foodstuffs (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Käferstein, F K

    1980-09-01

    1. In the Federal Republic of Germany two staple foodstuffs, cereals and milk, are regularly checked by means of monitoring programmes for their content of heavy metals, this check being representative for the whole country. Other foodstuffs are analysed in the laboratories of the Food Control Authorities, but these inspections are carried out rather sporadically and are not yet of a "monitoring" nature. 2. The measured values from a number of laboratories are fed into a central data bank (Datenbank-ZEBS) at the Federal Health Office and are thus available for statistical and hygienic evaluation. 3. At present, information is available on the lead, cadmium and mercury content of foodstuffs which represent roughly 70 to 80 per cent of the food consumed by an average adult. The intake of lead, cadmium and mercury due to the consumption of these foodstuffs has been calculated and extrapolated to the complete food consumption. It was found that the value ascertained are clearly lower than the toxicological threshold values published by FAO/WHO. 4. Nevertheless, the intake needs to be limited, because the average heavy metal content of some foodstuffs has increased, probably because of anthropogenic reasons. This is especially likely to apply to the cadmium content of wheat. To attempt a restriction by regulation, is at present not considered in Germany to be the optimal solution. Instead, the Federal Health Office has published guidance values which contain an appeal to the foodstuff industry and food control authorities to investigate the causes, whenever these guidance values are approached or exceeded, with the objective of avoiding high levels. PMID:7456855

  1. Heavy metal retention of different roadside soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werkenthin, Moritz; Kluge, Björn; Wessolek, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Emissions from major highways contain different kinds of contaminants such as heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and road salts which can occur in both particulate and dissolved form. Pollutants are transferred to the environment via aerial transport or the infiltration of road runoff and spray water. A significant rate of the road runoff infiltrates into the Embankment which is usually built during road construction and located next to the road edge. Especially in the long term development there is an increasing problem of soil contamination and groundwater pollution. According to valid German law, newly constructed hard shoulders have to provide a specific bear-ing capacity to enable trafficability in emergency cases. Therefore the applicable materials consist of accurately defined gravel-soil mixtures, which can fulfil this requirement. To determine and com-pare the total and dissolved concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr in the road runoff and seep-age water of newly constructed embankments, we installed 6 Lysimeter along the edge of the German highway A115. Three lysimeter were filled with different materials which are recently used for embankment construction in Germany. Three further lysimeter where installed and filled with plain gravel, to observe the distribution, quantity and quality of road runoff. Fist results showed that heavy metal concentrations determined in the road runoff were compara-ble to literature values. The solute concentrations in the seepage water of the different embank-ment materials do not show considerable differences and exceed the trigger values of the German Federal Soil Protection & Contamination Ordinance (BBodSchV) only sporadically. Total concentra-tions of the seepage water are significantly higher than solute concentrations and clearly differ be-tween stable and non stable variant. In order to estimate the risk of groundwater pollution further monitoring of seepage water quality is necessary.

  2. Ionic liquid incorporating thiosalicylate for metal removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilfred, Cecilia Devi; Mustafa, Fadwa Babiker; Romeli, Fatimah Julia

    2012-09-01

    Ionic liquids are a class of organic molten salts "designer solvents" that are composed totally of anions (inorganic and organic polyatomic) and organic cations. The replacement of volatile organic solvents from a separation process is of utmost importance since the use of a large excess of these solvents is hazardous and creates ecological problem. The new method for metal ion extraction is by using task-specific ionic liquids such as ionic liquids which incorporate thiosalicylate functionality. This paper looks at producing a new cluster of ionic liquids which incorporates thiosalicylate with pyridinium cation. Its thermophysical properties such as density and viscosity in single and binary mixtures are studied. The ionic liquids' capability in metal removal processes is evaluated.

  3. Heavy metal uptake capacity of fresh water algae (Oedogonium westti) from aqueous solution: A mesocosm research.

    PubMed

    Shamshad, Isha; Khan, Sardar; Waqas, Muhammad; Asma, Maliha; Nawab, Javed; Gul, Nayab; Raiz, Arjumand; Li, Gang

    2016-01-01

    The green macroalgae present in freshwater ecosystems have attracted a great attention of the world scientists for removal of heavy metals from wastewater. In this mesocosm study, the uptake rates of heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) by Oedogonium westi (O. westti) were measured. The equilibrium adsorption capabilities of O. westti were different for Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb (0.974, 0.418, 0.620, and 0.261 mgg(-1), respectively) at 18 °C and pH 5.0. Furthermore, the removal efficiencies for Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb were observed from 55-95%, 61-93%, 59-89%, and 61-96%, respectively. The highest removal efficiency was observed for Cd and Cr from aqueous solution at acidic pH and low initial metal concentrations. However, the removal efficiencies of Ni and Pb were higher at high pH and high concentrations of metals in aqueous solution. The results summarized that O. westti is a suitable candidate for removal of selected toxic heavy metals from the aqueous solutions. PMID:26515662

  4. Heavy Metal Music and Adolescent Suicidality: An Empirical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheel, Karen R.; Westefeld, John S.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between preference for heavy metal music and vulnerability to suicide among high school students. Results indicate that preference for heavy metal music among adolescents may be sign of increased suicidal vulnerability, but also suggests that the source of the problem may lie more in personal and familial…

  5. Heavy Metal Music and Reckless Behavior among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnett, Jeffrey

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-four male and 30 female adolescents who like heavy metal music were compared on various outcome variables to 56 male and 105 female peers who do not like it. Those who like heavy metal report a wider range of reckless behavior than those who do not like it. (SLD)

  6. ENZYME-MEDIATED TRANSFORMATIONS OF HEAVY METALS/METALLOIDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major emphasis has been placed on the bioremediation of organic compounds and their fate and transport throughout the environment. However, another important class of chemicals polluting our environment are inorganic, particularly heavy metals and metalloids. Heavy metals are elements of the Per...

  7. Stabilization of heavy metals in ceramsite made with sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Xu, G R; Zou, J L; Li, G B

    2008-03-21

    In order to investigate stabilization of heavy metals in ceramsite made with sewage sludge as an additive, the configuration of heavy metals in ceramsite was analysed by XRD and while leaching tests were conducted to find out the effect of sintering temperature (850 degrees C, 900 degrees C, 950 degrees C, 1000 degrees C, 1100 degrees C, and 1200 degrees C), pH (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 12), and H2O2 concentration (0.5molL(-1), 1molL(-1), 1.5molL(-1), 3molL(-1), and 5molL(-1)) on stabilization of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb) in ceramsite. The results indicate that leaching contents of heavy metals do not change above 1000 degrees C and sintering temperature has a significant effect on stabilization of heavy metals in ceramsite; leaching contents of heavy metals decrease as pH increases and increase as H2O2 concentration increases. XRD analysis reveals that the heavy metals exist in steady forms, mainly Pb2O(CrO(4)), CdSiO3, and CuO at 1100 degrees C. It is therefore concluded that heavy metals are properly stabilized in ceramsite and cannot be easily released into the environment again to cause secondary pollution. PMID:17692459

  8. Treatment of heavy metals by iron oxide coated and natural gravel media in Sustainable urban Drainage Systems.

    PubMed

    Norris, M J; Pulford, I D; Haynes, H; Dorea, C C; Phoenix, V R

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable urban Drainage Systems (SuDS) filter drains are simple, low-cost systems utilized as a first defence to treat road runoff by employing biogeochemical processes to reduce pollutants. However, the mechanisms involved in pollution attenuation are poorly understood. This work aims to develop a better understanding of these mechanisms to facilitate improved SuDS design. Since heavy metals are a large fraction of pollution in road runoff, this study aimed to enhance heavy metal removal of filter drain gravel with an iron oxide mineral amendment to increase surface area for heavy metal scavenging. Experiments showed that amendment-coated and uncoated (control) gravel removed similar quantities of heavy metals. Moreover, when normalized to surface area, iron oxide coated gravels (IOCGs) showed poorer metal removal capacities than uncoated gravel. Inspection of the uncoated microgabbro gravel indicated that clay particulates on the surface (a natural product of weathering of this material) augmented heavy metal removal, generating metal sequestration capacities that were competitive compared with IOCGs. Furthermore, when the weathered surface was scrubbed and removed, metal removal capacities were reduced by 20%. When compared with other lithologies, adsorption of heavy metals by microgabbro was 10-70% higher, indicating that both the lithology of the gravel, and the presence of a weathered surface, considerably influence its ability to immobilize heavy metals. These results contradict previous assumptions which suggest that gravel lithology is not a significant factor in SuDS design. Based upon these results, weathered microgabbro is suggested to be an ideal lithology for use in SuDS. PMID:23925197

  9. Mutagenic activity of heavy metals in soils of wayside slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorova, A. I.; Kalaev, V. N.; Prosvirina, Yu. G.; Goryainova, S. A.

    2007-08-01

    The genotoxic properties of soils polluted with heavy metals were studied on two wayside slopes covered with trees in the city of Voronezh. The nucleolar test in cells of the apical meristem of Zebrina pendula Schnizl. roots was used. The genotoxic effect of the soils was revealed according to the increased number of 2-and 3-nucleolar cells (from 41 to 54% and from 19 to 23% in the upper part of the first and second slopes, respectively; in the control, their number was 18 and 7%). The mean number of nucleoli per cell increased from 1.7 to 1.95 in the experiment and 1.31 in the control. The increased vehicle emissions, especially when cars go up the slopes (mainly in the upper and middle parts), correlated with the elevated heavy metal (Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn) contents in the soil. The mutagenic substances may be removed to the Voronezh Reservoir, where they may be accumulated in some living organisms.

  10. Effect of pH on the heavy metal-clay mineral interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Altyn, O.; Oezbelge, H.O.; Dogu, T.; Oezbelge, T.A.

    1997-12-31

    Adsorption and ion exchange of Pb and Cd on the surface of kaolinite and montmorillonite were studied with a strong emphasis on the pH values of solutions containing heavy metal ions. The pH range studied was 2.5 - 9. For kaolinite at a clay/solution ratio of 1/10 (w/w), Pb removal changes from 20 to 30% for an initial Pb concentration of 1640 ppm, and Cd removal changes from 10 to 20% for an initial Cd concentration of 1809 ppm. Due to its high exchange capacity, montmorillonite can remove more heavy metal than kaolinite. Removal rates for montmorillonite can reach up to 90% for both Pb and Cd. In the pH range of 3-6, there is a plateau for the removal rates. At pH values higher than 6, removal seems to increase artificially due to the precipitation of heavy metals. Under similar conditions for both clays, the rate of removal of Pb is always higher than that of Cd. As the pH value decreases for montmorillonite, there is a strong tendency for decreased surface area and swelling, as indicated by BET surface area measurements, adsorbed layer thickness and pore size distribution data. In the range of pH values studied, X-ray diffraction analysis showed the appearance of a characteristic (001) peak for montmorillonite, indicating that the crystalline structure of the clay was intact during the experiments.

  11. Biological leaching of heavy metals from a contaminated soil by Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Ren, Wan-Xia; Li, Pei-Jun; Geng, Yong; Li, Xiao-Jun

    2009-08-15

    Bioleaching of heavy metals from a contaminated soil in an industrial area using metabolites, mainly weak organic acids, produced by a fungus Aspergillus niger was investigated. Batch experiments were performed to compare the leaching efficiencies of one-step and two-step processes and to determine the transformation of heavy metal chemical forms during the bioleaching process. After the one or two-step processes, the metal removals were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and least-significance difference (LSD). A. niger exhibits a good potential in generating a variety of organic acids effective for metal solubilisation. Results showed that after the one-step process, maximum removals of 56%, 100%, 30% and 19% were achieved for copper, cadmium, lead and zinc, respectively. After the two-step process, highest removals of 97.5% Cu, 88.2% Cd, 26% Pb, and 14.5% Zn were obtained. Results of sequential extraction showed that organic acids produced by A. niger were effective in removing the exchangeable, carbonate, and Fe/Mn oxide fractions of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn; and after both processes the metals remaining in the soil were mainly bound in stable fractions. Such a treatment procedure indicated that leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soil using A. niger has the potential for use in remediation of contaminated soils. PMID:19232463

  12. Limitations for heavy metal release during thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge ash.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Benedikt; Perutka, Libor; Aschenbrenner, Philipp; Kraus, Petra; Rechberger, Helmut; Winter, Franz

    2011-06-01

    Phosphate recycling from sewage sludge can be achieved by heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash (SSA) producing a fertilizer product: mixing SSA with chloride and treating this mixture (eventually after granulation) in a rotary kiln at 1000 ± 100°C leads to the formation of volatile heavy metal compounds that evaporate and to P-phases with high bio-availability. Due to economical and ecological reasons, it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption of this technology. Generally, fluidized bed reactors are characterized by high heat and mass transfer and thus promise the saving of energy. Therefore, a rotary reactor and a fluidized bed reactor (both laboratory-scale and operated in batch mode) are used for the treatment of granulates containing SSA and CaCl(2). Treatment temperature, residence time and - in case of the fluidized bed reactor - superficial velocity are varied between 800 and 900°C, 10 and 30 min and 3.4 and 4.6 ms(-1). Cd and Pb can be removed well (>95 %) in all experiments. Cu removal ranges from 25% to 84%, for Zn 75-90% are realized. The amount of heavy metals removed increases with increasing temperature and residence time which is most pronounced for Cu. In the pellet, three major reactions occur: formation of HCl and Cl(2) from CaCl(2); diffusion and reaction of these gases with heavy metal compounds; side reactions from heavy metal compounds with matrix material. Although, heat and mass transfer are higher in the fluidized bed reactor, Pb and Zn removal is slightly better in the rotary reactor. This is due the accelerated migration of formed HCl and Cl(2) out of the pellets into the reactor atmosphere. Cu is apparently limited by the diffusion of its chloride thus the removal is higher in the fluidized bed unit. PMID:21333519

  13. Thermal and hydrometallurgical recovery methods of heavy metals from municipal solid waste fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Kuboňová, L.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • MSW fly ash was thermally and hydrometallurgically treated to remove heavy metals. • More than 90% of easy volatile heavy metals (Cd and Pb) were removed thermally. • More than 90% of Cd, Cr, Cu an Zn were removed by alkaline – acid leaching. • The best results were obtained for the solution of 3 M NaOH and 2 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. - Abstract: Heavy metals in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators are present in high concentrations. Therefore fly ash must be treated as a hazardous material. On the other hand, it may be a potential source of heavy metals. Zinc, lead, cadmium, and copper can be relatively easily removed during the thermal treatment of fly ash, e.g. in the form of chlorides. In return, wet extraction methods could provide promising results for these elements including chromium and nickel. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare thermal and hydrometallurgical treatment of municipal solid waste fly ash. Thermal treatment of fly ash was performed in a rotary reactor at temperatures between 950 and 1050 °C and in a muffle oven at temperatures from 500 to 1200 °C. The removal more than 90% was reached by easy volatile heavy metals such as cadmium and lead and also by copper, however at higher temperature in the muffle oven. The alkaline (sodium hydroxide) and acid (sulphuric acid) leaching of the fly ash was carried out while the influence of temperature, time, concentration, and liquid/solid ratio were investigated. The combination of alkaline-acidic leaching enhanced the removal of, namely, zinc, chromium and nickel.

  14. Limitations for heavy metal release during thermo-chemical treatment of sewage sludge ash

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Benedikt

    2011-06-15

    Phosphate recycling from sewage sludge can be achieved by heavy metal removal from sewage sludge ash (SSA) producing a fertilizer product: mixing SSA with chloride and treating this mixture (eventually after granulation) in a rotary kiln at 1000 {+-} 100 deg. C leads to the formation of volatile heavy metal compounds that evaporate and to P-phases with high bio-availability. Due to economical and ecological reasons, it is necessary to reduce the energy consumption of this technology. Generally, fluidized bed reactors are characterized by high heat and mass transfer and thus promise the saving of energy. Therefore, a rotary reactor and a fluidized bed reactor (both laboratory-scale and operated in batch mode) are used for the treatment of granulates containing SSA and CaCl{sub 2}. Treatment temperature, residence time and - in case of the fluidized bed reactor - superficial velocity are varied between 800 and 900 deg. C, 10 and 30 min and 3.4 and 4.6 m s{sup -1}. Cd and Pb can be removed well (>95 %) in all experiments. Cu removal ranges from 25% to 84%, for Zn 75-90% are realized. The amount of heavy metals removed increases with increasing temperature and residence time which is most pronounced for Cu. In the pellet, three major reactions occur: formation of HCl and Cl{sub 2} from CaCl{sub 2}; diffusion and reaction of these gases with heavy metal compounds; side reactions from heavy metal compounds with matrix material. Although, heat and mass transfer are higher in the fluidized bed reactor, Pb and Zn removal is slightly better in the rotary reactor. This is due the accelerated migration of formed HCl and Cl{sub 2} out of the pellets into the reactor atmosphere. Cu is apparently limited by the diffusion of its chloride thus the removal is higher in the fluidized bed unit.

  15. Dietary heavy metal uptake by the least shrew, Cryptotis parva

    SciTech Connect

    Brueske, C.C.; Barrett, G.W. )

    1991-12-01

    Heavy metals from sewage sludge have been reported to concentrate in producers, in primary consumers, and in detritivores. Little research, however, has focused on the uptake of heavy metals from sewage sludge by secondary consumers. The Family Soricidae represents an ideal mammalian taxonomic group to investigate rates of heavy metal transfer between primary and secondary consumers. The least shrew (Cryptotis parva) was used to evaluate the accumulation of heavy metals while maintained on a diet of earthworms collected from long-term sludge-treated old-field communities. This secondary consumer is distributed widely through the eastern United States and its natural diet includes earthworms which makes it a potentially good indicator of heavy metal transfer in areas treated with municipal sludge.

  16. Characterisation of heavy metal discharge into the Ria of Huelva.

    PubMed

    Sainz, A; Grande, J A; de la Torre, M L

    2004-06-01

    The Ria of Huelva estuary, in SW Spain, is known to be one of the most heavy metal contaminated estuaries in the world. River contribution to the estuary of dissolved Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cd, and As were analysed for the period 1988-2001. The obtained mean values show that this contribution, both because of the magnitude of total metals (895.1 kg/h), composition, toxicity (8.7 kg/h of As+Cd+Pb) and persistence, is an incomparable case in heavy metal contamination of estuaries. The amount and typology of heavy metal discharge to the Ria of Huelva are related to freshwater flow (and, consequently, to rainfall); as a result, two different types of heavy metal discharge can be distinguished in the estuary: during low water (50% of the days), with only 19.3 kg/h of heavy metals, and during high water or flood (17% of the days), where daily maximum discharge of 72,475 kg of heavy metals were recorded, from which 1481 kg were of As, 470 kg of Pb, and 170 kg of Cd. In the most frequent situation (77% of the days), the Odiel River discharges from 90% to 100% of the freshwater received by the estuary. Despite this, the high concentration of heavy metals in the Tinto River water causes this river to discharge into the Ria of Huelva 12.5% of fluvial total dissolved metal load received by the estuary. PMID:15031016

  17. Reducing hazardous heavy metal ions using mangium bark waste.

    PubMed

    Khabibi, Jauhar; Syafii, Wasrin; Sari, Rita Kartika

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of mangium bark and its biosorbent ability to reduce heavy metal ions in standard solutions and wastewater and to assess changes in bark characteristics after heavy metal absorption. The experiments were conducted to determine heavy metal absorption from solutions of heavy metals alone and in mixtures as well as from wastewater. The results show that mangium bark can absorb heavy metals. Absorption percentages and capacities from single heavy metal solutions showed that Cu(2+) > Ni(2+) > Pb(2+) > Hg(2+), while those from mixture solutions showed that Hg(2+) > Cu(2+) > Pb(2+) > Ni(2+). Wastewater from gold mining only contained Cu, with an absorption percentage and capacity of 42.87 % and 0.75 mg/g, respectively. The highest absorption percentage and capacity of 92.77 % and 5.18 mg/g, respectively, were found for Hg(2+) in a mixture solution and Cu(2+) in single-metal solution. The Cu(2+) absorption process in a single-metal solution changed the biosorbent characteristics of the mangium bark, yielding a decreased crystalline fraction; changed transmittance on hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups; and increased the presence of Cu. In conclusion, mangium bark biosorbent can reduce hazardous heavy metal ions in both standard solutions and wastewater. PMID:27179811

  18. Compositions and methods for removal of toxic metals and radionuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuero, Raul G. (Inventor); McKay, David S. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for the removal of toxic metals or radionuclides from source materials. Toxic metals may be removed from source materials using a clay, such as attapulgite or highly cationic bentonite, and chitin or chitosan. Toxic metals may also be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan. Radionuclides may be removed using volcanic ash alone or in combination with chitin or chitosan.

  19. Content of heavy metals in the hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrashkov, S. A.; Petukhov, V. L.; Korotkevich, O. S.; Petukhov, I. V.

    2003-05-01

    The aim of our investigation was to determine of HM content in the hair of people and animals. Two of the main essential elements-Zn and Cu and two of the supertoxical heavy metals- Pb and Cd were chosen. The investigations were conducted in Russian Federation and Belarus Republic in 2001-2002. About 500 hair samples of people, dogs, cats, cattle, horses, yaks, pigs, sheep goats and rabbits were studied by the stripping voltammetric analysis (SVA) method with TA- 2 analyzer to determine Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd concentrations. The hair samples were prepared according to the methods developed in Tomsk University (Russia) and improved by the authors. The essence of the methods is the multiconsecutive burning of hair samples to ashes and boiling them in concentrated acids to dissolve chemical combinations and transform their metals into ion forms. The zinc concentration was the highest in all hair samples (58.65 ... 195.15 mg/kg). The copper content was several times less (5.49 ... 22.63 mg/kg). Lead and cadmium were detected in relatively low amounts (0.32 ... 2.42 mg/kg and 0.04 ... 0.92 mg/kg respectively). The highest Pb and Cd levels were detected in cats and people hair.

  20. Heavy metals in Tuskegee Lake crayfish

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.T.

    1995-12-31

    The crayfish, Onconectes virifis, is a bottom dweller and eats insect larvae, worms, crustaceans, small snails, fishes, and dead animal matter. They can be used to monitor the aquatic environment such as lakes, ponds and creeks. To monitor the environmental contamination of heavy metals (Hg, Pb, Cd, Cu, Co, Ni, and Zn) in Tuskegee Lake, Tuskegee, Alabama, adult crayfish were collected and analyzed for these metals. The Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations were 3.91, 0.22, 8.06, 1.11, and 33.37 ppm in muscle and 28.98, 1.15, 9.86, 2.1 8, and 32.62 ppm in exoskeleton of crayfish, respectively. The concentrations of Pb and Cd were significantly higher in exoskeleton than those of muscle. However, the concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Zn did not show any significant difference between the muscle and the exoskeleton of the crayfish. The concentrations of Hg and Co were undetected in both the exoskeleton and muscle of the crayfish.

  1. Bioremoval of heavy metals from industrial effluent by fixed-bed column of red macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Wael M; Mutawie, Hawazin H

    2013-02-01

    Three different species of nonliving red algal biomass Laurancia obtusa, Geldiella acerosa and Hypnea sp. were used to build three types of fixed-bed column for the removal of toxic heavy metal ions such as Cu(2+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+) and Ni(2+) from industrial effluent. In general, the highest efficiency of metal ion bioremoval was recorded for algal column of L. obtusa followed by G. acerosa and the lowest one was recorded for Hypnea sp., with mean removal values of 94%, 85% and 71%, respectively. The obtained results showed that biological treatments of industrial effluents with these algal columns, using standard algal biotest, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, were capable of reducing effluent toxicities from 75% to 15%, respectively. Red algal column may be considered as an inexpensive and efficient alternative treatment for conventional removal technology, for sequestering heavy metal ions from industrial effluents. PMID:22661401

  2. [Beijing common green tree leaves' accumulation capacity for heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Li, Shao-Ning; Kong, Ling-Wei; Lu, Shao-Wei; Chen, Bo; Gao, Chen; Shi, Yuan

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal variation of heavy metal contents in leaves and their relationships with soil heavy metal pollution levels were studied through measuring and analyzing the leaves of the common tree species in Beijing and soil heavy metal contents, to detect heavy metal accumulation ability of plant leaves. The results showed that: (1) the contents of Cu, Pb, Zn in plant leaves first decreased and then increased, again declined with changing the seasons (from spring to winter). Cr concentration showed the trend of first increase and then decrease from spring to winter, and the highest in the autumn; the accumulation capacities of Cu for Babylonica and Japonica were higher in the spring, summer and autumn, while Tabuliformis was in winter; the higher accumulation capacities for Cr, Pb were Japonica and Platycladus, and in winter were Platycladus and Bungeana; the higher accumulation capacities for Zn were Babylonica and Bungeana, while Platycladus in winter; (2) the pollution degree of four kinds of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn) from downtown to suburbs showed that: Jingshan (C =2.48, C is contamination factor) > Olympic (C = 1.27) > Songshan (C = 1.20) > Shuiguan (C = 1. 18); (3) the heavy metals concentration of same plant leaves in the water of the Great Wall changed larger, but those in the other three areas showed that: Jingshan > Olympic > Songshan; the ability of same species leaf to absorb different sorts of heavy metals showed that: Zn >Cu >Pb >Cr; the difference between Zn content and Cr content was significant (P <0.01); (4) the relationship between heavy metal content in plant leaves and soil heavy metal pollution levels presented a quadratic polynomial relation; the significant correlation was found between other three heavy metal contents of plant samples and soil samples, but they were not the case for the Cu, and the correlation coefficients were above 0. 9. PMID:25055683

  3. Transcriptional and physiological responses of nitrifying bacteria to heavy metal inhibition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Heavy metals have been shown to inhibit nitrification, a key process in the removal of nitrogen in wastewater treatment plants. In the present study, the effects of nickel, zinc, lead and cadmium on nitrifying enrichment cultures were studied in batch reactors. The transcriptiona...

  4. UPTAKE OF HEAVY METALS IN BATCH SYSTEMS BY A RECYCLED IRON-BEARING MATERIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    An iron-bearing material deriving from surface finishing operations in the manufacturing of cast-iron components demonstrates potential for removal of heavy metals from aqueous waste streams. Batch isotherm and rate experiments were conducted for uptake of cadmium, zinc, and lead...

  5. A new method for the removal of toxic metal ions from acid-sensitive biomaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Seki, Hideshi; Suzuki, Akira

    1997-06-01

    A new method (competitive adsorption method) for the removal of toxic heavy metals from acid-sensitive biomaterials was proposed and it was applied to the removal of cadmium from the midgut gland (MG) of scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis. Insolubilized humic acid, which has been developed in the laboratory, was used as a competitive adsorbent. A metal-complexation model was used to determine the adsorption characteristics of cadmium onto MG. Furthermore, the model was applied to the competitive adsorption system. The results showed that the competitive adsorption method enabled the simultaneous removal of toxic cadmium from both liquid and MG phase under mild acidic condition (pH 5).

  6. Fate and effects of heavy metals on the Arkansas river

    SciTech Connect

    Clements, W.H.

    1991-12-15

    The project examined fate and effects of heavy metals on biological communities in the upper Arkansas River Basin. The principal objectives of the research were: (1) to measure the impact of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn) on benthic invertebrate communities in the Arkansas River; (2) to delineate zones of high impact, moderate impact, and recovery based on the distribution and abundance of these organisms; (3) to examine seasonal variation in effects of metals on benthic communities; (4) to examine the potential transfer of heavy metals from benthic invertebrates to brown trout, Salmo trutta.

  7. Highly ordered three-dimensional macroporous carbon spheres for determination of heavy metal ions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuxiao; Zhang, Jianming; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hui; Kang, Zhenhui

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres (MPCSs) were prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPCS was covalently modified by cysteine (MPCS-CO-Cys). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MPCS-CO-Cys was first time used in electrochemical detection of heavy metal ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heavy metal ions such as Pb{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+} can be simultaneously determined. -- Abstract: An effective voltammetric method for detection of trace heavy metal ions using chemically modified highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres electrode surfaces is described. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were prepared by carbonization of glucose in silica crystal bead template, followed by removal of the template. The highly ordered three dimensional macroporous carbon spheres were covalently modified by cysteine, an amino acid with high affinities towards some heavy metals. The materials were characterized by physical adsorption of nitrogen, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy techniques. While the Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy was used to characterize the functional groups on the surface of carbon spheres. High sensitivity was exhibited when this material was used in electrochemical detection (square wave anodic stripping voltammetry) of heavy metal ions due to the porous structure. And the potential application for simultaneous detection of heavy metal ions was also investigated.

  8. Solid-phase heavy-metal separation under unfavorable background conditions by composite membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Sengupta, S.; Sengupta, A.K.

    1995-12-31

    Disposal of sludges or treatment of soil contaminated with minor fraction (often less than 5%) of heavy metals in the solid phase in an otherwise innocuous background is a widespread problem. Selective and targeted removal of the heavy metals from the background solid phase would constitute an efficient treatment process as it would be able to reduce the volume of hazardous sludge considerably and also may make it possible for the heavy metals to be concentrated and recycled/reused. A new class of sorptive/desorptive ion-exchange composite membranes available commercially is extremely suitable for heavy metal decontamination from sludges/slurries. In this material, fine spherical beads (<100 {micro} in dia) of heavy-metal selective chelating ion-exchangers are physically enmeshed or trapped in thin sheets ({approx}0.5 mm thick) of highly porous polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). These composite membranes, because of their thin-sheet like physical configuration, can be easily introduced into and withdrawn from any reactor containing sludge/slurry and the target solutes can be adsorbed onto the microbeads. These membranes are not fouled by high concentration of suspended solids but retain the retain the original properties of the chelating exchangers even after use for a number of cycles. This paper explores the efficacy of the composite membrane for heavy metal decontamination under unfavorable conditions.

  9. Assessment and characterization of heavy metal resistance in Palk Bay sediment bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nithya, Chari; Gnanalakshmi, Balasubramanian; Pandian, Shunmugiah Karutha

    2011-05-01

    The present study aimed at characterizing the heavy metal resistance and assessing the resistance pattern to multiple heavy metals (300 mmol L⁻¹) by Palk Bay sediment bacteria. From 46 isolates, 24 isolates showed resistance to more than eight heavy metals. Among the 24 isolates S8-06 (Bacillus arsenicus), S8-10 (Bacillus pumilus), S8-14 (B. arsenicus), S6-01 (Bacillus indicus), S6-04 (Bacillus clausii), SS-06 (Planococcus maritimus) and SS-08 (Staphylococcus pasteuri) exhibited high resistance against arsenic, mercury, cobalt, cadmium, lead and selenium. Plasmid curing confirmed that the heavy metal resistance in S8-10 is chromosomal borne. Upon treatment with the heavy metals, the strain S8-10 showed many morphological and physiological changes as shown by SEM, FTIR and AAS analysis. S8-10 removed 47% of cadmium and 96% of lead from the growth medium. The study suggests that sediment bacteria can be biological indicators of heavy metal contamination. PMID:21377723

  10. Heavy Water Components Test Reactor Decommissioning - Major Component Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, W.; Brinkley, D.

    2010-05-05

    The Heavy Water Components Test Reactor (HWCTR) facility (Figure 1) was built in 1961, operated from 1962 to 1964, and is located in the northwest quadrant of the Savannah River Site (SRS) approximately three miles from the site boundary. The HWCTR facility is on high, well-drained ground, about 30 meters above the water table. The HWCTR was a pressurized heavy water test reactor used to develop candidate fuel designs for heavy water power reactors. It was not a defense-related facility like the materials production reactors at SRS. The reactor was moderated with heavy water and was rated at 50 megawatts thermal power. In December of 1964, operations were terminated and the facility was placed in a standby condition as a result of the decision by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission to redirect research and development work on heavy water power reactors to reactors cooled with organic materials. For about one year, site personnel maintained the facility in a standby status, and then retired the reactor in place. In 1965, fuel assemblies were removed, systems that contained heavy water were drained, fluid piping systems were drained, deenergized and disconnected and the spent fuel basin was drained and dried. The doors of the reactor facility were shut and it wasn't until 10 years later that decommissioning plans were considered and ultimately postponed due to budget constraints. In the early 1990s, DOE began planning to decommission HWCTR again. Yet, in the face of new budget constraints, DOE deferred dismantlement and placed HWCTR in an extended surveillance and maintenance mode. The doors of the reactor facility were welded shut to protect workers and discourage intruders. The $1.6 billion allocation from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to SRS for site clean up at SRS has opened the doors to the HWCTR again - this time for final decommissioning. During the lifetime of HWCTR, 36 different fuel assemblies were tested in the facility. Ten of these

  11. Bismuth film electrodes for heavy metals determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehacek, Vlastimil; Hotovy, Ivan; Vojs, Marian; Mika, Fedor

    2007-05-01

    Bismuth film electrodes (BiFEs) have a potential to replace toxic mercury used most frequently for determination of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Zn) by anodic stripping voltammetry. We prepared a graphite disc electrode (0.5 mm in diameter) from a pencil-lead rod and developed a nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (NDLC) microelectrode array consisting of 50 625 microdiscs with 3 μm in diameter and interelectrode distances of 20 μm on a highly conductive silicon substrate as a support for BiFEs. The disc graphite BiFE was used for simultaneous determination of Pb(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) by square wave vol