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1

Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are disclosed for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir. 6 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Markun, F.; Zawadzki, M.T.

1998-04-28

2

Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Markun, Francis (Joliet, IL); Zawadzki, Mary T. (South Bend, IN)

1998-01-01

3

Noble Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noble gases are the group of elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon - in the rightmost column of the periodic table of the elements, those which have "filled" outermost shells of electrons (two for helium, eight for the others). This configuration of electrons results in a neutral atom that has relatively low electron affinity and relatively high ionization energy. In consequence, in most natural circumstances these elements do not form chemical compounds, whence they are called "noble." Similarly, much more so than other elements in most circumstances, they partition strongly into a gas phase (as monatomic gas), so that they are called the "noble gases" (also, "inert gases"). (It should be noted, of course, that there is a sixth noble gas, radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only because of recent production in the U-Th decay chains. The factors that govern the distribution of radon isotopes are thus quite different from those for the five gases cited. There are interesting stories about radon, but they are very different from those about the first five noble gases, and are thus outside the scope of this chapter.)In the nuclear fires in which the elements are forged, the creation and destruction of a given nuclear species depends on its nuclear properties, not on whether it will have a filled outermost shell when things cool off and nuclei begin to gather electrons. The numerology of nuclear physics is different from that of chemistry, so that in the cosmos at large there is nothing systematically special about the abundances of the noble gases as compared to other elements. We live in a very nonrepresentative part of the cosmos, however. As is discussed elsewhere in this volume, the outstanding generalization about the geo-/cosmochemistry of the terrestrial planets is that at some point thermodynamic conditions dictated phase separation of solids from gases, and that the Earth and the rest of the inner solar were made by collecting the solids, to the rather efficient exclusion of the gases. In this grand separation the noble gases, because they are noble, were partitioned strongly into the gas phase. The resultant generalization is that the noble gases are very scarce in the materials of the inner solar system, whence their common synonym "rare gases."This scarcity is probably the most important single feature to remember about noble-gas cosmochemistry. As illustration of the absolute quantities, for example, a meteorite that contains xenon at a concentration of order 10 -10 cm3STP g -1 (4×10-15 mol g-1) would be considered relatively rich in xenon. Yet this is only 0.6 ppt (part per trillion, fractional abundance 10-12) by mass. In most circumstances, an element would be considered efficiently excluded from some sample if its abundance, relative to cosmic proportions to some convenient reference element, were depleted by "several" orders of magnitude. But a noble gas would be considered to be present in quite high concentration if it were depleted by only four or five orders of magnitude (in the example above, 10-10 cm3STP g-1 of xenon corresponds to depletion by seven orders of magnitude), and one not uncommonly encounters noble-gas depletion of more than 10 orders of magnitude.The second most important feature to note about noble-gas cosmochemistry is that while a good deal of the attention given to noble gases really is about chemistry, traditionally a good deal of attention is also devoted to nuclear phenomena, much more so than for most other elements. This feature is a corollary of the first feature noted above, namely scarcity. A variety of nuclear transmutation processes - decay of natural radionuclides and energetic particle reactions - lead to the production of new nuclei that are often new elements. Most commonly, the quantity of new nuclei originating in nuclear transmutation is very small compared to the quantity already present in the sample in question,

Podosek, F. A.

2003-12-01

4

Noble gases in meteorites and terrestrial planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Terrestrial planets and chondrites have noble gas platforms that are sufficiently alike, especially Ne/Ar, that they may have acquired their noble gases by similar processes. Meteorites presumably obtained their noble gases during formation in the solar nebula. Adsorption onto C - the major gas carrier in chondrites - is the likely mechanism for trapping noble gases; recent laboratory simulations support this hypothesis. The story is more complex for planets. An attractive possibility is that the planets acquired their noble gases in a late accreting veneer of chondritic material. In chondrites, noble gases correlate with C, N, H, and volatile metals; by Occam's Razor, we would expect a similar coupling in planets. Indeed, the Earth's crust and mantle contain chondritic like trace volatiles and PL group metals, respectively and the Earth's oceans resemble C chondrites in their enrichment of D (8X vs 8-10X of the galactic D/H ratio). Models have been proposed to explain some of the specific noble gas patterns in planets. These include: (1) noble gases may have been directly trapped by preplanetary material instead of arriving in a veneer; (2) for Venus, irradiation of preplanetary material, followed by diffusive loss of Ne, could explain the high concentration of AR-36; (3) the Earth and Venus may have initially had similar abundances of noble gases, but the Earth lost its share during the Moon forming event; (4) noble gases could have been captured by planetestimals, possibly leading to gravitational fractionation, particularly of Xe isotopes and (5) noble gases may have been dissolved in the hot outer portion of the Earth during contact with a primordial atmosphere.

Wacker, J. F.

1985-01-01

5

Preserving noble gases in a convecting mantle.  

PubMed

High (3)He/(4)He ratios sampled at many ocean islands are usually attributed to an essentially undegassed lower-mantle reservoir with high (3)He concentrations. A large and mostly undegassed mantle reservoir is also required to balance the Earth's (40)Ar budget, because only half of the (40)Ar produced from the radioactive decay of (40)K is accounted for by the atmosphere and upper mantle. However, geophysical and geochemical observations suggest slab subduction into the lower mantle, implying that most or all of Earth's mantle should have been processed by partial melting beneath mid-ocean ridges and hotspot volcanoes. This should have left noble gases in both the upper and the lower mantle extensively outgassed, contrary to expectations from (3)He/(4)He ratios and the Earth's (40)Ar budget. Here we suggest a simple solution: recycling and mixing of noble-gas-depleted slabs dilutes the concentrations of noble gases in the mantle, thereby decreasing the rate of mantle degassing and leaving significant amounts of noble gases in the processed mantle. As a result, even when the mass flux across the 660-km seismic discontinuity is equivalent to approximately one lower-mantle mass over the Earth's history, high (3)He contents, high (3)He/(4)He ratios and (40)Ar concentrations high enough to satisfy the (40)Ar mass balance of the Earth can be preserved in the lower mantle. The differences in (3)He/(4)He ratios between mid-ocean-ridge basalts and ocean island basalts, as well as high concentrations of (3)He and (40)Ar in the mantle source of ocean island basalts, can be explained within the framework of different processing rates for the upper and the lower mantle. Hence, to preserve primitive noble gas signatures, we find no need for hidden reservoirs or convective isolation of the lower mantle for any length of time. PMID:19478782

Gonnermann, Helge M; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

2009-05-28

6

Noble Gases in the Chelyabinsk Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Chelyabinsk meteorite fell in Russia on February 15, 2013 and was classified as LL5 chondrite. The diameter before it entered the atmosphere has been estimated to be about 20 m [1]. Up to now, numerous fragments weighing much greater than 100 kg in total have been collected. In this study, all noble gases were measured for 13 fragments to investigate the exposure history of the Chelyabinsk meteorite and the thermal history of its parent asteroid.

Haba, Makiko K.; Sumino, Hirochika; Nagao, Keisuke; Mikouchi, Takashi; Komatsu, Mutsumi; Zolensky, Michael E.

2014-01-01

7

Fullerenes and Noble Gases in the Murchison and Allende Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this work we report the detection of fullerenes (C60 to C250) in the Murchison and Allende meteorites. By exploiting the unique ability of these molecules to trap noble gases, we have determined that fullerene is indeed a new carrier phase for noble gases in meteorites.

Becker, Luann; Poreda, Robert J.; Bunch, Ted E.

2000-01-01

8

Solubility of noble gases in serpentine - Implications for meteoritic noble gas abundances  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An investigation of the solubilities of the noble gases from synthesis and solubility studies of the sheet silicate mineral serpentine in carbonaceous chondrites is presented. Hydrothermal synthesis and exchange experiments were made at 340C and 1 kbar with noble gas partial pressures from 2 times 10 to the -8th power to 0.1 atm. The measured distribution coefficients for noble gases are not sufficiently high to account for the trapped noble gases in carbonaceous chondrites by exchange in solar nebula if meteoritic minerals have comparable distribution coefficients. Also, serpentine gains and loses noble gases to approach equilibrium values with the terrestrial atmosphere, indicating that this exposure may have influenced the noble gas abundances in phyllosilicate minerals of these chondrites. The dispersion of K-Ar ages of carbonaceous chondrites could be the result of phyllosilicates approaching equilibrium solubility of atmospheric Ar-40.

Zaikowski, A.; Schaeffer, O. A.

1979-01-01

9

Biomedical imaging with hyperpolarized noble gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperpolarized noble gases (HNGs), polarized to approximately 50% or higher, have led to major advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of porous structures and air-filled cavities in human subjects, particularly the lung. By boosting the available signal to a level about 100?000 times higher than that at thermal equilibrium, air spaces that would otherwise appear as signal voids in an MR image can be revealed for structural and functional assessments. This review discusses how HNG MR imaging differs from conventional proton MR imaging, how MR pulse sequence design is affected and how the properties of gas imaging can be exploited to obtain hitherto inaccessible information in humans and animals. Current and possible future imaging techniques, and their application in the assessment of normal lung function as well as certain lung diseases, are described.

Ruppert, Kai

2014-11-01

10

Sir William Ramsay and the noble gases.  

PubMed

Sir William Ramsay was one of the world's leading scientists at the end of the 19th century, and in a spectacular period of research between 1894 and 1898, he discovered five new elements. These were the noble gases, helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon; they added a whole new group to the Periodic Table of the elements, and provided the keystone to our understanding of the electronic structure of atoms, and the way those electrons bind the atoms together into molecules. For this work he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1904, the first such prize to come to a British subject. He was also a man of great charm, a good linguist, and a composer and performer of music, poetry and song. This review will trace his career, describe his character and give and account of the chemistry which led to the award of the Nobel Prize. PMID:22574384

Davies, Alwyn G

2012-01-01

11

Olivine separates from Murchison and Cold Bokkeveld - Particle tracks and noble gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Olivine separates from Murchison and Cold Bokkeveld were analyzed for particle tracks and noble gases. The matrix remaining after olivine separation was also analyzed for noble gases. The olivines from both meteorites have comparable fractions of solar-flare-irradiated grains, but the highest track densities in Murchison are an order of magnitude greater than those in Cold Bokkeveld. Solar Ne content in Murchison olivines follows this trend, being at least an order of magnitude higher than that in Cold Bokkeveld. Track gradients in Cold Bokkeveld olivines are flatter than those in Murchison or recently exposed lunar crystals. Relative to the matrix, olivine separates in both meteorites have small enrichments at the heavy and light Xe isotopes and smaller Ar-36/Ar-38 ratios. These noble-gas effects may be related to a chromite impurity in the olivine separates.

Macdougall, J. D.; Phinney, D.

1977-01-01

12

Noble Gases in Martian Meteorites: A Puzzle of Components, Sources, Pathways and Sinks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble gases have been measured on Mars by Viking and Curiosity, and studying them in meteorites revealed atmospheric and fractionated atmospheric signatures and possibly an inhomogeneous interior. But...terrestrial air has noble gases, too.

Schwenzer, S. P.; Ott, U.

2014-11-01

13

Impact degassing of water and noble gases from silicates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous shock experiments by Ahrens and his colleagues show that degassing of H2O and CO2 occurs at 8-65GPa from hydrous minerals such as serpentine. In early solar system, the impact degassing would have played an important part in the formation of primary-atmospheres of the terrestrial planets. However, degassing conditions of noble gases are not well-known because there are few experiments for them. We conducted some shock recovery experiments to investigate the degassing condition and to understand the degassing mechanisms of water and noble gases. We used natural richterites (Ri), amphibolites (Am), serpentines (Sep) and orthoclases (or) as target samples. These, except Sep, contain radiogenic noble gases such as (40)Ar. The samples were put in stainless steel containers, and were show by a rail gun at ISAS or single-stage powder guns at Nagoya or Tohoku University, Japan. We used two kinds of containers: 'open' type containers having a ventilating path for released volatiles for most of samples and 'closed' type ones for some samples for comparison. On Ri and Sep, we made shock experiments for pre-heated (at 400-500 C) and unheated targets, and for powdered and uncrushed samples. Water and noble gases were analyzed both for the recovered shocked samples and the unshocked original samples, and the fractions of the degassed volatiles were calculated by comparing them. Water content in the sample was analyzed by thermo-gravimetry. Noble gases were extracted by heating the samples under high vacuum and analyzed with a sector-type mass spectrometer.

Azuma, S.; Hiyagon, H.; Iijima, Y.; Syono, Y.

1994-01-01

14

Impact degassing of water and noble gases from silicates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous shock experiments by Ahrens and his colleagues show that degassing of H2O and CO2 occurs at 8-65GPa from hydrous minerals such as serpentine. In early solar system, the impact degassing would have played an important part in the formation of primary-atmospheres of the terrestrial planets. However, degassing conditions of noble gases are not well-known because there are few experiments for them. We conducted some shock recovery experiments to investigate the degassing condition and to understand the degassing mechanisms of water and noble gases. We used natural richterites (Ri), amphibolites (Am), serpentines (Sep) and orthoclases (or) as target samples. These, except Sep, contain radiogenic noble gases such as (40)Ar. The samples were put in stainless steel containers, and were show by a rail gun at ISAS or single-stage powder guns at Nagoya or Tohoku University, Japan. We used two kinds of containers: 'open' type containers having a ventilating path for released volatiles for most of samples and 'closed' type ones for some samples for comparison. On Ri and Sep, we made shock experiments for pre-heated (at 400-500 C) and unheated targets, and for powdered and uncrushed samples. Water and noble gases were analyzed both for the recovered shocked samples and the unshocked original samples, and the fractions of the degassed volatiles were calculated by comparing them. Water content in the sample was analyzed by thermo-gravimetry. Noble gases were extracted by heating the samples under high vacuum and analyzed with a sector-type mass spectrometer.

Azuma, S.; Hiyagon, H.; Iijima, Y.; Syono, Y.

15

Noble Gases in Five Rumuruti Chondrites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Concentration and isotopic composition have been measured in five new R-chondrites: Dar al Gani 417, Northwest Africa 053, Ouzina, Sahara 98248, and Sahara 99531. Two of these meteorites contain solar trapped gases, NWA 053 has an unusual short exposure age of 0.2 Ma.

Weber, H. W.; Schultz, L.

2001-03-01

16

Recent Experimental Advances to Determine (noble) Gases in Waters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In aquatic systems noble gases, radon, and bio-geochemically conservative transient trace gases (SF6, CFCs) are frequently applied to determine water residence times and to reconstruct past environmental and climatic conditions. Recent experimental breakthroughs now enable ? to apply the well-established concepts of terrestrial noble gas geochemistry in waters to the minute water amounts stored in sediment pore space and in fluid inclusions (A), ? to determine gas exchange processes on the bio-geochemical relevant time scales of minutes - hours (B), and ? to separate diffusive and advective gas transport in soil air (C). A. Noble-gas analysis in water samples (< 1 g) facilitates determining the solute transport in the pore space and identifying the origin of bio- and geogenic fluids in (un) consolidated sediments [1]. Advanced techniques that combine crushing and sieving speleothem samples in ultra-high-vacuum to a specific grain size allow to separate air and water-bearing fluid inclusions and thus enables noble-gas-based reconstruction of environmental conditions from water masses as small as 1mg [2]. B. The coupling of noble gas analysis with approaches of gas chromatography permits combined analysis of noble gases and other gases species (e.g., SF6, CFCs, O2, N2) from a single water sample. The new method substantially improves ground water dating by SF6 and CFCs as excess air is quantified from the same sample and hence can adequately be corrected for [3]. Portable membrane-inlet mass spectrometers enable the quasi-continuous and real-time analysis of noble gases and other dissolved gases directly in the field, allowing, for instance, quantification of O2 turnover rates on small time scales [4]. C. New technical developments perfect 222Rn analysis in water by the synchronous the determination of the short-lived 220Rn. The combined 220,222Rn analysis sheds light on the emanation behaviour of radon by identifying soil water content to be the crucial control of 220Rn occurrence in the environment, e.g., making an argument why 220Rn is not detectable in water, but in soil air. As 220Rn occurrence is of 'very local origin' the combined analysis of 220,222Rn in soil air allows differentiating between advective and diffusive soil gas transport [5]. By discussing these recent achievements, we intend to stimulate a broader discussion to identify future applications of noble and other gases in (un) conventional aquatic systems, such as blood. [1] Tomonaga et al. (2011) Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods, 9, 42-49, doi:10:4319/lom.2011.9.42. [2] Vogel et al. (2013) Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 14, doi:10.1002/ggge.20164. [3] Brennwald et al. (2013) Environ. Sci. Technol., Article ASAP, DOI: 10.1021/es401698p. [4] Mächler et al. (2012) Environ. Sci. Technol., 47, 7060-7066. [5] Huxol et al. Environ. Sci. Technol., in revision.

Kipfer, R.; Brennwald, M. S.; Huxol, S.; Mächler, L.; Maden, C.; Vogel, N.; Tomonaga, Y.

2013-12-01

17

Sorption of noble gases by solids, with reference to meteorites. II - Chromite and carbon. III - Sulfides, spinels, and other substances; on the origin of planetary gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The trapping of noble gases by chromite and carbon, two putative carriers of primordial noble gases in meteorites, was studied by synthesizing 19 samples in a Ne-Ar-Kr-Xe atmosphere at 440-720 K. Noble gas contents are found to approximately obey Henry's Law, but only slight correlations are found with composition, surface area, or adsorption temperature. Geometric mean distribution coefficients for bulk samples and HCl residues in 10 cu cm STP/g atm are: Xe 100, Kr 15, Ar 3.5, and Ne 0.62. Elemental fractionation data support the suggestion of Lewis et al. (1977) that chromite and carbon in C2 and C3 chondrites were formed by the reaction: Fe, Cr + 4CO yields (Fe, Cr)3O4 + 4C + carbides. In contrast to meteoritic minerals, the synthetic specimens show no isotopic fractionation of noble gases. In a subsequent study, attention is given to the cases of sulfides and spinels, on the way to consideration of the origin of planetary gases. Sulfides showed three distinctive trends relative to chromite or magnetite. The elemental fractionation pattern of Ar, Kr and Xe in meteorites, terrestrial rocks and planets resembles the adsorption patterns on the carbons, spinels, sulfides, and other solids studied. The high release temperature of meteoritic noble gases may be explained by transformation of the physisorbed or chemisorbed gas. The ready loss of meteoritic heavy gases on surficial oxidation is consistent with adsorption, as is the high abundance.

Yang, J.; Anders, E.

1982-01-01

18

Mechanisms of the Biological Effects of Noble Gases: Neutron Inelastic Scattering Study of Xenon - Water Interactions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The noble gases produce biological effects ranging from narcosis of intact animals to inhibition of certain enzymes. The possible involvement of water - noble gas interactions in producing these effects has been examined by measurement of neutron inelasti...

G. J. Safford, H. R. Schreiner, G. F. Doebbler

1966-01-01

19

Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging with hyper-polarized noble gases  

SciTech Connect

This is the final report of a six-month, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The nuclei of noble gases can be hyper polarized through a laser-driven spin exchange to a degree many orders of magnitude larger than that attainable by thermal polarization without requiring a strong magnetic field. The increased polarization from the laser pumping enables a good nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal from a gas. The main goal of this project was to demonstrate diffusion-weighted imaging of such hyper-polarized noble gas with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Possible applications include characterizing porosity of materials and dynamically imaging pressure distributions in biological or acoustical systems.

Schmidt, D.M.; George, J.S.; Penttila, S.I.; Caprihan, A.

1997-10-01

20

Solar composition noble gases in the Washington County iron meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sample of the Washington County iron meteorite is analyzed for its light noble gases by a combustion technique in two steps at 1160 C. The ratio of trapped to spallogenic noble gases in the sample was high enough to allow the resolution of trapped and spallogenic components in both combustion steps. The He:Ne:Ar elemental ratios in the trapped component are comparable to present-day solar-wind ratios. The (Ne-20)/(Ne-22) ratio, while subject to some uncertainty due to possible variation in either the spallation or the trapped component between the two steps, is in the range 13.3 + or 0.5, also comparable to present-day solar wind. Unless the Washington County iron formed by some unique process in a solar-wind-irradiated regolith, the fact that the trapped gas is of solar composition has implications with regard to the compositional history of the solar wind, to conditions in the early solar nebula during grain formation or accretion, and to primordial helium in the earth.

Becker, R. H.; Pepin, R. O.

1984-09-01

21

Solar composition noble gases in the Washington County iron meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sample of the Washington County iron meteorite is analyzed for its light noble gases by a combustion technique in two steps at 1160 C. The ratio of trapped to spallogenic noble gases in the sample was high enough to allow the resolution of trapped and spallogenic components in both combustion steps. The He:Ne:Ar elemental ratios in the trapped component are comparable to present-day solar-wind ratios. The (Ne-20)/(Ne-22) ratio, while subject to some uncertainty due to possible variation in either the spallation or the trapped component between the two steps, is in the range 13.3 + or 0.5, also comparable to present-day solar wind. Unless the Washington County iron formed by some unique process in a solar-wind-irradiated regolith, the fact that the trapped gas is of solar composition has implications with regard to the compositional history of the solar wind, to conditions in the early solar nebula during grain formation or accretion, and to primordial helium in the earth.

Becker, R. H.; Pepin, R. O.

1984-01-01

22

Solubilities of nitrogen and noble gases in basalt melt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nitrogen and noble gases are important tracers in geochemistry and chosmochemistry. Compared to noble gases, however, physicochemical properties of nitrogen, such as solubility in melt or melt/silicate partition, are not well known. Solubility of nitrogen in basalt melt depends on redox condition of the atmosphere. For example, solubility of nitrogen in E chondrite melt under reducing conditions is as high as 2 mol percent at 1500 C, suggesting that nitrogen is chemically dissolved in silicate melts, i.e., being dissolved as free anions or replacing oxygen sites in silicate network. However, the solubility and the dissolution mechanism of nitrogen under oxidizing conditions are not well investigated. To obtain nitrogen solubility in silicate melts under various redox conditions and to understand its mechanism, we are conducting experiments by using (15)N(15)N-labeled nitrogen gas. This makes it easy to distinguish dissolved nitrogen from later contamination of atmospheric nitrogen, and hence enables us to measure the nitrogen solubility accurately. As a preliminary experiment, we have measured solubility of nitrogen in basalt melt under the atmospheric oxygen pressure.

Miyazaki, A.; Hiyagon, H.; Sugiura, N.

1994-01-01

23

Cosmogenic Records in 18 Ordinary Chondrites from the Dar Al Gani Region, Libya: I Noble Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble gas results in 18 DaG meteorites show that contamination with atmospheric noble gases increases with the degree of weathering, whereas loss of cosmogenic 3He and radiogenic gases is not due to weathering but to solar or impact-related heating.

Schultz, L.; Franke, L.; Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Jull, A. J. T.

2003-03-01

24

Solubilities of noble gases in magnetite - Implications for planetary gases in meteorites.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solubilities of noble gases in magnetite were determined by growing magnetite in a noble-gas atmosphere between 450 and 700 K. Henry's law is obeyed at pressures up to .01 atm for He, Ne, Ar and up to .00001 atm for Kr, Xe, with the following distribution coefficients at 500 K: He 0.042, Ne 0.016, Ar 3.6, Kr 1.3, Xe 0.88, some 100 to 100,000 times higher than previous determinations on silicate and fluoride melts. Apparent heats of solution are in sharp contrast with earlier determinations on melts which were small and positive, but are comparable to the values for clathrates. Presumably the gases are held in anion vacancies.

Lancet, M. S.; Anders, E.

1973-01-01

25

WIMP Dark Matter Direct-Detection Searches in Noble Gases  

E-print Network

Cosmological observations and the dynamics of the Milky Way provide ample evidence for an invisible and dominant mass component. This so-called dark matter could be made of new, colour and charge neutral particles, which were non-relativistic when they decoupled from ordinary matter in the early universe. Such weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are predicted to have a non-zero coupling to baryons and could be detected via their collisions with atomic nuclei in ultra-low background, deep underground detectors. Among these, detectors based on liquefied noble gases have demonstrated tremendous discovery potential over the last decade. After briefly introducing the phenomenology of direct dark matter detection, I will review the main properties of liquefied argon and xenon as WIMP targets and discuss sources of background. I will then describe existing and planned argon and xenon detectors that employ the so-called single- and dual-phase detection techniques, addressing their complementarity and science...

Baudis, Laura

2014-01-01

26

WIMP Dark Matter Direct-Detection Searches in Noble Gases  

E-print Network

Cosmological observations and the dynamics of the Milky Way provide ample evidence for an invisible and dominant mass component. This so-called dark matter could be made of new, colour and charge neutral particles, which were non-relativistic when they decoupled from ordinary matter in the early universe. Such weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are predicted to have a non-zero coupling to baryons and could be detected via their collisions with atomic nuclei in ultra-low background, deep underground detectors. Among these, detectors based on liquefied noble gases have demonstrated tremendous discovery potential over the last decade. After briefly introducing the phenomenology of direct dark matter detection, I will review the main properties of liquefied argon and xenon as WIMP targets and discuss sources of background. I will then describe existing and planned argon and xenon detectors that employ the so-called single- and dual-phase detection techniques, addressing their complementarity and science reach.

Laura Baudis

2014-08-19

27

Noble Gases in the LEW 88663 L7 Chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LEW88663 and some meteorites (e.g. Shaw) are the most highly metamorphosed meteorites among L group chondrites. Although the abundances of lithophile elements and oxygen isotopic compositions of the L7 chondrite LEW88663 (total recovered mass: 14.5g) are close to those of the range for L chondrites [1,2], metallic iron is absent and concentrations of siderophile elements are about half of typical values for L chondrites [3,4]. Petrographical and geochemical observation suggested that this meteorite has experienced partial melting [5]. As a part of our study on differentiated meteorites, we also investigated noble gases in this meteorite. We present here noble gas compositions of LEW88663 and discuss history of this meteorite. In addition, we will consider whether there is any evidence for bridging between chondrites and achondrites. Noble gases were extracted from a whole rock sample weighing 66.31 mg by total fusion, and all stable noble gas isotopes as well as cosmogenic radioactive 81Kr were analyzed using a mass spectrometer at ISEI, Okayama University. The results are summarized in the table. The concentrations of cosmogenic ^3He, ^21Ne, and ^38Ar are 7.3, 1.6 and 3.1x10^-8 cm^3STP/g, respectively. The cosmic-ray exposure ages based on them are calculated to be 4.7, 6.9 and 8.8 m.y., respectively, using the production rates proposed by [6, 7] and mean chemical compositions of L chondrites. The shorter cosmic-ray exposure ages T(sub)3 and T(sub)21 than T(sub)38 would be due to diffusive loss of lighter noble gases from the meteorite. The concentrations of trapped Kr and Xe in LEW88663 are lower than those for L6 chondrites [8], supporting thermal metamorphism for the meteorite higher than that for L6 chondrites. The Kr and Xe are isotopically close to those of the terrestrial atmospheric Kr and Xe, and elemental abundance ratios for Ar, Kr and Xe suggest adsorbed noble gas patterns of the terrestrial atmosphere. The terrestrial atmospheric Ar, Kr and Xe (most likely terrestrial contamination in origin) rather than chondritic ones seem to be dominant in LEW88663. A K-Ar age of 4.3 +/- 0.2 b.y. is obtained assuming K content of 660 ppm by [9], implying radiogenic ^40Ar is almost retained. Because of low abundance of trapped Xe in the meteorite compared with the abundances in other chondrites, ^244Pu-derived fission Xe could be evaluated more precisely. According to the measured Xe data (for this, three isotope plots such as ^134Xe/^130Xe versus ^136Xe/^130Xe are useful), we conclude that Xe in LEW88663 is the mixture of ^244Pu-derived fission Xe and the terrestrial atmospheric Xe with possibility that a small amount of chondritic Xe is contained. Using the same procedure described in [10], we obtained excess ^136Xe concentration, 1.4 x 10^-12 cm^3STP/g with about 20% uncertainty, of which about 3% is from contribution of ^238U-derived ^136Xe if average U content for L chondrite (14 ppb) is assumed. The calculated Pu abundance of 0.21 ppb is slightly higher than those reported for L chondrites Barwell (0.11 +/- 0.05 ppb [11]) and Marion (0.10+/-0.40 ppb [11]). Acknowledgments: We thank Meteorite Working Group for providing the sample. We are also grateful to Dr. D. Mittlefehldt for showing us his chemical composition data. This work is supported by Research Fellowships of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science for Young Scientists. References: [1] Mason B. et al. (1992) Antarc. Meteorite Newsletter, 15(2), 30. [2] Mason B. and Marlow R. (1992) Antarc. Meteorite Newsletter, 15(1), 16. [3] Davis A. M. et al. (1993) LPS XXIV, 375-376. [4] Mittlefehldt D. W. (1993) Meteoritics, 28, 401-402. [5] Hervey R. P. (1993) Meteoritics, 28, 360. [6] Eugster O. (1988) GCA, 52, 1649-1662. [7] Marti K. and Graf T.(1992) Annu. Rev. Earth Planet Sci., 20, 221-243. [8] E.g. Marti K. (1967) EPSL, 2, 193-196. [9] Mittlefehldt D. W., personal communication. [10] Miura Y. et al. (1993) GCA, 57, 1857-1866. [11] Hagee B. et al. (1990) GCA, 54, 2847-2858. Table 1 shows noble gases in L7 chondrite LEW88663 (66.31 mg).

Miura, Y. N.; Sugiura, N.; Nagao, K.

1995-09-01

28

Highly Concentrated Nebular Noble Gases in Porous Nanocarbon Separates from the Saratov (L4) Meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The majority of heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr, and Xe) in primitive meteorites are stored in a poorly understood phase called Q. Although Q is thought to be carbonaceous, the full identity of the phase has remained elusive for almost four decades. In order to better characterize phase Q and, in turn, the early solar nebula, we separated carbon-rich fractions from the Saratov (L4) meteorite. We chose this meteorite because Q is most resistant in thermal alteration among carbonaceous noble gas carriers in meteorites and we hoped that, in this highly metamorphosed meteorite, Q would be present but not diamond: these two phases are very difficult to separate from each other. One of the fractions, AJ, has the highest 132Xe concentration of 2.1 × 10-6 cm3 STP g-1, exceeding any Q-rich fractions that have yet been analyzed. Transmission electron microscopy studies of the fraction AJ and a less Q-rich fraction AI indicate that they both are primarily porous carbon that consists of domains with short-range graphene orders, with variable packing in three dimensions, but no long-range graphitic order. The relative abundance of Xe and C atoms (6:109) in the separates indicates that individual noble gas atoms are associated with only a minor component of the porous carbon, possibly one or more specific arrangements of the nanoparticulate graphene.

Amari, Sachiko; Matsuda, Jun-ichi; Stroud, Rhonda M.; Chisholm, Matthew F.

2013-11-01

29

Liquid Noble gases for Dark Matter searches: a synoptic survey  

E-print Network

A technical and methodological comparison of the liquid noble gas experiments is presented and the low energy physics application of double phase noble gas detectors in direct Dark Matter investigations is discussed.

R. Bernabei; P. Belli; A. Incicchitti; D. Prosperi

2008-05-30

30

Noble gases in mineral separates from three shergottites: Shergotty, Zagami, and EETA79001  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study provides a complete data set of all five noble gases for bulk samples and mineral separates from three Martian shergottites: Shergotty (bulk, pyroxene, maskelynite), Zagami (bulk, pyroxene, maskelynite), and Elephant Moraine (EET) A79001, lithology A (bulk, pyroxene). We also give a compilation of all noble gas and nitrogen studies performed on these meteorites. Our mean values for cosmic-ray

Susanne P. Schwenzer; Siegfried Herrmann; Ratan K. Mohapatra; Ulrich Ott

2007-01-01

31

Noble gases from solar energetic particles revealed by closed system stepwise etching of lunar soil minerals  

Microsoft Academic Search

He, Ne, and Ar abundances and isotopic ratios in plagioclase and pyroxene separates from lunar soils were determined using a closed system stepwise etching technique. This method of noble gas release allows one to separate solar wind (SW) noble gases from those implanted as solar energetic particles (SEP). The major part of SEP-Ne possibly originates from solar \\

R. Wieler; H. Baur; P. Signer

1986-01-01

32

A Mass Spectrometric System for the Analysis of Noble Gases and  

E-print Network

thedeterminationofthemeanwaterresidencetimeor"water age". The 3 H/3 He dating method is used in oceanography and limnology (e.g., refs 2A Mass Spectrometric System for the Analysis of Noble Gases and Tritium from Water Samples U R S B, setup, and performance of a mass spectrometric system for the analysis of noble gas isotopes (3He, 4He

Aeschbach-Hertig, Werner

33

Noble gases on metal surfaces: Insights on adsorption site preference  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a nonlocal van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) approach to reexamine the problem of why noble gases are experimentally observed to adsorb on low-coordination atop sites rather than on high-coordination hollow sites for several different metal surfaces. Previous calculations using density functional theory (DFT) within the local density approximation (LDA) ascribed the site preference to reduced Pauli repulsion at atop sites, largely due to reduced exchange repulsion within LDA-DFT. In contrast, our vdW-DF calculations show that site preference is not due to differences in the exchange repulsion at all, but rather the result of a delicate balance between the electrostatic and kinetic energies; surprisingly, exchange-correlation energies play a negligible role in determining site preference. In contrast to previous calculations, we find that experimental results cannot be explained in terms of binding energy differences between atop and hollow sites. Instead, we show that the hollow sites are transition states rather than minima on the two-dimensional potential energy surface, and therefore not likely to be observed in experiments. This phenomenon is quite general, holding for close-packed and non-close-packed metal surfaces. We show that inclusion of nonlocal vdW interactions is crucial for obtaining results in quantitative agreement with experiments for adsorption energies, equilibrium distances, and vibrational energies.

Chen, De-Li; Al-Saidi, W. A.; Johnson, J. Karl

2011-12-01

34

Noble gases on metal surfaces: Insights on adsorption site preference  

SciTech Connect

We use a nonlocal van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) approach to reexamine the problem of why noble gases are experimentally observed to adsorb on low-coordination atop sites rather than on high-coordination hollow sites for several different metal surfaces. Previous calculations using density functional theory (DFT) within the local density approximation (LDA) ascribed the site preference to reduced Pauli repulsion at atop sites, largely due to reduced exchange repulsion within LDA-DFT. In contrast, our vdW-DF calculations show that site preference is not due to differences in the exchange repulsion at all, but rather the result of a delicate balance between the electrostatic and kinetic energies; surprisingly, exchange-correlation energies play a negligible role in determining site preference. In contrast to previous calculations, we find that experimental results cannot be explained in terms of binding energy differences between atop and hollow sites. Instead, we show that the hollow sites are transition states rather than minima on the two-dimensional potential energy surface, and therefore not likely to be observed in experiments. This phenomenon is quite general, holding for close-packed and non-close-packed metal surfaces. We show that inclusion of nonlocal vdW interactions is crucial for obtaining results in quantitative agreement with experiments for adsorption energies, equilibrium distances, and vibrational energies.

Chen, De-Li; Al-Saidi, W. A.; Johnson, J. Karl

2011-12-19

35

Underground Nuclear Explosions and Release of Radioactive Noble Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over a period in 1961-1990 496 underground nuclear tests and explosions of different purpose and in different rocks were conducted in the Soviet Union at Semipalatinsk and anovaya Zemlya Test Sites. A total of 340 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Semipalatinsk Test Site. One hundred seventy-nine explosions (52.6%) among them were classified as these of complete containment, 145 explosions (42.6%) as explosions with weak release of radioactive noble gases (RNG), 12 explosions (3.5%) as explosions with nonstandard radiation situation, and four excavation explosions with ground ejection (1.1%). Thirty-nine nuclear tests had been conducted at the Novaya Zemlya Test Site; six of them - in shafts. In 14 tests (36%) there were no RNG release. Twenty-three tests have been accompanied by RNG release into the atmosphere without sedimental contamination. Nonstandard radiation situation occurred in two tests. In incomplete containment explosions both early-time RNG release (up to ~1 h) and late-time release from 1 to 28 h after the explosion were observed. Sometimes gas release took place for several days, and it occurred either through tunnel portal or epicentral zone, depending on atmospheric air temperature.

Dubasov, Yuri V.

2010-05-01

36

B-spline calculations of oscillator strengths in noble gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

B-spline box-based multi-channel calculations of transition probabilities in noble gases are reported for energy levels up to n= 12. Energy levels and oscillator strengths for transitions from the p6 ground-state configuration, as well as for transitions between excited states, have been computed in the Breit-Pauli approximation. Individually optimized, term-dependent sets of non-orthogonal valence orbitals are used to account for the strong term dependence in the one-electron orbitals. The agreement in the length and velocity gauges of the transition data and the accuracy of the binding energies are used to estimate the accuracy of our results, which are also compared with experimental and other theoretical data. It is shown that the present method can be used for accurate calculations of oscillator strengths for states with intermediate to high n-values, for which it is difficult to apply standard multi-configuration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) methods. Recent developments based on the extension of our computer codes from the semi-relativistic Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian to the full relativistic Dirac-Breit Hamiltonian are also reported.

Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus

2009-05-01

37

Noble gases in 'phase Q' - Closed-system etching of an Allende residue  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented from an analysis, in nearly pure form, of noble gases from the 'phase-Q' in an HF/HCl residue of the Allende C3V meteorite, using the closed-system stepped etching technique developed by Wieler et al. (1986) and Benkert et al. (1988) to extract noble gases from the residue. The results yield precise values of element and isotope abundances of all five noble gases in phase-Q, which is the major carrier of the planetary gases in carbonaceous chondrites. It was found that Ne-Q and Xe-Q in Allende are very similar to trapped gases in ureilites and in oxidizable carriers in several classes of ordinary chandrites, indicating that Q-gases are present in the formation locations of all these meteorites.

Wieler, Rainer; Baur, Heinrich; Signer, Peter; Anders, Edward; Lewis, Roy S.

1991-01-01

38

Experimental Determination of the Partitioning Behavior of Noble Gases Between Carbonate and Silicate Liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbonatitic melts have been identified in the earth’s upper mantle and experimental evidence suggests that such melts are stable at mantle conditions. Due to high carbonatite/silicate partition coefficients for certain trace elements, and due to the low melting points, low viscosities and low dihedral angles of carbonatite liquids, these liquids play a significant role in trace element fractionation in the mantle. However, the solubilities of the noble gases in carbonatitic liquids are poorly constrained although initial data at low pressure (1 bar) surprisingly suggest that the noble gases are poorly soluble in carbonatite liquids [1]. Partitioning of noble gases relative to the parents of radiogenic noble gases - primarily U, Th and K - has consequences for the isotopic evolution of mantle noble gases, consequently determination of noble gas solubilities in carbonatite phases is of extreme interest for mantle geodynamics. Two-liquid experimental charges consisting of nephelenite and Na2CO3 were synthesized at 1145 C and pressures between 0.6 and 2.5 GPa in sealed Au-Pd capsules in a piston cylinder apparatus. The experimental runs were c. 12h in duration and the charges were quenched at >200 C min-1 to form two immiscibly separated glasses phases. The nephelenite glass starting material had been saturated with a noble gas mixture (0.5 He, 0.02 Ne, 0.48 Ar) prior to synthesis. This procedure introduced noble gases without creating a free gas phase. The noble gases (He and Ar only) were measured in 3 stages: 1) the capsule was pierced under vacuum and the ‘free gas’ residing in the capsule pore space was analysed; 2) the entire capsule was heated to 250 C and the gases liberated were analysed and 3) the nephelenite glass was melting by a CO2 laser and the gases liberated analysed. The first stage of the analysis was to measure any noble gases (principally He) that may have diffused out of the carbonatite during the quench or between the period (of a few weeks) between quench and analysis. The second stage was designed to extract noble gases by thermal decarbonation of the carbonate glass. The metal of the capsule itself was also measured, but this never contained any noble gas above blank levels. Our preliminary results show that the noble gases do not preferentially partition into carbonate liquids compared to silicate liquids: DHe(carbonate/silicate)=0.3-1.4 and DAr(carbonate/silicate)=0.15-0.17 (at 1 GPa) In a two phase carbonate - silicate system, the noble gases will essentially reside in the silicate portion of the system (particularly given that carbonatite liquids will represent a small volume fraction of the two phase magma). This partitioning behavior could nevertheless separate - decouple - noble gas isotope systematics from lithophile isotopes (Sr, Nd, Pb etc) as a significant fraction of these elements could partition into the carbonate phase while noble gases remain in the silicate portion of the magma. Further work investigating pressure, temperature and compositional effects on the noble gas partition coefficients is planned. References 1. Burnard, P., Toplis, M. J. and Medynski, S. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 74: 1672-1683.

Burnard, P.; Koga, K. T.

2010-12-01

39

Noble Gases in Two Fragments of Different Lithologies from the Almahata Sitta Meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Almahata Sitta meteorite, whose preat-mospheric body was the asteroid 2008 TC3, fell on October 7, 2008 in the Nubian Desert in northern Sudan [e.g., 1, 2]. Numer-ous fragments have been recovered during several expeditions organized from December 2008 [2]. The meteorite was classified as an anomalous polymict ureilite with several different kinds of chondritic fragments [e.g., 3-5]. Noble gas studies performed on several fragments from the meteorite showed cosmic-ray expo-sure ages of about 20 My [e.g., 6-8], although slightly shorter ages were also reported in [9, 10]. Concentrations of trapped heavy noble gases are variable among the fragments of different lithologies [9, 10]. We report noble gas data on two samples from the #1 and #47 fragments [2], which were the same as those re-ported by Ott et al. [9]. Experimental Procedure: Weights of bulk samples #1 and #47 used in this work were 16.1 mg and 17.6 mg, respectively. Noble gases were extracted by stepwise heating at the tempera-tures of 800, 1200 and 1800°C for #1 and 600, 800, 1000, 1200, 1400, 1600 and 1800°C for #47. Concentrations and isotopic ra-tios of noble gases were measured with a modified-VG5400/MS-III at the Geochemical Research Center, University of Tokyo. Results and Discussion: Cosmogenic He and Ne are domi-nant in both #1 and #47, but trapped Ar, Kr and Xe concentra-tions are much higher in #47 than in #1, showing that noble gas compositions in #47 are similar to those of ureilites. 3He/21Ne and 22Ne/21Ne of cosmogenic He and Ne are 4.8 and 1.12 for #1 and 3.6 and 1.06 for #47, respectively, both of which plot on a Bern line [11]. This indicates negligible loss of cosmogenic 3He from #1 in our sample, unlike the low 3He/21Ne of 3.1 for #1 by Ott et al. [9]. Concentrations of cosmogenic 3He and 21Ne (10-8 cc/g) are 30 and 6.3 for #1 and 32 and 9.0 for #47, respectively, which are higher than those in [9] and give cosmic-ray exposure ages of ca. 20 My depending on assumed production rates. Rela-tive abundances of trapped 36Ar, 84Kr and 132Xe for #1 resemble those of Q-component, which is a dominant trapped noble gas component in chondrites. In contrast to #1, #47 plots below a trend for ureilites [12] as well as Q, which implies a partial loss of trapped 36Ar from the lithology of #47.

Nagao, K.; Haba, M. K.; Zolensky, M.; Jenniskens, P.; Shaddad, M. H.

2014-01-01

40

The recycling efficiency of water and noble gases to the mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constraints on the long-term cycling of volatiles between the mantle and exosphere are crucial to understanding mantle rheology, the structure and style of mantle convection, and the volatile budget of our planet. Recent studies suggest that water and noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe) may be transported together into the mantle. In light of uncertainties in the initial hydration state of subducting slabs, magma production rates and mantle source water contents, we used a Monte Carlo simulation of the deep Earth water cycle to set limits on long-term mantle regassing. The simulation is constrained by reconstructions of Phanerozoic sea level change. We find that previous estimates of both the flux of water into subduction zones and the return flux beyond depths of magma generation are frequently too large to reflect long-term water cycling. Our results suggest a limited extent of serpentinization in subducting lithospheric mantle. We find an average return flux of 1.4-3.0 x 1013 moles/yr, corresponding to 2-5% serpentinization in 10 km of lithospheric mantle. Our estimates of the return flux of water past arcs are up to 7 times lower than previously suggested and imply bulk slab water contents of 280- 400 ppm. Convective stirring and assimilation of recycled slabs with these water contents could account for the MORB source water. Furthermore, the MORB source may be getting wetter as water concentrations in the slab are higher than the MORB source concentrations of ~50 - 250 ppm. On the other hand, the water content of the high 3He/4He OIBs source is 750 ppm, suggesting that not all of the water in the OIB source has been recycled, i.e. a juvenile contribution is required. The recycling of water associated with serpentine has implications for the recycling of heavy noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe) back into the mantle as serpentines may host considerable amounts of dissolved noble gases. Since the noble gases are important in understanding mantle dynamics, constraining the recycling efficiency of the noble gases is crucial. For example, 129Xe/130Xe in OIBs are closer to the atmospheric ratio than MORBs, which could reflect a higher proportion of recycled Xe in the OIB source or the sampling of an ancient (>4.45 Ga) less degassed reservoir. The reservoir age is from 129I, which produces 129Xe and became extinct at 4.45 Ga. Our high-precision Xe measurements in MORBs and OIBs indicate that at most ~80-90% of the Xe in the MORB source mantle could be attributed to recycled atmospheric Xe. Furthermore, the measurements indicate that OIBs do not have a higher proportion of recycled atmospheric Xe and thus the closer to atmospheric 129Xe/130Xe is not solely due to recycling. We will use these constraints on the amount of recycled Xe in to further refine water recycling rates. The observation that the differences in the Xe isotopic composition of MORBs and OIBs cannot be attributed solely to recycling has implications for Earth structure and early Earth processes. It requires that the closer to atmospheric 129Xe/130Xe in OIBs reflects a less degassed reservoir that evolved with a lower I/Xe ratio than the MORB source. Differences in the degree of outgassing between MORB and OIB sources must be established by 4.45 Ga and subsequent mixing between the two reservoirs must be limited. If OIBs are derived from the large low shear wave velocity provinces (LLSVPs), the Xe data require these features to be older than 4.45 Ga.

Mukhopadhyay, S.; Parai, R.; Peto, M. K.; Tucker, J.

2012-12-01

41

EOSN - A new TOUGH2 module for simulating transport of noble gases in the subsurface  

SciTech Connect

Noble gases widely exist in nature, and except for radon, they are stable. Modern techniques can detect noble gases to relatively low concentrations and with great precision. These factors suggest that noble gases can be useful tracers for subsurface characterization. Their applications, however, require an appropriate transport model for data analyses. A new fluid property module, EOSN, was developed for TOUGH2 to simulate transport of noble gases in the subsurface. Currently any of five different noble gases (except radon) as well as CO{sub 2} can be selected, two at a time. For the two selected gas components, the Crovetto et al. (1982) model is used to calculate the Henry's law coefficients; and the Reid et al. (1987) correlation is used to calculate the gas phase diffusivities. Like most other sister modules, TOUGH2/EOSN can simulate nonisothermal multiphase flow and fully coupled transport in fractured porous media. Potential applications of the new module include, but are not limited to: (a) study of different reservoir processes such as recharge, boiling, condensation, and fracture-matrix fluid exchange; (b) characterization of reservoir geometry such as fracture spacing; and (c) analysis of CO{sub 2} sequestration.

Shan, Chao; Pruess, Karsten

2003-04-02

42

Methane activation using noble gases in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of methane is measured in a planar-type dielectric barrier discharge reactor using three different noble gases—He, Ne, and Ar—as additives. The empirical results obtained clearly indicate that methane activation is considerably affected by thy type of noble gas used. Through 0-D calculations, the discharge parameters inside the reactor, i.e., electron temperature and electron density, are estimated using experiment results. A comparison of the discharge characteristics and experimental results shows that the electron temperature is an important factor in achieving high methane activation and the mixture with Ar gas shows the highest methane conversion. These results are constructed using the mechanisms of energy and charge transfer from excited and ionized noble gas atoms to methane molecules, considering the number density of active atoms of noble gases. Finally, electron temperatures obtained for gas mixtures having different reactant compositions and concentrations are analyzed to estimate methane activation.

Jo, Sungkwon; Hoon Lee, Dae; Seok Kang, Woo; Song, Young-Hoon [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-08-15

43

Method and apparatus for measuring purity of noble gases  

DOEpatents

A device for detecting impurities in a noble gas includes a detection chamber and a source of pulsed ultraviolet light. The pulse of the ultraviolet light is transferred into the detection chamber and onto a photocathode, thereby emitting a cloud of free electrons into the noble gas within the detection chamber. The cloud of electrons is attracted to the opposite end of the detection chamber by a high positive voltage potential at that end and focused onto a sensing anode. If there are impurities in the noble gas, some or all of the electrons within the cloud will bond with the impurity molecules and not reach the sensing anode. Therefore, measuring a lower signal at the sensing anode indicates a higher level of impurities while sensing a higher signal indicates fewer impurities. Impurities in the range of one part per billion can be measured by this device.

Austin, Robert (Largo, FL)

2008-04-01

44

Comparative Studies of Solar, Q-Gases and Terrestrial Noble Gases, and Implications on the Evolution of the Solar Nebula  

Microsoft Academic Search

We selectively review noble gas data for the Earth and meteorites (the Q component) and for the sun (solar wind) and seek to understand possible genetic relationships among these components. The widespread distribution of Q gases suggests that it was established as a distinct component prior to incorporation in planetary solids, e.g., in the gas phase of the solar nebula.

M. Ozima; R. Wieler; B. Marty; F. A. Podosek

1998-01-01

45

Liquid scintillation counting of polycarbonates: a sensitive technique for measurement of activity concentration of some radioactive noble gases.  

PubMed

This work explores the application of the liquid scintillation counting of polycarbonates for measurement of the activity concentration of radioactive noble gases. Results from experimental studies of the method are presented. Potential applications in the monitoring of radioactive noble gases are discussed. PMID:24559941

Mitev, K; Zhivkova, V; Pressyanov, D; Georgiev, S; Dimitrova, I; Gerganov, G; Boshkova, T

2014-11-01

46

What CO2 well gases tell us about the origin of noble gases in the mantle and their relationship to the atmosphere.  

PubMed

Study of commercially produced volcanic CO2 gas associated with the Colorado Plateau, USA, has revealed substantial new information about the noble gas isotopic composition and elemental abundance pattern of the mantle. Combined with published data from mid-ocean ridge basalts, it is now clear that the convecting mantle has a maximum (20)Ne/(22)Ne isotopic composition, indistinguishable from that attributed to solar wind-implanted (SWI) neon in meteorites. This is distinct from the higher (20)Ne/(22)Ne isotopic value expected for solar nebula gases. The non-radiogenic xenon isotopic composition of the well gases shows that 20 per cent of the mantle Xe is 'solar-like' in origin, but cannot resolve the small isotopic difference between the trapped meteorite 'Q'-component and solar Xe. The mantle primordial (20)Ne/(132)Xe is approximately 1400 and is comparable with the upper end of that observed in meteorites. Previous work using the terrestrial (129)I - (129)Xe mass balance demands that almost 99 per cent of the Xe (and therefore other noble gases) has been lost from the accreting solids and that Pu-I closure age models have shown this to have occurred in the first ca 100Ma of the Earth's history. The highest concentrations of Q-Xe and solar wind-implanted (SWI)-Ne measured in meteorites allow for this loss and these high-abundance samples have a Ne/Xe ratio range compatible with the 'recycled-air-corrected' terrestrial mantle. These observations do not support models in which the terrestrial mantle acquired its volatiles from the primary capture of solar nebula gases and, in turn, strongly suggest that the primary terrestrial atmosphere, before isotopic fractionation, is most probably derived from degassed trapped volatiles in accreting material.By contrast, the non-radiogenic argon, krypton and 80 per cent of the xenon in the convecting mantle have the same isotopic composition and elemental abundance pattern as that found in seawater with a small sedimentary Kr and Xe admix. These mantle heavy noble gases are dominated by recycling of air dissolved in seawater back into the mantle. Numerical simulations suggest that plumes sampling the core-mantle boundary would be enriched in seawater-derived noble gases compared with the convecting mantle, and therefore have substantially lower (40)Ar/(36)Ar. This is compatible with observation. The subduction process is not a complete barrier to volatile return to the mantle. PMID:18826923

Ballentine, Chris J; Holland, Greg

2008-11-28

47

Using noble gases to analyze the efficiency of artificial aeration in Lake Hallwil, Switzerland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eutrophic Lake Hallwil (Switzerland) is equipped with an artificial aeration system to prevent anoxic conditions developing in the deep water during stratification in summer. The aeration system consists of diffusers releasing oxygen-rich gas containing noble gases into the deep water at the bottom of the lake. The deep water is strongly supersaturated with He, Ne, and Ar, while Kr and Xe are present at concentrations corresponding to their respective atmospheric equilibria. The observed noble gas excesses are related to the operation of the aeration system and to the composition of the injected aeration gas. We show how noble gas data were used successfully to estimate the fraction of the injected aeration gas that effectively remains dissolved in the water body. In particular, as the physical properties of Ar (e.g., atomic mass, solubility, diffusion coefficient) are similar to those of oxygen, the measured noble gas concentrations allow the efficiency of the aeration system to be quantified.

Holzner, C. P.; Tomonaga, Y.; StöCkli, A.; Denecke, N.; Kipfer, R.

2012-09-01

48

The origins and concentrations of water, carbon, nitrogen and noble gases on Earth  

E-print Network

for subsequent loss. Doing so, the I-Pu-Xe age of the Earth becomes 50 Ma after start of solar system formation1 The origins and concentrations of water, carbon, nitrogen and noble gases on Earth Bernard Marty@crpg.cnrs-nancy.fr Submitted as a Frontiers article to Earth and Planetary Science Letters revised version, October 10, 2011

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

49

Carbynes - Carriers of primordial noble gases in meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five carbynes (triply bonded allotropes of carbon) have been found by electron diffraction in the Allende and Murchison carbonaceous chondrites: carbon VI, VIII, X, XI, and (tentatively) XII. From the isotopic composition of the associated noble-gas components, it appears that the carbynes in Allende (C3V chondrite) are local condensates from the solar nebula, whereas at least two carbynes in Murchison (C2 chondrite) are of exotic, presolar origin. They may be dust grains that condensed in stellar envelopes and trapped isotropically anomalous matter from stellar nucleosynthesis.

Whittaker, A. G.; Watts, E. J.; Lewis, R. S.; Anders, E.

1980-01-01

50

Carbynes: carriers of primordial noble gases in meteorites  

SciTech Connect

Five carbynes (triply bonded allotropes of carbon) have been found by electron diffraction in the Allende and Murchison carbonaceous chondrites: carbon VI, VIII, X, XI, and (tentatively) XII. From the isotopic composition of the associated noble-gas components, it appears that the carbynes in Allende (C3V chondrite) are local condensates from the solar nebula, whereas at least two carbynes in Murchison (C2 chondrite) are of exotic, presolar origin. They may be dust gains that condensed in stellar envelopes and trapped isotopically anomalous matter from stellar nucleosynthesis.

Whittaker, A.G. (Aerospace Corp., El Segundo, CA); Watts, E.J.; Lewis, R.S.; Anders, E.

1980-09-26

51

Novel MRI applications of laser-polarized noble gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gas-phase nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has great potential as a probe for a variety of interesting physical and biomedical\\u000a problems that are not amenable to study by water or similar liquid. However, NMR of gases was largely neglected due to the\\u000a low signal obtained from the thermally polarized gases with very low sample density. The advent of optical pumping techniques

R. W. Mair; R. L. Walsworth

2002-01-01

52

Measuring high-order Kerr effects of noble gases based on spectral analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method for measuring high-order Kerr effects of noble gases is proposed. It is based on analyzing spectral characteristics of the optical pulse after propagation through a hollow-core fiber which is filled with noble gas whose Kerr effects are to be measured. This method is further investigated through numerical experiments, and the retrieved Kerr refractive indexes agree well with the coefficients used in the model simulating the propagation dynamics. This method uses single beam geometry which is easy to implement and avoids the spurious interfering effects in multi-beam methods originally used for measuring these effects.

Wang, Ding; Leng, Yuxin

2014-10-01

53

Elastic Properties of Films of Water and Noble Gases Condensed at Low Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have shown that there are extensive similarities between the quench-condensed noble gas films and those of amorphous water ice. In particular, both can be quite soft upon deposition and can stiffen considerably when annealed. Furthermore, this stiffening follows a logarithmic time dependence for all substances. The temperature dependence of these behaviors scales with the triple point. The results shown here show a strong thickness dependence, which has implications for any study of mechanical properties of films on substrates. The temperature dependence of the stiffening and the stiffening rate have now been characterized for the noble gases, and these observations provide a roadmap for new experiments on amorphous water ice.

Pohl, Robert O.

2003-01-01

54

Characterisation of Q-gases and other noble gas components in the Murchison meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noble gases in several HF/HCl resistant residues of the CM2 chondrite Murchison were measured by closed-system stepped etching, in order to study the planetary gases in their major carrier 'Q'-an ill-defined minor phase, perhaps merely a set of adsorption sites. Neon, Ar, Kr, Xe, and probably also He in 'Q' of Murchison have the same isotopic and nearly the same elemental abundances as their counterparts in Allende (CV3). The isotopic composition of Ne-Q is consistent with mass-dependent fractionation of either solar wind Ne or Ne from solar energetic particles. Unlike Allende, Murchison during HNO3 attack release, besides Q-gases, large amounts of two other Ne-components, Ne-E and Ne-A3, a third subcomponent of Ne-A. This work confirms that Q-gases of well-defined composition were an important noble gas component in the early solar system an are now found in various classes of meteorites, such as carbonaceous chondrites, ureilites, and ordinary chondrites. Ne-Q may have played a role in the formation of noble gas reservoirs in terrestrial planets.

Wieler, Rainer; Anders, Edward; Baur, Heinrich; Lewis, Roy S.; Signer, Peter

1992-01-01

55

More on noble gases in Yellowstone National Park hot waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water and gas samples from research wells in hydrothermal areas of Yellowstone National Park, U.S.A., have been mass spectrometrically analyzed for their rare gas contents and isotopic composition. In agreement with previous findings, the rare gases have been found to originate from infiltrating run-off water, saturated with air at 10 to 20°C. The atmospheric rare gas retention values found for

E. Mazor; R. O. Fournier

1973-01-01

56

Relative Responses of Noble Gases Using a Pulsed Discharge Helium Photoionization Detector: Theoretical Calculation and Experimental Determination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative response factors(RRFs) for noble gas(Ng) were determined on a pulsed discharge helium photoionization detector. Using ab initio method, the atomic orbitals of noble gas were calculated and used to determine the number of ionizable electrons on the basis of the continuous emission of He2. The molar responses of noble gases is well correlated with the number of ionizable

Hai-tao ZHANG; Di WU; Li-xing ZHANG

2008-01-01

57

Incorporation of Solar Noble Gases from a Nebula-Derived Atmosphere During Magma Ocean Cooling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of solar noble gases in the deep interior of the Earth is inferred from the Ne isotopic compositions of MORB (Mid-ocean Ridge Basalts) and OIB (Oceanic Island Basalt); Ar data may also consistent with a solar component in the deep mantle. Models of the transport and distribution of noble gases in the earth's mantle allow for the presence of solar Ar/Ne and Xe/Ne ratios and permit the calculation of lower mantle noble gas concentrations. These mantle data and models also indicate that the Earth suffered early (0.7 to 2 x 10(exp 8) yr) and large (greater than 99 percent) losses of noble gases from the interior, a result previously concluded for atmospheric Xe. We have pursued the suggestion that solar noble gases were incorporated in the forming Earth from a massive, nebula-derived atmosphere which promoted large-scale melting, so that gases from this atmosphere dissolved in the magma ocean and were mixed downward. Models of a primitive atmosphere captured from the solar nebula and supported by accretion luminosity indicate that pressures at the Earth's surface were adequate (and largely more than the required 100 Atm) to dissolve sufficient gases. We have calculated the coupled evolution of the magma ocean and the overlying atmosphere under conditions corresponding to the cessation (or severe attenuation) of the sustaining accretion luminosity, prior to the complete removal of the solar nebula. Such a condition was likely to obtain, for instance, when most of the unaccumulated mass resided in large bodies which were only sporadically accreted. The luminosity supporting the atmosphere is then that provided by the cooling Earth, consideration of which sets a lower limit to the time required to solidify the mantle and terminate the incorporation of atmospheric gases within it. In our initial calculations, we have fixed the nebula temperature at To = 300K, a value likely to be appropriate for nebular temperatures at lAU in the early planet-building epoch. We treated the background (nebula) pressure as an adjustable, time-dependent parameter. Additional information is contained within the original extended abstract.

Woolum, D. S.; Cassen, P.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Porcelli, D.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

1998-01-01

58

Cosmogenic 10Be and Noble Gases in Diogenites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: A recent reevaluation of the 3He, 21Ne, and 38Ar cosmic-ray exposure ages of eight non-Antarctic and three Antarctic diogenite falls led to a consistent set of exposure ages with a major cluster at 22 Ma and a possible second cluster around 40 Ma [1]. These clusters coincide with two major peaks in the exposure-age distributions of the genetically related eucrites and howardites [2], but the scarcity of young diogenites is remarkable [3]. An update of the exposure-age distribution for diogenites, including nine separate Antarctic falls, will be presented and possible differences in exposure history between Antarctic and non-Antarctic diogenites will be discussed. The exposure-age distributions of eucrites and howardites are still controversial [2,3], as conventional shielding corrections--on the basis of the 22Ne/21Ne ratio--cannot be applied. Therefore, the use of other shielding parameters, such as 10Be or 26Al, is considered. We examined the relation between 10Be contents and 22Ne/21Ne ratios in diogenites to obtain more insight into the shielding sensitivity of the 10Be production rate. Experimental: In addition to the existing database of more than 30 noble gas analyses [4] we carried out noble gas measurements on 5 non-Antarctic diogenites and on 12 Antarctic samples from 9 separate falls. On the same samples 10Be was measured by AMS. The experimental uncertainties in the 10Be values are 2-3%, those in the 22Ne/21Ne ratios are 0.5-1.0%. Results and Conclusions: The major exposure-age cluster at 22 Ma contains about 45% of the diogenite falls, indicating a major impact on its parent body. However, the presence of several younger diogenites suggests that this collisional event was not necessarily as destructive as previously suggested [3]. Four diogenites show exposure ages around 40 Ma, indicating a second major impact on the HED parent body. Although some Antarctic diogenites have unique mineralogical features [5,6], we didn't find any evidence for different populations on the basis of their exposure histories. Figure 1 shows the experimental relation between 10Be contents and 22Ne/21Ne ratios measured in diogenites. The 10Be contents decrease by 30-35%, while corresponding 22Ne/21Ne ratios increase from 1.07 to 1.29. Graf's semi- experimental model predicts--for L chondrites with preatmospheric radii less than 50 cm--a decrease of about 50% in 10Be over this interval of 22Ne/21Ne ratios [7]. This discrepancy cannot be explained by the minor differences in composition with respect to 10Be production. Therefore, our results indicate that this model is slightly overestimating the shielding sensitivity of 10Be. Five points do not fall within 2 sigma on the best (exponential) fit. Measurements of additional radionuclides may contribute to a better understanding of their outlying character. Acknowledgments: We thank the MWG in the USA, the NIPR in Tokyo and the National Museums for Natural History in Washington, London, and Paris for diogenite samples. This work was financially supported by the Nederlandse Organisatie voor Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (NWO). References: [1] Welten K. C. et al. (1991) Meteoritics, 26, 408. [2] Schultz L. (1987) LPSC XVIII, 884-885. [3] Alymer D. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 1691-1698. [4] Schultz L. and Kruse H. (1989) Meteoritics, 24, 155-172. [5] Takeda H. (1991) GCA, 55, 35-57. [6] Berkley J. L. and Boynton N. J. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 387-394. [7] Graf Th. et al. (1990) GCA, 54, 2521-2534. Figure 1, which appears in the hard copy, shows shielding effects on P10 in diogenites.

Welten, K. C.; Lindner, L.; van der Borg, K.; Loeken, Th.; Scherer, P.; Schultz, L.

1993-07-01

59

Geothermochronology based on noble gases: I. Stability of the U-Xe isotopic system in nonmetamict zircons  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents data on persistent tendencies and relations in the migration of noble gases in U-bearing minerals of various\\u000a composition: uraninite, pitchblende, metamict zircon, khlopinite, samarskite, betafite, and ampangabeite from various regions\\u000a worldwide. The escape curves of all noble gases (starting with radiogenic He, Kr, and Xe and ending with nucleogenic 38Ar) during annealing in the laboratory are demonstrated

Yu. A. Shukolyukov; M. M. Fugzan; I. P. Paderin; S. A. Sergeev; D. P. Krylov

2009-01-01

60

Radiative precursors driven by converging blast waves in noble gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A detailed study of the radiative precursor that develops ahead of converging blast waves in gas-filled cylindrical liner z-pinch experiments is presented. The experiment is capable of magnetically driving 20 km s-1 blast waves through gases of densities of the order 10-5 g cm-3 (see Burdiak et al. [High Energy Density Phys. 9(1), 52-62 (2013)] for a thorough description). Data were collected for Ne, Ar, and Xe gas-fills. The geometry of the setup allows a determination of the plasma parameters both in the precursor and across the shock, along a nominally uniform line of sight that is perpendicular to the propagation of the shock waves. Radiation from the shock was able to excite NeI, ArII, and XeII/XeIII precursor spectral features. It is shown that the combination of interferometry and optical spectroscopy data is inconsistent with upstream plasmas being in LTE. Specifically, electron density gradients do not correspond to any apparent temperature change in the emission spectra. Experimental data are compared to 1D radiation hydrodynamics HELIOS-CR simulations and to PrismSPECT atomic physics calculations to assist in a physical interpretation of the observations. We show that upstream plasma is likely in the process of being radiatively heated and that the emission from a small percentage of ionised atoms within a cool background plasma dominates the emission spectra. Experiments were carried out on the MAGPIE and COBRA pulsed-power facilities at Imperial College London and Cornell University, respectively.

Burdiak, G. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Swadling, G. F.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Hall, G. N.; Khoory, E.; Pickworth, L.; Bland, S. N.; de Grouchy, P.; Skidmore, J.; Suttle, L.; Bennett, M.; Niasse, N. P. L.; Williams, R. J. R.; Blesener, K.; Atoyan, L.; Cahill, A.; Hoyt, C.; Potter, W.; Rosenberg, E.; Schrafel, P.; Kusse, B.

2014-03-01

61

GAS-PHASE SEQUESTRATION OF NOBLE GASES IN THE PROTOSOLAR NEBULA: POSSIBLE CONSEQUENCES ON THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM COMPOSITION  

SciTech Connect

We address the problem of the sequestration of Ar, Kr, and Xe by H{sub 3}{sup +} in the gas-phase conditions encountered during the cooling of protoplanetary disks when H{sub 3}{sup +} is competing with other species present in the same environment. Using high-level ab initio simulations, we try to quantify other sequestration possibilities involving He, H{sub 5}{sup +}, H{sub 2}O, and H{sub 3}O{sup +} present in the protosolar nebula. Apart from the fact that H{sub 3}{sup +} complexes formed with heavy noble gases are found to be by far much more stable than those formed with He or H{sub 2}O, we show that H{sub 2}D{sup +} and H{sub 3}O{sup +}, both products of the reactions of H{sub 3}{sup +} with HD and H{sub 2}O, can also be efficient trapping agents for Ar, Kr, and Xe. Meanwhile, the abundance profile of H{sub 3}{sup +} in the outer part of the nebula is revisited with the use of an evolutionary accretion disk model that allows us to investigate the possibility that heavy noble gases can be sequestered by H{sub 3}{sup +} at earlier epochs than those corresponding to their trapping in planetesimals. We find that H{sub 3}{sup +} might be abundant enough in the outer protosolar nebula to trap Xe and Kr prior their condensation epochs, implying that their abundances should be solar in Saturn's current atmosphere and below the observational limit in Titan. The same scenario predicts that comets formed at high heliocentric distances should also be depleted in Kr and Xe. In situ measurements, such as those planed with the Rosetta mission on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, will be critical to check the validity of our hypotheses.

Pauzat, F.; Ellinger, Y.; Ozgurel, O. [Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, UMR 7616-CNRS, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, F-75005 Paris (France); Mousis, O.; Ali Dib, M., E-mail: pauzat@lct.jussieu.fr, E-mail: ellinger@lct.jussieu.fr, E-mail: zge.zgerel@gmail.com, E-mail: olivier.mousis@obs-besancon.fr, E-mail: mdib@obs-besancon.fr [Institut UTINAM, CNRS/INSU, UMR 6213, Université de Franche-Comté, F-25030 Besançon Cedex (France)

2013-11-01

62

Gas-phase Sequestration of Noble Gases in the Protosolar Nebula: Possible Consequences on the Outer Solar System Composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the problem of the sequestration of Ar, Kr, and Xe by H_3^+ in the gas-phase conditions encountered during the cooling of protoplanetary disks when H_3^+ is competing with other species present in the same environment. Using high-level ab initio simulations, we try to quantify other sequestration possibilities involving He, H_5^+, H2O, and H3O+ present in the protosolar nebula. Apart from the fact that H_3^+ complexes formed with heavy noble gases are found to be by far much more stable than those formed with He or H2O, we show that H2D+ and H3O+, both products of the reactions of H_3^+ with HD and H2O, can also be efficient trapping agents for Ar, Kr, and Xe. Meanwhile, the abundance profile of H_3^+ in the outer part of the nebula is revisited with the use of an evolutionary accretion disk model that allows us to investigate the possibility that heavy noble gases can be sequestered by H_3^+ at earlier epochs than those corresponding to their trapping in planetesimals. We find that H_3^+ might be abundant enough in the outer protosolar nebula to trap Xe and Kr prior their condensation epochs, implying that their abundances should be solar in Saturn's current atmosphere and below the observational limit in Titan. The same scenario predicts that comets formed at high heliocentric distances should also be depleted in Kr and Xe. In situ measurements, such as those planed with the Rosetta mission on 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, will be critical to check the validity of our hypotheses.

Pauzat, F.; Ellinger, Y.; Mousis, O.; Ali-Dib, M.; Ozgurel, O.

2013-11-01

63

Mass fractionation of noble gases in synthetic methane hydrate: Implications for naturally occurring gas hydrate dissociation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

As a consequence of contemporary or longer term (since 15 ka) climate warming, gas hydrates in some settings may presently be dissociating and releasing methane and other gases to the ocean-atmosphere system. A key challenge in assessing the impact of dissociating gas hydrates on global atmospheric methane is the lack of a technique able to distinguish between methane recently released from gas hydrates and methane emitted from leaky thermogenic reservoirs, shallow sediments (some newly thawed), coal beds, and other sources. Carbon and deuterium stable isotopic fractionation during methane formation provides a first-order constraint on the processes (microbial or thermogenic) of methane generation. However, because gas hydrate formation and dissociation do not cause significant isotopic fractionation, a stable isotope-based hydrate-source determination is not possible. Here, we investigate patterns of mass-dependent noble gas fractionation within the gas hydrate lattice to fingerprint methane released from gas hydrates. Starting with synthetic gas hydrate formed under laboratory conditions, we document complex noble gas fractionation patterns in the gases liberated during dissociation and explore the effects of aging and storage (e.g., in liquid nitrogen), as well as sampling and preservation procedures. The laboratory results confirm a unique noble gas fractionation pattern for gas hydrates, one that shows promise in evaluating modern natural gas seeps for a signature associated with gas hydrate dissociation.

Hunt, Andrew G.; Stern, Laura; Pohlman, John W.; Ruppel, Carolyn; Moscati, Richard J.; Landis, Gary P.

2013-01-01

64

The quest for regolithic howardites. Part 2: Surface origins highlighted by noble gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report noble gas data of helium (He), neon (Ne), argon (Ar), krypton (Kr) and xenon (Xe), cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages and nominal gas retention (K-Ar, U-Th-He) ages for seven howardites (CRE 01400, EET 87513, EET 87518, EET 99400, GRO 95535, GRO 95602, SAN 03472), in continuing research to identify regolithic samples, and better understand the vestan regolith. In our previous work, we found little correlation between suggested regolith parameters of Ni > 300 ?g/g, Al2O3 8-9 wt% and eucrite/diogenite (E:D) ratio of 2:1 (Warren et al., 2009), and trapped solar wind (SW), fractionated solar wind (FSW) or planetary noble gas components (from impacted material) - noble gas indicators of a regolithic origin. Here, we have expanded our data set to include samples outside of these parameters to further explore composition, and the differences in Ni content as indicators for the presence of non-Vesta material. In addition, our sample set includes two potentially paired meteorites from the GRO suite. Finally, in our petrographic studies, the samples selected showed no evidence for carbonaceous chondrite fragments, which should reduce the effect of “contamination” by planetary noble gas components, and will allow us to better identify SW/FSW components, where present. Of the samples studied here, three howardites GRO 95535, GRO 95602 and EET 87513 show evidence for a regolithic origin, with both isotopic and element noble gas ratios clearly pointing to the presence of trapped components similar to SW/FSW or planetary. The two GRO howardites, GRO 95535 and GRO 95602, show similar noble gas ratios to our previously defined SW/FSW dominated regolithic group (LEW 85313 and MET 00423), suggesting a surface origin for these samples. However, interestingly, the GRO samples show vastly different cosmogenic noble gas abundances, and thus different CRE ages, which suggests that they are not paired. For howardite EET 87513, the data hint to the presence of CM-material, with a neon release pattern similar to our defined planetary/FSW dominated regolithic group (CM-rich samples PRA 04401, SCO 06040). Our petrological investigations found no evidence for CM fragments within EET 87513, though a single clast was reported previously (Buchanan et al., 1993). Aside from the Ne release pattern, the remaining noble gas data show more similarity with SW/FSW components. The remaining four howardites CRE 01400, EET 87518, EET 99400, and SAN 03472 and are dominated by cosmogenic noble gases, and show no evidence for a regolithic origin. Our data suggest that a CM-composition is likely present in all samples to some degree, but that this can be overprinted by SW components or cosmogenic components obtained in situ on the vestan surface or during transit to Earth respectively. The presence of CM material is an important parameter for understanding the evolution of Vesta’s surface. While we have uncovered three further regolithic howardites (?13 regolithic total, of ?41 analysed), further noble gas analysis of HED meteorites is needed to not only determine regolithic origins, but to better characterise the abundance of carbonaceous chondrite material and its effect on the noble gas signatures of such samples.

Cartwright, J. A.; Ott, U.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.

2014-09-01

65

High power external cavity laser diode arrays for the generation of hyperpolarized noble gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperpolarized noble gas magnetic resonance imaging promises to be a useful medical diagnostic tool due to its ability to image airways and brain function. A current limitation to widespread use is the time needed to generate gas quantities large enough for clinical patient imaging. Here I investigate line-narrowing of laser diode arrays in order to optimize the generation of hyperpolarized noble gases. Hyperpolarized noble gases are nuclear spin-½ isotopes that are polarized externally to have a large excess population of metastable spin up nuclei. When inhaled and imaged, they provide a novel tool for scientific studies and medical diagnosis in the human body. The gases are generated through a spin-exchange process via the spin-conserving hyperfine interaction of noble gas nuclei and optically pumped alkali metals. The net amount of polarized gas is limited by the optical power which is absorbed by the alkali metals as this is the first stage in the spin-exchange process. Laser diode arrays are typically used because they have a high available power for relatively low cost. Unfortunately, they are optically inefficient due to the factor of twenty larger inherent linewidth relative to the pressure broadened absorption linewidth of the alkali metal. In order to increase the efficiency of the system, I have designed and built an external cavity around the laser diode array consisting of a diffraction grating which acts as a wavelength dependent mirror tuned to the alkali metal rubidium absorption frequency. This causes the laser to operate solely at the desired wavelength, reducing the linewidth. External cavities have long been used for single element laser diodes. I extend this technique to laser diode arrays by imaging the diodes onto the grating using a set of imaging lenses forming individual cavities. I discuss the limitations on the power and linewidth achievable due to the optics of the cavity, as well as limitations caused by non-uniform heating effects. Finally, I present measurements of the nuclear polarization and absorption for Helium using our line-narrowed laser system and will compare and contrast the benefits of the line-narrowed system over the fiber-coupled laser diode arrays currently being used.

Blasche, Gregory Paul

66

A new automated method for measuring noble gases and their isotopic ratios in water samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is presented for precisely measuring all five noble gases and their isotopic ratios in water samples using multiple programmed multistage cryogenic traps in conjunction with quadrupole mass spectrometry and magnetic sector mass spectrometry. Multiple automated cryogenic traps, including a two-stage cryotrap used for removal of water vapor, an activated charcoal cryotrap used for helium separation, and a stainless steel cryotrap used for neon, argon, krypton, and xenon separation, allow reproducible gas purification and separation. The precision of this method for gas standards is ±0.10% for He, ±0.14% for Ne, ±0.10% for Ar, ±0.14% for Kr, and ±0.17% for Xe. The precision of the isotopic ratios of the noble gases in gas standards are ±1.9‰ for 20Ne/22Ne, ±2.0‰ for 84Kr/86Kr, ±2.5‰ for 84Kr/82Kr, ±0.9‰ for 132Xe/129Xe, and ±1.3‰ for 132Xe/136Xe. The precision of this method for water samples, determined by measurement of duplicate pairs, is ±1% for He, ±0.9% for Ne, ±0.3% for Ar, ±0.3% for Kr, and ±0.2% for Xe. An attached magnetic sector mass spectrometer measures 3He/4He with precisions of ±0.1% for air standards and ±0.14% for water samples.

Stanley, Rachel H. R.; Baschek, Burkard; Lott, Dempsey E.; Jenkins, William J.

2009-05-01

67

A theoretical investigation into the trapping of noble gases by clathrates on Titan  

E-print Network

In this paper, we use a statistical thermodynamic approach to quantify the efficiency with which clathrates on the surface of Titan trap noble gases. We consider different values of the Ar, Kr, Xe, CH4, C2H6 and N2 abundances in the gas phase that may be representative of Titan's early atmosphere. We discuss the effect of the various parameters that are chosen to represent the interactions between the guest species and the ice cage in our calculations. We also discuss the results of varying the size of the clathrate cages. We show that the trapping efficiency of clathrates is high enough to significantly decrease the atmospheric concentrations of Xe and, to a lesser extent, of Kr, irrespective of the initial gas phase composition, provided that these clathrates are abundant enough on the surface of Titan. In contrast, we find that Ar is poorly trapped in clathrates and, as a consequence, that the atmospheric abundance of argon should remain almost constant. We conclude that the mechanism of trapping noble gases via clathration can explain the deficiency in primordial Xe and Kr observed in Titan's atmosphere by Huygens, but that this mechanism is not sufficient to explain the deficiency in Ar.

Caroline Thomas; Sylvain Picaud; Olivier Mousis; Vincent Ballenegger

2008-03-19

68

A theoretical investigation into the trapping of noble gases by clathrates on Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we use a statistical thermodynamic approach to quantify the efficiency with which clathrates on the surface of Titan trap noble gases. We consider different values of the Ar, Kr, Xe, CH 4, C 2H 6 and N 2 abundances in the gas phase that may be representative of Titan's early atmosphere. We discuss the effect of the various parameters that are chosen to represent the interactions between the guest species and the ice cage in our calculations. We also discuss the results of varying the size of the clathrate cages. We show that the trapping efficiency of clathrates is high enough to significantly decrease the atmospheric concentrations of Xe and, to a lesser extent, of Kr, irrespective of the initial gas phase composition, provided that these clathrates are abundant enough on the surface of Titan. In contrast, we find that Ar is poorly trapped in clathrates and, as a consequence, that the atmospheric abundance of argon should remain almost constant. We conclude that the mechanism of trapping noble gases via clathration can explain the deficiency in primordial Xe and Kr observed in Titan's atmosphere by Huygens, but that this mechanism is not sufficient to explain the deficiency in Ar.

Thomas, C.; Picaud, S.; Mousis, O.; Ballenegger, V.

2008-11-01

69

Laboratory simulation of meteoritic noble gases. III - Sorption of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon on carbon - Elemental fractionation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sorption of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe was studied in carbon black, acridine carbon, and diamond in an attempt to understand the origin of trapped noble gases in meteorites. The results support a model in which gases are physically adsorbed on interior surfaces formed by a pore labyrinth within amorphous carbons. The data show that: (1) the adsorption/desorption times are controlled by choke points that restrict the movement of noble gas atoms within the pore labyrinth, and (2) the physical adsorption controls the temperature behavior and elemental fractionation patterns.

Wacker, John F.

1989-01-01

70

Shock Compression of Liquid Noble Gases to Multi-Mbar Pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high pressure -- high temperature behavior of noble gases is of considerable interest because of their use in z-pinch liners for fusion studies and for understanding astrophysical and planetary evolution. However, our understanding of the equation of state (EOS) of the noble gases at extreme conditions is limited. A prime example of this is the liquid xenon Hugoniot. Previous EOS models rapidly diverged on the Hugoniot above 1 Mbar because of differences in the treatment of the electronic contribution to the free energy. Similar divergences are observed for krypton EOS. Combining shock compression experiments and density functional theory (DFT) simulations, we can determine the thermo-physical behavior of matter under extreme conditions. The experimental and DFT results have been instrumental to recent developments in planetary astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion. Shock compression experiments are performed using Sandia's Z-Accelerator to determine the Hugoniot of liquid xenon and krypton in the Mbar regime. Under strong pressure, krypton and xenon undergo an insulator to metal transition. In the metallic state, the shock front becomes reflective allowing for a direct measurement of the sample's shock velocity using laser interferometry. The Hugoniot state is determined using a Monte Carlo analysis method that accounts for systematic error in the standards and for correlations. DFT simulations at these extreme conditions show good agreement with the experimental data -- demonstrating the attention to detail required for dealing with elements with relativistic core states and d-state electrons. The results from shock compression experiments and DFT simulations are presented for liquid xenon to 840 GPa and for liquid krypton to 800 GPa, decidedly increasing the range of known behavior of both gases. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

Root, Seth

2011-11-01

71

Momentum transfer cross sections for the heavy noble gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have used our relativistic optical potential method [1] to calculate the momentum transfer cross sections for Ar, Kr and Xe from threshold to 1000 eV. The target ground state as well as the open excited and ionization channels used in the optical potential have been calculated using the MCDF program [2]. We have included 17 excitation channels for Ar, 26 for Kr and 15 for Xe. In the ionization channels, ionization of the outer p, s and d shells were included for Kr and Xe while for Ar all electrons were allowed to be ionized. Comparisons with previous calculations and experimental measurements will be included. We also include analytic fits to our cross sections to aid in plasma modelling studies. [4pt] [1] S. Chen, R. P. McEachran and A. D. Stauffer, J. Phys. B 41 025201 (2008) [0pt] [2] I. P. Grant, B. J. McKenzie, P. H. Norrington, D. F. Mayers and N. C. Pyper, Comput. Phys. Commun. 21 207 (1980)

Stauffer, A. D.; McEachran, R. P.

2012-10-01

72

Laboratory simulation of meteoritic noble gases. I - Sorption of xenon on carbon: Trapping experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The sorption of Xe-127 at 5 x 10 to the -7th atm onto carbon black, pyrolyzed polyvinylidene chloride, and pyrolyzed acridine at 100-1000 C for 5 min-240 h is measured experimentally by gamma spectrometry. The results are presented in tables and graphs and characterized in detail. The tightly bound Xe remaining in the samples after 4000 min pumping at temperatures above 100 C is found to comprise two components: a low-temperature component attributed to physisorption within an atomic-scale labyrinth of micropores, and a high-temperature component due to volume diffusion. The implications for the trapping of noble gases near grain surfaces of amorphous carbon in meteorites are considered.

Wacker, J. F.; Zadnik, M. G.; Anders, E.

1985-01-01

73

A Complex Exposure History of the Gold Basin L4-Chondrite Shower from Cosmogenic Radionuclides and Noble Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cosmogenic radionuclides and noble gases in samples of the Gold Basin L-chondrite shower indicate a complex exposure history, with a first stage exposure on the parent body, followed by a second stage of approx. 19 Myr in a meteoroid 3-4 m in radius. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Masarik, J.; Wieler, R.

2001-01-01

74

Trapped Solar Wind Noble Gases, Kr81\\/Kr Exposure Ages and K\\/Ar Ages in Apollo 11 Lunar Material  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grain size and etching experiments show that the fine lunar material contains large amounts of trapped solar wind particles. Elemental and isotopic compositions of the noble gases in solar material and in the terrestrial atmosphere are significantly different, except for the Ar36\\/Ar38 and the Kr isotope ratios. Exposure ages of two rocks and of the fine material are between 380

P. Eberhardt; J. Geiss; H. Graf; N. Groegler; U. Kraehenbuehl; H. Schwaller; J. Schwarzmueller; A. Stettler

1970-01-01

75

Atmospheric noble gases as tracers of biogenic gas dynamics in a shallow unconfined aquifer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric noble gases (NGs) were used to investigate biogenic gas dynamics in a shallow unconfined aquifer impacted by a crude oil spill, near Bemidji, MN. Concentrations of 3,4He, 20,22Ne, 36,40Ar, Kr, and Xe were determined for gas- and aqueous-phase samples collected from the vadose and saturated zones, respectively. Systematic elemental fractionation of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe with respect to air was observed in both of these hydrogeologic zones. Within the vadose zone, relative ratios of Ne and Ar to Kr and Xe revealed distinct process-related trends when compared to corresponding ratios for air. The degree of NG deviation from atmospheric concentrations generally increased with greater atomic mass (i.e., ?Xe > ?Kr > ?Ar > ?Ne), indicating that Kr and Xe are the most sensitive NG tracers in the vadose zone. Reactive transport modeling of the gas data confirms that elemental fractionation can be explained by mass-dependent variations in diffusive fluxes of NGs opposite to a total pressure gradient established between different biogeochemical process zones. Depletion of atmospheric NGs was also observed within a methanogenic zone of petroleum hydrocarbon degradation located below the water table. Solubility normalized NG abundances followed the order Xe > Kr > Ar > Ne, which is indicative of dissolved NG partitioning into the gas phase in response to bubble formation and possibly ebullition. Observed elemental NG ratios of Ne/Kr, Ne/Xe, Ar/Xe, and Kr/Xe and a modeling analysis provide strong evidence that CH4 generation below the water table caused gas exsolution and possibly ebullition and carbon transfer from groundwater to the vadose zone. These results suggest that noble gases provide sensitive tracers in biologically active unconfined aquifers and can assist in identifying carbon cycling and transfer within the vadose zone, the capillary fringe, and below the water table.

Jones, Katherine L.; Lindsay, Matthew B. J.; Kipfer, Rolf; Mayer, K. Ulrich

2014-03-01

76

Simultaneous analysis of noble gases, sulfur hexafluoride, and other dissolved gases in water.  

PubMed

We developed an analytical method for the simultaneous measurement of dissolved He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, SF6, N2, and O2 concentrations in a single water sample. The gases are extracted from the water using a head space technique and are transferred into a vacuum system for purification and separation into different fractions using a series of cold traps. Helium is analyzed using a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS). The remaining gas species are analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a mass spectrometer (GC-MS) for analysis of Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, N2, and O2 and an electron capture detector (GC-ECD) for SF6 analysis. Standard errors of the gas concentrations are approximately 8% for He and 2-5% for the remaining gas species. The method can be extended to also measure concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Tests of the method in Lake Lucerne (Switzerland) showed that dissolved gas concentrations agree with measurements from other methods and concentrations of air saturated water. In a small artificial pond, we observed systematic gas supersaturations, which seem to be linked to adsorption of solar irradiation in the pond and to water circulation through a gravel bed. PMID:23826704

Brennwald, Matthias S; Hofer, Markus; Kipfer, Rolf

2013-08-01

77

Are the C delta light nitrogen and noble gases located in the same carrier?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Light nitrogen and the HL family noble gas components of C(sub delta) appear to be separable by high resolution pyrolysis experiments. Thus C(sub delta) is not a homogeneous material and probably consists of debris of many stars. The question of whether the N and Xe(HL) actually reside in different carriers continues to be addressed. It is well known that C(sub delta) which was identified as nanometer sized diamonds contains isotopically anamalous elements, in particular noble gases including Xe(HL) and its family and light nitrogen (delta(N-15) down to -350 percent). Before the true nature of C(sub delta) was recognized, it was easy to suppose that the Xe(HL) and light nitrogen were located in the same carrier. However, recognition that light nitrogen in diamond from different samples varies by greater than a factor of six compared to Xe(HL) fluctuations of ca. 20 percent makes such an assumption questionable. On the basis of simple arithmetic logic, the Xe and nitrogen cannot be absolutely co-located. The average diamond grain consists of only about 1000-2000 atoms of carbon; one grain among a few x 10(exp 6) contains an atom of Xe(HL) while 5-30 atoms of light nitrogen are the typical number which need to be in every diamond grain to account for observed concentrations. If some grains are devoid of N, the others have to have a higher N concentration. Even if we were able to analyze an individual grain of the diamond for noble gases and nitrogen, we would be faced with the monumental task of locating the one amongst 10(exp 6) identical grains containing the Xe atom to examine its nitrogen content. The problem can be simplified to some extent if instead of Xe, He which is 10(exp 4) times more abundant is assumed to be a member of the HL family. Attempts to fractionate the separate carriers might be attempted using He and N as guiding indicators but even experiments of this nature are for the future. Faced with apparently insoluble problems, we have returned to an investigation we last used in our original efforts to find isotopically light nitrogen, that is to compare release patterns of the different components during stepped pyrolysis and combustion.

Verchovsky, A. B.; Russell, S. S.; Pillinger, C. T.; Fisenko, A. V.; Shukolyukov, Yuri A.

1993-01-01

78

CANCELLED Molecular dynamics simulations of noble gases in liquidwater: Solvati on structure, self-diffusion, and kinetic isotopeeffect  

SciTech Connect

Despite their great importance in low-temperaturegeochemistry, self-diffusion coefficients of noble gas isotopes in liquidwater (D) have been measured only for the major isotopes of helium, neon,krypton and xenon. Data on the self-diffusion coefficients of minor noblegas isotopes are essentially non-existent and so typically are estimatedby a kinetic theory model in which D varies as the inverse square root ofthe isotopic mass (m): D proportional to m-0.5. To examine the validityof the kinetic theory model, we performed molecular dynamics (MD)simulations of the diffusion of noble gases in ambient liquid water withan accurate set of noble gas-water interaction potentials. Our simulationresults agree with available experimental data on the solvation structureand self-diffusion coefficients of the major noble gas isotopes in liquidwater and reveal for the first time that the isotopic mass-dependence ofall noble gas self-diffusion coefficients has the power-law form Dproportional to m-beta with 0noble gasisotopes caused by diffusion in ambient liquid water.

Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

2007-05-25

79

Regularities And Irregularities Of The Stark Parameters For Single Ionized Noble Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopy of ionized noble gases has a great importance for the laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. Generally, spectra of inert gases are important for many physics areas, for example laser physics, fusion diagnostics, photoelectron spectroscopy, collision physics, astrophysics etc. Stark halfwidths as well as shifts of spectral lines are usually employed for plasma diagnostic purposes. For example atomic data of argon krypton and xenon will be useful for the spectral diagnostic of ITER. In addition, the software used for stellar atmosphere simulation like TMAP, and SMART require a large amount of atomic and spectroscopic data. Availability of these parameters will be useful for a further development of stellar atmosphere and evolution models. Stark parameters data of spectral lines can also be useful for verification of theoretical calculations and investigation of regularities and systematic trends of these parameters within a multiplet, supermultiplet or transition array. In the last years, different trends and regularities of Stark parameters (halwidths and shifts of spectral lines) have been analyzed. The conditions related with atomic structure of the element as well as plasma conditions are responsible for regular or irregular behaviors of the Stark parameters. The absence of very close perturbing levels makes Ne II as a good candidate for analysis of the regularities. Other two considered elements Kr II and Xe II with complex spectra present strong perturbations and in some cases an irregularities in Stark parameters appear. In this work we analyze the influence of the perturbations to Stark parameters within the multiplets.

Peláez, R. J.; Djurovic, S.; Cirišan, M.; Aparicio, J. A.; Mar S.

2010-07-01

80

Dissolved Noble Gases in Rainwater, Southern Michigan - Evidence for Lack of Rainwater Equilibration with the Atmosphere at Surface Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Atmospheric noble gases dissolved in groundwater have been extensively used to reconstruct the past climate. A key assumption of the noble gas thermometer is that rainwater is in equilibrium with ground air when it reaches the water table. However, our recent study conducted in the Galapagos Islands showed that dissolved atmospheric noble gas concentrations in high-altitude spring samples display high apparent recharge altitudes, cold apparent temperatures and a unique, previously unknown noble gas pattern. In addition to atmospheric He excesses, this pattern displays Ne, Kr, and Xe depletion together with relative Ar enrichment. We hypothesized that this unexpected noble gas pattern resulted from the combined effect of a lack of rainwater equilibration at high altitudes in the atmosphere and the impact of fog droplets on noble gas concentrations in groundwater. To understand the origin of this previously unknown noble gas pattern, we analyzed He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe dissolved in 12 rainwater samples resulting from the passage of both warm and cold fronts in southern Michigan. Preliminary results show that all samples present atmospheric He excesses, ranging between 1% and 29% with respect to air saturated water (ASW) for corresponding measured temperature and altitude values at the time and location of sampling. In addition, these samples can be subdivided into two groups with distinct patterns. The first group displays a pattern remarkably similar to the unique anomalous pattern observed in high-altitude spring samples in the Galapagos Islands with relative Ar enrichment and Ne, Kr, and Xe depletion. The second group displays a mass-dependent pattern with greater depletion of the heavier noble gases Kr and Xe as compared to the lighter noble gases Ne and Ar. The first group of rainwater samples was mostly collected during the passage of warm fronts, which are typically associated with light, steady precipitation and gradual adiabatic uplift of air masses as compared to cold fronts. Light, steady precipitation in the presence of stable inversion clouds is also observed at high altitudes in the Galapagos Islands and suggests that similar precipitation conditions in these distinct locations is at least partly responsible for the unique anomalous noble gas patterns in these samples. In contrast, the second group of rain samples was mostly collected during thunderstorms. In particular, mass-dependent noble gas patterns displayed by these samples closely match the severe depletion of Ar, Kr, and Xe together with He enrichment observed in ice. It is possible that many of the features seen in these rain samples can be explained if rain begins as ice within rain clouds. Indeed, mixing of condensed liquid water with melted ice in the form of pellets or snow might provide a partial explanation for the observed mass-dependent noble gas patterns in rainwater samples. Our preliminary results suggest that dissolved noble gases in rainwater are not in equilibrium with surface conditions and warrants further field and laboratory experiments.

Warrier, R. B.; Castro, M.; Hall, C. M.

2012-12-01

81

ULTRAHIGH SENSITIVITY HEAVY NOBLE GAS DETECTORS FOR LONG-TERM MONITORING AND MONITORING AIR  

EPA Science Inventory

A Georgia Institute of Technology/Argonne National Laboratory team will develop and demonstrate novel ultrahigh sensitivity heavy noble gas (krypton, xenon, and radon) detectors for long-term monitoring of spent fuel and TRU waste, as well as for distinguishing background radon a...

82

Ultrahigh Sensitivity Heavy Noble Gas Detectors for Long-Term Monitoring and for Monitoring Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this research project is to develop heavy noble gas (krypton, xenon, and radon) detectors for (1) long-term monitoring of transuranic waste, spent fuel, and other uranium and thorium bearing wastes and (2) alpha particle air monitors that discriminate between radon emissions and other alpha emitters. DOE needs that are addressed by this project include improved long-term

John D. Valentine

2005-01-01

83

Relativistic contributions to single and double core electron ionization energies of noble gases.  

PubMed

We have performed relativistic calculations of single and double core 1s hole states of the noble gas atoms in order to explore the relativistic corrections and their additivity to the ionization potentials. Our study unravels the interplay of progression of relaxation, dominating in the single and double ionization potentials of the light elements, versus relativistic one-electron effects and quantum electrodynamic effects, which dominate toward the heavy end. The degree of direct relative additivity of the relativistic corrections for the single electron ionization potentials to the double electron ionization potentials is found to gradually improve toward the heavy elements. The Dirac-Coulomb Hamiltonian is found to predict a scaling ratio of ?4 for the relaxation induced relativistic energies between double and single ionization. Z-scaling of the computed quantities were obtained by fitting to power law. The effects of nuclear size and form were also investigated and found to be small. The results indicate that accurate predictions of double core hole ionization potentials can now be made for elements across the full periodic table. PMID:21823703

Niskanen, J; Norman, P; Aksela, H; Agren, H

2011-08-01

84

Using noble gases in the pore water of ocean sediments to characterize CH4 seepage off the coast of New Zealand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Newly developed analytical techniques to determine the abundances of noble gases in sediment pore water [1, 5] allow noble-gas concentrations and isotope ratios to be measured easily and routinely in unconsolidated lacustrine sediments [6, 7]. We applied these techniques for the first time to ocean sediments to investigate an active cold methane seepage system located in the South Pacific off the coast of New Zealand using 3He-4He ratios determined in the sediment pore water. Our results [8] show that more 3He-rich fluids are released in the vicinity of the Pacific-Australian subduction zone than at the forearc stations located closer to the New Zealand coast. However, the 3He-4He isotope signature in the sediment column indicates that only a minor part of the He emanating from deeper strata originates from a (depleted) mantle source. Hence, most He in the pore water is produced locally by the radioactive decay of U and Th in the sediment minerals or in the underlying crustal rocks. Such an occurrence of isotopically heavy crustal He also suggests that the source of the largest fraction of methane is a near-surface geochemical reservoir. This finding is in line with a previous ?13C study in the water column which concluded that the emanating methane is most likely of biological origin and is formed in the upper few meters of the sediment column [2]. The prevalence of isotopically heavy He agrees well with the outcome of other previous studies on island arc systems [3, 4] which indicate that the forearc regions are characterized by crustal He emission, whereas the volcanic arc region is characterized by the presence of mantle He associated with rising magma. References [1] Brennwald, M. S., Hofer, M., Peeters, F., Aeschbach-Hertig, W., Strassmann, K., Kipfer, R., and Imboden, D. M. (2003). Analysis of dissolved noble gases in the pore water of lacustrine sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 1, 51-62. [2] Faure, K., Greinert, J., Schneider von Deimling, J., McGinnis, D., Kipfer, R., Linke, P. (2010). Methane seepage along the Hikurangi Margin of New Zealand: Geochemical and physical data from the water column, sea surface and atmosphere. Mar. Geol. 272, 170-188. [3] Sano, Y., Nakajima, J. (2008). Geographical distribution of 3He-4He ratios and seismic tomography in Japan. Geochem. J. 42, 51-60. [4] Sano, Y., Wakita, H., Giggenbach, W., 1987. Island arc tectonics of New Zealand manifested in helium isotope ratios. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 51 (7), 1855-1860. [5] Tomonaga, Y., Brennwald, M. S., Kipfer, R. (2011). An improved method for the analysis of dissolved noble gases in the pore water of unconsolidated sediments. Limnol. Oceanogr.: Methods 9, 42-49. [6] Tomonaga, Y., Brennwald, M. S., Kipfer, R. (2011). Spatial distribution and flux of terrigenic He dissolved in the sediment pore water of Lake Van (Turkey). Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 75 (10), 2848-2864. [7] Tomonaga, Y., Blättler, R., Brennwald, M. S., Kipfer, R. (2012). Interpreting noble-gas concentrations as proxies for salinity and temperature in the world's largest soda lake (Lake Van, Turkey). J. Asian Earth Sci., 59, 99-107. [8] Tomonaga, Y., Brennwald, M. S., Kipfer, R. Using noble gases in ocean sediments to characterize active methane seepage off the coast of New Zealand. Mar. Geol., submitted.

Tomonaga, Yama; Brennwald, Matthias S.; Kipfer, Rolf

2013-04-01

85

Isotopic Composition of Trapped and Cosmogenic Noble Gases in Several Martian Meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isotopic abundances of the noble gases were measured in the following Martian meteorites: two shock glass inclusions from EET79001, shock vein glass from Shergotty and Y793605, and whole rock samples of ALH84001 and QUE94201. These glass samples, when combined with literature data on a separate single glass inclusion from EET79001 and a glass vein from Zagami, permit examination of the isotopic composition of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe trapped from the Martian atmosphere in greater detail. The isotopic composition of Martian Ne, if actually present in these glasses, remains poorly defined. The Ar-40/Ar-36 ratio of Martian atmospheric Ar may be much less than the ratio measured by Viking and possibly as low as approx. 1900. The atmospheric Ar-36/Ar-38 ratio is less than or equal to 4.0. Martian atmospheric Kr appears to be enriched in lighter isotopes by approx. 0.4%/amu compared to both solar wind Kr and to the Martian composition previously reported. The Martian atmospheric Ar-36/Xe-132 and Kr-84/Xe-132 Xe elemental ratios are higher than those reported by Viking by factors of approx. 3.3 and approx. 2.5, respectively. Cosmogenic gases indicate space exposure ages of 13.9 +/- 1 Myr for ALH84001 and 2.7 +/- 0.6 Myr for QUE94201. Small amounts of Ne-21 produced by energetic solar protons may be present in QUE94201, but are not present in ALH84001 or Y793605. The space exposure age for Y793605 is 4.9 +/- 0.6 Myr and appears to be distinctly older than the ages for basaltic shergottites.

Garrison, Daniel H.; Bogard, Donald D.

1997-01-01

86

Dating and tracing groundwater resources in central Québec with noble gases, 14C and water chemistry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Canada water supply is derived mainly from lakes and rivers while groundwater accounts for less than 30% of the demand. Climatic and anthropogenic stress is endangering this natural resource. This study is part of a Quebec-funded program to characterize groundwater resources from major basins to ensure adequate water quality and management. The Bécancour River catchment area, 200 km NE of Montréal, is studied for this purpose. The region extends from the Appalachian Mts. down to the St. Lawrence River. Water chemistry shows the occurrence of Ca,Na-HCO3, Ca-HCO3, Na-HCO3 and NaCl waters, mainly recharged in the Appalachians and flowing to the St. Lawrence River. Aquifers are also recharged locally through Quaternary sandy deposits throughout the plain. Main aquifers are found both in unconfined and confined Quaternary sands intercalated with clays, and also locally in fractured Ordovician carbonates. To identify groundwater flow paths and to estimate water residence times, a multi-isotopic study involving noble gases, 14C and U, Th isotopes was initiated. Noble gas preliminary results were obtained on two transects, one along the downward flow path and the second perpendicular to the first, along a deeper sinclinorium with NaCl waters (TDS =170-705 mg/L). The 3He/4He ratios versus 4He/20Ne clearly points to mixing between three water bodies. The first has been recharged very recently displaying a near-atmospheric ratio of 0.79 Ra (Ra=atmospheric 3He/4He ratio of 1.386 x 10-6) and a 4He/20Ne of 0.2 close to the Air Saturated Water value, i.e. the ratio of atmospheric He and Ne dissolved in groundwater. The second water body is slightly older and shows the occurrence of tritiogenic 3He (3Hetri) excesses up to 1.07x10-13 ccSTP/g. These waters are found along the transect parallel to the main flow path. Using a local tritium decay curve and measured 3Hetri, an age of 19-20 years is suggested. The third water body contains large amounts of radiogenic 4He produced by U and Th decay in aquifer rocks up to 4.48x10-5 ccSTP/g. These waters are found close to the Appalachian recharge and in the transversal sinclinorium. They are from relatively deep wells (50 m depth), likely tapping the Ordovician carbonate basement. A simple in situ U-Th-4He age model gives ages of 2.0 to 6.6 Ma, which might suggest either: (1) the occurrence of isolated pockets of old water in the fractured basement or (2) mixing with deeper fossil brines containing large amounts of radiogenic 4He occurring in the Bécancour area. 14C measurements, in progress, should be helpful in calibrating the He age model and to test whether a 4He source external to aquifers might exist. Preliminary calculated paleotemperatures using atmospheric noble gases suggest values varying between 0° to 7 °C. The higher temperature represents actual recharge conditions during spring. The lower temperatures might correspond to Holocene waters recharged during the last deglaciation or contribution from recent glacial meltwater.

Vautour, G.; Pinti, D. L.; Castro, M. C.; Barbecot, F.; Larocque, M.; Hall, C. M.

2011-12-01

87

Analytical equation of state with three-body forces: application to noble gases.  

PubMed

We developed an explicit equation of state (EOS) for small non polar molecules by means of an effective two-body potential. The average effect of three-body forces was incorporated as a perturbation, which results in rescaled values for the parameters of the two-body potential. These values replace the original ones in the EOS corresponding to the two-body interaction. We applied this procedure to the heavier noble gases and used a modified Kihara function with an effective Axilrod-Teller-Muto (ATM) term to represent the two- and three-body forces. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations with two- and three-body forces. There was good agreement between predicted, simulated, and experimental thermodynamic properties of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon, up to twice the critical density and up to five times the critical temperature. In order to achieve 1% accuracy of the pressure at liquid densities, the EOS must incorporate the effect of ATM forces. The ATM factor in the rescaled two-body energy is most important at temperatures around and lower than the critical one. Nonetheless, the rescaling of two-body diameter cannot be neglected at liquid-like densities even at high temperature. This methodology can be extended straightforwardly to deal with other two- and three-body potentials. It could also be used for other nonpolar substances where a spherical two-body potential is still a reasonable coarse-grain approximation. PMID:24320280

del Río, Fernando; Díaz-Herrera, Enrique; Guzmán, Orlando; Moreno-Razo, José Antonio; Ramos, J Eloy

2013-11-14

88

The determination of accurate dipole polarizabilities alpha and gamma for the noble gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The static dipole polarizabilities alpha and gamma for the noble gases helium through xenon were determined using large flexible one-particle basis sets in conjunction with high-level treatments of electron correlation. The electron correlation methods include single and double excitation coupled-cluster theory (CCSD), an extension of CCSD that includes a perturbational estimate of connected triple excitations, CCSD(T), and second order perturbation theory (MP2). The computed alpha and gamma values are estimated to be accurate to within a few percent. Agreement with experimental data for the static hyperpolarizability gamma is good for neon and xenon, but for argon and krypton the differences are larger than the combined theoretical and experimental uncertainties. Based on our calculations, we suggest that the experimental value of gamma for argon is too low; adjusting this value would bring the experimental value of gamma for krypton into better agreement with our computed result. The MP2 values for the polarizabilities of neon, argon, krypton and zenon are in reasonabe agreement with the CCSD and CCSD(T) values, suggesting that this less expensive method may be useful in studies of polarizabilities for larger systems.

Rice, Julia E.; Taylor, Peter R.; Lee, Timothy J.; Almloef, Jan

1989-01-01

89

Sensitivity and resolution in 3D NMR microscopy of the lung with hyperpolarized noble gases.  

PubMed

Three-dimensional magnetic resonance images of the guinea pig lung were acquired in vivo using hyperpolarized (HP) noble gases and radial projection encoding (PE). Results obtained with 3He (voxel size 17 microl) demonstrated high image quality showing airway structure down to the 5th or 6th generations. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of 129Xe images (voxel size 40 microl) were lower by about 1 order of magnitude as a consequence of the smaller gyromagnetic ratio, a more rapid relaxation in the gas reservoir, and lower polarization and isotope abundance. Comparison between experimentally obtained SNRs and results from calculations based on a model that accounts for the three-dimensional PE acquisition scheme and the non-equilibrium situation in HP gas imaging yielded excellent agreement for small flip angles. A theoretical examination of the potential resolution in HP gas MR microscopy of the lungs suggests that in vivo visualization of alveolar clusters distal to respiratory bronchioles may be possible. PMID:10332857

Möller, H E; Chen, X J; Chawla, M S; Cofer, G P; Driehuys, B; Hedlund, L W; Suddarth, S A; Johnson, G A

1999-04-01

90

Analytical equation of state with three-body forces: Application to noble gases  

SciTech Connect

We developed an explicit equation of state (EOS) for small non polar molecules by means of an effective two-body potential. The average effect of three-body forces was incorporated as a perturbation, which results in rescaled values for the parameters of the two-body potential. These values replace the original ones in the EOS corresponding to the two-body interaction. We applied this procedure to the heavier noble gases and used a modified Kihara function with an effective Axilrod-Teller-Muto (ATM) term to represent the two- and three-body forces. We also performed molecular dynamics simulations with two- and three-body forces. There was good agreement between predicted, simulated, and experimental thermodynamic properties of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon, up to twice the critical density and up to five times the critical temperature. In order to achieve 1% accuracy of the pressure at liquid densities, the EOS must incorporate the effect of ATM forces. The ATM factor in the rescaled two-body energy is most important at temperatures around and lower than the critical one. Nonetheless, the rescaling of two-body diameter cannot be neglected at liquid-like densities even at high temperature. This methodology can be extended straightforwardly to deal with other two- and three-body potentials. It could also be used for other nonpolar substances where a spherical two-body potential is still a reasonable coarse-grain approximation.

Río, Fernando del, E-mail: fdr@xanum.uam.mx; Díaz-Herrera, Enrique; Guzmán, Orlando; Moreno-Razo, José Antonio [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, Apdo 55 534, México DF, 09340 (Mexico)] [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Iztapalapa, Apdo 55 534, México DF, 09340 (Mexico); Ramos, J. Eloy [Colegio de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México, Mexico DF (Mexico)] [Colegio de Ciencia y Tecnología, Universidad Autónoma de la Ciudad de México, Mexico DF (Mexico)

2013-11-14

91

Impact broadening and shift of Rb nS and nD levels by noble gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The impact broadening and shift of RbnS andnD levels by the noble gases He, Ar and Xe have been measured by Doppler-free two-photon absorption from the 5S ground state in a thermionic diode up to high principal quantum numbers. The dependence of the broadening rates onn was found to be in qualitative agreement with theoretical data. While the broadening and

K. H. Weber; K. Niemax

1982-01-01

92

Ultrahigh Sensitivity Heavy Noble Gas Detectors for Long-Term Monitoring and for Monitoring Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this research project is to develop heavy noble gas (krypton, xenon, and radon) detectors for (1) long-term monitoring of transuranic waste, spent fuel, and other uranium and thorium bearing wastes and (2) alpha particle air monitors that discriminate between radon emissions and other alpha emitters. A University of Cincinnati\\/Argonne National Laboratory (UC\\/ANL) Team was assembled to

Valentine; John D

2000-01-01

93

Ultrahigh Sensitivity Heavy Noble Gas Detectors for Long-Term Monitoring and for Monitoring Air  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this research project is to develop heavy noble gas (krypton, xenon, and radon) detectors for (1) long-term monitoring of transuranic waste, spent fuel, and other uranium and thorium bearing wastes and (2) alpha particle air monitors that discriminate between radon emissions and other alpha emitters. A University of Cincinnati\\/Argonne National Laboratory (UC\\/ANL) Team was assembled to

John D. Valentine; Kenny Gross

1999-01-01

94

Response calculations of electronic and vibrational transitions in molecular oxygen induced by interaction with noble gases.  

PubMed

The Einstein coefficient for the singlet oxygen emission a1Deltag-->X3Sigmag- at lambda=1270 nm and b1Sigmag+-->X3Sigmag- emission at lambda=750 nm were calculated by quadratic response (QR) multiconfiguration self-consisted field (MCSCF) method for a number of collision complexes O2+M, where M=He, Ne, Ar. Interaction with He clusters was studied in order to simulate cooperative effect of the environment on the oxygen emission. Calculations of the dipole transition moment for the Noxon band, b1Sigmag+-a1Deltag, by linear response (LR) MCSCF method were also performed for a number of collision complexes. Spin-orbit coupling (SOC) between the b1Sigmag+ and X3Sigmag- (MS=0) states does not change much upon collisions, thus the a-X transition borrows intensity mostly from the collision-induced Noxon band b-a. The a-X intensity borrowing from the Schumann-Runge transition is negligible. The calculations show that the b-a and a-X transition probabilities are enhanced approximately by 10(5) and 10(3) times by O2+M collisions. An order of magnitude differences occur for both transitions for noble gases with large difference in polarizability. A strong cooperative effect is obtained when few He atoms perturb the oxygen molecule. Depending on mutual orientation of the partners it can be a complete quenching of the a-->X emission or strong non-additive enhancement. Collision-induced infrared vibrational transitions in a number of molecular oxygen excited states were studied and shown to be state selective. PMID:14607236

Minaev, Boris F; Kobzev, G I

2003-12-01

95

Extraction of Solar Wind Nitrogen and Noble Gases From the Genesis Gold Foil Collector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Genesis gold foil is a bulk solar wind collector, integrating fluences from all three of the wind regimes. Pyrolytic extraction of small foil samples at Minnesota yielded He fluences, corrected for backscatter, in good agreement with measurements by on-board spacecraft instruments, and He/Ne elemental ratios close to those implanted in collector foils deployed on the lunar surface during the Apollo missions. Isotopic distributions of He, Ne and Ar are under study. Pyrolysis to temperatures above the gold melting point generates nitrogen blanks large enough to obscure the solar-wind nitrogen component. An alternative technique for nitrogen and noble gas extraction, by room-temperature amalgamation of the gold foil surface, will be discussed. Ne and Ar releases in preliminary tests of this technique on small foil samples were close to 100% of the amounts expected from the high-temperature pyrolysis yields, indicating that amalgamation quantitatively liberates gases from several hundred angstroms deep in the gold, beyond the implantation depth of most of the solar wind. Present work is focused on two problems currently interfering with accurate nitrogen measurements at the required picogram to sub-picogram levels: a higher than expected blank likely due to tiny air bubbles rolled into the gold sheet during fabrication, and the presence of a refractory hydrocarbon film on Genesis collector surfaces (the "brown stain") that, if left in place on the foil, shields the underlying gold from mercury attack. We have found, however, that the film is efficiently removed within tens of seconds by oxygen plasma ashing. Potential nitrogen contaminants introduced during the crash of the sample return canister are inert in amalgamation, and so are not hazards to the measurements.

Schlutter, D. J.; Pepin, R. O.

2005-12-01

96

Primordial noble gases in "Phase Q" in carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites studied by closed system stepped etching  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

HF/HCl-resistant residues of the chondrites CM2 Cold Bokkeveld, CV3 (ox.) Grosnaja, CO3.4 Lancé, CO3.7 Isna, LL3.4 Chainpur and H3.7 Dimmitt have been measured by closed system stepped etching (CSSE) in order to better characterise the noble gases in "phase Q", a major carrier of primordial noble gases. All isotopic ratios in phase Q of the different meteorites are quite uniform, except for (20Ne/22Ne)Q. As already suggested by precise earlier measurements (Schelhaas et al., 1990; Wieler et al., 1991; 1992), (20Ne/22Ne)Q is the least uniform isotopic ratio of the Q noble gases. The data cluster around 10.1 for Cold Bokkeveld and Lancé and 10.7 for Chainpur, Grosnaja and Dimmitt, respectively. No correlation of (20Ne/22Ne)Q with the classification or the alteration history of the meteorites has been found. The Ar, Kr and Xe isotopic ratios for all six samples are identical within their uncertainties and similar to earlier Q determinations as well as to Ar-Xe in ureilites. Thus, an unknown process probably accounts for the alteration of the originally incorporated Ne-Q. The noble gas elemental compositions provide evidence that Q consists of at least two carbonaceous carrier phases "Q1" and "Q2" with slightly distinct chemical properties. (Ar/Xe)Q and (Kr/Xe)Q reflect both thermal metamorphism and aqueous alteration. These parent body processes have led to larger depletions of Ar and Kr relative to Xe. In contrast, meteorites that suffered severe aqueous alteration, such as the CM chondrites, do not show depletions of He and Ne relative to Ar but rather the highest (He/Ar)Q and (Ne/Ar)Q ratios. This suggests that Q1 is less susceptible to aqueous alteration than Q2. Both sub-phases may well have incorporated noble gases from the same reservoir, as indicated by the nearly constant, though very large depletion of the lighter noble gases relative to solar abundances. However, the elemental ratios show that Q1 and Q2 must have acquired (or lost) noble gases in slightly different element proportions. Cold Bokkeveld suggests that Q1 may be related to presolar graphite. Q1 and Q2 might be related to the sub-phases that have been suggested by Gros and Anders (1977). The distribution of the 20Ne/22Ne ratios can not be attributed to the carriers Q1 and Q2. The residues of Chainpur and Cold Bokkeveld contain significant amounts of Ne-E(L), and the data confirm the suggestion of Huss (1997) that the 22Ne-E(L) content, and thus the presolar graphite abundances, are correlated with the metamorphic history of the meteorites.

Busemann, Henner; Baur, Heinrich; Wieler, Rainer

2000-09-01

97

Noble gases identify the mechanisms of fugitive gas contamination in drinking-water wells overlying the Marcellus and Barnett Shales  

PubMed Central

Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have enhanced energy production but raised concerns about drinking-water contamination and other environmental impacts. Identifying the sources and mechanisms of contamination can help improve the environmental and economic sustainability of shale-gas extraction. We analyzed 113 and 20 samples from drinking-water wells overlying the Marcellus and Barnett Shales, respectively, examining hydrocarbon abundance and isotopic compositions (e.g., C2H6/CH4, ?13C-CH4) and providing, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive analyses of noble gases and their isotopes (e.g., 4He, 20Ne, 36Ar) in groundwater near shale-gas wells. We addressed two questions. (i) Are elevated levels of hydrocarbon gases in drinking-water aquifers near gas wells natural or anthropogenic? (ii) If fugitive gas contamination exists, what mechanisms cause it? Against a backdrop of naturally occurring salt- and gas-rich groundwater, we identified eight discrete clusters of fugitive gas contamination, seven in Pennsylvania and one in Texas that showed increased contamination through time. Where fugitive gas contamination occurred, the relative proportions of thermogenic hydrocarbon gas (e.g., CH4, 4He) were significantly higher (P < 0.01) and the proportions of atmospheric gases (air-saturated water; e.g., N2, 36Ar) were significantly lower (P < 0.01) relative to background groundwater. Noble gas isotope and hydrocarbon data link four contamination clusters to gas leakage from intermediate-depth strata through failures of annulus cement, three to target production gases that seem to implicate faulty production casings, and one to an underground gas well failure. Noble gas data appear to rule out gas contamination by upward migration from depth through overlying geological strata triggered by horizontal drilling or hydraulic fracturing. PMID:25225410

Darrah, Thomas H.; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B.; Warner, Nathaniel R.; Poreda, Robert J.

2014-01-01

98

Noble gases identify the mechanisms of fugitive gas contamination in drinking-water wells overlying the Marcellus and Barnett Shales.  

PubMed

Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing have enhanced energy production but raised concerns about drinking-water contamination and other environmental impacts. Identifying the sources and mechanisms of contamination can help improve the environmental and economic sustainability of shale-gas extraction. We analyzed 113 and 20 samples from drinking-water wells overlying the Marcellus and Barnett Shales, respectively, examining hydrocarbon abundance and isotopic compositions (e.g., C2H6/CH4, ?(13)C-CH4) and providing, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive analyses of noble gases and their isotopes (e.g., (4)He, (20)Ne, (36)Ar) in groundwater near shale-gas wells. We addressed two questions. (i) Are elevated levels of hydrocarbon gases in drinking-water aquifers near gas wells natural or anthropogenic? (ii) If fugitive gas contamination exists, what mechanisms cause it? Against a backdrop of naturally occurring salt- and gas-rich groundwater, we identified eight discrete clusters of fugitive gas contamination, seven in Pennsylvania and one in Texas that showed increased contamination through time. Where fugitive gas contamination occurred, the relative proportions of thermogenic hydrocarbon gas (e.g., CH4, (4)He) were significantly higher (P < 0.01) and the proportions of atmospheric gases (air-saturated water; e.g., N2, (36)Ar) were significantly lower (P < 0.01) relative to background groundwater. Noble gas isotope and hydrocarbon data link four contamination clusters to gas leakage from intermediate-depth strata through failures of annulus cement, three to target production gases that seem to implicate faulty production casings, and one to an underground gas well failure. Noble gas data appear to rule out gas contamination by upward migration from depth through overlying geological strata triggered by horizontal drilling or hydraulic fracturing. PMID:25225410

Darrah, Thomas H; Vengosh, Avner; Jackson, Robert B; Warner, Nathaniel R; Poreda, Robert J

2014-09-30

99

Noble gases in submarine pillow basalt glasses from Loihi and Kilauea, Hawaii: A solar component in the Earth  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Noble gas elemental and isotopic abundances have been analysed in twenty-two samples of basaltic glass dredged from the submarine flanks of two currently active Hawaiian volcanoes, Loihi Seamount and Kilauea. Neon isotopic ratios are enriched in 20Ne and 21Ne by as much as 16% with respect to atmospheric ratios. All the Hawaiian basalt glass samples show relatively high 3He 4He ratios. The high 20Ne 22Ne values in some of the Hawaiian samples, together with correlations between neon and helium systematics, suggest the presence of a solar component in the source regions of the Hawaiian mantle plume. The solar hypothesis for the Earth's primordial noble gas composition can account for helium and neon isotopic ratios observed in basaltic glasses from both plume and spreading systems, in fluids in continental hydrothermal systems, in CO2 well gases, and in ancient diamonds. These results provide new insights into the origin and evolution of the Earth's atmosphere. ?? 1993.

Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D. B.; Doulgeris, A.; Clague, D. A.

1993-01-01

100

Groundwater studies using isotopes and noble gases as a tracer: Review and prospect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental tracers become a common tool for the groundwater study and a number of methods have been presented in order to understand groundwater flow processes, water budget, origins, chemical reaction processes and retention time. Tracers often used are selected and reviewed for their various methods and advantages as follows; 1) stable 18O, D in water, 2) stable 13C and radioactive 14C in DIC, 3) noble gases such as He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and their isotopes, 4) radioactive 36Cl in dissolved chloride and some heavier isotopes, and 5) inert gaseous species such as CFCs. If they are less reactive species, they likely preserve information at the time of recharge or their origin. Use of D, 18O and the d-value of water is the powerful tool to determine the recharge area because recharged meteoric water have their inherent isotopic ratios correlated with the recharge elevation, distance from the coast, or the local topography. Carbon-bearing species are more reactive though, use of stable isotopes of DIC leads to identify its origin and helps to analyze the chemical reaction between minerals and water or gas addition processes during the groundwater flow in aquifers. Radioactive 14C has been used to estimate groundwater age however special attention should be paid for, i.e., the origin of DIC, before applying the method. Noble gas tracers are the useful species to presume recharge temperature from their concentrations in water using their temperature dependence of solubilities. Radiogenic 4He concentration can be used for the very long-term groundwater dating since the 4He is produced in the crust and is accumulated in the deep aquifers, if the local accumulation rate of 4He is known. Radioactive 36Cl has been used to determine the age of very old saline waters up to million years. This isotope will also be convenient for the dating of very younger waters, by the use of bomb-produced 36Cl resulted from surface nuclear experiments near the seawater in the 1950s. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are the gas species produced by the recent human activity and dissolve in water during the recharge, therefore, the affected younger groundwater will have equivalent CFCs concentrations with the atmospheric CFCs concentrations at the time of the recharge. As these species are easy to detect with very high sensitivity, this tracer has now been applied not only for the age determination but for the mixing or contamination of shallow young water to a deep old groundwater. As an individual method listed above is valid only for the very simple flow system, appropriate assumptions or coupling of using different tracers is necessary to understand natural complex groundwater flow system where mixing of groundwaters of different origin or age occurs. Combination of tracers helps us simulating the complex system in detail and is being a growing trend in groundwater study.

Kazahaya, Kohei; Yasuhara, Masaya; Takahashi, Hiroshi A.; Morikawa, Noritoshi; Ohwada, Michiko; Tosaki, Yuki; Asai, Kazuyoshi

101

Effect of residual gases in high vacuum on the energy-level alignment at noble metal/organic interfaces  

SciTech Connect

The energy-level alignment at metal/organic interfaces has traditionally been studied using ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). However, since most devices are fabricated in high vacuum (HV), these studies do not accurately reflect the interfaces in real devices. We demonstrate, using UPS measurements of samples prepared in HV and UHV and current-voltage measurements of devices prepared in HV, that the small amounts of residual gases that are adsorbed on the surface of clean Cu, Ag, and Au (i.e., the noble metals) in HV can significantly alter the energy-level alignment at metal/organic interfaces.

Helander, M. G.; Wang, Z. B.; Lu, Z. H.

2011-10-31

102

Noble Gas and Stable Isotope Systematics of Volcanic Gases and Hot Springs in the Aegean Arc, Greece  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new data of stable isotopes (O, H) and noble gas isotopes (He, Ne) from hydrothermal sites associated with recent volcanism along the largely flooded, active Aegean continental volcanic arc (Greece) in order to quantify the different roles of the major reservoirs of origin of the fluids (i.e. atmosphere, mantle, seawater and crust). Low-temperature hydrothermal activity in the Aegean is widespread but mostly limited to coastal and shallow submarine environments. Much of the latent magmatic heat is dissipated into the large mass of seawater covering it. Older volcanic centers appear dominated by reservoir mixing with meteoric and seawater, while the more recently active centers show a greater excess mantle noble gas component and stable isotope shifts. Between those two endmember scenarios, active shallow hydrothermal systems tend toward greater stable isotope shifts and a lesser mantle helium component, while sites with either deep faults or suspected deep magmatic reservoirs show greater excess noble gases but lesser stable isotope shifts. Transient compositional deviations appear largely dependent on seismic activity. Excess helium isotope signatures demonstrate a similar mantle source composition for all sites, with an R/RA of approximately 9.3. Tritiogenic helium is negligible for sites with a mantle helium component greater than 10%. Observed compositional differences between sites are therefore attributed to shallow processes of hydrothermal activity, transient tectonic disruptions, and admixture of other reservoir components.

Schwandner, F. M.; Dietrich, V. J.; Frueh-Green, G.; Kipfer, R.

2008-12-01

103

Heterogeneities from the first 100 million years recorded in deep mantle noble gases from the Northern Lau Back-arc Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heavy noble gases can record long-lasting heterogeneities in the mantle, because Ne, Ar, and Xe isotopes are produced from extant (U, Th, K) and extinct (129I and 244Pu) radionuclides. However, the presence of ubiquitous atmospheric contamination in basalts, particularly for ocean island basalts (OIBs) that sample the Earth's deep mantle, have largely hampered precise characterization of the mantle source compositions. Here we present new high-precision noble gas data from gas-rich basalts erupted along the Rochambeau Rift (RR) in the northwestern corner of the Lau Basin. The strong influence of a deep mantle plume in the Rochambeau source is apparent from low 4He/3He ratios down to 25,600 (3He/4He of 28.1RA). We find that the Rochambeau source is characterized by low ratios of radiogenic to non-radiogenic nuclides of Ne, Ar, and Xe (i.e., low 21Ne/22Ne, 40Ar/36Ar, and 129Xe/130Xe) compared to the mantle source of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs). High-precision xenon isotopic measurements indicate that the lower 129Xe/130Xe ratios in the Rochambeau source cannot be explained solely by mixing atmospheric xenon with MORB-type xenon; nor can fission-produced Xe be added to MORB Xe to produce the compositions seen in the Rochambeau basalts. Deconvolution of fissiogenic xenon isotopes demonstrate a higher proportion of Pu- fission derived Xe in the Rochambeau source compared to the MORB source. Therefore, both I/Xe and Pu/Xe ratios are different between OIB and MORB sources. Our observations require heterogeneous volatile accretion and a lower degree of processing for the plume source compared to the MORB source. Since differences in 129Xe/130Xe ratios have to be produced while 129I is still alive, OIB and MORB sources must have been processed at different rates for the first 100 million years (Myr) of Solar System history, and subsequent to this period, the two reservoirs have not been homogenized. In combination with recent results from the Iceland plume, our noble gas observations require the formation and preservation of less-degassed, early-formed (pre-4.45 Ga) heterogeneities in the Earth's deep mantle. Consequently, the primitive noble gas reservoir sampled by mantle plumes cannot be created solely through sequestration of recycled slabs or undegassed melts at the base of the mantle during the past 4.4 Ga. Finally, if the more primitive, less degassed heterogeneities reside in the Large Low Shear Wave Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs), then LLSVPs must be long-lasting features of the deep mantle and are not composed exclusively of recycled material.

Pet?, Maria K.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Kelley, Katherine A.

2013-05-01

104

Evidence for multiple magma ocean outgassing and atmospheric loss episodes from mantle noble gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Giant impacts are theorized to generate global magma oceans during Earth's accretion. However, geochemical evidence requiring a terrestrial magma ocean is scarce. We will present evidence that the 3He/22Ne ratio in the depleted mantle requires at least two separate episodes of giant impact-induced atmospheric blow-off and magma ocean outgassing on Earth. 3He/22Ne ratios in the mantle source of equatorial Atlantic mid-ocean ridge basalts correlate with Ne, Pb and Nd isotope ratios, establishing that mantle 3He/22Ne variability is caused by recent mixing of sources with different endmember compositions. Our data define the 3He/22Ne ratio of the depleted mantle to be ?10, whereas primitive material sampled by plumes has a value of ~2.3-3. These terrestrial ratios are higher than all possible sources of volatile elements, in particular the solar nebula with a value of 1.5. Therefore a planetary process must have raised the mantle's 3He/22Ne ratio. We demonstrate that long-term plate tectonic cycling is incapable of fractionating He and Ne significantly in 4.5 Ga and if anything would lower their ratio. However, solubility-controlled ingassing or outgassing of a magma ocean is predicted to raise the 3He/22Ne ratio in the mantle during Earth's accretion. The 3He/22Ne ratio as well as the 20Ne/22Ne ratio of primitive material sampled by plumes is consistent with ingassing a gravitationally accreted nebular atmosphere into a magma ocean. Ingassing would raise the mantle 3He/22Ne over the nebular value by at most a factor of ~2, the He/Ne solubility ratio in a pyrolitic magma ocean. The 6.5× enhancement in the 3He/22Ne of the depleted mantle over the nebular value requires at least two additional episodes of giant impact-induced atmospheric blow-off and magma ocean outgassing, the last of which being the Moon-forming impact. Each of these outgassing episodes raises the mantle 3He/22Ne ratio by at most a factor of ~2. We note that atmospheric blow-off is necessary for driving He/Ne fractionation in the mantle. The large differences in the 3He/22Ne of the primitive reservoir and the depleted mantle require that the giant impacts, including the Moon-forming impact, could not have melted and homogenized the whole mantle. Hence, if primordial noble gases in plumes are derived from large low shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) at the core-mantle boundary, these features did not form from crystallization of the magma ocean associated with the Moon-forming impact. LLSVPs may have formed from crystallization products of previous magma oceans and survived the Moon-forming impact, or else their formation is unrelated to magma oceans. Along with 20Ne/22Ne and 129Xe/130Xe, the disparate 3He/22Ne ratios between mantle domains require that 4.5 billion years of mantle convection has not erased chemical differences set up during accretion.

Tucker, J.; Mukhopadhyay, S.

2013-12-01

105

Cosmogenic Records in 18 Ordinary Chondrites from the Dar Al Gani Region, Libya. 1; Noble Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In the last decade thousands of meteorites have been recovered from hot deserts in the Sahara and Oman. One of the main meteorite concentration surfaces in the Sahara is the Dar al Gani plateau in Libya, which covers a total area of 8000 km2. More than 1000 meteorites have been reported from this area. The geological setting, meteorite pairings and the meteorite density of the Dar al Gani (DaG) field are described in more detail in [1]. In this work we report concentrations of the noble gas isotopes of He, Ne, Ar as well as 84Kr and 132Xe in 18 DaG meteorites. In a separate paper we will report the cosmogenic radionuclides [2]. We discuss the thermal history and cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) history of these meteorites, and evaluate the effects of the hot desert environment on the noble gas record.

Schultz, L.; Franke, L.; Welten, K. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Jull, A. J. T.

2003-01-01

106

Modeling the transport and fate of radioactive noble gases in very dry desert alluvium: Realistic scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

US DOE Order 5820.2A (1988) requires that a performance assessment of all new and existing low-level radioactive waste management sites be made. An integral part of every performance assessment is the mathematical modeling of the transport and fate of noble gas radionuclides in the gas phase. Current in depth site characterization of the high desert alluvium in Area 5 of

F. T. Lindstrom; D. E. Cawlfield; M. E. Donahue; D. F. Emer; G. J. Shott

1992-01-01

107

Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Kinetic Isotope Fractionation During the Diffusion of Ionic Solutes and Noble Gases in Liquid Water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpretation of isotope ratios, a powerful tool in geochemical investigations of fluid-rock systems, requires an understanding of all relevant processes that fractionate isotopes. One such process, diffusion in liquid water, has remained problematic despite its potential significance as a major cause of kinetic isotope fractionation. Recent laboratory experiments have shown clearly for the first time that lithium and chloride isotopes are fractionated by diffusion in liquid water, whereas magnesium isotopes are not. We present the results of molecular dynamics simulations of chloride, magnesium, alkali metal cations (Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+) and noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Xe) in liquid water that were designed to determine the isotopic mass dependence of solute diffusion coefficients. Our results indicate that the self-diffusion coefficients of all solutes follow an inverse power-law dependence on isotopic mass (Di \\propto {mi}-?, where Di is the self-diffusion coefficient of a solute with isotopic mass {mi}). The power-law exponents (?) deduced for lithium, chloride, and magnesium from recent diffusivity data are consistent with the mass dependencies found in our simulations. The isotopic mass-dependence of noble gas diffusion coefficients in liquid water found in our simulations is much smaller than assumed in recent groundwater hydrology and paleoclimate reconstruction studies.

Bourg, I. C.; Sposito, G.

2007-12-01

108

Differences of Terrestrial Alteration Effects in Ordinary Chondrites from Hot and Cold Deserts: Petrography and Noble Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several differences between Antarctic and non-Antarctic meteorite populations have been recognized that are attributed to two main causes, namely a general difference in their parent meteoroid populations and/or secondary effects like weathering or pairing (see e.g.[1]). In the last few years several hundred new meteorites have become available from hot desert areas (Nullabor Plain, Roosevelt County, Sahara Desert). Compared to Antarctic meteorites these stones are stored on Earth in very different climatic environments. Thus, both groups should show different patterns of weathering. In this paper we report petrographic observations and noble gas measurements concerning terrestrial alterations of a suite of ordinary chondrites from the Sahara desert and Antarctica. Forty thin sections of desert meteorites (Acfer, El Djouf, Illafegh, Daraj, and Roosevelt County) and 60 thin sections of Antarctic ordinary chondrites (Allan Hills and Frontier Mountain) were investigated microscopically. In addition, in some of these meteorites the concentration and isotopic composition of all noble gases were determined. In this report we will discuss the trapped Kr and Xe only. As already noted by Jull et al. [2] many desert meteorites are heavily weathered. Compared to Antarctic meteorites their proportion of metal and troilite is smaller, while iron oxides and iron hydroxides are more abundant. In Antarctic meteorites most silicates are not severely altered. H- and L-group chondri- tes from the Acfer region and Roosevelt County, however, show a remarkable weathering feature of some silicates: In many of these samples nest-like structures are found that consist of silicate fragments embedded in iron oxide or hydroxide. Different stages of their development can be observed. It starts with the filling by these iron compounds of fine cracks of the original grains. With the process of weathering proceeding these cracks grow and finally destroy larger crystals completely to smaller fragments. Together with the oxides and hydroxides these mineral fragments then form distinct clusters sometimes without direct contact to FeNi or FeS. In Antarctic chondrites, oxides and hydroxides are mostly observed around metal. The concentrations of trapped noble gases in ordinary chondrites are correlated with the chemical-petrological classification [3]. Generally, for types 5 and 6 of modern falls or Antarctic finds, concentrations of ^84Kr and ^132Xe are less than 1 10^-10 and 2 10^-10 cm^3STP/g, respectively. In chondrites from hot deserts, however, especially the concentration of Kr is higher. This can be explained by adsorption and incorporation of atmospheric Kr and Xe ((^84Kr/^132Xe)(sub)atm = 27.8) into weathering products, resulting in higher Kr/Xe-ratios. The presence of atmospheric Xe also shows up in its isotopic composition. Several authors have reported on adsorbed noble gases with isotope ratios similar to those in the terrestrial atmosphere that are tightly bound to the minerals of stony meteorites or lunar rocks, i.e., these gases are not removed by a preheating of the sample at several hundred degrees C [4,5]. This has been attributed to an "irreversible adsorption process" [5]. However, as demonstrated here, weathering on Earth can also influence the concentration of Kr and Xe. Stepwise heating experiments and mineral separations are in progress to determine the siting and retentivity of this terrestrial contamination. References: [1] Koeberl C. and Cassidy W.A. (eds.) (1990) LPI Tech. Rep. 90-01, 102 pp. [2] Jull A.J.T., Wlotzka F., Palme H. and Donahue D.J. (1990) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54, 2895. [3] Weber H.W., Schultz L. and Begemann F. (1990) Meteoritics 25, 405. [4] Schelhaas N., Ott U. and Begemann F. (1990) Geochim Cosmochim. Acta 54, 2869. [5] Niedermann S. and Eugster 0. (1992) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56, 493.

Scherer, P.; Loeken, T.; Schultz, L.

1992-07-01

109

Except for the noble gases, all the elements in the Periodic Table form chlorides, often in several oxidation states, and chlorides generally are among the  

E-print Network

Chlorides Except for the noble gases, all the elements in the Periodic Table form chlorides, often of the elements: for chlorides of transition metals, elevated temperatures are usually necessary in dry conditions Most chlorides are soluble in water. Mercury(I) chloride, Hg2Cl2, silver chloride, AgCl, lead chloride

Csonka, Gábor István

110

Sequential two-photon double ionization of noble gases by circularly polarized XUV radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photoelectron angular distributions (PADs) and angular correlations between two emitted electrons in sequential two-photon double ionization (2PDI) of atoms by circularly polarized radiation are studied theoretically. In particular, the sequential 2PDI of the valence n{{p}6} shell in noble gas atoms (neon, argon, krypton) is analyzed, accounting for the first-order corrections to the dipole approximation. Due to different selection rules in ionization transitions, the circular polarization of photons causes some new features of the cross sections, PADs and angular correlation functions in comparison with the case of linearly polarized photons.

Gryzlova, E. V.; Grum-Grzhimailo, A. N.; Kuzmina, E. I.; Strakhova, S. I.

2014-10-01

111

Laboratory simulation of meteoritic noble gases. II - Sorption of xenon on carbon: Etching and heating experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The release of trapped Xe from amorphous-C phases of meteorites is simulated experimentally by HNO3 etching of carbon-black and pyrolyzed polyvinylidene chloride samples exposed to Xe-127 for 0.5-240 h at 100-1000 C and then degassed for 9 h or more at the same temperatures, as reported by Wacker et al. (1985). The results are presented in tables and graphs and characterized in detail. Samples exposed at 100-200 C are found to lose most of their Xe after etching to a depth of only about 20 pm, while those exposed at 800-1000 C exhibit a second more tightly bound component extending to a depth of 3 nm, indicative of diffusion of Xe during exposure and resembling planetary Xe. The higher noble-gas concentrations measured in meteorites are attributed to rate-controlled Xe uptake over a long period in the solar nebula.

Zadnik, M. G.; Wacker, J. F.; Lewis, R. S.

1985-01-01

112

MRI of the lung gas-space at very low-field using hyperpolarized noble gases.  

PubMed

In hyperpolarized (HP) noble-gas magnetic resonance imaging, large nuclear spin polarizations, about 100,000 times that ordinarily obtainable at thermal equilibrium, are created in 3He and 129Xe. The enhanced signal that results can be employed in high-resolution MRI studies of void spaces such as in the lungs. In HP gas MRI the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) depends only weakly on the static magnetic field (B(0)), making very low-field (VLF) MRI possible; indeed, it is possible to contemplate portable MRI using light-weight solenoids or permanent magnets. This article reports the first in vivo VLF MR images of the lungs in humans and in rats, obtained at a field of only 15 millitesla (150 Gauss). PMID:14559342

Venkatesh, Arvind K; Zhang, Adelaide X; Mansour, Joey; Kubatina, Lyubov; Oh, Chang Hyun; Blasche, Gregory; Selim Unlü, M; Balamore, Dilip; Jolesz, Ferenc A; Goldberg, Bennett B; Albert, Mitchell S

2003-09-01

113

A Single Lodranite/Acapulcoite Parent Body: Noble Gases in Lodranite QUE 93148 and Acapulcoite ALH 81261  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We continue our comprehensive studies of the cosmic ray exposure history of lodranites [1] to include new noble gas measurements in the QUE 93148 lodranite and the ALH 81261 acapulcoite. In addition, we model the production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in lodranites and acapulcoites using the HERMES high energy transport code [2], in order to test whether conventional production rates can be extrapolated to this group of small meteoroids which reveal very large values of the shielding parameter 22Ne/21Ne (Table 1). The model calculations are based on the same excitation functions of p- and n-induced reactions as used in recent calculations [3,4]. We extended our studies to acapulcoites, since petrologic, mineralogic, and O-isotopic investigations [5] as well as chemical investigations [6] suggest that lodranites and acapulcoites are residues of varying degree of partial melting, consistent with an origin on a common parent body. Whether a collisional event on the common parent body ejected both types of meteorites can be investigated by an analysis of the transfer times to Earth, specifically their cosmic-ray exposure ages. Because the contents of trapped He, Ne, and Ar in lodranites and acapulcoites are very low we can derive reliable cosmogenic noble gas contents. Using the composition-adjusted production rates for cosmogenic noble gases in achondrites [7], and adopting the shielding-parameter dependence for H-chondrites the exposure ages of [1] are obtained. For lodranites these exposure ages overlap those calculated [8] from 26Al and 10Be measurements. For the acapulcoites our exposure ages agree with those [5] calculated with the Graf-model [9], as well as with the shielding-independent exposure age for Acapulco that is based on the 36Cl-36Ar method[10]. The large spread in the exposure ages can be attributed to the highly variable target element abundances, as multiple measurements on several aliquots show unusually large variations. The fact that the average exposure age T3 is 44% higher than the average T21 in the case of lodranites, and 13% higher for acapulcoites, cannot be explained by the variable chemical composition. Studies of Lodran mineral separates [1] suggest that the Lodran parent meteoroid was enriched in metal (up to 65%). This means that the Ne production rates for bulk samples are overestimated. The average cosmogenic noble gas contents, average shielding, and main target element abundances of lodranites and acapulcoites (Table 1) coincide fairly well. The slightly higher Mg abundance in lodranites translates into a higher Ne production rate and therefore a lower exposure age T21. The higher Ca abundance in acapulcoites leads to a higher Ar production rate and, therefore, a lower T38. The production of cosmogenic 3He, however, is quite insensitive to variations in chemical composition and shielding. We observe good agreement between the T3 values of lodranites (6.2+/-0.5Ma) and acapulcoites (6.8+/-1.1Ma) and conclude that a single collisional event can account for the currently known exposure ages of lodranites and acapulcoites. Acknowledgments: We thank NASA and the MWG for the meteorite samples. This work was supported by the Swiss NSF and partially by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. References: [1] Weigel A. et al. (1994) Meteoritics, 29, 548. [2] Cloth P. et al. (1988) JUEL-2203. [3] Michel R. et al. (1995) Planet. Space Sci., in press. [4] Herpers U. et al. (1995) Planet. Space Sci., in press. [5] McCoy T. J. et al. (1995) GCA, submitted. [6] Zipfel J. and Palme H. (1993) LPS XXIV, 1579. [7] Eugster O. and Michel Th. (1995) GCA, 59, 177. [8] Xue et al. (1994) LPS XXV, 1523. [9] Graf Th. et al. (1990) GCA, 54, 2521. [10] Graf Th. et al., this volume. Table 1 shows average cosmogenic noble gas contents, main target element abundances, and exposure ages of eight lodranites and four acapulcoites.

Weigel, A.; Eugster, O.; Marti, K.; Michel, R.

1995-09-01

114

Noble gases and coupled heat/fluid flow modeling for evaluating hydrogeologic conditions of volcanic island aquifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SummaryUnderstanding groundwater conditions in the upland parts of volcanic island aquifers is critical for sustainable groundwater development in these resource-limited environments. Yet groundwater conditions in such settings are generally difficult to characterize because of sparse well drilling (high cost and/or limited access). Information needed for resource evaluation includes upland depth to water, recharge rate, and aquifer permeability. In this study, noble-gas recharge temperatures and coupled heat/fluid flow modeling are used to indirectly infer these groundwater conditions. Mosteiros Basin on Fogo Island of the Cape Verde archipelago was selected as a representative volcanic island aquifer. Simulation results are calibrated to water-table altitude and temperature data, along with indirect information provided by noble and dissolved gases. Results of numerical modeling are most sensitive to recharge rates and hydraulic conductivity, less sensitive to basal heat flux, and not sensitive to porosity and thermal conductivity. Simulation results show that only a relatively narrow range of combined recharge values (12-25% of precipitation) and hydraulic conductivity (10-8-10-7 m s-1) is consistent with observed data. The simulated recharge of 3-6 million cubic meters per year (Mm3 yr-1) is much higher than measured discharge from the basin (0.25 Mm3 yr-1), indicating the occurrence of significant amounts of submarine groundwater discharge. The modeling results suggest a very deep upland water table located 600-1000 m beneath the floor of the central caldera, although the water table becomes more shallow and accessible towards the coast. Perhaps most significant is the dominant role that modest amounts of recharge (mean rates of 70-140 mm yr-1) plays in decreasing the geothermal gradient, resulting in relatively cool temperatures in the deep vadose and at the water table. Noble-gas recharge temperatures, constrained by numerical simulation results, range from about 15 to 22 °C and indicate a large water-table temperature lapse of about -15 °C/km, much steeper than typical adiabatic lapse rates.

Heilweil, Victor M.; Healy, Richard W.; Harris, Robert N.

2012-09-01

115

Optical properties of explosive-driven shock waves in noble gases  

SciTech Connect

High explosives have been used to shock-heat rare gases to brightness temperatures up to 36,000/sup 0/K, with large radiating areas. Temperatures were determined from radiometer signals at both 280 and 520 nm. Shock velocities up to 9 mm/..mu..s were used in both plane and cyclindrical geometries. Neon, argon, krypton, and xenon gases at atmospheric initial pressure were examined in plane shocks. Using argon, the effects of increased initial pressure were studied. For cylindrical shock expansion in argon, brightness temperatures were measured over a range of shock velocities from 3 to 9 mm/..mu..s. Up to 4% of the explosive energy was emitted as radiation. The shock waves are found to be reasonable approximations to blackbodies.

Jones, C.R.; Davis, W.C.

1983-01-01

116

Strengthening of Au-Au bonds in small gold clusters by adsorbing noble gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In state-of-the-art experiments for the vibrational spectra of metal clusters in the gas phase, photodissociation spectroscopy is performed on clusters complexed with noble gas (RG) atoms, where a RG atom is usually expected to form a weak van der Waals bond. By employing DFT (PBE functional with selected comparisons to PBE0, and to MP2 and CCSD(T) calculations), we surprisingly find a partially covalent bond of neutral dimers with RG. For RG = Ar, Kr, Xe one or two RG atoms can bind in a linear molecule with Au2. While both Hirschfeld and Mulliken analyses show a small electron transfer from the RG to Au2, the Au-Au bond shortens and the Au-Au stretch frequency increases. This is inconsistent with the expected effect of electron transfer to the antibonding orbital of the dimer. Electron-density (n) differences between the bonded systems and the isolated fragments show an accumulation of n between RG and the neighboring Au atom, and between the gold atoms. The analysis of the projected density of states reveals that, although only non-bonding orbital interactions and no charge transfer occurs between RG and Au2, the d-electrons of Au2 are redistributed due to the interaction with RG in such a way that the Au-Au ?s bond is strengthened.

Ghiringhelli, Luca M.; Levchenko, Sergey; Scheffler, Matthias

2012-02-01

117

A density functional theory study of magneto-electric Jones birefringence of noble gases, furan homologues, and mono-substituted benzenes  

SciTech Connect

We report on the results of a systematic ab initio study of the Jones birefringence of noble gases, of furan homologues, and of monosubstituted benzenes, in the gas phase, with the aim of analyzing the behavior and the trends within a list of systems of varying size and complexity, and of identifying candidates for a combined experimental/theoretical study of the effect. We resort here to analytic linear and nonlinear response functions in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory. A correlation is made between the observable (the Jones constant) and the atomic radius for noble gases, or the permanent electric dipole and a structure/chemical reactivity descriptor as the para Hammett constant for substituted benzenes.

Fahleson, Tobias; Norman, Patrick, E-mail: panor@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linköping University, SE-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Coriani, Sonia, E-mail: coriani@units.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Farmaceutiche, Università degli Studi di Trieste, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Rizzo, Antonio, E-mail: rizzo@ipcf.cnr.it [CNR - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto per i Processi Chimico Fisici (IPCF-CNR), UOS di Pisa, I-56124 Pisa (Italy); Rikken, Geert L. J. A., E-mail: geert.rikken@lncmi.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire National des Champs Magnétiques Intenses, UPR3228, CNRS/INSA/UJF/UPS, Toulouse and Grenoble (France)

2013-11-21

118

A density functional theory study of magneto-electric Jones birefringence of noble gases, furan homologues, and mono-substituted benzenes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the results of a systematic ab initio study of the Jones birefringence of noble gases, of furan homologues, and of monosubstituted benzenes, in the gas phase, with the aim of analyzing the behavior and the trends within a list of systems of varying size and complexity, and of identifying candidates for a combined experimental/theoretical study of the effect. We resort here to analytic linear and nonlinear response functions in the framework of time-dependent density functional theory. A correlation is made between the observable (the Jones constant) and the atomic radius for noble gases, or the permanent electric dipole and a structure/chemical reactivity descriptor as the para Hammett constant for substituted benzenes.

Fahleson, Tobias; Norman, Patrick; Coriani, Sonia; Rizzo, Antonio; Rikken, Geert L. J. A.

2013-11-01

119

Formation of noble-gas hydrides and decay of solvated protons revisited: diffusion-controlled reactions and hydrogen atom losses in solid noble gases.  

PubMed

UV photolysis and annealing of C2H2/Xe, C2H2/Xe/Kr, and HBr/Xe matrices lead to complicated photochemical processes and reactions. The dominating products in these experiments are noble-gas hydrides with general formula HNgY (Ng = noble-gas atom, Y = electronegative fragment). We concentrate on distinguishing the local and global mobility and losses of H atoms, barriers of the reactions, and the decay of solvated protons. Different deposition temperatures change the amount of lattice imperfections and thus the amount of traps for H atoms. The averaged distance between reacting species influencing the reaction kinetics is controlled by varying the precursor concentration. A number of solid-state processes connected to the formation of noble-gas hydrides and decay of solvated protons are discussed using a simple kinetic model. The most efficient formation of noble-gas hydrides is connected with global (long-range) mobility of H atoms leading to the H + Xe + Y reaction. The highest concentration of noble-gas hydrides was obtained in matrices of highest optical quality, which probably have the lowest concentration of defects and H-atom losses. In matrices with high amount of geometrical imperfections, the product formation is inefficient and dominated by a local (short-range) process. The decay of solvated protons is rather local than a global process, which is different from the formation of noble-gas molecules. However, the present data do not allow distinguishing local proton and electron mobilities. Our previous results indicate that these are electrons which move to positively-charged centers and neutralize them. It is believed that the image obtained here for solid xenon is applicable to solid krypton whereas the case of argon deserves special attention. PMID:19791453

Tanskanen, Hanna; Khriachtchev, Leonid; Lignell, Antti; Räsänen, Markku; Johansson, Susanna; Khyzhniy, Ivan; Savchenko, Elena

2008-02-01

120

Experimental verification of the Boltzmann relation in confined plasmas: Comparison of noble and molecule gases  

SciTech Connect

Experimental verification of the Boltzmann relation is performed in argon and oxygen gas inductively coupled plasmas from the measurements of both the spatial electron currents (as a fluid approach) and the electron energy probability functions (EEPFs, as a kinetic approach). At a low gas pressure of 10 mTorr, the measured electron currents are spatially uniform, and the EEPFs in the total electron energy scale are identical, which indicate that the Boltzmann relation is valid at both the argon and oxygen gases. As the gas pressure increases to 30-40 mTorr, however, the Boltzmann relation is broken in the oxygen gas discharge, while the Boltzmann relation is still valid in the argon gas discharge. This different variation in the oxygen gas discharge is mainly due to the presence of various inelastic collisions in the entire electron energy region, which causes the transition of the electron kinetics from a non-local to a local regime.

Lee, Hyo-Chang; Hwang, Hye-Ju; Kim, Young-Cheol; Kim, June Young; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Chung, Chin-Wook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-03-15

121

Composition of solar flare noble gases preserved in meteorite parent body regolith  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Isotopic composition of solar-flare (SF) Ne was determined in acid-etched pyroxene mineral separates from the Kapoeta meteorite, a brecciated meteorite known to contain implanted solar gases. The results yield the SF Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio of 11.6 +/-0.2, confirming previous determinations of this SF ratio in lunar and meteoritic samples. The same SF Ne composition was also obtained by applying an ordinate intercept technique to the same data set. The ordinate intercept technique was then applied to the Ar and He data. The results are SF Ar-36/Ar-38 = 4.9 +/-0.1 and SF He-4/He-3 = 3800 +/-200. These values are significantly different from the solar-wind (SW) Ar and He values. It is estimated that the concentration of the SF component in Kapoeta pyroxenes is about 20 percent that of the SW component, orders of magnitude higher than expected from SW and SF proton flux measurements.

Rao, M. N.; Garrison, D. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Badhwar, G.; Murali, A. V.

1991-01-01

122

Composition of solar flare noble gases preserved in meteorite parent body regolith  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic composition of solar-flare (SF) Ne was determined in acid-etched pyroxene mineral separates from the Kapoeta meteorite, a brecciated meteorite known to contain implanted solar gases. The results yield the SF Ne-20/Ne-22 ratio of 11.6 +/-0.2, confirming previous determinations of this SF ratio in lunar and meteoritic samples. The same SF Ne composition was also obtained by applying an ordinate intercept technique to the same data set. The ordinate intercept technique was then applied to the Ar and He data. The results are SF Ar-36/Ar-38 = 4.9 +/-0.1 and SF He-4/He-3 = 3800 +/-200. These values are significantly different from the solar-wind (SW) Ar and He values. It is estimated that the concentration of the SF component in Kapoeta pyroxenes is about 20 percent that of the SW component, orders of magnitude higher than expected from SW and SF proton flux measurements.

Rao, M. N.; Garrison, D. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Badhwar, G.; Murali, A. V.

1991-11-01

123

Ultrahigh sensitivity heavy noble gas detectors for long-term monitoring and monitoring air. 1998 annual progress report  

Microsoft Academic Search

'The primary objective of this research project is to develop heavy noble gas (krypton, xenon, and radon) detectors for: (1) long-term monitoring of transuranic waste, spent fuel, and other uranium and thorium bearing wastes, and (2) alpha particle air monitors that discriminate between radon emissions and other alpha emitters. A University of Cincinnati\\/Argonne National Laboratory (UC\\/ANL) Team has been assembled

J. D. Valentine; K. Gross

1998-01-01

124

Ultrahigh sensitivity heavy noble gas detectors for long-term monitoring and for monitoring air. Technical status report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objective of this research project is to develop heavy noble gas (krypton, xenon, and radon) detectors for (1) long-term monitoring of transuranic waste, spent fuel, and other uranium and thorium bearing wastes and (2) alpha particle air monitors that discriminate between radon emissions and other alpha emitters. A University of Cincinnati\\/Argonne National Laboratory (UC\\/ANL) Team was assembled to

Valentine

1999-01-01

125

Noble Gases in Alpine Gold: U/Th-He Dating and Excesses of Radiogenic He and AR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gold precipitates in hydrothermal fluids along with other heavy elements, such as Ag and Pt. In order to explore the possibility of dating the formation of gold we determined the concentrations of U, Th, and their decay product ^4He, as well as the K and ^40Ar concentrations in vein-type gold and in placer gold samples. The gold-quartz veins at Brusson in the south-western alps were formed approximately 32 Ma ago during an episode of tectonic uplift (Diamond, 1990). Alpine material was deposited as sediment layers in the region of central Switzerland and placer gold is thus relatively abundant in the rivers of the Napf area. We washed placer gold from the river Grosse Fontanne in 1990 and 1991. Placer gold that had been collected from the river Kruempelgraben in 1933 and a sample of vein-type free gold grown on quartz rock from the Brusson area (Val d'Ayas) have been obtained from the Museum of Natural History in Bern. Table 1 gives the results. Most of the ^4He is released above 1050 degrees C, that is when gold melts, indicating that gold is extremely well retentive for He. From the ^4He concentration of (269 +- 20) x 10^-8 cm^3 STP/g, (0.4 +- 0.1) ppm U, and (0.9 +- 0.3) ppm Th for vein-type gold we calculate a U/Th-He age of (36 +- 8)Ma. This age agrees within errors with the proposed age of 32 Ma. The data given in Table 1 show that all placer gold samples contain excesses of radiogenic ^4He and ^40Ar relative to the concentrations expected from the U/Th and K decay, respectively, if we assume a formation age of 32 Ma. The quartz sample is depleted in ^4He but strongly enriched in radiogenic ^40Ar. The excess of ^40Ar(sub)rad is easier to explain than that of ^4He. Vein-type gold and placer gold contain quartz inclusions (Schmid, 1973). The high ^40Ar(sub)rad content of quartz (Table 1) indicates that the ^40Ar(sub)rad excess of gold originates from quartz inclusions. Excess ^4He in gold must be of radiogenic origin. Taking ^20Ne and ^36Ar as a measure for the quantity of trapped atmospheric noble gases we estimate atmospheric ^4He in the gold samples to be three to five orders of magnitude below the observed ^4He concentration. Placer gold is finely distributed in rock material and might be exposed to an alpha-particle irradiation from neighboring U/Th-rich minerals. An alternative He source are inclusions of U/Th-rich minerals, such as zircon, either within the gold material or mechanically worked into the spangles as they were part of the river detritus. Acknowledgement: We thank the Swiss NSF for their support. References: Diamond L.W. (1990) Am. J. of Science 290, 912-958. Schmid K. (1973) Schw. Min. Petr. Mitt. 53, 125-156. Table 1, which in the hard copy appears here, shows concentrations of He, Ne, and Ar (10^-8 cm^3 STP/g) and of K, Th, and U (ppm) in vein-type free gold, placer gold, and quartz. The ^3He and ^21Ne signals were below detection limits, that is ^4He/^3He in gold is >100'000. Average ^20Ne/^22Ne ratios in gold and quartz are 10.2 +- 0.2, that is about 4% larger than in the terrestrial atmosphere. Average ^36Ar/^38Ar = 5.2 +- 0.2 (within errors identical to ^36Ar/^38Ar in air). 1) Sample sizes 50-100 mg. 2) Radiogenic ^40Ar = ^40Ar-295.5 x ^36Ar. 3) Calculated from U/Th and ^40K decay.

Eugster, O.; Hofmann, B.; Krahenbuhl, U.; Neuenschwander, J.

1992-07-01

126

Composition of solar flare noble gases preserved in meteorite parent body regolith.  

PubMed

The isotopic composition (long-term average) of solar flare (SF) Ne has been determined by three isotope correlation techniques applied to data measured on chemically etched pyroxene separates prepared from the Kapoeta meteorite, which is known to contain implanted solar gases. The SF 20Ne/22Ne ratio obtained is 11.6 +/- 0.2 and confirms previous determinations of this SF ratio in lunar and meteoritic samples. The same SF Ne composition is also obtained by applying an ordinate intercept technique to the same data set. The ordinate intercept technique was also applied to the Ar and He data, on which the three-isotope correlation technique cannot be applied. The isotopic composition of SF Ar and SF He so obtained are SF 36Ar/38Ar = 4.9 +/- 0.1 and SF 4He/3He = 3800 +/- 200, which are significantly different from the solar wind (SW) Ar and SW He values of approximately 5.35 and approximately 2500, respectively. Correlation between 20Ne/22Ne and 36Ar/38Ar for the same data set also gives a similar SF 36Ar/38Ar ratio of 4.8 +/- 0.2. The determined SF He, Ne and Ar isotopic ratios differ from those in SW by 52%, 17% and 9%, respectively, but the elemental compositions of 4He/36Ar and 20Ne/36Ar do not show obvious differences between SF and SW. The concentration of the SF component in Kapoeta pyroxenes is approximately 20% that of the SW component, which is orders of magnitude higher than expected from SW and SF proton flux measurements. Variations in elemental and isotopic composition of He, Ne and Ar in SF relative to SW are found to correlate well with a (Z/A)2 dependence, indicating a rigidity-dependent particle spectrum in solar flares. PMID:11538179

Rao, M N; Garrison, D H; Bogard, D D; Badhwar, G; Murali, A V

1991-11-01

127

Genesis Noble Gas Measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original thrust of our Genesis funding was to extend and refine the noble gas analytical capabilities of this laboratory to improve the precision and accuracy of noble gas measurements in order to optimize the scientific return from the Genesis Mission. This process involved both instrumental improvement (supplemented by a SRLIDAP instrument grant) and refinement of technique. The Genesis landing mishap shifted our emphasis to the irregular aluminum heat shield material from the flat collector wafers. This has required redesign of our laser extraction cells to accommodate the longer focal lengths required for laser extraction from non-flat surfaces. Extraction of noble gases from solid aluminum surfaces, rather than thin coatings on transparent substrates has required refinement of controlled-depth laser ablation techniques. Both of these bring new problems, both with potentially higher blanks form larger laser cells and the larger quantities of evaporated aluminum which can coat the sapphire entrance ports. This is mainly a problem for the heavy noble gases where larger extraction areas are required, necessitating the new aluminum vapor containment techniques described below. With the Genesis Mission came three new multiple multiplier noble gas mass spectrometers to this laboratory, one built solely by us (Supergnome-M), one built in collaboration with Nu-Instruments (Noblesse), and one built in collaboration with GVI (Helix). All of these have multiple multiplier detection sections with the Nu-Instruments using a pair of electrostatic quad lenses for isotope spacing and the other two using mechanically adjustable positions for the electron multipliers. The Supergnome-M and Noblesse are installed and running. The GVI instrument was delivered a year late (in March 2005) and is yet to be installed by GVI. As with all new instruments there were some initial development issues, some of which are still outstanding. The most serious of these are performance issues with the miniature channel electron multipliers. The delayed installation of Helix by the GVI is partly due to failure of the initial batch of Burle channel multipliers to perform as expected. A number of the channel multipliers designed for Noblesse by Burle have also failed upon baking. Burle has now refined the design of these and we have installed two of the new multipliers and are assessing their performance. The remaining multipliers Will be upgraded to the new design from Burle once we confirm that the problem has been fixed.

Hohenberg, Charles M.

2005-01-01

128

Heavy noble gases in solar wind delivered by Genesis mission Alex Meshik a,  

E-print Network

multiplier mass- spectrometer and an intricate low-blank laser extraction system capable of handling in the SW, so little modification to current mass spectrometry was needed to perform these isotopic analyses, with the exception of changes needed to handle the large concentrations of solar wind hydrogen. He and Ne isotopes

129

Noble gases and nitrogen in Martian meteorites Dar al Gani 476, Sayh al Uhaymir 005 and Lewis Cliff 88516: EFA and extra neon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Meteorite "finds" from the terrestrial hot deserts have become a major contributor to the inventory of Martian meteorites. In order to understand their nitrogen and noble gas components, we have carried out stepped heating experiments on samples from two Martian meteorites collected from hot deserts. We measured interior and surface bulk samples, glassy and non-glassy portions of Dar al Gani 476 and Sayh al Uhaymir 005. We have also analyzed noble gases released from the Antarctic shergottite Lewis Cliff 88516 by crushing and stepped heating. For the hot desert meteorites significant terrestrial Ar, Kr, Xe contamination is observed, with an elementally fractionated air (EFA) component dominating the low temperature releases. The extremely low Ar/Kr/Xe ratios of EFA may be the result of multiple episodes of trapping/loss during terrestrial alteration involving aqueous fluids. We suggest fractionation processes similar to those in hot deserts to have acted on Mars, with acidic weathering on the latter possibly even more effective in producing elementally fractionated components. Addition from fission xenon is apparent in DaG 476 and SaU 005. The Ar-Kr-Xe patterns for LEW 88516 show trends as typically observed in shergottites - including evidence for a crush-released component similar to that observed in EETA 79001. A trapped Ne component most prominent in the surface sample of DaG 476 may represent air contamination. It is accompanied by little trapped Ar ( 20Ne/ 36Ar > 50) and literature data suggest its presence also in some Antarctic finds. Data for LEW 88516 and literature data, on the other hand, suggest the presence of two trapped Ne components of Martian origin characterized by different 20Ne/ 22Ne, possibly related to the atmosphere and the interior. Caution is recommended in interpreting nitrogen and noble gas isotopic signatures of Martian meteorites from hot deserts in terms of extraterrestrial sources and processes. Nevertheless our results provide hope that vice-versa, via noble gases and nitrogen in meteorites and other relevant samples from terrestrial deserts, Martian secondary processes can be studied.

Mohapatra, Ratan K.; Schwenzer, Susanne P.; Herrmann, Siegfried; Murty, S. V. S.; Ott, Ulrich; Gilmour, Jamie D.

2009-03-01

130

Crustal noble gases in deep brines as natural tracers of vertical transport processes in the Michigan Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noble gas concentrations and isotopic ratios are presented for 38 deep (?0.5–3.6 km) brine samples in the Michigan Basin. These brine samples clearly show the presence of an important crustal component of 4He, 21Ne, 40Ar, and 136Xe. Both 40Arcrust and 136Xecrust display the presence of a strong vertical gradient along the sedimentary strata of the basin. We show that the

Lin Ma; Maria Clara Castro; Chris M. Hall

2009-01-01

131

Crustal noble gases in deep brines as natural tracers of vertical transport processes in the Michigan Basin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noble gas concentrations and isotopic ratios are presented for 38 deep (˜0.5-3.6 km) brine samples in the Michigan Basin. These brine samples clearly show the presence of an important crustal component of 4He, 21Ne, 40Ar, and 136Xe. Both 40Arcrust and 136Xecrust display the presence of a strong vertical gradient along the sedimentary strata of the basin. We show that the

Lin Ma; Maria Clara Castro; Chris M. Hall

2009-01-01

132

Gas transport below artificial recharge ponds: insights from dissolved noble gases and a dual gas (SF6 and 3He) tracer experiment.  

PubMed

A dual gas tracer experiment using sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) and an isotope of helium (3He) and measurements of dissolved noble gases was performed at the El Rio spreading grounds to examine gas transport and trapped air below an artificial recharge pond with a very high recharge rate (approximately 4 m day(-1)). Noble gas concentrations in the groundwater were greater than in surface water due to excess air formation showing that trapped air exists below the pond. Breakthrough curves of SF6 and 3He at two nearby production wells were very similar and suggest that nonequilibrium gas transfer was occurring between the percolating water and the trapped air. At one well screened between 50 and 90 m below ground, both tracers were detected after 5 days and reached a maximum at approximately 24 days. Despite the potential dilution caused by mixing within the production well, the maximum concentration was approximately 25% of the mean pond concentration. More than 50% of the SF6 recharged was recovered by the production wells during the 18 month long experiment. Our results demonstrate that at artificial recharge sites with high infiltration rates and moderately deep water tables, transport times between recharge locations and wells determined with gas tracer experiments are reliable. PMID:15984768

Clark, Jordan F; Hudson, G Bryant; Avisar, Dror

2005-06-01

133

Comparison of heavy ion-induced K? x-ray satellite spectra from gases and solids  

E-print Network

gases SiH4, H2s, and HC1 than for the correspondirg heavy gases, solids, and liquid. It was determined from their correlation with local valence electron density that the L-shell ionization states do not depend upon physical state but upon... System. . . B. Experimental Configuration. . . . . . . . . . . C. Data Acquisition. D. Data Analysis E. Energy Calibration Procedure. . . . . . . . . F. Experimental Broadening Effect. . . . . . . 11 13 21 21 26 29 Kc SATELLITE SPECTRA...

Demarest, John Allen

2012-06-07

134

Noble Gases in Iddingsite from the Lafayette Meteorite: Evidence for Liquid Water on Mars in the Last Few Hundred Million Years  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We analyzed noble gases from 18 samples of weathering products ("iddingsite") from the Lafayette meteorite. Potassium-argon ages of 12 samples range from near zero to 670 +/- 91 Ma. These ages confirm the martian origin of the iddingsite, but it is not clear whether any or all of the ages represent iddingsite formation as opposed to later alteration or incorporation of martian atmospheric Ar-40. In any case, because iddingsite formation requires liquid water, this data requires the presence of liquid water near the surface of Mars at least as recently as 1300 Ma ago, and probably as recently as 650 Ma ago. Krypton and Xe analysis of a single 34 microg sample indicates the presence of fractionated martian atmosphere within the iddingsite. This also confirms the martian origin of the iddingsite. The mechanism of incorporation could either be through interaction with liquid water during iddingsite formation or a result of shock implantation of adsorbed atmospheric gas.

Swindle, T. D.; Treiman, A. H.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Brkland, M. K.; Cohen, B. A.; Grier, J. A.; Li, B.; Olson, E. K.

2000-01-01

135

Noble gases in lunar anorthositic rocks 60018 and 65315 - Acquisition of terrestrial krypton and xenon indicating an irreversible adsorption process  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results are presented from noble gas analyses of the 60018 and 65315 lunar anorthositic breccias and from experiments designed to determine whether the atmospheric contamination is the only source of the terrestriallike Xe in lunar samples (and, if so, what is the nature of the contaminating process). Results clearly show that the anorthositic material was contaminated both by Kr and Xe from the atmosphere. It is suggested that irreversible adsorption of terrestrial Kr and Xe is likely to take place during crushing, when mechanical, thermal, and electromagnetic energy is supplied. No indication was found for indigenous lunar Xe.

Niedermann, S.; Eugster, O.

1992-01-01

136

Solubility investigations in support of ultrasensitive noble gas detector development.  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the University of Cincinnati (UC) have been developing a new class of ultrasensitive noble gas detectors that are based upon the ANL discovery that corn oil has a high affinity for heavy noble gas absorption at room temperature, but releases the noble gases with warming or by other low-energy-input means. Environmental applications for this new class of fluid-based detectors include ultrahigh sensitivity radioxenon detectors for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Surveillance, improved fission gas detectors for enhanced environmental surveillance in the vicinity of DOE, DOD, and NRC-licensed facilities, and improved integrating Rn detectors for earthquake prediction. The purpose of the present paper is to present the results of theoretical and experimental investigations into the solubility phenomena of heavy noble gases (Rn, Xe, and Kr) in triglyceride oils. It is the authors' intention that the findings presented herein may be used to guide future selection, development, and refinement of vegetable and other hydrocarbon oils to bring further enhancements to noble gas detection efficiencies.

Gross, K. C.

1998-08-05

137

Solubility investigations in support of ultrasensitive noble gas detector development  

SciTech Connect

Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the University of Cincinnati (UC) have been developing a new class of ultrasensitive noble gas detectors that are based upon the ANL discovery that corn oil has a high affinity for heavy noble gas absorption at room temperature but releases the noble gases with warming or by other low-energy-input means. Environmental applications for this new class of fluid-based detectors include ultrahigh sensitivity radioxenon detectors for comprehensive test ban treaty surveillance, improved fission gas detectors for enhanced environmental surveillance in the vicinity of US Department of Energy, US Department of Defense, and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensed facilities, and improved integrating Rn detectors for earthquake prediction. They present the results of theoretical and experimental investigations into the solubility phenomena of heavy noble gases (Rn, Xe, and Kr) in triglyceride oils. They intend for the findings presented herein to be used to guide future selection, development, and refinement of vegetable and other hydrocarbon oils to bring further enhancements to noble gas detection efficiencies.

Gross, K.C.; Andersen, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Russ, W.R.; Stuenkel, D.; Valentine, J.D. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1998-12-31

138

Solubility and diffusivity study for light gases in heavy oil and its fractions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solvent-based recovery (VAPEX) is one of the most promising alternatives to thermal techniques to enhance heavy oil/bitumen recovery. Knowledge of the phase behavior and diffusion coefficients of gases in heavy oil is very important when designing recovery operations and facilities. In this work, a gravimetric microbalance was used to measure the solubility of carbon dioxide, ethane, propane and butane in a Lloydminster heavy oil and its fractions. Measurements were carried out on carbon dioxide and ethane at (290, 298 and 313) K over a pressure range from (200 to 2000) kPa. Similar measurements were performed on propane and butane below their vapor pressures. The Peng-Robinson equation of state was used to correlate the experimental results. The Solubility Parameter Theory was used to predict the solubility of CO2 and propane in heavy oil/bitumen over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. The associated Henry's Law constants for carbon dioxide, ethane and propane in heavy oil, its saturate fractions and aromatic fractions, were also determined from the absorption data. The gases had higher solubilities and the strongest interactions at lower temperatures in the heavy oil and its fractions. The diffusion coefficients of carbon dioxide, ethane and propane in heavy oil, its saturate and aromatic fractions were calculated using a simple diffusion model. The diffusion coefficient of carbon dioxide, ethane, propane and butane in heavy oil were calculated at different pressures. Estimated values were in agreement with published results and were found satisfactory.

Ganapathi, Rajkumar

139

Filling of glass microshells with heavy gases by radiation-simulated diffusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research results of an opportunity of radiation-stimulated diffusion use for laser fusion microtargets filling with heavy gases are given, which they can not be filled with by means of usual diffusion. The theoretical estimates of quantity and character of radiation damages, their distribution in the volume of an irradiated material are made. The calculations of glass microshells argon filling

V. M. Izgorodin; S. N. Abramovich; V. G. Gogolev; N. V. Zhidkov; Yu V. Ignat'ev; A. E. Lakhtikov; A. P. Morovov; G. P. Nikolayev; V. N. Protopopov; V. T. Punin; V. A. Starodubtsev; B. V. Ferapontov; Yu. N. Khirnii; Yu. A. Khokhlov; V. V. Chulkov

2003-01-01

140

A two-component mantle extending from Hyblean Plateau to Mt Etna (Eastern Sicily) as inferred by an integrated approach with noble gases, trace elements and isotope geochemistry.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out a geochemical investigation of the mantle beneath Hyblean and Etnean area through ultramafic xenoliths (peridotites and pyroxenites) retained in Miocenic age Hyblean volcanics and primitive Etnean lavas and tephra, respectively. Major and trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes (whole rock and /or minerals) were analysed together with noble gases entrapped in fluid inclusions hosted in olivines and pyroxenes phenocrysts. The geochemical results from Hyblean xenoliths study highlighted the presence of two distinct compositional groups: the peridotites, featured by a more enriched geochemical fingerprint (3He/4He ~7 Ra, 143Nd/144Nd ~0.5129 and Zr/Nb ~ 4) and the pyroxenites, characterized by a more primitive character (3He/4He up to 7.6 Ra, 143Nd/144Nd ~0.5130 and Zr/Nb ~30). Our interpretation is that metasomatic processes interested the Hyblean lithosphere and the pyroxenites (former primitive mantle melts) represent the metasomatizing agent. During their ascent these primitive melts permeated the peridotitic mantle at different levels, producing a variable degree of refertilization. The metasomatic processes affected distributions of both trace elements and noble gases, even though these geochemical tracers displayed very different sensitivity to the effects of metasomatic mixing between two end-members. The investigated primitive Etnean magmas showed a variable REE enrichment respect to MORB (Lan/Ybn =11-26) and isotopic values of Sr, Nd and He in the following ranges: 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512869-0.512896; 86Sr/87Sr = 0.70330-0.70370; 3He/4He = 7-7.6 Ra. A variable melting degree of a common mantle source together with a variable level of crystallization and crustal contamination is hypothesised to explain the variations exhibited by the above Etnean dataset. Numerical simulation performed on MELT code allowed to estimate the trace elements content of the Etnean mantle source. These results, joined to the most primitive isotopic values of He- Sr- Nd among the investigated products helped to geochemically characterize the mantle beneath the Etnean area, suggesting a strict relation with that Hyblean. Indeed, the modeled Etnean source locates on the mixing zone between the Hyblean peridotite and pyroxenite, so testifying a simultaneous contribution of two components in the genesis of the investigated lavas and supporting the hypothesis of an heterogeneous and metasomatized lithosphere common to both areas.

Correale, A.; Martelli, M.; Paonita, A.; Rizzo, A.; Rotolo, S.

2012-04-01

141

On the size and structure of helium snowballs formed around charged atoms and clusters of noble gases.  

PubMed

Helium nanodroplets doped with argon, krypton, or xenon are ionized by electrons and analyzed in a mass spectrometer. HenNgx(+) ions containing up to seven noble gas (Ng) atoms and dozens of helium atoms are identified; the high resolution of the mass spectrometer combined with advanced data analysis make it possible to unscramble contributions from isotopologues that have the same nominal mass but different numbers of helium or Ng atoms, such as the magic He20(84)Kr2(+) and the isobaric, nonmagic He41(84)Kr(+). Anomalies in these ion abundances reveal particularly stable ions; several intriguing patterns emerge. Perhaps most astounding are the results for HenAr(+), which show evidence for three distinct, solid-like solvation shells containing 12, 20, and 12 helium atoms. This observation runs counter to the common notion that only the first solvation shell is solid-like but agrees with calculations by Galli et al. for HenNa(+) [J. Phys. Chem. A 2011, 115, 7300] that reveal three shells of icosahedral symmetry. HenArx(+) (2 ? x ? 7) ions appear to be especially stable if they contain a total of n + x = 19 atoms. A sequence of anomalies in the abundance distribution of HenKrx(+) suggests that rings of six helium atoms are inserted into the solvation shell each time a krypton atom is added to the ionic core, from Kr(+) to Kr3(+). Previously reported strong anomalies at He12Kr2(+) and He12Kr3(+) [Kim , J. H.; et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 124, 214301] are attributed to a contamination. Only minor local anomalies appear in the distributions of HenXex(+) (x ? 3). The distributions of HenKr(+) and HenXe(+) show strikingly similar, broad features that are absent from the distribution of HenAr(+); differences are tentatively ascribed to the very different fragmentation dynamics of these ions. PMID:24128371

Bartl, Peter; Leidlmair, Christian; Denifl, Stephan; Scheier, Paul; Echt, Olof

2014-09-18

142

Adsorption of inert gases including element 118 on noble metal and inert surfaces from ab initio Dirac-Coulomb atomic calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of the inert gases Rn and element 118 with various surfaces has been studied on the basis of fully relativistic ab initio Dirac-Coulomb CCSD(T) calculations of atomic properties. The calculated polarizability of element 118, 46.3 a.u., is the largest in group 18, the ionization potential is the lowest at 8.91 eV, and the estimated atomic radius is the largest, 4.55 a.u. These extreme values reflect, in addition to the general trends in the Periodic Table, the relativistic expansion and destabilization of the outer valence 7p3/2 orbital. Van der Waals coefficients C3 and adsorption enthalpies ?Hads of Ne through element 118 on noble metals and inert surfaces, such as quartz, ice, Teflon, and graphite, were calculated in a physisorption model using the atomic properties obtained. The C3 coefficients were shown to steadily increase in group 18, while the increase in ?Hads from Ne to Rn does not continue to element 118: The large atomic radius of the latter element is responsible for a decrease in the interaction energy. We therefore predict that experimental distinction between Rn and 118 by adsorption on these types of surfaces will not be feasible. A possible candidate for separating the two elements is charcoal; further study is needed to test this possibility.

Pershina, V.; Borschevsky, A.; Eliav, E.; Kaldor, U.

2008-10-01

143

Thermal metamorphism of primitive meteorites. VIII - Noble gases, carbon and sulfur in Allende /C3/ meteorite heated at 400-1000 C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Noble gases, C and S, are lost from Allende samples heated for 1 week at temperatures of 400-1000 C in a low pressure environment. In the extreme, losses of He-3 and He-4 are about 100 x while for C, S and Ne, Ar and Kr isotopes and Xe-132 these are less than or equal to 10 x. Except for He, these losses are less severe than those of Bi or Tl from samples heated in the same runs. Significant He, Ne and Ar isotopic fractionation during heating indicates preferential outgassing of specific reservoirs. Next to He, Ar-40 is the most labile of those species considered here but still less so than Bi or Tl. L-group (but not H- or LL-group) chondrites may have lost mobile elements like Tl while being outgassed after late impact-associated heating. A less likely alternative involving a collateral relation between condensation conditions and depth in a parent object may also explain the L-group trend.

Herzog, G. F.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Lipschutz, M. E.

1979-01-01

144

Noble gas anomalies related to high-intensity methane gas seeps in the Black Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved noble gases and tritium were analyzed at a series of high-intensity methane gas seeps in the Black Sea to study the transport and gas exchange induced by bubble-streams in the water column. These processes affect marine methane emissions to the atmosphere and are therefore relevant to climate warming. The seep areas investigated are located in the Dnepr paleo-delta, west of Crimea, and in the Sorokin Trough mud volcano area, south-east of Crimea. Noble gas concentration profiles at active seep sites revealed prominent anomalies compared to reference profiles that are unaffected by outgassing. Supersaturations of the light noble gases helium and neon observed relatively close to the sea floor are interpreted as effects of gas exchange between the water and the rising bubbles. Depletions of the heavy noble gases argon, krypton and xenon that were detected above an active, bubble-releasing mud volcano appear to be related to the injection of fluids depleted in noble gases that undergo vertical transport in the water column due to small density differences. In both cases, the noble gas anomalies clearly document seep-specific processes which are difficult to detect by other methods. Helium is generally enriched in the deep water of the Black Sea due to terrigenic input. Although exceptionally high helium concentrations observed in one seep area indicate a locally elevated helium flux, most of the seeps studied seem to be negligible sources of terrigenic helium. Noble gas analyses of sediment pore waters from the vicinity of a mud volcano showed large vertical gradients in helium concentrations. The helium isotope signature of the pore waters points to a crustal origin for helium, whereas the deep water of the Black Sea also contains a small mantle-type component.

Holzner, C. P.; McGinnis, D. F.; Schubert, C. J.; Kipfer, R.; Imboden, D. M.

2008-01-01

145

Noble gases in the sediment pore water as proxies for physical transport processes and past environmental conditions in Lake Van (Turkey)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since many decades unconsolidated sediments have been proposed as a potential archive for noble-gas records to reconstruct past environmental conditions in lakes and oceans. In addition, the accumulation of non-atmospheric noble-gas isotopes allows tracing the geochemical origin and transport processes of the pore fluids [7]. For instance, the abundance of terrigenic He isotopes reflects the residence time and transport dynamics of the dissolved species in the pore space. The 3He/4He ratio of terrigenic He can be used to constrain the geochemical origin of the pore fluids [3, 7]. However, methods for reliable and robust noble-gas analysis in pore water of unconsolidated sediments have been developed only recently [1, 6]. Lake Van (Turkey) is one of the largest terminal lakes and the largest soda lake on Earth. The physical conditions of the lake are known to react sensitively to changes in the hydrological cycle and to the environment of the lake catchment [2]. Therefore, the noble-gas record in the sediments of Lake Van have a great potential as an archive to reconstruct past climate evolution in eastern Anatolia where the atmospheric south-western jet stream intersects the northern branch of the subtropical high pressure belt [4]. Also, the basin of Lake Van is situated in a tectonically active region characterized by the presence of major faults and volcanos and is known to accumulate mantle fluids [3, 7]. Noble-gas isotopes are therefore expected to yield insights into the origin and transport processes of terrigenic fluids in the sediment pore space and their release into the water body [7]. In this study we present noble-gas and salinity data measured in the pore water of sediment samples collected in Lake Van. Noble-gas data from short cores (~ 2 m) taken at different sites throughout the lake basin are discussed from the point of view of the fluid transport in the pore space. In this context, we interpret the latest results from the noble-gas samples acquired in 2010 during the ICDP PaleoVan drilling operations from 220 m long cores [4, 5]. Noble-gas measurements are further linked to salinity measurements in terms of past lake level fluctuations and physical conditions of the water body of Lake Van.

Tomonaga, Y.; Brennwald, M. S.; Kipfer, R.

2012-04-01

146

Noble Gas Temperature Proxy for Climate Change  

EPA Science Inventory

Noble gases in groundwater appear to offer a practical approach for quantitatively determining past surface air temperatures over recharge areas for any watershed. The noble gas temperature (NGT) proxy should then permit a paleothermometry of a region over time. This terrestria...

147

A determination of air-sea gas exchange and upper ocean biological production from five noble gasses and tritiugenic helium-3  

E-print Network

The five noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon) are biologically and chemically inert, making them ideal oceanographic tracers. Additionally, the noble gases have a wide range of solubilities and molecular ...

Stanley, Rachel H. R

2007-01-01

148

Mantle Reservoirs From a Noble Gas Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noble gases provide unique insight into mantle structure and the origin of the different mantle reservoirs. Many OIBs, such as Hawaii and Iceland, have 3He/4He ratios that are a factor of 4 to 6 higher than the canonical MORB value of 8±1 RA. The high 3He/4He ratios in OIBs are conventionally viewed as evidence for the existence of a primitive mantle reservoir. Such a view, however, is frequently challenged on the grounds that noble gas abundances in OIBs are an order of magnitude lower than in MORBs, an observation that traditional models of magmatic degassing cannot explain. The apparent concentration paradox has been resolved by incorporating kinetic fractionation of the noble gases during magmatic degassing of the erupting magma and it can be shown that higher CO2 and H2O content of OIBs, compared to MORBs, leads to more extensive degassing of He in OIB magmas (Gonnermann and Mukhopadhyay, 2007). In contrast to Hawaii and Iceland, some ocean islands, such as the Cook-Austral Islands and Canary Islands (HIMU ocean islands) have 3He/4He ratios of 4-7 RA, lower than the MORB range. The low 3He/4He ratios are attributed to the addition of radiogenic 4He from recycled slabs. Surprisingly, recent high-precision neon isotopic measurements made at Harvard in olivine phenocrysts from the Cook-Austral Islands indicate that HIMU neon is less nucleogenic than the MORB source. The He and Ne systematics from the Cook-Austral's demonstrate that the noble gas signature of HIMU basalts cannot arise either from simple diffusive equilibration of a recycled slab with a MORB source, or result from mixing of melts that are derived from recycled slabs and the MORB mantle. The He-Ne systematics, however, can be quantitatively modeled as a mixture of recycled slab and a primitive mantle reservoir. The scenario is consistent with He-Os and He- Nd correlations seen in the Cook-Austral basalts. Thus, both low and high 3He/4He OIBs incorporate the same primitive mantle reservoir, although in varying proportions. The notion of a reservoir that is primitive in its volatile content and sampled at ocean islands is very much alive. In spite of whole mantle convection, it appears that part of the Earth's mantle has remained largely undegassed. While significant progress has been made with respect to understanding the geochemical implications of He and Ne isotopic composition measured in MORBs and OIBs, our knowledge of Xenon in the mantle remains poor. Since 129Xe and 136Xe have been produced by the now extinct nuclides, 129I and 244Pu respectively, Xe isotopic composition of the mantle can be used to test models of atmosphere formation and provide unique clues to the volatile history of the Earth's mantle. Some of the outstanding issues that still need to be resolved are whether the Earth's mantle has solar or chondritic heavy noble gases, whether OIBs and MORB have the same Xe isotopic composition, and what fraction of the 136Xe is from 244Pu vs. 238U fission. Addressing these issues will require not only high precision measurements but also innovative experimental techniques to reduce air contamination that is ubiquitous in mantle-derived samples. High precision Xe isotopic measurements made at Harvard indicates that Samoa (a high 3He/4He ocean island) and MORBs have exactly the same proportion of radiogenic 129Xe to 136Xe. Although this result needs to be verified from other OIBs, it suggests that a single mantle reservoir supplies the excess 129Xe and 136Xe to both the MORB and OIB mantle source. The primitive mantle reservoir is the most likely carrier of the xenon isotopic anomaly.

Mukhopadhyay, S.

2007-12-01

149

Applications of noble gas NMR to condensed matter systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spin-off of laser-polarized noble gases (^3He and ^129Xe) from atomic physics to biomedical imaging has renewed interest in gas-phase NMR and MRI. We are applying noble gas NMR to studies of condensed matter systems such as porous media and liquid xenon. NMR measurements of restricted noble gas diffusion in porous media offer two important advantages over conventional (liquid) NMR

C.-H. Tseng; R. W. Mair; G. P. Wong; R. L. Walsworth; S. Patz; D. Williamson; M. D. Hurlimann; L. M. Schwartz; D. G. Cory

1998-01-01

150

The Thermochemical Stability of Ionic Noble Gas Compounds.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents calculations that suggest stoichiometric, ionic, and noble gas-metal compounds may be stable. Bases calculations on estimated values of electron affinity, anionic radius for the noble gases and for the Born exponents of resulting crystals. Suggests the desirability of experiments designed to prepare compounds containing anionic,…

Purser, Gordon H.

1988-01-01

151

A small 1 MeV electron accelerator for measuring heavy metal concentrations in smokestack gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-current electron beam may be used as a diagnostic tool to measure the concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Hg) present in the flue gas particulates produced by smelters or cement kilns. A small electron accelerator is being constructed as part of a prototype emissions monitoring system. The electron beam energy has a design energy of 1 MeV, a

A. Reppond; D. P. Redden; C. R. Meitzler; D. A. Swenson

1997-01-01

152

Noble gas component organization in 14301  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A study is conducted of the organization of noble gases in the Apollo 14 breccia 14301, giving particular attention to xenon from the extinct radionuclides I-129 and Pu-244. An essential ingredient of this work is the intercomparison between noble gases released in single-stage melts of grain size fractions and those released in stepwise extractions. This approach resolves 'functional' noble gas components, which are organized by siting, into the specific genetic contributions on the basis of the 'activation energies' for diffusive loss. The procedure makes it possible to resolve various genetic components on the basis of the chemical and structural differences in their specific locations. Consequently, distinctions can be made among components acquired by different processes and among components which have undergone different regolith histories.

Bernatowicz, T. J.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Hudson, B.; Kennedy, B. M.; Podosek, F. A.; Laul, J. C.

1980-01-01

153

Study on evolution of gases from fluoropolymer films bombarded with heavy ions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ion beam bombardment provides a unique way of material modification by inducing a high degree of localized electronic excitation. The ion track, or affected volume along the ion path through the material is related to the total damage and possible structural changes. Here we study the evolution of gases emitted by poly(tetrafluorethylene-co-perfluoro-(propyl vinyl ether)) (PFA) fluoropolymer bombarded with MeV gold ions. The gas was monitored by a residual gas analyzer (RGA), as a function of the ion fluence. Micro-Raman, atomic force microscopy and optical absorption were used to analyze the chemical structure changes and sputtering yield.

Minamisawa, Renato Amaral; Zimmerman, Robert Lee; Budak, Satilmis; Ila, Daryush

2008-04-01

154

Three-dimensional model for simulating atmospheric dispersion of heavy-gases over complex terrain  

Microsoft Academic Search

To help understand heavy gas releases and simulate the resultant dispersion, we have developed a three-dimensional finite element model called FEM3 and an improved version names FEM3A for solving the time dependent conservation equations based on generalized anelastic approximation. Recent enhancements to the model to include the treatment of dispersion scenarios involving density variations much larger than the liquefied natural

Chan

1997-01-01

155

Noble Gas Partitioning Behaviour During Mantle Melting: A Possible Explanation for 'The He Paradox'?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New UVLAMP measurements of experimental noble gas crystal/melt partitioning values (including He) suggest reasonably incompatible behaviour for both olivine and cpx and no significant fractionation of noble gases relative to one another. This is consistent with models of noble gas incorporation at crystal lattice sites in both crystals (1). However the determined D values of approximately 8 x10-4 for cpx and 5 x10-3 for olivine suggest a small but significant amount of noble gas might be retained in the mantle after melting. It is also apparent that He is three orders of magnitude less incompatible than U and Th in olivine. As opx is predicted to show similar characteristic to olivine, melting to produce a highly depleted harzbugitic (low-cpx) mantle would involve the preferential removal of U+Th relative to He. This in turn would allow a relatively undisturbed primordial/radiogenic 3He/4He ratio to be retained in association with low He abundance. Thus, recycling of previously depleted mantle into the source region of 'hot spots' provides one possible explanation for the paradox of high 3/4 He ratios previously thought to indicate an undegassed, primordial lower mantle reservoir, with low He abundance indicating a degassed source (2). Preliminary UVLAMP depth profiles for noble gas diffusion in mantle minerals confirm that although sub-solidus diffusive removal of He relative to other noble gases from a gas-rich mantle plum is theoretically possible, the short distances involved are unlikely to produce an effect that can be sustained though a hot spot melting event. The slow diffusion rates and lack of fractionation of noble gases in our partitioning experiments suggests that low He/Ar (and Ne/Ar) ratios observed at hot spots are most likely to be features inherited from the source, or subsequently imposed by some shallow level process. In our partitioning experiments, it proved surprisingly difficult to grow olivine crystals that are free of bubbles, even from volatile undersaturated melts. These bubbles nucleate on the crystal surface and can become included as the crystals grow. Although inclusions can be avoided using our micro-analytical technique, their bulk effect is to produce high crystal+bubble/melt D values and fractionation of light from heavy noble gases due to decreasing solubility in the melt for the latter. If such bubble capture occurs in nature as suggested by (3), the cumulative crystal rock would show enrichment in light noble gases and the residual melt will be depleted. This effect is similar to degassing but may be independent of saturation and depth of emplacement and decoupled from other volatile behaviour. The removed volatiles will also be retained in the cumulate rock rather than degassed. Differences in crystal growth processes and bubble trapping during MORB and IOB emplacement could contribute towards different He/Ar and Ne/Ar ratios. 1. R.A. Brooker et al., Nature 423, 738-741. 2003 2. D.L. Anderson, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95, 4822-4827. 1998 3. J.H. Natland, J. Pet. 44, 421-456. 2003

Brooker, R. A.; Heber, V.; Kelley, S. P.; Wood, B. J.

2003-12-01

156

Three-dimensional model for simulating atmospheric dispersion of heavy-gases over complex terrain  

SciTech Connect

To help understand heavy gas releases and simulate the resultant dispersion, we have developed a three-dimensional finite element model called FEM3 and an improved version names FEM3A for solving the time dependent conservation equations based on generalized anelastic approximation. Recent enhancements to the model to include the treatment of dispersion scenarios involving density variations much larger than the liquefied natural gas range and an advanced turbulence submodel based on the buoyancy-extended transport equations. This paper presents the main features of the present model FEM3C and numerical results from the simulations of a field-scale LNG spill experiment.

Chan, S.T.

1997-09-01

157

Heterogeneous upper mantle Ne, Ar and Xe isotopic compositions and a possible Dupal noble gas signature recorded in basalts from the Southwest Indian Ridge  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in heavy noble gas (Ne, Ar, Xe) isotopic compositions provide unique insights into the nature of heterogeneities in the mantle. However, few precise constraints on mantle source heavy noble gas isotopic compositions are available due to ubiquitous shallow-level atmospheric contamination. As a result, the extent of heterogeneity in mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) mantle source Ne, Ar and Xe isotopic compositions is unknown. Basalts from the ultra-slow spreading Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) between 7°E and 25°E exhibit remarkable variability in He isotopic composition: SWIR 4He/3He spans half the total range observed in all mantle-derived basalts. Therefore, basalts from the SWIR provide a unique window into upper mantle heterogeneity and present an ideal opportunity to characterize variations in upper mantle heavy noble gas isotopic composition. Here we present new high-precision Ne, Ar and Xe isotopic compositions as well as He, CO2, Ne, Ar and Xe abundances measured in basalt glasses from the SWIR. After correcting the measured values for shallow-level atmospheric contamination, significant and systematic variations in mantle source Ne, Ar and Xe compositions are observed. We note that large variations in source 40Ar/36Ar and 129Xe/130Xe are observed in basalts removed from the influence of known hotspots, indicating a heterogeneous mid-ocean ridge basalt source. Thus, SWIR heavy noble gas data reveal a greater degree of source heterogeneity than is evident in the 4He/3He systematics alone. The observed heavy noble gas isotopic heterogeneities imply that the average MORB source 40Ar/36Ar and 129Xe/130Xe ratios are not yet well-determined. Variation in MORB source 40Ar/36Ar and 129Xe/130Xe at a given 4He/3He and 21Ne/22Ne may reflect heterogeneous recycling of atmospheric Ar and Xe. In particular, we find low mantle source 40Ar/36Ar and 129Xe/130Xe ratios in the eastern region of the study area, which may reflect the noble gas signature of the Dupal mantle domain. Our observations require that the sampled mantle domain either is very ancient (>4.45 Ga) or has been metasomatized by subduction zone fluids carrying recycled atmospheric Ar and Xe. However, our Xe isotopic measurements indicate that differences between MORB and ocean island basalt (OIB) source noble gas compositions cannot be explained by recycling of atmospheric noble gases alone. Instead, a relatively undegassed mantle reservoir is required to account for OIB noble gases. The SWIR data demonstrate that the reservoir supplying primordial noble gases to mantle plumes differentiated from the MORB source early in Earth history, and the two reservoirs have not been homogenized over 4.45 Ga of mantle convection.

Parai, R.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Standish, J. J.

2012-12-01

158

Neutron detection by scintillation of noble-gas excimers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neutron detection is a technique essential to homeland security, nuclear reactor instrumentation, neutron diffraction science, oil-well logging, particle physics and radiation safety. The current shortage of helium-3, the neutron absorber used in most gas-filled proportional counters, has created a strong incentive to develop alternate methods of neutron detection. Excimer-based neutron detection (END) provides an alternative with many attractive properties. Like proportional counters, END relies on the conversion of a neutron into energetic charged particles, through an exothermic capture reaction with a neutron absorbing nucleus (10B, 6Li, 3He). As charged particles from these reactions lose energy in a surrounding gas, they cause electron excitation and ionization. Whereas most gas-filled detectors collect ionized charge to form a signal, END depends on the formation of diatomic noble-gas excimers (Ar*2, Kr*2,Xe* 2) . Upon decaying, excimers emit far-ultraviolet (FUV) photons, which may be collected by a photomultiplier tube or other photon detector. This phenomenon provides a means of neutron detection with a number of advantages over traditional methods. This thesis investigates excimer scintillation yield from the heavy noble gases following the boron-neutron capture reaction in 10B thin-film targets. Additionally, the thesis examines noble-gas excimer lifetimes with relationship to gas type and gas pressure. Experimental data were collected both at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Center for Neutron Research, and on a newly developed neutron beamline at the Maryland University Training Reactor. The components of the experiment were calibrated at NIST and the University of Maryland, using FUV synchrotron radiation, neutron imaging, and foil activation techniques, among others. Computer modeling was employed to simulate charged-particle transport and excimer photon emission within the experimental apparatus. The observed excimer scintillation yields from the 10B( n, alpha)7Li reaction are comparable to the yields of many liquid and solid neutron scintillators. Additionally, the observed slow triplet-state decay of neutron-capture-induced excimers may be used in a practical detector to discriminate neutron interactions from gamma-ray interactions. The results of these measurements and simulations will contribute to the development and optimization of a deployable neutron detector based on noble-gas excimer scintillation.

McComb, Jacob Collin

159

Irradiation History of ACFER 111, Inferred from Nuclear Tracks and Rare Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acfer 111 is a regolith breccia consisting of H4-H6 chondritic and igneous clasts embedded in a fine-grained unequilibrated clastic matrix. The matrix has a high concentration of solar noble gases of virtually unfractionated composition [1]. To investigate the irradiation history of Acfer 111, we analyzed the cosmic ray tracks and noble gases at different locations in the meteorite. Noble gases

J. Romstedt; A. Pedroni

1993-01-01

160

Noble-gas-rich chondrules in an enstatite meteorite.  

PubMed

Chondrules are silicate spherules that are found in abundance in the most primitive class of meteorites, the chondrites. Chondrules are believed to have formed by rapid cooling of silicate melt early in the history of the Solar System, and their properties should reflect the composition of (and physical conditions in) the solar nebula at the time when the Sun and planets were forming. It is usually believed that chondrules lost all their noble gases at the time of melting. Here we report the discovery of significant amounts of trapped noble gases in chondrules in the enstatite chondrite Yamato-791790, which consists of highly reduced minerals. The elemental ratios 36Ar/132Xe and 84Kr/132Xe are similar to those of 'subsolar' gas, which has the highest 36Ar/132Xe ratio after that of solar-type noble gases. The most plausible explanation for the high noble-gas concentration and the characteristic elemental ratios is that solar gases were implanted into the chondrule precursor material, followed by incomplete loss of the implanted gases through diffusion over time. PMID:11518959

Okazaki, R; Takaoka, N; Nagao, K; Sekiya, M; Nakamura, T

2001-08-23

161

Noble gas excimer scintillation following neutron capture in boron thin films  

E-print Network

Far-ultraviolet (FUV) scintillation signals have been measured in heavy noble gases (argon, krypton, xenon) following boron-neutron capture ($^{10}$B($n,\\alpha$)$^7$Li) in $^{10}$B thin films. The observed scintillation yields are comparable to the yields from some liquid and solid neutron scintillators. At noble gas pressures of 107 kPa, the number of photons produced per neutron absorbed following irradiation of a 1200 nm thick $^{10}$B film was 14,000 for xenon, 11,000 for krypton, and 6000 for argon. The absolute scintillation yields from the experimental configuration were calculated using data from (1) experimental irradiations, (2) thin-film characterizations, (3) photomultiplier tube calibrations, and (4) photon collection modeling. Both the boron films and the photomultiplier tube were characterized at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Monte Carlo modeling of the reaction cell provided estimates of the photon collection efficiency and the transport behavior of $^{10}$B($n,\\alpha$)$^7$Li reaction products escaping the thin films. Scintillation yields increased with gas pressure due to increased ionization and excitation densities of the gases from the $^{10}$B($n,\\alpha$)$^7$Li reaction products, increased frequency of three-body, excimer-forming collisions, and reduced photon emission volumes (i.e., larger solid angle) at higher pressures. Yields decreased for thicker $^{10}$B thin films due to higher average energy loss of the $^{10}$B($n,\\alpha$)$^7$Li reaction products escaping the films. The relative standard uncertainties in the measurements were determined to lie between 14 % and 16 %. The observed scintillation signal demonstrates that noble gas excimer scintillation is promising for use in practical neutron detectors.

Jacob C. McComb; Michael A. Coplan; Mohamed al-Sheikhly; Alan K. Thompson; Robert E. Vest; Charles W. Clark

2014-03-19

162

Noble gas impurity balance and exhaust model for DIII-D and JET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experiments to study the exhaust of noble gases (helium, neon) with cryopumping in DIII-D Advanced Divertor Program (ADP) configuration and in JET (Mk1 configuration) found significant differences in the global exhaust rate of helium, while efficient neon exhaust was observed in both machines. An attempt to better understand the basic processes governing the exhaust of noble gases in ELMy H-mode

D. L. Hillis; J. Hogan; M. R. Wade; M. von Hellermann; J. Ehrenberg; L. Horton; R. Koenig; P. Morgan; G. Saibene

1998-01-01

163

Hydrogen and noble gas interactions with iron nano-flakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of pure iron nano-flakes to hydrogen generates a high heat evolution associated with hydrogen uptakes shown by flow-through microcalorimetry. A large part of the hydrogen was found to be irreversibly absorbed by the iron flakes at 220 °C and atmospheric pressure, but an increased desorption of hydrogen was achieved by noble gases, such as helium and argon. Thus the

A. J. Groszek

2007-01-01

164

Isotopic fingerprints of shallow gases in the Western Canadian sedimentary basin: tools for remediation of leaking heavy oil wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thousands of wells have been drilled in northeastern Alberta and adjacent Saskatchewan in order to develop the heavy oil reservoirs of the Lower Cretaceous Mannville Group. In a large number of these wells, vertical migration of gas from unknown sources to the surface via well casings and surrounding soils represents a serious environmental problem. Mud samples from new wells drilled

Devon Rowe; Karlis Muehlenbachs

1999-01-01

165

Noble gas excimer scintillation following neutron capture in boron thin films  

E-print Network

Far-ultraviolet (FUV) scintillation signals have been measured in heavy noble gases (argon, krypton, xenon) following boron-neutron capture ($^{10}$B($n,\\alpha$)$^7$Li) in $^{10}$B thin films. The observed scintillation yields are comparable to the yields from some liquid and solid neutron scintillators. At noble gas pressures of 10$^7$ kPa, the number of photons produced per neutron absorbed following irradiation of a 1200 nm thick $^{10}$B film was 14,000 for xenon, 11,000 for krypton, and 6000 for argon. The absolute scintillation yields from the experimental configuration were calculated using data from (1) experimental irradiations, (2) thin-film characterizations, (3) photomultiplier tube calibrations, and (4) photon collection modeling. Both the boron films and the photomultiplier tube were characterized at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Monte Carlo modeling of the reaction cell provided estimates of the photon collection efficiency and the transport behavior of $^{10}$B($n,\\alpha$...

McComb, Jacob C; al-Sheikhly, Mohamed; Thompson, Alan K; Vest, Robert E; Clark, Charles W

2014-01-01

166

Noble gas isotopic composition as a key reference parameter in a planetary atmospheric evolution model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotopic composition of noble gases is a key reference parameter in discussing the evolution of planetary atmospheres. Currently, two widely occurring noble gas components are identified in the early solar system, one is the Solar Wind noble gas (SW-noble gas, hereafter) and another is the Q-noble gas in unaltered meteorites: both noble gases are characterized by their ubiquitous occurrence and high isotopic homogeneity. Since the SW-noble gas is directly ejected from the Sun, it has been assumed to be a good proxy of the average noble gas isotopic composition in the Sun, namely the solar noble gas. The systematic enrichment of the heavier isotopes in the Q-noble gas relative to the SW-noble gas is then commonly attributed to its isotopic fractionation from the SW-noble gas. However, the isotopic compositions of the SW-noble gas either implanted on lunar soils or trapped by artificial targets show considerable isotopic variation depending on the velocity of the Solar Wind. Therefore, it is important to examine how closely the SW-noble gas represents the indigenous solar noble gas component or the mean isotopic composition of noble gases of the Sun. Here we show that the isotopic composition of the SW-noble gas is substantially fractionated relative to the solar value, and therefore should not be used as a reference parameter. We further suggest that the post D-burning Q-noble gas (see below) is the better proxy of the solar noble gas, and this should be used as a reference of the Solar noble gas isotopic composition in discussing the planetary atmospheric evolution. The most distinct difference between the Q- and the SW-noble gas is apparent in a 3He/4He isotopic ratio: 4.64e-4 in Q-He [1], but 1.23e-4 in SW-He[2]. The difference is attributed to the conversion of deuteron (D) to 3He in the Sun, namely the D-burning [3], due to high temperature during the pre-main sequence stage of the Sun. With the use of recent data on D/H ratios from helio-seismology [4] and spectroscopic observation of the inter-stellar cloud [5], we estimated that the 3He/4He ratio in the post D-burning He in the Sun is 3.98e-4. The latter value is considerably smaller than the recent estimate of the SW-He ratio by the GENESIS mission of 3He/4He = 4.64e-4 [2]. We conclude that this difference is due to isotopic fractionation during the ejection of the Solar Wind from the solar atmosphere. The further interesting implication of this conclusion is that the marked difference in 3He/4He between the SW- and Q-noble gases can be used as an unique chronological marker in the planetary atmospheric evolution. [1] Busemann H. et al., Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 35, 949-973, 2000. [2] Heber V. et al. Geochimica Cosmochimica Acta, 73, 7414-7432, 2009. [3] Geiss J. and Reeve H. Astronomy Astrophysics, 18, 126-132, 1972. [4] Basu S. and Antia H.M. Astrophysical J. , 606:L85-L88, 2004. [5] Linsky J.L. et al. Astrophysical J., 647:1106-1124, 2006.

Ozima, M.

2010-12-01

167

Biomedical Investigations with Laser-Polarized Noble Gas Magnetic Resonance  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are developing laser-polarized noble gas nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) as a novel biomedical imaging tool for ground-based and eventually space-based application. This emerging multidisciplinary technology enables high-resolution gas-space magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (e.g., of lung ventilation) as well as studies of tissue perfusion. In addition, laser-polarized noble gases (He-3 and Xe-129) do not require a large magnetic field for sensitive detection, opening the door to practical MRI at very low magnetic fields with an open, lightweight, and low-power device. We are pursuing two specific aims in this research. The first aim is to develop a low-field (< 0.01 T) instrument for noble gas MRI of humans, and the second aim is to develop functional MRI of the lung using laser-polarized Xe-129 and related techniques.

Walsworth, Ronald L.

2001-01-01

168

Challenges on the way to noble gas temperatures on speleothems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years, speleothems gained importance as a paleoclimate archive. Nonetheless, so far no proxy in speleothems has really gained acceptance as a commonly used paleotemperature indicator. Application of the noble gas thermometer to speleothem fluid inclusions promises in principle the determination of absolute paleotemperatures. Kluge et al. (2008) and Scheidegger et al. (2010) showed that the precise measurement of noble gas concentrations on fluid inclusions is possible in general. Unfortunately, the extraction and measurement technique presented by Kluge et al. (2008) allowed the determination of reasonable noble gas temperatures (NGTs) only for some samples. Some of the problems which occurred as well as some (possible) solutions will be presented. A general problem for the application of the noble gas thermometer on speleothems is the presence of air-filled inclusions in the speleothem. Noble gases released from them mask the temperature signal of the noble gases dissolved in the water-filled inclusions. In order to reduce the air/water volume ratio, a stepwise extraction technique has been developed successfully. However, often the different extraction steps on one sample lead to temperatures that do not agree well with each other. Samples of the stalagmite H12 from Hoti Cave in Oman showed an excess in neon. A similar neon excess was found by Scheidegger et al. (2010) but for a larger number of samples. They suggest that helium and neon can be situated in voids between the atoms forming the carbonate lattice. However, a sample of stalagmite H12 showed neon excess in the very first extraction step, which is not expected for a matrix related component. The NGTs reported by Kluge et al. (2008) seemed to be 2 to 3 °C too low compared to independent temperature reconstructions. In order to investigate this offset and the overall accuracy of the extraction and measurement technique, tiny amounts of air-equilibrated water (AEW) were measured as test samples. In a first test with these so-called ?AEWs the heavier noble gases (Ar, Kr, Xe) seemed to be underestimated, while a second measurement run did not show this offset. Overall, these tests demonstrated the good reproducibility of better than 5% for the noble gas concentrations.

Marx, T.; Aeschbach-Hertig, W.

2012-04-01

169

An overview of noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Xe) contents and isotope signals in terrestrial diamond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noble gas geochemistry of different types of terrestrial diamond including coated stones, alluvial diamonds, framesites, carbonados and impact diamonds yields a wealth of information on the sources of volatiles responsible for diamond formation. We present an illustrated compilation of published analyses of noble gases in different types of natural diamond. Noble gases in diamond record primary signatures from the mantle indicative of their integrated sources, and, the contribution of different metasomatic agents including subducting fluids and kimberlitic melt sampled during diamond growth. In addition, they show evidence of secondary processes such as resorption. Most data are available for coated stones, which trap abundant volatile-rich microscopic inclusions in their rims. While the coated stones are dominated by Mid-Oceanic-Ridge-Basalt (MORB) type noble gas signatures, the other diamond types contain predominantly crustal and atmospheric components although some mantle gases may be present, the latter indicated in elevated 20Ne/22Ne and/or 129Xe/132Xe ratios relative to atmospheric values. Some alluvial diamonds have very high 3He/4He that may represent the presence of a solar component trapped during their formation, but are just as likely to be the result of cosmogenic 3He implantation during their prolonged residence at the Earth's surface. Oceanic-Island-Basalt (OIB) type noble gases occur in nanometer sized inclusions in metamorphic diamond from Kazakhstan, yet their significance as a fingerprint of mantle processes is not fully understood. Implanted noble gases occur near the outer surfaces of individual crystals, and are generally not a major hindrance for the study of mantle signatures, except for polycrystalline diamond like framesites with small grain size. Some diamonds including the polycrystalline carbonados, are dominated by crustal noble gases with no discernible mantle component evidenced by very low 3He/4He and 20Ne/22Ne ratios, and very high 21Ne/22Ne and 131,134,136Xe/132Xe ratios. In many diamonds, variations in both concentration and isotopic composition within samples from the same geographical location require complex diamond growth. For example, coated stones of Zaire trap noble gases from multiple sources and different generations of diamond growth. Thus noble gas studies have the potential to record major processes during the complex growth histories of natural diamond and also to provide valuable information about the sub-continental mantle. Noble gas signatures may be affected by diffusive losses, notably in some framesites.

Basu, S.; Jones, A. P.; Verchovsky, A. B.; Kelley, S. P.; Stuart, F. M.

2013-11-01

170

On the possible noble gas deficiency of Pluto's atmosphere  

E-print Network

We use a statistical-thermodynamic model to investigate the formation and composition of noble-gas-rich clathrates on Pluto's surface. By considering an atmospheric composition close to that of today's Pluto and a broad range of surface pressures, we find that Ar, Kr and Xe can be efficiently trapped in clathrates if they formed at the surface, in a way similar to what has been proposed for Titan. The formation on Pluto of clathrates rich in noble gases could then induce a strong decrease in their atmospheric abundances relative to their initial values. A clathrate thickness of order of a few centimeters globally averaged on the planet is enough to trap all Ar, Kr and Xe if these noble gases were in protosolar proportions in Pluto's early atmosphere. Because atmospheric escape over an extended period of time (millions of years) should lead to a noble gas abundance that either remains constant or increases with time, we find that a potential depletion of Ar, Kr and Xe in the atmosphere would best be explained ...

Mousis, Olivier; Mandt, Kathleen E; Schindhelm, Eric; Weaver, Harold A; Stern, S Alan; Waite, J Hunter; Gladstone, Randy; Moudens, Audrey

2013-01-01

171

40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.  

...Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: ...vehicles) shall be a blend of 40 ±2 percent hydrogen with the balance being helium. The...

2014-07-01

172

40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: ...vehicles) shall be a blend of 40 ±2 percent hydrogen with the balance being helium. The...

2011-07-01

173

40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: ...vehicles) shall be a blend of 40 ±2 percent hydrogen with the balance being helium. The...

2012-07-01

174

40 CFR 86.1214-85 - Analytical gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1214-85 Analytical gases. (a) Analyzer gases. (1) Gases for the hydrocarbon analyzer shall be: ...vehicles) shall be a blend of 40 ±2 percent hydrogen with the balance being helium. The...

2013-07-01

175

Hydrogen and noble gas interactions with iron nano-flakes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure of pure iron nano-flakes to hydrogen generates a high heat evolution associated with hydrogen uptakes shown by flow-through microcalorimetry. A large part of the hydrogen was found to be irreversibly absorbed by the iron flakes at 220°C and atmospheric pressure, but an increased desorption of hydrogen was achieved by noble gases, such as helium and argon. Thus the iron

A. J. Groszek

2007-01-01

176

Vesiculation, melt formation, noble gas/nitrogen behaviour, and impact chronology on a planetary regolith : the case of Benccubbin (CB) meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Benccubbin meteorite is a member of the CB peculiar meteorite family, which all have reduced silicates, metal zoning, solar Ni/Co and large enrichments in 15N, that have been regarded as relics of their very primitive character. However, these meteorites also show tugsten isotopic ratios suggesting metal differentiation events several Ma after start of solar system formation. The Benccubbin mineralogy is best explained as being an heterogeneous planetary regolith containing clasts of different origins (e.g., CO, CI chondrules and clasts, silicates of unknown origin). This meteorite presents evidence of having been impacted, such as melt, temperature gradient recorded at the silicate/metal interface, and textures indicative of rapid cooling. Notably, Benccubbin contains vesicles in several phases : partially molten silicate clasts and CO chondrules, impact melt, and the so-called bubble grains 1. We have analysed several Benccubbin mineral and metal phases for N and noble gas isotopes and abundances by both laser fusion and vacuum crushing. 15N-rich nitrogen (d15N up to +1,000 per mil) is ubiquituous, particularly inside vesicles, and is associated with noble gases. Notably, N and noble gases appear to have largely exchanged between silicate and vesicles, reaching locally equilibrium partitioning. Gases are still released after extensive crushing up to 4,000 strokes, in contrast to the case of MORB glasses and suggesting a foam-like, decompression structure of the impacted melt. N and Ar correlate well, showing that the N solubility was comparable to that of Ar and therefore that the redox conditions were above IW, according to 2. From the N content of the glass, we estimate that it equilibrated with a vapor plume in which the pressure of nitrogen was ~300 Bar. Radiogenic 40Ar is present inside the vesicles, showing that the vesiculation event was not an early process. Ar-Ar dating of Benccubbin suggests involvement in an impact around 4.2 Ga. In contrast to very variable N and primordial noble gas contents among different phases, cosmogenic 3He, 21Ne and 38Ar abundances are uniform, and vesicles contain little cosmogenic isotopes, showing that space exposure occurred after the vesicle forming impact event. Hence the event that led to the ejection of the Benccubbin meteorite was distinct from the vesiculation one, and occurred 40-50 Ma ago according to cosmogenic 3He, 21Ne and 38Ar isotopes and 38Ar-37Ar correlation. Noble gases have been well preserved in vesicles from cosmic ray isotope contributions, permitting to determine their origin precisely despite extensive exposure in space. Noble gases present Q-like isotopic ratios but highly fractionated abundances with respect to Q. The fact that comets are definitely rich in 15N 3 and may also have Q-like noble gas signature in their refractory phases 4 is suggestive of a possible link between cometary matter and CBs. 1. Perron, C., Fieni, C. and Guilhaumou, N. Geochim.Cosmochim. Acta 72, 959-977 (2008). 2. Libourel, G., Marty, B. and Humbert, F. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 67, 4123-4135 (2003). 3. Bockelee-Morvan, D. et al. Large excess of heavy nitrogen in both hydrogen cyanide and cyanogen from comet 17P/Holmes. Ap J.679, L49-L52 (2008). 4. Marty, B. et al. Science 319, 75-78 (2008).

Marty, B.; Turner, G.; Kelley, S. P.

2008-12-01

177

Noble gas encapsulation: clathrate hydrates and their HF doped analogues.  

PubMed

The significance of clathrate hydrates lies in their ability to encapsulate a vast range of inert gases. Although the natural abundance of a few noble gases (Kr and Xe) is poor their hydrates are generally abundant. It has already been reported that HF doping enhances the stability of hydrogen hydrates and methane hydrates, which prompted us to perform a model study on helium, neon and argon hydrates with their HF doped analogues. For this purpose 5(12), 5(12)6(8) and their HF doped analogues are taken as the model clathrate hydrates, which are among the building blocks of sI, sII and sH types of clathrate hydrate crystals. We use the dispersion corrected and gradient corrected hybrid density functional theory for the calculation of thermodynamic parameters as well as conceptual density functional theory based reactivity descriptors. The method of the ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulation is used through atom centered density matrix propagation (ADMP) techniques to envisage the structural behaviour of different noble gas hydrates on a 500 fs timescale. Electron density analysis is carried out to understand the nature of Ng-OH2, Ng-FH and Ng-Ng interactions. The current results noticeably demonstrate that the noble gas (He, Ne, and Ar) encapsulation ability of 5(12), 5(12)6(8) and their HF doped analogues is thermodynamically favourable. PMID:25047071

Mondal, Sukanta; Chattaraj, Pratim Kumar

2014-09-01

178

Helium Solubility in Cyclosilicates and Implications for Noble Gas Recycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is commonly assumed that noble gases strictly flux from the mantle to the atmosphere, with negligible recycling, because noble gases are thought to be extremely insoluble in all minerals. To test this hypothesis, we have experimentally determined the He solubility in a suite of cyclosilicate minerals: beryl, tourmaline and cordierite. The experiments were run in a gas pressure vessel. Run products were analyzed by UV laser ablation, noble gas mass spectrometry. He has a remarkably high solubility (>1000 ppm/1.8 kbar PHe) in cyclosilicates with nominally vacant six-member Si-Al-tetrahedra rings. Cyclosilicates with nominally occupied ring sites have substantially lower solubility. This suggests that He dissolution is facilitated by unfilled six-member rings. If true, He should have a high solubility in other minerals that include ring sites, such as phyllosilicates and amphiboles. Subduction zones commonly recycle these minerals, providing a possible mechanism for recycling of noble gases back into the mantle. Gem quality, natural, polished crystals of each mineral were placed into graphite capsules. Pure He gas was used as the pressure medium (1800 bar), allowing for precise control of PHe. Temperatures were held at 750 C and the experimental durations were 8 hours. A capsule of hydrated MgO powder was loaded in the TZM to maintain a non-zero fugacity of water during the experiment. Close visual inspection of the run products gave no indication of breakdown products. Depth profiles (10s of microns) of the mineral faces were completed using a 193 nm excimer laser. Multiple measurements were made on each phase. He concentrations were homogenous, both vertically and horizontally, indicating a close approach to equilibrium and absence of inclusions. Compared to tourmaline, we observe that He is >1000 and >100 times more soluble in cordierite and beryl, respectively. The ring sites, also known as A sites, in beryl and cordierite are nominally vacant, where as the ring sites in tourmaline, with the exception of foitite, are nominally full, suggesting the density of vacant rings in cyclosilicates is a primary control on He solubility. Ring sites are large (hosting LILEs) and have no net charge when vacant, making them an ideal candidate for hosting noble gases in general. This is also evidenced by high Ar solubilties (750 ppm/kbar PAr) measured in cubic leucite with similar lattice structures (1) and large He and Ar excesses reported for cyclosilicates (2). Many subduction zone minerals contain six-member Si-Al-tetrahedra rings (mica group, serpentine group, amphibole group and chlorite)(3,4). If recycled, these minerals could constitute a significant flux of noble gases back into the mantle. The magnitude and consequences of the flux will depend on the fugacity of noble gases during mineral formation and on how closed the system remains after eventual breakdown. 1. Wartho et al, Am Min, 2005 2. Damon and Kulp, Am Min, 1958 3. Schmidt and Poli, EPSL, 1998 4. Green et al, Nature, 2010

Jackson, C.; Kelley, S. P.; Cooper, R. F.; Parman, S. W.

2011-12-01

179

The lunar atmosphere. [noble gas composition and solar wind effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In contrast to the earth's atmosphere, the atmosphere of the moon is exceedingly tenuous and appears to consist mainly of noble gases. The solar wind impinges on the lunar surface, supplying detectable amounts of helium, neon and Ar-36. Influxes of solar wind protons and carbon and nitrogen ions are significant, but atmospheric gases containing these elements have not been positively identified. Radiogenic Ar-40 and Rn-222 produced within the moon have been detected. The present rate of effusion of argon from the moon accounts for about 0.4% of the total production of Ar-40 due to decay of K-40 if the average abundance of potassium in the moon is 1000 ppm. Lack of weathering processes in the regolith suggests that most of the atmospheric Ar-40 originates deep in the lunar interior, perhaps in a partially molten core. If so, other gases may be vented along with the argon.

Hodges, R. R., Jr.; Hoffman, J. H.; Johnson, F. S.

1974-01-01

180

Dating native gold by noble gas analyses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our recent work on He, Ne, and Ar in Alpine gold samples has demonstrated that gold is extremely retentive for He and could thus, in principle, be used for U/Th-He-4 dating. For vein-type gold from Brusson, Northern Italy, we derived a U/Th-He-4 age of 36 Ma, in agreement with the K-Ar formation age of associated muscovites and biotites. However, in placer gold from the Napf area, Central Switzerland, we observed large excesses of both He-4 and radiogenic Ar-40 (Ar-40 sub rad, defined as Ar-40-295.5-Ar-.36). The gas release systematics indicate two distinct noble gas components, one of which is released below about 800 C and the other one at the melting point of gold (1064 C). We now present results of He and Xe measurements in a 1 g placer gold sample from the river Kruempelgraben, as well as He and Ar data for Brusson vein-type gold and for gold from the Lily Gold Mine, South Africa. We calculate reasonable U/Th-He-4 as well as U-Xe ages based on those gases which are released at approximately 800 C. Probably the low-temperature components represent in-situ-produced radiogenic He and fission Xe, whereas the gases evolving when gold melts have been trapped during gold formation. Therefore, only the low-temperature components are relevant for dating purposes.

Niedermann, S.; Eugster, O.; Hofmann, B.; Thalmann, CH.; Reimold, W. U.

1993-01-01

181

New estimates of the production of volatile gases from ablating carbonaceous micrometeoroids at Earth and Mars during an E-belt-type Late Heavy Bombardment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Heating and ablation of micrometeoroids during atmospheric entry yields volatile gases capable of altering atmospheric chemistry, surface climate and habitability. We have subjected powdered samples of the carbonaceous chondrites Orgueil (CI1), ALH 88045 (CM1), Cold Bokkeveld (CM2), Murchison (CM2) and Mokoia (CV3) to stepped pyrolysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to simulate the atmospheric entry of micrometeoroids and to quantify the yields of water, carbon dioxide and sulphur dioxide at various temperatures, offering insights into the nature of their source phases. We have incorporated these data into the recently-developed E-Belt model of the Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB) to estimate the production of volatiles from infalling micrometeoroids at Earth and Mars around four billion years ago. At the present day, the 4 (±2) × 1010 g yr-1 of micrometeoroids arriving at Earth yield around 2.5 (±1.3) × 109 g yr-1 of indigenous water, 4.1 (±2.2) × 109 g yr-1 of total water, 1.9 (±1.0) × 109 g yr-1 of carbon dioxide and about 1.1 (±0.6) × 109 g yr-1 of sulphur dioxide, where “indigenous” water exclude water evolved at the initial pyrolysis step of 250 °C. For Mars, the infall of 6.8 × 109 g yr-1 of micrometeoroids yields 3.6 (±1.9) × 108 g yr-1 of indigenous water, 6.4 (±3.4) × 108 g yr-1 of total water, 2.4 (±1.3) × 108 g yr-1 of carbon dioxide and 1.5 (±0.8) × 108 g yr-1 of sulphur dioxide. The LHB is associated with micrometeoroidal infall masses of 1.3 (±0.8) × 1022 g at Earth and 2.3 (±1.3) × 1021 g at Mars. For Earth, this mass is estimated to have produced 8.3 (±4.9) × 1020 g of indigenous water, 1.4 (±0.8) × 1021 g of total water, 6.3 (±3.7) × 1020 g of carbon dioxide and 3.8 (±2.2) × 1020 g of sulphur dioxide, with production rates in the peak 50 Myr of the LHB estimated at 5.1 (±3.1) × 1012 g yr-1 of indigenous water, 8.6 (±5.1) × 1012 g yr-1 of total water, 3.9 (±2.3) × 1012 g yr-1 of carbon dioxide and 2.3 (±1.4) × 1012 g yr-1 of sulphur dioxide. For Mars, total 4.1-3.7 Ga production of 1.3 (±0.8) × 1020 g of indigenous water, 2.2 (±1.3) × 1020 g of total water, 9.3 (±5.5) × 1019 g of carbon dioxide and around 5.8 (±3.4) × 1019 g of sulphur dioxide is estimated, with peak 50 Myr rates of 8.2 (±4.8) × 1011 g yr-1 of indigenous water, 1.4 (±0.8) × 1012 g yr-1 of total water, 5.8 (±3.5) × 1011 g yr-1 of carbon dioxide and 3.6 (±2.1) × 1011 g yr-1 of sulphur dioxide. The errors in these estimates for the present-day rates are dominated by ±50% uncertainty in the LDEF figure of 4 (±2) × 1010 g yr-1 of micrometeoroids while the errors for the ancient rates are dominated by the similarly large uncertainty regarding the mass ratio of micrometeoroids to asteroids. These errors indicate the need for improved understandings of infall rates and better models of solar system evolution. Current models of climate for early Earth and Mars focus on volcanic outgassing for greenhouse gases and aerosols, but pay less attention to extraterrestrial sources. Our data quantify an additional exogenous source of volatiles that augments the endogenous production.

Court, Richard W.; Sephton, Mark A.

2014-11-01

182

Method for the purification of noble gases, nitrogen and hydrogen  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method and apparatus for the purification and collection of hydrogen isotopes in a flowing inert gaseous mixture containing impurities, wherein metal alloy getters having the capability of sorbing non-hydrogen impurities such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen and water vapor are utilized to purify the gaseous mixture of impurities. After purification hydrogen isotopes may be more efficiently collected. A plurality of parallel process lines utilizing metal getter alloys can be used to provide for the continuous purification and collection of the hydrogen isotopes.

1997-09-23

183

Noble gases in diamonds - Occurrences of solarlike helium and neon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seventeen diamond samples from diverse locations were analyzed for the contents of He, Ar, Kr, and Xe, and of their isotopes, using a Reynolds (1956) type glass mass spectrometer. The results disclosed a large spread in the He-3/He-4 ratios, ranging from values below atmospheric to close to the solar ratio. In particular, solarlike He-3/He-4 ratios were seen for an Australian colorless diamond composite and an Arkansas diamond, which also displayed solarlike neon isotopic ratios. Wide variation was also observed in the He-4/Ar-40 ratios, suggesting a complex history for the source regions and the diamond crystallization processes.

Honda, M.; Reynolds, J. H.; Roedder, E.; Epstein, S.

1987-01-01

184

Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases  

E-print Network

majority of the mass of the solar system, has the same composition as the primitive solar nebula by the preferential accretion of solids, clearly differ from the unfractionated solar nebula, the composition in meteorites are depleted by many orders of magnitude compared with the solar nebula and, although lunar soils

185

Primordial noble gases in separated meteoritic minerals. II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A stepwise heating technique was used to analyze eight silicate samples from the Orgueil carbonaceous chondrite for He, Ne, Ar, and Xe. Six samples, of which two were etched with NaOH, were density fractions. The other two samples were grain-size fractions separated according to their ability to form a colloid at pH 11.5. Results showed the LiCl separation procedure to be gentler than the NaOH procedure. All fractions were found to be deficient in cosmogenic neon. Above 950 C the fractions gave low 20Ne/22Ne ratios particularly in the low-density and noncolloidal fraction. Compared to the other fractions the fraction from 2.35 to 2.45 g/cu cm contained less Xe and released it more rapidly at low temperatures.

Herzog, G. F.; Anders, E.

1974-01-01

186

Using noble gases to investigate mountain-front recharge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mountain-front recharge is a major component of recharge to inter-mountain basin-fill aquifers. The two components of mountain-front recharge are (1) subsurface inflow from the mountain block (subsurface inflow), and (2) infiltration from perennial and ephemeral streams near the mountain front (stream seepage). The magnitude of subsurface inflow is of central importance in source protection planning for basin-fill aquifers and in

Andrew H Manning; D. Kip Solomon

2003-01-01

187

Effect of noble gases on an atmospheric greenhouse /Titan/.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several models for the atmosphere of Titan have been investigated, taking into account various combinations of neon and argon. The investigation shows that the addition of large amounts of Ne and/or Ar will substantially reduce the hydrogen abundance required for a given greenhouse effect. The fact that a large amount of neon should be present if the atmosphere is a relic of the solar nebula is an especially attractive feature of the models, because it is hard to justify appropriate abundances of other enhancing agents.

Cess, R.; Owen, T.

1973-01-01

188

The Chemistry of the Noble Gases, Understanding the Atom Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The history of the discovery, isolation, characterization, production and use of argon, krypton, xenon, helium, and radon is followed by an account of early attempts to react them with other elements. The use of the electron shell theory of valence to explain their inertness and the reactions of chemists to the production of xenon compounds is…

Chernick, Cedric L.

189

NOBLE GAS PRODUCTION FROM MERCURY SPALLATION AT SNS  

SciTech Connect

Calculations for predicting the distribution of the products of spallation reactions between high energy protons and target materials are well developed and are used for design and operational applications in many projects both within DOE and in other arenas. These calculations are based on theory and limited experimental data that verifies rates of production of some spallation products exist. At the Spallation Neutron Source, a helium stream from the mercury target flows through a system to remove radioactivity from this mercury target offgas. The operation of this system offers a window through which the production of noble gases from mercury spallation by protons may be observed. This paper describes studies designed to measure the production rates of twelve noble gas isotopes within the Spallation Neutron Source mercury target.

DeVore, Joe R [ORNL; Lu, Wei [ORNL; Schwahn, Scott O [ORNL

2013-01-01

190

Relationship between recent cave temperatures and noble gas temperatures derived from fluid inclusions of modern soda straw stalactites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, strong effort is devoted to establish a new method to derive palaeotemperatures from noble gas (Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) concentrations dissolved in fluid inclusions of speleothems [1-2]. It has been already shown that the water content of the speleothems can be determined via the water vapour pressure after the water has been released from the carbonate samples and collected in a cold finger and then heated up to room temperature. Additionally, the noble gas contents can be precisely measured with noble gas mass spectrometers. Based on these noble gas concentration data sets, a so-called noble gas temperature (NGT) can be calculated meaning a temperature at which the noble gases have been dissolved in water. To use these NGT's as a palaeoclimate proxy, one of the main questions is how these noble gas temperatures reflect the prevailing cave temperature in which the carbonate has grown. We studied noble gas significances in recent soda straw stalactites from more than ten Central European caves covering a temperature range of 1 to 14 °C. Kluge et al. (2008) has shown the soda straw stalactites might contain less excess air, hence they are more suitable samples to derive NGT's, because noble gas abundances from large air inclusions can mask the temperature information. The 14C ages of these soda straw dripstones were obtained to be recent or at least Holocene ages. Thus one can assume that the cave temperatures during carbonate formation were as same as at present. We measured the water and noble gas contents of numerous carbonate samples from soda straw stalactites and calculated noble gas temperatures by a precision of 1 °C or better. Comparing these temperatures with cave temperatures we obtained that they agree well within the uncertainty of the noble gas temperature determination. Therefore, we can conclude if diffusion of noble gas isotopes does not play a significant role in the carbonate lattice this new tool helps the palaeoclimate community to gain reliable palaeotemperature information on the time range from present back to hundred thousand years. [1] Kluge T., Marx T., Scholz D., Niggermann S., Mangini A., Aeschbach-Hertig W., 2008. A new tool for palaeoclimate reconstruction: Noble gas temperatures from fluid inclusions in speleothems. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 269, 408-415. [2] Brennwald M.S., Scheidegger Y., Tomonaga Y., Holzner C.P., Wieler R., Kipfer R., 2006. New applications of noble gases as environmental proxies in unusual aquatic environments. Geochimica et Csomochimica Acta 70, Supplement, A66.

Palcsu, Laszlo; Papp, Laszlo; Major, Zoltan; Molnar, Mihaly

2010-05-01

191

Evolution of the geothermal fluids at Los Azufres, Mexico, as traced by noble gas isotopes, 18  

E-print Network

of noble gases, CO2, H2O and Sr were measured in 10 geothermal wells and 8 hot springs, fumaroles and mud is to provide additional information on fluid circulation in the field and surrounding areas (Araró hot springs magmatic 3 He-rich fluids and groundwater currently discharging at Araró hot springs and enriched

Long, Bernard

192

Hot Deserts' Fingerprints in Nitrogen and Noble Gas Budgets of (Martian) Meteorites - Continued?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our studies on nitrogen and noble gases in terrestrial samples from the hot desert of Sayh al Uhaymir (Oman) revealed signatures that can easily mimic martian interior signatures. Here we add evidence from the Dar al Gani region to the data set.

Schwenzer, S. P.; Herrmann, S.; Ott, U.

2007-03-01

193

Noble Gas Partitioning Between Olivine and Melt to 2 GPa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have extended our experimental measurements of noble gas partition coefficients to 2 GPa in the piston-cylinder device. The experimental set-up involves surrounding wafers of gem quality San Carlos olivine (250-1000 microns thick, 3-4 mm diameter) with diamond powder or vitreous carbon spheres. A layer of melt is placed at the bottom of the capsule which infiltrates the porous media and touches the olivine. This allows the original surface of the crystal to be identified and large coherent pieces of olivine to be recovered intact. The inner capsule is graphite and the outer capsule is Pt. Up to 60 bars of HeNeAr were preloaded into the Pt capsule before it was welded shut. This method combines a number of desireable qualities: 1) it avoids producing melt inclusions in the olivine, 2) it yields large areas of olivine to analyze by laser-ablation and 3) it has both melt and crystals present and in contact. The experimental glasses and olivine wafers were analyzed by laser-ablation noble gas mass spectrometry at the Open University, UK. Both depth profiles and cross-sections were analyzed on the olivine wafers. Equilibrium (flat) concentration profiles were only obtained for He in our experiments (up to 20 hr run durations). These yield olivine-melt partition coefficients (D) between 0.0007 and 0.002 at 1-2 GPa and at 1450. These values are within the range of measurements at low pressures (100 MPa or less), suggesting a minimal pressure effect on noble gas partitioning in the upper mantle. Henry’s Law behavior is maintained over 4 orders of magnitude variation in He concentration in the olivine (0.0001 to 1 ppm He). High near-surface concentrations of He (21ppm), Ne (36ppm) and Ar (4,360ppm) were observed in the olivine. The thickness of the enriched layer (5 microns) was the same for all three noble gases. We do not know the origin of the high near-surface concentrations, but if they were due to lattice diffusion of the noble gases, the thickness of the high concentration layer should decrease with the diffusivity of the noble gas from He to Ne to Ar. Thus we speculate that the high near-surface concentrations are due to a change in the material properties of the olivine.

Parman, S. W.; Kelley, S. P.; Ballentine, C. J.; van Orman, J. A.; Holland, G.

2009-12-01

194

Development of a portable membrane contactor sampler for noble gas analyses of surface and groundwater samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble gas isotopes dissolved in groundwater provide valuable information about climatic conditions during air-water exchange, as well as the residence time of groundwater and its renewal rate. The isotope composition of noble gases can also serve as geochemical fingerprints to decipher the origin of groundwater and its flow system. Conventionally, groundwater is sampled using a copper tube, which is subsequently degassed using a vacuum extraction system for isotope analysis by a mass spectrometer. Although this conventional and well-established way of sampling is widely recognised as being reliable and robust, a major drawback to this method is its size and weight. For example, our sampler consists of a copper tube of 10 mm diameter x 1000 mm length and a metal casing with pinch-off clamps with its total weight to be 2 kg each. A box of 24 samplers well exceeds 40 kg. Considering that sampling fields are not necessarily easily accessible by vehicle, taking hundreds of samples in the field is generally a tough task for everyone. There is a different type of sampler, which is comprised of a much smaller copper tube (6 mm in diameter and 100 mm long for our case) with clamps and a semi-permeable membrane filter. It is sunk into water and left there for dissolved gases to diffuse into the sampler until their concentrations in water become equilibrated with those in the tube. This diffusion sampler is small and easy to handle in the field; it has an advantage over conventional copper tubes, as the diffusion sampler collects gases so that there is no gas extraction process needed before isotope analysis. However, this method requires an equilibration time of 24 hours or more, which could result in lower time-efficiency for sampling work. In order to enable time-efficient and less-painstaking sampling of noble gases dissolved in surface and groundwater, we have developed a portable and self-powered sampling device specified to noble gas analysis by mass spectrometer, following the design of a similar device reported in literatures. The sampling device uses a commercially available membrane contactor which can separate gas phase from continuous from of water. We have examined its extraction performance by preparing several samples for different time spans. We found that our membrane contactor can extract heavier noble gases (Ar, Kr, and Xe) more efficient than lighter noble gases (He and Ne), implying that sorption of gas atoms to the membrane contactor is controlling the transport of noble gases through the membrane. We confirmed that extraction of about 60 min is sufficient for all noble gases reach equilibrium with those dissolved in the water. 3He/4He ratios and other noble gas isotope ratios showed no signs of isotope fractionation, suggesting that the device can be applicable for sampling of dissolved noble gases from the water aiming to the groundwater dating and paleo-climate reconstruction.

Matsumoto, T.; Han, L. H.; Jaklitsh, M.; Aggarwal, P. K.

2012-04-01

195

Noble gas mass spectrometry with a compressor driven recycling system for improved sensitivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In noble gas (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) isotope geo- and cosmochemistry and geochronology, there is an increasing need for better precision and sensitivity of the mass spectrometers. Although the presently available noble gas mass spectrometers detect trace amounts (down to 105 atoms) of noble gas atoms contained in natural samples, isotopic ratios measured at that extremely low level are in many cases not precise enough to resolve specific problems. Also, the instrumental limitation narrows the kinds of rocks suitable for analysis. Thus, in order to expand the analytical capability of noble gases to a wider range of samples with possibly much smaller sizes, it is desirable to have a mass spectrometer with better sensitivity. In order to increase the sensitivity of static-mode noble gas mass spectroscopic analysis, we have developed and tested a gas re-circulation system, which uses a commercially available turbo molecular pump (TMP). During the analysis, the sample gases are directed from the collector end towards the ionization source part of the flight tube. Our preliminary results indicate that the apparent sensitivity of krypton and xenon can be increased by a factor of about 20 and 50, respectively. We also found that the gain factor of helium was somewhat smaller and was approximately 2. Such mass-dependence is quite consistent with the compressibility of TMP which is larger for the heavier molecules.

Matsumoto, T.; Matsuda, J.; Ozima, M.; Yatsevich, I.

2009-12-01

196

Multiple atmospheric noble gas components in hydrocarbon reservoirs: a study of the Northwest Shelf, Delaware Basin, SE New Mexico  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Northwest Shelf of the Delaware Basin, SE New Mexico is the site of several large and productive oil and gas fields. The most productive reservoirs are located in the late Pennsylvanian Morrow and early Permian Abo formations. Production from the latter more important play is predominately from fluvial Abo red beds of the Pecos Slope Field. The oxidizing conditions implied by the reddish color of the formation require an external hydrocarbon source. To test the existing migration model for the region and constrain the location of potential hydrocarbon sources, we measured the elemental and isotopic composition of noble gases produced along with the hydrocarbons. We found the hydrocarbons to be highly enriched in radiogenic 4He, 40*Ar and nucleogenic 21*Ne [F( 4He) = 44,000-250,000; 40Ar/ 36Ar = 400-3145; 21Ne/ 22Ne = 0.044-0.071]. The greatest enrichments occur in the Pecos Slope gas fields. The hydrocarbons also contain three independent nonradiogenic noble gas components each with an atmospheric isotopic composition. One component is most likely air-saturated water (ASW). The second component is enriched in the heavy noble gases [F( 130Xe) > 8.5] and is derived from the hydrocarbon sources. The third component is enriched in Ne [F( 20Ne) > 0.8] that we believe is degassed from sources within the reservoirs. This component is correlated with but decoupled from the dominant source of radiogenic 4He and 40*Ar. Very high concentrations of 4He (up to ˜1% by volume) in the Pecos slope reservoirs require a source external to the reservoirs, such as the underlying Precambrian basement granites and sedimentary equivalents. Structural buckles cutting through the Pecos field may act as high flux vertical pathways for the radiogenic 4He. If the hydrocarbons in the Pecos slope fields have migrated northward from the deeper Delaware Basin, as suggested by compositional trends, then perhaps the buckles also play an important role in the distribution and filling of the Pecos slope reservoirs.

Kennedy, B. M.; Torgersen, T.; van Soest, M. C.

2002-09-01

197

The noble gas systematics of late-orogenic H 2O-CO 2 fluids, Mt Isa, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe) are powerful geochemical tracers because they have distinctive isotopic compositions in the atmosphere, crust and mantle. This study illustrates how noble gases can be used to trace fluid origins in high-temperature metamorphic and mineralising environments; and at the same time provides new information on the composition of noble gases in deeper parts of the crust than have been sampled previously. We report data for H 2O and CO 2 fluid inclusions trapped at greenschist to amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions associated with three different styles of mineralisation and alteration in the Proterozoic Mt Isa Inlier of Australia. Sulphide fluid inclusions are dominated by crustal 4He. However, co-variations in fluid inclusion 20Ne/ 22Ne, 21Ne/ 22Ne, 40Ar/ 36Ar and 136Xe/ 130Xe indicate noble gases were derived from three or more reservoirs. In most cases, the fluid inclusions elemental noble gas ratios (e.g. Ne/Xe) are close to the ranges expected in sedimentary and crystalline rocks. However, the elemental ratios have been modified in some of the samples providing evidence for independent pulses of CO 2, and interaction of CO 2 with high-salinity aqueous fluids. Compositional variation is attributed to mixing of: (i) magmatic fluids (or deeply sourced metamorphic fluids) characterised by basement-derived noble gases with 20Ne/ 22Ne ˜ 8.4, 21Ne/ 22Ne ˜ 0.4, 40Ar/ 36Ar ˜ 40,000 and 136Xe/ 130Xe ˜ 8; (ii) basinal-metamorphic fluids with a narrow range of compositions including near-atmospheric values and (iii) noble gases derived from the meta-sedimentary host-rocks with 20Ne/ 22Ne ˜ 8-9.8, 21Ne/ 22Ne < 0.1, 40Ar/ 36Ar < 2500 and 136Xe/ 130Xe ˜ 2.2. These data provide the strongest geochemical evidence available for the involvement of fluids from two distinct geochemical reservoirs in Mt Isa's largest ore deposits. In addition the data show how noble gases in fluid inclusions can provide information on fluid origins, the composition of the crust's major lithologies, fluid-rock interactions and fluid-fluid mixing or immiscibility processes.

Kendrick, M. A.; Honda, M.; Oliver, N. H. S.; Phillips, D.

2011-03-01

198

Atmospheric gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Which gases make up the atmosphere? This activity page, part of an interactive laboratory series for grades 8-12, introduces students to the gaseous components of the atmosphere. Students explore the main gases of the atmosphere using a pop-up pie chart. Descriptions of the gases and their percentages in the atmosphere are provided. Students read about water vapor in the atmosphere, and an animation shows a simplified process of precipitation. A pop-up window explains the effects of dust on the atmosphere, and a photograph shows how large amounts of dust in the atmosphere create the reds and oranges displayed in sunsets. Finally, ozone is introduced to students as a necessary component of human life on Earth. Copyright 2005 Eisenhower National Clearinghouse

University of Utah. Astrophysics Science Project Integrating Research and Education (ASPIRE)

2003-01-01

199

Interpreting noble-gas concentrations as proxies for salinity and temperature in the world's largest soda lake (Lake Van, Turkey)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present noble-gas concentration profiles measured in the water column and in the sediment pore water of the Earth's largest soda lake: Lake Van (eastern Anatolia, Turkey). The concentrations of noble gases (in particular Ar, Kr, and Xe) in the water body deviate significantly from the expected equilibrium concentrations calculated from the in situ temperature and salinity using existing solubility functions for seawater. The specific chemical composition of the water of the soda lake seems to be responsible for the observed deviations. Our measurements allow the identification and quantification of salinity factors that can be applied to correctly calculate the noble-gas equilibrium concentrations for the lake. These salinity factors provide a solid and robust empirical basis for the interpretation of noble-gas concentration signals measured in the sediment pore water of Lake Van in terms of palaeosalinity and palaeotemperature.

Tomonaga, Yama; Blättler, Rafael; Brennwald, Matthias S.; Kipfer, Rolf

2012-10-01

200

Development of hyperpolarized noble gas MRI  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic resonance imaging using the MR signal from hyperpolarized noble gases 129Xe and 3He may become an important new diagnostic technique. Alex Pines (adapting the hyperpolarization technique pioneered by William Happer) presented MR spectroscopy studies using hyperpolarized 129Xe. The current authors recognized that the enormous enhancement in the detectability of 129Xe, promised by hyperpolarization, would solve the daunting SNR problems impeding their attempts to use 129Xe as an in vivo MR probe, especially in order to study the action of general anesthetics. It was hoped that hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI would yield resolutions equivalent to that achievable with conventional 1H 2O MRI, and that xenon's solubility in lipids would facilitate investigations of lipid-rich tissues that had as yet been hard to image. The publication of hyperpolarized 129Xe images of excised mouse lungs heralded the emergence of hyperpolarized noble-gas MRI. Using hyperpolarized 3He, researchers have obtained images of the lung gas space of guinea pigs and of humans. Lung gas images from patients with pulmonary disease have recently been reported. 3He is easier to hyperpolarize than 129Xe, and it yields a stronger MR signal, but its extremely low solubility in blood precludes its use for the imaging of tissue. Xenon, however, readily dissolves in blood, and the T1 of dissolved 129Xe is long enough for sufficient polarization to be carried by the circulation to distal tissues. Hyperpolarized 129Xe dissolved-phase tissue spectra from the thorax and head of rodents and humans have been obtained, as have chemical shift 129Xe images from the head of rats. Lung gas 129Xe images of rodents, and more recently of humans, have been reported. Hyperpolarized 129Xe MRI (HypX-MRI) may elucidate the link between the structure of the lung and its function. The technique may also be useful in identifying ventilation-perfusion mismatch in patients with pulmonary embolism, in staging and tracking the success of therapeutic approaches in patients with chronic obstructive airway diseases, and in identifying candidates for lung transplantation or reduction surgery. The high lipophilicity of xenon may allow MR investigations of the integrity and function of excitable lipid membranes. Eventually, HypX-MRI may permit better imaging of the lipid-rich structures of the brain. Cortical brain function is one perfusion-dependent phenomena that may be explored with hyperpolarized 129Xe MR. This leads to the exciting possibility of conducting hyperpolarized 129Xe functional MRI (HypX-fMRI) studies.

Albert, M. S.; Balamore, D.

1998-02-01

201

Computational investigation of noble gas adsorption and separation by nanoporous materials.  

SciTech Connect

Molecular simulations are used to assess the ability of metal-organic framework (MOF) materials to store and separate noble gases. Specifically, grand canonical Monte Carlo simulation techniques are used to predict noble gas adsorption isotherms at room temperature. Experimental trends of noble gas inflation curves of a Zn-based material (IRMOF-1) are matched by the simulation results. The simulations also predict that IRMOF-1 selectively adsorbs Xe atoms in Xe/Kr and Xe/Ar mixtures at total feed gas pressures of 1 bar (14.7 psia) and 10 bar (147 psia). Finally, simulations of a copper-based MOF (Cu-BTC) predict this material's ability to selectively adsorb Xe and Kr atoms when present in trace amounts in atmospheric air samples. These preliminary results suggest that Cu-BTC may be an ideal candidate for the pre-concentration of noble gases from air samples. Additional simulations and experiments are needed to determine the saturation limit of Cu-BTC for xenon, and whether any krypton atoms would remain in the Cu-BTC pores upon saturation.

Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Sanders, Joseph C.; Greathouse, Jeffery A.

2008-10-01

202

Electric dipole polarizabilities at imaginary frequencies for hydrogen, the alkali-metal, alkaline-earth, and noble gas atoms  

SciTech Connect

The electric dipole polarizabilities evaluated at imaginary frequencies for hydrogen, the alkali-metal atoms, the alkaline-earth atoms, and the noble gases are tabulated along with the resulting values of the atomic static polarizabilities, the atom-surface interaction constants, and the dispersion (or van der Waals) constants for the homonuclear and the heteronuclear diatomic combinations of the atoms.

Derevianko, Andrei [Physics Department, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557-0058 (United States)], E-mail: andrei@unr.edu; Porsev, Sergey G. [Physics Department, Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557-0058 (United States); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, Leningrad District 188300 (Russian Federation)], E-mail: sporsev@gmail.com; Babb, James F. [ITAMP, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138-1516 (United States)], E-mail: jbabb@cfa.harvard.edu

2010-05-15

203

Solvation theory to provide a molecular interpretation of the hydrophobic entropy loss of noble-gas hydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equation for the chemical potential of a dilute aqueous solution of noble gases is derived in terms of energies, force and torque magnitudes, and solute and water coordination numbers, quantities which are all measured from an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. Also derived are equations for the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of hydration for the Henry’s law process,

Sheeba Jem Irudayam; Richard H Henchman

2010-01-01

204

Solvation theory to provide a molecular interpretation of the hydrophobic entropy loss of noble-gas hydration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An equation for the chemical potential of a dilute aqueous solution of noble gases is derived in terms of energies, force and torque magnitudes, and solute and water coordination numbers, quantities which are all measured from an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. Also derived are equations for the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of hydration for the Henry's law process,

Sheeba Jem Irudayam; Richard H. Henchman

2010-01-01

205

Greenhouse Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson where learners engage in a radiating heat activity and an activity that measures temperature in models with and without greenhouse gases. Learners will draw conclusions about the effect of greenhouse gases on temperature and on human life and kinesthetically model the absorbing and re-radiation of heat. The lesson models scientific inquiry using the 5E instructional model and includes teacher notes, prerequisite concepts, common misconceptions, student journal and reading. This is lesson 3 in the Astro-Venture Atmospheric Science Training Unit. The purpose of the unit is to increase studentsâ awareness of and interest in astrobiology and the many career opportunities that utilize science, math and technology skills. The lessons are designed for educators to use in conjunction with the Astro-Venture multimedia modules.

206

Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases  

DOEpatents

A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

1980-05-02

207

Noble Gas Thermometry and Hydrologic Ages: Evidence for Late Holocene Warming in Southwest Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoclimatic reconstruction through the use of noble gases dissolved in groundwater has been the object of numerous studies in recent years. Unlike many other continental temperature proxies, noble gases have the advantage of providing direct information on atmospheric temperatures at the time rainwater penetrated the ground and joined a particular groundwater reservoir. In recent years, new methods for determination of noble gas temperatures have been developed, which provide a high level of accuracy on such temperature estimations. The issue of paleoclimatic reconstruction through noble gases however, is not only one of accurate temperature determination, but also one of accurate water age estimation so that a correct correspondence between noble gas temperatures and groundwater age can be established and proper paleoclimatic reconstruction attempted. The typical approach to estimate groundwater ages has been based on computing water travel times along streamlines from the recharge to the observation point taking into account only advection. This approach is limited because, like any other tracer, the movement of water in porous media is also affected by cinematic dispersion and molecular diffusion. We have therefore undertaken the formulation of hydrologic models that yield significantly better constraints on groundwater ages in the Carrizo aquifer and surrounding formations of south Texas, where noble gas temperatures have already been determined. To account for groundwater mixing we treat age as one would treat a solute concentration. In order to simulate groundwater ages we used a finite element model of groundwater flow that has been validated by 4He and 3He. The finite model spans a 120.6 Km cross-section between altitudes of +220m and -2210 m, and comprises 58,968 elements and 31,949 nodes. Combination of these newly calculated water ages and previously reported noble gas temperatures reveals new aspects of late Pleistocene and Holocene climate in southwestern Texas, in particular, an abrupt late Holocene temperature increase previously unidentified through 14C dating. Temperature increased by up to 3.4° C in the first half of the last millennium and by 1.5° C between ˜5.6 and 3.7 kyrs BP. More important than the resolution of individual paleoclimate episodes is the identification of a slow cooling trend between ˜1,200 kyrs and ˜200 kyrs, a trend that accelerates during the late Pleistocene and early Holocene. This cooling trend gives way to an extremely rapid increase in temperature in the late Holocene. Such abrupt warming seems to have accelerated in the last millennium and seems to continue at present. This temperature increase is the most striking feature arising from the determination of new groundwater ages.

Castro, M.; Goblet, P.

2003-12-01

208

A new tool for palaeoclimate reconstruction: Noble gas temperatures from fluid inclusions in speleothems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of our research is to apply the absolute palaeothermometer provided by dissolved noble gases in water to the reliably dated high-resolution archive of speleothems. Here we report on methods used to extract and quantify water and noble gases from fluid inclusions in speleothems and the first successful derivation of noble gas temperatures (NGTs) from this archive. The water amount was determined manometrically, whereas the low noble gas amounts were measured by mass spectrometry, applying rigorous blank control. Gas was extracted by crushing either in a steel cylinder or in a copper tube with little heating, which both yielded acceptably low blanks. Extraction in the steel cylinder is more efficient as a finer grain size distribution can be achieved. A major problem is the often high contribution of noble gases from air inclusions, masking the temperature information present in the noble gases dissolved in water-filled inclusions. However, NGTs with an uncertainty in the range of 1 °C can be derived from suitable stalagmites with low air/water ratios in the inclusions. Such favourable conditions were found to be present in stalagmites of milky white appearance. Suitable samples were collected from the stalagmites BU-U, BU-1 and a soda straw from the Bunker Cave in North-West Germany. Inverse modeling of measured Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe concentrations leads to a mean temperature of (2.9 ± 0.7) °C for all BU-U sub-samples with an age between 10 800 and 11 700 years and of (7.1 ± 0.8) °C for a 1300 years old sample from BU-1. Compared to the modern mean annual air temperature at the investigated site of about 9.5 °C, the calculated temperatures appear rather low but not unreasonable, as the ages correspond to comparatively cool periods around the Younger Dryas/Preboreal transition and the Early Middle Ages, respectively. Moreover, the indicated temperature difference of about 4 °C between the early and late Holocene periods is in agreement with expectations.

Kluge, T.; Marx, T.; Scholz, D.; Niggemann, S.; Mangini, A.; Aeschbach-Hertig, W.

2008-05-01

209

External Photoevaporation of the Solar Nebula: Jupiter's Noble Gas Enrichments  

E-print Network

We present a model explaining elemental enrichments in Jupiter's atmosphere, particularly the noble gases Ar, Kr, and Xe. While He, Ne and O are depleted, seven other elements show similar enrichments ($\\sim$3 times solar, relative to H). Being volatile, Ar is difficult to fractionate from ${\\rm H}_{2}$. We argue that external photoevaporation by far ultraviolet (FUV) radiation from nearby massive stars removed ${\\rm H}_{2}$, He, and Ne from the solar nebula, but Ar and other species were retained because photoevaporation occurred at large heliocentric distances where temperatures were cold enough ($\\lt 30$ K) to trap them in amorphous water ice. As the solar nebula lost H it became relatively and uniformly enriched in other species. Our model improves on the similar model of Guillot \\& Hueso (2006). We recognize that cold temperatures alone do not trap volatiles; continuous water vapor production also is necessary. We demonstrate that FUV fluxes that photoevaporated the disk generated sufficient water va...

Monga, Nikhil

2014-01-01

210

On a cryogenic noble gas ion catcher  

E-print Network

In-situ purification of the gas used as stopping medium in a noble gas ion catcher by operating the device at low temperatures of 60 to 150 K was investigated. Alpha-decay recoil ions from a 223Ra source served as energetic probes. The combined ion survival and transport efficiencies for 219Rn ions saturated below about 90 K, reaching 28.7(17) % in helium, 22.1(13) % in neon, and 17.0(10) % in argon. These values may well reflect the charge exchange and stripping cross sections during the slowing down of the ions, and thus represent a fundamental upper limit for the efficiency of noble gas ion catcher devices. We suggest the cryogenic noble gas ion catcher as a technically simpler alternative to the ultra-high purity noble gas ion catcher operating at room temperature.

P. Dendooven; S. Purushothaman; K. Gloos

2005-10-20

211

On a cryogenic noble gas ion catcher  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In situ purification of the gas used as stopping medium in a noble gas ion catcher by operating the device at low temperatures of 60-150 K was investigated. Alpha-decay recoil ions from a 223Ra source served as energetic probes. The combined ion survival and transport efficiencies for 219Rn ions saturated below about 90 K, reaching 28.7(17)% in helium, 22.1(13)% in neon, and 17.0(10)% in argon. These values may well reflect the charge exchange and stripping cross-sections during the slowing down of the ions, and thus represent a fundamental upper limit for the efficiency of noble gas ion catcher devices. We suggest the cryogenic noble gas ion catcher as a technically simpler alternative to the ultra-high purity noble gas ion catcher operating at room temperature.

Dendooven, P.; Purushothaman, S.; Gloos, K.

2006-03-01

212

Noble gas sputtering calculations using TRIM  

SciTech Connect

In conjunction with our experimental work on saddle field ion sputtering, we have attempted to apply the Monte Carlo program TRIM (Transport of Ions in Matter) to calculate the sputter yields for a variety of noble gas sputtering applications. Comparison with experiments are shown. Information extracted from these analyses have proved useful in optimizing the experimental sputtering parameters. Calculated sputter yields obtained utilizing TRIM are presented for noble gas sputtering of a variety of materials common to nuclear target production.

Greene, J.P.; Nemanich, J.; Thomas, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.; Schiel, S.L. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

213

Chronology and shock history of the Bencubbin meteorite: A nitrogen, noble gas, and Ar-Ar investigation of silicates, metal and fluid inclusions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the distribution and isotopic composition of nitrogen and noble gases, and the Ar-Ar chronology of the Bencubbin meteorite. Gases were extracted from different lithologies by both stepwise heating and vacuum crushing. Significant amounts of gases were found to be trapped within vesicles present in silicate clasts. Results indicate a global redistribution of volatile elements during a shock event caused by an impactor that collided with a planetary regolith. A transient atmosphere was created that interacted with partially or totally melted silicates and metal clasts. This atmosphere contained 15N-rich nitrogen with a pressure ?3 × 10 5 hPa, noble gases, and probably, although not analyzed here, other volatile species. Nitrogen and noble gases were re-distributed among bubbles, metal, and partly or totally melted silicates, according to their partition coefficients among these different phases. The occurrence of N 2 trapped in vesicles and dissolved in silicates indicates that the oxygen fugacity ( fO2) was greater than the iron-wüstite buffer during the shock event. Ar-Ar dating of Bencubbin glass gives an age of 4.20 ± 0.05 Ga, which probably dates this impact event. The cosmic-ray exposure age is estimated at ˜40 Ma with two different methods. Noble gases present isotopic signatures similar to those of "phase Q" (the major host of noble gases trapped in chondrites) but elemental patterns enriched in light noble gases (He, Ne and Ar) relative to Kr and Xe, normalized to the phase Q composition. Nitrogen isotopic data together with 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios indicate mixing between a 15N-rich component (? 15N = +1000‰), terrestrial N, and an isotopically normal, chondritic N. Bencubbin and related 15N-rich meteorites of the CR clan do not show stable isotope (H and C) anomalies, precluding contribution of a nucleosynthetic component as the source of 15N enrichments. This leaves two possibilities, trapping of an ancient, highly fractionated atmosphere, or degassing of a primitive, isotopically unequilibrated, nitrogen component. Although the first possibility cannot be excluded, we favor the contribution of primitive material in the light of the recent finding of extremely 15N-rich anhydrous clasts in the CB/CH Isheyevo meteorite. This unequilibrated material, probably carried by the impactor, could have been insoluble organic matter extremely rich in 15N and hosting isotopically Q-like noble gases, possibly from the outer solar system.

Marty, Bernard; Kelley, Simon; Turner, Grenville

2010-11-01

214

Emissions of organic aerosol mass, black carbon, particle number, and regulated and unregulated gases from scooters and light and heavy duty vehicles with different fuels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sampling campaign with seven different types of vehicles was conducted in 2009 at the vehicle test facilities of the Joint Research Centre (JRC) in Ispra (Italy). The vehicles chosen were representative of some categories circulating in Europe and were fueled either with standard gasoline or diesel and some with blends of rapeseed methyl ester biodiesel. The aim of this work was to improve the knowledge about the emission factors of gas phase and particle-associated regulated and unregulated species from vehicle exhaust. Unregulated species such as black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (OA) content, particle number (PN), monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and a~selection of unregulated gaseous compounds, including nitrous acid (N2O), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and methane (CH4), were measured in real time with a suite of instruments including a high-resolution aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer, a resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer, and a high resolution Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Diesel vehicles, without particle filters, featured the highest values for particle number, followed by gasoline vehicles and scooters. The particles from diesel and gasoline vehicles were mostly made of BC with a low fraction of OA, while the particles from the scooters were mainly composed of OA. Scooters were characterized by super high emissions factors for OA, which were orders of magnitude higher than for the other vehicles. The heavy duty diesel vehicle (HDDV) featured the highest nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while the scooters had the highest emissions for total hydrocarbons and aromatic compounds due to the unburned and partially burned gasoline and lubricant oil mixture. Generally, vehicles fuelled with biodiesel blends showed lower emission factors of OA and total aromatics than those from the standard fuels. The scooters were the main emitters of aromatic compounds, followed by the gasoline vehicle, the diesel vehicles and the HDDV.

Chirico, R.; Clairotte, M.; Adam, T. W.; Giechaskiel, B.; Heringa, M. F.; Elsasser, M.; Martini, G.; Manfredi, U.; Streibel, T.; Sklorz, M.; Zimmermann, R.; DeCarlo, P. F.; Astorga, C.; Baltensperger, U.; Prevot, A. S. H.

2014-06-01

215

CO-oxidation catalysts: Low-temperature CO oxidation over Noble-Metal Reducible Oxide (NMRO) catalysts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxidation of CO to CO2 is an important reaction technologically and environmentally and a complex and interesting reaction scientifically. In most cases, the reaction is carried out in order to remove CO as an environmental hazard. A major application of heterogeneous catalysts is catalytic oxidation of CO in the exhaust of combustion devices. The reaction over catalysts in exhaust gas is fast and often mass-transfer-limited since exhaust gases are hot and O2/CO ratios are high. The main challenges to catalyst designers are to control thermal sintering and chemical poisoning of the active materials. The effect of the noble metal on the oxide is discussed, followed by the effect of the oxide on the noble metal, the interaction of the noble metal and oxide to form unique catalytic sites, and the possible ways in which the CO oxidation reaction is catalyzed by the NMRO materials.

Herz, Richard K.

1990-01-01

216

A lattice Boltzmann model for noble gas diffusion in solids: The importance of domain shape and diffusive anisotropy and implications for thermochronometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermochronometry based on radiogenic noble gases is critically dependent upon accurate knowledge of the kinetics of diffusion. With few exceptions, complex natural crystals are represented by ideal geometries such as infinite sheets, infinite cylinders, or spheres, and diffusivity is assumed to be isotropic. However, the physical boundaries of crystals generally do not conform to ideal geometries and diffusion within some

Christian Huber; William S. Cassata; Paul R. Renne

2011-01-01

217

Noble Gas Studies on Martian Meteorites: Dar Al Gani 476/489, Sayh Al Uhaymir 005/060, Dhofar 019, Los Angeles 001 and Zagami  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the concentrations and isotopic ratios of noble gases of DaG 489, SaU 005/060, DHO 019, LA 001 and Zagami. Based on 81Kr-Kr apparent ages, the long terrestrial ages of DaG 476 and DHO 019 are also calculated. The concentrations of 80Kr produced by neutron capture from Br were calculated.

Park, J.; Okazaki, R.; Nagao, K.

2003-03-01

218

Noble Gas Analysis for Mars Robotic Missions: Evaluating K-Ar Age Dating for Mars Rock Analogs and Martian Shergottites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this noble gas investigation was to evaluate the possibility of measuring noble gases in martian rocks and air by future robotic missions such as the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). The MSL mission has, as part of its payload, the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument, which consists of a pyrolysis oven integrated with a GCMS. The MSL SAM instrument has the capability to measure noble gas compositions of martian rocks and atmosphere. Here we suggest the possibility of K-Ar age dating based on noble gas release of martian rocks by conducting laboratory simulation experiments on terrestrial basalts and martian meteorites. We provide requirements for the SAM instrument to obtain adequate noble gas abundances and compositions within the current SAM instrumental operating conditions, especially, a power limit that prevents heating the furnace above approx.1100 C. In addition, Martian meteorite analyses from NASA-JSC will be used as ground truth to evaluate the feasibility of robotic experiments to constrain the ages of martian surface rocks.

Park, J.; Ming, D. W.; Garrison, D. H.; Jones, J. H.; Bogard, D. D.; Nagao, K.

2009-01-01

219

Noble Metal Nanoparticles for Biosensing Applications  

PubMed Central

In the last decade the use of nanomaterials has been having a great impact in biosensing. In particular, the unique properties of noble metal nanoparticles have allowed for the development of new biosensing platforms with enhanced capabilities in the specific detection of bioanalytes. Noble metal nanoparticles show unique physicochemical properties (such as ease of functionalization via simple chemistry and high surface-to-volume ratios) that allied with their unique spectral and optical properties have prompted the development of a plethora of biosensing platforms. Additionally, they also provide an additional or enhanced layer of application for commonly used techniques, such as fluorescence, infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Herein we review the use of noble metal nanoparticles for biosensing strategies—from synthesis and functionalization to integration in molecular diagnostics platforms, with special focus on those that have made their way into the diagnostics laboratory. PMID:22438731

Doria, Goncalo; Conde, Joao; Veigas, Bruno; Giestas, Leticia; Almeida, Carina; Assuncao, Maria; Rosa, Joao; Baptista, Pedro V.

2012-01-01

220

Photoionization of the outer electrons in noble gas endohedral atoms  

SciTech Connect

We suggest a prominent modification of the outer shell photoionization cross section in noble gas (NG) endohedral atoms NG-C{sub n} under the action of the electron shell of fullerene C{sub n}. This shell leads to two important effects: a strong enhancement of the cross section due to fullerene shell polarization under the action of the incoming electromagnetic wave and to prominent oscillation of this cross section due to the reflection of a photoelectron from the NG by the fullerene shell. Both factors lead to powerful maxima in the outer shell ionization cross sections of NG-C{sub n}, which we call giant endohedral resonances. The oscillator strength reaches a very large value in the atomic scale, 25. We consider atoms of all noble gases except He. The polarization of the fullerene shell is expressed in terms of the total photoabsorption cross section of the fullerene. The photoelectron reflection is taken into account in the framework of the so-called bubble potential, which is a spherical {delta}-type potential. It is assumed in the derivations that the NG is centrally located in the fullerene. It is also assumed, in accordance with the existing experimental data, that the fullerene radius R{sub C} is much larger than the atomic radius r{sub A} and the thickness {delta}{sub C} of the fullerene shell. As was demonstrated recently, these assumptions allow us to represent the NG-C{sub n} photoionization cross section as a product of the NG cross section and two well-defined calculated factors.

Amusia, M. Ya. [Hebrew University, Racah Institute of Physics (Israel)], E-mail: amusia@vms.huji.ac.il; Baltenkov, A. S. [Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Arifov Institute of Electronics (Uzbekistan); Chernysheva, L. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation)

2008-08-15

221

21 CFR 872.3060 - Noble metal alloy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Noble metal alloy. 872.3060 Section 872.3060 Food...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3060 Noble metal alloy. (a) Identification . A noble metal alloy is a device composed primarily of...

2010-04-01

222

21 CFR 872.3060 - Noble metal alloy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Noble metal alloy. 872.3060 Section 872.3060 Food...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3060 Noble metal alloy. (a) Identification . A noble metal alloy is a device composed primarily of...

2011-04-01

223

21 CFR 872.3060 - Noble metal alloy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Noble metal alloy. 872.3060 Section 872.3060 Food...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3060 Noble metal alloy. (a) Identification . A noble metal alloy is a device composed primarily of...

2012-04-01

224

21 CFR 872.3060 - Noble metal alloy.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Noble metal alloy. 872.3060 Section 872.3060 Food...Prosthetic Devices § 872.3060 Noble metal alloy. (a) Identification . A noble metal alloy is a device composed primarily of...

2013-04-01

225

Roosevelt County 027 - A low-shock ureilite with interstitial silicates and high noble gas concentrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The RC027 lightly-shocked ureilite contains less than 1 percent of a fine-grained interstitial silicate that has an igneous texture indicating crystallization from an interstitial liquid. RC027 is also noted to exhibit the strongest olivine preferred-orientation thus far observed in a ureilite; its fabric is characteristic of fabrics formed by tabular minerals in a fluid laminar flow regime, and is unlike those formed by synectonic recrystallization and plastic flow. The elemental and isotopic compositions of noble gases in RC027 are typical of previously analyzed ureilites.

Goodrich, Cyrena Anne; Keil, Klaus; Berkley, John L.; Laul, J. C.; Smith, M. R.

1987-01-01

226

Apparatus for preparing a solution of a hyperpolarized noble gas for NMR and MRI analysis  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates generally to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for both spectroscopy and imaging. More particularly, the present invention relates to methods in which hyperpolarized noble gases (e.g., Xe and He) are used to enhance and improve NMR and MRI. Additionally, the hyperpolarized gas solutions of the invention are useful both in vitro and in vivo to study the dynamics or structure of a system. When used with biological systems, either in vivo or in vitro, it is within the scope of the invention to target the hyperpolarized gas and deliver it to specific regions within the system.

Pines, Alexander (Berkeley, CA); Budinger, Thomas (Berkeley, CA); Navon, Gil (Ramat Gan, IL); Song, Yi-Qiao (Berkeley, CA); Appelt, Stephan (Waiblingen, DE); Bifone, Angelo (Rome, IT); Taylor, Rebecca (Berkeley, CA); Goodson, Boyd (Berkeley, CA); Seydoux, Roberto (Berkeley, CA); Room, Toomas (Albany, CA); Pietrass, Tanja (Socorro, NM)

2008-06-10

227

Natural Death and the Noble Savage.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The belief that dying and grieving are natural processes is widely held in modern bereavement care. Examines four assumption often made in this connection: (1) most primitive cultures deal with death in an accepting way; (2) this way is different than our own; (3) it is a good and noble way; and (4) traditional societies see death as natural. (JBJ)

Walter, Tony

1995-01-01

228

MICROWAVE-ASSISTED SYNTHESIS OF NOBLE NANOSTRUCTURES  

EPA Science Inventory

Microwave-assisted (MW) spontaneous reduction of noble metal salts, silver (Ag), gold (Au), platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) is reported using sugar solutions such as -D glucose, sucrose and maltose, etc. to generate nanomaterials. These MW-assisted reactions, conducted in aqueo...

229

Noble liquid detectors for dark matter.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments based on noble liquid targets are now providing competitive sensitivities in the race for the direct detection of particle dark matter. Theoretical estimates, based on supersymmetric models predict dark matter interaction rates from the best sensitivity of existing direct detection experiments of ˜1 evts/kg/month, down to rates of ˜1 evts/100 kg/yr, and below this. Current noble liquid experiments for dark matter searches, range in scale from 10 to 1000 kg, and are designed to rise to this challenge. Ar, Ne and Xe targets permit the discrimination of electron recoils, coming from gamma ray and beta backgrounds, versus nuclear recoils, characteristic of WIMP events. This is done using scintillation light pulse shapes, and/or the ratio of ionization to scintillation generated in the target by the interaction. The detectors are also able to significantly reduce backgrounds through the use of position resolution in large volumes, combined with active self-shielding, to reach very low levels in inner fiducial volumes. A growing understanding of how to exploit these characteristics, and construct larger detectors, will allow further significant improvements in the sensitivity of noble liquid experiments. Current and future noble liquid detector experiments include: ArDM, LUX, (mini)CLEAN/DEAP, WARP, XENON, XMASS, XMASS-DM, ZEPLIN

Gaitskell, Richard

2007-04-01

230

Temporal changes in noble gas compositions within the Aidlinsector ofThe Geysers geothermal system  

SciTech Connect

The use of nonreactive isotopic tracers coupled to a full thermal-hydrological reservoir simulation allows for an improved method of investigating how reservoir fluids contained within matrix and fractures contribute over time to fluids produced from geothermal systems. A combined field and modeling study has been initiated to evaluate the effects of injection, production, and fracture-matrix interaction on produced noble gas contents and isotopic ratios. Gas samples collected periodically from the Aidlin steam field at The Geysers, California, between 1997 and 2006 have been analyzed for their noble gas compositions, and reveal systematic shifts in abundance and isotopic ratios over time. Because of the low concentrations of helium dissolved in the injection waters, the injectate itself has little impact on the helium isotopic composition of the reservoir fluids over time. However, the injection process may lead to fracturing of reservoir rocks and an increase in diffusion-controlled variations in noble gas compositions, related to gases derived from fluids within the rock matrix.

Dobson, Patrick; Sonnenthal, Eric; Kennedy, Mack; van Soest,Thijs; Lewicki, Jennifer

2006-05-03

231

Fast Plasma Shutdowns By Massive Hydrogen, Noble and Mixed-Gas Injection in DIII-D  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments conducted with hydrogenic, noble and mixed (H2 + Ar and D2 + Ne) gases injected into H-mode plasmas are described. Gas species, quantity, delivery rate and intrinsic and added impurities (mixtures) all affect the disruption mitigation attributes of the resulting fast plasma shutdowns. With sufficient quantity, effective mitigation is obtained for all species. Optimal results for disruption and runaway avalanche mitigation are with 3x10^22 He delivery in ˜2 ms. This yields a favorable combination of moderately-fast current quench, high free-electron densities, ˜2x10^21,m-3, gas assimilation fractions ˜0.3 and avalanche suppression ratios, ne/nRB˜0.1. Favorable scaling of assimilation with increasing quantity is seen for all low-Z gases. The experiments provide validation data for emerging MHD/radiation simulation models and insight about design of injection systems for disruption and avalanche mitigation in ITER.

Wesley, J. C.; van Zeeland, M. A.; Evans, T. E.; Humphreys, D. A.; Hyatt, A. W.; Parks, P. B.; Strait, E. J.; Wu, W.; Hollmann, E. M.; Boedo, J. A.; Izzo, V. A.; James, A. N.; Moyer, R. A.; Rudakov, D. L.; Yu, J. H.; Jernigan, T. C.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Groth, M.

2008-11-01

232

Applications of Noble Gas Radiation Detectors to Counter-terrorism  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation detectors are essential tools in the detection, analysis and disposition of potential terrorist devices containing hazardous radioactive and/or fissionable materials. For applications where stand-off distance and source shielding are limiting factors, large detectors have advantages over small ones. The ability to distinguish between Special Nuclear Materials and false-positive signals from natural or man-made benign sources is also important. Ionization chambers containing compressed noble gases, notably xenon and helium-3, can be scaled up to very large sizes, improving the solid angle for acceptance of radiation from a distant source. Gamma spectrometers using Xe have a factor of three better energy resolution than NaI scintillators, allowing better discrimination between radioisotopes. Xenon detectors can be constructed so as to have extremely low leakage currents, enabling them to operate for long periods of time on batteries or solar cells. They are not sensitive to fluctuations in ambient temperature, and are therefore suitable for deployment in outdoor locations. Position-sensitive 3He chambers have been built as large as 3000 cm2, and with spatial resolution of less than 1 mm. Combined with coded apertures made of cadmium, they can be used to create images of thermal neutron sources. The natural background of spallation neutrons from cosmic rays generates a very low count rate, so this instrument could be quite effective at identifying a man-made source, such as a spontaneous fission source (Pu) in contact with a moderator (high explosive).

Vanier, Peter E.; Forman, Leon

2002-10-01

233

Defect-mediated melting in superheated noble gas crystals.  

PubMed

Molecular dynamics simulations have been used to investigate the mechanisms governing the homogeneous melting of pure noble gases at the limit of superheating. For each chemical species considered, the heterogeneous melting point was estimated by monitoring the thermal behavior of crystalline systems containing a high-angle grain boundary. To determine the limit to superheating, calculations were instead carried out on a perfect crystalline bulk. The temperature was gradually increased to bring the systems within the metastable region above the equilibrium melting point. The static order parameter was employed to monitor the structural disordering during the slow temperature increase and to determine the temperature at which the crystalline lattice collapses to a liquid. Structural disorder was further characterized by studying the appearance of atoms with defective coordination. Their relative number and spatial correlation appeared to play a fundamental role in destabilizing the crystalline lattice bulk and triggering the homogeneous melting. The fraction of atoms with defective coordination and the total length of the stringlike clusters they form in the vicinity of the homogeneous melting point were found to be approximately the same for all of the chemical species considered. These findings have been compared with theoretical predictions. PMID:16853625

Delogu, Francesco

2005-11-01

234

Catalytic combustion of actual low and medium heating value gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Catalytic combustion of both low and medium heating value gases using actual coal derived gases obtained from operating gasifiers was demonstrated. A fixed bed gasifier with a complete product gas cleanup system was operated in an air blown mode to produce low heating value gas. A fluidized bed gasifier with a water quench product gas cleanup system was operated in both an air enriched and an oxygen blown mode to produce low and medium, heating value gas. Noble metal catalytic reactors were evaluated in 12 cm flow diameter test rigs on both low and medium heating value gases. Combustion efficiencies greater than 99.5% were obtained with all coal derived gaseous fuels. The NOx emissions ranged from 0.2 to 4 g NO2 kg fuel.

Bulzan, D. L.

235

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOEpatents

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL)

1986-01-01

236

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOEpatents

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

1986-08-26

237

An Alteration Scale for CM Chondrites and Implications for Planetary Noble Gas Abundances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three progressive alteration parameters have been identified from the mineralogical and textural analyses of 7 CM chondritic falls. These indices predict the following order of progressive alteration [3]: Murchison (MC)noble gases, Ar^36, Xe^84, and Kr^132. Two of the progressive alteration parameters monitor the volumetric production of CM phyllosilicates, which was estimated from the modal analysis of 1 to 3 thin sections from each of the analyzed falls. These are the percentages of phyllosilicates in chondrules and the volume of anhydrous matrix silicates, which increase and decease, respectively, with progressive alteration. The third alteration index, the mean Fe^3+/(2-Si) ratio in phyllosilicates, is a stoichiometric-based approximation that monitors variations in mineral composition during progressive alteration, and decreases with increasing alteration. Values of Fe^3+/(2-Si) were calculated from an average of microprobe analyses of matrix phyllosilicates in each meteorite based on a generalized phyllosilicate stoichiometry, [(Fe, Mg)(sub)3-x (Al,Fe^3+)(sub)x(Si(sub)(2-x)(Al,Fe^3+)(sub)x)O(sub)5(OH)(sub)4], which accommodates a continuous transition from cronstedtite to serpentine compositions. The bulk Ar^36 content of the 7 investigated samples decreases with increasing alteration as predicted by the alteration parameters, which suggests the possibility of degassing events. The same trend is observed for Kr^84 and Xe^132. The loss of noble gases in CM chondritic meteorites has previously been noted [1,5], and may be related to the open-system behavior that is predicted for other volatile components in CM chondrites, such as C1 [4], water [3], and methane [2]. Although high-temperature minerals are depleted in noble gases relative to the low- temperature phases of CM chondrites, we observe decreasing noble gas abundances with increased volumes of low-temperature phases. This can be explained by a scenario similar to one proposed by Wood [7], in which all CM chondrites originally had high gas contents, and were subsequently degassed to varying degrees in response to aqueous alteration in a parent body setting. An alternate explanation is that the correlation between noble gas content and the degree of alteration is the fortuitous result of primary trapped gas abundances. If, however, degassing did occur in response to progressive alteration, then the sequence of alteration reactions in CM chondrites may provide additional constraints on the retention sites for trapped noble gases. References: [1] Bogard D. D. et al. (1971) JGR, 76, 4076-4083. [2] Bourcier W. L. et al. (1992) LPS XXIII, 143-144.[3] Browning L. B. et al. (1993) LPS XXIV. [4] Bunch T. E. and Chang S. (1980) GCA, 44, 1543-1577. [5] Mazor E. et al. (1970) GCA, 34, 781-824. [6] Schultz L. and Kruse H. (1989) Meteoritics, 24, 155-172. [6] Wood J. A. (1967) Icarus, 6, 1-49. Fig. 1, which appears here in the hard copy shows how averaged ^36Ar contents [6] for individual CM chondrites decrease with increasing alteration, as indicated by the mean composition of phyllosilicates.

Browning, L. B.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.; Zolensky, M.

1993-07-01

238

The Noble Element Simulation Technique (NEST)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A comprehensive model for explaining the mean scintillation and electroluminescence yields in liquid and gaseous noble elements will be presented which informs an exhaustive simulation code called NEST (Noble Element Simulation Technique). All available liquid xenon data on electron and nuclear recoils have been incorporated, and significant progress has been made on extending NEST's applicability to argon. Results will be shown from Geant4 implementations for 1- and 2-phase xenon and argon detectors. The quasi-empirical NEST approach can lead to a better understanding of detector calibrations and performance verification and aid in the design and optimization of future detectors for dark matter or other applications, and assist in the data analysis stage of present detectors.

Woods, Michael

2013-04-01

239

Noble gas-derived insights into carbon cycling into the deep biosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discovery of chemoautotrophic microbial communities at the mid-ocean ridges launched the exploration of the "deep hot biosphere". Recent advances have demonstrated however that chemoautotrophic communities are not restricted to high temperature hydrothermal settings. The discovery that the terrestrial subsurface too hosts chemoautotrophic ecosystems sustained by the products of water-rock reactions - albeit at lower temperatures and slower rates of reaction - has expanded our view of the extent of the planet that is habitable. Compelling questions remain. What are the ultimate limits to life in the Earth's deep subsurface? What are the underlying controls on microbial metabolic activity and biodiversity? The answers to these questions may provide insight into the evolutionary relationship of deep terrestrial microbial communities to marine sediment-hosted and vent-hosted communities, into the origin of life on Earth, and the potential for life on other planets and moons. At more than 2 km below surface, fracture waters accessed via mines in the tectonically quiescent Precambrian Shields of Canada and South Africa are dominated by radiogenic noble gases and crustal-derived carbon sources. Key uncertainties concerning the deep terrestrial biosphere in these settings include the rates and mechanisms of carbon cycling far from the photosphere, and hence the scale and significance of this remote and exotic reservoir of the global biogeochemical cycle. While carbon geochemistry and stable isotopes, as well as molecular microbiology, have facilitated major advances in identifying the geochemical and microbiological processes involved, this presentation will highlight how coupling these techniques with noble gases constrains the timescales for the deep carbon cycle. In particular, the coupling of noble gas tracers with carbon geochemistry provides the key to recognizing that hydrogeologically isolated fracture networks of geochemically distinct groundwaters exert a major control on the distribution and nature of microbial life and metabolic function in the deep surface. Understanding the nature and distribution of fluids in the subsurface is critical to deciphering the environmental constraints and potential for deep life. Noble gases provide a unique insight into both the sourcing of different components of these fluid-dominated systems and the residence times and timescales of fluid mixing and interaction and hence provide a powerful but to date still underutilized resource for deep biosphere research.

Sherwood Lollar, B.; Ballentine, C. J.; Lippmann-Pipke, J.; Slater, G. F.; Onstott, T. C.; Lin, L.; Moran, J.; Tille, S.; Moser, D. P.; Lacrampe-Couloume, G.

2009-12-01

240

Noble gas isotopes and halogens in volatile-rich inclusions in diamonds  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Application of the (40)Ar-(39)Ar method and noble gas studies to diamonds has increased our understanding of their age relationships to the host kimberlite or lamproite, and of the source and composition of volatile-rich fluids in the upper mantle. The properties of diamond (inert, high mechanical strength and low gas diffusivities) means they are especially useful samples for studying gases trapped deep within the earth (less than 150 km) as they are unlikely to have undergone loss or exchange of entrapped material since formation. Volatile-rich fluids (H2O-CO2) are important agents for metasomatic processes in the upper mantle, and the noble gases and halogens preferentially partition into this phase leading to a strong geochemical coherence between these groups of elements. The abundances of the halogens in the major reservoirs of the Earth shows a marked progression from chlorine, concentrated in the oceans, through to iodine which, through its affinity to organic material, is concentrated mainly in sediments. Abundances in the upper mantle are low. This is particularly true for iodine which is of special interest in view of its potential significance as an indicator of sediment recycling and by way of its link to (129)Xe amomalies in the mantle through the low extinct isotope (129)I. Extensions of the (40)Ar-(39)Ar technique enable measurements of halogens and other elements (K, Ca, Ba, U) by production of noble gas isotopes from these species during neutron irradiation. Samples analyzed in this way include 15 coated stones from an unknown source in Zaire, 3 boarts from the Jwaneng and 1 boart from the Orapa kimberlites, both in Botswana.

Burgess, Raymond; Turner, Grenville

1994-01-01

241

The relativistic polarization propagator for the calculation of electronic excitations in heavy systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we present a new four-component implementation of the polarization propagator for accurate calculations of excited states in heavy systems. Differences to existing nonrelativistic realizations are detailed and the energetically lowest final states of the ns2np6 ? ns2np5(n + 1)s1 and ns2np6 ? ns2np5(n + 1)p1 transitions in noble gases are calculated and compared with experimental data. Already for the light atoms Ne and Ar spin-orbit coupling leads to noticeable zero field splitting that gradually increases in the heavier homologues and eventually invalidates the LS-based description of singlet and triplet excited states. For all four noble gases Ne through Xe, we observe a very good agreement with experimental transition energies in the considered energetic range where the extended version of the propagator implementation in general yields better excitation energy differences than the strict variant. In the extended version, off-diagonal first-order contributions in the two-particle-two-hole block are included that are not present in the strict variant. In case of Kr and Xe, nonrelativistic approaches already exhibit unacceptable deviations in the reproduction of transition energies and the spectral structure. The obtained excited final states are analyzed in terms of atomic contributions to the donor and acceptor orbitals constituting the corresponding wave functions. The relativistic polarization propagator provides a consistent description of electron correlation and relativistic effects especially relevant for the heavier systems where these two contributions are no longer separable.

Pernpointner, Markus

2014-02-01

242

Detection of Noble Gas Radionuclides from an Underground Nuclear Explosion During a CTBT On-Site Inspection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of a technically sound approach to detecting the subsurface release of noble gas radionuclides is a critical component of the on-site inspection (OSI) protocol under the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. In this context, we are investigating a variety of technical challenges that have a significant bearing on policy development and technical guidance regarding the detection of noble gases and the creation of a technically justifiable OSI concept of operation. The work focuses on optimizing the ability to capture radioactive noble gases subject to the constraints of possible OSI scenarios. This focus results from recognizing the difficulty of detecting gas releases in geologic environments—a lesson we learned previously from the non-proliferation experiment (NPE). Most of our evaluations of a sampling or transport issue necessarily involve computer simulations. This is partly due to the lack of OSI-relevant field data, such as that provided by the NPE, and partly a result of the ability of computer-based models to test a range of geologic and atmospheric scenarios far beyond what could ever be studied by field experiments, making this approach very highly cost effective. We review some highlights of the transport and sampling issues we have investigated and complete the discussion of these issues with a description of a preliminary design for subsurface sampling that addresses some of the sampling challenges discussed here.

Carrigan, Charles R.; Sun, Yunwei

2014-03-01

243

Noble gas and oxygen isotope studies of aubrites: A clue to origin and histories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble gas measurements were performed for nine aubrites: Bishopville, Cumberland Falls, Mayo Belwa, Mount Egerton, Norton County, Peña Blanca Spring, Shallowater, ALHA 78113 and LAP 02233. These data clarify the origins and histories, particularly cosmic-ray exposure and regolith histories, of the aubrites and their parent body(ies). Accurate cosmic-ray exposure ages were obtained using the 81Kr-Kr method for three meteorites: 52 ± 3, 49 ± 10 and 117 ± 14 Ma for Bishopville, Cumberland Falls and Mayo Belwa, respectively. Mayo Belwa shows the longest cosmic-ray exposure age determined by the 81Kr-Kr method so far, close to the age of 121 Ma for Norton County. These are the longest ages among stony meteorites. Distribution of cosmic-ray exposure ages of aubrites implies 4-9 break-up events (except anomalous aubrites) on the parent body. Six aubrites show "exposure at the surface" on their parent body(ies): (i) neutron capture 36Ar, 80Kr, 82Kr and/or 128Xe probably produced on the respective parent body (Bishopville, Cumberland Falls, Mayo Belwa, Peña Blanca Spring, Shallowater and ALHA 78113); and/or (ii) chondritic trapped noble gases, which were likely released from chondritic inclusions preserved in the aubrite hosts (Cumberland Falls, Peña Blanca Spring and ALHA 78113). The concentrations of 128Xe from neutron capture on 127I vary among four measured specimens of Cumberland Falls (0.5-76 × 10 -14 cm 3STP/g), but are correlated with those of radiogenic 129Xe, implying that the concentrations of ( 128Xe) n and ( 129Xe) rad reflect variable abundances of iodine among specimens. The ratios of ( 128Xe) n/( 129Xe) rad obtained in this work are different for Mayo Belwa (0.045), Cumberland Falls (0.015) and Shallowater (0.001), meaning that neutron fluences, radiogenic 129Xe retention ages, or both, are different among these aubrites. Shallowater contains abundant trapped Ar, Kr and Xe (2.2 × 10 -7, 9.4 × 10 -10 and 2.8 × 10 -10 cm 3STP/g, respectively) as reported previously ( Busemann and Eugster, 2002). Isotopic compositions of Kr and Xe in Shallowater are consistent with those of Q (a primordial noble gas component trapped in chondrites). The Ar/Kr/Xe compositions are somewhat fractionated from Q, favoring lighter elements. Because of the unbrecciated nature of Shallowater, Q-like noble gases are considered to be primordial in origin. Fission Xe is found in Cumberland Falls, Mayo Belwa, Peña Blanca Spring, ALHA 78113 and LAP 02233. The majority of fission Xe is most likely 244Pu-derived, and about 10-20% seems to be 238U-derived at 136Xe. The observed ( 136Xe) Pu corresponds to 0.019-0.16 ppb of 244Pu, from which the 244Pu/U ratios are calculated as 0.002-0.009. These ratios resemble those of chondrites and other achondrites like eucrites, suggesting that no thermal resetting of the Pu-Xe system occurred after ˜4.5 Ga ago. We also determined oxygen isotopic compositions for four aubrites with chondritic noble gases and a new aubrite LAP 02233. In spite of their chondritic noble gas signatures, oxygen with chondritic isotopic compositions was found only in a specimen of Cumberland Falls (? 17O of ˜0.3‰). The other four aubrites and the other two measured specimens of Cumberland Falls are concurrent with the typical range for aubrites.

Miura, Yayoi N.; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Kusakabe, Minoru

2007-01-01

244

Isotopic studies of rare gases in terrestrial samples and natural nucleosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

This project is concerned with research in rare gas mass spectrometry. We read the natural record that isotopes of the rare gases provide. We study fluids using a system (RARGA) that is sometimes deployed in the field. In 1990 there was a strong effort to reduce the backlog of RARGA samples on hand, so that it was a year of intensive data gathering. Samples from five different areas in the western United States and samples from Guatemala and Australia were analyzed. In a collaborative study we also began analyzing noble gases from rocks associated with the fluids. An important objective, continuing in 1991, is to understand better the reasons for somewhat elevated {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in regions where there is no contemporary volcanism which could produce the effect by addition of mantle helium. Our helium data have given us and our collaborators some insights, which are to be followed up, into gold mineralization in geothermal regions. Our DOE work in calibrating a sensitive laser microprobe mass spectrometer for noble gases in fluid inclusions continues. Having completed a series of papers on noble gases in diamonds, we next will attempt to make precise isotopic measurements on xenon from mantle sources, in search of evidence for terrestrially elusive {sup 244}Pu decay.

Not Available

1990-07-01

245

New noble gas data of primitive and differentiated achondrites including Northwest Africa 011 and Tafassasset  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work reports on the noble gas inventory of 3 new acapulcoites, 3 brachinites, 2 new eucrites from the Dar al Gani region in Libya, the unique achondrite Dar al Gani (DaG) 896 from the same locality, the new eucrite-like achondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 011, and the controversial sample Tafassasset. We determined cosmic ray exposure and gas retention ages, evaluated shielding conditions, and discuss the trapped noble gas component of the specimens. All exposure ages are within the known range of stony meteorites and partly confirm previously established age clusters. Shielding conditions vary, suggesting substantial shielding for all 3 brachinites and Tafassasset. We cannot exclude, however, that the Mg-rich composition of brachinites simply simulates heavy shielding. Regarding the trapped component, we found Q-like compositions only for the acapulcoite Thiel Mountains (TIL) 99002. The brachinite Elephant Moraine (EET) 99402 yields a high, subsolar 36Ar/ 132Xe ratio of ~400 along with a slightly elevated 84Kr/132Xe ratio, indicating minor atmospheric contamination. All the other samples, particularly the eucrite DaG 983, are characterized by clearly elevated Ar/Kr/Xe ratios due to significant terrestrial alteration. Tafassasset exhibits noble gas parameters that are different from those of CR chondrites, including a relatively high cosmic ray exposure age, the absence of a solar component, low 132Xe concentrations, a low trapped 36Ar/132Xe ratio of ~30, and a noticeable amount of radiogenic 129Xe. Similar attributes have been observed for some primitive achondrites. These attributes are also consistent with the metamorphic character of the sample. We, therefore, consider Tafassasset's noble gas record to be inconclusive as to its classification (primitive achondrite versus metamorphosed CR chondrite).

Patzer, A.; Schultz, L.; Franke, L.

2003-10-01

246

Recycling of volatiles at subduction zones: Noble gas evidence from the Tabar-Lihir-Tanga-Feni arc of papua New Guinea  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Convergent margin processes play an important but poorly understood role in the distribution of terrestrial volatile species. For example, subduction processes filter volatiles from the subducting package, thereby restricting their return to the mantle. In addition, once extracted from the downgoing slab, volatiles become an essential component in the petrogenesis of island arc magmas. The noble gases, with their systematic variation in physical properties and diversity of radiogenic isotopes, should carry a uniquely valuable record of these processes. However, thus far studies of noble gases in arc volcanics have achieved only limited success in this regard. Subduction-related lavas and geothermal fluids carry (3)He/(4)He ratios equal to or slightly lower than those found in the depleted upper mantle source of mid-ocean ridge basalts. Apparently slab-derived helium (which should have (3)He/(4)He much less than MORB) is extensively diluted by MORB-like helium from the mantle wedge, making it difficult to use helium as a tracer of convergent margin processes. Interpretation of the heavier noble gases (Ne-Ar-Kr-Xe) in arc lavas has also proven difficult, because the lavas carry low noble gas concentrations and hence are subject to pervasive atmospheric contamination. The low noble gas concentrations may be a consequence of degassing in the high level magma chambers characteristic of arc stratovolcanos. We have recently initiated a project to better constrain the behavior of volatiles in subduction zones through geochemical studies of the tectonically unusual volcanoes of the Tabar-Lihir-Tanga-Feni (TLTF) arc in the Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea.

Farley, Kenneth; Mcinnes, Brent; Patterson, Desmond

1994-01-01

247

ANALYSIS OF PROTOCOL GASES  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1992, EPA's Atmospheric Research and Exposure Assessment Laboratory initiated a nationwide QA program on the suppliers of EPA Protocol Gases. he program has three goals: to increase the acceptance and use of Protocol Gases by the air monitoring community, to provide a QA check...

248

Biomass - Investigating Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lab activity students generate their own biomass gases by heating wood pellets or wood splints in a test tube. They collect the resulting gases and use the gas to roast a marshmallow. Students also evaluate which biomass fuel is the best by their own criteria or by examining the volume of gas produced by each type of fuel.

Benson, Eric E.; Highfill, Melissa; Development, Us D.

249

Vertically Aligned ZnO Nanorod Arrays Coated with $\\\\hbox{SnO}_{\\\\bf 2}$\\/Noble Metal Nanoparticles for Highly Sensitive and Selective Gas Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mimicking the biological olfactory receptor array that possesses large surface area for molecule capture, vertically aligned ZnO nanowire arrays, used as structural templates, were coated with SnO2 \\/noble metal nanoparticles as active materials for fabrication of 3-D gas sensors. The gas sensors showed room- temperature responses to environmental toxic gases, such as NO2 and H2 S, down to ppb level,

Jiajun Chen; Kai Wang; Weilie Zhou

2011-01-01

250

Noble-metal-free plasmonic photocatalyst: hydrogen doped semiconductors  

PubMed Central

The unique capacity of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) offers a new opportunity to overcome the limited efficiency of semiconductor photocatalyst. Here we unravel that LSPR, which usually occurs in noble metal nanoparticles, can be realized by hydrogen doping in noble-metal-free semiconductor using TiO2 as a model photocatalyst. Moreover, its LSPR is located in infrared region, which supplements that of noble metal whose LSPR is generally in the visible region, making it possible to extend the light response of photocatalyst to infrared region. The near field enhancement is shown to be comparable with that of noble-metal nanoparticles, indicating that highly enhanced light absorption rate can be expected. The present work can provide a key guideline for the creation of highly efficient noble-metal-free plasmonic photocatalysts and have a much wider impact in infrared bioimaging and spectroscopy where infrared LSPR is essential. PMID:24496400

Ma, Xiangchao; Dai, Ying; Yu, Lin; Huang, Baibiao

2014-01-01

251

Noble gas storage and delivery system for ion propulsion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A method and system for storing and delivering a noble gas for an ion propulsion system where an adsorbent bearing a noble gas is heated within a storage vessel to desorb the noble gas which is then flowed through a pressure reduction device to a thruster assembly. The pressure and flow is controlled using a flow restrictor and low wattage heater which heats an adsorbent bed containing the noble gas propellant at low pressures. Flow rates of 5-60 sccm can be controlled to within about 0.5% or less and the required input power is generally less than 50 W. This noble gas storage and delivery system and method can be used for earth orbit satellites, and lunar or planetary space missions.

Back, Dwight Douglas (Inventor); Ramos, Charlie (Inventor)

2001-01-01

252

Potential energy curves for the interaction of Ag(5s) and Ag(5p) with noble gas atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the interaction of ground and excited states of a silver atom with noble gases (NG), including helium. Born-Oppenheimer potential energy curves are calculated with quantum chemistry methods and spin-orbit effects in the excited states are included by assuming a spin-orbit splitting independent of the internuclear distance. We compare our results with experimentally available spectroscopic data, as well as with previous calculations. Because of strong spin-orbit interactions, excited Ag-NG potential energy curves cannot be fitted to Morse-like potentials. We find that the labeling of the observed vibrational levels has to be shifted by one unit.

Loreau, J.; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Dalgarno, A.

2013-02-01

253

Volcanic Gases and Their Effects  

MedlinePLUS

Volcanic Gases and Their Effects Magma contains dissolved gases that are released into the atmosphere during eruptions. Gases are also released from magma that either remains below ground (for example, as ...

254

Noble gas residence times of saline waters within crystalline bedrock, Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, Finland  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble gas residence times of saline groundwaters from the 2516 m deep Outokumpu Deep Drill Hole, located within the Precambrian crystalline bedrock of the Fennoscandian Shield in Finland, are presented. The accumulation of radiogenic (4He, 40Ar) and nucleogenic (21Ne) noble gas isotopes in situ together with the effects of diffusion are considered. Fluid samples were collected from depths between 180 and 2480 m below surface, allowing us to compare the modelled values with the measured concentrations along a vertical depth profile. The results show that while the concentrations in the upper part are likely affected by diffusion, there is no indication of diffusive loss at or below 500 m depth. Furthermore, no mantle derived gases were found unequivocally. Previous studies have shown that distinct vertical variation occurs both in geochemistry and microbial community structuring along the drill hole, indicating stagnant waters with no significant exchange of fluids between different fracture systems or with surface waters. Therefore in situ accumulation is the most plausible model for the determination of noble gas residence times. The results show that the saline groundwaters in Outokumpu are remarkably old, with most of the samples indicating residence times between ?20 and 50 Ma. Although being first order approximations, the ages of the fluids clearly indicate that their formation must predate more recent events, such as Quaternary glaciations. Isolation within the crust since the Eocene-Miocene epochs has also direct implications to the deep biosphere found at Outokumpu. These ecosystems must have been isolated for a long time and thus very likely rely on energy and carbon sources such as H2 and CO2 from groundwater and adjacent bedrock rather than from the ground surface.

Kietäväinen, Riikka; Ahonen, Lasse; Kukkonen, Ilmo T.; Niedermann, Samuel; Wiersberg, Thomas

2014-11-01

255

Constraints on light noble gas partitioning at the conditions of spinel-peridotite melting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Helium partitioning between olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and spinel and basaltic melt has been experimentally determined under upper mantle melting conditions (up to 20 kbar and 1450?°C). Under the conditions explored, helium partition coefficients are similar in all minerals investigated (KdHe˜10-4), suggesting He is evenly distributed between the minerals of spinel peridotite. This is in contrast to most incompatible elements, which are concentrated in clinopyroxene in spinel peridotite. The studied minerals have different concentrations of point defects, but similar He solubility, providing no evidence for He partitioning onto specific defects sites (e.g. cation vacancies). Upper limits on the partition coefficients for Ne and Ar have also been determined, constraining these elements to be moderately to highly incompatible in olivine at the conditions of spinel peridotite melting (<10-2 and <10-3, respectively). Helium partitioning in peridotite minerals varies little within the range of temperatures, pressures, and mineral compositions explored in this study. Reported partition coefficients, in combination with previous work, suggest that moderate to high degree mantle melting is not an efficient mechanism for increasing (U+Th)/He, (U+Th)/Ne, or K/Ar of the depleted mantle (DMM) through time, and consequently, supports the argument that recycling of oceanic crust is largely responsible for the relatively strong radiogenic noble gas signatures in the depleted mantle. Mantle residues with lowered (U+Th)/He, (U+Th)/Ne, and K/Ar may be produced through large extents of melting, but concentrations of noble gases will be low, unless noble gas solubility in solids deviate from Henry's Law at high fugacity.

Jackson, Colin R. M.; Parman, Stephen W.; Kelley, Simon P.; Cooper, Reid F.

2013-12-01

256

Nuclear magnetic resonance of laser-polarized noble gases in molecules, materials and organisms  

E-print Network

separate injections into the tail vein of a laboratory ratinjection of a polarized xenon/Intralipid (30%) solution into a rat's tail vein. (tail vein in the muscle of the rat's thigh, depending on the desired location of the injection.

Goodson, B.M.

2010-01-01

257

Ultra-low field magnetic resonance using optically pumped noble gases and SQUID detection  

E-print Network

of nuclei. Polarizations and therefore magnetic moments aremagnetic moment induced by the static field. In order to excite the nucleimoment: increase the number of nuclei (more sample), decrease the temperature, or increase the magnetic

Wong-Foy, Annjoe G.

2010-01-01

258

Impact Event at the Permian-Triassic Boundary: Evidence from Extraterrestrial Noble Gases in Fullerenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) event, which occurred about 251.4 million years ago, is marked by the most severe mass extinction in the geologic record. Recent studies of some PTB sites indicate that the extinctions occurred very abruptly, consistent with a catastrophic, possibly extraterrestrial, cause. Fullerenes (C60 to C200) from sediments at the PTB contain trapped helium and argon with isotope

Luann Becker; Robert J. Poreda; Andrew G. Hunt; Theodore E. Bunch; Michael Rampino

2001-01-01

259

The atmosphere of Mars near the surface - Isotope ratios and upper limits on noble gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several analyses of the Martian atmosphere have been carried out with the mass spectrometer in the molecular-analysis experiment. The ratios of abundant isotopes of carbon and oxygen are within 10 per cent of terrestrial values, whereas nitrogen-15 is considerably enriched on Mars. Argon-38 has been detected, and new limits on abundances of krypton and xenon have been set. The limit on krypton is sufficiently low to suggest that the inventories of volatile substances on Mars and on earth may be distinctly different.

Biemann, K.; Lafleur, A. L.; Owen, T.; Rushneck, D. R.; Howarth, D. W.

1976-01-01

260

Noble Gases in Individual Sediment-dispersed Chromite Grains - Micrometeorites from an Ordovician Asteroid Collision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sediment dispersed chromite grains from fossil meteorite-bearing sediments in Sweden all contain solar wind-implanted He and Ne. They thus arrived on Earth as micrometeorites. Rough exposure ages are calculated from small cosmogenic 21Ne excesses.

Meier, M. M. M.; Schmitz, B.; Heck, P. R.; Baur, H.; Wieler, R.

2008-03-01

261

Noble gases in individual L chondritic micrometeorites preserved in an Ordovician limestone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured the He and Ne concentrations and isotopic ratios of individual sediment-dispersed extraterrestrial chromite grains (63-180 ?m in diameter) from an Ordovician limestone in southern Sweden. In the same sediment, many fossil meteorites were found and have been attributed to the L chondrite parent body breakup event ˜ 470 Ma ago. In this analysis of 37 individual extraterrestrial chromite grains of L chondritic major element composition, at least 35 (˜ 95%) contain surface-implanted helium and neon of fractionated solar wind composition, implying that these grains are (relict parts of) fossil micrometeorites of asteroidal origin. Similar to what has been observed in recent micrometeorites collected in the polar regions, significant amounts of cosmogenic 21Ne were found in several grains, resulting in cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of up to ˜ 77 Myr. These ages exceed both dynamical lifetimes for asteroidal micrometeorites of this size as well as CRE ages observed in chromites from fossil meteorites from the same sediment beds. Significant contributions from terrestrial sources, like nucleogenic and cosmic-ray muon induced 21Ne can be excluded in the extraterrestrial chromites, since 11 terrestrial chrome spinel grains from the same sediment beds did not contain any measurable 21Ne excesses. Having found micrometeorites of undisputed asteroidal origin with cosmic ray exposure ages of several 10 7 years implies that high cosmic ray exposure ages alone are not a good indicator of cometary origin, in opposition to what has been suggested for recent micrometeorites and IDPs. We propose instead that these grains collected their cosmogenic 21Ne while residing in the regolith layer of their parent body.

Meier, M. M. M.; Schmitz, B.; Baur, H.; Wieler, R.

2010-02-01

262

Relation of electron scattering cross-sections to drift measurement in noble gases  

E-print Network

We investigate the classic "inverse problem" of extracting collision and scattering cross sections from measurements of electron swarm behavior. A Monte Carlo technique for simulating electron motion through a gas of ...

Stacey, Blake (Blake C.)

2005-01-01

263

Excitation of autoionization states of the atoms of noble gases by fast electrons: argon  

SciTech Connect

The ionization of Ar atoms by electron impact in the neighborhood of a (3s)/sup -1/(4p)/sup 1/P autoionization state is considered theoretically. Resonance profiles are calculated for the spectra of scattered electrons and of electrons under the conditions of a (e, 2e) coincidence experiment. The calculation is carried out in the Born approximation using a Herman-Skillman model and a Hartree-Fock model with a frozen core. The sensitivity of the resonance profile to the type of electron wave functions in the continuous spectrum is analyzed. The resemblance and difference in the characteristic peculiarities are discussed in the process of excitation of partially hole autoionization states in the Ar and Ne atoms.

Balashov, V.V.; Grum-Grzhimailo, A.N.; Kabachnik, N.M.; Magunov, A.I.; Strakhova, S.I.

1980-12-01

264

Release of Implanted Noble Gases from Metallic Glass Vitreloy During Pyrolysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vitreloy, a metallic vitreous glass, was examined as a potential target material for the Genesis Mission solar wind collector. Stepped pyrolysis revealed that He and Ne implanted in Vitreloy were efficiently re-trapped during phase transitions.

Meshik, A. P.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Burnett, D. S.; Woolum, D. S.

2000-01-01

265

Evidence for multiple magma ocean outgassing and atmospheric loss episodes from mantle noble gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The energy associated with giant impacts is large enough to generate global magma oceans during Earth's accretion. However, geochemical evidence requiring a terrestrial magma ocean is scarce. Here we present evidence for at least two separate magma ocean outgassing episodes on Earth based on the ratio of primordial 3He to 22Ne in the present-day mantle. We demonstrate that the depleted mantle 3He/22Ne ratio is at least 10 while a more primitive mantle reservoir has a 3He/22Ne ratio of 2.3 to 3. The 3He/22Ne ratios of the mantle reservoirs are higher than possible sources of terrestrial volatiles, including the solar nebula ratio of 1.5. Therefore, a planetary process must have raised the mantle's 3He/22Ne ratio. We show that long-term plate tectonic cycling is incapable of raising the mantle 3He/22Ne ratio and may even lower it. However, ingassing of a gravitationally accreted nebular atmosphere into a magma ocean on the proto-Earth explains the 3He/22Ne and 20Ne/22Ne ratios of the primitive mantle reservoir. Increasing the mantle 3He/22Ne ratio to a value of 10 in the depleted mantle requires at least two episodes of atmospheric blow-off and magma ocean outgassing associated with giant impacts during subsequent terrestrial accretion. The preservation of a low 3He/22Ne ratio in a primitive reservoir sampled by plumes suggests that the later giant impacts, including the Moon-forming giant impact, did not generate a whole mantle magma ocean. Atmospheric loss episodes associated with giant impacts provide an explanation for Earth's subchondritic C/H, N/H, and Cl/F elemental ratios while preserving chondritic isotopic ratios. If so, a significant proportion of terrestrial water and potentially other major volatiles were accreted prior to the last giant impact, otherwise the fractionated elemental ratios would have been overprinted by the late veneer.

Tucker, Jonathan M.; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

2014-05-01

266

Crustal Noble Gases in Jwaneng Diamonds With Links to Seismic Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent seismic tomography studies of the Kaapvaal-Zimbabwe craton of southern Africa reveal distinct seismic velocity profiles at 150 km depth within the diamond stability field, that appear to correlate with differences in diamond paragenesis. Diamond mines with predominantly eclogitic diamond inclusions (e.g. Jwaneng, Orapa, Premier) overlie lithospheric mantle with relatively slow P-wave velocities, whereas localities with predominantly peridotitic diamond inclusions

M. Honda; D. Phillips; J. W. Harris; I. Yatsevich

2005-01-01

267

Evidence for multiple magma ocean outgassing and atmospheric loss episodes from mantle noble gases  

E-print Network

The energy associated with giant impacts is large enough to generate global magma oceans during Earth's accretion. However, geochemical evidence requiring a terrestrial magma ocean is scarce. Here we present evidence for at least two separate magma ocean outgassing episodes on Earth based on the ratio of primordial 3He to 22Ne in the present-day mantle. We demonstrate that the depleted mantle 3He/22Ne ratio is at least 10 while a more primitive mantle reservoir has a 3He/22Ne ratio of 2.3 to 3. The 3He/22Ne ratios of the mantle reservoirs are higher than possible sources of terrestrial volatiles, including the solar nebula ratio of 1.5. Therefore, a planetary process must have raised the mantle's 3He/22Ne ratio. We show that long-term plate tectonic cycling is incapable of raising the mantle 3He/22Ne ratio and may even lower it. However, ingassing of a gravitationally accreted nebular atmosphere into a magma ocean on the proto-Earth explains the 3He/22Ne and 20Ne/22Ne ratios of the primitive mantle reservoir....

Tucker, Jonathan M

2014-01-01

268

A generic biokinetic model for noble gases with application to radon  

SciTech Connect

The International Commission for Radiological Protection (ICRP) currently uses a dose conversion coefficient to calculate effective dose per unit exposure to radon and its progeny. The coefficient is derived by dividing the detriment associated with unit exposure to radon, as estimated from epidemiological studies, by the detriment per unit effective dose, as estimated mainly from atomic bomb survivor data and animal studies. In a recent statement the ICRP indicated that future guidance on exposure to radon and its progeny will be developed in the same way as guidance for any other radionuclide. That is, intake of radon and progeny will be limited on the basis of effective dose coefficients derived from biokinetic and dosimetric models. This paper proposes a biokinetic model for systemic (absorbed) radon for use in the calculation of dose coefficients for inhaled or ingested radon. The model is based largely on physical laws governing transfer of a non-reactive and soluble gas between materials. Model predictions are shown to be consistent with results of controlled studies of the fate of internally deposited radon in human subjects.

Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Marsh, James [Health Protection Agency of Great Britain; Gregoratto, Demetrio [Health Protection Agency of Great Britain; Blanchardon, Eric [IRSN

2013-01-01

269

Groundwater dynamics and arsenic mobilization in Bangladesh assessed using noble gases and tritium.  

PubMed

The contamination of groundwater by geogenic arsenic is the cause of major health problems in south and southeast Asia. Various hypotheses proposing that As is mobilized by the reduction of iron (oxy)hydroxides are now under discussion. One important and controversial question concerns the possibility that As contamination might be related to the extraction of groundwater for irrigation purposes. If As were mobilized by the inflow of re-infiltrating irrigation water rich in labile organic carbon, As-contaminated groundwater would have been recharged after the introduction of groundwater irrigation 20-40 years ago. We used environmental tracer data and conceptual groundwater flow and transport modeling to study the effects of groundwater pumping and to assess the role of reinfiltrated irrigation water in the mobilization of As. Both the tracer data and the model results suggest that pumping induces convergent groundwater flow to the depth of extraction and causes shallow, young groundwater to mix with deep, old groundwater. The As concentrations are greatest at a depth of 30 m where these two groundwater bodies come into contact and mix. There, within the mixing zone, groundwater age significantly exceeds 30 years, indicating that recharge of most of the contaminated water occurred before groundwater irrigation became established in Bangladesh. Hence, at least at our study site, the results call into question the validity of the hypothesis that re-infiltrated irrigation water is the direct cause of As mobilization; however, the tracer data suggest that, at our site, hydraulic changes due to groundwater extraction for irrigation might be related to the mobilization of As. PMID:16433358

Klump, Stephan; Kipfer, Rolf; Cirpka, Olaf A; Harvey, Charles F; Brennwald, Matthias S; Ashfaque, Khandaker N; Badruzzaman, Abu Borhan M; Hug, Stephan J; Imboden, Dieter M

2006-01-01

270

Regularities and irregularities of the Stark broadening parameters for singly ionized noble gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years, different trends and regularities of Stark broadening parameters (halfwidths and shifts of spectral lines) have been analyzed. Conditions related to atomic structure of the element, as well as plasma conditions are responsible for regular or irregular behavior of the Stark broadening parameters . The absence of very close perturbing levels makes Ne II a good candidate for the analysis of the Stark broadening parameters regularities. The other two elements considered in this work, Kr II and Xe II, have complex spectra and present strong perturbations, leading to the appearance of Stark broadening parameters irregularities in some cases. In this work, we analyze the influence of perturbations on Stark broadening parameters within the multiplets.

Peláez, R. J.; Djurovi?, S.; ?irišan, M.; Aparicio, J. A.; Mar, S.

2010-11-01

271

Noble Metal Nanoparticles Applications in Cancer  

PubMed Central

Nanotechnology has prompted new and improved materials for biomedical applications with particular emphasis in therapy and diagnostics. Special interest has been directed at providing enhanced molecular therapeutics for cancer, where conventional approaches do not effectively differentiate between cancerous and normal cells; that is, they lack specificity. This normally causes systemic toxicity and severe and adverse side effects with concomitant loss of quality of life. Because of their small size, nanoparticles can readily interact with biomolecules both at surface and inside cells, yielding better signals and target specificity for diagnostics and therapeutics. This way, a variety of nanoparticles with the possibility of diversified modification with biomolecules have been investigated for biomedical applications including their use in highly sensitive imaging assays, thermal ablation, and radiotherapy enhancement as well as drug and gene delivery and silencing. Here, we review the available noble metal nanoparticles for cancer therapy, with particular focus on those already being translated into clinical settings. PMID:22007307

Conde, Joao; Doria, Goncalo; Baptista, Pedro

2012-01-01

272

Hyperpolarized noble gas magnetic resonance imaging of the animal lung: Approaches and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperpolarized noble gas (HNG) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is a very promising noninvasive tool for the investigation of animal models of lung disease, particularly to follow longitudinal changes in lung function and anatomy without the accumulated radiation dose associated with x rays. The two most common noble gases for this purpose are H3e (helium 3) and X129e (xenon 129), the latter providing a cost-effective approach for clinical applications. Hyperpolarization is typically achieved using spin-exchange optical pumping techniques resulting in ˜10 000-fold improvement in available magnetization compared to conventional Boltzmann polarizations. This substantial increase in polarization allows high spatial resolution (<1 mm) single-slice images of the lung to be obtained with excellent temporal resolution (<1 s). Complete three-dimensional images of the lungs with 1 mm slice thickness can be obtained within reasonable breath-hold intervals (<20 s). This article provides an overview of the current methods used in HNG MR imaging with an emphasis on ventilation studies in animals. Special MR hardware and software considerations are described in order to use the strong but nonrecoverable magnetization as efficiently as possible and avoid depolarization primarily by molecular oxygen. Several applications of HNG MR imaging are presented, including measurement of gross lung anatomy (e.g., airway diameters), microscopic anatomy (e.g., apparent diffusion coefficient), and a variety of functional parameters including dynamic ventilation, alveolar oxygen partial pressure, and xenon diffusing capacity.

Santyr, Giles E.; Lam, Wilfred W.; Parra-Robles, Juan M.; Taves, Timothy M.; Ouriadov, Alexei V.

2009-05-01

273

Development of Laser-Polarized Noble Gas Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We are developing technology for laser-polarized noble gas nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), with the aim of enabling it as a novel biomedical imaging tool for ground-based and eventually space-based application. This emerging multidisciplinary technology enables high-resolution gas-space magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-e.g., of lung ventilation, perfusion, and gas-exchange. In addition, laser-polarized noble gases (3He and 1BXe) do not require a large magnetic field for sensitive NMR detection, opening the door to practical MRI with novel, open-access magnet designs at very low magnetic fields (and hence in confined spaces). We are pursuing two specific aims in this technology development program. The first aim is to develop an open-access, low-field (less than 0.01 T) instrument for MRI studies of human gas inhalation as a function of subject orientation, and the second aim is to develop functional imaging of the lung using laser-polarized He-3 and Xe-129.

Walsworth, Ronald L.

2004-01-01

274

Regulating Greenhouse Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video highlights the work of climate scientists in the Amazon who research the relationship between deforestation, construction of new dams, and increased amounts of greenhouse gases being exchanged between the biosphere and the atmosphere.

Kqed; Domain, Teachers'

275

Noble metal abundances in an early Archean impact deposit  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Detailed analyses are reported on the concentrations of the noble metals Pd, Os, Ir, Pt, and Au in an early Archean spherule bed (S4) of probably impact origin from the lower Fig Tree Group, Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. Compared to other sedimentary deposits of known or suspected impact origin, some noble metals are present in exceptionally high concentrations. Noble metal abundances are fractionated relative to abundances in chondrites with ratios of Os/Ir, Pt/Ir, Pd/Ir, and Au/Ir at only 80, 80, 41, and 2 percent of these values on CI chondrites. Although an extraterrestrial source is favored for the noble metal enrichment, the most plausible cause of the fractionation is by regional hydrothermal/metasomatic alteration.

Kyte, Frank T.; Zhou, Lei; Lowe, Donald R.

1992-01-01

276

High voltage in noble liquids for high energy physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A workshop was held at Fermilab November 8-9, 2013 to discuss the challenges of using high voltage in noble liquids. The participants spanned the fields of neutrino, dark matter, and electric dipole moment physics. All presentations at the workshop were made in plenary sessions. This document summarizes the experiences and lessons learned from experiments in these fields at developing high voltage systems in noble liquids.

Rebel, B.; Hall, C.; Bernard, E.; Faham, C. H.; Ito, T. M.; Lundberg, B.; Messina, M.; Monrabal, F.; Pereverzev, S. P.; Resnati, F.; Rowson, P. C.; Soderberg, M.; Strauss, T.; Tomas, A.; Va'vra, J.; Wang, H.

2014-08-01

277

Mitigation of hydrogen by oxidation using nitrous oxide and noble metal catalysts  

SciTech Connect

This test studied the ability of a blend of nuclear-grade, noble-metal catalysts to catalyze a hydrogen/nitrous oxide reaction in an effort to mitigate a potential hydrogen (H{sub 2}) gas buildup in the Hanford Site Grout Disposal Facility. For gases having H{sub 2} and a stoichiometric excess of either nitrous oxide or oxygen, the catalyst blend can effectively catalyze the H{sub 2} oxidation reaction at a rate exceeding 380 {mu}moles of H{sub 2} per hour per gram of catalyst ({mu}mol/h/g) and leave the gas with less than a 0.15 residual H{sub 2} Concentration. This holds true in gases with up to 2.25% water vapor and 0.1% methane. This should also hold true for gases with up to 0.1% carbon monoxide (CO) but only until the catalyst is exposed to enough CO to block the catalytic sites and stop the reaction. Gases with ammonia up to 1% may be slightly inhibited but can have reaction rates greater than 250 {mu}mol/h/g with less than a 0.20% residual H{sub 2} concentration. The mechanism for CO poisoning of the catalyst is the chemisorption of CO to the active catalyst sites. The CO sorption capacity (SC) of the catalyst is the total amount of CO that the catalyst will chemisorb. The average SC for virgin catalyst was determined to be 19.3 {plus_minus} 2.0 {mu}moles of CO chemisorbed to each gram of catalyst ({mu}mol/g). The average SC for catalyst regenerated with air was 17.3 {plus_minus} 1.9 {mu}mol/g.

Britton, M.D.

1995-01-19

278

Gases: Characteristics and Properties  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The first site related to ideal gas, called Ideal and Real Gas Laws, is maintained by Liina Ladon of Townsen University (1). Visitors can read about the properties of ideal gases, what the ideal gas law is, how to use it, and much more. The next site, titled Gas Laws, (2) is offered by the Ohio State University Department of Chemistry. This interactive site contains Shockwave movies of animations and audio files that describe what a gas is, the Ideal Gas Law equation, mixtures of gases, and problems using the ideal gas law. The University of Oregon site, Virtual Laboratory, teaches about the ideal gas law on the Welcome to the Pressure Chamber page (3). Those who enjoy online interaction will enjoy being able to control the action of a piston in a pressure chamber to see how the gases inside react. The fourth site includes another fun multimedia activity related to ideal gases provided by the Department of Physics and Astronomy at Western Washington University. The Air Filled Balloon in Liquid Nitrogen (4) movie shows an actual experiment of the effects on a balloon that's covered with liquid nitrogen. The page contains some additional information on the science behind the observations. The next site, called Ideal Gas Equations (5) is an online calculator that's part of Kean University's Department of Geology and Meteorology Web site. Users can calculate the pressure, volume, or temperature of a gas by inputting known variables into the various forms. Several methods and variations of calculating the values are provided as well as brief instructions. The next page from North Carolina State University's Basic Concepts in Environmental Science Web site is called Characteristics of Gases (6). Part of a larger learning module, the lesson plans objective is to use the ideal gas law to determine gas volumes at different absolute temperatures and absolute pressures. Everything needed to conduct the activity is provided including links to a volume calculator and practice problems. The seventh site is another animation that illustrates how gases react, called Molecular Model for an Ideal Gas (7). By changing the number of molecules in the chamber, their velocity, and the pressure and width of the container, users get to see how the molecules react to the conditions. The last site, Gases and Their Properties, is maintained by the Electronic Teaching Assistance Program(8). Students learn about the history of gas science, how gas laws describe ideal gases, what Dalton's Law and Graham's Law are, and much more.

Brieske, Joel A.

279

Solids, Liquids, and Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this project you will research solids, liquids, and gases. By the end of this project you will be able to answer the question: Can you tell what is alike and different between solids, liquids, and gases? Read the song about matter. song with music about matter Record your observations on the organizer provided by the teacher. On the diagram write the word solid in one of the circles. Write liquid in one of the circles and write gas in the last circle. As you collect your information write your information under ...

Sibley, Ms.

2009-10-22

280

2, 99113, 2007 Noble gas signature  

E-print Network

Page Abstract Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back Close Full Screen / Esc Introduction Conclusions References Tables Figures Back Close Full Screen / Esc Printer-friendly Version and accumulated mass addition. This has20 led to the concept of a Late Heavy Bombardment (LHB), a short time span

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

281

Catalytic Generation of Lift Gases for Balloons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A lift-gas cracker (LGC) is an apparatus that generates a low-molecular-weight gas (mostly hydrogen with smaller amounts of carbon monoxide and/or carbon dioxide) at low gauge pressure by methanol reforming. LGCs are undergoing development for use as sources of buoyant gases for filling zero-gauge-pressure meteorological and scientific balloons in remote locations where heavy, high-pressure helium cylinders are not readily available. LGCs could also be used aboard large, zero-gauge-pressure, stratospheric research balloons to extend the duration of flight.

Zubrin, Robert; Berggren, Mark

2011-01-01

282

Dual mechanism of ion beam mixing of noble metals with oxide matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Layers of noble metals M embedded in various oxide matrices (SiO 2, Al 2O 3, TiO 2, ZrO 2, and also Si for a purpose of comparison) were irradiated with incremented fluences of MeV heavy ions. A major contribution of recoil implantation to displacements accounts for the linear rates of atoms relocation as a function of the ion fluence, measured by means of RBS. According to the temperature and to the initial thickness of the M layer, the in depth-straggling of M atoms varies in proportion to the ion fluence or to its square. This change of straggling rate is explained by its control either by the radiation-enhanced diffusion or by the recoil implantation process, when the solution of diffusion equations relative to an infinitely thin source cannot be applied. The mobility of M atoms in the oxide depends on the latter ionicity and on the M mass.

Pivin, J. C.; Rizza, G.

2000-05-01

283

MECRIS: A compact ECRIS for ionization of noble gas radioisotopes at ISOLDE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very compact Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) for singly charged radioactive gases has been developed at ISOLDE/CERN. The radioisotopes are produced by fission, spallation, and fragmentation reactions induced via high-energy protons impacting on a thick target. The often short-lived radioactive elements required for ISOLDE physics diffuse out of the target, effuse through a transfer tube, and eventually reach the ionizing volume. An efficient ionization process is mandatory in view of the very small production cross sections of radioactive elements far from stability and fast ionization is desired to minimize decay losses. The MECRIS (Mono ECR ISOLDE) is intended for light noble gases (He, Ne, Ar, and Kr), which have low ionization efficiency in ordinary plasma ion sources, but also for gaseous molecular compounds of C, N, and O isotopes. We will report on the design and construction of the device, including magnetic field calculations and rf simulations. Results of the first tests performed with stable ion beams are presented.

Wenander, F.; Lettry, J.

2004-05-01

284

Noble Metal Nanoparticle-loaded Mesoporous Oxide Microspheres for Catalysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble metal nanoparticles/nanocrystals have attracted much attention as catalysts due to their unique characteristics, including high surface areas and well-controlled facets, which are not often possessed by their bulk counterparts. To avoid the loss of their catalytic activities brought about by their size and shape changes during catalytic reactions, noble metal nanoparticles/nanocrystals are usually dispersed and supported finely on solid oxide supports to prevent agglomeration, nanoparticle growth, and therefore the decrease in the total surface area. Moreover, metal oxide supports can also play important roles in catalytic reactions through the synergistic interactions with loaded metal nanoparticles/nanocrystals. In this thesis, I use ultrasonic aerosol spray to produce hybrid microspheres that are composed of noble metal nanoparticles/nanocrystals embedded in mesoporous metal oxide matrices. The mesoporous metal oxide structure allows for the fast diffusion of reactants and products as well as confining and supporting noble metal nanoparticles. I will first describe my studies on noble metal-loaded mesoporous oxide microspheres as catalysts. Three types of noble metals (Au, Pt, Pd) and three types of metal oxide substrates (TiO2, ZrO2, Al 2O3) were selected, because they are widely used for practical catalytic applications involved in environmental cleaning, pollution control, petrochemical, and pharmaceutical syntheses. By considering every possible combination of the noble metals and oxide substrates, nine types of catalyst samples were produced. I characterized the structures of these catalysts, including their sizes, morphologies, crystallinity, and porosities, and their catalytic performances by using a representative reduction reaction from nitrobenzene to aminobenzene. Comparison of the catalytic results reveals the effects of the different noble metals, their incorporation amounts, and oxide substrates on the catalytic abilities. For this particular reaction, I found that Pd nanoparticles supported on mesoporous TiO2 exhibit the best catalytic performance. The demonstrated low-cost and high-productivity preparation method can be extended to other catalysts, which can contain various metals and oxide substrates and will have high potential for industrial applications. Our preparation method also provides a platform for the studies of the synergetic catalytic effects between different oxide substrates and metals. I further fabricated hollow mesoporous microspheres containing differently shaped noble metal nanocrystals. Hollow structures are strongly desired in many applications because of their high pore volumes, surface areas, and possible light-trapping effect. In my study, the hollow structures were obtained by simply dispersing polystyrene (PS) nanospheres into the precursor solution for aerosol spray. The PS spheres were removed by thermal calcination to produce hollow mesoporous microspheres. In my first study, the noble metal salts were dissolved in the precursor solutions, and the noble metal nanoparticles were obtained through thermal calcination. In this way, the size and shape of the metal nanoparticles cannot be well controlled. In my second study, I first grew noble metal nanocrystals and then incorporated them into the oxide supports. This preparation route allowed me to incorporate metal nanocrystals with controlled sizes, shapes, and compositions into the oxide matrices. The metal nanocrystals I used in this experiment included Pd nanocubes, Au nanorods, and Au core--Pd shell nanorods. These nanocrystals were functionalized with thiol-terminated methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) . The surface functionalization allowed them to adsorb on the PS spheres. After thermal calcination, the noble metal nanocrystals were left inside and adsorbed on the inner surface of the hollow mesoporous metal oxide microspheres. I investigated the catalytic activities of the Pd nanocube-embedded hollow mesoporous TiO2 and ZrO2 microspheres for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol. I also examined the recycla

Jin, Zhao

285

Isotopic studies of rare gases in terrestrial samples and natural nucleosynthesis. Progress report  

SciTech Connect

This project is concerned with research in rare gas mass spectrometry. Using a two-pronged attack, we study fluids using a system (RARGA) designed for fluid analysis in bulk which is sometimes deployed in the field and a laser microprobe mass spectrometer for fluid inclusion studies. In 1991 the RARGA project continued monitoring helium isotope variations associated with renewed seismic activity in Long Valley Caldera and expanded our geothermal data base to include Lassen National Park. An important objective, continuing in 1992, is to understand better the reasons for somewhat elevated {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in regions where there is no contemporary volcanism which could produce the effect by addition of mantle helium. To this end, 1991 saw continued efforts to understand variations in composition between fluids and associated reservoir rocks and extended the data base to include fluids from the Gulf of Mexico. Our DOE work in calibrating a sensitive laser microprobe mass spectrometer for noble gases in fluid inclusions continues with successful returns particularly in calibrating neutron irradiated samples for tracing halogen ratios. In connection with observations of neutron-produced noble gas nuclides in granites, we have begun comparing measurements with calculations for both thermal and epithermal neutrons. We submitted a third paper on noble gases in diamonds, concentrating on observed effects of {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, and fission xenon implantation from nuclear processes in adjacent material in the matrix rock. 16 refs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1991-05-01

286

METHODS AND RESULTS OF RECONSTRUCTION OF NOBLE GAS RELEASES FROM THE STACKS OF THE MAYAK PA GRAPHITE REACTORS OVER THE WHOLE PERIOD OF THEIR OPERATION  

SciTech Connect

Brief analysis of design features and operational modes of Mayak PA industrial graphite-uranium reactors (PUGRs) is given. The above mentioned Mayak PA PUGRs determined the rates of releases of radioactive noble gases (RNG) from activation (41Ar) and fission (isotopes of Krypton and Xenon) through the vent stack of the reactor. Information is given on methods and results of experimental determination of RNG atmospheric releases for the period starting from 1965 till PUGRs decommissioning in 1987-1990. A calculation method for reconstruction of radioactive noble gas releases is proposed and justified. The results of reconstruction are given. It is shown that maximum rates of RNG releases from PUGRs high stacks were observed in the 1950s, when ordinary atmospheric air was used as a cover gas for the reactor graphite stacks and gas purification systems (flow-type gas holders) had not been installed yet.

Glagolenko, Y. V.; Drozhko, Evgeniy G.; Mokrov, Y.; Pyatin, N. P.; Rovny, Sergey I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

2008-06-01

287

Biomedical imaging using hyperpolarized noble gas MRI: Pulse sequence considerations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hyperpolarized noble gas MRI is a new technique for imaging of gas spaces and tissues that have been hitherto difficult to image, making it a promising diagnostic tool. The unique properties of hyperpolarized species, particularly the non-renewability of the large non-equilibrium spin polarization, raises questions about the feasibility of hyperpolarized noble gas MRI methods. In this paper, the critical issue of T1 relaxation is discussed and it is shown that a substantial amount of polarization should reach the targets of interest for imaging. We analyse various pulse sequence designs, and point out that total scan times can be decreased so that they are comparable or shorter than tissue T1 values. Pulse sequences can be optimized to effectively utilize the non-renewable hyperpolarization, to enhance the SNR, and to eliminate image artifacts. Hyperpolarized noble gas MRI is concluded to be quite feasible.

Zhao, Lei; Albert, Mitchell S.

1998-02-01

288

169. Credit FM. Remains of H.H. Noble residence, destroyed by ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

169. Credit FM. Remains of H.H. Noble residence, destroyed by fire. 'Noble Castle' stood atop the ridge near Lakes Grace and Nora, overlooking Volta. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

289

Isotopic mass-dependence of noble gas diffusion coefficients inwater  

SciTech Connect

Noble gas isotopes are used extensively as tracers inhydrologic and paleoclimatic studies. These applications requireknowledge of the isotopic mass (m) dependence of noble gas diffusioncoefficients in water (D), which has not been measured but is estimatedusing experimental D-values for the major isotopes along with an untestedrelationship from kinetic theory, D prop m-0.5. We applied moleculardynamics methods to determine the mass dependence of D for four noblegases at 298 K, finding that D prop m-beta with beta<0.2, whichrefutes the kinetic theory model underlying all currentapplications.

Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

2007-06-25

290

Diffusion of barium atoms in the 6s5d triplet-D(J) levels and the 6s(2) singlet-S(0) ground state through noble gas perturbers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a set of experiments that investigate diffusion of barium 6s5d3D J metastable level and 6s2\\/ 1S0 ground state atoms through the noble gases: He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe. The barium metastable levels were populated through optical pumping of the 6s2\\/ 1S0 \\/to 6s6p 3P1o intercombination transition with a pulsed laser, followed by spontaneous or stimulated emission into

Raychel Kristine Namiotka

1998-01-01

291

Signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, as a vector for Psorospermium haeckeli to noble crayfish, Astacus astacus  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of investigations of the ecological impact and transmission of the crayfish parasite Psorospermium haeckeli, a laboratory experiment was performed where noble crayfish, Astacus astacus, and signal crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, from populations in which P. haeckeli had not been detected, were fed with each other in all combinations. Noble crayfish fed noble crayfish did not acquire P. haeckeli during

Rolf Gydemo

1996-01-01

292

Field Enhancement using Noble Metal Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonance may be one of the most fundamental rules of nature. Electromagnetic resonance at nanometer scale could produce a giant field enhancement at optical frequency, providing a way to measure and control the process of atoms and molecules at single molecule scale. For example, the giant field enhancement would provide single molecule sensitivity for Raman scattering, which provides unique tools in measuring the quantity in extremely low concentration. In addition, light-emitting diodes could have high brightness but low input power that would be revolutionary in the optoelectronic industry. Although light enhancement is promising in several key technology areas, there are several challenges remain to be tackled. In particular, since the field enhancement is so strongly geometry dependent that slight modification of the geometry can lead to large variations in the outcome, a thorough understanding in how the geometry of the structure affects the field enhancement and creating proper methods to fabricate these structures reproducibly is of most importance. This thesis is devoted to design, fabrication and characterization of field enhancement generated on the surface of noble metals such as silver or gold with 1D structure. The s-polarized field enhancement arising from one-dimensional metal gratings is designed and optimized by using Rigorous Coupling Wave Analysis (RCWA). After optimization, the strongest enhancement factor is found to be 9.7 for 514nm wavelength light. The theoretical results arc confirmed by angle-dependent reflectivity measurements and the experimental results are found to support the theory. A novel single slit structure employing surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) for enhancing the electric field is studied. SPPs are first generated on a 50 nm thick metal film using attenuated total reflection coupling, and they are subsequently coupled to the cavity mode induced by the single slit. As a result, the field enhancement is found at least 3 times the surface plasmon background adjacent to the slit, as predicted by using RCWA. The mechanism for enhancement is theoretically studied both numerically and analytically. Two novel convenient methods for fabricating nanoslits with high aspect ratio are proposed. One is creating nanoslits by cracking the thin glass substrates with metal film. Sub-5nm wide slits with fair uniformity are created, as confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy images and comparing the Confocal Two Photon Emission (CTPE) spectroscopy with finite difference in time domain simulations. The other is creating slits by fatiguing the metal film on a flexible substrate. Enhanced CTPE and second harmonic generation are observed arising from these less than 20nm wide slits. Nanoslits fabricated using Electron Beam Lithography (EBL) are characterized using CTPE. The overall emission enhancement of excitation and collection wavelengths is separated by a proposed method. It is surprisingly found that the pulsing laser can tune the resonant wavelength of the EBL samples to the laser wavelength. A mechanism is proposed for this phenomenon. It is shown this can be developed into a tool to fabricate field enhancement hot spots.

Liu, Benliang

293

In Search of the Noble Savage: Some Romantic Cases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea of the noble savage is as early as Oroonoko; or, The Royal Slave (1688), a novel by Aphra Behn, or Friday, the cannibal in Robinson Crusoe(1719).In Chateaubriand's major novels with New World settings it mirrors European yearning for naivet and purity. In Cooper's Leatherstocking Tales both the “white savage” Natty Bumppo and his friend, the Indian chief, Chingachgook

Gerald Gillespie

2002-01-01

294

Noble metal nanoparticles for water purification: A critical review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Water is one of the essential enablers of life on earth. Beginning with the origin of the earliest form of life in seawater, it has been central to the evolution of human civilizations. Noble metals have been similarly associated with the prosperity of human civilizations through their prominent use in jewellery and medical applications. The most important reason for the

T. Pradeep; Anshup

2009-01-01

295

NOBLE DOLLHOUSES, VIOLENT SHOOTER GAMES: REALITY, ABSTRACTION AND SHIFTING PERSPECTIVES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dollhouses and shooter games provoke opposing associations: The cute world of the dollhouse versus the brutal realm of the shooter game. In a workshop, I combined the two and asked the participants to collaboratively design a dollhouse level for the shooter game Unreal Tournament. Dollhouses originally came into existence as beautifully crafted miniaturisations of noble households. A dollhouse offers a

Maia Engeli

296

NUCLEAR GENERATED PLASMAS IN NOBLE GAS THERMIONIC CONVERTERS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The generation of a plasma by fission fragment ionization in noble gas ; thermionic converters was investigated in a series of inpile experiments at the ; University of Michigan reactor. The plasma generated in Ne: Ar (1000: 1) at a ; pressure of 20 mm Hg was investigated in a plane parallel diode with electrically ; heated emitter and collector

F. E. Jamerson; R. H. Jr. Abrams; C. B. Leffert; R. Silver

1963-01-01

297

Differential cross sections for modeling of noble gas plasmas  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differential cross sections are required to model the 3D diffusion of electrons in a gas under the influence of electromagnetic fields. In a low temperature plasma containing a noble gas elastic scattering from the neutral atoms is an important process governing this diffusion even at energies above the inelastic thresholds. We have calculated the phase shifts at such energies using

Allan Stauffer; Robert McEachran

2009-01-01

298

Making A Noble-Metal-On-Metal-Oxide Catalyst  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Catalyst exhibits superior performance in oxidation of CO in CO2 lasers. Two-step process developed for preparing platinum- or palladium-on-tin-oxide catalyst for recombination of CO and O2, decomposition products that occur in high-voltage discharge region of closed-cycle CO2 laser. Process also applicable to other noble-metal/metal-oxide combinations.

Miller, Irvin M.; Davis, Patricia P.; Upchurch, Billy T.

1989-01-01

299

Photochemical synthesis and deposition of noble metal nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly dispersed nanoparticles of transition and noble metals are utilized for hydrocarbon reactions and rearrangements important to the chemical industry. The need to obtain 1 to 3 nm particles with narrow size distributions has prompted the development of alternative processing methods. In this paper, a novel, dry method to synthesize nanoparticles from a frozen salt solution is reported. Pd nanoparticles

C. E. Allmond; A. T. Sellinger; K. Gogick; J. M. Fitz-Gerald

2007-01-01

300

Checking Ownership and Confinement Properties Alex Potanin and James Noble  

E-print Network

to construct an ownership forest using the heap root set #12;2 objects as roots and makes the forestChecking Ownership and Confinement Properties Alex Potanin and James Noble alex- tures, including object ownership, confinement, and uniqueness. Understanding the kinds of aliasing

Potanin, Alex

301

Temperature Reconstruction at WAIS Divide for the Last 1000 years, from Noble Gas Isotopes and Borehole Temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

West Antarctica is warming, but it is not clear yet whether it is abnormal, in the context of natural background variability. The amplitude of natural climate variability on multi-decadal timescales remains poorly quantified, but it is essential to our understanding of the significance of the warming of the last 50 years. Here, we present a 1000-year temperature record at WAIS Divide, reconstructed from noble gas isotopes from the ice core, and borehole temperature measurements. Borehole temperature provides an absolute estimate of long-term trends, while noble gases track decadal to centennial scale changes. This method provides a temperature reconstruction that is independent of the water isotope of the ice, and allows us to improve our understanding of water isotopes as a temperature proxy at this site. We found that the "Little Ice Age" cold period of 1400-1800 was 0.52°C colder than the last century, and that 50 to 100 year variability is on the order of 0.5 to 1°C.

Orsi, A. J.; Severinghaus, J. P.

2012-12-01

302

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-print Network

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 2.3 Combustion and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste

Zevenhoven, Ron

303

Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream  

DOEpatents

In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

Gorin, Everett (San Rafael, CA); Zielke, Clyde W. (McMurray, PA)

1981-01-01

304

Origins of natural gases from marine strata in Northeastern Sichuan Basin (China) from carbon molecular moieties and isotopic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To determine the origin, maturity, formation mechanism and secondary process of marine natural gases in Northeastern Sichuan area, molecular moieties and carbon isotopic data of the Carboniferous and Triassic gases have been analyzed. Typical samples of marine gas precursors including low-maturity kerogen, dispersed liquid hydrocarbons (DLHs) in source rocks, residual kerogen and oil have been examined in a closed system, and several published geochemical diagrams of gas origins have been calibrated by using laboratory data. Results show that both Carboniferous and Triassic gases in the study area have a thermogenic origin. Migration leads to stronger compositional and weak isotopic fractionation, and is path dependent. Carboniferous gases and low-H2S gases are mainly formed by secondary cracking of oil, whereas high-H2S gases are clearly related to the TSR (Thermal Sulfate Reduction) process. Gases in NE Sichuan show a mixture of heavy (13C-enriched) methane in comparison to the lower maturated ethane of Triassic gas samples, suggesting a similar source and maturity for ethane and propane of Carboniferous gases, and a mixture of heavy ethane to the propane for Triassic gases. Based on the data plotted in the diagram of Chung et al. (1988), the residual kerogen from Silurian marine shale and palaeo oil reservoirs are the main source for Carboniferous gases, and that the residual kerogen from Silurian and Permian marine rocks and Permian paleao oil reservoirs constitute the principal source of Triassic gases.

Wang, Yunpeng; Zhao, Changyi; Wang, Hongjun; Wang, Zhaoyun; Wang, Zecheng

2013-03-01

305

Fusion propulsion with the addition of indigenous gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A feasibility and performance projection study is conducted for a heavy-lift aerospace plane employing nuclear fusion propulsion in conjunction with the earth and Mars atmospheres' indigenous gases, which allows a great simplification of propulsion system design and a similar reduction in vehicle mass. The estimated earth takeoff weight of the vehicle for this 250-day earth-Mars (round trip) interplanetary mission was

Franklin B. Mead Jr.; F. B. Jr

1993-01-01

306

Shock Waves in Granular Gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review is the first attempt to systematize the results on shock waves in granular gases. We present experimental and computational evidences of shock and expansion waves propagating within granular gases. The analysis of model flows with shock and expansion waves shows that even smallest kinetic energy dissipations crucially affects such flows. We discuss the role of these waves for

Alexander Goldshtein; Alexander Alexeev; Michael Shapiro

2003-01-01

307

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

EIA Publications

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

2011-01-01

308

Gases in Seawater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The annual gross and net primary productivity of the surface oceans is similar in size to that on land (IPCC, 2001). Marine productivity drives the cycling of gases such as oxygen (O2), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methyl iodide (CH3I) which are of fundamental importance in studies of marine productivity, biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric chemistry, climate, and human health, respectively. For example, ˜30% of the world's population (1,570 million) is thought to be at risk of iodine-deficiency disorders that impair mental development (WHO, 1996). The main source of iodine to land is the supply of volatile iodine compounds produced in the ocean and then transferred to the atmosphere via the air-surface interface. The flux of these marine iodine species to the atmosphere is also thought to be important in the oxidation capacity of the troposphere by the production of the iodine oxide radical ( Alicke et al., 1999). A further example is that the net flux of CO2 from the atmosphere to the ocean, ˜1.7±0.5 Gt C yr-1, represents ˜30% of the annual release of anthropogenic CO2 to the atmosphere (IPCC, 2001). This net flux is superimposed on a huge annual flux (90 Gt C yr-1) of CO2 that is cycled "naturally" between the ocean and the atmosphere. The long-term sink for anthropogenic CO2 is recognized as transfer to the ocean from the atmosphere. A final example is the emission of volatile sulfur, in the form of DMS, from the oceans. Not only is an oceanic flux from the oceans needed to balance the loss of sulfur (a bioessential element) from the land via weathering, it has also been proposed as having a major control on climate due to the formation of cloud condensation nuclei (Charlson et al., 1987). Indeed, the existence of DMS and CH3I has been used as evidence in support of the Gaia hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979).There are at least four main processes that affect the concentration of gases in the water column: biological production and consumption, photochemistry, air-sea exchange, and vertical mixing. We will not discuss the effect of vertical mixing on gases in seawater and instead refer the reader to Chapter 6.08. Nor will we consider the deeper oceans as this region is discussed in chapters on benthic fluxes and early diagenesis (Chapter 6.11), the biological pump (Chapter 6.04), and the oceanic calcium carbonate cycle (Chapter 6.19) all in this volume. We will discuss the cycling of gases in surface oceans, including the thermocline, and in particular concentrate on the exchange of various volatile compounds across the air-sea interface.As we will show, while much is known about the cycling of gases such as CO2 and DMS in the water column, frustratingly little is known about many of the chemical species for which the ocean is believed to be a significant source to the atmosphere. We suspect the passage of time will reveal that the cycling of volatile compounds containing selenium and iodine may well prove as complex as that of DMS. Early studies of DMS assumed that it was produced from a precursor compound, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), known to be present in some species of phytoplankton, and that the main sink in the water column was exchange across the air-sea interface. We now know that DMSP and DMS are both rapidly cycled in water column by a complex interaction between phytoplankton, microzooplankton, bacteria, and viruses (see Figure 1). Some detailed process experiments have revealed that only ˜10% of the total DMS produced (and less than 1.3% of the DMSP produced) is transferred to the atmosphere, with the bulk of the DMS and DMSP, either being recycled in the water column or photo-oxidized (Archer et al., 2002b).

Nightingale, P. D.; Liss, P. S.

2003-12-01

309

The Role of Boron-Chloride and Noble Gas Isotope Ratios in TVZ Geothermal Systems  

SciTech Connect

The model of the geothermal system in which deep circulating groundwater containing noble gases, at air saturated water concentrations, mixes with hot fluids of mantle origin at depth, is extended to include the effect of interaction of the ascending fluid with both solid and gaseous phases of basement (or other) rocks en route to the surface. It is demonstrated that this interaction is responsible for most of the CO{sub 2} in the Taupo Volcanic Zone (TVZ) geothermal systems. It is proposed that the modeling of this interaction might be accomplished by techniques similar to those used for the understanding of the oxygen isotope shift found in geothermal systems. The water rock interaction experiments of Ellis and Mahon (1964, 1967) provides some data on the kinetic rates for B and Cl dissolution from rocks likely to be encountered in the geothermal system, but further information on the behavior of B may be needed. If these problems can be overcome this modeling technique has promise for the estimation of the recharge of geothermal systems and hence the sustainability of these systems.

Hulston, J.R.

1995-01-01

310

Noble gas and carbon isotopes in natural gas: a new methodology for oil and gas exploration/production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isotopic measurements of both stables isotopes and noble gases give important clues to reconstruct the geological history of hydrocarbons, from their generation to their accumulation. Recent analytical advances in carbon isotopes of natural gases (methane to butane and carbon dioxide) allowed to characterize some of the physico-chemical processes which affect natural gas, instead of using these signatures as simple fingerprinting of origins as it was the case some decades ago. These reconstructions provide important information on both the origins and the dynamic behavior of hydrocarbon fluids in sedimentary basins. Moreover, correlating this methodology with other natural tracers increases the knowledge of hydrocarbon history. Among them, noble gas isotopes may be the new frontier tool, as their chemical inertness allows to use them as precise tracers of sources and of associated physical processes (phases behavior, migration and leakage). Moreover, because some isotopes are produced by natural radioactivity, they act therefore as geological clocks, giving potentially a quantification of the residence times of hydrocarbons in a reservoir. The parameters one would hope to constrain, and which may be used as boundary conditions for basin modeling, are the age and the residence time of the fluids constituting a petroleum system, the quantitative estimate of the distance of migration of the hydrocarbons from the source rock to the reservoir and from the petroleum system to the atmosphere, and the proportion of hydrocarbons lost through leakage from the time of accumulation to the present. Other parameters associated with hydrocarbon accumulations, and more conventionally studied, include the relations between source rocks and accumulated fluids, the possible bacterial contribution through methanogenesis and/or biodegradation, the range of maturity of the fluids, the possible dysmigration of the gas from a liquid through evaporative fractionation, the characterization of permeability barriers in reservoirs, and the efficiency of accumulation. New geological case studies demonstrate the power of this new methodology, as it is possible in some cases to quantify the absolute amount of hydrocarbons lost through leakage and the relative residence times of fluids in an accumulation for an homogeneous geological setting. Diagnosis on the genesis of hydrocarbons (bacterial activity versus thermal degradation of organic matter) and on the distance of migration from the source rocks to the accumulation are also confirmed combining both stable isotopes and noble gas natural tracing.

Prinzhofer, A.; Battani, A.

2003-04-01

311

Photochemical synthesis and deposition of noble metal nanoparticles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Highly dispersed nanoparticles of transition and noble metals are utilized for hydrocarbon reactions and rearrangements important\\u000a to the chemical industry. The need to obtain 1 to 3 nm particles with narrow size distributions has prompted the development\\u000a of alternative processing methods. In this paper, a novel, dry method to synthesize nanoparticles from a frozen salt solution\\u000a is reported. Pd nanoparticles were

C. E. Allmond; A. T. Sellinger; K. Gogick; J. M. Fitz-Gerald

2007-01-01

312

Possible solar noble-gas component in Hawaiian basalts  

USGS Publications Warehouse

THE noble-gas elemental and isotopic composition in the Earth is significantly different from that of the present atmosphere, and provides an important clue to the origin and history of the Earth and its atmosphere. Possible candidates for the noble-gas composition of the primordial Earth include a solar-like component, a planetary-like component (as observed in primitive meteorites) and a component similar in composition to the present atmosphere. In an attempt to identify the contributions of such components, we have measured isotope ratios of helium and neon in fresh basaltic glasses dredged from Loihi seamount and the East Rift Zone of Kilauea1-3. We find a systematic enrichment in 20Ne and 21Ne relative to 22Ne, compared with atmospheric neon. The helium and neon isotope signatures observed in our samples can be explained by mixing of solar, present atmospheric, radiogenic and nucleogenic components. These data suggest that the noble-gas isotopic composition of the mantle source of the Hawaiian plume is different from that of the present atmosphere, and that it includes a significant solar-like component. We infer that this component was acquired during the formation of the Earth.

Honda, M.; McDougall, I.; Patterson, D. B.; Doulgeris, A.; Clague, D. A.

1991-01-01

313

Positron scattering and annihilation on noble-gas atoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Positron scattering and annihilation on noble-gas atoms is studied ab initio using many-body theory methods for positron energies below the positronium formation threshold. We show that in this energy range, the many-body theory yields accurate numerical results and provides a near-complete understanding of the positron-noble-gas atom system. It accounts for positron-atom and electron-positron correlations, including the polarization of the atom by the positron and the nonperturbative effect of virtual positronium formation. These correlations have a large influence on the scattering dynamics and result in a strong enhancement of the annihilation rates compared to the independent-particle mean-field description. Computed elastic scattering cross sections are found to be in good agreement with recent experimental results and Kohn variational and convergent close-coupling calculations. The calculated values of the annihilation rate parameter Zeff (effective number of electrons participating in annihilation) rise steeply along the sequence of noble-gas atoms due to the increasing strength of the correlation effects, and agree well with experimental data.

Green, D. G.; Ludlow, J. A.; Gribakin, G. F.

2014-09-01

314

New evidence for chondritic lunar water from combined D/H and noble gas analyses of single Apollo 17 volcanic glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to assess the proportion of solar, cosmogenic, and indigenous water (hydrogen) trapped in individual Ti-rich lunar volcanic glasses (LVGs) from the 74002 core obtained during the Apollo 17 mission, we coupled ion microprobe measurements of water abundances and D/H ratios with CO2 laser extraction-static mass spectrometry analyses of noble gases (He, Ne, Ar). The large (˜300-400 ?m in diameter) LVGs studied here contain a small amount of solar wind (SW) volatiles implanted at the grain surfaces, as indicated by the small concentrations of solar helium and neon that represent ?5% of the respective total noble gas abundances. The large proportion of volume-correlated cosmogenic gases reflects an exposure duration of ˜28 Ma, on average, of the glasses at the lunar surface. Hydrogen abundances determined in the grain interiors of glassy and partially-crystalline LVGs are equivalent to between 6.5 and 54.3 ppm H2O. Based on the noble gas exposure ages, the correction of the measured hydrogen isotope composition for in situ production of cosmogenic deuterium by spallation reactions varies between -5‰ to -254‰ for the different grains. Corrected ?D values range from +38‰ to +809‰ in the LVGs and are anti-correlated with the water content, consistent with extensive hydrogen isotope fractionation during kinetic H2 loss from a lunar melt with an inferred initial isotope signature of the order of -100‰ and a water content of 100-300 ppm. The detection of water in these primitive lunar melts confirms the presence of a non-anhydrous mantle reservoir within the Moon. Furthermore, our results reveal that the hydrogen isotope composition of water in the melt source of the 74002 LVGs is similar to that of carbonaceous chondrites. These observations indicate that the contribution of deuterium-enriched cometary water to the Earth-Moon system is negligible.

Füri, Evelyn; Deloule, Etienne; Gurenko, Andrey; Marty, Bernard

2014-02-01

315

Environmental implications of anesthetic gases.  

PubMed

For several decades, anesthetic gases have greatly enhanced the comfort and outcome for patients during surgery. The benefits of these agents have heavily outweighed the risks. In recent years, the attention towards their overall contribution to global climate change and the environment has increased. Anesthesia providers have a responsibility to minimize unnecessary atmospheric pollution by utilizing techniques that can lessen any adverse effects of these gases on the environment. Moreover, health care facilities that use anesthetic gases are accountable for ensuring that all anesthesia equipment, including the scavenging system, is effective and routinely maintained. Implementing preventive practices and simple strategies can promote the safest and most healthy environment. PMID:23241038

Yasny, Jeffrey S; White, Jennifer

2012-01-01

316

Investigating and Using Biomass Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners will be introduced to biomass gasification and will generate their own biomass gases. Learners generate these gases everyday on their own and find it quite amusing, but this time theyâll do it by heating wood pellets or wood splints in a test tube. They will collect the resulting gases and use the gas to roast a marshmallow. Learners will also evaluate which biomass fuel is the best either according to their own criteria or by examining the volume of gas produced by each type of fuel.

Benson, Eric; Highfill, Melissa

2012-07-03

317

Irradiation History of ACFER 111, Inferred from Nuclear Tracks and Rare Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acfer 111 is a regolith breccia consisting of H4-H6 chondritic and igneous clasts embedded in a fine-grained unequilibrated clastic matrix. The matrix has a high concentration of solar noble gases of virtually unfractionated composition [1]. To investigate the irradiation history of Acfer 111, we analyzed the cosmic ray tracks and noble gases at different locations in the meteorite. Noble gases were measured by conventional mass spectrometry. For cosmic ray track analyses, 18-200-mg fragments of nine clasts and five matrix locations were crushed and sieved. Ten to fifty grains of transparent olivine were picked from the 60-200-micrometer fractions, mounted in epoxy, polished, and etched (about 4 hr in a boiling WN solution [2]). Clasts: Out of two clasts having a small ^21Ne(sub)c excess (5-10%), one had a few grains with clearly higher track densities, the other a small amount of solar ^4He. Since the track-rich grains were not identified in situ (i.e., in an etched section), matrix contamination cannot be ruled out. The presence of preirradiated clasts, detected in many other gas-rich meteorites [see references in 4], remains an open question for Acfer 111. Clastic Matrix: Track densities at each location in the matrix show a main peak distribution that can be attributed to the galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) irradiation of the meteoroid. Ten percent to fifty percent of the grains, however, have a track density higher than the main peak, and thus are preirradiated. Fourteen percent of these grains exhibit a steep track density gradient, indicating solar-flare irradiation at the surface of the parent body. Comparable abundances of preirradiated grains are found in the gas-rich meteorites Kapoeta and Fayetteville [3,4]. Modal and INAA analyses revealed 25-30% more metallic Fe-Ni in the matrix than in the clasts. ^21Ne(sub)c- deficits observed for matrix samples are attributed to these differing target- element chemistries. Gcr Exposure Age and Preatmospheric Size: As shown in Fig. 1, the depth- dependent main-peak track densities (owing to the meteoroid irradiation) correlate with the shielding-sensitive (^22Ne/^21Ne)(sub)c ratio. Furthermore, there is a good correlation between these two parameters and the position of the sample within the meteorite. The preatmospheric radius inferred from noble gases is at least 12 cm. Assuming production rates given by Eugster [6], the cosmic ray ages of all clasts cluster at 37.6 +/- 2 Ma. Comparing this noble gas exposure age and the measured main-peak track densities with track production rate profiles modeled for spherical meteoroids [5] and taking into account the differing track recording effiencies of olivines and pyroxenes [7], a preatmospheric meteoroid radius of 13-14 cm is inferred. The excellent agreement in size, age, and geometry found for track and noble-gas data strongly supports a single-stage exposure for Acfer 111. References: [1] Pedroni A. and Begemann F. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 273-274. [2] Krishnaswami S. et al. (1971) Science, 174, 287-291. [3] Price P. B. et al. (1975) Proc. LSC 6th, 3449-3469. [4] Wieler R. et al. (1989) GCA, 53, 1441-1448. [5] Bhattacharya S. K. et al. (1973) JGR, 78, 8356-8363. [6] Eugster O. (1988) GCA, 52, 1649-1662. [7] Pellas P. et al. (1973) Meteoritics, 8, 418-419. Fig. 1, which appears here in the hard copy, shows the correlation between the 22Ne/21Ne ratio and track densities.

Romstedt, J.; Pedroni, A.

1993-07-01

318

Noble Metals and Spinel Settling in High Level Waste Glass Melters  

SciTech Connect

In the continuing effort to support the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), the noble metals issue is addressed. There is an additional concern about the amount of noble metals expected to be present in the future batches that will be considered for vitrification in the DWPF. Several laboratory, as well as melter-scale, studies have been completed by various organizations (mainly PNNL, SRTC, and WVDP in the USA). This letter report statuses the noble metals issue and focuses at the settling of noble metals in melters.

Sundaram, S. K.; Perez, Joseph M.

2000-09-30

319

A Deconstruction of Dexter: An Analysis of Noble Cause Corruption Within a Crime Drama.  

E-print Network

??The literature on corruption within law enforcement typically addresses factors such as brutality, dishonesty, accepting bribes, and using falsified evidence. This research project examines noble… (more)

Lawrence, Alyssa

2013-01-01

320

Hydrodynamics of unitary Fermi gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Unitary fermi gases have been widely studied as they provide a tabletop archetype for re- search on strongly coupled many body systems and perfect fluids. Research into unitary fermi gases can provide insight into may other strongly interacting systems including high temperature superconductor, quark-gluon plasmas, and neutron stars. Within the unitary regime, the equilib- rium transport coefficients and thermodynamic properties are universal functions of density and temperature. Thus, unitary fermi gases provide a archetype to study nonperturbative many-body physics, which is of fundamental significance and crosses several fields. This thesis reports on two topics regarding unitary fermi gases. A recent string theory conjecture gives a lower bound for the dimensionless ratio of shear viscosity of entropy, ?/s ? 4pi /kb . Unitary fermi gases are a candidate for prefect fluids, yet ?/s is well above the string theory bound. Using a stochastic formulation of hydrodynamics, we calculate a lower bound for this ratio accounting for the momentum dissipation from fluctuations. This lower bound is in good agreement with both theoretical and experimental results. The second question addressed is the simulation of elliptic flow. Elliptic flow, first observed in 2002, is a characteristic of strongly coupled systems and has been studied in both quark-gluon plasmas and unitary fermi gases. As such, simulations of these systems are of interest. We test a variety of lattice Boltzmann models and compare the simulation results to the theoretical and experimental findings.

Young, Ryan E.

321

Determining paleotemperature and other variables by using an error-weighted, nonlinear inversion of noble gas concentrations in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an error-weighted, nonlinear inverse technique appropriate for using noble gas concentrations in water to resolve recharge paleotemperature and up to two other variables. This method gives an estimate of the precision of the fitted variables and enables us to assess the confidence of the conceptual models used to invert the data. We illustrate the utility of this method with comprehensive data sets from the Pannonian basin, San Juan basin, and tropical Brazil (Stute and Deak, 1989; Stute et al., 1995a, b). Solving for temperature and excess air, we demonstrate that the inverse method reproduces iterative techniques but with a bias relative to the latter of up to 0.6°C. This is due to error weighting in the inverse technique placing more emphasis on the heavy noble gas concentrations in the temperature determination. The ?? 2 of the Pannonian and San Juan data set is high and suggests that the measured noble gas concentrations are controlled by more than temperature and excess air at recharge. Solving for either recharge salinity or altitude as a third variable, synthetic data sets reproduce input values. Literature data, however, produce an average negative offset from known recharge salinity and altitude. This offset in natural systems points to a significant noble gas fractionation effect in all of the aquifer systems investigated. We also solve for fractionation by diffusive gas loss at recharge (Stute et al., 1995b). The tropical Brazil data set reproduces independently derived literature fractionation constants. Although this improves the data fit, a simple statistical test shows that diffusive fractionation alone cannot account for the sample noble gas abundance pattern observed in the tropical Brazil samples. Our derived errors of between ±1.5 and ±5.6°C (1?) are significantly higher than the quoted literature error of ±0.8°C. This is due to both the inclusion of the third variable and the poor fit of the sample data to the conceptual model. When solving for fractionation in the Pannonian basin and San Juan data, we demonstrate that optimal recharge salinity for the combined data is now within error of meteoric water. Paleotemperature errors range between ±0.3 and ±2.4°C and ±0.8°C and ±2.3°C, respectively. In both cases, the data show a significant degree of improvement in the fit of the data to the model, the conceptual model is statistically consistent with both data sets, young samples are within error of the present day recharge temperatures, and samples previously considered outliers now agree with samples in the same age bracket. Despite the incomplete fit to the tropical Brazil data, it would appear that diffusive gas loss provides a necessary and reasonable proxy to a seemingly ubiquitous aquifer fractionation process. This must be considered when interpreting the noble gas paleotemperature in meteoric aquifer systems.

Ballentine, C. J.; Hall, C. M.

1999-08-01

322

Mechanical response of noble gas films to an oscillating substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We carried out quartz-crystal microbalance (QCM) experiments for Xe films adsorbed on an exfoliated single-crystalline graphite substrate (Xe/Gr) and Kr 1ms adsorbed on a synthetic mica substrate (Kr/mica) around LN2 temperature. For Xe/Gr, it was found that the resonance frequency decreases greatly around the first layer completion, while it does not decrease at low coverages. The observed behavior is similar to that of Kr films on a graphite substrate (Kr/Gr). This demonstrates that the layer completion strongly affects the sliding motion of noble gas films on graphite.

Kobayashi, Hajime; Taniguchi, Junko; Suzuki, Masaru; Miura, Kouji; Arakawa, Ichiro

2012-12-01

323

p-d hybridization of noble metal halides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic band calculations of noble metal halides are studied to make the high ionic conducting origin of silver and cupper ions clear using the tight-binding method. The d bands of Ag ions are much more weakly coupled with the p bands of halogen ions, while those of Cu ions are much more strongly coupled with the p bands. The strength of p-d hybridization is discussed to connect with the activation energy for the ionic conduction. It is shown that the high ionic conductivity of AgX primary stems from combination of the deformability of the d shell and the weakness of the p-d hybridization.

Kobayashi, M.; Iyetomi, H.; Ono, S.; Tomoyose, T.

324

33 CFR 147.T17-0024 - Safety Zone; NOBLE DISCOVERER, Outer Continental Shelf Drillship, Chukchi and/or Beaufort Seas...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Zone; NOBLE DISCOVERER, Outer Continental Shelf Drillship, Chukchi and/or...SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES SAFETY ZONES ...Zone; NOBLE DISCOVERER, Outer Continental Shelf Drillship, Chukchi...

2012-07-01

325

Heavy periodane.  

PubMed

The potential energy surface of the hypothetical NaMgAlSiPSCl system (heavy periodane) is exhaustively analyzed via the gradient embedded genetic algorithm (GEGA) in combination with density functional theory (DFT) computations. The electronegativity differences among the elements in both the second and third rows of the periodic table indicate that low-energy heavy periodane structures are obtained when highly electronegative and electropositive elements are bound together, but the global minimum of the heavy periodane system is completely different to its second-row analog (LiBeBCNOF). PMID:22903586

Azpiroz, Jon M; Moreno, Diego; Ramirez-Manzanares, Alonso; Ugalde, Jesus M; Mendez-Rojas, Miguel Angel; Merino, Gabriel

2013-05-01

326

Understanding the adsorption mechanism of noble gases Kr and Xe in CPO-27-Ni, CPO-27-Mg, and ZIF-8.  

PubMed

An experimental study of Xe and Kr adsorption in metal-organic frameworks CPO-27-Ni, CPO-27-Mg, and ZIF-8 was carried out. In situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction experiments allowed precise determination of the adsorption sites and sequence of their filling with increasing of gas pressure at different temperatures. Structural investigations were used for interpretation of gas adsorption measurements. PMID:25277596

Magdysyuk, O V; Adams, F; Liermann, H-P; Spanopoulos, I; Trikalitis, P N; Hirscher, M; Morris, R E; Duncan, M J; McCormick, L J; Dinnebier, R E

2014-11-21

327

Detection of soft X-rays and a sensitive search for noble gases in comet Hale-Bopp.  

PubMed

An image of comet Hale-Bopp (C/1995 O1) in soft x-rays reveals a central emission offset from the nucleus, as well as an extended emission feature that does not correlate with the dust jets seen at optical wavelengths. Neon was found to be depleted in the cometary ice by more than a factor of 25 relative to solar abundance, which suggests that ices in Hale-Bopp formed at (or later experienced) temperatures higher than 25 kelvin. A helium line emission at a wavelength of 584 angstroms was detected and may be attributable to charge transfer of solar wind alpha particles in the cometary coma. Ionized oxygen and another helium line contribute to an emission observed at 538 angstroms. PMID:9278508

Krasnopolsky, V A; Mumma, M J; Abbott, M; Flynn, B C; Meech, K J; Yeomans, D K; Feldman, P D; Cosmovici, C B

1997-09-01

328

Noble gases in lunar meteorites Yamato-82192 and -82193 and history of the meteorites from the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The isotope abundances of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe were analyzed in bulk samples and grain-size fractions of the lunar meteorites Yamato (Y)-82192 and Y-82193, and the terrestrial ages of these meteorites and their history of exposure to cosmic rays were estimated. The two latter parameters were found to be very similar for both meteorites, confirming the suggestion of Yanai et al. (1986), made on the basis of chemical composition, mineralogy, and texture studies, that the Y-82192 and Y-82193 meteorites are a paired fall. Comparison of data on the terrestrial age and the total galactic cosmic-ray exposure age for the Y-82192 and Y-82193 with those for the lunar meteorites Allan Hills A-81005 and Y-791197 studied earlier shows that the lunar meteorites found on earth so far were ejected by at least two (and, possibly, three) impacts on the moon.

Eugster, O.; Niedermann, S.

1988-06-01

329

Recombination-amplitude calculations of noble gases, in both length and acceleration forms, beyond the strong-field approximation  

E-print Network

Transition of an electron from a free to a bound state is critical in determining the qualitative shape of the spectrum in high-order-harmonic generation (HHG), and in tomographic imaging of orbitals. We calculate and ...

Bhardwaj, Siddharth

330

Ignition dynamics of dry-etched vertical cavity single-hole microdischarge reactors in ac regime operating in noble gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Silicon-based multi-cavity microdischarge reactors allow the generation of large-area uniform glow discharges over a wide pressure range up to atmospheric pressure. These devices, fabricated using micro electro-mechanical system technology, have shown complex interactions between the individual cavities. To discriminate these interactions, devices with only one shallow vertical cavity are studied here. Operation characteristics are investigated using electrical and optical analysing techniques. The spatial and temporal dynamics of the discharge are investigated for positive and negative voltage polarity of the applied ac voltage ramp by phase-resolved imaging. Within each voltage half-period, emission from the single cavity shows repetitive pulsing features and distinct spatial distributions. In the positive half-period, ring-shaped structures develop, while the negative half-period is distinguished by a bell-shaped intensity distribution. Effects of pressure and operation frequency on the spatial and temporal intensity profiles are discussed.

Kulsreshath, M. K.; Golda, J.; Felix, V.; Schulz-von der Gathen, V.; Dussart, R.

2014-08-01

331

Mantle-derived noble gases in ore-forming fluids of the granite-related Yaogangxian tungsten deposit, Southeastern China  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 90% of the tungsten resources of China are in the Nanling region of South China, and the Yaogangxian vein deposit is the largest tungsten deposit in this region. The tungsten deposits have ages of 150-160 Ma, and are spatially, temporally and genetically related to granites which were previously believed to be produced by crustal anatexis. This paper provides He and Ar isotope data of fluid inclusions in pyrite and arsenopyrite from the Yaogangxian W veins. 3He/4He ratios range from 0.41 to 3.03 Ra (where Ra is the 3He/4He ratio of air = 1.39 × 10-6), and 40Ar/36Ar ratios from 328 to 1,191. Moreover, there are excellent correlations between He and Ar isotopic compositions. The results suggest that the ore-forming fluids are a mixture between a crustal fluid containing atmospheric Ar and crustal 4He and a fluid containing mantle components. It is likely that the former is a low temperature meteoric fluid, and the later is a fluid exsolved from the W-associated granitic magma, which formed by crustal melting induced by intrusion of a mantle-derived magma.

Hu, Rui-Zhong; Bi, Xian-Wu; Jiang, Guo-Hao; Chen, Hong-Wei; Peng, Jian-Tang; Qi, You-Qiang; Wu, Li-Yan; Wei, Wen-Feng

2012-08-01

332

Theory of plasmon-enhanced high-order harmonic generation in the vicinity of metal nanostructures in noble gases  

SciTech Connect

We present a semiclassical model for plasmon-enhanced high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in the vicinity of metal nanostructures. We show that, besides the field enhancement, both the inhomogeneity of the enhanced local fields and electron absorption by the metal surface play an important role in the HHG process and lead to the generation of even harmonics and a significantly increased cutoff. For the examples of silver-coated nanocones and bowtie antennas, we predict that the required intensity reduces by up to three orders of magnitude due to plasmonic field enhancement. The study of the enhanced high-order harmonic generation is connected with a finite-element simulation of the electric field enhancement due to the excitation of the plasmonic modes.

Husakou, A.; Im, S.-J.; Herrmann, J. [Max Born Institute of Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy, Max Born Strasse 2a, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

2011-04-15

333

Compression behaviors of binary skutterudite CoP3 in noble gases up to 40 GPa at room temperature.  

PubMed

The binary skutterudite CoP(3) has a large void at the body-centered site of each cubic unit cell and is, therefore, called a nonfilled skutterudite. We investigated its room-temperature compression behavior up to 40.4 GPa in helium and argon using a diamond-anvil cell. High-pressure in situ X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering measurements found no phase transition and a stable cubic structure up to the maximum pressure in both media. A fitting of the present pressure-volume data to the third-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state yields a zero-pressure bulk modulus K(0) of 147(3) GPa [pressure derivative K(0)' of 4.4(2)] and 171(5) GPa [where K(0)' = 4.2(4)] in helium and argon, respectively. The Gru?neisen parameter was determined to be 1.4 from the Raman scattering measurements. Thus, CoP(3) is stiffer than other binary skutterudites and could therefore be used as a host cage to accommodate large atoms under high pressure without structural collapse. PMID:21405026

Niwa, Ken; Nomichi, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Masashi; Okada, Taku; Yagi, Takehiko; Kikegawa, Takumi

2011-04-18

334

Oil and Gas CDT Quantifying the role of groundwater in hydrocarbon systems using noble gas  

E-print Network

courses (5 weeks/year), sample analysis (noble gas isotopes, composition, stable isotope information, DIC, together with other geochemical tools such as composition and stable (C, H, O) isotopes, to both, laboratory training and introduction to noble gas and stable isotope models. Years 2 and 3: training academy

Henderson, Gideon

335

Noble gas contents of shergottites and implications for the Martian origin of SNC meteorites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three meteorites belonging to the rare group of SNC achondrites, which may have originated in the planet Mars, have been subjected to noble gas isotopic concentration measurements. The elemental and isotopic ratios obtained are unlike those for any other noble gas components except those obtained in analyses of the Martian atmosphere by Viking spacecraft. It is hypothesized that the Kr

D. D. Bogard; L. E. Nyquist; P. Johnson

1984-01-01

336

A Monte Carlo approach to diffusion applied to noble gas\\/helium thermochronology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Knowledge of the diffusion domain is of primary importance for age interpretation in noble gas thermochronometers. We have developed a Monte Carlo method to solve the diffusion equation in three-dimensional space and have used it to examine the effect of realistic crystal geometries and anisotropy on noble gas diffusion. The method is based on the simulation of Brownian motion with

Cécile Gautheron; Laurent Tassan-Got

2010-01-01

337

RISK REDUCTION VIA GREENER SYNTHESIS OF NOBLE METAL NANOSTRUCTURES AND NANOCOMPOSITES  

EPA Science Inventory

Aqueous preparation of nanoparticles using vitamins B2 and C which can function both as reducing and capping agents are described. Bulk and shape-controlled synthesis of noble nanostructures via microwave (MW)-assisted spontaneous reduction of noble metal salts using a-D-glucose,...

338

Solvation theory to provide a molecular interpretation of the hydrophobic entropy loss of noble-gas hydration.  

PubMed

An equation for the chemical potential of a dilute aqueous solution of noble gases is derived in terms of energies, force and torque magnitudes, and solute and water coordination numbers, quantities which are all measured from an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation. Also derived are equations for the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of hydration for the Henry's law process, the Ostwald process, and a third proposed process going from an arbitrary concentration in the gas phase to the equivalent mole fraction in aqueous solution which has simpler expressions for the enthalpy and entropy changes. Good agreement with experimental hydration free energies is obtained in the TIP4P and SPC/E water models although the solute's force field appears to affect the enthalpies and entropies obtained. In contrast to other methods, the approach gives a complete breakdown of the entropy for every degree of freedom and makes possible a direct structural interpretation of the well-known entropy loss accompanying the hydrophobic hydration of small non-polar molecules under ambient conditions. The noble-gas solutes experience only a small reduction in their vibrational entropy, with larger solutes experiencing a greater loss. The vibrational and librational entropy components of water actually increase but only marginally, negating any idea of water confinement. The term that contributes the most to the hydrophobic entropy loss is found to be water's orientational term which quantifies the number of orientational minima per water molecule and how many ways the whole hydrogen-bond network can form. These findings help resolve contradictory deductions from experiments that water structure around non-polar solutes is similar to bulk water in some ways but different in others. That the entropy loss lies in water's rotational entropy contrasts with other claims that it largely lies in water's translational entropy, but this apparent discrepancy arises because of different coordinate definitions and reference frames used to define the entropy terms. PMID:21399280

Irudayam, Sheeba Jem; Henchman, Richard H

2010-07-21

339

Evaluating Gas-Phase Transport And Detection Of Noble Gas Signals From Underground Nuclear Explosions Using Chemical Tracers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 1993 Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) involved detonating 1 kiloton of chemical explosive in a subsurface cavity which also contained bottles of tracer gases (ref 1). That experiment provided an improved understanding of transport processes relevant to the detection of noble gas signals at the surface emanating from a clandestine underground nuclear explosion (UNE). As an alternative to performing large chemical detonations to simulate gas transport from UNEs, we have developed a test bed for subsurface gas transport, sampling and detection studies using a former UNE cavity. The test bed site allows for the opportunity to evaluate pathways to the surface created by the UNE as well as possible transport mechanisms including barometric pumping and cavity pressurization (ref 2). With the test bed we have monitored long-term chemical tracers as well as newly injected tracers. In order to perform high temporal resolution tracer gas monitoring, we have also developed a Subsurface Gas Smart Sampler (SGSS) which has application during an actual On Site Inspection (OSI) and is available for deployment in OSI field exercises planned for 2014. Deployment of five SGSS at the remote test bed has provided unparalleled detail concerning relationships involving tracer gas transport to the surface, barometric fluctuations and temporal variations in the natural radon concentration. We anticipate that the results of our tracer experiments will continue to support the development of improved noble gas detection technology for both OSI and International Monitoring System applications. 1. C.R. Carrigan et al., 1996, Nature, 382, p. 528. 2. Y. Sun and C.R. Carrigan, 2012, Pure Appl. Geophys., DOI 10.1007/s00024-012-0514-4.

Carrigan, C. R.; Hunter, S. L.; Sun, Y.; Wagoner, J. L.; Ruddle, D.; Anderson, G.; Felske, D.; Myers, K.; Zucca, J. J.; Emer, D. F.; Townsend, M.; Drellack, S.; Chipman, V.; Snelson, C. M.

2013-12-01

340

Spin Transport in Bose Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this Thesis, we show that in a rotating two-component Bose mixture, the spin drag between the two different spin species shows a Hall effect. This spin drag Hall effect can be observed experimentally by studying the out-of-phase dipole mode of the mixture. We determine the damping of this mode due to spin drag as a function of temperature. We find that due to Bose stimulation there is a strong enhancement of the damping for temperatures close to the critical temperature for Bose-Einstein condensation. We also show the difference between spin drag in Bose gases, Fermi gases and Bose-Fermi mixtures. Furthermore, we investigate coupled spin and heat transport in Bose gases, and calculate the associated coefficients. Finally, we calculate the power spectrum resulting from spin current fluctuations in a Bose gas.

van Driel, H. J.

2012-12-01

341

Heavy Flavors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is a summary report of the working group on Heavy Flavors. Discussions at the workshop were centered on B physics and on the signals for heavy quarks and leptons at the SSC. The Working Group Members were: V. Barger, H.-U. Bengtsson, C. Buchanan, I. Bigi, M. Block, B. Cox, N. Glover, J. Hewett, W.Y. Keung, B. Margolis, T. Rizzo, M. Suzuki, A. Soni, D. Stork, and S. Willenbrock.

Cox, B.; Soni, A.

342

Heavy Lifting  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work in NASA teams to build balloon-powered rockets using identical parts and compete to launch the greatest number of paper clips to "space" (the ceiling). The rockets learners build model the Ares V heavy lift launchers that carry heavy payloads into orbit. This lesson plan includes background information, tips, discussion questions and answers, and a "Mission Report" sheet for learners.

Shearer, Deborah A.; Gregory L. Vogt, Ed D.

2012-06-26

343

Method for detecting toxic gases  

DOEpatents

A method capable of detecting low concentrations of a pollutant or other component in air or other gas, utilizing a combination of a heating filament having a catalytic surface of a noble metal for exposure to the gas and producing a derivative chemical product from the component, and an electrochemical sensor responsive to the derivative chemical product for providing a signal indicative of the product. At concentrations in the order of about 1-100 ppm of tetrachloroethylene, neither the heating filament nor the electrochemical sensor is individually capable of sensing the pollutant. In the combination, the heating filament converts the benzyl chloride to one or more derivative chemical products which may be detected by the electrochemical sensor.

Stetter, Joseph R. (Naperville, IL); Zaromb, Solomon (Hinsdale, IL); Findlay, Jr., Melvin W. (Bolingbrook, IL)

1991-01-01

344

Method for detecting toxic gases  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed which is capable of detecting low concentrations of a pollutant or other component in air or other gas. This method utilizes a combination of a heating filament having a catalytic surface of a noble metal for exposure to the gas and producing a derivative chemical product from the component. An electrochemical sensor responds to the derivative chemical product for providing a signal indicative of the product. At concentrations in the order of about 1-100 ppm of tetrachloroethylene, neither the heating filament nor the electrochemical sensor is individually capable of sensing the pollutant. In the combination, the heating filament converts the benzyl chloride to one or more derivative chemical products which may be detected by the electrochemical sensor. 6 figures.

Stetter, J.R.; Zaromb, S.; Findlay, M.W. Jr.

1991-10-08

345

Isothermal compressors for process gases  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on isothermal compressors which are more efficient for all gases. The study of several representative gases considered stage efficiencies, pressure ratios and pressure losses of the intercoolers. Generally there are two ways to reduce power consumption of a gas compression process: minimize losses of the compressor or improve the thermodynamics of the process. But there are some new ways to reduce losses of turbocompressors. Losses of the impeller labyrinth seals and the balance piston labyrinth seal can be reduced by optimizing the labyrinth geometry and minimizing labyrinth clearances. Therefore, conventional labyrinth seals are still being studied and will be improved.

Wiederuh, E.; Meinhart, D. (FH Giessen-Friedberg, Giessen (Germany))

1992-09-01

346

Laminar flames in premixed gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerical simulation of laminar flames in premixed gases is addressed. Various efforts to solve the laminar flame problem are briefly described, and basic equations to be modeled in a comprehensive description of laminar flames are discussed along with the physical and chemical processes represented by these equations and the numerical requirements to model them. Two flame methods are discussed in some detail: a numerical model for studying transient phenomena and its 2D counterpart method. The various input parameters needed for the models are addressed, and the use of the models is illustrated in several studies of laminar flames in premixed gases. Flammability limits and multidimensional flame propagation are also examined.

Kailasanath, K.

1991-01-01

347

Granular solids, liquids, and gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granular materials are ubiquitous in the world around us. They have properties that are different from those commonly associated with either solids, liquids, or gases. In this review the authors select some of the special properties of granular materials and describe recent research developments. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

Heinrich M. Jaeger; Sidney R. Nagel; Robert P. Behringer

1996-01-01

348

Permeability of cork to gases.  

PubMed

The permeability of gases through uncompressed cork was investigated. More than 100 samples were assessed from different plank qualities to provide a picture of the permeability distribution. A novel technique based on a mass spectrometer leak detector was used to directly measure the helium flow through the central area of small disks 10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick. The permeability for nitrogen, oxygen, and other gases was measured by the pressure rise technique. Boiled and nonboiled cork samples from different sections were evaluated. An asymmetric frequency distribution ranging 3 orders of magnitude (roughly from 1 to 1000 ?mol/(cm·atm·day)) for selected samples without macroscopic defects was found, having a peak below 100 ?mol/(cm·atm·day). Correlation was found between density and permeability: higher density samples tend to show lower permeability. However, boiled cork showed a mean lower permeability despite having a lower density. The transport mechanism of gases through cork was also examined. Calculations suggest that gases permeate uncompressed cork mainly through small channels between cells under a molecular flow regime. The diameter of such channels was estimated to be in the range of 100 nm, in agreement with the plasmodesmata size in the cork cell walls. PMID:21434693

Faria, David P; Fonseca, Ana L; Pereira, Helen; Teodoro, Orlando M N D

2011-04-27

349

Spectroscopic Imaging of Effluent Gases.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper investigates the possibilities of imaging effluent gases in atmosphere, using a passive gas-correlation technique in the UV and visible region. The experiments have been focused on SO/sub 2/ but some measurements of NO/sub 2/ have also been car...

P. Ragnarson

1988-01-01

350

In Situ Noble-Gas Based Chronology on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Determining radiometric ages in situ on another planet's surface has never been done, and there are good reasons to think that it will be extremely difficult. It is certainly hard to imagine that such ages could be measured as precisely as they could be measured on returned samples in state-of-the-art terrestrial laboratories. However, it may be possible, by using simple noble-gas-based chronology techniques, to determine ages on Mars to a precision that is scientifically useful. This abstract will: (1) describe the techniques we envision; (2) give some examples of how such information might be scientifically useful; and (3) describe the system we are developing, including the requirements in terms of mass, power, volume, and sample selection and preparation.

Swindle, T. D.

2000-01-01

351

DEVELOPMENT OF A NON-NOBLE METAL HYDROGEN PURIFICATION SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Development of advanced hydrogen separation membranes in support of hydrogen production processes such as coal gasification and as front end gas purifiers for fuel cell based system is paramount to the successful implementation of a national hydrogen economy. Current generation metallic hydrogen separation membranes are based on Pd-alloys. Although the technology has proven successful, at issue is the high cost of palladium. Evaluation of non-noble metal based dense metallic separation membranes is currently receiving national and international attention. The focus of the reported work was to develop a scaled reactor with a VNi-Ti alloy membrane to replace a production Pd-alloy tube-type purification/diffuser system.

Korinko, P; Kyle Brinkman, K; Thad Adams, T; George Rawls, G

2008-11-25

352

Mixed noble gas effect on cut green peppers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Increasing attempts at using gas which leads to hydrate formation as a preservative tool in fresh-cut fruits and vegetables have been reported. In this study, changes in some physical and biochemical properties of fresh-cut green peppers under compressed noble gas treatments were examined. Mixed argonkrypton and argon treatments were performed before cold storage at 5°C for 15 days. Mass loss and cell membrane permeability were found to be the lowest in mixed argon-krypton samples. Besides, a lower CO2 concentration and vitamin C loss were detected in gastreated samples compared to untreated samples (control). While the total phenol degradation was moderately reduced, the effect of the treatment on polyphenoloxidase activity was better at the beginning of the storage period. The minimum changes in quality observed in cut peppers resulted from both mixed and gas treatment alone.

Raymond, L. V.; Zhang, M.; Karangwa, E.; Chesereka, M. J.

2013-01-01

353

High-pressure synthesis of noble metal hydrides.  

PubMed

The formation of hydride phases in the noble metals copper, silver, and gold was investigated by in situ x-ray diffraction at high hydrogen pressures. In the case of copper, a novel hexagonal hydride phase, Cu2H, was synthesised at pressures above 18.6 GPa. This compound exhibits an anti-CdI2-type structure, where hydrogen atoms occupy every second layer of octahedral interstitial sites. In contrast to chemically produced CuH, this phase does not show a change in compressibility compared to pure copper. Furthermore, repeated compression (after decomposition of Cu2H) led to the formation of cubic copper hydride at 12.5 GPa, a phenomenon attributed to an alteration of the microstructure during dehydrogenation. No hydrides of silver (up to 87 GPa) or gold (up to 113 GPa) were found at both room and high temperatures. PMID:23574244

Donnerer, Christian; Scheler, Thomas; Gregoryanz, Eugene

2013-04-01

354

Isotopic Analysis and Evolved Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precise measurements of the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of planetary surface material and gases, and observed variations in these compositions, can contribute significantly to our knowledge of the source(s), ages, and evolution of solar system materials. The analyses discussed in this paper are mostly made by mass spectrometers or some other type of mass analyzer, and address three broad areas of interest: (1) atmospheric composition - isotopic, elemental, and molecular, (2) gases evolved from solids, and (3) solids. Current isotopic data on nine elements, mostly from in situ analysis, but also from meteorites and telescopic observations are summarized. Potential instruments for isotopic analysis of lunar, Martian, Venusian, Mercury, and Pluto surfaces, along with asteroid, cometary and icy satellites, surfaces are discussed.

Swindle, Timothy D.; Boynton, William V.; Chutjian, Ara; Hoffman, John H.; Jordan, Jim L.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; McEntire, Richard W.; Nyquist, Larry

1996-01-01

355

Energy gases - the methane age and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The combustion of fossil fuels results in the emissions of gases and pollutants that produce adverse ecological effects. Evidence is also accumulating that suggests they may also cause global climate change. The combustion gases that are connected with global climate change are primarily carbon dioxide (CO[sub 2]) and to a lesser degree methane (CH[sub 4]). All of these gases already

Nakicenovic

1993-01-01

356

Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polypropylene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sample of polypropylene was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. The gases from this sample appeared to be equivalent or less toxic than the gases from a sample of polyethylene under these particular test conditions. Carbon monoxide appeared to be the principal toxicant.

Hilado, C. J.; Schneider, J. E.; Brauer, D. F.

1979-01-01

357

Flammability of methane, propane, and hydrogen gases  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the results of flammability studies for methane, propane, hydrogen, and deuterium gases in air conducted by the Pittsburgh Research Laboratory. Knowledge of the explosion hazards of these gases is important to the coal mining industry and to other industries that produce or use flammable gases. The experimental research was conducted in 20 L and 120 L closed

Kenneth L. Cashdollar; Isaac A. Zlochower; Gregory M. Green; Richard A. Thomas; Martin Hertzberg

2000-01-01

358

Annihilation in Gases and Galaxies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This publication contains most of the papers, both invited and contributed, that were presented at the Workshop of Annihilation in Gases and Galaxies. This was the fifth in a biennial series associated with the International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions. Subjects covered included the scattering and annihilation of positrons and positronium atoms in various media, including those of astrophysical interest. In addition, the topics of antimatter and dark matter were covered.

Drachman, Richard J. (editor)

1990-01-01

359

Hot and Cold Ideal Gases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EJS Hot and Cold Ideal Gases model simulates the mixing of hot and cold two-dimensional ideal gases in a square box. This simulation can be used as part of the activity described in "The Statistical Interpretation of Entropy: An Activity" by Todd Timberlake, to be published in The Physics Teacher. In the model, one gas is initially confined to the left side of the box while the other gas is confined to the right side. An animation window shows the motion of the particles in the box, while an optional graph window plots the temperature of each side of the box, which is determined by measuring the average KE of the particles on each side. The initial number of particles and temperature on each side of the square can be changed and a button allows the user to reverse the particle velocities at any time. The user can modify this simulation if EJS is installed locally by right-clicking within the plot and selecting "Open Ejs Model" from the pop-up menu item. EJS Hot and Cold Ideal Gases model was created using the Easy Java Simulations (EJS) modeling tool. It is distributed as a ready-to-run (compiled) Java archive. Double clicking the ejs_entropy_HotAndColdIdealGases.jar file will run the program if Java is installed. EJS is a part of the Open Source Physics Project and is designed to make it easier to access, modify, and generate computer models. Additional EJS models are available. They can be found by searching ComPADRE for Open Source Physics, OSP, or EJS.

Timberlake, Todd

2010-07-01

360

Fossil brines preserved in the St-Lawrence Lowlands, Québec, Canada as revealed by their chemistry and noble gas isotopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brines in Cambrian sandstones and Ordovician dolostones of the St-Lawrence Lowlands at Bécancour, Québec, Canada were sampled for analysis of all stable noble gases in order to trace their origin and migration path, in addition to quantifying their residence time. Major ion chemistry indicates that the brines are of Na-Ca-Cl type, possibly derived from halite dissolution. 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios and Ca excess indicate prolonged interactions with silicate rocks of the Proterozoic Grenville basement or the Cambrian Potsdam sandstone. The brines constrain a 2-3% contribution of mantle 3He and large amounts of nucleogenic 21Ne ? and 38Ar ? and radiogenic 4He and 40Ar ?. 4He/ 40Ar ? and 21Ne ?/ 40Ar ? ratios, corrected for mass fractionation during incomplete brine degassing, are identical to their production ratios in rocks. The source of salinity (halite dissolution), plus the occurrence of large amounts of 40Ar ? in brines constrain the residence time of Bécancour brines as being older than the Cretaceous. Evaporites in the St-Lawrence Lowlands likely existed only during Devonian-Silurian time. Brines might result from infiltration of Devonian water leaching halite, penetrating into or below the deeper Cambrian-Ordovician aquifers. During the Devonian, the basin reached temperatures higher than 250 °C, allowing for thermal maturation of local gas-prone source rocks (Utica shales) and possibly facilitating the release of radiogenic 40Ar ? into the brines. The last thermal event that could have facilitated the liberation of 40Ar ? into fluids and contributed to mantle 3He is the Cretaceous Monteregian Hills magmatic episode. For residence times younger than the Cretaceous, it is difficult to find an appropriate source of salinity and of nucleogenic/radiogenic gases to the Bécancour brines.

Pinti, Daniele L.; Béland-Otis, Catherine; Tremblay, Alain; Castro, Maria Clara; Hall, Chris M.; Marcil, Jean-Sébastien; Lavoie, Jean-Yves; Lapointe, Raynald

2011-08-01

361

77 FR 10707 - Safety Zone; NOBLE DISCOVERER, Outer Continental Shelf Drillship, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, Alaska  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zone; NOBLE DISCOVERER, Outer Continental Shelf Drillship, Chukchi and Beaufort...Chukchi and Beaufort Seas Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska, from 12:01 a...Chukchi and Beaufort Seas Outer Continental Shelf, Alaska during the 2012...

2012-02-23

362

Noble Gas Studies of the Ureilites Kenna and Ramlath As Samah 247  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present noble gas data on two ureilites, Kenna and RaS 247 (desert find). Our measurements indicate cosmogenic He and Ne release at low temperatures, Ar is mostly primordial. Total gas concentrations are highly variable within the samples.

Trappitsch, R.; Cosarinsky, M.; Hofmann, B.; Leya, I.

2009-03-01

363

9th Annual Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History  

E-print Network

categories of performance each divided by age. · Spoken Language (Pre9th Annual Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair Sam Noble Oklahoma from the Oklahoma Native American Youth Language Fair! We are pleased

Oklahoma, University of

364

Degassing history and evolution of volcanic activity of terrestrial planets based on radiogenic noble gas degassing models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current abundances of radiogenic noble gases (4-He, 40-Ar, 129-Xe) in the planetary atmospheres provide valuable information on planetary evolution through their degassing histories. Of these, 40-Ar (from 40-K with half life 1.25 Ga) can be used to envisage long-term degassing from their interior. Present amounts of 36 and 40-Ar should have information on timing and degree of degassing from the interior. On the other hand, 129-Xe (from 129-I with half life 17 Ma) is used in discussing early planetary degassing. Because life time of helium in the atmosphere is short, atmospheric 4-He (from 235-U, 238-U, 232-Th) data might be used only for current degassing. The relative abundance of 40-Ar in the Cytherean atmosphere is 0.26 of that in the Earth's atmosphere. We have executed numerical calculation of a 40-Ar degassing model along with mantle evolution and melt migration. Our result shows that the average magma production rate on Venus is about 5 (km(exp 3)/yr). Duration of plate motion on Venus, if existed, would be less than several hundred million years.

Sasaki, S.; Tajika, E.

1994-01-01

365

CO oxidation studies over supported noble metal catalysts and single crystals: A review  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The catalytic oxidation of CO over noble metal catalysts is reviewed. Results obtained on supported noble metal catalysts and single crystals both at high pressures and under UHV conditions are compared. The underlying causes which result in surface instabilities and multiple steady-state oscillations are considered, in particular, the occurrence of hot spots. CO islands of reactivity, surface oxide formation and phase transformations under oscillatory conditions are discussed.

Boecker, Dirk; Gonzalez, Richard D.

1987-01-01

366

Reduction and Oxygen Storage Behavior of Noble Metals Supported on Silica-Doped Ceria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The redox features of Rh and other noble metals (Pt, Pd) supported on silica-doped ceria catalysts are investigated by temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). Noble metal oxides are reduced to the corresponding metals at temperatures below 600 K, whereas at higher temperatures the reduction of the support takes place with formation of reduced ceria and a cerium silicate

Eliana Rocchini; Michela Vicario; Jordi Llorca; Carla de Leitenburg; Giuliano Dolcetti; Alessandro Trovarelli

2002-01-01

367

Core shell hybrids based on noble metal nanoparticles and conjugated polymers: synthesis and characterization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Noble metal nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes combined with conjugated functional polymers give rise to advanced core shell hybrids with interesting physical characteristics and potential applications in sensors or cancer therapy. In this paper, a versatile and facile synthesis of core shell systems based on noble metal nanoparticles (AuNPs, AgNPs, PtNPs), coated by copolymers belonging to the class of

Ilaria Fratoddi; Iole Venditti; Chiara Battocchio; Giovanni Polzonetti; Cesare Cametti; Maria Vittoria Russo

2011-01-01

368

Marron ( Cherax tenuimanus) and noble crayfish ( Astacus astacus) hepatopancreas energy and its relationship to moisture content  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hepatopancreas energy and moisture content were analyzed in farmed and wild-stock marron and wild-stock noble crayfish. Marron were sampled during April 1995 and noble crayfish during September 1995. Total hepatopancreas energy content was analyzed by bomb calorimetry and moisture content was determined from fresh hepatopancreases by oven drying to constant weight. Farmed marron had significantly higher hepatopancreas energy content (31.0

J. Jussila; A. Mannonen

1997-01-01

369

Noble metal alloy–Zr(Sc)O 2 cermet cathode for reduced-temperature SOFCs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polarization characteristics of noble metal alloy–(Sc0.10Ce0.01)Zr0.89O2 (SSZ) cermet cathodes were studied in order to develop a new cathode for reduced-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Several noble metal alloy–SSZ cermet cathodes were prepared by mixing Pt, Pd, Rh and\\/or Ag and their alloy powders with SSZ powder using a high-energy ball mill in vacuum and pasting the cermet onto yttria

K Sasaki; J Tamura; M Dokiya

2001-01-01

370

Synergistic effect of Br?nsted acid and platinum on purification of automobile exhaust gases  

PubMed Central

The catalytic purification of automobile exhaust gases (CO, NOx and hydrocarbons) is one of the most practiced conversion processes used to lower the emissions and to reduce the air pollution. Nevertheless, the good performance of exhaust gas purification catalysts often requires the high consumption of noble metals such as platinum. Here we report that the Brønsted acid sites on the external surface of a microporous silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) act as a promoter for exhaust gas purification, effectively cutting the loading amount of platinum in the catalyst without sacrifice of performance. It is revealed that in the Pt-loaded SAPO-CHA catalyst, there exists a remarkable synergistic effect between the Brønsted acid sites and the Pt nanoparticles, the former helping to adsorb and activate the hydrocarbon molecules for NO reduction during the catalytic process. The thermal stability of SAPO-CHA also makes the composite catalyst stable and reusable without activity decay. PMID:23907148

Fu, Wei; Li, Xin-Hao; Bao, Hong-Liang; Wang, Kai-Xue; Wei, Xiao; Cai, Yi-Yu; Chen, Jie-Sheng

2013-01-01

371

Molecular and isotopic compositions and origin of natural gases from Cambrian and Carboniferous-Lower Permian reservoirs of the onshore Polish Baltic region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural gases from Middle Cambrian and Carboniferous-Lower Permian reservoirs of the onshore Polish Baltic region were studied for their molecular and stable isotope compositions. The following gas species were analysed: 12,13C in CH4, C2H6, C3H8, n-C4H10, i-C4H10 and CO2, 1,2H in CH4, 14,15N in N2, and stable isotopes of all noble gases. Due to significantly different geological settings and genetic types of source rocks of Eastern and Western Pomerania, the molecular and isotopic compositions of natural gases of these two regions exhibit distinct differences. Hydrocarbon gases associated with oil accumulated in the Middle Cambrian reservoir of Eastern Pomerania were generated during low-temperature thermogenic processes from a single source rock containing Type-II kerogen at one phase of petroleum generation. Non-associated hydrocarbon gases accumulated in the Carboniferous (Mississippian and Pennsylvanian)-Lower Permian (Rotliegend) reservoirs of Western Pomerania originated during at least two phases of gas generation by thermogenic processes from mainly Type-III kerogen and a small component of mixed Type-III/II kerogen. Noble gases are in general heavily enriched in radiogenic and nucleogenic isotopes such as 4He, 40Ar and 21Ne accumulated in the reservoirs. Weak contributions of mantle-derived He and Ne are observed. Radiogenic 4He/40Ar ratios are higher than the average production rate ratio of about 5 for radiogenic 4He/40Ar in crustal materials, which might have been caused by a selective supply of 4He that is lighter than 40Ar from crustal rocks, or (U + Th)/K ratio might be higher than the average in crustal block. Carbon dioxide from gases of both the Western and Eastern Pomerania were mainly generated during thermogenic processes of transformation of organic matter, although gases of Western Pomerania can contain an endogenic component. Molecular nitrogen from the Eastern Pomeranian natural gases was mainly generated during low-temperature thermal transformation of organic matter and derived from NH3 and NH4 of crustal fluid, whereas molecular nitrogen from Western Pomeranian natural gases contains a significant component from the destruction of organic matter at a higher maturity level which may have been caused by a high heat flux from the volcanic activity during late Pennsylvanian-early Rotliegend ages, and has a bigger component release from NH4-rich illites.

Kotarba, Maciej J.; Nagao, Keisuke

2014-08-01

372

Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

1999-01-01

373

Spark ignition of flowing gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research conducted at the NACA Lewis Laboratory on ignition of flowing gases by means of long-duration discharges is summarized and analyzed. Data showing the effect of a flowing combustible mixture on the physical and electrical characteristics of spark discharges and data showing the effects of variables on the spark energy required for ignition that has been developed to predict the effect of many of the gas-stream and spark variables is described and applied to a limited amount of experimental data.

Swett, Clyde C , Jr

1956-01-01

374

Synthesis and Applications of Noble-Metal Nanotubes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Metallic nanotubular materials can be formed in two different manners, self-organization or template-assisted organization, depending on their bonding natures. Base metallic Bi and Te with a 1D or 2D interatomic covalent bonding nature form a nanotubular phase by the reduction reaction of their salts at elevated temperatures through the cylindrical or scrolled growth of the metal atoms based on their bonding anisotropies. In contrast, the nanotubular phases of noblemetals with no covalency are formed by the assistance of soild or supra-molecular core and sheath templates. The solid templating studies demonstrated the deposition of Au, Pt and Pd nanotubes on the outer surface of Ag nanorods as a sheath template as well as those on the inner surface of nanoporous polycarbonate or anodic aluminum oxide films as a sheath template. The use of triple-branched polyoxyethylene (PEO)-based nonionic surfactant LCs as a core template successfully leads to the growth of Pt, Pd, and Ag nanotubes with an outer diameter of as small as 6-7 nm. In this system, the thin-walled nanotubular structure is inherited from the 2D metal clusters induced through the specific effect of triple PEO chains of surfactant molecules, coupled with their spatially controlled growth within the aqueous shells of cylindrical micelles. A few examples are also referred to for the applications of noble-metal nanotubes as a catalyst for polymer electrolyte fuel cells or biphenyl formation reaction.

Kijima, Tsuyoshi

375

Laser-assisted biosynthesis for noble nanoparticles production  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extracellular Biosynthesis technique (EBS) for nanoparticles production has attracted a lot of attention as an environmentally friendly and an inexpensive methodology. Our recent research was focused on the rapid approach of the green synthesis method and the reduction of the homogeneous size distribution of nanoparticles using pulse laser application. Noble nanoparticles (NNPs) were produced using various ethanol and water plant extracts. The plants were chosen based on their biomedical applications. The plants we used were Magnolia grandiflora, Geranium, Aloe `tingtinkie', Aloe barbadensis (Aloe Vera), Eucalyptus angophoroides, Sansevieria trifasciata, Impatiens scapiflora. Water and ethanol extract, were used as reducing agents to produce the nanoparticles. The reaction process was monitored using a UV-Visible spectroscopy. NNPs were characterized by Fourier Transfer Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and the Dynamic Light Scattering technique (DLS). During the pulse laser Nd-YAG illumination (?=1064nm, 532nm, PE= 450mJ, 200mJ, 10 min) the blue shift of the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak was observed from ~424nm to 403nm for silver NP; and from ~530nm to 520 nm for gold NPs. In addition, NNPs solution after Nd-YAG illumination was characterized by the narrowing of the surface plasmon absorption resonance band, which corresponds to monodispersed NNPS distribution. FTIR, TEM, DLS, Zeta potential results demonstrated that NNPs were surrounded by biological molecules, which naturally stabilized nanosolutions for months. Cytotoxicity investigation of biosynthesized NNPs is in progress.

Kukhtarev, Tatiana; Edwards, Vernessa; Kukhtareva, Nickolai; Moses, Sherita

2014-08-01

376

DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION  

SciTech Connect

OAK A271 DISRUPTION MITIGATION WITH HIGH-PRESSURE NOBLE GAS INJECTION. High-pressure gas jets of neon and argon are used to mitigate the three principal damaging effects of tokamak disruptions: thermal loading of the divertor surfaces, vessel stress from poloidal halo currents and the buildup and loss of relativistic electrons to the wall. The gas jet penetrates as a neutral species through to the central plasma at its sonic velocity. The injected gas atoms increase up to 500 times the total electron inventory in the plasma volume, resulting in a relatively benign radiative dissipation of >95% of the plasma stored energy. The rapid cooling and the slow movement of the plasma to the wall reduce poloidal halo currents during the current decay. The thermally collapsed plasma is very cold ({approx} 1-2 eV) and the impurity charge distribution can include > 50% fraction neutral species. If a sufficient quantity of gas is injected, the neutrals inhibit runaway electrons. A physical model of radiative cooling is developed and validated against DIII-D experiments. The model shows that gas jet mitigation, including runaway suppression, extrapolates favorably to burning plasmas where disruption damage will be more severe. Initial results of real-time disruption detection triggering gas jet injection for mitigation are shown.

WHYTE, DG; JERNIGAN, TC; HUMPHREYS, DA; HYATT, AW; LASNIER, CJ; PARKS, PB; EVANS, TE; TAYLOR, PL; KELLMAN, AG; GRAY, DS; HOLLMANN, EM

2002-10-01

377

Filter for cleaning hot gases  

SciTech Connect

In an apparatus for cleaning hot gases a filter housing has an inlet for unfiltered gas and an outlet for filtered gas. A plurality of filtered inserts are placed within the housing in a manner capable of filtering undesirable components from the gas feed stream. Each filter insert is made of a fibrous filter material. Silicic-acid glass fibers have a silicic acid content of at least 90%. Coated upon the fibers and absorbed into their pores is a metal oxide of aluminum, titanium, zirconium, cromium, nickle or cobalt. A honeycombed cage filled with high temperature resistant perlite is located within the housing between the gas inlet and the fiber inserts. The cage has an inlet and outlet external to the housing for replacing the perlite. A combustion chamber mounted in the housing has a discharge nozzle located so that the nozzle is directed at the filter inserts. Combusting materials in the chamber causes an explosive backflow of gases through the filter inserts.

Gresch, H.; Holter, H.; Hubner, K.; Igelbuscher, H.; Weber, E.

1981-10-20

378

Modelling and simulation of heavy gas dispersion on the basis of modifications in plume path theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analytical model for heavy gas dispersion based on the modifications in plume path theory has been developed. The model takes into account the variations in temperature, density, and specific heat during the movement of heavy gas plume.The model has been tested for three hazardous gases — chlorine, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas. The results have been compared with

Faisal I Khan; S. A Abbasi

2000-01-01

379

Martian fluid and Martian weathering signatures identified in Nakhla, NWA 998 and MIL 03346 by halogen and noble gas analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report argon (Ar) noble gas, Ar-Ar ages and halogen abundances (Cl, Br, I) of Martian nakhlites Nakhla, NWA 998 and MIL 03346 to determine the presence of Martian hydrous fluids and weathering products. Neutron-irradiated samples were either crushed and step-heated (Nakhla only), or simply step-heated using a laser or furnace, and analysed for noble gases using an extension of the 40Ar-39Ar technique to determine halogen abundances. The data obtained provide the first isotopic evidence for a trapped fluid that is Cl-rich, has a strong correlation with 40ArXS (40ArXS = 40Armeasured - 40Arradiogenic) and displays 40ArXS/36Ar of ˜1000 - consistent with the Martian atmosphere. This component was released predominantly in the low temperature and crush experiments, which may suggest a fluid inclusion host. For the halogens, we observe similar Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios between the nakhlites and terrestrial reservoirs, which is surprising given the absence of crustal recycling, organic matter and frequent fluid activity on Mars. In particular, Br/Cl ratios in our Nakhla samples (especially olivine) are consistent with previously analysed Martian weathering products, and both low temperature and crush analyses show a similar trend to the evaporation of seawater. This may indicate that surface brines play an important role on Mars and on halogen assemblages within Martian meteorites and rocks. Elevated I/Cl ratios in the low temperature NWA 998 and MIL 03346 releases may relate to in situ terrestrial contamination, though we are unable to distinguish between low temperature terrestrial or Martian components. Whilst estimates of the amount of water present based on the 36Ar concentrations are too high to be explained by a fluid component alone, they are consistent with a mixed-phase inclusion (gas and fluid) or with shock-implanted Martian atmospheric argon. The observed fluid is dilute (low salinity, but high Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios), contains a Martian atmospheric component, and may represent a mixture of a shallow fluid with one derived from fluid circulation within the nakhlite cumulate pile - with heat for fluid circulation supplied by either the igneous intrusion or by an impact event.

Cartwright, J. A.; Gilmour, J. D.; Burgess, R.

2013-03-01

380

The origin of hydrothermal and other gases in the Kenya Rift Valley  

SciTech Connect

The Kenya Rift Valley (KRV) is part of a major continental rift system from which much outgassing is presently occurring. Previous research on gases in the KRV has tended to concentrate on their geothermal implications; the present paper is an attempt to broaden the interpretation by consideration of new data including helium and carbon isotope analyses from a wide cross-section of sites. In order to do this, gases have been divided into categories dependent on origin. N{sub 2} and noble gases are for the most part atmospherically derived, although their relative concentrations may be altered from ASW ratios by various physical processes. Reduced carbon (CH{sub 4} and homologues) appears to be exclusively derived from the shallow crust, with thermogenic {delta}{sup 13}C values averaging -25{per_thousand} PDB for CH{sub 4}. H{sub 2} is likely also to be crustally formed. CO{sub 2}, generally a dominant constituent, has a narrow {delta}{sup 13}C range averaging -3.7{per_thousand} PDB, and is likely to be derived with little modification from the upper mantle. Consideration of the ratio C/{sup 3}He supports this view in most cases. Sulphur probably also originates there. Ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He reach a MORB-like maximum of 8.0 R/R{sub A} and provide the best indication of an upper mantle source of gases beneath the KRV. A correlation between {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He and the hydrocarbon parameter log (C{sub 1}/{Sigma}C{sub 2-4}) appears to be primarily temperature related. The highest {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in spring waters are associated with basalts, perhaps because of the leaching of basalt glasses. There may be a structural control on {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in the KRV as a whole.

Darling, W.G. [British Geological Survey, Wallingford (United Kingdom)] [British Geological Survey, Wallingford (United Kingdom); Griesshaber, E. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany)] [Max-Planck Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany); Andrews, J.N. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); and others

1995-06-01

381

The origin of hydrothermal and other gases in the Kenya Rift Valley  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kenya Rift Valley (KRV) is part of a major continental rift system from which much outgassing is presently occurring. Previous research on gases in the KRV has tended to concentrate on their geothermal implications; the present paper is an attempt to broaden the interpretation by consideration of new data including helium and carbon isotope analyses from a wide cross-section of sites. In order to do this, gases have been divided into categories dependent on origin. N 2 and noble gases are for the most part atmospherically derived, although their relative concentrations may be altered from ASW ratios by various physical processes. Reduced carbon (CH 4 and homologues) appears to be exclusively derived from the shallow crust, with thermogenic ? 13C values averaging -25‰ PDB for CH 4. H 2 is likely also to be crustally formed. CO 2, generally a dominant constituent, has a narrow ? 13C range averaging -3.7‰ PDB, and is likely to be derived with little modification from the upper mantle. Consideration of the ratio C/ 3He supports this view in most cases. Sulphur probably also originates there. Ratios of 3He/ 4He reach a MORB-like maximum of 8.0 R/RA and provide the best indication of an upper mantle source of gases beneath the KRV. A correlation between 3He/ 4He and the hydrocarbon parameter log (C 1/?C 2-4) appears to be primarily temperature related. The highest 3He/ 4He ratios in spring waters are associated with basalts, perhaps because of the leaching of basalt glasses. There may be a structural control on 3He/ 4He ratios in the KRV as a whole.

Darling, W. G.; Griesshaber, E.; Andrews, J. N.; Armannsson, H.; O'Nions, R. K.

1995-06-01

382

Environmental effects on noble-gas hydrides: HXeBr, HXeCCH, and HXeH in noble-gas and molecular matrices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Noble-gas hydrides HNgY (Ng is a noble-gas atom and Y is an electronegative group) are sensitive probes of local environment due to their relatively weak bonding and large dipole moments. We experimentally studied HXeBr in Ar, Kr, and N2 matrices, HXeCCH in Ne and N2 matrices, and HXeH in an N2 matrix. These are the first observations of noble-gas hydrides in an N2 matrix. An N2 matrix strongly increases the H-Xe stretching frequency of HXeBr and HXeCCH with respect to a Ne matrix, which is presumably due to a strong interaction between the HNgY dipole moment and quadrupole moments of the surrounding lattice N2 molecules. The spectral shift of HXeBr in an N2 matrix is similar to that in a CO2 matrix, which is a rather unexpected result because the quadrupole moment of CO2 is about three times as large as that of N2. The H-Xe stretching frequencies of HXeBr and HXeCCH in noble-gas matrices show a trend of ?(Ne) < ?(Xe) < ?(Kr) < ?(Ar), which is a non-monotonous function of the dielectric constants of the noble-gas solids. The MP2(full) calculations of HXeBr and HXeCCH with the polarizable continuum model as well as the CCSD(T) calculations of the HXeBr···Ng and HXeCCH···Ng (Ng = Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) complexes cannot fully explain the experimental observations. It is concluded that more sophisticated computational models should be used to describe these experimental findings.

Tsuge, Masashi; Lignell, Antti; Räsänen, Markku; Khriachtchev, Leonid

2013-11-01

383

a Hadron Gas Model and Applications to Heavy Ion Collisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equilibrium hadron gases, although limited by the assumption of global equilibrium, provide a simple model of hadronic systems, and have proved useful in the analysis of heavy ion collisions. We discuss models which use the excluded volume and mean field approximations for hadronic interactions. The mean field approximation is thermodynamically consistent, and is thus considered preferable. The importance of system

Neil John Davidson

1991-01-01

384

Attrition resistant catalysts and sorbents based on heavy metal poisoned FCC catalysts  

DOEpatents

A heavy metal poisoned, spent FCC catalyst is treated by chemically impregnating the poisoned catalyst with a new catalytic metal or metal salt to provide an attrition resistant catalyst or sorbent for a different catalytic or absorption processes, such as catalysts for Fischer-Tropsh Synthesis, and sorbents for removal of sulfur gasses from fuel gases and flue-gases. The heavy metal contaminated FCC catalyst is directly used as a support for preparing catalysts having new catalytic properties and sorbents having new sorbent properties, without removing or "passivating" the heavy metals on the spent FCC catalyst as an intermediate step.

Gangwal, Santosh (Cary, NC); Jothimurugesan, Kandaswamy (Hampton, VA)

1999-01-01

385

Liquefied Noble Gas (LNG) detectors for detection of nuclear materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Liquefied-noble-gas (LNG) detectors offer, in principle, very good energy resolution for both neutrons and gamma rays, fast response time (hence high-count-rate capabilities), excellent discrimination between neutrons and gamma rays, and scalability to large volumes. They do, however, need cryogenics. LNG detectors in sizes of interest for fissionable material detection in cargo are reaching a certain level of maturity because of the ongoing extensive R&}D effort in high-energy physics regarding their use in the search for dark matter and neutrinoless double beta decay. The unique properties of LNG detectors, especially those using Liquid Argon (LAr) and Liquid Xenon (LXe), call for a study to determine their suitability for Non-Intrusive Inspection (NII) for Special Nuclear Materials (SNM) and possibly for other threats in cargo. Rapiscan Systems Laboratory, Yale University Physics Department, and Adelphi Technology are collaborating in the investigation of the suitability of LAr as a scintillation material for large size inspection systems for air and maritime containers and trucks. This program studies their suitability for NII, determines their potential uses, determines what improvements in performance they offer and recommends changes to their design to further enhance their suitability. An existing 3.1 liter LAr detector (microCLEAN) at Yale University, developed for R&}D on the detection of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) was employed for testing. A larger version of this detector (15 liters), more suitable for the detection of higher energy gamma rays and neutrons is being built for experimental evaluation. Results of measurements and simulations of gamma ray and neutron detection in microCLEAN and a larger detector (326 liter CL38) are presented.

Nikkel, J. A.; Gozani, T.; Brown, C.; Kwong, J.; McKinsey, D. N.; Shin, Y.; Kane, S.; Gary, C.; Firestone, M.

2012-03-01

386

Particle entanglement in rotating gases  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, we investigate the particle entanglement in two-dimensional (2D) weakly interacting rotating Bose and Fermi gases. We find that both particle localization and vortex localization can be indicated by particle entanglement. We also use particle entanglement to show the occurrence of edge reconstruction of rotating fermions. The different properties of condensate phase and vortex liquid phase of bosons can be reflected by particle entanglement and in vortex liquid phase we construct the same trial wave function with that in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 120405 (2001)] from the viewpoint of entanglement to relate the ground state with quantum Hall state. Finally, the relation between particle entanglement and interaction strength is studied.

Liu Zhao; Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2010-06-15

387

Greenhouse Gases: The Overlooked Sources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This radio broadcast, which took place during the Kyoto Conference on global warming, discusses well-known and more obscure sources of greenhouse gases. Solutions to reduce carbon emissions are discussed, including creating fuel with less carbon in it (biomass fuels); reducing driving by increasing the cost of fuel; and improving vehicle fuel economy. The broadcast then introduces the topic of methane as a greenhouse gas; although less is emitted, it is about fifty times more effective than carbon dioxide at warming the planet. Cattle are a major source of methane; some ideas are introduced for monitoring and reducing their emissions. There is also discussion of whether global warming could be a result of natural variability as opposed to the result of a human-caused greenhouse effect. The broadcast is 49 minutes and 39 seconds in length.

388

Instability in shocked granular gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shocks in granular media, such as vertically oscillated beds, have been shown to develop instabilities. Similar jet formation has been observed in explosively dispersed granular media. Our previous work addressed this instability by performing discrete-particle simulations of inelastic media undergoing shock compression. By allowing finite dissipation within the shock wave, instability manifests itself as distinctive high density non-uniformities and convective rolls within the shock structure. In the present study we have extended this work to investigate this instability at the continuum level. We modeled the Euler equations for granular gases with a modified cooling rate to include an impact velocity threshold necessary for inelastic collisions. Our results showed a fair agreement between the continuum and discrete-particle models. Discrepancies, such as higher frequency instabilities in our continuum results may be attributed to the absence of higher order effects.

Sirmas, Nick; Falle, Sam; Radulescu, Matei

2014-05-01

389

Continuous Processing With Mars Gases  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Current Martian missions call for the production of oxygen for breathing, and fuel and oxygen for propulsion to be produced from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Adsorption and freezing are the two methods considered for capturing CO2 from the atmosphere. However, the nitrogen (N2) and argon (Ar), which make up less than 5 percent of the atmosphere, cause difficulties with both of these processes by blocking the CO2. This results in the capture process rapidly changing from a pressure driven process to a diffusion controlled process. To increase the CO2 capture rates, some type of mechanical pump is usually proposed to remove the N2 and Ar. The N2 and Ar are useful and have been proposed for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. Separation of the Martian gases with the required purity can be accomplished with a combination of membranes. These membrane systems do not require a high feed pressure and provide suitable separation. Therefore, by use of the appropriate membrane combination with the Martian atmosphere supplied by a compressor a continuous Supply Of CO2 for fuel and oxygen production can be supplied. This phase of our program has focused on the selection of the membrane system. Since permeation data for membranes did not exist for Martian atmospheric pressures and temperatures, this information had to be compiled. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective. In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar. This paper will present the membrane data, provide the design requirements for a compressor, and compare the results with adsorption and freezer methods.

Parrish, Clyde; Jennings, Paul

2000-01-01

390

Continuous Processing with Mars Gases  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Current Martian missions call for the production of oxygen for breathing, and fuel and oxygen for propulsion to be produced from atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2). Adsorption and freezing are the two methods considered for capturing CO, from the atmosphere. However, the nitrogen (N2) and argon (Ar), which make up less than 5 percent of the atmosphere, cause difficulties with both of these processes by blocking the CO2, This results in the capture process rapidly changing from a pressure driven process to a diffusion controlled process. To increase the CO, capture rates, some type of mechanical pump is usually proposed to remove the N2 and Ar. The N2 and Ar are useful and have been proposed for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. Separation of the Martian gases with the required purity can be accomplished with a combination of membranes. These membrane systems do not require a high feed pressure and provide suitable separation. Therefore, by use of the appropriate membrane combination with the Martian atmosphere supplied by a compressor a continuous supply of CO2 for fuel and oxygen production can be supplied. This phase of our program has focused on the selection of the membrane system. Since permeation data for membranes did not exist for Martian atmospheric pressures and temperatures, this information had to be compiled. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective. In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar. This paper will present the membrane data, provide the design requirements for a compressor, and compare the results with adsorption and freezer methods.

Parrish, Clyde; Jennings, Paul

2001-01-01

391

Experimental Investigations of Halogen and Noble Gas Geochemistry as Constraints on Planetary Outgassing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction The ^129Xe/^132Xe ratio in Mid-Ocean Ridge Basalts (MORBs) is higher than in the atmosphere and Ocean Island Basalts. Enhanced ^129Xe/^132Xe ratios are widely regarded to be the result of ^129I decay (t(sub)1/2 = 16 m.y.) early in solar system history (e.g. Swindle et al., 1986). Allegre et al. (1983, 1988) proposed a catastrophic degassing scheme to explain this excess. Both Musselwhite et al. (1990) and Hiyagon and Ozima (1990) have noted that because mineral/melt partition coefficients (D) for I appear lower than for Xe, the I/Xe ratio may not be enhanced in the mantle by mineral/melt fractionation. Musselwhite et al. (1990) proposed recycling of I back into the mantle following outgassing, and Hiyagon and Ozima (1990) proposed impact degassing of the mantle as a way around this problem. Knowledge of the relative values of D(I) and D(Xe) is important to the discussion of early planetary outgassing models. Although the dataset for D(I) values is not complete, the known values so far are uniformly low. The dataset for Xe on the other hand is quite ambiguous. Experimentally determined values for D(Xe) vary widely--ranging from 0.05 to >> 1 (Hiyagon and Ozima, 1986; Broadhurst et al., 1992), and it is unclear which of the values is the geologically significant one. Particularly important is the question of whether D(Xe) is greater than or less than unity. Partitioning Experiments: We have undertaken to simultaneously determine the D(I) and D(Ar) values directly, then calculate the D(Xe) from D(Ar). This approach is possible because experiments investigating the mineral/melt partitioning of noble gases, while not consistent in an absolute sense between experiments, do display a consistent trend with the lightest noble gases being most incompatible and Xe most compatible. We are adapting our technique to determine D(Kr) and D(Xe) directly. Finely crushed silica glass (~100 micrometer grain size) was placed in a gas pressure vessel. The vessel was pressurized with a 50:50 mixture of Ar and Kr to 5 kbar at 600 degrees C and held for 20 hr. Electron microprobe analysis (Cameca sx50) of the resulting Ar concentrations in the silica glass ranged from 0.9 to 0.75 wt%. These are similar values to those of Carroll and Stolper (1991). Determination of Kr abundances is so far problematical. Our preliminary results indicate that Kr solubility in silica glass is about an order of magnitude lower than for Ar under the same conditions. The saturated silica glass was then used to mix starting material in the CAMS system (Presnall et al., 1978). Appropriate oxide mixtures with KI added were run at the desired pressures and temperatures in a piston-cylinder apparatus. Results from an 8 hr run at 15 kbar and 1480 degrees C are shown below. Discussion and Conclusions: The resulting concentration of Ar in melt is lower than in starting materials. The melt solubility is consistent with the results of White et al. (1989) and Lux (1987). The partitioning coefficient for Ar, while only an upper limit falls within the low range of values determined by Hiyagon and Ozima (1986) and Broadhurst et al. (1992). The correct value for D(Xe) should also be low, i.e., <0.6. Thus Xe may be incompatible, but its compatibility relative to I is unconstrained by this experiment. The value for D(I) is consistent with our earlier experiments (Musselwhite et al., 1990). It follows that the I/Xe ratio of the mantle cannot be significantly increased as a result of partial melting. The inability to remove Xe from the mantle by mineral/melt partitioning followed by eruption and outgassing of the melt would, in fact, favor the idea of impact outgassing as long as recycling of I occurred. Outgassing of the MORB source would have to be nearly complete before recycling began in order to raise its ^129Xe/^132Xe ratio. However, as long as D(Xe) <= 0.1, Xe will be nearly quantitatively removed from the solid phase along with I during partial melting of the mantle and, therefore, outgassed upon eruption. Thus, fractionation of I from Xe in liquid wa

Musselwhite, D. S.; Drake, M. J.; Swindle, T. D.

1992-07-01

392

Fusarium avenaceum causes burn spot disease syndrome in noble crayfish (Astacus astacus).  

PubMed

Burn spot disease has been causing epidemics both in the Estonian mainland and in Saaremaa Island in the threatened noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) stocks. To study the cause of the disease, we isolated several Fusarium spp. from Estonian noble crayfish (A. astacus) populations suffering from burn spot disease syndrome. We first identified fungi directly from melanised cuticle by their ITS sequences. Then we isolated Fusarium spp. from melanised spots of crayfish showing burn spot disease symptoms, such as melanisation and shell erosion, from two different crayfish populations and watercourses in Estonia. The isolates were then identified based on ITS and EF1?-gene sequences. Isolates of Fusarium spp. taken from two separate Estonian noble crayfish populations were used in infection studies. Koch postulates confirmed that the studied agent was causing burn spot disease symptoms including shell erosion in the noble crayfish, which were significantly more severe after molts. After the infection period, an identical Fusarium spp. was re-isolated from carapace lesions and was thus shown to be the disease agent causing burn spot disease syndrome and shell erosion in noble crayfish. Based on GenBank database searches, the isolates causing burn spot disease symptoms were identified as Fusarium avenaceum in mainland Estonia and F. solani in Saaremaa crayfish. PMID:23557716

Makkonen, J; Jussila, J; Koistinen, L; Paaver, T; Hurt, M; Kokko, H

2013-06-01

393

Toxicity of pyrolysis gases from polyoxymethylene  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A sample of polyoxymethylene was evaluated for toxicity of pyrolysis gases, using the toxicity screening test method developed at the University of San Francisco. Under several test conditions, this material gave shorter times to death than many other synthetic polymers. Carbon monoxide appeared to be the principal toxicant in the pyrolysis gases.

Hilado, C. J.; Schneider, J. E.; Brauer, D. P.

1979-01-01

394

40 CFR 86.1514 - Analytical gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...basis. (b) If the raw CO sampling system specified in 40 CFR part 1065 is used, the analytical gases specified in 40 CFR part 1065...be used. (c) If a CVS sampling system is used, the analytical gases specified in 40 CFR part...

2010-07-01

395

Analyzing Gases From Decomposing Electrical Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test fixture holds insulated wire and traps gases emitted by heating of wire. Used with gas chromatograph and/or mass spectrometer, to analyze gases emitted by insulation on wire when wire heated with controlled current in controlled atmosphere to simulate pyrolysis, combustion, and arc tracking. Small, inexpensive, easily maintained, and relatively nonreactive to organic compounds produced during breakdown of insulation.

Moffett, Gary; Shelley, Timothy J.; Morelli, John J.

1995-01-01

396

40 CFR 92.112 - Analytical gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...the diluent. (c) Gases for the methane analyzer...the diluent. (d) Gases for the NOX analyzer...blend of 40±2 percent hydrogen with the balance being...response; 98 to 100 percent hydrogen fuel may be used with...The allowable zero gas (air or...

2012-07-01

397

40 CFR 92.112 - Analytical gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...the diluent. (c) Gases for the methane analyzer...the diluent. (d) Gases for the NOX analyzer...blend of 40±2 percent hydrogen with the balance being...response; 98 to 100 percent hydrogen fuel may be used with...The allowable zero gas (air or...

2013-07-01

398

40 CFR 92.112 - Analytical gases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...the diluent. (c) Gases for the methane analyzer...the diluent. (d) Gases for the NOX analyzer...blend of 40±2 percent hydrogen with the balance being...response; 98 to 100 percent hydrogen fuel may be used with...The allowable zero gas (air or...

2011-07-01

399

Pulmonary hyperpolarized noble gas MRI: recent advances and perspectives in clinical application.  

PubMed

The invention of hyperpolarized (HP) noble gas MRI using helium-3 ((3)He) or xenon-129 ((129)Xe) has provided a new method to evaluate lung function. Using HP (3)He or (129)Xe for inhalation into the lung air spaces as an MRI contrast agent significantly increases MR signal and makes pulmonary ventilation imaging feasible. This review focuses on important aspects of pulmonary HP noble gas MRI, including the following: (1) functional imaging types, (2) applications for major pulmonary diseases, (3) safety considerations, and (4) future directions. Although it is still challenging to use pulmonary HP noble gas MRI clinically, the technology offers promise for the investigation of the microstructure and function of the lungs. PMID:24840481

Liu, Zaiyi; Araki, Tetsuro; Okajima, Yuka; Albert, Mitchell; Hatabu, Hiroto

2014-07-01