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Sample records for helianthus annuus

  1. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Radonic, Laura M; Lewi, Dalia M; López, Nilda E; Hopp, H Esteban; Escandón, Alejandro S; Bilbao, Marisa López

    2015-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is still considered as a recalcitrant species to in vitro culture and transformation in spite of the publication of different protocols. Here we describe a routine transformation system of this crop which requires mature HA89 genotype seeds and Agrobacterium tumefaciens EHA105 strain for gene delivery, being both easily available. Selection of transformed shoots depends on root development in kanamycin-selective media, instead of shoot color, avoiding selection of escapes. The establishment of this protocol proved successful for the incorporation of both reporter and agronomic important genes and also for the evaluation of the specific expression patterns of different promoters in transgenic sunflower plants. Stable expression of the incorporated transgenes was confirmed by RT-PCR and GUS reporter gene visualization. Stable inheritance of transgenes was successfully followed until T2 generation in several independent lines. PMID:25416248

  2. Phenotypic characterization of biodiversity in wild Helianthus annuus from Argentina and North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild Helianthus annuus populations naturalized in central Argentina have spread since their introduction from the center of origin in North America. Phenotypic characterization based on 45 morphological and phenological descriptors of nine populations from different geographic regions of Argentina a...

  3. Ecological characterization of wild Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris germplasm in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helianthus annuus and H. petiolaris (Asteraceae) are wild sunflowers native to North America but have become naturalized in central Argentina covering an area of about 5 million hectares. Wild H. annuus has been recognized as invader species in several countries, but no research has been done to stu...

  4. Helianthus annuus ssp. texanus has chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal RNA genes of Helianthus debilis ssp. cucumerifolius.

    PubMed Central

    Rieseberg, L H; Beckstrom-Sternberg, S; Doan, K

    1990-01-01

    Heiser [Heiser, C. B. (1951) Evolution 5, 42-51] hypothesized that Helianthus annuus ssp. texanus was derived by the introduction of H. annuus into Texas and subsequent introgression of genes from Helianthus debilis ssp. cucumerifolius into H. annuus. Although often considered to be one of the best cases of introgression in plants, alternative hypotheses to introgression, such as convergence or the joint retention of the ancestral condition, could not be ruled out in the original study. To test for the occurrence of introgression we examined 14 populations of H. annuus ssp. texanus, 14 allopatric populations of H. annuus, and three populations of H. debilis ssp. cucumerifolius with reference to diagnostic chloroplast DNA and nuclear ribosomal DNA markers. Thirteen of the 14 populations of H. annuus ssp. texanus had chloroplast DNA and/or ribosomal DNA markers of H. debilis ssp. cucumerifolius. In contrast, no chloroplast DNA or ribosomal DNA markers of H. debilis ssp. cucumerifolius were found in the 14 allopatric populations of H. annuus. Our findings provide strong support, therefore, for the hypothesized introgressive origin of H. annuus ssp. texanus. PMID:11607056

  5. Phytoremediation potential of Helianthus annuus L in sewage-irrigated Indo-Gangetic alluvial soils.

    PubMed

    Mani, Dinesh; Sharma, Bechan; Kumar, Chitranjan; Pathak, Niraj; Balak, Shiv

    2012-03-01

    The study of phytoremediation potential of Helianthus annuus L was conducted in the sewage-irrigated Indo-Gangetic alluvial soils, India. Calcium @ 1.0% and Zn @ 40 ppm enhanced the yield of H. annuus L and minimized the toxicity of Cr in the investigated soils. The study indicated that H. annuus L is highly sensitive to Cr and Zn in terms of metallic pollution; and may be used as indicator plant. For Cr-phytoremediation, humic acid treatment @ 500 mL/acre induced the Cr-accumulation in roots (p < 0.007) and in shoots (p < 0.015), which was recorded 3.21 and 3.16 mg/kg in root and shoot of H. annuus L, respectively. We suggest that H. annuus L fulfils the necessary condition for efficiently increasing species bioaccumulation after soil treatment with humic acid in Cr-polluted sewage-irrigated soils through soil- plant rhizospheric processes. PMID:22567708

  6. Molecular mapping of R11, a novel rust resistance gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower production in North America has recently been threatened by the evolution of new virulent pathotypes of sunflower rust caused by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein. Rf ANN-1742, an ‘HA 89’ backcross restorer line derived from wild annual sunflower (Helianthus annuus L), was identified a...

  7. Molecular mapping of an apical branching gene of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial hybrids of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) are obtained by crossing a cytoplasmic male-sterile line (A-line) with a restorer pollinator (R-line). The incorporation of a recessive branching trait to extend the pollination period of R-lines during hybrid seed production is labor...

  8. Abscisic acid content of a nondormant sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) mutant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) mutant was observed in the progeny of a cross between the sunflower cultivar HA 89 and an amphiploid of a H. divaricatus L. x P21 cross that exhibited loss of dormancy induction in the developing embryo. Seeds of this mutant frequently germinate on the head about 4...

  9. Alternaria roseogrisea, a new species from achenes of Helianthus annuus (sunflower)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alternaria roseogrisea was isolated from the achenes of Helianthus annuus L. during studies conducted in 1983-85 to document the diversity of fungi occurring in sunflower seeds and the possible role these fungi play in degradation of oilseed quality. A. roseogrisea was reported as "Alternaria sp. 2...

  10. Molecular mapping of three nuclear male sterility mutant genes in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nuclear male sterility (NMS) trait is a useful tool for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) breeding and genetic programs. Previously, we induced NMS mutants in cultivated line HA 89. The mutants possessed single recessive genes, ms6, ms7, and ms8, respectively, in NMS HA 89-872, NMS HA 89-552, and...

  11. Effect of wild Helianthus cytoplasms on agronomic and oil characteristics of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) productions reliance on a single source of cytoplasmic male-sterility, PET1, derived from H. petiolaris Nutt., makes the crop genetically vulnerable. Twenty diverse cytoplasmic substitution lines from annual and perennial wild species were compared with the inbred li...

  12. Phomopsis stem canker: a re-emerging threat to sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis stem canker frequently causes yield reductions on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Russia, Europe and North America. Between 2001 and 2012, the incidence of Phomopsis stem canker has increased 16 fold in the Northern Great Plains of the United...

  13. Characterization of a green nondormant sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) mutant ndg

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) mutant was observed in the progeny of a cross between the sunflower cultivar HA 89 and an amphiploid of a H. divaricatus L. x P21 cross that exhibited loss of dormancy induction in the developing embryo. Seeds of this mutant frequently germinate on the head about 4...

  14. A Novel Biodiversity of Wild Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) Naturally Developed in Central Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower's wild relative, Helianthus annuus L., is a non-native invader in several regions of the world. It was introduced as experimental forage in central Argentina six decades ago where it probably escaped and developed extended populations coexisting with the sunflower crop. If the invasive...

  15. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Kantar, Michael B; Sosa, Chrystian C; Khoury, Colin K; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P; Achicanoy, Harold A; Bernau, Vivian; Kane, Nolan C; Marek, Laura; Seiler, Gerald; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and niche occupancy in 36 taxa closely related to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Taxa lacking comprehensive ex situ conservation were identified. The predicted distributions for 36 Helianthus taxa identified substantial range overlap, range asymmetry and niche conservatism. Specific taxa (e.g., Helianthus deblis Nutt., Helianthus anomalus Blake, and Helianthus divaricatus L.) were identified as targets for traits of interest, particularly for abiotic stress tolerance, and adaptation to extreme soil properties. The combination of techniques demonstrates the potential for publicly available ecogeographic and phylogenetic data to facilitate the identification of possible sources of abiotic stress traits for plant breeding programs. Much of the primary genepool (wild H. annuus) occurs in extreme environments indicating that introgression of targeted traits may be relatively straightforward. Sister taxa in Helianthus have greater range overlap than more distantly related taxa within the genus. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in plants (unlike some animal groups), geographic isolation may not be necessary for speciation. PMID:26500675

  16. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kantar, Michael B.; Sosa, Chrystian C.; Khoury, Colin K.; Castañeda-Álvarez, Nora P.; Achicanoy, Harold A.; Bernau, Vivian; Kane, Nolan C.; Marek, Laura; Seiler, Gerald; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2015-01-01

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and niche occupancy in 36 taxa closely related to sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Taxa lacking comprehensive ex situ conservation were identified. The predicted distributions for 36 Helianthus taxa identified substantial range overlap, range asymmetry and niche conservatism. Specific taxa (e.g., Helianthus deblis Nutt., Helianthus anomalus Blake, and Helianthus divaricatus L.) were identified as targets for traits of interest, particularly for abiotic stress tolerance, and adaptation to extreme soil properties. The combination of techniques demonstrates the potential for publicly available ecogeographic and phylogenetic data to facilitate the identification of possible sources of abiotic stress traits for plant breeding programs. Much of the primary genepool (wild H. annuus) occurs in extreme environments indicating that introgression of targeted traits may be relatively straightforward. Sister taxa in Helianthus have greater range overlap than more distantly related taxa within the genus. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that in plants (unlike some animal groups), geographic isolation may not be necessary for speciation. PMID:26500675

  17. Identification and mapping of tRNA genes on the Helianthus annuus mitochondrial genome.

    PubMed

    Ceci, L R; Veronico, P; Gallerani, R

    1996-01-01

    The physical map for seventeen tRNA genes on the mitochondrial genome of the dicotyledonous plant Helianthus annuus has been established. Eleven are genuine mitochondrial genes, while the other six show a high degree of similarity with the chloroplast counterparts. The genes, with the exception of the genuine trnS(GCT) and of the chloroplast-like trnV and trnP, are expressed. The comparison of the organization of some tRNA genes in the H. annuus mitochondrial genome with that of similar genes detectable in other plants reveals that their association is common to several dicotyledons. PMID:8722570

  18. The tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Jiamjitrpanich, Waraporn; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Laurent, François; Kosanlavit, Rachain

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the initial method for phytoremediation involving germination and transplantation. The study was also to determine the tolerance efficiency of Panicum maximum (Purple guinea grass) and Helianthus annuus (Sunflower) in TNT-contaminated soil and nZVI-contaminated soil. It was found that the transplantation of Panicum maximum and Helianthus annuus was more suitable than germination as the initiate method of nano-phytoremediation potting test. The study also showed that Panicum maximum was more tolerance than Helianthus annuus in TNT and nZVI-contaminated soil. Therefore, Panicum maximum in the transplantation method should be selected as a hyperaccumulated plant for nano-phytoremediation potting tests. Maximum tolerance dosage of Panicum maximum to TNT-concentration soil was 320 mg/kg and nZVI-contaminated soil was 1000 mg/kg in the transplantation method. PMID:22702809

  19. A morphometric analysis of cellular differentiation in caps of primary and lateral roots of Helianthus annuus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R.

    1985-01-01

    In order to determine if patterns of cell differentiation are similar in primary and lateral roots, I performed a morphometric analysis of the ultrastructure of calyptrogen, columella, and peripheral cells in primary and lateral roots of Helianthus annuus. Each cell type is characterized by a unique ultrastructure, and the ultrastructural changes characteristic of cellular differentiation in root caps are organelle specific. No major structural differences exist in the structures of the composite cell types, or in patterns of cell differentiation in caps of primary vs. lateral roots.

  20. Identification of molecular markers linked to a new nuclear male-sterility gene ms7 in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nuclear male sterility (NMS) is an important alternative system to the cytoplasm male sterility (CMS) in hybrid breeding programs because of its stable male sterility and abundant available restorer resources. For sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), NMS 89-552, a nuclear male-sterile mutant induced by...

  1. Toward a molecular cytogenetic map for cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by landed BAC/BIBAC clones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n=34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Rec...

  2. Phytoaccumulation of lead by sunflower (Helianthus annuus), tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), and vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides).

    PubMed

    Boonyapookana, Benjaporn; Parkpian, Preeda; Techapinyawat, Sombun; DeLaune, R D; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2005-01-01

    The ability of three plant species: Helianthus annuus, Nicotiana tabacum, and Vetiveria zizanioides for phytoaccumulation of Pb was studied. Plants were grown in hydroponic solution containing Pb(NO3)2 at concentration of 0.25 and 2.5 mM Pb in the presence or absence of chelating agents (EDTA or DTPA). Lead (Pb) transport and localization within the tissues of the plant species was determined using scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers (SEM-EDS). The addition of chelators increased Pb uptake as compared to plants grown in solution containing Pb alone. Lead taken up by the plant species were concentrated in both leaf and stem at the region of vascular bundles with greater amounts in the leaf portion. Lead granules were also found in the H. annuus root tissue from the epidermis layer to the central axis. After four weeks of growth a 23-fold increase in shoot Pb content for H. annuus and N. tabacum and 17-fold increase in shoot Pb for V. zizanioides resulted from plants grown in the 2.5 mM Pb-EDTA treatment. The higher Pb treatment (2.5 mM Pb containing EDTA) resulted in higher concentrations of Pb in plant tissue at the fourth week of exposure as compared to Pb treatment containing DTPA. Overall, Pb accumulation potential of H. annuus was greater than that of N. tabacum and V. zizanioides as indicated by the bioconcentration factor (171, 70, and 88, respectively). The highest measured Pb concentrations were found in H. annuus roots, stems, and leaves (2668, 843, and 3611 microg/g DW, respectively) grown in the 2.5 mM Pb-EDTA treatment. The addition of chelators caused some reduction in plant growth and biomass. Results showed that the three plant species tested have potential for use in phytoaccumulation of Pb since the Pb was concentrated in leaf and stem as compared to control plants. H. annuus however best meet the prerequisites for a hyperaccumulator plant and would have the potential for use in the restoration of

  3. Data on mass spectrometry based identification of allergens from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) pollen proteome

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Nandini; Sircar, Gaurab; Saha, Bodhisattwa; Pandey, Naren; Bhattacharya, Swati Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Allergy is a type of abnormal immune reactions, which is triggered by environmental antigens or allergens and mediated by IgE antibodies. Now-a-days mass spectrometry is the method of choice for allergen identification based on homology searching. Here, we provide the mass spectrometry dataset associated with our previously published research article on identification of sunflower pollen allergens (Ghosh et al., 2015 [1]). In this study allergenicity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pollen grains were primarily investigated by clinical studies followed by detailed immunobiochemical and immunoproteomic analyses. The mass spectrometry data for the identification of allergens were deposited to ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD002397. PMID:27054187

  4. Lipid, polyamide, and flavonol phagostimulants for adult western corn rootworm from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) pollen.

    PubMed

    Lin, S; Mullin, C A

    1999-03-01

    Adult Diabroticites including western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, consume pollen of corn, squash, sunflower, and other species. Short-chain neutral amino acids in methanol-water extracts of pollen have been previously identified in our laboratory as strong phagostimulants for Diabrotica. Bioassay-driven fractionation was used to characterize the interacting lipid and midpolarity phagostimulants for adult WCR in Giant Gray Stripe sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., pollen. Lipids rich in omega3-linolenic acid including triglycerides, free fatty acids, phosphatidylethanolamines, phosphatidic acids, and phosphatidylcholines were highly phagostimulatory. Other important phagostimulatory components included a hydroxycinnamic acid-polyamine amide, N(1),N(5),N(10)-tri[(E)-p-coumaroyl]spermidine, and a flavonol, quercetin beta-3-O-glucoside. The structural characteristics of these phagoactive compounds and their role in the pollinivory specialization of rootworm beetles are discussed. PMID:10552441

  5. Data on mass spectrometry based identification of allergens from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) pollen proteome.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Nandini; Sircar, Gaurab; Saha, Bodhisattwa; Pandey, Naren; Bhattacharya, Swati Gupta

    2016-06-01

    Allergy is a type of abnormal immune reactions, which is triggered by environmental antigens or allergens and mediated by IgE antibodies. Now-a-days mass spectrometry is the method of choice for allergen identification based on homology searching. Here, we provide the mass spectrometry dataset associated with our previously published research article on identification of sunflower pollen allergens (Ghosh et al., 2015 [1]). In this study allergenicity of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pollen grains were primarily investigated by clinical studies followed by detailed immunobiochemical and immunoproteomic analyses. The mass spectrometry data for the identification of allergens were deposited to ProteomeXchange Consortium via PRIDE partner repository with the dataset identifier PXD002397. PMID:27054187

  6. Isolation of Bioactive Compounds from Sunflower Leaves (Helianthus annuus L.) Extracted with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide.

    PubMed

    El Marsni, Zouhir; Torres, Ascension; Varela, Rosa M; Molinillo, José M G; Casas, Lourdes; Mantell, Casimiro; Martinez de la Ossa, Enrique J; Macias, Francisco A

    2015-07-22

    The work described herein is a continuation of our initial studies on the supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) with CO2 of bioactive substances from Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna. The selected SFE extract showed high activity in the wheat coleoptile bioassay, in Petri dish phytotoxicity bioassays, and in the hydroponic culture of tomato seeds. Chromatographic fractionations of the extracts and a spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compounds showed 52 substances belonging to 10 different chemical classes, which were mainly sesquiterpene lactones, diterpenes, and flavonoids. Heliannuol M (31), helivypolides K and L (36, 37), and helieudesmanolide B (38) are described for the first time in the literature. Metabolites have been tested in the etiolated wheat coleoptile bioassay with good results in a noteworthy effect on germination. The most active compounds were also tested on tomato seeds, heliannuol A (30) and leptocarpin (45) being the most active, with values similar to those of the commercial herbicide. PMID:26151222

  7. Localization of sesquiterpene lactone biosynthesis in cells of capitate glandular trichomes of Helianthus annuus (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Amrehn, Evelyn; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Heller, Annerose; Spring, Otmar

    2016-03-01

    Capitate glandular trichomes (CGT) of sunflower, Helianthus annuus, synthesize bioactive sesquiterpene lactones (STLs) within a short period of only a few days during trichome development. In the current project, the subcellular localization of H. annuus germacrene A monooxygenase (HaGAO), a key enzyme of the STL biosynthesis in sunflower CGT, was investigated. A polyclonal antibody raised against this enzyme was used for immunolabelling. HaGAO was found in secretory and stalk cells of CGT. This correlated with the appearance of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in both cell types. Stalk cells and secretory cells differed in form, size and types of plastids, but both had structures necessary for secretion. No HaGAO-specific immunoreaction was found in sunflower leaf tissue outside of CGT or in developing CGT before the secretory phase had started. Our results indicated that not only secretory cells but also nearly all cells of the CGT were involved in the biosynthesis of STL and that this process was not linked to the presence or absence of a specific type of plastid. PMID:25956500

  8. Response of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Leaf Surface Defenses to Exogenous Methyl Jasmonate

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Heather C.; Ro, Dae-kyun; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2012-01-01

    Helianthus annuus, the common sunflower, produces a complex array of secondary compounds that are secreted into glandular trichomes, specialized structures found on leaf surfaces and anther appendages of flowers. The primary components of these trichome secretions are sesquiterpene lactones (STL), a diverse class of compounds produced abundantly by the plant family Compositae and believed to contribute to plant defense against herbivory. We treated wild and cultivated H. annuus accessions with exogenous methyl jasmonate, a plant hormone that mediates plant defense against insect herbivores and certain classes of fungal pathogens. The wild sunflower produced a higher density of glandular trichomes on its leaves than the cultivar. Comparison of the profiles of glandular trichome extracts obtained by liquid chromatography–mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) showed that wild and cultivated H. annuus were qualitatively similar in surface chemistry, although differing in the relative size and proportion of various compounds detected. Despite observing consistent transcriptional responses to methyl jasmonate treatment, we detected no significant effect on glandular trichome density or LC-MS profile in cultivated or wild sunflower, with wild sunflower exhibiting a declining trend in overall STL production and foliar glandular trichome density of jasmonate-treated plants. These results suggest that glandular trichomes and associated compounds may act as constitutive defenses or require greater levels of stimulus for induction than the observed transcriptional responses to exogenous jasmonate. Reduced defense investment in domesticated lines is consistent with predicted tradeoffs caused by selection for increased yield; future research will focus on the development of genetic resources to explicitly test the ecological roles of glandular trichomes and associated effects on plant growth and fitness. PMID:22623991

  9. Can arsenic-phytochelatin complex formation be used as an indicator for toxicity in Helianthus annuus?

    PubMed

    Raab, Andrea; Ferreira, Katia; Meharg, Andrew A; Feldmann, Jörg

    2007-01-01

    The formation of arsenic-phytochelatin (As-PC) complexes is thought to be part of the plant detoxification strategy for arsenic. This work examines (i) the arsenic (As) concentration-dependent formation of As-PC complex formation and (ii) redistribution and metabolism of As after arrested As uptake in Helianthus annuus. HPLC with parallel ICP-MS/ES-MS detection was used to identify and quantify the species present in plant extracts exposed to arsenate (As(V)) (between 0 and 66.7 micromol As l-1 for 24 h). At As concentrations below the EC50 value for root growth (22 micromol As l-1) As uptake is exponential, but it is reduced at concentrations above. Translocation between root and shoot seemed to be limited to the uptake phase of arsenic. No redistribution of As between root and shoot was observed after arresting As exposure. The formation of As-PC complexes was concentration-dependent. The amount and number of As-PC complexes increased exponentially with concentration up to 13.7 micromol As l-1. As(III)-PC3 and GS-As(III)-PC2 complexes were the dominant species in all samples. The ratio of PC-bound As to unbound As increased up to 1.3 micromol As l-1 and decreased at higher concentrations. Methylation of inorganic As was only a minor pathway in H. annuus with about 1% As methylated over a 32 d period. The concentration dependence of As-PC complex formation, amount of unbound reduced and oxidized PC2, and the relative uptake rate showed that As starts to influence the cellular metabolism of H. annuus negatively at As concentrations well below the EC50 value determined by more traditional means. Generally, As-PC complexes and PC-synthesis rate seem to be the more sensitive parameters to be studied when As toxicity values are to be estimated. PMID:17283372

  10. Biologically active antimicrobial and antioxidant substances in the Helianthus annuus L. bee pollen.

    PubMed

    Fatrcová-Šramková, Katarína; Nôžková, Janka; Máriássyová, Magda; Kačániová, Miroslava

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the content of flavonoids, polyphenols, and carotenoids in the Helianthus annuus L. bee pollen. It was also to evaluate the ability of the dried, frozen, and freeze-dried extracts of sunflower (H. annuus) pollen, its scavenged free radicals and reducing action. Another aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial in vitro action of the H. annuus pollen extracts against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. All pollen extracts showed medium antiradical activity and reductive ability. The most effective was the freeze-dried extract in both evaluation systems. The evaluation of the protective effects of DNA using a biosensor showed an opposite trending-frozen ˃ dried ˃ freeze-dried pollen. For the evaluation of antiradical activity, the DPPH method was used, and reductive ability was assessed by means of phosphomolybdic complex formation. The comparison of the polyphenols content shows higher values in freeze-dried bee pollen than in the dried and frozen pollen. The highest content of flavonoids was found in the frozen samples and the most carotenoids were present in the dried samples. In our study, the best antibacterial effects of the dried sunflower bee pollen extracts were found against Paenibacillus larvae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterococcus raffinosus. The best inhibitory properties of the frozen sunflower bee pollen extracts were found against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Paenibacillus larvae. Very good inhibitory effects of freeze-dried sunflower bee pollen were found against Paenibacillus larvae, Brochotrix thermosphacta, and Enterococcus raffinosus. The best antifungal activity of the sunflower bee pollen was found in the frozen bee pollen extracts against Aspergillus ochraceus and freeze-dried bee pollen extracts against Aspergillus niger. PMID:26674447

  11. Helikaurolides A-D with a Diterpene-Sesquiterpene Skeleton from Supercritical Fluid Extracts of Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna.

    PubMed

    Torres, Ascensión; Molinillo, José M G; Varela, Rosa M; Casas, Lourdes; Mantell, Casimiro; Martínez de la Ossa, Enrique J; Macías, Francisco A

    2015-10-01

    Four novel compounds (1-4) with an unprecedented skeleton that combines a sesquiterpene lactone and a kaurane diterpene acid were isolated from Helianthus annuus L. var. Arianna extract, which was obtained under supercritical conditions. The structures of 1-4 were elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. The biosynthetic routes involve sesquiterpene lactones and kauranic acid, both of which were previously isolated from this species. PMID:26368065

  12. Light intensity alters the extent of arsenic toxicity in Helianthus annuus L. seedlings.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Geeta; Srivastava, Prabhat Kumar; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan

    2014-06-01

    The present study is aimed at assessing the extent of arsenic (As) toxicity under three different light intensities-optimum (400 μmole photon m(-2) s(-1)), sub-optimum (225 μmole photon m(-2) s(-1)), and low (75 μmole photon m(-2) s(-1))-exposed to Helianthus annuus L. var. DRSF-113 seedlings by examining various physiological and biochemical parameters. Irrespective of the light intensities under which H. annuus L. seedlings were grown, there was an As dose (low, i.e., 6 mg kg(-1) soil, As1; and high, i.e., 12 mg kg(-1) soil, As2)-dependent decrease in all the growth parameters, viz., fresh mass, shoot length, and root length. Optimum light-grown seedlings exhibited better growth performance than the sub-optimum and low light-grown seedlings; however, low light-grown plants had maximum root and shoot lengths. Accumulation of As in the plant tissues depended upon its concentration used, proximity of the plant tissue, and intensity of the light. Greater intensity of light allowed greater assimilation of photosynthates accompanied by more uptake of nutrients along with As from the medium. The levels of chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids declined with increasing concentrations of As. Seedlings acquired maximum Chl a and b under optimum light which were more compatible to face As1 and As2 doses of As, also evident from the overall status of enzymatic (SOD, POD, CAT, and GST) and non-enzymatic antioxidant (Pro). PMID:24699829

  13. Bioaugmentation with cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria to assist cadmium phytoextraction by Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Prapagdee, Benjaphorn; Chanprasert, Maesinee; Mongkolsuk, Skorn

    2013-07-01

    Micrococcus sp. MU1 and Klebsiella sp. BAM1, the cadmium-resistant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), produce high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) during the late stationary phase of their growth. The ability of PGPR to promote root elongation, plant growth and cadmium uptake in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) was evaluated. Both species of bacteria were able to remove cadmium ions from an aqueous solution and enhanced cadmium mobilization in contaminated soil. Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. use aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid as a nitrogen source to support their growth, and the minimum inhibitory concentrations of cadmium for Micrococcus sp. and Klebsiella sp. were 1000 and 800mM, respectively. These bacteria promoted root elongation in H. annuus seedlings in both the absence and presence of cadmium compared to uninoculated seedlings. Inoculation with these bacteria was found to increase the root lengths of H. annuus that had been planted in cadmium-contaminated soil. An increase in dry weight was observed for H. annuus inoculated with Micrococcus sp. Moreover, Micrococcus sp. enhanced the accumulation of cadmium in the root and leaf of H. annuus compared to untreated plants. The highest cadmium accumulation in the whole plant was observed when the plants were treated with EDTA following the treatment with Micrococcus sp. In addition, the highest translocation of cadmium from root to the above-ground tissues of H. annuus was found after treatment with Klebsiella sp. in the fourth week after planting. Our results show that plant growth and cadmium accumulation in H. annuus was significantly enhanced by cadmium-resistant PGPRs, and these bacterial inoculants are excellent promoters of phytoextraction for the rehabilitation of heavy metal-polluted environments. PMID:23478127

  14. Effect of chromium on growth attributes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Fozia, Andaleeb; Muhammad, Anjum Zia; Muhammad, Ashraf; Zafar, Mahmood Khalid

    2008-01-01

    Heavy metal soil pollution takes place when the metal concentration of soil exceeds natural background level and causes ecological destruction and deterioration of the environment. In the present study, a pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of chromium-contaminated soil in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) growth attributes. Three different levels of chromium (Cr) i.e., 20, 40, and 60 mg/kg were applied to three varieties of sunflower (G-3, G-9, and G-59). The results of morphological, chemical, and yield parameters were recorded at crop maturity. The result showed that germination, root, and shoot lengths were decreased with increase in Cr concentrations. A gradual decrease was observed for various morphological parameters like root fresh and dry weights, shoot fresh and dry weights, and plant height with increase in Cr levels. A comparison among Cr treatments obtained a significant decrease in yield parameters as achenes/capitulum, achenes/plant, and 100 achenes weight in three varieties. Cr was significantly absorbed by roots but its transport to other parts of plants was slow, and uptake in seeds was much lower than in roots and shoots. PMID:19209635

  15. Catalase degradation in sunflower cotyledons during peroxisome transition from glyoxysomal to leaf peroxisomal function. [Helianthus annuus

    SciTech Connect

    Eising, R.; Gerhardt, B.

    1987-06-01

    First order rate constant for the degradation (degradation constants) of catalase in the cotyledons of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) were determined by measuring the loss of catalase containing /sup 14/C-labeled heme. During greening of the cotyledons, a period when peroxisomes change from glyoxysomal to leaf peroxisomal function, the degradation of glyoxysomal catalase is significantly slower than during all other stages of cotyledon development in light or darkness. The degradation constant during the transition stage of peroxisome function amounts to 0.205 day/sup -1/ in contrast to the constants ranging from 0.304 day/sup -1/ to 0.515 day/sup -1/ during the other developmental stages. Density labeling experiments comprising labeling of catalase with /sup 2/H/sub 2/O and its isopycnic centrifugation on CsCl gradients demonstrated that the determinations of the degradation constants were not substantially affected by reutilization of /sup 14/C-labeled compounds for catalase synthesis. The degradation constants for both glyoxysomal catalase and catalase synthesized during the transition of peroxisome function do not differ. This was shown by labeling the catalases with different isotopes and measuring the isotope ratio during the development of the cotyledons. The results are inconsistent with the concept that an accelerated and selective degradation of glyoxysomes underlies the change in peroxisome function. The data suggest that catalase degradation is at least partially due to an individual turnover of catalase and does not only result from a turnover of the whole peroxisomes.

  16. Effects of salinity, temperature, and polyethylene glycol on the seed germination of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Luan, Zhihui; Xiao, Moxin; Zhou, Daowei; Zhang, Hongxiang; Tian, Yu; Wu, Yi; Guan, Bo; Song, Yantao

    2014-01-01

    Salinization has severe influences on agriculture in the whole world. The main aims of this work were to evaluate osmotic effect and ion effect of NaCl on seed germination of three sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars interacting with three alternating temperature regimes and to select the most salt tolerant cultivars to plant in the saline region. Seeds were germinated in the isotonic NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions of -0.45, -0.90, -1.34, -1.79, and -2.24 MPa at 10:20, 15:25, and 20:30 °C temperature regimes. Both NaCl and PEG inhibited germination, but the effects of NaCl were less as compared to that of PEG, which means that adverse effects of PEG on germination were due to osmotic effect rather than specific ion accumulation. For the three cultivars, higher germination occurred at 10:20 °C in NaCl treatments and at 20:30 °C in the isotonic PEG treatments. Among the three cultivars, Sandaomei (SDM) is the most tolerant to salt and PEG stress. PMID:25610896

  17. Effects of Salinity, Temperature, and Polyethylene Glycol on the Seed Germination of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Zhihui; Xiao, Moxin; Zhou, Daowei; Tian, Yu; Wu, Yi; Guan, Bo; Song, Yantao

    2014-01-01

    Salinization has severe influences on agriculture in the whole world. The main aims of this work were to evaluate osmotic effect and ion effect of NaCl on seed germination of three sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultivars interacting with three alternating temperature regimes and to select the most salt tolerant cultivars to plant in the saline region. Seeds were germinated in the isotonic NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions of −0.45, −0.90, −1.34, −1.79, and −2.24 MPa at 10 : 20, 15 : 25, and 20 : 30°C temperature regimes. Both NaCl and PEG inhibited germination, but the effects of NaCl were less as compared to that of PEG, which means that adverse effects of PEG on germination were due to osmotic effect rather than specific ion accumulation. For the three cultivars, higher germination occurred at 10 : 20°C in NaCl treatments and at 20 : 30°C in the isotonic PEG treatments. Among the three cultivars, Sandaomei (SDM) is the most tolerant to salt and PEG stress. PMID:25610896

  18. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as a pre-Columbian domesticate in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lentz, David L; Pohl, Mary DeLand; Alvarado, José Luis; Tarighat, Somayeh; Bye, Robert

    2008-04-29

    Mexico has long been recognized as one of the world's cradles of domestication with evidence for squash (Cucurbita pepo) cultivation appearing as early as 8,000 cal B.C. followed by many other plants, such as maize (Zea mays), peppers (Capsicum annuum), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). We present archaeological, linguistic, ethnographic, and ethnohistoric data demonstrating that sunflower (Helianthus annuus) had entered the repertoire of Mexican domesticates by ca. 2600 cal B.C., that its cultivation was widespread in Mexico and extended as far south as El Salvador by the first millennium B.C., that it was well known to the Aztecs, and that it is still in use by traditional Mesoamerican cultures today. The sunflower's association with indigenous solar religion and warfare in Mexico may have led to its suppression after the Spanish Conquest. The discovery of ancient sunflower in Mexico refines our knowledge of domesticated Mesoamerican plants and adds complexity to our understanding of cultural evolution. PMID:18443289

  19. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as a pre-Columbian domesticate in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lentz, David L.; Pohl, Mary DeLand; Alvarado, José Luis; Tarighat, Somayeh; Bye, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Mexico has long been recognized as one of the world's cradles of domestication with evidence for squash (Cucurbita pepo) cultivation appearing as early as 8,000 cal B.C. followed by many other plants, such as maize (Zea mays), peppers (Capsicum annuum), common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). We present archaeological, linguistic, ethnographic, and ethnohistoric data demonstrating that sunflower (Helianthus annuus) had entered the repertoire of Mexican domesticates by ca. 2600 cal B.C., that its cultivation was widespread in Mexico and extended as far south as El Salvador by the first millennium B.C., that it was well known to the Aztecs, and that it is still in use by traditional Mesoamerican cultures today. The sunflower's association with indigenous solar religion and warfare in Mexico may have led to its suppression after the Spanish Conquest. The discovery of ancient sunflower in Mexico refines our knowledge of domesticated Mesoamerican plants and adds complexity to our understanding of cultural evolution. PMID:18443289

  20. Phomopsis Stem Canker: A Reemerging Threat to Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Febina M; Alananbeh, Kholoud M; Jordahl, James G; Meyer, Scott M; Castlebury, Lisa A; Gulya, Thomas J; Markell, Samuel G

    2015-07-01

    Phomopsis stem canker causes yield reductions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Europe, and North America. In the United States, Phomopsis stem canker incidence has increased 16-fold in the Northern Great Plains between 2001 and 2012. Although Diaporthe helianthi was assumed to be the sole causal agent in the United States, a newly described species, D. gulyae, was found to be the primary cause of Phomopsis stem canker in Australia. To determine the identity of Diaporthe spp. causing Phomopsis stem canker in the Northern Great Plains, 275 infected stems were collected between 2010 and 2012. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region, elongation factor subunit 1-α, and actin gene regions of representative isolates, in comparison with those of type specimens, confirmed two species (D. helianthi and D. gulyae) in the United States. Differences in aggressiveness between the two species were determined using the stem-wound method in the greenhouse; overall, D. helianthi and D. gulyae did not vary significantly (P≤0.05) in their aggressiveness at 10 and 14 days after inoculation. These findings indicate that both Diaporthe spp. have emerged as sunflower pathogens in the United States, and have implications on the management of this disease. PMID:26121367

  1. Cr localization and speciation in roots of chromate fed Helianthus annuus L. seedlings using synchrotron techniques.

    PubMed

    de la Rosa, Guadalupe; Castillo-Michel, Hiram; Cruz-Jiménez, Gustavo; Bernal-Alvarado, Jesús; Córdova-Fraga, Teodoro; López-Moreno, Laura; Cotte, Marine

    2014-01-01

    In order to gain knowledge on the potential use of Helianthus annuus L. for the remediation of Cr(VI) polluted waters, hydroponics experiments were set up to determine Cr uptake and tolerance in different Cr(VI)-sulfate conditions, and Cr biotransformations. Results indicated that Cr(VI) promoted seed germination, and plant tolerance was higher at younger plant stages. Cr uptake was dependent on sulfate concentrations. The highest Cr levels in roots and shoots (13,700 and 2,500 mg kg(-1) dry weight (DW), respectively) were obtained in 1 mM sulfate. The lowest Cr uptake in roots (10,600 mg kg(-1) DW) was observed in seedlings treated with no sulfate. In shoots, Cr concentration was of 1,500 mg kg(-1)DW for the 1 mM sulfate treatment, indicating a different level of interaction between chromate and sulfate in both tissues. For the first time, using micro X-ray florescence (muXRF), we demonstrated Cr reaches the root stele and is located in the walls of xylem vessels. Bulk and micro X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (muXANES) results showed that Cr in the roots is mostly in the form of Cr(III) phosphate (80%), with the remainder complexed to organic acids. Our results suggest this plant species may serve for Cr(VI) rhizofiltration purposes. PMID:24933903

  2. Pre-dawn stomatal opening does not substantially enhance early-morning photosynthesis in Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Auchincloss, Lisa; Easlon, Hsien M; Levine, Diedre; Donovan, Lisa; Richards, James H

    2014-06-01

    Most C3 plant species have partially open stomata during the night especially in the 3-5 h before dawn. This pre-dawn stomatal opening has been hypothesized to enhance early-morning photosynthesis (A) by reducing diffusion limitations to CO2 at dawn. We tested this hypothesis in cultivated Helianthus annuus using whole-shoot gas exchange, leaf level gas exchange and modelling approaches. One hour pre-dawn low-humidity treatments were used to reduce pre-dawn stomatal conductance (g). At the whole-shoot level, a difference of pre-dawn g (0.40 versus 0.17 mol m(-2) s(-1)) did not significantly affect A during the first hour after dawn. Shorter term effects were investigated with leaf level gas exchange measurements and a difference of pre-dawn g (0.10 versus 0.04 mol m(-2) s(-1)) affected g and A for only 5 min after dawn. The potential effects of a wider range of stomatal apertures were explored with an empirical model of the relationship between A and intercellular CO2 concentration during the half-hour after dawn. Modelling results demonstrated that even extremely low pre-dawn stomatal conductance values have only a minimal effect on early-morning A for a few minutes after dawn. Thus, we found no evidence that pre-dawn stomatal opening enhances A. PMID:24895756

  3. Ectopic expression of the HAM59 gene causes homeotic transformations of reproductive organs in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Shulga, O A; Neskorodov, Ya B; Shchennikova, A V; Gaponenko, A K; Skryabin, K G

    2015-01-01

    The function of the HAM59 MADS-box gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied to clarify homeotic C activity in the Asteraceae plant family. For the first time, transgenic sunflower plants with a modified pattern of HAM59 expression were obtained. It was shown that the HAM59 MADS-box transcription factor did mediate C activity in sunflower. In particular, it participated in termination of the floral meristem, repression of the cadastral function of A-activity, and together with other C-type sunflower protein HAM45-in the specification of the identity of stamens and pistils. PMID:25937227

  4. Ent-Kaurene Biosynthesis in Extracts of Helianthus annuus L. Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Shen-Miller, Jane; West, Charles A.

    1982-01-01

    Kaurene synthetase B activity (conversion of copalyl pyrophosphate to ent-kaurene) is readily detectable in crude cell-free extracts of 3- to 4-day old dark-grown sunflower (Helianthus annuus cv. Mammoth) seedlings, whereas little or no kaurene synthetase AB activity (conversion of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate to ent-kaurene) can be found in these extracts under comparable assay conditions. A low amount of AB activity is evident only if an extensively dialyzed extract is used in low concentrations as the enzyme source. One factor which may contribute to the low apparent levels of AB activity is the presence of inhibitory factors in the crude sunflower extract since these extracts can be shown to act as a potent inhibitor of Marah macrocarpus endosperm kaurene synthetase AB activity. Heat treatment (100°C) or dialysis of the sunflower extract reduces the amount of its inhibitory activity. Also, it was observed that low concentrations of extensively dialyzed sunflower extracts act to stimulate M. macrocarpus AB activity. There is no evidence for the presence of an inhibitory factor for M. macrocarpus kaurene synthetase B activity in sunflower extracts. However, there does appear to be present in the crude preparation of sunflower extract a dialyzable factor(s) that impedes its own B activity. There is little information to date on the nature of these inhibitory and stimulatory factors for kaurene synthetase activity or their possible roles in physiological regulation. The possible presence of such factors should be considered, however, when attempting to evaluate kaurene synthetase activities in extracts of vegetative plants. PMID:16662264

  5. Root water transport of Helianthus annuus L. under iron oxide nanoparticle exposure.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández, Domingo; Barroso, Didac; Komárek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The application of nanomaterials in commercially available products is increasing rapidly for agriculture, phytoremediation and biotechnology. Since plants suppose the first sink for the accumulation of nanoparticles from the environment, emerging studies have focused on the general consequences for plants and their effects on the biomass production. However, effects on the root surface, as well as blockage of nutrients and water uptake by the roots, may also occur. This experiment was designed to prove if the plant water relations can be affected by the adsorption of nanoparticles on the root surface, causing a consequent stress for the plants. With this goal, plants of Helianthus annuus were previously grown in a hydroponic culture, and at age of 55 days, their roots were exposed to three different concentrations of nanomaghemite (NM) in the hydroponic solution for 5 days: control without NM; 50 and 100 mg l(-1) NM. The main effect was related to the reduction of the root hydraulic conductivity (Lo) and the nutrients uptake. The concentrations of the macronutrients Ca, K, Mg and S in the shoot were reduced relative to the control plants, which resulted in lower contents of chlorophyll pigments. Although stress was not detected in the plants, after the analysis of stress markers like the accumulation of proline or ascorbate in the tissues, reduction of the root functionality by nanoparticles has been identified here, manifested as the effect of NM on Lo. The treatment with 50 mg l(-1) NM significantly reduced the Lo, by up to 57% of its control value, and it was reduced by up to 26% at 100 mg l(-1) NM. These results will be an important factor to take into account with regard to the applicability of NM for long-term use in crops, particularly during privative water conditions. PMID:26396006

  6. Transport and Metabolism of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic Acid in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Finlayson, Scott A.; Foster, Kenneth R.; Reid, David M.

    1991-01-01

    Transport and metabolism of [2,3-14C] 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) from roots to shoots in 4-day-old sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings were studied. [14C]ACC was detected in, and 14C2H4 was evolved from, shoots 0.5 hours after [14C]ACC was supplied to roots. Ethylene emanation from the shoots returned to normal levels after 6 hours. The roots showed a similar pattern, although at 24 hours ethylene emanation was still slightly higher than in those plants that did not receive ACC. [14C]N-malonyl-ACC (MACC) was detected in both tissues at all times sampled. [14C]MACC levels surpassed [14C]ACC levels in the shoot at 2 hours, whereas [14C]MACC levels in the root remained below [14C]ACC levels until 6 hours, after which they were higher. Thin-layer chromatography analysis identified [14C] ACC in 1-hour shoot extracts, and [14C]MACC was identified in root tissues at 1 and 12 hours after treatment. [14C]ACC and [14C] MACC in the xylem sap of treated seedlings were identified by thin-layer chromatography. Xylem transport of [14C]ACC in treated seedlings, and transport of ACC in untreated seedlings, was confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Some evidence for the presence of [14C]MACC in xylem sap in [14C]ACC-treated seedlings is presented. A substantial amount of radioactivity in both ACC and MACC fractions was detected leaking from the roots over 24 hours. A second radiolabeled volatile compound was trapped in a CO2-trapping solution but not in mercuric perchlorate. Levels of this compound were highest after the peak of ACC levels and before peak MACC levels in both tissues, suggesting that an alternate pathway of ACC metabolism was operating in this system. PMID:16668342

  7. stem fasciated, a Recessive Mutation in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Alters Plant Morphology and Auxin Level

    PubMed Central

    FAMBRINI, MARCO; BONSIGNORI, ELISA; RAPPARINI, FRANCESCA; CIONINI, GIULIANO; MICHELOTTI, VANIA; BERTINI, DANIELE; BARALDI, RITA; PUGLIESI, CLAUDIO

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Plant lateral organs such as leaves arise from a group of initial cells within the flanks of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Alterations in the initiation of lateral organs are often associated with changes in the dimension and arrangement of the SAM as well as with abnormal hormonal homeostasis. A mutation named stem fasciated (stf) that affects various aspects of plant development, including SAM shape and auxin level, was characterized in sunflower (Helianthus annuus). • Methods F1, F2 and F3 generations were obtained through reciprocal crosses between stf and normal plants. For the genetic analysis, a χ2 test was used. Phenotypic observations were made in field-grown and potted plants. A histological analysis of SAM, hypocotyl, epicotyl, stem and root apical meristem was also conducted. To evaluate the level of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), a capillary gas chromatography–mass spectrometry–selected ion monitoring analysis was performed. • Key Results stf is controlled by a single nuclear recessive gene. stf plants are characterized by a dramatically increased number of leaves and vascular bundles in the stem, as well as by a shortened plastochron and an altered phyllotaxis pattern. By histological analysis, it was demonstrated that the stf phenotype is related to an enlarged vegetative SAM. Microscopy analysis of the mutant's apex also revealed an abnormal enlargement of nuclei in both central and peripheral zones and a disorganized distribution of cells in the L2 layer of the central zone. The stf mutant showed a high endogenous free IAA level, whereas auxin perception appeared normal. • Conclusions The observed phenotype and the high level of auxin detected in stf plants suggest that the STF gene is necessary for the proper initiation of primordia and for the establishment of a phyllotactic pattern through control of both SAM arrangement and hormonal homeostasis. PMID:16845141

  8. Impact of the Stem Borer, Dectes texanus, on Yield of the Cultivated Sunflower, Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed Central

    Michaud, J.P.; Grant, Angela K.; Jyoti, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Foliar and soil-drench insecticide treatments were used in attempts to manipulate infestation of cultivated sunflower plants, Helianthus annuus LeConte (Asterales: Asteraceae) by Dectes texanus LeConte, (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) a serious pest of sunflowers in the High Plains of the USA. Seed yields were assessed on a per-plant basis for both oilseed and confection type sunflower hybrids in two years. Both insecticide treatments (foliar ë-cyhalothrin and soil-drench carbofuran) improved yield of oilseed sunflowers in 2004, but not in 2005. Yield of confection hybrids was improved by a systemic fungicide (thiophanate methyl) in 2005, but insecticides did not improve yield in either year. Both insecticide treatments gave good control of various stalk-boring insects such as Cylindrocopturus adspersus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), Mordellistena sp. (Coleoptera: Mordellidae), and Pelochrista womanana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), but neither gave better than 50% control of D. texanus. Plants were sorted according to the presence or absence of D. texanus larvae and no reduction was found in total seed weight, seed size, or oil content as a result of infestation. However, mature larvae of D. texanus girdle stalks at the base in preparation for overwintering, a behavior that reduced stalk breakage force by 34–40%, leading to yield losses through lodging. At harvest in 2005, there were differences between cultivars and among treatments in the proportions of D. texanus larvae that had girdled their plants at harvest. It was concluded that further research aimed at reducing crop losses to D. texanus should focus on means of delaying stalk desiccation and/or deterioration, factors that appear to trigger girdling behavior. PMID:20307233

  9. Etiolation Symptoms in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Cotyledons Partially Covered by the Pericarp of the Achene

    PubMed Central

    Solymosi, Katalin; Vitányi, Beáta; Hideg, Éva; Böddi, Béla

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Etiolation symptoms and the greening process are usually studied on dark-germinated seedlings and this raises the question – can these results be generalized for plants growing under field conditions? This work examines various aspects of the plastid differentiation under the covering of the achene wall, which often remains attached to the cotyledons of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seedlings grown under light. Methods Cotyledons of 7- to 10-d-old sunflower seedlings grown in the dark and on light were examined. The partially covered cotyledons were sectioned into light-exposed, covered and transition zones. Pigment contents, 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy, electron microscopy and fluorescence imaging, along with fluorescence kinetic methods, were used. Key Results The light-exposed zone of the partially covered cotyledons was similar to cotyledons developed without achene covering. However, some of the plastids had prolamellar bodies among the granal thylakoid membranes; despite this no protochlorophyllide was detected. The fully covered, yellowish sections contained protochlorophyllide forms emitting at 633 and 655 nm and well-developed prolamellar bodies, similar to those of etiolated cotyledons. In addition, reduced amounts of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and stacked thylakoid membrane pairs were found in this region. The transitional sections showed a mixture of the characteristics of the covered and exposed sections. Various, but significantly different values of the photosynthetic activity parameters were found in each sector of the partially covered cotyledons. Conclusions The partial covering of the achene wall shades the cotyledon tissues effectively, enough to provoke the appearance of etiolation phenomena, i.e. the permanent presence of flash-photoactive protochlorophyllide complexes and prolamellar bodies (with or without protochlorophyllide), which proves that these phenomena may appear under natural illumination conditions. PMID

  10. Effects of Boron on Proton Transport and Membrane Properties of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Cell Microsomes.

    PubMed Central

    Ferrol, N.; Belver, A.; Roldan, M.; Rodriguez-Rosales, M. P.; Donaire, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Boron deficiency and toxicity inhibit ATP-dependent H+ pumping and vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity in sunflower roots and cell suspensions. The effects of boron on H+ pumping and on passive H+ conductance, as well as on fluorescence anisotropy in KI-washed microsomes isolated from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv Enano) cell suspensions, have been investigated. Boron deficiency reduced the total and vanadate-sensitive ATPase activities as well as the vanadate-sensitive ATP-dependent H+ pumping without affecting the amount of antigenic ATPase protein as measured by immunoblotting with an Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane anti-H+-ATPase polyclonal antibody. Kinetic studies revealed that boron deficiency reduced Vmax of vanadate-sensitive ATPase activity with little change in the apparent Km for Mg2+-ATP. Proton leakage was greater in microsomal vesicles isolated from cells grown without boron and incubated in reaction medium without added boron, and this effect was reversed by addition of boron to the reaction medium. Fluorescence anisotropy indicated that diphenyl hexatriene and 1-(4-trimethylammoniumphenyl)-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene probes were immobilized to a greater extent in microsomes from cells grown without boron than in those from cells grown with 100 [mu]M H3BO3. The apparent decrease of membrane fluidity in microsomes from cells grown without boron was reversed by the addition of boron to the reaction medium. Taken together these data suggest that inhibition of H+ gradient formation in microsomes from sunflower cells grown in the absence of boron could be due to the combined effects of reduced H+-ATPase activity and increased passive conductance across the membrane, possibly resulting from increased membrane rigidity. PMID:12231978

  11. Ethylene-mediated regulation of gibberellin content and growth in helianthus annuus L

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, D.W.; Reid, D.M.; Pharis, R.P. )

    1991-04-01

    Elongation of hypocotyls of sunflower can be promoted by gibberellins (GAs) and inhibited by ethylene. The role of these hormones in regulating elongation was investigated by measuring changes in both endogenous GAs and in the metabolism of exogenous ({sup 3}H)- and ({sup 2}H{sub 2})GA{sub 20} in the hypocotyls of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv Delgren 131) seedlings exposed to ethylene. The major biologically active GAs identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were GA{sub 1}, GA{sub 19}, GA{sub 20}, and GA{sub 44}. In hypocotyls of seedlings exposed to ethylene, the concentration of GA{sub 1}, known to be directly active in regulating shoot elongation in a number of species, was reduced. Ethylene treatment reduced the metabolism of ({sup 3}H)GA{sub 20} and less ({sup 2}H{sub 2})GA{sub 1} was found in the hypocotyls of those seedlings exposed to the higher ethylene concentrations. However, it is not known if the effect of ethylene on GA{sub 20} metabolism was direct or indirect. In seedlings treated with exogenous GA{sub 1} or GA{sub 3}, the hypocotyls elongated faster than those of controls, but the GA treatment only partially overcame the inhibitory effect of ethylene on elongation. The authors conclude that GA content is a factor which may limit elongation in hypocotyls of sunflower, and that while exposure to ethylene results in reduced concentration of GA{sub 1} this is not sufficient per se to account for the inhibition of elongation caused by ethylene.

  12. Candidate gene association mapping of Sclerotinia stalk rot resistance in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) uncovers the importance of COI1 homologs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia stalk rot is one of the most destructive diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) worldwide. Markers based on the Sclerotinia disease resistance gene will enable efficient marker-assisted selection (MAS). We sequenced eight candidate genes homologus to Arabidopsis thaliana defense ge...

  13. DNA markers linked to the R2 rust resistance gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) facilitate anticipatory breeding for this disease variant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-emptive breeding for host disease resistance is an effective strategy for combating and managing devastating incursions of plant pathogens. Comprehensive, long term studies have revealed that virulence to the R2 sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) rust resistance gene in the line, MC29, does not ex...

  14. Evaluating an interspecific Helianthus annuus x Helianthus tuberosus population for use in a perennial sunflower breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial crops show promise as a sustainable production tool that provides ecosystem services (maintaining healthy soil, controlling erosion, improving water quality, enhancing wild-life habitat), while also contributing an economically viable cropping option to farmers. Sunflower (Helianthus annuu...

  15. [Adaptability of Helianthus annuus seedlings to crude oil pollution in soil and its improvement measures under salinization stress].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-lei; Ci, Hua-cong; He, Xing-dong; Liang, Yu-ting; Zhao, Xuan; Sun, Hui-ting; Xie, Hong-tao

    2015-11-01

    To explore the adaptability of plant under salt stress to crude oil pollution of soil and improvement measures, a pot experiment of Helianthus annuus seedlings was conducted using orthogonal experiment method with crude oil-sodium chloride-desulfurization gypsum and cinder-zeolite-desulfurization gypsum-sawdust. The results showed that, with the increase of soil crude oil concentration, the relative growth rate (RGR) of plant height, RGR of aboveground biomass and root N: P ratios of H. annuus seedlings decreased significantly, while the activity of SOD and CAT increased at first and then decreased significantly. The RGR of plant height and aboveground biomass significantly increased (P < 0.05), while the activity of SOD decreased gradually with the increase of the volume fraction of sawdust, indicating that sawdust had the most significant effect in comparison with cinder, zeolite, desulfurization gypsum under salinization condition. The crude oil pollution of soil could decrease the relative growth rate of H. annuus seedling, and sawdust could reduce the influence of crude oil pollution on plant growth under salt stress. PMID:26915209

  16. Modeled hydraulic redistribution by Helianthus annuus L. matches observed data only after model modification to include nighttime transpiration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, R. B.; Cardon, Z. G.; Rockwell, F. E.; Teshera-Levye, J.; Zwieniecki, M.; Holbrook, N. M.

    2013-12-01

    The movement of water from moist to dry soil layers through the root systems of plants, referred to as hydraulic redistribution (HR), occurs throughout the world and is thought to influence carbon and water budgets and ecosystem functioning. The realized hydrologic, biogeochemical, and ecological consequences of HR depend on the amount of redistributed water, while the ability to assess these impacts requires models that correctly capture HR magnitude and timing. Using several soil types and two eco-types of Helianthus annuus L. in split-pot experiments, we examined how well the widely used HR modeling formulation developed by Ryel et al. (2002) could match experimental determination of HR across a range of water potential driving gradients. H. annuus carries out extensive nighttime transpiration, and though over the last decade it has become more widely recognized that nighttime transpiration occurs in multiple species and many ecosystems, the original Ryel et al. (2002) formulation does not include the effect of nighttime transpiration on HR. We developed and added a representation of nighttime transpiration into the formulation, and only then was the model able to capture the dynamics and magnitude of HR we observed as soils dried and nighttime stomatal behavior changed, both influencing HR.

  17. Detection of herbicide effects on pigment composition and PSII photochemistry in Helianthus annuus by Raman spectroscopy and chlorophyll a fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Vítek, Petr; Novotná, Kateřina; Hodaňová, Petra; Rapantová, Barbora; Klem, Karel

    2017-01-01

    The effects of herbicides from three mode-of-action groups - inhibitors of protoporphyrinogen oxidase (carfentrazone-ethyl), inhibitors of carotenoid biosynthesis (mesotrione, clomazone, and diflufenican), and inhibitors of acetolactate synthase (amidosulfuron) - were studied in sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus). Raman spectroscopy, chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) imaging, and UV screening of ChlF were combined to evaluate changes in pigment composition, photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry, and non-photochemical quenching in plant leaves 6d after herbicide application. The Raman signals of phenolic compounds, carotenoids, and chlorophyll were evaluated and differences in their intensity ratios were observed. Strongly augmented relative content of phenolic compounds was observed in the case of amidosulfuron-treated plants, with a simultaneous decrease in the chlorophyll/carotenoid intensity ratio. The results were confirmed by in vivo measurement of flavonols using UV screening of ChlF. Herbicides from the group of carotenoid biosynthesis inhibitors significantly decreased both the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII and non-photochemical quenching as determined by ChlF. Resonance Raman imaging (mapping) data with high resolution (150,000-200,000 spectra) are presented, showing the distribution of carotenoids in H. annuus leaves treated by two of the herbicides acting as inhibitors of carotenoid biosynthesis (clomazone or diflufenican). Clear signs were observed that the treatment induced carotenoid depletion within sunflower leaves. The depletion spatial pattern registered differed depending on the type of herbicide applied. PMID:27450121

  18. Enhanced Pb Absorption by Hordeum vulgare L. and Helianthus annuus L. Plants Inoculated with an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Consortium.

    PubMed

    Arias, Milton Senen Barcos; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José; Alarcón, Alejandro; Maldonado Vega, María

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) consortium conformed by (Glomus intraradices, Glomus albidum, Glomus diaphanum, and Glomus claroideum) on plant growth and absorption of Pb, Fe, Na, Ca, and (32)P in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants was evaluated. AMF-plants and controls were grown in a substrate amended with powdered Pb slag at proportions of 0, 10, 20, and 30% v/v equivalent to total Pb contents of 117; 5,337; 13,659, and 19,913 mg Pb kg(-1) substrate, respectively. Mycorrhizal root colonization values were 70, 94, 98, and 90%, for barley and 91, 97, 95, and 97%, for sunflower. AMF inoculum had positive repercussions on plant development of both crops. Mycorrhizal barley absorbed more Pb (40.4 mg Pb kg(-1)) shoot dry weight than non-colonized controls (26.5 mg Pb kg(-1)) when treated with a high Pb slag dosage. This increase was higher in roots than shoots (650.0 and 511.5 mg Pb kg(-1) root dry weight, respectively). A similar pattern was found in sunflower. Plants with AMF absorbed equal or lower amounts of Fe, Na and Ca than controls. H. vulgare absorbed more total P (1.0%) than H. annuus (0.9%). The arbuscular mycorrizal consortium enhanced Pb extraction by plants. PMID:25495930

  19. Molecular characterization of Helja, an extracellular jacalin-related protein from Helianthus annuus: Insights into the relationship of this protein with unconventionally secreted lectins.

    PubMed

    Pinedo, Marcela; Orts, Facundo; Carvalho, André de Oliveira; Regente, Mariana; Soares, Julia Ribeiro; Gomes, Valdirene Moreira; de la Canal, Laura

    2015-07-01

    Jacalin-related lectins (JRLs) encompass cytosolic, nuclear and vacuolar members displaying the jacalin domain in one or more copies or in combination with unrelated domains. Helianthus annuus jacalin (Helja) is a mannose-specific JRL previously identified in the apoplast of Helianthus annuus seedlings, and this protein has been proposed to follow unconventional secretion. Here, we describe the full-length Helja cDNA sequence, which presents a unique jacalin domain (merolectin) and the absence of a signal peptide, confirming that the protein cannot follow the classical ER-dependent secretory pathway. Helja mRNA is present in seeds, cotyledons, roots and hypocotyls, but no transcripts were detected in the leaves. Searches for sequence similarity showed that Helja is barely similar to other JRLs present in H. annuus databases and less than 45% identical to other monocot or dicot JRLs. Strikingly, most of the merolectins recovered through data mining using Helja as a query were predicted as apoplastic, although most of these proteins lack the signal peptide required for classical secretion. Thus, Helja is the first bait identified to recover putative unconventionally secreted lectins. Because the recovered JRLs are widely distributed among the plant kingdom, an as yet unknown role for jacalin lectins in the apoplast is emerging. PMID:26140981

  20. Root biomass response to foliar application of imazapyr for two imidazolinone tolerant alleles of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Carlos A.; Bulos, Mariano; Altieri, Emiliano; Ramos, María Laura

    2012-01-01

    Imisun and CLPlus are two imidazolinone tolerance traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) determined by the expression of two alleles at the locus Ahasl1. Both traits differed in their tolerance level to imazapyr —a type of imidazolinone herbicide— when aboveground biomass is considered, but the concomitant herbicide effect over the root system has not been reported. The objective of this work was to quantify the root biomass response to increased doses of imazapyr in susceptible (ahasl1/ahasl1), Imisun (Ahasl1-1/Ahasl1-1) and CLPlus (Ahasl1-3/Ahasl1-3) homozygous sunflower genotypes. These materials were sprayed at the V2–V4 stage with increased doses of imazapyr (from 0 to 480 g active ingredient ha−1) and 14 days after treatment root biomass of each plant was assessed. Genotype at the Ahasl1 locus, dose of imazapyr and their interaction significantly contributed (P < 0.001) to explain the reduction in root biomass accumulation after herbicide application. Estimated dose of imazapyr required to reduce root biomass accumulation by fifty percent (GR50) differed statistically for the three genotypes under study (P < 0.001). CLPlus genotypes showed the highest values of GR50, 300 times higher on average than the susceptible genotypes, and almost 8 times higher than Imisun materials, demonstrating that both alleles differ in their root biomass response to foliar application of increased doses of imazapyr. PMID:23226083

  1. Cloning, heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of plastidial sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase from Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Payá-Milans, Miriam; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Salas, Joaquín J; Garcés, Rafael; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2015-03-01

    The acyl-[acyl carrier protein]:sn-1-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT; E.C. 2.3.1.15) catalyzes the first step of glycerolipid assembly within the stroma of the chloroplast. In the present study, the sunflower (Helianthus annuus, L.) stromal GPAT was cloned, sequenced and characterized. We identified a single ORF of 1344base pairs that encoded a GPAT sharing strong sequence homology with the plastidial GPAT from Arabidopsis thaliana (ATS1, At1g32200). Gene expression studies showed that the highest transcript levels occurred in green tissues in which chloroplasts are abundant. The corresponding mature protein was heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli for purification and biochemical characterization. In vitro assays using radiolabelled acyl-ACPs and glycerol-3-phosphate as substrates revealed a strong preference for oleic versus palmitic acid, and weak activity towards stearic acid. The positional fatty acid composition of relevant chloroplast phospholipids from sunflower leaves did not reflect the in vitro GPAT specificity, suggesting a more complex scenario with mixed substrates at different concentrations, competition with other acyl-ACP consuming enzymatic reactions, etc. In summary, this study has confirmed the affinity of this enzyme which would partly explain the resistance to cold temperatures observed in sunflower plants. PMID:25618244

  2. Translatome profiling in dormant and nondormant sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds highlights post-transcriptional regulation of germination.

    PubMed

    Layat, Elodie; Leymarie, Juliette; El-Maarouf-Bouteau, Hayat; Caius, José; Langlade, Nicolas; Bailly, Christophe

    2014-12-01

    Seed dormancy, which blocks germination in apparently favourable conditions, is a key regulatory control point of plant population establishment. As germination requires de novo translation, its regulation by dormancy is likely to be related to the association of individual transcripts to polysomes. Here, the polysome-associated mRNAs, that is, the translatome, were fractionated and characterized with microarrays in dormant and nondormant sunflower (Helianthus annuus) embryos during their imbibition at 10°C, a temperature preventing germination of dormant embryos. Profiling of mRNAs in polysomal complexes revealed that the translatome differs between germinating and nongerminating embryos. Association of transcripts with polysomes reached a maximum after 15 h of imbibition; at this time-point 194 polysome-associated transcripts were specifically found in nondormant embryos and 47 in dormant embryos only. The proteins corresponding to the polysomal mRNAs in nondormant embryos appeared to be very pertinent for germination and were involved mainly in transport, regulation of transcription or cell wall modifications. This work demonstrates that seed germination results from a timely regulated and selective recruitment of mRNAs to polysomes, thus opening novel fields of investigation for the understanding of this developmental process. PMID:25157915

  3. Spatio-temporal decoupling of stomatal and mesophyll conductance induced by vein cutting in leaves of Helianthus annuus

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, David T.; Green, Laura E.; Pockman, William T.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of hydraulic conductance to the canopy has been shown to result in stomatal responses to limit transpiration. To test for similar responses to perturbations of the hydraulic network in leaves, we simultaneously measured leaf gas exchange with spatially explicit chlorophyll-a fluorescence and leaf temperature to examine the effects of cutting a primary leaf vein in Helianthus annuus. We repeated the leaf treatment at each of three different vapor pressure deficits and monitored the short-term dynamics of gas exchange following the treatment. Immediately after treatment, photosynthesis and stomatal conductance (gs) showed a transient “wrong way” response in which photosynthesis declined despite increased gs. Comparisons of fluorescence and temperature across the leaf showed that both photosynthesis and gs were transiently patchy across the measured leaf area, but that the patchiness of the two processes did not correspond in space or time. This suggests that photosynthesis and gs respond to vein cutting-induced cavitation via different mechanisms. Because the stomatal response varied by vapor pressure difference condition but photosynthesis did not, it is likely that gs, but not photosynthesis, responded to a hydraulic signal. In contrast, we hypothesize that photosynthesis declined due to a wound-induced electrical signal that has recently been shown to transiently decrease mesophyll conductance to CO2. The interaction of epidermal hydraulics and the electrical signal across the leaf likely created a patchy pattern of chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf temperature that cannot be explained through the action of a single signal. PMID:24065972

  4. Characterization of a small acyl-CoA-binding protein (ACBP) from Helianthus annuus L. and its binding affinities.

    PubMed

    Aznar-Moreno, Jose A; Venegas-Calerón, Mónica; Du, Zhi-Yan; Garcés, Rafael; Tanner, Julian A; Chye, Mee-Len; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Salas, Joaquín J

    2016-05-01

    Acyl-CoA-binding proteins (ACBPs) bind to acyl-CoA esters and promote their interaction with other proteins, lipids and cell structures. Small class I ACBPs have been identified in different plants, such as Arabidopsis thaliana (AtACBP6), Brassica napus (BnACBP) and Oryza sativa (OsACBP1, OsACBP2, OsACBP3), and they are capable of binding to different acyl-CoA esters and phospholipids. Here we characterize HaACBP6, a class I ACBP expressed in sunflower (Helianthus annuus) tissues, studying the specificity of its corresponding recombinant HaACBP6 protein towards various acyl-CoA esters and phospholipids in vitro, particularly using isothermal titration calorimetry and protein phospholipid binding assays. This protein binds with high affinity to de novo synthetized derivatives palmitoly-CoA, stearoyl-CoA and oleoyl-CoA (Kd 0.29, 0.14 and 0.15 μM respectively). On the contrary, it showed lower affinity towards linoleoyl-CoA (Kd 5.6 μM). Moreover, rHaACBP6 binds to different phosphatidylcholine species (dipalmitoyl-PC, dioleoyl-PC and dilinoleoyl-PC), yet it displays no affinity towards other phospholipids like lyso-PC, phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid derivatives. In the light of these results, the possible involvement of this protein in sunflower oil synthesis is considered. PMID:26938582

  5. Pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 Compositae plants, Parthenium hysterophorus, Xanthium strumarium, Helianthus annuus and Chrysanthemum coronarium, in Indian patients.

    PubMed

    Nandakishore, T; Pasricha, J S

    1994-03-01

    To assess the pattern of cross-sensitivity between 4 members of the Compositae family, namely Parthenium hysterophorus L., Xanthium strumarium L., Helanthus annuus L. and Chrysanthemum coronarium L., 63 patients clinically diagnosed to have airborne contact dermatitis, and 51 controls having well-defined patterns of contact dermatitis caused by agents other than plants, were patch tested with measured amounts of standardized aqueous extracts of these plants. Positive reactions were obtained in 62 patients and 13 controls with Parthenium hysterophorus, in 47 patients and 9 controls with Xanthium strumarium, in 7 patients and 2 controls with Helianthus annuus, and in 13 of the 57 patients and one out of 28 controls tested with Chrysanthemum coronarium. 2 patients were allergic to all 4 of the plants; 14 patients to 3 plants, namely Parthenium, Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 9 cases and Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus in 5 cases; 32 patients to 2 plants, namely Parthenium and Xanthium in 30 cases, and Parthenium and Chrysanthemum, and Xanthium and Chrysanthemum in 1 case each; 15 patients were allergic to 1 plant only, that being Parthenium. All the 47 patients allergic to Xanthium, 13 patients allergic to Chrysanthemum and 7 patients allergic to Helianthus were positive with some other plant as well. There was 1 patient who was allergic to Xanthium and Chrysanthemum but not to Parthenium. The titre of contact hypersensitivity (TCH) determined in the patients allergic to Parthenium, Xanthium and Helianthus showed values that varied widely with each plant in different patients, and there was no parallelism between the TCH with various plants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8187516

  6. Toward a Molecular Cytogenetic Map for Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by Landed BAC/BIBAC Clones

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jiuhuan; Liu, Zhao; Cai, Xiwen; Jan, Chao-Chien

    2013-01-01

    Conventional karyotypes and various genetic linkage maps have been established in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n = 34). However, the relationship between linkage groups and individual chromosomes of sunflower remains unknown and has considerable relevance for the sunflower research community. Recently, a set of linkage group-specific bacterial /binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC/BIBAC) clones was identified from two complementary BAC and BIBAC libraries constructed for cultivated sunflower cv. HA89. In the present study, we used these linkage group-specific clones (∼100 kb in size) as probes to in situ hybridize to HA89 mitotic chromosomes at metaphase using the BAC- fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique. Because a characteristic of the sunflower genome is the abundance of repetitive DNA sequences, a high ratio of blocking DNA to probe DNA was applied to hybridization reactions to minimize the background noise. As a result, all sunflower chromosomes were anchored by one or two BAC/BIBAC clones with specific FISH signals. FISH analysis based on tandem repetitive sequences, such as rRNA genes, has been previously reported; however, the BAC-FISH technique developed here using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP)−derived BAC/BIBAC clones as probes to apply genome-wide analysis is new for sunflower. As chromosome-specific cytogenetic markers, the selected BAC/BIBAC clones that encompass the 17 linkage groups provide a valuable tool for identifying sunflower cytogenetic stocks (such as trisomics) and tracking alien chromosomes in interspecific crosses. This work also demonstrates the potential of using a large-insert DNA library for the development of molecular cytogenetic resources. PMID:23316437

  7. Cloning, characterization and structural model of a FatA-type thioesterase from sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Serrano-Vega, M J; Garcés, R; Martínez-Force, E

    2005-08-01

    The substrate specificity of acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterases (EC 3.1.2.14) determines the fatty acids available for the biosynthesis of storage and membrane lipids in seeds. In order to determine the mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis of fatty acids in sunflower seeds (Helianthus annuus L.), we isolated, cloned and sequenced a cDNA clone of acyl-ACP thioesterase from developing sunflower seeds, HaFatA1. Through the heterologous expression of HaFatA1 in Escherichia coli we have purified and characterized this enzyme, showing that sunflower HaFatA1 cDNA encodes a functional thioesterase with preference for monounsaturated acyl-ACPs. The HaFatA1 thioesterase was most efficient (kcat/K(m)) in catalyzing oleoyl-ACP, both in vivo and in vitro. By comparing this sequence with those obtained from public databases, we constructed a phylogenetic tree that included FatA and FatB thioesterases, as well as related prokaryotic proteins. The phylogenetic relationships support the endosymbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells and the suggestion that eubacteria from the delta-subdivision were the guest cells in the symbiosis with archaea. These prokaryotic proteins are more homologous to plant FatB, suggesting that the ancient thioesterases were more similar to FatB. Finally, using the available structure prediction methods, a 3D model of plant acyl-ACP thioesterases is proposed that reflects the combined data from direct mutagenesis and chimera studies. In addition, the model was tested by mutating the residues proposed to interact with the ACP protein in the FatA thioesterase by site-directed mutagenesis. The results indicate that this region is involved in the stabilization of the substrate at the active site. PMID:15841386

  8. Effect of antioxidant butylated hydroxyl anisole on the thermal or oxidative stability of sunflower oil (Helianthus Annuus) by ultrasonic.

    PubMed

    Murari, Satish Kumar; Shwetha, M V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current investigation was to evaluate the efficiency of butylated hydroxyl anisole (BHA) as an antioxidant in sunflower oil (Helianthus Annuus). The oxidation stability of sunflower oil have been investigated by the effects of varying amounts of BHA. The antioxidant incorporated sunflower oil system and control edible oil were subjected to heating at 180 ± 5 °C continuously for a period of 4 h per day for consecutive 4 days. The parameters used to assess the thermal degradation and oxidation properties of the oils include ultrasonic velocity, viscosity, density and peroxide value. The fatty acid compositions of the oils were measured by gas chromatography. Adiabatic compressibility, intermolecular free length, relaxation time and acoustic impedance have been calculated from experimental data. Viscosity, density and ultrasonic velocity change in control oil is from 3.72 × 10(-2) to 13.2 × 10(-2) Nsm - 2, 918 to 994 kg/m3 and 1412 to 1484 m/s respectively and in sunflower oil with 200 ppm BHA is from 3.88 × 10(-2) to 7.52 × 10(-2) Nsm - 2, 926 to 962 kg/m3 and 1418 to 1463 m/s respectively for 16 h of heat treated oil. The ultrasonic results obtained have shown reduction in thermal degradation and improvement in oxidation stability of antioxidant loaded oil in comparison to base oil. Hence, it can be recommended that sunflower oil with 200 ppm BHA can be used for frying without adverse effect on physical properties. The ultrasonic velocity can be used for assessment of stability of frying oil. PMID:26788006

  9. Development, characterization and experimental validation of a cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) gene expression oligonucleotide microarray.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Paula; Soria, Marcelo; Blesa, David; DiRienzo, Julio; Moschen, Sebastian; Rivarola, Maximo; Clavijo, Bernardo Jose; Gonzalez, Sergio; Peluffo, Lucila; Príncipi, Dario; Dosio, Guillermo; Aguirrezabal, Luis; García-García, Francisco; Conesa, Ana; Hopp, Esteban; Dopazo, Joaquín; Heinz, Ruth Amelia; Paniego, Norma

    2012-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs) curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de). The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons). The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0) was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls) and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (p<0.01) allowed the detection of 558 differentially expressed genes between water stress and control conditions; from these, ten genes were further validated by qPCR. Over-represented ontologies were identified using FatiScan in the Babelomics suite. This work generated a curated and trustable sunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement. PMID:23110046

  10. Development, Characterization and Experimental Validation of a Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Gene Expression Oligonucleotide Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Paula; Soria, Marcelo; Blesa, David; DiRienzo, Julio; Moschen, Sebastian; Rivarola, Maximo; Clavijo, Bernardo Jose; Gonzalez, Sergio; Peluffo, Lucila; Príncipi, Dario; Dosio, Guillermo; Aguirrezabal, Luis; García-García, Francisco; Conesa, Ana; Hopp, Esteban; Dopazo, Joaquín; Heinz, Ruth Amelia; Paniego, Norma

    2012-01-01

    Oligonucleotide-based microarrays with accurate gene coverage represent a key strategy for transcriptional studies in orphan species such as sunflower, H. annuus L., which lacks full genome sequences. The goal of this study was the development and functional annotation of a comprehensive sunflower unigene collection and the design and validation of a custom sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray. A large scale EST (>130,000 ESTs) curation, assembly and sequence annotation was performed using Blast2GO (www.blast2go.de). The EST assembly comprises 41,013 putative transcripts (12,924 contigs and 28,089 singletons). The resulting Sunflower Unigen Resource (SUR version 1.0) was used to design an oligonucleotide-based Agilent microarray for cultivated sunflower. This microarray includes a total of 42,326 features: 1,417 Agilent controls, 74 control probes for sunflower replicated 10 times (740 controls) and 40,169 different non-control probes. Microarray performance was validated using a model experiment examining the induction of senescence by water deficit. Pre-processing and differential expression analysis of Agilent microarrays was performed using the Bioconductor limma package. The analyses based on p-values calculated by eBayes (p<0.01) allowed the detection of 558 differentially expressed genes between water stress and control conditions; from these, ten genes were further validated by qPCR. Over-represented ontologies were identified using FatiScan in the Babelomics suite. This work generated a curated and trustable sunflower unigene collection, and a custom, validated sunflower oligonucleotide-based microarray using Agilent technology. Both the curated unigene collection and the validated oligonucleotide microarray provide key resources for sunflower genome analysis, transcriptional studies, and molecular breeding for crop improvement. PMID:23110046

  11. Transcriptomic analysis of the interaction between Helianthus annuus and its obligate parasite Plasmopara halstedii shows single nucleotide polymorphisms in CRN sequences

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Downy mildew in sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) is caused by the oomycete Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berlese et de Toni. Despite efforts by the international community to breed mildew-resistant varieties, downy mildew remains a major threat to the sunflower crop. Very few genomic, genetic and molecular resources are currently available to study this pathogen. Using a 454 sequencing method, expressed sequence tags (EST) during the interaction between H. annuus and P. halstedii have been generated and a search was performed for sites in putative effectors to show polymorphisms between the different races of P. halstedii. Results A 454 pyrosequencing run of two infected sunflower samples (inbred lines XRQ and PSC8 infected with race 710 of P. halstedii, which exhibit incompatible and compatible interactions, respectively) generated 113,720 and 172,107 useable reads. From these reads, 44,948 contigs and singletons have been produced. A bioinformatic portal, HP, was specifically created for in-depth analysis of these clusters. Using in silico filtering, 405 clusters were defined as being specific to oomycetes, and 172 were defined as non-specific oomycete clusters. A subset of these two categories was checked using PCR amplification, and 86% of the tested clusters were validated. Twenty putative RXLR and CRN effectors were detected using PSI-BLAST. Using corresponding sequences from four races (100, 304, 703 and 710), 22 SNPs were detected, providing new information on pathogen polymorphisms. Conclusions This study identified a large number of genes that are expressed during H. annuus/P. halstedii compatible or incompatible interactions. It also reveals, for the first time, that an infection mechanism exists in P. halstedii similar to that in other oomycetes associated with the presence of putative RXLR and CRN effectors. SNPs discovered in CRN effector sequences were used to determine the genetic distances between the four races of P. halstedii. This

  12. Uptake of NO, NO 2 and O 3 by sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) and tobacco plants ( Nicotiana tabacum L.): dependence on stomatal conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neubert, A.; Kley, D.; Wildt, J.; Segschneider, H. J.; Förstel, H.

    The uptake of NO, NO 2 and O 3 by sunflowers ( Helianthus annuus L. var. giganteus) and tobacco plants ( Nicotiana tabacum L. var. Bel W3), using concentrations representative for moderately polluted air, has been determined by gas exchange experiments. Conductivities for these trace gases were measured at different light fluxes ranging from 820 μEm -2s -1 to darkness. The conductivities to water vapor and the trace gases are highly correlated. It is concluded that the uptake of NO, NO 2 and O 3 by sunflowers and tobacco plants is linearly dependent on stomatal opening. While the uptake of NO is limited by the mesophyll resistance, the uptake of NO 2 is only by diffusion through the stomata. Loss processes by deposition to the leaf surfaces are more pronounced for O 3 than for NO and NO 2.

  13. Influence of Boron on the Membrane Potential in Elodea densa and Helianthus annuus Roots and H+ Extrusion of Suspension Cultured Daucus carota Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Blaser-Grill, Jürgen; Knoppik, Dietmar; Amberger, Anton; Goldbach, Heiner

    1989-01-01

    When following the membrane potential of Elodea densa leaf cells during a dark-light regime and analysing the different phases of the cycle, the pattern under boron deficiency resembled the one reported to occur after 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea application. The potential in the dark slowly decreased when transferring Elodea densa leaflets and Helianthus annuus roots to a B-free medium and increased in the same way after B was added again. Addition of vanadate to inhibit plasmalemma ATPases in part mimicked the effects of B deficiency. It is suggested that B directly or indirectly affects the formation of a proton gradient. The effect of B on proton secretion was observed in various experiments with Daucus carota cell cultures. The results are discussed with respect to the possible involvement of B in membrane function and transport processes. PMID:16666749

  14. Distribution and antifeedant associations of sesquiterpene lactones in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte).

    PubMed

    Chou, J C; Mullin, C A

    1993-07-01

    Seven antifeedant sesquiterpene lactones (STLs), 4,5-dihydroniveusin A, argophyllin B, argophyllin A, 15-hydroxy-3-dehydrodesoxytifruticin, niveusin B, 1,2-anhydridoniveusin A, and an unidentified epoxide, in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) have been quantified by a highperformance thin-layer chromatography and UV-reflectance scanning densitometry analysis. Age-related expression of STL content in sunflower reveals a heretofore undescribed pattern in which nonpolar STLs such as 15-hydroxy-3-dehydrodesoxytifruticin predominate up to an age of three weeks, but are subsequently displaced by polar STLs, especially argophyllin A, through later foliar stages and anthesis. This leaf pattern of STL ontogeny is maintained in three widely differentH. annuus cultivars (Giant Gray Stripe, Royal Hybrid 2141, Hybrid 7111), which in turn had similar total contents of STLs. Antifeedant activity for western corn rootworm was positively correlated with STL content, particularly with argophyllin A and its isomer argophyllin B, in respective tissue extracts. Enhanced amounts of highly antifeedant argophyllins, especially in newly grown leaf and floral tissues yielding sunflower progeny, strongly suggest that these epoxy-STLs are a chemical defense against insect herbivory. PMID:24249174

  15. Repetitive DNA and Plant Domestication: Variation in Copy Number and Proximity to Genes of LTR-Retrotransposons among Wild and Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Mascagni, Flavia; Barghini, Elena; Giordani, Tommaso; Rieseberg, Loren H; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2015-12-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genome contains a very large proportion of transposable elements, especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons. However, knowledge on the retrotransposon-related variability within this species is still limited. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to perform a quantitative and qualitative survey of intraspecific variation of the retrotransposon fraction of the genome across 15 genotypes--7 wild accessions and 8 cultivars--of H. annuus. By mapping the Illumina reads of the 15 genotypes onto a library of sunflower long terminal repeat retrotransposons, we observed considerable variability in redundancy among genotypes, at both superfamily and family levels. In another analysis, we mapped Illumina paired reads to two sets of sequences, that is, long terminal repeat retrotransposons and protein-encoding sequences, and evaluated the extent of retrotransposon proximity to genes in the sunflower genome by counting the number of paired reads in which one read mapped to a retrotransposon and the other to a gene. Large variability among genotypes was also ascertained for retrotransposon proximity to genes. Both long terminal repeat retrotransposon redundancy and proximity to genes varied among retrotransposon families and also between cultivated and wild genotypes. Such differences are discussed in relation to the possible role of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the domestication of sunflower. PMID:26608057

  16. Repetitive DNA and Plant Domestication: Variation in Copy Number and Proximity to Genes of LTR-Retrotransposons among Wild and Cultivated Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mascagni, Flavia; Barghini, Elena; Giordani, Tommaso; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Cavallini, Andrea; Natali, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower (Helianthus annuus) genome contains a very large proportion of transposable elements, especially long terminal repeat retrotransposons. However, knowledge on the retrotransposon-related variability within this species is still limited. We used next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to perform a quantitative and qualitative survey of intraspecific variation of the retrotransposon fraction of the genome across 15 genotypes—7 wild accessions and 8 cultivars—of H. annuus. By mapping the Illumina reads of the 15 genotypes onto a library of sunflower long terminal repeat retrotransposons, we observed considerable variability in redundancy among genotypes, at both superfamily and family levels. In another analysis, we mapped Illumina paired reads to two sets of sequences, that is, long terminal repeat retrotransposons and protein-encoding sequences, and evaluated the extent of retrotransposon proximity to genes in the sunflower genome by counting the number of paired reads in which one read mapped to a retrotransposon and the other to a gene. Large variability among genotypes was also ascertained for retrotransposon proximity to genes. Both long terminal repeat retrotransposon redundancy and proximity to genes varied among retrotransposon families and also between cultivated and wild genotypes. Such differences are discussed in relation to the possible role of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the domestication of sunflower. PMID:26608057

  17. Genetics and mapping of a novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl18, introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower downy mildew is considered to be the most destructive foliar disease that has spread to every major sunflower-growing country of the world, except Australia. A new dominant downy mildew resistance gene (Pl18) transferred from wild Helianthus argophyllus (PI 494573) into cultivated sunflowe...

  18. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A.; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H.

    2015-01-21

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) to visualize Zn withinmore » the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO₄ alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using μ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower.« less

  19. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A.; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H.

    2014-01-01

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO4 alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using μ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower. PMID:25653663

  20. Effects of an acute dose of gamma radiation exposure on stem diameter growth, carbon gain, and biomass partitioning in Helianthus annuus

    SciTech Connect

    Thiede, M.E.

    1988-05-25

    Nineteen-day-old dwarf sunflower plants (Helianthus annuus, variety NK894) received a variable dose (0-40 Gy) from a cobalt-60 gamma source. A very sensitive stem monitoring device, developed at Battelle's Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, Washington was used to measure real-time changes in stem diameter. Exposure of plants caused a significant reduction in stem growth and root biomass. Doses as low as 5 Gy resulted in a significant increase in leaf density, suggesting that nonreversible morphological growth changes could be induced by very low doses of radiation. Carbohydrate analysis of 40-Gy irradiated plants demonstrated significantly more starch content in leaves and significantly less starch content in stems 18 days after exposure than did control plants. In contrast, the carbohydrate content in roots of 40-Gy irradiated plants were not significantly different from unirradiated plants 18 days after exposure. These results indicate that radiation either decreased phloem transport or reduced the availability of sugar reducing enzymes in irradiated plants. 44 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions and plant characteristics from soil cultivated with sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and amended with organic or inorganic fertilizers.

    PubMed

    López-Valdez, F; Fernández-Luqueño, F; Luna-Suárez, S; Dendooven, L

    2011-12-15

    Agricultural application of wastewater sludge has become the most widespread method of disposal, but the environmental effects on soil, air, and crops must be considered. The effect of wastewater sludge or urea on sunflower's (Helianthus annuus L.) growth and yield, the soil properties, and the resulting CO(2) and N(2)O emissions are still unknown. The objectives of this study were to investigate: i) the effect on soil properties of organic or inorganic fertilizer added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower, ii) how urea or wastewater sludge increases CO(2) and N(2)O emissions from agricultural soil over short time periods, and iii) the effect on plant characteristics and yield of urea or wastewater sludge added to agricultural soil cultivated with sunflower. The sunflower was fertilized with wastewater sludge or urea or grown in unamended soil under greenhouse conditions while plant and soil characteristics, yield, and greenhouse gas emissions were monitored. Sludge and urea modified some soil characteristics at the onset of the experiment and during the first two months but not thereafter. Some plant characteristics were improved by sludge. Urea and sludge treatments increased the yield at similar rates, while sludge-amended soil significantly increased N(2)O emissions but not CO(2) emissions compared to the other amended or unamended soils. This implies that wastewater sludge increased the biomass and/or the yield; however, from a holistic point of view, using wastewater sludge as fertilizer should be viewed with concern. PMID:22033361

  2. Comparison of MP AES and ICP-MS for analysis of principal and selected trace elements in nitric acid digests of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Stefan; Sjöberg, Viktor; Ogar, Anna

    2015-04-01

    The use of nitrogen as plasma gas for microwave plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MP AES) is an interesting development in analytical science since the running cost can be significantly reduced in comparison to the inductively coupled argon plasma. Here, we evaluate the performance of the Agilent 4100 MP AES instrument for the analysis of principal metals (Ca, K, Mg, and Na), lithogenic metals (Al, Fe, and Mn) and selected trace metals (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, and Zn) in nitric acid plant digests. The digests were prepared by microwave-assisted dissolution of dry plant material from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in concentrated nitric acid. Comparisons are made with analysis of the same solutions with ICP-MS (Agilent 7500cx) using the octopole reaction system (ORS) in the collision mode for As, Fe, and V. The limits of detection were usually in the low µg L(-1) range and all principal and lithogenic metals were successfully determined with the MP AES and provided almost identical results with the ICP-MS. The same applies for the selected trace metals except for As, Co and Mo where the concentrations were below the detection limit with the MP AES. For successful analysis we recommend that (i) only atom lines are used, (ii) ionization is minimized (e.g. addition of CsNO3) and (iii) the use of internal standards should be considered to resolve spectral interferences. PMID:25640135

  3. Spatio-temporal mapping of variation potentials in leaves of Helianthus annuus L. seedlings in situ using multi-electrode array.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dong-Jie; Wang, Zhong-Yi; Huang, Lan; Jia, Yong-Peng; Leng, John Q

    2014-01-01

    Damaging thermal stimuli trigger long-lasting variation potentials (VPs) in higher plants. Owing to limitations in conventional plant electrophysiological recording techniques, recorded signals are composed of signals originating from all of the cells that are connected to an electrode. This limitation does not enable detailed spatio-temporal distributions of transmission and electrical activities in plants to be visualised. Multi-electrode array (MEA) enables the recording and imaging of dynamic spatio-temporal electrical activities in higher plants. Here, we used an 8 × 8 MEA with a polar distance of 450 μm to measure electrical activities from numerous cells simultaneously. The mapping of the data that were recorded from the MEA revealed the transfer mode of the thermally induced VPs in the leaves of Helianthus annuus L. seedlings in situ. These results suggest that MEA can enable recordings with high spatio-temporal resolution that facilitate the determination of the bioelectrical response mode of higher plants under stress. PMID:24961469

  4. The effect of subambient to elevated atmospheric CO₂ concentration on vascular function in Helianthus annuus: implications for plant response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Rico, Christopher; Pittermann, Jarmila; Polley, H Wayne; Aspinwall, Michael J; Fay, Phillip A

    2013-09-01

    Plant gas exchange is regulated by stomata, which coordinate leaf-level water loss with xylem transport. Stomatal opening responds to internal concentrations of CO₂ in the leaf, but changing CO₂ can also lead to changes in stomatal density that influence transpiration. Given that stomatal conductance increases under subambient concentrations of CO₂ and, conversely, that plants lose less water at elevated concentrations, can downstream effects of atmospheric CO₂ be observed in xylem tissue? We approached this problem by evaluating leaf stomatal density, xylem transport, xylem anatomy and resistance to cavitation in Helianthus annuus plants grown under three CO₂ regimes ranging from pre-industrial to elevated concentrations. Xylem transport, conduit size and stomatal density all increased at 290 ppm relative to ambient and elevated CO₂ concentrations. The shoots of the 290-ppm-grown plants were most vulnerable to cavitation, whereas xylem cavitation resistance did not differ in 390- and 480-ppm-grown plants. Our data indicate that, even as an indirect driver of water loss, CO₂ can affect xylem structure and water transport by coupling stomatal and xylem hydraulic functions during plant development. This plastic response has implications for plant water use under variable concentrations of CO₂, as well as the evolution of efficient xylem transport. PMID:23731256

  5. Effects of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water on seed germination, seedling development, and biomass production of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    da Costa Marques, Mônica Regina; de Souza, Paulo Sérgio Alves; Rigo, Michelle Machado; Cerqueira, Alexandre Andrade; de Paiva, Julieta L; Merçon, Fábio; Perez, Daniel Vidal

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate possible toxic effects of oil and other contaminants from oilfield-produced water from oil exploration and production, on seed germination, and seedling development of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). In comparison, as treated by electroflocculation, oilfield-produced water, with lower oil and organic matter content, was also used. Electroflocculation treatment of oilfield-produced water achieved significant removals of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (94 %), oil and grease (O&G) (96 %), color (97 %), and turbidity (99 %). Different O&G, COD, and salt levels of untreated and treated oilfield-produced water did not influence germination process and seedling biomass production. Normal seedlings percentage and vigor tended to decrease more intensely in O&G and COD levels, higher than 337.5 mg L(-1) and 1321 mg O2 L(-1), respectively, using untreated oilfield-produced water. These results indicate that this industrial effluent must be treated, in order to not affect adversely seedling development. This way, electroflocculation treatment appears as an interesting alternative to removing oil and soluble organic matter in excess from oilfield-produced water improving sunflower's seedling development and providing a friendly environmental destination for this wastewater, reducing its potential to harm water resources, soil, and biota. PMID:26059762

  6. Influence of drought acclimation and CO sub 2 enrichment on osmotic adjustment and chlorophyll a fluorescence of sunflower during drought. [Helianthus annuus var Hyson 30

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, J.P.; Virgona, J.M.; Smillie, R.M.; Barlow, E.W. Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, North Ryde )

    1988-04-01

    Osmotic adjustment occurred during drought in expanded leaves of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus var Hysun 30) which had been continuously exposed to 660 microliters CO{sub 2} per liter or had been previously acclimated to drought. The effect was greatest when the treatments were combined and was negligible in nonacclimated plants grown at 340 microliters CO{sub 2} per liter. The concentrations of ethanol soluble sugars and potassium increased during drought but they did not account for the osmotic adjustment. The delay in the decline in conductance and relative water content and in the loss of structural integrity with increasing drought was dependent on the degree of osmotic adjustment. The relative water content remained constant at 85% for three days and fell to 36% on the sixth day. There was no evidence of leaf desiccation even on the eighth day. In contrast, the conductance of leaves showing minimal adjustment fell rapidly after the first day of drought and was negligible after the fourth, at which time the relative water content was 36%. By the sixth day of drought, areas near the margins of the leaves were desiccating and the plants did not recover upon rewatering. Despite the differences in the rate of change of conductance and relative water content during drought, photosynthetic electron transport activity, remained functional until desiccation occurred.

  7. The ability of Helianthus annuus L. and Brassica juncea to uptake and translocate natural uranium and 226Ra under different milieu conditions.

    PubMed

    Vera Tomé, F; Blanco Rodríguez, P; Lozano, J C

    2009-01-01

    Seedlings of Helianthus annuus L. (HA) and Brassica juncea (BJ) were used to test the effect of the pH, the presence of phosphates, and the addition of ethylene-diamine-tetraacetic acid (EDTA) or citrate on the uptake and the translocation of uranium isotopes ((238)U, (235)U, and (234)U) and (226)Ra. The results indicated that the presence of phosphates generally reduces the uptake and transfer of uranium from the roots to the shoots of HA. In the case of BJ, while phosphate enhanced the retention of uranium by roots, the translocation was poorer. Likewise, for (226)Ra, the best translocation was in the absence of phosphates for both species. The addition of citrate increased the translocation of uranium for both species, but had no clear effect on the transfer of (226)Ra. The effect of EDTA was much more moderate both for uranium and for (226)Ra, and for both plant species. Only noticeable was a slightly better uptake of (226)Ra by BJ at neutral pH, although the translocation was lower. PMID:18848715

  8. The effect of EDTA on Helianthus annuus uptake, selectivity, and translocation of heavy metals when grown in Ohio, New Mexico and Colombia soils.

    PubMed

    Turgut, Cafer; Pepe, M Katie; Cutright, Teresa J

    2005-02-01

    The use of two EDTA concentrations for enhancing the bioavailability of cadmium, chromium, and nickel in three natural soils (Ohio, New Mexico and Colombia) was investigated. The resulting uptake, translocation and selectivity with Helianthus annuus after mobilization were also examined. In general, plants grown in the sandy-loam Ohio soil had a higher uptake that resulted in a selectivity and total metal content of Cd>Cr>Ni and 0.73 mg and Cr>Cd>Ni and 0.32 mg for 0.1 and 0.3 g kg-1 EDTA, respectively. With the silty-loam New Mexico soil, although the total metal uptake was not statistically different the EDTA level did alter the selectivity; Cd>Cr>Ni (0.1 g kg-1 EDTA) and Cd>Cr>Ni (0.3 g kg-1 EDTA). Conversely, with the Colombian (sandy clay loam) soil increasing the EDTA level resulted in a higher total metal uptake (0.62 mg) than the 0.1 g kg-1 (0.59 mg) treatment. For all three soils, the translocation of Cd was limited. Evaluating the mobile metal fraction with and without EDTA determined that the chelator was capable of overcoming mass transfer limitations associated with the expandable clay fraction in the soils. Root wash results and root biomass concentrations indicated that Cd sorption was occurring. Therefore limited Cd translocation was attributed to insufficient phytochelatin levels. PMID:15664616

  9. A GRAS-like gene of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) alters the gibberellin content and axillary meristem outgrowth in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Fambrini, M; Mariotti, L; Parlanti, S; Salvini, M; Pugliesi, C

    2015-11-01

    The GRAS proteins belong to a plant transcriptional regulator family that function in the regulation of plant growth and development. Despite their important roles, in sunflower only one GRAS gene (HaDella1) with the DELLA domain has been reported. Here, we provide a functional characterisation of a GRAS-like gene from Helianthus annuus (Ha-GRASL) lacking the DELLA motif. The Ha-GRASL gene contains an intronless open reading frame of 1,743 bp encoding 580 amino acids. Conserved motifs in the GRAS domain are detected, including VHIID, PFYRE, SAW and two LHR motifs. Within the VHII motif, the P-H-N-D-Q-L residues are entirely maintained. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that Ha-GRASL belongs to the SCARECROW LIKE4/7 (SCL4/7) subfamily of the GRAS consensus tree. Accumulation of Ha-GRASL mRNA at the adaxial boundaries from P6/P7 leaf primordia suggests a role of Ha-GRASL in the initiation of median and basal axillary meristems (AMs) of sunflower. When Ha-GRASL is over-expressed in Arabidopsis wild-type plants, the number of lateral bolts increases differently from untransformed plants. However, Ha-GRASL slightly affects the lateral suppressor (las-4-) mutation. Therefore, we hypothesise that Ha-GRASL and LAS are not functionally equivalent. The over-expression of Ha-GRASL reduces metabolic flow of gibberellins (GAs) in Arabidopsis and this modification could be relevant in AM development. Phylogenetic analysis includes LAS and SCL4/7 in the same major clade, suggesting a more recent separation of these genes with respect to other GRAS members. We propose that some features of their ancestor, as well as AM initiation and outgrowth, are partially retained in both LAS and SCL4/7. PMID:26081041

  10. Identification and characterization of two bisabolene synthases from linear glandular trichomes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Kwon, Moonhyuk; Conrad, Jürgen; Ro, Dae-Kyun; Spring, Otmar

    2016-04-01

    Sunflower is known to produce a variety of bisabolene-type sesquiterpenes and accumulates these substances in trichomes of leaves, stems and flowering parts. A bioinformatics approach was used to identify the enzyme responsible for the initial step in the biosynthesis of these compounds from its precursor farnesyl pyrophosphate. Based on sequence similarity with a known bisabolene synthases from Arabidopsis thaliana AtTPS12, candidate genes of Helianthus were searched in EST-database and used to design specific primers. PCR experiments identified two candidates in the RNA pool of linear glandular trichomes of sunflower. Their sequences contained the typical motifs of sesquiterpene synthases and their expression in yeast functionally characterized them as bisabolene synthases. Spectroscopic analysis identified the stereochemistry of the product of both enzymes as (Z)-γ-bisabolene. The origin of the two sunflower bisabolene synthase genes from the transcripts of linear trichomes indicates that they may be involved in the synthesis of sesquiterpenes produced in these trichomes. Comparison of the amino acid sequences of the sunflower bisabolene synthases showed high similarity with sesquiterpene synthases from other Asteracean species and indicated putative evolutionary origin from a β-farnesene synthase. PMID:26880289

  11. Supplemental macronutrients and microbial fermentation products improve the uptake and transport of foliar applied zinc in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants. Studies utilizing micro X-ray florescence

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Xie, Ruohan; Zhang, Minzhe; Jernstedt, Judith A.; Hou, Dandi; Ramsier, Cliff; Brown, Patrick H.

    2015-01-21

    Enhancing nutrient uptake and the subsequent elemental transport from the sites of application to sites of utilization is of great importance to the science and practical field application of foliar fertilizers. The aim of this study was to investigate the mobility of various foliar applied zinc (Zn) formulations in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and to evaluate the effects of the addition of an organic biostimulant on phloem loading and elemental mobility. This was achieved by application of foliar formulations to the blade of sunflower (H. annuus L.) and high-resolution elemental imaging with micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) to visualize Zn within the vascular system of the leaf petiole. Although no significant increase of total Zn in petioles was determined by inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometer, μ-XRF elemental imaging showed a clear enrichment of Zn in the vascular tissues within the sunflower petioles treated with foliar fertilizers containing Zn. The concentration of Zn in the vascular of sunflower petioles was increased when Zn was applied with other microelements with EDTA (commercial product Kick-Off) as compared with an equimolar concentration of ZnSO₄ alone. The addition of macronutrients N, P, K (commercial product CleanStart) to the Kick-Off Zn fertilizer, further increased vascular system Zn concentrations while the addition of the microbially derived organic biostimulant “GroZyme” resulted in a remarkable enhancement of Zn concentrations in the petiole vascular system. The study provides direct visualized evidence for phloem transport of foliar applied Zn out of sites of application in plants by using μ-XRF technique, and suggests that the formulation of the foliar applied Zn and the addition of the organic biostimulant GroZyme increases the mobility of Zn following its absorption by the leaf of sunflower.

  12. Respiration and Energy Turnover During the Seedling Development of Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L., Helianthus annuus L., and Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Bolhàr-Nordenkampf, H R; Zahrl, J

    1984-08-01

    Seedling length, CO(2) output, dry weight and energy content of the seeds and seedling organs of Triticum, Zea, Helianthus and Phaseolus were determined in order to study the efficiency of storage substance utilization and energy turnover during seedling development up to 108 h. The respiration rate is lower in the large seeds of Zea and Phaseolus (2.2 and 2.0 mgCO(2)·gDW(-1)·h(-1)) than in the small seeds of Triticum and Helianthus (3.1 and 4.2 mgCO(2)·gDW(-1)·h(-1)). CO(2) output during the synthesis of seedling organs reaches a maximum value in Triticum, Zea and Helianthus after 36 h (1.0, 1.7 and 1.3 gCO(2)·gDW(n)(-1), resp.) and in Phaseolus after 60 h (3.0 gCO(2)·gDW(n)(-1)). This high CO(2) evolution is caused by the lag phase of growth at the beginning of germination, as indicated in the RGR course. The loss of mobilized storage substances caused by CO(2) evolution amounts to 46% in Phaseolus and is less (av. 30%) in the other seeds. The energy loss in relation to the energy of the ungerminated seed is relatively high in the small and energy-rich seeds of Triticum (19%) and Helianthus (21 %) compared with the large seeds of Zea (8 %) and Phaseolus (13 %). The efficiency of energy utilization corresponding to the energy stored in the newly formed seedling organs is low in Helianthus (40%) and Phaseolus (43%) and relatively high in Triticum (55%) and Zea (6 %). The calorific equivalent of the CO(2) amount evolved differs widely (11 to 24 kJ·gCO(2)(-1)). With the exception of Zea these values are much higher than the calorific equivalent of the dry weight loss. The latter may be explained by energy losses without CO(2) evolution, as well as by CO(2) refixation by PEPC and by energy dissipation in the maintenance metabolism. PMID:23194792

  13. Nongenotoxic effects and a reduction of the DXR-induced genotoxic effects of Helianthus annuus Linné (sunflower) seeds revealed by micronucleus assays in mouse bone marrow

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This research evaluated the genotoxicity of oil and tincture of H. annuus L. seeds using the micronucleus assay in bone marrow of mice. The interaction between these preparations and the genotoxic effects of doxorubicin (DXR) was also analysed (antigenotoxicity test). Methods Experimental groups were evaluated at 24-48 h post treatment with N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea (positive control – NEU), DXR (chemotherapeutic), NaCl (negative control), a sunflower tincture (THALS) and two sources of sunflower oils (POHALS and FOHALS). Antigenotoxic assays were carried out using the sunflower tincture and oils separately and in combination with NUE or DXR. Results For THALS, analysis of the MNPCEs showed no significant differences between treatment doses (250–2,000 mg.Kg-1) and NaCl. A significant reduction in MNPCE was observed when THALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) was administered in combination with DXR (5 mg.Kg-1). For POHALS or FOHALS, analysis of the MNPCEs also showed no significant differences between treatment doses (250–2,000 mg.Kg-1) and NaCl. However, the combination DXR + POHALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) or DXR + FOHALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) not contributed to the MNPCEs reduction. Conclusions This research suggests absence of genotoxicity of THALS, dose-, time- and sex-independent, and its combination with DXR can reduce the genotoxic effects of DXR. POHALS and FOHALS also showed absence of genotoxicity, but their association with DXR showed no antigenotoxic effects. PMID:24694203

  14. Progress on the introgression of Sclerotinia resistance genes from wild perennial Helianthus species into cultivated sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The necrotrophic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary attacks sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) causing root, stalk, and head rot, and is one of the most damaging and difficult-to-control sunflower diseases. Some wild perennial Helianthus species have been identified to contain abundant res...

  15. Effect of asymmetric auxin application on Helianthus hypocotyl curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Migliaccio, F.; Rayle, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid was applied asymmetrically to the hypocotyls of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seedlings. After 5 hours on a clinostat, auxin gradients as small as 1 to 1.3 produced substantial (more than 60 degrees) hypocotyl curvature. This result suggests the asymmetric growth underlying hypocotyl gravitropism can be explained by lateral auxin redistribution.

  16. [Study of Chloroplast DNA Polymorphism in the Sunflower (Helianthus L.)].

    PubMed

    Markina, N V; Usatov, A V; Logacheva, M D; Azarin, K V; Gorbachenko, C F; Kornienko, I V; Gavrilova, V A; Tihobaeva, V E

    2015-08-01

    The polymorphism of microsatellite loci of chloroplast genome in six Helianthus species and 46 lines of cultivated sunflower H. annuus (17 CMS lines and 29 Rf-lines) were studied. The differences between species are confined to four SSR loci. Within cultivated forms of the sunflower H. annuus, the polymorphism is absent. A comparative analysis was performed on sequences of the cpDNA inbred line 3629, line 398941 of the wild sunflower, and the American line HA383 H. annuus. As a result, 52 polymorphic loci represented by 27 SSR and 25 SNP were found; they can be used for genotyping of H. annuus samples, including cultural varieties: twelve polymorphic positions, of which eight are SSR and four are SNP. PMID:26601486

  17. Chromosomal Evolution and Patterns of Introgression in Helianthus

    PubMed Central

    Barb, Jessica G.; Bowers, John E.; Renaut, Sebastien; Rey, Juan I.; Knapp, Steven J.; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Burke, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the nature and extent of karyotypic differences between species provides insight into the evolutionary history of the genomes in question and, in the case of closely related species, the potential for genetic exchange between taxa. We constructed high-density genetic maps of the silverleaf sunflower (Helianthus argophyllus) and Algodones Dune sunflower (H. niveus ssp. tephrodes) genomes and compared them to a consensus map of cultivated sunflower (H. annuus) to identify chromosomal rearrangements between species. The genetic maps of H. argophyllus and H. niveus ssp. tephrodes included 17 linkage groups each and spanned 1337 and 1478 cM, respectively. Comparative analyses revealed greater divergence between H. annuus and H. niveus ssp. tephrodes (13 inverted segments, 18 translocated segments) than between H. annuus and H. argophyllus (10 inverted segments, 8 translocated segments), consistent with their known phylogenetic relationships. Marker order was conserved across much of the genome, with 83 and 64% of the H. argophyllus and H. niveus ssp. tephrodes genomes, respectively, being syntenic with H. annuus. Population genomic analyses between H. annuus and H. argophyllus, which are sympatric across a portion of the natural range of H. annuus, revealed significantly elevated genetic structure in rearranged portions of the genome, indicating that such rearrangements are associated with restricted gene flow between these two species. PMID:24770331

  18. Oil Concentration and Fatty Acid Profile of Wild Helianthus Species fron the Southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) oil has the potential to be improved for industrial and nutritional purposes through selection and breeding. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from wild species and agronomic traits have been enhanced. Interes...

  19. Evaluation of rare Helianthus eggertii achenes for oil concentration and fatty acid composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) oil has the potential to be improved for nutritional and industrial purposes through selection and breeding. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from wild species, resulting in a continuous improvement in agrono...

  20. Evaluation of rare and endangered Helianthus species from the southeastern United States for fatty acid composition in the oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., oil has the potential to be improved for nutritional and industrial purposes through selection and breeding. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from wild species, resulting in a continuous improvement in agrono...

  1. Shoot development from hypocotyl protoplasts of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Taski-Ajdukovic, Ksenija; Nagl, Nevena; Miladinovic, Dragana; Mikic, A

    2009-06-01

    The plant regeneration from sunflower protoplast was achieved by protocols that considerably differ with respect to basal medium and concentration of growth regulators added. In most cases regeneration was restricted to a small proportion of genotypes. In this experiment, sunflower inbred line Ha-74A, with a high regeneration ability was used for protoplast isolation from etiolated hypocotyls. Isolated protoplasts were embedded in agarose droplets and cultured according to different regeneration protocols. The best results were obtained when protoplasts were cultured on L4 medium followed by transfer of regenerated microcalluses to solid regeneration media. Shoot regeneration was achieved by culture of calluses on SE regeneration medium after the treatment with 2.2 μM thidiazuron. PMID:19584032

  2. Nutation of Helianthus Annuus in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment to gather evidence to decide between the Darwinian concept of endogenously motivated nutation and the more mechanistic concept of gravity dependent nutation is described. If nutation persists in weightlessness, parameters describing the motion will be measured by recording in time lapse mode the video images of a population of seedlings that were grown at 1-g, but which will be observed at virtual zero gravity. Later, the plant images will be displayed on a video monitor in a laboratory, photographed on 16 millimeter film, and analyzed frame by frame to determine the kinetics of nutation for each specimen tested.

  3. Plant response to lead in the presence or absence EDTA in two sunflower genotypes (cultivated H. annuus cv. 1114 and interspecific line H. annuus × H. argophyllus).

    PubMed

    Doncheva, Snezhana; Moustakas, Michael; Ananieva, Kalina; Chavdarova, Martina; Gesheva, Emiliya; Vassilevska, Rumyana; Mateev, Plamen

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the response of two sunflower genotypes (cultivated sunflower Helianthus annuus cv. 1114 and newly developed genotype H. annuus × Helianthus argophyllus) to Pb medium-term stress and the role of exogenously applied EDTA in alleviating Pb toxicity in hydroponics. Plant growth, morpho-anatomical characteristics of the leaf tissues, electrolyte leakage, total antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging capacity, total flavonoid content, and superoxide dismutase isoenzyme profile were studied by conventional methods. Differential responses of both genotypes to Pb supplied in the nutrient solution were recorded. Pb treatment induced a decrease in the relative growth rate, disturbance of plasma membrane integrity, and changes in the morpho-anatomical characteristics of the leaf tissues and in the antioxidant capacity, which were more pronounced in the cultivated sunflower H. annuus cv. 1114. The new genotype demonstrated higher tolerance to Pb when compared with the cultivar. This was mainly due to increased photosynthetically active area, maintenance of plasma membrane integrity, permanently high total antioxidant activity, and free radical scavenging capacity as well as total flavonoid content. The addition of EDTA into the nutrient solution led to limitation of the negative impact of Pb ions on the above parameters in both genotypes. This could be related to the reduced content of Pb in the roots, stems, and leaves, suggesting that the presence of EDTA limited the uptake of Pb. The comparative analysis of the responses to Pb treatment showed that the deleterious effect of Pb was more pronounced in the cultivated sunflower H. annuus cv. 1114. The new genotype H. annuus × H. argophyllus was more productive and demonstrated higher tolerance to Pb medium-term stress, which could indicate that it may possess certain mechanisms to tolerate high Pb concentrations. This character could be inherited from the wild parent used in the

  4. An approach to identify the novel miRNA encoded from H. Annuus EST sequences.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Hemant; Tiwari, Tanushree; Patel, Maulik; Mehta, Aditya; Ghosh, Arpita

    2015-12-01

    MicroRNAs are a newly discovered class of non-protein small RNAs with 22-24 nucleotides. They play multiple roles in biological processes including development, cell proliferation, apoptosis, stress responses and many other cell functions. In this research, several approaches were combined to make a computational prediction of potential miRNAs and their targets in Helianthus annuus (H. annuus). The already available information of the plant miRNAs present in miRBase v21 was used against expressed sequence tags (ESTs). A total of three miRNAs were detected from which one potential novel miRNA was identified following a range of strict filtering criteria. The target prediction was carried out for these three miRNAs having various targets. These targets were functionally annotated and GO terms were assigned. To study the conserved nature of the miRNAs, predicted phylogenetic analysis was carried out. These findings will significantly provide the broader picture for understanding the functions in H. annuus. PMID:26697356

  5. Genetic diversity of worldwide Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) germplasm as revealed by RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Wangsomnuk, P P; Khampa, S; Wangsomnuk, P; Jogloy, S; Mornkham, T; Ruttawat, B; Patanothai, A; Fu, Y B

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a wild relative of the cultivated sunflower (H. annuus); it is an old tuber crop that has recently received renewed interest. We used RAPD markers to characterize 147 Jerusalem artichoke accessions from nine countries. Thirty RAPD primers were screened; 13 of them detected 357 reproducible RAPD bands, of which 337 were polymorphic. Various diversity analyses revealed several different patterns of RAPD variation. More than 93% of the RAPD variation was found within accessions of a country. Weak genetic differentiation was observed between wild and cultivated accessions. Six groups were detected in this germplasm set. Four ancestral groups were found for the Canadian germplasm. The most genetically distinct accessions were identified. These findings provide useful diversity information for understanding the Jerusalem artichoke gene pool, for conserving Jerusalem artichoke germplasm, and for choosing germplasm for genetic improvement. PMID:22194201

  6. Spectral reflectance as an indicator of foliar concentrations of arsenic in common sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandy, Yuridia Patricia Peralta De

    Studies were conducted to investigate the use of spectral reflectance by foliage of common sunflower as a potential indicator of arsenic contamination of soil. Germination method was developed for sunflower seeds, and cohorts of sunflower seedlings in hydroponic tanks were established. The cohorts were exposed to 0 ppm, 5 ppm, 7.5 ppm, and 10 ppm treatments of As (V) and reflectance measurements of foliage were collected using a spectroradiometer during two experiments. Results demonstrated the feasibility of using spectral reflectance by foliage of common sunflower as a potential indicator of arsenic contamination. In both experiments, arsenic concentrations in leaf tissues were directly proportional to arsenic concentrations in hydroponic solutions in which such plants were grown. Although the effect(s) of arsenic accumulation had minimal impact on reflectance of visible wavelengths, the effects on NIR reflectance were substantial and resulted in a progressive decrease in reflectance as arsenic concentrations in foliage increased.

  7. Genetic characterization and molecular mapping of a chlorophyll deficiency gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A major gene controlling leaf color (lg for light green versus normal green) of sunflower was identified and mapped in an F2 population derived from a cross between two breeding lines. All 20 F1 plants from the cross had normal green leaf color and the segregation of 172 plants in an F2 population f...

  8. Ecogeography and utility to plant breeding of the crop wild relatives of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crop wild relatives (CWR) are a rich source of genetic diversity for crop improvement. Combining ecogeographic and phylogenetic techniques can inform both conservation and breeding. Geographic occurrence, bioclimatic, and biophysical data were used to predict species distributions, range overlap and...

  9. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) pollination in California's Central Valley is limited by native bee nest site location.

    PubMed

    Sardiñas, Hillary S; Tom, Kathleen; Ponisio, Lauren Catherine; Rominger, Andrew; Kremen, Claire

    2016-03-01

    The delivery of ecosystem services by mobile organisms depends on the distribution of those organisms, which is, in turn, affected by resources at local and landscape scales. Pollinator-dependent crops rely on mobile animals like bees for crop production, and the spatial relationship between floral resources and nest location for these central-place foragers influences the delivery of pollination services. Current models that map pollination coverage in agricultural regions utilize landscape-level estimates of floral availability and nesting incidence inferred from expert opinion, rather than direct assessments. Foraging distance is often derived from proxies of bee body size, rather than direct measurements of foraging that account for behavioral responses to floral resource type and distribution. The lack of direct measurements of nesting incidence and foraging distances may lead to inaccurate mapping of pollination services. We examined the role of local-scale floral resource presence from hedgerow plantings on nest incidence of ground-nesting bees in field margins and within monoculture, conventionally managed sunflower fields in California's Central Valley. We tracked bee movement into fields using fluorescent powder. We then used these data to simulate the distribution of pollination services within a crop field. Contrary to expert opinion, we found that ground-nesting native bees nested both in fields and edges, though nesting rates declined with distance into field. Further, we detected no effect of field-margin floral enhancements on nesting. We found evidence of an exponential decay rate of bee movement into fields, indicating that foraging predominantly occurred in less than 1% of medium-sized bees' predicted typical foraging range. Although we found native bees nesting within agricultural fields, their restricted foraging movements likely centralize pollination near nest sites. Our data thus predict a heterogeneous distribution of pollination services within sunflower fields, with edges receiving higher coverage than field centers. To generate more accurate maps of services, we advocate directly measuring the autecology of ecosystem service providers, which vary by crop system, pollinator species, and region. Improving estimates of the factors affecting pollinator populations can increase the accuracy of pollination service maps and help clarify the influence of farming practices on wild bees occurring in agricultural landscapes. PMID:27209786

  10. Mapping the quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling seed morphology in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the results of analyzing the quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying sunflower seed morphological traits in a segregating population derived from an oilseed by confection cross. A linkage map containing 165 target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) and 44 simple sequence re...

  11. Quality assessment and yield of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) grown at multiple locations in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The hypothesis of this work was that sunflower could be grown as a cash crop in Mississippi and N and cultivar would alter oil yield, content, and composition. This study investigated the effect of N (0, 67, 134, and 202 kg ha-1), cultivar (DKF3875, DKF2990, DKF3510 and DKF3901) and their interactio...

  12. Evaluation of proteome alterations induced by cadmium stress in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) cultures.

    PubMed

    Lopes Júnior, Cícero Alves; Barbosa, Herbert de Sousa; Moretto Galazzi, Rodrigo; Ferreira Koolen, Hector Henrique; Gozzo, Fábio Cesar; Arruda, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2015-09-01

    The present study evaluates, at a proteomic level, changes in protein abundance in sunflower leaves in the absence or presence (at 50 or 700mg) of cadmium (as CdCl2). At the end of the cultivation period (45 days), proteins are extracted from leaves with phenol, separated by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2-D DIGE), and excised from the gels. The differential protein abundances (for proteins differing by more than 1.8 fold, which corresponds to 90% variation) are characterized using nESI-LC-MS/MS. The protein content decreases by approximately 41% in plants treated with 700mg Cd compared with control plants. By comparing all groups of plants evaluated in this study (Control vs. Cd-lower, Control vs. Cd-higher and Cd-lower vs. Cd-higher), 39 proteins are found differential and 18 accurately identified; the control vs. Cd-higher treatment is that presenting the most differential proteins. From identified proteins, those involved in energy and disease/defense (including stress), are the ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large chain, transketolase, and heat shock proteins are the most differential abundant proteins. Thus, at the present study, photosynthesis is the main process affected by Cd in sunflowers, although these plants are highly tolerant to Cd. PMID:26004357

  13. Molecular tagging of a novel rust resistance gene R12 in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower production in North America has recently suffered economic losses in yield and seed quality from sunflower rust (Puccinia helianthi Schwein.) because of the increasing incidence and lack of resistance to new rust races. RHA 464, a newly released sunflower male fertility restorer line, is r...

  14. Studies on genotypic variability and seed dormancy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed dormancy is a great drawback and causes a great problem in efficient seed production of sunflower for which great efforts have been made to develop techniques in breaking seed dormancy of sunflower. Studies have indicated that sunflower genotypes showed a large variability in dormancy. Few near...

  15. Molecular mapping of a new induced gene for nuclear male sterility in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new NMS line, NMS HA89-872, induced by mitomycin C and streptomycin carries a single recessive male-sterile gene ms6. An F2 population of 88 plants was obtained from a cross between nuclear male-sterile mutant NMS HA89-872 (msms) and male-fertile line RHA271 (MsMs). 225 SSR primers and 9 RFLP-deri...

  16. Effect of salinity and sodicity stresses on physiological response and productivity in Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Farghaly, Fatma Aly; Radi, Abeer Ahmed; Abdel-Wahab, Dalia Ahmed; Hamada, Afaf Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Soil salinity and sodicity (alkalinity) are serious land degradation issues worldwide that are predicted to increase in the future. The objective of the present study is to distinguish the effects of NaCl and Na(2)CO(3) salinity in two concentrations on the growth, lipoxygenase (LOX) activity, membrane integrity, total lipids, yield parameters and fatty acids (FAs) composition of seeds of sunflower cultivar Sakha 53. Plant growth, LOX activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were reduced by salts stresses. On the contrary, salinity and alkalinity stress induced stimulatory effects on membrane permeability, leakage of UV-metabolites from leaves and total lipids of sunflower shoots and roots. Crop yield (plant height, head diameter, seed index and number of seeds for each head) that is known as a hallmark of plant stress was decreased by increasing concentrations of NaCl and Na(2)CO(3) in the growth media. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) composition of salt-stressed sunflower seeds varied with different levels of NaCl and Na(2)CO(3). PMID:27165529

  17. Florets of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): potential new sources of dietary fiber and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qiang; Cui, Jun; Li, Hang; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Guohua

    2013-04-10

    Ray florets (Rf) and disc florets (Df) are agricultural byproducts of sunflower seeds. Their nutrition-related compounds were determined. The dietary fiber contents in Rf and Df were 42.90 mg/100 g and 58.97 mg/100 g. In both florets, palmitic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were identified as the three most abundant fatty acids, and the saturated ones constitute approximately two-thirds (w/w) of the total fatty acids. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in both florets by World Health Organization standards. Sixteen phenolic compounds, nine free and eight bound, mainly depsides, were identified in florets by RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-TOF-MS. The free and bound phenolic compounds in Df were higher than in Rf. 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid was the predominant free phenolic compound in both florets. The present study revealed that the florets of sunflower are rich sources of dietary fiber, Fe, and phenols. PMID:23510166

  18. Weed control in sunflower (helianthus annuus L.) with post-emergent herbicides.

    PubMed

    Béres, I; Szente, D; Gyenes, V; Somlyay, I

    2005-01-01

    Sunflower is the most important oil crop in Hungary, is the base of the production of cooking oil and moreover takes an important part in production of margarine too. Extracted sunflower groats as a secondary product origining from the mentioned procedure can be used in forage successfully. The amount of harvested sunflower reaches the 20-25% of the EU's yield. The sowing area approaches 500 thousand hectares. The essential condition of successful crop production is the perfect weed control. Sowing areas are infected with monocotyledon and dicotyledonous weeds too. Annual dicotyledonous weeds are the most troublesome. The worst species is the Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Many other weed species as Abutilon theophrasti MEDIC., Datura stramonium L. and Xanthium strumarium L. can cause serious damages. In our model experiments we examined the herbicide sensibility of two commercial sunflower cultivars as "Iregi szürke csikos", "Marica II" and a sulfonylurea-urea tolerant new hybrid "PR63E82". The experiment was set up under greenhouse conditions with the use of four important weed and different post-emergent herbicide as Modown 4F (bifenox), Pledge 50 WP (flumioxazin) and Granstar 75 DF (tribenuron-methyl). We applied normal and double doses too. Sunflower was cultivated to 4-6 leaf stage. Post-emergent herbicides were sprayed out when weeds were in 2, 2-4 and 4-6 leaf stage. Weed killer and phytotoxic effects of post-emergent herbicides were examined. We declared that development of weeds had significally effect on the effectiveness of different herbicides. PMID:16637218

  19. Gravity Functions of Circumnutation by Hypocotyls of Helianthus annuus in Simulated Hypogravity 12

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, David K.; Venditti, Allen L.; Brown, Allan H.

    1980-01-01

    For more than a decade research on the botanical mechanism responsible for circumnutation has centered on whether or not these nearly ubiquitous oscillations can be attributed to a hunting process whereby the plant organ continuously responds to the gravity force and, by overshooting each stimulus, initiates a sustained oscillation or, driven by a not yet defined autogenic mechanism, performs oscillatory activities that require no external reinforcement to maintain the observed rhythms of differential growth. We explore here the effects of altered gravity force on parameters of circumnutation. Following our earlier publication on circumnutation in hypergravity we report here an exploration of circumnutation in hypogravity. Parameters of circumnutation are recorded as functions of the axially imposed gravity force. The same method was used (two-axes clinostat rotation) to produce sustained gravity forces referred to as hypergravity (1 < g), hypogravity (0 [unk] g < 1), and negative gravity (−1 < g < 0). In these three regions of the g-parameter nutational frequency and nutational amplitude were influenced in different ways. The results of our tests describe the gravity dependence of circumnutation over the full range of real or simulated gravity levels that are available in an earth laboratory. Our results demonstrated that nutational parameters are indeed gravity-dependent but are not inconsistent with the postulate that circumnutation can proceed in the absence of a significant gravity force. PMID:16661229

  20. Characterization of partially purified milk-clotting enzyme from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds.

    PubMed

    Nasr, Assia I A M; Mohamed Ahmed, Isam A; Hamid, Omer I A

    2016-09-01

    This study was aimed to extract milk-clotting enzyme from sunflower seeds and to determine its potentiality for manufacturing white soft cheese from cows and goats milk. The seeds were blended and extracted using two types of buffers and milk-clotting and proteolytic activities were evaluated. The enzyme was partially purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation techniques. Results indicated that sunflower seeds extracted with 5% NaCl in 50 mmol/L acetate buffer, pH 5.0, had the highest milk-clotting activity (MCA) and lowest coagulation time compared to that extracted with only acetate buffer (pH 5.0). Ammonium sulfate at 30-50% saturation purified the enzyme to 4.3 folds with MCA of 241.0 U/mL and final enzyme yield of 10.9%. The partially purified enzyme was characterized by SDS-PAGE that showed two bands with molecular weight of 120 and 62 kDa. When compared with other plant enzymes, the partially purified sunflower enzyme was found to have higher milk-clotting activity and lower proteolytic activity. Also, both milk sources and enzyme types significantly affected the cheese yield and curd formation time. The cheese made from cow milk using sunflower enzyme had higher yield compared to that obtained using commercial rennet, whereas the opposite was observed when using goat milk. PMID:27625777

  1. Phytoaccumulation, interaction, toxicity and remediation of cadmium from Helianthus annuus L. (sunflower).

    PubMed

    Mani, Dinesh; Sharma, Bechan; Kumar, Chitranjan

    2007-07-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the interaction between Cd and Ca, Zn and organic matter for Cd-phytoremediation in sunflower on the alluvium soil of the Sheila Dhar Institute (SDI) experimental farm, Allahabad (India). Application of 40 ppm Zn produced 11.18% extra dry matter (DM) content and 5.8% extra seed yield over the control. We recommended 1.0% Ca, 40 ppm Zn and 20 tons/ha of compost to enhance dry matter yield and diminish the Cd accumulation in 15 ppm Cd- ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA)-treated plots up to 1/12 folds in sunflower (<0.21 ppm), which indicated phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil through soil-plant-rhizospheric processes. PMID:17549427

  2. Kinetics modeling of the drying of sunflower stem (Helianthus annuus L.) in a forced convection tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, R.; Vaca, M.; Terres, H.; Lizardi, A.; Morales, J.; Flores, J.; Chávez, S.

    2015-01-01

    The sunflower is an annual plant native to the Americas. It possesses a large inflorescence (flowering head), and its name is derived from the flower's shape and image, which is often used to capture the sun. The plant has a rough, broad, hairy stem, coarsely toothed, with rough leaves, and circular flower heads. The sunflower seeds are appreciated for their oil, which has become a widespread cooking ingredient. Leaves of the sunflower can be used as cattle feed, while the stems contain a fiber that may be used in paper production. Recently this flower has been used in phytoremediation of soils, contaminated with heavy metals. Sunflower has been probed as an efficient phytoextractor of chromium, lead, aluminum, zinc, cadmium from soil. In this work we present the experimental results of the drying of the sunflower stem, cut in 100 mm longitudinal sections, with diameters in the range of 11-18 mm. The aim was to obtain a dry and easy-to-handle final product, since these plants were originally cultivated in order to extract heavy metals from a polluted soil. The dried stems could then be easily confined or sent to recycle premises to concentrate the metals. The drying process was done in forced convection within a hot air tunnel. The used temperature was 60 °C, the velocity of air was 3 m/s and the required times were 8 hours. The initial average wet mass was 28 g and the final value was 5 g, resulting in the aimed product.

  3. Shade-Induced Action Potentials in Helianthus annuus L. Originate Primarily from the Epicotyl

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Nicholas R; Cleland, Robert E; Van Volkenburgh, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Repeated observations that shading (a drastic reduction in illumination rate) increased the generation of spikes (rapidly reversed depolarizations) in leaves and stems of many cucumber and sunflower plants suggests a phenomenon widespread among plant organs and species. Although shaded leaves occasionally generate spikes and have been suggested to trigger systemic action potentials (APs) in sunflower stems, we never found leaf-generated spikes to propagate out of the leaf and into the stem. On the contrary, our data consistently implicate the epicotyl as the location where most spikes and APs (propagating spikes) originate. Microelectrode studies of light and shading responses in mesophyll cells of leaf strips and in epidermis/cortex cells of epicotyl segments confirm this conclusion and show that spike induction is not confined to intact plants. 90% of the epicotyl-generated APs undergo basipetal propagation to the lower epicotyl, hypocotyl and root. They propagate with an average rate of 2 ± 0.3 mm s−1 and always undergo a large decrement from the hypocotyl to the root. The few epicotyl-derived APs that can be tracked to leaf blades (< 10%) undergo either a large decrement or fail to be transmitted at all. Occasionally (5% of the observations) spikes were be generated in hypocotyl and lower epicotyl that moved towards the upper epicotyl unaltered, decremented, or amplified. This study confirms that plant APs arise to natural, nontraumatic changes. In simultaneous recordings with epicotyl growth, AP generation was found to parallel the acceleration of stem growth under shade. The possible relatedness of both processes must be further investigated. PMID:19521471

  4. Rhizopus oryzae associated with Melanagromyza splendida and stem disease of sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In September 2012, a female parental line in a Yolo, CA in sunflower seed-production field began displaying external stem symptoms that could not be attributed to any known disease. Symptoms appeared to be associated with tunneling caused by an un-identified insect. Stems were collected and Rhizopu...

  5. Physiological and gene expression responses of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants differ according to irrigation placement.

    PubMed

    Aguado, Ana; Capote, Nieves; Romero, Fernando; Dodd, Ian C; Colmenero-Flores, José M

    2014-10-01

    To investigate effects of soil moisture heterogeneity on plant physiology and gene expression in roots and leaves, three treatments were implemented in sunflower plants growing with roots split between two compartments: a control (C) treatment supplying 100% of plant evapotranspiration, and two treatments receiving 50% of plant evapotranspiration, either evenly distributed to both compartments (deficit irrigation - DI) or unevenly distributed to ensure distinct wet and dry compartments (partial rootzone drying - PRD). Plants receiving the same amount of water responded differently under the two irrigation systems. After 3 days, evapotranspiration was similar in C and DI, but 20% less in PRD, concomitant with decreased leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and increased leaf xylem ABA concentration. Six water-stress responsive genes were highly induced in roots growing in the drying soil compartment of PRD plants, and their expression was best correlated with local soil water content. On the other hand, foliar gene expression differed significantly from that of the root and correlated better with xylem ABA concentration and Ψleaf. While the PRD irrigation strategy triggered stronger physiological and molecular responses, suggesting a more intense and systemic stress reaction due to local dehydration of the dry compartment of PRD plants, the DI strategy resulted in similar water savings without strongly inducing these responses. Correlating physiological and molecular responses in PRD/DI plants may provide insights into the severity and location of water deficits and may enable a better understanding of long-distance signalling mechanisms. PMID:25219304

  6. SELECTION ON LEAF ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS IN A DESERT HYBRID HELIANTHUS SPECIES AND EARLY-GENERATION HYBRIDS

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Fulco; Rosenthal, David M.; Johnston, Jill A.; Kane, Nolan; Gross, Briana L.; Lexer, Christian; Dudley, Susan A.; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Donovan, Lisa A.

    2008-01-01

    Leaf ecophysiological traits related to carbon gain and resource use are expected to be under strong selection in desert annuals. We used comparative and phenotypic selection approaches to investigate the importance of leaf ecophysiological traits for Helianthus anomalus, a diploid annual sunflower species of hybrid origin that is endemic to active desert dunes. Comparisons were made within and among five genotypic classes: H. anomalus, its ancestral parent species (H. annuus and H. petiolaris), and two backcrossed populations of the parental species (designated BC2ann and BC2pet) representing putative ancestors of H. anomalus. Seedlings were transplanted into H. anomalus habitat at Little Sahara Dunes, Utah, and followed through a summer growing season for leaf ecophysiological traits, phenology, and fitness estimated as vegetative biomass. Helianthus anomalus had a unique combination of traits when compared to its ancestral parent species, suggesting that lower leaf nitrogen and greater leaf succulence might be adaptive. However, selection on leaf traits in H. anomalus favored larger leaf area and greater nitrogen, which was not consistent with the extreme traits of H. anomalus relative to its ancestral parents. Also contrary to expectation, current selection on the leaf traits in the backcross populations was not consistently similar to, or resulting in evolution toward, the current H. anomalus phenotype. Only the selection for greater leaf succulence in BC2ann and greater water-use efficiency in BC2pet would result in evolution toward the current H. anomalus phenotype. It was surprising that the action of phenotypic selection depended greatly on the genotypic class for these closely related sunflower hybrids grown in a common environment. We speculate that this may be due to either phenotypic correlations between measured and unmeasured but functionally related traits or due to the three genotypic classes experiencing the environment differently as a result of

  7. Sunflower germplasm development utilizing wild Helianthus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of agronomic traits for crop improvement. The genus Helianthus comprises 51 species (14 annual and 37 perennial), all native to North America. The...

  8. Collection of Helianthus exilis, an endemic serpentine sunflower of California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Helianthus consists of 51 species (14 annual and 37 perennial), all restricted to North America. Serpentine sunflower, Helianthus exilis A. Gray, is endemic to the serpentine soils of the Coastal Range and Sierra Nevada mountains of California and is a potential source of useful genes for ...

  9. Use of wild Helianthus species in sunflower breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Helianthus consists of 51 species and 19 subspecies with 14 annual and 37 perennial species. The current USDA-ARS wild Helianthus germplasm collection contains 2150 accessions, 1369 annual species accessions and 781 perennial species accessions. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflo...

  10. Inheritance of resistance to sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) in an interspecific cross between Helianthus annuus and Helianthus debilis subsp. tardiflorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) constrains sunflower cultivation in increasing areas of Europe and Asia. Populations classified as race G that overcome all known resistance genes have recently appeared. The objective of this research was to study the inheritance of resistance to broomr...

  11. Mapping of one of the two genes controlling lemon ray flower color in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In an F2 population of 120 plants derived from a cross between two breeding lines with yellow ray flowers, we observed 111 plants with yellow- and nine plants with lemon-colored ray flowers. The segregation pattern fit a 15:1 (x2(15:1)=0.32, p>0.5) ratio, suggesting that the lemon ray flower color i...

  12. Selection on Crop-Derived Traits and QTL in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) Crop-Wild Hybrids under Water Stress

    PubMed Central

    Owart, Birkin R.; Corbi, Jonathan; Burke, John M.; Dechaine, Jennifer M.

    2014-01-01

    Locally relevant conditions, such as water stress in irrigated agricultural regions, should be considered when assessing the risk of crop allele introgression into wild populations following hybridization. Although research in cultivars has suggested that domestication traits may reduce fecundity under water stress as compared to wild-like phenotypes, this has not been investigated in crop-wild hybrids. In this study, we examine phenotypic selection acting on, as well as the genetic architecture of vegetative, reproductive, and physiological characteristics in an experimental population of sunflower crop-wild hybrids grown under wild-like low water conditions. Crop-derived petiole length and head diameter were favored in low and control water environments. The direction of selection differed between environments for leaf size and leaf pressure potential. Interestingly, the additive effect of the crop-derived allele was in the direction favored by selection for approximately half the QTL detected in the low water environment. Selection favoring crop-derived traits and alleles in the low water environment suggests that a subset of these alleles would be likely to spread into wild populations under water stress. Furthermore, differences in selection between environments support the view that risk assessments should be conducted under multiple locally relevant conditions. PMID:25048600

  13. Genetic Mapping for the Rf1 (Fertility Restoration) Gene in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by SSR and TRAP Markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Rf1 gene in sunflower can effectively restore the pollen fertility of PET1 cytoplasm in male sterile lines and has been widely used in commercial hybrid production. Identifying molecular markers tightly linked to this gene will be useful in marker-assisted selection to develop maintainer and res...

  14. Pl17 is a novel gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berl. et de Toni, is one of the serious sunflower diseases in the world due to its high virulence and the variability of the pathogen. DM resistance in the USDA inbred line, HA 458, has been shown to be effective against all virulent races of...

  15. Differential expression of seven conserved microRNAs in response to abiotic stress and their regulatory network in Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi Khaksefidi, Reyhaneh; Mirlohi, Shirin; Khalaji, Fahimeh; Fakhari, Zahra; Shiran, Behrouz; Fallahi, Hossein; Rafiei, Fariba; Budak, Hikmet; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses affect plant development and production through alternation of the gene expression pattern. Gene expression itself is under the control of different regulators such as miRNAs and transcription factors (TFs). MiRNAs are known to play important roles in regulation of stress responses via interacting with their target mRNAs. Here, for the first time, seven conserved miRNAs, associated with drought, heat, salt and cadmium stresses were characterized in sunflower. The expression profiles of miRNAs and their targets were comparatively analyzed between leaves and roots of plants grown under the mentioned stress conditions. Gene ontology analysis of target genes revealed that they are involved in several important pathways such as auxin and ethylene signaling, RNA mediated silencing and DNA methylation processes. Gene regulatory network highlighted the existence of cross-talks between these stress-responsive miRNAs and the other stress responsive genes in sunflower. Based on network analysis, we suggest that some of these miRNAs in sunflower such as miR172 and miR403 may play critical roles in epigenetic responses to stress. It seems that depending on the stress type, theses miRNAs target several pathways and cellular processes to help sunflower to cope with drought, heat, salt and cadmium stress conditions in a tissue-associated manner. PMID:26442054

  16. Impact of extraneous proteins on the gastrointestinal fate of sunflower seed (Helianthus annuus) oil bodies: a simulated gastrointestinal tract study.

    PubMed

    Makkhun, Sakunkhun; Khosla, Amit; Foster, Tim; McClements, David Julian; Grundy, Myriam M L; Gray, David A

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the physicochemical nature of sunflower seed oil bodies (in the absence and presence of added protein) exposed to gastrointestinal conditions in vitro: crude oil bodies (COB); washed oil bodies (WOB); whey protein isolate-enriched oil bodies (WOB-WPI); and, sodium caseinate enriched-oil bodies (WOB-SC). All oil body emulsions were passed through an in vitro digestion model that mimicked the stomach and duodenal environments, and their physicochemical properties were measured before, during, and after digestion. Oil bodies had a positive charge under gastric conditions because the pH was below the isoelectric point of the adsorbed protein layer, but they had a negative charge under duodenal conditions which was attributed to changes in interfacial composition resulting from adsorption of bile salts. Oil bodies were highly susceptible to flocculation and coalescence in both gastric and duodenal conditions. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated degradation of oleosin proteins (ca. 18-21 kDa) to a greater or lesser extent (dependent on the emulsion) during the gastric phase in all emulsions tested; there is evidence that some oleosin remained intact in the crude oil body preparation during this phase of the digestion process. Measurements of protein displacement from the surface of COBs during direct exposure to bile salts, without inclusion of a gastric phase, indicated the removal of intact oleosin from native oil bodies. PMID:25284307

  17. Mapping the quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling seed morphology and disk diameter in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several seed morphological traits, along with disk diameter, differ greatly between oilseed and confection sunflower types, which are bred for different end-use purposes. This paper reports the results of analyzing the quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying seed morphological traits and disk diam...

  18. Search for Allergens from the Pollen Proteome of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): A Major Sensitizer for Respiratory Allergy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Bodhisattwa; Pandey, Naren; Gupta Bhattacharya, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Background Respiratory allergy triggered by pollen allergens is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. Sunflower pollen is thought to be an important source of inhalant allergens. Present study aims to identify the prevalence of sunflower pollinosis among the Indian allergic population and characterizes the pollen allergens using immuno-proteomic tools. Methodology Clinico-immunological tests were performed to understand the prevalence of sensitivity towards sunflower pollen among the atopic population. Sera from selected sunflower positive patients were used as probe to detect the IgE-reactive proteins from the one and two dimensional electrophoretic separated proteome of sunflower pollen. The antigenic nature of the sugar moiety of the glycoallergens was studied by meta-periodate modification of IgE-immunoblot. Finally, these allergens were identified by mass-spectrometry. Results Prevalence of sunflower pollen sensitization was observed among 21% of the pollen allergic population and associated with elevated level of specific IgE and histamine in the sera of these patients. Immunoscreening of sunflower pollen proteome with patient sera detected seven IgE-reactive proteins with varying molecular weight and pI. Hierarchical clustering of 2D-immunoblot data highlighted three allergens characterized by a more frequent immuno-reactivity and increased levels of IgE antibodies in the sera of susceptible patients. These allergens were considered as the major allergens of sunflower pollen and were found to have their glycan moiety critical for inducing IgE response. Homology driven search of MS/MS data of these IgE-reactive proteins identified seven previously unreported allergens from sunflower pollen. Three major allergenic proteins were identified as two pectate lyases and a cysteine protease. Conclusion Novelty of the present report is the identification of a panel of seven sunflower pollen allergens for the first time at immuno-biochemical and proteomic level, which substantiated the clinical evidence of sunflower allergy. Further purification and recombinant expression of these allergens will improve component-resolved diagnosis and therapy of pollen allergy. PMID:26418046

  19. Differential expression of seven conserved microRNAs in response to abiotic stress and their regulatory network in Helianthus annuus

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi Khaksefidi, Reyhaneh; Mirlohi, Shirin; Khalaji, Fahimeh; Fakhari, Zahra; Shiran, Behrouz; Fallahi, Hossein; Rafiei, Fariba; Budak, Hikmet; Ebrahimie, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic stresses affect plant development and production through alternation of the gene expression pattern. Gene expression itself is under the control of different regulators such as miRNAs and transcription factors (TFs). MiRNAs are known to play important roles in regulation of stress responses via interacting with their target mRNAs. Here, for the first time, seven conserved miRNAs, associated with drought, heat, salt and cadmium stresses were characterized in sunflower. The expression profiles of miRNAs and their targets were comparatively analyzed between leaves and roots of plants grown under the mentioned stress conditions. Gene ontology analysis of target genes revealed that they are involved in several important pathways such as auxin and ethylene signaling, RNA mediated silencing and DNA methylation processes. Gene regulatory network highlighted the existence of cross-talks between these stress-responsive miRNAs and the other stress responsive genes in sunflower. Based on network analysis, we suggest that some of these miRNAs in sunflower such as miR172 and miR403 may play critical roles in epigenetic responses to stress. It seems that depending on the stress type, theses miRNAs target several pathways and cellular processes to help sunflower to cope with drought, heat, salt and cadmium stress conditions in a tissue-associated manner. PMID:26442054

  20. Antimony (SbIII) reduces growth, declines photosynthesis, and modifies leaf tissue anatomy in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Vaculík, Marek; Mrázová, Anna; Lux, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    The role of antimony (Sb)--a non-essential trace metalloid--in physiological processes running in crops is still poorly understood. Present paper describes the effect of Sb tartrate (SbIII) on growth, Sb uptake, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments, and leaf tissue organization in young sunflower plants grown in hydroponics. We found that growth of below- and aboveground part was reduced with increasing concentration of Sb in the medium. Although Sb was mostly taken up by sunflower roots and only small part (1-2%) was translocated to the shoots, decline in photosynthesis, transpiration, and decreased content of photosynthetic pigments were observed. This indicates that despite relatively low mobility of Sb in root-shoot system, Sb in shoot noticeably modifies physiological status and reduced plant growth. Additionally, leaf anatomical changes indicated that Sb reduced the size of intercellular spaces and made leaf tissue more compact. PMID:26194244

  1. Inheritance and molecular mapping of a downy mildew resistance gene, Pl13 in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inheritance of resistance to sunflower downy mildew (SDM) derived from HA-R5 conferring resistance to nine races of the pathogen has been determined and the new source has been designated as Pl13. The F2 individuals and F2-3 families of the cross HA-R5 (resistant) x HA 821 (susceptible) were scr...

  2. Enhanced Accumulation of Copper and Lead in Amaranth (Amaranthus paniculatus), Indian Mustard (Brassica juncea) and Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Motior M.; Azirun, Sofian M.; Boyce, Amru N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil contamination by copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower. Methods/Principal Findings Plants were grown in a greenhouse and fertilized with N fertilizer at rates of 0, 190 and 380 mg kg−1 soil. Shoots, roots and total accumulation of Cu and Pb, transfer factor (TF), translocation index were assessed to evaluate the transport and translocation ability of tested plants. Addition of N fertilizer acidified the industrial soil and caused the pH to decrease to 5.5 from an initial pH of 6.9. Industrial soil amended with N fertilizer resulted in the highest accumulation of Pb and Cu (for Pb 10.1–15.5 mg kg−1, for Cu 11.6–16.8 mg kg−1) in the shoots, which was two to four folds higher relative to the concentration in roots in all the three plants used. Sunflower removed significantly higher Pb (50–54%) and Cu (34–38%) followed by amaranth and Indian mustard from industrial soils with the application of N fertilizer. The TF was <1 while the shoot and root concentration (SC/RC) ratios of Pb and Cu were between 1.3–4.3 and 1.8–3.8, respectively, regardless of plant species. Conclusions Sunflower is the best plant species to carry out phytoextraction of Pb and Cu. In contrast, Pb and Cu removal by Indian mustard and amaranth shows great potential as quick and short duration vegetable crops. The results suggest that the application of N fertilizer in contaminated industrial soil is an effective amendment for the phytoextraction of Pb and Cu from contaminated industrial soils. PMID:23667546

  3. Evaluation and characterisation of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seed oil: Comparison with Helianthus annuus (sunflower) seed oil.

    PubMed

    Nehdi, Imededdine Arbi; Sbihi, Hassen; Tan, Chin Ping; Al-Resayes, Saud Ibrahim

    2013-01-15

    The physicochemical properties, fatty acid, tocopherol, thermal properties, (1)H NMR, FTIR and profiles of non-conventional oil extracted from Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad seeds were evaluated and compared with conventional sunflower seed oil. In addition, the antioxidant properties of C. colocynthis seed oil were also evaluated. The oil content of the C. colocynthis seeds was 23.16%. The main fatty acids in the oil were linoleic acid (66.73%) followed by oleic acid (14.78%), palmitic acid (9.74%), and stearic acid (7.37%). The tocopherol content was 121.85 mg/100g with γ-tocopherol as the major one (95.49%). The thermogravimetric analysis showed that the oil was thermally stable up to 286.57°C, and then began to decompose in four stages namely at 377.4°C, 408.4°C, 434.9°C and 559.2°C. The present study showed that this non-conventional C. colocynthis seed oil can be used for food and non-food applications to supplement or replace some of the conventional oils. PMID:23122069

  4. Identification and characterization of contrasting sunflower genotypes to early leaf senescence process combining molecular and physiological studies (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    López Gialdi, A I; Moschen, S; Villán, C S; López Fernández, M P; Maldonado, S; Paniego, N; Heinz, R A; Fernandez, P

    2016-09-01

    Leaf senescence is a complex mechanism ruled by multiple genetic and environmental variables that affect crop yields. It is the last stage in leaf development, is characterized by an active decline in photosynthetic rate, nutrients recycling and cell death. The aim of this work was to identify contrasting sunflower inbred lines differing in leaf senescence and to deepen the study of this process in sunflower. Ten sunflower genotypes, previously selected by physiological analysis from 150 inbred genotypes, were evaluated under field conditions through physiological, cytological and molecular analysis. The physiological measurement allowed the identification of two contrasting senescence inbred lines, R453 and B481-6, with an increase in yield in the senescence delayed genotype. These findings were confirmed by cytological and molecular analysis using TUNEL, genomic DNA gel electrophoresis, flow sorting and gene expression analysis by qPCR. These results allowed the selection of the two most promising contrasting genotypes, which enables future studies and the identification of new biomarkers associated to early senescence in sunflower. In addition, they allowed the tuning of cytological techniques for a non-model species and its integration with molecular variables. PMID:27457982

  5. Partial Hybridization in Wide Crosses between Cultivated Sunflower and the Perennial Helianthus Species H. mollis and H. orgyalis

    PubMed Central

    FAURE, N.; SERIEYS, H.; CAZAUX, E.; KAAN, F.; BERVILLÉ, A.

    2002-01-01

    To obtain introgressed sunflower lines with improved disease resistance, interspecific crosses were performed with foreign perennial species. We report on several unusual features displayed by these hybrid plants. The methods used to produce the kernels affected yield and genotypes of progeny. Phenotypic traits and DNA markers were investigated in 97 plants derived from cross‐pollination between annual diploid cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and the perennial diploid species H. mollis or H. orgyalis, and the reverse reciprocal crosses. The level of hybridization in progeny was determined using RAPD and RFLP markers. Hybridization was performed by leaving embryos to develop normally on the head (classical crossing) or using embryo rescue. All observed plants derived from H. mollis were diploid (2n = 34). Phenotypes were predominantly similar to the female when cultivated sunflower was the female parent. Progeny from crosses using a wild species as the female parent resembled that parent. Thus, reciprocal crosses led to different progeny. F1 sister progeny shared different sets of molecular markers representing a few of those of the wild species used as the pollen donor. Our results indicate mechanisms leading to the unusual event of partial hybridization. Possible mechanisms behind these unusual events and their possible impact on evolution are discussed. PMID:12096817

  6. Transferring Sclerotinia Resistance Genes from Wild Helianthus into Cultivated Sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To enhance resistance to Sclerotinia head and stalk rot in cultivated sunflower, mining and introgression of Sclerotinia resistance genes from diverse wild Helianthus accessions into cultivated sunflower has been conducted using backcrossing method since 2004. During the last four years, numerous in...

  7. Broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.) resistance breeding utilizing wild Helianthus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild Helianthus species possess valuable resistance genes for sunflower broomrape (Orobanche cumana Wallr.), especially the 39 largely under-utilized perennial species. Resistance to race F has been transferred into cultivated background via bridging of interspecific amphiploids. More recently, a si...

  8. Molecular diversity of male sterility inducing and male-fertile cytoplasms in the genus Helianthus.

    PubMed

    Horn, R.

    2002-03-01

    The organisation of mtDNA was investigated for 28 sources of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and a fertile line (normal cytoplasm) of Helianthus annuus by Southern hybridisation. In addition to nine known mitochondrial genes ( atp6, atp9, cob, coxI, coxII, coxIII, 18S, 5S and nd5) three probes for the open reading frames in the rearranged area of PET1, orfH522, orfH708 and orfH873, were used. Genetic similarities of the investigat-ed cytoplasms varied between 0.3 and 1. Cluster analyses using the UPGMA method allowed the distinction of ten mitochondrial (mt) types between the 29 investigated cytoplasms. Most mitochondrial types comprise two or more CMS sources, which could not be further separated, like the PET1-like CMS sources (with the exception of ANO1 and PRR1), or ANN1/ANN2/ANN3, ANN4/ ANN5, ARG3/RIG1, BOL1/EXI1/PEF1/PEP1 and GIG1/ PET2. ANL1, ANL2 and the fertile cytoplasms are also regarded as one mitochondrial type. Unique banding patterns were only observed for ANT1 ( atp6), MAX1 ( atp6, orfH522 and orfH708) and PRR1 ( coxII). However, four of the mitochondrial types showed unique hybridisation signals: ANN4/ANN5 had characteristic bands for atp6 and orfH708, PEF1/PEP1/EXI1/BOL1 for atp6and coxII, and PET2/GIG1 for atp9. The PET1-like cytoplasms all shared the same patterns for orfH522, orfH708and cob (except ANO1). It could be demonstrated that CMS sources, like, e.g., PET2 and PEF1, are different from PET1 in mtDNA organisation and the CMS mechanism. Therefore, these CMS sources represent interesting candidates for the development of new hybrid breeding systems based on new CMS mechanisms. PMID:12582659

  9. Patterns of genetic diversity and candidate genes for ecological divergence in a homoploid hybrid sunflower, Helianthus anomalus

    PubMed Central

    SAPIR, YUVAL; MOODY, MICHAEL L.; BROUILLETTE, LARRY C.; DONOVAN, LISA A.; RIESEBERG, LOREN H.

    2008-01-01

    Natural hybridization accompanied by a shift in niche preference by hybrid genotypes can lead to hybrid speciation. Natural selection may cause the fixation of advantageous alleles in the ecologically diverged hybrids, and the loci experiencing selection should exhibit a reduction in allelic diversity relative to neutral loci. Here, we analyzed patterns of genetic diversity at 59 microsatellite loci associated with expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in a homoploid hybrid sunflower species, Helianthus anomalus. We used two indices, ln RV and ln RH, to compare variation and heterozygosity (respectively) at each locus between the hybrid species and its two parental species, H. annuus and H. petiolaris. Mean values of ln RV and ln RH were significantly lower than zero, which implies that H. anomalus experienced a population bottleneck during its recent evolutionary history. After correcting for the apparent bottleneck, we found six loci with a significant reduction in variation or with heterozygosity in the hybrid species, compared to one or both of the parental species. These loci should be viewed as a ranked list of candidate loci, pending further sequencing and functional analyses. Sequence data were generated for two of the candidate loci, but population genetics tests failed to detect deviations from neutral evolution at either locus. Nonetheless, a greater than eight-fold excess of nonsynonymous substitutions was found near a putative N-myristoylation motif at the second locus (HT998), and likelihood-based models indicated that the protein has been under selection in H. anomalus in the past and, perhaps, in one or both parental species. Finally, our data suggest that selective sweeps may have united populations of H. anomalus isolated by a mountain range, indicating that even low gene-flow species may be held together by the spread of advantageous alleles. PMID:17944850

  10. Evaluation of achene oil of Helianthus porteri for fatty acid composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confederate daisy, or Porter's Golden-Eye, Helianthus porteri (A. Gray) Pruski, formerly known as Viguiera porteri (A. Gray) S.F. Blake, is an annual sunflower that was recently transferred to the genus Helianthus. It occurs in and around granite outcroppings in the Piedmont regions of North and Sou...

  11. Evaluation of Helianthus porteri Achenes for Oil Concentration and Fatty Acid Composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confederate daisy, or Porter's Golden-Eye, Helianthus porteri, formerly known as Viguiera porteri is an annual sunflower that was recently transferred to the genus Helianthus. It is an endemic species that occurs in and around granite outcroppings in the Piedmont regions of North and South Carolina,...

  12. Helianthus porteri as a Potential Source for Enhancing Linoleic Acid Concentration in Sunflower Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confederate Daisy, or Porter's Golden-Eye, Helianthus porteri, formerly known as Viguiera porteri, is an annual sunflower that was recently transferred to the genus Helianthus. It occurs in and around granite outcroppings in the Piedmont regions of North and South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia. Wil...

  13. Helianthus Porteri as a Potential Source for Enhancing the Linoleic Acid Concentration in Sunflower Oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Confederate Daisy, or Porter's Golden-Eye, Helianthus porteri, formerly known as Viguiera porteri, is an annual sunflower that was recently transferred to the genus Helianthus. It occurs in and around granite outcroppings in the Piedmont regions of North and South Carolina, Alabama, and Georgia. Wil...

  14. Oleate Coated Magnetic Cores Based on Magnetite, Zn Ferrite and Co Ferrite Nanoparticles - Preparation, Physical Characterization and Biological Impact on Helianthus Annuus Photosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ursache-Oprisan, Manuela; Foca-nici, Ecaterina; Cirlescu, Aurelian; Caltun, Ovidiu; Creanga, Dorina

    2010-12-02

    Sodium oleate was used as coating shell for magnetite, Zn ferrite and Co ferrite powders to stabilize them in the form of aqueous magnetic suspensions. The physical characterization was carried out by applying X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. Both crystallite size and magnetic core diameter ranged between 7 and 11 nm. The influence of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions (corresponding to magnetic nanoparticle levels of 10{sup -14}-10{sup -15}/cm{sup 3}) on sunflower seedlings was studied considering the changes in the photosynthesis pigment levels. Similar responses were obtained for magnetite and cobalt ferrite nanoparticle treatment consisting in the apparent inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis while for zinc ferrite nanoparticles some concentrations seemed to have stimulatory effects on the chlorophylls as well as on the carotene levels. But the chlorophyll ratio was diminished in the case of all three types of magnetic nanoparticles meaning their slight negative effect on the light harvesting complex II (LHC II) from the chloroplast membranes and consequently on the photosynthesis efficiency.

  15. The effect of subambient to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration on vascular function in Helianthus annuus: Implications for plant response to climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant gas-exchange is regulated by stomata, which co-ordinate leaf-level water loss with xylem transport. Stomatal opening responds to internal levels of CO2 in the leaf but changing CO2 can also lead to changes in stomatal density that influence transpiration. Given that stomatal conductance increa...

  16. Morphological and Cytological Study in a New Type of Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line CMS-GIG2 in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in sunflower anthers, termed lemon CMS-GIG2, has been further confirmed by crossing with the maintenance line and restoration line of CMS-PET1, both of which maintain the male sterility of CMS-GIG2. Light microscopy observation of anther sections showed that bo...

  17. The origin and evolution of a recent agricultural weed: population genetic diversity of weedy populations of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in Spain and France

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Marie-Hélène; Latreille, Muriel; Tollon, Christine

    2011-01-01

    The recurrent evolution of crop-related weeds during agricultural history raises serious economic problems and challenging scientific questions. Weedy forms of sunflower, a species native from America, have been reported in European sunflower fields for a few decades. In order to understand their origin, we analysed the genetic diversity of a sample of weedy populations from France and Spain, and of conventional and ornamental varieties. A crop-specific maternally inherited marker was present in all weeds. At 16 microsatellite loci, the weedy populations shared most of their diversity with the conventional varieties. But they showed a large number of additional alleles absent from the cultivated pool. European weedy populations thus most probably originated from the unintentional pollination of maternal lines in seed production fields by wild plants growing nearby, resulting in the introduction of crop-wild hybrids into the farmers’ fields. The wide diversity and the low population structure detected were indicative of a multiplicity of introductions events rather than of field-to-field propagation. Further studies are required to understand the local evolutionary dynamics of a weedy population, and especially the respective roles of crop-to-weed gene flow and selection in the fate of an initial source of crop-wild hybrids. PMID:25567998

  18. Relocation of a rust resistance gene R2 and its marker-assisted gene pyramiding in confection sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rust (caused by Puccinia helianthi Schwein.) is a major disease of sunflower worldwide. Due to the frequent evolution of new pathogen races, the disease is a recurring threat to sunflower production especially in North America, Argentina, and Australia. The inbred line MC29 carries the rust resistan...

  19. Genetic Control of Water Use Efficiency and Leaf Carbon Isotope Discrimination in Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Subjected to Two Drought Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Adiredjo, Afifuddin Latif; Navaud, Olivier; Muños, Stephane; Langlade, Nicolas B.; Lamaze, Thierry; Grieu, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    High water use efficiency (WUE) can be achieved by coordination of biomass accumulation and water consumption. WUE is physiologically and genetically linked to carbon isotope discrimination (CID) in leaves of plants. A population of 148 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of sunflower derived from a cross between XRQ and PSC8 lines was studied to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling WUE and CID, and to compare QTL associated with these traits in different drought scenarios. We conducted greenhouse experiments in 2011 and 2012 by using 100 balances which provided a daily measurement of water transpired, and we determined WUE, CID, biomass and cumulative water transpired by plants. Wide phenotypic variability, significant genotypic effects, and significant negative correlations between WUE and CID were observed in both experiments. A total of nine QTL controlling WUE and eight controlling CID were identified across the two experiments. A QTL for phenotypic response controlling WUE and CID was also significantly identified. The QTL for WUE were specific to the drought scenarios, whereas the QTL for CID were independent of the drought scenarios and could be found in all the experiments. Our results showed that the stable genomic regions controlling CID were located on the linkage groups 06 and 13 (LG06 and LG13). Three QTL for CID were co-localized with the QTL for WUE, biomass and cumulative water transpired. We found that CID and WUE are highly correlated and have common genetic control. Interestingly, the genetic control of these traits showed an interaction with the environment (between the two drought scenarios and control conditions). Our results open a way for breeding higher WUE by using CID and marker-assisted approaches and therefore help to maintain the stability of sunflower crop production. PMID:24992022

  20. Oleate Coated Magnetic Cores Based on Magnetite, Zn Ferrite and Co Ferrite Nanoparticles—Preparation, Physical Characterization and Biological Impact on Helianthus Annuus Photosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ursache-Oprisan, Manuela; Foca-nici, Ecaterina; Cirlescu, Aurelian; Caltun, Ovidiu; Creanga, Dorina

    2010-12-01

    Sodium oleate was used as coating shell for magnetite, Zn ferrite and Co ferrite powders to stabilize them in the form of aqueous magnetic suspensions. The physical characterization was carried out by applying X-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. Both crystallite size and magnetic core diameter ranged between 7 and 11 nm. The influence of magnetic nanoparticle suspensions (corresponding to magnetic nanoparticle levels of 10-14-10-15/cm3) on sunflower seedlings was studied considering the changes in the photosynthesis pigment levels. Similar responses were obtained for magnetite and cobalt ferrite nanoparticle treatment consisting in the apparent inhibition of chlorophyll biosynthesis while for zinc ferrite nanoparticles some concentrations seemed to have stimulatory effects on the chlorophylls as well as on the carotene levels. But the chlorophyll ratio was diminished in the case of all three types of magnetic nanoparticles meaning their slight negative effect on the light harvesting complex II (LHC II) from the chloroplast membranes and consequently on the photosynthesis efficiency.

  1. Oil content and saturated fatty acids in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) as a function of planting date, N rate, and hybrid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fatty acids (FA) composition of sunflower determines its uses and health effects on humans, while oil content determines the price paid to producers. The hypothesis of this study was that agronomic factors (genotype, planting date, and N rate) will affect total saturated fatty acid (TSFA) concen...

  2. The origin and evolution of a recent agricultural weed: population genetic diversity of weedy populations of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in Spain and France.

    PubMed

    Muller, Marie-Hélène; Latreille, Muriel; Tollon, Christine

    2011-05-01

    The recurrent evolution of crop-related weeds during agricultural history raises serious economic problems and challenging scientific questions. Weedy forms of sunflower, a species native from America, have been reported in European sunflower fields for a few decades. In order to understand their origin, we analysed the genetic diversity of a sample of weedy populations from France and Spain, and of conventional and ornamental varieties. A crop-specific maternally inherited marker was present in all weeds. At 16 microsatellite loci, the weedy populations shared most of their diversity with the conventional varieties. But they showed a large number of additional alleles absent from the cultivated pool. European weedy populations thus most probably originated from the unintentional pollination of maternal lines in seed production fields by wild plants growing nearby, resulting in the introduction of crop-wild hybrids into the farmers' fields. The wide diversity and the low population structure detected were indicative of a multiplicity of introductions events rather than of field-to-field propagation. Further studies are required to understand the local evolutionary dynamics of a weedy population, and especially the respective roles of crop-to-weed gene flow and selection in the fate of an initial source of crop-wild hybrids. PMID:25567998

  3. Genetics and mapping of the R11 gene conferring resistance to recently emerged rust races, tightly linked to male fertility restoration, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower oil is one of the major sources of edible oil. As the second largest hybrid crop in the world, hybrid sunflowers are developed by using the PET1 cytoplasmic male sterility system that contributes a 20% yield advantage over the open-pollinated varieties. However, sunflower production in Nor...

  4. Excisions of a defective transposable CACTA element (Tetu1) generate new alleles of a CYCLOIDEA-like gene of Helianthus annuus.

    PubMed

    Fambrini, Marco; Basile, Alice; Salvini, Mariangela; Pugliesi, Claudio

    2014-10-01

    Tubular ray flower (turf) is a sunflower mutant that caught attention because it bears actinomorphic ray flowers, due to the presence of an active, although non-autonomous CACTA transposon (Tetu1) in the TCP domain of a CYCLOIDEA-like gene, HaCYC2c, a major regulator of sunflower floral symmetry. Here, we analyzed its excision rates in F3 population deriving from independent crosses of turf with common sunflower accessions. Our results suggest that the excision rate, ranging from 1.21 to 6.29%, depends on genetic background; moreover, the absence of somatic sectors in inflorescences of revertant individuals analyzed (182) and genetic analyses suggests a tight developmental control of Tetu1 excision, likely restricted to germinal cells. We individuate events of Tetu1 excision through molecular analysis that restore the wild type (WT) HaCYC2c allele, but even transposon excisions during which footprints are left. All mutations we detected occurred at the TCP basic motif and cause a change in ray flower phenotype. In particular, we selected five mutants with a one-to-four amino acid change that influence the capacity of reproductive organ development and ray flower corolla shaping (MUT-1, -2, -3, -4, -5). Revertant alleles not affecting turf phenotype (i.e. reading frame mutations) have also been identified (MUT-6). In all mutants, Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) experiments revealed variations of the steady state level of HaCYC2c mRNA. MUT-1 and MUT-4 showed a significant HaCYC2c down-regulation with respect to WT. A large variation within the biological replicates of MUT-2, MUT-3 and MUT-5 was detected and not significant differences in transcription levels between mutants and WT were observed. We detected low steady state level of HaCYC2c mRNA both in turf as in MUT-6. A three dimensional (3D) structure prediction tool let us predict an incorrect folding of the TCP protein already after a single amino acid deletion. This in turn is detectable as the restore of traits that are not peculiar of WT ray flowers, such as male fertility. Our analysis of an active TE sheds light on the TCP motif of the HaCYC2c gene and suggests that Tetu1 may be useful to obtain new natural mutants and for transposon tagging in different inbred lines of sunflower. PMID:25046140

  5. Map saturation and SNP marker development for the rust resistance genes (R4, R5, R13a, and R13b) in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower rust, which is incited by the fungus Puccinia helianthi Schwein., is the most common disease in Australia, Argentina, South Africa, and North America. Three independent genes, R5, R4, and R13 with two alleles R13a and R13b, were discovered in sunflower and are promising sources of resistan...

  6. Immobilized jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) tissue electrode for phenol detection.

    PubMed

    Odaci, Dilek; Timur, Suna; Telefoncu, Azmi

    2004-05-01

    A tissue based biosensor for the determination of phenol was developed by using Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) in combination with a dissolved oxygen (DO) probe. The tissue electrode response depends linearly on phenol concentration between 0.002 and 0.0101 microM in 10 min response time. Maximum electrode response was found in phosphate buffer at pH 8.0 and 35 degrees C. The reproducibility of the enzyme electrode was also tested by using standard phenol solutions (0.005 microM). The standard deviation (SD) and variation coefficient (cv) were calculated as +/- 1.4 x 10(-4) microM and 3.1%, respectively. PMID:15274436

  7. COMPARATIVE GENOMIC AND POPULATION GENETIC ANALYSES INDICATE HIGHLY POROUS GENOMES AND HIGH LEVELS OF GENE FLOW BETWEEN DIVERGENT HELIANTHUS SPECIES

    PubMed Central

    Kane, Nolan C.; King, Matthew G.; Barker, Michael S.; Raduski, Andrew; Karrenberg, Sophie; Yatabe, Yoko; Knapp, Steven J.; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2009-01-01

    While speciation can be found in the presence of gene flow, it is not clear what impact this gene flow has on genome- and range-wide patterns of differentiation. Here we examine gene flow across the entire range of the common sunflower, H. annuus, its historically allopatric sister species H. argophyllus and a more distantly related, sympatric relative H. petiolaris. Analysis of genotypes at 26 microsatellite loci in 1015 individuals from across the range of the three species showed substantial introgression between geographically proximal populations of H. annuus and H. petiolaris, limited introgression between H. annuus and H. argophyllus, and essentially no gene flow between the allopatric pair, H. argophyllus and H. petiolaris. Analysis of sequence divergence levels among the three species in 1420 orthologs identified from EST databases identified a subset of loci showing extremely low divergence between H. annuus and H. petiolaris and extremely high divergence between the sister species H. annuus and H. argophyllus, consistent with introgression between H. annuus and H. petiolaris at these loci. Thus, at many loci, the allopatric sister species are more genetically divergent than the more distantly related sympatric species, which have exchanged genes across much of the genome while remaining morphologically and ecologically distinct. PMID:19473382

  8. EXPLORATION FOR WILD HELIANTHUS ANOMALUS AND H. DESERTICOLA IN THE DESERT SOUTHWEST USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Helianthus is composed of 50 species and 19 subspecies with 13 annual and 37 perennial species. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of desirable agronomic traits. There has...

  9. Exploration and collection of rare Helianthus species from southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 10-day trip, encompassing 4600 km in the states of Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia and Alabama in southeastern U.S.A., was made in October, 2003. Our primary objective was to search for populations of Helianthus eggertii then on the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service Threatened and...

  10. Collection and evaluation of Helianthus verticillatus, an endemic sunflower of the Southeast US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Helianthus comprises 51 species, 14 annual and 37 perennial, and all native to North America. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of desirable agronomic traits. Whorled sun...

  11. Collection and evaluation of wild perennial Helianthus pumilus achenes for oil concentration and fatty acid composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Helianthus consists of 51 species and 19 subspecies with 14 annual and 37 perennial species. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of desirable agronomic traits. There has ...

  12. Collection and evaluation of wild perennial Helianthus pumilus achenes for oil concentration and fatty acid composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Helianthus consists of 52 species and 19 subspecies with 14 annual and 38 perennial species. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of desirable agronomic traits. There has ...

  13. Exploration for wild Helianthus species from the desert southwestern USA for potential drought tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of some sunflower species to survive and thrive in shifting sand dunes with an annual precipitation of 50 mm could be of value for cultivated sunflower, a crop often grown in arid regions. The genus Helianthus comprises 51 species and 19 subspecies, with 14 annual and 37 perennial specie...

  14. Evaluation of Wild Helianthus Species for Resistance to Sclerotinia Stalk Rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The evaluation efforts are focused primarily on the annual diploid Helianthus species in the USDA sunflower germplasm collection. A greenhouse screening method was employed, using soil-applied Sclerotinia-infested millet as inoculum. Greenhouse screening facilitates the rapid evaluation of much la...

  15. Collection of Helianthus porteri, an endemic sunflower of granite outcrops in the southeastern United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Helianthus comprises 51 species, 14 annual and 37 perennial, all native to North America. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of desirable agronomic traits. Confederate dai...

  16. Volatiles from intact and Lygus-damaged Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. are highly attractive to ovipositing Lygus and its parasitoid Peristenus relictus Ruthe.

    PubMed

    Halloran, Sean T; Mauck, Kerry E; Fleischer, Shelby J; Fleisher, Shelby F; Tumlinson, James H

    2013-08-01

    Trap cropping and biological control can provide a sustainable means of controlling insect pests. Insects in the genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) are major pests on cotton and horticultural crops throughout the United States, and pesticide resistance within Lygus populations necessitates more sustainable long-term management techniques. Here, we explore behavioral responses of Lygus bugs (L. rubrosignatus Knight) and an introduced parasitoid, Peristenus relictus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), to a common field edge plant, Erigeron annuus, which has the potential to serve as a trap host. Erigeron annuus is attractive to Lygus in the field, with Lygus preferentially moving to Erigeron patches compared to more abundant cotton plants. To determine the role of odor cues in mediating this attraction, we collected volatiles from E. annuus with and without Lygus damage, and then tested the attractiveness of these volatiles vs. those of cotton to Lygus females and female P. relictus wasps using Y-tube and wind tunnel bioassays. We found that undamaged E. annuus emits high concentrations of a complex volatile blend (60+ compounds), with novel compounds induced and constitutive compounds up-regulated in response to damage. Additionally, both female Lygus bugs and female P. relictus wasps are highly attracted to E. annuus volatiles over those of cotton in almost every combination of damage treatments. Our results suggest that Erigeron annuus would be an effective trap plant to control Lygus in cotton, since it is highly attractive to both the pest and its natural enemy. PMID:23982679

  17. White mold of Jerusalem artichoke

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) is a Native American food plant closely related to the common sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Tubers of Jerusalem artichoke are increasingly available in retail grocery outlets. White mold (Sclerotinia stem rot), caused by the fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotioru...

  18. Sucrose Synthase, a Cytosolic Enzyme in Protoplasts of Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Felix; Frehner, Marco; Wiemken, Andres

    1988-01-01

    The exact subcellular location of sucrose synthase (UDP-d-glucose: d-fructose 2-α-d-glucosyltransferase, EC 2.4.1.13) in Helianthus tuberosus tubers was studied by comparison of its activity in protoplasts with that of vacuoles isolated from them. Assuming 100% of the β-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity to be of vacuolar origin, less than 5% of both the sucrose synthase activity and the extravacuolar marker NAD-malate dehydrogenase was detected in the vacuole preparations. Sucrose synthase is therefore an extravacuolar enzyme. Its role in the inulin metabolism of H. tuberosus is discussed. PMID:16666286

  19. Evaluation of achenes of Helianthus verticillatus, an endemic sunflower of the southeastern US for oil concentration and fatty acid composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species which have provided a continued source of desirable agronomic traits. The genus Helianthus comprises 51 species, 14 annual and 37 perennial, all native to North America. Whorled sunflowe...

  20. Wild perennial Helianthus pumilus as a potential source for improved oil content and quality in cultivated sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Helianthus consists of 51 species and 19 subspecies with 14 annual and 37 perennial species. The narrow genetic base of cultivated sunflower has been broadened by the infusion of genes from the wild species, which have provided a continued source of desirable agronomic traits. There has be...

  1. Macroevolution of leaf defenses and secondary metabolites across the genus Helianthus.

    PubMed

    Mason, Chase M; Bowsher, Alan W; Crowell, Breanna L; Celoy, Rhodesia M; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donovan, Lisa A

    2016-03-01

    Leaf defenses are widely recognized as key adaptations and drivers of plant evolution. Across environmentally diverse habitats, the macroevolution of leaf defenses can be predicted by the univariate trade-off model, which predicts that defenses are functionally redundant and thus trade off, and the resource availability hypothesis, which predicts that defense investment is determined by inherent growth rate and that higher defense will evolve in lower resource environments. Here, we examined the evolution of leaf physical and chemical defenses and secondary metabolites in relation to environmental characteristics and leaf economic strategy across 28 species of Helianthus (the sunflowers). Using a phylogenetic comparative approach, we found few evolutionary trade-offs among defenses and no evidence for defense syndromes. We also found that leaf defenses are strongly related to leaf economic strategy, with higher defense in more resource-conservative species, although there is little support for the evolution of higher defense in low-resource habitats. A wide variety of physical and chemical defenses predict resistance to different insect herbivores, fungal pathogens, and a parasitic plant, suggesting that most sunflower defenses are not redundant in function and that wild Helianthus represents a rich source of variation for the improvement of crop sunflower. PMID:26583880

  2. Comparison of five DNA extraction methods for molecular analysis of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus).

    PubMed

    Mornkham, T; Wangsomnuk, P P; Wangsomnuk, P; Jogloy, S; Pattanothai, A; Fu, Y B

    2012-01-01

    DNA extraction is an essential step for molecular analysis of an organism, but it is difficult to acquire a sufficient amount of pure DNA from plant tissue with high levels of phenolic compounds, carbohydrates, proteins, and secondary metabolites. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) has high levels of such substances. We compared five commonly used methods of extracting genomic DNA in tests made with leaves and seed of four Jerusalem artichoke genotypes: 1) modified method of Tai and Tanksley, 2) method of Doyle and Doyle, 3) method of Porebski, 4) modified method of Štorchová, and 5) Plant DNA Kit of Omega Bio-tek. The quality and quantity of extracted DNAs were assessed by photometric assay, electrophoresis on 1% agarose gel and a PCR-based technique. The modified method of Tai and Tanksley was found to be superior for both young leaves and seed. The quality of the extracted DNA was confirmed by sequence-related amplified polymorphism. This information will be useful for molecular analyses of Jerusalem artichoke and other related Helianthus species. PMID:22535392

  3. High genetic diversity and low population structure in Porter's sunflower (Helianthus porteri).

    PubMed

    Gevaert, Scott D; Mandel, Jennifer R; Burke, John M; Donovan, Lisa A

    2013-01-01

    Granite outcrops in the southeastern United States are rare and isolated habitats that support edaphically controlled communities dominated by herbaceous plants. They harbor rare and endemic species that are expected to have low genetic variability and high population structure due to small population sizes and their disjunct habitat. We test this expectation for an annual outcrop endemic, Helianthus porteri (Porter's sunflower). Contrary to expectation, H. porteri has relatively high genetic diversity (H e = 0.681) and relatively low genetic structure among the native populations (F ST = 0.077) when compared to 5 other Helianthus species (N = 288; 18 expressed sequence tag-SSR markers). These findings suggest greater gene flow than expected. The potential for gene flow is supported by the analysis of transplant populations established with propagules from a common source in 1959. One population established close to a native population (1.5 km) at the edge of the natural range is genetically similar to and shares rare alleles with the adjacent native population and is distinct from the central source population. In contrast, a transplant population established north of the native range has remained similar to the source population. The relatively high genetic diversity and low population structure of this species, combined with the long-term success of transplanted populations, bode well for its persistence as long as the habitat persists. PMID:23487323

  4. Talc based exopolysaccharides formulation enhancing growth and production of Hellianthus annuus under saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Tewari, S; Arora, K

    2014-01-01

    Stress tolerating strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PF07 possessing plant growth promoting activity was screened for the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS). EPS production was monitored in the cell free culture supernatant (CFCS) and extracted EPS was further purified by thin layer chromatography. EPS producing cells were taken to design talc based formulation and its efficacy was checked on oilseed crop sunflower (Hellianthus annuus), under in vivo saline conditions (soil irrigated with 125 mM of saline water). Application of bioformulation significantly enhanced the yield and growth attributes of the plant in comparison to control (untreated seeds) under stress and non—stress conditions. Germination rate, plant length, dry weight and seed weight increased remarkably. The above findings suggest the application and benefits of utilizing EPS formulation in boosting early seedling emergence, enhancing plant growth parameters, increasing seed weight and mitigating stress in saline affected regions. Such bioformulation may enhance RAS/RT (Root Adhering Soil to Root Tissue ratio), texture of the soil, increase porosity, improve uptake of nutrients, and hence may be considered as commercially important formulation for renovation of stressed sites and enhancing plant growth. PMID:25535716

  5. Two independent loci control agamospermy (Apomixis) in the triploid flowering plant Erigeron annuus.

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, R D; Rieseberg, L H

    2000-01-01

    Asexual seed production (agamospermy) via gametophytic apomixis in flowering plants typically involves the formation of an unreduced megagametophyte (via apospory or diplospory) and the parthenogenetic development of the unreduced egg cell into an embryo. Agamospermy is almost exclusively restricted to polyploids. In this study, the genetic basis of agamospermy was investigated in a segregating population of 130 F(1)'s from a cross between triploid (2n = 27) agamospermous Erigeron annuus and sexual diploid (2n = 18) E. strigosus. Correlations between markers and phenotypes and linkage analysis were performed on 387 segregating amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs). Results show that four closely linked markers with polysomic inheritance are significantly associated with parthenogenesis and that 11 cosegregating markers with univalent inheritance are completely associated with diplospory. This indicates that diplospory and parthenogenesis are unlinked and inherited independently. Further, the absence of agamospermy in diploid F(1)'s appears to be best explained by a combination of recessive-lethal gametophytic selection against the parthenogenetic locus and univalent inheritance of the region bearing diplospory. These results may have major implications for attempts to manipulate agamospermy for agricultural purposes and for interpreting the evolution of the trait. PMID:10790411

  6. Effects of different doses of low power continuous wave he-ne laser radiation on some seed thermodynamic and germination parameters, and potential enzymes involved in seed germination of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    PubMed

    Perveen, Rashida; Ali, Qasim; Ashraf, Muhammad; Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Jamil, Yasir; Raza Ahmad, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    In this study, water-soaked seeds of sunflower were exposed to He-Ne laser irradiation of different energies to determine whether or not He-Ne laser irradiation caused changes to seed thermodynamic and germination parameters as well as effects on the activities of germination enzymes. The experiment comprised four energy levels: 0 (control), 100, 300 and 500mJ of laser energy and each treatment replicated four times arranged in a completely randomized design. The experimentation was performed under the greenhouse conditions in the net-house of the Department of Botany, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. The seed thermodynamic parameters were calculated according to seed germination thermograms determined with a calorimeter at 25.8°C for 72h. Various thermodynamic parameters of seed (ΔH, (ΔS)(e), (ΔS)(c), (ΔS)(e) /Δt and (ΔS)(c) /Δt) were affected significantly due to presowing laser treatment. Significant changes in seed germination parameters and enzyme activities were observed in seeds treated with He-Ne laser. The He-Ne laser seed treatment resulted in increased activities of amylase and protease. These results indicate that the low power continuous wave He-Ne laser light seed treatment has considerable biological effects on seed metabolism. This seed treatment technique can be potentially employed to enhance agricultural productivity. PMID:20670360

  7. Enzymatic browning and after-cooking darkening of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    PubMed

    Bach, Vibe; Jensen, Sidsel; Clausen, Morten R; Bertram, Hanne C; Edelenbos, Merete

    2013-11-15

    Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) undergo enzymatic browning when peeled or cut, and turn grey after boiling, due to after-cooking darkening reactions between iron and phenolic acids. In an attempt to reveal the components responsible for these discolouration reactions, sensory evaluation and instrumental colour measurements were related to contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids, organic acids and iron in three varieties of raw and boiled Jerusalem artichoke tubers harvested in the autumn and the spring. No differences were found between varieties in sensory evaluated enzymatic browning, but Rema and Draga had higher scores than Mari in after-cooking darkening. Jerusalem artichoke tubers had higher contents of total phenolics, phenolic acids and citric acid in the autumn and low contents in the spring, while it was the opposite for malic acid. None of the chemical parameters investigated could explain the discolouration of the Jerusalem artichoke tubers. PMID:23790937

  8. Metabolomics reveals drastic compositional changes during overwintering of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Morten R; Bach, Vibe; Edelenbos, Merete; Bertram, Hanne C

    2012-09-19

    Metabolic changes were investigated in overwintering Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers using proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) metabolomics. Three varieties were studied; as a result of overwintering, the amount of inulin was found to decrease in Jerusalem artichoke tubers. This was mainly due to its conversion to sucrose and, at the same time, formation of inulin with a lower degree of polymerization. Major effects on the concentration of citric acid, malic acid, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and adenosine were also found. Intriguingly, malic acid concentration increased and citric acid concentration decreased. These changes, together with an increase in sucrose and GABA concentrations, were ascribed to mobilization of nutrients prior to sprouting, suggesting that malic acid and GABA serve as carbon and nitrogen sources during sprouting of Jerusalem artichokes. PMID:22900787

  9. Chemical composition of the tuber essential oil from Helianthus tuberosus L. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko S; Đorđević, Miljana R

    2014-03-01

    Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke) is cultivated in Europe and other parts of the world as a food crop and ornamental plant. The volatile oils of the aerial parts of H. tuberosus were investigated more than 30 years ago, but no study could be found to date on the constituents of the tuber essential oil. Herein, the first characterization by GC-FID, GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR analyses of a hydrodistilled essential oil of Jerusalem artichoke tubers was reported. Fresh plant material collected in Serbia (Sample A) and a commercial sample (Sample B) yielded only small amounts of oil (0.0014 and 0.0021% (w/w), resp.). In total, 195 constituents were identified, representing 88.2 and 93.6% of the oil compositions for Samples A and B, respectively. The main constituents identified were β-bisabolene (1; 22.9-30.5%), undecanal (0-12.7%), α-pinene (7.6-0.8%), kauran-16-ol (2; 6.9-9.8%), 2-pentylfuran (0.0-5.7%), and (E)-tetradec-2-enal (0.0-4.9%). Several rare compounds characteristic for Helianthus ssp. were also detected: helianthol A (6; 2.1-1.9%), dihydroeuparin (10; 0.0-2.3%), euparin (9; 0.0-0.4%), desmethoxyencecalin (7; traces - 0.2%), desmethylencecalin (8; 0.0-0.4%), and an isomer of desmethylencecalin (0.0%-traces). The essential oils isolated from the tuber and the aerial parts share the common major component 1. PMID:24634072

  10. Coyote, Canis latrans, use of commercial sunflower, Helianthus spp., Seeds as a food source in western Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sovada, M.A.; Telesco, D.J.; Roy, C.C.

    2000-01-01

    Food habits of Coyotes (Canis latrans) were determined by analysis of scats collected in western Kansas in 1996. Mammals were the most frequently occurring food of Coyotes (100% of scats), followed by plants (39%), insects (30%) and birds (9%). Commercial sunflower (Helianthus spp.) seeds were found in 9 of 23 scats. When present, they composed a high volume of individual scats (X= 31%). Substantial use of commercial sunflower seeds as a food source by Coyotes has not been previously documented.

  11. In vitro antiproliferative and antifungal activity of essential oils from Erigeron acris L. and Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers.

    PubMed

    Nazaruk, Jolanta; Karna, Ewa; Wieczorek, Piotr; Sacha, Paweł; Tryniszewska, Elzbieta

    2010-01-01

    Antiproliferative and antifungal activities of essential oils from Erigeron acris root and herb and from Erigeron annuus herb were investigated. The cell viability assay was performed in cultured fibroblasts, cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and MDA-MBA-231), and endometrial adenocarcinoma (Ishikawa) cells as well as colon adenocarcinoma (DLD-1) cells using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT). The essential oil from E. acris root showed the highest antiproliferative activity in the MCF-7 cell line with an IC50 value of 14.5 microg/mL. No effect of the essential oil on normal cells at that concentration was found. Antifungal activity against various strains of five Candida species, i.e. C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis, was tested by the microdilution method. It was found that all examined oils can be useful as antifungal agents against the above-mentioned species, but the essential oil of E. acris herb was the most active. Their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranged from 30 to 0.4 microL/mL. The data presented suggest that essential oils from E. acris and E. annuus possess antifungal activity against Candida spp. and antiproliferative activity against breast cancer MCF-7 cells. PMID:21319704

  12. Preparation of high-fructose syrup from the tubers of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.

    PubMed

    Fleming, S E; GrootWassink, J W

    1979-11-01

    Fructose has recently received much attention due to renewed interest in natural sweeteners. In addition, fructose has some advantages to sucrose in sweetness, solubility, viscosity, and dental health characteristics. Fructose is deposited as storage fructans of the inulin (beta-1,2) type in tubers and rhizomes of the Compositae family. The utilization of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) tuber as a source of fructose syrup is discussed. This plant has the potential to produce more sugar per acre than corn or sugar beets. In addition, the artichoke has higher frost resistance and lower heat unit requirements than corn and is somewhat more tolerant to low moisture conditions than sugar beets. A high quality fructose syrup can be produced from artichoke tubers. The extraction step was found to be particularly important since development of adverse colors and flavors must be prevented. The fructans may be acid or enzyme hydrolyzed but the latter method gave a higher quality syrup. Ion-exchange resins and activated charcoal were effective in removing coloring and flavoring materials, and also reduced other noncarbohydrate constituents. Since the enzymatic hydrolysis of the fructans is an attractive alternative to acid hydrolysis, a process was developed for producing and purifying a special beta-fructofuranosidase (inulase) from Saccharomyces fragilis. Inulase has a much higher specificity for fructans than commerically available beta-fructofuranosidase (invertase). PMID:41685

  13. Economically Viable Components from Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a Biorefinery Concept

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Newson, William R.; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Persson Hovmalm, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals. PMID:25913379

  14. Effects of Polyamines on the Oxidation of Exogenous NADH by Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) Mitochondria 1

    PubMed Central

    Rugolo, Michela; Antognoni, Fabiana; Flamigni, Alberto; Zannoni, Davide

    1991-01-01

    The effect of polyamines (putrescine, spermine, and spermidine) on the oxidation of exogenous NADH by Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. cv. OB1) mitochondria, have been studied. Addition of spermine and/or spermidine to a suspension of mitochondria in a low-cation medium (2 millimolar-K+) caused a decrease in the apparent Km and an increase in the apparent Vmax for the oxidation of exogenous NADH. These polycations released by screening effect the mitochondrially induced quenching of 9-aminoacridine fluorescence, their efficiency being dependent on the valency of the cation (C4+ > C3+). Conversely, putrescine only slightly affected both kinetic parameters of exogenous NADH oxidation and the number of fixed charges on the membranes. Spermine and spermidine, but not putrescine, decreased the apparent Km for Ca2+ from about 1 to about 0.2 micromolar, required to activate external NADH oxidation in a high-cation medium, containing physiological concentrations of Pi, Mg2+ and K+. The results are interpreted as evidence for a role of spermine and spermidine in the modulation of exogenous NADH oxidation by plant mitochondria in vivo. PMID:16667944

  15. Oxidation of External NAD(P)H by Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) Mitochondria 1

    PubMed Central

    Rugolo, Michela; Zannoni, Davide

    1992-01-01

    The functional interaction between the externally located NAD(P)H dehydrogenase and the Q-pool acceptor site(s) in Percoll-purified mitochondria from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L. cv OB1) mitochondria has been investigated. Oxidation of exogenous NADH is stimulated by ubiquinone (UQ1) with a parallel decrease of the apparent Km for NADH. In the presence of saturating amounts of UQ1 as electron acceptor, the Km (NADH) is not affected by variations of the ionic strength. Conversely, the Km for UQ1 is decreased by the screening effect of negative charges on the outer membrane surface. Under low-ionic strength, the hydroxyflavone platanetin progressively inhibits NADH oxidation with a mean inhibition dose of approximately 3 nanomoles of inhibitor per milligram of protein. Interestingly, under high-ionic strength, oxidation of NADH proceeds through two platanetin binding sites, one of which has a lower affinity for the inhibitor (mean inhibition dose = 20 nanomoles per milligram protein), because it is located near the outer surface of the membrane. This latter site is the one involved in the oxidation of external NADPH and, possibly, also affected by spermine and spermidine. Similarly to NADH, oxidation of NADPH is fully sensitive to micromolar concentrations of free Ca2+ ions; in addition, similar concentrations of the sulfhydryl reagent mersalyl are required to inhibit both NADH and NADPH oxidative activities. The results are interpreted as evidence for the presence of a single nonspecific NAD(P)H dehydrogenase. PMID:16668968

  16. The novel pathway for ketodiene oxylipin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) tubers.

    PubMed

    Chechetkin, Ivan R; Medvedeva, Natalia V; Grechkin, Alexander N

    2004-11-01

    The new route of the plant lipoxygenase pathway, directed specifically towards the ketodiene formation, was detected during in vitro experiments with Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) tubers. Through this pathway (9Z,11E,13S)-13-hydroperoxy-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-HPOD) is reduced to corresponding 13-hydroxy acid (13-HOD), which is in turn dehydrogenated into ketodiene (9Z,11E,13S)-13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-KOD). Dehydrogenation of 13-HOD into 13-KOD was not dependent on the presence of either NAD or NADP, but was strongly dependent on the presence of oxygen. Under anoxic conditions, 13-HOD dehydrogenation was blocked, but addition of 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol restored it. Sulfite addition fully suppressed the aerobic dehydrogenation of 13-HOD. Hydrogen peroxide is a by-product formed by the enzyme along with 13-KOD. These data suggest that the ketodiene biosynthesis in H. tuberosus tubers is catalyzed by flavin dehydrogenase. (9S,10E,12Z)-9-Hydroxy-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (9-HOD) is dehydrogenated by this enzyme as effectively as 13-HOD, while alpha-ketol, (9Z)-12-oxo-13-hydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid, and ricinoleic acid did not act as substrates for dehydrogenase. The enzyme was soluble and possessed a pH optimum at pH 7.0-9.0. The only 13-HOD dehydrogenase known so far was detected in rat colon. However, unlike the H. tuberosus enzyme, the rat dehydrogenase is NAD-dependent. PMID:15522817

  17. Factors Affecting Crown Gall Tumorigenesis in Tuber Slices of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus, L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Tanimoto, Eugene; Douglas, Carl; Halperin, Walter

    1979-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens can induce tumors on thin slices which are excised from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) tubers and grown in culture on medium containing minerals and a carbon source. A comparative study was made of the kinetics of cell division in slices under three conditions: (a) slices which were untreated and showed only spontaneous (wound-induced) cell divisions; (b) slices treated with indoleacetic acid at several concentrations; and (c) slices treated with virulent or avirulent bacteria. The earliest spontaneous cell divisions were completed (as detected by the appearance of new daughter cell pairs) by about 3 hours. These cells divide only once. In indoleacetic acid-treated tissue, more cells divide, with the first cell pairs being detected slightly earlier than in slices not subjected to the hormone. The number of cells which divide is roughly proportional to auxin concentration. Tissue treated with virulent bacteria showed only the pattern of spontaneous cell division until about 72 hours, after which another burst of cell division commenced and continued indefinitely. The bacteria-induced growths produced the unusual amino acids which are characteristic of crown gall tumors. The percentage of slices with tumors was sharply reduced if certain avirulent A. tumefaciens strains were applied prior to virulent strains. Images PMID:16660891

  18. Economically viable components from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) in a biorefinery concept.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Eva; Prade, Thomas; Angelidaki, Irini; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Newson, William R; Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Hovmalm, Helena Persson

    2015-01-01

    Biorefinery applications are receiving growing interest due to climatic and waste disposal issues and lack of petroleum resources. Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) is suitable for biorefinery applications due to high biomass production and limited cultivation requirements. This paper focuses on the potential of Jerusalem artichoke as a biorefinery crop and the most viable products in such a case. The carbohydrates in the tubers were found to have potential for production of platform chemicals, e.g., succinic acid. However, economic analysis showed that production of platform chemicals as a single product was too expensive to be competitive with petrochemically produced sugars. Therefore, production of several products from the same crop is a must. Additional products are protein based ones from tubers and leaves and biogas from residues, although both are of low value and amount. High bioactive activity was found in the young leaves of the crop, and the sesquiterpene lactones are of specific interest, as other compounds from this group have shown inhibitory effects on several human diseases. Thus, future focus should be on understanding the usefulness of small molecules, to develop methods for their extraction and purification and to further develop sustainable and viable methods for the production of platform chemicals. PMID:25913379

  19. Transcriptome resources for the perennial sunflower Helianthus maximiliani obtained from ecologically divergent populations.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Takeshi; Darby, Brian J; Ungerer, Mark C

    2014-07-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies provide a rapid means to generate genomic resources for species exhibiting interesting ecological and evolutionary variation but for which such resources are scant or nonexistent. In the current report, we utilize 454 pyrosequencing to obtain transcriptome information for multiple individuals and tissue types from geographically disparate and ecologically differentiated populations of the perennial sunflower species Helianthus maximiliani. A total of 850 275 raw reads were obtained averaging 355 bp in length. Reads were assembled, postprocessing, into 16 681 unique contigs with an N50 of 898 bp and a total length of 13.6 Mb. A majority (67%) of these contigs were annotated based on comparison with the Arabidopsis thaliana genome (TAIR10). Contigs were identified that exhibit high similarity to genes associated with natural variation in flowering time and freezing tolerance in other plant species and will facilitate future studies aimed at elucidating the molecular basis of clinal life history variation and adaptive differentiation in H. maximiliani. Large numbers of gene-associated simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) also were identified that can be deployed in mapping and population genomic analyses. PMID:24438509

  20. Uptake of Benzyladenine by Tuber Slices of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) over a Wide Concentration Range 1

    PubMed Central

    Minocha, Subhash C.; Nissen, Per

    1982-01-01

    Uptake of the cytokinin benzyladenine by tuber slices of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) increased with the concentration of benzyladenine in the medium in the range 10−8 to 10−4 molar. The kinetics of uptake could be precisely represented by four phases of a single, multiphasic isotherm. Km and Vmax increased in a regular manner upon transition to higher phases. The fit to multiphasic kinetics was significantly better than the fit to cooperative kinetics or to the sum of four independent Michaells-Menten terms. PMID:16662528

  1. RNA-Seq Analysis and De Novo Transcriptome Assembly of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul Wook; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Min, Sung Ran; Moon, Jae Sun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Cho, Hye Sun

    2014-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has long been cultivated as a vegetable and as a source of fructans (inulin) for pharmaceutical applications in diabetes and obesity prevention. However, transcriptomic and genomic data for Jerusalem artichoke remain scarce. In this study, Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on samples from Jerusalem artichoke leaves, roots, stems and two different tuber tissues (early and late tuber development). Data were used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome. In total 206,215,632 paired-end reads were generated. These were assembled into 66,322 loci with 272,548 transcripts. Loci were annotated by querying against the NCBI non-redundant, Phytozome and UniProt databases, and 40,215 loci were homologous to existing database sequences. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 19,848 loci, 15,434 loci were matched to 25 Clusters of Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups classifications, and 11,844 loci were classified into 142 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The assembled loci also contained 10,778 potential simple sequence repeats. The newly assembled transcriptome was used to identify loci with tissue-specific differential expression patterns. In total, 670 loci exhibited tissue-specific expression, and a subset of these were confirmed using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated. Exsiting genetic and genomic data for H. tuberosus are scarce. The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke. PMID:25375764

  2. RNA-seq analysis and de novo transcriptome assembly of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus Linne).

    PubMed

    Jung, Won Yong; Lee, Sang Sook; Kim, Chul Wook; Kim, Hyun-Soon; Min, Sung Ran; Moon, Jae Sun; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Jeon, Jae-Heung; Cho, Hye Sun

    2014-01-01

    Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) has long been cultivated as a vegetable and as a source of fructans (inulin) for pharmaceutical applications in diabetes and obesity prevention. However, transcriptomic and genomic data for Jerusalem artichoke remain scarce. In this study, Illumina RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed on samples from Jerusalem artichoke leaves, roots, stems and two different tuber tissues (early and late tuber development). Data were used for de novo assembly and characterization of the transcriptome. In total 206,215,632 paired-end reads were generated. These were assembled into 66,322 loci with 272,548 transcripts. Loci were annotated by querying against the NCBI non-redundant, Phytozome and UniProt databases, and 40,215 loci were homologous to existing database sequences. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 19,848 loci, 15,434 loci were matched to 25 Clusters of Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups classifications, and 11,844 loci were classified into 142 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The assembled loci also contained 10,778 potential simple sequence repeats. The newly assembled transcriptome was used to identify loci with tissue-specific differential expression patterns. In total, 670 loci exhibited tissue-specific expression, and a subset of these were confirmed using RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. Gene expression related to inulin biosynthesis in tuber tissue was also investigated. Exsiting genetic and genomic data for H. tuberosus are scarce. The sequence resources developed in this study will enable the analysis of thousands of transcripts and will thus accelerate marker-assisted breeding studies and studies of inulin biosynthesis in Jerusalem artichoke. PMID:25375764

  3. Evolutionary Divergences in Root Exudate Composition among Ecologically-Contrasting Helianthus Species

    PubMed Central

    Bowsher, Alan W.; Ali, Rifhat; Harding, Scott A.; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donovan, Lisa A.

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots exude numerous metabolites into the soil that influence nutrient availability. Although root exudate composition is hypothesized to be under selection in low fertility soils, few studies have tested this hypothesis in a phylogenetic framework. In this study, we examined root exudates of three pairs of Helianthus species chosen as phylogenetically-independent contrasts with respect to native soil nutrient availability. Under controlled environmental conditions, seedlings were grown to the three-leaf-pair stage, then transferred to either high or low nutrient treatments. After five days of nutrient treatments, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of root exudates, and detected 37 metabolites across species. When compared in the high nutrient treatment, species native to low nutrient soils exhibited overall higher exudation than their sister species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs, providing support for repeated evolutionary shifts in response to native soil fertility. Species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils responded similarly to low nutrient treatments with increased exudation of organic acids (fumaric, citric, malic acids) and glucose, potentially as a mechanism to enhance nutrition acquisition. However, species native to low nutrient soils also responded to low nutrient treatments with a larger decrease in exudation of amino acids than species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs. This indicates that species native to low nutrient soils have evolved a unique sensitivity to changes in nutrient availability for some, but not all, root exudates. Overall, these repeated evolutionary divergences between species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils provide evidence for the adaptive value of root exudation, and its plasticity, in contrasting soil environments. PMID:26824236

  4. Evolutionary Divergences in Root Exudate Composition among Ecologically-Contrasting Helianthus Species.

    PubMed

    Bowsher, Alan W; Ali, Rifhat; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donovan, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots exude numerous metabolites into the soil that influence nutrient availability. Although root exudate composition is hypothesized to be under selection in low fertility soils, few studies have tested this hypothesis in a phylogenetic framework. In this study, we examined root exudates of three pairs of Helianthus species chosen as phylogenetically-independent contrasts with respect to native soil nutrient availability. Under controlled environmental conditions, seedlings were grown to the three-leaf-pair stage, then transferred to either high or low nutrient treatments. After five days of nutrient treatments, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of root exudates, and detected 37 metabolites across species. When compared in the high nutrient treatment, species native to low nutrient soils exhibited overall higher exudation than their sister species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs, providing support for repeated evolutionary shifts in response to native soil fertility. Species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils responded similarly to low nutrient treatments with increased exudation of organic acids (fumaric, citric, malic acids) and glucose, potentially as a mechanism to enhance nutrition acquisition. However, species native to low nutrient soils also responded to low nutrient treatments with a larger decrease in exudation of amino acids than species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs. This indicates that species native to low nutrient soils have evolved a unique sensitivity to changes in nutrient availability for some, but not all, root exudates. Overall, these repeated evolutionary divergences between species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils provide evidence for the adaptive value of root exudation, and its plasticity, in contrasting soil environments. PMID:26824236

  5. Re-collection of Helianthus argophyllus, source of the PlArg gene from downy mildew resistance, surviving for 25 years on Daytona Beach, Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Helianthus, besides constituting the basic genetic stock from which cultivated sunflower originated, continues to contribute unique characteristics for cultivated sunflower improvement. Genetic diversity of the wild species has allowed the crop to become and remain economically viable by c...

  6. Analysis of Phenolic Acids of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) Responding to Salt-Stress by Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fujia; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Plant phenolics can have applications in pharmaceutical and other industries. To identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in Helianthus tuberosus leaves, qualitative analysis was performed by a reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and quantitative analysis by HPLC. Ten chlorogenic acids (CGAs) were identified (3-o-caffeoylquinic acid, two isomers of caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaroyl-quinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoyquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) by comparing their retention times, UV-Vis absorption spectra, and MS/MS spectra with standards. In addition, four other phenolic compounds, including caffeoyl glucopyranose, isorhamnetin glucoside, kaempferol glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-o-glucoside, were tentatively identified in Helianthus tuberosus leaves for the first time. The 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid (7.752 mg/g DW), 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (5.633 mg/g DW), and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4.900 mg/g DW) were the major phenolic compounds in leaves of Helianthus tuberosus cultivar NanYu in maturity. The variations in phenolic concentrations and proportions in Helianthus tuberosus leaves were influenced by genotype and plant growth stage. Cultivar NanYu had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds, in particular 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid compared with the other genotypes (wild accession and QingYu). Considering various growth stages, the concentration of total phenolics in cultivar NanYu was higher at flowering stage (5.270 mg/g DW) than at budding and tuber swelling stages. Cultivar NanYu of Helianthus tuberosus is a potential source of natural phenolics that may play an important role in the development of pharmaceuticals. PMID:25302328

  7. Analysis of phenolic acids of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) responding to salt-stress by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fujia; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Plant phenolics can have applications in pharmaceutical and other industries. To identify and quantify the phenolic compounds in Helianthus tuberosus leaves, qualitative analysis was performed by a reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and quantitative analysis by HPLC. Ten chlorogenic acids (CGAs) were identified (3-o-caffeoylquinic acid, two isomers of caffeoylquinic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaroyl-quinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, 3,4-dicaffeoyquinic acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid) by comparing their retention times, UV-Vis absorption spectra, and MS/MS spectra with standards. In addition, four other phenolic compounds, including caffeoyl glucopyranose, isorhamnetin glucoside, kaempferol glucuronide, and kaempferol-3-o-glucoside, were tentatively identified in Helianthus tuberosus leaves for the first time. The 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid (7.752 mg/g DW), 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (5.633 mg/g DW), and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (4.900 mg/g DW) were the major phenolic compounds in leaves of Helianthus tuberosus cultivar NanYu in maturity. The variations in phenolic concentrations and proportions in Helianthus tuberosus leaves were influenced by genotype and plant growth stage. Cultivar NanYu had the highest concentration of phenolic compounds, in particular 3-o-caffeoylquinic acid and 4,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid compared with the other genotypes (wild accession and QingYu). Considering various growth stages, the concentration of total phenolics in cultivar NanYu was higher at flowering stage (5.270 mg/g DW) than at budding and tuber swelling stages. Cultivar NanYu of Helianthus tuberosus is a potential source of natural phenolics that may play an important role in the development of pharmaceuticals. PMID:25302328

  8. Biomass, extracted liquid yields, sugar content or seed yields of biofuel feedstocks as affected by fertilizer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harvesting products from plants for conversion into renewable resources is increasing in importance. Determination of nutrition requirements for the applicable crops is necessary, especially in regions where the biofuel feedstock crops have not been grown historically. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus...

  9. Host plant effects on development and reproduction of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Homoptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development, survivorship, longevity, reproduction and life table parameters of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), were examined in the laboratory using three host plants, sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), Chrysanthemum morifolium L. and euonymus (Euonymus japonica Thu...

  10. Methods for assessing infestations of sunflower stem weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in sunflower stems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...

  11. Functional analyses of a putative plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter gene isolated from salt tolerant Helianthus tuberosus.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Tang, Zhong; Hu, Yibing; Yu, Ling; Liu, Zhaopu; Xu, Guohua

    2014-08-01

    Jerusalem artichokes (Helianthus tuberosus L.) can tolerate relatively higher salinity, drought and heat stress. In this paper, we report the cloning of a Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encoding a plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter from a highly salt-tolerant genotype of H. tuberosus, NY1, named HtSOS1 and characterization of its function in yeast and rice. The amino acid sequence of HtSOS1 showed 83.4% identity with the previously isolated SOS1 gene from the Chrysanthemum crassum. The mRNA level in the leaves of H. tuberosus was significantly up-regulated by presence of high concentrations of NaCl. Localization analysis using rice protoplast expression showed that the protein encoded by HtSOS1 was located in the plasma membrane. HtSOS1 partially suppressed the salt sensitive phenotypes of a salt sensitive yeast strain. In comparison with wild type (Oryza sativa L., ssp. Japonica. cv. Nipponbare), the transgenic rice expressed with HtSOS1 could exclude more Na(+) and accumulate more K(+). Expression of HtSOS1 decreased Na(+) content much larger in the shoot than in the roots, resulting in more water content in the transgenic rice than WT. These data suggested that HtSOS1 may be useful in transgenic approaches to improving the salinity tolerance of glycophyte. PMID:24771143

  12. Two variants of the major serine protease inhibitor from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus, expressed in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Rossana; Ziegelmüller, Patrick; González, Lidice; Mansur, Manuel; Machado, Yoan; Redecke, Lars; Hahn, Ulrich; Betzel, Christian; Chávez, María de Los Ángeles

    2016-07-01

    The major protease inhibitor from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (ShPI-1) is a non-specific inhibitor that binds trypsin and other trypsin-like enzymes, as well as chymotrypsin, and human neutrophil elastase. We performed site-directed mutagenesis of ShPI-1 to produce two variants (rShPI-1/K13L and rShPI/Y15S) that were expressed in Pichia pastoris, purified, and characterized. After a single purification step, 65 mg and 15 mg of protein per liter of culture supernatant were obtained for rShPI-1/K13L and rShPI/Y15S, respectively. Functional studies demonstrated a 100-fold decreased trypsin inhibitory activity as result of the K13L substitution at the reactive (P1) site. This protein variant has a novel tight-binding inhibitor activity of pancreatic elastase and increased activity toward neutrophil elastase in comparison to rShPI-1A. In contrast, the substitution Y15S at P2' site did not affect the Ki value against trypsin, but did reduce activity 10-fold against chymotrypsin and neutrophil elastase. Our results provide two new ShPI-1 variants with modified inhibitory activities, one of them with increased biomedical potential. This study also offers new insight into the functional impact of the P1 and P2' sites on ShPI-1 specificity. PMID:26993255

  13. Stressed Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.) excrete a protein fraction with specific cytotoxicity on plant and animal tumour cell.

    PubMed

    Griffaut, B; Debiton, E; Madelmont, J C; Maurizis, J C; Ledoigt, G

    2007-09-01

    Wounds from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers excrete bioactive metabolites from a variety of structural classes, including proteins. Here we describe a protein specifically active against tumour cells arising either from human, animal or plant tissues. The non-tumour animal cells or the plant callus cells are not sensitive to these excreta. The active product was only obtained after a wound-drought stress of plant tubers. The cytotoxicity varies according to the tumour cell type. For instance, some human tumour cell lines and especially the human mammary tumour cells MDA-MB-231 were shown to be very susceptible to the active product. The active agent is shown to contain an 18-kDa polypeptide with homology to a superoxide dismutase (SOD). A 28-kDa polypeptide, related to an alkaline phosphatase (AP), was shown to be tightly linked to this 18-kDa polypeptide. The excreted 28-kDa polypeptide also displayed a consensus sequence similar to the group of DING proteins, but with a smaller molecular weight. The superoxide dismutase polypeptide was shown to be involved in the antitumour activity, but the presence of smaller factors (MW<10 kDa), such as salicylic acid, can enhance this activity. PMID:17662535

  14. Isolation, characterization and expression of cyclin and cyclin-dependent kinase genes in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    PubMed

    Freeman, Donna; Riou-Khamlichi, Catherine; Oakenfull, E Ann; Murray, James A H

    2003-01-01

    Tuber explants of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) are a model system for cell-cycle re-entry from a quiescent state, involving the activation of division of tuber parenchyma cells in response to exogenous auxin. To enable molecular studies of this system, two cyclin (Heltu;CYCD1;1 and Heltu; CYCD3;1) and two cyclin-dependent kinase (Heltu; CDKA;1 and Heltu;CDKB1;1) genes have been isolated from a Jerusalem artichoke cDNA library and their expression demonstrated during the activation of cell division. It was found that CDKA;1 transcripts are present in quiescent tubers, whereas CYCD1;1, CYCD3;1 and CDKB1;1 transcripts are induced during cell-cycle re-entry as well as during bud growth of whole tubers. Both CYCD1;1 and CYCD3;1 transcripts appear shortly before, or coincident with, the onset of S phase. PMID:12493857

  15. Mitochondria-localized NAD biosynthesis by nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) heterotrophic tissues.

    PubMed

    Di Martino, Catello; Pallotta, Maria Luigia

    2011-10-01

    Current studies in plants suggest that the content of the coenzyme NAD is variable and potentially important in determining cell fate. In cases that implicate NAD consumption, re-synthesis must occur to maintain dinucleotide pools. Despite information on the pathways involved in NAD synthesis in plants, the existence of a mitochondrial nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT) activity which catalyses NAD synthesis from nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and ATP has not been reported. To verify the latter assumed pathway, experiments with purified and bioenergetically active mitochondria prepared from tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) were performed. To determine whether NAD biosynthesis might occur, NMN was added to Jerusalem artichoke mitochondria (JAM) and NAD biosynthesis was tested by means of HPLC and spectroscopically. Our results indicate that JAM contain a specific NMNAT inhibited by Na-pyrophosphate, AMP and ADP-ribose. The dependence of NAD synthesis rate on NMN concentration shows saturation kinetics with K (m) and V (max) values of 82 ± 1.05 μM and 4.20 ± 0.20 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, respectively. The enzyme's pH and temperature dependence were also investigated. Fractionation studies revealed that mitochondrial NMNAT activity was present in the soluble matrix fraction. The NAD pool needed constant replenishment that might be modulated by environmental inputs. Thus, the mitochondrion in heterotrophic plant tissues ensures NAD biosynthesis by NMNAT activity and helps to orchestrate NAD metabolic network in implementing the survival strategy of cells. PMID:21598001

  16. Influence of nitrogen fertilization on diazotrophic communities in the rhizosphere of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.).

    PubMed

    Meng, Xianfa; Wang, Lin; Long, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhaopu; Zhang, Zhenhua; Zed, Rengel

    2012-06-01

    Diazotrophs in the soil may be influenced by plant factors as well as nitrogen (N) fertilization. In this study, we investigated potential diazotrophic communities in the rhizosphere of the Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) supplied with differing amounts of N. The community structure of N(2)-fixing bacteria was profiled using the length heterogeneity polymerase chain reaction (LH-PCR) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) based on a variation in the nifH gene. Higher numbers of diazotrophs were detected by T-RFLP compared to LH-PCR. The lowest number of N(2)-fixing bacteria was observed in the rhizosphere soil with high N fertilization. T-RFLP was a better method than LH-PCR for profiling microbial diversity of diazotrophs using multidimensional scaling (MDS) and analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) of fingerprints as well as diversity measures. The supply of N fertilizer appeared to negatively influence the abundance of diazotrophs in the rhizophere of the Jerusalem artichoke. PMID:22564556

  17. Sequence-specific H NMR assignments and secondary structure in the sea anemone polypeptide Stichodactyla helianthus neurotoxin I

    SciTech Connect

    Fogh, R.H.; Mabbutt, B.C.; Kem, W.R.; Norton, R.S. )

    1989-02-21

    Sequence-specific assignments are reported for the 500-MHz H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the 48-residue polypeptide neurotoxin I from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (Sh I). Spin systems were first identified by using two-dimensional relayed or multiple quantum filtered correlation spectroscopy, double quantum spectroscopy, and spin lock experiments. Specific resonance assignments were then obtained from nuclear Overhauser enhancement (NOE) connectivities between protons from residues adjacent in the amino acid sequence. Of a total of 265 potentially observable resonances, 248 (i.e., 94%) were assigned, arising from 39 completely and 9 partially assigned amino acid spin systems. The secondary structure of Sh I was defined on the basis of the pattern of sequential NOE connectivities. NOEs between protons on separate strands of the polypeptide backbone, and backbone amide exchange rates. Sh I contains a four-stranded antiparallel {beta}-sheet encompassing residues 1-5, 16-24, 30-33, and 40-46, with a {beta}-bulge at residues 17 and 18 and a reverse turn, probably a type II {beta}-turn, involving residues 27-30. No evidence of {alpha}-helical structure was found.

  18. Analysis of Essential Oil in Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) Leaves and Tubers by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Helmi, Zead; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Tsymbalista, Yuliya; Ghazleh, Refat Abo; Shaibah, Hassan; Aboul-Enein, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate, for the first time, the chemical composition of essential oil of the tubers and leaves of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), a species of sunflower native to eastern North America, growing in Ukraine. Methods: A hydrodistillation apparatus was used for the extraction of volatile components and then it was analysed by gas chromatography equipped with a split-splitless injector (split ratio, 1:50) and flame ionization detector (FID). The oil was analyzed under linear temperature programming applied at 4°C/min from 50°C - 340°C. Temperatures of the injector and FID detector were maintained at 280°C and 300°C, respectively. The chemical analysis of the oil was carried out using gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS), to determine the chemical composition of the volatile fraction. Results: The essential oils content ranged from 0.00019 to 0.03486 and 0.00011 to 0.00205 (g/100g), in leaves and tubers, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative analysis led to the identification of 17 components in both species samples. The major component found in leaves and tubers was (-)-β-bisabolene with 70.7% and 63.1%, respectively. Conclusion: Essential oil profile of Jerusalem artichoke species showed significant differences between leaves and tubers species. Additionally, the leaves of Jerusalem artichoke are a promising source of natural β-bisabolene. PMID:25671184

  19. Sunflower stem weevil and its larval parasitoids in native sunflowers: Is parasitoid abundance and diversity greater in the US Southwest?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower stem weevils (Cylindrocopturus adspersus) and their larval parasitoids were collected from stems of four native sunflower species (Helianthus annuus, H. nuttallii, H. pauciflorus, and H. petiolaris) from 147 sites across eight states in 2003 and 2005. Native H. annuus constituted the major...

  20. Evaluating perennial sunflower for wildlife and food uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to use current genetics and plant breeding techniques to introgress genes for perennial habit from Helianthus tuberosus L. (2n=6x=102) into domesticated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n=2x=34). H. tuberosusis part of the secondary gene pool of sunflower and has b...

  1. Insects of sunflower in the northern Great Plains of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ancestors of cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., are native to North America and approximately 13 of the 51 species in the genus Helianthus are reported to occur in Canada. Sunflower was introduced to Spain in the early 1500s, gradually spread across the European continent, and was then ...

  2. The Development of Perennial Sunflower for Wildlife and Food Uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to use current genetics and plant breeding techniques to introgress genes for perennial habit from Helianthus tuberosus L. (2n=6x=102) into domesticated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., 2n=2x=34). H. tuberosus is part of the secondary gene pool of sunflower and has ...

  3. Cloning and functional characterization of two abiotic stress-responsive Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) fructan 1-exohydrolases (1-FEHs).

    PubMed

    Xu, Huanhuan; Liang, Mingxiang; Xu, Li; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xi; Kang, Jian; Zhao, Qingxin; Zhao, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    Two fructan hydrolases were previously reported to exist in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) and one native fructan-β-fructosidase (1-FEH) was purified to homogeneity by SDS-PAGE, but no corresponding cDNA was cloned. Here, we cloned two full-length 1-FEH cDNA sequences from Jerusalem artichoke, named Ht1-FEH I and Ht1-FEH II, which showed high levels of identity with chicory 1-FEH I and 1-FEH II. Functional characterization of the corresponding recombinant proteins in Pichia pastoris X-33 demonstrated that both Ht1-FEHs had high levels of hydrolase activity towards β(2,1)-linked fructans, but low or no activity towards β(2,6)-linked levan and sucrose. Like other plant FEHs, the activities of the recombinant Ht1-FEHs were greatly inhibited by sucrose. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that Ht1-FEH I transcripts accumulated to high levels in the developing leaves and stems of artichoke, whereas the expression levels of Ht1-FEH II increased in tubers during tuber sprouting, which implies that the two Ht1-FEHs play different roles. The levels of both Ht1-FEH I and II transcript were significantly increased in the stems of NaCl-treated plants. NaCl treatment also induced transcription of both Ht1-FEHs in the tubers, while PEG treatments slightly inhibited the expression of Ht1-FEH II in tubers. Analysis of sugar-metabolizing enzyme activities and carbohydrate concentration via HPLC showed that the enzyme activities of 1-FEHs were increased but the fructose content was decreased under NaCl and PEG treatments. Given that FEH hydrolyzes fructan to yield Fru, we discuss possible explanations for the inconsistency between 1-FEH activity and fructan dynamics in artichokes subjected to abiotic stress. PMID:25522837

  4. Monospecific polyclonal antibodies directed against purified cinnamate 4-hydroxylase from Helianthus tuberosus. Immunopurification, immunoquantitation, and interspecies cross-reactivity.

    PubMed Central

    Werck-Reichhart, D; Batard, Y; Kochs, G; Lesot, A; Durst, F

    1993-01-01

    We recently reported the purification of cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase (CA4H), a cytochrome P-450 catalyzing the second reaction of the general phenylpropanoid pathway, from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) (B. Gabriac, D. Werck-Reichhart, H. Teutsch, F. Durst [1991] Arch Biochem Biophys 288: 302-309). Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against the native and denaturated nitrocellulose-bound enzyme. Only the immunoglobulins G (IgGs) elicited upon immunization with native enzyme produced strong inhibition of catalytic activity and good cross-reactivity on western blots. In microsomes from H. tuberosus tissues induced by wounding and various chemicals, a positive correlation between catalytic activity and amounts of immunoreactive protein on western blots was observed. When coupled to cyanogen bromide-activated Sepharose, purified IgGs selectively retained CA4H activity from solubilized plant microsomes. Acid elution from the immunoaffinity matrix provided a rapid procedure for high-yield purification of the CA4H protein. The same IgGs immunoprecipitated a single protein from the in vitro translation products of mRNA isolated from wounded tissues. The apparent molecular weight (57,000) of this polypeptide was identical to that of CA4H purified from tuber microsomes. Immunochemical relatedness between CA4H from different plant species was demonstrated by strong inhibition of catalytic activity and immunopurification of several orthologous enzymes, using IgGs directed against CA4H from H. tuberosus. However, only limited interspecies cross-reactivity was observed on western blots. A careful immunochemical analysis indicates that CA4H immunoreactivity significantly differs from plant to plant. Results are discussed in terms of antibody specificity, enzyme glycosylation, and CA4H regulation. PMID:8278549

  5. Purification and characterization of the reconstitutively active adenine nucleotide carrier from mitochondria of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers.

    PubMed

    Spagnoletta, Anna; De Santis, Aurelio; Palmieri, Ferdinando; Genchi, Giuseppe

    2002-12-01

    The adenine nucleotide carrier from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers mitochondria was solubilized with Triton X-100 and purified by sequential chromatography on hydroxapatite and Matrex Gel Blue B in the presence of cardiolipin and asolectin. SDS gel electrophoresis of the purified fraction showed a single polypeptide band with an apparent molecular mass of 33 kDa. When reconstituted in liposomes, the adenine nucleotide carrier catalyzed a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-sensitive ATP/ATP exchange. It was purified 75-fold with a recovery of 15% and a protein yield of 0.18% with respect to the mitochondrial extract. Among the various substrates and inhibitors tested, the reconstituted protein transported only ATP, ADP, and GTP and was inhibited by bongkrekate, phenylisothiocyanate, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, mersalyl and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate (but not N-ethylmaleimide). Atractyloside and carboxyatractyloside (at concentrations normally inhibitory in animal and plant mitochondria) were without effect in Jerusalem artichoke tubers mitochondria. Vmax of the reconstituted ATP/ATP exchange was determined to be 0.53 micromol/min per mg protein at 25 degrees C. The half-saturation constant Km and the corresponding inhibition constant Ki were 20.4 microM for ATP and 45 microM for ADP. The activation energy of the ATP/ATP exchange was 28 KJ/mol between 5 and 30 degrees C. The N-terminal amino acid partial sequence of the purified protein showed a partial homology with the ANT protein purified from mitochondria of maize shoots. PMID:12678438

  6. Nuclear magnetic resonance study of the solution properties of the polypeptide neurotoxin I from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, R.S.; Cossins, A.I.; Kem, W.R. )

    1989-02-21

    The solution properties of the polypeptide neurotoxin I from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus (Sh I) have been investigated by high-resolution H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy at 300 MHz. The pH dependence of the spectra has been examined over the range 1.1-12.2 at 27{degree}C. Individual pK{sub a} values have been obtained for the {alpha}-ammonium group of Ala-1 (8.6) and the side chains of Glu-8 (3.7), Tyr-36 (10.9), and Tyr-37 (10.8). For the remaining seven carboxyl groups in the molecule, four pK{sub a} values can be clearly identified. The five Lys residues titrate in the range 10.5-11, but individual pK{sub a} values could not be obtained because of peak overlap. Conformational changes associated with the protonation of carboxylates occur below pH 4, while in the alkaline pH range major unfolding occurs above pH 10. The molecule also unfolds at elevated temperatures. Exchange of the backbone amide protons has been monitored at various values of pH and temperature in the ranges pH 4-5 and 12-27{degree}C. Comparison of these properties of Sh I in solution with those of the related polypeptides anthopleurin A and Anemonia sulcata toxins I and II indicates that Sh I is less stable thermally and that there are some significant differences in the ionic interactions that maintain the tertiary structure. The solvent accessibility of aromatic residues has been probed with photochemically induced dynamic nuclear polarization NMR at 360 MHz.

  7. Fine root tradeoffs between nitrogen concentration and xylem vessel traits preclude unified whole-plant resource strategies in Helianthus.

    PubMed

    Bowsher, Alan W; Mason, Chase M; Goolsby, Eric W; Donovan, Lisa A

    2016-02-01

    Recent work suggests variation in plant growth strategies is governed by a tradeoff in resource acquisition and use, ranging from a rapid resource acquisition strategy to a resource-conservative strategy. While evidence for this tradeoff has been found in leaves, knowledge of root trait strategies, and whether they reflect adaptive differentiation across environments, is limited. In the greenhouse, we investigated variation in fine root morphology (specific root length and tissue density), chemistry (nitrogen concentration and carbon:nitrogen), and anatomy (root cross-sectional traits) in populations of 26 Helianthus species and sister Phoebanthus tenuifolius. We also compared root trait variation in this study with leaf trait variation previously reported in a parallel study of these populations. Root traits varied widely and exhibited little phylogenetic signal, suggesting high evolutionary lability. Specific root length and root tissue density were weakly negatively correlated, but neither was associated with root nitrogen, providing little support for a single axis of root trait covariation. Correlations between traits measured in the greenhouse and native site characteristics were generally weak, suggesting a variety of equally viable root trait combinations exist within and across environments. However, high root nitrogen was associated with lower xylem vessel number and cross-sectional area, suggesting a tradeoff between nutrient investment and water transport capacity. This led to correlations between root and leaf traits that were not always consistent with an acquisition-conservation tradeoff at the whole-plant level. Given that roots must balance acquisition of water and nutrients with functions like anchorage, exudation, and microbial symbioses, the varied evidence for root trait covariation likely reflects the complexity of interacting selection pressures belowground. Similarly, the lack of evidence for a single acquisition-conservation tradeoff at the

  8. The nonvolatile metabolome of sunflower linear glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Spring, Otmar; Pfannstiel, Jens; Klaiber, Iris; Conrad, Jürgen; Beifuß, Uwe; Apel, Lysanne; Aschenbrenner, Anna-Katharina; Zipper, Reinhard

    2015-11-01

    Uniseriate linear glandular trichomes occur on stems, leaves and flowering parts of Helianthus species and related taxa. Their metabolic activity and biological function are still poorly understood. A phytochemical study documented the accumulation of bisabolene type sesquiterpenes and flavonoids as the major constituents of the non-volatile metabolome of linear glandular trichomes in the common sunflower, Helianthus annuus. Besides known sesquiterpenes of the glandulone, helibisabonol and heliannuol type, four previously undescribed sesquiterpenes named glandulone D, E, F and helibisabonol C were identified by spectroscopic analysis. In addition, four known nevadensin type flavonoids varying in O-methoxy substitutions were found. None of them has previously been reported from Helianthus annuus. PMID:26412774

  9. Localization of the Enzymes of Fructan Metabolism in Vacuoles Isolated by a Mechanical Method from Tubers of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Darwen, Christopher W. E.; John, Philip

    1989-01-01

    Vacuoles isolated by a mechanical slicing method from developing tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) contain activities of the two principal enzymes responsible for fructan synthesis: sucrose-sucrose fructosyl transferase and fructan-fructan fructosyl transferase. Both enzymes are associated with the vacuolar sap and not with the tonoplast. In vacuoles isolated from dormant tubers, the fructan-fructan fructosyl transferase activity remains in the vacuolar sap but the fructan exohydrolase activity is associated with the tonoplast. Fructan is hydrolysed by these vacuoles to fructose, which can be exported to the suspending medium. The localization of the enzymes of fructan metabolism in the vacuole has implications for the maintenance of fructan polymerisation. PMID:16666597

  10. A micro-batchwise technique method for rapid reconstitution of functionally active mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers.

    PubMed

    Spagnoletta, A; De Palma, A; Prezioso, G; Scalera, V

    2008-04-24

    A method for rapid reconstitution of ADP/ATP carrier from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers mitochondria in proteoliposomes is described. The method is based on the well known property of the Amberlite resin to absorb the detergent allowing proteoliposome formation. This has been achieved by a micro-batchwise technique, using a rotating plate stirrer. An evaluation of the optimal conditions, in comparison with the more usual column method is presented. The purified ADP/ATP carrier, incorporated in proteoliposomes by this method, shows a high transport activity and a higher specific activity with respect to proteoliposomes obtained by the column procedure. Furthermore the proteoliposomal preparations are more homogeneous in size, with a diameter ranging from 300 to 350 nm. The method is suitable for the reconstitution of other membrane transport proteins. PMID:18076996

  11. Cloning and sequence analysis of cDNA coding for a lectin from Helianthus tuberosus callus and its jasmonate-induced expression.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, R; Yasokawa, D; Okumura, Y; Nagashima, K

    2000-06-01

    Two lectins (designated as HTA I and HTA II) that seemed to be isolectins were found in Helianthus tuberosus callus. cDNA encoding HTA I was isolated from a ZAP Express expression library by immunoselection by using the anti-HTA antiserum. The sequence of this cDNA consisted of 432 bp nucleotides coding for a polypeptide of 143 amino acid residues (Mr, 15,314). When introduced into E. coli, the cDNA directed the synthesis of active HTA I as indicated by the hemagglutination activity. The deduced amino acid sequence showed homology with some lectins and jasmonate-induced proteins. When callus was cultured in the presence of methyl jasmonate (MeJA), the hemagglutination activity increased in a dose-dependent manner. The levels of expression of the HTA protein and of the corresponding mRNA also increased in the treated callus. In view of these results, HTA I is considered to be a jasmonate-induced protein. PMID:10923797

  12. Demonstration of an intramitochondrial invertase activity and the corresponding sugar transporters of the inner mitochondrial membrane in Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tubers.

    PubMed

    Szarka, András; Horemans, Nele; Passarella, Salvatore; Tarcsay, Akos; Orsi, Ferenc; Salgó, András; Bánhegyi, Gábor

    2008-10-01

    Genetic evidences indicate that alkaline/neutral invertases are present in plant cell organelles, and they might have a novel physiological function in mitochondria. The present study demonstrates an invertase activity in the mitochondrial matrix of Helianthus tuberosus tubers. The pH optimum, the kinetic parameters and the inhibitor profile of the invertase activity indicated that it belongs to the neutral invertases. In accordance with this topology, transport activities responsible for the mediation of influx/efflux of substrate/products were studied in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The transport of sucrose, glucose and fructose was shown to be bidirectional, saturable and independent of the mitochondrial respiration and membrane potential. Sucrose transport was insensitive to the inhibitors of the proton-sucrose symporters. The different kinetic parameters and inhibitors as well as the absence of cross-inhibition suggest that sucrose, glucose and fructose transport are mediated by separate transporters in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The mitochondrial invertase system composed by an enzyme activity in the matrix and the corresponding sugar transporters might have a role in both osmoregulation and intermediary metabolism. PMID:18600345

  13. Impact of planting dates on a seed maggot, Neotephritis finalis (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) damage in cultivated sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neotephritis finalis (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae), and sunflower bud moth, Suleima helianthana (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) are major head-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Planting date was evaluated as a cultural pest management strategy for control of N...

  14. Update on Host Plant Resistance Studies of Banded Sunflower Moth and Sunflower Moth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breeding pest-resistance crop cultivars to insects and diseases is one of the primary goals of integrated pest management programs worldwide. Host plant resistance is a tactic that uses the plant's own defenses to reduce injury from pest attack. Among the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) insect pest...

  15. Resistance in Cultivated Sunflower to the Sunflower Moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in the Central Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 5-year field study evaluated 42 sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) accessions, 25 breeding lines, and 40 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the sunflower moth, Homeosoma electellum (Hulst) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Germplasm with resistance to i...

  16. Development of insect resistant sunflowers: Updates and challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower Helianthus annuus L. is one of the major oil seed crops grown in the USA. with a highest estimated cultivated acreage of 975,000 acres in North Dakota. Besides diseases and weeds, insects are one of the major causes for yield losses. An average of 9-10% yield losses was attributed to insec...

  17. First Report of Pathogenicity of Fusarium sporotrichioides and Fusarium acuminatum on Sunflowers in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Widespread infection of charcoal rot (Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid) was observed in a commercial sunflower field (Helianthus annuus L. cv. 'Pioneer 63M82') in Todd County, MN in September 2009. Stem sections of the basal portion of infected plants were harvested and dissected. In addition to...

  18. Resistance in Cultivated Sunflower Germplasm to the Red Sunflower Seed Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 6-year field study evaluated 52 sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 20 breeding lines, and 9 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Germplasm with potent...

  19. Evapotranspiration and crop coefficients for irrigated sunflower in the southern high plains.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is diverse crop grown for oil or confectionary uses in the Southern High Plains often under irrigation. Crop water use (evapotranspiration or ET) was measured in 2009 and 2011 in two 4-ha fields using two precision 9 m**2 weighing lysimeters containing 2.3-m deep mo...

  20. Consumptive Water Use and Crop Coefficients of Irrigated Sunflower

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In semi-arid environments, the use of irrigation is necessary for sunflower production to reach its maximum potential. The aim of this study was to quantify the consumptive water use and crop coefficients of irrigated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) without soil water limitations during two growing...

  1. Registration of the oilseed sunflower genetic stocks HA 458, HA 459, and HA 460 possessing genes for resistance to downy mildew

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genetic stocks, HA 458, HA 459, and HA 460 have been released which are resistant to downy mildew (caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.) Berl. & De Toni) and possess a high-oleic fatty acid profile (oleic acid > 800 g kg-1) in the seed oil. These genet...

  2. Sources of resistance to sunflower diseases in a global collection of domesticated USDA plant introductions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basal stalk rot (BSR) and head rot (HR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary are traditionally major diseases of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in the United States, while Phomopsis stem canker (PSC) caused by Phomopsis helianthi Munt.-Cvet. et. al. has increasingly become damaging in...

  3. Resistance Among Cultivated Sunflower Germplasm to the Banded Sunflower Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in the Northern Great Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A five year field trial evaluated 71 oilseed sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 32 breeding lines, and 25 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), in North Dak...

  4. First Report of Charcoal Rot of Sunflower in Minnesota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field of oilseed sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. hybrid 'Pioneer 63M82') was observed with uneven maturation in west central Minnesota near Aldrich (Todd County) in late September, 2009. The field's soil type was sandy loam and cropping history was oats in 2008 preceded by four years of alfalfa. M...

  5. Resistance of Sunflower Germplasm to the Sunflower Stem Weevil and Red Sunflower Seed Weevil and Evaluation of Commercial Hybrids for Resistance to the Sunflower Midge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the central and northern Plains, cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is attacked by a number of insect pests resulting in yield losses for sunflower producers. Host-plant resistance can provide a long-term solution to managing these insects with reduced input costs and with potentially lo...

  6. Impact of irrigation on larval density of stem-infesting pests of cultivated sunflower in Kansas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The guild of stem-infesting insect pests of cultivated sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., within the central Plains is a concern to producers chiefly due to losses caused by plant lodging from the sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Dectes texanu...

  7. Natural Rubber Quantification in Sunflower Using an Automated Solvent Extractor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leaves of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) produce a small amount of low molecular weight natural rubber (NR) and this species has potential as a rubber-producing crop plant. Quantifying NR in plant tissue has traditionally been accomplished using Soxhlet or gravimetric methodologies. Accelerated solve...

  8. Effect of seeding date and N rate on sunflower yields, oil content and composition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is not a commonly grown crop in southeastern US. However, recent research has demonstrated the potential for sunflower to be grown as a cash crop in the region. Field experiment was conducted in 2007 to evaluate the effect of N (0, 67, 134, and 202 kg ha-1), seeding...

  9. Agronomic feasibility of sunflower as an oilseed cover crop for Florida vegetable production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oil producing sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was evaluated as a cover crop for Florida vegetable growers. The performance of a traditional, dwarf and herbicide resistant hybrid was evaluated at two locations (Martin and St. Lucie counties) in replicated 0.6 acre plots and a grain combine was used ha...

  10. Variation for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) seeds and oils are rich sources of phytosterols, which are important compounds for human nutrition. There is limited information on variability for seed phytosterols in sunflower germplasm. The objective of the present research was to evaluate kernel phytosterol cont...