Science.gov

Sample records for heavy-ion nuclear physics

  1. Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Braithwaite, W. J.

    1995-05-31

    This report describes an on-going research initiative for the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR): investigating the physics of ultra-relativistic heavy ions, i.e. collisions between massive nuclei which have been accelerated to kinetic energies so large that the rest mass of the ions is a negligible fraction of their total mass-energy. This progress report is being submitted in conjunction with a 3-year grant-renewal proposal, containing additional materials. Three main categories drive the UALRGultra-relativistic heavy ion research. (1) investigations of multi-particle Hanbury-Brown-Twiss (HBT) correlations in the CERN and RHIC energy domains strongly influence the URHI experimental effort, (2) participation in the NA49 Experiment to study 33 TeV (160 GeV/nucleon) Pb on Pb collisions using the SPS facili& at CERN, and (3) participation in the STAR collaboration which is developing a major detector for use with the STAR Experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), being built at BNL.

  2. Medical applications of nuclear physics and heavy-ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, Jose R.

    2000-08-01

    Isotopes and accelerators, hallmarks of nuclear physics, are finding increasingly sophisticated and effective applications in the medical field. Diagnostic and therapeutic uses of radioisotopes are now a $10B/yr business worldwide, with over 10 million procedures and patient studies performed every year. This paper will discuss the use of isotopes for these applications. In addition, beams of protons and heavy ions are being more and more widely used clinically for treatment of malignancies. To be discussed here as well will be the rationale and techniques associated with charged-particle therapy, and the progress in implementation and optimization of these technologies for clinical use.

  3. 2001 Tom W. Bonner Prize in Nuclear Physics Lecture: ECR Ion Sources for Heavy-ion Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyneis, Claude

    2001-04-01

    The development of Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion sources has provided new scientific opportunities for the study of heavy-ion nuclear physics. ECR ion sources have become the ion source of choice for heavy-ion accelerators due to their excellent performance in producing CW high charge state heavy-ion beams for virtually any element. In the last two decades, the performance of ECR sources has improved dramatically in terms of beam intensity, maximum charge state and range of beam species. For example, the intensity of O^6+beams has increased from 15 eμA to more than a mA, U^64+ has been extracted from an ECR source, and beams from rare isotopes such as ^48Ca are produced for nuclear structure and heavy element research. This progress has been a result of applying scaling laws related to microwave frequency and magnetic field strength, the development of improved ion source designs, and specialized techniques such as high temperature ovens. The need for radioactive beams in nuclear physics provides new challenges for the ECR ion source community, especially for the production of high intensity heavy-ion beams for the driver linac as currently envisioned for the Rare Isotope Accelerator RIA. This talk will review the advances in ECR ion sources, their application at accelerators, and future challenges.

  4. Heavy Ion Physics in eRHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal

    2005-10-06

    We review the physics of gluon saturation in heavy ions at small x and consider the applications of Color Glass Condensate formalism to Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) of leptons on nuclei and discuss the overlapping physics between high energy heavy ion collisions at RHIC and DIS in eRHIC.

  5. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics FOCUS ON HEAVY IONS IN BIOPHYSICS AND MEDICAL PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco

    2008-07-01

    include carcinogenesis, late degenerative tissue effects (including damage to the central nervous system), and hereditary effects. For these studies, microbeams represent an essential tool, considering that in space each cell in the human body will not experience more than one heavy-ion traversal. Both NASA and ESA are investing important resources in ground-based space radiation research programs, to reduce risk uncertainty and to develop countermeasures. For both cancer therapy and space radiation protection a better understanding of the effects of energetic heavy ions is needed. Physics should be improved, especially the measurements of nuclear fragmentation cross-sections, and the transport calculations. Biological effects need to be studied in greater detail, and clearly only understanding the mechanisms of heavy-ion induced biological damage will reduce the uncertainty on late effects in humans. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics aims to provide the state-of-the-art of the biophysics of energetic heavy ions and to highlight the areas where more research is urgently needed for therapy and the space program. Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics Contents Heavy ion microprobes: a unique tool for bystander research and other radiobiological applications K O Voss, C Fournier and G Taucher-Scholz Heavy ions light flashes and brain functions: recent observations at accelerators and in spaceflight L Narici Clinical advantages of carbon-ion radiotherapy Hirohiko Tsujii, Tadashi Kamada, Masayuki Baba, Hiroshi Tsuji, Hirotoshi Kato, Shingo Kato, Shigeru Yamada, Shigeo Yasuda, Takeshi Yanagi, Hiroyuki Kato, Ryusuke Hara, Naotaka Yamamoto and Junetsu Mizoe Heavy-ion effects: from track structure to DNA and chromosome damage F Ballarini, D Alloni, A Facoetti and A Ottolenghi Shielding experiments with high-energy heavy ions for spaceflight applications C Zeitlin, S Guetersloh, L Heilbronn, J Miller, N Elkhayari, A Empl, M LeBourgeois, B W Mayes, L Pinsky

  6. Nuclei at HERA and heavy ion physics

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, S.; Strikman, M.

    1995-12-31

    Copies of 16 viewgraph sets from a workshop held at Brookhaven National Laboratory, 17-18 November, 1995. Titles of talks: HERA: The Present; HERA: Potential with Nuclei; Review of Hadron-Lepton Nucleus Data; Fermilab E665: results in muon scattering; Interactions of Quarks and Gluons with Nuclear Matter; Rescattering in Nuclear Targets for Photoproduction and DIS; Structure Functions and Nuclear Effect at PHENIX; Probing Spin-Averaged and Spin-Dependent Parton Distributions Using the Solenoidal Tracker at RHIC (STAR); Jet Quenching in eA, pA, AA; Nuclear Gluon Shadowing via Continuum Lepton Pairs; What can we learn from HERA with a colliding heavy ion beam? The limiting curve of leading particles at infinite A; Coherent Production of Vector Mesons off Light Nuclei in DIS; A Model of High Parton Densities in PQCD; Gluon Production for Weizaecker-Williams Field in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions; Summary Talk.

  7. The Mesozoic Era of relativistic heavy ion physics and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, J.W.

    1994-03-01

    In order to understand how matter 15 billion years ago in the form of quarks, gluons and leptons at a temperature of 2 {times} 10{sup 12} {degrees}K evolved to become today`s Universe, the goal of relativistic and ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics is to understand the equation of state of nuclear, hadronic and partonic matter. This quest is of cross-disciplinary interest. The phase transition from partonic matter to hadronic matter tens of micro-seconds after the beginning of the universe is of interest to cosmology. Fluctuations during this phase transition would influence nucleosynthesis and the understanding of baryonic inhomogeneities in the universe. The nuclear matter equation of state, which describes the incompressibility of nuclear matter, governs neutron star stability. It determines the possible existence of strange quark matter stars and the dynamics of supernova expansion in astrophysics. The existence of collective nuclear phenomena in nuclear physics is also determined by the nuclear equation of state. In relativistic heavy ion collisions collective nuclear flow has been observed and is being studied extensively to obtain a better understanding of the incompressibility of nuclear matter. In high energy nuclear and particle physics, production and excitations of hadronic final states have been studied in detail and are important to an overall understanding of the equation of state of nuclear matter at finite temperature. The possibility in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions to create and study highly excited hadronic and partonic degrees of freedom provides a unique opportunity for understanding the behavior of nuclear, hadronic and partonic matter. Study of the QCD vacuum, of particular interest in particle physics, would provide a better understanding of symmetry-breaking mechanisms and the origins of the masses of the various quarks and particles.

  8. Heavy-ion tumor therapy: Physical and radiobiological benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schardt, Dieter; Elsässer, Thilo; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    High-energy beams of charged nuclear particles (protons and heavier ions) offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors in comparison to conventional megavolt photon therapy. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range with a sharp fall-off at the distal edge. Taking full advantage of the well-defined range and the small lateral beam spread, modern scanning beam systems allow delivery of the dose with millimeter precision. In addition, projectiles heavier than protons such as carbon ions exhibit an enhanced biological effectiveness in the Bragg peak region caused by the dense ionization of individual particle tracks resulting in reduced cellular repair. This makes them particularly attractive for the treatment of radio-resistant tumors localized near organs at risk. While tumor therapy with protons is a well-established treatment modality with more than 60 000 patients treated worldwide, the application of heavy ions is so far restricted to a few facilities only. Nevertheless, results of clinical phase I-II trials provide evidence that carbon-ion radiotherapy might be beneficial in several tumor entities. This article reviews the progress in heavy-ion therapy, including physical and technical developments, radiobiological studies and models, as well as radiooncological studies. As a result of the promising clinical results obtained with carbon-ion beams in the past ten years at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator facility (Japan) and in a pilot project at GSI Darmstadt (Germany), the plans for new clinical centers for heavy-ion or combined proton and heavy-ion therapy have recently received a substantial boost.

  9. Heavy-ion tumor therapy: Physical and radiobiological benefits

    SciTech Connect

    Schardt, Dieter; Elsaesser, Thilo; Schulz-Ertner, Daniela

    2010-01-15

    High-energy beams of charged nuclear particles (protons and heavier ions) offer significant advantages for the treatment of deep-seated local tumors in comparison to conventional megavolt photon therapy. Their physical depth-dose distribution in tissue is characterized by a small entrance dose and a distinct maximum (Bragg peak) near the end of range with a sharp fall-off at the distal edge. Taking full advantage of the well-defined range and the small lateral beam spread, modern scanning beam systems allow delivery of the dose with millimeter precision. In addition, projectiles heavier than protons such as carbon ions exhibit an enhanced biological effectiveness in the Bragg peak region caused by the dense ionization of individual particle tracks resulting in reduced cellular repair. This makes them particularly attractive for the treatment of radio-resistant tumors localized near organs at risk. While tumor therapy with protons is a well-established treatment modality with more than 60 000 patients treated worldwide, the application of heavy ions is so far restricted to a few facilities only. Nevertheless, results of clinical phase I-II trials provide evidence that carbon-ion radiotherapy might be beneficial in several tumor entities. This article reviews the progress in heavy-ion therapy, including physical and technical developments, radiobiological studies and models, as well as radiooncological studies. As a result of the promising clinical results obtained with carbon-ion beams in the past ten years at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator facility (Japan) and in a pilot project at GSI Darmstadt (Germany), the plans for new clinical centers for heavy-ion or combined proton and heavy-ion therapy have recently received a substantial boost.

  10. Heavy ion physics at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, R.

    2004-08-15

    The ion-ion center of mass energies at the LHC will exceed that at RHIC by nearly a factor of 30, providing exciting opportunities for addressing unique physics issues in a completely new energy domain. Some highlights of this new physics domain are presented here. We briefly describe how these collisions will provide new insights into the high density, low momentum gluon content of the nucleus expected to dominate the dynamics of the early state of the system. We then discuss how the dense initial state of the nucleus affects the lifetime and temperature of the produced system. Finally, we explain how the high energy domain of the LHC allows abundant production of ''rare'' processes, hard probes calculable in perturbative quantum chromodynamics, QCD. At the LHC, high momentum jets and b{bar b} bound states, the {Upsilon} family, will be produced with high statistics for the first time in heavy ion collisions.

  11. Recent Progress in Isospin Physics with Heavy-Ion Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Liewen; Ko, Che Ming; Li Baoan

    2008-11-11

    We review recent progress in the determination of the subsaturation density behavior of the nuclear symmetry energy from heavy-ion collisions as well as the theoretical progress in probing the high density behavior of the symmetry energy in heavy-ion reactions induced by future high energy radioactive beams. Implications of these results for the nuclear effective interactions are also discussed.

  12. EDITORIAL: Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics FOCUS ON HEAVY IONS IN BIOPHYSICS AND MEDICAL PHYSICS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durante, Marco

    2008-07-01

    include carcinogenesis, late degenerative tissue effects (including damage to the central nervous system), and hereditary effects. For these studies, microbeams represent an essential tool, considering that in space each cell in the human body will not experience more than one heavy-ion traversal. Both NASA and ESA are investing important resources in ground-based space radiation research programs, to reduce risk uncertainty and to develop countermeasures. For both cancer therapy and space radiation protection a better understanding of the effects of energetic heavy ions is needed. Physics should be improved, especially the measurements of nuclear fragmentation cross-sections, and the transport calculations. Biological effects need to be studied in greater detail, and clearly only understanding the mechanisms of heavy-ion induced biological damage will reduce the uncertainty on late effects in humans. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics aims to provide the state-of-the-art of the biophysics of energetic heavy ions and to highlight the areas where more research is urgently needed for therapy and the space program. Focus on Heavy Ions in Biophysics and Medical Physics Contents Heavy ion microprobes: a unique tool for bystander research and other radiobiological applications K O Voss, C Fournier and G Taucher-Scholz Heavy ions light flashes and brain functions: recent observations at accelerators and in spaceflight L Narici Clinical advantages of carbon-ion radiotherapy Hirohiko Tsujii, Tadashi Kamada, Masayuki Baba, Hiroshi Tsuji, Hirotoshi Kato, Shingo Kato, Shigeru Yamada, Shigeo Yasuda, Takeshi Yanagi, Hiroyuki Kato, Ryusuke Hara, Naotaka Yamamoto and Junetsu Mizoe Heavy-ion effects: from track structure to DNA and chromosome damage F Ballarini, D Alloni, A Facoetti and A Ottolenghi Shielding experiments with high-energy heavy ions for spaceflight applications C Zeitlin, S Guetersloh, L Heilbronn, J Miller, N Elkhayari, A Empl, M LeBourgeois, B W Mayes, L Pinsky

  13. Heavy ion physics at BNL, the AGS and RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Lowenstein, D.I.

    1985-01-01

    The advent of heavy ion acceleration with the AGS at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1986 and the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) for 1990 brings us into a temperature and density regime well above anything yet produced and into a time domain of the early universe of 10/sup -13/-10/sup -6/ seconds. The physics of high energy heavy ions range from the more traditional nuclear physics to the formation of new forms of matter. Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) is the latest, and as of yet, the most successful theory to describe the interaction of quarks and gluons. The nature of the confinement of the quarks and gluons under extremes of temperature and density is one of the compelling reasons for this new physics program at BNL. There are reasons to believe that with collisions of heavy nuclei at energies in the 10 to 100 GeV/amu range a very large volume of approx. 10 fm/sup 3/ would be heated to 200-300 MeV and/or acquire a sufficient quark density (5-10 times normal baryon density) so that the entire contents of the volume would be deconfined and the quarks and gluons would form a plasma. The kinematic region for the extant machines and the proposed RHIC are shown. At AGS energies the baryons in colliding nuclei bring each other to rest, yielding fragmentation regions of high baryon density. These are the regions in which supernorvae and neutrons stars exist. For energies much higher, such as in RHIC, nuclei are transparent to each other and one can form a central region of almost zero baryon density, mostly pions, and very high temperature. This is the region of the early universe and the quark-gluon plasma. Design parameters and cost of the RHIC are discussed.

  14. HISTRAP proposal: heavy ion storage ring for atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Dowling, D.T.; Haynes, D.L.; Hudson, E.D.; Johnson, J.W.; Lee, I.Y.; Lord, R.S.

    1986-11-01

    HISTRAP, Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics, is a proposed 46.8-m-circumference synchrotron-cooling-storage ring optimized to accelerate, decelerate, and store beams of highly charged very-heavy ions at energies appropriate for advanced atomic physics research. The ring is designed to allow studies of electron-ion, photon-ion, ion-atom, and ion-ion interactions. An electron cooling system will provide ion beams with small angular divergence and energy spread for precision spectroscopic studies and also is necessary to allow the deceleration of heavy ions to low energies. HISTRAP will have a maximum bending power of 2.0 Tm and will be injected with ions from either the existing Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility 25-MV tandem accelerator or from a dedicated ECR source and 250 keV/nucleon RFQ linac.

  15. Glenn T. Seaborg and heavy ion nuclear science

    SciTech Connect

    Loveland, W. . Dept. of Chemistry Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1992-04-01

    Radiochemistry has played a limited but important role in the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions. Many of the important radiochemical studies have taken place in Seaborg's laboratory or in the laboratories of others who have spent time in Berkeley working with Glenn T. Seaborg. I will discuss studies of low energy deep inelastic reactions with special emphasis on charge equilibration, studies of the properties of heavy residues in intermediate energy nuclear collisions and studies of target fragmentation in relativistic and ultrarelativistic reactions. The emphasis will be on the unique information afforded by radiochemistry and the physical insight derived from radiochemical studies. Future roles of radiochemistry in heavy ion nuclear science also will be discussed.

  16. Glenn T. Seaborg and heavy ion nuclear science

    SciTech Connect

    Loveland, W. |

    1992-04-01

    Radiochemistry has played a limited but important role in the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions. Many of the important radiochemical studies have taken place in Seaborg`s laboratory or in the laboratories of others who have spent time in Berkeley working with Glenn T. Seaborg. I will discuss studies of low energy deep inelastic reactions with special emphasis on charge equilibration, studies of the properties of heavy residues in intermediate energy nuclear collisions and studies of target fragmentation in relativistic and ultrarelativistic reactions. The emphasis will be on the unique information afforded by radiochemistry and the physical insight derived from radiochemical studies. Future roles of radiochemistry in heavy ion nuclear science also will be discussed.

  17. Glenn T. Seaborg and heavy ion nuclear science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loveland, W.

    1992-04-01

    Radiochemistry has played a limited but important role in the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions. Many of the important radiochemical studies have taken place in Seaborg's laboratory or in the laboratories of others who have spent time in Berkeley working with Glenn T. Seaborg. Studies of low energy deep inelastic reactions are discussed, and special emphasis is placed on charge equilibration. Additionally, studies of the properties of heavy residues in intermediate energy nuclear collisions and studies of target fragmentation in relativistic and ultrarelativistic reactions are reported. The emphasis will be on the unique information afforded by radiochemistry and the physical insight derived from radiochemical studies. Future roles of radiochemistry in heavy ion nuclear science also will be discussed.

  18. Nuclear interactions in high energy heavy ions and applications in astrophysics. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State Univ. , Baton Rouge

    SciTech Connect

    Wefel, J.P.; Guzik, T.G.

    1993-01-11

    The overall objective is to study the mechanisms and the energy dependence of heavy ion fragmentation by studying the reactions of heavy ion projectiles (e.g. [sup 4]He, [sup 16]O, [sup 20]Ne, [sup 28]Si, [sup 56]Fe) in a variety of targets (H, He, C, Si, Cu, Pb) and at a number of beam energies exceeding 0.1 GeV/nucleon. The results have application to questions in high-energy nuclear astrophysics. Most of the discussion is on low-energy [sup 16]O,[sup 28]Si data analysis. The description includes analysis procedures and techniques, detector calibrations, data selections and normalizations. Cross section results for the analysis are also presented. 83 figs., 6 tabs., 73 refs.

  19. HISTRAP proposal: heavy ion storage ring for atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Datz, S.; Dittner, P.F.; Dowling, D.T.; Haynes, D.L.; Hudson, E.D.; Johnson, J.W.; Lee, I.Y.; Lord, R.S.

    1986-01-01

    HISTRAP is a proposed synchrotron-cooling-storage ring optimized to accelerate, decelerate, and store beams of highly charged very-heavy ions at energies appropriate for advanced atomic physics research. The ring is designed to allow studies of electron-ion, photon-ion, ion-atom, and ion-ion interactions. An electron cooling system will provide ion beams with small angular divergence and energy spread for precision spectroscopic studies and also is necessary to allow the deceleration of heavy ions to low energies. HISTRAP will be injected with ions from either the existing Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility 25-MV tandem accelerator or from a dedicated ECR source and 250 keV/nucleon RFQ linac. The ring will have a maximum bending power of 2.0 T.m and have a circumference of 46.8 m.

  20. Experimental atomic physics in heavy-ion storage rings

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S.; Andersen, L.H.; Briand, J.P.; Liesen, D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper outlines the discussion which took place at the ''round table'' on experimental atomic physics in heavy-ion storage rings. Areas of discussion are: electron-ion interactions, ion-ion collisions, precision spectroscopy of highly charged ions, beta decay into bound final states, and atomic binding energies from spectroscopy of conversion elections. 18 refs., 1 tab. (LSP)

  1. Research in Heavy Ion Nuclear Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Petitt, G.A.; Nelson, W.H.; He, Xiaochun; Lee, W.

    1999-04-14

    This is the final progress report for the experimental nuclear physics program at Georgia State University (GSU) under the leadership of Gus Petitt. In June, 1996, Professor Petitt retired for health reasons and the DOE contract was extended for another year to enable the group to continue it's work. This year has been a productive one. The group has been heavily involved in the E866 experiment at Fermilab where we have taken on the responsibility of developing a new level-3 trigger for the experiment. Bill Lee, the graduate student in our group expects to obtain his thesis data from the run extension currently in progress, which focuses on the A dependence of J/{psi}'s and {Upsilon}'s from beryllium, tungsten, and iron targets. In the past year and a half the GSU group has led the development of a new level-3 software trigger system for E866. Our work on this project is described.

  2. Nuclear interactions in heavy ion transport and event-based risk models.

    PubMed

    Cucinotta, Francis A; Plante, Ianik; Ponomarev, Artem L; Kim, Myung-Hee Y

    2011-02-01

    The physical description of the passage of heavy ions in tissue and shielding materials is of interest in radiobiology, cancer therapy and space exploration, including a human mission to Mars. Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) consist of a large number of ion types and energies. Energy loss processes occur continuously along the path of heavy ions and are well described by the linear energy transfer (LET), straggling and multiple scattering algorithms. Nuclear interactions lead to much larger energy deposition than atomic-molecular collisions and alter the composition of heavy ion beams while producing secondary nuclei often in high multiplicity events. The major nuclear interaction processes of importance for describing heavy ion beams was reviewed, including nuclear fragmentation, elastic scattering and knockout-cascade processes. The quantum multiple scattering fragmentation model is shown to be in excellent agreement with available experimental data for nuclear fragmentation cross sections and is studied for application to thick target experiments. A new computer model, which was developed for the description of biophysical events from heavy ion beams at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL), called the GCR Event Risk-Based Model (GERMcode) is described. PMID:21242169

  3. Physics at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

    SciTech Connect

    Shuryak, E.V.

    1990-08-01

    This introductory talk contains a brief discussion of future experiments at RHIC related to physics of superdense matter. In particular, we consider the relation between space-time picture of the collision and spectra of the observed secondaries. We discuss where one should look for QGP signals and for possible manifestation of the phase transition. We pay more attention to a rather new topic: hadron modification in the gas phase, which is interesting by itself as a collective phenomenon, and also as a precursor indicating what happens with hadrons near the phase transition. We briefly review current understanding of the photon physics, dilepton production, charm and strangeness and J/{psi} suppression. At the end we try to classify all possible experiments. 47 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Feasibility study of heavy ion physics program at NICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batyuk, P. N.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Kolesnikov, V. I.; Rogachevsky, O. V.; Sorin, A. S.; Voronyuk, V. V.

    2016-07-01

    There are strong experimental and theoretical evidences that in collisions of heavy ions at relativistic energies nuclear matter undergoes a phase transition to the deconfined state—Quark Gluon Plasma. The caused energy region of such transition was not found at high energy at SPS and RHIC and search for this energy is shifted to lower energies, which will be covered by the future NICA (Dubna), FAIR (Darmstadt) facilities and BES II at RHIC. Fixed target and collider experiments at the NICA facility will work at the energy range from a few AGeV up to √ {{S_{NN}}} = 11GeV GeV and will study the most interesting area on the nuclear matter phase diagram. The most remarkable results were observed in the study of collective phenomena occurring in the early stage of nuclear collisions. Investigation of the collective flow will provide information on Equation of State (EoS) for nuclear matter. Study of the Event-by-Event fluctuations and correlations can give us signals of critical behavior of the system. Femtoscopy analysis provides the space-time history of the collisions. Also, it was found that baryon stopping power revealing itself as a "wiggle" in excitation function of curvature of the (net)proton rapidity spectrum relates to the order of the phase transition. The available observations of an enhancement of dilepton rates at low invariant masses may serve as a signal of the chiral symmetry restoration in hot and dense matter. Due to this fact, measurements of the dilepton spectra are considered to be an important part of the NICA physics program. The study of strange particles and hypernuclei production gives additional information on the EoS and "strange" axis of the QCD phase diagram. In this paper a feasibility of the considered investigations is shown by the detailed Monte Carlo simulations applied to the planned experiments (BM@N, MPD) at NICA.

  5. Theory of nuclear excitation by electron capture for heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Palffy, Adriana; Scheid, Werner; Harman, Zoltan

    2006-01-15

    We investigate the resonant process of nuclear excitation by electron capture (NEEC), in which a continuum electron is captured into a bound state of an ion with the simultaneous excitation of the nucleus. In order to derive the cross section a Feshbach projection operator formalism is introduced. Nuclear states and transitions are described by a nuclear collective model and making use of experimental data. Transition rates and total cross sections for NEEC followed by the radiative decay of the excited nucleus are calculated for various heavy-ion collision systems.

  6. Progress in target physics and design for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan-Miller, Debra A.; Tabak, Max

    2000-05-01

    Two-dimensional, integrated calculations of a close-coupled version of the distributed radiator, heavy ion target predict gain 130 from 3.3 MJ of beam energy. To achieve these results, the case-to-capsule ratio was decreased by about 25% from the previous heavy ion targets [M. Tabak and D. Callahan-Miller, Phys. Plasmas 5, 1895 (1998)]. These targets are robust to changes in the ion stopping model because changes in the ion stopping model can be accommodated by changes to the target. The capsule is also insensitive to changes in the deuterium-tritium (DT) gas fill in the center of the capsule over the range that is of interest for target fabrication and target injection. Single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor growth rates for this capsule are smaller than those for at least one National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. A. Paisner et al., Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)] design. As a result, stability issues for the heavy ion capsule can be settled on NIF. The close-coupled target also opens up the possibility of a high gain engineering test facility from a 1.5-2 MJ driver; calculations predict that gain 90 is achievable from 1.75 MJ of beam energy. Finally, the choice of hohlraum wall material, which must satisfy constraints from target physics, environment and safety, chamber design, and target fabrication, is discussed.

  7. Heavy-ion collisions and the nuclear equation of state

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, D.

    1992-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is to study nucleus-nucleus collisions experimentally at intermediate and relativistic energies, with emphasis on measurement and interpretation of correlation effects that provide insight into the nuclear phase diagram and the nuclear equation of state. During the past year, the PI has been on leave at Lawrence Berkeley Lab and has worked on this research project full-time. A large fraction of the effort of the PI and graduate students has gone into preparing for experiments using the Time Projection Chamber at LBL's Bevalac accelerator; in March 1992, this device successfully took data in production mode for the first time, and the first physics analysis is now under way. The PI has carried out simulations that help to define the physics performance and engineering specifications of the recently-approved STAR detector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and has identified a new capability of this device with the potential for being an important quark-gluon plasma signature. A Postdoctoral Fellow, jointly supported by this grant and Kent State University, has been recruited to augment these efforts. Since May 1991, 11 journal papers have been published or submitted for publication; 2 conference proceedings and 9 reports or abstracts have also been published during the past year. One paper in Phys. Rev. Left., one in Phys. Rev. C, and one conference proceedings are based on the thesis project of one of the PI's Ph.D. students who is expected to graduate later this year. Partly in response to the impending closure of the Bevalac, the PI's group has recently joined the NA49 experiment at CERN.

  8. Inclusive inelastic scattering of heavy ions and nuclear correlations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.; Khandelwal, Govind S.

    1990-01-01

    Calculations of inclusive inelastic scattering distributions for heavy ion collisions are considered within the high energy optical model. Using ground state sum rules, the inclusive projectile and complete projectile-target inelastic angular distributions are treated in both independent particle and correlated nuclear models. Comparisons between the models introduced are made for alpha particles colliding with He-4, C-12, and O-16 targets and protons colliding with O-16. Results indicate that correlations contribute significantly, at small momentum transfers, to the inelastic sum. Correlation effects are hidden, however, when total scattering distributions are considered because of the dominance of elastic scattering at small momentum transfers.

  9. Nuclear multifragmentation: Antiprotons versus photons and heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Cugnon, J.

    1994-09-01

    Nuclear multifragmentation is the phenomenon by which a nucleus breaks into many pieces of intermediate size. It occurs in the excitation-energy regime, between the spallation + evaporation regime and the explosive fragmentation regime. The various models of multifragmentation are briefly reviewed and the possibility of critical behavior in the multifragmentation process is underlined. Unanswered problems are stated. It is shown, by model calculations, that antiproton annihilation is, in many respects, better suited than proton-nucleus and heavy-ion collisions for studying multifragmentation and, in other respects, complementary to these other tools. 36 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Probing the nuclear equation-of-state and the symmetry energy with heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verde, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    The present status of studies aimed at constraining the nuclear equation of state with heavy-ion collision dynamics is presented. Multifragmentation phenomena, including their isotopic distributions, charge correlations and emission time-scales, may revel the existence of liquid-gas transitions in the phase diagram. Exploring the isotopic degree of freedom in nuclear dynamics is then required in order to constrain the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter which presently represents a major priority due to its relevance to both nuclear physics and astrophysics. Some observables that have successfully constrained the density dependence of the symmetry energy are presented, such as neutron-proton yield ratios and isospin diffusion and drift phenomena. The reported results and status of the art is discussed by also considering some of the present problems and some future perspectives for the heavy-ion collision community.

  11. Probing the nuclear symmetry energy with heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupland, Daniel David Schechtman

    There are two distinct components involved in using heavy ion collisions to constrain the density dependence of the symmetry energy. On one hand, observables sensitive to the symmetry energy must be identified and measured with enough precision to provide meaningful constraints. On the other hand, nuclear reaction simulations are used to predict those observables for different possible forms of the symmetry energy. Examination of both components and the interface between them is important to improve the constraints. This thesis contributes to both the experimental and theoretical parts of this endeavor. First, we examine the uncertainties in the simulation of the isospin diffusion observable by varying the input physics within the pBUU transport code. In addition to the symmetry energy, several other uncertain parts of the calculation affect isospin diffusion, most notably the in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections and light cluster production. There is also a difference in the calculated isospin transport ratios depending on whether they are computed using the isospin asymmetry of the heavy residue or of all forward-moving fragments. We suggest that measurements comparing these two quantities would help place constraints on the input physics, including the density dependence of the symmetry energy. Second, we present a measurement of the neutron and proton kinetic energy spectra emitted from central collisions of 124Sn + 124Sn and 112Sn + 112Sn at beam energies of 50 MeV per nucleon and 120 MeV per nucleon. Previous transport simulations indicate that ratios of these spectra are sensitive to the density dependence of the symmetry energy and to the isovector momentum dependence of the mean field. Protons were detected in the Large Area Silicon Strip Array (LASSA) and neutrons were detected in the MSU Neutron Walls. The multiplicity of charged particles detected in the MSU Miniball was used to determine the impact parameter of the collisions. Several thin

  12. Progress in Target Physics and Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan-Miller, Debra

    1999-11-01

    Two-dimensional, integrated calculations of a close-coupled version of the distributed radiator, heavy ion target predict gain 130 from 3.3 MJ of beam energy. To achieve these results, the case-to-capsule ratio was decreased by about 25% from our previous targets.(M. Tabak, D. Callahan-Miller, Phys. Plasmas, 5, 1895 (1998).) The smaller hohlraum results in smaller beam spots than had been previously assumed; this puts renewed emphasis on controlling emittance growth in the accelerator and on space-charge neutralization in the reactor chamber. These targets are robust--changes in ion range and ion stopping model can be accommodated by changes in the target. Single-mode Rayleigh-Taylor growth rates for this capsule are smaller than those for at least one NIF design. As a result, stability issues for the heavy ion capsule can be settled on NIF. The close-coupled target also opens up the possibility of a high gain Engineering Test Facility from a 1.5-2 MJ driver; calculations predict that gain 90 is achievable from 1.75 MJ of beam energy. Gain curves, used for optimizing the system of accelerator, final focus, chamber transport, and target, are in good agreement with the two-dimensional calculations for both the ``conventional'' and close-coupled case-to-capsule ratio. Finally, we will discuss the choice of hohlraum wall material which must satisfy constraints from target physics (high opacity/low heat capacity to minimize the amount of energy in the hohlraum wall), environment and safety (low activation for recycling and waste disposal), chamber design (recovery of the material from the chamber), and target fabrication (need to produce many low cost targets per day).

  13. Nuclear structure and heavy-ion fusion. [Lecture

    SciTech Connect

    Stokstad, R.G.

    1980-10-01

    A series of lectures is presented on experimental studies of heavy-ion fusion reactions with emphasis on the role of nuclear structure in the fusion mechanism. The experiments considered are of three types: the fusion of lighter heavy ions at subcoulomb energies is studied with in-beam ..gamma..-ray techniques; the subbarrier fusion of /sup 16/O and /sup 40/Ar with the isotopes of samarium is detected out of beam by x-radiation from delayed activity; and measurements at very high energies, again for the lighter ions, employ direct particle identification of evaporation residues. The experimental data are compared with predictions based on the fusion of two spheres with the only degree of freedom being the separation of the centers, and which interact via potentials that vary smoothly with changes in the mass and charge of the projectile and target. The data exhibit with the isotopes of samarium, a portion of these deviations can be understood in terms of the changing deformation of the target nucleus, but an additional degree of freedom such as neck formation appears necessary. The results on /sup 10/B + /sup 16/O and /sup 12/C + /sup 14/N ..-->.. /sup 26/Al at high bombarding energies indicate a maximum limiting angular momentum characteristic of the compound nucleus. At lower energies the nuclear structure of the colliding ion seems to affect strongly the cross section for fusion. Measurements made at subbarrier energies for a variety of projectile-target combinations in the 1p and 2s - 1d shell also indicate that the valence nucleons can affect the energy dependence for fusion. About half the systems studied so far have structureless excitation functions which follow a standard prediction. The other half exhibit large variations from this prediction. The possible importance of neutron transfer is discussed. The two-center shell model appears as a promising approach for gaining a qualitative understanding of these phenomena. 95 references, 52 figures, 1 table.

  14. Heavy ion physics at CERN: present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Alessandro, Bruno; Chiesa, Alberta Marzari

    1998-10-05

    After a general introduction on the very high energy heavy ion interactions, the CERN heavy ion program is presented. Three CERN experiments are described in details: NA38/50 (J/{psi} suppression), NA45/CERES (e{sup +}e{sup -} production) and WA85/97 (multi-strange particle production). The ALICE experiment, to be built in the next years and foreseen at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is also extensively described.

  15. Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Willen, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a proposed research facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory to study the collision of beams of heavy ions, up to gold in mass and at beam energies up to 100 GeV/nucleon. The physics to be explored by this collider is an overlap between the traditional disciplines of nuclear physics and high energy physics and is a continuation of the planned program of light and heavy ion physics at BNL. The machine is to be constructed in the now-empty tunnel built for the former CBA project. Various other facilities to support the collider are either in place or under construction at BNL. The collider itself, including the magnets, is in an advanced state of design, and a construction start is anticipated in the next several years.

  16. Relativistic heavy ion physics. Progress report, November 15, 1992--November 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.C.; Wohn, F.K.

    1993-11-01

    This is a progress report for the period May 1992 through April 1993. The first section, entitled ``Purpose and Trends, gives background on the recent trends in the research program and its evolution from an emphasis on nuclear structure physics to its present emphasis on relativistic heavy ion and RHIC physics. The next section, entitled ``Physics Research Progress``, is divided into four parts: participation in the program to develop a large detector named PHENIX for the RHIC accelerator; joining E864 at the AGS accelerator and the role in that experiment; progress made in the study of electromagnetic dissociation highlight of this endeavor is an experiment carried out with the {sup 197}Au beam from the AGS accelerator in April 1992; progress in completion of the nuclear structure studies. In the final section a list of publications, invited talks, and contributed talks is given.

  17. (Reaction mechanism studies of heavy ion induced nuclear reactions)

    SciTech Connect

    Mignerey, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the following research projects; decay of excited nuclei formed in La-induced reactions at E/A = 45 MeV; mass and charge distributions in Cl-induced heavy ion reactions; and mass and charge distributions in {sup 56}Fe + {sup 165}Ho at E/A = 12 MeV.

  18. Probing the nuclear structure with heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Broglia, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclei display distortions in both ordinary space and in gauge space. It is suggested that it is possible to learn about the spatial distribution of the Nilsson orbitals and about the change of the pairing gap with the rotational frequency through the analysis of one- and two-nucleon transfer reactions induced in heavy-ion collisions.

  19. Experimental heavy ion physics at high energies. Progress report, September 1992--November 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report summarizes the research activities of the experimental high energy heavy ion physics group at Vanderbilt University carried out under Grant No. DE-FG05092ER40712 with the Department of Energy during the period Oct 1, 1992 to Nov 30, 1993. This research encompasses four areas of related inquiry in relativistic and high energy nuclear reactions. The preparation of the PHENIX experiment which has been approved as one of the two major experiments at RHIC to start in 1998. The RD10/RD45 Muon Identifier experiment which will provide essential input for the design of the Muon Endcap arm detector sub-system in PHENIX. The E855 Soft Photon Experiment at the AGS designed to clarify the status of a possible quark-gluon-plasma signature with presently available heavy-ion collisions. The construction CsI Ball detector project at Texas A&M which is designed as part of a comprehensive detector system which will probe the nuclear equation of state in the 50 MeV/nucleon domain.

  20. Heavy Flavor Physics in Heavy-Ion Collisions with STAR Heavy Flavor Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yifei

    2010-02-01

    Heavy quarks are a unique tool to probe the strongly interacting matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. Due to their large mass, energetic heavy quarks are predicted to lose less energy than light quarks by gluon radiation when they traverse a Quark-Gluon Plasma. In contrast, recent measurements of non-photonic electrons from heavy quark decays at high transverse momentum (pT) show a jet quenching level similar to that of the light hadrons. Heavy quark are produced mainly at early stage in heavy-ion collisions, thus they are proposed to probe the QCD medium and to be sensitive to bulk medium properties. Ultimately, their flow behavior may help establish whether light quarks thermalize. Therefore, topological reconstruction of D-mesons and identification of electrons from charm and bottom decays are crucial to understand the heavy flavor production and their in medium properties. The Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) is a micro-vertex detector utilizing active pixel sensors and silicon strip technology. The HFT will significantly extend the physics reach of the STAR experiment for precise measurement of charmed and bottom hadrons. We present a performance study with full detector on the open charm nuclear modification factor, elliptic flow v2 and λc measurement as well as the measurement of bottom mesons via a semi-leptonic decay. )

  1. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2010-03-16

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  2. HIGH ENERGY DENSITY PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH INTENSE HEAVY ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Logan, B.G.; More, R.M.; Roy, P.K.; Ni, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-08-01

    The US heavy ion fusion science program has developed techniques for heating ion-beam-driven warm dense matter (WDM) targets. The WDM conditions are to be achieved by combined longitudinal and transverse space-charge neutralized drift compression of the ion beam to provide a hot spot on the target with a beam spot size of about 1 mm, and pulse length about 1-2 ns. As a technique for heating volumetric samples of matter to high energy density, intense beams of heavy ions are capable of delivering precise and uniform beam energy deposition dE/dx, in a relatively large sample size, and the ability to heat any solid-phase target material. Initial experiments use a 0.3 MeV K+ beam (below the Bragg peak) from the NDCX-I accelerator. Future plans include target experiments using the NDCX-II accelerator, which is designed to heat targets at the Bragg peak using a 3-6 MeV lithium ion beam. The range of the beams in solid matter targets is about 1 micron, which can be lengthened by using porous targets at reduced density. We have completed the fabrication of a new experimental target chamber facility for WDM experiments, and implemented initial target diagnostics to be used for the first target experiments in NDCX-1. The target chamber has been installed on the NDCX-I beamline. The target diagnostics include a fast multi-channel optical pyrometer, optical streak camera, VISAR, and high-speed gated cameras. Initial WDM experiments will heat targets by compressed NDCX-I beams and will explore measurement of temperature and other target parameters. Experiments are planned in areas such as dense electronegative targets, porous target homogenization and two-phase equation of state.

  3. Probing nuclear symmetry energy at high densities using pion, kaon, eta and photon productions in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhi-Gang; Yong, Gao-Chan; Chen, Lie-Wen; Li, Bao-An; Zhang, Ming; Xiao, Guo-Qing; Xu, Nu

    2014-02-01

    The high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy is among the most uncertain properties of dense neutron-rich matter. Its accurate determination has significant ramifications in understanding not only the reaction dynamics of heavy-ion reactions, especially those induced by radioactive beams, but also many interesting phenomena in astrophysics, such as the explosion mechanism of supernova and the properties of neutron stars. The heavy-ion physics community has devoted much effort during the last few years to constrain the high-density symmetry using various probes. In particular, the / ratio has been most extensively studied both theoretically and experimentally. All models have consistently predicted qualitatively that the / ratio is a sensitive probe of the high-density symmetry energy especially with beam energies near the pion production threshold. However, the predicted values of the / ratio are still quite model dependent mostly because of the complexity of modeling pion production and reabsorption dynamics in heavy-ion collisions, leading to currently still controversial conclusions regarding the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy from comparing various model calculations with available experimental data. As more / data become available and a deeper understanding about the pion dynamics in heavy-ion reactions is obtained, more penetrating probes, such as the K +/ K 0 ratio, meson and high-energy photons are also being investigated or planned at several facilities. Here, we review some of our recent contributions to the community effort of constraining the high-density behavior of nuclear symmetry energy in heavy-ion collisions. In addition, the status of some worldwide experiments for studying the high-density symmetry energy, including the HIRFL-CSR external target experiment (CEE) are briefly introduced.

  4. Is there a role for fixed target heavy ion physics beyond RHIC startup?

    SciTech Connect

    Sandweiss, J.

    1995-07-15

    The interesting and important physics opportunities provided by AGS and CERN fixed target facilities will be far from exhausted by the time of RHIC turn on. Given the need for the AGS to provide heavy ion beams for injection into RHIC, the cost effectiveness of fixed target experimentation with AGS beams will be high. Examples of the physics are given.

  5. Physics with relativistic heavy ions: QGP and other delicacies

    SciTech Connect

    Young, G.R.

    1995-02-01

    Conditions favorable to formation and observation of a deconfined state of quarks and gluons (often called the quark-gluon plasma) are thought to exist following the collision of very heavy nuclei at center-of-mass energies exceeding several tens of GeV/nucleon. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider under construction at BNL since 1991 is designed to provide such collisions at energies up to {radical}s/A = 200 GeV. Two large dedicated experiments are being built to operate there; these two experiments take rather different approaches to the problem of classifying such collisions and probing for signals of QGP formation. Two smaller experiments are proposed to focus on specific aspects of these collisions. Recent developments in the understanding of the initial state formed in such collisions include, particularly, the possible rapid equilibration of the gluon density, leading in an equilibrium picture to such high temperatures that sizable thermal excitation of charm becomes probable. Recent theoretical conjectures have focussed on the possible formation of a disordered chiral condensate following chiral symmetry restoration in heavy-nucleus collisions, which might be a consequence of nonequilibrium deexcitation of a dense partonic state.

  6. US Heavy Ion Beam Research for High Energy Density Physics Applications and Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.; et al.

    2005-09-19

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers.

  7. US Heavy Ion Beam Research for Energy Density Physics Applicationsand Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, R.C.; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Briggs, R.J.; Callahan D.A.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Celata, C.M.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Debonnel, C.S.; Grote, D.P.; Efthimiom, P.C.; Eylon, S.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich,I.D.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Lee, W.W.; Leitner, M.; Lund, S.M.; Meier,W.R.; Molvik, A.W.; Olson, C.L.; Penn, G.E.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Rose,D.V.; Sefkow, A.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.M.; Startsev, E.A.; Tabak, M.; Thoma, C.; Vay, J-L; Wadron, W.L.; Wurtele, J.S.; Welch, D.R.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    2005-09-01

    Key scientific results from recent experiments, modeling tools, and heavy ion accelerator research are summarized that explore ways to investigate the properties of high energy density matter in heavy-ion-driven targets, in particular, strongly-coupled plasmas at 0.01 to 0.1 times solid density for studies of warm dense matter, which is a frontier area in high energy density physics. Pursuit of these near-term objectives has resulted in many innovations that will ultimately benefit heavy ion inertial fusion energy. These include: neutralized ion beam compression and focusing, which hold the promise of greatly improving the stage between the accelerator and the target chamber in a fusion power plant; and the Pulse Line Ion Accelerator (PLIA), which may lead to compact, low-cost modular linac drivers.

  8. Induction-accelerator heavy-ion fusion: Status and beam physics issues

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A.

    1996-01-26

    Inertial confinement fusion driven by beams of heavy ions is an attractive route to controlled fusion. In the U.S., induction accelerators are being developed as {open_quotes}drivers{close_quotes} for this process. This paper is divided into two main sections. In the first section, the concept of induction-accelerator driven heavy-ion fusion is briefly reviewed, and the U.S. program of experiments and theoretical investigations is described. In the second, a {open_quotes}taxonomy{close_quotes} of space-charge-dominated beam physics issues is presented, accompanied by a brief discussion of each area.

  9. Future directions in intermediate energy heavy ion physics. A proposed expansion of the Holifield Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-02-01

    A proposal is presented for a major accelerator addition to the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility. The expanded facility will provide ion beams of mass 1 to 238 amu with a combination of energy, intensity, momentum resolution, and beam quality not currently available at any other facility in North America. The physics motivation for such an addition is discussed, and involves physics dominated by meson-exchange forces, Coulomb-force dominated physics, and possibly a regime where the quark and gluon degrees of freedom are significant. The physics research would include topics in atomic and interdisciplinary areas as well as nuclear physics. Some remarks are made on the merits of Oak Ridge as a site for this facility, placing the proposal in some historical perspective. The accelerator system is then described, giving the required beam properties, and the parameters of the synchrotron ring components, injection, ring magnets, RF systems, vacuum system, and electron cooling system and stochastic cooling system requirements. Also described are such facilities as buildings, beam transport and shielding, and experimental facilities, including target areas. (LEW)

  10. Toward a deeper understanding of how experiments constrain the underlying physics of heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangaline, Evan; Pratt, Scott

    2016-02-01

    Recent work has provided the means to rigorously determine properties of superhadronic matter from experimental data through the application of broad scale modeling of high-energy nuclear collisions within a Bayesian framework. These studies have provided unprecedented statistical inferences about the physics underlying nuclear collisions by virtue of simultaneously considering a wide range of model parameters and experimental observables. Notably, this approach has been used to constrain both the QCD equation of state and the shear viscosity above the quark-hadron transition. Although the inferences themselves have a clear meaning, the complex nature of the relationships between model parameters and observables has remained relatively obscure. We present here a novel extension of the standard Bayesian Markov-chain Monte Carlo approach that allows for the quantitative determination of how inferences of model parameters are driven by experimental measurements and their uncertainties. This technique is then applied in the context of heavy-ion collisions in order to explore previous results in greater depth. The resulting relationships are useful for identifying model weaknesses, prioritizing future experimental measurements, and, most importantly, developing an intuition for the roles that different observables play in constraining our understanding of the underlying physics.

  11. Nuclear Molecular Resonances in Heavy-Ion Collisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erb, Karl A.; Bromley, D. Allan

    1979-01-01

    Explains that some nuclear scattering phenomena can be attributed to states in which two nuclei are bound to each other at their surfaces, revolving and vibrating for a time before coalescing or disintegrating. (Author/GA)

  12. Heavy ion physics at LHC with the Compact Muon Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Bedjidian, M.; Contardo, D.; Haroutunian, R.

    1995-07-15

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS), is one of the two detectors proposed to achieve the primary goal of the LHC: the discovery of the Higgs boson(s). For this purpose, the detector is optimized for the precise measurement of muons, photons, electrons and jets. It is a clear motivation to investigate its ability to measure the hard processes probing the formation of a Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) in ion collisions. It is the case of the heavy quark bound states, long predicted to be suppressed in a QGP. In CMS they can be detected, via their muonic decay according to the principle adopted for the p-p physics.

  13. Physics perspectives of heavy-ion collisions at very high energy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chang, Ning-bo; Cao, ShanShan; Chen, Bao-yi; Chen, Shi-yong; Chen, Zhen-yu; Ding, Heng-Tong; He, Min; Liu, Zhi-quan; Pang, Long-gang; Qin, Guang-you; et al

    2016-01-15

    We expect heavy-ion collisions at very high colliding energies to produce a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the highest temperature obtainable in a laboratory setting. Experimental studies of these reactions can provide an unprecedented range of information on properties of the QGP at high temperatures. We also report theoretical investigations of the physics perspectives of heavy-ion collisions at a future high-energy collider. These include initial parton production, collective expansion of the dense medium, jet quenching, heavy-quark transport, dissociation and regeneration of quarkonia, photon and dilepton production. Here, we illustrate the potential of future experimental studies of the initial particle production andmore » formation of QGP at the highest temperature to provide constraints on properties of strongly interaction matter.« less

  14. Physics perspectives of heavy-ion collisions at very high energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ning-bo; Cao, ShanShan; Chen, Bao-yi; Chen, Shi-yong; Chen, Zhen-yu; Ding, Heng-Tong; He, Min; Liu, Zhi-quan; Pang, Long-gang; Qin, Guang-you; Rapp, Ralf; Schenke, Björn; Shen, Chun; Song, HuiChao; Xu, Hao-jie; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xin-Nian; Zhang, Ben-wei; Zhang, Han-zhong; Zhu, XiangRong; Zhuang, Peng-fei

    2016-02-01

    Heavy-ion collisions at very high colliding energies are expected to produce a quark-gluon plasma (QGP) at the highest temperature obtainable in a laboratory setting. Experimental studies of these reactions can provide an unprecedented range of information on properties of the QGP at high temperatures. We report theoretical investigations of the physics perspectives of heavy-ion collisions at a future high-energy collider. These include initial parton production, collective expansion of the dense medium, jet quenching, heavy-quark transport, dissociation and regeneration of quarkonia, photon and dilepton production. We illustrate the potential of future experimental studies of the initial particle production and formation of QGP at the highest temperature to provide constraints on properties of strongly interaction matter.

  15. Multi-spacecraft Observations of Heavy Ion Dropouts: Physical Processes, Fractionation Rates, and Release Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weberg, M. J.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T.

    2014-12-01

    Heavy ion dropouts in the solar wind are thought to originate from large, closed coronal loops. The distinctive, mass-dependent fractionation patterns of the dropouts requires that their source loops are relatively quiet and stable long enough (on the order of a day) to undergo gravitational settling. Therefore by studying the composition of heavy ion dropouts we are able to peer into the solar corona and glean information about the fine balance of physical processes. Additionally, the occurrence rates and magnetic profiles of dropouts suggest specific forms of magnetic reconnection are responsible for the release of the otherwise trapped plasma into the solar wind. In this study we identify and compare dropouts observed by two different satellites, ACE and Ulysses, which together provide over 20 years of continuous observations at a variety of heliographic latitudes and radii. The resulting partial global view (or 3D view) enables us to identify coronal source regions and release mechanisms of heavy ion dropouts. We also discuss a physical model of gravitational settling which can be used to reconcile fractionation rates with the rate at which plasma must be escaping via reconnection. Our conclusions and results may contribute towards the ongoing refinement and validation of theories which predict the origin of "slow type" solar wind.

  16. Future relativistic heavy ion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, H.G.

    1980-12-01

    Equations of state for nuclear matter and ongoing experimental studies are discussed. Relativistic heavy ion physics is the only opportunity to study in the laboratory the properties of extended multiquark systems under conditions such that quarks might run together into new arrangements previously unobserved. Several lines of further study are mentioned. (GHT)

  17. Temperature and density dependence of properties of nuclear matter deduced from heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Shlomo, Shalom

    2010-11-24

    Heavy-ion collision experiments are often employed to determine properties of nuclear matter under extreme conditions of temperature and density. This has been the subject of many investigations in recent decades, since understanding the equation of state of hot nuclear matter is very important in the study supernovae, neutron stars and nuclei. We present a short and limited review of the theoretical and experimental status of determining the temperature and density of the disassembling hot nucleus from ratios of the yields of emitted fragments.

  18. Irradiation of nuclear track emulsions with thermal neutrons, heavy ions, and muons

    SciTech Connect

    Artemenkov, D. A. Bradnova, V.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Rusakova, V. V.

    2015-07-15

    Exposures of test samples of nuclear track emulsion were analyzed. Angular and energy correlations of products originating from the thermal-neutron-induced reaction n{sub th} +{sup 10} B → {sup 7} Li + (γ)+ α were studied in nuclear track emulsions enriched in boron. Nuclear track emulsions were also irradiated with {sup 86}Kr{sup +17} and {sup 124}Xe{sup +26} ions of energy about 1.2 MeV per nucleon. Measurements of ranges of heavy ions in nuclear track emulsionsmade it possible to determine their energies on the basis of the SRIM model. The formation of high-multiplicity nuclear stars was observed upon irradiating nuclear track emulsions with ultrarelativistic muons. Kinematical features studied in this exposure of nuclear track emulsions for events of the muon-induced splitting of carbon nuclei to three alpha particles are indicative of the nucleardiffraction interaction mechanism.

  19. Irradiation of nuclear track emulsions with thermal neutrons, heavy ions, and muons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artemenkov, D. A.; Bradnova, V.; Zaitsev, A. A.; Zarubin, P. I.; Zarubina, I. G.; Kattabekov, R. R.; Mamatkulov, K. Z.; Rusakova, V. V.

    2015-07-01

    Exposures of test samples of nuclear track emulsion were analyzed. Angular and energy correlations of products originating from the thermal-neutron-induced reaction n th +10 B → 7 Li + (γ)+ α were studied in nuclear track emulsions enriched in boron. Nuclear track emulsions were also irradiated with 86Kr+17 and 124Xe+26 ions of energy about 1.2 MeV per nucleon. Measurements of ranges of heavy ions in nuclear track emulsionsmade it possible to determine their energies on the basis of the SRIM model. The formation of high-multiplicity nuclear stars was observed upon irradiating nuclear track emulsions with ultrarelativistic muons. Kinematical features studied in this exposure of nuclear track emulsions for events of the muon-induced splitting of carbon nuclei to three alpha particles are indicative of the nucleardiffraction interaction mechanism.

  20. Interplay between compound and fragments aspects of nuclear fission and heavy-ion reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Moller, Peter; Iwamoto, A; Ichikawa, I

    2010-09-10

    The scission point in nuclear fission plays a special role where one-body system changes to two-body system. Inverse of this situation is realized in heavy-ion fusion reaction where two-body system changes to one body system. Among several peculiar phenomena expected to occur during this change, we focus our attention to the behavior of compound and fragments shell effects. Some aspects of the interplay between compound and fragments shell effect are discussed related to the topics of the fission valleys in the potential energy surface of actinide nuclei and the fusion-like trajectory found in the cold fusion reaction leading to superheavy nuclei.

  1. Heavy-ion dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Schimmerling, W.

    1980-03-01

    This lecture deals with some of the more important physical characteristics of relativistic heavy ions and their measurement, with beam delivery and beam monitoring, and with conventional radiation dosimetry as used in the operation of the BEVALAC biomedical facility for high energy heavy ions (Lyman and Howard, 1977; BEVALAC, 1977). Even so, many fundamental aspects of the interaction of relativistic heavy ions with matter, including important atomic physics and radiation chemical considerations, are not discussed beyond the reminder that such additional understanding is required before an adequte perspective of the problem can be attained.

  2. Focusing giga-electronvolt heavy ions to micrometers at the Institute of Modern Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Lina; Du, Guanghua; Guo, Jinlong; Wu, Ruqun; Song, Mingtao; Yuan, Youjin; Xiao, Guoqing

    2013-05-01

    To study the radiation effect of cosmic heavy ions of low fluxes in electronics and living samples, a focusing heavy ion microbeam facility, for ions with energies of several MeV/u up to 100 MeV/u, was constructed in the Institute of Modern Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. This facility has a vertical design and an experiment platform for both in-vacuum analysis and in-air irradiation. Recently, microbeam of 12C6+ with energy of 80.55 MeV/u was successfully achieved at this interdisciplinary microbeam facility with a full beam spot size of 3 μm × 5 μm on target in air. Different from ions with energy of several MeV/u, the very high ion energy of hundred MeV/u level induces problems in beam micro-collimation, online beam spot diagnosis, radiation protection, etc. This paper presents the microbeam setup, difficulties in microbeam formation, and the preliminary experiments performed with the facility.

  3. Chemistry of heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1988-10-01

    The use of heavy ions to induce nuclear reactions was reported as early as 1950. Since that time it has been one of the most active areas of nuclear research. Intense beams of ions as heavy as uranium with energies high enough to overcome the Coulomb barriers of even the heaviest elements are available. The wide variety of possible reactions gives rise to a multitude of products which have been studied by many ingenious chemical and physical techniques. Chemical techniques have been of special value for the separation and unequivocal identification of low yield species from the plethora of other nuclides present. Heavy ion reactions have been essential for the production of the trans-Md elements and a host of new isotopes. The systematics of compound nucleus reactions, transfer reactions, and deeply inelastic reactions have been elucidated using chemical techniques. A review of the variety of chemical procedures and techniques which have been developed for the study of heavy ion reactions and their products is given. Determination of the chemical properties of the trans-Md elements, which are very short-lived and can only be produced an ''atom-at-a-time'' via heavy ion reactions, is discussed. 53 refs., 19 figs.

  4. The design of the RF cavity for the heavy ion storage ring for atomic physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mosko, S.W.

    1990-01-01

    An rf cavity and drive system have been designed for the proposed Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics,'' HISTRAP, at Oak Ridge. A peak accelerating voltage of 2.5 kV per turn is required with a continuous tuning range from 200 kHz through 2.7 MHz. A single-gap, half-wave resonant configuration is used with biased ferrite tuning. The cavity structure is completely outside of the beam line/vacuum enclosure except for a single rf window that serves as an accelerating gap. Physical separation of the cavity and beam line permits in situ vacuum baking of the beam line components at 300{degree}C. A prototype cavity was designed, built, and tested. Development of frequency synthesizer and tuner control circuitry is under way.

  5. Nuclear research with heavy ions. Annual progress report. January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, M.

    1980-10-01

    The program of research is oriented towards experimental studies of the interactions between heavy ions and complex nuclei. These interactions are probed by detailed measurements of light-charged-particle emission using counter telescopes for atomic number and mass number identification. Singles measurements of the charged-particle energy spectra and angular distributions, together with coincidence correlations with heavy nuclear-reaction fragments, provide insight into the contributing reaction mechanisms. The application of the statistical model to the appropriate experimental data allows the determination of parameters necessary to calibrate the theory, and gives indications of dynamical control vs. equilibrium in the several degrees of freedom associated with the nuclear collisions. A large body of data are presented and discussed for /sup 40/Ar reactions with /sup 116/Sn, /sup 154/Sm, /sup 164/Dy, and /sup 197/Au targets. Complete results are also given for twelve reactions which produce /sup 194/Hg compound nuclei at several excitation energies.

  6. Nuclear stopping in heavy-ion collisions at 100 MeV/nucleon from inclusive and exclusive neutral pion measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Badala, A.; Barbera, R.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Riggi, F.; Russo, A.C.; Russo, G.; Turrisi, R. ||

    1996-04-01

    Inclusive and exclusive measurements of neutral pions in heavy-ion collisions around 100 MeV/nucleon, carried out in a near 4{pi} geometry, have been analyzed to obtain information on the nuclear stopping of the projectile. Stopping of the projectile has been investigated by the analysis of the source velocity, of the distribution of the energetic products of the collisions, and of the associated rapidity distribution of the baryon matter. Collisions were classified according to their centrality by the charged particle multiplicity. Clear evidence for this phenomenon has been obtained by the study of different observables. Both stopping and reabsorption effects play an essential role in the interpretation of the results. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  7. Radiological physics characteristics of the extracted heavy ion beams of the bevatron.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, C. A.; Lyman, J. T.; Chatterjee, A.; Howard, J.; Maccabee, H. D.; Raju, M. R.; Smith, A. R.; Sperinde, J. M.; Welch, G. P.

    1971-01-01

    Studies of the depth-ionization properties and the biological effects of heavy ion beams produced at the bevatron have extended work previously done with less energetic beams from other sources. Results indicate that heavy ion beams are suitable for tumor therapy, studies relating to space biology, and fundamental radiobiology.

  8. The LHC heavy-ion programme: The energy frontier of nuclear collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jowett, John M.

    The greater part of the beam time at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is devoted to colliding proton beams for the purposes of elementary particle physics at the highest available energies per colliding nucleon [Myers (2015)]. However a substantial fraction -- about one month per operating year -- is devoted to colliding the nuclei of heavy atoms with each other or, sometimes, with protons. The much larger total energies in these "ultrarelativistic heavy-ion" collisions produce tiny droplets of strongly-interacting matter, the quark-gluon plasma, at the highest densities and temperatures available in the laboratory. The LHC thus recreates the substance that filled the universe in the first microseconds of its history and exposes it to detailed scrutiny with its array of extraordinarily capable detectors...

  9. Bulk nuclear properties from dynamical description of heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Jun

    Mapping out the equation of state (EOS) of nuclear matter is a long standing problem in nuclear physics. Both experimentalists and theoretical physicists spare no effort in improving understanding of the EOS. In this thesis, we examine observables sensitive to the EOS within the pBUU transport model based on the Boltzmann equation. By comparing theoretical predictions with experimental data, we arrive at new constraints for the EOS. Further we propose novel promising observables for analysis of future experimental data. One set of observables that we examine within the pBUU model are pion yields. First, we find that net pion yields in central heavy-ion collisions (HIC) are strongly sensitive to the momentum dependence of the isoscalar nuclear mean field. We reexamine the momentum dependence that is assumed in the Boltzmann equation model for the collisions and optimize that dependence to describe the FOPI measurements of pion yields from the Au+Au collisions at different beam energies. Alas such optimized dependence yields a somewhat weaker baryonic elliptic flow than seen in measurements. Subsequently, we use the same pBUU model to generate predictions for baryonic elliptic flow observable in HIC, while varying the incompressibility of nuclear matter. In parallel, we test the sensitivity of pion multiplicity to the density dependence of EOS, and in particular to incompressibility, and optimize that dependence to describe both the elliptic flow and pion yields. Upon arriving at acceptable regions of density dependence of pressure and energy, we compare our constraints on EOS with those recently arrived at by the joint experiment and theory effort FOPI-IQMD. We should mention that, for the more advanced observables from HIC, there remain discrepancies of up to 30%, depending on energy, between the theory and experiment, indicating the limitations of the transport theory. Next, we explore the impact of the density dependence of the symmetry energy on observables

  10. Mini-proceedings of the workshop on heavy ion physics and instrumentation for a 15-Tm booster and storage ring

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    The goal of this workshop was to probe in depth a few of the areas of possible physics made possible by the availability of an intermediate energy heavy-ion physics facility. There was a special emphasis on physics that would be possible only with a storage/cooler ring. Topics discussed were nuclei far from stability, quantum electrodynamics, giant resonances and photonuclear reactions, and high energy gamma-ray production. Individual papers in this meeting were abstracted separately.

  11. Two-Photon Interactions with Nuclear Breakup in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, Anthony J.; Gorbunov, Yuri; R Klein, Spencer; Nystrand, Joakim

    2010-07-07

    Highly charged relativistic heavy ions have high cross-sections for two-photon interactions. The photon flux is high enough that two-photon interactions may be accompanied by additional photonuclear interactions. Except for the shared impact parameter, these interactions are independent. Additional interactions like mutual Coulomb excitation are of experimental interest, since the neutrons from the nuclear dissociation provide a simple, relatively unbiased trigger. We calculate the cross sections, rapidity, mass and transverse momentum (p{sub T}) distributions for exclusive {gamma}{gamma} production of mesons and lepton pairs, and for {gamma}{gamma} reactions accompanied by mutual Coulomb dissociation. The cross-sections for {gamma}{gamma} interactions accompanied by multiple neutron emission (XnXn) and single neutron emission (1n1n) are about 1/10 and 1/100 of that for the unaccompanied {gamma}{gamma} interactions. We discuss the accuracy with which these cross-sections may be calculated. The typical p{sub T} of {gamma}{gamma} final states is several times smaller than for comparable coherent photonuclear interactions, so p{sub T} may be an effective tool for separating the two classes of interactions.

  12. Millimeter length micromachining using a heavy ion nuclear microprobe with standard magnetic scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesprías, F.; Debray, M. E.; Davidson, J.; Kreiner, A. J.; Vega, N.; de la Fournière, E.

    2013-04-01

    In order to increase the scanning length of our microprobe, we have developed an irradiation procedure suitable for use in any nuclear microprobe, extending at least up to 400% the length of our heavy ion direct writing facility using standard magnetic exploration. Although this method is limited to patterns of a few millimeters in only one direction, it is useful for the manufacture of curved waveguides, optical devices such Mach-Zehnder modulators, directional couplers as well as channels for micro-fluidic applications. As an example, this technique was applied to the fabrication of 3 mm 3D-Mach-Zehnder modulators in lithium niobate with short Y input/output branches and long shaped parallel-capacitor control electrodes. To extend and improve the quality of the machined structures we developed new scanning control software in LabView™ platform. The new code supports an external dose normalization, electrostatic beam blanking and is capable of scanning figures at 16 bit resolution using a National Instruments™ PCI-6731 High-Speed I/O card. A deep and vertical micromachining process using swift 35Cl ions 70 MeV bombarding energy and direct write patterning was performed on LiNbO3, a material which exhibits a strong natural anisotropy to conventional etching. The micromachined structures show the feasibility of this method for manufacturing micro-fluidic channels as well.

  13. Two-photon interactions with nuclear breakup in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Baltz, Anthony J.; Gorbunov, Yuri; Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim

    2009-10-15

    Highly charged relativistic heavy ions have high cross sections for two-photon interactions. The photon flux is high enough that two-photon interactions may be accompanied by additional photonuclear interactions. Except for the shared impact parameter, these interactions are independent. Additional interactions like mutual Coulomb excitation are of experimental interest, because the neutrons from the nuclear dissociation provide a simple, relatively unbiased trigger. We calculate the cross sections, rapidity, mass, and transverse momentum (p{sub T}) distributions for exclusive {gamma}{gamma} production of mesons and lepton pairs and for {gamma}{gamma} reactions accompanied by mutual Coulomb dissociation. The cross sections for {gamma}{gamma} interactions accompanied by multiple neutron emission (XnXn) and single-neutron emission (1n1n) are about 1/10 and 1/100 of that for the unaccompanied {gamma}{gamma} interactions. We discuss the accuracy with which these cross sections may be calculated. The typical p{sub T} of {gamma}{gamma} final states is several times smaller than for comparable coherent photonuclear interactions, so p{sub T} may be an effective tool for separating the two classes of interactions.

  14. Cold Nuclear Matter Effects on Heavy Quark Production in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, John Matthew

    2011-12-01

    The experimental collaborations at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) have established that dense nuclear matter with partonic degrees of freedom is formed in collisions of heavy nuclei at 200 GeV. Information from heavy quarks has given significant insight into the dynamics of this matter. Charm and bottom quarks are dominantly produced by gluon fusion in the early stages of the collision, and thus experience the complete evolution of the medium. The production baseline measured in p + p collisions can be described by fixed order plus next to leading log perturbative QCD calculations within uncertainties. In central Au+Au collisions, suppression has been measured relative to the yield in p + p scaled by the number of nucleon-nucleon collisions, indicating a significant energy loss by heavy quarks in the medium. The large elliptic flow amplitude v2 provides evidence that the heavy quarks flow along with the lighter partons. The suppression and elliptic flow of these quarks are in qualitative agreement with calculations based on Langevin transport models that imply a viscosity to entropy density ratio close to the conjectured quantum lower bound of 1/4pi. However, a full understanding of these phenomena requires measurements of cold nuclear matter (CNM) effects, which should be present in Au+Au collisions but are difficult to distinguish experimentally from effects due to interactions with the medium. This thesis presents measurements of electrons at midrapidity from the decays of heavy quarks produced in d+Au collisions at RHIC. A significant enhancement of these electrons is seen at a transverse momentum below 5 GeV/c, indicating strong CNM effects on charm quarks that are not present for lighter quarks. A simple model of CNM effects in Au+Au collisions suggests that the level of suppression in the hot nuclear medium is comparable for all quark flavors.

  15. Selected Topics in the Physics of Heavy Ion Collisions (1/3)

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    In these lectures, I discuss some classes of measurements accessible in heavy ion collisions at the LHC. How can these observables be measured, to what extent can they be calculated, and what do they tell us about the dense mesoscopic system created during the collision? In the first lecture, I shall focus in particular on measurements that constrain the spatio-temporal picture of the collisions and that measure centrality, orientations and extensions. In the subsequent lectures, I then discuss on how classes of measurements allow one to characterize collective phenomena, and to what extent these measurements can constrain the properties of matter produced in heavy ion collisions.

  16. Selected Topics in the Physics of Heavy Ion Collisions (1/3)

    SciTech Connect

    2011-03-15

    In these lectures, I discuss some classes of measurements accessible in heavy ion collisions at the LHC. How can these observables be measured, to what extent can they be calculated, and what do they tell us about the dense mesoscopic system created during the collision? In the first lecture, I shall focus in particular on measurements that constrain the spatio-temporal picture of the collisions and that measure centrality, orientations and extensions. In the subsequent lectures, I then discuss on how classes of measurements allow one to characterize collective phenomena, and to what extent these measurements can constrain the properties of matter produced in heavy ion collisions.

  17. XLIX International Winter Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unlike many workshops, the Bormio meeting does not focus on a single topic. Instead, the aim is to bring together researchers and students from related fields in subatomic physics. Addressed topics include hadron physics, heavy ion physics, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure, particle physics, detectors and future projects as well as applications of these fields. Review talks by more senior speakers as well as talks and posters presented by junior researchers are encouraged. Hadron Physics Heavy Ion Physics Nuclear Astrophysics and Nuclear Structure Particle Physics Detectors and new facilities Applications

  18. Applications of many-body physics to relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fillion-Gourdeau, Francois

    In this dissertation, many-body physics techniques are used to study and improve ideas related to the description of heavy ion collisions at very high energy. The first part of the thesis concerns the production of tensor mesons in proton-proton (pp) collisions. An effective theory where the f2 meson couples to the energy-momentum tensor is proposed and a comparison of the inclusive cross-section computed in the collinear factorization, the k⊥-factorization and the color glass condensate is performed. A study of the phenomenology in pp collisions then shows a strong dependence on the parametrization of the unintegrated distribution function. The conclusion is that f2 meson production can be utilized to improve the understanding of the proton wave-function. In the second part, a similar investigation is performed by analysing the production cross-section of the eta' meson in pp and proton-nucleus (pA) collisions. The nucleus and proton are described by the CGC and the k⊥ -factorization respectively. A new technique for the computation of Wilson lines---color charge densities correlators in the McLerran-Venugopalan model is developped. The phenomenology shows that the cross-section in pA collisions is very sensitive to the value of the saturation scale, a crucial ingredient of the CGC picture. In the third part of the thesis, the collision term of the Boltzmann equation is derived from first principles at all orders and for any number of participating particles, starting from the full out-of-equilibrium quantum field theory and using the multiple scattering expansion. Finally, the emission of photons from a non-abelian strong classical field is investigated. A formalism based on Schwinger-Keldysh propagators relating the production rate of photons to the retarded solution of the Dirac equation in a background field is presented.

  19. RELATIVISTIC HEAVY ION COLLISIONS: EXPERIMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, Erwin M.; Heckman, Harry H.

    1982-04-01

    Relativistic heavy ion physics began as a 'no man's land' between particle and nuclear physics, with both sides frowning upon it as 'unclean', because on one hand, hadronic interactions and particle production cloud nuclear structure effects, while on the other, the baryonic environment complicates the interpretation of production experiments. They have attempted to review here the experimental evidence on RHI collisions from the point of view that it represents a new endeavor in the understanding of strong interaction physics. Such an approach appears increasingly justified; first, by the accumulation of data and observations of new features of hadronic interactions that could not have been detected outside a baryonic environment; second, by the maturation of the field owing to the advances made over the past several years in experimental inquiries on particle production by RHI, including pions, kaons, hyperons, and searches for antiprotons; and third, by the steady and progressive increase in the energy and mass ranges of light nuclear beams that have become available to the experiment; indeed the energy range has widened from the {approx} 0.2 to 2 AGeV at the Bevalac to {approx}4 AGeV at Dubna and recently, to the quantum jump in energies to {approx} 1000 equivalent AGeV at the CERN PS-ISR. Accompanying these expansions in the energy frontier are the immediate prospects for very heavy ion beams at the Bevalac up to, and including, 1 AGeV {sup 238}U, thereby extending the 'mass frontier' to its ultimate extent.

  20. Heavy-ion collisions and the nuclear equation of state. Progress report, August 15, 1991--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, D.

    1992-09-01

    The overall goal of this project is to study nucleus-nucleus collisions experimentally at intermediate and relativistic energies, with emphasis on measurement and interpretation of correlation effects that provide insight into the nuclear phase diagram and the nuclear equation of state. During the past year, the PI has been on leave at Lawrence Berkeley Lab and has worked on this research project full-time. A large fraction of the effort of the PI and graduate students has gone into preparing for experiments using the Time Projection Chamber at LBL`s Bevalac accelerator; in March 1992, this device successfully took data in production mode for the first time, and the first physics analysis is now under way. The PI has carried out simulations that help to define the physics performance and engineering specifications of the recently-approved STAR detector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, and has identified a new capability of this device with the potential for being an important quark-gluon plasma signature. A Postdoctoral Fellow, jointly supported by this grant and Kent State University, has been recruited to augment these efforts. Since May 1991, 11 journal papers have been published or submitted for publication; 2 conference proceedings and 9 reports or abstracts have also been published during the past year. One paper in Phys. Rev. Left., one in Phys. Rev. C, and one conference proceedings are based on the thesis project of one of the PI`s Ph.D. students who is expected to graduate later this year. Partly in response to the impending closure of the Bevalac, the PI`s group has recently joined the NA49 experiment at CERN.

  1. Theoretical nuclear database for high-energy, heavy-ion (HZE) transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical methods for estimating high-energy, heavy-ion (HZE) particle absorption and fragmentation cross-sections are described and compared with available experimental data. Differences between theory and experiment range from several percent for absorption cross-sections up to about 25%-50% for fragmentation cross-sections.

  2. Charged Particle Multiplicity and Open Heavy Flavor Physics in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yujiao

    peripheral collisions. Within the experimental errors, the observed suppression is independent of muon pT for all centralities. Furthermore, the p T dependence of the relative muon yields in Pb+Pb collisions to p+p collisions with the same center of mass collision energy per nucleon is presented by the nuclear modification factor RAA, which is defined as the ratio of a spectrum from heavy ion collisions to the same but scaled spectrum from nucleon-nucleon collisions. The observed RAA has little dependence on pT within the uncertainties quoted here. The results for RAA indicate a factor of about 3 suppression in the yield of muons in the most central (0-10%) collisions compared to the p+p collisions.

  3. Heavy ion fusion science research for high energy density physics and fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    LOGAN, B.G.; Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Greenway, W.G.; Grisham, L.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Kwan, J.W.; LaFortune, K.N.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Penn, G.E.; Perkins, L.J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Sharp, W.; Startsev, E.A.; Varentsov, D.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Wurtele, J.S.; Welch, D.; Westenskow, G.A.; Yu, S.S.

    2007-06-25

    During the past two years, the U.S. heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target designs for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2007, these results will enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year at LBNL. We are assessing how these new techniques apply to low-cost modular fusion drivers and higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  4. Development of a laser optically pumped polarized target for use in heavy-ion physics. [/sup 151/ /sup 153/Eu

    SciTech Connect

    Shivakumar, B.; Beene, J.R.; Bemis, C.E. Jr.; Erb, K.A.; Ford, J.L.C. Jr.; Shapira, D.

    1982-01-01

    Important micro- and macroscopic details of heavy-ion reactions may be explicitly determined when nuclear spin aligned (polarized) targets are used. For deformed nuclei, the orientation of the symmetry axis of the nuclear density distribution is determined by the nuclear spin orientation. Polarized targets would thus allow experiments to be performed as a function of the orientation of the symmetry axis of the nuclear density distribution. A polarized target of /sup 151/ /sup 153/Eu is being developed at Oak Ridge and is based on laser depopulation optical pumping. A spatially defined target is provided by a supersonic gas jet and consists of Eu atoms seeded into an inert carrier gas. Detailed time-dependent optical-pumping calculations predict approx. = 90% nuclear spin polarization in a Eu target with an expected thickness in excess of 10/sup 15/ atoms/cm/sup 2/. We present some of the effects that will be observable in heavy-ion reactions when deformed polarized targets are used.

  5. Self-Consistent Conversion of a Viscous Fluid to Particles and Heavy-Ion Physics Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Zack J.

    The most widely used theoretical framework to model the early stages of a heavy-ion collision is viscous hydrodynamics. Comparing hydrodynamic simulations to heavy-ion data inevitably requires the conversion of the fluid to particles. This conversion, typically done in the Cooper-Frye formalism, is ambiguous for viscous fluids. In this thesis work, self-consistent phase space corrections are calculated by solving the linearized Boltzmann equation. These species-dependent solutions are contrasted with those obtained using the ad-hoc ''democratic Grad'' ansatz typically employed in the literature in which coefficients are independent of particle dynamics. Solutions are calculated analytically for a massless gas and numerically for the general case of a hadron resonance gas. For example, it is found that for a gas of massless particles interacting via isotropic, energy-independent 2 → 2 scatterings, the shear viscous corrections variationally prefer a momentum dependence close to p3/2 rather than the quadratic dependence assumed in the Grad ansatz. The self-consistent phase space distributions are then used to calculate transverse momentum spectra and differential flow coefficients, v n(pT), to study the effects on heavy-ion identified particle observables. Using additive quark model cross sections, it is found that proton flow coefficients are higher than those for pions at moderately high pT in Pb + Pb collisions at LHC, especially for the coefficients v 4 and v6.

  6. NUMEN Project @ LNS : Heavy ions double charge exchange reactions towards the 0νββ nuclear matrix element determination

    SciTech Connect

    Agodi, C. Calabretta, L.; Calanna, A.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Colonna, M.; Cuttone, G.; Finocchiaro, P.; Pandola, L.; Rifuggiato, D.; Tudisco, S.; Cappuzzello, F.; Greco, V.; Bonanno, D. L.; Bongiovanni, D. G.; Longhitano, F.; Branchina, V.; Foti, A.; Lo Presti, D.; Lanzalone, G.; and others

    2015-10-28

    In the NUMEN Project it is proposed an innovative technique to access the nuclear matrix elements entering in the expression of the life-time of the neutrinoless double beta decay, using relevant cross sections of double charge exchange reactions. A key aspect is the use of MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer, for the detection of the ejectiles, and of the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) K800 Superconducting Cyclotron (CS), for the acceleration of the required high resolution and low emittance heavy-ion beams.

  7. NUMEN Project @ LNS : Heavy ions double charge exchange reactions towards the 0νββ nuclear matrix element determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agodi, C.; Cappuzzello, F.; Bonanno, D. L.; Bongiovanni, D. G.; Branchina, V.; Calabretta, L.; Calanna, A.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Colonna, M.; Cuttone, G.; Foti, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Greco, V.; Lanzalone, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Longhitano, F.; Muoio, A.; Pandola, L.; Rifuggiato, D.; Tudisco, S.

    2015-10-01

    In the NUMEN Project it is proposed an innovative technique to access the nuclear matrix elements entering in the expression of the life-time of the neutrinoless double beta decay, using relevant cross sections of double charge exchange reactions. A key aspect is the use of MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer, for the detection of the ejectiles, and of the INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) K800 Superconducting Cyclotron (CS), for the acceleration of the required high resolution and low emittance heavy-ion beams.

  8. XXXIVth Brazilian Workshop on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    This meeting is held each year to bring together the Brazilian Nuclear Physics community. This year's event, in particular, seeks to attract the Latin American community in addition to many other researchers around the world. The main conference topics are fundamental and applied nuclear physics, heavy ion collisions at high energies, nuclear astrophysics and recent research related to reactions with exotic beams.

  9. Heavy Ion Physics at Low, Intermediate and Relativistic Energies Using 4PI Detectors - Proceedings of the International Research Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovici, M.; Sandulescu, A.; Pelte, D.; Stöcker, H.; Randrup, J.

    1997-10-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Neutronless Fragmentation in the Spontaneous Fission of 252Cf * Cnoidal Waves as Solutions of the Nonlinear Liquid Drop Model * Thermalization Time-Scale of the Giant Quadrupole Resonance * Application of Lindblad Theory to Problems of Nuclear Dissipation * Microcanonical Approach for Investigating the Decay of Highly Excited Nuclei * Particle Stable Semiclassical Simulation of a Nucleus for High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions * Decay Study of Hot Nuclei Below the Multifragmentation Threshold with the FOBOS Detector at Dubna * 4π Experiments with MEDEA * Thermodynamical Properties and Deexcitation of Sources Involved in Collisions Between Light Nuclei Around 100 AMeV Incident Energy * Dynamics of Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions Up to 100 MeV/u and the Caloric Curve * Multifragmentation and the Search for the Liquid-Gas Phase Transition in Nuclear Matter * Multifragmentation Studies at Intermediate Energies with the New 4π Detector CHIMERA * Nuclear Matter Flow Studies at GANIL using NAUTILUS * Transverse and Radial Flow in Intermediate Energy Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions * Fragment Flow in Au+Au Collisions * Limits of Energy Equilibration in Central Au on Au Collisions in the Projectile Energy Range from 150 AMeV to 1050 AMeV * System Dependence of Event Shapes, Radial Flow and Fragment Production in Central Collision of Ni+Ni, Xe+CsI and Au+Au at 250 AMeV * Out-of-Plane Emission of Nuclear Matter in Heavy Ion Collisions Between 150 and 800 AMeV * Flow and Spectra for Light Fragments from Au+Au Collisions in the EOS TPC * Transition from In-Plane to Out-of-Plane Emission in Heavy Ion Collisions * Collective Expansion of Hot and Compressed Nuclear Matter * Collective Flow in Central Au+Au Collisions at E~1 AGeV * Proton-Proton Correlations in Central Collisions of Ni+Ni at 1.93 AGeV and the Space-Time Extent of the Emission Source * Compression and Expansion in Central Collisions * Pion Production at SIS

  10. Heavy ions at steamboat: summary of parallel sessions

    SciTech Connect

    Ludlam, T.W.

    1984-01-01

    The interest in heavy ions at the intersection between particle and nuclear physics is motivated by the opportunity for an entirely new approach to the understanding of fundamental interactions by studying extreme states of nuclear matter. At this conference we have seen important new results on some of the central issues including: (1) how well can we predict the landscape of the extremes - that is, the phase structure of QCD and nuclear matter; (2) can we explore it with heavy ion collisions; and (3) can we recognize the appearance of new terrain. Our present understanding of the behavior of nuclear matter under extreme conditions is briefly discussed. 16 references. (WHK)

  11. On quantum mechanical transport coefficients in nonequilibrium nuclear processes with application to heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamdouni, Yamen

    2010-12-01

    The elements of the quantum mechanical Markovian diffusion matrix leading to a Gibbs equilibrium state for a set of N coupled quantum harmonic oscillators are derived within Lindblad's axiomatic approach. Consequences of the fundamental constraints on the quantum friction coefficients are discussed. We derive the equations of motion for the expectation values and variances, and we solve them analytically. We apply our results to the description of the charge and mass asymmetry coordinates in heavy-ion collisions, and we investigate the effect of dissipation on tunneling in sub-barrier processes.

  12. [Reaction mechanism studies of heavy ion induced nuclear reactions]. Annual progress report, [January 1992--February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mignerey, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    Completed work is summarized on the topics of excitation energy division in deep-inelastic reactions and the onset of multifragmentation in La-induced reactions at E/A = 45 MeV. Magnetic fields are being calculated for the PHOBOS detector system, a two-arm multiparticle spectrometer for studying low-transverse-momentum particles produced at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The Maryland Forward Array is being developed for detection of the reaction products from very peripheral collisions; it consists of two individual units of detectors: the annular silicon detector in front and the plastic phoswich detector at back.

  13. Nuclear fragmentation energy and momentum transfer distributions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khandelwal, Govind S.; Khan, Ferdous

    1989-01-01

    An optical model description of energy and momentum transfer in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, based upon composite particle multiple scattering theory, is presented. Transverse and longitudinal momentum transfers to the projectile are shown to arise from the real and absorptive part of the optical potential, respectively. Comparisons of fragment momentum distribution observables with experiments are made and trends outlined based on our knowledge of the underlying nucleon-nucleon interaction. Corrections to the above calculations are discussed. Finally, use of the model as a tool for estimating collision impact parameters is indicated.

  14. Transverse Isotropy: Disappearance of Mott oscillations in sub-barrier elastic scattering of identical heavy ions and the nuclear ineraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Mahir; Canto, L. Felipe; Donangelo, Raul

    2015-04-01

    It is found that at a certain critical value of the Sommerfeld parameter the Mott oscillations usually present in the scattering of identical heavy ions, disappear and the cross section becomes quite flat. We call this effect Transverse Isotropy (TI) (L. F. Canto, R. Donangelo and M. S. Hussein, Mod. Phys. Lett. A, 16), 1027 (2001). The critical value of the Sommerfeld parameter at which TI sets in is found to be ηc =√{ 3 s + 2 } , where s is the spin of the nuclei participating in the scattering. No TI is found in the Mott scattering of identical Fermionic nuclei. The critical center of mass energy corresponding to ηc is found to be Ec = 0.40 MeV for α + α (s = 0), and 1.2 MeV for 6 Li + 6 LI (s = 1). We further found that the inclusion of the nuclear interaction induces a significant modification in the TI. This can be verified by calculating the second derivative of the cross section at θ =90° . We suggest measurements at these sub-barrier energies for the purpose of extracting useful information about the nuclear interaction between light heavy ions. Supported by CNPq, FAPESP, FAPERJ, CAPES/ITA.

  15. Physical interpretation of time-dependent Hartree-Fock density matrix for heavy ion scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Abraham; Umar, A. S.

    1987-05-01

    We suggest a quantum mechanical interpretation of the density matrix of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory for heavy ion scattering. We show how with this interpretation the time-dependent Hartree-Fock equations can be derived provided we admit (i) a generalized factorization of a suitably defined average of two-body density matrix elements in terms of a sum of products of the corresponding one-particle elements and (ii) additional semiclassical approximations which convert a sum of products into an antisymmetric product of sums. These ideas, previously recognized within the framework of soliton models, are extended here to include inelastic processes with the excitation of collective modes as the mechanism for producing deep inelastic scattering. An essential feature of the approach is that it provides, in principle, a theoretical method of obtaining exclusive amplitudes. We describe how these might be calculated.

  16. Elliptic flow and nuclear modification factor in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions within a partonic transport model.

    PubMed

    Uphoff, Jan; Senzel, Florian; Fochler, Oliver; Wesp, Christian; Xu, Zhe; Greiner, Carsten

    2015-03-20

    The quark gluon plasma produced in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions exhibits remarkable features. It behaves like a nearly perfect liquid with a small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio and leads to the quenching of highly energetic particles. We show that both effects can be understood for the first time within one common framework. Employing the parton cascade Boltzmann approach to multiparton scatterings, the microscopic interactions and the space-time evolution of the quark gluon plasma are calculated by solving the relativistic Boltzmann equation. Based on cross sections obtained from perturbative QCD with explicitly taking the running coupling into account, we calculate the nuclear modification factor and elliptic flow in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. With only one single parameter associated with coherence effects of medium-induced gluon radiation, the experimental data of both observables can be understood on a microscopic level. Furthermore, we show that perturbative QCD interactions with a running coupling lead to a sufficiently small shear viscosity to entropy density ratio of the quark gluon plasma, which provides a microscopic explanation for the observations stated by hydrodynamic calculations. PMID:25839262

  17. High Energy Density Physics Research Using Intense Heavy Ion Beam at FAIR: The HEDgeHOB Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, N. A.; Shutov, A.; Piriz, A. R.; Deutsch, C.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2016-03-01

    International project, Facility for Antiprotons and Ion Research (FAIR), has entered in its construction phase at Darmstadt. It is expected that the new powerful heavy ion synchrotron, SIS100 will deliver a strongly bunched intense beam of energetic uranium ions that will provide the scientists with an efficient and novel tool to research High Energy Density (HED) Physics in the laboratory. Over the past 15 years, substantial theoretical work has been done to design numerous experiments that can be done at this facility in this field. This work has resulted in an extensive scientific proposal named HEDgeHOB, that includes experiment proposals addressing various aspects of HED matter, for example, planetary physics, equation of state, hydrodynamic instabilities and others. In this paper we present a summary of this work.

  18. Nuclear spin polarization following intermediate-energy heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Groh, D. E.; Pinter, J. S.; Mantica, P. F.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Stuchbery, A. E.; Khoa, D. T.

    2007-11-15

    Intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions can produce a spin polarization of the projectile-like species. Spin polarization has been observed for both nucleon removal and nucleon pickup processes. Qualitative agreement with measured spin polarization as a function of the momentum of the projectile-like fragment is found in a kinematic model that considers conservation of linear and angular momentum and assumes peripheral interactions between the fast projectile and target. Better quantitative agreement was reached by including more realistic angular distributions and deorientation caused by {gamma}-ray emission and by correcting for the out-of-plane acceptance. The newly introduced corrections were found to apply to both nucleon removal and nucleon pickup processes.

  19. Nuclear de-excitation processes following medium energy heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.

    1986-09-01

    As heavy ion reaction studies have progressed from beam energies below 10 MeV/nucleon to higher energies, many non-equilibrium reaction phenomena have been observed. Among these are nucleon emission with velocities in excess of the beam velocity, incomplete momentum transfer to evaporation residue and fission-like fragments, ..gamma..-rays with energies in excess of 100 MeV, and ..pi../sup 0/ production when beam energies are below the threshold for production by the nucleon-nucleon collision mechanism. Additionally, prefission neutrons have been observed in excess of numbers expected from equilibrium models. A few of the approaches which have been applied to these phenomena are as follows: Intranuclear cascade: two body collisions are assumed to mediate the equilibration. The geometry and momentum space is followed semiclassically. The approach has many successes though it may suffer in a few applications is not following holes; TDHF considers one body processes only; in the energy regime of interest, two body processes are important so that this may not be a viable approach; Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck or Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (BUU/VUU) equations combine both one body and two body dynamics. The spatial and momentum evolution of the reactions are followed in a mean field. These should be the Cadillacs of the models. They are computationally tedious, and sometimes significant approximations are made in order to achieve computational tract ability; models of collective deceleration. A very simple model approach is discussed to interpret these phenomena, the Boltzmann master equation (BME). The hybrid model was the first to be applied to the question of heavy ion precompound decay, and the BME second. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Heavy ion collisions with A = 10/sup 57/: Aspects of nuclear stability and the nuclear equation of state in coalescing neutron-star binary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mathews, G.J.; Wilson, J.R.; Evans, C.R.; Detweiler, S.L.

    1987-12-01

    The dynamics of the final stages of the coalescence of two neturon stars (such as the binary pulsar PSR 1913+16) is an unsolved problem in astrophysics. Such systems are probably efficient generators of gravitational radiation, and may be significant contributors to heavy-element nucleosynthesis. The input physics for the study of such systems is similar to that required for the strudy of heavy-ion collision hydrodynamics; e.g., a finite temperature nuclear equation of state, properties of nuclei away from stability, etc. We discuss the development of a relativistic hydrodynamics code in three spatial dimensions for the purpose of studying such neutron-star systems. The properties of the mass-radius relation (determined by the nuclear equation of state) may lead to a proposed mechanism by which hot, highly neutronized matter is ejected from the coalescing stars. This material is photodisintegrated into a free (mostly) neutron gas which may subsequently experience rapid-neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Relativistic heavy ion research. [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Wayne State Univ. , Detroit, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Experimental work is reported on the following topics: transverse energy production in 10.7-GeV/c/u Au on Au collisions; first results on delta ray production and charged particle multiplicities with the Au beam at 10.7 GeV/c/A; preliminary studies on the feasibility of flow measurement with the E814 participant calorimeter; preliminary results from the E877 telescope; and low-p[sub t] baryon distribution in Si+Al, Pb collisions at the AGS. Then the status of the Hadronic Calorimeter project of AGS Experiment E864 (ECOS--Exotic Composite Object Spectrometer) is reviewed. Next, the same is done for work of the STAR RHIC collaboration (Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT) project evolution and development in FY92, SVT software results from 1992, SVT instrumentation, FY93 SVT pion test beam). The instrumentation section deals with the design and installation of a target rapidity telescope for BNL experiment 814/877 and a repair scheme for the E814/E877 participant calorimeter. Finally, the theory part addresses bosonic kinetics: thermalization of mesons and the pion p[sub perpendicular] spectrum in ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions and non-equilibrium properties of hadronic mixtures.

  2. First atomic physics experiments with cooled stored ion beams at the Heidelberg heavy-ion ring TSR

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, A.; Balykin, V.; Baumann, W.; Berger, J.; Bisoffi, G.; Blatt, P.; Blum, M.; Faulstich, A.; Friedrich, A.; Gerhard, M.; Geyer, C.; Grieser, M.; Grieser, R.; Habs, D.; Heyng, H.W.; Hochadel, B.; Holzer, B.; Huber, G.; Jaeschke, E.; Jung, M.; Karafillidis, A.; Kilgus, G.; Klein, R.; Kraemer, D.; Krause, P.; Krieg, M.; Kuehl, T.; Matl, K.; Mueller, A.; Music, M.; Neumann, R.; Neureither, G.; Ott, W.; Petrich, W.; Povh, B.; Repnow, R.; Schroeder, S.; Schuch, R.; Schwalm, D.; Sigray, P.; Steck, M.; Stokstad, R.; Szmola, E.; Wagner, M.; Wanner, B.; Welti, K.; Zwickler, S. Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg Manne Siegbahn Institute , Stockholm Institut fuer Kernphysik, Universitaet Giessen, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Mainz Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung , Darmstadt (Fed

    1990-06-01

    An overview of atomic physics experiments at the heavy ion Test Storage Ring (TSR) is given. Highly charged ions up to fully stripped silicon have been stored at energies between 4 and 12 MeV/u. The enhancement of the beam intensity by stacking, the beam lifetime, and electron cooling of these ion beams are discussed. Radiative and state-selective dielectronic recombination rates of hydrogen-like oxygen ions with free electrons from the electron cooler were measured. Beam noise spectra are being investigated with regard to collective effects caused by the Coulomb interaction in the cold ion beams. Resonance fluorescence from stored single-charged ions was observed using tunable narrow-band lasers. First indications of laser cooling in a storage ring were seen.

  3. HISTRAP: Proposal for a Heavy Ion Storage Ring for Atomic Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of the physics capabilities of HISTRAP together with a brief description of the facility and a sampling of the beams which will be available for experimentation, and surveys some of the lines of investigation in the physics of multicharged ions, molecular ion spectroscopy, condensed beams, and nuclear physics that will become possible with the advent of HISTRAP. Details of the accelerator design are discussed, including computer studies of beam tracking in the HISTRAP lattice, a discussion of the HHIRF tandem and ECR/RFQ injectors, and a description of the electron beam cooling system. In the past three years, HISTRAP has received substantial support from Oak Ridge National Laboratory management and staff. The project has used discretionary funds to develop hardware prototypes and carry out design studies. Construction has been completed on a vacuum test stand which models 1/16 of the storage ring and has attained a pressure of 4 x 10/sup -12/ Torr; a prototype rf cavity capable of accelerating beams up to 90 MeV/nucleon and decelerating to 20 keV/nucleon; and a prototype dipole magnet, one of the eight required for the HISTRAP lattice. This paper also contains a summary of the work on electron cooling carried out by one of our staff members at CERN. Building structures and services are described. Details of cost and schedule are also discussed. 77 refs.

  4. Reaction mechanism studies of heavy ion induced nuclear reactions. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Mignerey, A.C.

    1981-07-01

    The research summarized in this report was performed during the period August 1, 1980 to June 30, 1981. The experimental emphasis in the heavy-ion-induced reaction studies continues to be discrete charge and mass resolution of all projectile-like fragments measured. In an experiment performed at the Argonne National Laboratory Superconducting LINAC, the /sup 37/Cl beam was used to bombard targets of /sup 40/Ca and /sup 209/Bi. This experiment is compared to results of our previous /sup 56/Fe-induced experiments. Attempts were made to extend the /sup 56/Fe reactions to lower energies at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory SuperHILAC. In a desire to improve the mass and charge resolution of previous experiments we tried a time-of-flight telescope employing both a channel-plate start and stop signal. This was backed by an ion chamber ..delta..E and silicon E detector. The operational difficulties encountered are being corrected and we hope to have a reliable system ready this fall. Studies of target fragmentation in /sup 4/He-induced reactions are continuing via experiments and model calculations. The program which began at the University of Maryland Cyclotron has been continued at the Indiana University Cyclotron with 120 and 200 MeV /sup 4/He incident on /sup 12/C and /sup 27/Al targets. While the Indiana data are currently being analyzed and no results are yet available, a summary of the Maryland work is given. Also presented in this section are the model calculations used to describe the data. 28 refs.

  5. Relativistic heavy ion facilities: worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, L.S.

    1986-05-01

    A review of relativistic heavy ion facilities which exist, are in a construction phase, or are on the drawing boards as proposals is presented. These facilities span the energy range from fixed target machines in the 1 to 2 GeV/nucleon regime, up to heavy ion colliders of 100 GeV/nucleon on 100 GeV/nucleon. In addition to specifying the general features of such machines, an outline of the central physics themes to be carried out at these facilities is given, along with a sampling of the detectors which will be used to extract the physics. 22 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Heavy ion program at BNL: AGS, RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    With the recent commissioning of fixed target, heavy ion physics at the AGS, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has embarked on a long range program in support of relativistic heavy ion research. Acceleration of low mass heavy ions (up to sulfur) to an energy of about 14.5 GeV/nucleon is possible with the direct connection of the BNL Tandem Van de Graaff and AGS accelerators. When completed, the new booster accelerator will provide heavy ions over the full mass range for injection and subsequent acceleration in the AGS. BNL is now engaged in an active R and D program directed toward the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The results of the first operation of the low mass heavy ion program will be reviewed, and future expectations discussed. The expected performance for the heavy ion operation of the booster will be described and finally, the current status and outlook for the RHIC facility will be presented.

  7. Multiple Electron Stripping of Heavy Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    D. Mueller; L. Grisham; I. Kaganovich; R. L. Watson; V. Horvat; K. E. Zaharakis; Y. Peng

    2002-06-25

    One approach being explored as a route to practical fusion energy uses heavy ion beams focused on an indirect drive target. Such beams will lose electrons while passing through background gas in the target chamber, and therefore it is necessary to assess the rate at which the charge state of the incident beam evolves on the way to the target. Accelerators designed primarily for nuclear physics or high energy physics experiments utilize ion sources that generate highly stripped ions in order to achieve high energies economically. As a result, accelerators capable of producing heavy ion beams of 10 to 40 Mev/amu with charge state 1 currently do not exist. Hence, the stripping cross-sections used to model the performance of heavy ion fusion driver beams have, up to now, been based upon theoretical calculations. We have investigated experimentally the stripping of 3.4 Mev/amu Kr 7+ and Xe +11 in N2; 10.2 MeV/amu Ar +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 19 MeV/amu Ar +8 in He, N2, Ar and Xe; 30 MeV He 1 + in He, N2, Ar and Xe; and 38 MeV/amu N +6 in He, N2, Ar and Xe. The results of these measurements are compared with the theoretical calculations to assess their applicability over a wide range of parameters.

  8. Comparative SEU sensitivities to relativistic heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Koga, R.; Crain, S.H.; Crain, W.R.; Crawford, K.B.; Hansel, S.J.

    1998-12-01

    SEU sensitivity of microcircuits to relativistic heavy ions is compared to that measured with low-energy ions of comparable LET values. Multiple junction charge collection in a complex circuit seems to mask the effect of varying charge generations due to different iron track structures. Heavy ions at sub-relativistic speeds may generate nuclear fragments, sometimes resulting in SEUs.

  9. Nonrelativistic theory of heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bertsch, G.

    1984-07-17

    A wide range of phenomena is observed in heavy-ion collisions, calling for a comprehensive theory based on fundamental principles of many-particle quantum mechanics. At low energies, the nuclear dynamics is controlled by the mean field, as we know from spectroscopic nuclear physics. We therefore expect the comprehensive theory of collisions to contain mean-field theory at low energies. The mean-field theory is the subject of the first lectures in this chapter. This theory can be studied quantum mechanically, in which form it is called TDHF (time-dependent Hartree-Fock), or classically, where the equation is called the Vlasov equation. 25 references, 14 figures.

  10. Summary of heavy ion theory

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, S.

    1994-09-01

    Can we study hot QCD using nuclear collisions? Can we learn about metallic hydrogen from the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter? The answer to both questions may surprise you! I summarize progress in relativistic heavy ion theory reported at DPF `94 in the parallel sessions.

  11. Results of heavy ion radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.R.

    1994-04-01

    The potential of heavy ion therapy for clinical use in cancer therapy stems from the biological parameters of heavy charged particles, and their precise dose localization. Biologically, carbon, neon and other heavy ion beams (up to about silicon) are clinically useful in overcoming the radioresistance of hypoxic tumors, thus increasing biological effectiveness relative to low-LET x-ray or electron beams. Cells irradiated by heavy ions show less variation in cell-cycle related radiosensitivity and decreased repair of radiation injury. The physical parameters of these heavy charged particles allow precise delivery of high radiation doses to tumors while minimizing irradiation of normal tissues. Clinical use requires close interaction between radiation oncologists, medical physicists, accelerator physicists, engineers, computer scientists and radiation biologists.

  12. Heavy-ion collisions and the nuclear equation of state. Progress report, August 15, 1992--April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, D.

    1993-08-01

    The overall goal of this project is to study nucleus-nucleus collisions experimentally at intermediate and relativistic energies, with emphasis on measurement and interpretation of correlation effects that provide insight into the nuclear phase diagram and the nuclear equation of state. During the course of this reporting period, the PI returned to Kent from a 15-month leave at Lawrence Berkeley Lab, which had been devoted 100% to work on this research project. The EOS Time Projection Chamber at LBL`s Bevalac accelerator has continued to be the major focus of research for all of the supported personnel; about a year ago, this detector successfully took data in production mode for the first time, and accumulated in excess of 1000 hours of beam time before the termination of the Bevalac in February 1993. Reduction and analysis of these data is currently our first priority. Effort has also been devoted to the STAR detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, in the form of contributions to the Conceptual Design Report, work on HV control hardware and software for use with the STAR Time Projection Chamber, and tracking software development.

  13. Constraining the high-density behavior of the nuclear equation of state from strangeness production in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Feng Zhaoing

    2011-06-15

    The dynamics of pions and strange particles in heavy-ion collisions in the region of 1A GeV energies is investigated by the lanzhou quantum molecular dynamics model for probing the nuclear equation of state at suprasaturation densities. The total multiplicities and the ratios obtained in {sup 197}Au+{sup 197}Au over {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C systems are calculated for selected Skyrme parameters SkP, SLy6, Ska, and SIII, which correspond to different modulus of incompressibility of symmetric nuclear matter and different cases of the stiffness of symmetry energy. A decreasing trend of the excitation functions of the ratios for strange particle production with increasing incident energy was observed. The available data of K{sup +} production measured by KaoS collaboration are described well with the parameter SkP, which results in a soft equation of state. The conclusions cannot be modified by an in-medium kaon-nucleon potential.

  14. Equation of state of hot polarized nuclear matter and heavy-ion fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ghodsi, O. N.; Gharaei, R.

    2011-08-15

    We employ the equation of state of hot polarized nuclear matter to simulate the repulsive force caused by the incompressibility effects of nuclear matter in the fusion reactions of heavy colliding ions. The results of our studies reveal that temperature effects of compound nuclei have significant importance in simulating the repulsive force on the fusion reactions for which the temperature of the compound nucleus increases up to about 2 MeV. Since the equation of state of hot nuclear matter depends upon the density and temperature of the nuclear matter, it has been suggested that, by using this equation of state, one can simulate simultaneously both the effects of the precompound nucleons' emission and the incompressibility of nuclear matter to calculate the nuclear potential in fusion reactions within a static formalism such as the double-folding (DF) model.

  15. Heavy ion beams in extended materials - Computational methods and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Schimmerling, W.; Wong, M.; Townsend, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    The transport of heavy ion beams in extended materials is a problem of interest in accelerator and space shielding, radiation therapy, and astrophysical and radiobiological studies. The beam particles change their energy and direction of motion through atomic/molecular collisions and undergo occasional radical transformation in nuclear collision. In health physics applications, a heavy ion beam of initially well defined radiation quality is transformed into a complex mixture of diverse quality components after passing through a modest amount of material. This transformation of radiation quality must be understood to adequately explain the biological response of tissue to heavy ion radiation. A theoretical/experimental program to define an ion beam and its products in extended matter is described.

  16. Nuclear Physics Laboratory 1980 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Adelberger, E.G.

    1980-09-01

    Research progress is reported in the following areas: astrophysics and cosmology, fundamental symmetries, nuclear structure and reactions, radiative capture, medium energy physics, heavy ion reactions, research by outside users, accelerators and ion sources, instrumentation and experimental techniques, and computers and computing. Publications are listed. (WHK)

  17. Collective Sideward Flow of Nuclear Matter in Violent High-Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Stöcker, Horst; Maruhn, Jouchim A.; Greiner, Walter

    1980-03-01

    The nuclear fluid dynamical model with final thermal breakup is used to study the reactions {sup 20}Ne + {sup 238}U and {sup 40} Ar + {sup 40}Ca at E{sub LAB}=390 MeV/n. Calculated double differential cross sections d{sup 2}{sigma}/d{Omega}dE are in agreement with recent experimental data. It is shown that azimuthally dependent triple differential cross sections d{sup 3}{sigma}/dEd cos{theta}d{phi} yield considerably deeper insight into the collision process and allow for snapshots of the reactions. Strongly correlated jets of nuclear matter are predicted.

  18. Photon, light ion, and heavy ion cancer radiotherapy: paths from physics and biology to clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    External beam radiotherapy has proven highly effective against a wide range of cancers, and in recent decades there have been rapid advances with traditional photon-based (X-ray) radiotherapy and the development of two particle-based techniques, proton and carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT). There are major cost differences and both physical and biological differences among these modalities that raise important questions about relative treatment efficacy and cost-effectiveness. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) represent the gold standard for comparing treatments, but there are significant cost and ethical barriers to their wide-spread use. Meta-analysis of non-coordinated clinical trials data is another tool that can be used to compare treatments, and while this approach has recognized limitations, it is argued that meta-analysis represents an early stage of investigation that can help inform the design of future RCTs. PMID:26734646

  19. Photon, light ion, and heavy ion cancer radiotherapy: paths from physics and biology to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Nickoloff, Jac A

    2015-12-01

    External beam radiotherapy has proven highly effective against a wide range of cancers, and in recent decades there have been rapid advances with traditional photon-based (X-ray) radiotherapy and the development of two particle-based techniques, proton and carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT). There are major cost differences and both physical and biological differences among these modalities that raise important questions about relative treatment efficacy and cost-effectiveness. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) represent the gold standard for comparing treatments, but there are significant cost and ethical barriers to their wide-spread use. Meta-analysis of non-coordinated clinical trials data is another tool that can be used to compare treatments, and while this approach has recognized limitations, it is argued that meta-analysis represents an early stage of investigation that can help inform the design of future RCTs. PMID:26734646

  20. Advances in implosion physics, alternative targets design, and neutron effects on heavy ion fusion reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, G.; Perlado, J. M.; Alonso, E.; Alonso, M.; Domínguez, E.; Rubiano, J. G.; Gil, J. M.; Gómez del Rio, J.; Lodi, D.; Malerba, L.; Marian, J.; Martel, P.; Martínez-Val, J. M.; Mínguez, E.; Piera, M.; Ogando, F.; Reyes, S.; Salvador, M.; Sanz, J.; Sauvan, P.; Velarde, M.; Velarde, P.

    2001-05-01

    The coupling of a new radiation transport (RT) solver with an existing multimaterial fluid dynamics code (ARWEN) using Adaptive Mesh Refinement named DAFNE, has been completed. In addition, improvements were made to ARWEN in order to work properly with the RT code, and to make it user-friendlier, including new treatment of Equations of State, and graphical tools for visualization. The evaluation of the code has been performed, comparing it with other existing RT codes (including the one used in DAFNE, but in the single-grid version). These comparisons consist in problems with real input parameters (mainly opacities and geometry parameters). Important advances in Atomic Physics, Opacity calculations and NLTE atomic physics calculations, with participation in significant experiments in this area, have been obtained. Early published calculations showed that a DT x fuel with a small tritium initial content ( x<3%) could work in a catalytic regime in Inertial Fusion Targets, at very high burning temperatures (≫100 keV). Otherwise, the cross-section of DT remains much higher than that of DD and no internal breeding of tritium can take place. Improvements in the calculation model allow to properly simulate the effect of inverse Compton scattering which tends to lower Te and to enhance radiation losses, reducing the plasma temperature, Ti. The neutron activation of all natural elements in First Structural Wall (FSW) component of an Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) reactor for waste management, and the analysis of activation of target debris in NIF-type facilities has been completed. Using an original efficient modeling for pulse activation, the FSW behavior in inertial fusion has been studied. A radiological dose library coupled to the ACAB code is being generated for assessing impact of environmental releases, and atmospheric dispersion analysis from HIF reactors indicate the uncertainty in tritium release parameters. The first recognition of recombination barriers in Si

  1. Science and art in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, M.S.

    1982-08-09

    One of the more intriguing phenomena discovered in heavy-ion physics is the seeming appearance of high energy structure in the excitation spectra of inelastically scattered heavy ions. For reasons illustrated, these may well be a phenomena unique to heavy ions and their explanation perhaps unique to TDHF.

  2. Growth Points of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faessler, Amand

    2002-01-01

    The XXVII. Mazurian Lakes School of Physics was mainly devoted to four different topics: (i) Medium modifications of the nucleon--nucleon interaction and the nucleon--nucleon cross-section, medium dependence of hadrons masses and the equation of state of nuclear matter studied in heavy ion collisions. (ii) Nuclear astrophysics with a special emphasis on cosmic ray's. (iii)New developments in neutrino physics. (iv) Future plans for the GSI in Darmstadt and the first results from RHIC in Brookhaven. I have to excuse, but I will due to time reasons not summarise the shorter evening seminars and I will only shortly mention the talks of this Saturday morning.

  3. Jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian; Gyulassy, M.

    1990-09-01

    Several aspects of hard and semihard QCD jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed, including multiproduction of minijets and the interaction of a jet with dense nuclear matter. The reduction of jet quenching effect in deconfined phase of nuclear matter is speculated to provide a signature of the formation of quark gluon plasma. HIJING Monte Carlo program which can simulate events of jets production and quenching in heavy ion collisions is briefly described. 35 refs., 13 figs.

  4. Nuclear research with heavy ions. Annual progress report, January 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, M.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics; studies of light-charged-particle emission from fission and er reactions in the system 344-MeV{sup 28}Si+{sup 121}Sb {yields} {sup 149}Tb; the role of reversed kinematics and double kinematic solutions in nuclear reactions studies; improvements in interactive data analysis and graphical representations; studies of the reaction 856-MeV {sup 98}Mo + {sup 51}V{yields}{sup 149}Tb(E*=224-MeV): emission of intermediate-mass fragments; particle-particle correlations in compound nucleus reactions: preliminary consideration of lifetime estimates from small angle data; light particle emission studies using a new scintillator array; statistical evaporation calculations: developments with the computer codes LILITA-N90 and CASCADE; star collaboration studies: simulations for the conceptual design of the STAR detector system at RHIC; asymmetric fission of 149Tb* from the finite-range, rotating-liquid-drop model: mean total kinetic energies for binary fragmentation; and charged-particle evaporation from hot composite nuclei: evidence over a broad z range for distortions from cold nuclear profiles.

  5. Nuclear interactions of high energy heavy ions and applications in astrophysics

    SciTech Connect

    Wefel, J.P.

    1992-01-23

    This program was established for the purpose of studying projectile fragmentation; (1) as a function of energy, focusing first on the intermediate energy region, < 1 GeV/nucleon, where there have been few previous measurements and no systematic studies, and (2) as a function of projectile mass, starting with light beams and proceeding to species as heavy as nickel (and possibly beyond). The intermediate energy region is important as the transition between the lower energy data, where the interaction appears to be dominated by collective effects and the decay of excited nuclei, and the highest energy results, where nucleon-nucleon interactions are fundamental, limiting fragmentation'' applies, and the nucleus may well break-up before any de-excitation. The mass dependence of projectile fragmentation is largely unknown since most detailed work has involved light ion beams. Nuclear structure effects, for example, may well be quite prominent for heavier beams. Furthermore, the nuclear excitation functions for the production of different fragment isotopes have immediate application to the astrophysical interpretation of existing isotopic datasets obtained from balloon and satellite measurements of galactic cosmic rays.

  6. On the Balance Energy and Nuclear Dynamics in Peripheral Heavy-Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugh, Rajiv; Puri, Rajeev K.

    We present here the system size dependence of balance energy for semi-central and peripheral collisions using quantum molecular dynamics model. For this study, the reactions of Ne20+Ne20, Ca40+Ca40, Ni58+ Ni58, Nb93+Nb93, Xe131+Xe131, and Au197+Au197 are simulated at different incident energies and impact parameters. A hard equation of state along with nucleon-nucleon cross-sections between 40 and 55 mb explains the data nicely. Interestingly, balance energy follows a power law ∝Aτ for the mass dependence at all colliding geometries. The power factor τ is close to -(1)/(3) in central collisions, whereas it is -(2)/(3) for peripheral collisions suggesting stronger system size dependence at peripheral geometries. This also suggests that in the absence of momentum dependent interactions, Coulomb's interaction plays an exceedingly significant role. These results are further analyzed for nuclear dynamics at the balance point.

  7. Evidence for nuclear Landau-Zener effect: New resonance mechanism in heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Y.; Park, J.Y.

    1983-12-01

    Characteristic resonancelike peaks recently observed in the angle-integrated inelastic cross sections for the /sup 13/C-/sup 17/O system are understood in terms of the Landau-Zener excitation mechanism at energy level crossings. Angle-integrated inelastic cross sections estimated with the Landau-Zener formula show a series of resonancelike peaks as a function of incident energy, each of which is associated with a grazing angular momentum of the relative motion between nuclei. Simple expressions are given for resonance energies and ''widths'' of new ''resonances.'' This resonance mechanism is a new one, which has not been known in nuclear reactions nor in atomic collisions, although it is based on the well-known Landau-Zener promotion mechanism.

  8. Nuclear interactions in high energy heavy ions and applications in astrophysics. Technical progress report, 1 April 1992--31 March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Wefel, J.P.; Guzik, T.G.

    1993-01-11

    The overall objective is to study the mechanisms and the energy dependence of heavy ion fragmentation by studying the reactions of heavy ion projectiles (e.g. {sup 4}He, {sup 16}O, {sup 20}Ne, {sup 28}Si, {sup 56}Fe) in a variety of targets (H, He, C, Si, Cu, Pb) and at a number of beam energies exceeding 0.1 GeV/nucleon. The results have application to questions in high-energy nuclear astrophysics. Most of the discussion is on low-energy {sup 16}O,{sup 28}Si data analysis. The description includes analysis procedures and techniques, detector calibrations, data selections and normalizations. Cross section results for the analysis are also presented. 83 figs., 6 tabs., 73 refs.

  9. Nuclear interactions of high energy heavy ions and applications in astrophysics. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wefel, J.P.; Guzik, T.G.

    1998-06-25

    Projectile fragmentation experiments have been conducted at the LBL Bevalac accelerator, utilizing both the B40 and the HISS facilities, to produce a dataset of 36 beam/energy combinations covering projectiles from {sup 4}He to {sup 58}Ni and various energies from 170--2100 MeV/nucleon. While some runs were subject to beam instabilities, magnet problems or low statistics, there remains a large dataset which is still being analyzed. The results will be used to investigate the physics of the intermediate energy fragmentation process and will find application in the astrophysics of cosmic ray propagation in the galaxy. An overview of the science goals and rationale is followed by presentation of the experimental techniques and apparatus that has been employed. Data analysis, including both detector subsystem and accelerator calibration, is discussed with emphasis on the unique features of the dataset and the analysis problems being addressed. Results from the experiments are presented throughout to illustrate the status of the analysis, e.g., momentum distribution widths. Total, Elemental and Isotopic cross sections from various beam/energy combinations are presented, including the first data on {sup 32}S fragmentation and the complete isotopic fragmentation cross sections for {sup 28}Si interacting in both Carbon and Hydrogen targets. The new results are compared to any existing data and to formulae used to predict unmeasured cross sections. The size and complexity of the dataset and the required detail of the analysis precluded finishing the full analysis under the subject grant. Plans for additional analysis are presented, and these will be carried out in coming years as time and resources permit.

  10. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION, FREE ELECTRON LASER, APPLICATION OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY, ETC.: Experimental verification of therapeutic doses for the superficially-placed tumor radiotherapy with heavy ions at HIRFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin-Guo; Li, Qiang; Wu, Qing-Feng; Tao, Jia-Jun; Jin, Xiao-Dong

    2009-02-01

    Up to now, clinical trials of heavy-ion radiotherapy for superficially placed tumors have been carried out for six times and over 60 selected patients have been treated with 80-100 MeV/u carbon ions supplied by the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences since November, 2006. A passive irradiation system and a dose optimization method for radiotherapy with carbon-ion beams have been developed. Experimental verification of longitudinally therapeutic dose distributions was conducted under the condition of simulating patient treatment in the therapy terminal at HIRFL. The measured depth-dose distributions basically coincide with the expected ones. These results indicate that the irradiation system and the dose optimization method are effective in the ongoing carbon-ion radiotherapy for shallow-seated tumors at HIRFL.

  11. Electromagnetic processes in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertulani, C. A.; Baur, G.

    1986-10-01

    Electromagnetic effects in relativistic heavy ion collisions with impact parameter larger than the sum of the nuclear radii are studied using the virtual photon method. With increasing value of the relativistic parameter γ the hardness of the virtual photon spectrum increases. This leads to interesting new effects which will also have to be considered in the design of future relativistic heavy ion machines and experiments. The excitation of high-lying giant E1 and E2 multipole resonances is calculated as well as electromagnetic pion production. Coulomb bremsstrahlung is calculated and compared to the bremsstrahlung emitted in the more violent central nuclear collisions. K-shell ionization and electron-positron pair production is studied. The latter process has a very large cross section for heavy ions and contributes significantly to the stopping power of relativistic heavy ions in a dense medium.

  12. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1991-04-01

    This is the final report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington on work supported in part by US Department of Energy contract DE-AC06-81ER40048. It contains chapters on giant dipole resonances in excited nuclei, nucleus-nucleus reactions, astrophysics, polarization in nuclear reactions, fundamental symmetries and interactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), ultra-relativistic heavy ions, medium energy reactions, work by external users, instrumentation, accelerators and ion sources, and computer systems. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, a Ph. D. degree granted in the 1990-1991 academic year, and publications. Refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  13. Central collisions of heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Sun-yiu.

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R D project was performed.

  14. Experimental Nuclear Physics with INFN

    SciTech Connect

    Bracco, Angela

    2009-05-04

    An overview of the experimental activities in Nuclear Physics carried out by Italian researchers and funded by INFN is presented. The experimental program addresses a number of key problems of modern nuclear physics in the fields of hadron dynamics, quark gluon plasma, nuclear structure and reaction dynamics and nuclear astrophysics. The experiments are performed at the four national laboratories, at CERN and several other laboratories abroad. In particular, LNL is mainly dedicated to nuclear structure, LNS is strongly involved in the study of equation of state and nuclear astrophysics, LNF has a program on hypernuclei and kaonic atoms and LNGS has a facility for measurements of cross sections of astrophysical interest. The large community working on the problem of quark gluon plasma is very active in the ALICE experiment which will use the ultrarelativisc heavy ion collisions of LHC. Interdisciplinary researches are also supported. A brief outline of the future perspectives is here given.

  15. INELASTIC DIFFRACTION AT HEAVY ION COLLIDERS.

    SciTech Connect

    WHITE, S.

    2005-01-01

    The heavy ion physics approach to global event characterization has led us to instrument the forward region in the PHENIX experiment at RHIC. In heavy ion collisions this coverage yields a measurement of the ''spectator'' energy and its distribution about the beam direction. This energy flow is the basis of event-by-event determination of the centrality and reaction plane which are key to analyzing particle production in heavy ion collisions. These same tools have also enabled a unique set of measurements on inelastic diffraction with proton, deuteron and gold ion beams in the PHENIX experiment. We present first new results on this topic and discuss briefly the opportunity for diffractive physics with Heavy Ion beams at the LHC.

  16. Semi-classical methods in nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brink, David M.

    These lecture notes present an introduction to some semi-classical techniques which have applications in nuclear physics. Topics discussed include the WKB method, approaches based on the Feynman path integral, the Gutzwiller trace formula for level density fluctuations and the Thomas-Fermi approximation and the Vlasov equation for many-body problems. There are applications to heavy ion fusion reactions, bremsstrahlung emission in alpha decay and nuclear response functions.

  17. Positron production in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, R.W.

    1995-08-01

    The ATLAS Positron Experiment APEX was built to study positron emission in collisions between very heavy ions. Narrow peaks were observed in such collisions at GSI, Darmstadt in the spectra of positrons and in the sum-energy spectra of electron-positron coincidences. APEX is a second-generation experiment which was specifically designed to look for the coincidence events and measure the opening angle between electrons and positrons. The first beam-induced positrons were detected using APEX in March 1993, and since then three additional runs were carried out. The first results for the collision system {sup 238}U + {sup 181}Ta show no evidence for sharp peaks in the electron-positron sum-energy spectrum. The current emphasis in this work is to obtain a complete understanding of the APEX apparatus. The atomic group is studying events involving coincidences between heavy ions and electrons. Since APEX measures the laboratory angles and energies of both electrons and heavy ions, it is possible to make an event-by-event Doppler correction of the electron spectra. These Doppler-corrected spectra show a number of lines which are attributed to conversion electrons which are emitted when a nuclear excited state decays by ejecting an inner-shell electron. The study of these spectra provide an important confirmation of the proper functioning of APEX. We are particularly concerned with the atomic physics aspects of this process. In order to understand the electron spectra, it is necessary to account for the change in binding energy of the inner-shell electrons as a function of ionic charge. We are utilizing the GRASP relativistic atomic structure program to calculate the binding energies. This information, together with the measured gamma-ray energies, allows us to calculate the expected energies of the conversion electrons which we can then compare with the observed Doppler-corrected conversion electron energies.

  18. Future Heavy-Ion Program at J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, Hiroyuki

    Recently, a heavy ion program as a future J-PARC project has been discussed among nuclear physicists and accelerator scientists. The overview of the heavy-ion program with physics goals, the design and physics feasibility of the spectrometer, and preliminary accelerator schemes are presented. The main goal of the program is to explore the QCD phase diagram in baryon densities 8-10 times as high as the normal nucleus density with heavy ion beams up to uranium at 1-10 AGeV, as well as research of unstable nuclei up to 10 AMeV. In this work, we focus on the former. One of the most important measurements which could signal the phase transition in high baryon densities is a dilepton. We study in-medium modifications of ρ , ω , and φ mesons decaying into dileptons, measure rare particles such as multi-strangeness hadrons, exotic hadrons, and hypernuclei utilizing high rate beams at J-PARC. We have been designing a spectrometer with a solenoid and a dipole magnets, which covers almost 4π acceptance, and has capability of identifying charged hadrons as well as electrons and muons. In one-month running of the experiment at the beam rate of 1011 Hz, we expect to measure ρ , ω , and φ dielectron decays of the order of 107. Heavy-ion acceleration schemes have been studied with a new heavy-ion linac and a new booster ring as an injector to RCS. The beams will be accelerated in RCS and MR. The goal beam rate is around 1010-1011/MR cycle.

  19. (Relativistic heavy ion research)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    At Brookhaven National Laboratory, participation in the E802 Experiment, which is the first major heavy-ion experiment at the BNL-AGS, was the main focus of the group during the past four years. The emphases of the E802 experiment were on (a) accurate particle identification and measurements of spectra over a wide kinematical domain (5{degree} < {theta}{sub LAB} < 55{degree}, p < 20 GeV/c); and (b) measurements of small-angle two-particle correlations, with event characterization tools: multiplicity array, forward and large-angle calorimeters. This experiment and other heavy ion collision experiments are discussed in this report.

  20. Quasimolecular single-nucleon effects in heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Erb, K.A.

    1984-01-01

    Several experimental examples are discussed to illustrate that single-particle molecular orbital behavior has become an established reality in nuclear physics over the last several years. Measurements and analyses of inelastic scattering in the /sup 13/C + /sup 12/C and /sup 17/O + /sup 12/C systems, and of neutron transfer in the /sup 13/C(/sup 13/C, /sup 12/C)/sup 14/C reaction, show that the motion of valence nucleons can be strongly and simultaneously influenced by both collision partners in heavy-ion collisions. This bvehavior is characteristic of a molecular (single-particle) rather than a direct (DWBA) mechanism: it demonstrates that the single-particle analog of atomic molecular motion plays an important role in nuclear reactions at bombarding energies near the Coulomb barrier. Such behavior may be even more pronounced in the collisions of massive nuclei that will be studied with the new generation of heavy-ion accelerators. 19 references.

  1. Proceedings of the XVIIIth international symposium on nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, H.; Seeliger, D.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the XVIII International Symposium on nuclear physics. Topics covered include: fission fragment distributions; fundamental fission problems; theory of nuclear fission; fragment de-excitation; ternary fission; spontaneous-fission and decay; induced fission; heavy-ion reactions; and applications of fission.

  2. [Reaction mechanism studies of heavy ion induced nuclear reactions]. [Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Univ. of Maryland, College Park, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Mignerey, A.C.

    1993-02-01

    Completed work is summarized on the topics of excitation energy division in deep-inelastic reactions and the onset of multifragmentation in La-induced reactions at E/A = 45 MeV. Magnetic fields are being calculated for the PHOBOS detector system, a two-arm multiparticle spectrometer for studying low-transverse-momentum particles produced at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The Maryland Forward Array is being developed for detection of the reaction products from very peripheral collisions; it consists of two individual units of detectors: the annular silicon detector in front and the plastic phoswich detector at back.

  3. 52th International Winter Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long-standing conference bringing together researchers and students from various fields of subatomic physics. The conference location is Bormio, a beautiful mountain resort in the Italian Alps. Unlike many workshops, the Bormio meeting does not focus on a single topic. Instead, the aim is to bring together researchers and students from related fields in subatomic physics. Addressed topics include hadron physics, heavy ion physics, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure, particle physics, detectors and future projects as well as applications of these fields.

  4. 51st International Winter Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long-standing conference bringing together researchers and students from various fields of subatomic physics. The conference location is Bormio, a beautiful mountain resort in the Italian Alps. Unlike many workshops, the Bormio meeting does not focus on a single topic. Instead, the aim is to bring together researchers and students from related fields in subatomic physics. Addressed topics include hadron physics, heavy ion physics, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure, particle physics, detectors and future projects as well as applications of these fields.

  5. Heavy-ion double charge exchange reactions: A tool toward 0 νββ nuclear matrix elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Agodi, C.; Bondì, M.; Carbone, D.; Cunsolo, A.; Foti, A.

    2015-11-01

    The knowledge of the nuclear matrix elements for the neutrinoless double beta decay is fundamental for neutrino physics. In this paper, an innovative technique to extract information on the nuclear matrix elements by measuring the cross section of a double charge exchange nuclear reaction is proposed. The basic point is that the initial- and final-state wave functions in the two processes are the same and the transition operators are similar. The double charge exchange cross sections can be factorized in a nuclear structure term containing the matrix elements and a nuclear reaction factor. First pioneering experimental results for the 40Ca(18O,18Ne)40Ar reaction at 270 MeV incident energy show that such cross section factorization reasonably holds for the crucial 0+ → 0+ transition to 40Args, at least at very forward angles.

  6. New state of nuclear matter: Nearly perfect fluid of quarks and gluons in heavy-ion collisions at RHIC energies. From charged particle density to jet quenching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nouicer, R.

    2016-03-01

    This article reviews several important results from RHIC experiments and discusses their implications. They were obtained in a unique environment for studying QCD matter at temperatures and densities that exceed the limits wherein hadrons can exist as individual entities and raises to prominence the quark-gluon degrees of freedom. These findings are supported by major experimental observations via measuring of the bulk properties of particle production, particle ratios and chemical freeze-out conditions, and elliptic flow; followed by hard probe measurements: high- pT hadron suppression, dijet fragment azimuthal correlations, and heavy-flavor probes. These measurements are presented for particles of different species as a function of system sizes, collision centrality, and energy carried out in RHIC experiments. The results reveal that a dense, strongly interacting medium is created in central Au+Au collisions at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV at RHIC. This revelation of a new state of nuclear matter has also been observed in measurements at the LHC. Further, the IP-Glasma model coupled with viscous hydrodynamic models, which assumes the formation of a QGP, reproduces well the experimental flow results from Au+Au at sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200 GeV. This implies that the fluctuations in the initial geometry state are important and the created medium behaves as a nearly perfect liquid of nuclear matter because it has an extraordinarily low ratio of shear viscosity to entropy density, η/s≈ 0.12. However, these discoveries are far from being fully understood. Furthermore, recent experimental results from RHIC and LHC in small p+A, d+ Au and 3He+Au collision systems provide brand new insight into the role of initial and final state effects. These have proven to be interesting and more surprising than originally anticipated; and could conceivably shed new light in our understanding of collective behavior in heavy-ion physics. Accordingly, the focus of the experiments at both

  7. Recent US target-physics-related research in heavy-ion inertial fusion: target gains and constraints on accelerator design

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1982-03-09

    Inertial-fusion targets were designed for use with heavy-ion accelerators as drivers in fusion energy power plants. In the interest of providing inputs for understanding the trade-offs among accelerator designs, an initial survey was carried out regarding target gain versus parameters of relevance. This was done in two stages, firstly target gain was related to the beam energy, power, focal radius, and ion range. Secondly, a more comprehensive discussion was made by posing target gain constraints on the beam-occupied phase-space volume of the linacs. This latter discussion had included some rather simplified models of accelerator final focus and beam transport in near-vacuum fusion reaction chambers. Some further analyses of the basic assumptions of this summary are also described.

  8. Exotics from Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, Akira; Jido, Daisuke; Cho, Sungtae; Furumoto, Takenori; Yazaki, Koichi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Nielsen, Marina; Sekihara, Takayasu; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2011-10-21

    Discriminating hadronic molecular and multi-quark states is a long standing problem in hadronic physics. We propose here to utilize relativistic heavy ion collisions to resolve this problem, as exotic hadron yields are expected to be strongly affected by their structures. Using the coalescence model, we find that the exotic hadron yield relative to the statistical model result is typically an order of magnitude smaller for a compact multi-quark state, and larger by a factor of two or more for a loosely bound hadronic molecule. We further find that some of the newly proposed heavy exotic states could be produced and realistically measured at RHIC and LHC.

  9. 50th International Winter Meeting on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unlike many workshops, the Bormio meeting does not focus on a single topic. Instead, the aim is to bring together researchers and students from related fields in subatomic physics. Addressed topics include hadron physics, heavy ion physics, nuclear astrophysics and nuclear structure, particle physics, detectors and future projects as well as applications of these fields. Review talks by more senior speakers as well as talks and posters presented by junior researchers are encouraged.

  10. Selected experimental results from heavy-ion collisions at LHC

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Singh, Ranbir; Kumar, Lokesh; Netrakanti, Pawan Kumar; Mohanty, Bedangadas

    2013-01-01

    We reviewmore » a subset of experimental results from the heavy-ion collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) facility at CERN. Excellent consistency is observed across all the experiments at the LHC (at center of mass energysNN=2.76 TeV) for the measurements such as charged particle multiplicity density, azimuthal anisotropy coefficients, and nuclear modification factor of charged hadrons. Comparison to similar measurements from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at lower energy (sNN=200 GeV) suggests that the system formed at LHC has a higher energy density and larger system size and lives for a longer time. These measurements are compared to model calculations to obtain physical insights on the properties of matter created at the RHIC and LHC.« less

  11. Transport model study of nuclear stopping in heavy-ion collisions over the energy range from 0.09A to 160A GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Ying; Li Qingfeng; Li Zhuxia; Liu Fuhu

    2010-03-15

    Nuclear stopping in heavy-ion collisions over a beam energy range from SIS and AGS up to SPS is studied in the framework of the modified Ultrarelativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics transport model, in which mean field potentials of both formed and 'preformed' hadrons (from string fragmentation) and medium-modified nucleon-nucleon elastic cross sections are considered. It is found that nuclear stopping is influenced by both the stiffness of the equation of state and medium modifications of nucleon-nucleon cross sections at SIS energies. At high SPS energies, a two-bump structure is shown in the experimental rapidity distribution of free protons, which can be understood by considering the preformed hadron potentials.

  12. The Compact Muon Solenoid Heavy Ion program

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Pablo Yepes

    2005-12-15

    The Pb-Pb center of mass energy at the LHC will exceed that of Au-Au collisions at RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider) by nearly a factor of 30, providing exciting opportunities for addressing unique physics issues in a completely new energy domain. The interest of the Heavy Ion (HI) Physics at LHC is discussed in more detail in the LHC-USA white paper and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Heavy Ion proposal. A few highlights are presented in this document. Heavy ion collisions at LHC energies will explore regions of energy and particle density significantly beyond those reachable at RHIC. The energy density of the thermalized matter created at the LHC is estimated to be 20 times higher than at RHIC, implying an initial temperature, which is greater than at RHIC by more than a factor of two. The higher density of produced partons also allows a faster thermalization. As a consequence, the ratio of the quark-gluon plasma lifetime to the thermalization time increases by a factor of 10 over RHIC. Thus the hot, dense systems created in HI collisions at the LHC spend most of the time in a purely partonic state. The longer lifetime of the quark-gluon plasma state widens significantly the time window available to probe it experimentally. RHIC experiments have reported evidence for jet production in HI collisions and for suppression of high p{sub T} particle production. Those results open a new field of exploration of hot and dense nuclear matter. Even though RHIC has already broken ground, the production rates for jets with p{sub T} > 30 GeV are several orders of magnitude larger at the LHC than at RHIC, allowing for systematic studies with high statistics in a clean kinematic region. High p{sub T} quark and gluon jets can be used to study the hot hadronic medium produced in HI interactions. The larger Q{sup 2} causes jets to materialize very soon after the collision. They are thus embedded in and propagate through the dense environment as it forms and evolves. Through

  13. Process in high energy heavy ion acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinev, D.

    2009-03-01

    A review of processes that occur in high energy heavy ion acceleration by synchrotrons and colliders and that are essential for the accelerator performance is presented. Interactions of ions with the residual gas molecules/atoms and with stripping foils that deliberately intercept the ion trajectories are described in details. These interactions limit both the beam intensity and the beam quality. The processes of electron loss and capture lie at the root of heavy ion charge exchange injection. The review pays special attention to the ion induced vacuum pressure instability which is one of the main factors limiting the beam intensity. The intrabeam scattering phenomena which restricts the average luminosity of ion colliders is discussed. Some processes in nuclear interactions of ultra-relativistic heavy ions that could be dangerous for the performance of ion colliders are represented in the last chapter.

  14. NUMEN Project @ LNS : Heavy Ions Double Charge Exchange as a tool towards the 0νββ Nuclear Matrix Element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agodi, C.; Cappuzzello, F.; Bonanno, D. L.; Bongiovanni, D. G.; Branchina, V.; Calabrese, S.; Calabretta, L.; Calanna, A.; Carbone, D.; Cavallaro, M.; Colonna, M.; Foti, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Greco, V.; Lanzalone, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Longhitano, F.; Muoio, A.; Pandola, L.; Rifuggiato, D.; Tudisco, S.

    2016-06-01

    The NUMEN Project, proposed at INFN Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) in Catania, has the aim to access the nuclear matrix elements, entering the expression of the life time of double beta decay, by relevant cross sections of double charge exchange reactions. The basic point, on which it is based this innovative technique, is the coincidence of the initial and final state wave-functions in the two classes of processes and the similarity of the transition operators. A key aspect of the Project is the use of MAGNEX large acceptance magnetic spectrometer, for the detection of the ejectiles, and of the INFN LNS K800 Superconducting Cyclotron (CS), for the acceleration of the required high resolution and low emittance heavy-ion beams.

  15. Modifications of the pion-production threshold in the nuclear medium in heavy ion collisions and the nuclear symmetry energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Taesoo; Ko, Che Ming

    2015-01-01

    Using the relativistic Vlasov-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (RVUU) equation based on mean fields from the nonlinear relativistic NLρ and NLρ δ models, which have same nuclear equation of state and symmetry energy but different symmetry energy slope parameters, we study the effect of medium modification of the pion-production threshold on the total pion yield and the π-/π+ ratio in Au+Au collisions. We find that the in-medium threshold effect enhances both the total pion yield and the π-/π+ ratio, compared to those without this effect. Furthermore, including the medium modification of the pion-production threshold leads to a larger π-/π+ ratio for the NLρ δ model with a larger symmetry energy parameter than the NLρ model with a smaller symmetry energy parameter, opposite to that found without the in-medium threshold effect. To reproduce the total pion yield measured by the FOPI Collaboration, we introduce a density-dependent cross section for Δ baryon production from nucleon-nucleon collisions, which suppresses the total pion yield but hardly changes the π-/π+ ratio. Because of the small difference in the stiffness of their symmetry energies, the π-/π+ ratios obtained from both the NLρ and NLρ δ models are consistent with the FOPI data within the experimental errors.

  16. Nuclear Physics Laboratory annual report, University of Washington April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cramer, John G.; Ramirez, Maria G.

    1992-01-01

    This report contains short discusses on topics in the following areas: astrophysics; giant resonances and photonuclear reactions; nucleus-nucleus reactions; fundamental symmetries; accelerator mass spectrometry; medium energy nuclear physics; ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; cluster fusion; instrumentation; van de graaff accelerators and ion sources; and computer data acquisition systems. (LSP)

  17. Nuclear Physics Laboratory annual report, University of Washington April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report contains short discusses on topics in the following areas: astrophysics; giant resonances and photonuclear reactions; nucleus-nucleus reactions; fundamental symmetries; accelerator mass spectrometry; medium energy nuclear physics; ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; cluster fusion; instrumentation; van de graaff accelerators and ion sources; and computer data acquisition systems. (LSP)

  18. Pions from and about heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.O.

    1982-09-01

    A review is presented of the possibilities of pion production with heavy ion reactions. Major headings include: pion thermometry; hills and valleys in pion spectra; pionic orbits of nuclear size; pion confinement in the fireball; anomalons; and Schroedinger equation solutions for pionic atoms. 47 references, 9 figures. (GHT)

  19. Heavy ion pion production: spectral irregularities

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.O.

    1982-09-01

    Data on ..pi../sup -//..pi../sup +/ ratios and on hills and valleys in spectra from heavy ion collisions are reviewed. Theoretical studies to handle Coulomb effects on pion spectra are examined. The possible role of strongly-bound pion orbitals of nuclear size is discussed.

  20. Initial conditions in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venugopalan, Raju

    2001-10-01

    At very high energies, partons in nuclei form a color glass condensate (CGC). In a nuclear collision, the color glass shatters, producing a high multiplicity of gluons. We discuss the results of numerical simulations which describe the real time evolution of the CGC in a heavy ion collision.

  1. Effects of electronic and nuclear stopping power on disorder induced in GaN under swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moisy, F.; Sall, M.; Grygiel, C.; Balanzat, E.; Boisserie, M.; Lacroix, B.; Simon, P.; Monnet, I.

    2016-08-01

    Wurtzite GaN epilayers, grown on the c-plane of sapphire substrate, have been irradiated with swift heavy ions at different energies and fluences, and thereafter studied by Raman scattering spectroscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectra show strong structural modifications in the GaN layer. Indeed, in addition to the broadening of the allowed modes, a large continuum and three new modes at approximately 200 cm-1, 300 cm-1 and 670 cm-1 appear after irradiation attributed to disorder-activated Raman scattering. In this case, spectra are driven by the phonon density of states of the material due to the loss of translation symmetry of the lattice induced by defects. It was shown qualitatively that both electronic excitations and elastic collisions play an important role in the disorder induced by irradiation. UV-visible spectra reveal an absorption band at 2.8 eV which is linked to the new mode at 300 cm-1 observed in irradiated Raman spectra and comes from Ga-vacancies. These color centers are produced by elastic collisions (without any visible effect of electronic excitations).

  2. Physics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    Research and development activities are summarized in the following areas: Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, nuclear physics, the UNISOR program, accelerator-based atomic physics, theoretical physics, nuclear science applications, atomic physics and plasma diagnostics for fusion program, high-energy physics, the nuclear data project, and the relativistic heavy-ion collider study. Publications and papers presented are listed. (WHK)

  3. Failla Memorial lecture. The future of heavy-ion science in biology and medicine.

    PubMed

    Tobias, C A

    1985-07-01

    Interplanetary space contains fluxes of fast moving atomic nuclei. The distribution of these reflects the atomic composition of the universe, and such particles may pose limitations for space flight and for life in space. Over the past 50 years, since the invention of Ernest Lawrence's cyclotron, advances in accelerator technology have permitted the acceleration of charged nuclei to very high velocities. Currently, beams of any stable isotope species up to uranium are available at kinetic energies of several hundred MeV/nucleon at the Berkeley Bevalac. Recently, new areas of particle physics research relating to the mechanisms of spallation and fission have opened up for investigation, and it is now realistic to search for nuclear super-dense states that might be produced in heavy nuclear collisions. The heavy ions hold interest for a broad spectrum of research because of their effectiveness in producing a series of major lesions in DNA along single particle tracks and because of the Bragg depth ionization properties that allow the precise deposition of highly localized doses deep in the human body. Individual heavy ions can also interrupt the continuity of membraneous regions in cells. Heavy ions, when compared to low-LET radiation, have increased effectiveness for mammalian cell lethality, chromosome mutations, and cell transformation. The molecular mechanisms are not completely understood but appear to involve fragmentation and reintegration of DNA. Cells attempt to repair these lesions, and many of the deleterious effects are due to misrepair or misrejoining of DNA. Heavy ions do not require the presence of oxygen for producing their effects, and hypoxic cells in necrotic regions have nearly the same sensitivity as cells in well-oxygenated tissues. Heavy ions are effective in delaying or blocking the cell division process. Heavy ions are also strong enhancers of viral-induced cell transformation, a process that requires integration of foreign DNA. Some cell

  4. HEAVY ION LINEAR ACCELERATOR

    DOEpatents

    Van Atta, C.M.; Beringer, R.; Smith, L.

    1959-01-01

    A linear accelerator of heavy ions is described. The basic contributions of the invention consist of a method and apparatus for obtaining high energy particles of an element with an increased charge-to-mass ratio. The method comprises the steps of ionizing the atoms of an element, accelerating the resultant ions to an energy substantially equal to one Mev per nucleon, stripping orbital electrons from the accelerated ions by passing the ions through a curtain of elemental vapor disposed transversely of the path of the ions to provide a second charge-to-mass ratio, and finally accelerating the resultant stripped ions to a final energy of at least ten Mev per nucleon.

  5. Heavy ion beam probing

    SciTech Connect

    Hickok, R L

    1980-07-01

    This report consists of the notes distributed to the participants at the IEEE Mini-Course on Modern Plasma Diagnostics that was held in Madison, Wisconsin in May 1980. It presents an overview of Heavy Ion Beam Probing that briefly describes the principles and discuss the types of measurements that can be made. The problems associated with implementing beam probes are noted, possible variations are described, estimated costs of present day systems, and the scaling requirements for large plasma devices are presented. The final chapter illustrates typical results that have been obtained on a variety of plasma devices. No detailed calculations are included in the report, but a list of references that will provide more detailed information is included.

  6. Heavy ion measurement on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaujean, R.; Jonathal, D.; Enge, W.

    1992-01-01

    A stack of CR-39 and Kodak CN track detectors was exposed on the NASA satellite LDEF and recovered after almost six years in space. The quick look analysis yielded heavy ion tracks on a background of low energy secondaries from proton interaction. The detected heavy ions show a steep energy spectrum which indicates a radiation belt origin.

  7. Comparison and Physical Interpretation of MCNP and TART Neutron and Gamma Monte Carlo Shielding Calculations for a Heavy-Ion ICF System

    SciTech Connect

    Mainardi, E.; Premuda, F.; Lee, E.

    2002-07-01

    For heavy-ion beam driven inertial fusion ''liquid-protected'' reactor designs such as HYLIFE-II, a mixture of molten salts made of F{sup 10}, Li{sup -6}, Li{sup 7} and Be{sup 9} (called flibe) allows small chambers and final-focus magnets closer to the target with superconducting coils suffering higher radiation damage, though they can stand only a certain amount of energy deposited before quenching. This work has been primarily focusing on verifying that total energy deposited by fusion neutrons and induced gamma rays remain under such limit values and the final purpose is the optimization of the shielding of the magnetic lens system from the points of view of the geometrical configuration and of the physical nature of the materials adopted. The system is analyzed in terms of six geometrical models going from simplified up to much more realistic representations of a system of 192 beam lines, each focused by six magnets. A 3-D transport calculation of the radiation penetrating through ducts, that takes into account the complexity of the system, requires Monte Carlo methods. The quantities analyzed, using the two codes MCNP and TART include: neutron mean free path and total path length dependence on energy, energy deposited by neutrons and gamma photons, values of the total fluence integrated in the whole energy range, and the neutron spectrum in different zones of the system. The technical nature of the design problem and the methodology followed were presented in a previous paper by summarizing briefly the results for the deposited energy distribution on the six focal magnets. Now a much more extensive comparison of the performances of the two codes for different configurations of the system is discussed, separating the n and {gamma} contributions, in the light of the physical interpretation of the results in terms of first flight and of scattered neutron fluxes, of primary {gamma} and of secondary {gamma} generated by inelastically scattered or radiatively

  8. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Annual report 1988

    SciTech Connect

    1988-05-01

    This is the May 1988 annual report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington. It contains chapters on astrophysics, giant resonances, heavy ion induced reactions, fundamental symmetries, polarization in nuclear reactions, medium energy reactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), research by outside users, Van de Graaff and ion sources, the Laboratory`s booster linac project work, instrumentation, and computer systems. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, Ph.D. degrees granted in the 1987-88 academic year, and publications. Refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Annual report 1989

    SciTech Connect

    1989-04-01

    This is the April 1989 annual report of the Nuclear Physics Labortaory of the University of Washington. It contains chapters on astrophysics, giant resonances, heavy ion induced reactions, fundamental symmetries, polarization in nuclear reactions, medium energy reactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), research by outside users, Van de Graaff and ion sources, computer systems, instrumentation, and the Laboratory`s booster linac work. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, Ph.D. degrees granted in the 1988-1989 academic year, and publications. Refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Overview of Particle and Heavy Ion Transport Code System PHITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tatsuhiko; Niita, Koji; Matsuda, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shintaro; Iwamoto, Yosuke; Furuta, Takuya; Noda, Shusaku; Ogawa, Tatsuhiko; Iwase, Hiroshi; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Okumura, Keisuke; Kai, Tetsuya; Chiba, Satoshi; Sihver, Lembit

    2014-06-01

    A general purpose Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System, PHITS, is being developed through the collaboration of several institutes in Japan and Europe. The Japan Atomic Energy Agency is responsible for managing the entire project. PHITS can deal with the transport of nearly all particles, including neutrons, protons, heavy ions, photons, and electrons, over wide energy ranges using various nuclear reaction models and data libraries. It is written in Fortran language and can be executed on almost all computers. All components of PHITS such as its source, executable and data-library files are assembled in one package and then distributed to many countries via the Research organization for Information Science and Technology, the Data Bank of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's Nuclear Energy Agency, and the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center. More than 1,000 researchers have been registered as PHITS users, and they apply the code to various research and development fields such as nuclear technology, accelerator design, medical physics, and cosmic-ray research. This paper briefly summarizes the physics models implemented in PHITS, and introduces some important functions useful for specific applications, such as an event generator mode and beam transport functions.

  11. Imaging using accelerated heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.T.

    1982-05-01

    Several methods for imaging using accelerated heavy ion beams are being investigated at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using the HILAC (Heavy-Ion Linear Accelerator) as an injector, the Bevalac can accelerate fully stripped atomic nuclei from carbon (Z = 6) to krypton (Z = 34), and partly stripped ions up to uranium (Z = 92). Radiographic studies to date have been conducted with helium (from 184-inch cyclotron), carbon, oxygen, and neon beams. Useful ranges in tissue of 40 cm or more are available. To investigate the potential of heavy-ion projection radiography and computed tomography (CT), several methods and instrumentation have been studied.

  12. Numerical simulations of relativistic heavy-ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daffin, Frank Cecil

    Bulk quantities of nuclear matter exist only in the compact bodies of the universe. There the crushing gravitational forces overcome the Coulomb repulsion in massive stellar collapses. Nuclear matter is subjected to high pressures and temperatures as shock waves propagate and burn their way through stellar cores. The bulk properties of nuclear matter are important parameters in the evolution of these collapses, some of which lead to nucleosynthesis. The nucleus is rich in physical phenomena. Above the Coulomb barrier, complex interactions lead to the distortion of, and as collision energies increase, the destruction of the nuclear volume. Of critical importance to the understanding of these events is an understanding of the aggregate microscopic processes which govern them. In an effort to understand relativistic heavy-ion reactions, the Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck (Ueh33) (BUU) transport equation is used as the framework for a numerical model. In the years since its introduction, the numerical model has been instrumental in providing a coherent, microscopic, physical description of these complex, highly non-linear events. This treatise describes the background leading to the creation of our numerical model of the BUU transport equation, details of its numerical implementation, its application to the study of relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and some of the experimental observables used to compare calculated results to empirical results. The formalism evolves the one-body Wigner phase-space distribution of nucleons in time under the influence of a single-particle nuclear mean field interaction and a collision source term. This is essentially the familiar Boltzmann transport equation whose source term has been modified to address the Pauli exclusion principle. Two elements of the model allow extrapolation from the study of nuclear collisions to bulk quantities of nuclear matter: the modification of nucleon scattering cross sections in nuclear matter, and the

  13. Heavy ion driven LMF design concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, E. P.

    1991-08-01

    The US Department of Energy has conducted a multi-year study of the requirements, designs and costs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The primary purpose of the LMF would be testing of weapons physics and effects simulation using the output from microexplosions of inertial fusion pellets. It does not need a high repetition rate, efficient driver system as required by an electrical generating plant. However there would be so many features in common that the design, construction and operation of an LMF would considerably advance the application of inertial confinement fusion to energy production. The DOE study has concentrated particularly on the LMF driver, with design and component development undertaken at several national laboratories. Principally, these are LLNL (Solid State Laser), LANL (Gas Laser), and SNLA (Light Ions). Heavy Ions, although considered a possible LMF driver did not receive attention until the final stages of this study since its program management was through the Office of Energy Research rather than Defense Programs. During preparation of a summary report for the study it was decided that some account of heavy ions was needed for a complete survey of the driver candidates. A conceptual heavy ion LMF driver design was created for the DOE report which is titled LMC Phase II Design Concepts. The heavy ion driver did not receive the level of scrutiny of the other concepts and, unlike the others, no costs analysis by an independent contractor was performed. Since much of heavy ion driver design lore was brought together in this exercise it is worthwhile to make it available as an independent report. This is reproduced here as it appears in the DOE report.

  14. Heavy ion driven LMF design concept

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, E.P.

    1991-08-01

    The USA Department of Energy has conducted a multi-year study of the requirements, designs and costs for a Laboratory Microfusion Facility (LMF). The primary purpose of the LMF would be testing of weapons physics and effects simulation using the output from microexplosions of inertial fusion pellets. It does not need a high repetition rate, efficient driver system as required by an electrical generating plant. However there would be so many features in common that the design, construction and operation of an LMF would considerably advance the application of inertial confinement fusion to energy production. The DOE study has concentrated particularly on the LMF driver, with design and component development undertaken at several national laboratories. Principally, these are LLNL (Solid State Laser), LANL (Gas Laser), and SNLA (Light Ions). Heavy Ions, although considered a possible LMF driver did not receive attention until the final stages of this study since its program management was through the Office of Energy Research rather than Defense Programs. During preparation of a summary report for the study it was decided that some account of heavy ions was needed for a complete survey of the driver candidates. A conceptual heavy ion LMF driver design was created for the DOE report which is titled LMC Phase II Design Concepts. The heavy ion driver did not receive the level of scrutiny of the other concepts and, unlike the others, no costs analysis by an independent contractor was performed. Since much of heavy ion driver design lore was brought together in this exercise it is worthwhile to make it available as an independent report. This is reproduced here as it appears in the DOE report.

  15. High Intensity heavy ion Accelerator Facility (HIAF) in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J. C.; Xia, J. W.; Xiao, G. Q.; Xu, H. S.; Zhao, H. W.; Zhou, X. H.; Ma, X. W.; He, Y.; Ma, L. Z.; Gao, D. Q.; Meng, J.; Xu, Z.; Mao, R. S.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Y. Y.; Sun, L. T.; Yuan, Y. J.; Yuan, P.; Zhan, W. L.; Shi, J.; Chai, W. P.; Yin, D. Y.; Li, P.; Li, J.; Mao, L. J.; Zhang, J. Q.; Sheng, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    HIAF (High Intensity heavy ion Accelerator Facility), a new facility planned in China for heavy ion related researches, consists of two ion sources, a high intensity Heavy Ion Superconducting Linac (HISCL), a 45 Tm Accumulation and Booster Ring (ABR-45) and a multifunction storage ring system. The key features of HIAF are unprecedented high pulse beam intensity and versatile operation mode. The HIAF project aims to expand nuclear and related researches into presently unreachable region and give scientists possibilities to conduct cutting-edge researches in these fields. The general description of the facility is given in this article with a focus on the accelerator design.

  16. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1994-02-18

    The Nuclear Physics group at UTK is involved in heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. During the last year experimental work has been in 3 broad areas: structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, structure of nuclei far from stability, and ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. Results in these areas are described in this document under: properties of high-spin states, study of low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics (PHENIX, etc.). Another important component of the work is theoretical interpretation of experimental results (Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research).

  17. SYNCHROTRON RADIATION, FREE ELECTRON LASER, APPLICATION OF NUCLEAR TECHNOLOGY, ETC.: Design of the IMP microbeam irradiation system for 100 MeV/u heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Li-Na; Song, Ming-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Yang, Xiao-Tian; Gao, Da-Qing; He, Yuan; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Jie; Sun, You-Mei; Dang, Bing-Rong; Li, Wen-Jian; Su, Hong; Man, Kai-Di; Guo, Yi-Zhen; Wang, Zhi-Guang; Zhan, Wen-Long

    2009-04-01

    A state-of-the-art high energy heavy ion microbeam irradiation system is constructed at the Institute of Modern Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. This microbeam system operates in both full current intensity mode and single ion mode. It delivers a predefined number of ions to pre-selected targets for research in biology and material science. The characteristic of this microbeam system is high energy and vertical irradiation. A quadrupole focusing system, in combination with a series of slits, has been designed to optimize the spatial resolution. A symmetrically achromatic system leads the beam downwards and serves simultaneously as an energy analyzer. A high gradient quadrupole triplet finally focuses a C6+ ion beam to 1 μm in the vacuum chamber within the energy range from 10 MeV/u to 100 MeV/u. In this paper, the IMP microbeam system is described in detail. A systematic investigation of the ion beam optics of this microbeam system is presented together with the associated aberrations. Comparison is made between the IMP microbeam system and the other existing systems to further discuss the performance of this microbeam. Then the optimized initial beam parameters are given for high resolution and high hitting efficiency. At last, the experiment platform is briefly introduced.

  18. Nuclear structure studies with pions and heavy ions. Progress report, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1980. [Univ. of Minnesota, June 1, 1979-May 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Dehnhard, D.

    1980-03-01

    The elastic and inelastic scattering of ..pi../sup +/ and ..pi../sup -/ by /sup 13/C, /sup 16/O, and /sup 17/O was studied at pion energies close to the (3,3) resonance. Data were taken at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Large asymmetries were observed, two of which are consistent with pure neutron and pure proton excitations. Transitions to strongly excited states of /sup 13/C are in strikingly good agreement with theoretical predictions of Lee and Kurath. In sharp contrast, strong disagreements are found for the weakly excited states. The asymmetries for /sup 16/O + ..pi../sup + -/ were interpreted as due to isospin mixing between the excited states. High-resolution data for (t,t') and (/sup 3/He,/sup 3/He') on /sup 13/C were taken to supplement the pion work. Asymmetries were found for the relative cross sections for some states. In studies of the heavy-ion-nucleus potential the effect of potential resonances on the elastic scattering of /sup 16/O + /sup 28/Si was found to be small. A close similarity between the elastic exchange amplitude at 180/sup 0/ and the effect of the parity dependence on the elastic amplitude was found. Fits to the new data at 40 and 41.226 MeV required the use of a composite absorptive potential. The surface derivative part of this potential can be deduced from a coupled-channels calculation. 17 figures.

  19. Measurements of rare composite objects and high sensitivity searches for novel forms of matter produced in high energy heavy ion collisions. [Physics Dept. , Yale Univ. , New Haven, Connecticut

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The program consists of two complementary parts. First, searches for new particles include strange quark matter, as well as strange chiral solitons and multistrange hypernuclei. These and other new phenomena may result from the extreme conditions present in relativistic heavy ion collisions, which is a regime that is still relatively new and untested. Second, measurements will be made of known particles, such as the coalescence production of nuclei and antinuclei. Knowledge of coalescence production is not only crucial to interpreting the limits in strange matter searches, but also is useful in probing the relativistic heavy ion collision process. While data analysis is proceeding efforts will focus on the construction, running, and analysis of a new more precise experiment. The heavy ion program at BNL's RHIC accelerator will continue. This will be a fixed-target'' experiment using a gas jet or pellet target that would extend studies of new particles in the high energy regime offered by this new accelerator.

  20. Heavy ion fusion experiments at LBNL and LLNL

    SciTech Connect

    Ahle, L

    1998-08-19

    The long-range goal of the US Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program is to develop heavy ion accelerators capable of igniting inertial fusion targets to generate fusion energy for electrical power production. Accelerators for heavy ion fusion consist of several subsystems: ion sources, injectors, matching sections, combiners, induction acceleration sections with electric and magnetic focusing, beam compression and bending sections, and a final-focus system to focus the beams onto the target. We are currently assembling or performing experiments to address the physics of all these subsystems. This paper will discuss some of these experiments.

  1. Nuclear Physics Research at the University of Richmond progress report, November 1, 1992--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, M.F.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Major, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from November 1, 1992 to October 31, 1993 under Contract Number DE-FG05-88ER40459. The experimental work described in this report is in electromagnetic and heavy-ion nuclear physics. The effort in electromagnetic nuclear physics is in preparation for the research program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and is focussed on the construction and use of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The heavy-ion experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility and the University of Pennsylvania.

  2. Heavy Ion Fragmentation Experiments at the Bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using the heavy-ion capability of the Bevatron were studied. The purpose was to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Attempts were also made to: (1) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (2) test the applicability of high-energy multi-particle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (3) apply the cross-section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (4) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross sections.

  3. Heavy ions, targets, and research at HHIRF

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, J.L.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) typifies a new generation of heavy ion accelerators capable of producing high resolution beams with sufficient energy to study nuclear reactions across the periodic table. Exploiting the capabilities of the machine depends on the availability of thin foils at each stage of the experimental process. Rugged carbon foils are needed in the tandem and cyclotron to strip injected ions up to high charge states. Experimental success largely depends on the availability of a suitable target for bombardment which imposes new demands on the target maker. Many experiments use large solid angle gaseous counters with very thin foils as windows. The accelerators, experimental apparatus, and beam characteristics will be described. Target requirements demanded by different types of experiments will be discussed. These requirements have lead to the construction of specialized apparatus such as the supersonic gas jet target and the single crystal goniometer for blocking measurements.

  4. (Research in theoretical nuclear physics). Progress report, November 1, 1982-October 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    An overview of accomplishments in theoretical nuclear physics during the period covering Nov. 1, 1982 to Oct. 31, 1983 is reported. The research effort is divided into three areas: (1) reaction induced by light ions, (2) reactions induced by heavy ions, and (3) nuclear collective motions. (WRF)

  5. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.

    2005-06-23

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  6. Overview of US heavy ion fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan,J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay,J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Callahan, D.A.; Cohen,R.H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.P; Covo, Kireeff M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik,A.W.; Lund, S.M.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham,L.R.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.A.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Olson, C.L.; Kishek, R.A.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.; Prost, L.R.; Prost, L.

    2004-11-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  7. Production of e+e- Pairs Accompanied by Nuclear Dissociation in Ultra-peripheral Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, J.; Adler, C.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Ahammed, Z.; Allgower, C.; Amonett, J.; Anderson, B.D.; Anderson, M.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G.S.; Bai, Y.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L.S.; Baudot, J.; Bekele, S.; Belaga, V.V.; Bellwied, R.; Berger, J.; Bichsel, H.; Billmeier, A.; Bland, L.C.; Blyth, C.O.; Bonner, B.E.; Boucham, A.; Brandin, A.; Bravar, A.; Cadman, R.V.; Caines, H.; Calderon de la Barca Sanchez, M.; Cardenas, A.; Carroll, J.; Castillo, J.; Castro, M.; Cebra, D.; Chaloupka, P.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, Y.; Chernenko, S.P.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, B.; Christie, W.; Coffin, J.P.; Cormier, T.M.; Corral, M.M.; Cramer, J.G.; Crawford, H.J.; Deng, W.S.; Derevschikov, A.A.; Didenko, L.; Dietel, T.; Draper, J.E.; Dunin, V.B.; Dunlop, J.C.; Eckardt, V.; Efimov, L.G.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Fachini, P.; Faine, V.; Faivre, J.; Fatemi, R.; Filimonov, K.; Finch, E.; Fisyak, Y.; Flierl, D.; Foley, K.J.; Fu, J.; Gagliardi, C.A.; Gagunashvili, N.; Gans, J.; Gaudichet, L.; Germain, M.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Grachov, O.; Grigoriev, V.; Guedon, M.; Guertin, S.M.; Gushin, E.; Hallman, T.J.; Hardtke, D.; Harris, J.W.; Heinz, M.; Henry, T.W.; Heppelmann, S.; Herston, T.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Horsley, M.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G.; Ishihara, A.; Ivanshin, Yu.I.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Janik, M.; Johnson, I.; Jones, P.G.; Judd, E.G.; Kaneta, M.; Kaplan, M.; Keane, D.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klay, J.; Klein, S.R.; Klyachko, A.; Kollegger, T.; Konstantinov, A.; Kopytine, S.M.; Kotchenda, L.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Kramer, M.; Kravtsov, P.; Krueger, K.; Kuhn, C.; Kulikov, A.I.; Kunde, G.J.; Kunz, C.L.; Kutuev, R.K.; Kuznetsov, A.A.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; Lange, S.; Lansdell, C.P.; Lasiuk, B.; Laue, F.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednicky, R.; Leontiev, V.M.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, Q.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, L.; Liu, Z.; et al.

    2004-04-07

    We present the first data on e{sup +}e{sup -} pair production accompanied by nuclear breakup in ultra-peripheral gold-gold collisions at a center of mass energy of 200 GeV per nucleon pair. The nuclear breakup requirement selects events at small impact parameters, where higher-order corrections to the pair production cross section should be enhanced. We compare the pair kinematic distributions with two calculations: one based on the equivalent photon approximation, and the other using lowest-order quantum electrodynamics (QED); the latter includes the photon virtuality. The cross section, pair mass, rapidity and angular distributions are in good agreement with both calculations. The pair transverse momentum, p{sub T}, spectrum agrees with the QED calculation, but not with the equivalent photon approach. We set limits on higher-order contributions to the cross section. The e{sup +} and e{sup -} p{sub T} spectra are similar, with no evidence for interference effects due to higher-order diagrams.

  8. Report of the heavy-ion fusion task group

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, G.A.; Booth, L.A.; Henderson, D.B.; Jameson, R.A.; Kindel, J.M.; Knapp, E.A.; Pollock, R.; Talbert, W.L.; Thode, L.E.; Williams, J.M.

    1980-02-01

    An assessment of heavy-ion fusion has been completed. Energetic heavy ions, for example 10-GeV uranium, provided by an rf linac or an induction linac, are used as alternatives to laser light to drive inertial confinement fusion pellets. The assessment has covered accelerator technology, transport of heavy-ion beams, target interaction physics, civilian power issues, and military applications. It is concluded that particle accelerators promise to be efficient pellet drivers, but that there are formidable technical problems to be solved. It is recommended that a moderate level research program on heavy-ion fusion be pursued and that LASL should continue to work on critical issues in accelerator development, beam transport, reactor systems studies, and target physics over the next few years.

  9. Classical chromodynamics and heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappi, T.

    2005-05-01

    This paper is a slightly modified version of the introductory part of a doctoral dissertation also containing the articles hep-ph/0303076, hep-ph/0409328 and hep-ph/0409058. The paper focuses on the calculation of particle production in a relativistic heavy ion collision using the McLerran-Venugopalan model. The main part of the paper summarizes the background of these numerical calculations. First we relate this calculation of the initial stage af a heavy ion collision to our understanding of the whole collision process. Then we discuss the saturation physics of the small x wavefunction of a hadron or a nucleus. The classical field model of Kovner, McLerran and Weigert is then introduced before moving to discuss the numerical algorithms used to compute gluon and quark pair production in this model. Finally we shortly review the results on gluon and quark-antiquark production obtained in the three articles mentioned above.

  10. Dynamical processes in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1988-07-25

    In this report I review the physical assumptions of the Boltzmann Master Equation (BME). Comparisons of the model with experimental neutron spectra gated on evaporation residues for a range of incident projectile energies and masses are presented; next, I compare n spectra gated on projectile-like fragments, followed by comparisons with ungated, inclusive proton spectra. I will then consider secondary effects from the nucleon-nucleon processes involved in the heavy ion relaxation processes, specifically the high energy ..gamma..-rays which have been observed at energies up to 140 MeV in collisions of heavy ions of 20/endash/84 MeV/..mu... Another secondary effect, subthreshold pion production, was covered in the XVII School and will not be repeated. 39 refs., 16 figs.

  11. Skyrme tensor force in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, P. D.; Suckling, E. B.; Fracasso, S.; Barton, M. C.; Umar, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Background: It is generally acknowledged that the time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) method provides a useful foundation for a fully microscopic many-body theory of low-energy heavy ion reactions. The TDHF method is also known in nuclear physics in the small-amplitude domain, where it provides a useful description of collective states, and is based on the mean-field formalism, which has been a relatively successful approximation to the nuclear many-body problem. Currently, the TDHF theory is being widely used in the study of fusion excitation functions, fission, and deep-inelastic scattering of heavy mass systems, while providing a natural foundation for many other studies. Purpose: With the advancement of computational power it is now possible to undertake TDHF calculations without any symmetry assumptions and incorporate the major strides made by the nuclear structure community in improving the energy density functionals used in these calculations. In particular, time-odd and tensor terms in these functionals are naturally present during the dynamical evolution, while being absent or minimally important for most static calculations. The parameters of these terms are determined by the requirement of Galilean invariance or local gauge invariance but their significance for the reaction dynamics have not been fully studied. This work addresses this question with emphasis on the tensor force. Method: The full version of the Skyrme force, including terms arising only from the Skyrme tensor force, is applied to the study of collisions within a completely symmetry-unrestricted TDHF implementation. Results: We examine the effect on upper fusion thresholds with and without the tensor force terms and find an effect on the fusion threshold energy of the order several MeV. Details of the distribution of the energy within terms in the energy density functional are also discussed. Conclusions: Terms in the energy density functional linked to the tensor force can play a non

  12. Theoretical studies in hadronic and nuclear physics. Progress report, July 1, 1994--June 1, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, M.K.; Griffin, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    This progress report contains 36 items of research work done by ten members of the University of Maryland Nuclear Theory Group with 21 outside collaborators from various institutions in the US, Canada, Korea and Europe. The report is in four sections, each representing major and basic areas of interest in nuclear theory. The sections are as follows: (1) hadrons in nuclei and nuclear matter; (2) hadron physics; (3) relativistic dynamics in quark, hadron and nuclear physics; (4) heavy ion dynamics and related processes.

  13. Isotopic tellurium targets for heavy-ion nuclear physics produced by vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.P.; Thomas, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A variety of /sup 122/Te targets were prepared by vapor deposition using resistive heating on various substrates. Substrate preparation proved crucial for the production of superior targets. Experimental runs on the Argonne ATLAS Accelerator showed the targets to be of high purity with little contamination. In addition, we have since prepared self-supporting Tellurium using a gold shadowing technique with Teepol as a release agent. 2 refs.

  14. Electron beam evaporation of molybdenum, yttrium and zirconium targets for heavy-ion nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.P.; Thomas, G.E.

    1990-01-01

    Self-supporting targets of {sup 92,98}Mo, Y and {sup 90}Zr with thickness of 100 and 200 {mu}g/cm{sup 2} were prepared by electron beam gun evaporation. Substrate heating proved crucial for the production of these foils. The numerous parting agents explored will be discussed. Targets of {sup 92,98}Mo were also prepared on carbon backings of various thickness. 19 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Swift Heavy Ions in Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothard, Hermann; Severin, Daniel; Trautmann, Christina

    2015-12-01

    The present volume contains the proceedings of the Ninth International Symposium on Swift Heavy Ions in Matter (SHIM). This conference was held in Darmstadt, from 18 to 21 May 2015. SHIM is a triennial series, which started about 25 years ago by a joint initiative of CIRIL - Caen and GSI - Darmstadt, with the aim of promoting fundamental and applied interdisciplinary research in the field of high-energy, heavy-ion interaction processes with matter. SHIM was successively organized in Caen (1989), Bensheim (1992), Caen (1995), Berlin (1998), Catania (2002), Aschaffenburg (2005), Lyon (2008), and Kyoto (2012). The conference attracts scientists from many different fields using high-energy heavy ions delivered by large accelerator facilities and characterized by strong and short electronic excitations.

  16. Heavy-ion acceleration with a superconducting linac

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    This year, 1988, is the tenth anniversary of the first use of RF superconductivity to accelerate heavy ions. In June 1978, the first two superconducting resonators of the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) were used to boost the energy of a /sup 19/F beam from the tandem, and by September 1978 a 5-resonator linac provided an /sup 16/O beam for a nuclear-physics experiment. Since then, the superconducting linac has grown steadily in size and capability until now there are 42 accelerating structures and 4 bunchers. Throughout this period, the system was used routinely for physics research, and by now the total time with beam on target is 35,000 hours. Lessons learned from this long running experience and some key technical developments that made it possible are reviewed in this paper. 19 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Possible application of an EBIS in preinjectors for large heavy ion colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Haseroth, H.; Prelec, K.

    1994-08-01

    High energy, heavy ion nuclear physics has so far been limited to experiments with a fixed target. Presently there are two projects that would greatly extend the available collision energy: the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) planned at CERN. While RHIC was from the very beginning designed for collisions of all heavy ions up to gold, LHC was initially considered as a p-p and, perhaps eventually, an e-p collider, with the heavy ion option added at a later stage; this option is now included in the planning right from the beginning. The present RHIC scenario for acceleration of gold ions starts with the BNL Tandem injecting Au{sup 14+} ions into the Booster; after acceleration ions are stripped to a charge state of 77+, injected into the AGS, stripped again to 79+ and injected into RHIC, with three bunches per cycle. The LHC scenario for acceleration of lead ions will use as the injector the CERN Heavy Ion Facility: production of ions in a charge state around 27+ in an ECR ion source, followed by an RFQ/linac combination, stripping to Pb{sup 53+} at 4.2 MeV/u, acceleration in the PSB and PS, stripping to the state 82+, and acceleration in the SPS. There would be 144 bunches injected into the LHC per SPS cycle. However, the resulting luminosity would be rather low and several accumulating schemes are being considered as well. In this paper we are considering a next-generation EBIS device as a possible substitution for ion sources in the preinjector stages of the two colliders with the objective of achieving an improved performance.

  18. Pair creation in heavy ion channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. A.; Harman, Z.

    2016-04-01

    Heavy ions channeled through crystals with multi-GeV kinetic energies can create electron-positron pairs. In the framework of the ion, the energy of virtual photons arising from the periodic crystal potential may exceed the threshold 2mec2. The repeated periodic collisions with the crystal ions yield high pair production rates. When the virtual photon frequency matches a nuclear transition in the ion, the production rate can be resonantly increased. In this two-step excitation-pair conversion scheme, the excitation rates are coherently enhanced, and scale approximately quadratically with the number of crystal sites along the channel.

  19. Low-energy nuclear physics with high-segmentation silicon arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Betts, R.R. |

    1994-12-01

    A brief history is given of silicon detectors leading up to the development of ion-implanted strip detectors. Two examples of their use in low energy nuclear physics are discussed; the search for exotic alpha-chain states in {sup 24}Mg and studies of anomalous positron-electron pairs produced in collisions of very heavy ions.

  20. Constraining relativistic models through heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Menezes, D. P.; Providencia, C.; Chiapparini, M.; Bracco, M. E.; Delfino, A.; Malheiro, M.

    2007-12-15

    Relativistic models can be successfully applied to the description of compact star properties in nuclear astrophysics as well as to nuclear matter and finite nuclei properties, these studies taking place at low and moderate temperatures. Nevertheless, all results are model dependent, and so far it is unclear whether some of them should be discarded. Moreover, in the regime of hot hadronic matter, very few calculations exist using these relativistic models, in particular when applied to particle yields in heavy ion collisions. A very important investigation is the simulation of a supernova explosion that is based on the construction of an adequate equation of state that needs to be valid within very large ranges of temperatures (0 to 100 MeV at least) and densities (very low to ten times the nuclear saturation density at least). In the present work, we comment on the known constraints that can help the selection of adequate models in this wide regime and investigate the main differences that arise when the particle production during a Au+Au collision at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider is calculated with different relativistic models. We conclude that most of the models investigated in the present work give a very good overall description of the data and make predictions for not yet measured particle ratios.

  1. Light particle emissions in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Petitt, G.A.; Liu, Xin-Tao; Smathers, J.; Zhang, Ziang.

    1991-03-01

    We are completing another successful year of experimental work at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF), the Los Alamos white neutron source facility, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Georgia State University (GSU). A paper on energy division between the two heavy fragments in deep inelastic reactions between {sup 58}Ni + {sup 165}Ho was published in Physical Review C during the year. We have partially completed analysis of the data on the {sup 32}S + {sup 93}Nb system taken with the HILI detector system at the HHIRF. This paper discusses work on these topics and discusses the setup of a neutron detector for a neutron reaction experiment.

  2. The Path to Heavy Ions at LHC and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutbrod, Hans H.

    My appreciation of Rolf Hagedorn motivates me to look back at my more than 40 years of trial and error in relativistic heavy ion physics. More than once, wise colleagues helped me move forward to new and better understandings. Rolf Hagedorn was one of these important people. At first, I met him anonymously in the mid 1970s when reading his 1971 Cargèse Lectures in Physics, and later in person for many years in and around CERN. I wonder what this modest person would say about his impact on physics in this millennium. As he is not here to answer, I and others give our answers in this book. I focus my report on the beginning of the research program with relativistic heavy ions, the move to CERN-SPS and the development of the heavy ion collaboration at the CERN-LHC.

  3. INERTIAL FUSION DRIVEN BY INTENSE HEAVY-ION BEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W. M.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Barnard, J. J.; Cohen, R. H.; Dorf, M. A.; Lund, S. M.; Perkins, L. J.; Terry, M. R.; Logan, B. G.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Faltens, A.; Henestroza, E.; Jung, J. Y.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Reginato, L. L.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Takakuwa, J. H.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Davidson, R. C.; Gilson, E. P.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Haber, I.; Kishek, R. A.; Koniges, A. E.

    2011-03-31

    Intense heavy-ion beams have long been considered a promising driver option for inertial-fusion energy production. This paper briefly compares inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to the more-familiar magnetic-confinement approach and presents some advantages of using beams of heavy ions to drive ICF instead of lasers. Key design choices in heavy-ion fusion (HIF) facilities are discussed, particularly the type of accelerator. We then review experiments carried out at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) over the past thirty years to understand various aspects of HIF driver physics. A brief review follows of present HIF research in the US and abroad, focusing on a new facility, NDCX-II, being built at LBNL to study the physics of warm dense matter heated by ions, as well as aspects of HIF target physics. Future research directions are briefly summarized.

  4. Hydrodynamic approaches in relativistic heavy ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derradi de Souza, R.; Koide, T.; Kodama, T.

    2016-01-01

    We review several facets of the hydrodynamic description of the relativistic heavy ion collisions, starting from the historical motivation to the present understandings of the observed collective aspects of experimental data, especially those of the most recent RHIC and LHC results. In this report, we particularly focus on the conceptual questions and the physical foundations of the validity of the hydrodynamic approach itself. We also discuss recent efforts to clarify some of the points in this direction, such as the various forms of derivations of relativistic hydrodynamics together with the limitations intrinsic to the traditional approaches, variational approaches, known analytic solutions for special cases, and several new theoretical developments. Throughout this review, we stress the role of course-graining procedure in the hydrodynamic description and discuss its relation to the physical observables through the analysis of a hydrodynamic mapping of a microscopic transport model. Several questions to be answered to clarify the physics of collective phenomena in the relativistic heavy ion collisions are pointed out.

  5. Heavy ion therapy: Bevalac epoch

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J.R.

    1993-10-01

    An overview of heavy ion therapy at the Bevelac complex (SuperHILac linear accelerator + Bevatron) is given. Treatment planning, clinical results with helium ions on the skull base and uveal melanoma, clinical results with high-LET charged particles, neon radiotherapy of prostate cancer, heavy charged particle irradiation for unfavorable soft tissue sarcoma, preliminary results in heavy charged particle irradiation of bone sarcoma, and irradiation of bile duct carcinoma with charged particles and-or photons are all covered. (GHH)

  6. Measurement of nuclear-modification factors for {pi}{sup 0}, {eta}, and {phi} mesons and protons in heavy-ion interactions in the PHENIX experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kotov, D. O.

    2011-05-15

    Light hadrons provide a convenient tool for studying the properties of hot and dense media formed in central collisions of relativistic heavy nuclei. The results obtained in the PHENIX experiment at the relativistic heavy-ion collider (RHIC, Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA) by measuring nuclearmodification factors for light hadrons in various colliding systems (pp, dAu, CuCu, and AuAu) at the c.m. energies of {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4 and 200 GeV are presented.

  7. Predictions for proton and heavy ions induced SEUs in 65 nm SRAMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shougang, Du; Suge, Yue; Hongxia, Liu; Long, Fan; Hongchao, Zheng

    2015-11-01

    We report on irradiation induced single event upset (SEU) by high-energy protons and heavy ions. The experiments were performed at the Paul Scherer Institute, and heavy ions at the SEE irradiating Facility on the HI-13 Tandem Accelerator in China's Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing and the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou in the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The results of proton and heavy ions induced (SEU) in 65 nm bulk silicon CMOS SRAMS are discussed and the prediction on several typical orbits are presented.

  8. Dynamical effects of spin-dependent interactions in low- and intermediate-energy heavy-ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Li, Bao-An; Shen, Wen-Qing; Xia, Yin

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that noncentral nuclear forces, such as the spin-orbital coupling and the tensor force, play important roles in understanding many interesting features of nuclear structures. However, their dynamical effects in nuclear reactions are poorly known because only the spin-averaged observables are normally studied both experimentally and theoretically. Realizing that spin-sensitive observables in nuclear reactions may convey useful information about the in-medium properties of noncentral nuclear interactions, besides earlier studies using the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach to understand the effects of spin-orbital coupling on the threshold energy and spin polarization in fusion reactions, some efforts have been made recently to explore the dynamical effects of noncentral nuclear forces in intermediate-energy heavy-ion collisions using transport models. The focus of these studies has been on investigating signatures of the density and isospin dependence of the form factor in the spin-dependent single-nucleon potential. Interestingly, some useful probes were identified in the model studies but so far there are still no data to compare with. In this brief review, we summarize the main physics motivations as well as the recent progress in understanding the spin dynamics and identifying spin-sensitive observables in heavy-ion reactions at intermediate energies. We hope the interesting, important, and new physics potentials identified in the spin dynamics of heavy-ion collisions will stimulate more experimental work in this direction.

  9. Depth-dose relations for heavy ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Radiation transport of heavy ions in matter is of interest to radiological protection in space and high-altitude aircraft. In addition, heavy ion beams are expected to be of advantage in radiotherapy since their characteristic Bragg curve allows a relative reduction of the dose in reaching a tumor site and the near elimination of exposure beyond the tumor region as the beam exits the body. Furthermore, the radioresistance of tumorous cells due to their hypoxic state may be reduced or eliminated by the high specific ionization of heavy ion beams. The depth-dose distribution of heavy ion beams consists of energy deposited by the attenuated primary beam with its characteristic Bragg curve and a relatively unstructured background due to secondary radiations produced in nuclear reactions. As the ion mass increases, the secondary contribution becomes more structured and may add significantly to the Bragg peak of the primary ions. The result for heavy ions (z greater than 20) is a greatly broadened Bragg peak region, especially in comparison to straggling effects, which may prove to be of importance in radiotherapy and biomedical research.

  10. Nuclear physics research at the University of Richmond. Progress report, November 1, 1994--October 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Vineyard, M.F.; Gilfoyle, G.P.; Major, R.W.

    1995-12-31

    Summarized in this report is the progress achieved during the period from November 1, 1994 to October 31, 1995. The experimental work described in this report is in electromagnetic and heavy-ion nuclear physics. The effort in electromagnetic nuclear physics is in preparation for the research program at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) and is focused on the construction and use of the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS). The heavy-ion experiments were performed at the Argonne National Laboratory ATLAS facility and SUNY, Stony Brook. The physics interests driving these efforts at CEBAF are in the study of the structure, interactions, and nuclear-medium modifications of mesons and baryons. This year, an extension of the experiment to measure the magnetic form factor of the neutron was approved by the CEBAF Program Advisory Committee Nine (PAC9) for beam at 6 GeV. The authors also submitted updates to PAC9 on the experiments to measure inclusive {eta} photoproduction in nuclei and electroproduction of the {Lambda}, {Lambda}*(1520), and f{sub 0}(975). In addition to these experiments, the authors collaborated on a proposal to measure rare radiative decays of the {phi} meson which was also approved by PAC9. Their contributions to the construction of the CLAS include the development of the drift-chamber gas system, drift-chamber software, and controls software. Major has been leading the effort in the construction of the gas system. In the last year, the Hall B gas shed was constructed and the installation of the gas system components built at the University of Richmond has begun. Over the last six years, the efforts in low-energy heavy-ion physics have decreased due to the change in focus to electromagnetic nuclear physics at CEBAF. Most of the heavy-ion work is completed and there are now new experiments planned. Included in this report are two papers resulting from collaborations on heavy-ion experiments.

  11. Heavy ion fragmentation experiments at the bevatron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, H. H.

    1976-01-01

    Collaborative research efforts to study the fragmentation processes of heavy nuclei in matter using heavy ion beams of the Bevatron/Bevalac are described. The goal of the program is to obtain the single particle inclusive spectra of secondary nuclei produced at 0 deg by the fragmentation of heavy ion beam projectiles. The process being examined is B+T yields F + anything, where B is the beam nucleus, T is the target nucleus, and F is the detected fragment. The fragments F are isotopically identified by experimental procedures involving magnetic analysis, energy loss and time-of-flight measurements. Effects were also made to: (a) study processes of heavy nuclei in matter, (b) measure the total and partial production cross section for all isotopes, (c) test the applicability of high energy multiparticle interaction theory to nuclear fragmentation, (d) apply the cross section data and fragmentation probabilities to cosmic ray transport theory, and (e) search for systematic behavior of fragment production as a means to improve existing semi-empirical theories of cross-sections.

  12. Possibilities for relativistic heavy ion collisions at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, M.O.; Hahn, H.

    1983-01-01

    Since 1980 there has been considerable interest at Brookhaven in exploiting the existence of the Colliding Beam Accelerator, CBA, earlier referred to as Isabelle, for the generation of heavy ion collisions at very high energies. The only requirement for a heavy ion collider would have been for an energy booster for the Tandem accelerator and a tunnel and magnet transport system to the AGS. For a few million dollars heavy ions up to nearly 200 GeV/amu could be collided with luminosities of 10/sup 27/ to 10/sup 28//cm/sup 2/ sec in experimental halls with ideal facilities for heavy ion physics studies. Although the CBA project has been stopped, it is still true that Brookhaven has in place enormous advantages for constructing a heavy ion collider. This paper describes a design that exploits those advantages. It uses the tunnel and other civil construction, the refrigerator, vacuum equipment, injection line components, and the magnet design for which there is expertise and a production facility in place. The result is a machine that appears quite different than would a machine designed from first principles without access to these resources but one which is of high performance and of very attractive cost.

  13. NSAC Recommends a Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Today, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes the plan submitted by the Nuclear Science Advisory Committee to the Department of Energy and National Science Foundation urging construction of an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collider designed to accelerate nucleon beams of ions as heavy as uranium. Discusses the process of selecting the type of facility as well as siting. (JM)

  14. Trends in Device SEE Susceptibility from Heavy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. K.; Coss, J. R.; McCarty, K. P.; Schwartz, H. R.; Swift, G. M.; Watson, R. K.; Koga, R.; Crain, W. R.; Crawford, K. B.; Hansel, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    The sixth set of heavy ion single event effects (SEE) test data have been collected since the last IEEE publications in December issues of IEEE - Nuclear Science Transactions for 1985, 1987, 1989, 1991, and the IEEE Workshop Record, 1993. Trends in SEE susceptibility (including soft errors and latchup) for state-of- are evaluated.

  15. Antiradiation vaccine: Technology and development of prophylaxis, prevention and treatment of biological consequences from Heavy Ion irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Vecheslav

    Introduction: An anti-radiation vaccine could be an important part of a countermeasures reg-imen for effective radioprotection, immunoprophylaxis and immunotherapy of the acute radi-ation syndromes (ARS) after gamma-irradiation, neutron irradiation or heavy ion irradiation. Reliable protection of non-neoplastic regions of patients with different forms of cancer which undergo to heavy ion therapy ( e.g. Hadron-therapy) can significantly extend the efficiency of the therapeutic course. The protection of cosmonauts astronauts from the heavy ion ra-diation component of space radiation with specific immunoprophylaxis by the anti-radiation vaccine may be an important part of medical management for long term space missions. Meth-ods and experiments: 1. The Antiradiation Vaccine preparation -standard (mixture of toxoid form of Radiation Toxins -SRD-group) which include Cerebrovascular RT Neurotoxin, Car-diovascular RT Neurotoxin, Gastrointestinal RT Neurotoxin, Hematopoietic RT Hematotoxin. Radiation Toxins Specific Radiation Determinant Group were isolated from a central lymph of gamma-irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastrointestiinal, Hematopoi-etic forms of ARS. Devices for γ-radiation are "Panorama", "Puma". 2. Heavy ion exposure was accomplished at Department of Scientific Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Dubna, Russia. The heavy ions irradiation was generated in heavy ion (Fe56) accelerator -UTI. Heavy Ion linear transfer energy -2000-2600 KeV mkm, 600 MeV U. Absorbed Dose -3820 Rad. 3. Experimental Design: Rabbits from all groups were irradiated by heavy ion accelerator. Group A -control -10 rabbits; Group B -placebo -5 rabbits; Group C -radioprotectant Cystamine (50 mg kg)-5 rabbits, 15 minutes before irradiation -5 rabbits; Group D -radioprotectant Gammafos (Amifostine -400mg kg ), -5 rabbits; Group E -Antiradiation Vaccine: subcuta-neus administration or IM -2 ml of active substance, 14 days before irradiation -5 rabbits. 4

  16. Induction accelerator development for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Reginato, L.L.

    1993-05-01

    For approximately a decade, the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) group at LBL has been exploring the use of induction accelerators with multiple beams as the driver for inertial fusion targets. Scaled experiments have investigated the transport of space charge dominated beams (SBTE), and the current amplification and transverse emittance control in induction linacs (MBE-4) with very encouraging results. In order to study many of the beam manipulations required by a driver and to further develop economically competitive technology, a proposal has been made in partnership with LLNL to build a 10 MeV accelerator and to conduct a series of experiments collectively called the Induction Linac System Experiments (ILSE). The major components critical to the ILSE accelerator are currently under development. We have constructed a full scale induction module and we have tested a number of amorphous magnetic materials developed by Allied Signal to establish an overall optimal design. The electric and magnetic quadrupoles critical to the transport and focusing of heavy ion beams are also under development The hardware is intended to be economically competitive for a driver without sacrificing any of the physics or performance requirements. This paper will concentrate on the recent developments and tests of the major components required by the ILSE accelerator.

  17. Chromosome Aberrations by Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, Francesca; Ottolenghi, Andrea

    It is well known that mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation can show different types of chromosome aberrations (CAs) including dicentrics, translocations, rings, deletions and complex exchanges. Chromosome aberrations are a particularly relevant endpoint in radiobiology, because they play a fundamental role in the pathways leading either to cell death, or to cell conversion to malignancy. In particular, reciprocal translocations involving pairs of specific genes are strongly correlated (and probably also causally-related) with specific tumour types; a typical example is the BCR-ABL translocation for Chronic Myeloid Leukaemia. Furthermore, aberrations can be used for applications in biodosimetry and more generally as biomarkers of exposure and risk, that is the case for cancer patients monitored during Carbon-ion therapy and astronauts exposed to space radiation. Indeed hadron therapy and astronauts' exposure to space radiation represent two of the few scenarios where human beings can be exposed to heavy ions. After a brief introduction on the main general features of chromosome aberrations, in this work we will address key aspects of the current knowledge on chromosome aberration induction, both from an experimental and from a theoretical point of view. More specifically, in vitro data will be summarized and discussed, outlining important issues such as the role of interphase death/mitotic delay and that of complex-exchange scoring. Some available in vivo data on cancer patients and astronauts will be also reported, together with possible interpretation problems. Finally, two of the few available models of chromosome aberration induction by ionizing radiation (including heavy ions) will be described and compared, focusing on the different assumptions adopted by the authors and on how these models can deal with heavy ions.

  18. Heavy ion beam transport and interaction with ICF targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velarde, G.; Aragonés, J. M.; Gago, J. A.; Gámez, L.; González, M. C.; Honrubia, J. J.; Martínez-Val, J. M.; Mínguez, E.; Ocaña, J. L.; Otero, R.; Perlado, J. M.; Santolaya, J. M.; Serrano, J. F.; Velarde, P. M.

    1986-01-01

    Numerical simulation codes provide an essential tool for analyzing the very broad range of concepts and variables considered in ICF targets. In this paper, the relevant processes embodied in the NORCLA code, needed to simulate ICF targets driven by heavy ion beams will be presented. Atomic physic models developed at DENIM to improve the atomic data needed for ion beam plasma interaction will be explained. Concerning the stopping power, the average ionization potential following a Thomas-Fermi model has been calculated, and results are compared with full quantum calculations. Finally, a parametric study of multilayered single shell targets driven by heavy ion beams will be shown.

  19. Nuclear theory progress report, April 1991--April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear theory on the following topics: nuclear astrophysics; quantum chromodynamics; quark matter; symmetry breaking; heavy ion reactions; hadronic form factors; neutrino processes; nuclear structure; weak interaction physics; and other related topics. (LSP)

  20. Nuclear theory progress report, April 1991--April 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear theory on the following topics: nuclear astrophysics; quantum chromodynamics; quark matter; symmetry breaking; heavy ion reactions; hadronic form factors; neutrino processes; nuclear structure; weak interaction physics; and other related topics. (LSP)

  1. Bremsstrahlung from relativistic heavy ions in matter

    SciTech Connect

    Soerensen, Allan H.

    2010-02-15

    The emission of electromagnetic radiation by relativistic bare heavy ions penetrating ordinary matter is investigated. Our main aim is to determine the bremsstrahlung which we define as the radiation emitted when the projectile does not break up. It pertains to collisions without nuclear contact ('ultraperipheral collisions'). Requirement of coherent action of the nucleons in order to keep the penetrating projectile intact limits bremsstrahlung to relatively soft photons. The spectrum shows a resonance structure with peak position near 2{gamma} times the position of the giant dipole resonance, that is, near 25{gamma} MeV for a lead ion ({gamma}{identical_to}E/Mc{sup 2} is the Lorentz factor of the projectile of energy E and mass M). The maximum exceeds the bremsstrahlung from a hypothetical structureless, pointlike particle of the same charge and mass as the incoming nucleus, but rapid depletion follows on the high-energy side of the peak. As a result of its relative softness, bremsstrahlung never dominates the energy-loss process for heavy ions. As to the emission of electromagnetic radiation in collisions with nuclear break-up, it appears modest when pertaining to incoherent action of the projectile nucleons in noncontact collisions. In collisions with nuclear contact, though, substantial radiation is emitted. It overshoots the bremsstrahlung. However, despite the violence of contact events, the associated photon emission only exceeds the radiation from a hypothetical structureless pointlike nucleus [emitted energy per unit photon-energy interval essentially constant up to ({gamma}-1)Mc{sup 2}] at relatively low photon energies (for lead roughly below 0.2{gamma} GeV, a limit which is about an order of magnitude above the position of the bremsstrahlung peak). Results are presented for bare lead ions penetrating a solid lead target at energies of 158 GeV/n ({gamma}=170) and beyond.

  2. Biophysical aspects of heavy ion interactions in matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, Walter; Wong, Mervyn; Ludewigt, Bernhard; Phillips, Mark; Alpen, Edward L.; Powers-Risius, Patricia; Deguzman, Randy J.; Townsend, Larry W.; Wilson, John W.

    1989-01-01

    The biological effects of high energy, high charge nuclei (HZE particles) occupy a central role in the management of space radiation hazards due to galactic cosmic rays. For the energy range of interest, the mean free path for nuclear interactions of these heavy ions is comparable to the thickness of the material traversed, and a significant fraction of stopping particles will undergo a nuclear reaction with the nuclei of the stopping material. Transport methods for HZE particles are dependent on models of the interaction of man-made systems with the space environment to an even greater extent than methods used for other types of radiation. Hence, there is a major need to validate these transport codes by comparison with experimental data. The basic physical properties of HZE particles will be reviewed and illustrated with the results of nuclear fragmentation experiments performed with 670A MeV neon ions incident on a water absorber and with measurements of multiple Coulomb scattering of uranium beams in copper. Finally, the extent to which physical measurements yield radiobiological predictions is illustrated for the example of neon.

  3. RHIC and quark matter: proposal for a relativistic heavy ion collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    This document describes the Brookhaven National Laboratory Proposal for the construction of a Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The construction of this facility represents the natural continuation of the laboratory's role as a center for nuclear and high-energy physics research and extends and uses the existing AGS, Tandem Van de Graaff and CBA facilities at BNL in a very cost effective manner. The Administration and Congress have approved a project which will provide a link between the Tandem Van de Graaf and the AGS. Completion of this project in 1986 will provide fixed target capabilities at the AGS for heavy ions of about 14 GeV/amu with masses up to approx. 30 (sulfur). The addition of an AGS booster would extend the mass range to the heaviest ions (A approx. 200, e.g., gold); its construction could start in 1986 and be completed in three years. These two new AGS experimental facilities can be combined with the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider to extend the energy range to 100 x 100 GeV/amu for the heaviest ions. BNL proposes to start construction of RHIC in FY 86 with completion in FY 90 at a total cost of 134 M$.

  4. NOTE: The relevance of very low energy ions for heavy-ion therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsässer, T.; Gemmel, A.; Scholz, M.; Schardt, D.; Krämer, M.

    2009-04-01

    Heavy-ion radiotherapy exploits the high biological effectiveness of localized energy deposition delivered by so-called Bragg-peak particles. Recent publications have challenged the established procedures to calculate biological effective dose distributions in treatment planning. They emphasize the importance of very low energy (<500 keV amu-1) ions, either as primary particles or originating from molecular and nuclear fragmentations. We show, however, that slow heavy ions with energies below 500 keV amu-1 only play a negligible role in cancer treatments for several reasons. Their residual range is very small compared to the relevant length scale of treatment planning. Moreover, their relative frequency and also their relative dose distribution are insignificant, since energy loss and range straggling in ion slowing down processes as well as the necessary superposition of Bragg peaks wash out small-scale special effects. Additionally, we show that even a 1000 times larger biological damage of such slow ions would not result in a clinically relevant increase of the photon-equivalent dose. Therefore, neither a more precise physical description of ions in the very distal part of the Bragg peak nor the consideration of radiation damage induced by hyperthermal ions would result in a meaningful improvement of current models for heavy-ion treatment planning.

  5. Nonequilibrium dynamics of the quark-gluon plasma in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Mottola, E.; Cooper, F.; Habib, S.; Kluger, Y.; Paz, J.P.

    1997-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). We have developed field theory and numerical methods for the general problem of quantum back reaction on classical fields, with applications to a wide variety of physical systems. Our main focus was on particle production processes in the time evolution of the quark-gluon plasma following an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision. In particular, we studied in some detail the evolution of a disoriented chiral condensate (DCC) produced in the chiral phase transition of nuclear matter in heavy-ion collision experiments. We have also studied dissipation and decoherence as a result of particle production in time-varying mean fields. Numerical codes previously developed for particle production in strong electric fields in quantum electrodynamics (QED) have been modified for the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) problem. We have made specific predictions for energy-momentum flow and pion production in the central rapidity region of experiments to be performed at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC).

  6. Role of giant resonances in heavy-ion radiative capture

    SciTech Connect

    Sandorfi, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    The main features and physics of the radiative capture of heavy ions are reviewed. Data are discussed from three reactions: /sup 12/C(/sup 12/C,..gamma..)/sup 24/Mg, /sup 14/C(/sup 12/C,..gamma..)/sup 26/Mg, /sup 12/C(/sup 16/O,..gamma..)/sup 28/Si. Excitation functions are given and discussed. 17 references.

  7. Photon and dilepton production in high energy heavy ion collisions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Sakaguchi, Takao

    2015-05-07

    The recent results on direct photons and dileptons in high energy heavy ion collisions, obtained particularly at RHIC and LHC are reviewed. The results are new not only in terms of the probes, but also in terms of the precision. We shall discuss the physics learned from the results.

  8. Physics of Ultra-Peripheral Nuclear Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bertulani, Carlos A.; Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim

    2005-02-02

    Moving highly-charged ions carry strong electromagnetic fields which act as a field of photons. In collisions at large impact parameters, hadronic interactions are not possible, and the ions interact through photon-ion and photon-photon collisions known as ultra-peripheral collisions (UPC). Hadron colliders like the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), the Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) produce photonuclear and two-photon interactions at luminosities and energies beyond that accessible elsewhere; the LHC will reach a {gamma}p energy ten times that of the Hadron-Electron Ring Accelerator (HERA). Reactions as diverse as the production of anti-hydrogen, photoproduction of the {rho}{sup 0}, transmutation of lead into bismuth and excitation of collective nuclear resonances have already been studied. At the LHC, UPCs can study many types of ''new physics''.

  9. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Wolfram

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), shown in Fig. 1, was build to study the interactions of quarks and gluons at high energies [Harrison, Ludlam and Ozaki (2003)]. The theory of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) describes these interactions. One of the main goals for the RHIC experiments was the creation and study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP), which was expected to be formed after the collision of heavy ions at a temperature of approximately 2 trillion kelvin (or equivalently an energy of 150 MeV). The QGP is the substance which existed only a few microseconds after the Big Bang. The QGP was anticipated to be weakly interacting like a gas but turned out to be strongly interacting and more like a liquid. Among its unusual properties is its extremely low viscosity [Auerbach and Schlomo (2009)], which makes the QGP the substance closest to a perfect liquid known to date. The QGP is opaque to moderate energy quarks and gluons leading to a phenomenon called jet quenching, where of a jet and its recoil jet only one is observable and the other suppressed after traversing and interacting with the QGP [Jacak and Müller (2012)]...

  10. Heavy ion measurement on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beaujean, R.; Jonathal, D.; Enge, W.

    1991-01-01

    The Kiel Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) experiment M0002, mounted on experiment tray E6, was designed to measure the heavy ion environment by means of CR-39 plastic solid state track detectors. The detector stack with a size of 40x34x4.5 cu cm was exposed in vacuum covered by thermal protection foils with a total thickness of approx. 14 mg/sq cm. After etching small samples of the detector foils tracks with Z greater than or = 6 could be easily detected on a background of small etch pits, which were probably produced by secondaries from proton interactions. The LDEF orientation with respect to the magnetic field lines within the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is expected to be constant during the mission. Therefore, the azimuth angle distribution was measured on the detector foils for low energy stopping particles. All detected arrival directions are close to a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field line of -20 deg declination and -40 deg inclination at location 34 deg W and 27 deg S. Together with the steep energy spectrum, this spatial distribution close to the mirror plane in the SAA is an evidence that heavy ions were detected from a radiation belt population.

  11. Mechanism of dissipation in heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.

    1987-01-01

    We discuss a new surface-plus-window mechanism for the conversion of nuclear collective energy into internal degrees of freedom at intermediate excitation energies. This novel dissipation mechanism, which results from the long mean free path of nucleons inside a nucleus, involves interactions of either one or two nucleons with the moving nuclear surface and also, for dumbbell-like shapes encountered in heavy-ion reactions and fission, the transfer of nucleons through the window separating the two portions of the system. To illustrate the effect of surface-plus-window dissipation on heavy-ion-fusion reactions we present dynamical calculations for values of the dissipation strength corresponding to 27% and 100% of the Swiatecki wall-formula value, as well as for no dissipation. In addition to dynamical thresholds for compound-nucleus formation in heavy-ion reactions, our new picture describes such other phenomena as experimental mean fission-fragment kinetic energies for the fission of nuclei throughout the periodic system, enhancement in neutron emission prior to fission, short scission-to-scission times in sequential ternary fission, widths of mass and charge distributions in deep-inelastic heavy-ion reactions, and widths of isoscalar giant quadrupole and giant octupole resonances. 32 refs., 2 figs.

  12. Identifying Multiquark Hadrons from Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Sungtae; Furumoto, Takenori; Yazaki, Koichi; Hyodo, Tetsuo; Jido, Daisuke; Ohnishi, Akira; Ko, Che Ming; Lee, Su Houng; Nielsen, Marina; Sekihara, Takayasu; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2011-05-27

    Identifying hadronic molecular states and/or hadrons with multiquark components either with or without exotic quantum numbers is a long-standing challenge in hadronic physics. We suggest that studying the production of these hadrons in relativistic heavy ion collisions offers a promising resolution to this problem as yields of exotic hadrons are expected to be strongly affected by their structures. Using the coalescence model for hadron production, we find that, compared to the case of a nonexotic hadron with normal quark numbers, the yield of an exotic hadron is typically an order of magnitude smaller when it is a compact multiquark state and a factor of 2 or more larger when it is a loosely bound hadronic molecule. We further find that some of the newly proposed heavy exotic states could be produced and realistically measured in these experiments.

  13. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Washington annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    The Nuclear Physics Laboratory at the University of Washington in Seattle pursues a broad program of nuclear physics. These activities are conducted locally and at remote sites. The current programs include in-house research using the local tandem Van de Graaff and superconducting linac accelerators and non-accelerator research in solar neutrino physics at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory in Canada and at SAGE in Russia, and gravitation as well as user-mode research at large accelerators and reactor facilities around the world. Summaries of the individual research projects are included. Areas of research covered are: fundamental symmetries, weak interactions and nuclear astrophysics; neutrino physics; nucleus-nucleus reactions; ultra-relativistic heavy ions; and atomic and molecular clusters.

  14. University of Washington, Nuclear Physics Laboratory annual report, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington supports a broad program of experimental physics research. The current program includes in-house research using the local tandem Van de Graff and superconducting linac accelerators and non-accelerator research in double beta decay and gravitation as well as user-mode research at large accelerator and reactor facilities around the world. This book is divided into the following areas: nuclear astrophysics; neutrino physics; nucleus-nucleus reactions; fundamental symmetries and weak interactions; accelerator mass spectrometry; atomic and molecular clusters; ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions; external users; electronics, computing, and detector infrastructure; Van de Graff, superconducting booster and ion sources; nuclear physics laboratory personnel; degrees granted for 1994--1995; and list of publications from 1994--1995.

  15. Proceedings of the workshop on prospects for research with radioactive beams from heavy ion accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Nitschke, J.M.

    1984-04-01

    The SuperHILAC Users Executive Committee organized a workshop on Prospects for Research with Radioactive Beams from Heavy Ion Accelerators. The main purpose of the workshop was to bring together a diverse group of scientists who had already done experients with radioactive beams or were interested in their use in the future. The topics of the talks ranged from general nuclear physics, astrophysics, production of radioactive beams and high energy projectile fragmentation to biomedical applications. This publication contains the abstracts of the talks given at the workshop and copies of the viewgraphs as they were supplied to the editor.

  16. Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    The National Energy Strategy calls for a demonstration IFE power plant by the year 2025. The cornerstone of the plan to meet this ambitious goal is research and development for heavy-ion driver technology. A series of successes indicates that the technology being studied by the HIFAR Group -- the induction accelerator -- is a prime candidate for further technology development toward this long-range goal. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions; the understanding of the scaling laws that apply in this hitherto little-explored physics regime; and the validation of new, potentially more economical accelerator strategies. Key specific elements to be addressed include: fundamental physical limits of transverse and longitudinal beam quality; development of induction modules for accelerators, along with multiple-beam hardware, at reasonable cost; acceleration of multiple beams, merging of the beams, and amplification of current without significant dilution of beam quality; final bunching, transport, and focusing onto a small target. In 1992, the HIFAR Program was concerned principally with the next step toward a driver: the design of ILSE, the Induction Linac Systems Experiments. ILSE will address most of the remaining beam-control and beam-manipulation issues at partial driver scale. A few parameters -- most importantly, the line charge density and consequently the size of the ILSE beams -- will be at full driver scale. A theory group closely integrated with the experimental groups continues supporting present-day work and looking ahead toward larger experiments and the eventual driver. Highlights of this long-range, driver-oriented research included continued investigations of longitudinal instability and some new insights into scaled experiments with which the authors might examine hard-to-calculate beam-dynamics phenomena.

  17. Overview of US heavy-ion fusion progress and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.

    2004-06-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators seek to provide the scientific and technical basis for the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX), an integrated source-to-target physics experiment recently included in the list of future facilities planned by the U.S. Department of Energy. To optimize the design of IBX and future inertial fusion energy drivers, current HIF-VNL research is addressing several key issues (representative, not inclusive): gas and electron cloud effects which can exacerbate beam loss at high beam perveance and magnet aperture fill factors; ballistic neutralized and assisted-pinch focusing of neutralized heavy ion beams; limits on longitudinal compression of both neutralized and un-neutralized heavy ion bunches; and tailoring heavy ion beams for uniform target energy deposition for high energy density physics (HEDP) studies.

  18. Mutagenic effect of accelerated heavy ions on bacterial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreyko, A. V.; Krasavin, E. A.

    2011-11-01

    The heavy ion accelerators of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research were used to study the regularities and mechanisms of formation of different types of mutations in prokaryote cells. The induction of direct (lac-, ton B-, col B) mutations for Esherichia coli cells and reverse his- → His+ mutations of Salmonella typhimurium, Bacillus subtilis cells under the action of radiation in a wide range of linear energy transfer (LET) was studied. The regularities of formation of gene and structural (tonB trp-) mutations for Esherichia coli bacteria under the action of accelerated heavy ions were studied. It was demonstrated that the rate of gene mutations as a function of the dose under the action of Γ rays and accelerated heavy ions is described by linear-quadratic functions. For structural mutations, linear "dose-effect" dependences are typical. The quadratic character of mutagenesis dose curves is determined by the "interaction" of two independent "hitting" events in the course of SOS repair of genetic structures. The conclusion made was that gene mutations under the action of accelerated heavy ions are induced by δ electron regions of charged particle tracks. The methods of SOS chromotest, SOS lux test, and λ prophage induction were used to study the regularities of SOS response of cells under the action of radiations in a wide LET range. The following proposition was substantiated: the molecular basis for formation of gene mutations are cluster single-strand DNA breaks, and that for structural mutations, double-strand DNA breaks. It was found out that the LET dependence of the relative biological efficiency of accelerated ions is described by curves with a local maximum. It was demonstrated that the biological efficiency of ionizing radiations with different physical characteristics on cells with different genotype, estimated by the lethal action, induction of gene and deletion mutations, precision excision of transposons, is determined by the specific

  19. (Search for strange quark matter and antimatter produced in high energy heavy ion collisions)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This document describes the development and progress of our group's research program in high energy heavy ion physics. We are a subset of the Yale experimental high energy physics effort (YAUG group) who became interested in the physics of high energy heavy ions in 1988. Our interest began with the possibility of performing significant searches for strange quark matter. As we learned more about the subject and as we gained experimental experience through our participation in AGS experiment 814, our interests have broadened. Our program has focused on the study of new particles, including (but not exclusively) strange quark matter, and the high sensitivity measurement of other composite nuclear systems such as antinuclei and various light nuclei. The importance of measurements of the known, but rare, nuclear systems lies in the study of production mechanisms. A good understanding of the physics and phenomenology of rare composite particle production in essential for the interpretation of limits to strange quark matter searches. We believe that such studies will also be useful in probing the mechanisms involved in the collision process itself. We have been involved in the running and data analysis for AGS E814. We have also worked on the R D for AGS E864, which is an approved experiment designed to reach sensitivities where there will be a good chance of discovering strangelets or of setting significant limits on the parameters of strange quark matter.

  20. Recent measurements for hadrontherapy and space radiation: nuclear physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J.

    2001-01-01

    The particles and energies commonly used for hadron therapy overlap the low end of the charge and energy range of greatest interest for space radiation applications, Z=1-26 and approximately 100-1000 MeV/nucleon. It has been known for some time that the nuclear interactions of the incident ions must be taken into account both in treatment planning and in understanding and addressing the effects of galactic cosmic ray ions on humans in space. Until relatively recently, most of the studies of nuclear fragmentation and transport in matter were driven by the interests of the nuclear physics and later, the hadron therapy communities. However, the experimental and theoretical methods and the accelerator facilities developed for use in heavy ion nuclear physics are directly applicable to radiotherapy and space radiation studies. I will briefly review relevant data taken recently at various accelerators, and discuss the implications of the measurements for radiotherapy, radiobiology and space radiation research.

  1. Pion correlations in relativistic heavy ion collisions at Heavy Ion Spectrometer Systems (HISS)

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, W.B. Jr.

    1990-05-01

    This thesis contains the setup, analysis and results of experiment E684H Multi-Pion Correlations in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions''. The goals of the original proposal were: (1) To initiate the use of the HISS facility in the study of central Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions (RHIC). (2) To perform a second generation experiment for the detailed study of the pion source in RHIC. The first generation experiments, implied by the second goal above, refer to pion correlation studies which the Riverside group had performed at the LBL streamer chamber. The major advantage offered by moving the pion correlation studies to HISS is that, being an electronic detector system, as opposed to the Streamer Chamber which is a visual detector, one can greatly increase the statistics for a study of this sort. An additional advantage is that once one has written the necessary detector and physics analysis code to do a particular type of study, the study may be extended to investigate the systematics, with much less effort and in a relatively short time. This paper discusses the Physics motivation for this experiment, the experimental setup and detectors used, the pion correlation analysis, the results, and the conclusions possible future directions for pion studies at HISS. If one is not interested in all the details of the experiment, I believe that by reading the sections on intensity interferometry, the section the fitting of the correlation function and the systematic corrections applied, and the results section, one will get a fairly complete synopsis of the experiment.

  2. Vacuum arc ion source for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, F.; Qi, N.; Gensler, S.; Prasad, R.R.; Krishnan, M.; Brown, I.G.

    1998-02-01

    Heavy ion fusion is one approach to the problem of controlled thermonuclear power production, in which a small DT target is bombarded by an intense flux of heavy ions and compressed to fusion temperatures. There is a need in present HIF research and development for a reliable ion source for the production of heavy ion beams with low emittance, low beam noise, ion charge states Q=1+ to 3+, beam current {approximately}0.5A, pulse width {approximately}5{endash}20 {mu}s, and repetition rate {approximately}10 pulses per second. We have explored the suitability of a vacuum arc ion source for this application. Energetic, high current, gadolinium ion beams were produced with parameters as required or close to those required. The performance parameters can all be improved yet further in an optimized ion source design. Here we describe the ion source configuration used, the experiments conducted, and the results obtained. We conclude that a vacuum arc based metal ion source of this kind could be an excellent candidate for heavy ion fusion research application. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Three-dimensional Model of Tissue and Heavy Ions Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponomarev, Artem L.; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Huff, Janice L.; Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional tissue model was incorporated into a new Monte Carlo algorithm that simulates passage of heavy ions in a tissue box . The tissue box was given as a realistic model of tissue based on confocal microscopy images. The action of heavy ions on the cellular matrix for 2- or 3-dimensional cases was simulated. Cells were modeled as a cell culture monolayer in one example, where the data were taken directly from microscopy (2-d cell matrix), and as a multi-layer obtained from confocal microscopy (3-d case). Image segmentation was used to identify cells with precise areas/volumes in an irradiated cell culture monolayer, and slices of tissue with many cell layers. The cells were then inserted into the model box of the simulated physical space pixel by pixel. In the case of modeled tissues (3-d), the tissue box had periodic boundary conditions imposed, which extrapolates the technique to macroscopic volumes of tissue. For the real tissue (3-d), specific spatial patterns for cell apoptosis and necrosis are expected. The cell patterns were modeled based on action cross sections for apoptosis and necrosis estimated from current experimental data. A spatial correlation function indicating a higher spatial concentration of damaged cells from heavy ions relative to the low-LET radiation cell damage pattern is presented. The spatial correlation effects among necrotic cells can help studying microlesions in organs, and probable effects of directionality of heavy ion radiation on epithelium and endothelium.

  4. Cosmic heavy ion tracks in mesoscopic biological test objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Facius, R.

    1994-01-01

    Since more than 20 years ago, when the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council of the U.S.A. released their report on 'HZE particle effects in manned spaced flight', it has been emphasized how difficult - if not even impossible - it is to assess their radiobiological impact on man from conventional studies where biological test organisms are stochastically exposed to 'large' fluences of heavy ions. An alternative, competing approach had been realized in the BIOSTACK experiments, where the effects of single cosmic as well as accelerator - heavy ions on individual biological test organisms could be investigated. Although presented from the beginning as the preferable approach for terrestrial investigations with accelerator heavy ions too ('The BIOSTACK as an approach to high LET radiation research'), only recently this insight is gaining more widespread recognition. In space flight experiments, additional constraints imposed by the infrastructure of the vehicle or satellite further impede such investigations. Restrictions concern the physical detector systems needed for the registration of the cosmic heavy ions' trajectories as well as the biological systems eligible as test organisms. Such optimized procedures and techniques were developed for the investigations on chromosome aberrations induced by cosmic heavy ions in cells of the stem meristem of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and for the investigation of the radiobiological response of Wolffia arriza, which is the smallest flowering (water) plant. The biological effects were studied by the coworkers of the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) which in cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA organized the exposure in the Biosatellites of the Cosmos series. Since biological investigations and physical measurements of particle tracks had to be performed in laboratories widely separated, the preferred fixed contact between biological test objects and the particle detectors

  5. Quantifying the sQGP - Heavy Ion Collisions at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Seto, Richard

    2014-12-01

    This is the closeout for DE-FG02-86ER40271 entitled Quantifying the sQGP - Heavy Ion Collisions at the RHIC. Two major things were accomplished. The first, is the physics planning, design, approval, construction, and commissioning of the MPC-EX. The MPC-EX is an electromagnetic calorimeter covering a rapidity of 3<|eta|<4, which was added to the PHENIX detector. Its primary aim is to measure low-x gluons, in order to understand the suppression seen in a variety of signatures, such as the J/Psi. A candidate to explain this phenomena is the Color Glass Condensate (CGC) A second task was to look at collisions of asymmetric species, in particularly Cu+Au. The signature was the suppression of J/Psi mesons at forward and backward rapidity, where a stronger suppression was seen in the copper going direction. While the blue of the suppression is due to hot nuclear matter effects (e.g. screening) the increase in suppression on the Au side was consistent with cold nuclear matter effects seen in d+Au collisions. A major candidate for the explanation of this phenomena is the aforementioned CGC. Finally the work on sPHENIX, particularly an extension to the forward region, called fsPHENIX is described.

  6. Geometrical methods in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taliotis, Anastasios

    Currently there exists no known way to construct the Stress-Energy tensor (Tmunu) of the medium produced in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling from purely theoretical grounds. In this work, some steps are taken in that direction. In particular, the evolution of Tmunu at strong coupling and at high energies is being studied for early proper times (tau). This is achieved in the context of the AdS/CFT duality by constructing the evolution of the dual geometry in an AdS5 background. We consider high energy collisions of two shock waves in AdS5 as a model of ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in the boundary theory. We first calculate the graviton field produced in the collisions in the LO, NLO and NNLO approximations, corresponding to two, three and four-graviton exchanges with the shock waves. We use this model to study Tmunu and in particular the energy density of the strongly-coupled matter created immediately after the collision because as we argue, the expansion of the energy density (epsilon) in the powers of proper time tau squared corresponds on the gravity side to a perturbative expansion of the metric in graviton exchanges. We point out that shock waves corresponding to physical energy-momentum tensors of the nuclei is likely to completely stop after the collision; on the field theory side, this corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. This motivates a more detailed investigation. For this reason we consider the asymmetric limit where the energy density in one shock wave is much higher than in the other one. In the boundary theory this setup corresponds to proton-nucleus collisions. Employing the eikonal approximation we find the exact high energy analytic solution for the metric in AdS5 for the asymmetric collision of two delta-function shock waves. The solution resums all-order graviton exchanges with the nucleus-shock wave and a single-graviton exchange with the proton

  7. Fourth workshop on experiments and detectors for a relativistic heavy ion collider

    SciTech Connect

    Fatyga, M.; Moskowitz, B.

    1990-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: physics at RHIC; flavor flow from quark-gluon plasma; space-time quark-gluon cascade; jets in relativistic heavy ion collisions; parton distributions in hard nuclear collisions; experimental working groups, two-arm electron/photon spectrometer collaboration; total and elastic pp cross sections; a 4{pi} tracking TPC magnetic spectrometer; hadron spectroscopy; efficiency and background simulations for J/{psi} detection in the RHIC dimuon experiment; the collision regions beam crossing geometries; Monte Carlo simulations of interactions and detectors; proton-nucleus interactions; the physics of strong electromagnetic fields in collisions of relativistic heavy ions; a real time expert system for experimental high energy/nuclear physics; the development of silicon multiplicity detectors; a pad readout detector for CRID/tracking; RHIC TPC R D progress and goals; development of analog memories for RHIC detector front-end electronic systems; calorimeter/absorber optimization for a RHIC dimuon experiment; construction of a highly segmented high resolution TOF system; progress report on a fast, particle-identifying trigger based on ring-imaging and highly integrated electronics for a TPC detector.

  8. Recent developments in heavy-ion fusion reactions around the Coulomb barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, K.; Rowley, N.; Yao, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    The nuclear fusion is a reaction to form a compound nucleus. It plays an important role in several circumstances in nuclear physics as well as in nuclear astrophysics, such as synthesis of superheavy elements and nucleosynthesis in stars. Here we discuss two recent theoretical developments in heavy-ion fusion reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier. The first topic is a generalization of the Wong formula for fusion cross sections in a single-channel problem. By introducing an energy dependence to the barrier parameters, we show that the generalized formula leads to results practically indistinguishable from a full quantal calculation, even for light symmetric systems such as 12C+12C, for which fusion cross sections show an oscillatory behavior. We then discuss a semi-microscopic modeling of heavy-ion fusion reactions, which combine the coupled-channels approach to the state-of-the-art nuclear structure calculations for low-lying collective motions. We apply this method to subbarrier fusion reactions of 58Ni+58Ni and 40Ca+58Ni systems, and discuss the role of anharmonicity of the low-lying vibrational motions.

  9. Workshop summary. Biomedical and Space-Related Research with Heavy Ions at the BEVALAC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schimmerling, W.; Curtis, S. B.

    1989-01-01

    The authors provide an overview of papers presented at a workshop on Biomedical and Space-Related Research with Heavy Ions at the BEVALAC at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Goals of the meeting were to determine the critical experiments using heavy ions as probes in radiation physics, radiation chemistry, macromolecular and cellular biology, evolution science, basic neurophysiology, and medical therapies; how beam lines and facilities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory can be improved for these experiments; and implications in priorities and funding for national policy. Workshop topics included physics and facilities, cellular and molecular biology, tissue radiobiology, and the future of heavy ion research.

  10. Workshop summary. Biomedical and Space-Related Research with Heavy Ions at the BEVALAC.

    PubMed

    Schimmerling, W; Curtis, S B

    1989-08-01

    The authors provide an overview of papers presented at a workshop on Biomedical and Space-Related Research with Heavy Ions at the BEVALAC at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Goals of the meeting were to determine the critical experiments using heavy ions as probes in radiation physics, radiation chemistry, macromolecular and cellular biology, evolution science, basic neurophysiology, and medical therapies; how beam lines and facilities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory can be improved for these experiments; and implications in priorities and funding for national policy. Workshop topics included physics and facilities, cellular and molecular biology, tissue radiobiology, and the future of heavy ion research. PMID:11536613

  11. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-04-01

    This report discusses the following topics: emittance variations in current-amplifying ion induction lina; transverse emittance studies of an induction accelerator of heavy ions; drift compression experiments on MBE-4 and related emittance; low emittance uniform- density C{sub s}+ sources for heavy ion fusion accelerator studies; survey of alignment of MBE-4; time-of-flight dependence on the MBE-4 quadrupole voltage; high order calculation of the multiple content of three dimensional electrostatic geometries; an induction linac injector for scaled experiments; induction accelerator test module for HIF; longitudinal instability in HIF beams; and analysis of resonant longitudinal instability in a heavy ion induction linac.

  12. heavy ion acceleration at shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevchenko, V. I.; Galinsky, V.

    2009-12-01

    The theoretical study of alpha particle acceleration at a quasi-parallel shock due to interaction with Alfven waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model [1]. The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or dumped and hence particles will be pitch--angle scattered as well as the change of the wave energy due to instability or damping. It includes in consideration the total distribution function (the bulk plasma and high energy tail), so no any assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles) are required. In previous studies heavy ions were treated as perfect test particles, they only experienced the Alfven turbulence excited by protons and didn’t contribute to turbulence generation. In contrast to this approach, we consider the ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves. It is important for alpha particles with their relatively large mass-loading parameter that defines efficiency of the wave excitation by alpha particles. The energy spectra of alpha particles is found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation. [1] Galinsky, V.L., and V.I. Shevchenko, Astrophys. J., 669, L109, 2007.

  13. Antiradiation Vaccine: Technology Development- Radiation Tolerance,Prophylaxis, Prevention And Treatment Of Clinical Presentation After Heavy Ion Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    Introduction: Research in the field of biological effects of heavy charged particles is necessary for both heavy-ion therapy (hadrontherapy) and protection from the exposure to galactic cosmic radiation in long-term manned space missions.[Durante M. 2004] In future crew of long-term manned missions could operate in exremely high hadronic radiation areas of space and will not survive without effective radiation protection. An Antiradiation Vaccine (AV) must be an important part of a countermeasures regimen for efficient radiation protection purposes of austronauts-cosmonauts-taukonauts: immune-prophylaxis and immune-therapy of acute radiation toxic syndromes developed after heavy ion irradiation. New technology developed (AV) for the purposes of radiological protection and improvement of radiation tolerance and it is quite important to create protective immune active status which prevent toxic reactions inside a human body irradiated by high energy hadrons.[Maliev V. et al. 2006, Popov D. et al.2008]. High energy hadrons produce a variety of secondary particles which play an important role in the energy deposition process, and characterise their radiation qualities [Sato T. et al. 2003] Antiradiation Vaccine with specific immune-prophylaxis by an anti-radiation vaccine should be an important part of medical management for long term space missions. Methods and experiments: 1. Antiradiation vaccine preparation standard, mixture of toxoid form of Radiation Toxins [SRD-group] which include Cerebrovascular RT Neurotoxin, Cardiovascular RT Neurotoxin, Gastrointestinal RT Neurotoxin, Hematopoietic RT Hematotoxin. Radiation Toxins of Radiation Determinant Group isolated from the central lymph of gamma-irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastro-intestinal, Hematopoietic forms of ARS. Devices for radiation are "Panorama", "Puma". 2. Heavy ion exposure was accomplished at Department of Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Dubna, Russia. The heavy ions

  14. Cosmic heavy ion tracks in mesoscopic biological test objects

    SciTech Connect

    Facius, R.

    1994-12-31

    Since more than 20 years ago, when the National Academy of Sciences and the National Research Council of the U.S.A. released their report on `HZE particle effects in manned spaced flight`, it has been emphasized how difficult - if not even impossible - it is to assess their radiobiological impact on man from conventional studies where biological test organisms are stochastically exposed to `large` fluences of heavy ions. An alternative, competing approach had been realized in the BIOSTACK experiments, where the effects of single cosmic as well as accelerator - heavy ions on individual biological test organisms could be investigated. Although presented from the beginning as the preferable approach for terrestrial investigations with accelerator heavy ions too (`The BIOSTACK as an approach to high LET radiation research`), only recently this insight is gaining more widespread recognition. In space flight experiments, additional constraints imposed by the infrastructure of the vehicle or satellite further impede such investigations. Restrictions concern the physical detector systems needed for the registration of the cosmic heavy ions` trajectories as well as the biological systems eligible as test organisms. Such optimized procedures and techniques were developed for the investigations on chromosome aberrations induced by cosmic heavy ions in cells of the stem meristem of lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativa) and for the investigation of the radiobiological response of Wolffia arriza, which is the smallest flowering (water) plant. The biological effects were studied by the coworkers of the Russian Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP) which in cooperation with the European Space Agency ESA organized the exposure in the Biosatellites of the Cosmos series.

  15. Relativistic heavy ion fragmentation at HISS (Heavy Ion Spectrometer System)

    SciTech Connect

    Tull, C.E.

    1990-10-01

    An experiment was conducted at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to measure projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions. Charge identification was obtained by the use of a Cerenkov Hodoscope operating above the threshold for total internal reflection, while velocity measurement was performed by use of a second set of Cerenkov radiators operating at the threshold for total internal reflection. Charge and mass resolution for the system was {sigma}{sub Z} = 0.2 e and {sigma}{sub A} = 0.2 u. Measurements of the elemental and isotopic production cross sections for the fragmentation of {sup 40}Ar at 1.65{center dot}A GeV have been compared with an Abrasion-Ablation Model based on the evaporation computer code GEMINI. The model proves to be an accurate predictor of the cross sections for fragments between Chlorine and Boron. The measured cross section were reproduced using simple geometry with charge dispersions induced by zero-point vibrations of the giant dipole resonance for the prompt abrasion stage, and injecting an excitation energy spectrum based on a final state interaction with scaling factor E{sub fsi} = 38.8 MeV/c. Measurement of the longitudinal momentum distribution widths for projectile fragments are consistent with previous experiment and can be interpreted as reflecting the Fermi momentum distribution in the initial projectile nucleus. Measurement of the transverse momentum indicate an additional, unexplained dependence of the reduced momentum widths on fragment mass. This dependence has the same sign and similar slope to previously measured fragments of {sup 139}La, and to predictions based on phase-space constraints on the final state of the system.

  16. Dynamical description of heavy-ion collisions at Fermi energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napolitani, P.; Colonna, M.

    2016-05-01

    Descriptions of heavy-ion collisions at Fermi energies require to take into account in-medium dissipation and phase-space fluctuations. The interplay of these correlations with the one-body collective behaviour determines the properties (kinematics and fragment production) and the variety of mechanisms (from fusion to neck formation and multifragmentation) of the exit channel. Starting from fundamental concepts tested on nuclear matter, we build up a microscopic description which addresses finite systems and applies to experimental observables.

  17. THE GEOMETRICAL ASPECT OF HIGH-ENERGY HEAVY ION COLLISIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Nagamiya, S.; Morrissey, D.J.

    1980-02-01

    The total yields of nuclear charge or mass from projectile and target fragments and the fragments from the overlapping region between projectile and target were evaluated based on existing data. These values are compared with simple formulas expected from the participant-spectator model. Agreement is reasonably good, suggesting that the major part of the integrated yields for all reaction products from high-energy heavy-ion collisions are geometrical.

  18. Chiral electric field in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at energies available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yang; Yang, Chun-Bin; Cai, Xu; Feng, Sheng-Qin

    2016-08-01

    It has been proposed that electric fields may lead to chiral separation in quark-gluon plasma (QGP). This is called the chiral electric separation effect. The strong electromagnetic field and the QCD vacuum can both be completely produced in off-central nuclear-nuclear collision. We use the Woods-Saxon nucleon distribution to calculate the electric field distributions of off-central collisions. The chiral electric field spatial distribution at Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energy regions are systematically studied in this paper. The dependence of the electric field produced by the thermal quark in the central position with different impact parameters on the proper time with different collision energies in the RHIC and LHC energy regions are studied in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11375069, 11435054, 11075061, 11221504) and Key Laboratory Foundation of Quark and Lepton Physics (Hua-Zhong Normal University)(QLPL2014P01)

  19. Beam dynamics in heavy ion induction LINACS

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, L.

    1981-10-01

    Interest in the use of an induction linac to accelerate heavy ions for the purpose of providing the energy required to initiate an inertially confined fusion reaction has stimulated a theoretical effort to investigate various beam dynamical effects associated with high intensity heavy ion beams. This paper presents a summary of the work that has been done so far; transverse, longitudinal and coupled longitudinal transverse effects are discussed.

  20. Heavy ion drivers for inertial confinement fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, D.

    1983-12-01

    The advantages of heavy ion beams as a way of delivering the needed energy and power to an inertial fusion target are surveyed. The existing broad technology base of particle accelerators provides an important foundation for designing, costing, and evaluating proposed systems. The sequence of steps needed for the verification of the heavy ion approach is described; recent research results are even more encouraging than had been assumed hitherto.

  1. Simulation of Chamber Transport for Heavy-Ion-Fusion Drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, W M; Callahan, D A; Tabak, M; Yu, S S; Peterson, P F; Rose, D V; Welch, D R

    2003-09-25

    The heavy-ion fusion (HIF) community recently developed a power-plant design that meets the various requirements of accelerators, final focus, chamber transport, and targets. The point design is intended to minimize physics risk and is certainly not optimal for the cost of electricity. Recent chamber-transport simulations, however, indicate that changes in the beam ion species, the convergence angle, and the emittance might allow more-economical designs.

  2. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Coc, Alain

    2014-05-09

    There are important aspects of Cosmology, the scientific study of the large scale properties of the universe as a whole, for which nuclear physics can provide insights. Here, we will focus on Standard Big-Bang Nucleosynthesis and we refer to the previous edition of the School [1] for the aspects concerning the variations of constants in nuclear cosmo-physics.

  3. Hadronic and electromagnetic fragmentation of ultrarelativistic heavy ions at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, H. H.; Fassò, A.; Ferrari, A.; Jowett, J. M.; Sala, P. R.; Smirnov, G. I.

    2014-02-01

    Reliable predictions of yields of nuclear fragments produced in electromagnetic dissociation and hadronic fragmentation of ion beams are of great practical importance in analyzing beam losses and interactions with the beam environment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN as well as for estimating radiation effects of galactic cosmic rays on the spacecraft crew and electronic equipment. The model for predicting the fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions is briefly described, and then applied to problems of relevance for LHC. The results are based on the fluka code, which includes electromagnetic dissociation physics and dpmjet-iii as hadronic event generator. We consider the interaction of fully stripped lead ions with nuclei in the energy range from about one hundred MeV to ultrarelativistic energies. The yields of fragments close in the mass and charge to initial ions are calculated. The approach under discussion provides a good overall description of Pb fragmentation data at 30 and 158A GeV as well as recent LHC data for √sNN =2.76 TeV Pb-Pb interactions. Good agreement with the calculations in the framework of different models is found. This justifies application of the developed simulation technique both at the LHC injection energy of 177A GeV and at its collision energies of 1.38, 1.58, and 2.75A TeV, and gives confidence in the results obtained.

  4. Basic Nuclear Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Naval Personnel, Washington, DC.

    Basic concepts of nuclear structures, radiation, nuclear reactions, and health physics are presented in this text, prepared for naval officers. Applications to the area of nuclear power are described in connection with pressurized water reactors, experimental boiling water reactors, homogeneous reactor experiments, and experimental breeder…

  5. Nuclear physics experiments with ion storage rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvinov, Yu. A.; Bishop, S.; Blaum, K.; Bosch, F.; Brandau, C.; Chen, L. X.; Dillmann, I.; Egelhof, P.; Geissel, H.; Grisenti, R. E.; Hagmann, S.; Heil, M.; Heinz, A.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Knöbel, R.; Kozhuharov, C.; Lestinsky, M.; Ma, X. W.; Nilsson, T.; Nolden, F.; Ozawa, A.; Raabe, R.; Reed, M. W.; Reifarth, R.; Sanjari, M. S.; Schneider, D.; Simon, H.; Steck, M.; Stöhlker, T.; Sun, B. H.; Tu, X. L.; Uesaka, T.; Walker, P. M.; Wakasugi, M.; Weick, H.; Winckler, N.; Woods, P. J.; Xu, H. S.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Zhang, Y. H.

    2013-12-01

    In the last two decades a number of nuclear structure and astrophysics experiments were performed at heavy-ion storage rings employing unique experimental conditions offered by such machines. Furthermore, building on the experience gained at the two facilities presently in operation, several new storage ring projects were launched worldwide. This contribution is intended to provide a brief review of the fast growing field of nuclear structure and astrophysics research at storage rings.

  6. UNIVERSAL BEHAVIOR OF CHARGED PARTICLE PRODUCTION IN HEAVY ION COLLISIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    STEINBERG,P.A.FOR THE PHOBOS COLLABORATION

    2002-07-24

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at {radical}(s{sub NN}) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two observations indicate universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/{bar p}p and e{sup +}e{sup -} data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with {radical}s in a similar way as N{sub ch} in e{sup +}e{sup -} collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. These features may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  7. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phobos Collaboration; Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/pbar-p and e+e- data. N_tot/(N_part/2) in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with sqrt(s) in a similar way as N_tot in e+e- collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  8. Fundamentals in Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basdevant, Jean-Louis, Rich, James, Spiro, Michael

    This course on nuclear physics leads the reader to the exploration of the field from nuclei to astrophysical issues. Much nuclear phenomenology can be understood from simple arguments such as those based on the Pauli principle and the Coulomb barrier. This book is concerned with extrapolating from such arguments and illustrating nuclear systematics with experimental data. Starting with the basic concepts in nuclear physics, nuclear models, and reactions, the book covers nuclear decays and the fundamental electro-weak interactions, radioactivity, and nuclear energy. After the discussions of fission and fusion leading into nuclear astrophysics, there is a presentation of the latest ideas about cosmology. As a primer this course will lay the foundations for more specialized subjects. This book emerged from a series of topical courses the authors delivered at the Ecole Polytechnique and will be useful for graduate students and for scientists in a variety of fields.

  9. Observables in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Nix, J.R.; Schlei, B.R.; Strottman, D.D.; Sullivan, J.P.; Hecke, H.W. van

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors used several complimentary models of high-energy nuclear collisions to systematically study the large body of available data from high energy (p{sub beam}/A > 10 GeV/c) heavy ion experiments at BNL and CERN and to prepare for the data that will come from RHIC. One major goal of this project was to better understand the space-time history of the excited hadronic matter formed in these collisions and to use this understanding to improve models of this process. The space-time structure of the system can be extracted from measurements of single-particle p{sub T} distributions and multiparticle correlations. They looked for experimental effects of the formation of the quark-gluon plasma. Understanding the hadronic phase of the interaction determines the sensitivity of experimental measurements to the presence of this exotic state of matter.

  10. Advances in U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Perkins, L. J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Waldron, W.L.

    2007-09-01

    During the past two years, the US heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high-brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target physics for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression {pi} of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2008, these results enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year. They are assessing how these new techniques apply to higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  11. Advances in U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Science

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, JJ; Logan, B.G.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Cohen, R.H.; Coleman, J.E.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Grisham, L.R.; Grote, D.P.; Henestroza, E.; Kaganovich, I.D.; Kireeff-Covo, M.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Ni, P.; Perkins, L.J.; Qin, H.; Roy, P.K.; Sefkow, A.B.; Seidl, P.A.; Startsev, E.A.; Waldron, W.L.

    2007-09-03

    During the past two years, the US heavy ion fusion science program has made significant experimental and theoretical progress in simultaneous transverse and longitudinal beam compression, ion-beam-driven warm dense matter targets, high-brightness beam transport, advanced theory and numerical simulations, and heavy ion target physics for fusion. First experiments combining radial and longitudinal compression {pi} of intense ion beams propagating through background plasma resulted in on-axis beam densities increased by 700X at the focal plane. With further improvements planned in 2008, these results enable initial ion beam target experiments in warm dense matter to begin next year. They are assessing how these new techniques apply to higher-gain direct-drive targets for inertial fusion energy.

  12. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; Bangerter, R.O.; Bock, R.; Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D.

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF? (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration? (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues? (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral? (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF? The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  13. Inertially confined fusion using heavy ion drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B. ); Bangerter, R.O. ); Bock, R. ); Hogan, W.J.; Lindl, J.D. )

    1991-10-01

    The various technical issues of HIF will be briefly reviewed in this paper. It will be seen that there are numerous areas in common in all the approaches to HIF. In the recent International Symposium on Heavy Ion Inertial Fusion, the attendees met in specialized workshop sessions to consider the needs for research in each area. Each of the workshop groups considered the key questions of this report: (1) Is this an appropriate time for international collaboration in HIF (2) Which problems are most appropriate for such collaboration (3) Can the sharing of target design information be set aside until other driver and systems issues are better resolved, by which time it might be supposed that there could be a relaxation of classification of target issues (4) What form(s) of collaboration are most appropriate, e.g., bilateral or multilateral (5) Can international collaboration be sensibly attempted without significant increases in funding for HIF The authors of this report share the conviction that collaboration on a broad scale is mandatory for HIF to have the resources, both financial and personnel, to progress to a demonstration experiment. Ultimately it may be possible for a single driver with the energy, power, focusibility, and pulse shape to satisfy the needs of the international community for target physics research. Such a facility could service multiple experimental chambers with a variety of beam geometries and target concepts.

  14. Neoplastic cell transformation by heavy ions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Watanabe, M; Suzuki, K; Nakano, K; Kaneko, I

    1989-12-01

    We have studied the induction of morphological transformation by heavy ions. Golden hamster embryo cells were irradiated with 95 MeV 14N ions (530 keV/microns), 22 MeV 4He ions (36 keV/microns), and 22 MeV 4He ions with a 100-microns Al absorber (77 keV/microns) which were generated by a cyclotron at the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in Japan. Colonies were considered to contain neoplastically transformed cells when the cells were densely stacked and made a crisscross pattern. It was shown that the induction of transformation was much more effective with 14N and 4He ions than with gamma or X rays. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) relative to 60Co gamma rays was 3.3 for 14N ions, 2.4 for 4He ions, and 3.3 for 4He ions with a 100-microns Al absorber. The relationship between RBE and linear energy transfer was qualitatively similar for both cell death and transformation. PMID:2594968

  15. Progress in heavy ion fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celata, C. M.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Lee, E. P.; Logan, G.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P. A.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W. L.; Yu, S. S.; Barnard, J. J.; Callahan, D. A.; Cohen, R. H.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D. P.; Lund, S. M.; Molvik, A.; Sharp, W. M.; Westenskow, G.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Efthimion, Philip; Gilson, Erik; Grisham, L. R.; Kaganovich, Igor; Qin, Hong; Startsev, Edward A.; Bernal, S.; Cui, Y.; Feldman, D.; Godlove, T. F.; Haber, I.; Harris, J.; Kishek, R. A.; Li, H.; O'Shea, P. G.; Quinn, B.; Reiser, M.; Valfells, A.; Walter, M.; Zou, Y.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.

    2003-05-01

    The U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion program has recently commissioned several new experiments. In the High Current Experiment [P. A. Seidl et al., Laser Part. Beams 20, 435 (2003)], a single low-energy beam with driver-scale charge-per-unit-length and space-charge potential is being used to study the limits to transportable current posed by nonlinear fields and secondary atoms, ions, and electrons. The Neutralized Transport Experiment similarly employs a low-energy beam with driver-scale perveance to study final focus of high perveance beams and neutralization for transport in the target chamber. Other scaled experiments—the University of Maryland Electron Ring [P. G. O'Shea et al., accepted for publication in Laser Part. Beams] and the Paul Trap Simulator Experiment [R. C. Davidson, H. Qin, and G. Shvets, Phys. Plasmas 7, 1020 (2000)]—will provide fundamental physics results on processes with longer scale lengths. An experiment to test a new injector concept is also in the design stage. This paper will describe the goals and status of these experiments, as well as progress in theory and simulation. A proposed future proof-of-principle experiment, the Integrated Beam Experiment, will also be described.

  16. Research needed for improving heavy-ion therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, G; Kraft, S D

    2009-02-01

    The large interest in heavy-ion therapy is stimulated from its excellent clinical results. The bases of this success are the radiobiological and physical advantages of heavy-ion beams and the active beam delivery used for an intensity-modulated particle radiotherapy (IMPT). Although heavy-ion therapy has reached a high degree of perfection for clinical use there is still large progress possible to improve this novel technique: in order to extend IMPT to more tumor entities and to tailor the planning more individually for each patient in an adaptive way, radiobiological work is required both experimentally and theoretically. It is also not clear whether the neighboring ions to carbon could have a clinical application as well. For this extension basic biological studies as well as physics experiments have to be performed. On the technical side, many improvements of the equipment used seem to be possible. Two major topics are the extension of IMPT to moving organs and the transition to more compact and therefore cheaper particle accelerators. In the present paper, these topics are treated to some extent in order to give an outline of the great future potential of ion-beam therapy.

  17. Medical heavy ion accelerator proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, R. A.

    1985-05-01

    For several decades, accelerators designed primarily for research in nuclear and high energy physics have been adapted for biomedical research including radiotherapeutic treatment of human diseases such as pituitary disorders, cancer, and more recently, arteriovascular malformations. The particles used in these treatments include pions, protons and heavier ions such as carbon, neon, silicon and argon. Maximum beam energies must be available to penetrate into an equivalent of about 30 cm of water, requiring treatment beams of 250 to 1000 MeV/nucleon. Intensities must be adequate to complete a 100 rad treatment fraction in about 1 minute. The favored technical approach in these proposals utilizes a conventional, strong-focusing synchrotron capable of fast switching between ions and energies, and servicing multiple treatment rooms. Specialized techniques for shaping the dose to conform to irregularly-shaped target volumes, while simultaneously sparing surrounding, healthy tissue and critical structures, are employed in each treatment room, together with the sophisticated dosimetry necessary for verification, monitoring, and patient safety.

  18. Proceedings of RIKEN BNL Research Center Workshop: Brookhaven Summer Program on Quarkonium Production in Elementary and Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Dumitru, A.; Lourenco, C.; Petreczky, P.; Qiu, J., Ruan, L.

    2011-08-03

    Understanding the structure of the hadron is of fundamental importance in subatomic physics. Production of heavy quarkonia is arguably one of the most fascinating subjects in strong interaction physics. It offers unique perspectives into the formation of QCD bound states. Heavy quarkonia are among the most studied particles both theoretically and experimentally. They have been, and continue to be, the focus of measurements in all high energy colliders around the world. Because of their distinct multiple mass scales, heavy quarkonia were suggested as a probe of the hot quark-gluon matter produced in heavy-ion collisions; and their production has been one of the main subjects of the experimental heavy-ion programs at the SPS and RHIC. However, since the discovery of J/psi at Brookhaven National Laboratory and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory over 36 years ago, theorists still have not been able to fully understand the production mechanism of heavy quarkonia, although major progresses have been made in recent years. With this in mind, a two-week program on quarkonium production was organized at BNL on June 6-17, 2011. Many new experimental data from LHC and from RHIC were presented during the program, including results from the LHC heavy ion run. To analyze and correctly interpret these measurements, and in order to quantify properties of the hot matter produced in heavy-ion collisions, it is necessary to improve our theoretical understanding of quarkonium production. Therefore, a wide range of theoretical aspects on the production mechanism in the vacuum as well as in cold nuclear and hot quark-gluon medium were discussed during the program from the controlled calculations in QCD and its effective theories such as NRQCD to various models, and to the first principle lattice calculation. The scientific program was divided into three major scientific parts: basic production mechanism for heavy quarkonium in vacuum or in high energy elementary collisions; the

  19. Intermediate energy heavy ions: An emerging multi-disciplinary research tool

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, J.R.

    1988-10-01

    In the ten years that beams of intermediate energy ({approx}50 MeV/amu{le}E{le}{approx}2 GeV/amu) heavy ions (Z{le}92) have been available, an increasing number of new research areas have been opened up. Pioneering work at the Bevalac at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, still the world's only source of the heaviest beams in this energy range, has led to the establishment of active programs in nuclear physics, atomic physics, cosmic ray physics, as well as biology and medicine, and industrial applications. The great promise for growth of these research areas has led to serious planning for new facilities capable of delivering such beams; several such facilities are now in construction around the world. 20 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Moon originating heavy ions associated with CIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Nishino, Masaki; Tsunakawa, Hideo

    2014-05-01

    Existance of a tenuous alkali atmosphere around the Moon was discovered by ground-based optical observations in 1980s. Since then the generation mechanism of the alkali atmosphere has been actively investigated. Currently, photon-stimulated desorption is regarded as the major generation process of the lunar alkai atmosphere such as sodium and potassium. MAP-PACE-IMA on Kaguya found four typical ion populations on the dayside of the Moon. These includes (1) solar wind protons backscattered at the lunar surface, (2) solar wind protons reflected by magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface, (3) reflected/backscattered protons picked-up by the solar wind, and (4) ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar exosphere. One of these populations: (4) ions originating from the lunar surface/lunar exosphere usually consisted of heavy ions such as carbon, oxygen, sodium, and potassium. Some of these ions were generated on the lunar surface by photon-stimulated desorption especially for alkali ions such as sodium and potassium and some others were generated by solar wind sputtering. Photo-ionized neutral particles were also included in these ions. These heavy ions were accelerated by the solar wind convection electric field and detected by the ion energy mass spectrometer MAP-PACE-IMA on Kaguya. Since the gyro-radius of these heavy ions was much larger than the Moon, the energy of these ions detected at 100km altitude was in most cases lower than the incident solar wind ion energy. Two special examples were found where the energy of the heavy ions was higher than the incident solar wind ion energy. These high-energy heavy ions were observed on the dayside of the Moon when CIR (Corotating Interaction Region) passed the Moon. The high energy heavy ions were observed for several hours with the highest heavy ion flux observed when the solar wind pressure increased due to the passage of the CIR. The mass spectrum of the heavy ions observed associated with CIR showed H+, He++, He

  1. Physics Division annual report - 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-07

    Summaries are given of progress accomplished for the year in the following areas: (1) Heavy-Ion Nuclear Physics Research; (2) Operation and Development of Atlas; (3) Medium-Energy Nuclear Physics Research; (4) Theoretical Physics Research; and (5) Atomic and Molecular Physics Research.

  2. (Nuclear theory). [Research in nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Haxton, W.

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses research in nuclear physics. Topics covered in this paper are: symmetry principles; nuclear astrophysics; nuclear structure; quark-gluon plasma; quantum chromodynamics; symmetry breaking; nuclear deformation; and cold fusion. (LSP)

  3. Swift Heavy Ion Irradiation of Cobalt Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprouster, D. J.; Giulian, R.; Schnohr, C. S.; Kluth, P.; Araujo, L. L.; Byrne, A. P.; Foran, G. J.; Ridgway, M. C.

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the electronic energy loss released by swift heavy ions can cause considerable atomic movement in various solids. Here, we present a study of the effects of swift heavy ion irradiation on Co nanoparticles embedded within a silica host matrix. The evolution of the Co nanoparticle crystal phase, structural properties, shape and size has been characterized using a combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. An FCC-to-HCP phase transformation is observed at low fluences, while higher fluences result in significant changes in the short range order and NP shape. After an incubation fluence the nanoparticles deform into ellipsoids, preferentially aligned parallel to the incident beam direction. The threshold diameter for elongation was comparable to the saturation value of the ellipsoid width. We correlate this saturation value with the diameter of the molten track induced in amorphous silica by swift heavy ion irradiation.

  4. Observation of anomalous reaction mean free paths of nuclear-projectile fragments in research emulsion from 2 A GeV heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Karant, Y.J.

    1981-07-01

    From an analysis of 1460 projectile fragment collisions in nuclear research emulsion exposed to 2.1 A GeV /sup 16/O and 1.9 A GeV /sup 56/Fe at the Bevalac, evidence is presented for the existence of an anomalously short interaction mean free path of projectile fragments for the first several cm after emission. The result is significant to beyond the 3 standard deviation confidence level.

  5. Understanding of the mechanical and structural changes induced by alpha particles and heavy ions in the French simulated nuclear waste glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karakurt, G.; Abdelouas, A.; Guin, J.-P.; Nivard, M.; Sauvage, T.; Paris, M.; Bardeau, J.-F.

    2016-07-01

    Borosilicate glasses are considered for the long-term confinement of high-level nuclear wastes. External irradiations with 1 MeV He+ ions and 7 MeV Au5+ ions were performed to simulate effects produced by alpha particles and by recoil nuclei in the simulated SON68 nuclear waste glass. To better understand the structural modifications, irradiations were also carried out on a 6-oxides borosilicate glass, a simplified version of the SON68 glass (ISG glass). The mechanical and macroscopic properties of the glasses were studied as function of the deposited electronic and nuclear energies. Alpha particles and gold ions induced a volume change up to -0.7% and -2.7%, respectively, depending on the glass composition. Nano-indentations tests were used to determine the mechanical properties of the irradiated glasses. A decrease of about -22% to -38% of the hardness and a decrease of the reduced Young's modulus by -8% were measured after irradiations. The evolution of the glass structure was studied by Raman spectroscopy, and also 11B and 27Al Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (MAS-NMR) on a 20 MeV Kr irradiated ISG glass powder. A decrease of the silica network connectivity after irradiation with alpha particles and gold ions is deduced from the structural changes observations. NMR spectra revealed a partial conversion of BO4 to BO3 units but also a formation of AlO5 and AlO6 species after irradiation with Kr ions. The relationships between the mechanical and structural changes are also discussed.

  6. HEAVY ION FUSION SCIENCE VIRTUAL NATIONAL LABORATORY 1ST QUARTER 2010 MILESTONE REPORT: Simulations of fast correction of chromatic aberrations to establish physics specifications for implementation on NDCX-1 and NDCX-2

    SciTech Connect

    LIDIA, S.M.; LUND, S.M.; SEIDL, P.A.

    2010-01-04

    This milestone has been accomplished. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory has completed simulations of a fast correction scheme to compensate for chromatic and time-dependent defocusing effects in the transport of ion beams to the target plane in the NDCX-1 facility. Physics specifications for implementation in NDCX-1 and NDCX-2 have been established. This milestone has been accomplished. The Heavy Ion Fusion Science Virtual National Laboratory has completed simulations of a fast correction scheme to compensate for chromatic and time-dependent defocusing effects in the transport of ion beams to the target plane in the NDCX-1 facility. Physics specifications for implementation in NDCX-1 and NDCX-2 have been established. Focal spot differences at the target plane between the compressed and uncompressed regions of the beam pulse have been modeled and measured on NDCX-1. Time-dependent focusing and energy sweep from the induction bunching module are seen to increase the compressed pulse spot size at the target plane by factors of two or more, with corresponding scaled reduction in the peak intensity and fluence on target. A time-varying beam envelope correction lens has been suggested to remove the time-varying aberration. An Einzel (axisymmetric electric) lens system has been analyzed and optimized for general transport lines, and as a candidate correction element for NDCX-1. Attainable high-voltage holdoff and temporal variations of the lens driving waveform are seen to effect significant changes on the beam envelope angle over the duration of interest, thus confirming the utility of such an element on NDCX-1. Modeling of the beam dynamics in NDCX-1 was performed using a time-dependent (slice) envelope code and with the 3-D, self-consistent, particle-in-cell code WARP. Proof of concept was established with the slice envelope model such that the spread in beam waist positions relative to the target plane can be minimized with a carefully designed

  7. Accelerator-Based Studies of Heavy Ion Interactions Relevant to Space Biomedicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J.; Heilbronn, L.; Zeitlin, C.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluation of the effects of space radiation on the crews of long duration space missions must take into account the interactions of high energy atomic nuclei in spacecraft and planetary habitat shielding and in the bodies of the astronauts. These heavy ions (i.e. heavier than hydrogen), while relatively small in number compared to the total galactic cosmic ray (GCR) charged particle flux, can produce disproportionately large effects by virtue of their high local energy deposition: a single traversal by a heavy charged particle can kill or, what may be worse, severely damage a cell. Research into the pertinent physics and biology of heavy ion interactions has consequently been assigned a high priority in a recent report by a task group of the National Research Council. Fragmentation of the incident heavy ions in shielding or in the human body will modify an initially well known radiation field and thereby complicate both spacecraft shielding design and the evaluation of potential radiation hazards. Since it is impractical to empirically test the radiation transport properties of each possible shielding material and configuration, a great deal of effort is going into the development of models of charged particle fragmentation and transport. Accurate nuclear fragmentation cross sections (probabilities), either in the form of measurements with thin targets or theoretical calculations, are needed for input to the transport models, and fluence measurements (numbers of fragments produced by interactions in thick targets) are needed both to validate the models and to test specific shielding materials and designs. Fluence data are also needed to characterize the incident radiation field in accelerator radiobiology experiments. For a number of years, nuclear fragmentation measurements at GCR-like energies have been carried out at heavy ion accelerators including the LBL Bevalac, Saturne (France), the Synchrophasotron and Nuklotron (Dubna, Russia), SIS-18 (GSI, Germany), the

  8. Solenoid transport for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Edward

    2004-06-15

    Solenoid transport of high current, heavy ion beams is considered for several stages of a heavy ion fusion driver. In general this option is more efficient than magnetic quadrupole transport at sufficiently low kinetic energy and/or large e/m, and for this reason it has been employed in electron induction linacs. Ideally an ion beam would be transported in a state of Brillouin flow, i.e. cold in the transverse plane and spinning at one half the cyclotron frequency. The design of appropriate solenoids and the equilibrium and stability of transported ion beams are discussed. An outline of application to a fusion driver is also presented.

  9. Production of highly charged heavy ions by 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance at Research Center for Nuclear Physics.

    PubMed

    Yorita, Tetsuhiko; Hatanaka, Kichiji; Fukuda, Mitsuhiro; Kibayashi, Mitsuru; Morinobu, Shunpei; Okamura, Hiroyuki; Tamii, Atsushi

    2010-02-01

    An 18 GHz superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source has been installed as a subject of the azimuthally varying field cyclotron upgrade project (K. Hatanaka et al., in Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications, Tokyo, Japan, 18-22 October 2004, pp. 115-117), in order to increase beam currents and to extend the variety of ions. The production development of several ions has been performed since 2006 and some of them have already been used for user experiments [T. Yorita et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 02A311 (2008)]. Further optimizations for each component such as the material of plasma electrode, material, and shape of bias probe and mirror field have been continued and more intense ion beams have been obtained for O, N, and Ar. For the purpose of obtaining highly charged Xe with several microamperes, the optimization of position and shape of plasma electrode and bias disk has also been done and highly charged Xe(32+) beam has been obtained successfully. PMID:20192353

  10. NUCLEAR AND HEAVY ION PHYSICS: α-decay half-lives of superheavy nuclei and general predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jian-Min; Zhang, Hong-Fei; Wang, Yan-Zhao; Zuo, Wei; Su, Xin-Ning; Li, Jun-Qing

    2009-08-01

    The generalized liquid drop model (GLDM) and the cluster model have been employed to calculate the α-decay half-lives of superheavy nuclei (SHN) using the experimental α-decay Q values. The results of the cluster model are slightly poorer than those from the GLDM if experimental Q values are used. The prediction powers of these two models with theoretical Q values from Audi et al. (QAudi) and Muntian et al. (QM) have been tested to find that the cluster model with QAudi and QM could provide reliable results for Z > 112 but the GLDM with QAudi for Z <= 112. The half-lives of some still unknown nuclei are predicted by these two models and these results may be useful for future experimental assignment and identification.

  11. Nuclear interactions of high energy heavy ions and applications in astrophysics. Technical progress report, 1 April 1991--31 March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wefel, J.P.

    1992-01-23

    This program was established for the purpose of studying projectile fragmentation; (1) as a function of energy, focusing first on the intermediate energy region, < 1 GeV/nucleon, where there have been few previous measurements and no systematic studies, and (2) as a function of projectile mass, starting with light beams and proceeding to species as heavy as nickel (and possibly beyond). The intermediate energy region is important as the transition between the lower energy data, where the interaction appears to be dominated by collective effects and the decay of excited nuclei, and the highest energy results, where nucleon-nucleon interactions are fundamental, ``limiting fragmentation`` applies, and the nucleus may well break-up before any de-excitation. The mass dependence of projectile fragmentation is largely unknown since most detailed work has involved light ion beams. Nuclear structure effects, for example, may well be quite prominent for heavier beams. Furthermore, the nuclear excitation functions for the production of different fragment isotopes have immediate application to the astrophysical interpretation of existing isotopic datasets obtained from balloon and satellite measurements of galactic cosmic rays.

  12. Short-distance phenomena in nuclear physics. Vol. 104

    SciTech Connect

    Boal, D.H.; Woloshyn, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    This book focuses on the role of the substructure of hadrons (quarks and gluons) in nuclear physics. Considers not only the effects which may be observed in specific nuclear states, such as form factors at large momentum transfer, or the presence of hidden color components in the ground states of few nucleon systems, but also effects which may be observed in the nuclear matter continuum: the phase transition from normal nuclear matter to a plasma of quarks and gluons. Discusses quantum chromodynamics; the constituent quark model; a valon model for hadrons and their interactions; multi-quark states and potential models; nuclear chromodynamics; the thermodynamics of strongly interacting matter; anomalons, honey and glue in nuclear collisions; pions from and about heavy ions; nuclear and particle physics in the early universe; the interacting boson model; the role of pions and isobars in nuclei; nuclear structure, double beta decay and giant resonances; and unity in diversity. Constitutes the Proceedings of the Pacific Summer Institute (''Progress in Nuclear Dynamics: Short-Distance Behavior in the Nucleus'') held in Canada in 1982.

  13. Shielding experiments with high-energy heavy ions for spaceflight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitlin, C.; Guetersloh, S.; Heilbronn, L.; Miller, J.; Elkhayari, N.; Empl, A.; LeBourgeois, M.; Mayes, B. W.; Pinsky, L.; Christl, M.; Kuznetsov, E.

    2008-07-01

    Mitigation of radiation exposures received by astronauts on deep-space missions must be considered in the design of future spacecraft. The galactic cosmic rays (GCR) include high-energy heavy ions, many of which have ranges that exceed the depth of shielding that can be launched in realistic scenarios. Some of these ions are highly ionizing (producing a high dose per particle) and for some biological endpoints are more damaging per unit dose than sparsely ionizing radiation. The principal physical mechanism by which the dose and dose equivalent delivered by these particles can be reduced is nuclear fragmentation, the result of inelastic collisions between nuclei in the hull of the spacecraft and/or other materials. These interactions break the incident ions into lighter, less ionizing and less biologically effective particles. We have previously reported the tests of shielding effectiveness using many materials in a 1 GeV nucleon-1 56Fe beam, and also reported results using a single polyethylene (CH2) target in a variety of beam ions and energies up to 1 GeV nucleon-1. An important, but tentative, conclusion of those studies was that the average behavior of heavy ions in the GCR would be better simulated by heavy beams at energies above 1 GeV nucleon-1. Following up on that work, we report new results using beams of 12C, 28Si and 56Fe, each at three energies, 3, 5 and 10 GeV nucleon-1, on carbon, polyethylene, aluminium and iron targets.

  14. Final Report for Project ``Theory of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions''

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich W. Heinz

    2012-11-09

    In the course of this project the Ohio State University group led by the PI, Professor Ulrich Heinz, developed a comprehensive theoretical picture of the dynamical evolution of ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions and of the numerous experimental observables that can be used to diagnose the evolving and short-lived hot and dense fireball created in such collisions. Starting from a qualitative understanding of the main features based on earlier research during the last decade of the twentieth century on collisions at lower energies, the group exploited newly developed theoretical tools and the stream of new high-quality data from the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory (which started operations in the summer of the year 2000) to arrive at an increasingly quantitative description of the experimentally observed phenomena. Work done at Ohio State University (OSU) was instrumental in the discovery during the years 2001-2003 that quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in nuclear collisions at RHIC behaves like an almost perfect liquid with minimal viscosity. The tool of relativistic fluid dynamics for viscous liquids developed at OSU in the years 2005-2007 opened the possibility to quantitatively determine the value of the QGP viscosity empirically from experimental measurements of the collective flow patterns established in the collisions. A first quantitative extraction of the QGP shear viscosity, with controlled theoretical uncertainty estimates, was achieved during the last year of this project in 2010. OSU has paved the way for a transition of the field of relativistic heavy-ion physics from a qualitative discovery stage to a new stage of quantitative precision in the description of quark-gluon plasma properties. To gain confidence in the precision of our theoretical understanding of quark-gluon plasma dynamics, one must test it on a large set of experimentally measured observables. This achievement report demonstrates that we have, at

  15. Pion shadowing as a tool to study the topology of heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Badala, A.; Barbera, R.; Palmeri, A.; Pappalardo, G.S.; Riggi, F.; Russo, A.C.; Turrisi, R.; Barbera, R.; Riggi, F.; Russo, G.; Turrisi, R.; Russo, G.

    1997-05-01

    The pion reabsorption effect has been exploited, through a new analysis technique, to study the topological distribution of nuclear matter in the course of a heavy-ion collision at intermediate energies. The azimuthal angular distribution of pions with respect to the reaction plane and the angular correlations between pions and projectilelike fragments have been investigated. Quantitative estimations of the pion production time scale and of the impact parameter range involved are provided. The experimental results are successfully compared with the predictions of a microscopic theoretical model based on the solution of the Boltzmann-Nordheim-Vlasov transport equation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  16. PREFACE: XXXIII Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Bijker, Roelof; Fossion, Ruben; Lizcano, David

    2010-04-01

    physics, ranging from the traditional fields of nuclear structure and reactions to radioactive beams, nuclear astrophysics, hadronic physics, fundamental symmetries, ultrarelativistic heavy ions, cosmic rays and quantum chaos. The high quality of the talks, the prestige of the speakers and the broad spectrum of subjects covered in the meeting, shows that nuclear physics is a very active area at the frontier of scientific research which establishes bridges between many different disciplines. One of the exciting new areas in nuclear physics is that of radioactive beams. It provides a powerful tool not only to study exotic nuclei close to the proton and neutron drip lines to obtain important information about the nature of the nucleon-nucleon interaction in stable and unstable nuclei, but also to address questions of fundamental importance in nuclear astrophysics as well as in various applications like mass spectroscopy, the production of radioactive isotopes and medical applications (Galindo-Uribarri). There was a presentation on the FRIB project which is currently under construction in the USA and its relevance for nuclear astrophysics and the limits of stability (Sherrill and Schatz) In the session on nuclear structure, there were several talks on the nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclei close to the proton and neutron drip lines, like neutron-proton pairing in nuclei with an equal number of protons and neutrons (Pittel), and studies of stable and unstable neutron-rich nuclei near the closed shells N = 82 and N = 50 using (d, p) transfer reactions and Coulomb excitation by means of radioactive beams (Cizewski and Padilla-Rodal). There were several talks on the importance of reaction rates for the excitation of spin-isospin resonances (Sakai), massive star evolution (Klapp) and nuclear synthesis and stellar evolution (Rolfs). In another presentation, the importance of rare isotopes for astrophysical processes was highlighted (Schatz). In addition, there were discussions

  17. Green's function methods in heavy ion shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Costen, Robert C.; Shinn, Judy L.; Badavi, Francis F.

    1993-01-01

    An analytic solution to the heavy ion transport in terms of Green's function is used to generate a highly efficient computer code for space applications. The efficiency of the computer code is accomplished by a nonperturbative technique extending Green's function over the solution domain. The computer code can also be applied to accelerator boundary conditions to allow code validation in laboratory experiments.

  18. Relativistic Hydrodynamics for Heavy-Ion Collisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2008-01-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamics is essential to our current understanding of nucleus-nucleus collisions at ultrarelativistic energies (current experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, forthcoming experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider). This is an introduction to relativistic hydrodynamics for graduate students. It includes a detailed…

  19. Acceleration of heavy ions in the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, M.Q.

    1983-01-01

    It is possible to use the Brookhaven AGS as a heavy ion machine by adding a cyclotron to the Tandem and using this combination as injector. An intermediate step for lighter ions might consist of injecting the Tandem beam directly into the AGS. In either case, quite high intensities should be possible.

  20. Cataracts Heavy Ions and Individual Susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, E.; Worgul, B.; Brenner, D.; Smilenov, L.

    Ocular cataracts represents one of the few legacies of space flight evident in a significant proportion of astronauts X-rays are known to induce cataracts Heavy ions are known to be much more effective per unit dose than gamma -rays The object of this present study was to identify genes that confer individual susceptibility and to estimate RBE values Wild type mice were compared with animals heterozygous for Atm Mrad9 or BRCA1 or animals that were double heterozygotes for pairs of genes Mice were irradiated with x-rays at Columbia University in New York City or with heavy ions 1GeV amu 56 Fe ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory Haploinsufficiency for either Atm or mRAD9 resulted in cataracts appearing earlier than in wild type animals whether exposed to gamma -rays or heavy ions Double heterozygotes were more radiosensitive than animals haploinsufficient for either gene alone Heavy ions were much more effective than x-rays in inducing cataracts of all grades in animals of all genotypes A detailed analysis suggest that the RBE varies to some extent with the genotype of the animal and the cataract grade

  1. Suprathermal Minor Heavy Ions In Saturn's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christon, S. P.; Difabio, R. D.; Hamilton, D. C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Mitchell, D. G.

    2010-12-01

    Minor heavy ions, with MPQ > ~25 amu/e, have been measured at energies >~64 keV/e in Saturn's inner magnetosphere using the Cassini/MIMI/CHEMS Charge Energy Mass Spectrometer. CHEMS measures atomic and molecular ions in the mass-per-charge, MPQ, range 1-80 amu/e. The predominant minor heavy ions, N2+1 and O2+1, share general spatial characteristics with the dominant water group ions (taken as O+1, OH+1, H2O+1, and H3O+1). Using an extended collection interval (mid-2004 to 2010) for CHEMS, we have also found several rare heavy ion groups with MPQ > ~40 amu/e, at ~40, ~42-48, and ~52-58 amu/e. CHEMS cannot distinguish atomic from molecular species in this MPQ range, but possible candidates at these masses are Ar+1, CO2+1 or C3H8+1, and Fe+1 or C4H8+1, respectively. These rare heavy ions exhibit somewhat different spatial characteristics than the more abundant water group and N2+1 and O2+1 ions. The compositional characteristics of these suprathermal ion groups will be discussed in the context of recent results concerning liquid water on Enceladus and the composition of dark material on the moons and rings.

  2. Resonant structures in heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, S.J.; Henning, W.; Ernst, H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Jachcinski, C.; Kovar, D.G.; Paul, M.; Schiffer, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of heavy-ion resonance structures using the /sup 24/Mg(/sup 16/O, /sup 12/C)/sup 28/Si reaction is presented. The data are analyzed in the context of Breit-Wigner resonances added to a direct-reaction background.

  3. Metastable states of highly excited heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pegg, D. J.; Griffin, P. M.; Sellin, I. A.; Smith, W. W.; Donnally, B.

    1973-01-01

    Description of the method used and results obtained in an experimental study of the metastable states of highly stripped heavy ions, aimed at determining the lifetimes of such states by the rates of autoionization and radiation. The significance and limitations of the results presented are discussed.

  4. Reaction parameters for heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcke, W.W.; Birkelund, J.R.; Wollersheim, H.J.; Hoover, A.D.; Huizenga, J.R.; Schroeder, W.U.; Tubbs, L.E.

    1980-09-01

    These tables present reaction parameters for all combinations of 27 projectile and 16 target nuclei in a laboratory bombarding energy range of 1--50 MeV/u. The reaction parameters are derived from the Fresnel model of heavy-ion scattering, the droplet model, and the rotating liquid-drop model, or from systematics of experimental data.

  5. Heavy ion beams for inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Godlove, T.F.; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1980-05-01

    The United States' program in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is described in this paper, with emphasis on the studies of the use of intense high energy beams of heavy ions to provide the power and energy needed to initiate thermonuclear burn. Preliminary calculations of the transport of intense ion beams in an electrostatic quadrupole focussing structure are discussed.

  6. Jets and Vector Bosons in Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Cruz, Begoña

    2013-11-01

    This paper reviews experimental results on jets and electroweak boson (photon,Wand Z) production in heavy-ion collisions, from the CMS and ATLAS detectors, using data collected during 2011 PbPb run and pp data collected at an equivalent energy. By comparing the two collision systems, the energy loss of the partons propagating through the medium produced in PbPb collisions can be studied. Its characterization is done using dijet events and isolated photon-jet pairs. Since the electroweak gauge bosons do not participate in the strong interaction, and are thus unmodified by the nuclear medium, they serve as clean probes of the initial state in the collision.

  7. Cellular track model for study of heavy ion beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, Judy L.; Katz, Robert; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wilson, John W.; Ngo, Duc M.

    1993-01-01

    Track theory is combined with a realistic model of a heavy ion beam to study the effects of nuclear fragmentation on cell survival and biological effectiveness. The effects of secondary reaction products are studied as a function of depth in a water column. Good agreement is found with experimental results for the survival of human T-l cells exposed to monoenergetic carbon, neon, and argon beams under aerobic and hypoxia conditions. The present calculation, which includes the effect of target fragmentation, is a significant improvement over an earlier calculation because of the use of a vastly improved beam model with no change in the track theory or cellular response parameters.

  8. STOPPING AND BARYON TRANSPORT IN HEAVY ION REACTIONS.

    SciTech Connect

    VIDEBAEK, F.

    2005-02-05

    In this report I will give an experimental overview on nuclear stopping in hadron collisions, and relate observations to understanding of baryon transport. Baryon number transport is not only evidenced via net-proton distributions but also by the enhancement of strange baryons near mid-rapidity. Although the focus is on high-energy data obtained from pp and heavy ions from RHIC, relevant data from SPS and ISR will be considered. A discussion how the available data at higher energy relates and gives information on baryon junction, quark-diquark breaking will be made.

  9. Theoretical studies in medium-energy nuclear and hadronic physics. [Indiana Univ. Nuclear Theory Center and Department of Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Horowitz, C J; Macfarlane, M H; Matsui, T; Serot, B D

    1993-01-01

    A proposal for theoretical nuclear physics research is made for the period April 1, 1993 through March 31, 1996. Research is proposed in the following areas: relativistic many-body theory of nuclei and nuclear matter, quasifree electroweak scattering and strange quarks in nuclei, dynamical effects in (e,e[prime]p) scattering at large momentum transfer, investigating the nucleon's parton sea with polarized leptoproduction, physics of ultrarelativistic nucleus[endash]nucleus collisions, QCD sum rules and hadronic properties, non-relativistic models of nuclear reactions, and spin and color correlations in a quark-exchange model of nuclear matter. Highlights of recent research, vitae of principal investigators, and lists of publications and invited talks are also given. Recent research dealt primarily with medium-energy nuclear physics, relativistic theories of nuclei and the nuclear response, the nuclear equation of state under extreme conditions, the dynamics of the quark[endash]gluon plasma in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, and theories of the nucleon[endash]nucleon force.

  10. Clinical trial of cancer therapy with heavy ions at heavy ion research facility in lanzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hong

    With collaborative efforts of scientists from the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Sciences and hospitals in Gansu, initial clinical trial on cancer therapy with heavy ions has been successfully carried out in China. From November 2006 to December 2007, 51 patients with superficially-placed tumors were treated with carbon ions at Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL) within four beam time blocks of 6-11 days, collaborating with the General Hospital of Lanzhou Command and the Tumor Hospital of Gansu Province. Patients and Methods: There were 51 patients (31 males and 20 females) with superficially-placed tumors (squamous cell carcinoma of the skin, basal cell carcinoma of the skin, malignant skin melanoma, sarcoma, lymphoma, breast cancer, metastatic lymph nodes of carcinomas and other skin lesions). The tumors were less than 2.1 cm deep to the skin surface. All patients had histological confirmation of their tumors. Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) of all patients was more than 70. The majority of patients were with failures or recurrences of conventional therapies. Median age at the time of radiotherapy (RT) was 55.5 years (range 5-85 years). Patients were immobilized with a vacuum cushion or a head mask and irradiated by carbon ion beams with energy 80-100 MeV/u at spread-out Bragg peak field generated from HIRFL, with two and three-dimensional conformal irradiation methods. Target volume was defined by physical palpation [ultrasonography and Computerized tomography (CT), for some cases]. The clinical target volume (CTV) was defined as the gross total volume GTV with a 0.5-1.0cm margin axially. Field placement for radiation treatment planning was done based on the surface markings. RBE of 2.5-3 within the target volume, and 40-75 GyE with a weekly fractionation of 7 × 3-15 GyE/fraction were used in the trial. Patients had follow-up examinations performed 1 month after treatment, in 1 or 2 months for the first 6 months, and 3

  11. [Heavy ion physics research at Creighton University

    SciTech Connect

    Cherney, M.

    1992-01-01

    This research continues the baseline efforts i n the investigation of the behavior of hadronic matter under extreme conditions. The project is concerned with the search for indications of a phase transition from hadronic to quark matter in the STAR, NA44 and NA36 experiments. It is believed that the conditions. This project contributes to the development of a slow control system and time projection chamber tracking for the STAR experiment, upgrades for the NA44 experiment at CERN through studies of a spot focusing Cherenkov-detector, and the remaining analysis of data collected with the NA36 experiment at CERN.

  12. PREFACE: XIV Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bombaci, I.; Covello, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.

    2014-07-01

    This volume contains the invited and contributed papers presented at the 14th Conference on Theoretical Nuclear Physics in Italy held in Cortona, Italy, from 29-31 October, 2013. The meeting was held at the Palazzone, an elegant Renaissance Villa, commissioned by the Cardinal Silvio Passerini (1469-1529), Bishop of Cortona, and presently owned by the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa. The aim of this biennial Conference is to bring together Italian theorists working in various fields of nuclear physics to discuss their latest results and confront their points of view in a lively and informal way. This offers the opportunity to stimulate new ideas and promote collaborations between different research groups. The Conference was attended by 46 participants, coming from 13 Italian Universities and 11 Laboratories and Sezioni of the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - INFN. The program of the conference, prepared by the Organizing Committee (Ignazio Bombaci, Aldo Covello, Laura Elisa Marcucci and Sergio Rosati) focused on the following main topics: Few-Nucleon Systems Nuclear Structure Nuclear Matter and Nuclear Dynamics Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions and Quark-Gluon Plasma Nuclear Astrophysics Nuclear Physics with Electroweak Probes Structure of Hadrons and Hadronic Matter. In the last session of the Conference there were two invited review talks related to experimental activities of great current interest. Giacomo De Angelis from the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro spoke about the INFN SPES radioactive ion beam project. Sara Pirrone, INFN Sezione di Catania, gave a talk on the symmetry energy and isospin physics with the CHIMERA detector. Finally, Mauro Taiuti (Università di Genova), National Coordinator of the INFN-CSN3 (Nuclear Physics Experiments), reported on the present status and future challenges of experimental nuclear physics in Italy. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of INFN who helped make the conference possible. I Bombaci, A Covello

  13. Theoretical studies in hadronic and nuclear physics. Progress report, December 1, 1993--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, T.D.; Banerjee, M.K.

    1994-07-01

    Under Hadrons in Nuclei and Nuclear Matter the authors research the ways in which the properties of nucleons and mesons are modified in the nuclear medium. Research progress is reported on a number of topics in this general area, including studies of the role of chiral symmetry for finite density or temperature nuclear matter, the use of QCD sum rules to describe baryons in nuclear matter, and color transparency. In the general field of Hadron Physics broad progress included studies of perturbative QCD, heavy quark physics, QCD sum rules, and QCD-based models. Notable progress was also achieved in Relativistic Dynamics in Quark, Hadron, and Nuclear Physics, where an explicit model of composite particles shows how the z-graph physics (which is an essential part of Dirac phenomenology) comes about. In addition, calculations of elastic electron-deuteron scattering based on two-body relativistic dynamics and meson exchange currents were completed, as were studies of quark-anti-quark bound states based on a relativistic quark model. Progress is also reported on the relativistic few-body problem. In the area of Heavy Ion Dynamics and Sharp Lepton Pairs, work continues on the Composite Particle Scenario for the `Sharp Lepton Problem`. In particular, the scenario can now encompass the anomalous sharp leptons reported from positron irradiation of heavy neutral atoms, establishing such irradiations as an alternative experimental window to the heavy ion experiments.

  14. PREFACE: XXXV Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla-Rodal, E.; Bijker, R.

    2012-09-01

    Conference logo The XXXV Symposium on Nuclear Physics was held at Hotel Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico from January 3-6 2012. Conceived in 1978 as a small meeting, over the years and thanks to the efforts of various organizing committees, the symposium has become a well known international conference on nuclear physics. To the best of our knowledge, the Mexican Symposium on Nuclear Physics represents the conference series with longest tradition in Latin America and one of the longest-running annual nuclear physics conferences in the world. The Symposium brings together leading scientists from all around the world, working in the fields of nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, physics with radioactive ion beams, hadronic physics, nuclear astrophysics, neutron physics and relativistic heavy-ion physics. Its main goal is to provide a relaxed environment where the exchange of ideas, discussion of new results and consolidation of scientific collaboration are encouraged. To celebrate the 35th edition of the symposium 53 colleagues attended from diverse countries including: Argentina, Australia, Canada, Japan, Saudi Arabia and USA. We were happy to have the active participation of Eli F Aguilera, Eduardo Andrade, Octavio Castaños, Alfonso Mondragón, Stuart Pittel and Andrés Sandoval who also participated in the first edition of the Symposium back in 1978. We were joined by old friends of Cocoyoc (Stuart Pittel, Osvaldo Civitarese, Piet Van Isacker, Jerry Draayer and Alfredo Galindo-Uribarri) as well as several first time visitors that we hope will come back to this scientific meeting in the forthcoming years. The scientific program consisted of 33 invited talks, proposed by the international advisory committee, which nicely covered the topics of the Symposium giving a balanced perspective between the experimental and the theoretical work that is currently underway in each line of research. Fifteen posters complemented the scientific sessions giving the opportunity

  15. PREFACE: XXXVIII Symposium on Nuclear Physics (Cocoyoc 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla-Rodal, E.

    2015-09-01

    The 38th edition of the Symposium on Nuclear Physics was held at Hotel Hacienda Cocoyoc, Morelos, Mexico from January 6-9, 2015. As in previous years, the Symposium brought together leading scientists from all around the world, working on: nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, physics with radioactive ion beams, hadronic physics, nuclear astrophysics, neutron physics and relativistic heavy-ion physics. The scientific program consisted of 27 invited talks, proposed by the international advisory committee that covered, in a balanced way, the experimental and theoretical work that currently is undergoing in the research fields of the Symposium. Ten posters complemented the program, providing students with an opportunity to bring their work to the attention of visiting scientists. This year, the conference activities also included a special talk presented by Archaeologist Omar Espinosa Severino about the ancient ruins found in Chalcatzingo, a village located approximately a 40 minute drive from the conference venue. The talk was followed by a visit to the archaeological site, guided by the group led by Archaeologist Mario Cordova Tello. The present volume contains 14 research articles based on invited talks presented at the Symposium. I would like to thank all the authors for their enthusiastic contribution. Special thanks to the anonymous referees for the time devoted to the review process, their input helped to maintain a high standard of the Conference Proceedings. Finally I would also like to thank the Symposiums' International Advisory Committee and the Sponsoring Organizations that made this event possible.

  16. Recombinant Science: The Birth of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (431st Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Crease, Robert P

    2007-12-12

    As part of the celebration of Brookhaven Lab's 60th anniversary, Robert P. Crease, the Chair of the Philosophy Department at Stony Brook University and BNL's historian, will present the second of two talks on the Lab's history. In "Recombinant Science: The Birth of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider," Dr. Crease will focus on the creation of the world's most powerful colliding accelerator for nuclear physics. Known as RHIC, the collider, as Dr. Crease will recount, was formally proposed in 1984, received initial construction funding from the U.S. Department of Energy in 1991, and started operating in 2000. In 2005, the discovery at RHIC of the world's most perfect liquid, a state of matter that last existed just moments after the Big Bang, was announced, and, since then, this perfect liquid of quarks and gluons has been the subject of intense study.

  17. Heavy ion action on single cells: Cellular inactivation capability of single accelerated heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kost, M.; Pross, H.-D.; Russmann, C.; Schneider, E.; Kiefer, J.; Kraft, G.; Lenz, G.; Becher, W.

    1994-01-01

    Heavy ions (HZE-particles) constitute an important part of radiation in space. Although their number is small the high amount of energy transferred by individual particles may cause severe biological effects. Their investigation requires special techniques which were tested by experiments performed at the UNILAC at the GSI (Darmstadt). Diploid yeast was used which is a suitable eucaryotic test system because of its resistance to extreme conditions like dryness and vacuum. Cells were placed on nuclear track detector foils and exposed to ions of different atomic number and energy. To assess the action of one single ion on an individual cell, track parameters and the respective colony forming abilities (CFA) were determined with the help of computer aided image analysis. There is mounting evidence that not only the amount of energy deposited along the particle path, commonly given by the LET, is of importance but also the spatial problem of energy deposition at a submicroscopical scale. It is virtually impossible to investigate track structure effects in detail with whole cell populations and (globally applied) high particle fluences. It is, therefore, necessary to detect the action of simple ions in individual cells. The results show that the biological action depends on atomic number and specific energy of the impinging ions, which can be compared with model calculations of recent track structure models.

  18. Physics and nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, N. E.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear power owes its origin to physicists. Fission was demonstrated by physicists and chemists and the first nuclear reactor project was led by physicists. However as nuclear power was harnessed to produce electricity the role of the engineer became stronger. Modern nuclear power reactors bring together the skills of physicists, chemists, chemical engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers and civil engineers. The paper illustrates this by considering the Sizewell B project and the role played by physicists in this. This covers not only the roles in design and analysis but in problem solving during the commissioning of first of a kind plant. Looking forward to the challenges to provide sustainable and environmentally acceptable energy sources for the future illustrates the need for a continuing synergy between physics and engineering. This will be discussed in the context of the challenges posed by Generation IV reactors.

  19. Dynamical Aspects of Heavy-Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier

    1995-01-01

    Two independent studies on heavy-ion collisions are presented. In the first part, the charge and mass of the projectile-like fragments produced in the 15-MeV per nucleon ^{40}Ca+^{209 } Bi reaction were determined for products detected near the grazing angle. Neutron number-charge (N-Z) distributions were generated as a function of the total kinetic energy loss and parameterized by their centroids, variances and correlation coefficients. After the interaction, a drift of the charge and mass centroids towards asymmetry is observed. The production of projectile -like fragments is consistent with a tendency of the projectile -like fragments to retain the projectile neutron-to-proton ratio < N > / < Z > = 1. The correlation coefficient remains well below 1.0 for the entire range of total kinetic energy lost. Predictions of two nucleon exchange models, Randrup's and Tassan-Got's, are compared to the experimental results. The models are not able to reproduce the evolution of the experimental distributions, especially the fact that the variances reach a maximum and then decrease as function of the energy loss. This behavior supports the hypothesis that some form of projectile -like fragmentation or cluster emission is perturbing the product distribution from that expected from a damped mechanism. In the second part of the thesis a clustering model that allows the recognition of mass fragments from dynamical simulations has been developed. Studying the evolution of a microscopic computation based on the nuclear -Boltzman transport equation, a suitable time is chosen to identify the bound clusters. At this time the number of binding surfaces for each test nucleon is found. Based on the number of nucleon bindings the interior nucleons are identified, and the cluster kernels are formed. An iterative routine is then applied to determine the coalescence of the surrounding free nucleons. Once the fragment formation has been established, a statistical decay code is used to

  20. Nuclear winter - Physics and physical mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turco, R. P.; Toon, O. B.; Pollack, J. B.; Ackerman, T. P.; Sagan, C.

    1991-01-01

    The basic physics of the environmental perturbations caused by multiple nuclear detonations is explored, summarizing current knowledge of the possible physical, chemical, and biological impacts of nuclear war. Emphasis is given to the impact of the bomb-generated smoke (soot) particles. General classes of models that have been used to simulate nuclear winter are examined, using specific models as examples.

  1. Optical Faraday Cup for Heavy Ion Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, Frank; Bieniosek, F.M.; Eylon, S.; Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.

    2007-06-25

    We have been using alumina scintillators for imaging beams in heavy-ion beam fusion experiments in 2 to 4 transverse dimensions [1]. The scintillator has a limited lifetime under bombardment by the heavy ion beams. As a possible replacement for the scintillator, we are studying the technique of imaging the beam on a gas cloud. A gas cloud for imaging the beam may be created on a solid hole plate placed in the path of the beam, or by a localized gas jet. It is possible to image the beam using certain fast-quenching optical lines that closely follow beam current density and are independent of gas density. We describe this technique and show preliminary experimental data. This approach has promise to be a new fast beam current diagnostic on a nanosecond time scale.

  2. Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Beahm, Lorraine P.; Tylka, Allan J.

    1992-01-01

    The Heavy Ions In Space (HIIS) experiment has two primary objectives: (1) to measure the elemental composition of ultraheavy Galactic cosmic rays, beginning in the tin-barium region of the periodic table; and (2) to study heavy ions which arrive at LDEF below the geomagnetic cutoff, either because they are not fully stripped of electrons or because their source is within the magnetosphere. Both have practical as well as astrophysical consequences. The HIIS experiment used eight thick stacks of plastic track detectors mounted in two trays on the space facing end of LDEF. Since the last LDEF symposium, the statistics were increased of the observations and have extended the analysis to a second stack and to detector sheets near the top of a stack. New results are reported on the detector resolution and on the observations of both stopping and relativistic particles.

  3. HEAVY-ION IMAGING APPLIED TO MEDICINE

    SciTech Connect

    Fabrikant, J.I.; Tobias, C.A.; Capp, M.P.; Benton, E.V.; Holley, W.R.

    1980-02-01

    Heavy particle radiography is a newly developed noninvasive low dose imaging procedure with increased resolution of minute density differences in soft tissues of the body. The method utilizes accelerated high energy ions, primarily carbon and neon, at the BEVALAC accelerator at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The research program applied to medicine utilizes heavy-ion radiography for low dose mammography, for treatment planning for cancer patients, and for imaging and accurate densitometry of skeletal structures and brain and spinal neoplasms. The presentation will be illustrated with clinical cases under study. Discussion will include the potential of heavy-ion imaging, and particularly reconstruction tomography, as an adjunct to existing diagnostic imaging procedures in medicine, both for the applications to the diagnosis, management and treatment of clinical cancer in man, but also for the early detection of small soft tissue tumors at low radiation dose.

  4. Viscous photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dion, Maxime; Paquet, Jean-François; Schenke, Björn; Young, Clint; Jeon, Sangyong; Gale, Charles

    2011-12-01

    Theoretical studies of the production of real thermal photons in relativistic heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are performed. The space-time evolution of the colliding system is modelled using music, a 3+1D relativistic hydrodynamic simulation, using both its ideal and viscous versions. The inclusive spectrum and its azimuthal angular anisotropy are studied separately, and the relative contributions of the different photon sources are highlighted. It is shown that the photon v2 coefficient is especially sensitive to the details of the microscopic dynamics like the equation of state, the ratio of shear viscosity over entropy density, η/s, and to the morphology of the initial state.

  5. Femtoscopy in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa, M; Pratt, S; Soltz, R A; Wiedemann, U

    2005-07-29

    Analyses of two-particle correlations have provided the chief means for determining spatio-temporal characteristics of relativistic heavy ion collisions. We discuss the theoretical formalism behind these studies and the experimental methods used in carrying them out. Recent results from RHIC are put into context in a systematic review of correlation measurements performed over the past two decades. The current understanding of these results are discussed in terms of model comparisons and overall trends.

  6. Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility: Users handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Auble, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The primary objective of this handbook is to provide information for those who plan to carry out research programs at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The accelerator systems and experimental apparatus available are described. The mechanism for obtaining accelerator time and the responsibilities of those users who are granted accelerator time are described. The names and phone numbers of ORNL personnel to call for information about specific areas are given. (LEW)

  7. Remarkable optical-potential systematics for lighter heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Brandan, M.E.; McVoy, K.W.

    1997-03-01

    Nuclear rainbows, which appear in the elastic scattering angular distributions for certain combinations of lighter heavy ions like {sup 12}C+{sup 12}C and {sup 16}O+{sup 16}O, uniquely determine the major features of the optical potentials for these systems. These features are conveniently summarized by the central depth of the real part of the potential, V(r=0){approximately}100{minus}300 MeV, and by the ratio of imaginary to real parts of the potential, W(r)/V(r), found to be {lt}1 for both small and large r (internal and far-tail transparency), but {approx}1 in the surface region. The resulting maximum in W/V, which is found over the entire energy range 6 MeV {approx_lt}E{sub L}/A{approx_lt}100 MeV, appears to correlate with the peripheral reactions that occur in this energy range. At higher energies the data available indicate that the far-surface region is no longer transparent. Rather, W{approx}V there, suggesting the dominance of nuclear knockout reactions in the far tail. The knockout mode of inelasticity is the one described by the double-Glauber approximation, and W(r){approx}V(r) agrees with the Glauber prediction in the high-energy range. This suggests that the double-Glauber prediction begins to be accurate in the low-density tail of the A{sub 1}+A{sub 2} interaction around E{sub L}/A{approx}100 MeV and that its failure for the higher-density interior may provide a means of investigating the density dependence of Pauli blocking on NN scattering in the nuclear medium. By way of contrast, systems like {sup 20}Ne+{sup 12}C and {sup 14}N+{sup 12}C, which do not exhibit rainbows, have distinctly more absorptive potentials and do not follow the above systematics. This suggests that the imaginary part of the optical potential reflects the shell structure of the target and/or projectile in important ways, and so will not be easy to calculate from an infinite-matter many-body approach. {copyright} {ital 1996} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Laser-based acceleration for nuclear physics experiments at ELI-NP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesileanu, O.; Asavei, Th.; Dancus, I.; Gales, S.; Negoita, F.; Turcu, I. C. E.; Ursescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2016-05-01

    As part of the Extreme Light pan-European research infrastructure, Extreme Light Infrastructure - Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) in Romania will focus on topics in Nuclear Physics, fundamental Physics and applications, based on very intense photon beams. Laser-based acceleration of electrons, protons and heavy ions is a prerequisite for a multitude of laser-driven nuclear physics experiments already proposed by the international research community. A total of six outputs of the dual-amplification chain laser system, two of 100TW, two of 1PW and two of 10PW will be employed in 5 experimental areas, with the possibility to use long and short focal lengths, gas and solid targets, reaching the whole range of laser acceleration processes. We describe the main techniques and expectations regarding the acceleration of electrons, protons and heavy nuclei at ELI-NP, and some physics cases for which these techniques play an important role in the experiments.

  9. Physics Division progress report for period ending June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    Progress is reported in detail in the following areas: Holifield Heavy-Ion Research Facility, nuclear physics, the UNISOR program, neutron physics, theoretical physics, the Nuclear Data Project, atomic and plasma physics, and high energy physics. Publications are listed. Separate abstracts were prepared for 34 papers. (WHK)

  10. Panel report: nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Joseph A; Hartouni, Edward P

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear science is at the very heart of the NNSA program. The energy produced by nuclear processes is central to the NNSA mission, and nuclear reactions are critical in many applications, including National Ignition Facility (NIF) capsules, energy production, weapons, and in global threat reduction. Nuclear reactions are the source of energy in all these applications, and they can also be crucial in understanding and diagnosing the complex high-energy environments integral to the work of the NNSA. Nuclear processes are complex quantum many-body problems. Modeling and simulation of nuclear reactions and their role in applications, coupled tightly with experiments, have played a key role in NNSA's mission. The science input to NNSA program applications has been heavily reliant on experiment combined with extrapolations and physical models 'just good enough' to provide a starting point to extensive engineering that generated a body of empirical information. This body of information lacks the basic science underpinnings necessary to provide reliable extrapolations beyond the domain in which it was produced and for providing quantifiable error bars. Further, the ability to perform additional engineering tests is no longer possible, especially those tests that produce data in the extreme environments that uniquely characterize these applications. The end of testing has required improvements to the predictive capabilities of codes simulating the reactions and associated applications for both well known and well characterized cases as well as incompletely known cases. Developments in high performance computing, computational physics, applied mathematics and nuclear theory have combined to make spectacular advances in the theory of fission, fusion and nuclear reactions. Current research exploits these developments in a number of Office of Science and NNSA programs, and in joint programs such as the SciDAC (Science Discovery through Advanced Computing) that supports the

  11. Heavy-ion effects: from track structure to DNA and chromosome damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballarini, F.; Alloni, D.; Facoetti, A.; Ottolenghi, A.

    2008-07-01

    The use of carbon ions for the treatment of certain tumour types, especially radioresistant tumours, is becoming more frequent due to the carbon-ion dose localization and high relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in the Bragg peak region. Human beings can also be exposed to heavy ions in space, since galactic cosmic rays are a mixed field consisting of not only high-energy protons and He ions, but also heavier ions including iron. Due to their high linear energy transfer (LET), heavy ions have peculiar track structures, characterized by a high level of energy deposition clustering. Furthermore, high-energy ions produce energetic secondary electrons ('delta rays') which can give rise to energy depositions several micrometres away from the core of the primary particle track. Also in view of hadron therapy and space radiation applications, it is therefore important to characterize heavy-ion tracks from a physical and biophysical point of view. In this framework, herein we will discuss the main physical features of heavy-ion track structure, as well as heavy-ion-induced DNA double-strand breaks, which are regarded as one of the most important initial radiobiological lesions and chromosome aberrations, which are correlated both with cell death and with cell conversion to malignancy.

  12. Nuclear spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1993-02-08

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While our main emphasis is on experimental problems involving heavy-ion accelerators, we have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of our measurements. During the last year we have led several experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility and participated in others at Argonne National Laboratory. Also, we continue to be very active in the collaboration to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in a RHIC detector R D project. Our experimental work is in four broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) heavy-ion induced transfer reactions, (3) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (4) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas will be described in this document in sections IIA, IIB, IIC, and IID, respectively. Areas (1), (3), and (4) concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Area (2) pursues the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum, both to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions. An important component of our program is the strong emphasis on the theoretical aspects of nuclear structure and reactions.

  13. Nuclear Physics Review

    SciTech Connect

    Walker-Loud, Andre

    2014-11-01

    Anchoring low-energy nuclear physics to the fundamental theory of strong interactions remains an outstanding challenge. I review the current progress and challenges of the endeavor to use lattice QCD to bridge this connection. This is a particularly exciting time for this line of research as demonstrated by the spike in the number of different collaborative efforts focussed on this problem and presented at this conference. I first digress and discuss the 2013 Ken Wilson Award.

  14. Heavy Flavor Dynamics in Relativistic Heavy-ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shanshan

    Heavy flavor hadrons serve as valuable probes of the transport properties of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In this dissertation, we introduce a comprehensive framework that describes the full-time evolution of heavy flavor in heavy-ion collisions, including its initial production, in-medium evolution inside the QGP matter, hadronization process from heavy quarks to their respective mesonic bound states and the subsequent interactions between heavy mesons and the hadron gas. The in-medium energy loss of heavy quarks is studied within the framework of a Langevin equation coupled to hydrodynamic models that simulate the space-time evolution of the hot and dense QGP matter. We improve the classical Langevin approach such that, apart from quasi-elastic scatterings between heavy quarks and the medium background, radiative energy loss is incorporated as well by treating gluon radiation as a recoil force term. The subsequent hadronization of emitted heavy quarks is simulated via a hybrid fragmentation plus recombination model. The propagation of produced heavy mesons in the hadronic phase is described using the ultra-relativistic quantum molecular dynamics (UrQMD) model. Our calculation shows that while collisional energy loss dominates the heavy quark motion inside the QGP in the low transverse momentum (p T) regime, contributions from gluon radiation are found to be significant at high pT. The recombination mechanism is important for the heavy flavor meson production at intermediate energies. The hadronic final state interactions further enhance the suppression and the collective flow of heavy mesons we observe. Within our newly developed framework, we present numerical results for the nuclear modification and the elliptic flow of D mesons, which are consistent with measurements at both the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the BNL Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC); predictions for B mesons are also provided. In

  15. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1, 1990--September 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, induction acceleration, is being studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high-power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: (1) beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; (2) development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; (3) acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; (4) final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  16. Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) year-end report, April 1--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The basic objective of the Heavy Ion Fusion Accelerator Research (HIFAR) program is to assess the suitability of heavy ion accelerators as igniters for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). A specific accelerator technology, the induction linac, has been studied at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and has reached the point at which its viability for ICF applications can be assessed over the next few years. The HIFAR program addresses the generation of high power, high-brightness beams of heavy ions, the understanding of the scaling laws in this novel physics regime, and the validation of new accelerator strategies, to cut costs. Key elements to be addressed include: beam quality limits set by transverse and longitudinal beam physics; development of induction accelerating modules, and multiple-beam hardware, at affordable costs; acceleration of multiple beams with current amplification --both new features in a linac -- without significant dilution of the optical quality of the beams; final bunching, transport, and accurate focusing on a small target.

  17. Towards a heavy-ion transport capability in the MARS15 Code

    SciTech Connect

    Mokhov, N. V.; Gudima, K. K.; Mashnik, S. G.; Rakhno, I. L.; Striganov, S.

    2004-04-01

    In order to meet the challenges of new accelerator and space projects and further improve modelling of radiation effects in microscopic objects, heavy-ion interaction and transport physics have been recently incorporated into the MARS15 Monte Carlo code. A brief description of new modules is given in comparison with experimental data. The MARS Monte Carlo code is widely used in numerous accelerator, detector, shielding and cosmic ray applications. The needs of the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider, Large Hadron Collider, Rare Isotope Accelerator and NASA projects have recently induced adding heavy-ion interaction and transport physics to the MARS15 code. The key modules of the new implementation are described below along with their comparisons to experimental data.

  18. PREFACE: Rutherford Centennial Conference on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Sean

    2012-09-01

    Just over one hundred years ago, Ernest Rutherford presented an interpretation of alpha-particle scattering experiments, performed a couple of years earlier by Geiger and Marsden, to the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. The work was summarised shortly afterwards in a paper in the Philosophical Magazine. He postulated that a dense speck of matter must exist at the centre of an atom (later to become known as the nucleus) if the details of the experiments, particularly the yield of alpha particles scattered through large angles, were to be explained. The nuclear hypothesis, combined with the experimental work by Moseley on X-rays and Bohr's theoretical ideas, both also initiated at the Victoria University of Manchester, established our view of atomic structure and gave birth to the field of nuclear physics. The Rutherford Centennial Conference on Nuclear Physics was held at The University of Manchester in August 2011 to celebrate this anniversary by addressing the wide range of contemporary topics that characterise modern nuclear physics. This set of proceedings covers areas including nuclear structure and astrophysics, hadron structure and spectroscopy, fundamental interactions studied within the nucleus and results of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. We would like to thank all those who presented their recent research results at the conference; the proceedings stand as a testament to the excitement and interest that still pervades the pursuit of this field of physics. We would also like to thank those who contributed in other ways to the conference. To colleagues at the Manchester Museum of Science and Industry for putting together an exhibition to coincide with the conference that included the manuscript of the 1911 paper, letters, notebooks and equipment used by Rutherford. These items were kindly loaned by Cambridge and Manchester Universities. Winton Capital generously supported this exhibition. We would also like to thank Professor Mary Fowler

  19. Mutation Induction in Mammalian Cells by Accelerated Heavy Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosendahl, I. M.; Baumstark-Khan, C.; Rink, H.

    The deleterious effects of accelerated heavy ions on living cells are of increasing importance for long duration human space flight activities. An important aspect of this field is attributed to the type and quality of biological damage induced by these densely ionizing particles. To address this aspect, cell inactivation and mutation induction at the hprt locus (coding for hypoxanthine-guanine-phosphoribosyl-transferase) was investigated in cultured V79 Chinese Hamster Cells irradiated with accelerated heavy ions (8-O, 20-Ca, 79-Au, and 92-U) and X-rays. Specific energies of the ions ranged from 1.9 to 69.7 MeV/u and corresponding LET values were between 62 band 15,580 keV/μ m. 30 spontaneous and 196 heavy-ion induced 6-thioguanine resistant hprt mutant colonies were characterized by Southern technique using the restriction enzymes EcoRI, PstI and BglII and a full length hprt cDNA probe isolated from the plasmid pHpt12 (kindly provided by Dr. J. Thacker). While inactivation cross sections (σ i) rise over the whole LET range, mutation induction cross sections (σ m) increase up to approximately 300 keV/μ m (O-ions) but decline with heavier ions and more extreme LET values. A similar behaviour is seen with mutation frequency dependent on particle fluence. After irradiation with accelerated uranium ions (8.8 MeV/u, 15,580 keV/μ m) a significant decrease of mutation frequency was found with higher particle fluences (3× 106 particles cm-2). Nearly no mutants were recovered with 8× 106 particles cm-2. All restriction patterns of the spontaneous hprt mutants were indistinguishable from the wild type pattern. These mutants probably contain small deletions or point mutations in the hprt locus. In contrast, the overall spectrum of heavy ion induced mutations revealed a majority (67%) of partial or complete deletions of the hprt gene. With constant particle fluence (3× 106 particles cm-2) the quality of heavy ion induced mutations in the hprt locus depends on physical

  20. Multifragmentation in intermediate energy {sup 129}Xe-induced heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Tso, Kin

    1996-05-01

    The {sup 129}Xe-induced reactions on {sup nat}Cu, {sup 89}Y, {sup 165}Ho, and {sup 197}Au at bombarding energies of E/A = 40 & 60 MeV have been studied theoretically and experimentally in order to establish the underlying mechanism of multifragmentation at intermediate energy heavy-Ion collisions. Nuclear disks formed in central heavy-ion collisions, as simulated by means of Boltzmann-like kinetic equations, break up into several fragments due to a new kind of Rayleigh-like surface instability. A sheet of liquid, stable in the limit of non-interacting surfaces, is shown to become unstable due to surface-surface interactions. The onset of this instability is determined analytically. A thin bubble behaves like a sheet and is susceptible to the surface instability through the crispation mode. The Coulomb effects associated with the depletion of charges in the central cavity of nuclear bubbles are investigated. The onset of Coulomb instability is demonstrated for perturbations of the radial mode. Experimental intermediate-mass-fragment multiplicity distributions for the {sup 129}Xe-induced reactions are shown to be binomial at each transverse energy. From these distributions, independent of the specific target, an elementary binary decay probability p can be extracted that has a thermal dependence. Thus it is inferred that multifragmentation is reducible to a combination of nearly independent emission processes. If sequential decay is assumed, the increase of p with transverse energy implies a contraction of the emission time scale. The sensitivity of p to the lower Z threshold in the definition of intermediate-mass-fragments points to a physical Poisson simulations of the particle multiplicities show that the weak auto-correlation between the fragment multiplicity and the transverse energy does not distort a Poisson distribution into a binomial distribution. The effect of device efficiency on the experimental results has also been studied.

  1. Identifying heavy-ion-beam fusion design and system features with high economic leverage

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, W.R.; Hogan, W.J.

    1985-03-03

    We have conducted parametric economic studies for heavy-ion-beam fusion electric power plants. We examined the effects on the cost of electricity of several design parameters: maximum achievable chamber pulse rate, driver cost, target gain, and electric conversion efficiency, and net electric power. We found with reasonable assumptions on driver cost, target gain, and electric conversion efficiency, a 2 to 3 GWe heavy-ion-beam fusion power plant, with a chamber pulse rate of 5 to 10 Hz, can be competitive with nuclear and coal power plants.

  2. Harmonic well matter densities and Pauli correlation effects in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    A generalized optical model heavy ion reaction theory is extended to include correlation effects between projectile and target constituents according to the Pauli exclusion principle. These correlation effects are significant for accurately predicting cross sections for projectile nucleus abrasions, but are relatively unimportant for determining total and absorption cross sections for heavy ion collisions. For lighter nuclei, predictive capabilities were also improved by developing an analytic method for extracting their nuclear single particle density distributions from experimentally measured harmonic well charge density distributions. This improved theory is compared with previous theoretical predictions and recent experimental results.

  3. Physics through the 1990s: Nuclear physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The volume begins with a non-mathematical introduction to nuclear physics. A description of the major advances in the field follows, with chapters on nuclear structure and dynamics, fundamental forces in the nucleus, and nuclei under extreme conditions of temperature, density, and spin. Impacts of nuclear physics on astrophysics and the scientific and societal benefits of nuclear physics are then discussed. Another section deals with scientific frontiers, describing research into the realm of the quark-gluon plasma; the changing description of nuclear matter, specifically the use of the quark model; and the implications of the standard model and grand unified theories of elementary-particle physics; and finishes with recommendations and priorities for nuclear physics research facilities, instrumentation, accelerators, theory, education, and data bases. Appended are a list of national accelerator facilities, a list of reviewers, a bibliography, and a glossary.

  4. Multiple-scattering model for inclusive proton production in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    A formalism is developed for evaluating the momentum distribution for proton production in nuclear abrasion during heavy ion collisions using the Glauber multiple-scattering series. Several models for the one-body density matrix of nuclei are considered for performing numerical calculations. Calculations for the momentum distribution of protons in abrasion are compared with experimental data for inclusive proton production.

  5. Jet and Leading Hadron Production in High-energy Heavy-ionCollisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-11-01

    Jet tomography has become a powerful tool for the study ofproperties of dense matter in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. I willdiscuss recent progresses in the phenomenological study of jet quenching,including momentum, colliding energy and nuclear size dependence ofsingle hadron suppression, modification of dihadron correlations and thesoft hadron distribution associatedwith a quenched jet.

  6. Systematics of Charged Particle Production in Heavy-Ion Collisions with the PHOBOS Detector at Rhic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Corbo, J.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Henderson, C.; Hicks, D.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Rafelski, M.; Rbeiz, M.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2002-03-01

    The multiplicity of charged particles produced in Au+Au collisions as a function of energy, centrality, rapidity and azimuthal angle has been measured with the PHOBOS detector at RHIC. These results contribute to our understanding of the initial state of heavy ion collisions and provide a means to compare basic features of particle production in nuclear collisions with more elementary systems.

  7. Nuclear physics and cosmology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schramm, David N.

    1989-01-01

    Nuclear physics has provided one of two critical observational tests of all Big Bang cosmology, namely Big Bang Nucleosynthesis. Furthermore, this same nuclear physics input enables a prediction to be made about one of the most fundamental physics questions of all, the number of elementary particle families. The standard Big Bang Nucleosynthesis arguments are reviewed. The primordial He abundance is inferred from He-C and He-N and He-O correlations. The strengthened Li constraint as well as D-2 plus He-3 are used to limit the baryon density. This limit is the key argument behind the need for non-baryonic dark matter. The allowed number of neutrino families, N(nu), is delineated using the new neutron lifetime value of tau(n) = 890 + or - 4s (tau(1/2) = 10.3 min). The formal statistical result is N(nu) = 2.6 + or - 0.3 (1 sigma), providing a reasonable fit (1.3 sigma) to three families but making a fourth light (m(nu) less than or equal to 10 MeV) neutrino family exceedly unlikely (approx. greater than 4.7 sigma). It is also shown that uncertainties induced by postulating a first-order quark-baryon phase transition do not seriously affect the conclusions.

  8. Transverse beam dynamics studies of a heavy ion induction linac

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, T.; Eylon, S.; Fessenden, T.J.; Hahn, K.; Henestroza, E.; Keefe, D.

    1990-08-01

    The multiple beam induction linac experiment (MBE-4) was built to study the accelerator physics of the low energy, electrostatically focussed end of a driver for heavy ion inertial confinement fusion. In this machine four beams of Cs{sup +} ions are accelerated through 24 common induction gaps while being focussed in separate AG focussing channels. Each channel consists of a syncopated FODO lattice of 30 periods. We report results of the most recent studies of the transverse beam dynamics of a single drifting (180 keV) beam in this machine. The dependence of the emittance on the zero-current phase advance shows systematic variations which may be understood in the light of previous theoretical work on this topic. This result, unique to the beam parameters of a linac for heavy ion fusion, will be discussed in the context of its implications for a driver design. In addition we will discuss recent measurements of the motion of the beam centroid through the linac. These measurements, coupled with simulations, have proven to be a powerful tool in determining the presence of misalignment errors in the lattice of the accelerator. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  9. The composition of heavy ions in solar energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, C. Y.; Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.

    1983-01-01

    Recent advances in determining the elemental, charge state, and isotopic composition of or approximate to 1 to or approximate to 20 MeV per nucleon ions in solar energetic particle (SEP) events and outline our current understanding of the nature of solar and interplanetary processes which may explain the observations. Average values of relative abundances measured in a large number of SEP events were found to be roughly energy independent in the approx. 1 to approx. 20 MeV per nucleon range, and showed a systematic deviation from photospheric abundances which seems to be organized in terms of the first ionization potential of the ion. Direct measurements of the charge states of SEPs revealed the surprisingly common presence of energetic He(+) along with heavy ion with typically coronal ionization states. High resolution measurements of isotopic abundance ratios in a small number of SEP events showed these to be consistent with the universal composition except for the puzzling overabundance of the SEP(22)Ne/(20)Ne relative to this isotopes ratio in the solar wind. The broad spectrum of observed elemental abundance variations, which in their extreme result in composition anomalies characteristic of (3)He rich, heavy ion rich and carbon poor SEP events, along with direct measurements of the ionization states of SEPs provided essential information on the physical characteristics of, and conditions in the source regions, as well as important constraints to possible models for SEP production.

  10. Detectability of strange matter in heavy ion experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schaffner, J.,; Diener, A.; Stocker, H.,; Greiner, C.,

    1997-06-01

    We discuss the properties of two distinct forms of hypothetical strange matter, small lumps of strange quark matter (strangelets) and of hyperon matter [metastable exotic multihypernuclear objects (MEMO{close_quote}s)], with special emphasis on their relevance for present and future heavy ion experiments. The masses of small strangelets up to A{sub B}=40 are calculated using the MIT bag model with shell mode filling for various bag parameters. The strangelets are checked for possible strong and weak hadronic decays, also taking into account multiple hadron decays. It is found that strangelets which are stable against strong decay are most likely highly negatively charged, contrary to previous findings. Strangelets can be stable against weak hadronic decay but their masses and charges are still rather high. This has serious impact on the present high sensitivity searches in heavy ion experiments at the AGS and CERN facilities. On the other hand, highly charged MEMO{close_quote}s are predicted on the basis of an extended relativistic mean-field model. Those objects could be detected in future experiments searching for short-lived, rare composites. It is demonstrated that future experiments can be sensitive to a much wider variety of strangelets. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  11. The composition of heavy ions in solar energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, C. Y.; Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.

    1984-01-01

    Recent advances in determining the elemental, charge state, and isotopic composition of or approximate to 1 to or approximate to 20 MeV per nucleon ions in solar energetic particle (SEP) events and outline our current understanding of the nature of solar and interplanetary processes which may explain the observations. Average values of relative abundances measured in a large number of SEP events were found to be roughly energy independent in the approx. 1 to approx. 20 MeV per nucleon range, and showed a systematic deviation from photospheric abundances which seems to be organized in terms of the first ionization potential of the ion. Direct measurements of the charge states of SEPs revealed the surprisingly common presence of energetic He(+) along with heavy ion with typically coronal ionization states. High resolution measurements of isotopic abundance ratios in a small number of SEP events showed these to be consistent with the universal composition except for the puzzling overabundance of the SEP(22)Ne/(20)Ne relative to this isotopes ratio in the solar wind. The broad spectrum of observed elemental abundance variations, which in their extreme result in composition anomalies characteristic of (3)He rich, heavy ion rich and carbon poor SEP events, along with direct measurements of the ionization states of SEPs provided essential information on the physical characteristics of, and conditions in the source regions, as well as important constraints to possible models for SEP production. Previously announced in STAR as N83-20886

  12. Experiments at The Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.A.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Faltens, A.; Kwan, J.W.; MacLaren, S.A.; Ponce, D.; Shuman, D.; Yu, S.; Ahle, L.; Lund, S.; Molvik, A.; Sangster, T.C.

    2000-07-24

    An overview of experiments is presented, in which the physical dimensions, emittance and perveance are scaled to explore driver-relevant beam dynamics. Among these are beam merging, focusing to a small spot, and bending and recirculating beams. The Virtual National Laboratory for Heavy Ion Fusion (VNL) is also developing two driver-scale beam experiments involving heavy-ion beams with I(sub beam) about 1 Ampere to provide guidance for the design of an Integrated Research Experiment (IRE) for driver system studies within the next 5 years. Multiple-beam sources and injectors are being designed and a one-beam module will be built and tested. Another experimental effort will be the transport of such a beam through about 100 magnetic quadrupoles. The experiment will determine transport limits at high aperture fill factors, beam halo formation, and the influence on beam properties of secondary electron Research into driver technology will be briefly presented, including the development of ferromagnetic core materials, induction core pulsers, multiple-beam quadrupole arrays and plasma channel formation experiments for pinched transport in reactor chambers.

  13. Testing Target Components Using a Near-Term Heavy Ion Driver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, D. A.; Tabak, M.; Logan, B. G.

    1996-11-01

    Many aspects of the traditional two radiator heavy ion target( D. D.-M. Ho, this meeting) can be tested using lasers such as Nova or the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Experiments using ion beams can compliment this work giving information on ion range shortening and hydrodyanamic motion of the converter material. Hydrodynamic motion of the converter material has proven to be an important issue in the traditional two radiator heavy ion target. Ion range shortening is an important issue for the new distributed radiator target(M. Tabak, this meeting). We will present 2-d Lasnex calculations which show that ~ 1 kJ of beam energy can heat a small amount of material to temperatures relevant for heavy ion target physics (≈ 250 eV).

  14. Genetic effects on heavy ions in drosophila

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kale, P. G.

    1986-01-01

    Drosophila sex-linked recessive lethal mutation test was used to study the dose response relation and relative biological effectiveness of heavy ions. The experiments were performed using the heavy ion beams at BEVALAC of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. These experiments were undertaken according to the proposed milestones and included Ne-20, A-40 and Fe-65 ions with respective energies of 600 MeV, 840 MeV and 850 MeV. At these energies several doses of these radiations ranging from 20 to 1280 R were used. Space radiation exposure to astronauts is supposed to be quite low and therefore very low dose experiments i.e., 20 R, were also performed for the three ions. The mutation response was measured in all germ cell types i.e., spermatozoa, spermatids, spermatocytes and spermatogonia of treated Drosophila males. A linear dose frequency relation was observed for most of the range except at high doses where the saturation effect was observed. Also, a very significant difference was observed among the sensitivity of the four germ cell stages where spermatozoa and spermatids were more sensitive. At the higher doses of this range, most of the spermatogonia and spermatocytes were killed. Although comparative and identical experiments with X-rays or neutrons have not been performed, the compassion of our data with the ones available in literature suggest that the heavy ions have a high rbe and that they are several times more effective than low LET X-rays. The rbe compared to neutrons however appears to be only slightly higher.

  15. Swift heavy ion irradiation induced electrical degradation in deca-nanometer MOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yao; Yang, Zhimei; Gong, Min; Gao, Bo; Li, Yun; Lin, Wei; Li, Jinbo; Xia, Zhuohui

    2016-09-01

    In this work, degradation of the electrical characteristics of 65 nm nMOSFETs under swift heavy ion irradiation is investigated. It was found that a heavy ion can generate a localized region of physical damage (ion latent track) in the gate oxide. This is the likely cause for the increased gate leakage current and soft breakdown (SBD) then hard breakdown (HBD) of the gate oxide. Except in the case of HBD, the devices retain their functionality but with degraded transconductance. The degraded gate oxide exhibits early breakdown behavior compatible with the model of defect generation and percolation path formation in the percolation model.

  16. ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) source for the HHIRF (Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility) tandem accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, D.K.; Alton, G.D.; Dowling, D.T.; Haynes, D.L.; Jones, C.M.; Juras, R.C.; Lane, S.N.; Meigs, M.J.; Mills, G.D.; Mosko, S.W.; Tatum, B.A.

    1990-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance, ECR, ion source technology has developed rapidly since the original pioneering work of R. Geller and his group at Grenoble in the early 1970s. These ion sources are capable of producing intense beams of highly charged positive ions and are used extensively for cyclotron injection, linac injection, and atomic physics research. In this paper, the advantages of using an ECR heavy-ion source in the terminal of the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility (HHIRF) 25-MV tandem accelerator is discussed. A possible ECR system for installation in the HHIRF tandem terminal is described.

  17. Antiradiation Vaccine: Technology Development- Radiation Tolerance,Prophylaxis, Prevention And Treatment Of Clinical Presentation After Heavy Ion Irradiation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Maliev, Slava; Jones, Jeffrey

    Introduction: Research in the field of biological effects of heavy charged particles is necessary for both heavy-ion therapy (hadrontherapy) and protection from the exposure to galactic cosmic radiation in long-term manned space missions.[Durante M. 2004] In future crew of long-term manned missions could operate in exremely high hadronic radiation areas of space and will not survive without effective radiation protection. An Antiradiation Vaccine (AV) must be an important part of a countermeasures regimen for efficient radiation protection purposes of austronauts-cosmonauts-taukonauts: immune-prophylaxis and immune-therapy of acute radiation toxic syndromes developed after heavy ion irradiation. New technology developed (AV) for the purposes of radiological protection and improvement of radiation tolerance and it is quite important to create protective immune active status which prevent toxic reactions inside a human body irradiated by high energy hadrons.[Maliev V. et al. 2006, Popov D. et al.2008]. High energy hadrons produce a variety of secondary particles which play an important role in the energy deposition process, and characterise their radiation qualities [Sato T. et al. 2003] Antiradiation Vaccine with specific immune-prophylaxis by an anti-radiation vaccine should be an important part of medical management for long term space missions. Methods and experiments: 1. Antiradiation vaccine preparation standard, mixture of toxoid form of Radiation Toxins [SRD-group] which include Cerebrovascular RT Neurotoxin, Cardiovascular RT Neurotoxin, Gastrointestinal RT Neurotoxin, Hematopoietic RT Hematotoxin. Radiation Toxins of Radiation Determinant Group isolated from the central lymph of gamma-irradiated animals with Cerebrovascular, Cardiovascular, Gastro-intestinal, Hematopoietic forms of ARS. Devices for radiation are "Panorama", "Puma". 2. Heavy ion exposure was accomplished at Department of Research Institute of Nuclear Physics, Dubna, Russia. The heavy ions

  18. Economic aspects of heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    1984-01-01

    The usual parameter space for examining scenarios for heavy ion fusion power plants has generally been based on large, slow cycling, reactor chambers which are only marginally different from chambers proposed for laser drivers. This paper will examine the economic implications of assuming that an inexpensive, low gain pellet is available and that a suitable high-repetition rate reactor has been devised. Interesting scenarios are found that generate economically feasible power from a system with a minimum net capacity of approx. 1 GWe compared to the larger approx. 4 GWe required in previous studies.

  19. Vorticity in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wei-Tian; Huang, Xu-Guang

    2016-06-01

    We study the event-by-event generation of flow vorticity in the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Au +Au collisions and CERN Large Hadron Collider Pb +Pb collisions by using the hijing model. Different definitions of the vorticity field and velocity field are considered. A variety of properties of the vorticity are explored, including the impact parameter dependence, the collision energy dependence, the spatial distribution, the event-by-event fluctuation of the magnitude and azimuthal direction, and the time evolution. In addition, the spatial distribution of the flow helicity is also studied.

  20. Faster Heavy Ion Transport for HZETRN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slaba, Tony C.

    2013-01-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN was developed to enable fast and accurate space radiation transport through materials. As more complex transport solutions are implemented for neutrons, light ions (Z < 2), mesons, and leptons, it is important to maintain overall computational efficiency. In this work, the heavy ion (Z > 2) transport algorithm in HZETRN is reviewed, and a simple modification is shown to provide an approximate 5x decrease in execution time for galactic cosmic ray transport. Convergence tests and other comparisons are carried out to verify that numerical accuracy is maintained in the new algorithm.

  1. Non abelian hydrodynamics and heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Calzetta, E.

    2014-01-14

    The goal of the relativistic heavy ion collisions (RHIC) program is to create a state of matter where color degrees of freedom are deconfined. The dynamics of matter in this state, in spite of the complexities of quantum chromodynamics, is largely determined by the conservation laws of energy momentum and color currents. Therefore it is possible to describe its main features in hydrodynamic terms, the very short color neutralization time notwithstanding. In this lecture we shall give a simple derivation of the hydrodynamics of a color charged fluid, by generalizing the usual derivation of hydrodynamics from kinetic theory to the non abelian case.

  2. Assess the key physics that underpins high-hydro coupling-efficiency in NDCX-II experiments and high-gain heavy ion direct drive target designs using proven hydro codes like HYDRA

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J. J.; Hay, M. J.; Logan, B. G.; Ng, S. F.; Perkins, L. J.; Veitzer, S.; Yu, S. S.

    2010-07-01

    The simulations provided in this milestone have solidified the theoretical underpinning of direct drive targets and also the ability to design experiments on NDCX II that will enhance our understanding of ion-beam hydrodynamic coupling, and thus be relevant to IFE. For the case of the IFE targets, we have studied hydro and implosion efficiency using HYDRA in ID, a starting point towards the goal of polar direct drive in geometry compatible with liquid wall chambers. Recent analysis of direct drive fusion energy targets using heavy ion beams has found high coupling efficiency of ion beam energy into implosion energy. However, to obtain optimal coupling, the ion energy must increase during the pulse in order to penetrate the outflowing ablated material, and deposit the energy close enough to the fuel so that the fuel achieves sufficient implosion velocity. We have computationally explored ID (radial) time dependent models of ion driven direct drive capsule implosions using the Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) code HYDRA, to help validate the theoretical analysis done so far, particularly exploring the effects of varying the ion energy and ion current over the course of the pulse. On NDCX II, experiments have been proposed to explore issues of ion penetration of the outflowing plasma over the course of the ion pulse. One possibility is to create a first pulse of ions that heats a planar target, and produces an outflow of material. A second pulse, {approx}10 ns after the first, of higher ion energy (and hence larger projected range) will interact with this outflow before reaching and further heating the target. We have investigated whether the change in range can be tailored to match the evolution of the ablation front. We have carried out simulations using the one-dimensional hydrodynamic code DISH and HYDRA to set parameters for this class of experiments. DISH was upgraded with an ion deposition algorithm, and we have carried out ID (planar) simulations. HYDRA was

  3. High-energy accelerator for beams of heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Ronald L.; Arnold, Richard C.

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for accelerating heavy ions to high energies and directing the accelerated ions at a target comprises a source of singly ionized heavy ions of an element or compound of greater than 100 atomic mass units, means for accelerating the heavy ions, a storage ring for accumulating the accelerated heavy ions and switching means for switching the heavy ions from the storage ring to strike a target substantially simultaneously from a plurality of directions. In a particular embodiment the heavy ion that is accelerated is singly ionized hydrogen iodide. After acceleration, if the beam is of molecular ions, the ions are dissociated to leave an accelerated singly ionized atomic ion in a beam. Extraction of the beam may be accomplished by stripping all the electrons from the atomic ion to switch the beam from the storage ring by bending it in magnetic field of the storage ring.

  4. A heavy ion spectrometer system for the measurement of projectile fragmentation of relativistic heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelage, J.; Crawford, H. J.; Albergo, S.; Kuo, C.; Caccia, Z.; Chen, C.-X.; Costa, S.; Cronqvist, M.; Flores, L.; Fonte, R.; Greiner, L.; Guzik, T. G.; Insolia, A.; Mitchell, J. W.

    1996-06-01

    The Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) at the LBL Bevalac provided a unique facility for measuring projectile fragmentation cross sections important in deconvolving the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) source composition. The general characteristics of the apparatus specific to this application are described and the main features of the event reconstruction and analysis used in the TRANSPORT experiment are discussed.

  5. Applications of the Monte Carlo method in nuclear physics using the GEANT4 toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Moralles, Mauricio; Guimaraes, Carla C.; Menezes, Mario O.; Bonifacio, Daniel A. B.; Okuno, Emico; Guimaraes, Valdir; Murata, Helio M.; Bottaro, Marcio

    2009-06-03

    The capabilities of the personal computers allow the application of Monte Carlo methods to simulate very complex problems that involve the transport of particles through matter. Among the several codes commonly employed in nuclear physics problems, the GEANT4 has received great attention in the last years, mainly due to its flexibility and possibility to be improved by the users. Differently from other Monte Carlo codes, GEANT4 is a toolkit written in object oriented language (C++) that includes the mathematical engine of several physical processes, which are suitable to be employed in the transport of practically all types of particles and heavy ions. GEANT4 has also several tools to define materials, geometry, sources of radiation, beams of particles, electromagnetic fields, and graphical visualization of the experimental setup. After a brief description of the GEANT4 toolkit, this presentation reports investigations carried out by our group that involve simulations in the areas of dosimetry, nuclear instrumentation and medical physics. The physical processes available for photons, electrons, positrons and heavy ions were used in these simulations.

  6. Applications of the Monte Carlo method in nuclear physics using the GEANT4 toolkit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moralles, Maurício; Guimarães, Carla C.; Bonifácio, Daniel A. B.; Okuno, Emico; Murata, Hélio M.; Bottaro, Márcio; Menezes, Mário O.; Guimarães, Valdir

    2009-06-01

    The capabilities of the personal computers allow the application of Monte Carlo methods to simulate very complex problems that involve the transport of particles through matter. Among the several codes commonly employed in nuclear physics problems, the GEANT4 has received great attention in the last years, mainly due to its flexibility and possibility to be improved by the users. Differently from other Monte Carlo codes, GEANT4 is a toolkit written in object oriented language (C++) that includes the mathematical engine of several physical processes, which are suitable to be employed in the transport of practically all types of particles and heavy ions. GEANT4 has also several tools to define materials, geometry, sources of radiation, beams of particles, electromagnetic fields, and graphical visualization of the experimental setup. After a brief description of the GEANT4 toolkit, this presentation reports investigations carried out by our group that involve simulations in the areas of dosimetry, nuclear instrumentation and medical physics. The physical processes available for photons, electrons, positrons and heavy ions were used in these simulations.

  7. Physics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.B.

    1986-04-01

    This report covers the research and development activities of the Physics Division for the 1985 fiscal year. The research activities were centered on experimental nuclear physics, experimental atomic physics, and theoretical nuclear and atomic physics. The experimental nuclear physics program is dominated by heavy ion research. A major part of this effort is the responsibility for operating the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility as a national user facility. A major new activity described is the preparation for participation in an ultrarelativistic heavy ion experiment to be performed at CERN in 1986. The experimental atomic physics program has two components: the accelerator-based studies of basic collisional phenomena and the studies in support of the controlled fusion program. Also associated with the fusion-related studies are a plasma diagnostics program and the operation of an atomic physics data center. Theory efforts associated with the UNISOR program are described, as well as smaller programs in applications and high-energy physics. (LEW)

  8. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.

    1988-01-01

    The conceptual design of a Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RACK) to be constructed in the existing 3.8 km tunnel at Brookhaven has been developed. The collider has been designed to provide collisions of gold ions at six intersection points with a luminosity of about 5 /times/ 10/sup 26/cm/sup /minus/2/sec/sup /minus/1/ at an energy of 100 GeV/u in each beam. Collisions with different ion species, including protons, will be possible. The collider consists of two interlaced, but otherwise separate, superconducting magnet rings. The 9.7 m long dipoles will operate at 3.5 T. Their 8 cm aperture was determined by the dimensions of gold ion beams taking into account diffusion due to intrabeam scattering. Heavy ion beams will be available from the Tandem Van de Graaff/Booster/AGS complex. The salient design features and the reasons for major design choices of the proposed machine are discussed in this paper. 24 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasavin, E. A.; Kozubek, S.; Amirtayev, K. G.; Tokarova, B.; Bonev, M.

    The peculiarities and mechanisms of the mutagenic action of γ-rays and heavy ions on bacterial cells have been investigated. Direct mutations in the lac-operon of E. coli in wild type cells and repair deficient strains have been detected. Furthermore, the induction of revertants in Salmonella tester strains was measured. It was found that the mutation rate was a linear-quadratic function of dose in the case of both γ-rays and heavy ions with LET up to 200 keV/μm. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) increased with LET up to 20 keV/μm. Low mutation rates were observed in repair deficient mutants with a block of SOS-induction. The induction of SOS-repair by ionizing radiation has been investigated by means of the ``SOS-chromotest'' and λ-prophage induction. It was shown that the intensity of the SOS-induction in E. coli increased with increasing LET up to 40-60 keV/μm.

  10. Rare Suprathermal Heavy Ions in Saturn's Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christon, S. P.; Hamilton, D. C.; Mitchell, D. G.; Krimigis, S. M.; DiFabio, R. D.

    2013-12-01

    The Cassini/MIMI/CHEMS ion spectrometer has measured suprathermal (~83-167 keV/e) ions in Saturn's magnetosphere since mid-2004. We report on three rare, heavy ion groups measured in Saturn's ~4-20 Rs magnetosphere at ~40, ~46, and ~56 amu/e, with the separation from other species best at higher mass. These masses suggest possible singly-charged ion identifications as Ar+, CO2+, and Fe+, respectively. The presence of these species or compounds containing them has been suggested in composition studies of Saturn's particle populations using data from other instruments on Cassini. The observed rare ion intensities are highly variable in time and space. Broad temporal and spatial averaging is needed to examine these rare ion groups because their detection levels are much lower than the dominant water ion group, W+ (which includes O+, OH+, H2O+, and H3O+). W+ itself can be quite variable. We show that these rare ions display unique spatial and temporal variations, with similarities and differences from the dominant ion group W+ as well as O2+ and M28+, all local origin ions. We compare and contrast these rare, heavy ion species to W+ and the recently characterized [Christon et al., 2013, 10.1002/jgra.50383] minor ions M28+ (C2H5+, HCNH+, N2+, and/or CO+) and O2+ (M32+).

  11. Local brain heavy ion irradiation induced Immunosuppression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Runhong; Deng, Yulin; Huiyang Zhu, Bitlife.; Zhao, Tuo; Wang, Hailong; Yu, Yingqi; Ma, Hong; Wang, Xiao; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Qing, Hong

    Purpose: To investigate the long term effect of acute local brain heavy ion irradiation on the peripheral immune system in rat model. Methodology: Only the brain of adult male Wistar rats were radiated by heavy ions at the dose of 15 Gy. One, two and three months after irradiation, thymus and spleen were analyzed by four ways. Tunel assay was performed to evaluate the percentage of apoptotic cells in thymus and spleen, level of Inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-6, SSAO, and TNF-α) was detected by ELISA assay, the differentiation of thymus T lymphocyte subsets were measured by flow cytometry and the relative expression levels of genes related to thymus immune cell development were measured by using quantitative real-time PCR. Results: Thymus and spleen showed significant atrophy from one month to three months after irradiation. A high level of apoptosis in thymus and spleen were obtained and the latter was more vulnerable, also, high level of inflammatory cytokines were found. Genes (c-kit, Rag1, Rag2 and Sca1) related to thymus lymphocytes’ development were down-regulated. Conclusion: Local area radiation in the rat brain would cause the immunosuppression, especially, the losing of cell-mediated immune functions. In this model, radiation caused inflammation and then induced apoptosis of cells in the immune organs, which contributed to immunosuppression.

  12. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1993-02-08

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While our main emphasis is on experimental problems involving heavy-ion accelerators, we have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of our measurements. During the last year we have led several experiments at the Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility and participated in others at Argonne National Laboratory. Also, we continue to be very active in the collaboration to study ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in a RHIC detector R&D project. Our experimental work is in four broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) heavy-ion induced transfer reactions, (3) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (4) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas will be described in this document in sections IIA, IIB, IIC, and IID, respectively. Areas (1), (3), and (4) concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Area (2) pursues the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum, both to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions. An important component of our program is the strong emphasis on the theoretical aspects of nuclear structure and reactions.

  13. Modelling heavy-ion energy deposition in extended media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishustin, I.; Pshenichnov, I.; Greiner, W.

    2010-10-01

    We present recent developments of the Monte Carlo model for heavy-ion therapy (MCHIT), which is currently based on the Geant4 toolkit of version 9.2. The major advancement of the model concerns the modelling of violent fragmentation reactions by means of the Fermi break-up model, which is used to simulate decays of hot fragments created after the first stage of nucleus-nucleus collisions. By means of MCHIT we study the dose distributions from therapeutic beams of carbon nuclei in tissue-like materials, like water and PMMA. The contributions to the total dose from primary beam nuclei and from charged secondary fragments produced in nuclear fragmentation reactions are calculated. The build-up of secondary fragments along the beam axis is calculated and compared with available experimental data. Finally, we demonstrate the impact of violent multifragment decays on energy distributions of secondary neutrons produced by carbon nuclei in water.

  14. Transverse Flow of Gluon Fields in Heavy Ion Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangyao; Fries, Rainer J.

    2014-09-01

    We describe the dynamics of initial gluon fields in heavy ion collision using a formal recursive solution of the Yang Mills equations and solving for the energy momentum tensor analytically in a boost-invariant setup. We generalize the original McLerran-Venugopalan (MV) model in order to allow for realistic nuclear profiles. This leads to a transverse flow of gluon fields. This flow pattern is inherited by the quark gluon plasma fluid after thermalization. Its most interesting aspect is a rapidity-odd flow component. We show that this rapidity-odd flow does not break boost invariance and that it emerges naturally from the Yang Mills equations. It leads to directed flow of particles and introduces angular momentum to the system.

  15. Theoretical overview: Light ion lessons, heavy ion hopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, S.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments using light ion beams of atomic masses A [approximately] 30 have been underway since 1986 at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS at the respective energies [radical]s [approximately] 5 A GeV and 20 A GeV. The first truly heavy ion runs with a gold beam began this spring at the AGS. In this talk I will survey our progress towards an understanding of nuclear collision dynamics, focusing on those issues that are relevant to Au+Au at the AGS. In view of what we have already learned from the light ion data, I will argue that the prospects for producing matter at extreme density in these experiments are excellent.

  16. Theoretical overview: Light ion lessons, heavy ion hopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gavin, S.

    1992-12-31

    Experiments using light ion beams of atomic masses A {approximately} 30 have been underway since 1986 at the Brookhaven AGS and the CERN SPS at the respective energies {radical}s {approximately} 5 A GeV and 20 A GeV. The first truly heavy ion runs with a gold beam began this spring at the AGS. In this talk I will survey our progress towards an understanding of nuclear collision dynamics, focusing on those issues that are relevant to Au+Au at the AGS. In view of what we have already learned from the light ion data, I will argue that the prospects for producing matter at extreme density in these experiments are excellent.

  17. Optical model calculations of heavy-ion target fragmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, L. W.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Norbury, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    The fragmentation of target nuclei by relativistic protons and heavy ions is described within the context of a simple abrasion-ablation-final-state interaction model. Abrasion is described by a quantum mechanical formalism utilizing an optical model potential approximation. Nuclear charge distributions of the excited prefragments are calculated by both a hypergeometric distribution and a method based upon the zero-point oscillations of the giant dipole resonance. Excitation energies are estimated from the excess surface energy resulting from the abrasion process and the additional energy deposited by frictional spectator interactions of the abraded nucleons. The ablation probabilities are obtained from the EVA-3 computer program. Isotope production cross sections for the spallation of copper targets by relativistic protons and for the fragmenting of carbon targets by relativistic carbon, neon, and iron projectiles are calculated and compared with available experimental data.

  18. Fluctuating Glasma Initial Conditions and Flow in Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenke, Björn; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju

    2012-06-01

    We compute initial conditions in heavy ion collisions within the color glass condensate framework by combining the impact parameter dependent saturation model with the classical Yang-Mills description of initial Glasma fields. In addition to fluctuations of nucleon positions, this impact parameter dependent Glasma description includes quantum fluctuations of color charges on the length scale determined by the inverse nuclear saturation scale Qs. The model naturally produces initial energy fluctuations that are described by a negative binomial distribution. The ratio of triangularity to eccentricity ɛ3/ɛ2 is close to that in a model tuned to reproduce experimental flow data. We compare transverse momentum spectra and v2,3,4(pT) of pions from different models of initial conditions using relativistic viscous hydrodynamic evolution.

  19. Fluctuating glasma initial conditions and flow in heavy ion collisions.

    PubMed

    Schenke, Björn; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju

    2012-06-22

    We compute initial conditions in heavy ion collisions within the color glass condensate framework by combining the impact parameter dependent saturation model with the classical Yang-Mills description of initial Glasma fields. In addition to fluctuations of nucleon positions, this impact parameter dependent Glasma description includes quantum fluctuations of color charges on the length scale determined by the inverse nuclear saturation scale Q(s). The model naturally produces initial energy fluctuations that are described by a negative binomial distribution. The ratio of triangularity to eccentricity ε(3)/ε(2) is close to that in a model tuned to reproduce experimental flow data. We compare transverse momentum spectra and v(2,3,4)(p(T)) of pions from different models of initial conditions using relativistic viscous hydrodynamic evolution. PMID:23004589

  20. Photoproduction at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider with STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbunov, Yury

    2010-11-01

    Relativistic heavy ions carry strong transverse electromagnetic fields which can be treated as sources of quasi-real virtual photons. The ions interact through photon-Pomeron and photon-photon collisions at impact parameter more than twice the nuclear radius, so hadronic interactions are suppressed. We present recent results of the STAR experiment at RHIC on 0̂(770) production in AuAu collisions at various energies. STAR is also sensitive to the interference between two production modes: either ion can be the photon emitter or the target. We observed the coherent photoproduction of &+circ;&-circ;π+&-circ;, which maybe attributed to one of the poorly known excited states of 0̂. As well in this talk we will present preliminary results based on data collected during run 10.

  1. Stopping of relativistic heavy ions in various media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waddington, C. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Crawford, H. J.; Lindstrom, P. J.; Heckman, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    The residual ranges of (900 + or - 3)-MeV/amu gold nuclei accelerated at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Bevalac have been measured in several different media. The energy of the beam of nuclei was measured directly using a new time-of-flight system. The ranges were measured by absorption in linear wedges of polyethylene, carbon, aluminum, copper, tin, and lead and in circular wedges of polystyrene, aluminum, and gold, and by total absorption in nuclear emulsion. The measured ranges were significantly different from those calculated from the best available theoretical estimates of the energy loss of highly charged nuclei. It is concluded that at present energy losses and residual ranges of relativistic heavy ions in an arbitrary medium cannot be predicted with better than an approximately 2 percent accuracy.

  2. Physics of Nuclear Collisions at High Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hwa, Rudolph C.

    2012-05-01

    A wide range of problems has been investigated in the research program during the period of this grant. Although the major effort has been in the subject of heavy-ion collisions, we have also studied problems in biological and other physical systems. The method of analysis used in reducing complex data in multiparticle production to simple descriptions can also be applied to the study of complex systems of very different nature. Phase transition is an important phenomenon in many areas of physics, and for heavy-ion collisions we study the fluctuations of multiplicities at the critical point. Human brain activities as revealed in EEG also involve fluctuations in time series, and we have found that our experience enables us to find the appropriate quantification of the fluctuations in ways that can differentiate stroke and normal subjects. The main topic that characterizes the research at Oregon in heavy-ion collisions is the recombination model for the treatment of the hadronization process. We have avoided the hydrodynamical model partly because there is already a large community engaged in it, but more significantly we have found the assumption of rapid thermalization unconvincing. Recent results in studying LHC physics lead us to provide more evidence that shower partons are very important even at low p_T, but are ignored by hydro. It is not easy to work in an environment where the conventional wisdom regards our approach as being incorrect because it does not adhere to the standard paradigm. But that is just what a vibrant research community needs: unconventional approach may find evidences that can challenge the orthodoxy. An example is the usual belief that elliptic flow in fluid dynamics gives rise to azimuthal anisotropy. We claim that it is only sufficient but not necessary. With more data from LHC and more independent thinkers working on the subject what is sufficient as a theory may turn out to be incorrect in reality. Another area of investigation that

  3. Secondary fusion reactions in the bombardment of light-element targets with low-energy heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gikal, B. N.; Teterev, Yu. G.; Shchegolev, V. Yu.; Zdorovets, M. V.; Ivanov, I. A.; Koloberdin, M. V.; Aleksandrenko, V. V.

    2014-07-01

    Neutron emission was observed experimentally at the DC-60 cyclotron at the Institute of Nuclear Physics (Astana, Kazakhstan). The neutron yields were measured in the bombardment of light-element (Be, C, Al, Al2O3, and LiF) targets with heavy ions (Ar, Kr, and Xe) with energies below the Coulomb barrier. The angular distributions of neutrons from the targets were also measured. It was found that the observed neutrons were produced in secondary nuclear reactions between the resting target nuclei and recoil nuclei that acquire energy in the process of elastic scattering. The experimental results were compared with calculations based on the abovementioned secondary-reaction mechanism. The calculations allow one to estimate the yields of secondary reactions to within a coefficient of 2.

  4. The integrated beam experiment - A next step experiment for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Celata, C.M.; Kwan, J.W.; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.A.; Logan, B.G.; Vay, J-L.; Waldron, W.L.; Yu, S.S.; Barnard, J.J.; Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, D.P. Grote; Molvik, A.W.; Sharp, W.M.; Rose, D.V.; Welch, D.R.; Davidson, R.C.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Qin, H.; Startsev, Edward A.

    2003-09-01

    The U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory is proposing as its next experiment the Integrated Beam Experiment (IBX). All experiments in the U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) program up to this time have been of modest scale and have studied the physics of selected parts of a heavy ion driver. The mission of the IBX, a proof-of-principle experiment, is to demonstrate in one integrated experiment the transport from source to focus of a single heavy ion beam with driver-relevant parameters--i.e., the production, acceleration, compression, neutralization, and final focus of such a beam. Present preconceptual designs for the IBX envision a 5-10 MeV induction linac accelerating one K{sup +} beam. At injection (1.7 MeV) the beam current is approximately 500 mA, with pulse length of 300 ns. Design flexibility allows for several different acceleration and compression schedules, including the possibility of longitudinal (unneutralized) drift compression by a factor of up to ten in pulse length after acceleration, and neutralized drift compression. Physics requirements for the IBX, and preliminary physics and engineering design work are discussed in this paper.

  5. Evolution of nuclear spectroscopy at Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, P.

    2001-07-01

    Experimental studies of nuclear excitations have been an important subject from the earliest days when the institute was established. The construction of 4 MeV proton cyclotron was mainly aimed to achieve this goal. Early experiments in nuclear spectroscopy were done with radioactive nuclei with the help of beta and gamma ray spectrometers. Small NaI(Tl) detectors were used for gamma--gamma coincidence, angular correlation and life time measurements. The excited states nuclear magnetic moments were measured in perturbed gamma--gamma angular correlation experiments. A high transmission magnetic beta ray spectrometer was used to measure internal conversion coefficients and beta--gamma coincidence studies. A large number of significant contributions were made during 1950--59 using these facilities. Proton beam in the cyclotron was made available in the late 1950's and together with 14 MeV neutrons obtained from a C-W generator a large number of short-lived nuclei were investigated during 1960's and 1970's. The introduction of high resolution Ge gamma detectors and the improved electronics helped to extend the spectroscopic work which include on-line (p,p'g) and (p,n g) reaction studies. Nuclear spectroscopic studies entered a new phase in the 1980's with the availability of 40--80 MeV alpha beam from the variable energy cyclotron at VECC, Calcutta. A number of experimental groups were formed in the institute to study nuclear level schemes with (a,xn g) reactions. Initially only two unsuppressed Ge detectors were used for coincidence studies. Later in 1989 five Ge detectors with a large six segmented NaI(Tl) multiplicity-sum detector system were successfully used to select various channels in (a ,xn g) reactions. From 1990 to date a variety of medium energy heavy ions were made available from the BARC-TIFR Pelletron and the Nuclear Science Centre Pelletron. The state of the art gamma detector arrays in these centres enabled the Saha Institute groups to undertake more

  6. Mutation induction in bacteria after heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horneck, G.; Kozubek, S.

    1994-01-01

    From a compilation of experimental data on the mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria, main conclusions have been drawn as follows: (1) The mutagenic efficacy of heavy ions in bacteria depends on physical and biological variables. Physical variables are the radiation dose, energy and charge of the ion; the biological variables are the bacterial strain, the repair genotype of bacteria, and the endpoint investigated (type of mutation, induction of enzymes related to mutagenesis); (2) The responses on dose or fluence are mainly linear or linear quadratic. The quadratic component, if found for low LET radiation, is gradually reduced with increasing LET; (3) At low values of Z and LET the cross section of mutation induction sigma m (as well as SOS response, sigma sos. and lambda phage induction, sigma lambda versus LET curves can be quite consistently described by a common function which increases up to approximately 100 keV/mu m. For higher LET values, the sigma(m) versus LET curves show the so-called 'hooks' observed also for other endpoints; (4) For light ions (Z is less than or equal to 4), the cross sections mostly decrease with increasing ion energy, which is probably related to the decrease of the specific energy departed by the ion inside the sensitive volume (cell). For ions in the range of Z = 10, sigma(m) is nearly independent on the ion energy. For heavier ions (Z is greater than or equal to 16), sigma(m) increases with the energy up to a maximum or saturation around 10 MeV/u. The increment becomes steeper with increasing atomic number of the ion. It correlates with the increasing track radius of the heavy ion; (5) The mutagenic efficiency per lethal event changes slightly with ion energy, if Z is small indicating a rough correlation between cellular lethality and mutation induction, only. For ions of higher Z this relation increases with energy, indicating a change in the 'mode' of radiation action from 'killing-prone' to 'mutation-prone'; and (6

  7. [Research in theoretical nuclear physics]. [Annual progress report, July 1992--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kapusta, J.I.

    1993-12-31

    The main subject of research was the physics of matter at energy densities greater than 0.15 GeV/fm{sup 3}. Theory encompasses the relativistic many-body/quantum field theory aspects of QCD and the electroweak interactions at these high energy densities, both in and out of thermal equilibrium. Applications range from neutron stars/pulsars to QCD and electroweak phase transitions in the early universe, from baryon number violation in cosmology to the description of nucleus-nucleus collisions at CERN and at Brookhaven. Recent activity to understand the properties of matter at energy densities where the electroweak W and Z boson degrees of freedom are important is reported. This problem has applications to cosmology and has the potential to explain the baryon asymmetry produced in the big bang at energies where the particle degrees of freedom will soon be experimentally, probed. This problem is interesting for nuclear physics because of the techniques used in many-body, physics of nuclei and the quark-gluon plasma may be extended to this new problem. The was also interested in problems related to multiparticle production. This includes work on production of particles in heavy-ion collisions, the small x part, of the nuclear and hadron wave function, and multiparticle production induced by instantons in weakly coupled theories. These problems have applications in the heavy ion program at RHIC and the deep inelastic scattering experiments at HERA.

  8. Shielded Heavy-Ion Environment Linear Detector (SHIELD): an experiment for the Radiation and Technology Demonstration (RTD) Mission.

    PubMed

    Shavers, M R; Cucinotta, F A; Miller, J; Zeitlin, C; Heilbronn, L; Wilson, J W; Singleterry, R C

    2001-01-01

    Radiological assessment of the many cosmic ion species of widely distributed energies requires the use of theoretical transport models to accurately describe diverse physical processes related to nuclear reactions in spacecraft structures, planetary atmospheres and surfaces, and tissues. Heavy-ion transport models that were designed to characterize shielded radiation fields have been validated through comparison with data from thick-target irradiation experiments at particle accelerators. With the RTD Mission comes a unique opportunity to validate existing radiation transport models and guide the development of tools for shield design. For the first time, transport properties will be measured in free-space to characterize the shielding effectiveness of materials that are likely to be aboard interplanetary space missions. Target materials composed of aluminum, advanced composite spacecraft structure and other shielding materials, helium (a propellant) and tissue equivalent matrices will be evaluated. Large solid state detectors will provide kinetic energy and charge identification for incident heavy-ions and for secondary ions created in the target material. Transport calculations using the HZETRN model suggest that 8 g cm -2 thick targets would be adequate to evaluate the shielding effectiveness during solar minimum activity conditions for a period of 30 days or more. PMID:11770530

  9. Shielded Heavy-Ion Environment Linear Detector (SHIELD): an experiment for the Radiation and Technology Demonstration (RTD) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shavers, M. R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Miller, J.; Zeitlin, C.; Heilbronn, L.; Wilson, J. W.; Singleterry, R. C. Jr

    2001-01-01

    Radiological assessment of the many cosmic ion species of widely distributed energies requires the use of theoretical transport models to accurately describe diverse physical processes related to nuclear reactions in spacecraft structures, planetary atmospheres and surfaces, and tissues. Heavy-ion transport models that were designed to characterize shielded radiation fields have been validated through comparison with data from thick-target irradiation experiments at particle accelerators. With the RTD Mission comes a unique opportunity to validate existing radiation transport models and guide the development of tools for shield design. For the first time, transport properties will be measured in free-space to characterize the shielding effectiveness of materials that are likely to be aboard interplanetary space missions. Target materials composed of aluminum, advanced composite spacecraft structure and other shielding materials, helium (a propellant) and tissue equivalent matrices will be evaluated. Large solid state detectors will provide kinetic energy and charge identification for incident heavy-ions and for secondary ions created in the target material. Transport calculations using the HZETRN model suggest that 8 g cm -2 thick targets would be adequate to evaluate the shielding effectiveness during solar minimum activity conditions for a period of 30 days or more.

  10. Comparison of total dose effects on SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors induced by different swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ya-Bin; Fu, Jun; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yu-Dong; Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Cui, Jie; Li, Gao-Qing; Liu, Zhi-Hong

    2014-11-01

    The degradations in NPN silicon-germanium (SiGe) heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) were fully studied in this work, by means of 25-MeV Si, 10-MeV Cl, 20-MeV Br, and 10-MeV Br ion irradiation, respectively. Electrical parameters such as the base current (IB), current gain (β), neutral base recombination (NBR), and Early voltage (VA) were investigated and used to evaluate the tolerance to heavy ion irradiation. Experimental results demonstrate that device degradations are indeed radiation-source-dependent, and the larger the ion nuclear energy loss is, the more the displacement damages are, and thereby the more serious the performance degradation is. The maximum degradation was observed in the transistors irradiated by 10-MeV Br. For 20-MeV and 10-MeV Br ion irradiation, an unexpected degradation in IC was observed and Early voltage decreased with increasing ion fluence, and NBR appeared to slow down at high ion fluence. The degradations in SiGe HBTs were mainly attributed to the displacement damages created by heavy ion irradiation in the transistors. The underlying physical mechanisms are analyzed and investigated in detail.

  11. Heavy ion beam probe systems for tight aspect ratio tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Melnikov, A.V.; Zimeleva, L.G.; Krupnik, L.I.; Nedzelskij, I.S.; Trofimenko, Y.V.; Minaev, V.B.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the specific features of the application of heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) systems to tight aspect ratio tokamaks. We present and compare the HIBP projects for the TUMAN-3, GLOBUS, and COMPASS, where the inner part of the plasma is not available for regular chord diagnostics, so the HIBP becomes very desirable. All existing tight aspect ratio facilities and projects have a low (less than 1.9 T) toroidal field that requires a comparatively low beam energy range. The natural elongation and triangularity in tight aspect ratio tokamaks require an accurate calculation of the three-dimensional magnetic field for probing optimization. In comparison with traditional tokamaks, the detector grids have a wider energy interval. In general, the trajectories and detector grids for tight aspect ratio tokamaks become similar to the stellarator ones. Traditional and new probing schemes are suggested and discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  12. Physics division progress report for period ending September 30 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.B.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in physics. The areas covered are: Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility; low/medium energy nuclear physics; high energy experimental physics; the Unisor program; experimental atomic physics; laser and electro-optics lab; theoretical physics; compilations and evaluations; and radioactive ion beam development. (LSP)

  13. SIMULATION OF INTENSE BEAMS FOR HEAVY ION FUSION

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, A

    2004-06-10

    Computer simulations of intense ion beams play a key role in the Heavy Ion Fusion research program. Along with analytic theory, they are used to develop future experiments, guide ongoing experiments, and aid in the analysis and interpretation of experimental results. They also afford access to regimes not yet accessible in the experimental program. The U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory and its collaborators have developed state-of-the art computational tools, related both to codes used for stationary plasmas and to codes used for traditional accelerator applications, but necessarily differing from each in important respects. These tools model beams in varying levels of detail and at widely varying computational cost. They include moment models (envelope equations and fluid descriptions), particle-in-cell methods (electrostatic and electromagnetic), nonlinear-perturbative descriptions (''{delta}f''), and continuum Vlasov methods. Increasingly, it is becoming clear that it is necessary to simulate not just the beams themselves, but also the environment in which they exist, be it an intentionally-created plasma or an unwanted cloud of electrons and gas. In this paper, examples of the application of simulation tools to intense ion beam physics are presented, including support of present-day experiments, fundamental beam physics studies, and the development of future experiments. Throughout, new computational models are described and their utility explained. These include Mesh Refinement (and its dynamic variant, Adaptive Mesh Refinement); improved electron cloud and gas models, and an electron advance scheme that allows use of larger time steps; and moving-mesh and adaptive-mesh Vlasov methods.

  14. Ion sources for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.

    1995-09-01

    The development of ion sources for heavy ion fusion will be reported with particular emphasis on a recently built 2 MV injector. The new injector is based on an electrostatic quadrupole configuration, and has produced pulsed K{sup +} ions of 950 mA peak from a 6.7 inch curved alumino silicate source. The ion beam has reached 2.3 MV with an energy flatness of {+-}0.2% over 1 {micro}s. The measured normalized edge emittance of less than 1 {pi} mm-mr is close to the source temperature limit. The design, construction, performance, and comparisons with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations will be described.

  15. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.

    1989-01-01

    The conceptual design of a collider capable of accelerating and colliding heavy ions and to be constructed in the existing 3.8 km tunnel at Brookhaven has been developed. The collider has been designed to provide collisions of gold ions at six intersection points with a luminosity of about 2 /times/ 10/sup 26/ cm/sup /minus/2/sec/sup /minus/1/ at an energy per nucleon of 100 GeV in each beam. Collisions with different ion species, including protons, will be possible. The salient design features and the reasons for major design choices of the proposed machine are discussed in this paper. 28 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Mutagenic effects of heavy ions in bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Krasavin, E. A.; Kozubek, S.

    1994-10-01

    Various mutagenic effects by heavy ions were studied in bacteria, irradiated at accelerators in Dubna, Prague, Berkeley or Darmstadt. Endpoints investigated are histidine reversion (B. subtilis, S. typhimurium), azide resistance (B. subtilis), mutation in the lactose operon (E. coli), SOS chromotest (E. coli) and λ-prophage induction (E. coli). It was found that the cross sections of the different endpoints show a similar dependence on energy. For light ions (Z <= 4) the cross section decreases with increasing energy. For ions of Z = 10, it is nearly independent of energy. For heavier ions (Z >= 26) it increases with energy up to a maximum or saturation. The increment becomes steeper with increasing Z. This dependence on energy suggests a ``mutagenic belt'' inside the track that is restricted to an area where the density of departed energy is low enough not to kill the cell, but high enough to induce mutations.

  17. Jet Structure in Heavy Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaizot, J.-P.; Mehtar-Tani, Y.

    We review recent theoretical developments in the study of the structure of jets that are produced in ultra relativistic heavy ion collisions. The core of the review focusses on the dynamics of the parton cascade that is induced by the interactions of a fast parton crossing a quark-gluon plasma. We recall the basic mechanisms responsible for medium induced radiation, underline the rapid disappearance of coherence effects, and the ensuing probabilistic nature of the medium induced cascade. We discuss how large radiative corrections modify the classical picture of the gluon cascade, and how these can be absorbed in a renormalization of the jet quenching parameter hat q. Then, we analyze the (wave)-turbulent transport of energy along the medium induced cascade, and point out the main characteristics of the angular structure of such a cascade. Finally, color decoherence of the incone jet structure is discussed. Modest contact with phenomenology is presented towards the end of the review.

  18. Focal-surface detector for heavy ions

    DOEpatents

    Erskine, John R.; Braid, Thomas H.; Stoltzfus, Joseph C.

    1979-01-01

    A detector of the properties of individual charged particles in a beam includes a gridded ionization chamber, a cathode, a plurality of resistive-wire proportional counters, a plurality of anode sections, and means for controlling the composition and pressure of gas in the chamber. Signals generated in response to the passage of charged particles can be processed to identify the energy of the particles, their loss of energy per unit distance in an absorber, and their angle of incidence. In conjunction with a magnetic spectrograph, the signals can be used to identify particles and their state of charge. The detector is especially useful for analyzing beams of heavy ions, defined as ions of atomic mass greater than 10 atomic mass units.

  19. Production of charge in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Scott; McCormack, William Patrick; Ratti, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    By analyzing preliminary experimental measurements of charge-balance functions from the STAR Collaboration at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), it is found that scenarios in which balancing charges are produced in a single surge, and therefore separated by a single length scale, are inconsistent with data. In contrast, a model that assumes two surges, one associated with the formation of a thermalized quark-gluon plasma and a second associated with hadronization, provides a far superior reproduction of the data. A statistical analysis of the model comparison finds that the two-surge model best reproduces the data if the charge production from the first surge is similar to expectations for equilibrated matter taken from lattice gauge theory. The charges created in the first surge appear to separate by approximately one unit of spatial rapidity before emission, while charges from the second wave appear to have separated by approximately a half unit or less.

  20. Rapidity dependence in holographic heavy ion collisions

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wilke van der Schee; Schenke, Bjorn

    2015-12-11

    We present an attempt to closely mimic the initial stage of heavy ion collisions within holography, assuming a decoupling of longitudinal and transverse dynamics in the very early stage. We subsequently evolve the obtained initial state using state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations and compare results with experimental data. We present results for charged hadron pseudorapidity spectra and directed and elliptic flow as functions of pseudorapidity for √sNN = 200GeV Au-Au and 2.76TeV Pb-Pb collisions. As a result, the directed flow interestingly turns out to be quite sensitive to the viscosity. The results can explain qualitative features of the collisions, but the rapiditymore » spectra in our current model is narrower than the experimental data.« less

  1. Rapidity dependence in holographic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilke van der Schee; Schenke, Bjorn

    2015-12-11

    We present an attempt to closely mimic the initial stage of heavy ion collisions within holography, assuming a decoupling of longitudinal and transverse dynamics in the very early stage. We subsequently evolve the obtained initial state using state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations and compare results with experimental data. We present results for charged hadron pseudorapidity spectra and directed and elliptic flow as functions of pseudorapidity for √sNN = 200GeV Au-Au and 2.76TeV Pb-Pb collisions. As a result, the directed flow interestingly turns out to be quite sensitive to the viscosity. The results can explain qualitative features of the collisions, but the rapidity spectra in our current model is narrower than the experimental data.

  2. Heavy Ion Reaction Modeling for Hadrontherapy Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cerutti, F.; Ferrari, A.; Enghardt, W.; Gadioli, E.; Mairani, A.; Parodi, K.; Sommerer, F.

    2007-10-26

    A comprehensive and reliable description of nucleus-nucleus interactions represents a crucial need in different interdisciplinary fields. In particular, hadrontherapy monitoring by means of in-beam positron emission tomography (PET) requires, in addition to measuring, the capability of calculating the activity of {beta}{sup +}-decaying nuclei produced in the irradiated tissue. For this purpose, in view of treatment monitoring at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy (HIT) facility, the transport and interaction Monte Carlo code FLUKA is a promising candidate. It is provided with the description of heavy ion reactions at intermediate and low energies by two specific event generators. In-beam PET experiments performed at GSI for a few beam-target combinations have been simulated and first comparisons between the measured and calculated {beta}{sup +}-activity are available.

  3. Latchup in CMOS devices from heavy ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soliman, K.; Nichols, D. K.

    1983-01-01

    It is noted that complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) microcircuits are inherently latchup prone. The four-layer n-p-n-p structures formed from the parasitic pnp and npn transistors make up a silicon controlled rectifier. If properly biased, this rectifier may be triggered 'ON' by electrical transients, ionizing radiation, or a single heavy ion. This latchup phenomenon might lead to a loss of functionality or device burnout. Results are presented from tests on 19 different device types from six manufacturers which investigate their latchup sensitivity with argon and krypton beams. The parasitic npnp paths are identified in general, and a qualitative rationale is given for latchup susceptibility, along with a latchup cross section for each type of device. Also presented is the correlation between bit-flip sensitivity and latchup susceptibility.

  4. Prompt processes in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.; Remington, B.A.

    1987-12-01

    We test a relaxation model based on two body nucleon-nucleon scattering processes to interpret phenomena observed in heavy ion reactions. We use the Boltzmann Master Equation to accomplish this. By assuming that the projectile nucleons partition the total excitation with equal a-priori probability of all configurations, we are able to reproduce several sets of neutron spectra from /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C induced reactions on /sup 165/Ho and from reactions of /sup 40/Ar or /sup 40/Ca. We point out ambiguities in deducing angle-integrated energy spectra from double differential spectra. With no additional free parameters, our model successfully reproduces a large body of high energy ..gamma..-ray spectra by assuming an incoherent n-p-bremsstrahlung mechanism. 45 refs., 13 figs.

  5. Beam dynamics in heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P.

    1995-04-01

    A standard design for heavy ion fusion drivers under study in the US is an induction linac with electrostatic focusing at low energy and magnetic focusing at higher energy. The need to focus the intense beam to a few-millimeter size spot at the deuterium-tritium target establishes the emittance budget for the accelerator. Economic and technological considerations favor a larger number of beams in the low-energy, electrostatic-focusing section than in the high-energy, magnetic-focusing section. Combining four beams into a single focusing channel is a viable option, depending on the growth in emittance due to the combining process. Several significant beam dynamics issues that are, or have been, under active study are discussed: large space charge and image forces, beam wall clearances, halos, alignment, longitudinal instability, and bunch length control.

  6. PREFACE: XXXIII Symposium on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrón-Palos, Libertad; Bijker, Roelof; Fossion, Ruben; Lizcano, David

    2010-04-01

    physics, ranging from the traditional fields of nuclear structure and reactions to radioactive beams, nuclear astrophysics, hadronic physics, fundamental symmetries, ultrarelativistic heavy ions, cosmic rays and quantum chaos. The high quality of the talks, the prestige of the speakers and the broad spectrum of subjects covered in the meeting, shows that nuclear physics is a very active area at the frontier of scientific research which establishes bridges between many different disciplines. One of the exciting new areas in nuclear physics is that of radioactive beams. It provides a powerful tool not only to study exotic nuclei close to the proton and neutron drip lines to obtain important information about the nature of the nucleon-nucleon interaction in stable and unstable nuclei, but also to address questions of fundamental importance in nuclear astrophysics as well as in various applications like mass spectroscopy, the production of radioactive isotopes and medical applications (Galindo-Uribarri). There was a presentation on the FRIB project which is currently under construction in the USA and its relevance for nuclear astrophysics and the limits of stability (Sherrill and Schatz) In the session on nuclear structure, there were several talks on the nucleon-nucleon interaction in nuclei close to the proton and neutron drip lines, like neutron-proton pairing in nuclei with an equal number of protons and neutrons (Pittel), and studies of stable and unstable neutron-rich nuclei near the closed shells N = 82 and N = 50 using (d, p) transfer reactions and Coulomb excitation by means of radioactive beams (Cizewski and Padilla-Rodal). There were several talks on the importance of reaction rates for the excitation of spin-isospin resonances (Sakai), massive star evolution (Klapp) and nuclear synthesis and stellar evolution (Rolfs). In another presentation, the importance of rare isotopes for astrophysical processes was highlighted (Schatz). In addition, there were discussions

  7. Chromosomal instability induced by heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limoli, C. L.; Ponnaiya, B.; Corcoran, J. J.; Giedzinski, E.; Morgan, W. F.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish the dose-response relationship for the induction of chromosomal instability in GM10115 cells exposed to high-energy iron ions (1 GeV/nucleon, mean LET 146 keV/microm) and gold ions (11 GeV/nucleon, mean LET 1450 keV/microm). Past work has established that sparsely ionizing X-rays can induce a long-lived destabilization of chromosomes in a dose-dependent manner at an incidence of approximately 3% per gray. The present investigation assesses the capacity of High-Z and High-energy (HZE) particles to elicit this same endpoint. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clonal populations derived from single progenitor cells surviving heavy-ion irradiation were analyzed cytogenetically to identify those clones showing a persistent destablization of chromosomes. RESULTS: Dose-response data, with a particular emphasis at low dose (< 1.0 Gy), indicate a frequency of approximately 4% per gray for the induction of chromosomal instability in clones derived from single progenitor cells surviving exposure to iron ions. The induction of chromosomal instability by gold ions was, however, less responsive to applied dose, as the observed incidence of this phenotype varied from 0 to 10% over 1-8 Gy. Both iron and gold ions gave dose-dependent increases in the yield of chromosomal aberrations (both chromosome- and chromatid-type) measured at the first mitosis following irradiation, as well as shoulderless survival curves having D0=0.87 and 1.1 Gy respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present dose-response data, the relative biological effectiveness of iron ions is 1.3 for the induction of chromosomal instability, and this indicates that heavy ions are only slightly more efficient than X-rays at eliciting this delayed phenotype.

  8. Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Ram K.; Townsend, Lawrence W.

    1994-01-01

    Using a fully self-consistent quantum statistical model, we demonstrate the possibility of Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions. The most favorable conditions of high densities and low temperatures are usually associated with astrophysical processes and may be difficult to achieve in heavy ion collisions. Nonetheless, some suggestions for the possible experimental verification of the existence of this phenomenon are made.

  9. Theoretical Concepts for Ultra-Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    McLerran,L.

    2009-07-27

    Various forms of matter may be produced in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. These are the Quark GluonPlasma, the Color Glass Condensate , the Glasma and Quarkyoninc Matter. A novel effect that may beassociated with topological charge fluctuations is the Chiral Magnetic Effect. I explain these concepts andexplain how they may be seen in ultra-relatvistic heavy ion collisions

  10. Laser ion source for low charge heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura,M.; Pikin, A.; Zajic, V.; Kanesue, T.; Tamura, J.

    2008-08-03

    For heavy ion inertial fusion application, a combination of a laser ion source and direct plasma injection scheme into an RFQ is proposed. The combination might provide more than 100 mA of singly charged heavy ion beam from a single laser shot. A planned feasibility test with moderate current is also discussed.

  11. Quantum Chromodynamics and nuclear physics at extreme energy density. Progress report, May 1992--April 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, B.

    1993-05-15

    This report discusses research in the following topics: Hadron structure physics; relativistic heavy ion collisions; finite- temperature QCD; real-time lattice gauge theory; and studies in quantum field theory.

  12. Using heavy-ion collisions to elucidate the asymmetric equation-of-state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yennello, Sherry; McIntosh, Alan

    2016-06-01

    The nuclear equation-of-state impacts a number of nuclear properties as well as astrophysical processes. The asymmetric term of the equation-of-state, which describes the behavior away from N=Z, has significant uncertainty. Giant resonances and nuclear masses can elucidate the asymmetry energy for cold normal-density nuclei. Heavy-ion collisions can be used to probe nuclear matter at higher temperatures and densities away from saturation density. The temperatures that are attained in these nuclear collisions are predicted to depend on the isospin asymmetry. In this work we present evidence of the asymmetry dependence of the nuclear caloric curve.

  13. Bremsstrahlung dileptons in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Jalilian-Marian, J.; Koch, V.

    1998-12-01

    We consider production of dilepton pairs through coherent electromagnetic radiation during nuclear collisions. We show that the number of pairs produced through bremsstrahlung is about two orders of magnitude smaller than the yield measured by the CERES Collaboration. Therefore, coherent bremsstrahlung can be ruled out as an explanation for the observed enhancement of low mass dileptons in CERES and HELIOS data. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Monte-Carlo Simulations of Heavy Ions Track Structures and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francia A.

    2013-01-01

    In space, astronauts are exposed to protons, high ]energy heavy (HZE) ions that have a high charge (Z) and energy (E), and secondary radiation, including neutrons and recoil nuclei produced by nuclear reactions in spacecraft walls or in tissue. The astronauts can only be partly shielded from these particles. Therefore, on travelling to Mars, it is estimated that every cell nucleus in an astronaut fs body would be hit by a proton or secondary electron (e.g., electrons of the target atoms ionized by the HZE ion) every few days and by an HZE ion about once a month. The risks related to these heavy ions are not well known and of concern for long duration space exploration missions. Medical ion therapy is another situation where human beings can be irradiated by heavy ions, usually to treat cancer. Heavy ions have a peculiar track structure characterized by high levels of energy ]deposition clustering, especially in near the track ends in the so ]called eBragg peak f region. In radiotherapy, these features of heavy ions can provide an improved dose conformation with respect to photons, also considering that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of therapeutic ions in the plateau region before the peak is sufficiently low. Therefore, several proton and carbon ion therapy facilities are under construction at this moment

  15. [Search for strange quark matter and antimatter produced in high energy heavy ion collisions]. Technical progress report for the period April 1990--March 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    This document describes the development and progress of our group`s research program in high energy heavy ion physics. We are a subset of the Yale experimental high energy physics effort (YAUG group) who became interested in the physics of high energy heavy ions in 1988. Our interest began with the possibility of performing significant searches for strange quark matter. As we learned more about the subject and as we gained experimental experience through our participation in AGS experiment 814, our interests have broadened. Our program has focused on the study of new particles, including (but not exclusively) strange quark matter, and the high sensitivity measurement of other composite nuclear systems such as antinuclei and various light nuclei. The importance of measurements of the known, but rare, nuclear systems lies in the study of production mechanisms. A good understanding of the physics and phenomenology of rare composite particle production in essential for the interpretation of limits to strange quark matter searches. We believe that such studies will also be useful in probing the mechanisms involved in the collision process itself. We have been involved in the running and data analysis for AGS E814. We have also worked on the R&D for AGS E864, which is an approved experiment designed to reach sensitivities where there will be a good chance of discovering strangelets or of setting significant limits on the parameters of strange quark matter.

  16. Heavy ion tracks in polycarbonate. Comparison with a heavy ion irradiated model compound (diphenyl carbonate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferain, E.; Legras, R.

    1993-09-01

    The chemical modifications induced by energetic heavy ion irradiation of polycarbonate (PC) film are determined by GPC, HPLC, ESR, TGA, IR and UV spectrophotometry. The main results of the irradiation are creation of radicals, chain scission, cross-linking and appearance of new chemical groups in the main polymer chain. As far as the creation of new groups is concerned, they are determined by means of a model compound of PC: the diphenyl carbonate (DPC). The following compounds are identified after energetic heavy ion irradiation of DPC: salicylic acid, phenol, 4,4'-biphenol, 2,4'-biphenol, 2,2'-biphenol, 4-phenoxyphenol, 2-phenoxyphenol, phenyl ether, phenyl benzoate, phenyl salicylate, 2-phenylphenol and 2-phenoxyphenyl benzoate. A similarity between the heavy ion irradiation and a heat treatment has also been established with DPC. On the basis of these results, we try to give an explanation of the preferential attack along the tracks of the irradiated film. Also, an explanation of the well-known beneficial effect of an UV exposition of the irradiated film on the selectivity of this preferential chemical attack is suggested.

  17. HZETRN: A heavy ion/nucleon transport code for space radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John W.; Chun, Sang Y.; Badavi, Forooz F.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Lamkin, Stanley L.

    1991-12-01

    The galactic heavy ion transport code (GCRTRN) and the nucleon transport code (BRYNTRN) are integrated into a code package (HZETRN). The code package is computer efficient and capable of operating in an engineering design environment for manned deep space mission studies. The nuclear data set used by the code is discussed including current limitations. Although the heavy ion nuclear cross sections are assumed constant, the nucleon-nuclear cross sections of BRYNTRN with full energy dependence are used. The relation of the final code to the Boltzmann equation is discussed in the context of simplifying assumptions. Error generation and propagation is discussed, and comparison is made with simplified analytic solutions to test numerical accuracy of the final results. A brief discussion of biological issues and their impact on fundamental developments in shielding technology is given.

  18. HZETRN: A heavy ion/nucleon transport code for space radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Chun, Sang Y.; Badavi, Forooz F.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Lamkin, Stanley L.

    1991-01-01

    The galactic heavy ion transport code (GCRTRN) and the nucleon transport code (BRYNTRN) are integrated into a code package (HZETRN). The code package is computer efficient and capable of operating in an engineering design environment for manned deep space mission studies. The nuclear data set used by the code is discussed including current limitations. Although the heavy ion nuclear cross sections are assumed constant, the nucleon-nuclear cross sections of BRYNTRN with full energy dependence are used. The relation of the final code to the Boltzmann equation is discussed in the context of simplifying assumptions. Error generation and propagation is discussed, and comparison is made with simplified analytic solutions to test numerical accuracy of the final results. A brief discussion of biological issues and their impact on fundamental developments in shielding technology is given.

  19. Physics Division annual review, 1 April 1980-31 March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    Progress in nuclear physics research is reported in the following areas: medium-energy physics (pion reaction mechanisms, high-resolution studies and nuclear structure, and two-nucleon physics with pions and electrons); heavy-ion research at the tandem and superconducting linear accelerator (resonant structure in heavy-ion reactions, fusion cross sections, high angular momentum states in nuclei, and reaction mechanisms and distributions of reaction strengths); charged-particle research; neutron and photonuclear physics; theoretical physics (heavy-ion direct-reaction theory, nuclear shell theory and nuclear structure, nuclear matter and nuclear forces, intermediate-energy physics, microscopic calculations of high-energy collisions of heavy ions, and light ion direct reactions); the superconducting linac; accelerator operations; and GeV electron linac. Progress in atomic and molecular physics research is reported in the following areas: dissociation and other interactions of energetic molecular ions in solid and gaseous targets, beam-foil research and collision dynamics of heavy ions, photoionization- photoelectron research, high-resolution laser rf spectroscopy with atomic and molecular beams, moessbauer effect research, and theoretical atomic physics. Studies on interactions of energetic particles with solids are also described. Publications are listed. (WHK)

  20. Picosecond timing of high-energy heavy ions with semiconductor detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eremin, Vladimir; Kiselev, Oleg; Egorov, Nicolai; Eremin, Igor; Tuboltsev, Yuri; Verbitskaya, Elena; Gorbatyuk, Andrei

    2015-10-01

    Construction of new accelerating facilities to investigate reactions with heavy ions requires upgrading of the Time-of-Flight (TOF) systems for on-line ion identification. The requested time resolution of the TOF system developed for Super FRagment Separator in the frame of the FAIR program at GSI, Germany, is in the range of tens of picoseconds, which can be realized by using planar silicon detectors. Such resolution will allow characterization of relativistic ions from Lithium to Uranium. However, fast timing of heavy ions with semiconductor detectors is expected to be limited by the so-called plasma effect due to a high concentration of electron-hole pairs in tracks. Here the results of the experiment with relativistic 197Au ions (the energy of 920 MeV per nucleon) obtained with Si detectors are described, which showed the TOF time resolution around 14 ps rms. The physical mechanism of charge collection from high-density penetrating tracks of relativistic heavy ions is considered and the analysis of timing characteristics is performed taking into account track polarization. Polarization is shown to have a strong influence on the formation of the leading edge of the detector current response generated by relativistic heavy ions, which allows us to explain the observed high time resolution.

  1. Constraints on the asymmetric equation of state from heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yennello, Sherry; McIntosh, Alan; Heilborn, Lauren

    2016-05-01

    Nuclear matter is one of the most fascinating materials that exists.Therefore elucidating the equation-of-state of nuclear matter is a fundamentally interesting question. Additionally, the nuclear equationof-state has impacts on astrophysical observables. One important means of constraining the nuclear equation-of-state is through studying heavy-ion collisions. Nuclear material has two components - neutrons and protons - the ratio of which impacts the equation-of-state. Measurements of fragments emitted from reactions of nuclei with different ratios of neutrons and protons - and comparison to simulations based on various underlying interactions - have placed constraints on both the symmetric and asymmetric parts of the equation of state.

  2. Thermalization of Heavy Ions in the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, Patrick J.; Kasper, Justin C.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Raines, Jim M.; Shearer, Paul; Gilbert, Jason

    2015-10-01

    Observations of velocity distribution functions from the Advanced Composition Explorer/Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer heavy ion composition instrument are used to calculate ratios of kinetic temperature and Coulomb collisional interactions of an unprecedented 50 ion species in the solar wind. These ions cover a mass per charge range of 1-5.5 amu/e and were collected in the time range of 1998-2011. We report the first calculation of the Coulomb thermalization rate between each of the heavy ion (A > 4 amu) species present in the solar wind along with protons (H+) and alpha particles (He2+). From these rates, we find that protons are the dominant source of Coulomb collisional thermalization for heavy ions in the solar wind and use this fact to calculate a collisional age for those heavy ion populations. The heavy ion thermal properties are well organized by this collisional age, but we find that the temperature of all heavy ions does not simply approach that of protons as Coulomb collisions become more important. We show that He2+ and C6+ follow a monotonic decay toward equal temperatures with protons with increasing collisional age, but O6+ shows a noted deviation from this monotonic decay. Furthermore, we show that the deviation from monotonic decay for O6+ occurs in solar wind of all origins, as determined by its Fe/O ratio. The observed differences in heavy ion temperature behavior point toward a local heating mechanism that favors ions depending on their charge and mass.

  3. Physics Division progress report for period ending September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Livingston, A.B.

    1990-03-01

    This report discusses topics in the following areas: Holifield heavy ion research; Experimental Nuclear physics; The Uniser program; Experimental Atomic Physics; Theoretical Physics; Laser and electro-optics lab; High Energy Physics; compilations and evaluations; and accelerator design and development. (FI)

  4. Radiation protection and environmental management at the relativistic heavy ion collider.

    PubMed

    Musolino, S V; Briggs, S L; Stevens, A J

    2001-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is a high energy hadron accelerator built to study basic nuclear physics. It consists of two counter-rotating beams of fully stripped gold ions that are accelerated in two rings to an energy of 100 GeV/nucleon or protons at 250 GeV/c. The beams can be stored for a period of five to ten hours and brought into collision for experiments during that time. The first major physics objective is to recreate a state of matter, the quark-gluon plasma, that has been predicted to have existed at a short time after the creation of the universe. Because there are only a few other high energy particle accelerators like RHIC in the world, the rules promulgated in the US Code of Federal Regulations under the Atomic Energy Act, State regulations, or international guidance documents do not cover prompt radiation from accelerators to govern directly the design and operation of a superconducting collider. Special design criteria for prompt radiation were developed to provide guidance tor the design of radiation shielding. Environmental Management at RHIC is accomplished through the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System. The applicability, benefits, and implementation of ISO 14001 within the framework of a large research accelerator complex are discussed in the paper. PMID:11843082

  5. Heavy Ion Temperatures As Observed By ACE/Swics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tracy, P.; Zurbuchen, T.; Raines, J. M.; Shearer, P.; Kasper, J. C.; Gilbert, J. A.; Alterman, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    Heavy ions observed near 1 AU, especially in fast solar wind, tend to have thermal speeds that are approximately equal, indicative of a mass proportional temperature. Additionally, observations near 1 AU have shown a streaming of heavy ions (Z>4) along the magnetic field direction at speeds faster than protons. The differential velocities observed are of the same order but typically less than the Alfven speed. Previous analysis of the behavior of ion thermal velocities with Ulysses-SWICS, focusing on daily average properties of 35 ion species at 5 AU, found only a small systematic trend with respect to q2/m. Utilizing improved data processing techniques, results from the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer (SWICS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) shed new light on the thermal properties of the heavy ion population at 1 AU. A clear dependence of heavy ion thermal behavior on q2/m has now been found in the recent ACE-SWICS two hour cadence data set at 1 AU. Examining the thermal velocities of about 70 heavy ion species relative to alpha particles (He2+) shows a distinct trend from equal thermal speed toward equal temperature with increasing q2/m. When examined for solar winds of different collisional ages, the observations indicate the extent of thermal relaxation present in different solar wind types. We explore this collisional dependence with a model for the collisional thermal relaxation of the heavy ions as the solar wind propagates out to 1 AU. This model is used to subtract out the collisional effects seen in the ACE-SWICS data, providing an estimate for the temperature distribution among heavy ions at the corona to be compared to remote sensing observations that have shown that heavy ions are preferentially heated at the corona. We will discuss how this new analysis elucidates the thermal behavior and evolution of heavy ions in the solar wind, along with implications for the upcoming Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter missions.

  6. Nuclear physics: Macroscopic aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Swiatecki, W.J.

    1993-12-01

    A systematic macroscopic, leptodermous approach to nuclear statics and dynamics is described, based formally on the assumptions {h_bar} {yields} 0 and b/R << 1, where b is the surface diffuseness and R the nuclear radius. The resulting static model of shell-corrected nuclear binding energies and deformabilities is accurate to better than 1 part in a thousand and yields a firm determination of the principal properties of the nuclear fluid. As regards dynamics, the above approach suggests that nuclear shape evolutions will often be dominated by dissipation, but quantitative comparisons with experimental data are more difficult than in the case of statics. In its simplest liquid drop version the model exhibits interesting formal connections to the classic astronomical problem of rotating gravitating masses.

  7. Nuclear physics and particle therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, G.

    2016-05-01

    The use of charged particles and nuclei in cancer therapy is one of the most successful cases of application of nuclear physics to medicine. The physical advantages in terms of precision and selectivity, combined with the biological properties of densely ionizing radiation, make charged particle approach an elective choice in a number of cases. Hadron therapy is in continuous development and nuclear physicists can give important contributions to this discipline. In this work some of the relevant aspects in nuclear physics will be reviewed, summarizing the most important directions of research and development.

  8. Understanding transport simulations of heavy-ion collisions at 100 A and 400 A MeV: Comparison of heavy-ion transport codes under controlled conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Chen, Lie-Wen; Tsang, ManYee Betty; Wolter, Hermann; Zhang, Ying-Xun; Aichelin, Joerg; Colonna, Maria; Cozma, Dan; Danielewicz, Pawel; Feng, Zhao-Qing; Le Fèvre, Arnaud; Gaitanos, Theodoros; Hartnack, Christoph; Kim, Kyungil; Kim, Youngman; Ko, Che-Ming; Li, Bao-An; Li, Qing-Feng; Li, Zhu-Xia; Napolitani, Paolo; Ono, Akira; Papa, Massimo; Song, Taesoo; Su, Jun; Tian, Jun-Long; Wang, Ning; Wang, Yong-Jia; Weil, Janus; Xie, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Zhang, Guo-Qiang

    2016-04-01

    Transport simulations are very valuable for extracting physics information from heavy-ion-collision experiments. With the emergence of many different transport codes in recent years, it becomes important to estimate their robustness in extracting physics information from experiments. We report on the results of a transport-code-comparison project. Eighteen commonly used transport codes were included in this comparison: nine Boltzmann-Uehling-Uhlenbeck-type codes and nine quantum-molecular-dynamics-type codes. These codes have been asked to simulate Au +Au collisions using the same physics input for mean fields and for in-medium nucleon-nucleon cross sections, as well as the same impact parameter, the similar initialization setup, and other calculational parameters at 100 A and 400 A MeV incident energy. Among the codes we compare one-body observables such as rapidity and transverse flow distributions. We also monitor nonobservables such as the initialization of the internal states of colliding nuclei and their stability, the collision rates, and the Pauli blocking. We find that not completely identical initializations may have contributed partly to different evolutions. Different strategies to determine the collision probabilities and to enforce the Pauli blocking also produce considerably different results. There is a substantial spread in the predictions for the observables, which is much smaller at the higher incident energy. We quantify the uncertainties in the collective flow resulting from the simulation alone as about 30% at 100 A MeV and 13% at 400 A MeV, respectively. We propose further steps within the code comparison project to test the different aspects of transport simulations in a box calculation of infinite nuclear matter. This should, in particular, improve the robustness of transport model predictions at lower incident energies, where abundant amounts of data are available.

  9. Flow probe of symmetry energy in relativistic heavy-ion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russotto, P.; Cozma, M. D.; Le Fèvre, A.; Leifels, Y.; Lemmon, R.; Li, Q.; Łukasik, J.; Trautmann, W.

    2014-02-01

    Flow observables in heavy-ion reactions at incident energies up to about 1GeV per nucleon have been shown to be very useful for investigating the reaction dynamics and for determining the parameters of reaction models based on transport theory. In particular, the elliptic flow in collisions of neutron-rich heavy-ion systems emerges as an observable sensitive to the strength of the symmetry energy at supra-saturation densities. The comparison of ratios or differences of neutron and proton flows or neutron and hydrogen flows with predictions of transport models favors an approximately linear density dependence, consistent with ab initio nuclear-matter theories. Extensive parameter searches have shown that the model dependence is comparable to the uncertainties of existing experimental data. Comprehensive new flow data of high accuracy, partly also through providing stronger constraints on model parameters, can thus be expected to improve our knowledge of the equation of state of asymmetric nuclear matter.

  10. Heavy Ion Collisions and Tests of the Supernova Equation of State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagel, K.; Hempel, M.; Natowitz, J. B.; Röpke, G.; Typel, S.; Wuenschel, S.; Wada, R.; Barbui, M.; Schmidt, K.

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the evolution of core-collapse supernovae and the properties of the neutrinosphere requires systematic information on the properties of nuclear matter at a wide range of densities and temperatures. Central collisions in heavy ion reactions at intermediate energies produce nuclear matter on a microscopic scale that has a wide range of density and temperature and thus provide the possibility of probing conditions similar to those of core-collapse supernovae. Hot early reaction stage sources in violent collisions of heavy ion reactions, denoted as femtonovae, are identified and analyzed in the context of a coalescence model. The analysis yields various quantities indicate that temperature and density similar to those near the neutrinosphere are achieved. These results from these analyses are compared to the results of various supernovae simulations and thus provide insight into the supernova equation of state and thus indicate which ingredients in the simulations are important.

  11. Studies of heavy ion reactions and transuranic nuclei. Progress report, September 1, 1985-August 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Huizenga, J.R.; Schroeder, W.U.

    1986-08-01

    Progress is reported of research directed to explore nuclear relaxation and transport phenomena induced in heavy-ion collisions, in the range from near-barrier energies to more than 20 MeV per nucleon above the interaction barrier. Transport processes studied include the redistribution of kinetic energy of relative motion and of linear momentum as well as the gradual relaxation of various conditions of a colliding heavy-ion system, initially far from thermodynamic equilibrium, towards a uniform population of phase space. And, finally, they include the stochastic, equilibrium, and nonequilibrium patterns of nuclear disintegration. The group activities range from design of hardware to theoretical modeling. 112 refs., 56 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Experimental measurement of the 4-d transverse phase space map of a heavy ion beam

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, H S

    1997-12-01

    The development and employment of a new diagnostic instrument for characterizing intense, heavy ion beams is reported on. This instrument, the ''Gated Beam Imager'' or ''GBI'' was designed for use on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Heavy Ion Fusion Project's ''Small Recirculator'', an integrated, scaled physics experiment and engineering development project for studying the transport and control of intense heavy ion beams as inertial fusion drivers in the production of electric power. The GBI allows rapid measurement and calculation of a heavy ion beam's characteristics to include all the first and second moments of the transverse phase space distribution, transverse emittance, envelope parameters and beam centroid. The GBI, with appropriate gating produces a time history of the beam resulting in a 4-D phase-space and time ''map'' of the beam. A unique capability of the GBI over existing diagnostic instruments is its ability to measure the ''cross'' moments between the two transverse orthogonal directions. Non-zero ''cross'' moments in the alternating gradient lattice of the Small Recirculator are indicative of focusing element rotational misalignments contributing to beam emittance growth. This emittance growth, while having the same effect on the ability to focus a beam as emittance growth caused by non-linear effects, is in principle removable by an appropriate number of focusing elements. The instrument uses the pepperpot method of introducing a plate with many pinholes into the beam and observing the images of the resulting beamlets as they interact with a detector after an appropriate drift distance. In order to produce adequate optical signal and repeatability, the detector was chosen to be a microchannel plate (MCP) with a phosphor readout screen. The heavy ions in the pepperpot beamlets are stopped in the MCP's thin front metal anode and the resulting secondary electron signal is amplified and proximity-focused onto the phosphor while maintaining

  13. Experimental measurement of the 4-D transverse phase space map of a heavy ion beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Harvey Small

    The development and employment of a new diagnostic instrument for characterizing intense, heavy ion beams is reported on. This instrument, the 'Gated Beam Imager' or 'GBI' was designed for use on Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Heavy Ion Fusion Project's 'Small Recirculator', an integrated, scaled physics experiment and engineering development project for studying the transport and control of intense heavy ion beams as inertial fusion drivers in the production of electric power. The GBI allows rapid measurement and calculation of a heavy ion beam's characteristics to include all the first and second moments of the transverse phase space distribution, transverse emittance, envelope parameters and beam centroid. The GBI, with appropriate gating produces a time history of the beam resulting in a 4-D phase-space and time 'map' of the beam. A unique capability of the GBI over existing diagnostic instruments is its ability to measure the 'cross' moments between the two transverse orthogonal directions. Non- zero 'cross' moments in the alternating gradient lattice of the Small Recirculator are indicative of focusing element rotational misalignments contributing to beam emittance growth. This emittance growth, while having the same effect on the ability to focus a beam as emittance growth caused by non-linear effects, is in principle removable by an appropriate number of focusing elements. The instrument uses the pepperpot method of introducing a plate with many pinholes into the beam and observing the images of the resulting beamlets as they interact with a detector after an appropriate drift distance. In order to produce adequate optical signal and repeatability, the detector was chosen to be a microchannel plate (MCP) with a phosphor readout screen. The heavy ions in the pepperpot beamlets are stopped in the MCP's thin front metal anode and the resulting secondary electron signal is amplified and proximity-focused onto the phosphor while maintaining the spatial

  14. Heavy ion event generator HYDJET++ (HYDrodynamics plus JETs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokhtin, I. P.; Malinina, L. V.; Petrushanko, S. V.; Snigirev, A. M.; Arsene, I.; Tywoniuk, K.

    2009-05-01

    ) Operating system: Linux (Scientific Linux, Red Hat Enterprise, FEDORA, etc.) RAM: 50 MBytes (determined by ROOT requirements) Classification: 11.2 External routines: ROOT [1] ( http://root.cern.ch/) Nature of problem: The experimental and phenomenological study of multi-particle production in relativistic heavy ion collisions is expected to provide valuable information on the dynamical behavior of strongly-interacting matter in the form of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) [2-4], as predicted by lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) calculations. Ongoing and future experimental studies in a wide range of heavy ion beam energies require the development of new Monte Carlo (MC) event generators and improvement of existing ones. Especially for experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC), implying very high parton and hadron multiplicities, one needs fast (but realistic) MC tools for heavy ion event simulations [5-7]. The main advantage of MC technique for the simulation of high-multiplicity hadroproduction is that it allows a visual comparison of theory and data, including if necessary the detailed detector acceptances, responses and resolutions. The realistic MC event generator has to include maximum possible number of observable physical effects, which are important to determine the event topology: from the bulk properties of soft hadroproduction (domain of low transverse momenta p≲1 GeV/c) such as collective flows, to hard multi-parton production in hot and dense QCD-matter, which reveals itself in the spectra of high- p particles and hadronic jets. Moreover, the role of hard and semi-hard particle production at LHC can be significant even for the bulk properties of created matter, and hard probes of QGP became clearly observable in various new channels [8-11]. In the majority of the available MC heavy ion event generators, the simultaneous treatment of collective flow effects for soft hadroproduction and hard multi-parton in-medium production (medium-induced partonic

  15. Benchmarking of Neutron Production of Heavy-Ion Transport Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Remec, Igor; Ronningen, Reginald M.; Heilbronn, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Accurate prediction of radiation fields generated by heavy ion interactions is important in medical applications, space missions, and in design and operation of rare isotope research facilities. In recent years, several well-established computer codes in widespread use for particle and radiation transport calculations have been equipped with the capability to simulate heavy ion transport and interactions. To assess and validate these capabilities, we performed simulations of a series of benchmark-quality heavy ion experiments with the computer codes FLUKA, MARS15, MCNPX, and PHITS. We focus on the comparisons of secondary neutron production. Results are encouraging; however, further improvements in models and codes and additional benchmarking are required.

  16. Model for Cumulative Solar Heavy Ion Energy and LET Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xapsos, Mike; Barth, Janet; Stauffer, Craig; Jordan, Tom; Mewaldt, Richard

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic model of cumulative solar heavy ion energy and lineary energy transfer (LET) spectra is developed for spacecraft design applications. Spectra are given as a function of confidence level, mission time period during solar maximum and shielding thickness. It is shown that long-term solar heavy ion fluxes exceed galactic cosmic ray fluxes during solar maximum for shielding levels of interest. Cumulative solar heavy ion fluences should therefore be accounted for in single event effects rate calculations and in the planning of space missions.

  17. Pre-equilibrium decay processes in energetic heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Blann, M.

    1986-04-15

    The Boltzmann master equation (BME) is defined for application to precompound decay in heavy ion reactions in the 10 100 MeV/nucleon regime. Predicted neutron spectra are compared with measured results for central collisions of /sup 20/Ne and /sup 12/C with /sup 165/Ho target nuclei. Comparisons are made with subthreshold ..pi../sup 0/ yields in heavy ion reactions between 35 and 84 MeV/nucleon, and with the ..pi../sup 0/ spectra. The BME is found to be an excellent tool for investigating these experimentally observed aspects of non-equilibrium heavy ion reactions. 18 refs., 8 figs.

  18. A synchronous beam sweeper for heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bogaty, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    The Argonne Tandem Linac Accelerator System (ATLAS) facility at Argonne National Laboratory provides a wide range of accelerated heavy ions from the periodic table. Frequently, the beam delivery rate of 12 MHz is too fast for the type of experiment on line. Reaction by-products from a target bombardment may have a decay interval much longer than the dead time between beam bunches. To prevent data from being corrupted by incoming ions a beam sweeper was developed which synchronously eliminates selected beam bunches to suit experimental needs. As the SWEEPER is broad band (DC to 6 MHz) beam delivery rates can be instantaneously changed. Ion beam bunches are selectively kicked out by an electrostatic dipole electrode pulsed to 2 kVDC. The system has been used for almost three years with several hundred hours of operating time logged to date. Beam bunch delivery rates of 6 MHz down to 25 kHz have been provided. Since this is a non-resonant system any beam delivery rate from 6 MHz down to zero can be set. In addition, burst modes have been used where beam is supplied in 12 MHz bursts and then shut down for a period of time set by the user. 3 figs.

  19. Modeling the heavy ion upset cross section

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, L. W.; McDaniel, P. J.; Prinja, A. K.; Sexton, F. W.

    1995-04-01

    The standard Rectangular Parallelepiped (RPP) construct is used to derive a closed form expression for, sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) the directional-spectral heavy ion upset cross section. This is an expected value model obtained by integrating the point-value cross section model, sigma (theta, phi, L, E), also developed here, with the Weibull density function, f(E), assumed to govern the stochastic behavior of the upset threshold energy, E. A comparison of sigma-bar (theta, phi, L) with experimental data show good agreement, lending strong credibility to the hypothesis that E-randomness is responsible for the shape of the upset cross section curve. The expected value model is used as the basis for a new, rigorous mathematical formulation of the effective cross section concept. The generalized formulation unifies previous corrections to the inverse cosine scaling, collapsing to Petersen's correction, (cos theta - (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near threshold and Sexton's, (cos theta + (h/l) sin theta)(sup -1), near saturation. The expected value cross section model therefore has useful applications in both upset rate prediction and test data analysis.

  20. Heavy ion acceleration at parallel shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galinsky, V. L.; Shevchenko, V. I.

    2010-11-01

    A study of alpha particle acceleration at parallel shock due to an interaction with Alfvén waves self-consistently excited in both upstream and downstream regions was conducted using a scale-separation model (Galinsky and Shevchenko, 2000, 2007). The model uses conservation laws and resonance conditions to find where waves will be generated or damped and hence where particles will be pitch-angle scattered. It considers the total distribution function (for the bulk plasma and high energy tail), so no standard assumptions (e.g. seed populations, or some ad-hoc escape rate of accelerated particles) are required. The heavy ion scattering on hydromagnetic turbulence generated by both protons and ions themselves is considered. The contribution of alpha particles to turbulence generation is important because of their relatively large mass-loading parameter Pα=nαmα/npmp (mp, np and mα, nα are proton and alpha particle mass and density) that defines efficiency of wave excitation. The energy spectra of alpha particles are found and compared with those obtained in test particle approximation.

  1. Heavy ions in space (M0001)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. H., Jr.; Slberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.

    1984-01-01

    The ojectives are to investigate three components of heavy nuclei in space: (1) a recently observed anomalous component of low-energy nuclei of N, O, and Ne; (2) the heavy nuclei in the Van Allen radiation belts; and (3) the UH nuclei (Z 30) of the galactic radiation. The study of the anomalous flux of N, O, and Ne nuclei in the unexplored energy region above 100 MeV/u is expected to provide new insights into the source of this component. Its observation in this experiment will confirm that these ions are singly charged. Knowledge of the energy spectra of the heavy nuclei observed in the Van Allen belts is expected to enhance the understanding of the origin of the belts (e.g., injection and local acceleration pocesses). The observation of these heavy ions could show, for the first time, that low-energy particles of extraterrestrial origin can diffuse to the innermost parts of the magnetosphere. Measurements of the UH component are expected to contribute information concerning its source, interstellar propagation, and the galactic storage time.

  2. Heavy ion fusion systems assessment study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudziak, Donald J.; Herrmannsfeldt, W. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Heavy Ion Fusion Systems Assessment (HIFSA) study was conducted with the specific objective of evaluating the prospects of using induction linac drivers to generate economical electrical power from inertial confinement fusion. The study used algorithmic models of representative components of fusion system to identify favored areas in the multidimensional parameter space. The results show that cost-of-electricity (COE) projections are comparable to those from other (magnetic) fusion scenarios, at a plant size of 1000 MWe. These results hold over a large area of parameter space, but depend especially on effecting savings in the cost of the accelerator by using ions with a charge-to-mass ratio about three times higher than has been usually assumed. The feasibility of actually realizing such savings has been shown: (1) by experiments showing better-than-previously-assumed transport stability for space charge dominated beams, and (2) by theoretical predictions that the final transport and compression of the pulse to the target pellet, in the expected environment of a reactor chamber, may be sufficiently resistant to instabilities, in particular to streaming instabilities, to enable neutralized beams to successfully propagate to the target. Neutralization is assumed to be required for the higher current pulses that result from the use of the higher charge-to-mass ratio beams jointly by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and also by the McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute.

  3. Recent results in relativistic heavy ion collisions: from 'a new state of matter' to 'the perfect fluid'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tannenbaum, M. J.

    2006-07-01

    Experimental physics with relativistic heavy ions dates from 1992 when a beam of 197Au of energy greater than 10 A GeV/c first became available at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) soon followed in 1994 by a 208Pb beam of 158A GeV/c at the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN (European Center for Nuclear Research). Previous pioneering measurements at the Berkeley Bevalac (Gutbrod et al 1989 Rep. Prog. Phys. 52 1267-132) in the late 1970s and early 1980s were at much lower bombarding energies (<~1A GeV/c) where nuclear breakup rather than particle production is the dominant inelastic process in A+A collisions. More recently, starting in 2000, the relativistic heavy ion collider at BNL has produced head-on collisions of two 100 A GeV beams of fully stripped Au ions, corresponding to nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass (cm) energy, \\sqrt{s_NN}=200\\,GeV , total cm energy 200 A GeV. The objective of this research program is to produce nuclear matter with extreme density and temperature, possibly resulting in a state of matter where the quarks and gluons normally confined inside individual nucleons (r < 1 fm) are free to act over distances an order of magnitude larger. Progress from the period 1992 to the present will be reviewed, with reference to previous results from light ion and proton-proton collisions where appropriate. Emphasis will be placed on the measurements which formed the basis for the announcements by the two major laboratories: 'A new state of matter', by CERN on Febraury 10 2000 and 'The perfect fluid' by BNL on April 19 2005.

  4. Theoretical studies in hadronic and nuclear physics. Progress report, December 1, 1992--June 30 , 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Griffin, J.J.; Cohen, T.D.

    1993-07-01

    Research in the Maryland Nuclear Theory Group focusses on problems in four basic areas of current relevance. The section on Hadrons in Nuclei reports research into the ways in which the properties of nucleons and the mesons which play a role in the nuclear force are modified in the nuclear medium. QCD sum rules supply a new insight into the decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium. The quark condensate decreases in nuclear matter, and this is responsible for the decrease of the nucleon`s mass. The section on the Structure of Hadrons reports progress in understanding the structure of the nucleon. These results cover widely different approaches -- lattice gauge calculations, QCD sum rules, quark-meson models with confinement and other hedgehog models. Progress in Relativistic Nuclear Physics is reported on electromagnetic interactions in a relativistic bound state formalism, with applications to elastic electron scattering by deuterium, and on application of a two-body quasipotential equation to calculate the spectrum of mesons formed as bound states of a quark and antiquark. A Lorentz-invariant description of the nuclear force suggests a decrease of the nucleon`s mass in the nuclear medium similar to that found from QCD sum rules. Calculations of three-body bound states with simple forms of relativistic dynamics are also discussed. The section on Heavy Ion Dynamics and Related Processes describes progress on the (e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}) problem and heavy-on dynamics. In particular, the sharp electrons observed in {beta}{sup +} irradiation of heavy atoms have recently been subsumed into the ``Composite Particle Scenario,`` generalizing the ``(e{sup +}e{sup {minus}}-Puzzle`` of the pairs from heavy ion collisions to the ``Sharp Lepton Problem.``

  5. Theoretical nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    French, J.B.; Koltun, D.S.

    1992-06-01

    This report summarizes progress during the past year in the following areas of research: Pion double charge exchange and the role of meson exchange currents, including vector mesons, deltas, and nuclear correlations. K{sup +}-nucleus scattering and the role of meson exchange currents in supplying missing cross section.'' Pion excess distributions in nuclei, and the role of nuclear correlations. Interactions of two hyperons and the possibility of an H dibaryon. Shell model spectra and the NN tensor interaction. Statistical nuclear spectroscopy, including state densities and expectation values evaluated in terms of one-point and two-point (correlation) functions.

  6. Progress report on nuclear spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Guidry, M.W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1994-02-18

    The Nuclear Physics group at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) is involved in several aspects of heavy-ion physics including both nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms. While the main emphasis is on experimental problems, the authors have maintained a strong collaboration with several theorists in order to best pursue the physics of their measurements. During the last year they have had several experiments at the ATLAS at Argonne National Laboratory, the GAMMASPHERE at the LBL 88 Cyclotron, and with the NORDBALL at the Niels Bohr Institute Tandem. Also, they continue to be very active in the WA93/98 collaboration studying ultra-relativistic heavy ion physics utilizing the SPS accelerator at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland and in the PHENIX Collaboration at the RHIC accelerator under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. During the last year their experimental work has been in three broad areas: (1) the structure of nuclei at high angular momentum, (2) the structure of nuclei far from stability, and (3) ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics. The results of studies in these particular areas are described in this document. These studies concentrate on the structure of nuclear matter in extreme conditions of rotational motion, imbalance of neutrons and protons, or very high temperature and density. Another area of research is heavy-ion-induced transfer reactions, which utilize the transfer of nucleons to states with high angular momentum to learn about their structure and to understand the transfer of particles, energy, and angular momentum in collisions between heavy ions.

  7. Benchmark solutions for the galactic heavy-ion transport equations with energy and spatial coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapol, Barry D.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Lamkin, Stanley L.; Wilson, John W.

    1991-01-01

    Nontrivial benchmark solutions are developed for the galactic heavy ion transport equations in the straightahead approximation with energy and spatial coupling. Analytical representations of the ion fluxes are obtained for a variety of sources with the assumption that the nuclear interaction parameters are energy independent. The method utilizes an analytical LaPlace transform inversion to yield a closed form representation that is computationally efficient. The flux profiles are then used to predict ion dose profiles, which are important for shield design studies.

  8. Study of heavy-ion induced fission for heavy-element synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishio, K.; Ikezoe, H.; Hofmann, S.; Heßberger, F. P.; Ackermann, D.; Antalic, S.; Aritomo, Y.; Comas, V. F.; Düllman, Ch. E.; Gorshkov, A.; Graeger, R.; Heinz, S.; Heredia, J. A.; Hirose, K.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Lommel, B.; Makii, H.; Mann, R.; Mitsuoka, S.; Nagame, Y.; Nishinaka, I.; Ohtsuki, T.; Popeko, A. G.; Saro, S.; Schädel, M.; Türler, A.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Yakushev, A.; Yeremin, A. V.

    2014-03-01

    Fission fragment mass distributions were measured in heavy-ion induced fissions using 238U target nucleus. The measured mass distributions changed drastically with incident energy. The results are explained by a change of the ratio between fusion and qasifission with nuclear orientation. A calculation based on a fluctuation dissipation model reproduced the mass distributions and their incident energy dependence. Fusion probability was determined in the analysis, and the values were consistent with those determined from the evaporation residue cross sections.

  9. Two-neutron interferometry in low- and intermediate-energy heavy-ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Tagliente, G.; Colonna, N.; Ghetti, R.; De Filippo, E.

    1999-11-16

    Two-nucleon interferometry can be used in low- and intermediate-energy heavy ion reactions to probe the space-time evolution of hot and possibly compressed nuclear systems. At low energy, angle-gated correlation functions have allowed to succesfully extract the lifetime of moderately excited compound nuclei. At intermediate energy, two-neutron interferometry has been used to obtain information on the contribution of different mechanisms to the reaction dynamics.

  10. An evaluation of energy-independent heavy ion transport coefficient approximations.

    PubMed

    Townsend, L W; Wilson, J W

    1988-04-01

    Using a one-dimensional transport theory for laboratory heavy ion propagation, evaluations of typical energy-independent transport coefficient approximations are made by comparing theoretical depth-dose predictions to published experimental values for incident 670 MeV/nucleon 20Ne beams in water. Results are presented for cases where the input nuclear absorption cross sections, or input fragmentation parameters, or both, are fixed. PMID:3350661

  11. A Non-Normal Incidence Pumped Ni-Like Zr XRL for Spectroscopy of Li-Like Heavy Ions at GSI/FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühl, T.; Ursescu, D.; Bagnoud, V.; Javorkova, D.; Rosmej, O.; Zimmer, D.; Cassou, K.; Kazamias, S.; Klisnick, A.; Ros, D.; Zielbauer, B.; Janulewicz, K.; Nickles, P.; Pert, G.; Neumayer, P.; Dunn, J.

    One of the unique features of the PHELIX laser installation is the combination of the ultra-high intensity laser with the heavy-ion accelerator facility at GSI and its planned extension FAIR. Due to this combination, PHELIX will allow novel investigations in the fields of plasma physics, atomic physics, nuclear physics, and accelerator studies. An important issue within the scientific program is the generation of high quality x-ray laser beams for x-ray laser spectroscopy of highly-charged ions. The long range perspective is the study of nuclear properties of radioactive isotopes within the FAIR [1] project. A novel single mirror focusing scheme for the TCE XRL has been successfully implemented by the LIXAM/MBI/GSI collaboration under different pump geometries. Intense and stable laser operation with Ni-like Zr and Ni-like Ag was demonstrated at pump energies between 2 J and 5 J from the PHELIX pre-amplifier section.

  12. Ultra-peripheral heavy-ion collisions with CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenny, Pat

    2015-04-10

    Ultra-peripheral collisions (UPCs) of heavy ions involve long range electromagnetic interactions at impact parameters larger than twice the nuclear radius. At TeV energies, the strong electromagnetic field due to the coherent action of the Z = 82 proton charges generates a large flux of photons, which can be used for high-energy photoproduction studies. Heavy vector mesons produced in electromagnetic interactions provide direct information on the parton distribution functions in the nucleus at very low values of Bjorken-x. These events are characterized by a very low hadron multiplicity. The wide pseudo-rapidity coverage of the CMS detectors is used to separate such events from very peripheral nuclear interactions. The CMS experiment has excellent capabilities for the measurement of the heavy vector mesons in the dimuon decay channel using the tracker and the muon chambers. This analysis demonstrates CMS’s capabilities for measuring J/ψ and the two-photon process in ultra-peripheral collisions, using the 2011 PbPb and 2013 pPb data. The prospects for future measurements using the data to be collected in the 2015 PbPb run will be described.

  13. Precision spectroscopy at heavy ion ring accelerator SIS300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backe, Hartmut

    2006-07-01

    Unique spectroscopic possibilities open up if a laser beam interacts with relativistic lithium-like ions stored in the heavy ion ring accelerator SIS300 at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR in Darmstadt, Germany. At a relativistic factor γ = 36 the 2P1/2 level can be excited from the 2S1/2 ground state for any element with frequency doubled dye-lasers in collinear geometry. Precise transition energy measurements can be performed if the fluorescence photons, boosted in forward direction into the X-ray region, are energetically analyzed with a single crystal monochromator. The hyperfine structure can be investigated at the 2P1/2-2S1/2 transition for all elements and at the 2P3/2-2S1/2 transition for elements with Z≤50. Isotope shifts and nuclear moments can be measured with unprecedented precision, in principle even for only a few stored radioactive species with known nuclear spin. A superior relative line width in the order of 5·10-7 may be feasible after laser cooling, and even polarized external beams may be prepared by optical pumping.

  14. Precision spectroscopy at heavy ion ring accelerator SIS300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backe, Hartmut

    Unique spectroscopic possibilities open up if a laser beam interacts with relativistic lithium-like ions stored in the heavy ion ring accelerator SIS300 at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research FAIR in Darmstadt, Germany. At a relativistic factor γ=36 the 2P1/2 level can be excited from the 2S1/2 ground state for any element with frequency doubled dye-lasers in collinear geometry. Precise transition energy measurements can be performed if the fluorescence photons, boosted in forward direction into the X-ray region, are energetically analyzed with a single crystal monochromator. The hyperfine structure can be investigated at the 2P1/2-2S1/2 transition for all elements and at the 2P3/2-2S1/2 transition for elements with Z≤50. Isotope shifts and nuclear moments can be measured with unprecedented precision, in principle even for only a few stored radioactive species with known nuclear spin. A superior relative line width in the order of 5·10-7 may be feasible after laser cooling, and even polarized external beams may be prepared by optical pumping.

  15. Development of Gas Proportional Scintillation Counter for Light Heavy-Ion Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Hohara, Sin-ya; Imamura, Minoru; Kin, Tadahiro; Yamashita, Yusuke; Maki, Daiske; Saiho, Fuminobu; Ikeda, Katsuhiko; Uozumi, Yusuke; Matoba, Masaru

    2005-05-24

    In recent years, nuclear data have been needed in the medical field. Nuclear data induced by light heavy ions are especially needed at high precision for cancer treatment, although there are not enough usable data at present.We have a plan to measure light heavy-ion nuclear data with a dE-E detector. Low density is needed for the dE detector. We have two options for the dE detector: a semiconductor detector (SSD) and a Gas Counter. On one hand, SSD has good energy resolution, but on the other hand, it is expensive and its decay time is on the 100-microsecond order. A Gas Counter is inexpensive, and a Gas Proportional Scintillation Counter (GPSC) has fast decay time. Then, we developed a GPSC for the dE detector, and its evaluation experiment was carried out at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC).We will report the results of the experiment with the performance of the GPSC.

  16. Silicon Carbide Power Device Performance Under Heavy-Ion Irradiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Casey, Megan; Topper, Alyson; Wilcox, Edward; Phan, Anthony; Ikpe, Stanley; LaBel, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Heavy-ion induced degradation and catastrophic failure data for SiC power MOSFETs and Schottky diodes are examined to provide insight into the challenge of single-event effect hardening of SiC power devices.

  17. Recent trends in parts SEU susceptibility from heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, D.K.; Smith, L.S.; Price, W.E.; Koga, R.; Kolasinski, W.A.

    1987-12-01

    JPL and Aerospace have collected an extensive set of heavy ion single event upset (SEU) test data since their last joint publication in December, 1985. Trends in SEU susceptibility for state-of-the-art parts are presented.

  18. Studies of complex fragment emission in heavy ion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Charity, R.J.; Sobotka, L.G.

    1992-01-01

    Our work involves the study of intermediate energy heavy-ion nuclear reactions. This work has two foci. On the one hand, we desire to learn about the properties of nuclear matter under abnormal conditions, in this energy domain, predominately low densities. This purpose runs abreast of the second, which is the study of the relevant reaction mechanisms. The two objectives are inexorably linked because our experimental laboratory for studying nuclear matter properties is a dynamic one. We are forced to ask how nuclear matter properties, such as phase transitions, are reflected in the dynamics of the reactions. It may be that irrefutable information about nuclear matter will not be extracted from the reaction work. Nevertheless, we are compelled to undertake this effort not only because it is the only game in town and as yet we do not know that information cannot be extracted, but also because of our second objective. The process leads to an understanding of the reaction mechanism themselves and therefore to the response characteristics of finite, perhaps non-equilibrium, strongly interacting systems. Our program has been: To study energy, mass, and angular momentum deposition by studying incomplete fusion reactions. To gain confidence that we understand how highly excited systems decompose by studying all emissions from the highly excited systems. To push these kinds of studies into the intermediate energy domain, with excitation function studies. And attempt to learn about the dynamics of the decays using particle-particle correlations. In the last effort, we have decided to focus on simple systems, where we believe, definitive statements are possible. These avenues of research share a common theme, large complex fragment production.

  19. Neutrinos in Nuclear Physics

    SciTech Connect

    McKeown, Bob

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of nuclear beta decay, nuclear physicists have studied the weak interaction and the nature of neutrinos. Many recent and current experiments have been focused on the elucidation of neutrino oscillations and neutrino mass. The quest for the absolute value of neutrino mass continues with higher precision studies of the tritium beta decay spectrum near the endpoint. Neutrino oscillations are studied through measurements of reactor neutrinos as a function of baseline and energy. And experiments searching for neutrinoless double beta decay seek to discover violation of lepton number and establish the Majorana nature of neutrino masses.

  20. Introduction to nuclear physics.

    PubMed

    Patton, J A

    1998-01-01

    Photons for counting or imaging applications in nuclear medicine result from several processes. Gamma rays are produced from excited state transitions after beta decay and electron capture. Annihilation photons result from positron decay. The de-excitation of the atom after electron capture results in the production of characteristic x rays or Auger electrons. Metastable state transitions result in gamma ray emission or internal conversion electrons. All radiopharmaceuticals used in diagnostic nuclear medicine applications are tagged with radionuclides that emit photons as a result of one of these processes. PMID:9672982

  1. HIGH-INTENSITY, HIGH CHARGE-STATE HEAVY ION SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    ALESSI,J.G.

    2004-08-16

    There are many accelerator applications for high intensity heavy ion sources, with recent needs including dc beams for RIA, and pulsed beams for injection into synchrotrons such as RHIC and LHC. The present status of sources producing high currents of high charge state heavy ions is reviewed. These sources include ECR, EBIS, and Laser ion sources. Benefits and limitations for these type sources are described. Possible future improvements in these sources are also mentioned.

  2. Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, R K; Townsend, L W

    1994-07-01

    Using a fully self-consistent quantum statistical model, we demonstrate the possibility of Bose condensation of nuclei in heavy ion collisions. The most favorable conditions of high densities and low temperatures are usually associated with astrophysical processes and may be difficult to achieve in heavy ion collisions. Nonetheless, some suggestions for the possible experimental verification of the existence of this phenomenon are made. PMID:9969695

  3. The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, T.S.; Barton, D.S.; Oerter, B.R.

    1997-12-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider control system has been used in the commissioning of the AGS to RHIC transfer line and in the first RHIC sextant test. Much of the controls infrastructure for networks and links has been installed throughout the collider. All of the controls hardware modules needed to be built for early RHIC operations have been designed and tested. Many of these VME modules are already being used in normal AGS operations. Over 150 VME based front end computers and device controllers will be installed by the Summer of 1998 in order to be ready for Fall of 1998. A few features are being added to the front end computer core software. The bulk of the Accelerator Device Objects (ADOs) which are instantiated in the FECs, have been written and tested in the early commissioning. A configuration database has been designed. Generic control and display of ADO parameters via a spreadsheet like program on the console level computers was provided early on in the control system development. User interface tools that were developed for the AGS control system have been used in RHIC applications. Some of the basic operations programs, like alarm display and save/restore, that are used in the AGS operations have been or will be expanded to support RHIC operations. A model for application programs which involves a console level manager servicing ADOs have been verified with a few RHIC applications. More applications need to be written for the Fall of 1998 commissioning effort. A sequencer for automatic control of the fill is being written with the expectation that it will be useful in early commissioning.

  4. Thermoacoustic imaging using heavy ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Claytor, T.N.; Tesmer, J.R.; Deemer, B.C.; Murphy, J.C.

    1995-10-01

    Ion beams have been used for surface modification, semiconductor device fabrication and for material analysis, which makes ion-material interactions of significant importance. Ion implantation will produce new compositions near the surface by ion mixing or directly by implanting desired ions. Ions exchange their energy to the host material as they travel into the material by several different processes. High energy ions ionize the host atoms before atomic collisions transfer the remaining momentum and stop the incident ion. As they penetrate the surface, the low energy ions ionize the host atoms, but also have a significantly large momentum transfer mechanism near the surface of the material. This leads to atoms, groups of atoms and electrons being ejected from the surface, which is the momentum transfer process of sputtering. This talk addresses the acoustic waves generated during ion implantation using modulated heavy ion beams. The mechanisms for elastic wave generation during ion implantation, in the regimes where sputtering is significant and where implantation is dominant and sputtering is negligible, has been studied. The role of momentum transfer and thermal energy production during ion implantation was compared to laser generated elastic waves in an opaque solid as a reference, since laser generated ultrasound has been extensively studied and is fairly well understood. The thermoelastic response dominated in both high and low ion energy regimes since, apparently, more energy is lost to thermal heat producing mechanisms than momentum transfer processes. The signal magnitude was found to vary almost linearly with incident energy as in the laser thermoelastic regime. The time delays for longitudinal and shear waves-were characteristic of those expected for a purely thermal heating source. The ion beams are intrinsically less sensitive to the albedo of the surface.

  5. Intense Pulsed Heavy Ion Beam Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masugata, Katsumi; Ito, Hiroaki

    Development of intense pulsed heavy ion beam accelerator technology is described for the application of materials processing. Gas puff plasma gun and vacuum arc discharge plasma gun were developed as an active ion source for magnetically insulated pulsed ion diode. Source plasma of nitrogen and aluminum were successfully produced with the gas puff plasma gun and the vacuum arc plasma gun, respectively. The ion diode was successfully operated with gas puff plasma gun at diode voltage 190 kV, diode current 2.2 kA and nitrogen ion beam of ion current density 27 A/cm2 was obtained. The ion composition was evaluated by a Thomson parabola spectrometer and the purity of the nitrogen ion beam was estimated to be 86%. The diode also operated with aluminum ion source of vacuum arc plasma gun. The ion diode was operated at 200 kV, 12 kA, and aluminum ion beam of current density 230 A/cm2 was obtained. The beam consists of aluminum ions (Al(1-3)+) of energy 60-400 keV, and protons (90-130 keV), and the purity was estimated to be 89 %. The development of the bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA) was reported. A double coaxial type bipolar pulse generator was developed as the power supply of the BPA. The generator was tested with dummy load of 7.5 ohm, bipolar pulses of -138 kV, 72 ns (1st pulse) and +130 kV, 70 ns (2nd pulse) were succesively generated. By applying the bipolar pulse to the drift tube of the BPA, nitrogen ion beam of 2 A/cm2 was observed in the cathode, which suggests the bipolar pulse acceleration.

  6. Nuclear Cluster Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kamimura, Masayasu

    2011-05-06

    Predictive power of theory needs good models and accurate calculation methods to solve the Schroedinger equations of the systems concerned. We present some examples of successful predictions based on the nuclear cluster models of light nuclei and hypernuclei and on the calculation methods that have been developed by Kyushu group.

  7. Perspectives in nuclear physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, A. W.

    2011-09-01

    We discuss some of the many important questions in modern subatomic physics that have been addressed over the past two decades at Mainz. These achievements range from precision studies of nucleon form factors, to nucleon spectroscopy, novel probes of nucleon structure such as virtual Compton scattering and fundamental tests of quantum chromodynamics. In the future one may expect to see this effort expanded to precision tests of physics beyond the Standard Model.

  8. Residual activity induced by heavy ions and beam-loss criteria for heavy-ion accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strašík, I.; Mustafin, E.; Pavlovič, M.

    2010-07-01

    The paper presents results of FLUKA simulations of the residual activity induced by heavy ions in two target configurations representing: (1) a beam pipe of an accelerator and (2) a bulky accelerator structure like a magnet yoke or a coil. The target materials were stainless steel and copper representing the most common construction materials used for basic accelerator components. For these two materials, the inventory of the induced isotopes depends mainly on the target material and much less on the projectile species. Time evolution of the induced activity can be described by means of a generic curve that is independent from the projectile mass. Dependence of the induced residual activity on selected ion beam parameters was studied. The main goal of the study was establishing a scaling law expanding the existing proton beam-loss tolerance to heavy-ion beams. This scaling law enables specifying beam-loss criteria for projectile species from proton up to uranium at energies from 200MeV/u up to 1GeV/u.

  9. Central collisions of heavy ions. Progress report, October 1, 1991--September 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fung, Sun-yiu

    1992-10-01

    This report describes the activities of the Heavy Ion Physics Group at the University of California, Riverside from October 1, 1991 to September 30, 1992. During this period, the program focused on particle production at AGS energies, and correlation studies at the Bevalac in nucleus-nucleus central collisions. As part of the PHENIX collaboration, contributions were made to the Preliminary Conceptual Design Report (pCDR), and work on a RHIC silicon microstrip detector R&D project was performed.

  10. Hands-On Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Jeff

    2013-03-01

    Nuclear science is an important topic in terms of its application to power generation, medical diagnostics and treatment, and national defense. Unfortunately, the subatomic domain is far removed from daily experience, and few learning aids are available to teachers. What follows describes a low-tech, hands-on method to teach important concepts in nuclear physics, including the quark model, anti-matter, nuclear binding energy, stability, the nuclear shell model, and the importance of symmetry, by making use of neodymium disc magnets.

  11. PROCEEDINGS OF THE RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON LARGE SCALE COMPUTATIONS IN NUCLEAR PHYSICS USING THE QCDOC, SEPTEMBER 26 - 28, 2002.

    SciTech Connect

    AOKI,Y.; BALTZ,A.; CREUTZ,M.; GYULASSY,M.; OHTA,S.

    2002-09-26

    The massively parallel computer QCDOC (QCD On a Chip) of the RIKEN BNL Research Center (RI3RC) will provide ten-teraflop peak performance for lattice gauge calculations. Lattice groups from both Columbia University and RBRC, along with assistance from IBM, jointly handled the design of the QCDOC. RIKEN has provided $5 million in funding to complete the machine in 2003. Some fraction of this computer (perhaps as much as 10%) might be made available for large-scale computations in areas of theoretical nuclear physics other than lattice gauge theory. The purpose of this workshop was to investigate the feasibility and possibility of using a supercomputer such as the QCDOC for lattice, general nuclear theory, and other calculations. The lattice applications to nuclear physics that can be investigated with the QCDOC are varied: for example, the light hadron spectrum, finite temperature QCD, and kaon ({Delta}I = 1/2 and CP violation), and nucleon (the structure of the proton) matrix elements, to name a few. There are also other topics in theoretical nuclear physics that are currently limited by computer resources. Among these are ab initio calculations of nuclear structure for light nuclei (e.g. up to {approx}A = 8 nuclei), nuclear shell model calculations, nuclear hydrodynamics, heavy ion cascade and other transport calculations for RHIC, and nuclear astrophysics topics such as exploding supernovae. The physics topics were quite varied, ranging from simulations of stellar collapse by Douglas Swesty to detailed shell model calculations by David Dean, Takaharu Otsuka, and Noritaka Shimizu. Going outside traditional nuclear physics, James Davenport discussed molecular dynamics simulations and Shailesh Chandrasekharan presented a class of algorithms for simulating a wide variety of femionic problems. Four speakers addressed various aspects of theory and computational modeling for relativistic heavy ion reactions at RHIC. Scott Pratt and Steffen Bass gave general overviews of

  12. Electron impact multiple ionization cross sections of heavy ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Jiaolong; Liu, Pengfei; Dai, Jiayu; Yuan, Jianmin

    2014-05-01

    Cross sections of electron impact ionization are important in modeling both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. For heavy ions, accurate determination of this microscopic physical quantity is difficult due to the complex atomic structure. At high incident electron energy, inner-shell excitation and ionization processes can occur, which will result in complicated decay including Auger and radiative decay processes. For deep inner-shell excitation and ionization, cascaded Auger processes are very likely. Under conditions of collisional ionization equilibrium, the balance of electron-ion recombination and electron impact single ionization determines the charge state distribution (CSD). Accurate CSD, which in turn determined by accurate cross sections, is very important in a wide regime of spectroscopic diagnostics to infer the physical conditions of plasmas such as the electron temperature, electron density, and elemental abundance. As an illustrative example, the cross sections from the ground configuration of Sn13+ in forming Sn13+, -Sn16+ are reported in detail. The contributions from the electron impact excitation, electron impact ionization and resonant excitation processes are included.

  13. B factory at RHIC (Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider)

    SciTech Connect

    Lockyer, N.S.; Van Berg, R.; Newcomer, F.M.; Foley, K.; Morse, W.; Paige, F.; Polychronakos, V.; Protopopescu, S.; Rehak, P.; Sidwell, R.

    1988-01-01

    A dedicated B physics experiment located in the proposed Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven (RHIC) is considered. The machine may operate in a p-p mode with a luminosity in excess of 10/sup 32/ cm/sup /minus/2/ sec/sup /minus/1/ at 250 /times/ 250 GeV. The estimated B/bar B/ cross section at these energies is about 10 ..mu..barns and a run of 10/sup 7/ sec would produce roughly 10/sup 10/ B/bar B/ pairs. A comparison to similar ideas proposed for the Fermilab Tevatron Upgrade and the SSC are discussed. The most ambitious physics objective of such an experiment would be the study of CP nonconservation. Particular emphasis at this workshop was given to the self tagging mode B ..-->.. K/sup +/..pi../sup /minus//. Experimental techniques developed during this experiment would be extremely useful for more ambitious projects anticipated at the SSC. 36 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Heavy Ion High Intensity Upgrade of the GSI UNILAC

    SciTech Connect

    Barth, W.; Dahl, L.; Galonska, M.; Glatz, J.; Groening, L.; Hollinger, R.; Richter, S.; Yaramyshev, S.

    2005-06-08

    For the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at Darmstadt the present GSI-accelerator complex, consisting of the linear accelerator UNILAC and the heavy ion synchrotron SIS 18, is foreseen to serve as U28+-injector for up to 1012 particles/s. After a new High Current Injector (HSI) was installed, many different ion species were accelerated in the UNILAC for physics experiments. In 2001 a high energy physics experiment used up to 2{center_dot}109 uranium ions per SIS 18-spill (U73+) while a MEVVA ion source was in routine operation for the first time. In the past two years, different hardware measures and careful fine tuning in all sections of the UNILAC resulted in an increase of the beam intensity to 9.5{center_dot}1010 U27+-ions per 100 {mu}s or 1.5{center_dot}1010 U73+-ions per 100 {mu}s. The contribution reports results of beam measurements during the high current operation with argon and uranium beams (pulse beam power up to 0.5 MW). One of the major tasks was to optimize the beam matching to the Alvarez-DTL. In addition further upgrades, including improved beam diagnostics, are described, which allow to fill the SIS 18 up to its space charge limit (SCL) of 2.7{center_dot}1011 U28+-ions per cycle.

  15. (Theoretical nuclear physics)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report discussed the following topics: Consistent RHA-RPA for finite nuclei; vacuum polarization in a finite system; isovector correlations in QHD description of nuclear matter; nuclear response functions in quasielastic electron scattering; charge density differences for nuclei near {sup 208}Pb in quantum hadro-dynamics; excitation of the 10.957 MeV 0{sup {minus}}; T=0 state in {sup 16}O by 400 MeV protons; deformed chiral nucleons; new basis for exact vacuum calculations in 3-spatial dimensions; second order processes in the (e,e{prime}d) reaction; scalar and vector contributions to {bar p}p {yields} {bar {Lambda}}{Lambda} and {bar p}p {yields} {bar {Lambda}}{Sigma}{sup 0} + c.c; and radiative capture of protons by light nuclei at low energies.

  16. Nuclear Physics from Scratch

    SciTech Connect

    Ormand, W; Navratil, P; Forssen, C; Bertulani, C

    2005-04-29

    We report on applications of the ab initio, no-core shell model with the primary goal of achieving an accurate description of nuclear structure and reactions from the fundamental inter-nucleon interactions. We show that realistic two-nucleon interactions are inadequate to describe the low-lying structure of {sup 10}B, and that realistic three-nucleon interactions are essential. We report preliminary attempts to compute astrophysical S-factors

  17. Universality of the saturation scale and the initial eccentricity in heavy ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Lappi, T.; Venugopalan, R.

    2006-11-15

    Recent estimates that color glass condensate initial conditions may generate a larger initial eccentricity for noncentral relativistic heavy ion collisions (relative to the initial eccentricity assumed in earlier hydrodynamic calculations) have raised the possibility of a higher bound on the viscosity of the qark gluon plasma. We show that this large initial eccentricity results in part from a definition of the saturation scale as proportional to the number of nucleons participating in the collision. A saturation scale proportional to the nuclear thickness function (and therefore independent of the probe) leads to a smaller eccentricity, albeit still larger than the value used in hydrodynamic models. Our results suggest that the early elliptic flow in heavy ion collisions (unlike multiplicity distributions) is sensitive to the universality of the saturation scale in high-energy QCD.

  18. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Phobos Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at √ SNN = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/ overlinepp and e +e - data. < Nch>/< Npart/2> in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with √ s in a similar way as Nch in e +e - collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  19. Beam Energy and System-size Dependence of the Space-time Extent of the Pion Emission Source Produced in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwai, Alex

    The primary goal of high-energy nuclear physics is to develop a thorough understanding of the QCD phase diagram: Its different phases, their boundaries, and the physics they define. Heavy-ion collisions reproduce at a microscale the conditions necessary to initiate the phase transitions of nuclear matter that are only possible at extreme temperatures (T) and baryon chemical potential (mu_{B}). An important probe utilized in studies of the hot and dense matter created in heavy-ion collisions is the method of Hanbury-Brown and Twiss interferometry. The technique is useful in providing measurements in space and time of the pion emission sources at freeze-out. One enduring question of interest in studies of the QCD phase diagram is the position in T and mu_{B} coordinates of the QCD Critical End Point (CEP) as well as the onset of deconfinement, as predicted by model calculations. According to these models, the Equation of State (EoS) should soften in the vicinity of the CEP and/or a first order phase transition. The expanding hot and dense system is sensitive to changes in the EoS. A softening of the EoS will therefore be reflected in measurements of the final size in space-time of the pion emission source. Another question is how small can a system be before we see a turn-off of hydrodynamically driven final-state effects. In this thesis, detailed HBT measurements obtained using the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are presented for three beam collision energies (sqrt{s_{NN}}. = 39, 62, and 200 GeV) and three collision species (d+Au, Cu+Cu, and Au+Au). The measurements are studied for their dependence on collision geometry and transverse mass (m_{T}), and observations are made on how the small asymmetric system, d+Au, compares to the A+A systems for these dependencies. In addition, newly observed universal scaling patterns with the initial transverse size, bar{R}, and 1/sqrt{m_{T}} for both RHIC HBT measurements and the Pb+Pb collision

  20. Overview of U.S. heavy ion fusion progress and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, G.; Bieniosek`, F.; Celata, C.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J; Lee, E.P.; Leitner, M.; Prost, L.; Roy, P.; Seidl, P.A.; Eylon, S.; Vay, J.-L.; Waldron, W.; Yu, S.; Barnard, J.; Callahan, D.; Cohen, R.; Friedman, A.; Grote, D.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Meier, W.R.; Molvik, A.; Lund, S.; Davidson, R.; Efthimion, P.; Gilson, E.; Grisham, L.; Kaganovich, I.; Qin, H.; Startsev, E.; Rose, D.; Welch, D.; Olson, C.; Kishek, R.; O'Shea, P.; Haber, I.

    2004-12-01

    Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources, injectors, transport, final focusing, chambers and targets for high energy density physics (HEDP) and inertial fusion energy (IFE) driven by induction linac accelerators. One focus of present research is the beam physics associated with quadrupole focusing of intense, space-charge dominated heavy-ion beams, including gas and electron cloud effects at high currents, and the study of long-distance-propagation effects such as emittance growth due to field errors in scaled experiments. A second area of emphasis in present research is the introduction of background plasma to neutralize the space charge of intense heavy ion beams and assist in focusing the beams to a small spot size. In the near future, research will continue in the above areas, and a new area of emphasis will be to explore the physics of neutralized beam compression and focusing to high intensities required to heat targets to high energy density conditions as well as for inertial fusion energy.

  1. High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics Network Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Dart, Eli; Bauerdick, Lothar; Bell, Greg; Ciuffo, Leandro; Dasu, Sridhara; Dattoria, Vince; De, Kaushik; Ernst, Michael; Finkelson, Dale; Gottleib, Steven; Gutsche, Oliver; Habib, Salman; Hoeche, Stefan; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Ibarra, Julio; Johnston, William; Kisner, Theodore; Kowalski, Andy; Lauret, Jerome; Luitz, Steffen; Mackenzie, Paul; Maguire, Chales; Metzger, Joe; Monga, Inder; Ng, Cho-Kuen; Nielsen, Jason; Price, Larry; Porter, Jeff; Purschke, Martin; Rai, Gulshan; Roser, Rob; Schram, Malachi; Tull, Craig; Watson, Chip; Zurawski, Jason

    2014-03-02

    The Energy Sciences Network (ESnet) is the primary provider of network connectivity for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science (SC), the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States. In support of SC programs, ESnet regularly updates and refreshes its understanding of the networking requirements needed by instruments, facilities, scientists, and science programs that it serves. This focus has helped ESnet to be a highly successful enabler of scientific discovery for over 25 years. In August 2013, ESnet and the DOE SC Offices of High Energy Physics (HEP) and Nuclear Physics (NP) organized a review to characterize the networking requirements of the programs funded by the HEP and NP program offices. Several key findings resulted from the review. Among them: 1. The Large Hadron Collider?s ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC Apparatus) and CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiments are adopting remote input/output (I/O) as a core component of their data analysis infrastructure. This will significantly increase their demands on the network from both a reliability perspective and a performance perspective. 2. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments (particularly ATLAS and CMS) are working to integrate network awareness into the workflow systems that manage the large number of daily analysis jobs (1 million analysis jobs per day for ATLAS), which are an integral part of the experiments. Collaboration with networking organizations such as ESnet, and the consumption of performance data (e.g., from perfSONAR [PERformance Service Oriented Network monitoring Architecture]) are critical to the success of these efforts. 3. The international aspects of HEP and NP collaborations continue to expand. This includes the LHC experiments, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) experiments, the Belle II Collaboration, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), and others. The international nature of these collaborations makes them heavily

  2. Fifth high-energy heavy-ion study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-10-01

    This was the fifth of a continuing series of summer studies held at LBL to discuss high energy heavy ion collisions. Recently, a similar meeting has been held on alternate years at GSI (Darmstadt); and, in 1979, we held a meeting at LBL exclusively devoted to ultra-relativistic nuclear collisions. Two new features distinguish this study from earlier meetings in the series. First, the energy range for discussion was broadened by including collisions from about 20 MeV/nucleon to the highest available in the cosmic radiation. The lower range, particularly below 100 MeV/nucleon, will be under intense study in the near future with machines such as the upgraded Bevalac, Michigan State University Superconducting Cyclotron, GANIL in France, and the SC at CERN. Recently, the high energy collision regime has been expanded by the successful operation of the CERN ISR with alpha particles. Second, in addition to an extensive program of invited talks, we decided for the first time to actively solicit contributions. Forty-seven individual items from the conference were prepared separately for the data base. (GHT)

  3. Classical initial conditions for ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovchegov, Yuri V.

    2001-09-01

    We construct an analytical expression for the distribution of gluons in the state immediately following a heavy ion collision in the quasi-classical limit of QCD given by the McLerran-Venugopalan model. The resulting gluon number distribution function includes the effects of all multiple rescatterings of gluons with the nucleons of both colliding nuclei. The typical transverse momentum k ⊥ of the produced gluons is shown to be of the order of the saturation scale of the nuclei Q s, as predicted by Mueller. We analyze the properties of the obtained distribution and demonstrate that due to multiple rescatterings it remains finite (up to logarithms of k ⊥) in the soft transverse momentum limit of k ⊥≪Q s, unlike the usual perturbative initial conditions given by collinear factorization. We calculate the total number of produced gluons and show that it is proportional to the total number of gluons inside the nuclear wave function before the collision with the proportionality coefficient c≈2 ln2 .

  4. Initial Gluon Multiplicity in Heavy-Ion Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnitz, Alex; Venugopalan, Raju

    2001-02-26

    The initial gluon multiplicity per unit area per unit rapidity, dN/L{sup 2}/d{eta} , in high energy nuclear collisions, is equal to f{sub N}(g{sup 2}{mu}L) (g{sup 2}{mu}){sup 2}/g{sup 2 } , with {mu}{sup 2} proportional to the gluon density per unit area of the colliding nuclei. For an SU(2) gauge theory, we compute f{sub N}(g{sup 2}{mu}L)=0.14{+-} 0.01 for a wide range in g{sup 2}{mu}L . Extrapolating to SU(3), we predict dN/L{sup 2}/d{eta} for values of g{sup 2}{mu}L relevant to the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider and the Large Hadron Collider. We compute the initial gluon transverse momentum distribution, dN/L{sup 2}/d{sup 2}k{sub {perpendicular}} , and show it to be well behaved at low k{sub {perpendicular}} .

  5. Amorphisation of boron carbide under slow heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosset, D.; Miro, S.; Doriot, S.; Moncoffre, N.

    2016-08-01

    Boron carbide B4C is widely used as a neutron absorber in nuclear plants. Most of the post-irradiation examinations have shown that the structure of the material remains crystalline, in spite of very high atomic displacement rates. Here, we have irradiated B4C samples with 4 MeV Au ions with different fluences at room temperature. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy have been performed. The Raman analyses show a high structural disorder at low fluence, around 10-2 displacements per atoms (dpa). However, the TEM observations show that the material remains crystalline up to a few dpa. At high fluence, small amorphous areas a few nanometers large appear in the damaged zone but the long range order is preserved. Moreover, the size and density of the amorphous zones do not significantly grow when the damage increases. On the other hand, full amorphisation is observed in the implanted zone at a Au concentration of about 0.0005. It can be inferred from those results that short range and long range damages arise at highly different fluences, that heavy ions implantation has drastic effects on the structure stability and that in this material self-healing mechanisms are active in the damaged zone.

  6. Photoproduction at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider with STAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madagodahettige Don, Dilan

    2011-11-01

    Relativistic heavy ions carry strong transverse electromagnetic fields which can be treated as sources of quasi-real virtual photons. The ions interact through photon-Pomeron and photon-photon collisions at impact parameter more than twice the nuclear radius, so hadronic interactions are suppressed. We present recent results of the STAR experiment at RHIC on 0̂(770) production in AuAu collisions at various energies. Also we present a new measurement of J/ψ photoproduction in 200 (GeV) AuAu collisions at RHIC. The pT distribution of the J/ψ mesons peaks at very low pT, consistent with expectations for coherent photoproduction. Both the photoproduction cross section and the J/ψ rapidity distribution are expected to show the effects of gluon shadowing. A measurement of the ratio of J/ψ to 0̂ meson cross sections in 200 (GeV) AuAu collisions, as well as a distribution of rapidity within y < 1 for the J/ψ mesons are presented.

  7. Comparison of Model Calculations of Biological Damage from Exposure to Heavy Ions with Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Wu, Honglu; Hada, Megumi; Cucinotta, Francis

    The space environment consists of a varying field of radiation particles including high-energy ions, with spacecraft shielding material providing the major protection to astronauts from harmful exposure. Unlike low-LET g or X rays, the presence of shielding does not always reduce the radiation risks for energetic charged-particle exposure. Dose delivered by the charged particle increases sharply at the Bragg peak. However, the Bragg curve does not necessarily represent the biological damage along the particle path since biological effects are influenced by the track structures of both primary and secondary particles. Therefore, the ‘‘biological Bragg curve’’ is dependent on the energy and the type of the primary particle and may vary for different biological end points. Measurements of the induction of micronuclei (MN) have made across the Bragg curve in human fibroblasts exposed to energetic silicon and iron ions in vitro at two different energies, 300 MeV/nucleon and 1 GeV/nucleon. Although the data did not reveal an increased yield of MN at the location of the Bragg peak, the increased inhibition of cell progression, which is related to cell death, was found at the Bragg peak location. These results are compared to the calculations of biological damage using a stochastic Monte-Carlo track structure model, Galactic Cosmic Ray Event-based Risk Model (GERM) code (Cucinotta et al., 2011). The GERM code estimates the basic physical properties along the passage of heavy ions in tissue and shielding materials, by which the experimental set-up can be interpreted. The code can also be used to describe the biophysical events of interest in radiobiology, cancer therapy, and space exploration. The calculation has shown that the severely damaged cells at the Bragg peak are more likely to go through reproductive death, the so called “overkill”. F. A. Cucinotta, I. Plante, A. L. Ponomarev, and M. Y. Kim, Nuclear Interactions in Heavy Ion Transport and Event

  8. Nuclear spectroscopic studies. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Bingham, C.R.; Riedinger, L.L.; Sorensen, S.P.

    1996-01-16

    This report describes progress in the experimental nuclear physics program of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville. It presents findings related to properties of high-spin states, low-energy levels of nuclei far from stability, and high-energy heavy-ion physics, as well as a brief description of the Joint Institute of Heavy Ion Research (a collaboration between the University of Tennessee, Vanderbilt University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory) and its activities (particularly those of the last few years), and a list of publications. 89 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Final Progress Report - Heavy Ion Accelerator Theory and Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, Irving

    2009-10-31

    The use of a beam of heavy ions to heat a target for the study of warm dense matter physics, high energy density physics, and ultimately to ignite an inertial fusion pellet, requires the achievement of beam intensities somewhat greater than have traditionally been obtained using conventional accelerator technology. The research program described here has substantially contributed to understanding the basic nonlinear intense-beam physics that is central to the attainment of the requisite intensities. Since it is very difficult to reverse intensity dilution, avoiding excessive dilution over the entire beam lifetime is necessary for achieving the required beam intensities on target. The central emphasis in this research has therefore been on understanding the nonlinear mechanisms that are responsible for intensity dilution and which generally occur when intense space-charge-dominated beams are not in detailed equilibrium with the external forces used to confine them. This is an important area of study because such lack of detailed equilibrium can be an unavoidable consequence of the beam manipulations such as acceleration, bunching, and focusing necessary to attain sufficient intensity on target. The primary tool employed in this effort has been the use of simulation, particularly the WARP code, in concert with experiment, to identify the nonlinear dynamical characteristics that are important in practical high intensity accelerators. This research has gradually made a transition from the study of idealized systems and comparisons with theory, to study the fundamental scaling of intensity dilution in intense beams, and more recently to explicit identification of the mechanisms relevant to actual experiments. This work consists of two categories; work in direct support beam physics directly applicable to NDCX and a larger effort to further the general understanding of space-charge-dominated beam physics.

  10. Nuclear Physics of neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piekarewicz, Jorge

    2015-04-01

    One of the overarching questions posed by the recent community report entitled ``Nuclear Physics: Exploring the Heart of Matter'' asks How Does Subatomic Matter Organize Itself and What Phenomena Emerge? With their enormous dynamic range in both density and neutron-proton asymmetry, neutron stars provide ideal laboratories to answer this critical challenge. Indeed, a neutron star is a gold mine for the study of physical phenomena that cut across a variety of disciplines, from particle physics to general relativity. In this presentation--targeted at non-experts--I will focus on the essential role that nuclear physics plays in constraining the dynamics, structure, and composition of neutron stars. In particular, I will discuss some of the many exotic states of matter that are speculated to exist in a neutron star and the impact of nuclear-physics experiments on elucidating their fascinating nature. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics under Award Number DE-FD05-92ER40750.

  11. Direct drive heavy-ion-beam inertial fusion at high coupling efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, B.G.; Perkins, L.J.; Barnard, J.J.

    2008-05-16

    Issues with coupling efficiency, beam illumination symmetry, and Rayleigh-Taylor instability are discussed for spherical heavy-ion-beam-driven targets with and without hohlraums. Efficient coupling of heavy-ion beams to compress direct-drive inertial fusion targets without hohlraums is found to require ion range increasing several-fold during the drive pulse. One-dimensional implosion calculations using the LASNEX inertial confinement fusion target physics code shows the ion range increasing fourfold during the drive pulse to keep ion energy deposition following closely behind the imploding ablation front, resulting in high coupling efficiencies (shell kinetic energy/incident beam energy of 16% to 18%). Ways to increase beam ion range while mitigating Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities are discussed for future work.

  12. Can induced theta vacua be created in heavy-Ion collisions?

    PubMed

    Buckley; Fugleberg; Zhitnitsky

    2000-05-22

    We discuss a phenomenon important to the development of the early Universe which may be experimentally testable in heavy-ion collisions. An arbitrary induced straight theta vacuum state should be created in heavy-ion collisions, similar to the creation of the disoriented chiral condensate. It should be a large domain with a wrong straight theta(ind) not equal0 orientation which will mimic the physics of the early Universe when it is believed that the fundamental parameter straight theta(fund) not equal0. We test this idea numerically in a simple model where we study the evolution of the phases of the chiral condensates in QCD with two quark flavors with nonzero straight theta(ind) parameter. We see the formation of a nonzero straight theta(ind) vacuum on a time scale of 10(-23) s. PMID:10990805

  13. mu. - and tau-pair production from relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bottcher, C.; Strayer, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    The question is addressed of ..mu..- and tau-pair production from the motional Coulomb fields available at the new relativistic heavy-ion accelerators. A semiclassical field theory is developed which is appropriate for families of leptons which are coupled electromagnetically. The field equations are mapped on to a lattice of collocation points using basis spline methods, and techniques for solving the resulting lattice equations are outlined. The properties of the transverse electromagnetic field near the heavy-ion beam are examined and physical arguments are given as to the feasibility of pair creation under a variety of circumstances. Using the Dirac-Hartree equations developed in part one, we shall dynamically evolve the vacuum, using the appropriate fields, and compute ..mu..-pair and tau-pair production cross sections. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Nonstandard. gamma. gamma. r arrow l sup + l minus processes in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, L.D.; Natale, A.A.; Novaes, S.F. ); Eboli, O.J.P. )

    1991-07-01

    We study lepton pair production in heavy-ion collisions with emphasis on nonstandard contributions to the QED subprocess {gamma}{gamma}{r arrow}{ital l}{sup +}{ital l{minus}}. The existence of compositeness of fermions and/or bosons can be tested in this reaction up to the TeV mass scale. We show that for some processes the capabilities of relativistic heavy-ion colliders to disclose new physics surpass the possibilities of {ital e}{sup +}{ital e{minus}} or {ital p{bar p}} machines. In particular, spin-zero composite particles which couple predominantly to two photons, predicted in composite models, can be studied in a broad range of masses.

  15. Theoretical nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Kunz, P.D.

    1990-10-01

    This report contains small papers on the following topics: ground state correlations of nuclei in relativistic random phase approximation; instability of infinite nuclear matter in the relativistic hartree approximation; charge density differences for nuclei near {sup 208}Pb in relativistic models; meson exchange current corrections to magnetic moments in quantum hadro-dynamics; analysis of the O{sup +} {yields} O{sup {minus}} reaction at intermediate energies; contributions of reaction channels to the {sup 6}Li(p,{gamma}){sup 7}Be Reaction; deformed chiral nucleons; vacuum polarization in a finite system; second order processes in the (e,e{prime}d) reaction; sea contributions in Dirac RPA for finite nuclei; and momentum cutoffs in the sea.

  16. Theoretical nuclear physics

    SciTech Connect

    Rost, E.; Shephard, J.R.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Exact 1-loop vacuum polarization effects in 1 + 1 dimensional QHD; exact 1-fermion loop contributions in 1 + 1 dimensional solitons; exact scalar 1-loop contributions in 1 + 3 dimensions; exact vacuum calculations in a hyper-spherical basis; relativistic nuclear matter with self- consistent correlation energy; consistent RHA-RPA for finite nuclei; transverse response functions in the {triangle}-resonance region; hadronic matter in a nontopological soliton model; scalar and vector contributions to {bar p}p {yields} {bar {Lambda} {Lambda}} reaction; 0+ and 2+ strengths in pion double-charge exchange to double giant-dipole resonances; and nucleons in a hybrid sigma model including a quantized pion field.

  17. Properties of cylindrical and spherical heavy ion-acoustic solitary and shock structures in a multispecies plasma with superthermal electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, M. G.; Rahman, M. M.; Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    A theoretical investigation on heavy ion-acoustic (HIA) solitary and shock structures has been accomplished in an unmagnetized multispecies plasma consisting of inertialess kappa-distributed superthermal electrons, Boltzmann light ions, and adiabatic positively charged inertial heavy ions. Using the reductive perturbation technique, the nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) Kortewg-de Vries (KdV) and Burgers equations have been derived. The solitary and shock wave solutions of the KdV and Burgers equations, respectively, have been numerically analyzed. The effects of superthermality of electrons, adiabaticity of heavy ions, and nonplanar geometry, which noticeably modify the basic features (viz. polarity, amplitude, phase speed, etc.) of small but finite amplitude HIA solitary and shock structures, have been carefully investigated. The HIA solitary and shock structures in nonplanar geometry have been found to distinctly differ from those in planar geometry. Novel features of our present attempt may contribute to the physics of nonlinear electrostatic perturbation in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.

  18. Processing multidimensional nuclear physics data

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, J.

    1994-11-15

    Modern Ge detector arrays for gamma-ray spectroscopy are producing data sets unprecedented in size and event multiplicity. Gammasphere, the DOE sponsored array, has the following characteristics: (1) High granularity (110 detectors); (2) High efficiency (10%); and (3) Precision energy measurements (Delta EE = 0.2%). Characteristics of detector line shape, the data set, and the standard practice in the nuclear physics community to the nuclear gamma-ray cascades from the 4096 times 4096 times 4096 data cube will be discussed.

  19. Investigation of Generation, Acceleration, Transport and Final Focusing of High-Intensity Heavy Ion Beams from Sources to Targets

    SciTech Connect

    Chiping Chen

    2006-10-26

    Under the auspices of the research grant, the Intense Beam Theoretical Research Goup at Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Plasma Science and Fusion Center made significant contributions in a number of important areas in the HIF and HEDP research, including: (a) Derivation of rms envelope equations and study of rms envelope dynamics for high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing transport systems; (b) Identification of a new mechanism for chaotic particle motion, halo formation, and beam loss in high-intensity heavy ion beams in a small-aperture AG focusing systems; Development of elliptic beam theory; (d) Study of Physics Issues in the Neutralization Transport Experiment (NTX).

  20. Simulating Electron Clouds in Heavy-Ion Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Kireeff Covo, M.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik,A.W.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Seidl, P.A.; Vay, J-L.; Stoltz, P.; Veitzer, S.

    2005-04-07

    Contaminating clouds of electrons are a concern for most accelerators of positive-charged particles, but there are some unique aspects of heavy-ion accelerators for fusion and high-energy density physics which make modeling such clouds especially challenging. In particular, self-consistent electron and ion simulation is required, including a particle advance scheme which can follow electrons in regions where electrons are strongly-, weakly-, and un-magnetized. They describe their approach to such self-consistency, and in particular a scheme for interpolating between full-orbit (Boris) and drift-kinetic particle pushes that enables electron time steps long compared to the typical gyro period in the magnets. They present tests and applications: simulation of electron clouds produced by three different kinds of sources indicates the sensitivity of the cloud shape to the nature of the source; first-of-a-kind self-consistent simulation of electron-cloud experiments on the High-Current Experiment (HCX) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, in which the machine can be flooded with electrons released by impact of the ion beam and an end plate, demonstrate the ability to reproduce key features of the ion-beam phase space; and simulation of a two-stream instability of thin beams in a magnetic field demonstrates the ability of the large-timestep mover to accurately calculate the instability.