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Sample records for heavy-ion linear accelerator

  1. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  2. Imaging using accelerated heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.

    1982-05-01

    Several methods for imaging using accelerated heavy ion beams are being investigated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using the HILAC (Heavy-Ion Linear Accelerator) as an injector, the Bevalac can accelerate fully stripped atomic nuclei from carbon (Z = 6) to krypton (Z = 34), and partly stripped ions up to uranium (Z = 92). Radiographic studies to date have been conducted with helium (from 184-inch cyclotron), carbon, oxygen, and neon beams. Useful ranges in tissue of 40 cm or more are available. To investigate the potential of heavy-ion projection radiography and computed tomography (CT), several methods and instrumentation have been studied.

  3. Present status and probable future capabilities of heavy-ion linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1984-04-30

    The general characteristics of heavy-ion linacs are summarized, with emphasis on the similarities and differences of systems based on different technologies. The main design considerations of superconducting linacs are outlined, the many projects based on this technology are listed, and a new concept for a superconducting injector linac is described. The role of RFQ structures for heavy-ion acceleration is summarized. A concluding section lists some probable applications of heavy-ion accelerators during the next decade. 17 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  4. Study of the beam breakup mode in linear induction accelerators for heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Faltens, A.; Smith, L.

    1981-03-01

    A simple theoretical study and numerical estimate is presented for the transverse amplitude growth of a nonrelativistic heavy ion beam in an induction linac, as envisaged for use in commercial power plants, due to the nonregenerative coherent beam breakup mode. An equivalent electrical circuit has been used to represent the accelerating induction modules. Our calculation shows that for the parameters of interest, the beam breakup amplitude for a heavy ion beam grows extremely slowly in the time scales of interest, to magnitudes insignificant for transport purposes. It is concluded that the coherent beam breakup mode does not pose any serious threat to the stability of a high current (kA) heavy ion beam in an induction linac.

  5. Performance of MBE-4: An experimental multiple beam induction linear accelerator for heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, A.I.; Fessenden, T.J.; Keefe, D.; Kim, C.H.; Meuth, H.

    1988-06-01

    An experimental induction linac, called MBE-4, has been constructed to demonstrate acceleration and current amplification of multiple heavy ion beams. This work is part of a program to study the use of such an accelerator as a driver for heavy ion inertial fusion. MBE-4 is 16m long and accelerates four space-charge-dominated beams of singly-charged cesium ions, in this case from 200 keV to 700 keV, amplifying the current in each beam from 10mA by a factor of nine. Construction of the experiment was completed late in 1987 and we present the results of detailed measurements of the longitudinal beam dynamics. Of particular interest is the contribution of acceleration errors to the growth of current fluctuations and to the longitudinal emittance. The effectiveness of the longitudinal focusing, accomplished by means of the controlled time dependence of the accelerating fields, is also discussed. 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Engineering study of a 10 MeV heavy ion linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Fong, C.G.; Fessenden, T.J.; Fulton, R.L.; Keefe, D.

    1989-03-01

    LBL's Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research group has completed the engineering study of the Induction Linac Systems Experiment (ILSE). ILSE will address nearly all accelerator physics issues of a scaled heavy ion induction linac inertial fusion pellet driver. Designed as a series of subsystem experiments, ILSE will accelerate 16 parallel carbon ion beams from a 2 MeV injector presently under development to 10 MeV at one ..mu..sec. This overview paper will present the physics and engineering requirements and describe conceptual design approaches for building ILSE. Major ILSE subsystems consist of electrostatic focusing quadrupole matching and accelerating sections, a 16 to 4 beam transverse combining section, a 4 beam magnetic focusing quadrupole accelerating section, a single beam 180 degree bend section, a drift compression section and a final focus and target chamber. These subsystems are the subject of accompanying papers. Also discussed are vacuum and alignment, diagnostics/data acquisition and controls, key conclusions and plans for further development. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. heavy ion acceleration at shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. I.; Galinsky, V.

    2009-12-01

    The theoretical study of alpha particle acceleration at a quasi-parallel shock due to interaction with Alfven waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model [1]. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or dumped and hence particles will be pitch--angle scattered as well as the change of the wave energy due to instability or damping. It includes in consideration the total distribution function (the bulk plasma and high energy tail), so no any assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles) are required. In previous studies heavy ions were treated as perfect test particles, they only experienced the Alfven turbulence excited by protons and didn’t contribute to turbulence generation. In contrast to this approach, we consider the ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves. It is important for alpha particles with their relatively large mass-loading parameter that defines efficiency of the wave excitation by alpha particles. The energy spectra of alpha particles is found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation. [1] Galinsky, V.L., and V.I. Shevchenko, Astrophys. J., 669, L109, 2007.

  8. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density C{sub s}+ sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac.

  9. Final Commissioning of the Superconducting Heavy Ion Linear Accelerator at IUAC, Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Tripti Sekhar; Choudhury, Anup; Chacko, Jacob; Kar, Soumen; Antony, Joby; Babu, Suresh; Kumar, Manoj; Mathuria, D. S.; Sahu, Santosh; Kanjilal, Dinakar

    The superconducting linac as a booster of the 15UD Pelletron accelerator was partly commissioned with one linac module housing eight quarter wave bulk niobium cavities along with the superbuncher and rebuncher cryomodules. Subsequently two more linac cryomodules were added to have in total 24 cavities for acceleration. In addition, a new Linde helium refrigerator of capacity 750 W @ 4.2 K was installed in parallel to the earlier CCI refrigerator. The new refrigerator was integrated with the earlier cryogenics network system through a specially designed liquid helium distribution line without any valve box. The cooling philosophy with this new system is modified to have a faster cool down rate in the critical zone (150 - 70 K) to avoid Q disease. The helium gas pressure fluctuation in the cavities is reduced significantly to have stable RF locking. The full linac is being operated and beams with higher energy are being delivered to the users. The present paper will highlight the performance of the new cryogenic system with respect to cool down rate, and helium pressure fluctuation.

  10. Preliminary report on the MBE-4, an experimental multiple-beam induction linear accelerator for heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Warwick, A.I.; Gough, D.E.; Meuth, H.

    1988-11-01

    A small-scale experimental accelerator called MBE-4 has been constructed to demonstrate the principle of a current-amplifying induction linac for multiple beams of heavy ions. Four beams of Cs{sup 1+}, initially at 200 keV and each with a current of 10 mA have been accelerated and amplified to a kinetic energy of 700 keV and currents of 90 mA apiece. Transverse focusing is achieved by means of electrostatic quadrupoles; longitudinally the current is amplified and the beam bunch is held together against the space charge forces by special time-dependent accelerating fields. We report on the methods developed for designing and implementing the accelerating pulses and on measurements of the transverse and longitudinal emittance of the accelerated beams. Current fluctuations and the longitudinal emittance are initially almost zero and increase as acceleration errors are accumulated. We discuss the final longitudinal emittance and the current fluctuations in the experiment in terms of their acceptability for a large heavy-ion-fusion driver. 17 refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Process in high energy heavy ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinev, D.

    2009-03-01

    A review of processes that occur in high energy heavy ion acceleration by synchrotrons and colliders and that are essential for the accelerator performance is presented. Interactions of ions with the residual gas molecules/atoms and with stripping foils that deliberately intercept the ion trajectories are described in details. These interactions limit both the beam intensity and the beam quality. The processes of electron loss and capture lie at the root of heavy ion charge exchange injection. The review pays special attention to the ion induced vacuum pressure instability which is one of the main factors limiting the beam intensity. The intrabeam scattering phenomena which restricts the average luminosity of ion colliders is discussed. Some processes in nuclear interactions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions that could be dangerous for the performance of ion colliders are represented in the last chapter.

  12. Heavy-ion injector based on an electron cyclotron ion source for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, In-Seok; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Bum-Sik; Jin, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Hye-Jin; Heo, Jeong-Il; Kim, Deok-Min; Jang, Ji-Ho

    2016-02-01

    The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation.

  13. Heavy-ion injector based on an electron cyclotron ion source for the superconducting linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project.

    PubMed

    Hong, In-Seok; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Bong-Hyuk; Choi, Suk-Jin; Park, Bum-Sik; Jin, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Hye-Jin; Heo, Jeong-Il; Kim, Deok-Min; Jang, Ji-Ho

    2016-02-01

    The injector for the main driver linear accelerator of the Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea, has been developed to allow heavy ions up to uranium to be delivered to the inflight fragmentation system. The critical components of the injector are the superconducting electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources, the radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and matching systems for low and medium energy beams. We have built superconducting magnets for the ECR ion source, and a prototype with one segment of the RFQ structure, with the aim of developing a design that can satisfy our specifications, demonstrate stable operation, and prove results to compare the design simulation. PMID:26931946

  14. Medical heavy ion accelerator proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, R. A.

    1985-05-01

    For several decades, accelerators designed primarily for research in nuclear and high energy physics have been adapted for biomedical research including radiotherapeutic treatment of human diseases such as pituitary disorders, cancer, and more recently, arteriovascular malformations. The particles used in these treatments include pions, protons and heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon and argon. Maximum beam energies must be available to penetrate into an equivalent of about 30 cm of water, requiring treatment beams of 250 to 1000 MeV/nucleon. Intensities must be adequate to complete a 100 rad treatment fraction in about 1 minute. The favored technical approach in these proposals utilizes a conventional, strong-focusing synchrotron capable of fast switching between ions and energies, and servicing multiple treatment rooms. Specialized techniques for shaping the dose to conform to irregularly-shaped target volumes, while simultaneously sparing surrounding, healthy tissue and critical structures, are employed in each treatment room, together with the sophisticated dosimetry necessary for verification, monitoring, and patient safety.

  15. Multiple beam induction accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, Peter A.; Barnard, John J.; Faltens, Andris; Friedman, Alex; Waldron, William L.

    2014-01-01

    Induction accelerators are appealing for heavy-ion driven inertial fusion energy (HIF) because of their high efficiency and their demonstrated capability to accelerate high beam current (≥10 kA in some applications). For the HIF application, accomplishments and challenges are summarized. HIF research and development has demonstrated the production of single ion beams with the required emittance, current, and energy suitable for injection into an induction linear accelerator. Driver scale beams have been transported in quadrupole channels of the order of 10% of the number of quadrupoles of a driver. We review the design and operation of induction accelerators and the relevant aspects of their use as drivers for HIF. We describe intermediate research steps that would provide the basis for a heavy-ion research facility capable of heating matter to fusion relevant temperatures and densities, and also to test and demonstrate an accelerator architecture that scales well to a fusion power plant.

  16. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  17. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  18. Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The National Energy Strategy calls for a demonstration IFE power plant by the year 2025. The cornerstone of the plan to meet this ambitious goal is research and development for heavy-ion driver technology. A series of successes indicates that the technology being studied by the HIFAR Group -- the induction accelerator -- is a prime candidate for further technology development toward this long-range goal. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions; the understanding of the scaling laws that apply in this hitherto little-explored physics regime; and the validation of new, potentially more economical accelerator strategies. Key specific elements to be addressed include: fundamental physical limits of transverse and longitudinal beam quality; development of induction modules for accelerators, along with multiple-beam hardware, at reasonable cost; acceleration of multiple beams, merging of the beams, and amplification of current without significant dilution of beam quality; final bunching, transport, and focusing onto a small target. In 1992, the HIFAR Program was concerned principally with the next step toward a driver: the design of ILSE, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments. ILSE will address most of the remaining beam-control and beam-manipulation issues at partial driver scale. A few parameters -- most importantly, the line charge density and consequently the size of the ILSE beams -- will be at full driver scale. A theory group closely integrated with the experimental groups continues supporting present-day work and looking ahead toward larger experiments and the eventual driver. Highlights of this long-range, driver-oriented research included continued investigations of longitudinal instability and some new insights into scaled experiments with which the authors might examine hard-to-calculate beam-dynamics phenomena.

  19. Heavy ion acceleration at parallel shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2010-11-01

    A study of alpha particle acceleration at parallel shock due to an interaction with Alfvén waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model (Galinsky and Shevchenko, 2000, 2007). The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped and hence where particles will be pitch-angle scattered. It considers the total distribution function (for the bulk plasma and high energy tail), so no standard assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles) are required. The heavy ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves is considered. The contribution of alpha particles to turbulence generation is important because of their relatively large mass-loading parameter Pα=nαmα/npmp (mp, np and mα, nα are proton and alpha particle mass and density) that defines efficiency of wave excitation. The energy spectra of alpha particles are found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation.

  20. High Intensity heavy ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J. C.; Xia, J. W.; Xiao, G. Q.; Xu, H. S.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhou, X. H.; Ma, X. W.; He, Y.; Ma, L. Z.; Gao, D. Q.; Meng, J.; Xu, Z.; Mao, R. S.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Y. Y.; Sun, L. T.; Yuan, Y. J.; Yuan, P.; Zhan, W. L.; Shi, J.; Chai, W. P.; Yin, D. Y.; Li, P.; Li, J.; Mao, L. J.; Zhang, J. Q.; Sheng, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    HIAF (High Intensity heavy ion Accelerator Facility), a new facility planned in China for heavy ion related researches, consists of two ion sources, a high intensity Heavy Ion Superconducting Linac (HISCL), a 45 Tm Accumulation and Booster Ring (ABR-45) and a multifunction storage ring system. The key features of HIAF are unprecedented high pulse beam intensity and versatile operation mode. The HIAF project aims to expand nuclear and related researches into presently unreachable region and give scientists possibilities to conduct cutting-edge researches in these fields. The general description of the facility is given in this article with a focus on the accelerator design.

  1. Acceleration of heavy ions in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, M.Q.

    1983-01-01

    It is possible to use the Brookhaven AGS as a heavy ion machine by adding a cyclotron to the Tandem and using this combination as injector. An intermediate step for lighter ions might consist of injecting the Tandem beam directly into the AGS. In either case, quite high intensities should be possible.

  2. Mutagenic effect of accelerated heavy ions on bacterial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreyko, A. V.; Krasavin, E. A.

    2011-11-01

    The heavy ion accelerators of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research were used to study the regularities and mechanisms of formation of different types of mutations in prokaryote cells. The induction of direct (lac-, ton B-, col B) mutations for Esherichia coli cells and reverse his- → His+ mutations of Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis cells under the action of radiation in a wide range of linear energy transfer (LET) was studied. The regularities of formation of gene and structural (tonB trp-) mutations for Esherichia coli bacteria under the action of accelerated heavy ions were studied. It was demonstrated that the rate of gene mutations as a function of the dose under the action of Γ rays and accelerated heavy ions is described by linear-quadratic functions. For structural mutations, linear "dose-effect" dependences are typical. The quadratic character of mutagenesis dose curves is determined by the "interaction" of two independent "hitting" events in the course of SOS repair of genetic structures. The conclusion made was that gene mutations under the action of accelerated heavy ions are induced by δ electron regions of charged particle tracks. The methods of SOS chromotest, SOS lux test, and λ prophage induction were used to study the regularities of SOS response of cells under the action of radiations in a wide LET range. The following proposition was substantiated: the molecular basis for formation of gene mutations are cluster single-strand DNA breaks, and that for structural mutations, double-strand DNA breaks. It was found out that the LET dependence of the relative biological efficiency of accelerated ions is described by curves with a local maximum. It was demonstrated that the biological efficiency of ionizing radiations with different physical characteristics on cells with different genotype, estimated by the lethal action, induction of gene and deletion mutations, precision excision of transposons, is determined by the specific

  3. Laser-driven three-stage heavy-ion acceleration from relativistic laser-plasma interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Y; Lin, C; Liu, B; Sheng, Z M; Lu, H Y; Ma, W J; Bin, J H; Schreiber, J; He, X T; Chen, J E; Zepf, M; Yan, X Q

    2014-01-01

    A three-stage heavy ion acceleration scheme for generation of high-energy quasimonoenergetic heavy ion beams is investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation and analytical modeling. The scheme is based on the interaction of an intense linearly polarized laser pulse with a compound two-layer target (a front heavy ion layer + a second light ion layer). We identify that, under appropriate conditions, the heavy ions preaccelerated by a two-stage acceleration process in the front layer can be injected into the light ion shock wave in the second layer for a further third-stage acceleration. These injected heavy ions are not influenced by the screening effect from the light ions, and an isolated high-energy heavy ion beam with relatively low-energy spread is thus formed. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that ∼100MeV/u quasimonoenergetic Fe24+ beams can be obtained by linearly polarized laser pulses at intensities of 1.1×1021W/cm2. PMID:24580346

  4. Heavy ion acceleration at the AGS: Present and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.Y.

    1989-01-01

    The Brookhaven AGS is alternating gradient synchrotron, 807 meters in circumference, which was originally designed for only protons. Using the 15 MV Brookhaven Tandem Van de Graaff as an injector, the AGS started to accelerate heavy ions of mass lighter than sulfur. Because of the relatively poor vacuum (/approximately/10/sup /minus/8/ Torr), the AGS is not able to accelerate heavier ions which could not be fully stripped of electrons at the Tandem energy. When the AGS Booster, which is under construction, is completed the operation will be extended to all species of heavy ions including gold and uranium. Because ultra-high vacuum (/approximately/10/sup /minus/11/ Torr) is planned, the Booster can accelerate partially stripped elements. The operational experience, the parameters, and scheme of heavy ion acceleration will be presented in detail from injection to extraction, as well as future injection into the new Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). A future plan to improve intensity of the accelerator will also be presented. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Charge Strippers of Heavy Ions for High Intensity Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nolen, Jerry A.; Marti, Felix

    2014-02-01

    Charge strippers play a critical role in many high intensity heavy ion accelerators. Here we present some history of recent stripper technology development and indicate the capabilities and limitations of the various approaches. The properties of solid, gaseous, and liquid strippers are covered. In particular, the limitations of solid strippers for high intensity, high atomic number heavy ions and the unique features of helium gas and liquid lithium for high intensity applications are covered. The need for high quality simulation of stripper performance as important input for system optimization is explained and examples of the current simulation codes are given.

  6. Residual activity induced by heavy ions and beam-loss criteria for heavy-ion accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strašík, I.; Mustafin, E.; Pavlovič, M.

    2010-07-01

    The paper presents results of FLUKA simulations of the residual activity induced by heavy ions in two target configurations representing: (1) a beam pipe of an accelerator and (2) a bulky accelerator structure like a magnet yoke or a coil. The target materials were stainless steel and copper representing the most common construction materials used for basic accelerator components. For these two materials, the inventory of the induced isotopes depends mainly on the target material and much less on the projectile species. Time evolution of the induced activity can be described by means of a generic curve that is independent from the projectile mass. Dependence of the induced residual activity on selected ion beam parameters was studied. The main goal of the study was establishing a scaling law expanding the existing proton beam-loss tolerance to heavy-ion beams. This scaling law enables specifying beam-loss criteria for projectile species from proton up to uranium at energies from 200MeV/u up to 1GeV/u.

  7. Accelerator mass spectrometry with heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberstock, Günther; Heinzl, Johann; Korschinek, Gunther; Morinaga, Haruhiko; Nolte, Eckehart; Ratzinger, Ulrich; Kato, Kazuo; Wolf, Manfred

    1986-11-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry measurements with fully stripped 36Cl ions have been performed at the Munich accelerator laboratory in order to date groundwaters and palaeontological samples, to study anthropogenic 36Cl produced through nuclear tests and to determine the fast neutron flux of the Hiroshima A-bomb.

  8. Laser-driven multicharged heavy ion beam acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Esirkepov, T. Z.; Nishio, K.; Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Y.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Kanasaki, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Kando, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kondo, K.; Imai, K.; Nagamiya, S.

    2015-05-01

    Experimental demonstration of multi-charged heavy ion acceleration from the interaction between the ultra-intense short pulse laser system and the metal target is presented. The laser pulse of <10 J laser energy, 36 fs pulse width, and the contrast level of ~1010 from 200 TW class Ti:sapphire J-KAREN laser system at JAEA is used in the experiment. Almost fully stripped Fe ions accelerated up to 0.9 GeV are demonstrated. This is achieved by the high intensity laser field of ˜ 1021Wcm-2 interacting with the solid density target. The demonstrated iron ions with high charge to mass ratio (Q/M) is difficult to be achieved by the conventional heavy ion source technique in the accelerators.

  9. Transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, T.; Eylon, S.; Fessenden, T.J.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.

    1991-04-01

    Current amplification of heavy ion beams is an integral feature of the induction linac approach to heavy ion fusion. As part of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research program at LBL we have been studying the evolution of the transverse emittance of ion beams while they are undergoing current amplification, achieved by longitudinal bunch compression and acceleration. Experiments are conducted on MBE-4, a four beam Cs{sup +} induction linac. The space-charge dominated beams of MBE-4 are focused by electrostatic quadrupoles while they are accelerated from nominally 200 keV up to {approximately} 1 MeV by 24 accelerating gaps. Initially the beams have currents of typically 4 mA to 10 mA per beam. Early experimental results showed a growth of the normalized emittance by a factor of 2 while the beam current was amplified by up to 9 times its initial value. We will discuss the results of recent experiments in which a mild bunch length compression rate, more typical of that required by a fusion driver, has shown that the normalized emittance can be maintained at its injection value (0.03 mm-mr) during acceleration. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. An RFQ linac for heavy ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, N.; Arai, S.; Nakanishi, T.; Hori, T.; Tokuda, N.; Yamada, S.; Fukushima, T.; Takanaka, M.; Noda, A.; Katayama, T.

    1982-02-01

    An rf characteristic was studied on a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) model cavity with two kinds of vanes, straight and modulated. The measured resonant frequency is 295.0 MHz for the TE210 mode and well agrees with the calculated value 296.5 MHz by SUPERFISH for the straight vane. The measured one is 293.5 MHz for the modulated vane which has the same cross section as the straight vane at its quadrupole symmetry plane. The measured electric field in the acceleration bore agrees with the calculated one within the statistical error. A sufficient mode separation and uniform field distribution were obtained with a single loop coupler which matches the cavity to the feeder line.

  11. Relative biological effectiveness of accelerated heavy ions for induction of morphological transformation in Syrian hamster embryo cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Z B; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, F; Suzuki, M; Furusawa, Y; Kato, T; Ikenaga, M

    1998-09-01

    Syrian hamster embryo cells were used to study the morphological transformation induced by accelerated heavy ions with different linear energy transfer (LET) ranging from 13 to 400 keV/micron. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated with 12C or 28Si ion beams generated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), then inoculated to culture dishes. Morphologically altered colonies were scored as transformants. Over the LET range examined, the frequency of transformation induced by the heavy ions increased sharply at very low doses no greater than 5 cGy. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the heavy ions relative to X-rays first increased with LET, reached a maximum value of about 7 at 100 keV/micron, then decreased with the further increase of LET. Our findings confirmed that high LET heavy ions are much more effective than X-rays for the induction of in vitro cell transformation. PMID:9868868

  12. Activation of accelerator construction materials by heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katrík, P.; Mustafin, E.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Pavlovič, M.; Strašík, I.

    2015-12-01

    Activation data for an aluminum target irradiated by 200 MeV/u 238U ion beam are presented in the paper. The target was irradiated in the stacked-foil geometry and analyzed using gamma-ray spectroscopy. The purpose of the experiment was to study the role of primary particles, projectile fragments, and target fragments in the activation process using the depth profiling of residual activity. The study brought information on which particles contribute dominantly to the target activation. The experimental data were compared with the Monte Carlo simulations by the FLUKA 2011.2c.0 code. This study is a part of a research program devoted to activation of accelerator construction materials by high-energy (⩾200 MeV/u) heavy ions at GSI Darmstadt. The experimental data are needed to validate the computer codes used for simulation of interaction of swift heavy ions with matter.

  13. Heavy ions acceleration in RF wells of 2-frequency electromagnetic field and in the inverted FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Dzergach, A.I.; Kabanov, V.S.; Nikulin, M.G.; Vinogradov, S.V.

    1995-03-01

    Last results of the study of heavy ions acceleration by electrons trapped in moving 2-frequency 3-D RF wells are described. A linearized theoretical model of ions acceleration in a polarized spheroidal plasmoid is proposed. The equilibrium state of this plasmoid is described by the modified microcanonical distribution of the Courant-Snyder invariant ({open_quotes}quasienergy{close_quotes} of electrons). Some new results of computational simulation of the acceleration process are given. The method of computation takes into account the given cylindrical field E{sub 011}({var_phi},r,z) and the self fields of electrons and ions. The results of the computation at relatively short time intervals confirm the idea and estimated parameters of acceleration. The heavy ion accelerator using this principle may be constructed with the use of compact cm band iris-loaded and biperiodical waveguides with double-sided 2-frequency RF feeding. It can accelerate heavy ions with a charge number Z{sub i} from small initial energies {approximately} 50 keV/a.u. with the rate {approximately} Z{sub i} {center_dot} 10 MeV/m. Semirelativistic ions may be accelerated with similar rate also in the inverted FEL.

  14. Mutation Induction in Mammalian Cells by Accelerated Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendahl, I. M.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Rink, H.

    The deleterious effects of accelerated heavy ions on living cells are of increasing importance for long duration human space flight activities. An important aspect of this field is attributed to the type and quality of biological damage induced by these densely ionizing particles. To address this aspect, cell inactivation and mutation induction at the hprt locus (coding for hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl-transferase) was investigated in cultured V79 Chinese Hamster Cells irradiated with accelerated heavy ions (8-O, 20-Ca, 79-Au, and 92-U) and X-rays. Specific energies of the ions ranged from 1.9 to 69.7 MeV/u and corresponding LET values were between 62 band 15,580 keV/μ m. 30 spontaneous and 196 heavy-ion induced 6-thioguanine resistant hprt mutant colonies were characterized by Southern technique using the restriction enzymes EcoRI, PstI and BglII and a full length hprt cDNA probe isolated from the plasmid pHpt12 (kindly provided by Dr. J. Thacker). While inactivation cross sections (σ i) rise over the whole LET range, mutation induction cross sections (σ m) increase up to approximately 300 keV/μ m (O-ions) but decline with heavier ions and more extreme LET values. A similar behaviour is seen with mutation frequency dependent on particle fluence. After irradiation with accelerated uranium ions (8.8 MeV/u, 15,580 keV/μ m) a significant decrease of mutation frequency was found with higher particle fluences (3× 106 particles cm-2). Nearly no mutants were recovered with 8× 106 particles cm-2. All restriction patterns of the spontaneous hprt mutants were indistinguishable from the wild type pattern. These mutants probably contain small deletions or point mutations in the hprt locus. In contrast, the overall spectrum of heavy ion induced mutations revealed a majority (67%) of partial or complete deletions of the hprt gene. With constant particle fluence (3× 106 particles cm-2) the quality of heavy ion induced mutations in the hprt locus depends on physical

  15. Heavy-ion acceleration with a superconducting linac

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This year, 1988, is the tenth anniversary of the first use of RF superconductivity to accelerate heavy ions. In June 1978, the first two superconducting resonators of the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) were used to boost the energy of a /sup 19/F beam from the tandem, and by September 1978 a 5-resonator linac provided an /sup 16/O beam for a nuclear-physics experiment. Since then, the superconducting linac has grown steadily in size and capability until now there are 42 accelerating structures and 4 bunchers. Throughout this period, the system was used routinely for physics research, and by now the total time with beam on target is 35,000 hours. Lessons learned from this long running experience and some key technical developments that made it possible are reviewed in this paper. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Carbon stripper foils for heavy-ion accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    Carbon stripper foils have for many years been successfully used with accelerators because they yield higher average charge states than gas strippers. However, with the development of heavy ion accelerators and the resulting use of heavier ions, the carbon stripper foil lifetimes are greatly reduced. Even when using the new foils changer systems, which typically contain two hundred foils or more, it becomes necessary to have frequent accelerator shutdowns for foil reloading. The rate of experiment interruption makes it clear a new approach is necessary to increase foil lifetimes. Several techniques have been tried with varying degrees of success to strengthen these foils so that they will last longer; the most successful one reported a lifetime increase of the order of a factor of 30 over foils produced in the conventional manner. Methods of producing various types of foils will be presented, a discussion will be given on theories for foil breakage, and some new ideas will be introduced for further increasing foil lifetimes.

  17. Simulating Electron Clouds in Heavy-Ion Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik,A.W.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J-L.; Stoltz, P.; Veitzer, S.

    2005-04-07

    Contaminating clouds of electrons are a concern for most accelerators of positive-charged particles, but there are some unique aspects of heavy-ion accelerators for fusion and high-energy density physics which make modeling such clouds especially challenging. In particular, self-consistent electron and ion simulation is required, including a particle advance scheme which can follow electrons in regions where electrons are strongly-, weakly-, and un-magnetized. They describe their approach to such self-consistency, and in particular a scheme for interpolating between full-orbit (Boris) and drift-kinetic particle pushes that enables electron time steps long compared to the typical gyro period in the magnets. They present tests and applications: simulation of electron clouds produced by three different kinds of sources indicates the sensitivity of the cloud shape to the nature of the source; first-of-a-kind self-consistent simulation of electron-cloud experiments on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in which the machine can be flooded with electrons released by impact of the ion beam and an end plate, demonstrate the ability to reproduce key features of the ion-beam phase space; and simulation of a two-stream instability of thin beams in a magnetic field demonstrates the ability of the large-timestep mover to accurately calculate the instability.

  18. Preferential acceleration of heavy ions in the reconnection outflow region. Drift and surfatron ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Zimbardo, G.; Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Fujimoto, M.

    2014-02-01

    Context. Many observations show that heating in the solar corona should be more effective for heavy ions than for protons. Moreover, the efficiency of particle heating also seems to be larger for a larger particle electric charge. The transient magnetic reconnection is one of the most natural mechanisms of charged particle acceleration in the solar corona. However, the role of this process in preferential acceleration of heavy ions has still yet to be investigated. Aims: In this paper, we consider charged particle acceleration in the reconnection outflow region. We investigate the dependence of efficiency of various mechanisms of particle acceleration on particle charge and mass. Methods: We take into account recent in situ spacecraft observations of the nonlinear magnetic waves that have originated in the magnetic reconnection. We use analytical estimates and test-particle trajectories to study resonant and nonresonant particle acceleration by these nonlinear waves. Results: We show that resonant acceleration of heavy ions by nonlinear magnetic waves in the reconnection outflow region is more effective for heavy ions and/or for ions with a larger electric charge. Nonresonant acceleration can be considered as a combination of particle reflections from the front of the nonlinear waves. Energy gain for a single reflection is proportional to the particle mass, while the maximum possible gain of energy corresponds to the classical betatron heating. Conclusions: Small-scale transient magnetic reconnections produce nonlinear magnetic waves propagating away from the reconnection region. These waves can effectively accelerate heavy ions in the solar corona via resonant and nonresonnat regimes of interactions. This mechanism of acceleration is more effective for ions with a larger mass and/or with a larger electric charge.

  19. Heavy ion mutagenesis: linear energy transfer effects and genetic linkage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kronenberg, A.; Gauny, S.; Criddle, K.; Vannais, D.; Ueno, A.; Kraemer, S.; Waldren, C. A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    We have characterized a series of 69 independent mutants at the endogenous hprt locus of human TK6 lymphoblasts and over 200 independent S1-deficient mutants of the human x hamster hybrid cell line AL arising spontaneously or following low-fluence exposures to densely ionizing Fe ions (600 MeV/amu, linear energy transfer = 190 keV/microns). We find that large deletions are common. The entire hprt gene (> 44 kb) was missing in 19/39 Fe-induced mutants, while only 2/30 spontaneous mutants lost the entire hprt coding sequence. When the gene of interest (S1 locus = M1C1 gene) is located on a nonessential human chromosome 11, multilocus deletions of several million base pairs are observed frequently. The S1 mutation frequency is more than 50-fold greater than the frequency of hprt mutants in the same cells. Taken together, these results suggest that low-fluence exposures to Fe ions are often cytotoxic due to their ability to create multilocus deletions that may often include the loss of essential genes. In addition, the tumorigenic potential of these HZE heavy ions may be due to the high potential for loss of tumor suppressor genes. The relative insensitivity of the hprt locus to mutation is likely due to tight linkage to a gene that is required for viability.

  20. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described.

  1. Prototyping of beam position monitor for medium energy beam transport section of RAON heavy ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyojae; Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    A heavy ion accelerator, RAON is going to be built by Rare Isotope Science Project in Korea. Its target is to accelerate various stable ions such as uranium, proton, and xenon from electron cyclotron resonance ion source and some rare isotopes from isotope separation on-line. The beam shaping, charge selection, and modulation should be applied to the ions from these ion sources because RAON adopts a superconducting linear accelerator structure for beam acceleration. For such treatment, low energy beam transport, radio frequency quadrupole, and medium energy beam transport (MEBT) will be installed in injector part of RAON accelerator. Recently, development of a prototype of stripline beam position monitor (BPM) to measure the position of ion beams in MEBT section is under way. In this presentation, design of stripline, electromagnetic (EM) simulation results, and RF measurement test results obtained from the prototyped BPM will be described. PMID:26932088

  2. Final Progress Report - Heavy Ion Accelerator Theory and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, Irving

    2009-10-31

    The use of a beam of heavy ions to heat a target for the study of warm dense matter physics, high energy density physics, and ultimately to ignite an inertial fusion pellet, requires the achievement of beam intensities somewhat greater than have traditionally been obtained using conventional accelerator technology. The research program described here has substantially contributed to understanding the basic nonlinear intense-beam physics that is central to the attainment of the requisite intensities. Since it is very difficult to reverse intensity dilution, avoiding excessive dilution over the entire beam lifetime is necessary for achieving the required beam intensities on target. The central emphasis in this research has therefore been on understanding the nonlinear mechanisms that are responsible for intensity dilution and which generally occur when intense space-charge-dominated beams are not in detailed equilibrium with the external forces used to confine them. This is an important area of study because such lack of detailed equilibrium can be an unavoidable consequence of the beam manipulations such as acceleration, bunching, and focusing necessary to attain sufficient intensity on target. The primary tool employed in this effort has been the use of simulation, particularly the WARP code, in concert with experiment, to identify the nonlinear dynamical characteristics that are important in practical high intensity accelerators. This research has gradually made a transition from the study of idealized systems and comparisons with theory, to study the fundamental scaling of intensity dilution in intense beams, and more recently to explicit identification of the mechanisms relevant to actual experiments. This work consists of two categories; work in direct support beam physics directly applicable to NDCX and a larger effort to further the general understanding of space-charge-dominated beam physics.

  3. Precision spectroscopy at heavy ion ring accelerator SIS300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backe, Hartmut

    2006-07-01

    Unique spectroscopic possibilities open up if a laser beam interacts with relativistic lithium-like ions stored in the heavy ion ring accelerator SIS300 at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR in Darmstadt, Germany. At a relativistic factor γ = 36 the 2P1/2 level can be excited from the 2S1/2 ground state for any element with frequency doubled dye-lasers in collinear geometry. Precise transition energy measurements can be performed if the fluorescence photons, boosted in forward direction into the X-ray region, are energetically analyzed with a single crystal monochromator. The hyperfine structure can be investigated at the 2P1/2-2S1/2 transition for all elements and at the 2P3/2-2S1/2 transition for elements with Z≤50. Isotope shifts and nuclear moments can be measured with unprecedented precision, in principle even for only a few stored radioactive species with known nuclear spin. A superior relative line width in the order of 5·10-7 may be feasible after laser cooling, and even polarized external beams may be prepared by optical pumping.

  4. Precision spectroscopy at heavy ion ring accelerator SIS300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backe, Hartmut

    Unique spectroscopic possibilities open up if a laser beam interacts with relativistic lithium-like ions stored in the heavy ion ring accelerator SIS300 at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR in Darmstadt, Germany. At a relativistic factor γ=36 the 2P1/2 level can be excited from the 2S1/2 ground state for any element with frequency doubled dye-lasers in collinear geometry. Precise transition energy measurements can be performed if the fluorescence photons, boosted in forward direction into the X-ray region, are energetically analyzed with a single crystal monochromator. The hyperfine structure can be investigated at the 2P1/2-2S1/2 transition for all elements and at the 2P3/2-2S1/2 transition for elements with Z≤50. Isotope shifts and nuclear moments can be measured with unprecedented precision, in principle even for only a few stored radioactive species with known nuclear spin. A superior relative line width in the order of 5·10-7 may be feasible after laser cooling, and even polarized external beams may be prepared by optical pumping.

  5. Acceleration schedules for a recirculating heavy-ion accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W.M.; Grote, D.P.

    2002-05-01

    Recent advances in solid-state switches have made it feasible to design programmable, high-repetition-rate pulsers for induction accelerators. These switches could lower the cost of recirculating induction accelerators, such as the ''small recirculator'' at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), by substantially reducing the number of induction modules. Numerical work is reported here to determine what effects the use of fewer pulsers at higher voltage would have on the beam quality of the LLNL small recirculator. Lattices with different numbers of pulsers are examined using the fluid/envelope code CIRCE, and several schedules for acceleration and compression are compared for each configuration. For selected schedules, the phase-space dynamics is also studied using the particle-in-cell code WARP3d.

  6. Heavy ion action on single cells: Cellular inactivation capability of single accelerated heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kost, M.; Pross, H.-D.; Russmann, C.; Schneider, E.; Kiefer, J.; Kraft, G.; Lenz, G.; Becher, W.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy ions (HZE-particles) constitute an important part of radiation in space. Although their number is small the high amount of energy transferred by individual particles may cause severe biological effects. Their investigation requires special techniques which were tested by experiments performed at the UNILAC at the GSI (Darmstadt). Diploid yeast was used which is a suitable eucaryotic test system because of its resistance to extreme conditions like dryness and vacuum. Cells were placed on nuclear track detector foils and exposed to ions of different atomic number and energy. To assess the action of one single ion on an individual cell, track parameters and the respective colony forming abilities (CFA) were determined with the help of computer aided image analysis. There is mounting evidence that not only the amount of energy deposited along the particle path, commonly given by the LET, is of importance but also the spatial problem of energy deposition at a submicroscopical scale. It is virtually impossible to investigate track structure effects in detail with whole cell populations and (globally applied) high particle fluences. It is, therefore, necessary to detect the action of simple ions in individual cells. The results show that the biological action depends on atomic number and specific energy of the impinging ions, which can be compared with model calculations of recent track structure models.

  7. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1985-September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    The heavy ion accelerator is profiled. Energy losses, currents, kinetic energy, beam optics, pulse models and mechanical tolerances are included in the discussion. In addition, computational efforts and an energy analyzer are described. 37 refs., 27 figs. (WRF)

  8. Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion: Summary Report of the Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.A.; Barnard, J.J.

    2011-04-29

    The Workshop on Accelerators for Heavy Ion Fusion was held at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory May 23-26, 2011. The workshop began with plenary sessions to review the state of the art in HIF (heavy ion fusion), followed by parallel working groups, and concluded with a plenary session to review the results. There were five working groups: IFE (inertial fusion energy) targets, RF approach to HIF, induction accelerator approach to HIF, chamber and driver interface, ion sources and injectors.

  9. Heavy Ion and Proton Induced Single Event Transients in Linear Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Coss, J. R.; Miyahira, T.; Schwartz, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents a display of heavy-ion and proton-induced single event transients for selected linear devices. The transient vital signs are serious; low LET threshold, high voltage amplitude and extended pulse duration (microsecs.).

  10. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1990--September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, induction acceleration, is being studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: (1) beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; (2) development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; (3) acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; (4) final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  11. Unidirectional stripping extraction from a cyclotron which accelerates light as well as heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristić-Djurović, Jasna L.; Ćirković, Saša

    2003-03-01

    The VINCY Cyclotron (VINča CYclotron) is a multipurpose machine intended to accelerate light as well as heavy ions. To extract heavy ions with low energy and light ions an extraction system with stripping foil is used. Heavy ions with high energy will be extracted by means of an electrostatic deflector. The former extraction system will be manufactured and used first. The proposed unidirectional stripping extraction system is the optimal balance between the placement of the extraction line and the required diversity and quality of the extracted beam. The available range of extraction directions is set by geometry limitations.

  12. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  13. Linear Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-05

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  14. Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorin, Anatoly

    2010-01-01

    In linear accelerators the particles are accelerated by either electrostatic fields or oscillating Radio Frequency (RF) fields. Accordingly the linear accelerators are divided in three large groups: electrostatic, induction and RF accelerators. Overview of the different types of accelerators is given. Stability of longitudinal and transverse motion in the RF linear accelerators is briefly discussed. The methods of beam focusing in linacs are described.

  15. Development of a low-energy beam transport system at KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Sato, Yoichi; Ok, Jung-Woo; Park, Jin Yong; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Choi, Seyong; Won, Mi-Sook; Kim, Eun-San

    2015-01-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute has developed a heavy ion accelerator for fast neutron radiography [1]. To meet the requirements for fast neutron generation, we have developed an accelerator system that consists of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR-IS), low-energy beam transport (LEBT) system, radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), medium-energy beam transport system, and drift tube linac. In this paper, we present the development of the LEBT system as a part of the heavy ion accelerator system, which operates from the ECR-IS to the RFQ entrance.

  16. Coulomb-driven energy boost of heavy ions for laser-plasma acceleration.

    PubMed

    Braenzel, J; Andreev, A A; Platonov, K; Klingsporn, M; Ehrentraut, L; Sandner, W; Schnürer, M

    2015-03-27

    An unprecedented increase of kinetic energy of laser accelerated heavy ions is demonstrated. Ultrathin gold foils have been irradiated by an ultrashort laser pulse at a peak intensity of 8×10^{19}  W/  cm^{2}. Highly charged gold ions with kinetic energies up to >200  MeV and a bandwidth limited energy distribution have been reached by using 1.3 J laser energy on target. 1D and 2D particle in cell simulations show how a spatial dependence on the ion's ionization leads to an enhancement of the accelerating electrical field. Our theoretical model considers a spatial distribution of the ionization inside the thin target, leading to a field enhancement for the heavy ions by Coulomb explosion. It is capable of explaining the energy boost of highly charged ions, enabling a higher efficiency for the laser-driven heavy ion acceleration. PMID:25860747

  17. Induction-accelerator heavy-ion fusion: Status and beam physics issues

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    1996-01-26

    Inertial confinement fusion driven by beams of heavy ions is an attractive route to controlled fusion. In the U.S., induction accelerators are being developed as {open_quotes}drivers{close_quotes} for this process. This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the concept of induction-accelerator driven heavy-ion fusion is briefly reviewed, and the U.S. program of experiments and theoretical investigations is described. In the second, a {open_quotes}taxonomy{close_quotes} of space-charge-dominated beam physics issues is presented, accompanied by a brief discussion of each area.

  18. Biological and medical research with accelerated heavy ions at the Bevalac, 1977-1980. [Lead abstract

    SciTech Connect

    Pirruccello, M.C.; Tobias, C.A.

    1980-11-01

    Separate abstracts were prepared for the 46 papers presented in this progress report. This report is a major review of studies with accelerated heavy ions carried out by the Biology and Medicine Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory from 1977 to 1980. (KRM)

  19. ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) source for the HHIRF (Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility) tandem accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Dowling, D.T.; Haynes, D.L.; Jones, C.M.; Juras, R.C.; Lane, S.N.; Meigs, M.J.; Mills, G.D.; Mosko, S.W.; Tatum, B.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance, ECR, ion source technology has developed rapidly since the original pioneering work of R. Geller and his group at Grenoble in the early 1970s. These ion sources are capable of producing intense beams of highly charged positive ions and are used extensively for cyclotron injection, linac injection, and atomic physics research. In this paper, the advantages of using an ECR heavy-ion source in the terminal of the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) 25-MV tandem accelerator is discussed. A possible ECR system for installation in the HHIRF tandem terminal is described.

  20. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator.

    PubMed

    Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-02-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source. PMID:26932105

  1. Development of an ion beam analyzing system for the KBSI heavy-ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahng, Jungbae; Hong, Jonggi; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Seong Jun; Ok, Jung-Woo; Choi, Seyong; Shin, Chang Seouk; Yoon, Jang-Hee; Won, Mi-Sook; Lee, Byoung-Seob; Kim, Eun-San

    2016-02-01

    The Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) has been developing a heavy ion accelerator system to accelerate high current, multi-charge state ions produced by a 28 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron ion source. A beam analyzing system as a part of the low energy beam transport apparatus was developed to select charged particles with desirable charge states from the ion beams. The desired species of ion, which is generated and extracted from the ECR ion source including various ion particles, can be selected by 90° dipole electromagnet. Due to the non-symmetrical structure in the coil as well as the non-linear permeability of the yoke material coil, a three dimensional analysis was carried out to confirm the design parameters. In this paper, we present the experimental results obtained as result of an analysis of KBSI accelerator. The effectiveness of beam selection was confirmed during the test of the analyzing system by injecting an ion beam from an ECR ion source.

  2. Development of long-lived thick carbon stripper foils for high energy heavy ion accelerators by a heavy ion beam sputtering method

    SciTech Connect

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Kawasaki, Katsunori; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2013-04-19

    In the past decade, we have developed extremely long-lived carbon stripper foils of 1-50 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} thickness prepared by a heavy ion beam sputtering method. These foils were mainly used for low energy heavy ion beams. Recently, high energy negative Hydrogen and heavy ion accelerators have started to use carbon stripper foils of over 100 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} in thickness. However, the heavy ion beam sputtering method was unsuccessful in production of foils thicker than about 50 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} because of the collapse of carbon particle build-up from substrates during the sputtering process. The reproduction probability of the foils was less than 25%, and most of them had surface defects. However, these defects were successfully eliminated by introducing higher beam energies of sputtering ions and a substrate heater during the sputtering process. In this report we describe a highly reproducible method for making thick carbon stripper foils by a heavy ion beam sputtering with a Krypton ion beam.

  3. Development of long-lived thick carbon stripper foils for high energy heavy ion accelerators by a heavy ion beam sputtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, Hideshi; Ohshiro, Yukimitsu; Kawasaki, Katsunori; Oyaizu, Michihiro; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2013-04-01

    In the past decade, we have developed extremely long-lived carbon stripper foils of 1-50 μg/cm2 thickness prepared by a heavy ion beam sputtering method. These foils were mainly used for low energy heavy ion beams. Recently, high energy negative Hydrogen and heavy ion accelerators have started to use carbon stripper foils of over 100 μg/cm2 in thickness. However, the heavy ion beam sputtering method was unsuccessful in production of foils thicker than about 50 μg/cm2 because of the collapse of carbon particle build-up from substrates during the sputtering process. The reproduction probability of the foils was less than 25%, and most of them had surface defects. However, these defects were successfully eliminated by introducing higher beam energies of sputtering ions and a substrate heater during the sputtering process. In this report we describe a highly reproducible method for making thick carbon stripper foils by a heavy ion beam sputtering with a Krypton ion beam.

  4. Proton and heavy ion acceleration facilities for space radiation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Jack

    2003-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for medium energy nuclear physics and heavy charged particle radiobiology and radiotherapy at particle accelerators are in the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation health. In this article we survey some of the particle accelerator facilities in the United States and around the world that are being used for space radiation health and related research, and illustrate some of their capabilities with discussions of selected accelerator experiments applicable to the human exploration of space.

  5. Proton and heavy ion acceleration facilities for space radiation research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jack

    2003-06-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for medium energy nuclear physics and heavy charged particle radiobiology and radiotherapy at particle accelerators are in the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation health. In this article we survey some of the particle accelerator facilities in the United States and around the world that are being used for space radiation health and related research, and illustrate some of their capabilities with discussions of selected accelerator experiments applicable to the human exploration of space. PMID:12959128

  6. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; and final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  7. A new beam loss detector for low-energy proton and heavy-ion accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengzheng; Crisp, Jenna; Russo, Tom; Webber, Robert; Zhang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) to be constructed at Michigan State University shall deliver a continuous, 400 kW heavy ion beam to the isotope production target. This beam is capable of inflicting serious damage on accelerator components, e.g. superconducting RF accelerating cavities. A Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) System is essential for detecting beam loss with sufficient sensitivity and promptness to inform the machine protection system (MPS) and operations personnel of impending dangerous losses. Radiation transport simulations reveal shortcomings in the use of ionization chambers for the detection of beam losses in low-energy, heavy-ion accelerators. Radiation cross-talk effects due to the folded geometry of the FRIB LINAC pose further complications to locating specific points of beam loss. We propose a newly developed device, named the Loss Monitor Ring (LMR1

  8. Simulation studies of acceleration of heavy ions and their elemental compositions; IFSR--755

    SciTech Connect

    Toida, Mieko; Ohsawa, Yukiharu

    1996-07-01

    By using a one-dimensional, electromagnetic particle simulation code with full ion and electron dynamics, we have studied the acceleration of heavy ions by a nonlinear magnetosonic wave in a multi-ion-species plasma. First, we describe the mechanism of heavy ion acceleration by magnetosonic waves. We then investigate this by particle simulations. The simulation plasma contains four ion species: H, He, O, and Fe. The number density of He is taken to be 10% of that of H, and those of O and Fe are much lower. Simulations confirm that, as in a single-ion-species plasma, some of the hydrogens can be accelerated by the longitudinal electric field formed in the wave. Furthermore, they show that magnetosonic waves can accelerate all the particles of all the heavy species (He, O, and Fe) by a different mechanism, i.e., by the transverse electric field. The maximum speeds of the heavy species are about the same, of the order of the wave propagation speed. These are in good agreement with theoretical prediction. These results indicate that, if high-energy ions are produced in the solar corona through these mechanisms, the elemental compositions of these heavy ions can be similar to that of the background plasma, i.e., the corona.

  9. Heavy ion beam-ionosphere interactions - Electron acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufmann, R. L.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Moore, T. E.; Kintner, P. M.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.

    1985-10-01

    Moore et al. (1982) described a number of unexpected effects which were observed during the first Argon Release Controlled Study (ARCS 1, or rocket flight 29:014). The present paper provides a description of detailed analyses of the interaction of the argon beam with the ionosphere. An important feature of the considered test was that all detectors and the Ar(+) gun remained attached to the rocket throughout the flight. It is pointed out that the most dramatic effect of ion gun operation on ARCS 1 involved large changes in the fluxes of electrons with energies below about 600 eV. The observations are discussed, taking into account the distribution functions, azimuth dependence, and electron and ion trajectories. Attention is given to the perpendicular ion beam, the parallel ion beam, the acceleration of downgoing and upgoing electrons, and aspects of wave generation.

  10. Heavy ion beam-ionosphere interactions - Electron acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufmann, R. L.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Moore, T. E.; Kintner, P. M.; Cahill, L. J., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Moore et al. (1982) described a number of unexpected effects which were observed during the first Argon Release Controlled Study (ARCS 1, or rocket flight 29:014). The present paper provides a description of detailed analyses of the interaction of the argon beam with the ionosphere. An important feature of the considered test was that all detectors and the Ar(+) gun remained attached to the rocket throughout the flight. It is pointed out that the most dramatic effect of ion gun operation on ARCS 1 involved large changes in the fluxes of electrons with energies below about 600 eV. The observations are discussed, taking into account the distribution functions, azimuth dependence, and electron and ion trajectories. Attention is given to the perpendicular ion beam, the parallel ion beam, the acceleration of downgoing and upgoing electrons, and aspects of wave generation.

  11. Estimation of Heavy Ion Densities From Linearly Polarized EMIC Waves At Earth

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eun-Hwa; Johnson, Jay R.; Lee, Dong-Hun

    2014-02-24

    Linearly polarized EMIC waves are expected to concentrate at the location where their wave frequency satisfies the ion-ion hybrid (IIH) resonance condition as the result of a mode conversion process. In this letter, we evaluate absorption coefficients at the IIH resonance in the Earth geosynchronous orbit for variable concentrations of helium and azimuthal and field-aligned wave numbers in dipole magnetic field. Although wave absorption occurs for a wide range of heavy ion concentration, it only occurs for a limited range of azimuthal and field-aligned wave numbers such that the IIH resonance frequency is close to, but not exactly the same as the crossover frequency. Our results suggest that, at L = 6.6, linearly polarized EMIC waves can be generated via mode conversion from the compressional waves near the crossover frequency. Consequently, the heavy ion concentration ratio can be estimated from observations of externally generated EMIC waves that have polarization.

  12. Linear and cubic response to the initial eccentricity in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Yan, Li; Gardim, Fernando G.; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    We study the relation between elliptic flow, v2, and the initial eccentricity, ɛ2, in heavy-ion collisions, using hydrodynamic simulations. Significant deviations from linear eccentricity scaling are seen in more peripheral collisions. We identify the mechanism responsible for these deviations as a cubic response, which we argue is a generic property of the hydrodynamic response to the initial density profile. The cubic response increases elliptic flow fluctuations, thereby improving agreement of initial condition models with experimental data.

  13. Heavy ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1987-September 30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to access the suitabilty of heavy ion accelerators as iginiters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accerelator techonolgy, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawerence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the vadidation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. The papers in this report that address these goals are: MBE-4 mechanical progress, alignment of MBE-4, a compact energy analyzer for MBE-4, Cs/sup +/ injector modeling with the EGUN code, an improved emittance scanning system for HIFAR, 2-MV injector, carbon arc source development, beam combining in ILSE, emittance growth due to transverse beam combining in ILSE - particle simulation results, achromatic beam combiner for ILSE, additional elements for beam merging, quadrupole magnet design for ILSE, and waveforms and longitudinal beam-parameters for ILSE.

  14. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) half-year report, October 1, 1985-March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-05-01

    The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: (1) beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; (2) development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple beam hardware, at affordable costs; (3) acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification - both new features in a linac - without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; (4) fianl bunching, transport, and accurate focussing on a small target.

  15. Linear and nonlinear heavy ion-acoustic waves in a strongly coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ema, S. A.; Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.

    2015-09-01

    A theoretical study on the propagation of linear and nonlinear heavy ion-acoustic (HIA) waves in an unmagnetized, collisionless, strongly coupled plasma system has been carried out. The plasma system is assumed to contain adiabatic positively charged inertial heavy ion fluids, nonextensive distributed electrons, and Maxwellian light ions. The normal mode analysis is used to study the linear behaviour. On the other hand, the well-known reductive perturbation technique is used to derive the nonlinear dynamical equations, namely, Burgers equation and Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equation. They are also numerically analyzed in order to investigate the basic features of shock and solitary waves. The adiabatic effects on the HIA shock and solitary waves propagating in such a strongly coupled plasma are taken into account. It has been observed that the roles of the adiabatic positively charged heavy ions, nonextensivity of electrons, and other plasma parameters arised in this investigation have significantly modified the basic features (viz., polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of the HIA solitary/shock waves. The findings of our results obtained from this theoretical investigation may be useful in understanding the linear as well as nonlinear phenomena associated with the HIA waves both in space and laboratory plasmas.

  16. Linear and nonlinear heavy ion-acoustic waves in a strongly coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ema, S. A. Mamun, A. A.; Hossen, M. R.

    2015-09-15

    A theoretical study on the propagation of linear and nonlinear heavy ion-acoustic (HIA) waves in an unmagnetized, collisionless, strongly coupled plasma system has been carried out. The plasma system is assumed to contain adiabatic positively charged inertial heavy ion fluids, nonextensive distributed electrons, and Maxwellian light ions. The normal mode analysis is used to study the linear behaviour. On the other hand, the well-known reductive perturbation technique is used to derive the nonlinear dynamical equations, namely, Burgers equation and Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equation. They are also numerically analyzed in order to investigate the basic features of shock and solitary waves. The adiabatic effects on the HIA shock and solitary waves propagating in such a strongly coupled plasma are taken into account. It has been observed that the roles of the adiabatic positively charged heavy ions, nonextensivity of electrons, and other plasma parameters arised in this investigation have significantly modified the basic features (viz., polarity, amplitude, width, etc.) of the HIA solitary/shock waves. The findings of our results obtained from this theoretical investigation may be useful in understanding the linear as well as nonlinear phenomena associated with the HIA waves both in space and laboratory plasmas.

  17. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Christofilos, N.C.; Polk, I.J.

    1959-02-17

    Improvements in linear particle accelerators are described. A drift tube system for a linear ion accelerator reduces gap capacity between adjacent drift tube ends. This is accomplished by reducing the ratio of the diameter of the drift tube to the diameter of the resonant cavity. Concentration of magnetic field intensity at the longitudinal midpoint of the external sunface of each drift tube is reduced by increasing the external drift tube diameter at the longitudinal center region.

  18. System modeling for the longitudinal beam dynamics control problem in heavy ion induction accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, A.N.

    1993-05-17

    We address the problem of developing system models that are suitable for studying the control of the longitudinal beam dynamics in induction accelerators for heavy ions. In particular, we present the preliminary results of our efforts to devise a general framework for building detailed, integrated models of accelerator systems consisting of pulsed power modular circuits, induction cells, beam dynamics, and control system elements. Such a framework will permit us to analyze and design the pulsed power modulators and the control systems required to effect precise control over the longitudinal beam dynamics.

  19. The Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) for GOES-R: Accelerator Calibrations of Flight Unit 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) instruments for GOES-R will provide high resolution measurement of energetic ions (Solar energetic particles and cosmic rays) from hydrogen (H) through nickel (Ni) for space weather monitoring and scientific research. Measurements are taken in five approximately logarithmically spaced energy intervals from 10-200 MeV/u for hydrogen and helium (He) and comparable penetrations for heavier elements. The Angle Detecting Inclined Sensors (ADIS) technique is used to provide single element resolution by determining the angle of incidence with a very simple telescope design using Si solid state detectors. The ADIS system also facilitates on-board event identification of ion species. During high flux conditions, EHIS can identify the elemental composition of ~2000 events per seconds. Elemental charge histograms are compiled on-board and reported via telemetry once per minute providing an unprecedented combination of statistical resolution and high cadence. The first of four flight instruments (FM1) has been completed. FM1 underwent heavy ion accelerator calibration at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory's (NSCL) Coupled Cyclotron Facility (CCF) at Michigan State University in February 2013 and proton calibration at the Massachusetts General Hospital's (MGH) Burr Proton Therapy Center in April 2013. The heavy ion calibration included both Ni primary and secondary fragments runs down to H. Results of these calibration runs will be presented. This work is supported by NASA under the contract NNG06HX01C.

  20. The Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) for GOES-R: Accelerator Calibrations of Flight Unit 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, J. J.; Lopate, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Energetic Heavy Ion Sensor (EHIS) instruments for GOES-R will provide high resolution measurement of energetic ions (Solar energetic particles and cosmic rays) from hydrogen (H) through nickel (Ni) for space weather monitoring and scientific research. Measurements are taken in five approximately logarithmically spaced energy intervals from 10-200 MeV/u for hydrogen and helium (He) and comparable penetrations for heavier elements. The Angle Detecting Inclined Sensors (ADIS) technique is used to provide single element resolution by determining the angle of incidence with a very simple telescope design using Si solid state detectors. The ADIS system also facilitates on-board event identification of ion species. During high flux conditions, EHIS can identify the elemental composition of ~2000 events per seconds. Elemental charge histograms are compiled on-board and reported via telemetry once per minute providing an unprecedented combination of statistical resolution and high cadence. The first of four flight instruments (FM1) has been completed. FM1 underwent heavy ion accelerator calibration at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory's (NSCL) Coupled Cyclotron Facility (CCF) at Michigan State University in February 2013, and proton calibration at the Massachusetts General Hospital's (MGH) Burr Proton Therapy Center in April 2013. The heavy ion calibration included both Ni primary and secondary fragments runs down to H. Results of these calibration runs will be presented.

  1. Heavy ion acceleration driven by the Interaction between ultraintense Laser pulse and sub-micron foils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jinqing; McGuffey, C.; Beg, F. N.; High Energy Density Group Team

    2015-11-01

    For ion acceleration at the intensity exceeding 1021W/cm2, Radiation Pressure Acceleration (RPA) could offer advantages over Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) and Break-Out Afterburner (BOA). In this ultra-relativistic regime, target electrons become highly relativistic and the results are sensitive to many parameters. Especially for heavy ions acceleration, the understanding of the most important parameter effects is limited due to the lack of experiments and modeling. To further understand the key parameters and determine the most suitable regimes for efficient acceleration of heavy ions, we have carried out two-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulations with the epoch code. In the simulations, effects of preplasma and optimal targets thicknesses for different laser pulse have been studied in detail. Based on the understanding of ion RPA, we propose some new target parameters to achieve higher ion energy. This work was performed with the support of the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under grant FA9550-14-1-0282.

  2. LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Colgate, S.A.

    1958-05-27

    An improvement is presented in linear accelerators for charged particles with respect to the stable focusing of the particle beam. The improvement consists of providing a radial electric field transverse to the accelerating electric fields and angularly introducing the beam of particles in the field. The results of the foregoing is to achieve a beam which spirals about the axis of the acceleration path. The combination of the electric fields and angular motion of the particles cooperate to provide a stable and focused particle beam.

  3. Beam dynamics simulations of post low energy beam transport section in RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jang, Hyojae; Hong, In-Seok

    2016-02-01

    RAON (Rare isotope Accelerator Of Newness) heavy ion accelerator of the rare isotope science project in Daejeon, Korea, has been designed to accelerate multiple-charge-state beams to be used for various science programs. In the RAON accelerator, the rare isotope beams which are generated by an isotope separation on-line system with a wide range of nuclei and charges will be transported through the post Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) section to the Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ). In order to transport many kinds of rare isotope beams stably to the RFQ, the post LEBT should be devised to satisfy the requirement of the RFQ at the end of post LEBT, simultaneously with the twiss parameters small. We will present the recent lattice design of the post LEBT in the RAON accelerator and the results of the beam dynamics simulations from it. In addition, the error analysis and correction in the post LEBT will be also described.

  4. Acceleration and heating of heavy ions in high speed solar wind streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomberoff, L.; Gratton, F. T.; Gnavi, G.

    1995-01-01

    Left hand polarized Alfven waves generated in coronal holes propagate in the direction of high speed solar wind streams, accelerating and heating heavy ions. As the solar wind expands, the ratio between the frequency of the Alfven waves and the proton gyrofrequency increases, due to the decrease of the interplanetary magnetic field, and encounter first the local ion gyrofrequency of the species with the largest M(sub l) = m(sub l)/z(sub l)m(sub p) (m(sub l) is the mass of species l, m(sub p) is the proton mass and z(sub l) is the degree of ionization of species l). It is shown that the Alfven waves experience there strong absorption and cannot propagate any further until the ions are accelerated and heated. Once this occurs, the Alfven waves continue to propagate until they meet the gyrofrequency of the next species giving rise to a similar phenomenon. In order to show this contention, we use the linear dispersion relation of ion cyclotron waves in a multicomponent plasma consisting of oxygen ions, alpha particles and protons. We assume that at any distance from the sun, the Alfven waves follow the local dispersion relation of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. To illustrate the results, we solve the dispersion relation for oxygen ions and alpha particles drifting relative to the protons. The dispersion relation has three branches. The first branch starts at zero frequency and goes to the Doppler-shifted oxygen ion gyrofrequency. The second branch starts close to the oxygen gyrofrequency, and goes to the Doppler-shifted alpha particle gyrofrequency. The third branch starts close to the alpha particle gyrofrequency, and goes to the proton gyrofrequency. The Alfven waves propagate following the first branch of the dispersion relation. When they reach the Doppler-shifted oxygen ion gyrofrequency, the ions are accelerated and heated to some definite values. When these values are reached, the dispersion relation changes, and it is now the first branch of the

  5. Review of heavy-ion induced desorption studies for particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahner, Edgar

    2008-10-01

    During high-intensity heavy-ion operation of several particle accelerators worldwide, large dynamic pressure rises of orders of magnitude were caused by lost beam ions that impacted under grazing angle onto the vacuum chamber walls. This ion-induced desorption, observed, for example, at CERN, GSI, and BNL, can seriously limit the ion intensity, luminosity, and beam lifetime of the accelerator. For the heavy-ion program at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider collisions between beams of fully stripped lead (Pb82+208) ions with a beam energy of 2.76TeV/u and a nominal luminosity of 1027cm-2s-1 are foreseen. The GSI future project FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) aims at a beam intensity of 1012 uranium (U28+238) ions per second to be extracted from the synchrotron SIS18. Over the past years an experimental effort has been made to study the observed dynamic vacuum degradations, which are important to understand and overcome for present and future particle accelerators. The paper reviews the results obtained in several laboratories using dedicated test setups, the mitigation techniques found, and their implementation in accelerators.

  6. On the preferential acceleration and heating of solar wind heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isenberg, P. A.; Hollweg, J. V.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility of producing the observed velocities and temperatures of solar wind heavy ions by the resonant cyclotron interaction with left-polarized hydromagnetic waves was investigated. A "most favorable case" scenario in which the waves are parallel-propagating and dispersionless and the energy for the wave acceleration and heating is taken from saturated low-frequency Alfven waves via a cascade to higher frequencies, is incorporated into a numerical solar wind code and agreement with observation is tested. The resonant cyclotron interaction is shown to fail on at least three points, even in this most favorable case.

  7. Proceedings of the workshop on prospects for research with radioactive beams from heavy ion accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    The SuperHILAC Users Executive Committee organized a workshop on Prospects for Research with Radioactive Beams from Heavy Ion Accelerators. The main purpose of the workshop was to bring together a diverse group of scientists who had already done experients with radioactive beams or were interested in their use in the future. The topics of the talks ranged from general nuclear physics, astrophysics, production of radioactive beams and high energy projectile fragmentation to biomedical applications. This publication contains the abstracts of the talks given at the workshop and copies of the viewgraphs as they were supplied to the editor.

  8. Multi-charged heavy ion acceleration from the ultra-intense short pulse laser system interacting with the metal target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiuchi, M.; Sakaki, H.; Maeda, S.; Sagisaka, A.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Pikuz, T.; Faenov, A.; Ogura, K.; Kanasaki, M.; Matsukawa, K.; Kusumoto, T.; Tao, A.; Fukami, T.; Esirkepov, T.; Koga, J.; Kiriyama, H.; Okada, H.; Shimomura, T.; Tanoue, M.; Nakai, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Sakai, S.; Tamura, J.; Nishio, K.; Sako, H.; Kando, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Bulanov, S. V.; Kondo, K.

    2014-02-01

    Experimental demonstration of multi-charged heavy ion acceleration from the interaction between the ultra-intense short pulse laser system and the metal target is presented. Al ions are accelerated up to 12 MeV/u (324 MeV total energy). To our knowledge, this is far the highest energy ever reported for the case of acceleration of the heavy ions produced by the <10 J laser energy of 200 TW class Ti:sapphire laser system. Adding to that, thanks to the extraordinary high intensity laser field of ˜1021 W cm-2, the accelerated ions are almost fully stripped, having high charge to mass ratio (Q/M).

  9. Acceleration of heavy ions with a new RF system at HIMAC synchrotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, T.; Kanazawa, M.; Shirai, T.; Iwata, Y.; Uchiyama, H.; Noda, K.

    2011-12-01

    A fast three-dimensional scanning irradiation method is under development at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) as the next stage of heavy ion cancer therapy. This method requires highly accurate control of the beam size, energy, and intensity. To improve the accelerated beam's quality, a new scheme for the synchrotron RF system has been developed. The new system adopts a periodic time clock system (T-clock) instead of an ordinary B-clock system. The new T-clock system is synchronized with a power line frequency of 50 Hz for synchronization with the synchrotron power supply. An ordinary B-clock system results in error pulses owing to the small analog signal of the magnetic field of the main dipole magnet, and the errors cause dipole oscillation of the beam in the RF bucket. Using the new T-clock generator at 192 kHz, we have observed an improvement in the acceleration efficiency and bunch shape compared to the B-clock generator.

  10. Generation of heavy ion beams using femtosecond laser pulses in the target normal sheath acceleration and radiation pressure acceleration regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, G. M.; McGuffey, C.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.; Beg, F. N.

    2016-06-01

    Theoretical study of heavy ion acceleration from sub-micron gold foils irradiated by a short pulse laser is presented. Using two dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, the time history of the laser pulse is examined in order to get insight into the laser energy deposition and ion acceleration process. For laser pulses with intensity 3 × 10 21 W / cm 2 , duration 32 fs, focal spot size 5 μm, and energy 27 J, the calculated reflection, transmission, and coupling coefficients from a 20 nm foil are 80%, 5%, and 15%, respectively. The conversion efficiency into gold ions is 8%. Two highly collimated counter-propagating ion beams have been identified. The forward accelerated gold ions have average and maximum charge-to-mass ratio of 0.25 and 0.3, respectively, maximum normalized energy 25 MeV/nucleon, and flux 2 × 10 11 ions / sr . An analytical model was used to determine a range of foil thicknesses suitable for acceleration of gold ions in the radiation pressure acceleration regime and the onset of the target normal sheath acceleration regime. The numerical simulations and analytical model point to at least four technical challenges hindering the heavy ion acceleration: low charge-to-mass ratio, limited number of ions amenable to acceleration, delayed acceleration, and high reflectivity of the plasma. Finally, a regime suitable for heavy ion acceleration has been identified in an alternative approach by analyzing the energy absorption and distribution among participating species and scaling of conversion efficiency, maximum energy, and flux with laser intensity.

  11. ILSE: The next step toward a heavy ion induction accelerator for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.; Bangerter, R.; Berners, D.; Chew, J.; Eylon, S.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.; Fong, C.; Fong, M.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.; Judd, D.; Lee, E.; Lionberger, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Peters, C.; Pike, C.; Raymond, G.; Reginato, L.; Rutkowski, H.; Seidl, P.; Smith, L.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S.; Deadrick, F.; Friedman, A.; Griffith, L.; Hewett, D.; Newton, M.; Shay, H.

    1992-07-01

    LBL and LLNL propose to build, at LBL, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or ``drive`` inertial-confinement fusion targets. ILSE, although much smaller than a driver, will be the first experiment at full driver scale in several important parameters. Most notable among these are line charge density and beam cross section. Many other accelerator components and beam manipulations needed for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) driver will be tested. The ILSE accelerator and research program will permit experimental study of those beam manipulations required of an induction linac inertial fusion driver which have not been tested sufficiently in previous experiments, and will provide a step toward driver technology.

  12. ILSE: The next step toward a heavy ion induction accelerator for inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, T.; Bangerter, R.; Berners, D.; Chew, J.; Eylon, S.; Faltens, A.; Fawley, W.; Fong, C.; Fong, M.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.; Judd, D.; Lee, E.; Lionberger, C.; Mukherjee, S.; Peters, C.; Pike, C.; Raymond, G.; Reginato, L.; Rutkowski, H.; Seidl, P.; Smith, L.; Vanecek, D.; Yu, S. ); Deadrick, F.; Friedman, A.; Griffith, L.; Hewett, D.; Newton, M.; Shay, H. (Lawrence Liver

    1992-07-01

    LBL and LLNL propose to build, at LBL, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments (ILSE), the next logical step towards the eventual goal of a heavy-ion induction accelerator powerful enough to implode or drive'' inertial-confinement fusion targets. ILSE, although much smaller than a driver, will be the first experiment at full driver scale in several important parameters. Most notable among these are line charge density and beam cross section. Many other accelerator components and beam manipulations needed for an inertial fusion energy (IFE) driver will be tested. The ILSE accelerator and research program will permit experimental study of those beam manipulations required of an induction linac inertial fusion driver which have not been tested sufficiently in previous experiments, and will provide a step toward driver technology.

  13. Studies of the Mirrortron ion accelerator concept and its application to heavy-ion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R.F.; Schwager, L.A. ); Douglass, S.R.; Jones, B.R.; Lambert, M.A.; Larson, D.L. . Dept. of Applied Science)

    1990-11-30

    The Mirrortron accelerator is a plasma-based ion accelerator concept that, when implemented, should permit both higher acceleration gradients and higher peak-current capabilities than is possible with conventional induction-type accelerators. Control over the acceleration and focussing of an accelerated beam should approach that achieved in vacuum-field-based ion accelerators. In the Mirrortron a low density (10{sup 10} to 10{sup 11} cm{sup {minus}3}) hot electron'' plasma is confined by a long solenoidal magnetic field capped by mirrors.'' Acceleration of pre-bunched ions is accomplished by activating a series of fast-pulsed mirror coils spaced along the acceleration tube. The hot electrons, being repelled by mirror action, leave the plasma ions behind to create a localized region of high electrical gradient (up to of order 100 MV/m). At the laboratory an experiment and analyses to elucidate the concept and its scaling laws as applied to heavy-ion drivers are underway and will be described. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  14. Seed population for about 1 MeV per nucleon heavy ions accelerated by interplanetary shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, L. C.; Mason, G. M.; Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.

    1989-01-01

    Data obtained between 1977 and 1982 by the ISEE 1 and ISEE 3 satellites on the composition of heavy ions of about 1 MeV per nucleon, accelerated in interplanetary shock events which followed solar flare events, are examined. It was found that the average relative abundances for C, O, and Fe in the shock events were very close to those found for energetic ions in the solar flares, suggesting that, at these energies, the shock accelerated particles have the solar energetic particles as their seed population. This hypothesis is supported by the fact that the Fe/O ratio in the solar particle events is very strongly correlated with the Fe/O ratio in associated diffusive shock events.

  15. Accelerator-Based Studies of Heavy Ion Interactions Relevant to Space Biomedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J.; Heilbronn, L.; Zeitlin, C.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of the effects of space radiation on the crews of long duration space missions must take into account the interactions of high energy atomic nuclei in spacecraft and planetary habitat shielding and in the bodies of the astronauts. These heavy ions (i.e. heavier than hydrogen), while relatively small in number compared to the total galactic cosmic ray (GCR) charged particle flux, can produce disproportionately large effects by virtue of their high local energy deposition: a single traversal by a heavy charged particle can kill or, what may be worse, severely damage a cell. Research into the pertinent physics and biology of heavy ion interactions has consequently been assigned a high priority in a recent report by a task group of the National Research Council. Fragmentation of the incident heavy ions in shielding or in the human body will modify an initially well known radiation field and thereby complicate both spacecraft shielding design and the evaluation of potential radiation hazards. Since it is impractical to empirically test the radiation transport properties of each possible shielding material and configuration, a great deal of effort is going into the development of models of charged particle fragmentation and transport. Accurate nuclear fragmentation cross sections (probabilities), either in the form of measurements with thin targets or theoretical calculations, are needed for input to the transport models, and fluence measurements (numbers of fragments produced by interactions in thick targets) are needed both to validate the models and to test specific shielding materials and designs. Fluence data are also needed to characterize the incident radiation field in accelerator radiobiology experiments. For a number of years, nuclear fragmentation measurements at GCR-like energies have been carried out at heavy ion accelerators including the LBL Bevalac, Saturne (France), the Synchrophasotron and Nuklotron (Dubna, Russia), SIS-18 (GSI, Germany), the

  16. Optics measurement and correction during beam acceleration in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Marusic, A.; Minty, M.

    2014-09-09

    To minimize operational complexities, setup of collisions in high energy circular colliders typically involves acceleration with near constant β-functions followed by application of strong focusing quadrupoles at the interaction points (IPs) for the final beta-squeeze. At the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) beam acceleration and optics squeeze are performed simultaneously. In the past, beam optics correction at RHIC has taken place at injection and at final energy with some interpolation of corrections into the acceleration cycle. Recent measurements of the beam optics during acceleration and squeeze have evidenced significant beta-beats which if corrected could minimize undesirable emittance dilutions and maximize the spin polarization of polarized proton beams by avoidance of higher-order multipole fields sampled by particles within the bunch. In this report the methodology now operational at RHIC for beam optics corrections during acceleration with simultaneous beta-squeeze will be presented together with measurements which conclusively demonstrate the superior beam control. As a valuable by-product, the corrections have minimized the beta-beat at the profile monitors so reducing the dominant error in and providing more precise measurements of the evolution of the beam emittances during acceleration.

  17. Linear induction accelerators for fusion and neutron production

    SciTech Connect

    Barletta, W.A. |

    1993-08-01

    Linear induction accelerators (LIA) with pulsed power drives can produce high energy, intense beams or electrons, protons, or heavy ions with megawatts of average power. The continuing development of highly reliable LIA components permits the use such accelerators as cost-effective beam sources to drive fusion pellets with heavy ions, to produce intense neutron fluxes using proton beams, and to generate with electrons microwave power to drive magnetic fusion reactors and high gradient, rf-linacs.

  18. EVIDENCE FOR LOCAL ACCELERATION OF SUPRATHERMAL HEAVY ION OBSERVATIONS DURING INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Gruesbeck, Jacob R.; Lepri, Susan T.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Christian, Eric R.

    2015-01-20

    Suprathermal particles are an important seed population for a variety of energetic particles found throughout the heliosphere, but their origin is in debate. We present, for the first time, high-cadence observations of suprathermal heavy ions during interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), from the Suprathermal Ion Composition Spectrometer on board the Wind spacecraft, and investigate their ionic composition and compare it to the bulk solar wind plasma composition, observed from the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on board the Advanced Composition Explorer. We find that the composition of the suprathermal plasma is related to the local bulk solar wind plasma and not to the plasma upstream of the ICME. This implies that the suprathermal plasma is accelerated from the local bulk solar wind plasma and not the upstream solar wind plasma.

  19. Size of lethality target in mouse immature oocytes determined with accelerated heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Straume, T; Dobson, R L; Kwan, T C

    1989-01-01

    Mouse immature oocytes were irradiated in vivo with highly charged, heavy ions from the Bevalac accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The particles used were 670-MeV/nucleon Si14+, 570-MeV/nucleon Ar18+, and 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+. The cross-sectional area of the lethality target in these extremely radiosensitive cells was determined from fluence-response curves and information on energy deposition by delta rays. Results indicate a target cross-section larger than that of the nucleus, one which closely approximates the cross-sectional area of the entire oocyte. For 450-MeV/nucleon Fe26+ particles, the predicted target cross-sectional area is 120 +/- 16 microns2, comparing well with the microscopically determined cross-sectional area of 111 +/- 12 microns2 for these cells. The present results are in agreement with our previous target studies which implicate the oocyte plasma membrane. PMID:2657842

  20. Heavy-ion beam dynamics in the RIA post-accelerator.

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, P. N.; Kolomiets, A. A.; Aseev, V. N.; Physics

    2005-01-01

    The RIA post-accelerator (RIB) includes three main sections: a room temperature injector with design ion charge-to-mass ratio 1/240 and output energy of {approx} 93 keV/u, a superconducting (SC) linac for ions with charge-to-mass ratio 1/66 or higher up to an energy of {approx} 1 MeV/u and a higher energy SC linac including existing ATLAS to produce 10 MeV/u beams up to uranium. Two strippers are installed between the sections. Extensive accelerator design studies and end-to-end beam dynamics simulations have been performed to minimize the cost of the linac while providing high-quality and high-intensity radioactive beams. Specifically, we have found that cost-effective acceleration in the front end can be provided by several hybrid RFQs proposed and developed for acceleration of low-velocity heavy ions. For beam focusing in the second section it is appropriate to use electrostatic lenses and SC quadrupoles inside common cryostats with the resonators.

  1. Multi-charged heavy ion acceleration from the ultra-intense short pulse laser system interacting with the metal target.

    PubMed

    Nishiuchi, M; Sakaki, H; Maeda, S; Sagisaka, A; Pirozhkov, A S; Pikuz, T; Faenov, A; Ogura, K; Kanasaki, M; Matsukawa, K; Kusumoto, T; Tao, A; Fukami, T; Esirkepov, T; Koga, J; Kiriyama, H; Okada, H; Shimomura, T; Tanoue, M; Nakai, Y; Fukuda, Y; Sakai, S; Tamura, J; Nishio, K; Sako, H; Kando, M; Yamauchi, T; Watanabe, Y; Bulanov, S V; Kondo, K

    2014-02-01

    Experimental demonstration of multi-charged heavy ion acceleration from the interaction between the ultra-intense short pulse laser system and the metal target is presented. Al ions are accelerated up to 12 MeV/u (324 MeV total energy). To our knowledge, this is far the highest energy ever reported for the case of acceleration of the heavy ions produced by the <10 J laser energy of 200 TW class Ti:sapphire laser system. Adding to that, thanks to the extraordinary high intensity laser field of ∼10(21) W cm(-2), the accelerated ions are almost fully stripped, having high charge to mass ratio (Q/M). PMID:24593609

  2. Low-emittance uniform density Cs sup + sources for heavy ion fusion accelerators studies

    SciTech Connect

    Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Garvey, T.; Johnson, R.; Chupp, W.

    1991-04-01

    Low-emittance (high-brightness) Cs{sup +} thermionic sources were developed for the heavy ion induction linac experiment MBE-4 at LBL. The MBE-4 linac accelerates four 10 mA beams from 200 ke V to 900 ke V while amplifying the current up to a factor of nine. Recent studies of the transverse beam dynamics suggested that characteristics of the injector geometry were contributing to the normalized transverse emissions growth. Phase-space and current density distribution measurements of the beam extracted from the injector revealed overfocusing of the outermost rays causing a hollow density profile. We shall report on the performance of a 5 mA scraped beam source (which eliminates the outermost beam rays in the diode) and on the design of an improved 10 mA source. The new source is based on EGUN calculations which indicated that a beam with good emissions and uniform current density could be obtained by modifying the cathode Pierce electrodes and using a spherical emitting surface. The measurements of the beam current density profile on a test stand were found to be in agreement with the numerical simulations. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Response of sensitive human ataxia and resistant T-1 cell lines to accelerated heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Tobias, C.A.; Blakely, E.A.; Chang, P.Y.; Lommel, L.; Roots, R.

    1983-07-01

    The radiation dose responses of fibroblast from a patient with Ataxia telangiectasis (AT-2SF) and an established line of human T-1 cells were studied. Nearly monoenergetic accelerated neon and argon ions were used at the Berkeley Bevalac with various residual range values. The LET of the particles varied from 30 keV/..mu..m to over 1000 keV/..mu..m. All Ataxia survival curves were exponential functions of the dose. Their radiosensitivity reached peak values at 100 to 200 keV/..mu..m. Human T-1 cells have effective sublethal damage repair as has been evidenced by split dose experiments, and they are much more resistant to low LET than to high LET radiation. The repair-misrepair model has been used to interpret these results. We have obtained mathematical expressions that describe the cross sections and inactivation coefficients for both human cell lines as a function of the LET and the type of particle used. The results suggest either that high-LET particles induce a greater number of radiolesions per track or that heavy-ions at high LET induce lesions that kill cells more effectively and that are different from those produced at low LET. We assume that the lesions induced in T-1 and Ataxia cells are qualitatively similar and that each cell line attempts to repair these lesions. The result in most irradiated Ataxia cells, however, is either lethal misrepair or incomplete repair leading to cell death. 63 references, 10 figures, 1 table.

  4. Residual skin damage in rats 1 year after exposure to x rays or accelerated heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, J.T.; McDonald, M.; Howard, J.

    1982-01-01

    In conjunction with a study on the biological effects of accelerated heavy ions on rat spinal cord, we were able to assess the residual skin damage remaining 1 year postirradiation. In this study, rats were irradiated with 230-kVp fractionated doses of either X rays, carbon ions, or neon ions. Four radiation fractions were given at daily intervals. For the carbon and neon ion exposures, rats were irradiated in both the plateau and spread Bragg peak (4 cm) regions of ionization. Comparing doses that produced complete epilation with a slight suggestion of a residual radiation scar, it was found that the relative biological effectivesness (RBE) values 1 year postirradiation for the four fraction irradiations were: carbon ions (plateau ionization region), 1.06; carbon ions (spread Bragg peak ionization region), 1.88; neon ions (plateau region of ionization), 1.55; and neon ions (spread Bragg peak ionization region), 2.26. RBE values for production of paralysis after spinal cord irradiation (using the same X-ray total dose levels for comparison purposes) were in all cases higher than the RBE values obtained from assessment of residual skin injury.

  5. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered. (GHH)

  6. Comparative study on cost evaluation and network visualization of particle accelerator components for heavy ion inertial fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, A.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, Nob; Barnard, J. J.

    2016-05-01

    By visualizing accelerator system components in heavy ion inertial fusion, the connection between the components becomes clear. We clarify an influential component on the entire cost by the relation of node connections due to the visualization result. Since a low cost component affects a high cost component, not only the cost estimation but also the relation between the components is considerable and important issue. A cost estimation result changing with an induction core cost indicates no influences in the rate of details.

  7. Heavy-ion inertial fusion: influence of target gain on accelerator parameters for vacuum-propagation regimes in reaction chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.W.K.; Bangerter, R.O.; Barletta, W.A.; Fawley, W.M.; Judd, D.L.

    1982-03-04

    Target physics imposes requirements on the design of inertial fusion drivers. The influence of beam propagation in near vacuum fusion reaction chambers is evaluated for the relation between target gain and the phase-space requirements of heavy-ion accelerators. Initial results suggest that neutralization of the ion beam has a much greater positive effect than the deleterious one of beam stripping provided that the fusion chamber pressure is < 10/sup -3/ torr (of Li vapor or equivalent).

  8. Linear Energy Transfer-Dependent Change in Rice Gene Expression Profile after Heavy-Ion Beam Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kotaro; Kazama, Yusuke; Morita, Ryouhei; Hirano, Tomonari; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Usuda, Sachiko; Hayashi, Yoriko; Ohbu, Sumie; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Abe, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    A heavy-ion beam has been recognized as an effective mutagen for plant breeding and applied to the many kinds of crops including rice. In contrast with X-ray or γ-ray, the heavy-ion beam is characterized by a high linear energy transfer (LET). LET is an important factor affecting several aspects of the irradiation effect, e.g. cell survival and mutation frequency, making the heavy-ion beam an effective mutagen. To study the mechanisms behind LET-dependent effects, expression profiling was performed after heavy-ion beam irradiation of imbibed rice seeds. Array-based experiments at three time points (0.5, 1, 2 h after the irradiation) revealed that the number of up- or down-regulated genes was highest 2 h after irradiation. Array-based experiments with four different LETs at 2 h after irradiation identified LET-independent regulated genes that were up/down-regulated regardless of the value of LET; LET-dependent regulated genes, whose expression level increased with the rise of LET value, were also identified. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of LET-independent up-regulated genes showed that some GO terms were commonly enriched, both 2 hours and 3 weeks after irradiation. GO terms enriched in LET-dependent regulated genes implied that some factor regulates genes that have kinase activity or DNA-binding activity in cooperation with the ATM gene. Of the LET-dependent up-regulated genes, OsPARP3 and OsPCNA were identified, which are involved in DNA repair pathways. This indicates that the Ku-independent alternative non-homologous end-joining pathway may contribute to repairing complex DNA legions induced by high-LET irradiation. These findings may clarify various LET-dependent responses in rice. PMID:27462908

  9. Linear Energy Transfer-Dependent Change in Rice Gene Expression Profile after Heavy-Ion Beam Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kotaro; Kazama, Yusuke; Morita, Ryouhei; Hirano, Tomonari; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Usuda, Sachiko; Hayashi, Yoriko; Ohbu, Sumie; Motoyama, Ritsuko; Nagamura, Yoshiaki; Abe, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    A heavy-ion beam has been recognized as an effective mutagen for plant breeding and applied to the many kinds of crops including rice. In contrast with X-ray or γ-ray, the heavy-ion beam is characterized by a high linear energy transfer (LET). LET is an important factor affecting several aspects of the irradiation effect, e.g. cell survival and mutation frequency, making the heavy-ion beam an effective mutagen. To study the mechanisms behind LET-dependent effects, expression profiling was performed after heavy-ion beam irradiation of imbibed rice seeds. Array-based experiments at three time points (0.5, 1, 2 h after the irradiation) revealed that the number of up- or down-regulated genes was highest 2 h after irradiation. Array-based experiments with four different LETs at 2 h after irradiation identified LET-independent regulated genes that were up/down-regulated regardless of the value of LET; LET–dependent regulated genes, whose expression level increased with the rise of LET value, were also identified. Gene ontology (GO) analysis of LET-independent up-regulated genes showed that some GO terms were commonly enriched, both 2 hours and 3 weeks after irradiation. GO terms enriched in LET-dependent regulated genes implied that some factor regulates genes that have kinase activity or DNA-binding activity in cooperation with the ATM gene. Of the LET-dependent up-regulated genes, OsPARP3 and OsPCNA were identified, which are involved in DNA repair pathways. This indicates that the Ku-independent alternative non-homologous end-joining pathway may contribute to repairing complex DNA legions induced by high-LET irradiation. These findings may clarify various LET-dependent responses in rice. PMID:27462908

  10. Simulations of an accelerator-based shielding experiment using the particle and heavy-ion transport code system PHITS.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Sihver, L; Iwase, H; Nakashima, H; Niita, K

    2005-01-01

    In order to estimate the biological effects of HZE particles, an accurate knowledge of the physics of interaction of HZE particles is necessary. Since the heavy ion transport problem is a complex one, there is a need for both experimental and theoretical studies to develop accurate transport models. RIST and JAERI (Japan), GSI (Germany) and Chalmers (Sweden) are therefore currently developing and bench marking the General-Purpose Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System (PHITS), which is based on the NMTC and MCNP for nucleon/meson and neutron transport respectively, and the JAM hadron cascade model. PHITS uses JAERI Quantum Molecular Dynamics (JQMD) and the Generalized Evaporation Model (GEM) for calculations of fission and evaporation processes, a model developed at NASA Langley for calculation of total reaction cross sections, and the SPAR model for stopping power calculations. The future development of PHITS includes better parameterization in the JQMD model used for the nucleus-nucleus reactions, and improvement of the models used for calculating total reaction cross sections, and addition of routines for calculating elastic scattering of heavy ions, and inclusion of radioactivity and burn up processes. As a part of an extensive bench marking of PHITS, we have compared energy spectra of secondary neutrons created by reactions of HZE particles with different targets, with thicknesses ranging from <1 to 200 cm. We have also compared simulated and measured spatial, fluence and depth-dose distributions from different high energy heavy ion reactions. In this paper, we report simulations of an accelerator-based shielding experiment, in which a beam of 1 GeV/n Fe-ions has passed through thin slabs of polyethylene, Al, and Pb at an acceptance angle up to 4 degrees. PMID:15934196

  11. Simulations of an accelerator-based shielding experiment using the particle and heavy-ion transport code system PHITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Sihver, L.; Iwase, H.; Nakashima, H.; Niita, K.

    In order to estimate the biological effects of HZE particles, an accurate knowledge of the physics of interaction of HZE particles is necessary. Since the heavy ion transport problem is a complex one, there is a need for both experimental and theoretical studies to develop accurate transport models. RIST and JAERI (Japan), GSI (Germany) and Chalmers (Sweden) are therefore currently developing and bench marking the General-Purpose Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System (PHITS), which is based on the NMTC and MCNP for nucleon/meson and neutron transport respectively, and the JAM hadron cascade model. PHITS uses JAERI Quantum Molecular Dynamics (JQMD) and the Generalized Evaporation Model (GEM) for calculations of fission and evaporation processes, a model developed at NASA Langley for calculation of total reaction cross sections, and the SPAR model for stopping power calculations. The future development of PHITS includes better parameterization in the JQMD model used for the nucleus-nucleus reactions, and improvement of the models used for calculating total reaction cross sections, and addition of routines for calculating elastic scattering of heavy ions, and inclusion of radioactivity and burn up processes. As a part of an extensive bench marking of PHITS, we have compared energy spectra of secondary neutrons created by reactions of HZE particles with different targets, with thicknesses ranging from <1 to 200 cm. We have also compared simulated and measured spatial, fluence and depth-dose distributions from different high energy heavy ion reactions. In this paper, we report simulations of an accelerator-based shielding experiment, in which a beam of 1 GeV/n Fe-ions has passed through thin slabs of polyethylene, Al, and Pb at an acceptance angle up to 4°.

  12. Variable frequency heavy-ion linac, RILAC I. Design, construction and operation of its accelerating structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odera, Masatoshi; Chiba, Yoshiaki; Tonuma, Tadao; Hemmi, Masatake; Miyazawa, Yoshitoshi; Inoue, Toshihiko; Kambara, Tadashi; Kase, Masayuki; Kubo, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Fusako

    1984-11-01

    A variable frequency linear accelerator at RIKEN (IPCR), which is named RILAC, is designed to accelerate ions of almost every element in the periodic table. In this report, the design, construction and performance of the resonator cavities of this linac are described. A new accelerating structure was developed for the variable frequency scheme. The principal aim of the development was to obtain a configuration within the cavity to keep a uniform voltage distribution along the accelerating axis over the wide range of resonant frequencies required. The final form adopted is a coaxial quarter-wave type resonator with a race-track-like cross section for its coaxial inner and outer conductors. It has a movable shorting device as a frequency tuner and its open end is enlarged and loaded with drift tubes, connected to the inner and outer conductors alternatingly. The structure can maintain the required uniformity of the accelerating voltage within 10% in spite of resonant frequency tuning between 17 and 45 MHz. A relatively modest accelerating gradient was chosen so that cw operation could be realized. The RILAC is composed of six such cavities which are independently excited and it succeeded in the acceleration of a beam through all the cavities in 1981.

  13. Cell inactivation, repair and mutation induction in bacteria after heavy ion exposure: results from experiments at accelerators and in space.

    PubMed

    Horneck, G; Schafer, M; Baltschukat, K; Weisbrod, U; Micke, U; Facius, R; Bucker, H

    1989-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of accelerated heavy ions on biological matter, the responses of spores of B. subtilis to this structured high LET radiation was investigated applying two different approaches. 1) By the use of the Biostack concept, the inactivation probability as a function of radial distance to single particles' trajectory (i.e. impact parameter) was determined in space experiments as well as at accelerators using low fluences of heavy ions. It was found that spores can survive even a central hit and that the effective range of inactivation extends far beyond impact parameters where inactivation by delta-ray dose would be effective. Concerning the space experiment, the inactivation cross section exceeds those from comparable accelerator experiments by roughly a factor of 20. 2) From fluence effect curves, cross sections for inactivation and mutation induction, and the efficiency of repair processes were determined. They are influenced by the ions characteristics in a complex manner. According to dependence on LET, at least 3 LET ranges can be differentiated: A low LET range (app. < 200 keV/micrometers), where cross sections for inactivation and mutation induction follow a common curve for different ions and where repair processes are effective; an intermediate LET range of the so-called saturation cross section with negligible mutagenic and repair efficiency; and a high LET range (>1000 keV/micrometers) where the biological endpoints are majorly dependent on atomic mass and energy of the ion under consideration. PMID:11537282

  14. Recent US target-physics-related research in heavy-ion inertial fusion: target gains and constraints on accelerator design

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1982-03-09

    Inertial-fusion targets were designed for use with heavy-ion accelerators as drivers in fusion energy power plants. In the interest of providing inputs for understanding the trade-offs among accelerator designs, an initial survey was carried out regarding target gain versus parameters of relevance. This was done in two stages, firstly target gain was related to the beam energy, power, focal radius, and ion range. Secondly, a more comprehensive discussion was made by posing target gain constraints on the beam-occupied phase-space volume of the linacs. This latter discussion had included some rather simplified models of accelerator final focus and beam transport in near-vacuum fusion reaction chambers. Some further analyses of the basic assumptions of this summary are also described.

  15. Shielded Heavy-Ion Environment Linear Detector (SHIELD): an experiment for the Radiation and Technology Demonstration (RTD) Mission.

    PubMed

    Shavers, M R; Cucinotta, F A; Miller, J; Zeitlin, C; Heilbronn, L; Wilson, J W; Singleterry, R C

    2001-01-01

    Radiological assessment of the many cosmic ion species of widely distributed energies requires the use of theoretical transport models to accurately describe diverse physical processes related to nuclear reactions in spacecraft structures, planetary atmospheres and surfaces, and tissues. Heavy-ion transport models that were designed to characterize shielded radiation fields have been validated through comparison with data from thick-target irradiation experiments at particle accelerators. With the RTD Mission comes a unique opportunity to validate existing radiation transport models and guide the development of tools for shield design. For the first time, transport properties will be measured in free-space to characterize the shielding effectiveness of materials that are likely to be aboard interplanetary space missions. Target materials composed of aluminum, advanced composite spacecraft structure and other shielding materials, helium (a propellant) and tissue equivalent matrices will be evaluated. Large solid state detectors will provide kinetic energy and charge identification for incident heavy-ions and for secondary ions created in the target material. Transport calculations using the HZETRN model suggest that 8 g cm -2 thick targets would be adequate to evaluate the shielding effectiveness during solar minimum activity conditions for a period of 30 days or more. PMID:11770530

  16. Shielded Heavy-Ion Environment Linear Detector (SHIELD): an experiment for the Radiation and Technology Demonstration (RTD) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Wilson, J. W.; Singleterry, R. C. Jr

    2001-01-01

    Radiological assessment of the many cosmic ion species of widely distributed energies requires the use of theoretical transport models to accurately describe diverse physical processes related to nuclear reactions in spacecraft structures, planetary atmospheres and surfaces, and tissues. Heavy-ion transport models that were designed to characterize shielded radiation fields have been validated through comparison with data from thick-target irradiation experiments at particle accelerators. With the RTD Mission comes a unique opportunity to validate existing radiation transport models and guide the development of tools for shield design. For the first time, transport properties will be measured in free-space to characterize the shielding effectiveness of materials that are likely to be aboard interplanetary space missions. Target materials composed of aluminum, advanced composite spacecraft structure and other shielding materials, helium (a propellant) and tissue equivalent matrices will be evaluated. Large solid state detectors will provide kinetic energy and charge identification for incident heavy-ions and for secondary ions created in the target material. Transport calculations using the HZETRN model suggest that 8 g cm -2 thick targets would be adequate to evaluate the shielding effectiveness during solar minimum activity conditions for a period of 30 days or more.

  17. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1986-September 30, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    Activities are reported on MBE-4, the four-beam proof-of-principle ion induction linear accelerator with the capability of beam-current amplification. Mechanical aspects of MBE-4, quadrupole insulator performance, and pulsers are discussed. The computer code, SLID, has been used to help understand the longitudinal beam dynamics in MBE-4. A computer-controlled emittance scanning system is in use in MBE-4. A systematic effort is under way to discover and correct all the defects peculiar to the low energy part of the linac design code. (LEW)

  18. Recent developments of ion sources for life-science studies at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (invited).

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, A; Drentje, A G; Fujita, T; Muramatsu, M; Fukushima, K; Shiraishi, N; Suzuki, T; Takahashi, K; Takasugi, W; Biri, S; Rácz, R; Kato, Y; Uchida, T; Yoshida, Y

    2016-02-01

    With about 1000-h of relativistic high-energy ion beams provided by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, about 70 users are performing various biology experiments every year. A rich variety of ion species from hydrogen to xenon ions with a dose rate of several Gy/min is available. Carbon, iron, silicon, helium, neon, argon, hydrogen, and oxygen ions were utilized between 2012 and 2014. Presently, three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) and one Penning ion source are available. Especially, the two frequency heating techniques have improved the performance of an 18 GHz ECRIS. The results have satisfied most requirements for life-science studies. In addition, this improved performance has realized a feasible solution for similar biology experiments with a hospital-specified accelerator complex. PMID:26932117

  19. Recent developments of ion sources for life-science studies at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitagawa, A.; Drentje, A. G.; Fujita, T.; Muramatsu, M.; Fukushima, K.; Shiraishi, N.; Suzuki, T.; Takahashi, K.; Takasugi, W.; Biri, S.; Rácz, R.; Kato, Y.; Uchida, T.; Yoshida, Y.

    2016-02-01

    With about 1000-h of relativistic high-energy ion beams provided by Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, about 70 users are performing various biology experiments every year. A rich variety of ion species from hydrogen to xenon ions with a dose rate of several Gy/min is available. Carbon, iron, silicon, helium, neon, argon, hydrogen, and oxygen ions were utilized between 2012 and 2014. Presently, three electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRISs) and one Penning ion source are available. Especially, the two frequency heating techniques have improved the performance of an 18 GHz ECRIS. The results have satisfied most requirements for life-science studies. In addition, this improved performance has realized a feasible solution for similar biology experiments with a hospital-specified accelerator complex.

  20. Response of rat spinal cord to single and fractionated doses of accelerated heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, J.T.; McDonald, M.; Powers-Risius, P.; Bliven, S.F.; Howard, J.

    1982-01-01

    The thoraco-lumbar (T12-L1) region of the spinal cord of rats was exposed to either single or fractionated (four daily exposures) doses of X rays (230 kVp) or heavy ions. The heavy ions used were carbon and neon, and the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of both the plateau ionization region and the midpeak region of 4-cm spread-out Bragg peaks of each heavy ion were investigated. For single doses of carbon and neon ions in the plateau ionization region, RBE values of 1.45 +/- 0.25 (propagated 95% confidence limits) and 1.46 +/- 0.33, respectively, were obtained. In the spread peak regions for carbon and neon ions, the RBE values were 1.48 +/- 0.18 and 1.86 +/- 0.42, respectively. These values were obtained using the dose needed to produce 50% paralysis in a group of irradiated rats as the isoeffect comparison dose (ED/sub 50/ dose). Similarly, in groups of rats receiving four daily exposures, the RBE values for carbon and neon ions in the plateau ionization region were 1.31 +/- 0.27 and 1.80 +/- 0.24, respectively. In the spread peak regions of ionization for carbon and neon ions, the RBE values were 1.95 +/- 0.19 and 2.18 +/- 0.23, respectively. Similar values for RBE were obtained using changes in the activity of enzymes in spinal cord tissue (cyclic nucleotide phosphohydrolase and ..gamma..-glutamyl transpeptidase). Also, it was estimated that, for X irradiation, the fractional amount of dose repaired (at the ED/sub 50/ dose) was 0.64 +/- 0.10 (95% confidence limits). For carbon and neon ions in the plateau ionization region, the values for the fractional amount of dose repaired were 0.70 +/- 0.27 and 0.48 +/- 0.20, and for carbon and neon ions in the spread peak region of ionization, the fractional repair values were 0.40 +/- 0.10 and 0.52 +/- 0.17. Spinal cord tissue therefore shows a high capacity for subeffective damage repair, and even at the highest LET investigated (neon ions in

  1. Effect of a short weak prepulse on laser-triggered front-surface heavy-ion acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Bochkarev, S. G.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Golovin, G. V.; Uryupina, D. S.; Shulyapov, S. A.; Savel'ev, A. B.; Andriyash, A. V.

    2012-10-15

    A suppression of light-ion acceleration (from surface water contaminants) was observed when a moderate-intensity subpicosecond laser pulse was focused on a thick metal target. Simultaneously, an effective generation of high-energy multicharge ions of the target material (Fe) was experimentally observed. A numerical simulation based on the Boltzmann-Vlasov-Poisson model revealed that this is due to the very specific regime of cleaning contaminants from the target surface by the short weak prepulse preceding the main pulse by more than 10 ns and having an intensity below the surface breakdown threshold. Because this prepulse causes the contaminant layer to boil explosively, a low-density gap forms above the target surface. These conditions are consequently favorable for boosting the energy of heavy ions.

  2. Lattice design and beam dynamics studies of the high energy beam transport line in the RAON heavy ion accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Hyunchang; Jang, Ji-Ho; Jang, Hyojae; Jeon, Dong-O.

    2015-12-01

    In RAON heavy ion accelerator, beams generated by superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECR-IS) or Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) system are accelerated by lower energy superconducting linac and high energy superconducting linac. The accelerated beams are used in the high energy experimental hall which includes bio-medical and muon-SR facilities, after passing through the high energy beam transport lines. At the targets of those two facilities, the stable and small beams meeting the requirements rigorously are required in the transverse plane. Therefore the beams must be safely sent to the targets and simultaneously satisfy the two requirements, the achromatic condition and the mid-plane symmetric condition, of the targets. For this reason, the lattice design of the high energy beam transport lines in which the long deflecting sections are included is considered as a significant issue in the RAON accelerator. In this paper, we will describe the calculated beam optics satisfying the conditions and present the result of particle tracking simulations with the designed lattice of the high energy beam transport lines in the RAON accelerator. Also, the orbit distortion caused by the machine imperfections and the orbit correction with correctors will be discussed.

  3. Heavy ions light flashes and brain functions: recent observations at accelerators and in spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narici, L.

    2008-07-01

    Interactions between ionizing radiation in space and brain functions, and the related risk assessments, are among the major concerns when programming long permanence in space, especially when outside the protective shield of the Earth's magnetosphere. The light flashes (LF) observed by astronauts in space, mostly when dark adapted, are an example of these interactions; investigations in space and on the ground showed that these effects can originate with the action of ionizing radiation in the eye. Recent findings from ALTEA, an interdisciplinary and multiapproach program devoted to the study of different aspects of the radiation-brain functions interaction, are presented in this paper. These include: (i) study of radiation passing through the astronauts' eyes in the International Space Station (≈20 ions min-1, excluding H and fast and very slow He), measured in conjunction with reporting of the perception of LF; (ii) preliminary electrophysiological evidence of these events in astronauts and in patients during heavy ion therapy; and (iii) in vitro results showing the radiation driven activation of rhodopsin at the start of the phototransduction cascade in the process of vision. These results are in agreement with our previous work on mice. A brief but complete summary of the earlier works is also reported to permit a discussion of the results.

  4. Induction of apoptosis by accelerated heavy-ion beams in cultured fetal rat testes and its modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Shang, Yi; Fujita, Kazuko; Ninomiya, Yasuharu; Moreno, Stephanie G.; Coffigny, Herve; Hayata, Isamu; Murakami, Masahiro; Eguchi-Kasai, Kiyomi; Nenoi, Mitsuru

    The increasing human activities in space missions make the study on effects from high-LET ionizing radiation an important issue to be addressed. We reported previously that prenatal irradiations with heavy-ion beams on gestation day 15 generally induced markedly detrimental effects on prenatal gonads, postnatal testicular development and male breeding activity in rats. To explore the mechanisms involved in radiation-induced gonocyte apoptosis in fetal gonads, which played a critical role in the fate of postnatal testis development, accelerated heavy-ion irradiations and organotypic culture of Wistar fetal rat testes were applied to investigations focused on cellular and molecular events after irradiations with or without chemical addition. Results showed that, in addition to the clustered distribution, both the time course and the percentage of apoptosis in gonocytes on gestation day 15 equivalent in vitro appeared similar to that in utero after exposure to either carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV/µm or neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/µm. Irradiations induced increased p53 expression in a dose dependent manner and decreased expressions of p21 and Bcl- 2 by Western Blot examination. Administration of pan-caspase inhibitor prior to irradiations effectively inhibited apoptosis occurrence and reduced the extent of clustered apoptosis, while such effects were not observed with the presence of p53 inhibitor, gap junction inhibitor, or nitric oxide specific scavenger. These findings indicated that irradiations of cultured fetal rat testes manifested pathologically similar apoptosis induction in gonocytes to that in utero. P53 expression was possibly responsible for the response to radiation damage rather than induction of apoptosis. The syncytial organization of gonocytes played a key role in formation of the clustered apoptosis, an event that both gap junction inhibitor and nitric oxide specific scavenger were incapable of preventing.

  5. Evidence for a Common Acceleration Mechanism for Enrichments of 3He and Heavy Ions in Impulsive SEP Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Glenn M.; Nitta, Nariaki V.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.; Innes, Davina E.

    2016-06-01

    We have surveyed the period 1997–2015 for a rare type of 3He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) event, with enormously enhanced values of the S/O ratio, that differs from the majority of 3He-rich events, which show enhancements of heavy ions increasing smoothly with mass. Sixteen events were found, most of them small but with solar source characteristics similar to other 3He-rich SEP events. A single event on 2014 May 16 had higher intensities than the others, and curved Si and S spectra that crossed the O spectrum above ∼200 keV nucleon‑1. Such crossings of heavy-ion spectra have never previously been reported. The dual enhancement of Si and S suggests that element Q/M ratio is critical to the enhancement since this pair of elements uniquely has very similar Q/M ratios over a wide range of temperatures. Besides 3He, Si, and S, in this same event the C, N, and Fe spectra also showed curved shape and enhanced abundances compared to O. The spectral similarities suggest that all have been produced from the same mechanism that enhances 3He. The enhancements are large only in the high-energy portion of the spectrum, and so affect only a small fraction of the ions. The observations suggest that the accelerated plasma was initially cool (∼0.4 MK) and was then heated to a few million kelvin to generate the preferred Q/M ratio in the range C–Fe. The temperature profile may be the distinct feature of these events that produces the unusual abundance signature.

  6. Shielding Benchmark Experiments Through Concrete and Iron with High-Energy Proton and Heavy Ion Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, T.; Sasaki, M.; Nunomiya, T.; Nakao, N.; Kim, E.; Kurosawa, T.; Taniguchi, S.; Iwase, H.; Uwamino, Y.; Shibata, T.; Ito, S.; Fukumura, A.; Perry, D. R.; Wright, P.

    The deep penetration of neutrons through thick shield has become a very serious problem in the shielding design of high-energy, high-intensity accelerator facility. In the design calculation, the Monte Carlo transport calculation through thick shields has large statistical errors and the basic nuclear data and model used in the existing Monte Carlo codes are not well evaluated because of very few experimental data. It is therefore strongly needed to do the deep penetration experiment as shielding benchmark for investigating the calculation accuracy. Under this circumference, we performed the following two shielding experiments through concrete and iron, one with a 800 MeV proton accelerator of the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), England and the other with a high energy heavy iron accelerator of the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), Japan. Here these two shielding benchmark experiments are outlined.

  7. Heavy ion program at BNL: AGS, RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    With the recent commissioning of fixed target, heavy ion physics at the AGS, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has embarked on a long range program in support of relativistic heavy ion research. Acceleration of low mass heavy ions (up to sulfur) to an energy of about 14.5 GeV/nucleon is possible with the direct connection of the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff and AGS accelerators. When completed, the new booster accelerator will provide heavy ions over the full mass range for injection and subsequent acceleration in the AGS. BNL is now engaged in an active R and D program directed toward the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The results of the first operation of the low mass heavy ion program will be reviewed, and future expectations discussed. The expected performance for the heavy ion operation of the booster will be described and finally, the current status and outlook for the RHIC facility will be presented.

  8. ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion sources and applications with heavy-ion linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Pardo, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source has been developed in the last few years into a reliable source of high charge-state heavy ions. The availability of heavy ions with relatively large charge-to-mass ratios (0.1--0.5) has made it possible to contemplate essentially new classes of heavy-ion linear accelerators. In this talk, I shall review the state-of-the-art in ECR source performance and describe some of the implications this performance level has for heavy-ion linear accelerator design. The present linear accelerator projects using ECR ion sources will be noted and the performance requirements of the ECR source for these projects will be reviewed. 30 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Effects of Prenatal Irradiation with an Accelerated Heavy-Ion Beam on Postnatal Development in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, K.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Effects on postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV mu m at a dose range from 0 1 Gy to 2 0Gy on the 15th day of gestation The age at which four physiologic markers appeared and five reflexes were acquired was examined prior to weaning Gain in body weight was monitored until the offspring were 3 months old Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison Our previous study on carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV mu m was also cited to elucidate a possible LET-related effect For most of the endpoints at early age significant alteration was even observed in offspring prenatally received 0 1 Gy of accelerated neon ions while neither X rays nor carbon-ions under the same dose resulted in such a significant alteration compared to that from the sham-irradiated dams All offspring whose mothers received 2 0 Gy died prior to weaning Offspring from dams irradiated with accelerated neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to those exposed to X-rays or carbon ions at doses of 0 1 to 1 5 Gy Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight at postnatal ages of 30 60 and 90 days were also observed

  10. Simulating Electron Effects in Heavy-Ion Accelerators with Solenoid Focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W M; Grote, D P; Cohen, R H; Friedman, A; Molvik, A W; Vay, J; Seidl, P; Roy, P K; Coleman, J E; Haber, I

    2007-06-29

    Contamination from electrons is a concern for solenoid-focused ion accelerators being developed for experiments in high-energy-density physics. These electrons, produced directly by beam ions hitting lattice elements or indirectly by ionization of desorbed neutral gas, can potentially alter the beam dynamics, leading to a time-varying focal spot, increased emittance, halo, and possibly electron-ion instabilities. The electrostatic particle-in-cell code WARP is used to simulate electron-cloud studies on the solenoid-transport experiment (STX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. We present self-consistent simulations of several STX configurations and compare the results with experimental data in order to calibrate physics parameters in the model.

  11. Simulating Electron Effects in Heavy-Ion Accelerators with Solenoid Focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W. M.; Grote, D. P.; Cohen, R. H.; Friedman, A.; Molvik, A. W.; Vay, J.-L.; Seidl, P. A.; Roy, P. K.; Coleman, J. E.; Haber, I.

    2007-06-20

    Contamination from electrons is a concern for solenoid-focused ion accelerators being developed for experiments in high-energy-density physics. These electrons, produced directly by beam ions hitting lattice elements or indirectly by ionization of desorbed neutral gas, can potentially alter the beam dynamics, leading to a time-varying focal spot, increased emittance, halo, and possibly electron-ion instabilities. The electrostatic particle-in-cell code WARP is used to simulate electron-cloud studies on the solenoid-transport experiment (STX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. We present self-consistent simulations of several STX configurations and compare the results with experimental data in order to calibrate physics parameters in the model.

  12. Heavy ion fusion accelerator research (HIFAR) half-year report: October 1, 1986-March 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    For this report we have collected the papers presented by the HIFAR group at the IEEE Particle Accelerator Conference held in Washington, DC, on March 16-19, 1987, which essentially coincides with the end of the reporting period. In addition, we report on research to determine the cause of the failures of Re-X insulator that are used as the high-voltage feed-through for the electrostatic quadrupoles on MBE-4. This report contains papers on the following topics: LBL multiple beam experiments, pulsers for the induction linac experiment (MBE-4), HIF insulator failure, experimental measurement of emittance growth in mismatched space-charge dominated beams, the effect of nonlinear forces on coherently oscillating space-charge dominated beams, space-charge effects in a bending magnet system, transverse combining of nonrelativistic beams in a multiple beam induction linac, comparison of electric and magnetic quadrupole focusing for the low energy end of an induction-linac-ICF driver. Eight individual papers have been indexed separately. (LSP)

  13. Scientific issues in future induction linac accelerators for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Celata, C.M.

    2004-06-07

    Achievement of atomic-resolution electron-beam tomography will allow determination of the three-dimensional structure of nanoparticles (and other suitable specimens) at atomic resolution. Three-dimensional reconstructions will yield ''section'' images that resolve atoms overlapped in normal electron microscope images (projections), resolving lighter atoms such as oxygen in the presence of heavier atoms, and atoms that lie on non-lattice sites such as those in non-periodic defect structures. Our first demonstrations of 3-D reconstruction to atomic resolution used five zone-axis images from test specimens of staurolite consisting of a mix of light and heavy atoms. We propose combining ultra-high (sub-Angstrom) resolution zone-axis images with off-zone images by first using linear reconstruction of the off-zone images while excluding images obtained within a small range of tilts (of the order of 60 milliradian) of any zone-axis orientation, since it has been shown that dynamical effects can be mitigated by slight off-axis tilt of the specimen. The (partial) reconstruction would then be used as a model for forward calculation by image simulation in zone-axis directions and the structure refined iteratively to achieve satisfactory fits with the experimental zone-axis data. Another path to atomic-resolution tomography would combine ''zone-axis tomography'' with high-resolution dark-field hollow-cone (DFHC) imaging. Electron diffraction theory indicates that dynamic (multiple) scattering is much reduced under highly-convergent illumination. DFHC TEM is the analog of HAADF STEM, and imaging theory shows that image resolution can be enhanced under these conditions. Images obtained in this mode could provide the initial reconstruction, with zone-axis images used for refinement.

  14. Development of a patient positioning error compensation tool for Korea Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator Treatment Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min-Joo; Suh, Tae-Suk; Cho, Woong; Jung, Won-Gyun

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a potential validation tool for compensating for the patient positioning error was developed by using 2D/3D and 3D/3D image registration. For 2D/3D registration, digitallyreconstructed radiography (DRR) and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) images were applied. The ray-casting algorithm is the most straightforward method for generating DRR, so we adopted the traditional ray-casting method, which finds the intersections of a ray with all objects, voxels of the 3D-CT volume in the scene. The similarity between the extracted DRR and the orthogonal image was measured by using a normalized mutual information method. Two orthogonal images were acquired from a Cyber-knife system from the anterior-posterior (AP) and right lateral (RL) views. The 3D-CT and the two orthogonal images of an anthropomorphic phantom and of the head and neck of a cancer patient were used in this study. For 3D/3D registration, planning CT and in-room CT images were applied. After registration, the translation and the rotation factors were calculated to position a couch to be movable in six dimensions. Registration accuracies and average errors of 2.12 mm ± 0.50 mm for transformations and 1.23 ° ± 0.40 ° for rotations were acquired by using 2D/3D registration with the anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom. In addition, registration accuracies and average errors of 0.90 mm ± 0.30 mm for transformations and 1.00 ° ± 0.2 ° for rotations were acquired by using CT image sets. We demonstrated that this validation tool could compensate for patient positioning errors. In addition, this research could be a fundamental step in compensating for patient positioning errors at the Korea Heavy-ion Medical Accelerator Treatment Center.

  15. SU-E-J-137: Image Registration Tool for Patient Setup in Korea Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, M; Suh, T; Cho, W; Jung, W

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A potential validation tool for compensating patient positioning error was developed using 2D/3D and 3D/3D image registration. Methods: For 2D/3D registration, digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) and three-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT) images were applied. The ray-casting algorithm is the most straightforward method for generating DRR. We adopted the traditional ray-casting method, which finds the intersections of a ray with all objects, voxels of the 3D-CT volume in the scene. The similarity between the extracted DRR and orthogonal image was measured by using a normalized mutual information method. Two orthogonal images were acquired from a Cyber-Knife system from the anterior-posterior (AP) and right lateral (RL) views. The 3D-CT and two orthogonal images of an anthropomorphic phantom and head and neck cancer patient were used in this study. For 3D/3D registration, planning CT and in-room CT image were applied. After registration, the translation and rotation factors were calculated to position a couch to be movable in six dimensions. Results: Registration accuracies and average errors of 2.12 mm ± 0.50 mm for transformations and 1.23° ± 0.40° for rotations were acquired by 2D/3D registration using an anthropomorphic Alderson-Rando phantom. In addition, registration accuracies and average errors of 0.90 mm ± 0.30 mm for transformations and 1.00° ± 0.2° for rotations were acquired using CT image sets. Conclusion: We demonstrated that this validation tool could compensate for patient positioning error. In addition, this research could be the fundamental step for compensating patient positioning error at the first Korea heavy-ion medical accelerator treatment center.

  16. Generation of high-energy mono-energetic heavy ion beams by radiation pressure acceleration of ultra-intense laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, D.; Qiao, B.; McGuffey, C.; He, X. T.; Beg, F. N.

    2014-12-01

    Generation of high-energy mono-energetic heavy ion beams by radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) of intense laser pulses is investigated. Different from previously studied RPA of protons or light ions, the dynamic ionization of high-Z atoms can stabilize the heavy ion acceleration. A self-organized, stable RPA scheme specifically for heavy ion beams is proposed, where the laser peak intensity is required to match with the large ionization energy gap when the successive ionization state passes the noble gas configurations [such as removing an electron from the helium-like charge state ( Z - 2 ) + to ( Z - 1 ) + ]. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that a mono-energetic Al13+ beam with peak energy 1.0 GeV and energy spread of only 5% can be obtained at intensity of 7 × 10 20 W / cm 2 through the proposed scheme. A heavier, mono-energetic, ion beam (Fe26+) can attain a peak energy of 17 GeV by increasing the intensity to 10 22 W / cm 2 .

  17. Generation of high-energy mono-energetic heavy ion beams by radiation pressure acceleration of ultra-intense laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, D.; Qiao, B.; McGuffey, C.; Beg, F. N.; He, X. T.

    2014-12-15

    Generation of high-energy mono-energetic heavy ion beams by radiation pressure acceleration (RPA) of intense laser pulses is investigated. Different from previously studied RPA of protons or light ions, the dynamic ionization of high-Z atoms can stabilize the heavy ion acceleration. A self-organized, stable RPA scheme specifically for heavy ion beams is proposed, where the laser peak intensity is required to match with the large ionization energy gap when the successive ionization state passes the noble gas configurations [such as removing an electron from the helium-like charge state (Z−2){sup +} to (Z−1){sup +}]. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations show that a mono-energetic Al{sup 13+} beam with peak energy 1.0 GeV and energy spread of only 5% can be obtained at intensity of 7×10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} through the proposed scheme. A heavier, mono-energetic, ion beam (Fe{sup 26+}) can attain a peak energy of 17 GeV by increasing the intensity to 10{sup 22} W/cm{sup 2}.

  18. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Chiping Chen

    2006-10-26

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Goup at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; Development of elliptic beam theory; (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX).

  19. Development of dual-beam system using an electrostatic accelerator for in-situ observation of swift heavy ion irradiation effects on materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, M.; Asozu, T.; Sataka, M.; Iwase, A.

    2013-11-01

    We have developed the dual beam system which accelerates two kinds of ion beams simultaneously especially for real-time ion beam analysis. We have also developed the alternating beam system which can efficiently change beam species in a short time in order to realize efficient ion beam analysis in a limited beam time. The acceleration of the dual beam is performed by the 20 UR Pelletron™ tandem accelerator in which an ECR ion source is mounted at the high voltage terminal [1,2]. The multi-charged ions of two or more elements can be simultaneously generated from the ECR ion source, so dual-beam irradiation is achieved by accelerating ions with the same charge to mass ratio (for example, 132Xe11+ and 12C+). It enables us to make a real-time beam analysis such as Rutherford Back Scattering (RBS) method, while a target is irradiated with swift heavy ions. For the quick change of the accelerating ion beam, the program of automatic setting of the optical parameter of the accelerator has been developed. The switchover time for changing the ion beam is about 5 min. These developments have been applied to the study on the ion beam mixing caused by high-density electronic excitation induced by swift heavy ions.

  20. Linear induction accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  1. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists.

  2. Swift Heavy Ions in Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothard, Hermann; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina

    2015-12-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM). This conference was held in Darmstadt, from 18 to 21 May 2015. SHIM is a triennial series, which started about 25 years ago by a joint initiative of CIRIL - Caen and GSI - Darmstadt, with the aim of promoting fundamental and applied interdisciplinary research in the field of high-energy, heavy-ion interaction processes with matter. SHIM was successively organized in Caen (1989), Bensheim (1992), Caen (1995), Berlin (1998), Catania (2002), Aschaffenburg (2005), Lyon (2008), and Kyoto (2012). The conference attracts scientists from many different fields using high-energy heavy ions delivered by large accelerator facilities and characterized by strong and short electronic excitations.

  3. Neoplastic transformation of hamster embyro cells by heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Han, Z; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, F; Suzuki, M; Furusawa, Y; Kato, T; Ikenaga, M

    1998-01-01

    We have studied the induction of morphological transformation of Syrian hamster embryo cells by low doses of heavy ions with different linear energy transfer (LET), ranging from 13 to 400 keV/micrometer. Exponentially growing cells were irradiated with 12C or 28Si ion beams generated by the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC), inoculated to culture dishes, and transformed colonies were identified when the cells were densely stacked and showed a crisscross pattern. Over the LET range examined, the frequency of transformation induced by the heavy ions increased sharply at very low doses no greater than 5 cGy. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the heavy ions relative to 250 kVp X-rays showed an initial increase with LET, reaching a maximum value of about 7 at 100 keV/micrometer, and then decreased with the further increase in LET. Thus, we confirmed that high LET heavy ions are significantly more effective than X-rays for the induction of in vitro cell transformation. PMID:11542417

  4. Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1953-10-13

    A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.

  5. [Linear accelerator radiosurgery].

    PubMed

    Brandt, R A; Salvajoli, J V; Oliveira, V C; Carmignani, M; da Cruz, J C; Leal, H D; Ferraz, L

    1995-03-01

    Radiosurgery is the precise radiation of a known intracranial target with a high dose of energy, sparing the adjacent nervous tissue. Technological advances in the construction of linear accelerators, stereotactic instruments and in computer sciences made this technique easier to perform and affordable. The main indications for radiosurgery are inoperable cerebral vascular malformations, vestibular and other cranial schwannomas, skull base meningiomas, deep seated gliomas and cerebral metastases. More recently, the development of fraccionated stereotactic radiotherapy increased the spectrum of indications to bigger lesions and to those adjacent to critical nervous structures. We present our initial experience in the treatment of 31 patients. An adequate control of the neoplastic lesions was obtained and the adequate time of observation is still needed to evaluate the results in arteriovenous malformations. PMID:7575207

  6. Simulations of an Accelerator-based Shielding Shielding Experiment Using theParticle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System PHITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Sihver, L.; Iwase, H.; Nakashima, H.; Niita, K.

    In order to estimate the biological effects of HZE particles, an accurate knowledge of the physics of interaction of HZE particles is necessary. Since the heavy ion transport problem is a complex one, there is a need for both experimental and theoretical studies to develop accurate transport models. RIST and JAERI (Japan), GSI (Germany) and Chalmers (Sweden) are therefore currently developing and bench marking the General-Purpose Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System (PHITS), which is based on the NMTC and MCNP for nucleon/meson and neutron transport respectively, and the JAM hadron cascade model. PHITS uses JAERI Quantum Molecular Dynamics (JQMD) and the GEM (Generalized Evaporation Model) for calculations of fission and evaporation processes, the SHEN model for calculation of total reaction cross sections, and the SPAR model for dE/dx calculations. The development of PHITS includes better parameterization in the JQMD model used for the nucleus-nucleus reactions, improvement of the models used for calculating total reaction cross sections and dE/dx distributions, and adding routines for calculating elastic scattering of heavy ions, dose and track average LET distributions. As part of an extensive bench marking of PHITS, we have compared energy spectra of secondary neutrons created by reactions of HZE particles with different targets, with thicknesses ranging from < 1 cm to 200 cm. We have also compared simulated and measured spatial, fluence and depth-dose distributions from different high energy heavy ion reactions. In this paper we report simulations of an accelerator-based shielding experiment, in which a beam of 1 GeV/n Fe-ions has passed through slabs of polyethylene, PMMA, Al, and Pb, with thicknesses ranging from 5 to 30 g/cm2 at an acceptance angle of 0°± 3°. The simulated survival fraction of the primary Fe-ions, fragment spectrum for 23 g/cm2, and dose behind the shield per incident Fe-ion on the shield has been compared with measurements.

  7. Acceleration modules in linear induction accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shao-Heng; Deng, Jian-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The Linear Induction Accelerator (LIA) is a unique type of accelerator that is capable of accelerating kilo-Ampere charged particle current to tens of MeV energy. The present development of LIA in MHz bursting mode and the successful application into a synchrotron have broadened LIA's usage scope. Although the transformer model is widely used to explain the acceleration mechanism of LIAs, it is not appropriate to consider the induction electric field as the field which accelerates charged particles for many modern LIAs. We have examined the transition of the magnetic cores' functions during the LIA acceleration modules' evolution, distinguished transformer type and transmission line type LIA acceleration modules, and re-considered several related issues based on transmission line type LIA acceleration module. This clarified understanding should help in the further development and design of LIA acceleration modules.

  8. Effects of prenatal irradiation with an accelerated heavy-ion beam on postnatal development in rats: II. Further study on neurophysiologic alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Organogenesis is a highly radiosensitive period, study of prenatal exposure to high LET heavy ion beams on postnatal development is important for clarifying the radiation risk in space and promoting the evidence-based mechanism research. The effects from heavy ion irradiations are not well studied as those for low LET radiations such as X-rays in this field, even the ground-based investigations remain to be addressed. Using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring was investigated following exposure of pregnant rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on the 15th day of gestation. The age for appearance of four physiologic markers and attainment of five neonatal reflexes, and gain in body weight were monitored. Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests including open field and hole-board dipping tests. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. For most of the endpoints at early age, significant neurophysiological alteration was observed even in offspring receiving 0.1 Gy of accelerated neon ions but not X-rays. All offspring receiving 2.0 Gy of accelerated neon ions died prior to weaning. Offspring prenatally irradiated with neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death, increased preweaning mortality, markedly delayed accomplishment in physiological markers and reflexes, significantly lower body weight and reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight, and altered behavior compared to those exposed to X-rays at doses of 0.1 1.5 Gy. These findings indicate that irradiations with neon ions at 0.1 1.5 Gy on day 15 of gestation caused varied developmental alterations in offspring, and efficient dose leading to the detrimental effects seemed to be lower than that of X-rays.

  9. Assessment of soil and ground-water activation in the underground facility of the linear accelerator at RAON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangjin; Nam, Shinwoo; Chung, Yonsei; Kim, Suna; Lee, Cheol Woo

    2015-10-01

    RAON is a heavy-ion accelerator complex that is being constructed in Daejeon, Korea. The superconducting linear accelerator of RAON will provide various heavy-ion beams with a maximum power of 400 kW. In order to determine the design requirements of the underground facility for the accelerator, we considered the radiation's influence on the soil and the ground-water under the condition of long-term operation of the accelerator. A source term for prompt neutrons generated by heavy-ion beams losses along the beam lines at a rate of 1 W/m was applied to obtain the activation level of nearby material outside the tunnel by using the simulation codes MCNPX and SP-FISPACT. This report presents the analysis and the result for the tunnel shielding condition obtained from the assessment.

  10. Sustained linear acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, T. M.

    1973-01-01

    The subjective effects of sustained acceleration are discussed, including positive, negative, forward, backward, and lateral acceleration effects. Physiological effects, such as retinal and visual response, unconsciousness and cerebral function, pulmonary response, and renal output, are studied. Human tolerance and performance under sustained acceleration are ascertained.

  11. Heavy ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1983-12-01

    The advantages of heavy ion beams as a way of delivering the needed energy and power to an inertial fusion target are surveyed. The existing broad technology base of particle accelerators provides an important foundation for designing, costing, and evaluating proposed systems. The sequence of steps needed for the verification of the heavy ion approach is described; recent research results are even more encouraging than had been assumed hitherto.

  12. Beam dynamics in heavy ion induction LINACS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.

    1981-10-01

    Interest in the use of an induction linac to accelerate heavy ions for the purpose of providing the energy required to initiate an inertially confined fusion reaction has stimulated a theoretical effort to investigate various beam dynamical effects associated with high intensity heavy ion beams. This paper presents a summary of the work that has been done so far; transverse, longitudinal and coupled longitudinal transverse effects are discussed.

  13. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained.

  14. A brief history of high power RF proton linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    The first mention of linear acceleration was in a paper by G. Ising in 1924 in which he postulated the acceleration of positive ions induced by spark discharges which produced electric fields in gaps between a series of {open_quotes}drift tubes{close_quotes}. Ising apparently was not able to demonstrate his concept, most likely due to the limited state of electronic devices. Ising`s work was followed by a seminal paper by R. Wideroe in 1928 in which he demonstrated the first linear accelerator. Wideroe was able to accelerate sodium or potassium ions to 50 keV of energy using drift tubes connected alternately to high frequency waves and to ground. Nuclear physics during this period was interested in accelerating protons, deuterons, electrons and alpha particles and not heavy ions like sodium or potassium. To accelerate the light ions required much higher frequencies than available at that time. So linear accelerators were not pursued heavily at that time. Research continued during the 1930s but the development of high frequency RF tubes for radar applications in World War 2 opened the potential for RF linear accelerators after the war. The Berkeley laboratory of E. 0. Lawrence under the leadership of Luis Alvarez developed a new linear proton accelerator concept that utilized drift tubes that required a full RF period to pass through as compared to the earlier concepts. This development resulted in the historic Berkeley 32 MeV proton linear accelerator which incorporated the {open_quotes}Alvarez drift tube{close_quotes} as the basic acceleration scheme using surplus 200 MHz radar components.

  15. Relativistically induced transparency acceleration of light ions by an ultrashort laser pulse interacting with a heavy-ion-plasma density gradient.

    PubMed

    Sahai, Aakash A; Tsung, Frank S; Tableman, Adam R; Mori, Warren B; Katsouleas, Thomas C

    2013-10-01

    The relativistically induced transparency acceleration (RITA) scheme of proton and ion acceleration using laser-plasma interactions is introduced, modeled, and compared to the existing schemes. Protons are accelerated with femtosecond relativistic pulses to produce quasimonoenergetic bunches with controllable peak energy. The RITA scheme works by a relativistic laser inducing transparency [Akhiezer and Polovin, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz 30, 915 (1956); Kaw and Dawson, Phys. Fluids 13, 472 (1970); Max and Perkins, Phys. Rev. Lett. 27, 1342 (1971)] to densities higher than the cold-electron critical density, while the background heavy ions are stationary. The rising laser pulse creates a traveling acceleration structure at the relativistic critical density by ponderomotively [Lindl and Kaw, Phys. Fluids 14, 371 (1971); Silva et al., Phys. Rev. E 59, 2273 (1999)] driving a local electron density inflation, creating an electron snowplow and a co-propagating electrostatic potential. The snowplow advances with a velocity determined by the rate of the rise of the laser's intensity envelope and the heavy-ion-plasma density gradient scale length. The rising laser is incrementally rendered transparent to higher densities such that the relativistic-electron plasma frequency is resonant with the laser frequency. In the snowplow frame, trace density protons reflect off the electrostatic potential and get snowplowed, while the heavier background ions are relatively unperturbed. Quasimonoenergetic bunches of velocity equal to twice the snowplow velocity can be obtained and tuned by controlling the snowplow velocity using laser-plasma parameters. An analytical model for the proton energy as a function of laser intensity, rise time, and plasma density gradient is developed and compared to 1D and 2D PIC OSIRIS [Fonseca et al., Lect. Note Comput. Sci. 2331, 342 (2002)] simulations. We model the acceleration of protons to GeV energies with tens-of-femtoseconds laser pulses of a few

  16. Relativistically induced transparency acceleration of light ions by an ultrashort laser pulse interacting with a heavy-ion-plasma density gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, Aakash A.; Tsung, Frank S.; Tableman, Adam R.; Mori, Warren B.; Katsouleas, Thomas C.

    2013-10-01

    The relativistically induced transparency acceleration (RITA) scheme of proton and ion acceleration using laser-plasma interactions is introduced, modeled, and compared to the existing schemes. Protons are accelerated with femtosecond relativistic pulses to produce quasimonoenergetic bunches with controllable peak energy. The RITA scheme works by a relativistic laser inducing transparency [Akhiezer and Polovin, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz 30, 915 (1956); Kaw and Dawson, Phys. FluidsPFLDAS0031-917110.1063/1.1692942 13, 472 (1970); Max and Perkins, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.27.1342 27, 1342 (1971)] to densities higher than the cold-electron critical density, while the background heavy ions are stationary. The rising laser pulse creates a traveling acceleration structure at the relativistic critical density by ponderomotively [Lindl and Kaw, Phys. FluidsPFLDAS0031-917110.1063/1.1693437 14, 371 (1971); Silva , Phys. Rev. E1063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.59.2273 59, 2273 (1999)] driving a local electron density inflation, creating an electron snowplow and a co-propagating electrostatic potential. The snowplow advances with a velocity determined by the rate of the rise of the laser's intensity envelope and the heavy-ion-plasma density gradient scale length. The rising laser is incrementally rendered transparent to higher densities such that the relativistic-electron plasma frequency is resonant with the laser frequency. In the snowplow frame, trace density protons reflect off the electrostatic potential and get snowplowed, while the heavier background ions are relatively unperturbed. Quasimonoenergetic bunches of velocity equal to twice the snowplow velocity can be obtained and tuned by controlling the snowplow velocity using laser-plasma parameters. An analytical model for the proton energy as a function of laser intensity, rise time, and plasma density gradient is developed and compared to 1D and 2D PIC OSIRIS [Fonseca , Lect. Note Comput. Sci.9783

  17. Linear Accelerator (LINAC)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the device most commonly used for external beam radiation treatments for patients with cancer. The linear ... shape of the patient's tumor and the customized beam is directed to the patient's tumor. The beam ...

  18. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, David M.; Sampayan, Stephen; Slenes, Kirk; Stoller, H. M.

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  19. Measurements of neutron effective doses and attenuation lengths for shielding materials at the heavy-ion medical accelerator in Chiba.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Yoshikazu; Noda, Yutaka; Sato, Yukio; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Murakami, Takeshi

    2005-05-01

    The effective doses and attenuation lengths for concrete and iron were measured for the design of heavy ion facilities. Neutrons were produced through the reaction of copper, carbon, and lead bombarded by carbon ions at 230 and 400 MeV.A, neon ions at 400 and 600 MeV.A, and silicon ions at 600 and 800 MeV.A. The detectors used were a Linus and a Andersson-Braun-type rem counter and a detector based on the activation of a plastic scintillator. Representative effective dose rates (in units of 10(-8) microSv h(-1) pps(-1) at 1 m from the incident target surface, where pps means particles per second) and the attenuation lengths (in units of m) were 9.4 x 10(4), 0.46 for carbon ions at 230 MeV.A; 8.9 x 10(5), 0.48 for carbon ions at 400 MeV.A; 9.3 x 10(5), 0.48 for neon ions at 400 MeV.A; 3.8 x 10(6), 0.50 for neon ions at 600 MeV.A; 3.9 x 10(6), 0.50 for silicon ions at 600 MeV.A; and 1.1 x 10(7), 0.51 for silicon ions at 800 MeV.A. The attenuation provided by an iron plate approximately 20 cm thick (nearly equal to the attenuation length) corresponded to that of a 50-cm block of concrete in the present energy range. Miscellaneous results, such as the angular distributions of the neutron effective dose, narrow beam attenuation experiments, decay of gamma-ray doses after the bombardment of targets, doses around an irradiation room, order effects in the multi-layer (concrete and iron) shielding, the doses from different targets, the doses measured with a scintillator activation detector, the gamma-ray doses out of walls and the ratio of the response between the Andersson-Braun-type and the Linus rem counters are also reported. PMID:15824595

  20. Effects of prenatal irradiation with accelerated heavy-ion beams on postnatal development in rats: III. Testicular development and breeding activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    With a significant increase in human activities dealing with space missions, potential teratogenic effects on the mammalian reproductive system from prenatal exposure to space radiation have become a hot topic that needs to be addressed. However, even for the ground experiments, such effects from exposure to high LET ionizing radiation are not as well studied as those for low LET ionizing radiations such as X-rays. Using the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, effects on gonads in prenatal male fetuses, on postnatal testicular development and on breeding activity of male offspring were studied following exposure of the pregnant animals to either accelerated carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV/μm or neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on gestation day 15. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp estimated for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. A significantly dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in gonocytes appeared 6 h after irradiations with a dose of 0.5 Gy or more. Measured delayed testis descent and malformed testicular seminiferous tubules were observed to be significantly different from the control animals at a dose of 0.5 Gy. These effects are observed to be dose- and LET-dependent. Markedly reduced testicular weight and testicular weight to body weight ratio were scored at postnatal day 30 even in the offspring that were prenatally irradiated with neon-ions at a dose of 0.1 Gy. A dose of 0.5 Gy from neon-ion beams induced a marked decrease in breeding activity in the prenatally irradiated male rats, while for the carbon-ion beams or X-rays, the significantly reduced breeding activity was observed only when the prenatal dose was at 1.0 Gy or more. These findings indicated that prenatal irradiations with heavy-ion beams on gestation day 15 generally induced markedly detrimental effects on prenatal gonads, postnatal testicular development and male

  1. Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Willen, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a proposed research facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to study the collision of beams of heavy ions, up to gold in mass and at beam energies up to 100 GeV/nucleon. The physics to be explored by this collider is an overlap between the traditional disciplines of nuclear physics and high energy physics and is a continuation of the planned program of light and heavy ion physics at BNL. The machine is to be constructed in the now-empty tunnel built for the former CBA project. Various other facilities to support the collider are either in place or under construction at BNL. The collider itself, including the magnets, is in an advanced state of design, and a construction start is anticipated in the next several years.

  2. Multi-beam RFQ linac structure for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashizaki, Noriyosu; Ishibashi, Takuya; Ito, Taku; Hattori, Toshiyuki

    2009-07-01

    Both the RF linear accelerator (linac) and the linear induction accelerator have been considered as injectors in a driver system for heavy ion fusion (HIF). In order to relax beam defocusing by space charge effect in the low-energy region, the accelerating beams that were merged and had their beam currents increased by the funnel tree system are injected into storage rings. A multi-beam linac that accelerates multiple beams in an accelerator cavity has the advantages of cost reduction and downsizing of the system. We modeled the multi-beam Interdigital-H type radio frequency quadruple (IH-RFQ) cavities with the different beam numbers and evaluated the electromagnetic characteristics by simulation. As a result, the reasonable ranges of their configuration were indicated for a practical use.

  3. (Relativistic heavy ion research)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory, participation in the E802 Experiment, which is the first major heavy-ion experiment at the BNL-AGS, was the main focus of the group during the past four years. The emphases of the E802 experiment were on (a) accurate particle identification and measurements of spectra over a wide kinematical domain (5{degree} < {theta}{sub LAB} < 55{degree}, p < 20 GeV/c); and (b) measurements of small-angle two-particle correlations, with event characterization tools: multiplicity array, forward and large-angle calorimeters. This experiment and other heavy ion collision experiments are discussed in this report.

  4. Ionization and acceleration of heavy ions in high-Z solid target irradiated by high intensity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahito, D.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2016-05-01

    In the interaction between high intensity laser and solid film, an ionization dynamics inside the solid is dominated by fast time scale convective propagation of the internal sheath field and the slow one by impact ionization due to heated high energy electrons coupled with nonlocal heat transport. Furthermore, ionization and acceleration due to the localized external sheath field which co- propagates with Al ions constituting the high energy front in the vacuum region. Through this process, the maximum charge state and then q/A increase in the rear side, so that ions near the front are further accelerated to high energy.

  5. Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mei, M.; Deng, H.; Lu, Y.; Zhuang, C.; Liu, Z.; Qiu, Q.; Qiu, Y.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurrence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. Restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants.

  6. Accelerated heavy ions and the lens. IV. Biomicroscopic and cytopathological analyses of the lenses of mice irradiated with 600 MeV/amu sup 56 Fe ions

    SciTech Connect

    Worgul, B.V.; Medvedovsky, C.; Powers-Risius, P.; Alpen, E. )

    1989-11-01

    The lenses of mice exposed to 600 MeV/amu iron ions were evaluated by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and cytopathological analyses. The doses ranged from 0.05 to 1.6 Gy, and the lenses were assessed at several intervals postirradiation. Cataract, the development of which is dependent on both time and dose, is significantly more advanced in all of the exposed mice when compared to the unirradiated controls. The great difference between the severity of the cataracts caused by 0.05 Gy (the lowest dose used) and those that developed spontaneously in the control animals is an indication that 0.05 Gy may far exceed the threshold dose for the production of cataracts by accelerated iron ions. Cytopathologically, a similar dose dependence was observed for a number of end points including micronucleation, interphase death, and meridional row disorganization. In addition the exposure to the 56Fe ions produced a long-term effect on the mitotic population and a pronounced focal loss of epithelial cytoarchitecture. The microscopic changes support the view that the mechanism of heavy-ion-induced cataractogenesis is the same as that for cataracts caused by low-LET radiation.

  7. [Relative biological effectiveness of accelerated heavy ions and fast neutrons estimated from frequency of aberration mytoses in the retinal epithelium].

    PubMed

    Vorozhtsova, S V; Shafirkin, A V; Fedorenko, B S

    2006-01-01

    Analyzed was the literature and authors' experimental data concerning lesion and recovery of epithelium cells of mice retina immediately and long after irradiation at different sources including single and partly fractionated irradiation by gamma- and X-rays, accelerated protons, helium, carbon and boron ions, and fast neutrons of the reactor range in a large spectrum of doses and LET. Reviewed are some new techniques of determining the RBE coefficient for these types of radiation; large values of the RBE coefficients for accelerated ions and neutrons (5-10 times higher than RBE coefficients calculated for the next day following irradiation) are a result of integration into calculation of the available data about the delayed disorders in retinal epithelium cell regeneration. PMID:17193969

  8. Solar 3He-rich events and abnormal enhancements of heavy-ion isotopes accelerated in two stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T. X.; Wang, J. X.; Tan, A.

    2005-12-01

    Heating and acceleration of neon (20Ne), magnesium (24Mg), and their rare isotopes (22Ne and 26Mg) in solar 3He-rich events are investigated according to the two-stage acceleration mechanism. It is shown that 20Ne+8, 22Ne+9, 24Mg+10, and 26Mg+11 can be preferentially heated by H-cyclotron waves with a frequency close to twice the 3He-cyclotron frequency that also heat 3He, through the third harmonic cyclotron resonance. If the initial electron temperature is in the range of ˜2-10 MK, the abundance ratios 22Ne/20Ne and 26Mg/24Mg in high-energy particles due to the second-stage acceleration can be enhanced by a factor of ˜2-6 relative to the solar corona, which are consistent with the measurements of the University of Maryland particle instrument on the Solar Anomalous and Magnetospheric Particle Explorer and the Ultra Lower Energy Isotope Spectrometer particle instrument on the Advanced Composition Explorer.

  9. Chiral phase transition in relativistic heavy-ion collisions with weak magnetic fields: Ring diagrams in the linear sigma model

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alejandro; Bashir, Adnan; Raya, Alfredo; Sanchez, Angel

    2009-08-01

    Working in the linear sigma model with quarks, we compute the finite-temperature effective potential in the presence of a weak magnetic field, including the contribution of the pion ring diagrams and considering the sigma as a classical field. In the approximation where the pion self-energy is computed perturbatively, we show that there is a region of the parameter space where the effect of the ring diagrams is to preclude the phase transition from happening. Inclusion of the magnetic field has small effects that however become more important as the system evolves to the lowest temperatures allowed in the analysis.

  10. Monte Carlo transport model comparison with 1A GeV accelerated iron experiment: heavy-ion shielding evaluation of NASA space flight-crew foodstuff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, D. L. Jr; Townsend, L. W.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.

    2002-01-01

    Deep-space manned flight as a reality depends on a viable solution to the radiation problem. Both acute and chronic radiation health threats are known to exist, with solar particle events as an example of the former and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) of the latter. In this experiment Iron ions of 1A GeV are used to simulate GCR and to determine the secondary radiation field created as the GCR-like particles interact with a thick target. A NASA prepared food pantry locker was subjected to the iron beam and the secondary fluence recorded. A modified version of the Monte Carlo heavy ion transport code developed by Zeitlin at LBNL is compared with experimental fluence. The foodstuff is modeled as mixed nuts as defined by the 71st edition of the Chemical Rubber Company (CRC) Handbook of Physics and Chemistry. The results indicate a good agreement between the experimental data and the model. The agreement between model and experiment is determined using a linear fit to ordered pairs of data. The intercept is forced to zero. The slope fit is 0.825 and the R2 value is 0.429 over the resolved fluence region. The removal of an outlier, Z=14, gives values of 0.888 and 0.705 for slope and R2 respectively. c2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Monte Carlo transport model comparison with 1A GeV accelerated iron experiment: heavy-ion shielding evaluation of NASA space flight-crew foodstuff.

    PubMed

    Stephens, D L; Townsend, L W; Miller, J; Zeitlin, C; Heilbronn, L

    2002-01-01

    Deep-space manned flight as a reality depends on a viable solution to the radiation problem. Both acute and chronic radiation health threats are known to exist, with solar particle events as an example of the former and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) of the latter. In this experiment Iron ions of 1A GeV are used to simulate GCR and to determine the secondary radiation field created as the GCR-like particles interact with a thick target. A NASA prepared food pantry locker was subjected to the iron beam and the secondary fluence recorded. A modified version of the Monte Carlo heavy ion transport code developed by Zeitlin at LBNL is compared with experimental fluence. The foodstuff is modeled as mixed nuts as defined by the 71st edition of the Chemical Rubber Company (CRC) Handbook of Physics and Chemistry. The results indicate a good agreement between the experimental data and the model. The agreement between model and experiment is determined using a linear fit to ordered pairs of data. The intercept is forced to zero. The slope fit is 0.825 and the R2 value is 0.429 over the resolved fluence region. The removal of an outlier, Z=14, gives values of 0.888 and 0.705 for slope and R2 respectively. PMID:12539754

  12. Monte Carlo transport model comparison with 1A GeV accelerated iron experiment: heavy-ion shielding evaluation of NASA space flight-crew foodstuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, D. L.; Townsend, L. W.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.

    Deep-space manned flight as a reality depends on a viable solution to the radiation problem. Both acute and chronic radiation health threats are known to exist, with solar particle events as an example of the former and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) of the latter. In this experiment Iron ions of 1A GeV are used to simulate GCR and to determine the secondary radiation field created as the GCR-like particles interact with a thick target. A NASA prepared food pantry locker was subjected to the iron beam and the secondary fluence recorded. A modified version of the Monte Carlo heavy ion transport code developed by Zeitlin at LBNL is compared with experimental fluence. The foodstuff is modeled as mixed nuts as defined by the 71 st edition of the Chemical Rubber Company (CRC) Handbook of Physics and Chemistry. The results indicate a good agreement between the experimental data and the model. The agreement between model and experiment is determined using a linear fit to ordered pairs of data. The intercept is forced to zero. The slope fit is 0.825 and the R 2 value is 0.429 over the resolved fluence region. The removal of an outlier, Z=14, gives values of 0.888 and 0.705 for slope and R 2 respectively.

  13. Linear accelerators of the future

    SciTech Connect

    Loew, G.A.

    1986-07-01

    Some of the requirements imposed on future linear accelerators to be used in electron-positron colliders are reviewed, as well as some approaches presently being examined for meeting those requirements. RF sources for use in these linacs are described, as well as wakefields, single bunches, and multiple-bunch trains. (LEW)

  14. Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility: Users handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Auble, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this handbook is to provide information for those who plan to carry out research programs at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The accelerator systems and experimental apparatus available are described. The mechanism for obtaining accelerator time and the responsibilities of those users who are granted accelerator time are described. The names and phone numbers of ORNL personnel to call for information about specific areas are given. (LEW)

  15. Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

  16. A new 14 GHz Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) for the heavy ion accelerator facility ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Schlapp, M.; Pardo, R.C.; Vondrasek, R.C.; Billquist, P.J.; Szczech, J.

    1997-11-01

    A 14 GHz Electron-Cyclotron-Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) has been designed and built at Argonne National Laboratory. The source is a modification of the AECR at Berkeley and incorporates the latest results from ECR developments to produce intense beams of highly charged ions, including an improved magnetic confinement of the plasma electrons with an axial mirror ratio of 3.5. The aluminum plasma chamber and extraction electrode as well as a biased disk on axis at the microwave injection side donates additional electrons to the plasma, making use of the large secondary electron yield from aluminum oxide. The source is capable of ECR plasma heating using two different frequencies simultaneously to increase the electron energy gain for the production of high charge states. The main design goal is to produce several e{mu}A of at least {sup 238}U{sup 35+} in order to accelerate the beam to coulomb-barrier energies without further stripping. First charge state distributions for gaseous elements have been measured and 210 e{mu}A {sup 16}O{sup 7+} has been achieved. A normalized 90% emittance from 0.1 to 0.2 {pi} mm{sm_bullet}mrad for krypton and oxygen beam has been found.

  17. Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants.

    PubMed

    Mei, M; Deng, H; Lu, Y; Zhuang, C; Liu, Z; Qiu, Q; Qiu, Y; Yang, T C

    1994-10-01

    Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurrence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high-LET heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. RFLP analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants. PMID:11539972

  18. Mutagenic effects of heavy ion radiation in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, M.; Deng, H.; Lu, Y.; Zhuang, C.; Liu, Z.; Qiu, Q.; Qiu, Y.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-10-01

    Genetic and developmental effects of heavy ions in maize and rice were investigated. Heavy particles with various charges and energies were accelerated at the BEVALAC. The frequency of occurence of white-yellow stripes on leaves of plants developed from irradiated maize seeds increased linearly with dose, and high-LET heavy charged particles, e.g., neon, argon, and iron, were 2-12 times as effective as gamma rays in inducing this type of mutation. The effectiveness of high-LET heavy ion in (1) inhibiting rice seedling growth, (2) reducing plant fertility, (3) inducing chromosome aberration and micronuclei in root tip cells and pollen mother cells of the first generation plants developed from exposed seeds, and (4) inducing mutation in the second generation, were greater than that of low-LET gamma rays. All effects observed were dose-dependent; however, there appeared to be an optimal range of doses for inducing certain types of mutation, for example, for argon ions (400 MeV/u) at 90-100 Gy, several valuable mutant lines with favorable characters, such as semidwarf, early maturity and high yield ability, were obtained. Experimental results suggest that the potential application of heavy ions in crop improvement is promising. RFLP analysis of two semidwarf mutants induced by argon particles revealed that large DNA alterations might be involved in these mutants.

  19. Elementary principles of linear accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loew, G. A.; Talman, R.

    1983-09-01

    A short chronology of important milestones in the field of linear accelerators is presented. Proton linacs are first discussed and elementary concepts such as transit time, shunt impedance, and Q are introduced. Critical issues such as phase stability and transverse forces are addressed. An elementary discussion of waveguide acclerating structures is also provided. Finally, electron accelerators addressed. Taking SLAC as an exmple, various topics are discussed such as structure design, choice of parameters, frequency optmization, beam current, emittance, bunch length and beam loading. Recent developments and future challenges are mentioned briefly.

  20. Heavy ion fusion experiments at LBNL and LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L

    1998-08-19

    The long-range goal of the US Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program is to develop heavy ion accelerators capable of igniting inertial fusion targets to generate fusion energy for electrical power production. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion consist of several subsystems: ion sources, injectors, matching sections, combiners, induction acceleration sections with electric and magnetic focusing, beam compression and bending sections, and a final-focus system to focus the beams onto the target. We are currently assembling or performing experiments to address the physics of all these subsystems. This paper will discuss some of these experiments.

  1. Vacancy-related defects in n-type Si implanted with a rarefied microbeam of accelerated heavy ions in the MeV range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capan, I.; Pastuović, Ž.; Siegele, R.; Jaćimović, R.

    2016-04-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) has been used to study vacancy-related defects formed in bulk n-type Czochralski-grown silicon after implantation of accelerated heavy ions: 6.5 MeV O, 10.5 MeV Si, 10.5 MeV Ge, and 11 MeV Er in the single ion regime with fluences from 109 cm-2 to 1010 cm-2 and a direct comparison made with defects formed in the same material irradiated with 0.7 MeV fast neutron fluences up to 1012 cm-2. A scanning ion microprobe was used as the ion implantation tool of n-Cz:Si samples prepared as Schottky diodes, while the ion beam induced current (IBIC) technique was utilized for direct ion counting. The single acceptor state of the divacancy V2(-/0) is the most prominent defect state observed in DLTS spectra of n-CZ:Si samples implanted by selected ions and the sample irradiated by neutrons. The complete suppression of the DLTS signal related to the double acceptor state of divacancy, V2(=/-) has been observed in all samples irradiated by ions and neutrons. Moreover, the DLTS peak associated with formation of the vacancy-oxygen complex VO in the neutron irradiated sample was also completely suppressed in DLTS spectra of samples implanted with the raster scanned ion microbeam. The reason for such behaviour is twofold, (i) the local depletion of the carrier concentration in the highly disordered regions, and (ii) the effect of the microprobe-assisted single ion implantation. The activation energy for electron emission for states assigned to the V2(-/0) defect formed in samples implanted by single ions follows the Meyer-Neldel rule. An increase of the activation energy is strongly correlated with increasing ion mass.

  2. Moon originating heavy ions associated with CIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Nishino, Masaki; Tsunakawa, Hideo

    2014-05-01

    Existance of a tenuous alkali atmosphere around the Moon was discovered by ground-based optical observations in 1980s. Since then the generation mechanism of the alkali atmosphere has been actively investigated. Currently, photon-stimulated desorption is regarded as the major generation process of the lunar alkai atmosphere such as sodium and potassium. MAP-PACE-IMA on Kaguya found four typical ion populations on the dayside of the Moon. These includes (1) solar wind protons backscattered at the lunar surface, (2) solar wind protons reflected by magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface, (3) reflected/backscattered protons picked-up by the solar wind, and (4) ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar exosphere. One of these populations: (4) ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar exosphere usually consisted of heavy ions such as carbon, oxygen, sodium, and potassium. Some of these ions were generated on the lunar surface by photon-stimulated desorption especially for alkali ions such as sodium and potassium and some others were generated by solar wind sputtering. Photo-ionized neutral particles were also included in these ions. These heavy ions were accelerated by the solar wind convection electric field and detected by the ion energy mass spectrometer MAP-PACE-IMA on Kaguya. Since the gyro-radius of these heavy ions was much larger than the Moon, the energy of these ions detected at 100km altitude was in most cases lower than the incident solar wind ion energy. Two special examples were found where the energy of the heavy ions was higher than the incident solar wind ion energy. These high-energy heavy ions were observed on the dayside of the Moon when CIR (Corotating Interaction Region) passed the Moon. The high energy heavy ions were observed for several hours with the highest heavy ion flux observed when the solar wind pressure increased due to the passage of the CIR. The mass spectrum of the heavy ions observed associated with CIR showed H+, He++, He

  3. Proposal for the study of thermophysical properties of high-energy-density matter using current and future heavy-ion accelerator facilities at GSI Darmstadt.

    PubMed

    Tahir, N A; Deutsch, C; Fortov, V E; Gryaznov, V; Hoffmann, D H H; Kulish, M; Lomonosov, I V; Mintsev, V; Ni, P; Nikolaev, D; Piriz, A R; Shilkin, N; Spiller, P; Shutov, A; Temporal, M; Ternovoi, V; Udrea, S; Varentsov, D

    2005-07-15

    The subject of high-energy-density (HED) states in matter is of considerable importance to numerous branches of basic as well as applied physics. Intense heavy-ion beams are an excellent tool to create large samples of HED matter in the laboratory with fairly uniform physical conditions. Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt, is a unique worldwide laboratory that has a heavy-ion synchrotron, SIS18, that delivers intense beams of energetic heavy ions. Construction of a much more powerful synchrotron, SIS100, at the future international facility for antiprotons and ion research (FAIR) at Darmstadt will lead to an increase in beam intensity by 3 orders of magnitude compared to what is currently available. The purpose of this Letter is to investigate with the help of two-dimensional numerical simulations, the potential of the FAIR to carry out research in the field of HED states in matter. PMID:16090748

  4. Ultra-high vacuum photoelectron linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Yu, David U.L.; Luo, Yan

    2013-07-16

    An rf linear accelerator for producing an electron beam. The outer wall of the rf cavity of said linear accelerator being perforated to allow gas inside said rf cavity to flow to a pressure chamber surrounding said rf cavity and having means of ultra high vacuum pumping of the cathode of said rf linear accelerator. Said rf linear accelerator is used to accelerate polarized or unpolarized electrons produced by a photocathode, or to accelerate thermally heated electrons produced by a thermionic cathode, or to accelerate rf heated field emission electrons produced by a field emission cathode.

  5. Report of the heavy-ion fusion task group

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, G.A.; Booth, L.A.; Henderson, D.B.; Jameson, R.A.; Kindel, J.M.; Knapp, E.A.; Pollock, R.; Talbert, W.L.; Thode, L.E.; Williams, J.M.

    1980-02-01

    An assessment of heavy-ion fusion has been completed. Energetic heavy ions, for example 10-GeV uranium, provided by an rf linac or an induction linac, are used as alternatives to laser light to drive inertial confinement fusion pellets. The assessment has covered accelerator technology, transport of heavy-ion beams, target interaction physics, civilian power issues, and military applications. It is concluded that particle accelerators promise to be efficient pellet drivers, but that there are formidable technical problems to be solved. It is recommended that a moderate level research program on heavy-ion fusion be pursued and that LASL should continue to work on critical issues in accelerator development, beam transport, reactor systems studies, and target physics over the next few years.

  6. NDCX-II, A New Induction Linear Accelerator for Warm Dense Matter Research

    SciTech Connect

    Leitner, M.; Bieniosek, F.; Kwan, J.; Logan, G.; Waldron, W.; Barnard, J.J.; Friedman, A.; Sharp, B.; Gilson, E.; Davidson, R.

    2009-06-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory (HIFS-VNL), a collaboration between Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), is currently constructing a new induction linear accelerator, called Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment NDCX-II. The accelerator design makes effective use of existing components from LLNL's decommissioned Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA), especially induction cells and Blumlein voltage sources that have been transferred to LBNL. We have developed an aggressive acceleration 'schedule' that compresses the emitted ion pulse from 500 ns to 1 ns in just 15 meters. In the nominal design concept, 30 nC of Li{sup +} are accelerated to 3.5 MeV and allowed to drift-compress to a peak current of about 30 A. That beam will be utilized for warm dense matter experiments investigating the interaction of ion beams with matter at high temperature and pressure. Construction of the accelerator will be complete within a period of approximately two and a half years and will provide a worldwide unique opportunity for ion-driven warm dense matter experiments as well as research related to novel beam manipulations for heavy ion fusion drivers.

  7. Heavy ion beam probing

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R L

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included.

  8. Studies of thermophysical properties of high-energy-density states in matter using intense heavy ion beams at the future FAIR accelerator facilities: The HEDgeHOB collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, N. A.; Shutov, A.; Lomonosov, I. V.; Gryaznov, V.; Deutsch, C.; Fortov, V. E.; Hoffmann, D. H. H.; Ni, P.; Piriz, A. R.; Udrea, S.; Varentsov, D.; Wouchuk, G.

    2006-06-01

    Intense beams of energetic heavy ions are believed to be a very efficient and novel tool to create states of High-Energy-Density (HED) in matter. This paper shows with the help of numerical simulations that the heavy ion beams that will be generated at the future Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR)[W.F. Henning, Nucl. Instr. Meth. B 214, 211 (2004)] will allow one to use two different experimental schemes to study HED states in matter. First scheme named HIHEX (Heavy Ion Heating and EXpansion), will generate high-pressure, high-entropy states in matter by volumetric isochoric heating. The heated material will then be allowed to expand isentropically. Using this scheme, it will be possible to study important regions of the phase diagram that are either difficult to access or are even unaccessible using traditional methods of shock compression. The second scheme would allow one to achieve low-entropy compression of a sample material like hydrogen or water to produce conditions that are believed to exist in the interiors of the giant planets. This scheme is named LAPLAS (LAboratory PLAnetary Sciences).

  9. Heavy ions, targets, and research at HHIRF

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, J.L.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) typifies a new generation of heavy ion accelerators capable of producing high resolution beams with sufficient energy to study nuclear reactions across the periodic table. Exploiting the capabilities of the machine depends on the availability of thin foils at each stage of the experimental process. Rugged carbon foils are needed in the tandem and cyclotron to strip injected ions up to high charge states. Experimental success largely depends on the availability of a suitable target for bombardment which imposes new demands on the target maker. Many experiments use large solid angle gaseous counters with very thin foils as windows. The accelerators, experimental apparatus, and beam characteristics will be described. Target requirements demanded by different types of experiments will be discussed. These requirements have lead to the construction of specialized apparatus such as the supersonic gas jet target and the single crystal goniometer for blocking measurements.

  10. HEAVY-ION IMAGING APPLIED TO MEDICINE

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Capp, M.P.; Benton, E.V.; Holley, W.R.

    1980-02-01

    Heavy particle radiography is a newly developed noninvasive low dose imaging procedure with increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the BEVALAC accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program applied to medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures and brain and spinal neoplasms. The presentation will be illustrated with clinical cases under study. Discussion will include the potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, as an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for the applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, but also for the early detection of small soft tissue tumors at low radiation dose.

  11. Heavy ion measurement on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaujean, R.; Jonathal, D.; Enge, W.

    1992-01-01

    A stack of CR-39 and Kodak CN track detectors was exposed on the NASA satellite LDEF and recovered after almost six years in space. The quick look analysis yielded heavy ion tracks on a background of low energy secondaries from proton interaction. The detected heavy ions show a steep energy spectrum which indicates a radiation belt origin.

  12. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOEpatents

    Parsons, William M.

    1992-01-01

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a Linear Induction Accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance.

  13. Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators

    DOEpatents

    Parsons, W.M.

    1992-12-29

    Improvement in voltage regulation in a linear induction accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core is disclosed. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance. 4 figs.

  14. HISTRAP proposal: heavy ion storage ring for atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Dowling, D.T.; Haynes, D.L.; Hudson, E.D.; Johnson, J.W.; Lee, I.Y.; Lord, R.S.

    1986-11-01

    HISTRAP, Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics, is a proposed 46.8-m-circumference synchrotron-cooling-storage ring optimized to accelerate, decelerate, and store beams of highly charged very-heavy ions at energies appropriate for advanced atomic physics research. The ring is designed to allow studies of electron-ion, photon-ion, ion-atom, and ion-ion interactions. An electron cooling system will provide ion beams with small angular divergence and energy spread for precision spectroscopic studies and also is necessary to allow the deceleration of heavy ions to low energies. HISTRAP will have a maximum bending power of 2.0 Tm and will be injected with ions from either the existing Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility 25-MV tandem accelerator or from a dedicated ECR source and 250 keV/nucleon RFQ linac.

  15. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  16. Shielding design of the linear accelerator at RAON: Accelerator tunnel and utility gallery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Suna; Kang, Bo Sun; Lee, Sangjin; Nam, Shinwoo; Chung, Yeonsei

    2015-10-01

    RAON is the first Korean heavy-ion accelerator for various rare-isotope experiments and will be constructed by the year of 2021. The building for the about 550-m-long superconducting linear accelerator at RAON has three divisions in the vertical layout: accelerator tunnel, intermediate tunnel, and utility gallery. One of the requirements for the building design is that the effective dose rate in the utility gallery should be well below the dose limit for workers. Other parts of the building underground are classified as high-radiation zones where access is strictly controlled. The radiation dose distribution in the building has been calculated by using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX including the radiation streaming effects through the intermediate tunnel and penetrating holes. We have applied a point beam loss model in which the continuous beam loss along the beam line is treated as an equivalent point loss with a simple target. We describe the details of the calculation and discuss the results.

  17. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mueller; L. Grisham; I. Kaganovich; R. L. Watson; V. Horvat; K. E. Zaharakis; Y. Peng

    2002-06-25

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters.

  18. Time resolving detector systems for radiobiological investigations of effects of single heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Schott, J.U. ||

    1993-12-31

    The combination of the properties of Charge Coupled Devices (CCDs) as image sensor and as detector for energetic charged particles makes them unique for time resolved radiation experiments in which single particles are to be correlated either to their radiation effects in individual objects, or to their sources or origins respectively. The experimental set up for the calibration of a frame transfer CCD type VALVO NXA 1011 with heavy ions from accelerators is described. For low energetic heavy ions, the single particle effects observed in the pixels of the sensor show a fairly linear response with the Linear Energy Transfer (LET) of the particle. As an example for the application of these detector systems in radiobiology, radiation effects of single ionizing particles in the meristem of moving biological objects have been investigated.

  19. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P; Covo, Kireeff M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.; Prost, L.

    2004-11-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  20. Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, W. J.

    1995-05-31

    This report describes an on-going research initiative for the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR): investigating the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy ions, i.e. collisions between massive nuclei which have been accelerated to kinetic energies so large that the rest mass of the ions is a negligible fraction of their total mass-energy. This progress report is being submitted in conjunction with a 3-year grant-renewal proposal, containing additional materials. Three main categories drive the UALRGultra-relativistic heavy ion research. (1) investigations of multi-particle Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) correlations in the CERN and RHIC energy domains strongly influence the URHI experimental effort, (2) participation in the NA49 Experiment to study 33 TeV (160 GeV/nucleon) Pb on Pb collisions using the SPS facili& at CERN, and (3) participation in the STAR collaboration which is developing a major detector for use with the STAR Experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), being built at BNL.

  1. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.

    2005-06-23

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  2. Linear accelerator for tritium production

    SciTech Connect

    Garnett, R.W.; Billen, J.H.; Chan, K.C.; Genzlinger, R.; Gray, E.R.; Nath, S.; Rusnak, B.; Schrage, D.L.; Stovall, J.E.; Takeda, H.; Wood, R.; Wangler, T.P.; Young, L.M.

    1996-06-01

    For many years now, Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working to develop a conceptual design of a facility for accelerator production of tritium (APT). The APT accelerator will produce high energy protons which will bombard a heavy metal target, resulting in the production of large numbers of spallation neutrons. These neutrons will be captured by a low-{ital Z} target to produce tritium. This paper describes the latest design of a room-temperature, 1.0 GeV, 100 mA, cw proton accelerator for tritium production. The potential advantages of using superconducting cavities in the high-energy section of the linac are also discussed and a comparison is made with the baseline room-temperature accelerator. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Stopping of relativistic heavy ions in various media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waddington, C. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Crawford, H. J.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Heckman, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    The residual ranges of (900 + or - 3)-MeV/amu gold nuclei accelerated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac have been measured in several different media. The energy of the beam of nuclei was measured directly using a new time-of-flight system. The ranges were measured by absorption in linear wedges of polyethylene, carbon, aluminum, copper, tin, and lead and in circular wedges of polystyrene, aluminum, and gold, and by total absorption in nuclear emulsion. The measured ranges were significantly different from those calculated from the best available theoretical estimates of the energy loss of highly charged nuclei. It is concluded that at present energy losses and residual ranges of relativistic heavy ions in an arbitrary medium cannot be predicted with better than an approximately 2 percent accuracy.

  4. Automating linear accelerator quality assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhause, Tobias; Thorwarth, Ryan; Moran, Jean M.; Al-Hallaq, Hania; Farrey, Karl; Ritter, Timothy; DeMarco, John; Pawlicki, Todd; Kim, Gwe-Ya; Popple, Richard; Sharma, Vijeshwar; Park, SungYong; Perez, Mario; Booth, Jeremy T.

    2015-10-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was 2-fold. One purpose was to develop an automated, streamlined quality assurance (QA) program for use by multiple centers. The second purpose was to evaluate machine performance over time for multiple centers using linear accelerator (Linac) log files and electronic portal images. The authors sought to evaluate variations in Linac performance to establish as a reference for other centers. Methods: The authors developed analytical software tools for a QA program using both log files and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) measurements. The first tool is a general analysis tool which can read and visually represent data in the log file. This tool, which can be used to automatically analyze patient treatment or QA log files, examines the files for Linac deviations which exceed thresholds. The second set of tools consists of a test suite of QA fields, a standard phantom, and software to collect information from the log files on deviations from the expected values. The test suite was designed to focus on the mechanical tests of the Linac to include jaw, MLC, and collimator positions during static, IMRT, and volumetric modulated arc therapy delivery. A consortium of eight institutions delivered the test suite at monthly or weekly intervals on each Linac using a standard phantom. The behavior of various components was analyzed for eight TrueBeam Linacs. Results: For the EPID and trajectory log file analysis, all observed deviations which exceeded established thresholds for Linac behavior resulted in a beam hold off. In the absence of an interlock-triggering event, the maximum observed log file deviations between the expected and actual component positions (such as MLC leaves) varied from less than 1% to 26% of published tolerance thresholds. The maximum and standard deviations of the variations due to gantry sag, collimator angle, jaw position, and MLC positions are presented. Gantry sag among Linacs was 0.336 ± 0.072 mm. The

  5. In-beam Mössbauer spectroscopy of {sup 57}Fe/{sup 57}Mn in MgO and NaF at Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba

    SciTech Connect

    Kubo, M. K.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Mihara, M.; Nagatomo, T.; Sato, W.; Miyazaki, J.; Sato, S.; Kitagawa, A.

    2014-02-15

    Development of efficient ion supply of {sup 58}Fe from {sup 58}Fe(C{sub 5}H{sub 5}){sub 2}, and quick switching between therapy and material science at the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba realized a new {sup 57}Mn in-beam emission Mössbauer spectroscopy measurement system. Application to simple binary chemical compounds, MgO and NaF, proved the usefulness of the system to probe chemical and physical behaviors of trace impurities in solids. Annealing of lattice defects produced by the implantation and β-decay of {sup 57}Mn and/or γ-ray emission recoil was observed by a local probe.

  6. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-10-01

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30-50 MeV m-1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. These ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.

  7. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration.

    PubMed

    Nanni, Emilio A; Huang, Wenqian R; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Miller, R J Dwayne; Kärtner, Franz X

    2015-01-01

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30-50 MeV m(-1) gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. These ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams. PMID:26439410

  8. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-10-06

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeVm-1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. As a result, these ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.

  9. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    PubMed Central

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-01-01

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeV m−1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton accelerators with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. These ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams. PMID:26439410

  10. Modeling heavy ion ionization energy loss at low and intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, I.L.; /Fermilab

    2009-11-01

    The needs of contemporary accelerator and space projects led to significant efforts made to include description of heavy ion interactions with matter in general-purpose Monte Carlo codes. This paper deals with an updated model of heavy ion ionization energy loss developed previously for the MARS code. The model agrees well with experimental data for various projectiles and targets including super-heavy ions in low-Z media.

  11. Elementary principles of linear accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Loew, G.A.; Talman, R.

    1983-09-01

    These lectures come in five sections. The first is this introduction. The second is a short chronology of what are viewed as important milestones in the field. The third covers proton linacs. It introduces elementary concepts such as transit time, shunt impedance, and Q. Critical issues such as phase stability and transverse forces are discussed. The fourth section contains an elementary discussion of waveguide accelerating structures. It can be regarded as an introduction to some of the more advanced treatments of the subject. The final section is devoted to electron accelerators. Taking SLAC as an example, various topics are discussed such as structure design, choice of parameters, frequency optimization, beam current, emittance, bunch length and beam loading. Recent developments and future challenges are mentioned briefly. 41 figures, 4 tables.

  12. Relativistic heavy ion facilities: worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1986-05-01

    A review of relativistic heavy ion facilities which exist, are in a construction phase, or are on the drawing boards as proposals is presented. These facilities span the energy range from fixed target machines in the 1 to 2 GeV/nucleon regime, up to heavy ion colliders of 100 GeV/nucleon on 100 GeV/nucleon. In addition to specifying the general features of such machines, an outline of the central physics themes to be carried out at these facilities is given, along with a sampling of the detectors which will be used to extract the physics. 22 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Heavy-ion induced electronic desorption of gas from metals

    SciTech Connect

    Molvik, A W; Kollmus, H; Mahner, E; Covo, M K; Bellachioma, M C; Bender, M; Bieniosek, F M; Hedlund, E; Kramer, A; Kwan, J; Malyshev, O B; Prost, L; Seidl, P A; Westenskow, G; Westerberg, L

    2006-12-19

    During heavy ion operation in several particle accelerators world-wide, dynamic pressure rises of orders of magnitude were triggered by lost beam ions that bombarded the vacuum chamber walls. This ion-induced molecular desorption, observed at CERN, GSI, and BNL, can seriously limit the ion beam lifetime and intensity of the accelerator. From dedicated test stand experiments we have discovered that heavy-ion induced gas desorption scales with the electronic energy loss (dE{sub e}/d/dx) of the ions slowing down in matter; but it varies only little with the ion impact angle, unlike electronic sputtering.

  14. Linear accelerators for TeV colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, P.B.

    1985-05-01

    This paper summarizes four tutorial lectures on linear electron accelerators: Electron Linacs for TeV Colliders, Emittance and Damping Rings, Wake Fields: Basic Concepts, and Wake Field Effects in Linacs.

  15. Some remarks on in-situ studies using TEM-heavy-ion accelerator link from the stand point of extracting radiation damage caused by fast neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishino, Shiori; Sekimura, Naoto; Murakami, Kenta; Abe, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    Radiation damage of materials for fission and fusion reactors has been scaled in terms of the number of displacements per atoms (dpa). The method of evaluating the dpa has been established and standardized. However, it has become obvious that more detailed analyses are required, particularly for the nature and spatial distribution of the introduced point defects and their clusters. Such detailed nature of the defects introduced is thought to be governed by the primary knock-on atom (PKA) spectrum, A number of trials to elucidate the PKA dependent radiation effects by choosing the mass and energy of the incident ions have been explored. In some cases, defect formation by a single impinging ion has been observed. However, it has also been recognized that there are a number of artefacts arising from energy deposition distributions, existence of surface sinks together with radiation induced surface modifications and so on. In this paper, discussion will be made on how to establish irradiation correlation between neutron and heavy ion irradiations in a cascade damage formation regime. For the past fifty years, the correlation between neutron and ion irradiations from the view point of simulating the neutron radiation damage by ion irradiations has been discussed many times. However, the correlation itself has not been fully discussed separately. This is the major objective of this paper.

  16. Terahertz-driven linear electron acceleration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Nanni, Emilio A.; Huang, Wenqian R.; Hong, Kyung-Han; Ravi, Koustuban; Fallahi, Arya; Moriena, Gustavo; Dwayne Miller, R. J.; Kärtner, Franz X.

    2015-10-06

    The cost, size and availability of electron accelerators are dominated by the achievable accelerating gradient. Conventional high-brightness radio-frequency accelerating structures operate with 30–50 MeVm-1 gradients. Electron accelerators driven with optical or infrared sources have demonstrated accelerating gradients orders of magnitude above that achievable with conventional radio-frequency structures. However, laser-driven wakefield accelerators require intense femtosecond sources and direct laser-driven accelerators suffer from low bunch charge, sub-micron tolerances and sub-femtosecond timing requirements due to the short wavelength of operation. Here we demonstrate linear acceleration of electrons with keV energy gain using optically generated terahertz pulses. Terahertz-driven accelerating structures enable high-gradient electron/proton acceleratorsmore » with simple accelerating structures, high repetition rates and significant charge per bunch. As a result, these ultra-compact terahertz accelerators with extremely short electron bunches hold great potential to have a transformative impact for free electron lasers, linear colliders, ultrafast electron diffraction, X-ray science and medical therapy with X-rays and electron beams.« less

  17. Applications of Electron Linear Induction Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westenskow*, Glen; Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    Linear Induction Accelerators (LIAs) can readily produce intense electron beams. For example, the ATA accelerator produced a 500 GW beam and the LIU-30 a 4 TW beam (see Chap. 2). Since the induction accelerator concept was proposed in the late 1950s [1, 2], there have been many proposed schemes to convert the beam power to other forms. Categories of applications that have been demonstrated for electron LIAs include:

  18. HISTRAP proposal: heavy ion storage ring for atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Dowling, D.T.; Haynes, D.L.; Hudson, E.D.; Johnson, J.W.; Lee, I.Y.; Lord, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    HISTRAP is a proposed synchrotron-cooling-storage ring optimized to accelerate, decelerate, and store beams of highly charged very-heavy ions at energies appropriate for advanced atomic physics research. The ring is designed to allow studies of electron-ion, photon-ion, ion-atom, and ion-ion interactions. An electron cooling system will provide ion beams with small angular divergence and energy spread for precision spectroscopic studies and also is necessary to allow the deceleration of heavy ions to low energies. HISTRAP will be injected with ions from either the existing Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility 25-MV tandem accelerator or from a dedicated ECR source and 250 keV/nucleon RFQ linac. The ring will have a maximum bending power of 2.0 T.m and have a circumference of 46.8 m.

  19. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics FOCUS ON HEAVY IONS IN BIOPHYSICS AND MEDICAL PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco

    2008-07-01

    Interest in energetic heavy ions is rapidly increasing in the field of biomedicine. Heavy ions are normally excluded from radiation protection, because they are not normally experienced by humans on Earth. However, knowledge of heavy ion biophysics is necessary in two fields: charged particle cancer therapy (hadrontherapy), and radiation protection in space missions. The possibility to cure tumours using accelerated heavy charged particles was first tested in Berkeley in the sixties, but results were not satisfactory. However, about 15 years ago therapy with carbon ions was resumed first in Japan and then in Europe. Heavy ions are preferable to photons for both physical and biological characteristics: the Bragg peak and limited lateral diffusion ensure a conformal dose distribution, while the high relative biological effectiveness and low oxygen enhancement ration in the Bragg peak region make the beam very effective in treating radioresistant and hypoxic tumours. Recent results coming from the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba (see the paper by Dr Tsujii and co-workers in this issue) and GSI (Germany) provide strong clinical evidence that heavy ions are indeed an extremely effective weapon in the fight against cancer. However, more research is needed in the field, especially on optimization of the treatment planning and risk of late effects in normal tissue, including secondary cancers. On the other hand, high-energy heavy ions are present in galactic cosmic radiation and, although they are rare as compared to protons, they give a major contribution in terms of equivalent dose to the crews of manned space exploratory-class missions. Exploration of the Solar System is now the main goal of the space program, and the risk caused by exposure to galactic cosmic radiation is considered a serious hindrance toward this goal, because of the high uncertainty on late effects of energetic heavy nuclei, and the lack of effective countermeasures. Risks

  20. [Effect of accelerated heavy ions of carbon 12C, neon 20Ne and iron 56Fe on the chromosomal apparatus of human blood lymphocytes in vitro].

    PubMed

    Repina, L A

    2011-01-01

    Cytogenetic assay of the chromosomal apparatus of human blood lymphocytes was carried out after in vitro irradiation by heavy charged particles with high LET values. Blood plasm samples enriched with lymphocytes were irradiated by accelerated ions of carbon 12C (290 MeV/nucleon and LET = 70 keV/microm), neon 20Ne (400 MeV/nucleon and LET = 70 keV/microm), and iron 56Fe (500 MeV/nucleon and LET = 200 keV/microm) in the dose range from 0.25 to 1 Gy. Rate of chromosome aberrations showed a linear dependence on doses from the densely ionizing radiations with high LET values. Frequency of dicentrics and centric rings in human lymphocytes irradiated by 12C with the energy of 290 MeV/nucleon was maximal at 1 Gy (p < 0.05) relative to the other heavy particles. It was found that relative biological effectiveness of heavy nuclei is several times higher than of 60Co gamma-radiation throughout the range of doses in this investigation. PMID:22312859

  1. Experimental research of heavy ion and proton induced single event effects for a Bi-CMOS technology DC/DC converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anlin, He; Gang, Guo; Shuting, Shi; Dongjun, Shen; Jiancheng, Liu; Li, Cai; Hui, Fan

    2015-11-01

    This paper tested and analyzed heavy ion and proton induced single event effects (SEE) of a commercial DC/DC converter based on a 600 nm Bi-CMOS technology. Heavy ion induced single event transients (SET) testing has been carried out by using the Beijing HI-13 tandem accelerator at China Institute of Atomic Energy. Proton test has been carried out by using the Canadian TRIUMF proton accelerator. Both SET cross section versus linear energy transfer (LET) and proton energy has been measured. The main study conclusions are: (1) the DC/DC is both sensitive to heavy ion and proton radiations although at a pretty large feature size (600 nm), and threshold LET is about 0.06 MeV·mg/cm2 (2) heavy ion SET saturation cross section is about 5 magnitudes order larger than proton SET saturation cross section, which is consistent with the theory calculation result deduced by the RPP model and the proton nuclear reaction model; (3) on-orbit soft error rate (SER) prediction showed, on GEO orbit, proton induced SERs calculated by the heavy ion derived model are 4-5 times larger than those calculated by proton test data.

  2. Chemistry of heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1988-10-01

    The use of heavy ions to induce nuclear reactions was reported as early as 1950. Since that time it has been one of the most active areas of nuclear research. Intense beams of ions as heavy as uranium with energies high enough to overcome the Coulomb barriers of even the heaviest elements are available. The wide variety of possible reactions gives rise to a multitude of products which have been studied by many ingenious chemical and physical techniques. Chemical techniques have been of special value for the separation and unequivocal identification of low yield species from the plethora of other nuclides present. Heavy ion reactions have been essential for the production of the trans-Md elements and a host of new isotopes. The systematics of compound nucleus reactions, transfer reactions, and deeply inelastic reactions have been elucidated using chemical techniques. A review of the variety of chemical procedures and techniques which have been developed for the study of heavy ion reactions and their products is given. Determination of the chemical properties of the trans-Md elements, which are very short-lived and can only be produced an ''atom-at-a-time'' via heavy ion reactions, is discussed. 53 refs., 19 figs.

  3. Summary of heavy ion theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, S.

    1994-09-01

    Can we study hot QCD using nuclear collisions? Can we learn about metallic hydrogen from the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter? The answer to both questions may surprise you! I summarize progress in relativistic heavy ion theory reported at DPF `94 in the parallel sessions.

  4. Future relativistic heavy ion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    Equations of state for nuclear matter and ongoing experimental studies are discussed. Relativistic heavy ion physics is the only opportunity to study in the laboratory the properties of extended multiquark systems under conditions such that quarks might run together into new arrangements previously unobserved. Several lines of further study are mentioned. (GHT)

  5. Possibilities for relativistic heavy ion collisions at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, M.O.; Hahn, H.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1980 there has been considerable interest at Brookhaven in exploiting the existence of the Colliding Beam Accelerator, CBA, earlier referred to as Isabelle, for the generation of heavy ion collisions at very high energies. The only requirement for a heavy ion collider would have been for an energy booster for the Tandem accelerator and a tunnel and magnet transport system to the AGS. For a few million dollars heavy ions up to nearly 200 GeV/amu could be collided with luminosities of 10/sup 27/ to 10/sup 28//cm/sup 2/ sec in experimental halls with ideal facilities for heavy ion physics studies. Although the CBA project has been stopped, it is still true that Brookhaven has in place enormous advantages for constructing a heavy ion collider. This paper describes a design that exploits those advantages. It uses the tunnel and other civil construction, the refrigerator, vacuum equipment, injection line components, and the magnet design for which there is expertise and a production facility in place. The result is a machine that appears quite different than would a machine designed from first principles without access to these resources but one which is of high performance and of very attractive cost.

  6. Heavy Ion Effects on Kelvin-Helmholtz Instability: Hybrid Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, D.; Lin, D.

    2015-12-01

    Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI) is a candidate mechanism for solar wind tansportation into the magnetosphere. The statistical study of Bouhram et al. 2005 has shown that heavy ions could dominate the magnetopause for as much as 30% of the time on the dusk side. Thus the influence of heavy ions in solar wind-magnetosphere coupling should not be neglected. However, the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) linear theory for KHI does not include any ion effects, and people working on the heavy ion effects have not come to an agreement either. Whether the heavy ions promote or inhibit the KHI still remains not well addressed. With a two-dimensional hybrid model, we investigated the effects of ion mass number on the KHI growth rate, starting from the simplest case of uniform density and uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the shear flow. It is shown that the growth rate of the KHI is lower with a heavier mass number. We try to to derive the linear theory for the kinetic KHI and compare it with the hybrid simulation results. The linear theory with ion effects considered is going to be further verified with varying heavy ion fractions and finite magnetic shear. More implications for the dawn-dusk asymmetry of KHI on planetary magnetopause are desirable when comparing the results of opposite magnetic field directions relative to the flow vorticity.

  7. Predictions for proton and heavy ions induced SEUs in 65 nm SRAMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shougang, Du; Suge, Yue; Hongxia, Liu; Long, Fan; Hongchao, Zheng

    2015-11-01

    We report on irradiation induced single event upset (SEU) by high-energy protons and heavy ions. The experiments were performed at the Paul Scherer Institute, and heavy ions at the SEE irradiating Facility on the HI-13 Tandem Accelerator in China's Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing and the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou in the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The results of proton and heavy ions induced (SEU) in 65 nm bulk silicon CMOS SRAMS are discussed and the prediction on several typical orbits are presented.

  8. Stability of non-linear integrable accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Batalov, I.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    The stability of non-linear Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) model developed in [1] was tested. The area of the stable region in transverse coordinates and the maximum attainable tune spread were found as a function of non-linear lens strength. Particle loss as a function of turn number was analyzed to determine whether a dynamic aperture limitation present in the system. The system was also tested with sextupoles included in the machine for chromaticity compensation. A method of evaluation of the beam size in the linear part of the accelerator was proposed.

  9. Antiradiation vaccine: Technology and development of prophylaxis, prevention and treatment of biological consequences from Heavy Ion irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav

    Introduction: An anti-radiation vaccine could be an important part of a countermeasures reg-imen for effective radioprotection, immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy of the acute radi-ation syndromes (ARS) after gamma-irradiation, neutron irradiation or heavy ion irradiation. Reliable protection of non-neoplastic regions of patients with different forms of cancer which undergo to heavy ion therapy ( e.g. Hadron-therapy) can significantly extend the efficiency of the therapeutic course. The protection of cosmonauts astronauts from the heavy ion ra-diation component of space radiation with specific immunoprophylaxis by the anti-radiation vaccine may be an important part of medical management for long term space missions. Meth-ods and experiments: 1. The Antiradiation Vaccine preparation -standard (mixture of toxoid form of Radiation Toxins -SRD-group) which include Cerebrovascular RT Neurotoxin, Car-diovascular RT Neurotoxin, Gastrointestinal RT Neurotoxin, Hematopoietic RT Hematotoxin. Radiation Toxins Specific Radiation Determinant Group were isolated from a central lymph of gamma-irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestiinal, Hematopoi-etic forms of ARS. Devices for γ-radiation are "Panorama", "Puma". 2. Heavy ion exposure was accomplished at Department of Scientific Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Dubna, Russia. The heavy ions irradiation was generated in heavy ion (Fe56) accelerator -UTI. Heavy Ion linear transfer energy -2000-2600 KeV mkm, 600 MeV U. Absorbed Dose -3820 Rad. 3. Experimental Design: Rabbits from all groups were irradiated by heavy ion accelerator. Group A -control -10 rabbits; Group B -placebo -5 rabbits; Group C -radioprotectant Cystamine (50 mg kg)-5 rabbits, 15 minutes before irradiation -5 rabbits; Group D -radioprotectant Gammafos (Amifostine -400mg kg ), -5 rabbits; Group E -Antiradiation Vaccine: subcuta-neus administration or IM -2 ml of active substance, 14 days before irradiation -5 rabbits. 4

  10. Effects of heavy ion radiation on the brain vascular system and embryonic development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Tobias, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the effects of heavy-ion radiation on the vascular system and the embryonic development, taking into account the results of experiments with neonatal rats and mouse embryos. It is found that heavy ions can be highly effective in producing brain hemorrhages and in causing body deformities. Attention is given to aspects of methodology, the induction of brain hemorrhages by X-rays and heavy ions, and the effect of iron particles on embryonic development. Reported results suggest that high linear energy transfer (LET) heavy ions can be very effective in producing developmental abnormalities.

  11. NSAC Recommends a Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes the plan submitted by the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee to the Department of Energy and National Science Foundation urging construction of an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collider designed to accelerate nucleon beams of ions as heavy as uranium. Discusses the process of selecting the type of facility as well as siting. (JM)

  12. Radio frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Moretti, Alfred

    1985-01-01

    An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.

  13. Genetic effects on heavy ions in drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kale, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal mutation test was used to study the dose response relation and relative biological effectiveness of heavy ions. The experiments were performed using the heavy ion beams at BEVALAC of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. These experiments were undertaken according to the proposed milestones and included Ne-20, A-40 and Fe-65 ions with respective energies of 600 MeV, 840 MeV and 850 MeV. At these energies several doses of these radiations ranging from 20 to 1280 R were used. Space radiation exposure to astronauts is supposed to be quite low and therefore very low dose experiments i.e., 20 R, were also performed for the three ions. The mutation response was measured in all germ cell types i.e., spermatozoa, spermatids, spermatocytes and spermatogonia of treated Drosophila males. A linear dose frequency relation was observed for most of the range except at high doses where the saturation effect was observed. Also, a very significant difference was observed among the sensitivity of the four germ cell stages where spermatozoa and spermatids were more sensitive. At the higher doses of this range, most of the spermatogonia and spermatocytes were killed. Although comparative and identical experiments with X-rays or neutrons have not been performed, the compassion of our data with the ones available in literature suggest that the heavy ions have a high rbe and that they are several times more effective than low LET X-rays. The rbe compared to neutrons however appears to be only slightly higher.

  14. Efficiency-corrected dose verification with thermoluminescence dosemeters in heavy-ion beams.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas; Hajek, Michael; Fugger, Mamfred; Vana, Norbert

    2006-01-01

    One of the most essential difficulties in heavy-ion dosimetry by means of thermoluminescence dosemeters (TLDs)--often seen as a serious disadvantage of TLD utilisation--regards the changing TL-efficiency with increasing linear energy transfer (LET) of the particle. This behaviour leads to a falsification of absorbed dose that can be significant for many applications, e.g. in space or radiotherapeutic dosimetry. The high-temperature TL emission of LiF:Mg,Ti TL detectors can be exploited to obtain information about the LET of the heavy-ion radiation field under study. The high-temperature ratio (HTR) is used as a parameter to determine average LET. To correct the absorbed dose according to the TL-efficiency, the detailed dependence of HTR- and TL-efficiency on LET was recorded. These investigations were accomplished at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan, with a variety of high-energy ion beams (helium, carbon, neon, silicon and iron) ranging in LET from 2.2 to 393 keV microm(-1). The obtained relationships HTR vs. LET and TL-efficiency vs. LET were combined into a TL efficieny vs. HTR relationship. This enables correction of the absorbed dose (HTR-B method). The methodology is demonstrated by means of TLD 700 ((7)LiF:Mg,Ti) measurements in carbon beams of 290 and 400 MeV n(-1) available from HIMAC. PMID:16709709

  15. A high current vacuum arc ion source for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, N.; Gensler, S.W.; Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Liu, F.; Brown, I.G.

    1997-12-31

    AASC is presently developing a vacuum arc ion source for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) and other commercial applications. Induction linear accelerators that produce energetic heavy ions beams are a prime candidate for power-producing fusion reactors. A source of heavy ions with low emittance and low beam noise, 1+ to 3+ charge states, {approx}0.5 A current, 5--20 {micro}s pulse widths and {approximately}10 Hz repetition rates is required. A gadolinium (A {approx} 158) ion beam with {approx}0.12 A beam current, 120 keV beam energy, {approx}2.5 cm diameter extraction aperture and 20 {micro}s pulse width has been produced for HIF studies. The authors have measured that >80% Gd ions were in the 2+ charge state, the beam current fluctuation level (rms) was {approx}1.5% and the beam emittance was {approx}0.3 {pi} mm mrad (normalized). With {approx}8 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} torr background gas pressure, the beam was well space-charge neutralized and good propagation of the 20 {micro}s long Gd ion beams was observed. Details of the work will be presented. The results of the experiment imply that the vacuum arc ion source is a highly promising candidate for HIF applications.

  16. Heavy ion beams in extended materials - Computational methods and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Schimmerling, W.; Wong, M.; Townsend, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    The transport of heavy ion beams in extended materials is a problem of interest in accelerator and space shielding, radiation therapy, and astrophysical and radiobiological studies. The beam particles change their energy and direction of motion through atomic/molecular collisions and undergo occasional radical transformation in nuclear collision. In health physics applications, a heavy ion beam of initially well defined radiation quality is transformed into a complex mixture of diverse quality components after passing through a modest amount of material. This transformation of radiation quality must be understood to adequately explain the biological response of tissue to heavy ion radiation. A theoretical/experimental program to define an ion beam and its products in extended matter is described.

  17. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  18. Direct-driven target implosion in heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, K.; Suzuki, T.; Kurosaki, T.; Barada, D.; Kawata, S.; Ma, Y. Y.; Ogoyski, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    In inertial confinement fusion, the driver beam illumination non-uniformity leads a degradation of fusion energy output. A fuel target alignment error would happen in a fusion reactor; the target alignment error induces heavy ion beam illumination non-uniformity on a target. On the other hand, heavy ion beam accelerator provides a capability to oscillate a beam axis with a high frequency. The wobbling beams may provide a new method to reduce or smooth the beam illumination non-uniformity. First we study the effect of driver irradiation non-uniformity induced by the target alignment error (dz) on the target implosion. We found that dz should be less than about 130 μm for a sufficient fusion energy output. We also optimize the wobbling scheme. The spiral wobbling heavy ion beams would provide a promissing scheme to the uniform beam illumination.

  19. Distributed coupling high efficiency linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Neilson, Jeffrey

    2016-07-19

    A microwave circuit for a linear accelerator includes multiple monolithic metallic cell plates stacked upon each other so that the beam axis passes vertically through a central acceleration cavity of each plate. Each plate has a directional coupler with coupling arms. A first coupling slot couples the directional coupler to an adjacent directional coupler of an adjacent cell plate, and a second coupling slot couples the directional coupler to the central acceleration cavity. Each directional coupler also has an iris protrusion spaced from corners joining the arms, a convex rounded corner at a first corner joining the arms, and a corner protrusion at a second corner joining the arms.

  20. Next linear collider test accelerator injector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    The Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) is being constructed at SLAC to demonstrate multibunch beam loading compensation, suppression of higher order deflecting modes and measure transverse components of the accelerating fields in X-band accelerating structures. Currently a simple injector which provides the average current necessary for the beam loading compensations studies is under construction. An injector upgrade is planned to produce bunch trains similar to that of the NLC with microbunch intensity, separation and energy spread, identical to that of NLC. We discuss the design of the NLCTA injector upgrade.

  1. Operational experience with heavy ions at BNL: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Cardner, C.; Reece, R.K.; Ahrens, L.A.; Barton, D.S.; Beavis, D.; Benjamin, J.; Foelsche, H.; Gill, E.; Raka, E.; Sidhu, S.

    1989-01-01

    Since May 1986, the heavy ion transfer line (HITL) which joins the Tandem Van de Graaff facility and the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory has permitted the acceleration of heavy ions (up to sulfur) to 14.5 GeV/nucleon. The Tandem, operating with a pulsed ion source, supplies a fully stripped ion beam at about 7 MeV/nucleon which is transported via the HITL to the AGS. A low frequency rf system accelerates the beam in the AGS to about 200 MeV/nucleon and the high frequency rf system, normally used for proton acceleration, completes the acceleration to 14.5 GeV/nucleon. The high energy ion beams are delivered to four experimental beam lines using standard resonant extraction. Following is an update of the performance and operational characteristics associated with the production, transport, and acceleration of these ion beams. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Radio-frequency-quadrupole linac in a heavy ion fusion driver system

    SciTech Connect

    Hansborough, L.D.; Stokes, R.; Swenson, D.A.; Wangler, T.P.

    1980-01-01

    A new type of linear accelerator, the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac, is being developed for the acceleration of low-velocity ions. The RFQ accelerator can be adapted to any high-current applications. A recent experimental test carried out at the Los Alamos Scienific Laboratory (LASL) has demonstrated the outstandig properties of RFQ systems. The test linac accepts a 30-mA proton beam of 100-keV energy and focuses, bunches, and accelerates the beam to an energy to 640 keV. This ia done in a length of 1.1 m, with a transmission efficiency of 87% and with a radial emittance growth of less than 60%. The proven capability of the RFQ linac, when extended to heavy ion acceleration, should provide an ideal technique for use in the low-velocity portion of a heavy-ion linac for inertial-confinement fusion. A specific concept for such an RFQ-based system is described.

  3. Central collisions of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Sun-yiu.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R D project was performed.

  4. NF-kB activation and its downstream target genes expression after heavy ions exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishti, Arif Ali; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Hellweg, Christine; Schmitz, Claudia; Koch, Kristina; Feles, Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    To enable long-term human space flight cellular radiation response to densely ionizing radiation needs to be better understood for developing appropriate countermeasures to mitigate acute effects and late radiation risks for the astronaut. The biological effectiveness of accelerated heavy ions (which constitute the most important radiation type in space) with high linear energy transfer (LET) for effecting DNA damage response pathways as a gateway to cell death or survival is of major concern not only for space missions but also for new regimes of tumor radiotherapy. In the current research study, the contribution of NF-κB in response to space-relevant radiation qualities was determined by a NF-κB reporter cell line (HEK-pNF-κB-d2EGFP/Neo L2). The NF-κB dependent reporter gene expression (d2EGFP) after ionizing radiation (X-rays and heavy ions) exposure was evaluated by flow cytometry. Because of differences in the extent of NF-κB activation after X-irradiation and heavy ions exposure, it was expected that radiation quality (LET) might play an important role in the cellular radiation response. In addition, the biological effectiveness (RBE) of NF-κB activation and reduction of cellular survival was examined for heavy ions having a broad range of LET (˜0.3 - 9674 keV/µm). Furthermore, the effect of LET on NF-κB target gene expression was analyzed by real time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). In this study it was proven that NF-κB activation and NF-κB dependent gene expression comprises an early step in cellular radiation response. Taken together, this study clearly demonstrates that NF-κB activation and NF-κB-dependent gene expression by heavy ions are highest in the LET range of ˜50-200 keV/μupm. The up-regulated chemokines and cytokines (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL10, IL-8 and TNF) might be important for cell-cell communication among hit as well as unhit cells (bystander effect). The results obtained suggest the NF-κB pathway to be a

  5. Heavy Ion High Intensity Upgrade of the GSI UNILAC

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, W.; Dahl, L.; Galonska, M.; Glatz, J.; Groening, L.; Hollinger, R.; Richter, S.; Yaramyshev, S.

    2005-06-08

    For the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt the present GSI-accelerator complex, consisting of the linear accelerator UNILAC and the heavy ion synchrotron SIS 18, is foreseen to serve as U28+-injector for up to 1012 particles/s. After a new High Current Injector (HSI) was installed, many different ion species were accelerated in the UNILAC for physics experiments. In 2001 a high energy physics experiment used up to 2{center_dot}109 uranium ions per SIS 18-spill (U73+) while a MEVVA ion source was in routine operation for the first time. In the past two years, different hardware measures and careful fine tuning in all sections of the UNILAC resulted in an increase of the beam intensity to 9.5{center_dot}1010 U27+-ions per 100 {mu}s or 1.5{center_dot}1010 U73+-ions per 100 {mu}s. The contribution reports results of beam measurements during the high current operation with argon and uranium beams (pulse beam power up to 0.5 MW). One of the major tasks was to optimize the beam matching to the Alvarez-DTL. In addition further upgrades, including improved beam diagnostics, are described, which allow to fill the SIS 18 up to its space charge limit (SCL) of 2.7{center_dot}1011 U28+-ions per cycle.

  6. Mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasavin, E. A.; Kozubek, S.; Amirtayev, K. G.; Tokarova, B.; Bonev, M.

    The peculiarities and mechanisms of the mutagenic action of γ-rays and heavy ions on bacterial cells have been investigated. Direct mutations in the lac-operon of E. coli in wild type cells and repair deficient strains have been detected. Furthermore, the induction of revertants in Salmonella tester strains was measured. It was found that the mutation rate was a linear-quadratic function of dose in the case of both γ-rays and heavy ions with LET up to 200 keV/μm. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) increased with LET up to 20 keV/μm. Low mutation rates were observed in repair deficient mutants with a block of SOS-induction. The induction of SOS-repair by ionizing radiation has been investigated by means of the ``SOS-chromotest'' and λ-prophage induction. It was shown that the intensity of the SOS-induction in E. coli increased with increasing LET up to 40-60 keV/μm.

  7. The chromatic correction in RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.Y.; Dell, G.F.; Hahn, H.; Parzen, G.

    1987-01-01

    The scheme for the correction of chromatic effects in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL is discussed. This scheme uses six families of sextupoles excited by four independent power supplies, and provides adequate control of linear and quadratic terms in the tune vs momentum dependence and reduces the variation of the betatron amplitude, vs momentum.

  8. Radio-frequency quadrupole linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.; Stokes, R.H.

    1980-01-01

    The radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) is a new linear accelerator concept in which rf electric fields are used to focus, bunch, and accelerate the beam. Because the RFQ can provide strong focusing at low velocities, it can capture a high-current dc ion beam from a low-voltage source and accelerate it to an energy of 1 MeV/nucleon within a distance of a few meters. A recent experimental test at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has confirmed the expected performance of this structure and has stimulated interest in a wide variety of applications. The general properties of the RFQ are reviewed and examples of applications of this new accelerator are presented.

  9. Future Heavy-Ion Program at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Hiroyuki

    Recently, a heavy ion program as a future J-PARC project has been discussed among nuclear physicists and accelerator scientists. The overview of the heavy-ion program with physics goals, the design and physics feasibility of the spectrometer, and preliminary accelerator schemes are presented. The main goal of the program is to explore the QCD phase diagram in baryon densities 8-10 times as high as the normal nucleus density with heavy ion beams up to uranium at 1-10 AGeV, as well as research of unstable nuclei up to 10 AMeV. In this work, we focus on the former. One of the most important measurements which could signal the phase transition in high baryon densities is a dilepton. We study in-medium modifications of ρ , ω , and φ mesons decaying into dileptons, measure rare particles such as multi-strangeness hadrons, exotic hadrons, and hypernuclei utilizing high rate beams at J-PARC. We have been designing a spectrometer with a solenoid and a dipole magnets, which covers almost 4π acceptance, and has capability of identifying charged hadrons as well as electrons and muons. In one-month running of the experiment at the beam rate of 1011 Hz, we expect to measure ρ , ω , and φ dielectron decays of the order of 107. Heavy-ion acceleration schemes have been studied with a new heavy-ion linac and a new booster ring as an injector to RCS. The beams will be accelerated in RCS and MR. The goal beam rate is around 1010-1011/MR cycle.

  10. Beam dynamics in heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.

    1995-04-01

    A standard design for heavy ion fusion drivers under study in the US is an induction linac with electrostatic focusing at low energy and magnetic focusing at higher energy. The need to focus the intense beam to a few-millimeter size spot at the deuterium-tritium target establishes the emittance budget for the accelerator. Economic and technological considerations favor a larger number of beams in the low-energy, electrostatic-focusing section than in the high-energy, magnetic-focusing section. Combining four beams into a single focusing channel is a viable option, depending on the growth in emittance due to the combining process. Several significant beam dynamics issues that are, or have been, under active study are discussed: large space charge and image forces, beam wall clearances, halos, alignment, longitudinal instability, and bunch length control.