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1

Direct detection of nasal Staphylococcus aureus carriage via helicase-dependent isothermal amplification and chip hybridization  

PubMed Central

Background The bacterium Staphylococcus aureus constitutes one of the most important causes of nosocomial infections. One out of every three individuals naturally carries S. aureus in their anterior nares, and nasal carriage is associated with a significantly higher infection rate in hospital settings. Nasal carriage can be either persistent or intermittent, and it is the persistent carriers who, as a group, are at the highest risk of infection and who have the highest nasal S. aureus cell counts. Prophylactic decolonization of S. aureus from patients’ noses is known to reduce the incidence of postsurgical infections, and there is a clear rationale for rapid identification of nasal S. aureus carriers among hospital patients. Findings A molecular diagnostic assay was developed which is based on helicase-dependent target amplification and amplicon detection by chip hybridization to a chip surface, producing a visible readout. Nasal swabs from 70 subjects were used to compare the molecular assay against culturing on “CHROMagar Staph aureus” agar plates. The overall relative sensitivity was 89%, and the relative specificity was 94%. The sensitivity rose to 100% when excluding low-count subjects (<100?S. aureus colony-forming units per swab). Conclusions This molecular assay is much faster than direct culture and has sensitivity that is appropriate for identification of high-count (>100?S. aureus colony-forming units per swab) nasal S. aureus carriers who are at greatest risk for nosocomial infections. PMID:22882800

2012-01-01

2

An integrated disposable device for DNA extraction and helicase dependent amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Here we report the demonstration of an integrated microfluidic chip that performs helicase dependent amplification (HDA) on\\u000a samples containing live bacteria. Combined chip-based sample preparation and isothermal amplification are attractive for world\\u000a health applications, since the need for instrumentation to control flow rate and temperature changes are reduced or eliminated.\\u000a Bacteria lysis, nucleic acid extraction, and DNA amplification with a

Madhumita Mahalanabis; Hussam ALMuayad; Jane Y. Zhang; Catherine M. Klapperich

2010-01-01

3

An integrated disposable device for DNA extraction and helicase dependent amplification  

PubMed Central

Here we report the demonstration of an integrated microfluidic chip that performs helicase dependent amplification (HDA) on samples containing live bacteria. Combined chip-based sample preparation and isothermal amplification are attractive for world health applications, since the need for instrumentation to control flow rate and temperature changes are reduced or eliminated. Bacteria lysis, nucleic acid extraction, and DNA amplification with a fluorescent reporter are incorporated into a disposable polymer cartridge format. Smart passive fluidic control using a flap valve and a hydrophobic vent (with a nanoporous PTFE membrane) with a simple on-chip mixer eliminates multiple user operations. The device is able to detect as few as ten colony forming units (CFU) of E. coli in growth medium. PMID:20066496

Mahalanabis, Madhumita; Do, Jaephil; ALMuayad, Hussam; Zhang, Jane Y.

2010-01-01

4

An integrated disposable device for DNA extraction and helicase dependent amplification.  

PubMed

Here we report the demonstration of an integrated microfluidic chip that performs helicase dependent amplification (HDA) on samples containing live bacteria. Combined chip-based sample preparation and isothermal amplification are attractive for world health applications, since the need for instrumentation to control flow rate and temperature changes are reduced or eliminated. Bacteria lysis, nucleic acid extraction, and DNA amplification with a fluorescent reporter are incorporated into a disposable polymer cartridge format. Smart passive fluidic control using a flap valve and a hydrophobic vent (with a nanoporous PTFE membrane) with a simple on-chip mixer eliminates multiple user operations. The device is able to detect as few as ten colony forming units (CFU) of E. coli in growth medium. PMID:20066496

Mahalanabis, Madhumita; Do, Jaephil; ALMuayad, Hussam; Zhang, Jane Y; Klapperich, Catherine M

2010-04-01

5

Miniaturized isothermal nucleic acid amplification, a review.  

PubMed

Micro-Total Analysis Systems (µTAS) for use in on-site rapid detection of DNA or RNA are increasingly being developed. Here, amplification of the target sequence is key to increasing sensitivity, enabling single-cell and few-copy nucleic acid detection. The several advantages to miniaturizing amplification reactions and coupling them with sample preparation and detection on the same chip are well known and include fewer manual steps, preventing contamination, and significantly reducing the volume of expensive reagents. To-date, the majority of miniaturized systems for nucleic acid analysis have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification and those systems are covered in previous reviews. This review provides a thorough overview of miniaturized analysis systems using alternatives to PCR, specifically isothermal amplification reactions. With no need for thermal cycling, isothermal microsystems can be designed to be simple and low-energy consuming and therefore may outperform PCR in portable, battery-operated detection systems in the future. The main isothermal methods as miniaturized systems reviewed here include nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), rolling circle amplification (RCA), and strand displacement amplification (SDA). Also, important design criteria for the miniaturized devices are discussed. Finally, the potential of miniaturization of some new isothermal methods such as the exponential amplification reaction (EXPAR), isothermal and chimeric primer-initiated amplification of nucleic acids (ICANs), signal-mediated amplification of RNA technology (SMART) and others is presented. PMID:21387067

Asiello, Peter J; Baeumner, Antje J

2011-04-21

6

Bioanalytical applications of isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques.  

PubMed

The most popular in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) including real-time PCR are costly and require thermocycling, rendering them unsuitable for uses at point-of-care. Highly efficient in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques using simple, portable and low-cost instruments are crucial in disease diagnosis, mutation detection and biodefense. Toward this goal, isothermal amplification techniques that represent a group of attractive in vitro nucleic acid amplification techniques for bioanalysis have been developed. Unlike PCR where polymerases are easily deactivated by thermally labile constituents in a sample, some of the isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques, such as helicase-dependent amplification and nucleic acid sequence-based amplification, enable the detection of bioanalytes with much simplified protocols and with minimal sample preparations since the entire amplification processes are performed isothermally. This review focuses on the isothermal nucleic acid amplification techniques and their applications in bioanalytical chemistry. Starting off from their amplification mechanisms and significant properties, the adoption of isothermal amplification techniques in bioanalytical chemistry and their future perspectives are discussed. Representative examples illustrating the performance and advantages of each isothermal amplification technique are discussed along with some discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. PMID:25467448

Deng, Huimin; Gao, Zhiqiang

2015-01-01

7

Isothermal DNA amplification in bioanalysis: strategies and applications.  

PubMed

Isothermal DNA amplification is an alternative to PCR-based amplification for point-of-care diagnosis. Since the early 1990s, the approach has been refined into a simple, rapid and cost-effective tool by means of several distinct strategies. Input signals have been diversified from DNA to RNA, protein or small organic molecules by translating these signals into input DNA before amplification, thus allowing assays on various classes of biomolecules. In situ detection of single biomolecules has been achieved using an isothermal method, leveraging localized signal amplification in an intact specimen. A few pioneering studies to develop a homogenous isothermal protein assay have successfully translated structure-switching of a probe upon target binding into input DNA for isothermal amplification. In addition to the detection of specific targets, isothermal methods have made whole-genome amplification of single cells possible owing to the unbiased, linear nature of the amplification process as well as the large size of amplified products given by ?29 DNA polymerase. These applications have been devised with the four isothermal amplification strategies covered in this review: strand-displacement amplification, rolling circle amplification, helicase-dependent amplification and recombinase polymerase amplification. PMID:21250850

Kim, Joonyul; Easley, Christopher J

2011-01-01

8

HELICASE DEPENDENT AMPLICATION transfer the DNA  

E-print Network

STEP 1 STEP 2 STEP 3 HELICASE DEPENDENT AMPLICATION HELICASE DNA POLYMERASE transfer the DNA SAMPLES INto a microfluidic CHIP ALONG WITH The Amplification Master mix Reagents. DNA amplification OF TOE WARMERS. use "snap" to extract your dNA or RNA from the HUman Sample. Put it all together

9

Isothermal Amplification of Insect DNA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA (LAMP) method can amplify a target DNA sequence at a constant temperature in about one hour. LAMP has broad application in agriculture and medicine because of the need for rapid and inexpensive diagnoses. LAMP eliminates the need for temperature cycl...

10

Isothermal amplification of insect DNA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA (LAMP) method can amplify a target DNA sequence at a constant temperature in about 1 hour. LAMP has broad application in agriculture and medicine because of the need for rapid and inexpensive diagnoses. The power of LAMP is being used by researchers ...

11

Diagnostic Devices for Isothermal Nucleic Acid Amplification  

PubMed Central

Since the development of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique, genomic information has been retrievable from lesser amounts of DNA than previously possible. PCR-based amplifications require high-precision instruments to perform temperature cycling reactions; further, they are cumbersome for routine clinical use. However, the use of isothermal approaches can eliminate many complications associated with thermocycling. The application of diagnostic devices for isothermal DNA amplification has recently been studied extensively. In this paper, we describe the basic concepts of several isothermal amplification approaches and review recent progress in diagnostic device development. PMID:22969402

Chang, Chia-Chen; Chen, Chien-Cheng; Wei, Shih-Chung; Lu, Hui-Hsin; Liang, Yang-Hung; Lin, Chii-Wann

2012-01-01

12

Molecular Test Based on Isothermal Helicase-Dependent Amplification for Detection of the Clostridium difficile Toxin A Gene  

PubMed Central

The AmpliVue Clostridium difficile assay and a glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)-illumigene algorithm were evaluated using 308 diarrheal stool specimens of patients suspected of having C. difficile infection. Compared to the enriched toxigenic culture method, the sensitivities, specificities, and positive and negative predictive values of the AmpliVue C. difficile assay and the GDH-illumigene-based algorithm were 91.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 76.4 to 97.8), 100% (95% CI, 98.3 to 100), 100% (95% CI, 87 to 100), and 98.9% (95% CI, 96.6 to 99.7), respectively. PMID:24759714

Holscher, Eleonore; Petit, Amandine; Lalande, Valérie; Barbut, Frédéric

2014-01-01

13

Low Cost Extraction and Isothermal Amplification of DNA for Infectious Diarrhea Diagnosis  

PubMed Central

In order to counter the common perception that molecular diagnostics are too complicated to work in low resource settings, we have performed a difficult sample preparation and DNA amplification protocol using instrumentation designed to be operated without wall or battery power. In this work we have combined a nearly electricity-free nucleic acid extraction process with an electricity-free isothermal amplification assay to detect the presence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) DNA in the stool of infected patients. We used helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (HDA) to amplify the DNA in a low-cost, thermoplastic reaction chip heated with a pair of commercially available toe warmers, while using a simple Styrofoam insulator. DNA was extracted from known positive and negative stool samples. The DNA extraction protocol utilized an air pressure driven solid phase extraction device run using a standard bicycle pump. The simple heater setup required no electricity or battery and was capable of maintaining the temperature at 65°C±2°C for 55 min, suitable for repeatable HDA amplification. Experiments were performed to explore the adaptability of the system for use in a range of ambient conditions. When compared to a traditional centrifuge extraction protocol and a laboratory thermocycler, this disposable, no power platform achieved approximately the same lower limit of detection (1.25×10?2 pg of C. difficile DNA) while requiring much less raw material and a fraction of the lab infrastructure and cost. This proof of concept study could greatly impact the accessibility of molecular assays for applications in global health. PMID:23555883

Huang, Shichu; Do, Jaephil; Mahalanabis, Madhumita; Fan, Andy; Zhao, Lei; Jepeal, Lisa; Singh, Satish K.; Klapperich, Catherine M.

2013-01-01

14

Low cost extraction and isothermal amplification of DNA for infectious diarrhea diagnosis.  

PubMed

In order to counter the common perception that molecular diagnostics are too complicated to work in low resource settings, we have performed a difficult sample preparation and DNA amplification protocol using instrumentation designed to be operated without wall or battery power. In this work we have combined a nearly electricity-free nucleic acid extraction process with an electricity-free isothermal amplification assay to detect the presence of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) DNA in the stool of infected patients. We used helicase-dependent isothermal amplification (HDA) to amplify the DNA in a low-cost, thermoplastic reaction chip heated with a pair of commercially available toe warmers, while using a simple Styrofoam insulator. DNA was extracted from known positive and negative stool samples. The DNA extraction protocol utilized an air pressure driven solid phase extraction device run using a standard bicycle pump. The simple heater setup required no electricity or battery and was capable of maintaining the temperature at 65°C±2°C for 55 min, suitable for repeatable HDA amplification. Experiments were performed to explore the adaptability of the system for use in a range of ambient conditions. When compared to a traditional centrifuge extraction protocol and a laboratory thermocycler, this disposable, no power platform achieved approximately the same lower limit of detection (1.25×10(-2) pg of C. difficile DNA) while requiring much less raw material and a fraction of the lab infrastructure and cost. This proof of concept study could greatly impact the accessibility of molecular assays for applications in global health. PMID:23555883

Huang, Shichu; Do, Jaephil; Mahalanabis, Madhumita; Fan, Andy; Zhao, Lei; Jepeal, Lisa; Singh, Satish K; Klapperich, Catherine M

2013-01-01

15

Detection of the 35S promoter in transgenic maize via various isothermal amplification techniques: a practical approach.  

PubMed

In 2003 the European Commission introduced a 0.9% threshold for food and feed products containing genetically modified organism (GMO)-derived components. For commodities containing GMO contents higher than this threshold, labelling is mandatory. To provide a DNA-based rapid and simple detection method suitable for high-throughput screening of GMOs, several isothermal amplification approaches for the 35S promoter were tested: strand displacement amplification, nicking-enzyme amplification reaction, rolling circle amplification, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and helicase-dependent amplification (HDA). The assays developed were tested for specificity in order to distinguish between samples containing genetically modified (GM) maize and non-GM maize. For those assays capable of this discrimination, tests were performed to determine the lower limit of detection. A false-negative rate was determined to rule out whether GMO-positive samples were incorrectly classified as GMO-negative. A robustness test was performed to show reliable detection independent from the instrument used for amplification. The analysis of three GM maize lines showed that only LAMP and HDA were able to differentiate between the GMOs MON810, NK603, and Bt11 and non-GM maize. Furthermore, with the HDA assay it was possible to realize a detection limit as low as 0.5%. A false-negative rate of only 5% for 1% GM maize for all three maize lines shows that HDA has the potential to be used as an alternative strategy for the detection of transgenic maize. All results obtained with the LAMP and HDA assays were compared with the results obtained with a previously reported real-time PCR assay for the 35S promoter in transgenic maize. This study presents two new screening assays for detection of the 35S promoter in transgenic maize by applying the isothermal amplification approaches HDA and LAMP. PMID:24880871

Zahradnik, Celine; Kolm, Claudia; Martzy, Roland; Mach, Robert L; Krska, Rudolf; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Brunner, Kurt

2014-11-01

16

Advances in isothermal amplification: novel strategies inspired by biological processes.  

PubMed

Nucleic acid amplification is an essential process in biological systems. The in vitro adoption of this process has resulted in powerful techniques that underpin modern molecular biology. The most common tool is polymerase chain reaction (PCR). However, the requirement for a thermal cycler has somewhat limited applications of this classic nucleic acid amplification technique. Isothermal amplification, on the other hand, obviates the use of a thermal cycler because reactions occur at a single temperature. Isothermal amplification methods are diverse, but all have been developed from an understanding of natural nucleic acid amplification processes. Here we review current isothermal amplification methods as classified by their enzymatic mechanisms. We compare their advantages, disadvantages, efficiencies, and applications. Finally, we mention some new developments associated with this technology, and consider future possibilities in molecular engineering and recombinant technologies that may develop from an appreciation of the molecular biology of natural systems. PMID:25218104

Li, Jia; Macdonald, Joanne

2015-02-15

17

Coupled isothermal polynucleotide amplification and translation system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cell-free system for polynucleotide amplification and translation is disclosed. Also disclosed are methods for using the system and a composition which allows the various components of the system to function under a common set of reaction conditions.

Joyce, Gerald F. (Inventor)

1998-01-01

18

Isothermal Polymerase Amplification in a Centrifugal Microfluidic Foil Cartridge  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is a new isothermal DNA amplification method that runs at 37°C, amplifies single copies in less than 15 minutes, and allows real-time fluorescence detection. For the first time we automated this method by microfluidic integration into a centrifugal lab-on-a-chip system, comprising unit operations for reconstitution of reagents, mixing with the sample, and aliquoting to test cavities.

S. Lutz; P. Weber; M. Focke; B. Faltin; G. Roth; O. Piepenburg; N. Armes; D. Mark; R. Zengerle; F. von Stetten

2009-01-01

19

Isothermal DNA amplification strategies for duplex microorganism detection.  

PubMed

A valid solution for micro-analytical systems is the selection of a compatible amplification reaction with a simple, highly-integrated efficient design that allows the detection of multiple genomic targets. Two approaches under isothermal conditions are presented: recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) and multiple displacement amplification (MDA). Both methods were applied to a duplex assay specific for Salmonella spp. and Cronobacter spp., with excellent amplification yields (0.2-8.6·10(8) fold). The proposed approaches were successfully compared to conventional PCR and tested for the milk sample analysis as a microarray format on a compact disc (support and driver). Satisfactory results were obtained in terms of resistance to inhibition, selectivity, sensitivity (10(1)-10(2)CFU/mL) and reproducibility (below 12.5%). The methods studied are efficient and cost-effective, with a high potential to automate microorganisms detection by integrated analytical systems working at a constant low temperature. PMID:25529713

Santiago-Felipe, Sara; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis Antonio; Morais, Sergi; Puchades, Rosa; Maquieira, Ángel

2015-05-01

20

Isothermal amplified detection of DNA and RNA.  

PubMed

This review highlights various methods that can be used for a sensitive detection of nucleic acids without using thermal cycling procedures, as is done in PCR or LCR. Topics included are nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), strand displacement amplification (SDA), loop-mediated amplification (LAMP), Invader assay, rolling circle amplification (RCA), signal mediated amplification of RNA technology (SMART), helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), nicking endonuclease signal amplification (NESA) and nicking endonuclease assisted nanoparticle activation (NENNA), exonuclease-aided target recycling, Junction or Y-probes, split DNAZyme and deoxyribozyme amplification strategies, template-directed chemical reactions that lead to amplified signals, non-covalent DNA catalytic reactions, hybridization chain reactions (HCR) and detection via the self-assembly of DNA probes to give supramolecular structures. The majority of these isothermal amplification methods can detect DNA or RNA in complex biological matrices and have great potential for use at point-of-care. PMID:24643211

Yan, Lei; Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Yue; Gamson, Adam S; Roembke, Benjamin T; Nakayama, Shizuka; Sintim, Herman O

2014-05-01

21

Sequence dependence of isothermal DNA amplification via EXPAR  

PubMed Central

Isothermal nucleic acid amplification is becoming increasingly important for molecular diagnostics. Therefore, new computational tools are needed to facilitate assay design. In the isothermal EXPonential Amplification Reaction (EXPAR), template sequences with similar thermodynamic characteristics perform very differently. To understand what causes this variability, we characterized the performance of 384 template sequences, and used this data to develop two computational methods to predict EXPAR template performance based on sequence: a position weight matrix approach with support vector machine classifier, and RELIEF attribute evaluation with Naïve Bayes classification. The methods identified well and poorly performing EXPAR templates with 67–70% sensitivity and 77–80% specificity. We combined these methods into a computational tool that can accelerate new assay design by ruling out likely poor performers. Furthermore, our data suggest that variability in template performance is linked to specific sequence motifs. Cytidine, a pyrimidine base, is over-represented in certain positions of well-performing templates. Guanosine and adenosine, both purine bases, are over-represented in similar regions of poorly performing templates, frequently as GA or AG dimers. Since polymerases have a higher affinity for purine oligonucleotides, polymerase binding to GA-rich regions of a single-stranded DNA template may promote non-specific amplification in EXPAR and other nucleic acid amplification reactions. PMID:22416064

Qian, Jifeng; Ferguson, Tanya M.; Shinde, Deepali N.; Ramírez-Borrero, Alissa J.; Hintze, Arend; Adami, Christoph; Niemz, Angelika

2012-01-01

22

Diagnosis of Brugian Filariasis by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification  

PubMed Central

In this study we developed and evaluated a Brugia Hha I repeat loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of Brugia genomic DNA. Amplification was detected using turbidity or fluorescence as readouts. Reactions generated a turbidity threshold value or a clear visual positive within 30 minutes using purified genomic DNA equivalent to one microfilaria. Similar results were obtained using DNA isolated from blood samples containing B. malayi microfilariae. Amplification was specific to B. malayi and B. timori, as no turbidity was observed using DNA from the related filarial parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus or Dirofilaria immitis, or from human or mosquito. Furthermore, the assay was most robust using a new strand-displacing DNA polymerase termed Bst 2.0 compared to wild-type Bst DNA polymerase, large fragment. The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis. PMID:23272258

Poole, Catherine B.; Tanner, Nathan A.; Zhang, Yinhua; Evans, Thomas C.; Carlow, Clotilde K. S.

2012-01-01

23

Accelerated reaction by loop-mediated isothermal amplification using loop primers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel nucleic acid amplification method that amplifies DNA with high specificity, efficiency and rapidity under isothermal conditions using a set of four specially designed primers and a DNA polymerase with strand displacement activity. We have developed a method that accelerates the LAMP reaction by using additional primers, termed loop primers. Loop primers hybridize to

K. Nagamine; T. Hase; T. Notomi

2002-01-01

24

Single primer-triggered isothermal amplification for double-stranded DNA detection.  

PubMed

Here we have devised a new generation of isothermal double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) detection method, termed single primer-triggered isothermal amplification (SAMP). It is very simple only requiring one primer and a few copies of dsDNA in less than an hour are detectable with multiple signal amplification steps. PMID:25412213

Ma, Cuiping; Han, Dianang; Deng, Meilian; Wang, Jingfei; Shi, Chao

2015-01-11

25

A phaseguided passive batch microfluidic mixing chamber for isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

With a view to developing a rapid pathogen detection system utilizing isothermal nucleic acid amplification, the necessary micro-mixing step is innovatively implemented on a chip. Passive laminar flow mixing of two 6.5 ?l batches differing in viscosity is performed within a microfluidic chamber. This is achieved with a novel chip space-saving phaseguide design which allows, for the first time, the complete integration of a passive mixing structure into a target chamber. Sequential filling of batches prior to mixing is demonstrated. Simulation predicts a reduction of diffusive mixing time from hours down to one minute. A simple and low-cost fabrication method is used which combines dry film resist technology and direct wafer bonding. Finally, an isothermal nucleic acid detection assay is successfully implemented where fluorescence results are measured directly from the chip after a one minute mixing sequence. In combination with our previous work, this opens up the way towards a fully integrated pathogen detection system in a lab-on-a-chip format. PMID:22952055

Hakenberg, Sydney; Hügle, Matthias; Weidmann, Manfred; Hufert, Frank; Dame, Gregory; Urban, Gerald A

2012-11-01

26

Isothermal quadruplex priming amplification for DNA-based diagnostics.  

PubMed

We previously developed a method, known as quadruplex priming amplification (QPA), which permits isothermal amplification of DNA. The assay is based on a DNA quadruplex formed by the GGGTGGGTGGGTGGG (G3T) sequence. G3T has three unique properties that are fundamental for QPA; (i) G3T forms a quadruplex with significantly more favorable thermodynamics than the corresponding DNA duplexes; (ii) removal of guanines at the 3'-end inhibits quadruplex formation; and (iii) incorporated fluorescent nucleotides, such as 2-aminopurine (2AP) or 6-methylisoxanthopterin (6MI), which are quenched by neighboring nucleotides, regain maximum emission upon quadruplex formation. New model studies carried out here with primers missing one, two and three guanines reveal that the driving force for QPA comes from the difference in thermal stability between the primer/template and the product complexes. Primers missing one and two guanines are able to self-dissociate from the template upon elongation, whereas QPA is not observed when the primer lacks three 3'-nucleotides. QPA reaches its maximum rate at temperatures slightly higher than the T(m) of the primer/template complex and is more efficient in the presence of only dGTP. QPA-based assays also revealed that Taq is able to incorporate thymidines opposite template 2AP, while no significant incorporation was observed opposite template 6MI. PMID:23232099

Taylor, Adam; Joseph, Anupama; Okyere, Robert; Gogichaishvili, Shota; Musier-Forsyth, Karin; Kankia, Besik

2013-01-01

27

Real-Time Detection of HIV-2 by Reverse Transcription–Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification  

PubMed Central

Currently, there are no FDA-approved nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for the detection or confirmation of HIV-2 infection. Here, we describe the development of a real-time assay for the detection of HIV-2 DNA and RNA using reverse transcription–loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and the ESEQuant tube scanner, a portable isothermal amplification/detection device. PMID:24789187

Niedzwiedz, Philip L.; Youngpairoj, Ae S.; Rudolph, Donna L.; Owen, S. Michele

2014-01-01

28

Brief review of monitoring methods for loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).  

PubMed

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique has the potential to revolutionize molecular biology because it allows DNA amplification under isothermal conditions and is highly compatible with point-of-care analysis. To achieve efficient genetic analysis of samples, the method of real-time or endpoint determination selected to monitor the biochemical reaction is of great importance. In this paper we briefly review progress in the development of monitoring methods for LAMP. PMID:24949822

Zhang, Xuzhi; Lowe, Stuart B; Gooding, John Justin

2014-11-15

29

Rapid sexing of water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis) embryos using loop-mediated isothermal amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel DNA amplification method that amplifies a target sequence specifically under isothermal conditions. The objective of this study was to identify a Y chromosome-specific sequence in water buffalo and to establish an efficient procedure for embryo sexing by LAMP. The homologues of a Y chromosome-specific sequence, bovine repeat Y-associated.2, in swamp and river buffalo

Hiroki Hirayama; Soichi Kageyama; Yoshiyuki Takahashi; Satoru Moriyasu; Ken Sawai; Sadao Onoe; Keiko Watanabe; Shinichi Kojiya; Tsugunori Notomi; Akira Minamihashi

2006-01-01

30

Detection of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Reaction by Turbidity Derived from Magnesium Pyrophosphate Formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel nucleic acid amplification method that uses only one type of enzyme. One of the characteristics of the LAMP method is its ability to synthesize extremely large amount of DNA. Accordingly, a large amount of by-product, pyrophosphate ion, is produced, yielding white precipitate of magnesium pyrophosphate in the reaction mixture. Judging the presence

Yasuyoshi Mori; Kentaro Nagamine; Norihiro Tomita; Tsugunori Notomi

2001-01-01

31

Isothermal Amplification Using a Chemical Heating Device for Point-of-Care Detection of HIV-1  

PubMed Central

Background To date, the use of traditional nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) for detection of HIV-1 DNA or RNA has been restricted to laboratory settings due to time, equipment, and technical expertise requirements. The availability of a rapid NAAT with applicability for resource-limited or point-of-care (POC) settings would fill a great need in HIV diagnostics, allowing for timely diagnosis or confirmation of infection status, as well as facilitating the diagnosis of acute infection, screening and evaluation of infants born to HIV-infected mothers. Isothermal amplification methods, such as reverse-transcription, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), exhibit characteristics that are ideal for POC settings, since they are typically quicker, easier to perform, and allow for integration into low-tech, portable heating devices. Methodology/Significant Findings In this study, we evaluated the HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay using portable, non-instrumented nucleic acid amplification (NINA) heating devices that generate heat from the exothermic reaction of calcium oxide and water. The NINA heating devices exhibited stable temperatures throughout the amplification reaction and consistent amplification results between three separate devices and a thermalcycler. The performance of the NINA heaters was validated using whole blood specimens from HIV-1 infected patients. Conclusion The RT-LAMP isothermal amplification method used in conjunction with a chemical heating device provides a portable, rapid and robust NAAT platform that has the potential to facilitate HIV-1 testing in resource-limited settings and POC. PMID:22384022

Curtis, Kelly A.; Rudolph, Donna L.; Nejad, Irene; Singleton, Jered; Beddoe, Andy; Weigl, Bernhard; LaBarre, Paul; Owen, S. Michele

2012-01-01

32

Isothermal Amplification Methods for the Detection of Nucleic Acids in Microfluidic Devices  

PubMed Central

Diagnostic tools for biomolecular detection need to fulfill specific requirements in terms of sensitivity, selectivity and high-throughput in order to widen their applicability and to minimize the cost of the assay. The nucleic acid amplification is a key step in DNA detection assays. It contributes to improving the assay sensitivity by enabling the detection of a limited number of target molecules. The use of microfluidic devices to miniaturize amplification protocols reduces the required sample volume and the analysis times and offers new possibilities for the process automation and integration in one single device. The vast majority of miniaturized systems for nucleic acid analysis exploit the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification method, which requires repeated cycles of three or two temperature-dependent steps during the amplification of the nucleic acid target sequence. In contrast, low temperature isothermal amplification methods have no need for thermal cycling thus requiring simplified microfluidic device features. Here, the use of miniaturized analysis systems using isothermal amplification reactions for the nucleic acid amplification will be discussed.

Zanoli, Laura Maria; Spoto, Giuseppe

2012-01-01

33

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method for Rapid Detection of the Periodontopathic Bacteria Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), a novel nucleic acid amplification method, was developed for the rapid detection of the major periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola. The LAMP method amplifies DNA with high specificity, efficiency, and rapidity under isothermal conditions using a set of four specially designed primers and a DNA polymerase with strand displacement activity. In this

Akihiro Yoshida; Shiori Nagashima; Toshihiro Ansai; Masayo Tachibana; Hiroaki Kato; Hajime Watari; Tsugunori Notomi; Tadamichi Takehara

2005-01-01

34

Mutation detection and single-molecule counting using isothermal rolling-circle amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rolling-circle amplification (RCA) driven by DNA polymerase can replicate circularized oligonucleotide probes with either linear or geometric kinetics under isothermal conditions. In the presence of two primers, one hybridizing to the + strand, and the other, to the – strand of DNA, a complex pattern of DNA strand displacement ensues that generates 109 or more copies of each circle in

Xiaohua Huang; Zhengrong Zhu; Patricia Bray-Ward; David C. Thomas; Paul M. Lizardi; David C. Ward

1998-01-01

35

Development of Phage Immuno-Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays for Organophosphorus Pesticides in Agro-  

E-print Network

for detecting OP pesticide residues in agro-products with no instrumental requirement. INTRODUCTION pesticides and their residues in food and the environment. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP Pesticides in Agro- products Xiude Hua,, Wei Yin,, Haiyan Shi,, Ming Li,, Yanru Wang,§ Hong Wang, Yonghao Ye

Hammock, Bruce D.

36

LAMP (Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA) - A technique for biotype discrimination in Bemisia tabaci  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA (LAMP) can amplify a target DNA sequence at a constant temperature in about 1 hour. LAMP technology has great potential for agricultural applications because of the need for rapid and inexpensive diagnoses. Assays based on LAMP technology are well suited...

37

A novel thermostable polymerase for RNA and DNA loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).  

PubMed

Meeting the goal of providing point of care (POC) tests for molecular detection of pathogens in low resource settings places stringent demands on all aspects of the technology. OmniAmp DNA polymerase (Pol) is a thermostable viral enzyme that enables true POC use in clinics or in the field by overcoming important barriers to isothermal amplification. In this paper, we describe the multiple advantages of OmniAmp Pol as an isothermal amplification enzyme and provide examples of its use in loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for pathogen detection. The inherent reverse transcriptase activity of OmniAmp Pol allows single enzyme detection of RNA targets in RT-LAMP. Common methods of nucleic acid amplification are highly susceptible to sample contaminants, necessitating elaborate nucleic acid purification protocols that are incompatible with POC or field use. OmniAmp Pol was found to be less inhibited by whole blood components typical in certain crude sample preparations. Moreover, the thermostability of the enzyme compared to alternative DNA polymerases (Bst) and reverse transcriptases allows pretreatment of complete reaction mixes immediately prior to amplification, which facilitates amplification of highly structured genome regions. Compared to Bst, OmniAmp Pol has a faster time to result, particularly with more dilute templates. Molecular diagnostics in field settings can be challenging due to the lack of refrigeration. The stability of OmniAmp Pol is compatible with a dry format that enables long term storage at ambient temperatures. A final requirement for field operability is compatibility with either commonly available instruments or, in other cases, a simple, inexpensive, portable detection mode requiring minimal training or power. Detection of amplification products is shown using lateral flow strips and analysis on a real-time PCR instrument. Results of this study show that OmniAmp Pol is ideally suited for low resource molecular detection of pathogens. PMID:25136338

Chander, Yogesh; Koelbl, Jim; Puckett, Jamie; Moser, Michael J; Klingele, Audrey J; Liles, Mark R; Carrias, Abel; Mead, David A; Schoenfeld, Thomas W

2014-01-01

38

A novel thermostable polymerase for RNA and DNA loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)  

PubMed Central

Meeting the goal of providing point of care (POC) tests for molecular detection of pathogens in low resource settings places stringent demands on all aspects of the technology. OmniAmp DNA polymerase (Pol) is a thermostable viral enzyme that enables true POC use in clinics or in the field by overcoming important barriers to isothermal amplification. In this paper, we describe the multiple advantages of OmniAmp Pol as an isothermal amplification enzyme and provide examples of its use in loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for pathogen detection. The inherent reverse transcriptase activity of OmniAmp Pol allows single enzyme detection of RNA targets in RT-LAMP. Common methods of nucleic acid amplification are highly susceptible to sample contaminants, necessitating elaborate nucleic acid purification protocols that are incompatible with POC or field use. OmniAmp Pol was found to be less inhibited by whole blood components typical in certain crude sample preparations. Moreover, the thermostability of the enzyme compared to alternative DNA polymerases (Bst) and reverse transcriptases allows pretreatment of complete reaction mixes immediately prior to amplification, which facilitates amplification of highly structured genome regions. Compared to Bst, OmniAmp Pol has a faster time to result, particularly with more dilute templates. Molecular diagnostics in field settings can be challenging due to the lack of refrigeration. The stability of OmniAmp Pol is compatible with a dry format that enables long term storage at ambient temperatures. A final requirement for field operability is compatibility with either commonly available instruments or, in other cases, a simple, inexpensive, portable detection mode requiring minimal training or power. Detection of amplification products is shown using lateral flow strips and analysis on a real-time PCR instrument. Results of this study show that OmniAmp Pol is ideally suited for low resource molecular detection of pathogens. PMID:25136338

Chander, Yogesh; Koelbl, Jim; Puckett, Jamie; Moser, Michael J.; Klingele, Audrey J.; Liles, Mark R.; Carrias, Abel; Mead, David A.; Schoenfeld, Thomas W.

2014-01-01

39

A Novel Real-Time DNA Detection System for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a novel real-time DNA detection system for loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. Our prototype was composed of a thermostatic chamber, a hole slide glass, LED and a web camera. The reaction mixture was injected into the slide glass hole and the LAMP reaction was carried out at 63°C for 2 hours. To observe the DNA amplification, we monitored the fluorescence intensity of SYBR Green I that was excited by the blue LED. The captured BMP images were analyzed by NIH Image J software. The DNA amplification and amplification monitoring experiment was successful. Furthermore, quantitative accuracy was evaluated based on real-time PCR. The reaction time correlates well with the DNA concentration. These results indicate the successful development of a novel real-time DNA detection system for LAMP method.

Kakugawa, Koji; Yamada, Kenji; Maeda, Hiroshi; Takashiba, Shougo

40

Accelerated reaction by loop-mediated isothermal amplification using loop primers.  

PubMed

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a novel nucleic acid amplification method that amplifies DNA with high specificity, efficiency and rapidity under isothermal conditions using a set of four specially designed primers and a DNA polymerase with strand displacement activity. We have developed a method that accelerates the LAMP reaction by using additional primers, termed loop primers. Loop primers hybridize to the stem-loops, except for the loops that are hybridized by the inner primers, and prime strand displacement DNA synthesis. Although both inner and loop primers react via the loops, they do so by different mechanisms. The LAMP method presented here uses loop primers to achieve reaction times of less than half that of the original LAMP method. Since the total time of analysis including detection is less than 1h, this new method should facilitate genetic analysis, including genetic diagnosis in the clinical laboratory. PMID:12144774

Nagamine, K; Hase, T; Notomi, T

2002-06-01

41

Simple system for isothermal DNA amplification coupled to lateral flow detection.  

PubMed

Infectious disease diagnosis in point-of-care settings can be greatly improved through integrated, automated nucleic acid testing devices. We have developed an early prototype for a low-cost system which executes isothermal DNA amplification coupled to nucleic acid lateral flow (NALF) detection in a mesofluidic cartridge attached to a portable instrument. Fluid handling inside the cartridge is facilitated through one-way passive valves, flexible pouches, and electrolysis-driven pumps, which promotes a compact and inexpensive instrument design. The closed-system disposable prevents workspace amplicon contamination. The cartridge design is based on standard scalable manufacturing techniques such as injection molding. Nucleic acid amplification occurs in a two-layer pouch that enables efficient heat transfer. We have demonstrated as proof of principle the amplification and detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) genomic DNA in the cartridge, using either Loop Mediated Amplification (LAMP) or the Exponential Amplification Reaction (EXPAR), both coupled to NALF detection. We envision that a refined version of this cartridge, including upstream sample preparation coupled to amplification and detection, will enable fully-automated sample-in to answer-out infectious disease diagnosis in primary care settings of low-resource countries with high disease burden. PMID:23922706

Roskos, Kristina; Hickerson, Anna I; Lu, Hsiang-Wei; Ferguson, Tanya M; Shinde, Deepali N; Klaue, Yvonne; Niemz, Angelika

2013-01-01

42

Simple System for Isothermal DNA Amplification Coupled to Lateral Flow Detection  

PubMed Central

Infectious disease diagnosis in point-of-care settings can be greatly improved through integrated, automated nucleic acid testing devices. We have developed an early prototype for a low-cost system which executes isothermal DNA amplification coupled to nucleic acid lateral flow (NALF) detection in a mesofluidic cartridge attached to a portable instrument. Fluid handling inside the cartridge is facilitated through one-way passive valves, flexible pouches, and electrolysis-driven pumps, which promotes a compact and inexpensive instrument design. The closed-system disposable prevents workspace amplicon contamination. The cartridge design is based on standard scalable manufacturing techniques such as injection molding. Nucleic acid amplification occurs in a two-layer pouch that enables efficient heat transfer. We have demonstrated as proof of principle the amplification and detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) genomic DNA in the cartridge, using either Loop Mediated Amplification (LAMP) or the Exponential Amplification Reaction (EXPAR), both coupled to NALF detection. We envision that a refined version of this cartridge, including upstream sample preparation coupled to amplification and detection, will enable fully-automated sample-in to answer-out infectious disease diagnosis in primary care settings of low-resource countries with high disease burden. PMID:23922706

Roskos, Kristina; Hickerson, Anna I.; Lu, Hsiang-Wei; Ferguson, Tanya M.; Shinde, Deepali N.; Klaue, Yvonne; Niemz, Angelika

2013-01-01

43

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP): principle, features, and future prospects.  

PubMed

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), a newly developed gene amplification method, combines rapidity, simplicity, and high specificity. Several tests have been developed based on this method, and simplicity is maintained throughout all steps, from extraction of nucleic acids to detection of amplification. In the LAMP reaction, samples are amplified at a fixed temperature through a repetition of two types of elongation reactions occurring at the loop regions: self-elongation of templates from the stem loop structure formed at the 3'-terminal and the binding and elongation of new primers to the loop region. The LAMP reaction has a wide range of possible applications, including point-of-care testing, genetic testing in resource-poor settings (such as in developing countries), and rapid testing of food products and environmental samples. PMID:25557475

Notomi, Tsugunori; Mori, Yasuyoshi; Tomita, Norihiro; Kanda, Hidetoshi

2015-01-01

44

Simultaneous detection of RNA and DNA targets based on multiplex isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

The detection of pathogenic microorganisms present in food, feed, plant, and other samples is important for providing safe food as well as for preventing the spread of microbes. The genome of pathogens is made of DNA or RNA, therefore a multiplex diagnostics tool would ideally be able to amplify and detect both RNA and DNA targets in parallel. With this goal we have developed an isothermal nucleic acid sequence based amplification [NASBA] implemented microarray analysis (NAIMA) procedure, suitable for the simultaneous multiplex amplification of RNA and DNA targets, coupled with the detection on ArrayTubes. The method is demonstrated to be very sensitive and specific for the detection of two economically important quarantine plant pathogens of potato, the potato spindle tuber viroid (RNA target) and Ralstonia solanacearum (DNA target). Because of its isothermal amplification and simple detection equipment, the method is also applicable for on-site analyses. NAIMA can be used in any domain where there is the need to detect RNA and DNA targets simultaneously. PMID:24625323

Dobnik, David; Morisset, Dany; Lenar?i?, Rok; Ravnikar, Maja

2014-04-01

45

Rapid detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae by real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification  

PubMed Central

Background and aim of study A significant human pathogenic bacterium, Streptococcus pneumoniae was recognized as a major cause of pneumonia, and is the subject of many humoral immunity studies. Diagnosis is generally made based on clinical suspicion along with a positive culture from a sample from virtually any place in the body. But the testing time is too long. This study is to establish a rapid diagnostic method to identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Methods Our laboratory has recently developed a new platform called real-amp, which combines loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with a portable tube scanner real-time isothermal instrument for the rapid detection of Streptococcus pneumonia. Two pairs of amplification primers required for this method were derived from a conserved DNA sequence unique to the Streptococcus pneumoniae. The amplification was carried out at 63 degree Celsius using SYBR Green for 60 minutes with the tube scanner set to collect fluorescence signals. Clinical samples of Streptococcus pneumoniae and other bacteria were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the primers by comparing with traditional culture method. Results The new set of primers consistently detected in laboratory-maintained isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from our hospital. The new primers also proved to be more sensitive than the published species-specific primers specifically developed for the LAMP method in detecting Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conclusions This study demonstrates that the Streptococcus pneumoniae LAMP primers developed here have the ability to accurately detect Streptococcus pneumoniae infections by real-time fluorescence LAMP. PMID:25276360

Guo, Xu-Guang; Zhou, Shan

2014-01-01

46

Detection of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) using isothermal amplification of target DNA sequences  

PubMed Central

Background The most common method of GMO detection is based upon the amplification of GMO-specific DNA amplicons using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Here we have applied the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to amplify GMO-related DNA sequences, 'internal' commonly-used motifs for controlling transgene expression and event-specific (plant-transgene) junctions. Results We have tested the specificity and sensitivity of the technique for use in GMO studies. Results show that detection of 0.01% GMO in equivalent background DNA was possible and dilutions of template suggest that detection from single copies of the template may be possible using LAMP. Conclusion This work shows that GMO detection can be carried out using LAMP for routine screening as well as for specific events detection. Moreover, the sensitivity and ability to amplify targets, even with a high background of DNA, here demonstrated, highlights the advantages of this isothermal amplification when applied for GMO detection. PMID:19187544

Lee, David; La Mura, Maurizio; Allnutt, Theo R; Powell, Wayne

2009-01-01

47

Microfluidic Devices for Nucleic Acid (NA) Isolation, Isothermal NA Amplification, and Real-Time Detection.  

PubMed

Molecular (nucleic acid)-based diagnostics tests have many advantages over immunoassays, particularly with regard to sensitivity and specificity. Most on-site diagnostic tests, however, are immunoassay-based because conventional nucleic acid-based tests (NATs) require extensive sample processing, trained operators, and specialized equipment. To make NATs more convenient, especially for point-of-care diagnostics and on-site testing, a simple plastic microfluidic cassette ("chip") has been developed for nucleic acid-based testing of blood, other clinical specimens, food, water, and environmental samples. The chip combines nucleic acid isolation by solid-phase extraction; isothermal enzymatic amplification such as LAMP (Loop-mediated AMPlification), NASBA (Nucleic Acid Sequence Based Amplification), and RPA (Recombinase Polymerase Amplification); and real-time optical detection of DNA or RNA analytes. The microfluidic cassette incorporates an embedded nucleic acid binding membrane in the amplification reaction chamber. Target nucleic acids extracted from a lysate are captured on the membrane and amplified at a constant incubation temperature. The amplification product, labeled with a fluorophore reporter, is excited with a LED light source and monitored in situ in real time with a photodiode or a CCD detector (such as available in a smartphone). For blood analysis, a companion filtration device that separates plasma from whole blood to provide cell-free samples for virus and bacterial lysis and nucleic acid testing in the microfluidic chip has also been developed. For HIV virus detection in blood, the microfluidic NAT chip achieves a sensitivity and specificity that are nearly comparable to conventional benchtop protocols using spin columns and thermal cyclers. PMID:25626529

Mauk, Michael G; Liu, Changchun; Sadik, Mohamed; Bau, Haim H

2015-01-01

48

Rapid detection of IHNV by molecular padlock recognition and surface-associated isothermal amplification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

RNA sequences derived from infectious hematopoeitic necrosis virus (IHNV) could be detected using a combination of surface-associated molecular padlock DNA probes (MPP) and rolling circle amplification (RCA) in microcapillary tubes. DNA oligonucleotides with base sequences identical to RNA obtained from IHNV were recognized by MPP. Circularized MPP were then captured on the inner surface of glass microcapillary tubes by immobilized DNA oligonucleotide primers. Extension of the immobilized primers by isothermal RCA gave rise to DNA concatamers, which were in turn bound by the fluorescent reporter SYBR Green II nucleic acid stain, and measured by microfluorimetry. Surface-associated molecular padlock technology, combined with isothermal RCA, exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity without thermal cycling. This technology is applicable to direct RNA and DNA detection, permitting detection of a variety of viral or bacterial pathogens.

McCarthy, Erik L.; Egeler, Teressa J.; Bickerstaff, Lee E.; Pereira da Cunha, Mauricio; Millard, Paul J.

2005-11-01

49

Isolation of single-stranded DNA from loop-mediated isothermal amplification products.  

PubMed

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), in which a specific DNA sequence can be directly amplified under isothermal conditions, yields DNA in large quantities of more than 500 microg/ml. We have developed a method to isolate single-stranded DNA fragments from LAMP products that are stem-loop DNAs with several inverted repeats of the target DNA. This method requires the TspRI restriction enzyme, a primer hybridized to the 3' overhanging sequence at its cleavage site, and a DNA polymerase with strand displacement activity. The LAMP products are digested with TspRI and are then extended using the primer, producing the strand-specific DNA fragments. All processes, from LAMP reaction to primer extension, can be carried out at the same temperature. The use of strand-specific DNA would be conducive for detection by hybridization technique such as DNA microarrays. PMID:11811989

Nagamine, Kentaro; Kuzuhara, Yoko; Notomi, Tsugunori

2002-02-01

50

Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for rapid and easy detection of Coxiella Burnetii.  

PubMed

Q fever is an important worldwide zoonosis that is caused by infection with Coxiella burnetii. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to detect the presence of the transposase gene insertion element IS1111a of C. burnetii. The sensitivity of this LAMP assay is very similar to quantitative PCR (qPCR) method with a detection limit at 25 copies of the gene, the equivalent of about one C. burnetii organism. Several methods for the detection of LAMP product were also performed to show the diverse way of detection which may be used in different settings depending on the user's infrastructure and resource. PMID:25449632

Chen, Hua-Wei; Ching, Wei-Mei

2014-12-01

51

Monitoring the progression of loop-mediated isothermal amplification using conductivity.  

PubMed

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) yields a large amount of DNA, as well as magnesium pyrophosphate precipitate, causing a decrease in ionic strength that can be measured with a conductivity meter. There is a clear relationship between the conductivity of the LAMP mixture solution and the duration of biochemical reaction. Moreover, there is also a clear relationship between the change in conductivity and the amount of initial template DNA over the range of 0.08 to 3.2ng. These results demonstrate the feasibility not only for detecting the LAMP product qualitatively but also for real-time monitoring the biochemical reaction progression quantitatively using conductivity measurements. PMID:25168192

Zhang, Xuzhi; Liu, Wenwen; Lu, Xun; Justin Gooding, J; Li, Qiufen; Qu, Keming

2014-12-01

52

LAVA: An Open-Source Approach To Designing LAMP (Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification) DNA Signatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  We developed an extendable open-source Loop-mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) signature design program called LAVA\\u000a (LAMP Assay Versatile Analysis). LAVA was created in response to limitations of existing LAMP signature programs.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  LAVA identifies combinations of six primer regions for basic LAMP signatures, or combinations of eight primer regions for\\u000a LAMP signatures with loop primers, which can be used as LAMP signatures.

Clinton Torres; Elizabeth A Vitalis; Brian R Baker; Shea N Gardner; Marisa W Torres; John M Dzenitis

2011-01-01

53

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP): methods for plant species identification in food.  

PubMed

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a DNA-based analytical method that can be used as an isothermal alternative to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In comparison to PCR, the advantage of LAMP is the possibility to perform the isothermal reaction without any sophisticated technical equipment; only a water bath is needed, and naked eye detection is sufficient. Up to now, an application of LAMP methods for the detection of even closely related plant species in food or feed matrices has not been described, whereas a large number of PCR methods for that topic are cited in the literature. The aim of the study was the evaluation of LAMP-based methods for plant species identification with respect to method parameters such as R(2), LOD, and LOQ. An existing (real-time) PCR method (for the detection of spices) was used for comparison. It could be shown that the developed LAMP methods have potential as alternative strategies to PCR in DNA-based analysis. PMID:23432417

Focke, Felix; Haase, Ilka; Fischer, Markus

2013-03-27

54

Isothermal multiple displacement amplification: a methodical approach enhancing molecular routine diagnostics of microcarcinomas and small biopsies  

PubMed Central

Background and methods Isothermal multiple displacement amplification (IMDA) can be a powerful tool in molecular routine diagnostics for homogeneous and sequence-independent whole-genome amplification of notably small tumor samples, eg, microcarcinomas and biopsies containing a small amount of tumor. Currently, this method is not well established in pathology laboratories. We designed a study to confirm the feasibility and convenience of this method for routine diagnostics with formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples prepared by laser-capture microdissection. Results A total of 250 ?g DNA (concentration 5 ?g/?L) was generated by amplification over a period of 8 hours with a material input of approximately 25 cells, approximately equivalent to 175 pg of genomic DNA. In the generated DNA, a representation of all chromosomes could be shown and the presence of elected genes relevant for diagnosis in clinical samples could be proven. Mutational analysis of clinical samples could be performed without any difficulty and showed concordance with earlier diagnostic findings. Conclusion We established the feasibility and convenience of IMDA for routine diagnostics. We also showed that small amounts of DNA, which were not analyzable with current molecular methods, could be sufficient for a wide field of applications in molecular routine diagnostics when they are preamplified with IMDA. PMID:25152625

Mairinger, Fabian D; Walter, Robert FH; Vollbrecht, Claudia; Hager, Thomas; Worm, Karl; Ting, Saskia; Wohlschläger, Jeremias; Zarogoulidis, Paul; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Schmid, Kurt W

2014-01-01

55

Detection of the food allergen celery via loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique.  

PubMed

Since 2005, celery and celery products have to be labeled according to Directive 2003/89/EC due to their allergenic potential. In order to provide a DNA-based, rapid and simple detection method suitable for high-throughput analysis, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the detection of celery (Apium graveolens) was developed. The assay was tested for specificity for celery since closely related species also hold food relevance. The limit of detection (LOD) for spiked food samples was found to be as low as 7.8 mg of dry celery powder per kilogram. An evaluation of different amplification and detection platforms was performed to show reliable detection independent from the instrument used for amplification (thermal cycler or heating block) and detection mechanisms (real-time fluorescence detection, agarose gel electrophoresis or nucleic acid staining). The analysis of 10 commercial food samples representing diverse and complex food matrices, and a false-negative rate of 0% for approximately 24 target copies or 0.08 ng celery DNA for three selected food matrices show that LAMP has the potential to be used as an alternative strategy for the detection of allergenic celery. The performance of the developed LAMP assay turned out to be equal or superior to the best available PCR assay for the detection of celery in food products. PMID:24880868

Zahradnik, Celine; Martzy, Roland; Mach, Robert L; Krska, Rudolf; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Brunner, Kurt

2014-11-01

56

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of porcine circovirus type 2  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is the primary causative agent of the emerging swine disease known as postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). Nowadays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is still the most widespread technique in pathogen detection. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), a novel nucleic acid amplification method developed in 2000, will possibly replace PCR in the field of detection. To establish a LAMP method for rapid detection of PCV2, two pairs of primers were designed specially from the open reading frame 2 (ORF2) sequences of PCV2. A LAMP method for rapid detection of PCV2 was established. To compare with PCR, sensitivity and specificity of LAMP were evaluated using the optimized reaction system. The LAMP products could be determined by agarose gel electrophoresis or adding SYBR Green I dye. Results The amplification of LAMP could be obtained at 63°C for 60 min. The detection limit was nearly 1 copy of DNA plasmid, more sensitive than PCR. There was no cross-reaction with porcine circovirus type 1 (PCV1), porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) under the same conditions. Conclusions LAMP is an useful rapid detection method with high sensitivity and specificity for PCV2. PMID:22044506

2011-01-01

57

Rapid detection of Brucella spp. using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).  

PubMed

Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular bacteria that cause zoonotic disease of brucellosis worldwide. Livestock that are most vulnerable to brucellosis include cattle, goats, and pigs. Brucella spp. cause serious health problems to humans and animals and economic losses to the livestock industry. Traditional methods for detection of Brucella spp. take 48-72 h (Kumar et al., J Commun Dis 29:131-137, 1997; Barrouin-Melo et al., Res Vet Sci 83:340-346, 2007) that do not meet the food industry's need of rapid detection. Therefore, there is an urgent need of fast, specific, sensitive, and inexpensive method for diagnosing of Brucella spp. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a method to amplify nucleic acid at constant temperatures. Amplification can be detected by visual detection, fluorescent stain, turbidity, and electrophoresis. We targeted at the Brucella-specific gene omp25 and designed LAMP primers for detection of Brucella spp. Amplification of DNA with Bst DNA polymerase can be completed at 65 °C in 60 min. Amplified products can be detected by SYBR Green I stain and 2.0% agarose gel electrophoresis. The LAMP method is feasible for detection of Brucella spp. from blood and milk samples. PMID:24026689

Chen, Shouyi; Li, Xunde; Li, Juntao; Atwill, Edward R

2013-01-01

58

Sensitive and isothermal electrochemiluminescence gene-sensing of Listeria monocytogenes with hyperbranching rolling circle amplification technology.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is one of the most problematic human pathogens, as it is mainly transmitted through the food chain and cause listeriosis. Thus, specific and sensitive detection of L. monocytogenes is required to ensure food safety. In this study, we proposed a method using hyperbranching rolling circle amplification (HRCA) combined with magnetic beads based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) to offer an isothermal, highly sensitive and specific assay for the detection of L. monocytogenes. At first, a linear padlock probe was designed to target a specific sequence in the hly gene which is specific to L. monocytogenes and then ligated by Taq DNA ligase. After ligation and digestion, further amplification by HRCA with a biotiny labeled primer and a tris (bipyridine) ruthenium (TBR) labeled primer was performed. The resulting HRCA products were then captured onto streptavidin-coated paramagnetic beads and were analyzed by magnetic beads based ECL platform to confirm the presence of targets. Through this approach, as low as 10 aM synthetic hly gene targets and about 0.0002 ng/?l of genomic DNA from L. monocytogenes can be detected, the ability to detect at such ultratrace levels could be attributed to the powerful amplification of HRCA and the high sensitivity of current magnetic bead based ECL detection platform. PMID:21183330

Long, Yi; Zhou, Xiaoming; Xing, Da

2011-02-15

59

Recombinase-based isothermal amplification of nucleic acids with self-avoiding molecular recognition systems (SAMRS).  

PubMed

Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an isothermal method to amplify nucleic acid sequences without the temperature cycling that classical PCR uses. Instead of using heat to denature the DNA duplex, RPA uses recombination enzymes to swap single-stranded primers into the duplex DNA product; these are then extended using a strand-displacing polymerase to complete the cycle. Because RPA runs at low temperatures, it never forces the system to recreate base-pairs following Watson-Crick rules, and therefore it produces undesired products that impede the amplification of the desired product, complicating downstream analysis. Herein, we show that most of these undesired side products can be avoided if the primers contain components of a self-avoiding molecular recognition system (SAMRS). Given the precision that is necessary in the recombination systems for them to function biologically, it is surprising that they accept SAMRS. SAMRS-RPA is expected to be a powerful tool within the range of amplification techniques available to scientists. PMID:25209570

Sharma, Nidhi; Hoshika, Shuichi; Hutter, Daniel; Bradley, Kevin M; Benner, Steven A

2014-10-13

60

Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®): A Novel Isothermal DNA Amplification Technology Demonstrating High Specificity and Sensitivity for a Single Molecule of Target Analyte  

PubMed Central

Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA). SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO) into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2?-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella. PMID:25419812

Hoser, Mark J.; Mansukoski, Hannu K.; Morrical, Scott W.; Eboigbodin, Kevin E.

2014-01-01

61

Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA®): A Novel Isothermal DNA Amplification Technology Demonstrating High Specificity and Sensitivity for a Single Molecule of Target Analyte.  

PubMed

Isothermal nucleic acid amplification technologies offer significant advantages over polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in that they do not require thermal cycling or sophisticated laboratory equipment. However, non-target-dependent amplification has limited the sensitivity of isothermal technologies and complex probes are usually required to distinguish between non-specific and target-dependent amplification. Here, we report a novel isothermal nucleic acid amplification technology, Strand Invasion Based Amplification (SIBA). SIBA technology is resistant to non-specific amplification, is able to detect a single molecule of target analyte, and does not require target-specific probes. The technology relies on the recombinase-dependent insertion of an invasion oligonucleotide (IO) into the double-stranded target nucleic acid. The duplex regions peripheral to the IO insertion site dissociate, thereby enabling target-specific primers to bind. A polymerase then extends the primers onto the target nucleic acid leading to exponential amplification of the target. The primers are not substrates for the recombinase and are, therefore unable to extend the target template in the absence of the IO. The inclusion of 2'-O-methyl RNA to the IO ensures that it is not extendible and that it does not take part in the extension of the target template. These characteristics ensure that the technology is resistant to non-specific amplification since primer dimers or mis-priming are unable to exponentially amplify. Consequently, SIBA is highly specific and able to distinguish closely-related species with single molecule sensitivity in the absence of complex probes or sophisticated laboratory equipment. Here, we describe this technology in detail and demonstrate its use for the detection of Salmonella. PMID:25419812

Hoser, Mark J; Mansukoski, Hannu K; Morrical, Scott W; Eboigbodin, Kevin E

2014-01-01

62

Direct detection of Theileria annulata in bovine blood samples using standard and isothermal DNA amplification approaches.  

PubMed

Tropical theileriosis is a tick-borne disease responsible for important health problems in cattle, caused by the hemoprotozoan Theileria annulata. Traditionally, detection of Theileria pathogens in infected animals requires the microscopic examination of stained-blood smears and serological methods. Molecular diagnostic assays have been developed for the detection of Theileria parasites, including PCR-based and reverse line blotting approaches, but these methods usually demand qualified personnel, complex instrumentation, and expensive materials. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) can facilitate the design of molecular assays independent of the use of sophisticated equipment. In this chapter we describe the application of two molecular assays for the direct detection of T. annulata in bovine blood samples, based in real-time PCR and LAMP, both targeting the Tams1-encoding gene of this parasite. PMID:25399096

Gomes, Jacinto; Inácio, João

2015-01-01

63

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of genetically modified maize T25  

PubMed Central

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay indicates a potential and valuable means for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection especially for its rapidity, simplicity, and low cost. We developed and evaluated the specificity and sensitivity of the LAMP method for rapid detection of the genetically modified (GM) maize T25. A set of six specific primers was successfully designed to recognize six distinct sequences on the target gene, including a pair of inner primers, a pair of outer primers, and a pair of loop primers. The optimum reaction temperature and time were verified to be 65°C and 45 min, respectively. The detection limit of this LAMP assay was 5 g kg?1 GMO component. Comparative experiments showed that the LAMP assay was a simple, rapid, accurate, and specific method for detecting the GM maize T25. PMID:24804053

Xu, Junyi; Zheng, Qiuyue; Yu, Ling; Liu, Ran; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Qinghua; Cao, Jijuan

2013-01-01

64

A simple colorimetric DNA detection by target-induced hybridization chain reaction for isothermal signal amplification.  

PubMed

A novel DNA detection method is presented based on a gold nanoparticle (AuNP) colorimetric assay and hybridization chain reaction (HCR). In this method, target DNA hybridized with probe DNA modified on AuNP, and triggered HCR. The resulting HCR products with a large number of negative charges significantly enhanced the stability of AuNPs, inhibiting aggregation of AuNPs at an elevated salt concentration. The approach was highly sensitive and selective. Using this enzyme-free and isothermal signal amplification method, we were able to detect target DNA at concentrations as low as 0.5 nM with the naked eye. Our method also has great potential for detecting other analytes, such as metal ions, proteins, and small molecules, if the target analytes could make HCR products attach to AuNPs. PMID:24780220

Ma, Cuiping; Wang, Wenshuo; Mulchandani, Ashok; Shi, Chao

2014-07-15

65

Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid detection of the newly emerged poultry Flavivirus.  

PubMed

Poultry Flavivirus (PF) was a recently emerged virus with high morbidity rates and mortality rates in China. It is the causative agent of egg drop syndrome at present. Development of the reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was the most efficient way to prevent and control the PF disease. The assay was performed at 64 °C for 45 min, using six specific primers that recognized eight targets of the PF E gene. The RT-LAMP assay, compared to conventional reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, has 100-fold-greater sensitivity, with a detection limit of 1?×?10(-3) copies per ?L RNA and no cross-reaction with poultry other viruses. The RT-LAMP assay is a valuable tool for detected PF without requiring any sophisticated equipment, and the detection has potential usefulness for clinical diagnosis in the field. PMID:23152303

Li, Zhaolong; Chen, Shaoying; Wang, Shao; Chen, Shilong; Lin, Fengqian

2013-07-01

66

LAVA: An Open-Source Approach To Designing LAMP (Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification) DNA Signatures  

PubMed Central

Background We developed an extendable open-source Loop-mediated isothermal AMPlification (LAMP) signature design program called LAVA (LAMP Assay Versatile Analysis). LAVA was created in response to limitations of existing LAMP signature programs. Results LAVA identifies combinations of six primer regions for basic LAMP signatures, or combinations of eight primer regions for LAMP signatures with loop primers, which can be used as LAMP signatures. The identified primers are conserved among target organism sequences. Primer combinations are optimized based on lengths, melting temperatures, and spacing among primer sites. We compare LAMP signature candidates for Staphylococcus aureus created both by LAVA and by PrimerExplorer. We also include signatures from a sample run targeting all strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusions We have designed and demonstrated new software for identifying signature candidates appropriate for LAMP assays. The software is available for download at http://lava-dna.googlecode.com/. PMID:21679460

2011-01-01

67

Towards rapid genotyping of resistant malaria parasites: could loop-mediated isothermal amplification be the solution?  

PubMed Central

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an innovative molecular technique that has been validated for point-of-care testing to diagnose malaria. Molecular detection and tracking of anti-malarial drug resistance is mainly based on highly sophisticated, costly and time-consuming techniques. With the validation of resistance-associated gene mutations in malaria parasites, there is a need to develop rapid, easy-to-use molecular tests for anti-malarial drug resistance genotyping. LAMP could be further developed as a point-of-care test to rapidly detect anti-malarial drug resistance-associated molecular markers, thereby help detecting and monitoring drug resistance in surveillance studies. PMID:24934581

2014-01-01

68

Rapid detection of shrimp white spot syndrome virus by real time, isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay.  

PubMed

White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) causes large economic losses to the shrimp aquaculture industry, and thus far there are no efficient therapeutic treatments available against this lethal virus. In this study, we present the development of a novel real time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for WSSV detection on a small ESEQuant Tube Scanner device. The RPA sensitivity, specificity and rapidity were evaluated by using a plasmid standard as well as viral and shrimp genomic DNAs. Compared with qPCR, the RPA assay revealed more satisfactory performance. It reached a detection limit up to 10 molecules in 95% of cases as determined by probit analysis of 8 independent experiments within 6.41 ± 0.17 min at 39 °C. Consequently, this rapid RPA method has great application potential for field use or point of care diagnostics. PMID:25121957

Xia, Xiaoming; Yu, Yongxin; Weidmann, Manfred; Pan, Yingjie; Yan, Shuling; Wang, Yongjie

2014-01-01

69

Real-time isothermal detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli using recombinase polymerase amplification.  

PubMed

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) are a major family of foodborne pathogens of public health, zoonotic, and economic significance in the United States and worldwide. To date, there are no published reports on use of recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) for STEC detection. The primary goal of this study was to assess the potential application of RPA in detection of STEC. This study focused on designing and evaluating RPA primers and fluorescent probes for isothermal (39°C) detection of STEC. Compatible sets of candidate primers and probes were designed for detection of Shiga toxin 1 and 2 (Stx1 and 2), respectively. The sets were evaluated for specificity and sensitivity against STEC (n=12) of various stx genotypes (stx1/stx2, stx1, or stx2, respectively), including non-Stx-producing E. coli (n=28) and other genera (n=7). The primers and probes that were designed targeted amplification of the subunit A moiety of stx1 and stx2. The assay detected STEC in real time (within 5-10?min at 39°C) with high sensitivity (93.5% vs. 90%; stx1 vs. stx2), specificity (99.1% vs. 100%; stx1 vs. stx2), and predictive value (97.9% for both stx1 vs. stx2). Limits of detection of ? 5-50 colony-forming units/mL were achieved in serially diluted cultures grown in brain heart infusion broth. This study successfully demonstrated for the first time that RPA can be used for isothermal real-time detection of STEC. PMID:24749488

Murinda, Shelton E; Ibekwe, A Mark; Zulkaffly, Syaizul; Cruz, Andrew; Park, Stanley; Razak, Nur; Paudzai, Farah Md; Ab Samad, Liana; Baquir, Khairul; Muthaiyah, Kokilah; Santiago, Brenna; Rusli, Amirul; Balkcom, Sean

2014-07-01

70

Rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), is a major bacterial pathogen associated with nosocomial and community-acquired S. aureus infections all over the world. A rapid detection assay for staphylococcal gene of nuc and mecA is needed. In this study, a rapid identification assay based on the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method was established. PCR and LAMP assays were used to detect Staphylococcus aureus and other related species for nuc and mecA. With optimization of the primers and reaction temperature, the LAMP successfully amplified the genes under isothermal conditions at 62 °C within 60 min, of which the results were identical with those of the conventional PCR methods. The detection limits of the LAMP for nuc and mecA were 1.47 and 14.7 pg/?l DNA per tube, respectively, by naked eye inspections, while the detection limits of the PCR for nuc and mecA were 14.7 pg/?l and 147 pg/?l DNA, respectively. Finally, The LAMP method was then applied to clinical blood plaque samples. The LAMP and PCR demonstrated identical results for the plaque samples with the culture assay. Together, the LAMP offers an alternative detection assay for nuc and mecA with a great advantage of the sensitivity and rapidity. PMID:25349088

Wang, Xin-Ru; Wu, Li-Fen; Wang, Yan; Ma, Ying-Ying; Chen, Feng-Hua; Ou, Hong-Ling

2015-01-01

71

Detection of New Bunyavirus RNA by Reverse Transcription–Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification  

PubMed Central

Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is a newly emerging and epidemic infectious disease in central and northeast China. It is caused by New Bunyavirus and carries an average 12% case fatality rate. Early and rapid detection is critical for prevention and control of New Bunyavirus infection, since no vaccine or antiviral drugs are currently available, and prevention requires careful attention to control of the suspected tick vector. In this study, a simple and sensitive reverse transcription–loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for rapid detection of New Bunyavirus. The detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was approximately 103 50% tissue culture infective doses/ml of New Bunyavirus in culture supernatants, and no cross-reactive amplification of other viruses known to cause similar clinical manifestations was observed. The assay was further evaluated using 138 specimens from clinically suspected SFTS and 40 laboratory-proven hantavirus infection with fever and renal syndrome patients, and the assay exhibited 97% agreement compared to real-time RT-PCR and conventional RT-PCR. Using real-time RT-PCR as the diagnostic gold standard, RT-LAMP was 99% sensitive and 100% specific. The RT-LAMP assay could become a useful alternative in clinical diagnosis of SFTS caused by New Bunyavirus, especially in resource-limited hospitals or rural clinics of China. PMID:24478484

Huang, Xue-Yong; Hu, Xiao-Ning; Ma, Hong; Du, Yan-Hua; Ma, Hong-Xia; Kang, Kai; You, Ai-Guo; Wang, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Li; Chen, Hao-Min

2014-01-01

72

Rapid detection of Opisthorchis viverrini copro-DNA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).  

PubMed

Opisthorchis viverrini and other foodborne trematode infections are major health problem in Thailand, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Vietnam and Cambodia. Differential diagnosis of O. viverrini based on the microscopic observation of parasite eggs is difficult in areas where Clonorchis sinensis and minute intestinal flukes coexist. We therefore established a rapid, sensitive and specific method for detecting O. viverrini infection from the stool samples using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. A total of five primers from seven regions were designed to target the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) in ribosomal DNA for specific amplification. Hydroxy naphthol blue (HNB) was more effective to detect the LAMP product compared to the Real-time LAMP and turbidity assay for its simple and distinct detection. The LAMP assay specifically amplified O. viverrini ITS1 but not C. sinensis and minute intestinal flukes with the limit of detection around 10(-3)ng DNA/?L. The sensitivity of the LAMP was 100% compared to egg positive samples. While all microscopically positive samples were positive by LAMP, additionally 5 of 13 (38.5%) microscopically negative samples were also LAMP positive. The technique has great potential for differential diagnosis in endemic areas with mixed O. viverrini and intestinal fluke infections. As it is an easy and simple method, the LAMP is potentially applicable for point-of-care diagnosis. PMID:21871581

Arimatsu, Yuji; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Laha, Thewarach; Hong, Sung-Jong; Sripa, Banchob

2012-03-01

73

Sensitive Detection of Xanthomonas oryzae Pathovars oryzae and oryzicola by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification  

PubMed Central

Molecular diagnostics for crop diseases can enhance food security by enabling the rapid identification of threatening pathogens and providing critical information for the deployment of disease management strategies. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a PCR-based tool that allows the rapid, highly specific amplification of target DNA sequences at a single temperature and is thus ideal for field-level diagnosis of plant diseases. We developed primers highly specific for two globally important rice pathogens, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, the causal agent of bacterial blight (BB) disease, and X. oryzae pv. oryzicola, the causal agent of bacterial leaf streak disease (BLS), for use in reliable, sensitive LAMP assays. In addition to pathovar distinction, two assays that differentiate X. oryzae pv. oryzae by African or Asian lineage were developed. Using these LAMP primer sets, the presence of each pathogen was detected from DNA and bacterial cells, as well as leaf and seed samples. Thresholds of detection for all assays were consistently 104 to 105 CFU ml?1, while genomic DNA thresholds were between 1 pg and 10 fg. Use of the unique sequences combined with the LAMP assay provides a sensitive, accurate, rapid, simple, and inexpensive protocol to detect both BB and BLS pathogens. PMID:24837384

Lang, Jillian M.; Langlois, Paul; Nguyen, Marian Hanna R.; Triplett, Lindsay R.; Purdie, Laura; Holton, Timothy A.; Djikeng, Appolinaire; Vera Cruz, Casiana M.; Verdier, Valérie

2014-01-01

74

A Simple Isothermal DNA Amplification Method to Screen Black Flies for Onchocerca volvulus Infection  

PubMed Central

Onchocerciasis is a debilitating neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus. Adult worms live in subcutaneous tissues and produce large numbers of microfilariae that migrate to the skin and eyes. The disease is spread by black flies of the genus Simulium following ingestion of microfilariae that develop into infective stage larvae in the insect. Currently, transmission is monitored by capture and dissection of black flies and microscopic examination of parasites, or using the polymerase chain reaction to determine the presence of parasite DNA in pools of black flies. In this study we identified a new DNA biomarker, encoding O. volvulus glutathione S-transferase 1a (OvGST1a), to detect O. volvulus infection in vector black flies. We developed an OvGST1a-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay where amplification of specific target DNA is detectable using turbidity or by a hydroxy naphthol blue color change. The results indicated that the assay is sensitive and rapid, capable of detecting DNA equivalent to less than one microfilaria within 60 minutes. The test is highly specific for the human parasite, as no cross-reaction was detected using DNA from the closely related and sympatric cattle parasite Onchocerca ochengi. The test has the potential to be developed further as a field tool for use in the surveillance of transmission before and after implementation of mass drug administration programs for onchocerciasis. PMID:25299656

Alhassan, Andy; Makepeace, Benjamin L.; LaCourse, Elwyn James; Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y.; Carlow, Clotilde K. S.

2014-01-01

75

Specific diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting parasite microsatellites.  

PubMed

Opisthorchis viverrini and other food-borne trematode infections are major health problems in Thailand, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Vietnam and Cambodia. Differential diagnosis of O. viverrini based on the microscopic observation of parasite eggs is difficult in areas where Clonorchis sinensis and minute intestinal flukes coexist. Recently, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been widely used for detection and identification of trematode for its simple method that is useful in low-resource or field settings. We have reported ITS1-LAMP assay to detect O. viverrini infection from human feces. The sensitivity and specificity of the test was 100% and 61.5%. The sensitivity of the test appeared to be higher than microscopic egg examination; however non-specific amplification from other parasites could not be ruled out. We therefore targeted microsatellites of O. viverrini that is a species specific sequence. By using hydroxyl naphthol blue (HNB)-LAMP, O. viverrini microsatellite 6 (OVMS6) could specifically amplify DNA from O. viverrini genome, but not other parasites such as C. sinensis, Opisthorchis felineus, Centrocestus caninus, Haplorchis taichui, Fasciola gigantica and Haplorchoodes sp. The detection limit of the test is 1ng genomic DNA, which was 1000 times lower than the ITS1-LAMP, but targeting microstellites showed more specific detection of O. viverrini. In addition, the colorimetric LAMP assay was simple and effective; this makes it potentially applicable for point-of-care diagnosis. PMID:25268466

Arimatsu, Yuji; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Laha, Thewarach; Sripa, Banchob

2015-01-01

76

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the visual detection of duck circovirus  

PubMed Central

Background Duck circovirus (DuCV) infection in farmed ducks is associated with growth problems or retardation syndromes. Rapid identification of DuCV infected ducks is essential to control DuCV effectively. Therefore, this study aims to develop of an assay for DuCV to be highly specific, sensitive, and simple without any specialized equipment. Methods A set of six specific primers was designed to target the sequences of the Rep gene of DuCV, and A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay were developed and the reaction conditions were optimized for rapid detection of DuCV. Results The LAMP assay reaction was conducted in a 62°C water bath condition for 50 min. Then the amplification products were visualized directly for color changes. This LAMP assay is highly sensitive and able to detect twenty copies of DuCV DNA. The specificity of this LAMP assay was supported by no cross-reaction with other duck pathogens. Conclusion This LAMP method for DuCV is highly specific and sensitive and can be used as a rapid and direct diagnostic assay for testing clinical samples. PMID:24775810

2014-01-01

77

Sensitive colorimetric detection of Listeria monocytogenes based on isothermal gene amplification and unmodified gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes), one of most problematic food-borne bacteria, is mainly transmitted through the food chain and may cause listeriosis. Therefore, the development of rapid and sensitive L. monocytogenes detection technique has become an urgent task. In this study, we proposed a method using hyperbranching rolling circle amplification (HRCA) combined with gold nanoparticle (GNP) based colorimetric strategy to offer an isothermal, highly sensitive and specific assay for the detection of L. monocytogenes. First, a linear padlock probe targeting a specific sequence in the hly gene was designed and followed with a ligation by Taq DNA ligase. After ligation, further amplification by HRCA with a thiolated primer and an unlabeled primer is performed. The resulting thiolated HRCA products were then captured onto GNP surface and made GNP more salt-tolerant. Detection of the bacteria can be achieved by a facilitated GNP based colorimetric testing using naked eyes. Through this approach, as low as 100 aM synthetic hly gene targets and about 75 copies of L. monocytogenes can be detected. The specificity is evaluated by distinguishing target L. monocytogenes from other bacteria. The artificial contaminated food samples were also detected for its potential applications in real food detection. This method described here is ideal for bacteria detection due to its simplicity and high sensitivity. PMID:23948710

Fu, Zhongyu; Zhou, Xiaoming; Xing, Da

2013-12-15

78

A New Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method for Rapid, Simple, and Sensitive Detection of Leptospira spp. in Urine  

PubMed Central

We developed a new loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect rrs, a 16S rRNA gene of pathogenic Leptospira spp. in urine. The method enables detection of two leptospiral cells per reaction mixture following boiling of urine specimens. The sensitivity of this method is higher than that of culture or of flaB nested PCR. PMID:22422858

Nakajima, Chie; Harunari, Tsunehito; Tanikawa, Tsutomu; Tokiwa, Toshihiro; Uchimura, Eriko; Furuya, Tokujiro; Mingala, Claro Niegos; Villanueva, Marvin Ardeza; Ohnishi, Makoto; Suzuki, Yasuhiko

2012-01-01

79

Development of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay Targeting the mpb64 Gene for Diagnosis of Intraocular Tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the mpb64 gene for the diagnosis of intraocular tuberculosis was highly specific (100%), sensitive (85.7%), rapid, and easy to perform. The LAMP assay can be an alternative to conventional PCR for the diagnosis of ocular tuberculosis in resource-limited settings. PMID:23966513

Balne, Praveen Kumar; Barik, Manas Ranjan; Sharma, Savitri

2013-01-01

80

Development of Rapid Isothermal Amplification Assays for Detection of Phytophthora spp. in Plant Tissue.  

PubMed

Several isothermal amplification techniques recently have been developed that are tolerant of inhibitors present in many plant extracts, which can reduce the need for obtaining purified DNA for running diagnostic assays. One such commercially available technique that has similarities with real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for designing primers and a labeled probe is recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). This technology was used to develop two simple and rapid approaches for detection of Phytophthora spp.: one genus-specific assay multiplexed with a plant internal control and the other species-specific assays for Phytophthora ramorum and P. kernoviae. All assays were tested for sensitivity (ranging from 3 ng to 1 fg of DNA) and specificity using DNA extracted from more than 136 Phytophthora taxa, 21 Pythium spp., 1 Phytopythium sp., and a wide range of plant species. The lower limit of linear detection using purified DNA was 200 to 300 fg of DNA in all pathogen RPA assays. Six different extraction buffers were tested for use during plant tissue maceration and the assays were validated in the field by collecting 222 symptomatic plant samples from over 50 different hosts. Only 56 samples were culture positive for Phytophthora spp. whereas 91 were positive using the Phytophthora genus-specific RPA test and a TaqMan real-time PCR assay. A technique for the generation of sequencing templates from positive RPA amplifications to confirm species identification was also developed. These RPA assays have added benefits over traditional technologies because they are rapid (results can be obtained in as little as 15 min), do not require DNA extraction or extensive training to complete, use less expensive portable equipment than PCR-based assays, and are significantly more specific than current immunologically based methods. This should provide a rapid, field-deployable capability for pathogen detection that will facilitate point-of-sample collection processing, thereby reducing the time necessary for accurate diagnostics and making management decisions. PMID:25208239

Miles, Timothy D; Martin, Frank N; Coffey, Michael D

2015-02-01

81

Ultrasensitive detection of transcription factors using transcription-mediated isothermally exponential amplification-induced chemiluminescence.  

PubMed

Transcription factors (TFs) are important cellular components that modulate gene expression, and the malregulation of transcription will lead to a variety of diseases such as cancer and developmental syndromes. However, the conventional methods for transcription factor assay are generally cumbersome and costly with low sensitivity. Here, we develop a label-free strategy for ultrasensitive detection of transcription factors using a cascade signal amplification of RNA transcription, dual isothermally exponential amplification reaction (EXPAR), and G-quadruplex DNAzyme-driven chemiluminescence. Briefly, the specific binding of TF with the detecting probe prevents the cleavage of the detecting probe by exonuclease and subsequently facilitates the conversion of TF signal to abundant RNA triggers in the presence of T7 RNA polymerase. The obtained RNA triggers can initiate the strand displacement amplification to yield abundant DNAzymes and DNA triggers, and the released DNA triggers can further initiate the next rounds of EXPAR reaction. The synergistic operation of dual EXPAR reaction can produce large amounts of DNAzymes, which subsequently catalyze the oxidation of luminol by H2O2 to yield an enhanced chemiluminescence signal with the assistance of cofactor hemin. Conversely, in the absence of target TF, the naked detecting probes will be completely digested by exonucleases, leading to neither the transcription-mediated EXPAR nor the DNAzyme-driven chemiluminescence signal. This method has a low detection limit of as low as 6.03 × 10(-15) M and a broad dynamic range from 10 fM to 1 nM and can even measure the NF-?B p50 of crude cell nuclear extracts. Moreover, this method can be used to measure a variety of DNA-binding proteins by simply substituting the target-specific binding sequence in the detecting probes. PMID:24865817

Ma, Fei; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Chun-Yang

2014-06-17

82

Current state and future perspectives of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-based diagnosis of filamentous fungi and yeasts.  

PubMed

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification is a rather novel method of enzymatic deoxyribonucleic acid amplification which can be applied for the diagnosis of viruses, bacteria, and fungi. Although firmly established in viral and bacterial diagnosis, the technology has only recently been applied to a noteworthy number of species in the filamentous fungi and yeasts. The current review gives an overview of the literature so far published on the topic by discussing the different groups of fungal organisms to which the method has been applied. Moreover, the method is described in detail as well as the different possibilities available for signal detection and quantification and sample preparation. Future perspective of loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based assays is discussed in the light of applicability for fungal diagnostics. PMID:25492418

Niessen, Ludwig

2015-01-01

83

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for differentiation and rapid detection of Taenia species.  

PubMed

Rapid detection and differentiation of Taenia species are required for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in areas where these diseases are endemic. Because of the lower sensitivity and specificity of the conventional diagnosis based on microscopical examination, molecular tools are more reliable for differential diagnosis of these diseases. In this study, we developed and evaluated a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for differential diagnosis of infections with Taenia species with cathepsin L-like cysteine peptidase (clp) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) genes. LAMP with primer sets to the cox1 gene could differentiate between three species, and LAMP with primer sets to the clp gene could differentiate Taenia solium from Taenia saginata/Taenia asiatica. Restriction enzyme digestion of the LAMP products from primer set Tsag-clp allowed the differentiation of Taenia saginata from Taenia asiatica. We demonstrated the high specificity of LAMP by testing known parasite DNA samples extracted from proglottids (n = 100) and cysticerci (n = 68). LAMP could detect one copy of the target gene or five eggs of T. asiatica and T. saginata per gram of feces, showing sensitivity similar to that of PCR methods. Furthermore, LAMP could detect parasite DNA in all taeniid egg-positive fecal samples (n = 6). Due to the rapid, simple, specific, and sensitive detection of Taenia species, the LAMP assays are valuable tools which might be easily applicable for the control and prevention of taeniasis and cysticercosis in countries where these diseases are endemic. PMID:19005142

Nkouawa, Agathe; Sako, Yasuhito; Nakao, Minoru; Nakaya, Kazuhiro; Ito, Akira

2009-01-01

84

Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of porcine hokovirus.  

PubMed

Hokoviruses have recently been detected as pathogens belonging to the family Parvoviridae, which comprises porcine hokovirus (PHoV) and bovine hokovirus (BHoV). In this study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid, specific and sensitive detection of PHoV. A set of four primers specific for six regions within the PHoV VP1/2 genes was designed using online software. The reaction temperature and time were optimized at 65°C and 60 min, respectively. LAMP products were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis or by visual inspection of a color change caused by a fluorescent dye. The method was highly specific for PHoV, and no cross-reaction was observed with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine parvovirus (PPV), porcine bocavirus (PBoV), pseudorabies virus (PRV), porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), classic swine fever virus (CSFV), or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). The detection limit was approximately 10 copies per reaction, which was 10 times more sensitive than conventional PCR. Furthermore, the efficiency of detection of PHoV in clinical samples was comparable to that of PCR and sequencing. These results show that the LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive and specific method for detecting PHoV. It does not require specialized equipment and can be used to detect PHoV both in the laboratory and in the field. PMID:23850717

Li, Bin; Sun, Bing; Du, Lu-ping; Mao, Ai-hua; Wen, Li-bin; Ni, Yan-xiu; Zhang, Xue-han; He, Kong-wang

2013-11-01

85

Detection of Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV) can infect transgenic papaya resistant to a related pathogen, Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV), posing a substantial threat to papaya production in China. Current detection methods, however, are unable to be used for rapid detection in the field. Here, a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of PLDMV, using a set of four RT-LAMP primers designed based on the conserved sequence of PLDMV CP. The RT-LAMP method detected specifically PLDMV and was highly sensitive, with a detection limit of 1.32×10(-6) ?g of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR, while also requiring significantly less time and equipment. The effectiveness of RT-LAMP and one-step RT-PCR in detecting the virus were compared using 90 field samples of non-transgenic papaya and 90 field samples of commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya from Hainan Island. None of the non-transgenic papaya tested positive for PLDMV using either method. In contrast, 19 of the commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya samples tested positive by RT-LAMP assay, and 6 of those tested negative by RT-PCR. Therefore, the PLDMV-specific RT-LAMP is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective tool in the field diagnosis and control of PLDMV. PMID:24100065

Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-01-01

86

Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Papaya ringspot virus.  

PubMed

Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Papaya leaf distortion mosaic virus (PLDMV), which causes disease symptoms similar to PRSV, threaten commercial production of both non-transgenic-papaya and PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya in China. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay to detect PLDMV was developed previously. In this study, the development of another RT-LAMP assay to distinguish among transgenic, PRSV-infected and PLDMV-infected papaya by detection of PRSV is reported. A set of four RT-LAMP primers was designed based on the highly conserved region of the P3 gene of PRSV. The RT-LAMP method was specific and sensitive in detecting PRSV, with a detection limit of 1.15×10(-6)?g of total RNA per reaction. Indeed, the reaction was 10 times more sensitive than one-step RT-PCR. Field application of the RT-LAMP assay demonstrated that samples positive for PRSV were detected only in non-transgenic papaya, whereas samples positive for PLDMV were detected only in commercialized PRSV-resistant transgenic papaya. This suggests that PRSV remains the major limiting factor for non-transgenic-papaya production, and the emergence of PLDMV threatens the commercial transgenic cultivar in China. However, this study, combined with the earlier development of an RT-LAMP assay for PLDMV, will provide a rapid, sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic power to distinguish virus infections in papaya. PMID:24769198

Shen, Wentao; Tuo, Decai; Yan, Pu; Yang, Yong; Li, Xiaoying; Zhou, Peng

2014-08-01

87

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Detection of Haemophilus influenzae Type b in Cerebrospinal Fluid?  

PubMed Central

Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is one of the leading causes of meningitis in developing countries. To establish and evaluate a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Hib, we designed a LAMP primer set targeting the Hib-specific capsulation locus. LAMP detected 10 copies of purified DNA in a 60-min reaction. This indicated that the detection limit of LAMP was >100-fold lower than the detection limits of both a PCR for the detection of bexA and a nested PCR for Hib (Hib PCR). No H. influenzae, other than Hib or control bacteria, was detected. Linear determination ranged from 10 to 1,000,000 microorganisms per reaction mixture using real-time turbidimetry. We evaluated the Hib LAMP assay using a set of 52 randomly selected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) specimens obtained from children with suspected meningitis. For comparison, the CSF specimens were tested using a conventional Hib PCR assay. Hib was detected in 30 samples using LAMP and in 22 samples using the Hib PCR assay. The Hib PCR showed a clinical sensitivity of 73.3% and a clinical specificity of 100% relative to the Hib LAMP assay. These results suggest that further development and evaluation of the Hib LAMP will enhance the global diagnostic capability for Hib detection. PMID:21832019

Kim, Dong Wook; Kilgore, Paul Evan; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Soon Ae; Anh, Dang Duc; Seki, Mitsuko

2011-01-01

88

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Staphylococcus aureus in Dairy Cow Suffering from Mastitis  

PubMed Central

To develop a rapid detection method of Staphylococcus aureus using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), four specific primers were designed according to six distinct sequences of the nuc gene. In addition, the specificity and sensitivity of LAMP were verified and compared with those of PCR. Results showed that the LAMP reaction was completed within 45?min at 62.5°C, and ladder bands were appeared in LAMP products analyzed by gel electrophoresis. After adding 1x SYBR Green l, the positive reaction tube showed green color and the negative reaction tube remained orange, indicating that the LAMP has high specificity. The minimal detectable concentration of LAMP was 1 × 102?CFU/mL and that of PCR was 1 × 104?CFU/mL, indicating that the LAMP was 100 times more sensitive than the PCR. The LAMP method for detection of Staphylococcus aureus has many advantages, such as simple operation, high sensitivity, high specificity, and rapid analysis. Therefore, this method is more suitable for the rapid on-site detection of Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:23251078

Tie, Zhang; Chunguang, Wang; Xiaoyuan, Wei; Xinghua, Zhao; Xiuhui, Zhong

2012-01-01

89

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for screening of bacterial integrons  

PubMed Central

Background The occurrence and prevalence of integrons in clinical microorganisms and their role played in antimicrobial resistance have been well studied recently. As screening and detection of integrons are concerned, current diagnostic methodologies are restricted by significant drawbacks and novel methods are required for integrons detection. Results In this study, three loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays targeting on class 1, 2 and 3 integrons were implemented and evaluated. Optimization of these detection assays were performed, including studing on the reaction temperature, volume, time, sensitivity and specificity (both primers and targets). Application of the established LAMP assays were further verified on a total of 1082 isolates (previously identified to be 397 integron-positive and 685 integron-negative strains). According to the results, the indispensability of each primer had been confirmed and the optimal reaction temperature, volume and time were found to be 65°C, 45 min and 25 ?L, respectively. As application was concerned, 361, 28 and 8 isolates carrying intI1, intI2 and intI3 yielded positive amplicons, respectively. Other 685 integron-negative bacteria were negative for the integron-screening LAMP assays, totaling the detection rate and specificity to be 100%. Conclusions The intI1-, intI2- and intI3-LAMP assays established in this study were demonstrated to be the valid and rapid detection methodologies for the screening of bacterial integrons. PMID:25418445

2014-01-01

90

Elevated OPN, IP-10, and neutrophilia in loop-mediated isothermal amplification confirmed tuberculosis patients.  

PubMed

Tuberculosis (TB) is the second most common cause of death from infectious diseases and results in high socioeconomic losses to many countries. Proper diagnosis is the first step in TB eradication. To develop a rapid, simple, and accurate diagnostic TB test and to characterize the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) genotypes and immune profiles of TB patients, a total of 37?TB patients and 30 healthy control (HC) from Metro Manila were enrolled. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reliably detected MTB infection. Manila genotype was identified by spoligotyping method in all TB patients. Osteopontin (OPN), interferon-?-induced protein 10?kDa (IP-10), and neutrophil counts were found to reflect the acute stage of MTB infection. The sensitivity and specificity were 94.6% and 93.3%, respectively, for both OPN and IP-10, and they were 83.8% and 78.6%, respectively, for neutrophils. The combination of OPN, IP-10, neutrophil count, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, MCP-1, platelets, galectin-9, and leukocyte count correctly identifies all the HC and 96.3% of TB patients. LAMP method may serve as a rapid, supportive method in addition to time-consuming culture methods. OPN, IP-10, and neutrophil counts are useful in detecting MTB infection and may have utility in monitoring the course of the disease. PMID:25378811

Shiratori, Beata; Leano, Susan; Nakajima, Chie; Chagan-Yasutan, Haorile; Niki, Toshiro; Ashino, Yugo; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Telan, Elisabeth; Hattori, Toshio

2014-01-01

91

Rapid detection of Mycoplasma synoviae by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) remains a serious concern in production of poultry and affects world production of chickens and turkeys. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of DNA has been recently used for the identification of different economically important avian pathogens. The aim of this study was to develop LAMP for simple and inexpensive detection of MS strains in poultry using specifically designed primers targeting hemagglutin A (vlh) gene. The assay was conducted in a water bath for 1 h at 63 °C. The results were visualized after addition of SYBR Green(®) fluorescent dye. LAMP was specific exclusively for MS without cross-reactivity with other Mycoplasma species. The sensitivity of LAMP was determined as 10(-1) CFU/ml and was 1,000 times higher than MS-specific polymerase chain reaction. LAMP assay was conducted on 18 MS field strains to ensure its reliability and usefulness. This is the first report on LAMP development and application for the rapid detection of MS isolated from chickens. This simple method may be applied by diagnostic laboratories without access to expensive equipment. PMID:25413672

Kursa, Olimpia; Wo?niakowski, Grzegorz; Tomczyk, Grzegorz; Sawicka, Anna; Minta, Zenon

2014-11-21

92

Direct detection of Marek's disease virus in poultry dust by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a serious concern for poultry production and represents a unique herpesvirus model. MDV can be shed by doubly infected chickens despite vaccination. The fully infectious MDV particles are produced in the feather follicle epithelium (FFE), and MDV remains infectious for many months in fine skin particles and feather debris. Molecular biology methods including PCR and real-time PCR have been shown to be valuable for the detection of MDV DNA in farm dust. Recently, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was found to be useful in the detection of MDV in feathers and internal organs of infected chickens. LAMP is also less affected by the inhibitors present in DNA samples. Taking into account the advantages of LAMP, direct detection of MDV DNA in poultry dust has been conducted in this research. The detection of MDV DNA was possible in 11 out of the 12 examined dust samples without DNA extraction. The DNA was retrieved from dust samples by dilution and incubation at 95 °C for 5 min. The direct detection of MDV DNA in the dust was possible within 30 min using a water bath and UV light. The results were confirmed by electrophoresis and melting curve analysis of the LAMP products. Our results show that LAMP may be used to test for the presence of virulent MDV in poultry farm dust without DNA extraction. PMID:24986718

Wo?niakowski, Grzegorz; Samorek-Salamonowicz, El?bieta

2014-11-01

93

Detection of two exogenous genes in transgenic cattle by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Nucleotide-based analytical approaches are indispensable and effective, targeting for the transgenic ingredients in biotechnical products in terms of safety assessment. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method was developed for the specific detection of exogenous nucleic acids of hLTF/hLALBA-induced transgenic cattle. The detection limit of the LAMP method was proved to be as low as 10 copies of target molecules in optimized systems, and to be 10-100 times more sensitive than the conventional PCR. Furthermore, fluorescent dye SYBR Green I was used to visualize the color changes of LAMP products by naked eyes in daylight, which resulted in distinct colors between positive and negative reactions. For the detection of transgenes, all the transgenic samples collected from hLTF and hLALBA-induced cattle were amplified by LAMP in 1 h, followed by direct visual SYBR Green I dying or gel electrophoresis. Results showed that transgenic and non-transgenic samples exhibited distinct properties in colors or electrophoresis profiles. Thus, all the results indicated that the LAMP assay was a simple and convenient method for the test of transgenic animals. PMID:22684613

Zhai, Shanli; Liu, Chuxin; Zhang, Qingde; Tao, Chenyu; Liu, Bang

2012-12-01

94

Rapid detection of the Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) gene by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).  

PubMed

Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC), which are associated with resistance to carbapenem, have recently spread worldwide and have become a global concern. It is necessary to detect KPC-producing organisms in clinical settings to be able to control the spread of this resistance. We have developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for rapid detection of KPC producers. LAMP primer sets were designed to recognize the homologous regions of blaKPC-2 to blaKPC-17 and could amplify blaKPC rapidly. The specificity and sensitivity of the primers in the LAMP reactions for blaKPC detection were determined. This LAMP assay was able to specifically detect KPC producers at 68 °C, and no cross-reactivity was observed for other types of ?-lactamase (class A, B, C, or D) producers. The detection limit for this assay was found to be 10(0) CFU per tube, in 25 min, which was 10-fold more sensitive than a PCR assay for blaKPC detection. Then, the sensitivity of the LAMP reactions for blaKPC detection in human specimens (sputum samples, urine samples, fecal samples and blood samples) was analyzed; it was observed that the LAMP assay had almost the same sensitivity in these samples as when using purified DNA. The LAMP assay is easy to perform and rapid. It may therefore be routinely applied for detection of KPC producers in the clinical laboratory. PMID:25529001

Nakano, Ryuichi; Nakano, Akiyo; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Ubagai, Tsuneyuki; Kikuchi-Ueda, Takane; Kikuchi, Hirotoshi; Tansho-Nagakawa, Shigeru; Kamoshida, Go; Mu, Xiaoqin; Ono, Yasuo

2015-03-01

95

Elevated OPN, IP-10, and Neutrophilia in Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Confirmed Tuberculosis Patients  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) is the second most common cause of death from infectious diseases and results in high socioeconomic losses to many countries. Proper diagnosis is the first step in TB eradication. To develop a rapid, simple, and accurate diagnostic TB test and to characterize the prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) genotypes and immune profiles of TB patients, a total of 37?TB patients and 30 healthy control (HC) from Metro Manila were enrolled. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) reliably detected MTB infection. Manila genotype was identified by spoligotyping method in all TB patients. Osteopontin (OPN), interferon-?-induced protein 10?kDa (IP-10), and neutrophil counts were found to reflect the acute stage of MTB infection. The sensitivity and specificity were 94.6% and 93.3%, respectively, for both OPN and IP-10, and they were 83.8% and 78.6%, respectively, for neutrophils. The combination of OPN, IP-10, neutrophil count, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-?, MCP-1, platelets, galectin-9, and leukocyte count correctly identifies all the HC and 96.3% of TB patients. LAMP method may serve as a rapid, supportive method in addition to time-consuming culture methods. OPN, IP-10, and neutrophil counts are useful in detecting MTB infection and may have utility in monitoring the course of the disease. PMID:25378811

Leano, Susan; Nakajima, Chie; Niki, Toshiro; Ashino, Yugo; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Telan, Elisabeth

2014-01-01

96

Detection of Pepino mosaic virus isolates from tomato by one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) of DNA is a novel technique for the amplification of DNA under isothermal conditions. For the first time, we applied this method to develop a simple and sensitive tool for the detection of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV). PepMV is an emerging pathogen that causes yield and quality losses in tomato crops. Specific RT-LAMP primers for PepMV detection were designed based on triple gene block sequences. The reaction was performed in a single tube at 65 °C for 30 min. The RT-LAMP assay is easy to perform and inexpensive, and it may be applied in the rapid and specific diagnosis of PepMV. PMID:23605670

Hasiów-Jaroszewska, Beata; Borodynko, Natasza

2013-10-01

97

Detection of BCR-ABL Fusion mRNA Using Reverse Transcriptase Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification  

SciTech Connect

RT-PCR is commonly used for the detection of Bcr-Abl fusion transcripts in patients diagnosed with chronic myelogenous leukemia, CML. Two fusion transcripts predominate in CML, Br-Abl e13a2 and e14a2. They have developed reverse transcriptase isothermal loop-mediated amplification (RT-LAMP) assays to detect these two fusion transcripts along with the normal Bcr transcript.

Dugan, L C; Hall, S; Kohlgruber, A; Urbin, S; Torres, C; Wilson, P

2011-12-08

98

Rapid ultrasonic isothermal amplification of DNA with multiplexed melting analysis - applications in the clinical diagnosis of sexually transmitted diseases.  

PubMed

We describe a nucleic acid testing (NAT) platform for infectious disease diagnostics at the point-of-care, using surface acoustic waves (SAW) to perform a multiplexed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test for sexually transmitted diseases. The ultrasonic actuation not only enables faster NAT reactions but also provides a route towards integrating low-cost, low-power molecular diagnostics into disposable sensors. PMID:25569801

Xu, Gaolian; Gunson, Rory N; Cooper, Jonathan M; Reboud, Julien

2015-01-29

99

Microfluidic lab-on-a-foil for nucleic acid analysis based on isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time we demonstrate a self-sufficient lab-on-a-foil system for the fully automated analysis of nucleic acids which is based on the recently available isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The system consists of a novel, foil-based centrifugal microfluidic cartridge including prestored liquid and dry reagents, and a commercially available centrifugal analyzer for incubation at 37 ? C and real-time

Sascha Lutz; Patrick Weber; Max Focke; Bernd Faltin; Jochen Hoffmann; Claas Müller; Daniel Mark; Günter Roth; Peter Munday; Niall Armes; Olaf Piepenburg; Roland Zengerle; Felix von Stetten

2010-01-01

100

Development of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Capripoxviruses  

PubMed Central

Sheep pox (SP), goat pox (GP), and lumpy skin disease (LSD), caused by capripoxviruses (CaPVs), are economically important diseases of sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Here, we report the development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of CaPVs. LAMP primers were designed to target a conserved gene encoding the poly(A) polymerase small subunit (VP39) of CaPVs. Hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) was incorporated to monitor assay progress by color change from violet when negative to sky blue when positive, and results were verified by agarose gel electrophoresis. The LAMP assay was shown to be highly specific for CaPVs, with no apparent cross-reactivity to other related viruses (near neighbors) or viruses that cause similar clinical signs (look-a-like viruses). The performance of LAMP was compared to that of a highly sensitive quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay. LAMP and qPCR exhibited similar analytical sensitivities, with limits of detection of 3 and 8 viral genome copies, respectively. Diagnostic specificity was assessed on 36 negative specimens, including swabs and EDTA blood from control sheep, goats, and cattle. Diagnostic sensitivity was assessed on 275 specimens, including EDTA blood, swabs, and tissues from experimentally infected sheep, goats, and cattle. Overall agreement on diagnostic test results between the two assays was 90 to 95% for specificity and 89 to 100% for sensitivity. The LAMP assay described in this report is simple to use, inexpensive, highly sensitive, and particularly well suited for the diagnosis of capripox in less well equipped laboratories and in rural settings where resources are limited. PMID:22357504

Babiuk, Shawn; McIntosh, Michael T.

2012-01-01

101

Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of capripoxviruses.  

PubMed

Sheep pox (SP), goat pox (GP), and lumpy skin disease (LSD), caused by capripoxviruses (CaPVs), are economically important diseases of sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. Here, we report the development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of CaPVs. LAMP primers were designed to target a conserved gene encoding the poly(A) polymerase small subunit (VP39) of CaPVs. Hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) was incorporated to monitor assay progress by color change from violet when negative to sky blue when positive, and results were verified by agarose gel electrophoresis. The LAMP assay was shown to be highly specific for CaPVs, with no apparent cross-reactivity to other related viruses (near neighbors) or viruses that cause similar clinical signs (look-a-like viruses). The performance of LAMP was compared to that of a highly sensitive quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay. LAMP and qPCR exhibited similar analytical sensitivities, with limits of detection of 3 and 8 viral genome copies, respectively. Diagnostic specificity was assessed on 36 negative specimens, including swabs and EDTA blood from control sheep, goats, and cattle. Diagnostic sensitivity was assessed on 275 specimens, including EDTA blood, swabs, and tissues from experimentally infected sheep, goats, and cattle. Overall agreement on diagnostic test results between the two assays was 90 to 95% for specificity and 89 to 100% for sensitivity. The LAMP assay described in this report is simple to use, inexpensive, highly sensitive, and particularly well suited for the diagnosis of capripox in less well equipped laboratories and in rural settings where resources are limited. PMID:22357504

Das, Amaresh; Babiuk, Shawn; McIntosh, Michael T

2012-05-01

102

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Rapid and Semiquantitative Detection of Loa loa Infection  

PubMed Central

Rapid and accurate tests are currently needed to identify individuals with high levels of Loa loa microfilaria (mf), so that these individuals may be excluded from mass ivermectin administration campaigns against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis being conducted in areas where Onchocerca volvulus, Wuchereria bancrofti, and L. loa are coendemic. To address this need, colorimetric loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays targeting the L. loa-specific gene sequences LLMF72 and LLMF342 were developed for the detection and quantification of L. loa microfilaremia. Both LAMP assays were highly specific (100%) for L. loa infection compared to the absence of infection or infection with related filarial pathogens. The LLMF72-based LAMP assay showed greater analytic sensitivity (limit of detection, 0.1 pg/ml of genomic DNA [gDNA] and/or 5 mf/ml) than the LLMF342-based LAMP assay (10 pg/ml of gDNA and/or 50 mf/ml), and its analytic sensitivity was similar to that of LLMF72-based quantitative PCR (qPCR). A high level of correlation was observed between microfilaria counts as determined by LLMF72-based qPCR and time to positivity by the LAMP assay, and performance measures of sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were similar for both assays when applied to field-collected clinical samples. By simply varying the run time, the LAMP assay was able to accurately distinguish individuals at risk for serious adverse events (SAEs) after exposure to ivermectin, using thresholds of >5,000 mf/ml and >30,000 mf/ml as indicators of increasing levels of risk. In summary, LLMF72 LAMP represents a new molecular diagnostic tool that is readily applicable as a point-of-care method for L. loa microfilarial detection and quantification in resource-limited countries where L. loa infection is endemic. PMID:24696020

Drame, Papa M.; Fink, Doran L.; Kamgno, Joseph; Herrick, Jesica A.

2014-01-01

103

Application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique to rapid and direct detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in blood cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Staphylococcus aureus is the most important pathogen in nosocomial infections, including bloodstream infections. Prompt identification of S. aureus from blood cultures and detection of methicillin resistance are essential in cases of suspected sepsis. A novel nucleic acid\\u000a amplification technique, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which amplifies DNA under isothermal conditions (63°C)\\u000a with high specificity, efficiency, and rapidity, was applied to detect

Yoshiki Misawa; Atsushi Yoshida; Ryoichi Saito; Honami Yoshida; Katsuko Okuzumi; Nobue Ito; Mitsumasa Okada; Kyoji Moriya; Kazuhiko Koike

2007-01-01

104

Digital isothermal quantification of nucleic acids via simultaneous chemical initiation of recombinase polymerase amplification reactions on SlipChip.  

PubMed

In this paper, digital quantitative detection of nucleic acids was achieved at the single-molecule level by chemical initiation of over one thousand sequence-specific, nanoliter isothermal amplification reactions in parallel. Digital polymerase chain reaction (digital PCR), a method used for quantification of nucleic acids, counts the presence or absence of amplification of individual molecules. However, it still requires temperature cycling, which is undesirable under resource-limited conditions. This makes isothermal methods for nucleic acid amplification, such as recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA), more attractive. A microfluidic digital RPA SlipChip is described here for simultaneous initiation of over one thousand nL-scale RPA reactions by adding a chemical initiator to each reaction compartment with a simple slipping step after instrument-free pipet loading. Two designs of the SlipChip, two-step slipping and one-step slipping, were validated using digital RPA. By using the digital RPA SlipChip, false-positive results from preinitiation of the RPA amplification reaction before incubation were eliminated. End point fluorescence readout was used for "yes or no" digital quantification. The performance of digital RPA in a SlipChip was validated by amplifying and counting single molecules of the target nucleic acid, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) genomic DNA. The digital RPA on SlipChip was also tolerant to fluctuations of the incubation temperature (37-42 °C), and its performance was comparable to digital PCR on the same SlipChip design. The digital RPA SlipChip provides a simple method to quantify nucleic acids without requiring thermal cycling or kinetic measurements, with potential applications in diagnostics and environmental monitoring under resource-limited settings. The ability to initiate thousands of chemical reactions in parallel on the nanoliter scale using solvent-resistant glass devices is likely to be useful for a broader range of applications. PMID:21476587

Shen, Feng; Davydova, Elena K; Du, Wenbin; Kreutz, Jason E; Piepenburg, Olaf; Ismagilov, Rustem F

2011-05-01

105

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the identification of species within the Echinococcus granulosus complex.  

PubMed

To facilitate the specific identification of Echinococcus spp. isolates in endemic countries, a LAMP (loop-mediated isothermal amplification) assay was developed to detect the various agents known to cause cystic echinococcosis (E. granulosus s.s., E. equinus, E. ortleppi, E. canadensis and E. felidis). The infectivity of the different species and the severity of the disease in humans and livestock vary significantly among those species, and correct molecular identification of large numbers of field isolates is crucial to understand their epidemiology. However, funding constraints in many CE endemic countries often prevent PCR-based screening of field isolates. The LAMP method allows the amplification of DNA fragments under isothermal conditions which can be achieved using an ordinary waterbath, and the detection of amplification products only requires a UV light source. In the present study a LAMP assay was developed which allows the detection and differentiation of the 5 CE causing Echinococcus species. The diagnostic power was adjusted to species level, i.e. intraspecific strains (G1-3 within E. granulosus s.s., G6-10 within E. canadensis) are not discriminated. Wherever this would be necessary for epidemiological purposes, the method can be adjusted according to local requirements. The sensitivity of the assay was tested down to one fiftieth of a single protoscolex or egg, respectively. The present study describes a fast and simple method for the differentiation of CE causing Echinococcus species which can facilitate epidemiological studies in endemic countries. PMID:24418600

Wassermann, Marion; Mackenstedt, Ute; Romig, Thomas

2014-02-24

106

Shrimp Taura syndrome virus detection by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick.  

PubMed

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) allows rapid amplification of nucleic acid under isothermal conditions using four sets of specially designed primers that recognize six distinct target sequences with high specificity and sensitivity. In this report, a 60-min reverse transcription LAMP (RT-LAMP) method for amplification of Taura syndrome virus (TSV) cDNA using biotin-labeled primer was combined with a chromatographic lateral flow dipstick (LFD) for rapid and simple visual detection of TSV-specific amplicons. The LFD process involved a 5-min post RT-LAMP step for specific hybridization of cDNA with an FITC-labeled DNA probe that confirmed the presence of specific, biotin-labeled TSV amplicons. The resulting DNA duplexes could be visualized trapped at the LFD strip test line within 5min of sample exposure. Using the combined RT-LAMP and LFD system, the total assay interval was approximately 70min, excluding RNA extraction time. Detection sensitivity was comparable to other commonly used methods for nested RT-PCR detection of TSV. In addition to reduced assay time when compared to electrophoresis, combination of RT-LAMP with LFD confirms amplicon identity by hybridization and eliminates the need to handle carcinogenic ethidium bromide. PMID:18662723

Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Jaroenram, Wansadaj; Arunrut, Narong; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Flegel, T W

2008-11-01

107

An integrated microfluidic loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification system for rapid sample pre-treatment and detection of viruses.  

PubMed

This study presents a novel automatic assay for targeted ribonucleic acid (RNA) extraction and a one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification (RT-LAMP) process for the rapid detection of viruses from tissue samples by utilizing an integrated microfluidic system. By utilizing specific probe-conjugated magnetic beads, target RNA samples can be specifically recognized and hybridized onto the surface of the magnetic beads which are mixed with whole tissue lysates, followed by the synthesis of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid (cDNA) and isothermal amplification of target genes simultaneously with the incorporation of two specific primer sets. The nervous necrosis virus (NNV), the most common aquaculture pathogen, with a mortality rate in infected fish ranging from 80% to 100%, has been selected to verify the performance of the developed miniature system. Experimental results showed that the sensitivity of the integrated microfluidic LAMP system is about 100-fold higher when compared to a conventional one-step reverse-transcript polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) process. Significantly, the entire protocol from sample pre-treatment to target gene amplification can be completed within 60 min in an automatic manner without cross-reactions with other tested virus, bacteria and eukaryotic cells. Consequently, this integrated microfluidic LAMP system may provide a powerful platform for rapid purification and detection of virus samples. PMID:20869865

Wang, Chih-Hung; Lien, Kang-Yi; Wang, Ting-Yu; Chen, Tzong-Yueh; Lee, Gwo-Bin

2011-01-15

108

Improved loop-mediated isothermal amplification for HLA-DRB1 genotyping using RecA and a restriction enzyme for enhanced amplification specificity.  

PubMed

Our aim was to test and develop the use of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for HLA-DRB1 genotyping. Initially, we found that the conventional LAMP protocols produced non-specific and variable amplification results depending on the sample DNA conditions. Experiments with different concentrations of DNase in the reaction mixture with and without T4 DNA ligase-treated samples suggested that the strand displacement activity of DNA polymerase in LAMP, at least in part, started from randomly existing nicks because T4 DNA ligase treatment of sample DNA resulted in no amplification. Such non-specific amplification due to the randomly existing nicks was improved specifically by the addition of RecA of Escherichia coli and a restriction enzyme, for example, PvuII, to the reaction mixture. We applied the modified LAMP (mLAMP) (1) to detect specific HLA-DRB1 alleles by using only specific primers for amplification or (2) for genotyping in multiple samples with a multi-probe typing system. In the latter case, HLA-DRB1 genotyping was developed by combining the mLAMP with amplicon capture using polymorphic region-specific probes fixed onto the bottom of the wells of a 96-well plate and the captured amplicons visualized as a black spot at the bottom of the well. The multi-probe human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing method and the specific HLA allele detection method could be applied for point-of-care testing due to no requirement for specific and expensive instruments. PMID:23474534

Mitsunaga, Shigeki; Shimizu, Sayoko; Okudaira, Yuko; Oka, Akira; Tanaka, Masafumi; Kimura, Minoru; Kulski, Jerzy K; Inoue, Ituro; Inoko, Hidetoshi

2013-06-01

109

Rapid and Sensitive Identification of the Herbal Tea Ingredient Taraxacum formosanum Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification.  

PubMed

Taraxacum formosanum (TF) is a medicinal plant used as an important component of health drinks in Taiwan. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for authenticating TF was established. A set of four specific LAMP primers was designed based on the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) of TF. LAMP amplicons were successfully amplified and detected when purified genomic DNA of TF was added in the LAMP reaction under isothermal condition (65 °C) within 45 min. These specific LAMP primers have high specificity and can accurately discriminate Taraxacum formosanum from other adulterant plants; 1 pg of genomic DNA was determined to be the detection limit of the LAMP assay. In conclusion, using this novel approach, TF and its misused plant samples obtained from herbal tea markets were easily identified and discriminated by LAMP assay for quality control. PMID:25584616

Lai, Guan-Hua; Chao, Jung; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Chang, Wen-Te; Peng, Wen-Huang; Sun, Fang-Chun; Lee, Meng-Shiunn; Lee, Meng-Shiou

2015-01-01

110

Rapid and Sensitive Identification of the Herbal Tea Ingredient Taraxacum formosanum Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification  

PubMed Central

Taraxacum formosanum (TF) is a medicinal plant used as an important component of health drinks in Taiwan. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for authenticating TF was established. A set of four specific LAMP primers was designed based on the nucleotide sequence of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) of TF. LAMP amplicons were successfully amplified and detected when purified genomic DNA of TF was added in the LAMP reaction under isothermal condition (65 °C) within 45 min. These specific LAMP primers have high specificity and can accurately discriminate Taraxacum formosanum from other adulterant plants; 1 pg of genomic DNA was determined to be the detection limit of the LAMP assay. In conclusion, using this novel approach, TF and its misused plant samples obtained from herbal tea markets were easily identified and discriminated by LAMP assay for quality control. PMID:25584616

Lai, Guan-Hua; Chao, Jung; Lin, Ming-Kuem; Chang, Wen-Te; Peng, Wen-Huang; Sun, Fang-Chun; Lee, Meng-Shiunn; Lee, Meng-Shiou

2015-01-01

111

Detection of cucumber mosaic virus isolates from banana by one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) is one of the most devastating threats to the banana industry. A single-tube, one-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the rapid detection of CMV-infected banana and plantain (Musa spp.). The reaction was performed in a single tube at 63 °C for 90 min using a real-time turbidimeter, with an improved closed-tube visual detection system in which fluorescent dye was added to the inside of the lid prior to amplification. This RT-LAMP assay is an alternative method for the rapid detection of CMV in banana plants and tissue culture materials. PMID:22782136

Peng, Jun; Shi, Minjing; Xia, Zihao; Huang, Junsheng; Fan, Zaifeng

2012-11-01

112

Loop mediated isothermal amplification of 5.8S rDNA for specific detection of Tritrichomonas foetus.  

PubMed

Tritrichomonas foetus is the causative agent of bovine trichomonosis, a sexually transmitted disease leading to infertility and abortion. A test based on loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) targeting the 5.8S rDNA subunit was designed for the specific identification of T. foetus. The LAMP assay was validated using 28 T. foetus and 35 non-T. foetus trichomonads strains. It did not exhibit cross-reaction with closely related parasites commonly found in smegma cultures like Tetratrichomonas spp. and Pentatrichomonas hominis. Bovine smegma did not show interferences for the detection of the parasite and, the sensitivity of the method (4×10(3) CFU/mL, approximately 10 cells/reaction) was slightly higher than that found for PCR amplification with TFR3 and TFR4 primers. The LAMP approach has potential applications for diagnosis and control of T. foetus and, practical use for low skill operators in rural areas. PMID:23265811

Oyhenart, Jorge; Martínez, Florencia; Ramírez, Rosana; Fort, Marcelo; Breccia, Javier D

2013-03-31

113

Concurrent Reactivation of Herpes Simplex and Varicella Zoster Viruses Confirmed by the Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay  

PubMed Central

Concurrent reactivation of herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses is rare. Here, we describe the case of an elderly patient with herpes labialis and herpes zoster manifesting as a right-side facial eruption with vesicles and crusting. The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay demonstrated the presence of both herpes simplex virus type 1 and varicella zoster virus in swab samples taken from the face, which was confirmed by real-time PCR, suggesting concurrent reactivation of both viruses. The use of the LAMP assay in the present case indicates its usefulness in the diagnosis of atypical herpes infections. PMID:24575004

Kobayashi, Tsukane; Yagami, Akiko; Suzuki, Kayoko; Yoshikawa, Tetsushi; Matsunaga, Kayoko

2014-01-01

114

A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay to rapidly diagnose foot-and-mouth disease virus C  

PubMed Central

A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed to rapidly detect foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype C (FMDV C). By testing 10-fold serial dilutions of FMDV C samples, sensitivity of the FMDV C RT-LAMP was found to be 10 times higher than that of conventional reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). No cross-reactivity with A, Asia 1, or O FMDV or swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) indicated that FMDV C RT-LAMP may be an exciting novel method for detecting FMDV C. PMID:24690607

Ding, Yao-zhong; Zhou, Jian-hua; Ma, Li-na; Qi, Yan-ni; Wei, Gang

2014-01-01

115

An integrated disposable device for DNA extraction and helicase dependent amplification  

E-print Network

with a fluorescent reporter are incorporated into a disposable polymer cartridge format. Smart passive fluidic control using a flap valve and a hydrophobic vent (with a nanoporous PTFE membrane) with a simple on

116

Development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of Anaplasma ovis.  

PubMed

Anaplasma ovis is an intraerythrocytic rickettsial pathogen of small ruminants. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a nucleic acid detection method in which the target DNA can be efficiently amplified with high specificity and sensitivity under isothermal conditions. In this study, a LAMP method was developed for the specific detection of A. ovis, using LAMP primers designed on the basis of the major surface protein 4 gene. LAMP was performed at 65 °C for 30 min. Its specificity was confirmed by successful amplification of several A. ovis isolates and through EcoRI restriction analysis of LAMP products. No cross-reactivity with the A. marginale Lushi isolate, Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. capri, Chlamydophila psittaci, Theileria ovis, T. luwenshuni, T. uilenbergi, or the Babesia sp. Xinjiang isolate was observed. Detection using the LAMP method was compared with that using conventional PCR in 227 field samples; LAMP demonstrated a sensitivity of 95.45%. In summary, LAMP is a specific, sensitive, and rapid test for the diagnosis of A. ovis infection, with the potential to be standardized as a detection method for A. ovis in areas of endemicity. PMID:21471346

Ma, Miling; Liu, Zhijie; Sun, Ming; Yang, Jifei; Guan, Guiquan; Li, Youquan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

2011-06-01

117

Real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RealAmp) for the species-specific identification of Plasmodium vivax.  

PubMed

Plasmodium vivax infections remain a major source of malaria-related morbidity and mortality. Early and accurate diagnosis is an integral component of effective malaria control programs. Conventional molecular diagnostic methods provide accurate results but are often resource-intensive, expensive, have a long turnaround time and are beyond the capacity of most malaria-endemic countries. Our laboratory has recently developed a new platform called RealAmp, which combines loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with a portable tube scanner real-time isothermal instrument for the rapid detection of malaria parasites. Here we describe new primers for the detection of P. vivax using the RealAmp method. Three pairs of amplification primers required for this method were derived from a conserved DNA sequence unique to the P. vivax genome. The amplification was carried out at 64°C using SYBR Green or SYTO-9 intercalating dyes for 90 minutes with the tube scanner set to collect fluorescence signals at 1-minute intervals. Clinical samples of P. vivax and other human-infecting malaria parasite species were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the primers by comparing with an 18S ribosomal RNA-based nested PCR as the gold standard. The new set of primers consistently detected laboratory-maintained isolates of P. vivax from different parts of the world. The primers detected P. vivax in the clinical samples with 94.59% sensitivity (95% CI: 87.48-98.26%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 90.40-100%) compared to the gold standard nested-PCR method. The new primers also proved to be more sensitive than the published species-specific primers specifically developed for the LAMP method in detecting P. vivax. PMID:23349994

Patel, Jaymin C; Oberstaller, Jenna; Xayavong, Maniphet; Narayanan, Jothikumar; DeBarry, Jeremy D; Srinivasamoorthy, Ganesh; Villegas, Leopoldo; Escalante, Ananias A; DaSilva, Alexandre; Peterson, David S; Barnwell, John W; Kissinger, Jessica C; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Lucchi, Naomi W

2013-01-01

118

Real-Time Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (RealAmp) for the Species-Specific Identification of Plasmodium vivax  

PubMed Central

Plasmodium vivax infections remain a major source of malaria-related morbidity and mortality. Early and accurate diagnosis is an integral component of effective malaria control programs. Conventional molecular diagnostic methods provide accurate results but are often resource-intensive, expensive, have a long turnaround time and are beyond the capacity of most malaria-endemic countries. Our laboratory has recently developed a new platform called RealAmp, which combines loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with a portable tube scanner real-time isothermal instrument for the rapid detection of malaria parasites. Here we describe new primers for the detection of P. vivax using the RealAmp method. Three pairs of amplification primers required for this method were derived from a conserved DNA sequence unique to the P. vivax genome. The amplification was carried out at 64°C using SYBR Green or SYTO-9 intercalating dyes for 90 minutes with the tube scanner set to collect fluorescence signals at 1-minute intervals. Clinical samples of P. vivax and other human-infecting malaria parasite species were used to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the primers by comparing with an 18S ribosomal RNA-based nested PCR as the gold standard. The new set of primers consistently detected laboratory-maintained isolates of P. vivax from different parts of the world. The primers detected P. vivax in the clinical samples with 94.59% sensitivity (95% CI: 87.48–98.26%) and 100% specificity (95% CI: 90.40–100%) compared to the gold standard nested-PCR method. The new primers also proved to be more sensitive than the published species-specific primers specifically developed for the LAMP method in detecting P. vivax. PMID:23349994

Patel, Jaymin C.; Oberstaller, Jenna; Xayavong, Maniphet; Narayanan, Jothikumar; DeBarry, Jeremy D.; Srinivasamoorthy, Ganesh; Villegas, Leopoldo; Escalante, Ananias A.; DaSilva, Alexandre; Peterson, David S.; Barnwell, John W.; Kissinger, Jessica C.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Lucchi, Naomi W.

2013-01-01

119

Visual Detection of Bacterial Pathogens via PNA-Based Padlock Probe Assembly and Isothermal Amplification of DNAzymes.  

PubMed

We have developed a self-reporting isothermal system for visual bacterial pathogen detection with single base resolution. The new DNA diagnostic is based on combination of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) technology, rolling circle amplification (RCA) and DNAzymes. PNAs are used as exceedingly selective chemical tools that bind genomic DNA at a predetermined sequence under nondenaturing conditions. After assembly of the PNA-DNA construct a padlock probe is circularized on the free strand. The probe incorporates a G-quadruplex structure flanked by nicking enzyme recognition sites. The assembled circle serves as a template for a novel hybrid RCA strategy that allows for exponential amplification and production of short single-stranded DNA pieces. These DNA fragments fold into G-quadruplex structures and when complexed with hemin become functional DNAzymes. The catalytic activity of each DNAzyme unit leads to colorimetric detection and provides the second amplification step. The combination of PNA, RCA, and DNAzymes allows for sequence-specific and highly sensitive detection of bacteria with a colorimetric output observed with the naked eye. Herein, we apply this method for the discrimination of Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, and Clostridium difficile genomes. PMID:25415469

Gomez, Anastasia; Miller, Nancy S; Smolina, Irina

2014-12-16

120

Point of care nucleic acid detection of viable pathogenic bacteria with isothermal RNA amplification based paper biosensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Food-borne pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes have been recognized as a major cause of human infections worldwide, leading to substantial health problems. Food-borne pathogen identification needs to be simpler, cheaper and more reliable than the current traditional methods. Here, we have constructed a low-cost paper biosensor for the detection of viable pathogenic bacteria with the naked eye. In this study, an effective isothermal amplification method was used to amplify the hlyA mRNA gene, a specific RNA marker in Listeria monocytogenes. The amplification products were applied to the paper biosensor to perform a visual test, in which endpoint detection was performed using sandwich hybridization assays. When the RNA products migrated along the paper biosensor by capillary action, the gold nanoparticles accumulated at the designated Test line and Control line. Under optimized experimental conditions, as little as 0.5 pg/?L genomic RNA from Listeria monocytogenes could be detected. The whole assay process, including RNA extraction, amplification, and visualization, can be completed within several hours. The developed method is suitable for point-of-care applications to detect food-borne pathogens, as it can effectively overcome the false-positive results caused by amplifying nonviable Listeria monocytogenes.

Liu, Hongxing; Xing, Da; Zhou, Xiaoming

2014-09-01

121

Multiplex isothermal solid-phase recombinase polymerase amplification for the specific and fast DNA-based detection of three bacterial pathogens.  

PubMed

We report on the development of an on-chip RPA (recombinase polymerase amplification) with simultaneous multiplex isothermal amplification and detection on a solid surface. The isothermal RPA was applied to amplify specific target sequences from the pathogens Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Salmonella enterica and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using genomic DNA. Additionally, a positive plasmid control was established as an internal control. The four targets were amplified simultaneously in a quadruplex reaction. The amplicon is labeled during on-chip RPA by reverse oligonucleotide primers coupled to a fluorophore. Both amplification and spatially resolved signal generation take place on immobilized forward primers bount to expoxy-silanized glass surfaces in a pump-driven hybridization chamber. The combination of microarray technology and sensitive isothermal nucleic acid amplification at 38 °C allows for a multiparameter analysis on a rather small area. The on-chip RPA was characterized in terms of reaction time, sensitivity and inhibitory conditions. A successful enzymatic reaction is completed in <20 min and results in detection limits of 10 colony-forming units for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica and 100 colony-forming units for Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The results show this method to be useful with respect to point-of-care testing and to enable simplified and miniaturized nucleic acid-based diagnostics. FigureThe combination of multiplex isothermal nucleic acid amplification with RPA and spatially-resolved signal generation on specific immobilized oligonucleotides. PMID:25253912

Kersting, Sebastian; Rausch, Valentina; Bier, Frank F; von Nickisch-Rosenegk, Markus

2014-01-01

122

Real-time isothermal detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli using recombinase polymerase amplification  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Shiga toxin (Stx) producing E. coli (STEC) are a major family of foodborne pathogens of immense public health, zoonotic and economic significance in the US and worldwide. To date, there are no published reports on use of recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) for STEC detection. The primary goal...

123

Sensitive and isothermal electrochemiluminescence gene-sensing of Listeria monocytogenes with hyperbranching rolling circle amplification technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Listeria monocytogenes (L. monocytogenes) is one of the most problematic human pathogens, as it is mainly transmitted through the food chain and cause listeriosis. Thus, specific and sensitive detection of L. monocytogenes is required to ensure food safety. In this study, we proposed a method using hyperbranching rolling circle amplification (HRCA) combined with magnetic beads based electrochemiluminescence (ECL) to offer

Yi Long; Xiaoming Zhou; Da Xing

2011-01-01

124

Detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus directly by loop-mediated isothermal amplification and direct cefoxitin disk diffusion tests.  

PubMed

We evaluated the utility of 2 methods for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) directly from signal-positive blood culture bottles: loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay, and direct cefoxitin disk diffusion (DCDD) test using a 30 ?g cefoxitin disk. In parallel, standard microbiological identification and oxacillin susceptibility testing with MecA PCR was performed. Of 60 blood cultures positive for Gram-positive cocci in clusters, LAMP (via detection of the FemA and MecA genes) showed 100% sensitivity and specificity for identification of MRSA/MSSA. When coagulase-negative staphylococci were tested, sensitivity for detection of methicillin resistance was 91.7% and specificity was 100%. DCDD along with direct tube coagulase assay detected only 80.6% of MRSA/MSSA. LAMP showed higher diagnostic accuracy although DCDD was more cost-effective and did not require additional reagents or supplies. PMID:24952125

Metwally, L; Gomaa, N; Hassan, R

2014-04-01

125

Comparison of Conventional PCR, Multiplex PCR, and Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays for Rapid Detection of Arcobacter Species  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the rapid detection of Arcobacter species. Specific primers targeting the 23S ribosomal RNA gene were used to detect Arcobacter butzleri, Arcobacter cryaerophilus, and Arcobacter skirrowii. The specificity of the LAMP primer set was assessed using DNA samples from a panel of Arcobacter and Campylobacter species, and the sensitivity was determined using serial dilutions of Arcobacter species cultures. LAMP showed a 10- to 1,000-fold-higher sensitivity than multiplex PCR, with a detection limit of 2 to 20 CFU per reaction in vitro. Whereas multiplex PCR showed cross-reactivity with Campylobacter species, the LAMP method developed in this study was more sensitive and reliable than conventional PCR or multiplex PCR for the detection of Arcobacter species. PMID:24478488

Wang, Xiaoyu; Seo, Dong Joo; Lee, Min Hwa

2014-01-01

126

Rapid detection of Prunus necrotic ringspot virus using magnetic nanoparticle-assisted reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) has seriously reduced the yield of Prunus species worldwide. In this study, a highly efficient and specific two-step reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) was developed to detect PNRSV. Total RNA was extracted from sweet cherry leaf samples using a commercial kit based on a magnetic nanoparticle technique. Transcripts were used as the templates for the assay. The results of this assay can be detected using agarose gel electrophoresis or by assessing in-tube fluorescence after adding SYBR Green I. The assay is highly specific for PNRSV, and it is more sensitive than reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Restriction enzyme digestion verified further the reliability of this RT-LAMP assay. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the application of RT-LAMP to PNRSV detection in Prunus species. PMID:25110116

Zong, Xiaojuan; Wang, Wenwen; Wei, Hairong; Wang, Jiawei; Chen, Xin; Xu, Li; Zhu, Dongzi; Tan, Yue; Liu, Qingzhong

2014-11-01

127

The development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and sensitive detection of abalone herpesvirus DNA.  

PubMed

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of abalone herpesvirus DNA. Two pairs of primers were designed, based on the sequence of the DNA polymerase gene of abalone herpesvirus. The reaction temperature and time were optimized to 63°C and 60min, respectively. LAMP amplicons were analyzed by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis or by visual inspection of a colour change emitted by fluorescent dye. The method developed was specific for the detection of abalone herpesvirus, without cross-reactions with other tested herpesviruses including ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1), European eel herpesvirus, koi herpesvirus (KHV) and an avian herpesvirus. The LAMP assay was 100 folds more sensitive than a conventional PCR and 10 folds less sensitive than a SYBR Green PCR. These results indicate that the developed LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive, specific and reliable technique for the detection of abalone herpesvirus. PMID:24291740

Chen, M H; Kuo, S T; Renault, T; Chang, P H

2014-02-01

128

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification with the Procedure for Ultra Rapid Extraction kit for the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia.  

PubMed

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an innovative molecular technique requiring only a heating device and isothermal conditions to amplify a specific target gene. The results of current microscopic diagnostic tools for pneumocystis pneumonia are not sufficiently consistent for detecting infection with a low-density of Pneumocystis jirovecii. Although polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is highly sensitive, it is not suitable for resource-limited facilities. LAMP is a potential diagnostic replacement for PCR in such settings but a critical disadvantage of DNA extraction was still remained. Therefore, we employed the Procedure for Ultra Rapid Extraction (PURE) kit, which uses a porous material, to isolate the DNA from clinical samples in a simple way in combination with previously reported LAMP procedure for diagnosing PCP. The detection limit of the PURE-LAMP method applied to artificial bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples was 100 copies/tube, even with the use of massive blood-contaminated solutions. In addition, we concluded the diagnostic procedure within 1 h without the need for additional equipment. PURE-LAMP coupled with suitable primers for specific pathogens has good potential for diagnosing various infectious diseases. PMID:25455747

Kawano, Shuichi; Maeda, Takuya; Suzuki, Takefumi; Abe, Tatsuhiro; Mikita, Kei; Hamakawa, Yusuke; Ono, Takeshi; Sonehara, Wataru; Miyahira, Yasushi; Kawana, Akihiko

2015-03-01

129

Combination of multiplex reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification with an immunochromatographic strip for subtyping influenza A virus.  

PubMed

Considering the fatal human victims and economic loss by the annual epidemic influenza virus, the development of a rapid and convenient genetic analysis methodology is demanding for timely on-site pathogen detection. In this study, we utilized reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) for multiplex target gene amplification, and the resultant amplicons were analyzed on the immunochromatographic strip (ICS) for subtyping influenza A virus. Through the optimized primer design, reaction temperature and time, and concentration of enzymes (Bst DNA polymerase and AMV reverse transcriptase) and dNTP, the HA (H1, H3, and H5 gene) and conserved M gene were amplified. The ICS contains two test lines in addition to a control line in order to detect the presence of the HA and M gene, thereby informing us of influenza virus A type as well as its subtype (H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1). The combination of the multiplex RT-LAMP with the ICS could be complete in 40 min and the pathotyping and subtyping of influenza A virus were performed even with 10 copies of viral RNA templates. Moreover, the subtyping of clinical samples, which were obtained from patients infected by influenza A virus was successfully confirmed using the multiplex RT-LAMP and ICS techniques, showing great feasibility of our methodology for real sample analysis with high speed, simplicity and sensitivity. PMID:25467501

Jung, Jae Hwan; Oh, Seung Jun; Kim, Yong Tae; Kim, So Yeon; Kim, Won-Jung; Jung, Jaean; Seo, Tae Seok

2015-01-01

130

Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Listeria ivanovii by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification of the smcL Gene.  

PubMed

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and sensitive detection of the L. ivanovii strains had been developed and evaluated in this study. Oligonucleotide primers specific for L. ivanovii species were designed corresponding to smcL gene sequences. The primers set comprise six primers targeting eight regions on the species-specific gene smcL. The LAMP assay could be completed within 1 h at 64°C in a water bath. Amplification products were directly observed by the Loopamp Fluorescent Detection Reagent (FD) or detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Moreover, the LAMP reactions were also detected by real-time measurement of turbidity. The exclusivity of 77 non-L. ivanovii and the inclusivity of 17 L. ivanovii were both 100% in the assay. Sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 250 fg DNA and 16 CFU per reaction for detection of L. ivanovii in pure cultures and simulated human stool. The LAMP assay was 10 and 100-fold more sensitive than quantitative PCR (qPCR) and conventional PCR assays,respectively. When applied to human stool samples spiked with low level (8 CFU/0.5 g) of L. ivanovii strains, the new LAMP assay described here achieved positive detection after 6 hours enrichment. In conclusion, the new LAMP assay in this study can be used as a valuable, rapid and sensitive detection tool for the detection of L. ivanovii in field, medical and veterinary laboratories. PMID:25549337

Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Xu, Huaqing; Dai, Hang; Meng, Shuang; Ye, Changyun

2014-01-01

131

Development and Evaluation of a Novel and Rapid Detection Assay for Botrytis cinerea Based on Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification  

PubMed Central

Botrytis cinerea is a devastating plant pathogen that causes grey mould disease. In this study, we developed a visual detection method of B. cinerea based on the Bcos5 sequence using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with hydroxynaphthol blue dye (HNB). The LAMP reaction was optimal at 63°C for 45 min. When HNB was added prior to amplification, samples with B. cinerea DNA developed a characteristic sky blue color after the reaction but those without DNA or with DNA of other plant pathogenic fungi did not. Results of HNB staining method were reconfirmed when LAMP products were subjected to gel electrophoresis. The detection limit of this LAMP assay for B. cinerea was 10?3 ng µL?1 of genomic DNA per reaction, which was 10-fold more sensitive than conventional PCR (10?2 ng µL?1). Detection of the LAMP assay for inoculum of B. cinerea was possible in the inoculated tomato and strawberry petals. In the 191 diseased samples, 180 (94.2%) were confirmed as positive by LAMP, 172 (90.1%) positive by the tissue separation, while 147 (77.0%) positive by PCR. Because the LAMP assay performed well in aspects of sensitivity, specificity, repeatability, reliability, and visibility, it is suitable for rapid detection of B. cinerea in infected plant materials prior to storage and during transportation, such as cut flowers, fruits and vegetables. PMID:25329402

Duan, Ya-Bing; Ge, Chang-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Ke; Wang, Jian-Xin; Zhou, Ming-Guo

2014-01-01

132

Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Listeria ivanovii by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification of the smcL Gene  

PubMed Central

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid and sensitive detection of the L. ivanovii strains had been developed and evaluated in this study. Oligonucleotide primers specific for L. ivanovii species were designed corresponding to smcL gene sequences. The primers set comprise six primers targeting eight regions on the species-specific gene smcL. The LAMP assay could be completed within 1 h at 64°C in a water bath. Amplification products were directly observed by the Loopamp Fluorescent Detection Reagent (FD) or detected by agarose gel electrophoresis. Moreover, the LAMP reactions were also detected by real-time measurement of turbidity. The exclusivity of 77 non-L. ivanovii and the inclusivity of 17 L. ivanovii were both 100% in the assay. Sensitivity of the LAMP assay was 250 fg DNA and 16 CFU per reaction for detection of L. ivanovii in pure cultures and simulated human stool. The LAMP assay was 10 and 100-fold more sensitive than quantitative PCR (qPCR) and conventional PCR assays,respectively. When applied to human stool samples spiked with low level (8 CFU/0.5 g) of L. ivanovii strains, the new LAMP assay described here achieved positive detection after 6 hours enrichment. In conclusion, the new LAMP assay in this study can be used as a valuable, rapid and sensitive detection tool for the detection of L. ivanovii in field, medical and veterinary laboratories. PMID:25549337

Wang, Yi; Wang, Yan; Xu, Huaqing; Dai, Hang; Meng, Shuang; Ye, Changyun

2014-01-01

133

Rapid visual detection of phytase gene in genetically modified maize using loop-mediated isothermal amplification method.  

PubMed

Transgenic maize plant expressing high phytase activity has been reported and approved by Chinese government in 2009. Here, we report a highly specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect the phytase gene in the GMO maize. The LAMP reaction takes less than 20min and the amplification is visible without gel electrophoresis. The detection sensitivity of the LAMP method is about 30 copies of phytase genomic DNA, which is 33.3 times greater than the conventional PCR method with gel electrophoresis. The quantitative detection results showed that the LAMP method has a good linear correlation between the DNA copy number and the associated Tt values over a large dynamic range of template concentration from 6×10(1) to 6×10(7) copies, with a quantification limit of 60 copies. Therefore, the LAMP method is visual, faster, and more sensitive, and does not need special equipment compared to traditional PCR technique, which is very useful for field tests and fast screening of GMO feeds. PMID:24629956

Huang, Xin; Chen, Lili; Xu, Jiangmin; Ji, Hai-Feng; Zhu, Shuifang; Chen, Hongjun

2014-08-01

134

Rapid detection of viable Escherichia coli O157 by coupling propidium monoazide with loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Conventional molecular detection methods cannot distinguish between viable and dead Escherichia coli O157 cells. In this study, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method combined with propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment was developed to selectively detect viable E. coli O157 cells. Four primers, including outer primers and inner primers, were specially designed for the recognition of six distinct sequences on the serogroups (O157) of the specific rfbE gene of the E. coli O157 genome. PMA selectively penetrated through the compromised cell membranes and intercalated into DNA. Amplification of DNA from dead cells was completely inhibited by 3.0 ?g/ml PMA, whereas the DNA derived from viable cells was amplified remarkably within 1 h by PMA-LAMP. Exhibiting high sensitivity and specificity, PMA-LAMP is a suitable method for evaluating the inactivation efficacy of slightly acidic electrolyzed water in broth. PMA-LAMP can selectively detect viable E. coli O157 cells. This study offers a novel molecular detection method to distinguish between viable and dead E. coli O157 cells. PMID:24002453

Zhao, Xihong; Wang, Jun; Forghani, Fereidoun; Park, Joong-Hyun; Park, Myoung-Su; Seo, Kun-Ho; Oh, Deog-Hwan

2013-12-01

135

Rapid Detection of Haptoglobin Gene Deletion in Alkaline-Denatured Blood by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Reaction  

PubMed Central

Anhaptoglobinemic patients run the risk of severe anaphylactic transfusion reaction because they produce serum haptoglobin antibodies. Being homozygous for the haptoglobin gene deletion allele (HPdel) is the only known cause of congenital anhaptoglobinemia, and detection of HPdel before transfusion is important to prevent anaphylactic shock. In this study, we developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-based screening for HPdel. Optimal primer sets and temperature for LAMP were selected for HPdel and the 5? region of the HP using genomic DNA as a template. Then, the effects of diluent and boiling on LAMP amplification were examined using whole blood as a template. Blood samples diluted 1:100 with 50 mmol/L NaOH without boiling gave optimal results as well as those diluted 1:2 with water followed by boiling. The results from 100 blood samples were fully concordant with those obtained by real-time PCR methods. Detection of the HPdel allele by LAMP using alkaline-denatured blood samples is rapid, simple, accurate, and cost effective, and is readily applicable in various clinical settings because this method requires only basic instruments. In addition, the simple preparation of blood samples using NaOH saves time and effort for various genetic tests. PMID:21497293

Soejima, Mikiko; Egashira, Kouichi; Kawano, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Atsushi; Sagawa, Kimitaka; Koda, Yoshiro

2011-01-01

136

Successful diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification of cutaneous samples from an ulcerated surface lesion: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tuberculous lymphadenitis is the most frequent form of extrapulmonary tuberculous. Although nucleic acid amplification assays such as polymerase chain reaction have recently become mainstream techniques for diagnosing tuberculous lymphadenitis, they are still not routinely performed in developing countries because of their high costs and complicated procedures. Case presentation We describe a case of tuberculous lymphadenitis in a 79-year-old Japanese man who had been on continuous hemodialysis for end-stage renal disease. We employed loop-mediated isothermal amplification and the procedure for ultrarapid extraction to develop a fast and easy-to-perform procedure for diagnosing tuberculous lymphadenitis. Conclusions The commercially available loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay kit and a rapid purification procedure enabled us to identify and amplify a Mycobacterium tuberculosis–specific gene within just 1.5 hours. PMID:25030753

2014-01-01

137

Real-time, label-free isothermal solid-phase amplification/detection (ISAD) device for rapid detection of genetic alteration in cancers.  

PubMed

Here, we first present an isothermal solid-phase amplification/detection (ISAD) technique for the detection of single-point mutations that can be performed without labelling in real-time by utilizing both silicon microring-based solid-phase amplification and isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The ISAD technique was performed on a silicon microring device with a plastic chamber containing 10 ?L of the reaction mixture, and characterized with an assay for the detection of the HRAS (Harvey RAS) gene single-point mutation. For the solid-phase amplification, the primer of the gene was directly attached to the surface of the device via an amine modification reaction. The amplified DNA was detected, without a label, by measuring the optical wavelength shift of the silicon microring resonator during the reaction. We demonstrated that the sensitivity of the ISAD technique was 100-times higher than that of RPA and conventional PCR methods. Moreover, this technique can be used to distinguish a single-point mutation of the HRAS gene via target amplification. This novel DNA amplification/detection technique will be useful for the detection of sequence alterations such as mutations and single-nucleotide polymorphisms as DNA biomarkers in human diseases. PMID:23609609

Shin, Yong; Perera, Agampodi Promoda; Kim, Kyung Woo; Park, Mi Kyoung

2013-06-01

138

Visual detection of Potato Leafroll virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification of DNA with the GeneFinder™ dye.  

PubMed

The most common virus affecting potatoes in the field worldwide is Potato Leafroll virus (PLRV), belonging to the family Luteoviridae, genius Plerovirus. There are several molecular methods to detect PLRV including polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Multiplex AmpliDet RNA and double antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA). But these techniques take a long time for 3h to two days, requiring sophisticated tools. The aim of this study was to reduce the time required to detect PLRV, using a newly designed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique requiring only an ordinary water bath or thermoblock. PLRV RNA was extracted from overall 80 infected naturally potato leaves. A set of six novel primers for the LAMP reaction was designed according to the highly conserved sequence of the viral coat protein (CP) gene. LAMP was carried out under isothermal conditions, applying the Bst DNA polymerase enzyme; the LAMP products were detected visually using the GeneFinder™ florescence dye. A positive result using the GeneFinder™ dye was a color change from the original orange to green. Results confirmed LAMP with GeneFinder™ provides a rapid and safe assay for detection of PLRV. Since with other molecular methods, equipping laboratories with a thermocycler or expensive detector systems is unavoidable, this assay was found to be a simple, cost-effective molecular method that has the potential to replace other diagnostic methods in primary laboratories without the need for expensive equipment or specialized techniques. It can also be considered as a reliable alternative viral detection system in further investigations. PMID:23680094

Almasi, Mohammad Amin; Erfan Manesh, Maryam; Jafary, Hossein; Dehabadi, Seyed Mohammad Hosseini

2013-09-01

139

Rapid detection of orf virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification based on the DNA polymerase gene.  

PubMed

At present, there are no effective antiviral treatments available for contagious ecthyma, and rapid diagnosis is therefore critical for effective control of the disease. Recently, the invention of a novel LAMP technique that can rapidly amplify nucleic acids with high specificity and sensitivity under isothermal conditions has overcome some of the deficiencies of nucleic acid-based diagnostic tests and has made on-site diagnosis possible. To establish a flexible loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid detection of orf virus, two pairs of primers, including outer primers F3/B3 and inner primers FIP/BIP, were designed to amplify the DNA polymerase gene. Optimal time and temperature conditions for LAMP were found to be 45 min and 62 °C, respectively. The LAMP assay was shown to be specific, with no cross-reactivity with sheeppox virus, goatpox virus, avian molluscum roup virus or vesicular stomatitis virus. Additionally, the sensitivity of the LAMP method was similar to that of real-time PCR and demonstrated greater sensitivity than a conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. To assess the utility of LAMP in the detection of orf virus in clinical samples, a total of 35 samples collected from orf virus-infected sheep and goats were tested using the optimized LAMP assay, real-time PCR, and conventional PCR. Of the samples, 26 were found to be positive by LAMP, and 25 (74.3 %) were positive by real-time PCR, whereas only 18 (51.4 %) were positive by conventional PCR. Our results have shown that the LAMP assay developed in this study can be used for the rapid detection of orf virus. PMID:23183830

Li, Jida; Song, Deguang; He, Wenqi; Bao, Yingfu; Lu, Rongguang; Su, Gaoli; Wang, Gaili; Lu, Huijun; Zhao, Kui; Gao, Feng

2013-04-01

140

Rapid and simple detection of methicillin-resistance staphylococcus aureus by orfX loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay  

PubMed Central

Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become one of the most prevalent pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections throughout the world. As clinical MRSA diagnosis is concerned, current diagnostic methodologies are restricted by significant drawbacks and novel methods are required for MRSA detection. This study aimed at developing a simple loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting on orfX for the rapid detection of methicillin-resistance Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Results The protocol was designed by targeting orfX, a highly conserved open reading frame in S. aureus. One hundred and sixteen reference strains, including 52 Gram-positive and 64 Gram-negative isolates, were included for evaluation and optimization of the orfX-LAMP assay. This assay had been further performed on 667 Staphylococcus (566 MRSA, 25 MSSA, 53 MRCNS and 23 MSCNS) strains and were comparatively validated by PCR assay using primers F3 and B3, with rapid template DNA processing, simple equipments (water bath) and direct result determination (both naked eye and under UV light) applied. The indispensability of each primer had been confirmed, and the optimal amplification was obtained under 65°C for 45 min. The 25 ?l reactant was found to be the most cost-efficient volume, and the detection limit was determined to be 10 DNA copies and 10 CFU/reaction. High specificity was observed when orfX-LAMP assay was subjected to 116 reference strains. For application, 557 (98.4%, 557/566) and 519 (91.7%, 519/566) tested strains had been detected positive by LAMP and PCR assays. The detection rate, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of orfX-LAMP were 98.4%, 100% and 92.7% respectively. Conclusions The established orfX-LAMP assay had been demonstrated to be a valid and rapid detection method on MRSA. PMID:24456841

2014-01-01

141

Development of a toxR-based loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for detecting Vibrio parahaemolyticus  

PubMed Central

Background Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a leading cause of seafood-related bacterial gastroenteritis and outbreaks worldwide. Sensitive and specific detection methods are needed to better control V. parahaemolyticus infections. This study aimed at developing a highly specific and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for detecting V. parahaemolyticus in oysters. A set of five LAMP primers, two outer, two inner, and one loop were designed based on the published V. parahaemolyticus toxR sequence. Specificity of the assay was evaluated using a panel of 36 V. parahaemolyticus and 39 other strains. The assay sensitivity was determined using serial dilutions of V. parahaemolyticus ATCC 27969 culture ranging from 108 CFU/ml to extinction. The assay was also tested in experimentally inoculated oyster samples. Results The toxR-based LAMP assay was able to specifically detect all of the 36 V. parahaemolyticus strains without amplification from 39 other strains. The detection limit was 47-470 cells per reaction in pure culture, up to 100-fold more sensitive than that of toxR-PCR. When applied in spiked oysters, the assay was able to detect 1.1 × 105 V. parahaemolyticus cells per gram of oyster without enrichment, up to 100-fold more sensitive than that of toxR-PCR. Standard curves generated for detecting V. parahaemolyticus in both pure culture and spiked oyster samples showed good linear relationship between cell numbers and the fluorescence or turbidity signals. Conclusions The toxR-based LAMP assay developed in this study was sensitive, specific, and quantitative, holding great potential for future field detection of V. parahaemolyticus in raw oysters. PMID:20146814

2010-01-01

142

Detection of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP)  

PubMed Central

Background The first documented case of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) occurred in 2012, and outbreaks have continued ever since, mainly in Saudi Arabia. MERS-CoV is primarily diagnosed using a real-time RT-PCR assay, with at least two different genomic targets required for a positive diagnosis according to the case definition of The World Health Organization (WHO) as of 3 July 2013. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to develop as many specific genetic diagnostic methods as possible to allow stable diagnosis of MERS-CoV infections. Methods Reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is a genetic diagnostic method used widely for the detection of viral pathogens, which requires only a single temperature for amplification, and can be completed in less than 1 h. This study developed a novel RT-LAMP assay for detecting MERS-CoV using primer sets targeting a conserved nucleocapsid protein region. Results The RT-LAMP assay was capable of detecting as few as 3.4 copies of MERS-CoV RNA, and was highly specific, with no cross-reaction to other respiratory viruses. Pilot experiments to detect MERS-CoV from medium containing pharyngeal swabs inoculated with pre-titrated viruses were also performed. The RT-LAMP assay exhibited sensitivity similar to that of MERS-CoV real-time RT-PCR. Conclusions These results suggest that the RT-LAMP assay described here is a useful tool for the diagnosis and epidemiologic surveillance of human MERS-CoV infections. PMID:25103205

2014-01-01

143

Development of a highly sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the detection of Loa loa.  

PubMed

The filarial parasite Loa loa, the causative agent of loiasis, is endemic in Central and Western Africa infecting 3-13 million people. L. loa has been associated with fatal encephalopathic reactions in high Loa-infected individuals receiving ivermectin during mass drug administration programs for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. In endemic areas, the only diagnostic method routinely used is the microscopic examination of mid-day blood samples by thick blood film. Improved methods for detection of L. loa are needed in endemic regions with limited resources, where delayed diagnosis results in high mortality. We have investigated the use of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to facilitate rapid, inexpensive, molecular diagnosis of loiasis. Primers for LAMP were designed from a species-specific repetitive DNA sequence from L. loa retrieved from GenBank. Genomic DNA of a L. loa adult worm was used to optimize the LAMP conditions using a thermocycler or a conventional heating block. Amplification of DNA in the LAMP mixture was visually inspected for turbidity as well as addition of fluorescent dye. LAMP specificity was evaluated using DNA from other parasites; sensitivity was evaluated using DNA from L. loa 10-fold serially diluted. Simulated human blood samples spiked with DNA from L. loa were also tested for sensitivity. Upon addition of fluorescent dye, all positive reactions turned green while the negative controls remained orange under ambient light. After electrophoresis on agarose gels, a ladder of multiple bands of different sizes could be observed in positive samples. The detection limit of the assay was found to be as little as 0.5 ag of L. loa genomic DNA when using a heating block. We have designed, for the first time, a highly sensitive LAMP assay for the detection of L. loa which is potentially adaptable for field diagnosis and disease surveillance in loiasis-endemic areas. PMID:24722638

Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Mvoulouga, Prosper Obolo; Akue, Jean Paul; Abán, Julio López; Santiago, Belén Vicente; Sánchez, Miguel Cordero; Muro, Antonio

2014-01-01

144

Development of a Highly Sensitive Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Method for the Detection of Loa loa  

PubMed Central

The filarial parasite Loa loa, the causative agent of loiasis, is endemic in Central and Western Africa infecting 3–13 million people. L. loa has been associated with fatal encephalopathic reactions in high Loa-infected individuals receiving ivermectin during mass drug administration programs for the control of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. In endemic areas, the only diagnostic method routinely used is the microscopic examination of mid-day blood samples by thick blood film. Improved methods for detection of L. loa are needed in endemic regions with limited resources, where delayed diagnosis results in high mortality. We have investigated the use of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to facilitate rapid, inexpensive, molecular diagnosis of loiasis. Primers for LAMP were designed from a species-specific repetitive DNA sequence from L. loa retrieved from GenBank. Genomic DNA of a L. loa adult worm was used to optimize the LAMP conditions using a thermocycler or a conventional heating block. Amplification of DNA in the LAMP mixture was visually inspected for turbidity as well as addition of fluorescent dye. LAMP specificity was evaluated using DNA from other parasites; sensitivity was evaluated using DNA from L. loa 10-fold serially diluted. Simulated human blood samples spiked with DNA from L. loa were also tested for sensitivity. Upon addition of fluorescent dye, all positive reactions turned green while the negative controls remained orange under ambient light. After electrophoresis on agarose gels, a ladder of multiple bands of different sizes could be observed in positive samples. The detection limit of the assay was found to be as little as 0.5 ag of L. loa genomic DNA when using a heating block. We have designed, for the first time, a highly sensitive LAMP assay for the detection of L. loa which is potentially adaptable for field diagnosis and disease surveillance in loiasis-endemic areas. PMID:24722638

Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Mvoulouga, Prosper Obolo; Akue, Jean Paul; Abán, Julio López; Santiago, Belén Vicente; Sánchez, Miguel Cordero; Muro, Antonio

2014-01-01

145

Detection of Four Plasmodium Species by Genus- and Species-Specific Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Clinical Diagnosis?  

PubMed Central

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), a novel nucleic acid amplification method, was developed for the clinical detection of four species of human malaria parasites: Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae, and P. ovale. We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of LAMP in comparison with the results of microscopic examination and nested PCR. LAMP showed a detection limit (analytical sensitivity) of 10 copies of the target 18S rRNA genes for P. malariae and P. ovale and 100 copies for the genus Plasmodium, P. falciparum, and P. vivax. LAMP detected malaria parasites in 67 of 68 microscopically positive blood samples (sensitivity, 98.5%) and 3 of 53 microscopically negative samples (specificity, 94.3%), in good agreement with the results of nested PCR. The LAMP reactions yielded results within about 26 min, on average, for detection of the genus Plasmodium, 32 min for P. falciparum, 31 min for P. vivax, 35 min for P. malariae, and 36 min for P. ovale. Accordingly, in comparison to the results obtained by microscopy, LAMP had a similar sensitivity and a greater specificity and LAMP yielded results similar to those of nested PCR in a shorter turnaround time. Because it can be performed with a simple technology, i.e., with heat-treated blood as the template, reaction in a water bath, and inspection of the results by the naked eye because of the use of a fluorescent dye, LAMP may provide a simple and reliable test for routine screening for malaria parasites in both clinical laboratories and malaria clinics in areas where malaria is endemic. PMID:17567794

Han, Eun-Taek; Watanabe, Risa; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Khuntirat, Benjawan; Sirichaisinthop, Jeeraphat; Iriko, Hideyuki; Jin, Ling; Takeo, Satoru; Tsuboi, Takafumi

2007-01-01

146

Rapid genome detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus by use of isothermal amplification methods and high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase PCR.  

PubMed

Over the past few years, there has been an increasing demand for rapid and simple diagnostic tools that can be applied outside centralized laboratories by using transportable devices. In veterinary medicine, such mobile test systems would circumvent barriers associated with the transportation of samples and significantly reduce the time to diagnose important infectious animal diseases. Among a wide range of available technologies, high-speed real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and the two isothermal amplification techniques loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) represent three promising candidates for integration into mobile pen-side tests. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of these amplification strategies and to evaluate their suitability for field application. In order to enable a valid comparison, novel pathogen-specific assays have been developed for the detection of Schmallenberg virus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The newly developed assays were evaluated in comparison with established standard RT-qPCR using samples from experimentally or field-infected animals. Even though all assays allowed detection of the target virus in less than 30 min, major differences were revealed concerning sensitivity, specificity, robustness, testing time, and complexity of assay design. These findings indicated that the success of an assay will depend on the integrated amplification technology. Therefore, the application-specific pros and cons of each method that were identified during this study provide very valuable insights for future development and optimization of pen-side tests. PMID:24648561

Aebischer, Andrea; Wernike, Kerstin; Hoffmann, Bernd; Beer, Martin

2014-06-01

147

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for rapid detection and differentiation of Nosema apis and N. ceranae in honeybees.  

PubMed

Nosemosis is a contagious disease of honeybees (Apis mellifera) manifested by increased winter mortality, poor spring build-up and even the total extinction of infected bee colonies. In this paper, loop-mediated isothermal amplifications (LAMP) were used for the first time to identify and differentiate N. apis and N. ceranae, the causative agents of nosemosis. LAMP assays were performed at a constant temperature of 60 °C using two sets of six species-specific primers, recognising eight distinct fragments of 16S rDNA gene and GspSSD polymerase with strand displacement activity. The optimal time for LAMP and its Nosema species sensitivity and specificity were assessed. LAMP only required 30 min for robust identification of the amplicons. Ten-fold serial dilutions of total DNA isolated from bees infected with microsporidia were used to determine the detection limit of N. apis and N. ceranae DNAs by LAMP and standard PCR assays. LAMP appeared to be 10(3) -fold more sensitive than a standard PCR in detecting N. apis and N. ceranae. LAMP methods developed by us are highly Nosema species specific and allow to identify and differentiate N. apis and N. ceranae. PMID:24975021

Ptaszy?ska, Aneta A; Borsuk, Grzegorz; Wo?niakowski, Grzegorz; Gnat, Sebastian; Ma?ek, Wanda

2014-08-01

148

Isothermal and rapid detection of pathogenic microorganisms using a nano-rolling circle amplification-surface plasmon resonance biosensor.  

PubMed

Rolling circle amplification (RCA) of DNA is a sensitive and cost effective method for the rapid identification of pathogens without the need for sequencing. In this study, a surface plasmon resonance DNA biosensor based on RCA with a gold (Au) nanoparticle surface was established for isothermal identification of DNA. The probes included a specific padlock probe, a capture probe (CP), which is bound to biotin, and an Au nanoparticle-modified probe, which hybridizes with the RCA products. The CP was assembled on gold nanoparticles to increase its ability to bind and hybridize. The linear padlock probe, which was designed to circularize by ligation upon recognition of the bacterial pathogen-specific sequence in 16S rDNA, hybridizes to fully complementary sequences within the CP. Upon recognition, each target gene DNA is distinguished by localization onto the corresponding channel on the chip surface. Then, the immobilized CPs act as primers to begin the in situ solid-phase RCA reaction, which produces long single-stranded DNA. The RCA products fixed on the chip surface cause significant surface plasmon resonance angle changes. We demonstrated that six different bacterial pathogens can be identified simultaneously and that 0.5 pM of synthetic oligonucleotides and 0.5 pg ?l(-1) of genomic DNA from clinical samples can be detected by this method with low background signals. Therefore, the multiplex diagnostic method provides a highly sensitive and specific approach for the rapid identification of positive samples. PMID:25022511

Shi, Dachuan; Huang, Junfu; Chuai, Zhengran; Chen, Dong; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Huan; Peng, Jia; Wu, Haiyan; Huang, Qing; Fu, Weiling

2014-12-15

149

Development and application of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of Pythium helicoides.  

PubMed

Root rot of poinsettia, caused by Pythium helicoides at high temperatures in hydroponic cultures, has become a serious problem in many parts of the world. We have developed a species-specific, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the rapid diagnosis of this pathogen. The primers were designed using the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer sequence. Primer specificity was established using 40 Pythium species including P. helicoides, 11 Phytophthora species, and eight other soil-borne pathogens. A sensitivity test was carried out using genomic DNA extracted from P. helicoides, and the detection limit was c. 100 fg which is comparable to that of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, we tested the ease of pathogen detection in poinsettia roots. The LAMP results were consistent with those from the conventional plating method and showed more sensitivity than the PCR results. Consequently, the LAMP method developed in this study is effective for the rapid and easy detection of P. helicoides. PMID:24797345

Takahashi, Reiko; Fukuta, Shiro; Kuroyanagi, Satoru; Miyake, Noriyuki; Nagai, Hirofumi; Kageyama, Koji; Ishiguro, Yasushi

2014-06-01

150

Microfluidic lab-on-a-foil for nucleic acid analysis based on isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA).  

PubMed

For the first time we demonstrate a self-sufficient lab-on-a-foil system for the fully automated analysis of nucleic acids which is based on the recently available isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The system consists of a novel, foil-based centrifugal microfluidic cartridge including prestored liquid and dry reagents, and a commercially available centrifugal analyzer for incubation at 37 degrees C and real-time fluorescence detection. The system was characterized with an assay for the detection of the antibiotic resistance gene mecA of Staphylococcus aureus. The limit of detection was <10 copies and time-to-result was <20 min. Microfluidic unit operations comprise storage and release of liquid reagents, reconstitution of lyophilized reagents, aliquoting the sample into < or = 30 independent reaction cavities, and mixing of reagents with the DNA samples. The foil-based cartridge was produced by blow-molding and sealed with a self-adhesive tape. The demonstrated system excels existing PCR based lab-on-a-chip platforms in terms of energy efficiency and time-to-result. Applications are suggested in the field of mobile point-of-care analysis, B-detection, or in combination with continuous monitoring systems. PMID:20300675

Lutz, Sascha; Weber, Patrick; Focke, Max; Faltin, Bernd; Hoffmann, Jochen; Müller, Claas; Mark, Daniel; Roth, Günter; Munday, Peter; Armes, Niall; Piepenburg, Olaf; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

2010-04-01

151

Molecular detection of nine rice viruses by a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay.  

PubMed

A reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was established for the detection of nine viruses from infected rice plants, including rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), rice dwarf virus (RDV), rice gall dwarf virus (RGDV), rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV), rice transitory yellowing virus (RTYV), rice stripe virus (RSV), rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV), rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV), and rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV). Virus-specific primer sets were designed from the genome sequences of these viruses. By the combination of RNA rapid extraction and RT-LAMP, these nine viruses could be detected within 2h from infected rice plants. The sensitivities of the assays were either higher than (for RSV, RTBV, and RTYV) or similar (for RDV) to those of one-step RT-PCR. Furthermore, RTBV and RTSV were detected not only in infected rice plants but also in viruliferous insect vectors. The RT-LAMP assays may facilitate studies on rice disease epidemiology, outbreak surveillance, and molecular pathology. PMID:20837064

Le, Dung Tien; Netsu, Osamu; Uehara-Ichiki, Tamaki; Shimizu, Takumi; Choi, Il-Ryong; Omura, Toshihiro; Sasaya, Takahide

2010-12-01

152

Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for detection of Kudoa septempunctata (Myxozoa: Multivalvulida) in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).  

PubMed

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and validated for early, rapid, and sensitive detection of Kudoa septempunctata, a myxosporean parasite found in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). Recently, several outbreaks associated with ingestion of raw olive flounder muscles harboring mature K. septempunctata spores have been reported, and it is becoming obvious that fresh K. septempunctata spores can cause problems in humans when ingested. Thus, it is necessary to develop reliable detection method of K. septempunctata, to prevent outbreaks and ensure food safety. The LAMP assay has advantages over other molecular detection methods for detecting K. septempunctata in olive flounder muscle, in terms of simplicity, rapidity, and sensitivity. The reaction condition was optimized as 63 °C, 45 min, with three sets of specific primers. The results can be simply confirmed with the naked eye after adding SYBR Green I or by conventional electrophoresis followed by ethidium bromide staining. This LAMP assay did not show any cross-reaction with other kudoid myxosporeans (Kudoa lateolabracis, Kudoa thyrsites) can be found in olive flounder muscles and was validated by testing Kudoa septempunctata spore-spiked samples and field samples. The results showed that the LAMP assay is ten times more sensitive than the conventional polymerase chain reaction in this study and can be applied for early detection for monitoring and epidemiological studies of K. septempunctata in olive flounder aquaculture farms. PMID:24626774

Jeon, Chan-Hyeok; Wi, Seong; Song, Jun-Young; Choi, Hye-Sung; Kim, Jeong-Ho

2014-05-01

153

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the species-specific detection of Eimeria that infect chickens  

PubMed Central

Background Eimeria parasites can cause the disease coccidiosis in poultry and even subclinical infection can incur economic loss. Diagnosis of infection predominantly relies on traditional techniques including lesion scoring and faecal microscopy despite the availability of sensitive molecular assays, largely due to cost and the requirement for specialist equipment. Despite longstanding proven efficacy these traditional techniques demand time and expertise, can be highly subjective and may under-diagnose subclinical disease. Recognition of the tight economic margins prevailing in modern poultry production and the impact of avian coccidiosis on poverty in many parts of the world has highlighted a requirement for a panel of straightforward and sensitive, but cost-effective, Eimeria species-specific diagnostic assays. Results Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an uncomplicated, quick and relatively inexpensive diagnostic tool. In this study we have developed a panel of species-specific LAMP assays targeting the seven Eimeria species that infect the chicken. Each assay has been shown to be genuinely species-specific with the capacity to detect between one and ten eimerian genomes, equivalent to less than a single mature schizont. Development of a simple protocol for template DNA preparation from tissue collected post mortem with no requirement for specialist laboratory equipment supports the use of these assays in routine diagnosis of eimerian infection. Preliminary field testing supports this hypothesis. Conclusions Development of a panel of sensitive species-specific LAMP assays introduces a valuable new cost-effective tool for use in poultry husbandry. PMID:22053893

2011-01-01

154

A novel HBV genotypes detecting system combined with microfluidic chip, loop-mediated isothermal amplification and GMR sensors.  

PubMed

Genotyping of hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be used for clinical effective therapeutic drug-selection. A novel microfluidic biochip for HBV genotyping has been fabricated, for the first time, integrating loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), line probes assay (LiPA) and giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors. Coupling LAMP with LiPA in microfluidic chip shortened reaction time substantially, and combining LAMP with GMR sensor enabled limit of detection to attain 10 copies mL(-1) target HBV DNA molecules in 1 h. Furthermore, the independent designed GMR sensors and microfluidic chip can decrease manufacturing cost and patient's test-cost, and facilitate GMR detector repeating use for signal detection. In addition, the detection system has a lower background signal owing to application of superparamagnetic nanoclusters. And it can be expected to use for multiple target molecules synchronous detection in microfluidic chip based on a characteristic of stationary reaction temperature of LAMP. In conclusion, the neoteric detecting system is well suitable for quick genotyping diagnosis of clinical HBV and other homothetic biomolecule detection in biological and medical fields. PMID:24292142

Zhi, Xiao; Deng, Min; Yang, Hao; Gao, Guo; Wang, Kan; Fu, Hualin; Zhang, Yixia; Chen, Di; Cui, Daxiang

2014-04-15

155

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification of Specific Endoglucanase Gene Sequence for Detection of the Bacterial Wilt Pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum  

PubMed Central

The increased globalization of crops production and processing industries also promotes the side-effects of more rapid and efficient spread of plant pathogens. To prevent the associated economic losses, and particularly those related to bacterial diseases where their management relies on removal of the infected material from production, simple, easy-to-perform, rapid and cost-effective tests are needed. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays that target 16S rRNA, fliC and egl genes were compared and evaluated as on-site applications. The assay with the best performance was that targeted to the egl gene, which shows high analytical specificity for diverse strains of the betaproteobacterium Ralstonia solanacearum, including its non-European and non-race 3 biovar 2 strains. The additional melting curve analysis provides confirmation of the test results. According to our extensive assessment, the egl LAMP assay requires minimum sample preparation (a few minutes of boiling) for the identification of pure cultures and ooze from symptomatic material, and it can also be used in a high-throughput format in the laboratory. This provides sensitive and reliable detection of R. solanacearum strains of different phylotypes. PMID:24763488

Pirc, Manca; Llop, Pablo; Ravnikar, Maja; Dreo, Tanja

2014-01-01

156

Real-time fluorescence Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) for rapid and reliable diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis.  

PubMed

A reliable, simple and rapid diagnostic method that can be helpful in pulmonary tuberculosis diagnosis is urgently needed. Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) allows DNA to be amplified rapidly at a constant temperature. In this study, real-time fluorescence LAMP was evaluated to rapidly detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum and was compared to the performance of real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (Q-PCR). All the standard MTB strains were successfully detected and limit of detection (LOD) was 10(2)CFU/mL by real-time fluorescence LAMP within 20min. In light of MTB in sputum, the real-time fluorescence LAMP method yielded a sensitivity of 98.0% and a specificity of 78.3%, compared to Q-PCR assay, which yielded a sensitivity of 96.0% and a specificity of 82.6% for PTB diagnosis. There was an excellent overall agreement between LAMP and Q-PCR for PTB (?=0.315) and non-PTB (?=0.862). Therefore, the real-time fluorescence LAMP assay is a rapid, sensitive, and specific method to detect pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:25533219

Cao, Donglin; Hu, Liangshan; Lin, Maorui; Li, Mingyou; Ye, Zebing; Sun, Hongtao; Huang, Jiwei; Yang, Huawen; Tian, Junzhang

2015-02-01

157

Rapid genotyping of carcinogenic human papillomavirus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification using a new automated DNA test (Clinichip HPV™).  

PubMed

This study was designed to evaluate the Clinichip HPV test, a new DNA test that detects carcinogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) rapidly by loop-mediated isothermal amplification and performs genotyping of all 13 carcinogenic types using automated DNA chip technology with an assay time 2.5h. Using this test, 247 Japanese women (109 with normal cytology, 43 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 1, 60 with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2/3 and 35 with invasive cervical cancer) were tested for carcinogenic HPV genotypes. The results were compared to those obtained by the polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA sequencing using 13 type-specific primers. Overall, there was very good agreement for the detection of carcinogenic HPV between the Clinichip test and direct sequencing, with 95.5% total agreement and a kappa value of 0.91. Comparison of the detection of individual HPV types shows that the overall agreement was also high (range: 96.8-100%). In women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse, the detection rate of carcinogenic HPV was 95.7% by both the Clinichip test and the direct-sequencing method, indicating complete agreement between the two methods. In conclusion, it was found that the Clinichip test is a promising new laboratory method for genotyping of carcinogenic HPV. PMID:23219807

Satoh, Toyomi; Matsumoto, Koji; Fujii, Takuma; Sato, Osamu; Gemma, Nobuhiro; Onuki, Mamiko; Saito, Hiroshi; Aoki, Daisuke; Hirai, Yasuo; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki

2013-03-01

158

Development of phage immuno-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for organophosphorus pesticides in agro-products.  

PubMed

Two immuno-loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays (iLAMP) were developed by using a phage-borne peptide that was isolated from a cyclic eight-peptide phage library. One assay was used to screen eight organophosphorus (OP) pesticides with limits of detection (LOD) between 2 and 128 ng mL(-1). The iLAMP consisted of the competitive immuno-reaction coupled to the LAMP reaction for detection. This method provides positive results in the visual color of violet, while a negative response results in a sky blue color; therefore, the iLAMP allows one to rapidly detect analytes in yes or no fashion. We validated the iLAMP by detecting parathion-methyl, parathion, and fenitrothion in Chinese cabbage, apple, and greengrocery, and the detection results were consistent with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In conclusion, the iLAMP is a simple, rapid, sensitive, and economical method for detecting OP pesticide residues in agro-products with no instrumental requirement. PMID:25135320

Hua, Xiude; Yin, Wei; Shi, Haiyan; Li, Ming; Wang, Yanru; Wang, Hong; Ye, Yonghao; Kim, Hee Joo; Gee, Shirley J; Wang, Minghua; Liu, Fengquan; Hammock, Bruce D

2014-08-19

159

A novel and more sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay targeting IS6110 for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex.  

PubMed

Developing improved tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics is one of the international research priorities, as TB remains globally a major health threat. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a new nucleic acid detection method that can be used in low-resource settings, because it does not require expensive or complex instruments. Using the repetitive insertion sequence IS6110 as a target gene, we developed an efficient LAMP assay, which specifically detects members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). This assay proved 20 times more sensitive than IS6110-based conventional PCR. Moreover, its sensitivity was, respectively, 50 and 20 times higher than the one obtained with the two previously described LAMP assays for M. tuberculosis, based on gyrB and rrs, respectively. Identical sensitivities were obtained for LAMP and nested PCR, but the LAMP assay was more rapid and cost-effective than the latter. Although, our LAMP assay can successfully be performed using a non-denatured template, this results in a 200-fold reduction in the sensitivity of the assay. Moreover, by performing our LAMP assay on 15 clinical sputum samples from TB patients we were able to detect MTB. Taken together, our preliminary results indicate that IS6110-based MTBC-LAMP assay is a promising new TB-diagnostic test, with high sensitivity and that could easily be applied for the diagnosis of TB in a low-resource setting. PMID:19515543

Aryan, Ehsan; Makvandi, Manoochehr; Farajzadeh, Ahmad; Huygen, Kris; Bifani, Pablo; Mousavi, Seyed-Latif; Fateh, Abolfazl; Jelodar, Abbass; Gouya, Mohammad-Mehdi; Romano, Marta

2010-03-31

160

Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Using Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Combined with a Lateral Flow Dipstick in Clinical Samples  

PubMed Central

Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and is a persistent problem in the developing countries. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) allows DNA to be amplified rapidly at a constant temperature. Here, a LAMP method was combined with a chromatographic lateral-flow dipstick (LFD) to detect IS6110 gene of M. tuberculosis specifically and rapidly. The reaction was optimized at 63°C for 60?min, and the amplified DNA hybridized to an FITC-labeled oligonucleotide probe for 5?min was detected at the LFD test line 5?min after application. Excluding the step of DNA extraction, the test results could be generated approximately within 1?h. In addition to the advantage of short assay time, this technique could avoid the contact of carcinogenic ethidium bromide due to the exclusion of the electrophoresis analysis step. Furthermore, the data indicated that LAMP-LFD could detect M. tuberculosis genomic DNA as little as 5?pg. The technique showed a significant specificity since no cross-hybridization to M. intracellulare (MIC), M. fortuitum (MFT), M. avium (MAV), M. kansasii (MKS), and M. gordonae (MGD) genomic DNAs was observed. In the clinical unknown samples test, the sensitivity of LAMP-LFD was 98.92?% and the specificity was 100?% compared to those of the standard culture assay. Based on its sensitivity, specificity, rapidity, low cost, and convenience, LAMP-LFD could be applicable for use in both laboratories and epidemiological surveys of MTB. PMID:23555102

Kaewphinit, Thongchai; Arunrut, Narong; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika; Santiwatanakul, Somchai; Jaratsing, Pornpun; Chansiri, Kosum

2013-01-01

161

Application of novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for rapid authentication of the herbal tea ingredient Hedyotis diffusa Willd.  

PubMed

Hedyotis diffusa Willd. (Baihuasheshecao) is an ingredient of herbal teas commonly consumed in the Orient and tropical Asia for cancer treatment and health maintenance. In the market, this ingredient is frequently adulterated by the related species Hedyotis corymbosa (L.) Lam. The objective of this study is to develop a novel loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique to differentiate H. diffusa from its adulterant H. corymbosa. A set of four internal control primers (F3, FIP, BIP and B3) were designed based on six loci in the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) for LAMP of both H. diffusa and H. corymbosa. Two specific primers (S_F3 and S_FIP) were designed for specific LAMP detection of H. diffusa only. Our data showed that LAMP was successful for both H. diffusa and H. corymbosa in internal control. In contrast, only H. diffusa was detected in specific LAMP using the specific primers S_F3 and S_FIP. This study showed that LAMP was useful to differentiate H. diffusa from its adulterant H. corymbosa. This study is significant for the verification of the authenticity for better quality control of this common herbal tea ingredient. The strategy of including an internal control assures the quality of the concerned DNA region for LAMP. PMID:23870990

Li, Ming; Wong, Yuk-Lau; Jiang, Li-Li; Wong, Ka-Lok; Wong, Yuen-Ting; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Shaw, Pang-Chui

2013-12-01

162

Rapid and sensitive detection of Little cherry virus 2 using isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification.  

PubMed

Little cherry virus 2 (LChV2) (genus Ampelovirus) is the primary causal agent of little cherry disease (LCD) in sweet cherry (Prunus avium) in North America and other parts of the world. This mealybug-transmitted virus does not induce significant foliar symptoms in most sweet cherry cultivars, but does cause virus-infected trees to yield unevenly ripened small fruits with poor flavor. Most fruits from infected trees are unmarketable. In the present study, an isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) technique was developed using LChV2 coat protein specific primers and probe. Detection of terminally labeled amplicons was achieved with a high affinity lateral flow strip. The RT-RPA is confirmed to be simple, fast, and specific. In comparison, although it retains the sensitivity of RT-PCR, it is a more cost-effective procedure. RT-RPA will be a very useful tool for detecting LChV2 from crude extracts in any growth stage of sweet cherry from field samples. PMID:24797461

Mekuria, Tefera A; Zhang, Shulu; Eastwell, Kenneth C

2014-05-01

163

Development and Evaluation of a Novel Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method for Rapid Detection of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development and evaluation of a one-step single-tube accelerated real-time quantitative reverse tran- scription (RT) loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay is reported for rapid detection of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) replicase gene. A total of 49 samples (15 throat washes, 13 throat swabs, and 21 combined throat and nasal swabs) collected from patients admitted to the Hanoi-French

H. T. C. Thai; M. Q. Le; Cuong Duc Vuong; Manmohan Parida; Harumi Minekawa; Tsugunori Notomi; Futoshi Hasebe; Kouichi Morita

2004-01-01

164

Development and Clinical Evaluation of sdaA Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with an Approach To Prevent Carryover Contamination  

PubMed Central

A rapid and sensitive loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the sdaA gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was developed using a dUTP-uracil-N-glycosylase (dUTP-UNG) strategy to prevent carryover contamination. Evaluation of the assay using clinical specimens (n = 648) showed high specificity (97.2%) and sensitivity (100%), demonstrating its potential as a diagnostic test for tuberculosis, especially in resource-limited settings. PMID:24789191

Nimesh, Manoj; Joon, Deepali; Varma-Basil, Mandira

2014-01-01

165

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Test for Detection of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Urine Samples and Tolerance of the Assay to the Presence of Urea  

PubMed Central

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for open reading frame 1 (ORF1) of the glutamine synthetase gene of Neisseria gonorrhoeae was able to tolerate urea concentrations of ?1.8 M, compared with a PCR assay that was functional at concentrations of <100 mM. The LAMP assay was as sensitive as the PCR assay while being faster and simpler to perform. PMID:24622100

Edwards, Thomas; Burke, Patricia A.; Smalley, Helen B.; Gillies, Liz

2014-01-01

166

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for 16S rRNA methylase genes in Gram-negative bacteria.  

PubMed

Using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method, we developed a rapid assay for detection of 16S rRNA methylase genes (rmtA, rmtB, and armA), and investigated 16S rRNA methylase-producing strains among clinical isolates. Primer Explorer V3 software was used to design the LAMP primers. LAMP primers were prepared for each gene, including two outer primers (F3 and B3), two inner primers (FIP and BIP), and two loop primers (LF and LB). Detection was performed with the Loopamp DNA amplification kit. For all three genes (rmtA, rmtB, and armA), 10(2) copies/tube could be detected with a reaction time of 60 min. When nine bacterial species (65 strains saved in National Institute of Infectious Diseases) were tested, which had been confirmed to possess rmtA, rmtB, or armA by PCR and DNA sequencing, the genes were detected correctly in these bacteria with no false negative or false positive results. Among 8447 clinical isolates isolated at 36 medical institutions, the LAMP method was conducted for 191 strains that were resistant to aminoglycosides based on the results of antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Eight strains were found to produce 16S rRNA methylase (0.09%), with rmtB being identified in three strains (0.06%) of 4929 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae, rmtA in three strains (0.10%) of 3284 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and armA in two strains (0.85%) of 234 isolates of Acinetobacter spp. At present, the incidence of strains possessing 16S rRNA methylase genes is very low in Japan. However, when Gram-negative bacteria showing high resistance to aminoglycosides are isolated by clinical laboratories, it seems very important to investigate the status of 16S rRNA methylase gene-harboring bacilli and monitor their trends among Japanese clinical settings. PMID:25179393

Nagasawa, Mitsuaki; Kaku, Mitsuo; Kamachi, Kazunari; Shibayama, Keigo; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Yamaguchi, Keizo; Ishii, Yoshikazu

2014-10-01

167

Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for rapid detection of porcine boca-like virus.  

PubMed

The porcine boca-like virus (Pbo-likeV) was recently discovered in Swedish pigs with post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS). In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed for rapid, specific and sensitive detection of Pbo-likeV. A set of four primers specific for six regions of Pbo-likeV VP1/2 genes was designed with the online software. The reaction temperature and time were optimized to 65 °C and 60 min, respectively. LAMP products were detected by agarose gel electrophoresis or by visual inspection of a color change due to addition of fluorescent dye. The developed method was highly specific for detection of Pbo-likeV, and no cross-reaction was observed with other swine viruses, such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), porcine parvovirus (PPV) and classic swine fever virus (CSFV) found commonly in China. The lower detection limit of the LAMP assay was approximately 10 copies per reaction, and it was 100 times more sensitive than that of conventional PCR. Furthermore, the efficiency of LAMP for detection Pbo-likeV in clinical samples was comparable to PCR and sequencing. These results showed that the LAMP assay is a simple, rapid, sensitive and specific technique for detection of Pbo-likeV, and the procedure of LAMP does not rely on any special equipment. It has capacity for the detection of Pbo-likeV both in the laboratory and on farms. PMID:22172971

Li, Bin; Ma, Jun-jie; Xiao, Shao-bo; Zhang, Xue-han; Wen, Li-bin; Mao, Li; Ni, Yan-xiu; Guo, Rong-li; Zhou, Jun-ming; Lv, Li-xin; He, Kong-wang

2012-02-01

168

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid Diagnosis of Malaria Infections in an Area of Endemicity in Thailand  

PubMed Central

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method, developed by our group for diagnosis of four human malaria parasites, was evaluated on a large scale at a remote clinic in Thailand where malaria is endemic. A total of 899 febrile patients were analyzed in this study. LAMP was first evaluated in 219 patients, and the result was compared to those of two histidine-rich protein (HRP)-2 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) and microscopy as a gold standard. LAMP DNA extraction was conducted by a simple boiling method, and the test results were assessed visually. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were 95.7%, 100%, 100%, and 98%, respectively, for LAMP and 98.6%, 98%, 95.8%, and 99.3%, respectively, for RDTs. Since RDT-positive results were based on one out of two RDTs, the sensitivity of RDTs was slightly higher than that of LAMP. However, LAMP tended to be more specific than RDTs. LAMP next was evaluated in 680 patients, and the result was compared to that of microscopy as a gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and diagnostic accuracy of LAMP were 88.9%, 96.9%, 92.2%, 95.5%, and 94.6%, respectively. Nested PCR was used to confirm the discrepant results. Malaria LAMP in a remote clinic in Thailand achieved an acceptable result, indicating that LAMP malaria diagnosis is feasible in a field setting with limited technical resources. Additionally, the rapid boiling method for extracting DNA from dried blood spots proved to be simple, fast, and suitable for use in the field. PMID:24574279

Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Tsuboi, Takafumi; Han, Eun-Taek; Bantuchai, Sirasate

2014-01-01

169

Development and application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays on rapid detection of various types of staphylococci strains.  

PubMed

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for rapid detection of various Staphylococcus strains and associated antibiotic resistance determinant had been developed and evaluated in this study. Six primers, including outer primers, inner primers and loop primers, were specially designed for recognizing eight distinct sequences on three targets: 16SrRNA, femA and mecA.. Forty-one reference strains, including various species of gram-negative and -positive isolates, were included in this study to evaluate and optimize LAMP assays. The optimal reaction condition was found to be 65 °C for 45 min, with detection limits at 100 fg DNA/tube and 10 CFU/reaction for 16S rRNA, 100 fg DNA/tube and 10 CFU/reaction for femA, 1 pg DNA/tube and 100 CFU/reaction for mecA, respectively. Application of LAMP assays were performed on 118 various types of Staphylococcus isolates, the detection rate of LAMP assays for the 16SrRNA, femA and mecA was 100% (118/118), 98.5% (64/65) and 94.3% (66/70), and the negative predictive value (NPV) was 100%, 98.1% and 92.3% respectively; with a 100% positive predictive value (PPV) for all three targets. In conclusion, LAMP assays were demonstrated to be useful and powerful tools for rapid detection of various Staphylococcus strains, and undoubtedly, the rapidness, technical simplicity, and cost-effectiveness of LAMP assays will demonstrate broad application for bacteriological detection of food-borne Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus (MRS) isolates. PMID:22778501

Xu, Zhenbo; Li, Lin; Chu, Jin; Peters, Brian M; Harris, Megan L; Li, Bing; Shi, Lei; Shirtliff, Mark E

2012-07-01

170

Evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the rapid, reliable, and robust detection of Salmonella in produce.  

PubMed

Rapid, reliable, and robust detection of Salmonella in produce remains a challenge. In this study, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) was comprehensively evaluated against real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) for detecting diverse Salmonella serovars in various produce items (cantaloupe, pepper, and several varieties of lettuce, sprouts, and tomato). To mimic real-world contamination events, produce samples were surface-inoculated with low concentrations (1.1-2.9 CFU/25 g) of individual Salmonella strains representing ten serovars and tested after aging at 4 °C for 48 h. Four DNA extraction methods were also compared using produce enrichment broths. False-positive or false-negative results were not observed among 178 strains (151 Salmonella and 27 non-Salmonella) used to evaluate assay specificity. The detection limits for LAMP were 1.8-4 CFU per reaction in pure culture and 10(4)-10(6) CFU per 25 g (i.e., 10(2)-10(4) CFU per g) in produce without enrichment, comparable to those obtained by qPCR. After 6-8 h of enrichment, both LAMP and qPCR consistently detected these low concentrations of Salmonella of diverse serovars in all produce items except sprouts. The PrepMan Ultra sample preparation reagent yielded the best results among the four DNA extraction methods. Upon further validation, LAMP may be a valuable tool for routine Salmonella testing in produce. The difficulty of detecting Salmonella in sprouts, whether using LAMP or qPCR, warrants further study. PMID:25475319

Yang, Qianru; Wang, Fei; Jones, Kelly L; Meng, Jianghong; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Ge, Beilei

2015-04-01

171

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) assay for the identification of Echinococcus multilocularis infections in canine definitive hosts  

PubMed Central

Background Alveolar echinococcosis, caused by the metacestode larval stage of Echinococcus multilocularis, is a zoonosis of public health significance and is highly prevalent in northwest China. To effectively monitor its transmission, we developed a new rapid and cheap diagnostic assay, based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), to identify canine definitive hosts infected with E. multilocularis. Methods The primers used in the LAMP assay were based on the mitochondrial nad5 gene of E. multilocularis and were designed using Primer Explorer V4 software. The developed LAMP assay was compared with a conventional PCR assay, using DNA extracted from the feces of dogs experimentally infected with E. multilocularis, on 189 dog fecal samples collected from three E. multilocularis-endemic regions in Qinghai province, the People’s Republic of China, and 30 negative control copro-samples from dogs from an area in Gansu province that had been subjected to an intensive de-worming program. Light microscopy was also used to examine the experimentally obtained and field collected dog copro-samples for the presence of E. multilocularis eggs. Results The E. multilocularis-positivity rates obtained for the field-collected fecal samples were 16.4% and 5.3% by the LAMP and PCR assays, respectively, and all samples obtained from the control dogs were negative. The LAMP assay was able to detect E. multilocularis DNA in the feces of experimentally infected dogs at 12 days post-infection, whereas the PCR assay was positive on the 17th day and eggs were first detectable by light microscopy at day 44 post-challenge. Conclusion The earlier specific detection of an E. multilocularis infection in dog copro-samples indicates that the LAMP assay we developed is a realistic alternative method for the field surveillance of canines in echinococcosis-endemic areas. PMID:24886279

2014-01-01

172

Development of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method for Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum DNA in Clinical Samples  

PubMed Central

Improved methods for the detection of Histoplasma capsulatum are needed in regions with limited resources in which the organism is endemic, where delayed diagnosis of progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (PDH) results in high mortality rates. We have investigated the use of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to facilitate rapid inexpensive molecular diagnosis of this disease. Primers for LAMP were designed to amplify the Hcp100 locus of H. capsulatum. The sensitivity and limit of detection were evaluated using DNA extracted from 91 clinical isolates of known geographic subspecies, while the assay specificity was determined using DNA extracted from 50 other fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Urine specimens (n = 6) collected from HIV-positive individuals with culture- and antigen-proven histoplasmosis were evaluated using the LAMP assay. Specimens from healthy persons (n = 10) without evidence of histoplasmosis were used as assay controls. The Hcp100 LAMP assay was 100% sensitive and specific when tested with DNA extracted from culture isolates. The median limit of detection was ?6 genomes (range, 1 to 300 genomes) for all except one geographic subspecies. The LAMP assay detected Hcp100 in 67% of antigen-positive urine specimens (4/6 specimens), and results were negative for Hcp100 in all healthy control urine specimens. We have shown that the Hcp100 LAMP assay is a rapid affordable assay that can be used to expedite culture confirmation of H. capsulatum in regions in which PDH is endemic. Further, our results indicate proof of the concept that the assay can be used to detect Histoplasma DNA in urine. Further evaluation of this assay using body fluid samples from a larger patient population is warranted. PMID:24478477

Zhou, Yitian; Theodoro, Raquel C.; Abrams, Bethany; Balajee, S. Arunmozhi; Litvintseva, Anastasia P.

2014-01-01

173

Autonomous exonuclease III-assisted isothermal cycling signal amplification: a facile and highly sensitive fluorescence DNA glycosylase activity assay.  

PubMed

One common form of DNA damage is the oxidation of guanine to 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG), which can be carcinogenic. Human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (hOGG1) is a key base excision repair (BER) enzyme that repairs 8-oxoG, and the expression level of hOGG1 is closely related to many types of human cancers. Herein, a novel and highly sensitive fluorescence biosensing platform for hOGG1 activity detection has been constructed based on autonomous exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted signal amplification. Two hairpin probes (HP1 and HP2) are ingeniously designed. In the presence of hOGG1, HP1 is cleaved at the 8-oxoG site, and the stem is subsequently digested by Exo III, releasing the trigger DNA fragment (tDNA1). Successively, tDNA1 partially hybridizes with HP2 to initiate the Exo III-assisted cycling cleavage to release another trigger DNA fragment (tDNA2), which in turn triggers the cycling cleavage of DNA fluorescence probe (FP). Therefore, large amount of fluorophore fragments are released, leading to a significantly amplified fluorescence signal toward hOGG1 activity detection. A directly measured detection limit down to 0.001 U/mL is obtained, which is much lower than that of the approaches reported in literature. In addition to high sensitivity and good selectivity, the as-proposed strategy also exhibits the advantages of isothermal experimental condition, simplicity, and convenience. Furthermore, the Exo III-assisted autonomous cycling cleavage approach we proposed here is a universal sensing strategy and has great potential in assays of many other biological analytes. PMID:25196303

Wang, Xiuzhong; Hou, Ting; Lu, Tingting; Li, Feng

2014-10-01

174

A closed-tube detection of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) products using a wax-sealed fluorescent intercalator.  

PubMed

LAMP is an isothermal amplification method that can achieve ultra-high sensitivity and specificity. However, the conventional detection of LAMP amplicons can lead to cross-contamination due to the need to open the reaction tube which contains a large number of amplicons. To achieve closed-tube LAMP detection, we have developed a method that separates a solution of SYBR Green I (SGI) from the LAMP reagents using temperature-sensitive wax. The SGI is sealed in the bottom of the tube so not to interfere with the LAMP reaction, but is released into the mixture after the completion of the reaction by melting the wax. To enable the analysis of the closed-tube LAMP samples automatically, an instrument based on this new method was constructed. The background measurement of the LAMP due to primer dimers was significantly reduced by detecting the amplicons at 75 degrees C. HBV and 2009 H1N1 virus were successfully analyzed by the LAMP assay using tubes containing wax-sealed SGI and the prototype instrument, indicating that the method has the advantage of easy set-up (no extra components need to be added into the LAMP mixture for detection), high sensitivity (fluorescent intercalator), low background (detected at 75 degrees C) and no cross-contamination (closed-tube). Therefore, the novel LAMP detection, coupled with the instrument has the potential to be a diagnostic tool for a number of clinical applications in hospitals as well as on-site screening of pathogenic agents. PMID:23862439

Liang, Chao; Cheng, Sijia; Chu, Yanan; Wu, Haiping; Zou, Binjie; Huang, Huan; Xi, Tao; Zhou, Guohua

2013-06-01

175

Simultaneous amplification and screening of whole plasmids using the T7 bacteriophage replisome  

PubMed Central

This study describes a novel helicase-mediated isothermal DNA amplification method that exponentially amplifies circular DNAs. The circular helicase-dependent amplification (cHDA) system is based on the T7 replication machinery, which includes the processive T7 helicase, an exonuclease-deficient T7 DNA polymerase (T7 Sequenase) and the T7 Gp2.5 single-stranded DNA-binding (SSB) protein. After the duplex DNA template is unwound by the T7 helicase, specific primers anneal to the separated DNA strands and T7 Sequenase extends the 3? end of each primer by a rolling circle mechanism to amplify not only a region defined by the primers but also continuous concatemers of the template. The cHDA reaction can be carried out at one temperature (25°C) for the entire process and can achieve up to 10?000-fold amplification. Amplification can be performed using purified plasmid DNA or a crude cell lysate and can amplify inserts as large as 10 kb. Following a cHDA reaction, the amplified products can be used directly for sequencing and restriction enzyme digestion without further purification. By utilizing the helicase enzyme, circular DNA samples can be simultaneously screened and amplified at one constant temperature in one easy step. PMID:16893951

Xu, Yan; Kim, Hyun-jin; Kays, Ann; Rice, Jared; Kong, Huimin

2006-01-01

176

Restriction Cascade Exponential Amplification (RCEA) assay with an attomolar detection limit: a novel, highly specific, isothermal alternative to qPCR.  

PubMed

An alternative to qPCR was developed for nucleic acid assays, involving signal rather than target amplification. The new technology, Restriction Cascade Exponential Amplification (RCEA), relies on specific cleavage of probe-target hybrids by restriction endonucleases (REase). Two mutant REases for amplification (Ramp), S17C BamHI and K249C EcoRI, were conjugated to oligonucleotides, and immobilized on a solid surface. The signal generation was based on: (i) hybridization of a target DNA to a Ramp-oligonucleotide probe conjugate, followed by (ii) specific cleavage of the probe-target hybrid using a non-immobilized recognition REase. The amount of Ramp released into solution upon cleavage was proportionate to the DNA target amount. Signal amplification was achieved through catalysis, by the free Ramp, of a restriction cascade containing additional oligonucleotide-conjugated Ramp and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Colorimetric quantification of free HRP indicated that the RCEA achieved a detection limit of 10 aM (10(-17)?M) target concentration, or approximately 200 molecules, comparable to the sensitivity of qPCR-based assays. The RCEA assay had high specificity, it was insensitive to non-specific binding, and detected target sequences in the presence of foreign DNA. RCEA is an inexpensive isothermal assay that allows coupling of the restriction cascade signal amplification with any DNA target of interest. PMID:25583452

Ghindilis, Andrey L; Smith, Maria W; Simon, Holly M; Seoudi, Ihab A; Yazvenko, Nina S; Murray, Iain A; Fu, Xiaoqing; Smith, Kenneth; Jen-Jacobson, Linda; Xu, Shuang-Yong

2015-01-01

177

Rapid and sensitive detection of infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus by loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with a lateral flow dipstick.  

PubMed

Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) is an important shrimp pathogen that causes mortality in Penaeus stylirostris and stunting (called runt deformity syndrome or RDS) in Penaeus vannamei. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) allows rapid amplification of nucleic acids under isothermal conditions. It can be combined with a chromatographic lateral flow dipstick (LFD) for highly specific, rapid and simple visual detection of IHHNV-specific amplicons. Using this protocol, a 30-min amplification followed by 5 min hybridization with an FITC-labeled DNA probe and 5 min LFD resulted in visualization of DNA amplicons trapped at the LFD test line. Thus, 10 min for rapid DNA extraction followed by LAMP combined with LFD detection resulted in a total assay time of approximately 50 min. Detection sensitivity was comparable to other methods used commonly for nested PCR detection of IHHNV but had the additional advantages of reduced assay time, confirmation of amplicon identity by hybridization and elimination of electrophoresis with carcinogenic ethidium bromide. PMID:20887752

Arunrut, Narong; Prombun, Photchanathorn; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Flegel, Timothy W; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

2011-01-01

178

[Rapid detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus isolated in China by a reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick method].  

PubMed

White coloration of the muscle of the giant river prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) is a serious problem in China. The Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus (MrNV) has been confirmed to be the pathogen that causes this disorder. To develop a rapid, sensitive and specific technology for the detection of Macrobrachium rosenbergii Nodavirus isolated from China (MrNV-China), a reverse-transcription loop- mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick (RT-LAMP-LFD) assay method is described. A set of four primers and a labeled probe were designed specifically to recognize six distinct regions of the MrNV RNA2 gene. Results showed the sensitivity of the RT-LAMP-LFD assay was ten-times higher than the reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RT-LAMP) with agarose gel electrophoresis. The assay was conducted with one-step amplification at 61°C in a single tube within 45 min. No product was generated from shrimps infected with other viruses, including DNA viruses (infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV); white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)) and RNA viruses (Taura syndrome virus (TSV); infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV); yellow head virus (YHV)). Results were visualized by the LFD method. Therefore, the described rapid and sensitive assay is potentially useful for MrNV detection. PMID:25562958

Lin, Feng; Liu, Li; Hao, Gui-Jie; Cao, Zheng; Sheng, Peng-Cheng; Wu, Ying-Lei; Shen, Jin-Yu

2014-09-01

179

[Investigation on Toxoplasma gondii by polymerase chain reaction and loop-mediated isothermal amplification in water samples from Giresun, Turkey].  

PubMed

Toxoplasmosis is generally asymptomatic in immunocompetent subjects, however serious manifestations of the disease may develop in immunocompromised patients and in pregnant women. The mean Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence which is approximately 40% in Turkish population, indicates the high risk for the development of acute toxoplasmosis in those cases. One of the transmission ways of T.gondii is the consumption of contaminated water. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of T.gondii in the environmental and drinking water samples by using standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) methods. A total of 96 water samples, of them 76 were environmental water samples collected from creeks in Giresun province center and its various districts (Piraziz, Bulancak, Ke?ap, Espiye) and 20 from drinking water samples, were included in the study. The samples were precipitated by the aluminium sulfate method and DNAs were isolated from the pellets formed with the sucrose gradient method. PCR and LAMP were applied to the isolated DNAs, by the use of primers F3 and B3 specific to B1 gene of the parasite. In our study, T.gondii was detected in none of the drinking water samples by PCR and LAMP, however T.gondii DNAs were positive in 13.2% (10/76) of the environmental water samples. Both of the methods yielded the same results in those samples. The stations that were positive for T.gondii were Aksu creek in Giresun province center; Gelivera creek in Espiye; Yola?z?, Ke?ap, Ke?ap Login Bridge creeks in Ke?ap; Bulancak, Karadere and ?ncivez creeks in Bulancak; Piraziz and Çay?ra?z? creeks in Piraziz counties. Resistance of T.gondii to chlorination and the inadequacy of the filtration processes, create a serious threat among people in contact with rivers, sea and drinking waters particularly in areas with high humidity. As far as the national literature was considered, no report about the water-borne T.gondii infections were detected in Giresun province of Black Sea region, Turkey. Thus this study will aid to the literature related to water-borne T.gondii infections. The results of this study emphasizes the essential need for appropriate disinfection procedures and purification processes before the discharge of waste water to prevent the cases of water-borne toxoplasmosis. PMID:25492661

Demirel, Elif; Kolören, Zeynep; Karaman, Ulkü; Ayaz, Emine

2014-10-01

180

Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Accurately Detects Malaria DNA from Filter Paper Blood Samples of Low Density Parasitaemias  

PubMed Central

Background Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) provides an opportunity for improved, field-friendly detection of malaria infections in endemic areas. However data on the diagnostic accuracy of LAMP for active case detection, particularly low-density parasitaemias, are lacking. We therefore evaluated the performance of a new LAMP kit compared with PCR using DNA from filter paper blood spots. Methods and Findings Samples from 865 fever patients and 465 asymptomatic individuals collected in Zanzibar were analysed for Pan (all species) and Pf (P. falciparum) DNA with the Loopamp MALARIA Pan/Pf kit. Samples were amplified at 65°C for 40 minutes in a real-time turbidimeter and results were compared with nested PCR. Samples with discordant results between LAMP and nested PCR were analysed with real-time PCR. The real-time PCR corrected nested PCR result was defined as gold standard. Among the 117 (13.5%) PCR detected P. falciparum infections from fever patients (mean parasite density 7491/µL, range 6–782,400) 115, 115 and 111 were positive by Pan-LAMP, Pf-LAMP and nested PCR, respectively. The sensitivities were 98.3% (95%CI 94–99.8) for both Pan and Pf-LAMP. Among the 54 (11.6%) PCR positive samples from asymptomatic individuals (mean parasite density 10/µL, range 0–4972) Pf-LAMP had a sensitivity of 92.7% (95%CI 80.1–98.5) for detection of the 41 P. falciparum infections. Pan-LAMP had sensitivities of 97% (95%CI 84.2–99.9) and 76.9% (95%CI 46.2–95) for detection of P. falciparum and P. malariae, respectively. The specificities for both Pan and Pf-LAMP were 100% (95%CI 99.1–100) in both study groups. Conclusion Both components of the Loopamp MALARIA Pan/Pf detection kit revealed high diagnostic accuracy for parasite detection among fever patients and importantly also among asymptomatic individuals of low parasite densities from minute blood volumes preserved on filter paper. These data support LAMPs potential role for improved detection of low-density malaria infections in pre-elimination settings. PMID:25105591

González, Iveth J.; Polley, Spencer D.; Bell, David; Shakely, Delér; Msellem, Mwinyi I.; Björkman, Anders; Mårtensson, Andreas

2014-01-01

181

Evaluation of the Loop Mediated Isothermal DNA Amplification (LAMP) Kit for Malaria Diagnosis in P. vivax Endemic Settings of Colombia  

PubMed Central

Background Most commonly used malaria diagnostic tests, including microscopy and antigen-detecting rapid tests, cannot reliably detect low-density infections which are frequent in low transmission settings. Molecular methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are highly sensitive but remain too laborious for field deployment. In this study, the applicability of a malaria diagnosis kit based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (mLAMP) was assessed in malaria endemic areas of Colombia with Plasmodium vivax predominance. Methodology/Principal Findings First, a passive case detection (PCD) study on 278 febrile patients recruited in Tierralta (department of Cordoba) was conducted to assess the diagnostic performance of the mLAMP method. Second, an active case detection (ACD) study on 980 volunteers was conducted in 10 sentinel sites with different epidemiological profiles. Whole blood samples were processed for microscopic and mLAMP diagnosis. Additionally RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR were used as reference tests. In the PCD study, P. falciparum accounted for 23.9% and P. vivax for 76.1% of the infections and no cases of mixed-infections were identified. Microscopy sensitivity for P. falciparum and P. vivax were 100% and 86.1%, respectively. mLAMP sensitivity for P. falciparum and P. vivax was 100% and 91.4%, respectively. In the ACD study, mLAMP detected 65 times more cases than microscopy. A high proportion (98.0%) of the infections detected by mLAMP was from volunteers without symptoms. Conclusions/Significance mLAMP sensitivity and specificity were comparable to RT-PCR. LAMP was significantly superior to microscopy and in P. vivax low-endemicity settings and under minimum infrastructure conditions, it displayed sensitivity and specificity similar to that of single-well RT-PCR for detection of both P. falciparum and P. vivax infections. Here, the dramatically increased detection of asymptomatic malaria infections by mLAMP demonstrates the usefulness of this new tool for diagnosis, surveillance, and screening in elimination strategies. PMID:25569550

Vallejo, Andrés F.; Martínez, Nora L.; González, Iveth J.; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Sócrates

2015-01-01

182

Development of a Sensitive Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay That Provides Specimen-to-Result Diagnosis of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in 30 Minutes  

PubMed Central

Rapid isothermal amplification methods have recently been introduced, and some of these methods offer significant advantages over PCR. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid and sensitive multiplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (M-LAMP) assay for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus subgroups A and B (RSV A and B). We designed six primers each for the matrix gene of RSV A and the polymerase gene of RSV B and developed an M-LAMP assay by using a commercially available master mix and a real-time fluorometer (Genie II; Optigene, United Kingdom) that displays real-time amplification, time to positivity, and amplicon annealing temperature (Tm). The M-LAMP was evaluated against PCR by testing 275 nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens. The final optimized M-LAMP assay had a mean amplification time of 14.2 min (compared with 90 to 120 min for PCR) and had an analytical sensitivity of 1 genome equivalent (ge) for both RSV A and B. Using PCR as a comparator, M-LAMP had a sensitivity of 100% (81/81) and specificity of 100% (194/194). We also evaluated a 3- to 10-min specimen processing method involving vortexing with glass beads and heating to 98°C in M-swab medium (Copan Italia, Brescia, Italy) and found that this rapid processing method allowed detection of 37/41 (90.2%) of positives when we used extracted nucleic acid. In summary, the M-LAMP assay had excellent sensitivity and specificity for detecting RSV A and B in NP specimens and, when coupled with a rapid specimen preparation method, could provide a specimen-to-result diagnosis time of 30 min. PMID:23761156

Chong, Sylvia; Bulir, David; Ruyter, Alexandra; Mwawasi, Ken; Waltho, Daniel

2013-01-01

183

Integration of reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification with an immunochromatographic strip on a centrifugal microdevice for influenza A virus identification.  

PubMed

A novel centrifugal microdevice which could perform reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and immunochromatographic strip (ICS) based amplicon detection was demonstrated for simple and cost-effective influenza A virus identification. The proposed centrifugal microdevice consists of the sample and running buffer loading reservoirs, the RT-LAMP chamber, and the ICS for detecting gene expression. The entire process could be completed sequentially and automatically by simply controlling the rotation speed and by optimizing the microfluidic design. Monoplex and multiplex RT-LAMP reactions targeting H1 and/or M gene were executed at 66 °C for 40 min, and the resultant amplicons were successfully analysed on the ICS within 15 min. Influenza A H1N1 virus was subtyped by detecting H1 and M gene on the ICS even with 10 copies of viral RNAs. Highly specific and multiplex viral typing of the integrated RT-LAMP-ICS microdevice was also demonstrated. The combination of the rapid isothermal amplification with the simple colorimetric detection on a strip in a single centrifugal microdevice will provide an advanced genetic analysis platform in the field of on-site pathogen diagnostics. PMID:25426967

Jung, J H; Park, B H; Oh, S J; Choi, G; Seo, T S

2015-01-22

184

Development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay combined with a lateral flow dipstick for rapid and simple detection of classical swine fever virus in the field.  

PubMed

Classical swine fever (CSF) is a highly contagious viral disease and may cause heavy economic loss to farmers. The rapid, simple and accurate diagnosis of the disease at the frontline, for example on the farms of concern is crucial for disease control. This study describes the development and evaluation of a new loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay coupled with lateral flow dipstick (LFD) for the detection of classical swine fever virus (CSFV). This RT-LAMP-LFD assay combines the efficient one-step isothermal amplification of CSF viral RNA and the simplicity of the LFD to read the results within two to five minutes. Seven genotypes (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3 and 3.1), but not genotype 3.4, were successfully detected by the RT-LAMP-LFD assay, indicating that the method has a broad range of detection and can be applied in different geographical areas where CSFV strains belonging to these genotypes are present. The performance of this RT-LAMP-LFD assay was similar to that of the real-time RT-PCR. The analytical sensitivity was about 100copies per reaction when testing two genotypes (1.1 and 2.3). No cross-reactivity to non-CSFV pestiviruses was observed. This RT-LAMP-LFD assay can be a useful novel tool for the rapid, simple and economic diagnosis of classical swine fever in the field. PMID:24300833

Chowdry, Vinay Kumar; Luo, Yuzi; Widén, Frederik; Qiu, Hua-Ji; Shan, Hu; Belák, Sándor; Liu, Lihong

2014-03-01

185

Use of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification of the IS900 Sequence for Rapid Detection of Cultured Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis  

PubMed Central

We evaluated the usefulness of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in detecting specific gene sequences of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). A total of 102 primer sets for LAMP was designed to amplify the IS900, HspX, and F57 gene sequences of MAP. Using each of two primer sets (P-1 and P-2) derived from the IS900 fragment, it was possible to detect MAP in a manner similar to that used with nested PCR. The sensitivity of LAMP with P-1 was 0.5 pg/tube, which was more sensitive than nested PCR. When P-2 was used, 5 pg/tube could be detected, which was the same level of sensitivity as that for nested PCR. LAMP with P-1 was specific. Although only 2 Mycobacterium scrofulaceum strains out of 43 non-MAP mycobacterial strains were amplified, the amplification reaction for these strains was less efficient than for MAP strains, and their products could be distinguished from MAP products by restriction digestion. LAMP with P-2 resulted in very specific amplification only from MAP, the same result obtained with nested PCR. Our LAMP method was highly specific, and the white turbidity of magnesium pyrophosphate, a by-product of the LAMP reaction, allowed simple visual detection. Our method is rapid, taking only 2 h, compared with 4 h for nested PCR. In addition, the LAMP method is performed under isothermal conditions and no special apparatus is needed, which makes it more economical and practical than nested PCR or real-time PCR. These results indicate that LAMP can provide a rapid yet simple test for the detection of MAP. PMID:12958269

Enosawa, M.; Kageyama, S.; Sawai, K.; Watanabe, K.; Notomi, T.; Onoe, S.; Mori, Y.; Yokomizo, Y.

2003-01-01

186

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification as an emerging technology for detection of Yersinia ruckeri the causative agent of enteric red mouth disease in fish  

PubMed Central

Background Enteric Redmouth (ERM) disease also known as Yersiniosis is a contagious disease affecting salmonids, mainly rainbow trout. The causative agent is the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia ruckeri. The disease can be diagnosed by isolation and identification of the causative agent, or detection of the Pathogen using fluorescent antibody tests, ELISA and PCR assays. These diagnostic methods are laborious, time consuming and need well trained personnel. Results A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and evaluated for detection of Y. ruckeri the etiological agent of enteric red mouth (ERM) disease in salmonids. The assay was optimised to amplify the yruI/yruR gene, which encodes Y. ruckeri quorum sensing system, in the presence of a specific primer set and Bst DNA polymerase at an isothermal temperature of 63°C for one hour. Amplification products were detected by visual inspection, agarose gel electrophoresis and by real-time monitoring of turbidity resulted by formation of LAMP amplicons. Digestion with HphI restriction enzyme demonstrated that the amplified product was unique. The specificity of the assay was verified by the absence of amplification products when tested against related bacteria. The assay had 10-fold higher sensitivity compared with conventional PCR and successfully detected Y. ruckeri not only in pure bacterial culture but also in tissue homogenates of infected fish. Conclusion The ERM-LAMP assay represents a practical alternative to the microbiological approach for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of Y. ruckeri in fish farms. The assay is carried out in one hour and needs only a heating block or water bath as laboratory furniture. The advantages of the ERM-LAMP assay make it a promising tool for molecular detection of enteric red mouth disease in fish farms. PMID:18700011

Saleh, Mona; Soliman, Hatem; El-Matbouli, Mansour

2008-01-01

187

Rapid and sensitive detection of mud crab Scylla serrata reovirus by a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scylla serrata reovirus (SsRV) is one of the most prevalent viral pathogens of the mud crab (S. serrata). This pathogen is widespread in east China and causes severe economic losses to the nation's mud crab industry. Early detection of this pathogen is necessary for disease control and reduction of economic loss. In the present study, a reverse transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal

Jigang Chen; Juan Xiong; Bojing Cui; Jifang Yang; Zhijuan Mao; Wenchen Li; Xiaoxuan Chen; Xiaojuan Zheng

2011-01-01

188

Rapid and sensitive detection of shrimp yellow head virus using loop-mediated isothermal amplification and a colorogenic nanogold hybridization probe.  

PubMed

Salt-induced self-aggregation of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) carrying unisense ssDNA probes can be prevented specifically by complementary DNA. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) can amplify DNA rapidly. Here, the two techniques were combined to detect yellow head virus (YHV). The LAMP-AuNP method required 60 min for LAMP and 5 min for hybridization of LAMP products to an AuNP-labeled ssDNA probe followed by salt induced probe-particle aggregation to visualize color development. The detection sensitivity of the method was comparable to that of the commercial IQ2000™ nested RT-PCR but only required ~65 min to produce a result, and did not cross-detect other shrimp viruses. As the LAMP-AuNP protocol only requires a heating block, it offers opportunities for rapid detection of YHV. PMID:22960564

Jaroenram, Wansadaj; Arunrut, Narong; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

2012-12-01

189

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay targeting the femA gene for rapid detection of Staphylococcus aureus from clinical and food samples.  

PubMed

In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to rapidly detect Staphylococcus aureus strains was developed and evaluated by extensively applying a large number of S. aureus isolates from clinical and food samples. Six primers were specially designed for recognizing eight distinct sequences on the species-specific femA gene of S. aureus. The detection limits were 100 fg DNA/tube and 10(4) CFU/ml. The LAMP assay was applied to 432 S. aureus strains isolated from 118 clinical and 314 food samples. Total detection rates for the LAMP and polymerase chain reaction assays were 98.4% (306/311) and 89.4% (278/311), respectively. PMID:23412068

Zhao, Xihong; Li, Yanmei; Park, Myoungsu; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Youhong; He, Xiaowei; Forghani, Fereidoun; Wang, Li; Yu, Guangchao; Oh, Deog-Hwan

2013-02-01

190

GMO detection using a bioluminescent real time reporter (BART) of loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) suitable for field use  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is an increasing need for quantitative technologies suitable for molecular detection in a variety of settings for applications including food traceability and monitoring of genetically modified (GM) crops and their products through the food processing chain. Conventional molecular diagnostics utilising real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and fluorescence-based determination of amplification require temperature cycling and relatively complex optics. In

Guy Kiddle; Patrick Hardinge; Neil Buttigieg; Olga Gandelman; Clint Pereira; Cathal J McElgunn; Manuela Rizzoli; Rebecca Jackson; Nigel Appleton; Cathy Moore; Laurence C Tisi; James AH Murray

2012-01-01

191

Rapid Detection and Differentiation of Dengue Virus Serotypes by a Real-Time Reverse Transcription-Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay  

PubMed Central

The development and validation of a one-step, real-time, and quantitative dengue virus serotype-specific reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay targeting the 3? noncoding region for the rapid detection and differentiation of dengue virus serotypes are reported. The RT-LAMP assay is very simple and rapid, wherein the amplification can be obtained in 30 min under isothermal conditions at 63°C by employing a set of four serotype-specific primer mixtures through real-time monitoring in an inexpensive turbidimeter. The evaluation of the RT-LAMP assay for use for clinical diagnosis with a limited number of patient serum samples, confirmed to be infected with each serotype, revealed a higher sensitivity by picking up 100% samples as positive, whereas 87% and 81% of the samples were positive by reverse transcription-PCR and virus isolation, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the RT-LAMP assay for the detection of viral RNA in patient serum samples with reference to virus isolation were 100% and 93%, respectively. The optimal assay conditions with zero background and no cross-reaction with other closely related members of the Flavivirus family (Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, and St. Louis encephalitis viruses) as well as within the four serotypes of dengue virus were established. None of the serum samples from healthy individuals screened in this study showed any cross-reaction with the four dengue virus serotype-specific RT-LAMP assay primers. These findings demonstrate that RT-LAMP assay has the potential clinical application for detection and differentiation of dengue virus serotypes, especially in developing countries. PMID:15956414

Parida, Manmohan; Horioke, Kouhei; Ishida, Hiroyuki; Dash, Paban Kumar; Saxena, Parag; Jana, Asha Mukul; Islam, Mohammed Alimul; Inoue, Shingo; Hosaka, Norimitsu; Morita, Kouichi

2005-01-01

192

Specific detection of reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification amplicons for Taura syndrome virus by colorimetric dot-blot hybridization.  

PubMed

The goal of this study was to develop a field diagnosis system based on isothermal reverse transcription-loop-mediated amplification (RT-LAMP) for shrimp Taura syndrome virus (TSV), placing emphasis on specific and simple detection of the LAMP amplicons. After a single-tube RT-LAMP reaction for TSV was established, colorimetric dot-blot hybridization (DBH) was adopted to detect signals only from the target-derived amplicons. The results showed that the modified DBH offered unambiguous and sensitive detection of the TSV RT-LAMP amplicons without the UV cross-linking and denaturation steps. Together, TSV RT-LAMP-DBH assay reached the same dilution point as reverse transcription-nested polymerase chain reaction-agarose gel electrophoresis (RT-nPCR-AGE) for TSV detection. Specificity of the assay was demonstrated by the absence of DBH signal from yeast tRNA and various shrimp viruses. TSV RT-LAMP-DBH was applied to 125 Penaeus vannamei and demonstrated a very good concordance (kappa value, 0.823) with RT-nPCR-AGE assay in detection efficiency. Furthermore, a one-step guanidinium thiocyanate (GuSCN) homogenization method was established to provide RNA extraction efficiency comparable to that of the TRIzol Reagent for RT-LAMP. Requiring simply a heating apparatus, the GuSCN RNA extraction-isothermal RT-LAMP-DBH protocol has the potential for further development for diagnosis of diseases in the field. PMID:17868915

Teng, Ping-Hua; Chen, Chu-Liang; Sung, Ping-Feng; Lee, Fu-Chun; Ou, Bor-Rung; Lee, Pei-Yu

2007-12-01

193

Detection of spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in koi carp, Cyprinus carpio L  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) is a rhabdovirus associated with systemic illness and mortality in cyprinids. Several diagnostic tests are available for detection of SVCV. However, most of these tests are time consuming and are not well adapted for field-based diagnostics. In this study, a diagnostic tool for SVCV detection based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) has been developed. Based on the nucleotide sequence of the glycoprotein (G) gene of SVCV North Carolina (NC) isolate, four sets (each set containing two outer and two inner) of primers were designed. Temperature and time conditions were optimized to 65 ??C and 60 min, respectively, for LAMP and RT-LAMP using one primer set. In vitro specificity was evaluated using four different strains of fish rhabdoviruses and RT-LAMP was found to be specific to SVCV. Serial dilutions of SVCV NC isolate was used to evaluate the in vitro sensitivity of RT-LAMP. Sensitivity of the assays was similar to RT-PCR and detected SVCV even at the lowest dilution of 10 1 TCID50 mL-1. The ability of RT-LAMP to detect SVCV from infected carp was also tested and the assay detected SVCV from all infected fish. The isothermal temperature requirements, high specificity and sensitivity, and short incubation time of the RT-LAMP assay make it an excellent choice as a field diagnostic test for SVCV. ?? 2008 The Authors.

Shivappa, R.B.; Savan, R.; Kono, T.; Sakai, M.; Emmenegger, E.; Kurath, G.; Levine, J.F.

2008-01-01

194

Development and application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of the F167Y mutation of carbendazim-resistant isolates in Fusarium graminearum.  

PubMed

Resistance of Fusarium graminearum to carbendazim is caused by point mutations in the ?2-tubulin gene. The point mutation at codon 167 (TTT ? TAT, F167Y) occurs in more than 90% of field resistant isolates in China. To establish a suitable method for rapid detection of the F167Y mutation in F. graminearum, an efficient and simple method with high specificity was developed based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). A set of four primers was designed and optimized to specially distinguish the F167Y mutation genotype. The LAMP reaction was optimal at 63 °C for 60 min. When hydroxynaphthol blue dye (HNB) was added prior to amplification, samples with DNA of the F167Y mutation developed a characteristic sky blue color after the reaction but those without DNA or with different DNA did not. Results of HNB staining method were reconfirmed by gel electrophoresis. The developed LAMP had good specificity, stability and repeatability and was suitable for monitoring carbendazim-resistance populations of F. graminearum in agricultural production. PMID:25403277

Duan, Yabing; Zhang, Xiaoke; Ge, Changyan; Wang, Yong; Cao, Junhong; Jia, Xiaojing; Wang, Jianxin; Zhou, Mingguo

2014-01-01

195

Reverse-transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification as a rapid screening/monitoring tool for Salmonella enterica detection in liquid whole eggs.  

PubMed

Reverse-transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is a novel molecular detection method that is specific, fast, and simple. It is based on reverse transcription followed by DNA amplification using the Bst DNA polymerase large fragment requiring one temperature and a simple waterbath, without the need for any expensive equipment. Detection is by turbidity or agarose gel electrophoresis. Our objective was to apply this LAMP-based technology to rapidly and sensitively detect Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in liquid whole eggs (LWEs) within 1 d. LWE were inoculated with S. Enteritidis and stomached in tetrathionate broth (TTB), and spread-plated on Xylose lysine tergitol 4 agar either immediately or after 6, 12, or 16-h enrichment. RNA was extracted from 5-mL TTB and the RT-LAMP assay was carried out using invA primers. After 16 and 12-h enrichment, improved Salmonella detection up to 10? to 10¹ and 10? CFU/25 mL LWE, respectively was obtained. Without enrichment, Salmonella could be detected at 10? CFU/25 mL; however, after 6-h enrichment a 1-log improvement to 10? CFU/25 mL was obtained. This RT-LAMP assay appears to be suitable as a potential screening/monitoring tool for Salmonella enterica from LWE products in routine settings with results obtainable within 24-h, which is significantly faster than traditional cultural assays. PMID:22352954

Techathuvanan, Chayapa; D'Souza, Doris Helen

2012-04-01

196

Use of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Detection of Ophiostoma clavatum, the Primary Blue Stain Fungus Associated with Ips acuminatus  

PubMed Central

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an alternative amplification technology which is highly sensitive and less time-consuming than conventional PCR-based methods. Three LAMP assays were developed, two for detection of species of symbiotic blue stain fungi associated with Ips acuminatus, a bark beetle infesting Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris), and an additional assay specific to I. acuminatus itself for use as a control. In common with most bark beetles, I. acuminatus is associated with phytopathogenic blue stain fungi involved in the process of exhausting tree defenses, which is a necessary step for the colonization of the plant by the insect. However, the identity of the main blue stain fungus vectored by I. acuminatus was still uncertain, as well as its frequency of association with I. acuminatus under outbreak and non-outbreak conditions. In this study, we employed LAMP technology to survey six populations of I. acuminatus sampled from the Southern Alps. Ophiostoma clavatum was detected at all sampling sites, while Ophiostoma brunneo-ciliatum, reported in part of the literature as the main blue stain fungus associated with I. acuminatus, was not detected on any of the samples. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that O. clavatum is the main blue stain fungus associated with I. acuminatus in the Southern Alps. The method developed in the course of this work provides a molecular tool by which it will be easy to screen populations and derive important data regarding the ecology of the species involved. PMID:23396326

Tomlinson, Jennifer A.; Battisti, Andrea; Boonham, Neil; Capretti, Paolo

2013-01-01

197

Rapid detection of Piper yellow mottle virus and Cucumber mosaic virus infecting black pepper (Piper nigrum) by loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP).  

PubMed

The loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Piper yellow mottle virus and the reverse transcription (RT) LAMP assay for Cucumber mosaic virus each consisted of a set of five primers designed against the conserved sequences in the viral genome. Both RNA and DNA isolated from black pepper were used as a template for the assay. The results were assessed visually by checking turbidity, green fluorescence and pellet formation in the reaction tube and also by gel electrophoresis. The assay successfully detected both viruses in infected plants whereas no cross-reactions were recorded with healthy plants. Optimum conditions for successful amplification were determined in terms of the concentrations of magnesium sulphate and betaine, temperature, and duration. The detection limit for both LAMP and RT-LAMP was up to 100 times that for conventional PCR and up to one-hundredth of that for real-time PCR. The optimal conditions arrived at were validated by testing field samples of infected vines of three species from different regions. PMID:23791964

Bhat, A I; Siljo, A; Deeshma, K P

2013-10-01

198

Ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of avian influenza A (H7N9) virus DNA based on isothermal exponential amplification coupled with hybridization chain reaction of DNAzyme nanowires.  

PubMed

In this work, a simple and label-free electrochemical biosensor with duel amplification strategy was developed for DNA detection based on isothermal exponential amplification (EXPAR) coupled with hybridization chain reaction (HCR) of DNAzymes nanowires. Through rational design, neither the primer nor the DNAzymes containing molecular beacons (MBs) could react with the duplex probe which were fixed on the electrode surface. Once challenged with target, the duplex probe cleaved and triggered the EXPAR mediated target recycle and regeneration circles as well as the HCR process. As a result, a greater amount of targets were generated to cleave the duplex probes. Subsequently, the nanowires consisting of the G-quadruplex units were self-assembled through hybridization with the strand fixed on the electrode surface. In the presence of hemin, the resulting catalytic G-quadruplex-hemin HRP-mimicking DNAzymes were formed. Electrochemical signals can be obtained by measuring the increase in reduction current of oxidized 3.3',5.5'-tetramethylbenzidine sulfate (TMB), which was generated by DNAzyme in the presence of H2O2. This method exhibited ultrahigh sensitivity towards avian influenza A (H7N9) virus DNA sequence with detection limits of 9.4fM and a detection range of 4 orders of magnitude. The biosensor was also capable of discriminating single-nucleotide difference among concomitant DNA sequences and performed well in spiked cell lysates. PMID:25310490

Yu, Yanyan; Chen, Zuanguang; Jian, Wensi; Sun, Duanping; Zhang, Beibei; Li, Xinchun; Yao, Meicun

2015-02-15

199

Highly sensitive fluorescence assay of DNA methyltransferase activity by methylation-sensitive cleavage-based primer generation exponential isothermal amplification-induced G-quadruplex formation.  

PubMed

Site-specific identification of DNA methylation and assay of MTase activity are imperative for determining specific cancer types, provide insights into the mechanism of gene repression, and develop novel drugs to treat methylation-related diseases. Herein, we developed a highly sensitive fluorescence assay of DNA methyltransferase by methylation-sensitive cleavage-based primer generation exponential isothermal amplification (PG-EXPA) coupled with supramolecular fluorescent Zinc(II)-protoporphyrin IX (ZnPPIX)/G-quadruplex. In the presence of DNA adenine methylation (Dam) MTase, the methylation-responsive sequence of hairpin probe is methylated and cleaved by the methylation-sensitive restriction endonuclease Dpn I. The cleaved hairpin probe then functions as a signal primer to initiate the exponential isothermal amplification reaction (EXPAR) by hybridizing with a unimolecular DNA containing three functional domains as the amplification template, producing a large number of G-quadruplex nanostructures by utilizing polymerases and nicking enzymes as mechanical activators. The G-quadruplex nanostructures act as host for ZnPPIX that lead to supramolecular complexes ZnPPIX/G-quadruplex, which provides optical labels for amplified fluorescence detection of Dam MTase. While in the absence of Dam MTase, neither methylation/cleavage nor PG-EXPA reaction can be initiated and no fluorescence signal is observed. The proposed method exhibits a wide dynamic range from 0.0002 to 20U/mL and an extremely low detection limit of 8.6×10(-5)U/mL, which is superior to most conventional approaches for the MTase assay. Owing to the specific site recognition of MTase toward its substrate, the proposed sensing system was able to readily discriminate Dam MTase from other MTase such as M.SssI and even detect the target in a complex biological matrix. Furthermore, the application of the proposed sensing strategy for screening Dam MTase inhibitors was also demonstrated with satisfactory results. This novel method not only provides a promising platform for monitoring activity and inhibition of DNA MTases, but also shows great potentials in biological process researches, drugs discovery and clinical diagnostics. PMID:25506903

Xue, Qingwang; Lv, Yanqin; Xu, Shuling; Zhang, Yuanfu; Wang, Lei; Li, Rui; Yue, Qiaoli; Li, Haibo; Gu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Shuqiu; Liu, Jifeng

2015-04-15

200

Protein-coding housekeeping gene Rv2461c can be used as an amplification target in loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in sputum samples  

PubMed Central

The study is to explore the potential of the conserved Rv2461c gene as a biomarker for Tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. The conservation of the hypothetical genes was evaluated in this study using multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis. The conservation of Rv2461c coding gene was evaluated by polymerase chain reaction using six reference strains of M. tuberculosis complex (MTC), 156 M. tuberculosis clinical isolates, 25 species of non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM), and 10 non-mycobacterial species. A total of 126 clinical sputum specimens were collected from patients with respiratory symptoms, including 79 specimens from suspected TB patients, and 47 specimens from patients with respiratory diseases other than TB. Genomic DNAs were extracted and subject to polymerase chain reaction for nucleic acid amplification test. In addition, we successfully developed loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology for rapid detection of M. tuberculosis in sputum specimens. The sensitivity and specificity of LAMP assay were evaluated for the detection of M. tuberculosis. Phylogenetic analysis of the clpP sequences revealed that the Mycobacterium strains were split into two major clusters: i) MTC; ii) NTM strains and M. leprae. During the evaluation of the conservation of Rv2461c coding gene, all MTC strains yielded positive results, and no false-positive results were observed in NTM or other bacterial species. LAMP analysis showed high sensitivity and specificity (84.8% and 95.7%, respectively) for the detection of M. tuberculosis from sputum. Our result indicated that Rv2461c coding gene was an efficient and promising alternative nucleic acid amplification test target for the detection of M. tuberculosis.

Li, Dairong; Zhao, Jianing; Nie, Xiaoping; Wan, Tao; Xu, Wenchun; Zhao, Yong

2014-01-01

201

Higher Specificity of Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification Isothermal Technology than of Real-Time PCR for Quantification of HIV-1 RNA on Dried Blood Spots  

PubMed Central

Dried blood spots (DBS) are widely proposed as a plasma surrogate for monitoring antiretroviral treatment efficacy based on the HIV-1 RNA level (viral load [VL]) in resource-limited settings. Interfering coamplification of cell-associated HIV-1 DNA during reverse transcription (RT)-PCR can be avoided by using nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) technology, which is based on an RNA template and isothermic conditions. We analyzed VL values obtained with DBS and plasma samples by comparing isothermic NASBA (NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 V2.0; bioMérieux) with real-time RT-PCR (Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 V2.0; Roche). Samples from 197 HIV-1-infected patients were tested (non-B subtypes in 51% of the cases). Nucleic acid extractions were performed by use of NucliSENS EasyMAG (bioMérieux) and Cobas AmpliPrep (Roche) before the NASBA and RT-PCR quantifications, respectively. Both quantification assays have lower limits of detection of 20 (1.3) and 800 (2.9) log10 copies/ml (log) in plasma and DBS, respectively. The mean (DBS minus plasma) differences were ?0.39 and ?0.46 log, respectively, for RT-PCR and NASBA. RT-PCR on DBS identified virological failure in 122 of 126 patients (sensitivity, 97%) and viral suppression in 58 of 70 patients (specificity, 83%), yielding 12 false-positive results (median, 3.2 log). NASBA on DBS identified virological failure in 85 of 96 patients (sensitivity, 89%) and viral suppression in 95 of 97 patients (specificity, 98%) and yielded 2 false-positive results (3.0 log for both). Both technologies detected HIV-1 RNA in DBS at a threshold of 800 copies/ml. This higher specificity of NASBA technology could avoid overestimation of poor compliance or the emergence of resistance when monitoring antiretroviral efficacy with the DBS method. PMID:24131691

Mercier-Delarue, Severine; Vray, Muriel; Plantier, Jean Christophe; Maillard, Theodora; Adjout, Zidan; de Olivera, Fabienne; Schnepf, Nathalie; Maylin, Sarah; Simon, Francois

2014-01-01

202

Higher specificity of nucleic acid sequence-based amplification isothermal technology than of real-time PCR for quantification of HIV-1 RNA on dried blood spots.  

PubMed

Dried blood spots (DBS) are widely proposed as a plasma surrogate for monitoring antiretroviral treatment efficacy based on the HIV-1 RNA level (viral load [VL]) in resource-limited settings. Interfering coamplification of cell-associated HIV-1 DNA during reverse transcription (RT)-PCR can be avoided by using nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) technology, which is based on an RNA template and isothermic conditions. We analyzed VL values obtained with DBS and plasma samples by comparing isothermic NASBA (NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 V2.0; bioMérieux) with real-time RT-PCR (Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 V2.0; Roche). Samples from 197 HIV-1-infected patients were tested (non-B subtypes in 51% of the cases). Nucleic acid extractions were performed by use of NucliSENS EasyMAG (bioMérieux) and Cobas AmpliPrep (Roche) before the NASBA and RT-PCR quantifications, respectively. Both quantification assays have lower limits of detection of 20 (1.3) and 800 (2.9) log10 copies/ml (log) in plasma and DBS, respectively. The mean (DBS minus plasma) differences were -0.39 and -0.46 log, respectively, for RT-PCR and NASBA. RT-PCR on DBS identified virological failure in 122 of 126 patients (sensitivity, 97%) and viral suppression in 58 of 70 patients (specificity, 83%), yielding 12 false-positive results (median, 3.2 log). NASBA on DBS identified virological failure in 85 of 96 patients (sensitivity, 89%) and viral suppression in 95 of 97 patients (specificity, 98%) and yielded 2 false-positive results (3.0 log for both). Both technologies detected HIV-1 RNA in DBS at a threshold of 800 copies/ml. This higher specificity of NASBA technology could avoid overestimation of poor compliance or the emergence of resistance when monitoring antiretroviral efficacy with the DBS method. PMID:24131691

Mercier-Delarue, Severine; Vray, Muriel; Plantier, Jean Christophe; Maillard, Theodora; Adjout, Zidan; de Olivera, Fabienne; Schnepf, Nathalie; Maylin, Sarah; Simon, Francois; Delaugerre, Constance

2014-01-01

203

Development and Application of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assays for Rapid Visual Detection of cry2Ab and cry3A Genes in Genetically-Modified Crops  

PubMed Central

The cry2Ab and cry3A genes are two of the most important insect-resistant exogenous genes and had been widely used in genetically-modified crops. To develop more effective alternatives for the quick identification of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs) containing these genes, a rapid and visual loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method to detect the cry2Ab and cry3A genes is described in this study. The LAMP assay can be finished within 60 min at an isothermal condition of 63 °C. The derived LAMP products can be obtained by a real-time turbidimeter via monitoring the white turbidity or directly observed by the naked eye through adding SYBR Green I dye. The specificity of the LAMP assay was determined by analyzing thirteen insect-resistant genetically-modified (GM) crop events with different Bt genes. Furthermore, the sensitivity of the LAMP assay was evaluated by diluting the template genomic DNA. Results showed that the limit of detection of the established LAMP assays was approximately five copies of haploid genomic DNA, about five-fold greater than that of conventional PCR assays. All of the results indicated that this established rapid and visual LAMP assay was quick, accurate and cost effective, with high specificity and sensitivity. In addition, this method does not need specific expensive instruments or facilities, which can provide a simpler and quicker approach to detecting the cry2Ab and cry3A genes in GM crops, especially for on-site, large-scale test purposes in the field. PMID:25167136

Li, Feiwu; Yan, Wei; Long, Likun; Qi, Xing; Li, Congcong; Zhang, Shihong

2014-01-01

204

A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for Early Detection of Schistosoma mansoni in Stool Samples: A Diagnostic Approach in a Murine Model  

PubMed Central

Background Human schistosomiasis, mainly due to Schistosoma mansoni species, is one of the most prevalent parasitic diseases worldwide. To overcome the drawbacks of classical parasitological and serological methods in detecting S. mansoni infections, especially in acute stage of the disease, development of cost-effective, simple and rapid molecular methods is still needed for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis. A promising approach is the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology. Compared to PCR-based assays, LAMP has the advantages of reaction simplicity, rapidity, specificity, cost-effectiveness and higher amplification efficiency. Additionally, as results can be inspected by the naked eye, the technique has great potential for use in low-income countries. Methodology/Principal findings A sequence corresponding to a mitochondrial S. mansoni minisatellite DNA region was selected as a target for designing a LAMP-based method to detect S. mansoni DNA in stool samples. We used a S. mansoni murine model to obtain well defined stool and sera samples from infected mice with S. mansoni cercariae. Samples were taken weekly from week 0 to 8 post-infection and the Kato-Katz and ELISA techniques were used for monitoring the infection. Primer set designed were tested using a commercial reaction mixture for LAMP assay and an in house mixture to compare results. Specificity of LAMP was tested using 16 DNA samples from different parasites, including several Schistosoma species, and no cross-reactions were found. The detection limit of our LAMP assay (SmMIT-LAMP) was 1 fg of S. mansoni DNA. When testing stool samples from infected mice the SmMIT-LAMP detected S. mansoni DNA as soon as 1 week post-infection. Conclusions/Significance We have developed, for the first time, a cost-effective, easy to perform, specific and sensitive LAMP assay for early detection of S. mansoni in stool samples. The method is potentially and readily adaptable for field diagnosis and disease surveillance in schistosomiasis-endemic areas. PMID:25187956

Fernández-Soto, Pedro; Gandasegui Arahuetes, Javier; Sánchez Hernández, Alicia; López Abán, Julio; Vicente Santiago, Belén; Muro, Antonio

2014-01-01

205

Rapid and Simple Method for Detecting the Toxin B Gene of Clostridium difficile in Stool Specimens by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification  

PubMed Central

We applied the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay to the detection of the toxin B gene (tcdB) of Clostridium difficile for identification of toxin B (TcdB)-positive C. difficile strains and detection of tcdB in stool specimens. tcdB was detected in all toxin A (TcdA)-positive, TcdB-positive (A+B+) and TcdA-negative, TcdB-positive (A?B+) C. difficile strains but not from TcdA-negative, TcdB-negative strains. Of the 74 stool specimens examined, A+B+ or A?B+ C. difficile was recovered from 39 specimens, of which 38 specimens were LAMP positive and one was negative. Amplification was obtained in 10 specimens that were culture negative, indicating that LAMP is highly sensitive. The LAMP assay was applied to detection of tcdB in DNA extracted by a simple boiling method from 47 of those 74 specimens, which were cultured overnight in cooked-meat medium (CMM). Twenty-two of 24 culture-positive specimens were positive for LAMP on DNA from the culture in CMM. Four specimens were culture negative but positive by LAMP on DNA from CMM cultures. The LAMP assay is a reliable tool for identification of TcdB-positive C. difficile as well as for direct detection of tcdB in stool specimens with high sensitivity. Detection of tcdB by LAMP from overnight cultures in CMM could be an alternative method of diagnostic testing at clinical laboratories without special apparatus. PMID:16333105

Kato, Haru; Yokoyama, Toshiyuki; Kato, Hideaki; Arakawa, Yoshichika

2005-01-01

206

Simple and rapid detection of swine hepatitis E virus by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification.  

PubMed

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an enteric pathogen of humans and animals, and pigs have been considered an important reservoir of this virus. Recent evidence has indicated the cross-species transmission of hepatitis E virus (HEV) from pigs to humans, causing zoonosis, mostly via consumption of uncooked or undercooked animal meat/viscera. In this study, we have developed a one-step RT-LAMP assay for rapid detection of swine HEV. Specific primer sets targeting the ORF3 gene were designed. The sensitivity of the RT-LAMP assay was 10(1) copies/?l of RNA template, which was tenfold higher than that of RT-nPCR. The specificity of this assay was demonstrated by the lack of amplification of DNA/RNA from other swine viruses. Furthermore, a total of 41 bile samples were subjected to RT-LAMP and RT-nPCR. Eighteen positive samples were detected by RT-nPCR, while 36 positive samples were detected by RT-LAMP, indicating that the sensitivity of the RT-LAMP assay was higher than that of the conventional RT-nPCR assay. The RT-LAMP assay reported here may be used for diagnosis of swine HEV, not only in laboratories but also under field conditions. PMID:22855125

Zhang, Liang-Quan; Zhao, Fu-Rong; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Kong, Wei-Li; Wang, Heng; Ouyang, Yun; Liang, Huan-Bin; Zhang, Chao-Yi; Qi, Hai-Tao; Huang, Chang-Li; Guo, Si-Hu; Zhang, Gui-Hong

2012-12-01

207

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for diagnosing Pneumocystis pneumonia in HIV-uninfected immunocompromised patients with pulmonary infiltrates.  

PubMed

Loop-mediated isothermal ampli?cation (LAMP) is becoming an established nucleic acid ampli?cation method offering rapid, accurate, and cost-effective diagnosis of infectious diseases. We retrospectively evaluated 78 consecutive HIV-uninfected patients who underwent LAMP method for diagnosing Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP). Diagnosis of PCP was made by the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii (P. jirovecii) with positive LAMP or conventional staining (CS) (Grocott methenamine silver staining or Diff-Quick™) on the basis of compatible clinical symptoms and radiologic findings. Additionally, we reviewed HIV-uninfected immunocompromised patients who underwent subcontract PCR as a historical control. LAMP was positive in 10 (90.9%) of 11 positive-CS patients. Among 13 negative-CS patients with positive LAMP, 11 (84.6%) had PCP, and the remaining 2 were categorized as having P. jirovecii colonization. LDH levels in negative-CS PCP were higher than in positive-CS PCP (p = 0.026). (1 ? 3)-?-D-glucan levels in negative-CS PCP were lower than in positive-CS PCP (p = 0.011). The interval from symptom onset to diagnosis as PCP in LAMP group (3.45 ± 1.77 days; n = 22) was shorter than in subcontract PCR group (6.90 ± 2.28 days; n = 10; p < 0.001). As for patients without PCP, duration of unnecessary PCP treatment in LAMP group (2; 2-3 days; n = 10) was shorter than in subcontract PCR group (7; 7-12.25 days; n = 6; p = 0.003). LAMP showed higher sensitivity (95.4%) and positive predictive value (91.3%) than subcontract PCR did. Pneumocystis LAMP method is a sensitive and cost-effective diagnostic method and is easy to administer in general hospitals. In-house LAMP method would realize early diagnosis of PCP, resulting in improving PCP prognosis and reducing unnecessary PCP-specific treatment. PMID:25187511

Nakashima, Kei; Aoshima, Masahiro; Ohkuni, Yoshihiro; Hoshino, Eri; Hashimoto, Kohei; Otsuka, Yoshihito

2014-12-01

208

Development and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the rapid detection of porcine cytomegalovirus under field conditions  

PubMed Central

Background Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) induces silent infection in adult pigs but more frequently causes fatal, generalized infection in newborn piglets. This study aimed to develop a new loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for the sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive detection of PCMV under field conditions. Methods Tissue obtained from nine-week-old PCMV-free Landrace pigs or pig samples from postmortem examinations were analyzed. The samples were found to have clinical signs and lesions consistent with inclusion body rhinitis. Six specific primers were designed by targeting the PCMV DNA polymerase (DPOL) DNA. The LAMP reaction was optimized in a water bath. The sensitivity and specificity of LAMP and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were compared. Results PCMV DNA was amplified at 65°C, and the result could be detected as early as 30 min into the reaction. Positive reactions could be visualized by the naked eye as a color change brought on by the addition of SYBR Green. The sensitivity and specificity of LAMP were found to be similar to those of the PCR. Conclusions LAMP is a high-throughput technique for the detection of PCMV and has a high specificity, sensitivity and simplicity; these factors make it suitable for detection of PCMV under field conditions. PMID:23272902

2012-01-01

209

Development of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid detection of an emerging potyvirus: tomato necrotic stunt virus.  

PubMed

Tomato necrotic stunt virus (ToNStV) is an emerging potyvirus that causes severe stunting to infected tomato plants. A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for sensitive detection of ToNStV. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP was comparable to that of conventional RT-PCR, with detection of ToNStV in a reaction containing only 8 pg of total tomato RNA or with 1:20,000 dilution of crude tissue extract. This assay was able to detect ToNStV in a broad range of solanaceous plant species. The RT-LAMP for ToNStV was specific with no cross-reactivity to other potyviruses (i.e. Potato virus Y and Tobacco etch virus), as well as several other common tomato viruses. RT-LAMP should complement RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR assays reported previously, with a potential to provide a simple, rapid, and sensitive field diagnostic method for ToNStV. PMID:24503040

Li, Rugang; Ling, Kai-Shu

2014-05-01

210

Rapid and sensitive detection of shrimp infectious myonecrosis virus using a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification and visual colorogenic nanogold hybridization probe assay.  

PubMed

This study reports a novel strategy for the detection of reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) products derived from infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), causes a serious myonecrosis in Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, by using a ssDNA-labeled with gold nanoparticle (AuNP) probe. This technique relies on a self-aggregation method, when the AuNP aggregation is induced by an increasing of salt concentrations with visual detection. The presence of IMNV-LAMP target prevented an AuNP aggregation and a solution remained as pink color of AuNP, while non-complementary targets cannot prevent AuNP aggregation, resulting in a visible color change to purple color after addition of salt. By using the combination of LAMP and AuNP probe system, the total assay interval required approximately 50 min (exclude RNA preparation). Detection limit was 10 copies of IMNV RNA in vitro transcript that comparable to that of LAMP followed by LFD and nested RT-PCR, but it was 100-times more sensitive than RT-PCR methods. This assay can be adapted easily for rapid detection of other shrimp infectious diseases agents at low-cost with robust reagents and using a simple colorimetric detection method. PMID:23876366

Arunrut, Narong; Kampeera, Jantana; Suebsing, Rungkarn; Kiatpathomchai, Wansika

2013-11-01

211

Development and evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for rapid detection of Clonorchis sinensis from its first intermediate hosts, freshwater snails.  

PubMed

Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis, is a key foodborne zoonosis, which is mainly found in China, Korea and Vietnam. Detection of this parasite from the second intermediate host, the freshwater fish is the common method for epidemiological surveys of this parasite, but is time consuming, labour intensive and easily leads to misdiagnosis. In this study, we have developed a rapid, sensitive and reliable molecular method for the diagnosis of C. sinensis from its first intermediate hosts, freshwater snails, based on a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. The specific amplified fragment from genomic DNA of C. sinensis did not cross-react with those from other relevant trematodes and a range of hosts (freshwater fish, shrimps and snails) of C. sinensis living in similar environments. The detection limit of the LAMP method was as low as 10 fg which was 1000 times more sensitive than conventional PCR, which was also demonstrated by successful application to field samples. These results show that the LAMP method is a more sensitive tool than conventional PCR for the detection of C. sinensis infection in the first intermediate hosts and, due to a simpler protocol, is an ideal molecular method for field-based epidemiological surveys of this parasite. PMID:23870065

Chen, Y; Wen, T; Lai, D-H; Wen, Y-Z; Wu, Z-D; Yang, T-B; Yu, X-B; Hide, G; Lun, Z-R

2013-09-01

212

A Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) Assay for Strongyloides stercoralis in Stool That Uses a Visual Detection Method with SYTO-82 Fluorescent Dye  

PubMed Central

An assay to detect Strongyloides stercoralis in stool specimens was developed using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. Primers were based on the 28S ribosomal subunit gene. The reaction conditions were optimized and SYTO-82 fluorescent dye was used to allow real-time and visual detection of the product. The product identity was confirmed with restriction enzyme digestion, cloning, and sequence analysis. The assay was specific when tested against DNA from bacteria, fungi and parasites, and 30 normal stool samples. Analytical sensitivity was to < 10 copies of target sequence in a plasmid and up to a 10-2 dilution of DNA extracted from a Strongyloides ratti larva spiked into stool. Sensitivity was increased when further dilutions were made in water, indicative of reduced reaction inhibition. Twenty-seven of 28 stool samples microscopy and polymerase chain reaction positive for S. stercoralis were positive with the LAMP method. On the basis of these findings, the assay warrants further clinical validation. PMID:24323513

Watts, Matthew R.; James, Gregory; Sultana, Yasmin; Ginn, Andrew N.; Outhred, Alexander C.; Kong, Fanrong; Verweij, Jaco J.; Iredell, Jonathan R.; Chen, Sharon C-A.; Lee, Rogan

2014-01-01

213

A loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Strongyloides stercoralis in stool that uses a visual detection method with SYTO-82 fluorescent dye.  

PubMed

An assay to detect Strongyloides stercoralis in stool specimens was developed using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method. Primers were based on the 28S ribosomal subunit gene. The reaction conditions were optimized and SYTO-82 fluorescent dye was used to allow real-time and visual detection of the product. The product identity was confirmed with restriction enzyme digestion, cloning, and sequence analysis. The assay was specific when tested against DNA from bacteria, fungi and parasites, and 30 normal stool samples. Analytical sensitivity was to < 10 copies of target sequence in a plasmid and up to a 10(-2) dilution of DNA extracted from a Strongyloides ratti larva spiked into stool. Sensitivity was increased when further dilutions were made in water, indicative of reduced reaction inhibition. Twenty-seven of 28 stool samples microscopy and polymerase chain reaction positive for S. stercoralis were positive with the LAMP method. On the basis of these findings, the assay warrants further clinical validation. PMID:24323513

Watts, Matthew R; James, Gregory; Sultana, Yasmin; Ginn, Andrew N; Outhred, Alexander C; Kong, Fanrong; Verweij, Jaco J; Iredell, Jonathan R; Chen, Sharon C-A; Lee, Rogan

2014-02-01

214

[Establish and optimization of real-time fluorescent reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of avian influenza H5 hemagglutinin gene].  

PubMed

H5 subtype avian influenza (AIV-H5) is a major causative agent of animalloimia a rapid and sensitive molecular biological diagnosis is crucial to the control program of AIV-H5. AIV-H5 real-time fluorescent reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (qRT-LAMP) was established by means of heat treatment of the samples. The sensitivity, specificity and repeatability of this method were assessed and the performance of Calcein,SYBR Green I,HNB,SYTO 81 in colorimetric detection was comparatively analyzed to screen the optimum dye. The results showed the sensitivity of this method was 100 times higher than that of standard real-time fluorescent RT-PCR, and the detection limit was one copy of the gene per reaction. This method had no cross-reactivity with other common avian respiratory tract infectious disease-related pathogens such as IBV and NDV. The present study suggested Calcein was the optimum dye. Small-scale tests suggested this method was reliable for survey monitoring of AIV-H5 on the spot, indicating its potential applications in field investigation. PMID:24386836

Liu, Yun; Tang, Jin-ming; Tao, Hong; Sun, Jie; Lu, Ti-kang; Liao, Li-shan; Liu, Jian-li; Zeng, Shao-ling; Cao, Chen-fu; Zhang, Cai-hong; Ruan, Zhou-xi; Lv, Jian-qiang; Yang, Jun-xing; Hua, Qun-yi; Chen, Zheng-li; Qin, Zhi-feng

2013-09-01

215

Visual Detection and Evaluation of Latent and Lytic Gene Expression during Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Using One-Step Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification  

PubMed Central

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated disease exhibits distinct gene expression patterns characterized by the transcription of EBV nuclear antigen (EBNA) 1, EBNA2, latent membrane protein (LMP) 1, LMP2A, and BZLF1 (Zebra). A series of visual reverse transcript loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assays were performed to examine the expression of EBNA1, EBNA2, LMP1, LMP2A and BZLF1. The sensitivity of RT-LAMP for these transcripts was approximately equivalent to real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR), which was developed to quantify relative levels of EBV transcripts, and 10 to 100-fold more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR. Cross-reactions to other viruses were not observed upon examination of cell lines infected with herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2 (HSV-1 and -2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) or Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus. When applied to 146 specimens, RT-LAMP exhibited high clinical sensitivity and specificity, with an excellent agreement (? > 0.92) compared to RT-qPCR. These assays are convenient for rapid early diagnosis and for surveillance of EBV-infected individuals by evaluating the EBV transcriptional profile, because the results can be visualized with the naked eye. These assays may be employed in further investigations because they can aid the design of improved therapeutic regimens and can be used specifically in resource-poor settings. PMID:24351866

Liu, Xiaoying; Tang, Jingfeng; Wang, Man; Ma, Qiang; Wang, Yefu

2013-01-01

216

Visual detection of canine parvovirus based on loop-mediated isothermal amplification combined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and with lateral flow dipstick.  

PubMed

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (LAMP-ELISA) and with lateral flow dipstick (LAMP-LFD) are rapid, sensitive and specific methods for the visual detection of clinical pathogens. In this study, LAMP-ELISA and LAMP-LFD were developed for the visual detection of canine parvovirus (CPV). For LAMP, a set of four primers (biotin-labeled forward inner primers) was designed to specifically amplify a region of the VP2 gene of CPV. The optimum time and temperature for LAMP were 60 min and 65°C, respectively. The specific capture oligonucleotide probes, biotin-labeled CPV probe for LAMP-ELISA and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled CPV probe for LAMP-LFD were also designed for hybridization with LAMP amplicons on streptavidin-coated wells and LFD strips, respectively. For the comparison of detection sensitivity, conventional PCR and LAMP for CPV detection were also performed. The CPV detection limits by PCR, PCR-ELISA, LAMP, LAMP-ELISA and LAMP-LFD were 10(2), 10(2), 10(-1), 10(-1) and 10(-1) TCID50/ml, respectively. In tests using artificially contaminated dog fecal samples, the samples with CPV inoculation levels of ?1 TCID50/ml gave positive results by both LAMP-ELISA and LAMP-LFD. Our data indicated that both LAMP-ELISA and LAMP-LFD are promising as rapid, sensitive and specific methods for an efficient diagnosis of CPV infection. PMID:24334855

Sun, Yu-Ling; Yen, Chon-Ho; Tu, Ching-Fu

2014-04-01

217

Detection of microRNA in clinical tumor samples by isothermal enzyme-free amplification and label-free graphene oxide-based SYBR Green I fluorescence platform.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a kind of small molecules that involve in many important life activities. They have higher expression levels in many kinds of cancers. In this study, we developed an isothermal enzyme-free amplification (EFA) and label-free graphene oxide (GO)-based SYBR Green I fluorescence platform for detection of miRNA. MiRNA-21 was used as an example to demonstrate the feasibility of the method. Results show that the sensitivity of miRNA-21 is 1pM, and the linearity range is from 1pM to 1nM. The method can specifically discriminate miRNA-21 from miRNA-210 and miRNA-214. Three tumor cell lines of A549, HepG2 and MCF7 were detected by the method. The sensitivities of them were 10(2) cells, 10(3) cells and 10(3) cells respectively. Clinical tumor samples were also tested by this method, and 29 of 40 samples gave out positive signals. The method holds great promise in miRNA detection due to its convenience, rapidness, inexpensive and specificity. PMID:25461151

Zhu, Debin; Zhang, Lan; Ma, Wenge; Lu, Suqin; Xing, Xiaobo

2014-10-19

218

Evaluation of three enzyme immunoassays and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification test for the laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection.  

PubMed

The laboratory diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) consists of the detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile, and/or its toxins A or B in stool preferably in a two-step algorithm. In a prospective study, we compared the performance of three toxin enzyme immunoassays (EIAs)-ImmunoCard Toxins A & B, Premier Toxins A & B and C. diff Quik Chek Complete, which combines a toxins test and a glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) antigen EIA in one device -and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay Illumigene C. difficile. In total 986 stool samples were analyzed. Compared with toxigenic culture as the gold standard, sensitivities, specificities, PPV and NPV values of the toxin EIAs were 41.1-54.8 %, 98.9-100 %, 75.0-100 % and 95.5-96.5 % respectively, of the Illumigene assay 93.3 %, 99.7 %, 95.8 % and 99.5 %. Illumigene assays performed significantly better for non-014/020 PCR-ribotypes than for C. difficile isolates belonging to 014/020. Discrepant analysis of three culture-negative, but Illumigene-positive samples, revealed the presence of toxin genes using real-time PCRs. In addition to the GDH EIA (NPV of 99.8 %), the performance of Illumigene allows this test to be introduced as a first screening test for CDI- or as a confirmation test for GDH -positive samples, although the initial invalid Illumigene result of 4.4 % is a point of concern. PMID:22706512

Bruins, M J; Verbeek, E; Wallinga, J A; Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, L E S; Kuijper, E J; Bloembergen, P

2012-11-01

219

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Detection of Generic and Verocytotoxin-Producing Escherichia coli among Indigenous Individuals in Malaysia  

PubMed Central

We have successfully developed a Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay that could specifically detect generic Escherichia coli (E. coli). This assay was tested on 85 bacterial strains and successfully identified 54 E. coli strains (average threshold time, Tt = 21.26). The sensitivity of this assay was evaluated on serial dilutions of bacterial cultures and spiked faeces. The assay could detect 102?CFU/mL for bacterial culture with Tt = 33.30 while the detection limit for spiked faeces was 103?CFU/mL (Tt = 31.12). We have also detected 46 generic E. coli from 50 faecal samples obtained from indigenous individuals with 16% of the positive samples being verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) positive. VT1/VT2 allele was present in one faecal sample while the ratio of VT1 to VT2 was 6?:?1. Overall, our study had demonstrated high risk of VTEC infection among the indigenous community and most of the asymptomatic infection occurred among those aged below 15 years. The role of asymptomatic human carriers as a source of dissemination should not be underestimated. Large scale screening of the VTEC infection among indigenous populations and the potential contamination sources will be possible and easy with the aid of this newly developed rapid and simple LAMP assay. PMID:24967435

Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Chua, Kek Heng; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Lee, Soo Ching; Thong, Kwai Lin

2014-01-01

220

Single rapid real-time monitored isothermal RNA amplification assay for quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from groups M, N, and O.  

PubMed

Because human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) are spreading rapidly worldwide and are becoming less confined to a geographical area, RNA assays that can detect and quantify all HIV-1 isolates reliably are in demand. We have developed a fast, real-time monitored RNA assay based on an isothermal nucleic acid sequence-based amplification technology that amplifies a part of the long terminal repeat region of the HIV-1 genome. Real-time detection was possible due to the addition of molecular beacons to the amplification reaction that was monitored in a fluorimeter with a thermostat. The lower level of detection of the assay was 10 HIV-1 RNA molecules per reaction, and the lower level of quantification was 100 copies of HIV-1 RNA with a dynamic range of linear quantification between 10(2) and 10(7) RNA molecules. All HIV-1 groups, subtypes, and CRFs could be detected and quantified with equal efficiency, including the group N isolate YBF30 and the group O isolate ANT70. To test the clinical utility of the assay, a series of 62 serum samples containing viruses that encompassed subtypes A through G and CRFs AE and AG of HIV-1 group M were analyzed, and these results were compared to the results of a commercially available assay. This comparison showed that the quantification results correlated highly (R(2) = 0.735) for those subtypes that could be well quantified by both assays (subtypes B, C, D, and F), whereas improved quantification was obtained for subtypes A and G and CRFs AE and AG. A retrospective study with six individuals infected with either a subtype A, B, C, or D or an AG isolate of HIV-1 group M, who were treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy, revealed that the assay was well suited to the monitoring of therapy effects. In conclusion, the newly developed real-time monitored HIV-1 assay is a fast and sensitive assay with a large dynamic range of quantification and is suitable for quantification of most if not all subtypes and groups of HIV-1. PMID:11283059

de Baar, M P; van Dooren, M W; de Rooij, E; Bakker, M; van Gemen, B; Goudsmit, J; de Ronde, A

2001-04-01

221

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Rickettsia typhi (the Causal Agent of Murine Typhus): Problems with Diagnosis at the Limit of Detection  

PubMed Central

Murine typhus is a flea-borne disease of worldwide distribution caused by Rickettsia typhi. Although treatment with tetracycline antibiotics is effective, treatment is often misguided or delayed due to diagnostic difficulties. As the gold standard immunofluorescence assay is imperfect, we aimed to develop and evaluate a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay. LAMP assays have the potential to fulfill the WHO ASSURED criteria (affordable, sensitive, specific, user friendly, robust and rapid, equipment free, deliverable to those who need them) for diagnostic methodologies, as they can detect pathogen-derived nucleic acid with low technical expenditure. The LAMP assay was developed using samples of bacterial isolates (n = 41), buffy coat specimens from R. typhi PCR-positive Lao patients (n = 42), and diverse negative controls (n = 47). The method was then evaluated prospectively using consecutive patients with suspected scrub typhus or murine typhus (n = 266). The limit of detection was ?40 DNA copies/LAMP reaction, with an analytical sensitivity of <10 DNA copies/reaction based on isolate dilutions. Despite these low cutoffs, the clinical sensitivity was disappointing, with 48% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 32.5 to 62.7%) (specificity, 100% [95% CI, 100 to 100%]) in the developmental phase and 33% (95% CI, 9.2 to 56.8%) (specificity, 98.5% [95% CI, 97.0% to 100%]) in the prospective study. This low diagnostic accuracy was attributed to low patient R. typhi bacterial loads (median, 210 DNA copies/ml blood; interquartile range, 130 to 500). PCR-positive but LAMP-negative samples demonstrated significantly lower bacterial loads than LAMP-positive samples. Our findings highlight the diagnostic challenges for diseases with low pathogen burdens and emphasize the need to integrate pathogen biology with improved template production for assay development strategies. PMID:24371248

Dittrich, Sabine; Castonguay-Vanier, Josée; Moore, Catrin E.; Thongyoo, Narongchai; Newton, Paul N.

2014-01-01

222

Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Bartonella bacilliformis in Experimentally Infected Sand Flies by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) of the Pap31 Gene  

PubMed Central

Background Carrion' disease, caused by Bartonella bacilliformis, remains truly neglected due to its focal geographical nature. A wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including asymptomatic bacteremia, and lack of a sensitive diagnostic test can potentially lead to a spread of the disease into non-endemic regions where competent sand fly vectors may be present. A reliable test capable of detecting B. bacilliformis is urgently needed. Our objective is to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the pap31 gene to detect B. bacilliformis. Methods and Findings The sensitivity of the LAMP was evaluated in comparison to qPCR using plasmid DNA containing the target gene and genomic DNA in the absence and presence of human or sand fly DNA. The detection limit of LAMP was 1 to 10 copies/µL, depending on the sample metrics. No cross-reaction was observed when testing against a panel of various closely related bacteria. The utility of the LAMP was further compared to qPCR by the examination of 74 Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies artificially fed on blood spiked with B. bacilliformis and harvested at days (D) 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 post feeding. Only 86% of sand flies at D1 and 63% of flies at D3 were positive by qPCR. LAMP was able to detect B. bacilliformis in all those flies confirmed positive by qPCR. However, none of the flies after D3 were positive by either LAMP or qPCR. In addition to demonstrating the sensitivity of the LAMP assay, these results suggest that B. bacilliformis cannot propagate in artificially fed L. longipalpis. Conclusions The LAMP assay is as sensitive as qPCR for the detection of B. bacilliformis and could be useful to support diagnosis of patients in low-resource settings and also to identify B. bacilliformis in the sand fly vector. PMID:25522230

Angkasekwinai, Nasikarn; Atkins, Erin H.; Johnson, Richard N.; Grieco, John P.; Ching, Wei Mei; Chao, Chien Chung

2014-01-01

223

Real-time loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for group specific detection of important trichothecene producing Fusarium species in wheat.  

PubMed

Trichothecene mycotoxins such as deoxynivaneol (DON), nivalenol (NIV) and T2-Toxin are produced by a variety of Fusarium spp. on cereals in the field and may be ingested by consumption of commodities and products made thereof. The toxins inhibit eukaryotic protein biosynthesis and may thus impair human and animal health. Aimed at rapid and sensitive detection of the most important trichothecene producing Fusarium spp. in a single analysis, a real-time duplex loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was set up. Two sets of LAMP primers were designed independently to amplify a partial sequence of the tri6 gene in Fusarium (F.) graminearum and of the tri5 gene in Fusarium sporotrichioides, respectively. Each of the two sets detected a limited number of the established trichothecene producing Fusarium-species. However, combination of the two sets in one duplex assay enabled detection of F. graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium cerealis, F. sporotrichioides, Fusarium langsethiae and Fusarium poae in a group specific manner. No cross reactions were detected with purified DNA from 127 other fungal species or with cereal DNA. To demonstrate the usefulness of the assay, 100 wheat samples collected from all over the German state of Bavaria were analyzed for the trichothecene mycotoxin DON by HPLC and for the presence of trichothecene producers by the new real-time duplex LAMP assay in parallel analyses. The LAMP assay showed positive results for all samples with a DON concentration exceeding 163ppb. The major advantage of the duplex LAMP assay is that the presence of six of the major trichothecene producing Fusarium spp. can be detected in a rapid and user-friendly manner with only one single assay. To our knowledge this is the first report of the use of a multiplex LAMP assay for fungal organisms. PMID:24631635

Denschlag, Carla; Rieder, Johann; Vogel, Rudi F; Niessen, Ludwig

2014-05-01

224

Establishment and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for the semi-quantitative detection of HIV-1 group M virus.  

PubMed

The past decade has witnessed a dramatic increase of anti-retroviral treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients in many African countries. Due to costs and lack of currently available commercial viral load assays, insufficient attention has been paid to therapy monitoring through measurement of plasma viral load. This challenge of patient monitoring by tests as viral load, CD4 cell count, and finally HIV drug resistance could reverse achievements already made against HIV/AIDS infection. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has been shown to be simple, rapid and cost-effective, characteristics which make this assay suitable for viral load monitoring in resource limited settings. This paper describes a revised LAMP assay using primers in the HIV-1 integrase region. The assay can be used for semi-quantitative measurement of HIV-1 group M viral load. The lower limit of detection (LLOD) was determined as 1200copies/mL and lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) at 9800copies/mL. Sensitivities of 82 and 86% (in 135 and 99 plasma samples respectively from Kenya) and 93% (in 112 plasma samples from Germany) and specificities of 99 and 100% were realized. HIV-1 group O and HIV-2 virus samples were not detected. This LAMP assay has the potential for semi-quantitation of HIV-1 group M viral load in resource limited countries. There is still a need for further improvement by refinement of primers in respect to detection of HIV-1 group M non-B virus. PMID:25445795

Odari, Eddy Okoth; Maiyo, Alex; Lwembe, Raphael; Gurtler, Lutz; Eberle, Josef; Nitschko, Hans

2015-02-01

225

Detection of Panton-Valentine Leukocidin DNA from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by resistive pulse sensing and loop-mediated isothermal amplification with gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

This report describes a novel diagnostic assay for rapid detection of the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) toxin of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) utilizing resistive pulse sensing (RPS), loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) in combination with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). The PVL DNA from MRSA was specifically amplified by LAMP using four primers at one temperature (65 °C). The DNA products with biotin were then conjugated to a first AuNP1 (55±2 nm) through biotin-avidin binding. A second AuNP2 (30±1.5 nm) coated with a specific DNA probe hybridized with the LAMP DNA products at the loop region to enhance assay sensitivity and specificity, to generate supra-AuNP1-DNA-AuNP2 assemblies. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of these supra-assemblies. Using RPS, detection and quantitation of the agglomerated AuNPs were performed by a tunable fluidic nanopore sensor. The results demonstrate that the LAMP-based RPS sensor is sensitive and rapid for detecting the PVL DNA. This technique could achieve a limit of detection (LOD) up to about 500 copies of genomic DNA from the bacteria MRSA MW2 and the detection can be completed within two hours with a straightforward signal-to-readout setup. It is anticipated that this LAMP-based AuNP RPS may become an effective tool for MRSA detection and a potential platform in clinical laboratory to report the presence or absence of other types of infectious agents. PMID:23708283

Yang, Alice Kar Lai; Lu, Haifei; Wu, Shu Yuen; Kwok, Ho Chin; Ho, Ho Pui; Yu, Samuel; Cheung, Anthony Ka Lun; Kong, Siu Kai

2013-06-11

226

Visual endpoint detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 using isothermal Genome Exponential Amplification Reaction (GEAR) assay and malachite green.  

PubMed

Rapid and specific detection methods for bacterial agents in drinking water are important for disease prevention and responding to suspected contamination events. In this study, an isothermal Genome Exponential Amplification Reaction (GEAR) assay for Escherichia coli O157:H7 was designed specifically to recognize a 199-bp fragment of the lipopolysaccharide gene (rfbE) for rapid testing of water samples. The GEAR assay was found to be specific for E. coli O157:H7 using 10 isolates of E. coli O157:H7 and a panel of 86 bacterial controls. The GEAR assay was performed at a constant temperature of 65°C using SYTO 9 intercalating dye. Detection limits were determined to be 20 CFU for the GEAR assay. When SYTO 9 fluorescence was measured using a real-time PCR instrument, the assay had the same detection limit as when malachite green was added to the reaction mix and a characteristic blue color was visually observed in positive reactions. The study also found that 50 and 20 CFU of E. coli O157:H7 seeded into 100-liter of tap water could be detected by the GEAR assays after the sample was concentrated by hollow-fiber ultrafiltration (HFUF) and approximately 10% of HFUF concentrate was cultured using trypticase soy broth-novobiocin. When applied to 19 surface water samples collected from Tennessee and Kentucky, the GEAR assay and a published real-time PCR assay both detected E. coli O157:H7 in two of the samples. The results of this study indicate that the GEAR assay can be sensitive for rapid detection of E. coli O157:H7 in water samples using fluorometric instruments and visual endpoint determination. PMID:24424127

Jothikumar, Prithiviraj; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Hill, Vincent R

2014-03-01

227

Rapid and Sensitive Detection of H7N9 Avian Influenza Virus by Use of Reverse Transcription–Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification  

PubMed Central

An epidemic of human H7N9 influenza virus infection recently emerged in China whose clinical features include high mortality and which has also resulted in serious economic loss. The novel reassortant avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus which was the causative agent of this epidemic raised the possibility of triggering a large-scale influenza pandemic worldwide. It seemed likely that fast molecular detection assays specific for this virus would be in great demand. Here, we report a one-step reverse transcription–loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method for rapid detection of the hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of H7N9 virus, the minimum detection limit of which was evaluated using in vitro RNA transcription templates. In total, 135 samples from clinical specimens (from either patients or poultry) were tested using this method in comparison with the real-time PCR recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Our results showed that (i) RT-LAMP-based trials can be completed in approximately 12 to 23 min and (ii) the detection limit for the H7 gene is around 10 copies per reaction, similar to that of the real-time PCR, whereas the detection limit for its counterpart the N9 gene is 5 copies per reaction, a 100-fold-higher sensitivity than the WHO-recommended method. Indeed, this excellent performance of our method was also validated by the results for a series of clinical specimens. Therefore, we believe that the simple, fast, and sensitive method of RT-LAMP might be widely applied for detection of H7N9 infections and may play a role in prevention of an influenza pandemic. PMID:24006004

Zhang, Jinhai; Feng, Youjun; Hu, Dan; Lv, Heng; Zhu, Jing; Cao, Min; Zheng, Feng; Zhu, Jin; Gong, Xiufang; Hao, Lina; Srinivas, Swaminath; Ren, Hao; Qi, Zhongtian

2013-01-01

228

Most-probable-number loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based procedure enhanced with K antigen-specific immunomagnetic separation for quantifying tdh(+) Vibrio parahaemolyticus in molluscan Shellfish.  

PubMed

Although thermostable direct hemolysin-producing (tdh(+)) Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis, the enumeration of tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus remains challenging due to its low densities in the environment. In this study, we developed a most-probable-number (MPN)-based procedure designated A-IS(1)-LAMP, in which an immunomagnetic separation (IMS) technique targeting as many as 69 established K antigens and a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh) gene were applied in an MPN format. Our IMS employed PickPen, an eight-channel intrasolution magnetic particle separation device, which enabled a straightforward microtiter plate-based IMS procedure (designated as PickPen-IMS). The ability of the procedure to quantify a wide range of tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus levels was evaluated by testing shellfish samples in Japan and southern Thailand, where shellfish products are known to contain relatively low and high levels of total V. parahaemolyticus, respectively. The Japanese and Thai shellfish samples showed, respectively, relatively low (< 3 to 11 MPN/10 g) and considerably higher (930 to 110,000 MPN/10 g) levels of tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus, raising concern about the safety of Thai shellfish products sold to domestic consumers at local morning markets. LAMP showed similar or higher performance than conventional PCR in the detection and quantification of a wide range of tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus levels in shellfish products. Whereas a positive effect of PickPen-IMS was not observed in MPN determination, PickPen-IMS was able to concentrate tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus 32-fold on average from the Japanese shellfish samples at an individual tube level, suggesting a possibility of using PickPen-IMS as an optional tool for specific shellfish samples. The A-IS(1)-LAMP procedure can be used by any health authority in the world to measure the tdh(+) V. parahaemolyticus levels in shellfish products. PMID:24988012

Tanaka, Natsuko; Iwade, Yoshito; Yamazaki, Wataru; Gondaira, Fumio; Vuddhakul, Varaporn; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki

2014-07-01

229

Pepino mosaic virus genotype shift in North America and development of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid genotype identification  

PubMed Central

Background Pepino mosaic, once an emerging disease a decade ago, has become endemic on greenhouse tomatoes worldwide in recent years. Three distinct genotypes of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), including EU, US1 and CH2 have been recognized. Our earlier study conducted in 2006–2007 demonstrated a predominant EU genotype in Canada and United States. The objective of the present study was to monitor the dynamic of PepMV genetic composition and its current status in North America. Results Through yearly monitoring efforts in 2009–2012, we detected a dramatic shift in the prevalent genotype of PepMV from the genotype EU to CH2 in North America since early 2010, with another shift from CH2 to US1 occurring in Mexico only two years later. Through genetic diversity analysis using the coat protein gene, such genotype shifting of PepMV in North America was linked to the positive identification of similar sequence variants in two different commercial tomato seed sources used for scion and rootstock, respectively. To allow for a quick identification, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) system was developed and demonstrated to achieve a rapid identification for each of the three genotypes of PepMV, EU, US1 and CH2. Conclusion Through systemic yearly monitoring and genetic diversity analysis, we identified a linkage between the field epidemic isolates and those from commercial tomato seed lots as the likely sources of initial PepMV inoculum that resulted in genetic shifting as observed on greenhouse tomatoes in North America. Application of the genotype-specific RT-LAMP system would allow growers to efficiently determine the genetic diversity on their crops. PMID:23587202

2013-01-01

230

An aptamer-based bio-barcode assay with isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification for cytochrome-c detection and anti-cancer drug screening.  

PubMed

Based on a recently reported ultra-sensitive bio-barcode (BBC) assay, we have developed an aptamer-based bio-barcode (ABC) alternative to detect a cell death marker cytochrome-c (Cyto-c) and its subsequent application to screen anti-cancer drugs. Aptamer is a short single-stranded DNA selected from a synthetic DNA library by virtue of its high binding affinity and specificity to its target based on its unique 3D structure from the nucleotide sequence after folding. In the BBC assay, an antigen (Ag) in analytes is captured by a micro-magnetic particle (MMP) coated with capturing antibodies (Abs). Gold nanoparticles (NPs) with another recognition Ab against the same target and hundreds of identical DNA molecules of known sequence are subsequently added to allow the formation of sandwich structures ([MMP-Ab1]-Ag-[Ab2-NP-DNA]). After isolating the sandwiches by a magnetic field, the DNAs hybridized to their complementary DNAs covalently bound on the NPs are released from the sandwiches after heating. Acting as an Ag identification tag, these bio-barcode DNAs with known DNA sequence are then amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and detected by fluorescence. In our ABC assay, we employed a Cyto-c-specific aptamer to substitute both the recognition Ab and barcode DNAs on the NPs in the BBC assay; and a novel isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification for the time-consuming PCR. The detection limit of our ABC assay for the Cyto-c was found to be 10 ng/mL and this new assay can be completed within 3h. Several potential anti-cancer drugs have been tested in vitro for their efficacy to kill liver cancer with or without multi-drug resistance. PMID:24054573

Loo, Jacky F C; Lau, P M; Ho, H P; Kong, S K

2013-10-15

231

Evaluation of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Suite for the Rapid, Reliable, and Robust Detection of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli in Produce  

PubMed Central

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains are a leading cause of produce-associated outbreaks in the United States. Rapid, reliable, and robust detection methods are needed to better ensure produce safety. We recently developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) suite for STEC detection. In this study, the STEC LAMP suite was comprehensively evaluated against real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) using a large panel of bacterial strains (n = 156) and various produce items (several varieties of lettuce, spinach, and sprouts). To simulate real-world contamination events, produce samples were surface inoculated with a low level (1.2 to 1.8 CFU/25 g) of individual STEC strains belonging to seven serogroups (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145, and O157) and held at 4°C for 48 h before testing. Six DNA extraction methods were also compared using produce enrichment broths. All STEC targets and their subtypes were accurately detected by the LAMP suite. The detection limits were 1 to 20 cells per reaction in pure culture and 105 to 106 CFU per 25 g (i.e., 103 to 104 CFU per g) in produce, except for strains harboring the stx2c, eae-?, and eae-? subtypes. After 6 to 8 h of enrichment, the LAMP suite achieved accurate detection of low levels of STEC strains of various stx2 and eae subtypes in lettuce and spinach varieties but not in sprouts. A similar trend of detection was observed for qPCR. The PrepMan Ultra sample preparation reagent yielded the best results among the six DNA extraction methods. This research provided a rapid, reliable, and robust method for detecting STEC in produce during routine sampling and testing. The challenge with sprouts detection by both LAMP and qPCR calls for special attention to further analysis. PMID:24509927

Wang, Fei; Yang, Qianru; Qu, Yinzhi; Meng, Jianghong

2014-01-01

232

Determination of the prevalence of African trypanosome species in indigenous dogs of Mambwe district, eastern Zambia, by loop-mediated isothermal amplification  

PubMed Central

Background Dogs have been implicated to serve as links for parasite exchange between livestock and humans and remain an important source of emerging and re-emerging diseases including trypanosome infections. Yet, canine African trypanosomosis (CAT), particularly in indigenous dogs (mongrel breed) remains under- reported in literature. This study evaluated the performance of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in detecting trypanosomes in blood from indigenous dogs of tsetse-infested Mambwe district in eastern Zambia. Methods A cross sectional survey of CAT was conducted within 5 chiefdoms (Msoro, Kakumbi, Munkanya, Nsefu, Malama) of Mambwe district, eastern Zambia, during October 2012. Blood samples from 237 indigenous hunting dogs were collected and screened by microscopy and LAMP. Results Of the 237 dogs screened for CAT, 14 tested positive by microscopy (5.9%; 95% CI: 2.9 – 8.9%), all of which also tested positive by LAMP. In addition, LAMP detected 6 additional CAT cases, bringing the total cases detected by LAMP to 20 (8.4%; 95% CI: 4.9 – 12.0%). Irrespective of the detection method used, CAT was only recorded from 3 chiefdoms (Munkanya, Nsefu, Malama) out of the 5. According to LAMP, these infections were caused by Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma brucei brucei and the zoonotic Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. Although these CAT cases generally did not manifest clinical illness, an association was observed between infection with Trypanosoma brucei subspecies and occurrence of corneal opacity. Conclusions This communication reports for the first time the occurrence of CAT in indigenous Zambian dogs. Our study indicates that LAMP is a potential diagnostic tool for trypanosome detection in animals. LAMP was more sensitive than microscopy and was further capable of distinguishing the closely related T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense. In view of the sporadic cases of re-emerging HAT being reported within the Luangwa valley, detection of the human serum resistant associated (SRA) gene in trypanosomes from mongrels is intriguing and indicative of the risk of contracting HAT by local communities and tourists in Mambwe district. Consequently, there is a need for continuous trypanosome surveillances in animals, humans and tsetse flies using sensitive and specific tests such as LAMP. PMID:24411022

2014-01-01

233

Development of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Method for Detecting Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus and Analysis of Its Use with Three Simple Methods of Extracting DNA from Equine Respiratory Tract Specimens  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is a dominant pathogenic bacterium in equine pneumonia. We developed a specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method, which targets the gene encoding sorbitol-6-phosphate 2-dehydrogenase (sorD), for detecting S. zooepidemicus and examined the clinical efficacies of its use in combination with each of 3 DNA extraction methods easily used by veterinary practitioners, namely the Loopamp PURE DNA Extraction Kit, InstaGene Matrix and a conventional boiling method. The LAMP method plus the Loopamp PURE DNA Extraction Kit gave higher rates of positivity than the other combinations in both clinical and spiked samples containing clinically significant concentrations (>1 × 104 CFU/ml) of S. zooepidemicus. PMID:24871644

KINOSHITA, Yuta; NIWA, Hidekazu; KATAYAMA, Yoshinari

2014-01-01

234

Development of a Real-Time Fluorescence Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid and Quantitative Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Tropical Race 4 In Soil  

PubMed Central

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). The Foc tropical race 4 (TR4) is currently known as a major concern in global banana production. No effective resistance is known in Musa to Foc, and no effective measures for controlling Foc once banana plants have been infected in place. Early and accurate detection of Foc TR4 is essential to protect banana industry and guide banana planting. A real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RealAmp) was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of Foc TR4 in soil. The detection limit of the RealAmp assay was approximately 0.4 pg/µl plasmid DNA when mixed with extracted soil DNA or 103 spores/g of artificial infested soil, and no cross-reaction with other relative pathogens were observed. The RealAmp assay for quantifying genomic DNA of TR4 was confirmed by testing both artificially and naturally infested samples. Quantification of the soil-borne pathogen DNA of Foc TR4 in naturally infested samples was no significant difference compared to classic real-time PCR (P>0.05). Additionally, RealAmp assay was visual with an improved closed-tube visual detection system by adding SYBR Green I fluorescent dye to the inside of the lid prior to amplification, which avoided the inhibitory effects of the stain on DNA amplification and makes the assay more convenient in the field and could thus become a simple, rapid and effective technique that has potential as an alternative tool for the detection and monitoring of Foc TR4 in field, which would be a routine DNA-based testing service for the soil-borne pathogen in South China. PMID:24376590

Pu, Jinji; Qi, Yanxiang; Yu, Qunfang; Xie, Yixian; Peng, Jun

2013-01-01

235

Development of a real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for rapid and quantitative detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense tropical race 4 in soil.  

PubMed

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt (Panama disease), is one of the most devastating diseases of banana (Musa spp.). The Foc tropical race 4 (TR4) is currently known as a major concern in global banana production. No effective resistance is known in Musa to Foc, and no effective measures for controlling Foc once banana plants have been infected in place. Early and accurate detection of Foc TR4 is essential to protect banana industry and guide banana planting. A real-time fluorescence loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RealAmp) was developed for the rapid and quantitative detection of Foc TR4 in soil. The detection limit of the RealAmp assay was approximately 0.4 pg/µl plasmid DNA when mixed with extracted soil DNA or 10(3) spores/g of artificial infested soil, and no cross-reaction with other relative pathogens were observed. The RealAmp assay for quantifying genomic DNA of TR4 was confirmed by testing both artificially and naturally infested samples. Quantification of the soil-borne pathogen DNA of Foc TR4 in naturally infested samples was no significant difference compared to classic real-time PCR (P>0.05). Additionally, RealAmp assay was visual with an improved closed-tube visual detection system by adding SYBR Green I fluorescent dye to the inside of the lid prior to amplification, which avoided the inhibitory effects of the stain on DNA amplification and makes the assay more convenient in the field and could thus become a simple, rapid and effective technique that has potential as an alternative tool for the detection and monitoring of Foc TR4 in field, which would be a routine DNA-based testing service for the soil-borne pathogen in South China. PMID:24376590

Zhang, Xin; Zhang, He; Pu, Jinji; Qi, Yanxiang; Yu, Qunfang; Xie, Yixian; Peng, Jun

2013-01-01

236

Preliminary validation of direct detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus within clinical samples using reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification coupled with a simple lateral flow device for detection.  

PubMed

Rapid, field-based diagnostic assays are desirable tools for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Current approaches involve either; 1) Detection of FMD virus (FMDV) with immuochromatographic antigen lateral flow devices (LFD), which have relatively low analytical sensitivity, or 2) portable RT-qPCR that has high analytical sensitivity but is expensive. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) may provide a platform upon which to develop field based assays without these drawbacks. The objective of this study was to modify an FMDV-specific reverse transcription-LAMP (RT-LAMP) assay to enable detection of dual-labelled LAMP products with an LFD, and to evaluate simple sample processing protocols without nucleic acid extraction. The limit of detection of this assay was demonstrated to be equivalent to that of a laboratory based real-time RT-qPCR assay and to have a 10,000 fold higher analytical sensitivity than the FMDV-specific antigen LFD currently used in the field. Importantly, this study demonstrated that FMDV RNA could be detected from epithelial suspensions without the need for prior RNA extraction, utilising a rudimentary heat source for amplification. Once optimised, this RT-LAMP-LFD protocol was able to detect multiple serotypes from field epithelial samples, in addition to detecting FMDV in the air surrounding infected cattle, pigs and sheep, including pre-clinical detection. This study describes the development and evaluation of an assay format, which may be used as a future basis for rapid and low cost detection of FMDV. In addition it provides providing "proof of concept" for the future use of LAMP assays to tackle other challenging diagnostic scenarios encompassing veterinary and human health. PMID:25165973

Waters, Ryan A; Fowler, Veronica L; Armson, Bryony; Nelson, Noel; Gloster, John; Paton, David J; King, Donald P

2014-01-01

237

Preliminary Validation of Direct Detection of Foot-And-Mouth Disease Virus within Clinical Samples Using Reverse Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Coupled with a Simple Lateral Flow Device for Detection  

PubMed Central

Rapid, field-based diagnostic assays are desirable tools for the control of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Current approaches involve either; 1) Detection of FMD virus (FMDV) with immuochromatographic antigen lateral flow devices (LFD), which have relatively low analytical sensitivity, or 2) portable RT-qPCR that has high analytical sensitivity but is expensive. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) may provide a platform upon which to develop field based assays without these drawbacks. The objective of this study was to modify an FMDV-specific reverse transcription–LAMP (RT-LAMP) assay to enable detection of dual-labelled LAMP products with an LFD, and to evaluate simple sample processing protocols without nucleic acid extraction. The limit of detection of this assay was demonstrated to be equivalent to that of a laboratory based real-time RT-qPCR assay and to have a 10,000 fold higher analytical sensitivity than the FMDV-specific antigen LFD currently used in the field. Importantly, this study demonstrated that FMDV RNA could be detected from epithelial suspensions without the need for prior RNA extraction, utilising a rudimentary heat source for amplification. Once optimised, this RT-LAMP-LFD protocol was able to detect multiple serotypes from field epithelial samples, in addition to detecting FMDV in the air surrounding infected cattle, pigs and sheep, including pre-clinical detection. This study describes the development and evaluation of an assay format, which may be used as a future basis for rapid and low cost detection of FMDV. In addition it provides providing “proof of concept” for the future use of LAMP assays to tackle other challenging diagnostic scenarios encompassing veterinary and human health. PMID:25165973

Waters, Ryan A.; Fowler, Veronica L.; Armson, Bryony; Nelson, Noel; Gloster, John; Paton, David J.; King, Donald P.

2014-01-01

238

Comparison of Real-Time PCR, Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time PCR, Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification, and the FDA Conventional Microbiological Method for the Detection of Salmonella spp. in Produce ? †  

PubMed Central

Contamination of foods, especially produce, with Salmonella spp. is a major concern for public health. Several methods are available for the detection of Salmonella in produce, but their relative efficiency for detecting Salmonella in commonly consumed vegetables, often associated with outbreaks of food poisoning, needs to be confirmed. In this study, the effectiveness of three molecular methods for detection of Salmonella in six produce matrices was evaluated and compared to the FDA microbiological detection method. Samples of cilantro (coriander leaves), lettuce, parsley, spinach, tomato, and jalapeno pepper were inoculated with Salmonella serovars at two different levels (105 and <101 CFU/25 g of produce). The inoculated produce was assayed by the FDA Salmonella culture method (Bacteriological Analytical Manual) and by three molecular methods: quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), quantitative reverse transcriptase real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), and loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Comparable results were obtained by these four methods, which all detected as little as 2 CFU of Salmonella cells/25 g of produce. All control samples (not inoculated) were negative by the four methods. RT-qPCR detects only live Salmonella cells, obviating the danger of false-positive results from nonviable cells. False negatives (inhibition of either qPCR or RT-qPCR) were avoided by the use of either a DNA or an RNA amplification internal control (IAC). Compared to the conventional culture method, the qPCR, RT-qPCR, and LAMP assays allowed faster and equally accurate detection of Salmonella spp. in six high-risk produce commodities. PMID:21803916

Zhang, Guodong; Brown, Eric W.; González-Escalona, Narjol

2011-01-01

239

Development and evaluation of a real-time fluorogenic loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay integrated on a microfluidic disc chip (on-chip LAMP) for rapid and simultaneous detection of ten pathogenic bacteria in aquatic animals.  

PubMed

Rapid, low-cost, and user-friendly strategies are urgently needed for early disease diagnosis and timely treatment, particularly for on-site screening of pathogens in aquaculture. In this study, we successfully developed a real-time fluorogenic loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay integrated on a microfluidic disc chip (on-chip LAMP), which was capable of simultaneously detecting 10 pathogenic bacteria in aquatic animals, i.e., Nocardia seriolae, Pseudomonas putida, Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio fluvialis, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio rotiferianus, and Vibrio vulnificus. The assay provided a nearly-automated approach, with only a single pipetting step per chip for sample dispensing. This technique could achieve limits of detection (LOD) ranging from 0.40 to 6.42pg per 1.414?L reaction in less than 30 min. The robust reproducibility was demonstrated by a little variation among duplications for each bacterium with the coefficient of variation (CV) for time to positive (Tp) value less than 0.10. The clinical sensitivity and specificity of this on-chip LAMP assay in detecting field samples were 96.2% and 93.8% by comparison with conventional microbiological methods. Compared with other well-known techniques, on-chip LAMP assay provides low sample and reagent consumption, ease-of-use, accelerated analysis, multiple bacteria and on-site detection, and high reproducibility, indicating that such a technique would be applicable for on-site detection and routine monitoring of multiple pathogens in aquaculture. PMID:24954661

Zhou, Qian-Jin; Wang, Lei; Chen, Jiong; Wang, Rui-Na; Shi, Yu-Hong; Li, Chang-Hong; Zhang, De-Min; Yan, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Jun

2014-09-01

240

Rapid detection and differentiation of dengue virus serotypes by NS1 specific reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay in patients presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Hyderabad, India.  

PubMed

Early and rapid detection of dengue virus (DENV) infection during the acute phase of illness is crucial for proper patient management and prevention of the spread of the infection. In the present study, the standardization and validation of a one step, four tube reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay (RT-LAMP) for rapid detection and serotyping of the DENV targeting NS1 gene using the Genie® II flourometer was carried out. The performance of the RT-LAMP was compared to RT-PCR, CDC 1-4 Real time PCR and the NS1 antigen ELISA, IgM and IgG anti DENV antibodies. Acute DENV infection was confirmed in 250/300 patients suspected clinically of DENV infection. RT- LAMP and CDC 1-4 Real time PCR assay was positive in 148/250 patients, while 92/250 patients were positive for anti- Dengue IgM and IgG antibodies. The RT-LAMP assay and the CDC real-time RT-PCR assay showed high concordance (k=1.0). The detection rate of acute DENV infection improved to 96% (240/250) when the results of RT-LAMP were combined with NS1 Ag, IgM and IgG ELISA. The RT-LAMP had a detection limit of 100 copies for DEN-1 and DEN-2, 10 copies for DEN-3 and DEN-4 compared to 1000 copies for DEN-1 and DEN-2, 100 copies for DEN-3 and DEN-4 by the conventional RT-PCR. The assay showed 100% specificity. The RT-LAMP assay developed in this study has potential use for early clinical diagnosis, serotyping and surveillance of DENV infection in endemic countries such as India. PMID:25455901

Neeraja, M; Lakshmi, V; Lavanya, Vanjari; Priyanka, E N; Parida, M M; Dash, P K; Sharma, Shashi; Rao, P V Lakshmana; Reddy, Gopal

2015-01-01

241

Application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for direct identification of pure cultures of Aspergillus flavus, A. nomius, and A. caelatus and for their rapid detection in shelled Brazil nuts.  

PubMed

Brazil nuts have a high nutritional content and are a very important trade commodity for some Latin American countries. Aflatoxins are carcinogenic fungal secondary metabolites. In Brazil nuts they are produced predominantly by Aspergillus (A.) nomius and A. flavus. In the present study we applied and evaluated two sets of primers previously published for the specific detection of the two species using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technology. Moreover, a primer set specific for A. caelatus as a frequently occurring non-aflatoxigenic member of Aspergillus section Flavi in Brazil nuts was newly developed. LAMP assays were combined with a simplified DNA release method and used for rapid identification of pure cultures and rapid detection of A. nomius and A. flavus from samples of shelled Brazil nuts. An analysis of pure cultures of 68 isolates representing the major Aspergillus species occurring on Brazil nuts showed that the three LAMP assays had individual accuracies of 61.5%, 84.4%, and 93.3% for A. flavus, A. nomius, and A. caelatus, respectively when morphological identification was used as a reference. The detection limits for conidia added directly to the individual LAMP reactions were found to be 10? conidia per reaction with the primer set ID9 for A. nomius and 10? conidia per reaction with the primer set ID58 for A. flavus. Sensitivity was increased to 10¹ and 10² conidia per reaction for A. nomius and A. flavus, respectively, when sample preparation included a spore disruption step. The results of LAMP assays obtained during the analysis of 32 Brazil nut samples from different regions of Brazil and from different steps in the production process of the commodity were compared with results obtained from mycological analysis and aflatoxin analysis of corresponding samples. Compared with mycological analysis of the samples, the Negative Predictive Values of LAMP assays were 42.1% and 12.5% while the Positive Predictive Values were 61.5% and 66.7% for A. nomius and A. flavus, respectively. When LAMP results were compared with the presence of aflatoxins in corresponding samples, the Negative Predictive Values were 22.2% and 44.4% and the Positive Predictive Values were 52.2% and 78.3% for aflatoxins produced by A. nomius and A. flavus, respectively. The LAMP assays described in this study have been demonstrated to be a specific, sensitive and easy to use tool for the survey of Brazil nuts for contaminations with potential aflatoxin-producing A. nomius and A. flavus in low tech environments where resources may be limited. PMID:24361827

Luo, Jie; Taniwaki, Marta H; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Vogel, Rudi F; Niessen, Ludwig

2014-02-17

242

Comparison of conventional RT-PCR, reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification, and SYBR green I-based real-time RT-PCR in the rapid detection of bovine viral diarrhea virus nucleotide in contaminated commercial bovine sera batches.  

PubMed

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) can contaminate biological products produced in bovine or porcine cells or manufactured using bovine sera. A rapid, specific, sensitive, and practical method of detecting BVDV in bio-products is needed. The purpose of this study was to compare three assays with respect to their ability to accurately detect BVDV in biological samples, namely reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), SYBR green I-based real-time RT-PCR, and conventional RT-PCR. All assays detected BVDV nucleotide and differentiated between BVDV-free and -contaminated bovine sera successfully. In addition, the results were specific to BVDV: the amplification of samples containing the closely related classical swine fever virus or other pathogenic bovine viruses yielded negative results. The lowest detection threshold, 10(1) copies, was displayed by the SYBR green I-based real-time RT-PCR and RT-LAMP assay. This assay was also the most effective in the detection of BVDV contamination in a set of commercially available bovine sera. The field conditions suggest that RT-LAMP is specific and sensitive to detecting BVDV in biological samples and may be used for quality control of biomaterials. PMID:25019170

Zhang, Shu-Qin; Tan, Bin; Li, Peng; Wang, Feng-Xue; Guo, Li; Yang, Yong; Sun, Na; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Wen, Yong-Jun; Cheng, Shi-Peng

2014-10-01

243

Multiplexed protein profiling on microarrays by rolling-circle amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fluorescent-sandwich immunoassays on microarrays hold appeal for proteomics studies, because equipment and antibodies are readily available, and assays are simple, scalable, and reproducible. The achievement of adequate sensitivity and specificity, however, requires a general method of immunoassay amplification. We describe coupling of isothermal rolling-circle amplification (RCA) to universal antibodies for this purpose. A total of 75 cytokines were measured simultaneously

Barry Schweitzer; Scott Roberts; Brian Grimwade; Weiping Shao; Minjuan Wang; Qin Fu; Quiping Shu; Isabelle Laroche; Zhimin Zhou; Velizar T. Tchernev; Jason Christiansen; Mark Velleca; Stephen F. Kingsmore

2002-01-01

244

Photon Amplification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis consists of three self-contained chapters pertaining to mechanisms of photon amplification. All have been published or submitted for publication. In Chapter 1, we show that the photon point process at the output of a traveling-wave amplifier (TWA) with coherent input light is characterized by a marked-Poisson (MP) process which consequently results in a noncentral negative binomial (NNB) output-photon-number distribution. For an on/off keying (OOK) direct-detection lightwave communication system incorporating a TWA, the probability of error (PE) calculated from the NNB distributions turns out to be superior, but unexpectedly close to that calculated from the Gaussian approximation. In Chapter 2, we show that the photon-number distribution (PND) at the output of a cascade of TWAs with identical normalized bandwidth and with coherent light at the input turns out to be the NNB distribution, even in the presence of intervening loss. The PE of a cascade of several high gain TWAs is essentially the same as that of a single one. In addition, the PE of a sequence of postamplifiers is superior to that of a sequence of preamplifiers. In Chapter 3, we construct a mathematical model for describing the mechanisms of photon amplification employed by a living system (the vertebrate rod). The thrust of this work is to glean an understanding of how a biological system makes use of photon amplification. The cyclic-GMP cascade represents the excitation of the retinal rod photoreceptor by a single photon. Our investigation shows that the relative noise of the rod photocurrent, which ensues from a filtering of the discrete multiplication process, is determined primarily by the first stage of the excitatory cascade. Our analysis also shows that the conversion of the discrete multiplied signal into a current reduces the output relative noise when it is measured in terms of the variance-to-mean ratio.

Li, Tao

1992-01-01

245

Isothermal and Adiabatic Measurements.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the working of the Adiabatic Gas Law Apparatus, a useful tool for measuring the pressure, temperature, and volume of a variety of gases undergoing compressions and expansions. Describes the adaptation of this apparatus to perform isothermal measurements and discusses the theory behind the adiabatic and isothermal processes. (JRH)

McNairy, William W.

1996-01-01

246

Generalized isothermic lattices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study multi-dimensional quadrilateral lattices satisfying simultaneously two integrable constraints: a quadratic constraint and the projective Moutard constraint. When the lattice is two dimensional and the quadric under consideration is the Möbius sphere one obtains, after the stereographic projection, the discrete isothermic surfaces defined by Bobenko and Pinkall by an algebraic constraint imposed on the (complex) cross-ratio of the circular lattice. We derive the analogous condition for our generalized isothermic lattices using Steiner's projective structure of conics, and we present basic geometric constructions which encode integrability of the lattice. In particular, we introduce the Darboux transformation of the generalized isothermic lattice and we derive the corresponding Bianchi permutability principle. Finally, we study two-dimensional generalized isothermic lattices, in particular geometry of their initial boundary value problem.

Doliwa, Adam

2007-10-01

247

Amplification of Uncultured Single-Stranded DNA Viruses from Rice Paddy Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Viruses are known to be the most numerous biological entities in soil; however, little is known about their diversity in this environment. In order to explore the genetic diversity of soil viruses, we isolated viruses by centrifugation and sequential filtration before performing a metagenomic investigation. We adopted multiple- displacement amplification (MDA), an isothermal whole-genome amplification method with 29 polymerase and

Kyoung-Ho Kim; Ho-Won Chang; Young-Do Nam; Seong Woon Roh; Min-Soo Kim; Youlboong Sung; Che Ok Jeon; Hee-Mock Oh; Jin-Woo Bae

2008-01-01

248

Surface Temperature: Contouring Isotherms  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This interactive feature shows how an isothermal map of surface temperature is drawn. Students can select an individual contour value and watch as a virtual 'pencil' correctly places the line with respect to temperature values on the map. The animation also permits the user to color the spaces between the contour lines on the map.

249

CENTRIFUGAL LABTUBE FOR FULLY AUTOMATED DNA EXTRACTION & LAMP AMPLIFICATION BASED ON AN INTEGRATED, LOW-COST HEATING SYSTEM  

E-print Network

In this paper, we introduce a disposable battery-driven heating system for loop-mediated isothermal DNA amplification (LAMP) inside a centrifugally-driven DNA-extraction platform (LabTube). We demonstrate fully automated, ...

Hoehl, Melanie Margarete

250

Generalized privacy amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper provides a general treatment of pri- vacy amplification by public discussion, a concept introduced by Bennett, Brassard, and Robert for a special scenario. Privacy amplification is a process that allows two parties to distill a secret key from a common random variable about which an eavesdropper has partial information. The two parties generally know nothing about the eavesdropper's

Charles H. Bennett; Gilles Brassard; Claude Crépeau; Ueli M. Maurer

1995-01-01

251

Gravitational Microlensing 1 Amplification  

E-print Network

Gravitational Microlensing 1 Amplification Once the deflection angle is known (see the optional the lens. To figure out the amplification due to the gravitational lensing, we con- sider the finite the line of sight within the Einstein radius. We estimate the frequency and duration of gravitational

Murayama, Hitoshi

252

Isothermal separation processes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The isothermal processes of membrane separation, supercritical extraction and chromatography were examined using availability analysis. The general approach was to derive equations that identified where energy is consumed in these processes and how they compare with conventional separation methods. These separation methods are characterized by pure work inputs, chiefly in the form of a pressure drop which supplies the required energy. Equations were derived for the energy requirement in terms of regular solution theory. This approach is believed to accurately predict the work of separation in terms of the heat of solution and the entropy of mixing. It can form the basis of a convenient calculation method for optimizing membrane and solvent properties for particular applications. Calculations were made on the energy requirements for a membrane process separating air into its components.

England, C.

1982-01-01

253

Whole-genome amplification-based GenomiPhi for multiple genomic analysis of individual early porcine embryos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multiple displacement amplification (MDA) method, which relies on isothermal DNA amplification using the DNA polymerase of the bacteriophage phi29, was recently developed for high-performance, whole-genome amplification (WGA). The objective of the present study was to determine whether a target sequence could be successfully amplified by conventional PCR when the genomic DNA of a single Day-7 porcine blastocyst (derived from

Eri Akasaka; Akio Ozawa; Hironori Mori; Yamato Mizobe; Mitsutoshi Yoshida; Kazuchika Miyoshi; Masahiro Sato

2011-01-01

254

Amplification for the Adolescent.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explored are various means of amplification for aurally handicapped adolescents, including behind-the-ear hearing aids, "custom ear" (or in-the-ear) hearing aids, as well as aural rehabilitation. (BD)

Wilber, Laura Ann

1978-01-01

255

On soliton amplification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper considers a modified Korteweg-de Vries equation that permits wave amplification or damping. A 'terminal similarity' solution is identified for large times in amplified systems. Numerical results are given which confirm that the terminal similarity solution is a valid local approximation for mu t sufficiently large and positive, even though the approximation is not uniformly valid in space.

Leibovich, S.; Randall, J. D.

1979-01-01

256

Isothermal cavity, blackbody radiation source.  

PubMed

A prototype blackbody radiation source has been developed which incorporates a double cone cavity of extremely uniform surface temperature. This uniformity of surface temperature is the result of a unique method of supplying heat to the cavity. The principle of operation is based on heat pipe techniques which transfer heat by change of phase and mass transfer. The cavity is heated by serving as the condenser section of the heat pipe which is inherently a nearly isothermal device. Optical tests show that the isothermal cavity has a lambertian distribution over an inclusive angle of better than 60 degrees while operating between 419 degrees C and 760 degrees C. PMID:20094191

Bliss, F E; Davis, S; Stein, B

1970-09-01

257

Gravitomagnetic amplification in cosmology  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic fields interact with gravitational waves in various ways. We consider the coupling between the Weyl and the Maxwell fields in cosmology and study the effects of the former on the latter. The approach is fully analytical and the results are gauge invariant. We show that the nature and the outcome of the gravitomagnetic interaction depends on the electric properties of the cosmic medium. When the conductivity is high, gravitational waves reduce the standard (adiabatic) decay rate of the B field, leading to its superadiabatic amplification. In poorly conductive environments, on the other hand, Weyl-curvature distortions can result into the resonant amplification of large-scale cosmological magnetic fields. Driven by the gravitational waves, these B fields oscillate with an amplitude that is found to diverge when the wavelengths of the two sources coincide. We present technical and physical aspects of the gravitomagnetic interaction and discuss its potential implications.

Tsagas, Christos G. [Section of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, Department of Physics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

2010-02-15

258

Sorption isotherms for amaranth grains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compiling of EMC–ERH data for amaranth grains (Amaranthus cruentus L.) in the range of water activity from 0.029 to 0.979 and temperature from 25 to 90 °C was performed. Included data sets comprised experimental values of EMC–ERH that summarize 78 identified points for desorption, 53 for adsorption and 16 not discerned points that were considered for mean sorption.Five isotherm equations

A. M. Pagano; R. H. Mascheroni

2005-01-01

259

Recombinase polymerase amplification assay for rapid detection of Francisella tularensis.  

PubMed

Several real-time PCR approaches to develop field detection for Francisella tularensis, the infectious agent causing tularemia, have been explored. We report the development of a novel qualitative real-time isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for use on a small ESEQuant Tube Scanner device. The analytical sensitivity and specificity were tested using a plasmid standard and DNA extracts from infected rabbit tissues. The assay showed a performance comparable to real-time PCR but reduced the assay time to 10 min. The rapid RPA method has great application potential for field use or point-of-care diagnostics. PMID:22518861

Euler, Milena; Wang, Yongjie; Otto, Peter; Tomaso, Herbert; Escudero, Raquel; Anda, Pedro; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred

2012-07-01

260

Genome position and gene amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Amplifications, regions of focal high-level copy number change, lead to overexpression of oncogenes or drug resistance genes in tumors. Their presence is often associated with poor prognosis; however, the use of amplification as a mechanism for overexpression of a particular gene in tumors varies. To investigate the influence of genome position on propensity to amplify, we integrated a mutant

Pavla Gajduskova; Antoine M Snijders; Serena Kwek; Ritu Roydasgupta; Jane Fridlyand; Taku Tokuyasu; Daniel Pinkel; Donna G Albertson

2007-01-01

261

[Desorption isotherms in amaranth flours].  

PubMed

In milled seeds amaranth (Amaranthus hybridus) samples locally known as "ataco or sangoracha" and harvested in two consecutive years, the vapor pressure at four temperatures (15 degrees, 20 degrees, 25 degrees, 30 degrees C) was determined in samples obtained for drying in oven at different times, within a range between 60 g water/100 g dry matter for fresh seeds to 10 g water/100 g dry matter or below, as measured in a Brabender equipment. Vapor pressure of distilled water was also determined for water activity calculation. The isotherms for each temperature are presented. Application of the G.A.B. model (Guggenheim-Anderson-De Boer) allowed to establish the water content of greater stability within a range of 9.9 to 7.6 g/100 g. The third degree polynomial equations presented, adjust satisfactorily with the experimental data, and can be used to calculate equilibrium moisture content from 0.15 to 0.95 water activity values. Water desorption isotherms of foods are important to determine the equilibrium relationship between the moisture content of foods and the water activity, information which permits to establish likely physical, chemical or biological changes. It is considered that the results obtained are useful in drying, milling or storing amaranth flour. PMID:2134142

Alvarado, J D; Toaza, E; Coloma, G

1990-09-01

262

Detection of Nucleic Acid Targets Using Ramified Rolling Circle DNA Amplification: A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Assay Model  

PubMed Central

Background Isothermal amplification methods provide alternatives to PCR that may be preferable for some nucleic acid target detection tasks. Among current isothermal target detection methods, ramified rolling circle amplification (RAM) of single-stranded DNA circles that are formed by ligation of linear DNA probes (C-probes or padlock probes) offers a unique target detection system by linked primers and a simple amplification system that is unconstrained by the target’s sequence context. Earlier implementations of RAM-based target detection were reported to be limited by background noise, due in part to unligated C-probe in the amplification reaction. We show here that a target-detection system using a biotinylated target-capture probe together with automated bead-handling reduces or eliminates background amplification noise. We demonstrate the system’s performance by detection of a single-nucleotide polymorphism in human genomic DNA. Methodology Target detection by RAM entails hybridization and ligation of a C-probe, followed by amplification and RAM signal detection. We evaluated RAM target detection in genomic DNA using recognition of a human Factor V gene single nucleotide polymorphism (G1691A) as a model. Locus-specific C-probes were annealed and ligated to genomic DNAs that represent the 3 possible genotypes at this locus, then ligated C-probes were amplified by real time RAM. The majority of the steps in the assay were performed with a magnetic bead-based chemistry on an automated platform. We show that the specificity of C-probe ligation permits accurate genotyping of this polymorphism. The assay as described here eliminates some of the background noise previously described for C-probe ligation, RAM amplification assays. Conclusion The methods and results presented here show that a combination of C-probe detection, automated sample processing, and isothermal RAM amplification provide a practical approach for detecting DNA targets in complex mixtures. PMID:23724122

Smith, James H.; Beals, Thomas P.

2013-01-01

263

Rapid identification of black grain eumycetoma causative agents using rolling circle amplification.  

PubMed

Accurate identification of mycetoma causative agent is a priority for treatment. However, current identification tools are far from being satisfactory for both reliable diagnosis and epidemiological investigations. A rapid, simple, and highly efficient molecular based method for identification of agents of black grain eumycetoma is introduced, aiming to improve diagnostic in endemic areas. Rolling Circle Amplification (RCA) uses species-specific padlock probes and isothermal DNA amplification. The tests were based on ITS sequences and developed for Falciformispora senegalensis, F. tompkinsii, Madurella fahalii, M. mycetomatis, M. pseudomycetomatis, M. tropicana, Medicopsis romeroi, and Trematosphaeria grisea. With the isothermal RCA assay, 62 isolates were successfully identified with 100% specificity and no cross reactivity or false results. The main advantage of this technique is the low-cost, high specificity, and simplicity. In addition, it is highly reproducible and can be performed within a single day. PMID:25474355

Ahmed, Sarah A; van den Ende, Bert H G Gerrits; Fahal, Ahmed H; van de Sande, Wendy W J; de Hoog, G S

2014-12-01

264

Viscoplastic models of isothermal lava domes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of expanding domes of isothermal lava are studied by treating the lava as a viscoplastic material with the Herschel Bulkley constitutive law. Thin-layer theory is developed for radially symmetric extrusions onto horizontal plates. This provides an evolution equation for the thickness of the fluid that can be used to model expanding isothermal lava domes. Numerical and analytical solutions

A. S. Burbidge; R. V. Craster; J. Salzig; A. Shen

2000-01-01

265

Isothermal Circumstellar Dust Shell Model for Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We introduce a model of radiative transfer in circumstellar dust shells. By assuming that the shell is both isothermal and its thickness is small compared to its radius, the model is simple enough for students to grasp and yet still provides a quantitative description of the relevant physical features. The isothermal model can be used in a…

Robinson, G.; Towers, I. N.; Jovanoski, Z.

2009-01-01

266

Characterization of Norovirus RNA replicase for in vitro amplification of RNA  

PubMed Central

Background The isothermal amplification of RNA in vitro has been used for the study of in vitro evolution of RNA. Although Q? replicase has been traditionally used as an enzyme for this purpose, we planned to use norovirus replicase (NV3Dpol) due to its structural simplicity in the scope of in vitro autonomous evolution of the protein. Characteristics of the enzyme NV3Dpolin vitro were re-evaluated in this context. Results NV3Dpol, synthesized by using a cell-free translation system, represented the activities which were reported in the previous several studies and the reports were not fully consistent each other. The efficiency of the initiation of replication was dependent on the 3’-terminal structure of single-stranded RNA template, and especially, NV3Dpol preferred a self-priming small stem-loop. In the non-self-priming and primer-independent replication reaction, the presence of -CCC residues at the 3’-terminus increased the initiation efficiency and we demonstrated the one-pot isothermal RNA (even dsRNA) amplification by 16-fold. NV3Dpol also showed a weak activity of elongation-reaction from a long primer. Based on these results, we present a scheme of the primer-independent isothermal amplification of RNA with NV3Dpolin vitro. Conclusions NV3Dpol can be used as an RNA replicase in in vitro RNA?+?protein evolution with the RNA of special terminal sequences. PMID:24106810

2013-01-01

267

ISOTHERMAL AIR INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory carried out air ingress experiments as part of validating computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. An isothermal test loop was designed and set to understand the stratified-flow phenomenon, which is important as the initial air flow into the lower plenum of the very high temperature gas cooled reactor (VHTR) when a large break loss-of-coolant accident occurs. The unique flow characteristics were focused on the VHTR air-ingress accident, in particular, the flow visualization of the stratified flow in the inlet pipe to the vessel lower plenum of the General Atomic’s Gas Turbine-Modular Helium Reactor (GT-MHR). Brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids, and water was used to represent a light fluid, which mimics a counter current flow due to the density difference between the stimulant fluids. The density ratios were changed between 0.87 and 0.98. This experiment clearly showed that a stratified flow between simulant fluids was established even for very small density differences. The CFD calculations were compared with experimental data. A grid sensitivity study on CFD models was also performed using the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for the numerical accuracy of CFD calculations . As a result, the calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that the current CFD methods are suitable for predicting density gradient stratified flow phenomena in the air-ingress accident.

Chang H Oh; Eung S Kim

2011-09-01

268

The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The growth of dendrites is one of the commonly observed forms of solidification encountered when metals and alloys freeze under low thermal gradients, as occurs in most casting and welding processes. In engineering alloys, the details of the dendritic morphology directly relates to important material responses and properties. Of more generic interest, dendritic growth is also an archetypical problem in morphogenesis, where a complex pattern evolves from simple starting conditions. Thus, the physical understanding and mathematical description of how dendritic patterns emerge during the growth process are of interest to both scientists and engineers. The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) is a basic science experiment designed to measure, for a fundamental test of theory, the kinetics and morphology of dendritic growth without complications induced by gravity-driven convection. The IDGE, a collaboration between Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, in Troy NY, and NASA's Lewis Research Center (LeRC) was developed over a ten year period from a ground-based research program into a space flight experiment. Important to the success of this flight experiment was provision of in situ near-real-time teleoperations during the spaceflight experiment.

Glicksman, M. E.; Koss, M. B.; Malarik, D. C.

1998-01-01

269

Rapid detection of Opisthorchis viverrini copro-DNA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opisthorchis viverrini and other foodborne trematode infections are major health problem in Thailand, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, Vietnam and Cambodia. Differential diagnosis of O. viverrini based on the microscopic observation of parasite eggs is difficult in areas where Clonorchis sinensis and minute intestinal flukes coexist. We therefore established a rapid, sensitive and specific method for detecting O. viverrini infection

Yuji Arimatsu; Sasithorn Kaewkes; Thewarach Laha; Sung-Jong Hong; Banchob Sripa

270

Rapid identification of virus-carrying mosquitoes using reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mosquitoes are critical vectors in many arboviral transmission cycles. Considering the increasing incidence of arboviral infections throughout the world, monitoring of vector populations for the presence of an arbovirus could be considered an important initial step of risk assessment to humans and animals. In response to this need, increased efforts to develop rapid and reliable diagnostic techniques have been undertaken;

Namal Perera; Hiroka Aonuma; Aya Yoshimura; Tokiyasu Teramoto; Hiroshi Iseki; Bryce Nelson; Ikuo Igarashi; Takeshi Yagi; Shinya Fukumoto; Hirotaka Kanuka

2009-01-01

271

Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli in sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ratoon stunt, caused by the xylem-limited coryneform bacterium Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx), is prevalent in most sugarcane-producing countries. Because the disease does not cause characteristic external symptoms, a laboratory-based technique is needed for accurate diagnosis. We developed a diag...

272

Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for detection of Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli in sugarcane  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ratoon stunt, caused by the xylem-limited coryneform bacterium Leifsonia xyli subsp. xyli (Lxx), is prevalent in most sugarcane-planting countries. Because the disease does not cause characteristic external symptoms, a laboratory-based technique is needed for accurate diagnosis. Based on loop-mediat...

273

ISOFIT - A PROGRAM FOR FITTING SORPTION ISOTHERMS TO EXPERIMENTAL DATA  

EPA Science Inventory

Isotherm expressions are important for describing the partitioning of contaminants in environmental systems. ISOFIT (ISOtherm FItting Tool) is a software program that fits isotherm parameters to experimental data via the minimization of a weighted sum of squared error (WSSE) obje...

274

Adsorption Isotherms and Surface Reaction Kinetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explains an error that occurs in calculating the conditions for a maximum value of a rate expression for a bimolecular reaction. The rate expression is derived using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm to relate gas pressures and corresponding surface coverages. (GS)

Lobo, L. S.; Bernardo, C. A.

1974-01-01

275

Sequence independent amplification of DNA  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a rapid sequence-independent amplification procedure (SIA). Even minute amounts of DNA from various sources can be amplified independent of any sequence requirements of the DNA or any a priori knowledge of any sequence characteristics of the DNA to be amplified. This method allows, for example, the sequence independent amplification of microdissected chromosomal material and the reliable construction of high quality fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes from YACs or from other sources. These probes can be used to localize YACs on metaphase chromosomes but also--with high efficiency--in interphase nuclei. 25 figs.

Bohlander, S.K.

1998-03-24

276

Sequence independent amplification of DNA  

DOEpatents

The present invention is a rapid sequence-independent amplification procedure (SIA). Even minute amounts of DNA from various sources can be amplified independent of any sequence requirements of the DNA or any a priori knowledge of any sequence characteristics of the DNA to be amplified. This method allows, for example the sequence independent amplification of microdissected chromosomal material and the reliable construction of high quality fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) probes from YACs or from other sources. These probes can be used to localize YACs on metaphase chromosomes but also--with high efficiency--in interphase nuclei.

Bohlander, Stefan K. (Chicago, IL)

1998-01-01

277

Comprehensive human genome amplification using multiple displacement amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental to most genetic analysis is availability of genomic DNA of adequate quality and quantity. Because DNA yield from human samples is frequently limiting, much effort has been invested in developing methods for whole genome amplification (WGA) by random or degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR. However, existing WGA methods like degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR suffer from incomplete coverage and inadequate average DNA size.

Frank B. Dean; Seiyu Hosono; Linhua Fang; Xiaohong Wu; A. Fawad Faruqi; Patricia Bray-Ward; Zhenyu Sun; Qiuling Zong; Yuefen Du; Jing Du; Mark Driscoll; Wanmin Song; Stephen F. Kingsmore; Michael Egholm; Roger S. Lasken

2002-01-01

278

Rapid Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Recombinase Polymerase Amplification  

PubMed Central

Improved access to effective tests for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) has been designated a public health priority by the World Health Organisation. In high burden TB countries nucleic acid based TB tests have been restricted to centralised laboratories and specialised research settings. Requirements such as a constant electrical supply, air conditioning and skilled, computer literate operators prevent implementation of such tests in many settings. Isothermal DNA amplification technologies permit the use of simpler, less energy intensive detection platforms more suited to low resource settings that allow the accurate diagnosis of a disease within a short timeframe. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) is a rapid, low temperature isothermal DNA amplification reaction. We report here RPA-based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) DNA in <20 minutes at 39°C. Assays for two MTC specific targets were investigated, IS6110 and IS1081. When testing purified MTC genomic DNA, limits of detection of 6.25 fg (IS6110) and 20 fg (IS1081)were consistently achieved. When testing a convenience sample of pulmonary specimens from suspected TB patients, RPA demonstrated superior accuracy to indirect fluorescence microscopy. Compared to culture, sensitivities for the IS1081 RPA and microscopy were 91.4% (95%CI: 85, 97.9) and 86.1% (95%CI: 78.1, 94.1) respectively (n?=?71). Specificities were 100% and 88.6% (95% CI: 80.8, 96.1) respectively. For the IS6110 RPA and microscopy sensitivities of 87.5% (95%CI: 81.7, 93.2) and 70.8% (95%CI: 62.9, 78.7) were obtained (n?=?90). Specificities were 95.4 (95% CI: 92.3,98.1) and 88% (95% CI: 83.6, 92.4) respectively. The superior specificity of RPA for detecting tuberculosis was due to the reduced ability of fluorescence microscopy to distinguish Mtb complex from other acid fast bacteria. The rapid nature of the RPA assay and its low energy requirement compared to other amplification technologies suggest RPA-based TB assays could be of use for integration into a point-of-care test for use in resource constrained settings. PMID:25118698

Teng Low, Hwee; Leader, Brandon Troy; Pérez-Osorio, Ailyn C.; Meyer, Jessica C.; O'Sullivan, Denise M.; Brooks, David G.; Piepenburg, Olaf; Forrest, Matthew S.

2014-01-01

279

Rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by recombinase polymerase amplification.  

PubMed

Improved access to effective tests for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) has been designated a public health priority by the World Health Organisation. In high burden TB countries nucleic acid based TB tests have been restricted to centralised laboratories and specialised research settings. Requirements such as a constant electrical supply, air conditioning and skilled, computer literate operators prevent implementation of such tests in many settings. Isothermal DNA amplification technologies permit the use of simpler, less energy intensive detection platforms more suited to low resource settings that allow the accurate diagnosis of a disease within a short timeframe. Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) is a rapid, low temperature isothermal DNA amplification reaction. We report here RPA-based detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) DNA in <20 minutes at 39 °C. Assays for two MTC specific targets were investigated, IS6110 and IS1081. When testing purified MTC genomic DNA, limits of detection of 6.25 fg (IS6110) and 20 fg (IS1081)were consistently achieved. When testing a convenience sample of pulmonary specimens from suspected TB patients, RPA demonstrated superior accuracy to indirect fluorescence microscopy. Compared to culture, sensitivities for the IS1081 RPA and microscopy were 91.4% (95%CI: 85, 97.9) and 86.1% (95%CI: 78.1, 94.1) respectively (n = 71). Specificities were 100% and 88.6% (95% CI: 80.8, 96.1) respectively. For the IS6110 RPA and microscopy sensitivities of 87.5% (95%CI: 81.7, 93.2) and 70.8% (95%CI: 62.9, 78.7) were obtained (n = 90). Specificities were 95.4 (95% CI: 92.3,98.1) and 88% (95% CI: 83.6, 92.4) respectively. The superior specificity of RPA for detecting tuberculosis was due to the reduced ability of fluorescence microscopy to distinguish Mtb complex from other acid fast bacteria. The rapid nature of the RPA assay and its low energy requirement compared to other amplification technologies suggest RPA-based TB assays could be of use for integration into a point-of-care test for use in resource constrained settings. PMID:25118698

Boyle, David S; McNerney, Ruth; Teng Low, Hwee; Leader, Brandon Troy; Pérez-Osorio, Ailyn C; Meyer, Jessica C; O'Sullivan, Denise M; Brooks, David G; Piepenburg, Olaf; Forrest, Matthew S

2014-01-01

280

Unified water isotherms for clayey porous materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We provide a unified model for the soil-water retention function, including the effect of bound and capillary waters for all types of soils, including clayey media. The model combines a CEC-normalized isotherm describing the sorption of the bound water (and the filling of the trapped porosity) and the van Genuchten model to describe the capillary water sorption retention but ignore capillary condensation. For the CEC-normalized isotherm, we tested both the BET and Freundlich isotherms, and we found that the Freundlich is more suitable than the BET isotherm in fitting the data. It is also easier to combine the Freundlich isotherm with the van Genuchten model. The new model accounts for (1) the different types of clay minerals, (2) the different types of ions sorbed in the Stern layer and on the basal planes of 2:1 clays, and (3) the pore size distribution. The model is validated with different data sets, including mixtures of kaolinite and bentonite. The model parameters include two exponents (the pore size exponent of the van Genuchten model and the exponent of the Freundlich isotherm), the capillary entry pressure, and two critical water contents. The first critical water content is the water content at saturation (porosity), and the second is the maximum water content associated with adsorption forces, including the trapped nonbound water.

Revil, A.; Lu, N.

2013-09-01

281

ON THE ISOTHERMALITY OF SOLAR PLASMAS  

SciTech Connect

Recent measurements have shown that the quiet unstructured solar corona observed at the solar limb is close to isothermal, at a temperature that does not appear to change over wide areas or with time. Some individual active region loop structures have also been found to be nearly isothermal both along their axis and across their cross section. Even a complex active region observed at the solar limb has been found to be composed of three distinct isothermal plasmas. If confirmed, these results would pose formidable challenges to the current theoretical understanding of the thermal structure and heating of the solar corona. For example, no current theoretical model can explain the excess densities and lifetimes of many observed loops if the loops are in fact isothermal. All of these measurements are based on the so-called emission measure (EM) diagnostic technique that is applied to a set of optically thin lines under the assumption of isothermal plasma. It provides simultaneous measurement of both the temperature and EM. In this work, we develop a new method to quantify the uncertainties in the technique and to rigorously assess its ability to discriminate between isothermal and multithermal plasmas. We define a formal measure of the uncertainty in the EM diagnostic technique that can easily be applied to real data. We here apply it to synthetic data based on a variety of assumed plasma thermal distributions and develop a method to quantitatively assess the degree of multithermality of a plasma.

Landi, E. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic, and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Klimchuk, J. A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2010-11-01

282

Phase-coherent amplification of matter waves Atom amplification differs from light amplification in one important aspect. Since the  

E-print Network

Phase-coherent amplification of matter waves Atom amplification differs from light amplification), the active medium of a matter wave amplifier has to include a reservoir of atoms. One also needs a coupling have used the matter wave superradiance which we observed in a BEC [1] to realize a matter wave

283

Modeling isothermal and non-isothermal flows in porous media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complete understanding of the physics of flow and heat transfer phenomena in porous media is vital for accurate simulation of flow processes in industrial applications. In one such application pertaining to liquid composite molding (LCM) for manufacturing polymer composites, the fiber preforms used in LCM as reinforcements are limited not only to the single-scale porous media in the form of random fiber-mats, but also include dual-scale porous media in the form of woven or stitched fiber-mats. The conventional flow physics is not able to model the resin filling process in LCM involving the dual-scale porous media. In this study, the flow in dual-scale porous media is studied in order to predict the permeability of these fiber mats. The effect of aspect ratio of the fiber preform on the accuracy and flow during permeability estimation in single- and dual-scale porous media is analyzed experimentally and numerically. Flow of liquid in a free channel bounded on one side by porous medium is studied next, and two well-known boundary conditions of stress continuity and stress jump at the interface of the two regions are evaluated numerically. A point-wise solution for Stokes flow through periodic and non periodic porous media (made of cylindrical particles) adjacent to the free channel is presented using the Imite element based CFD software COMSOL. The efficacy of the two interfacial conditions is evaluated after volume averaging the point-wise velocity using a long averaging volume, also called the representative elementary volume or REV, and then comparing such a volume-averaged velocity profile with the available analytical solution. The investigation is carried out for five different porosities at three different Reynolds numbers to cover a wide range of applications. The presence of randomly-placed cylinders during the creation of non-periodic porous media damps out spatial fluctuations in the averaged velocity observed in periodic porous media. The analytical solutions obtained after applying the stress-continuity and stress-jump boundary conditions are found to work well at low porosities, which is in contradiction with the results achieved earlier by other researchers. The traditional approach of using averaged equations in the regions of sharp gradients in porous media to describe flow and transport is theoretically untenable and perhaps inaccurate. A novel ensemble averaging method is being proposed to test the accuracy of the volume averaged or smoothed description of flows in porous media in the regions of sharp gradients. In the new method, the flow in a certain arrangement of particles (called a realization) is averaged using a small unit cell, much smaller than the REV. Then such an averaged flow variable is further averaged over a whole gamut of randomly-generated particle realizations. First the accuracy of the ensemble averaging method was tested by comparing the permeability of an artificially generated porous medium obtained by the proposed method against the permeability predicted by some established theoretical models of permeability. The proposed method was found to be quite accurate. Later the ensemble average method was applied to the open-channel porous-medium interface region characterized by a sharp gradient in the flow velocities. It was discovered that the volume averaged description of such flows, characterized by the use of the Brinkman equation along with the stress-continuity and stress-jump conditions, is quite accurate for a range of Reynolds numbers. The non-isothermal transport during flow in porous media is examined next. The main focus in this area of research is the thermal dispersion term found in the heat transfer equation for single- and dual-scale porous media. Most of the previous efforts on modeling the heat transfer phenomena in porous media were devoted to isotropic porous media. However, for the anisotropic porous media widely in many industrial applications, not much research on the dispersion tensor is available. A new combined experimental/numerical approach to estimating

Mohseni Languri, Ehsan

2011-12-01

284

Frequency domain optical parametric amplification  

PubMed Central

Today’s ultrafast lasers operate at the physical limits of optical materials to reach extreme performances. Amplification of single-cycle laser pulses with their corresponding octave-spanning spectra still remains a formidable challenge since the universal dilemma of gain narrowing sets limits for both real level pumped amplifiers as well as parametric amplifiers. We demonstrate that employing parametric amplification in the frequency domain rather than in time domain opens up new design opportunities for ultrafast laser science, with the potential to generate single-cycle multi-terawatt pulses. Fundamental restrictions arising from phase mismatch and damage threshold of nonlinear laser crystals are not only circumvented but also exploited to produce a synergy between increased seed spectrum and increased pump energy. This concept was successfully demonstrated by generating carrier envelope phase stable, 1.43?mJ two-cycle pulses at 1.8??m wavelength. PMID:24805968

Schmidt, Bruno E.; Thiré, Nicolas; Boivin, Maxime; Laramée, Antoine; Poitras, François; Lebrun, Guy; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki; Ibrahim, Heide; Légaré, François

2014-01-01

285

Enzymatic Amplification of DNA/RNA Hybrid Molecular Beacon Signaling in Nucleic Acid Detection  

PubMed Central

A rapid assay operable under isothermal or non-isothermal conditions is described wherein the sensitivity of a typical molecular beacon (MB) system is improved by utilizing thermostable RNase H to enzymatically cleave an MB comprised of a DNA stem and RNA loop (R/D-MB). Upon hybridization of the R/D-MB to target DNA, there was a modest increase in fluorescence intensity (~5.7x above background) due to an opening of the probe and concomitant reduction in the Förster resonance energy transfer efficiency. Addition of thermostable RNase H resulted in the cleavage of the RNA loop which eliminated energy transfer. The cleavage step also released bound target DNA, enabling it to bind to another R/D-MB probe and rendering the approach a cyclic amplification scheme. Full processing of R/D-MBs maximized the fluorescence signal to the fullest extent possible (12.9x above background), resulting in a ~2–2.8 fold increase in the signal-to-noise ratio observed isothermally at 50 °C following the addition of RNase H. The probe was also used to monitor real-time PCR reactions by measuring enhancement of donor fluorescence upon R/D-MB binding to amplified pUC19 template dilutions. Hence, the R/D-MB-RNase H scheme can be applied to a broad range of nucleic acid amplification methods. PMID:23000602

Jacroux, Thomas; Rieck, Daniel C.; Cui, Rong; Ouyang, Yexin; Dong, Wen-Ji

2012-01-01

286

Equipment-Free Incubation of Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Reactions Using Body Heat  

PubMed Central

The development of isothermal amplification platforms for nucleic acid detection has the potential to increase access to molecular diagnostics in low resource settings; however, simple, low-cost methods for heating samples are required to perform reactions. In this study, we demonstrated that human body heat may be harnessed to incubate recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) reactions for isothermal amplification of HIV-1 DNA. After measuring the temperature of mock reactions at 4 body locations, the axilla was chosen as the ideal site for comfortable, convenient incubation. Using commonly available materials, 3 methods for securing RPA reactions to the body were characterized. Finally, RPA reactions were incubated using body heat while control RPA reactions were incubated in a heat block. At room temperature, all reactions with 10 copies of HIV-1 DNA and 90% of reactions with 100 copies of HIV-1 DNA tested positive when incubated with body heat. In a cold room with an ambient temperature of 10 degrees Celsius, all reactions containing 10 copies or 100 copies of HIV-1 DNA tested positive when incubated with body heat. These results suggest that human body heat may provide an extremely low-cost solution for incubating RPA reactions in low resource settings. PMID:25372030

Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

2014-01-01

287

Recombinase polymerase amplification as a promising tool in hepatitis C virus diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a significant health problem and represents a heavy load on some countries like Egypt in which about 20% of the total population are infected. Initial infection is usually asymptomatic and result in chronic hepatitis that give rise to complications including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The management of HCV infection should not only be focus on therapy, but also to screen carrier individuals in order to prevent transmission. In the present, molecular detection and quantification of HCV genome by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) represent the gold standard in HCV diagnosis and plays a crucial role in the management of therapeutic regimens. However, real time PCR is a complicated approach and of limited distribution. On the other hand, isothermal DNA amplification techniques have been developed and offer molecular diagnosis of infectious dieses at point-of-care. In this review we discuss recombinase polymerase amplification technique and illustrate its diagnostic value over both PCR and other isothermal amplification techniques. PMID:25544878

Zaghloul, Hosam; El-shahat, Mahmoud

2014-01-01

288

Recombinase polymerase amplification as a promising tool in hepatitis C virus diagnosis.  

PubMed

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection represents a significant health problem and represents a heavy load on some countries like Egypt in which about 20% of the total population are infected. Initial infection is usually asymptomatic and result in chronic hepatitis that give rise to complications including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The management of HCV infection should not only be focus on therapy, but also to screen carrier individuals in order to prevent transmission. In the present, molecular detection and quantification of HCV genome by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) represent the gold standard in HCV diagnosis and plays a crucial role in the management of therapeutic regimens. However, real time PCR is a complicated approach and of limited distribution. On the other hand, isothermal DNA amplification techniques have been developed and offer molecular diagnosis of infectious dieses at point-of-care. In this review we discuss recombinase polymerase amplification technique and illustrate its diagnostic value over both PCR and other isothermal amplification techniques. PMID:25544878

Zaghloul, Hosam; El-Shahat, Mahmoud

2014-12-27

289

Equipment-free incubation of recombinase polymerase amplification reactions using body heat.  

PubMed

The development of isothermal amplification platforms for nucleic acid detection has the potential to increase access to molecular diagnostics in low resource settings; however, simple, low-cost methods for heating samples are required to perform reactions. In this study, we demonstrated that human body heat may be harnessed to incubate recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) reactions for isothermal amplification of HIV-1 DNA. After measuring the temperature of mock reactions at 4 body locations, the axilla was chosen as the ideal site for comfortable, convenient incubation. Using commonly available materials, 3 methods for securing RPA reactions to the body were characterized. Finally, RPA reactions were incubated using body heat while control RPA reactions were incubated in a heat block. At room temperature, all reactions with 10 copies of HIV-1 DNA and 90% of reactions with 100 copies of HIV-1 DNA tested positive when incubated with body heat. In a cold room with an ambient temperature of 10 degrees Celsius, all reactions containing 10 copies or 100 copies of HIV-1 DNA tested positive when incubated with body heat. These results suggest that human body heat may provide an extremely low-cost solution for incubating RPA reactions in low resource settings. PMID:25372030

Crannell, Zachary Austin; Rohrman, Brittany; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

2014-01-01

290

ExCyto PCR Amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundExCyto PCR cells provide a novel and cost effective means to amplify DNA transformed into competent bacterial cells. ExCyto PCR uses host E. coli with a chromosomally integrated gene encoding a thermostable DNA polymerase to accomplish robust, hot-start PCR amplification of cloned sequences without addition of exogenous enzyme.ResultsBecause the thermostable DNA polymerase is stably integrated into the bacterial chromosome, ExCyto

Vinay Dhodda; Ronald Godiska; Jeffrey D. Vanwye; David Mead; Rebecca Hochstein; Lynne Sheets; Sarah Vande Zande; Chris Niebauer; Douglas L. Crawford; Marjorie F. Oleksiak; Ching-Hong Yang

2010-01-01

291

Water Sorption Isotherms of Pistachio Nuts  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption and desorption isotherms of pistachio nuts (kernel and shell) were measured at 15, 25 and 40°C using a gravimetric method. Hysteresis was more pronounced in the shell than in the kernel and reduced as the temperature increased. The isosteric heat of desorption, calculated from the slope of a lnawvs. 1\\/Tplot, was higher than the isosteric heat of adsorption.

S. Yanniotis; I. Zarmboutis

1996-01-01

292

Apparatus to Measure Adiabatic and Isothermal Processes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a simple manual apparatus designed to serve as an effective demonstration of the differences between isothermal and adiabatic processes for the general or elementary physics student. Enables students to verify Boyle's law for slow processes and identify the departure from this law for rapid processes and can also be used to give a clear…

Lamb, D. W.; White, G. M.

1996-01-01

293

Isothermal Titration Calorimetry in the Student Laboratory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) is the measurement of the heat produced by the stepwise addition of one substance to another. It is a common experimental technique, for example, in pharmaceutical science, to measure equilibrium constants and reaction enthalpies. We describe a stirring device and an injection pump that can be used with a…

Wadso, Lars; Li, Yujing; Li, Xi

2011-01-01

294

Performance Characteristics of an Isothermal Freeze Valve  

SciTech Connect

This document discusses performance characteristics of an isothermal freeze valve. A freeze valve has been specified for draining the DWPF melter at the end of its lifetime. Two freeze valve designs have been evaluated on the Small Cylindrical Melter-2 (SCM-2). In order to size the DWPF freeze valve, the basic principles governing freeze valve behavior need to be identified and understood.

Hailey, A.E.

2001-08-22

295

Isothermal propagation of rarefied nitrogen trichloride flames  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.Flames resulting from chain NCl3 decomposition are propagated through NCl3 + He mixtures lying outside the autoignition region.2.The fact that these are essentially isothermal flames is an indication of the important role of positive chain interaction in this process.

V. V. Azatyan; R. R. Borodulin; E. A. Markevich; N. M. Rubtsov; N. N. Semenov

1976-01-01

296

Pyrolysis kinetics of coking coal mixed with biomass under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions.  

PubMed

To investigate the kinetic characteristics of coking coal mixed with biomass during pyrolysis, thermogravimetric (TG) and thermo-balance reactor (TBR) analyses were conducted under non-isothermal and isothermal condition. Yellow poplar as a biomass (B) was mixed with weak coking coal (WC) and hard coking coal (HC), respectively. The calculated activation energies of WC/B blends were higher than those of HC/B blends under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions. The coal/biomass blends show increased reactivity and decreased activation energy with increasing biomass blend ratio, regardless of the coking properties of the coal. The different char structures of the WC/B and HC/B blends were analyzed by BET and SEM. PMID:24472746

Jeong, Ha Myung; Seo, Myung Won; Jeong, Sang Mun; Na, Byung Ki; Yoon, Sang Jun; Lee, Jae Goo; Lee, Woon Jae

2014-03-01

297

Dynamics and Control of DNA Sequence Amplification  

E-print Network

DNA amplification is the process of replication of a specified DNA sequence \\emph{in vitro} through time-dependent manipulation of its external environment. A theoretical framework for determination of the optimal dynamic operating conditions of DNA amplification reactions, for any specified amplification objective, is presented based on first-principles biophysical modeling and control theory. Amplification of DNA is formulated as a problem in control theory with optimal solutions that can differ considerably from strategies typically used in practice. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) as an example, sequence-dependent biophysical models for DNA amplification are cast as control systems, wherein the dynamics of the reaction are controlled by a manipulated input variable. Using these control systems, we demonstrate that there exists an optimal temperature cycling strategy for geometric amplification of any DNA sequence and formulate optimal control problems that can be used to derive the optimal tempe...

Marimuthu, Karthikeyan

2014-01-01

298

Label-free and ultrasensitive colorimetric detection of DNA based on target-triggered quadratic amplification strategy.  

PubMed

Highly sensitive detection of DNA plays a crucial role in biomedical research and clinical diagnosis. Herein, we developed a simple, label-free, isothermal, and ultrasensitive colorimetric method for amplified detection of DNA on the basis of a new quadratic amplification strategy. With the presence of three ingeniously designed hairpin structures and Exonuclease III (Exo III), the target DNA can trigger two independent cycles of reactions: hairpin assembly reaction and Exo III cleavage reaction, which are designed to initiate target DNA recycling amplification and reporter DNA amplification, respectively. Therefore, the proposed method exhibits a high sensitivity toward target DNA with a detection limit of as low as 81 fM, and it can discriminate mismatched DNA from completely matched target DNA. Furthermore, this method could be used as a universal tool for the detection of various DNA sequences and might be further extended for the detection of aptamer-binding molecules. PMID:25437364

Wu, Hao; Liu, Yaling; Wang, Hongyong; Wu, Jun; Zhu, Feifan; Zou, Pei

2015-04-15

299

Applications of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplificaton Methods (LAMP) for Identification and Diagnosis of Mycotic Diseases: Paracoccidioidomycosis and Ochroconis gallopava infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) methods are now useful for the detection of a specific gene in infectious diseases,\\u000a genetic diseases, and\\/or genetic disorders in the large number of medical fields, and it was recently introduced to fungal\\u000a investigation. It is characterized by the use of four different primers specifically designed to recognize six distinct regions\\u000a of the target gene, and

Ayako Sano; Eiko Nakagawa Itano

300

Chemical Amplification with Encapsulated Reagents  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Autocatalysis and chemical amplification are characteristic properties of living systems, and they give rise to behaviors such as increased sensitivity, responsiveness, and self-replication. Here we report a synthetic system in which a unique form of compartmentalization leads to nonlinear, autocatalytic behavior. The compartment is a reversibly formed capsule in which a reagent is sequestered. Reaction products displace the reagent from the capsule into solution and the reaction rate is accelerated. The resulting self-regulation is sensitive to the highly selective molecular recognition properties of the capsule.

Chen, Jian; Koemer, Steffi; Craig, Stephen; Lin, Shirley; Rudkevich, Dmitry M.; Rebek, Julius, Jr.

2002-01-01

301

Signal amplification of glucosamine-6-phosphate based on ribozyme glmS.  

PubMed

Ribozyme glmS based isothermal amplification assay is developed for the colorimetric detection of glucosamine-6-phosphate (GlcN6P). Upon binding to the metabolite target GlcN6P, self-cleavage of glmS ribozyme is initiated to release RNA fragment that can trigger the cascade signal amplification to release large amount of G-quadruplex DNAzymes as reporter for colorimetric detection. Given the importance of GlcN6P for cell wall biosynthesis, the glmS riboswitch has become a new drug target for the development of antibiotics. This assay not only offers a convenient detection of GlcN6P with high specificity and sensitivity, but also provides a platform for high-throughput screening of antibiotics based on glmS riboswitches. PMID:25038539

Zhao, Yongyun; Chen, Haodong; Du, Feng; Yasmeen, Afshan; Dong, Juan; Cui, Xin; Tang, Zhuo

2014-12-15

302

An evaluation of direct PCR amplification  

PubMed Central

Aim To generate complete DNA profiles from blood and saliva samples deposited on FTA® and non-FTA® paper substrates following a direct amplification protocol. Methods Saliva samples from living donors and blood samples from deceased individuals were deposited on ten different FTA® and non-FTA® substrates. These ten paper substrates containing body fluids were kept at room temperature for varying lengths of time ranging from one day to approximately one year. For all assays in this research, 1.2 mm punches were collected from each substrate containing one type of body fluid and amplified with reagents provided in the nine commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification kits. The substrates were not subjected to purification reagent or extraction buffer prior to amplification. Results Success rates were calculated for all nine amplification kits and all ten substrates based on their ability to yield complete DNA profiles following a direct amplification protocol. Six out of the nine amplification kits, and four out of the ten paper substrates had the highest success rates overall. Conclusion The data show that it is possible to generate complete DNA profiles following a direct amplification protocol using both standard (non-direct) and direct PCR amplification kits. The generation of complete DNA profiles appears to depend more on the success of the amplification kit rather than the than the FTA®- or non-FTA®-based substrates. PMID:25559837

Hall, Daniel E.; Roy, Reena

2014-01-01

303

Dynamics and control of DNA sequence amplification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

DNA amplification is the process of replication of a specified DNA sequence in vitro through time-dependent manipulation of its external environment. A theoretical framework for determination of the optimal dynamic operating conditions of DNA amplification reactions, for any specified amplification objective, is presented based on first-principles biophysical modeling and control theory. Amplification of DNA is formulated as a problem in control theory with optimal solutions that can differ considerably from strategies typically used in practice. Using the Polymerase Chain Reaction as an example, sequence-dependent biophysical models for DNA amplification are cast as control systems, wherein the dynamics of the reaction are controlled by a manipulated input variable. Using these control systems, we demonstrate that there exists an optimal temperature cycling strategy for geometric amplification of any DNA sequence and formulate optimal control problems that can be used to derive the optimal temperature profile. Strategies for the optimal synthesis of the DNA amplification control trajectory are proposed. Analogous methods can be used to formulate control problems for more advanced amplification objectives corresponding to the design of new types of DNA amplification reactions.

Marimuthu, Karthikeyan; Chakrabarti, Raj

2014-10-01

304

USING ISOTHERMS TO PREDICT GAC'S CAPACITY FOR SYNTHETIC ORGANICS  

EPA Science Inventory

This investigation involved operating a pilot granular activated carbon (GAC) plant to obtain capacity data under typical field conditions, determining isotherms for selected synthetic organic chemicals, and comparing the capacity predicted by the isotherm data with the pilot-pla...

305

Instrument-free nucleic acid amplification assays for global health settings  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many infectious diseases that affect global health are most accurately diagnosed through nucleic acid amplification and detection. However, existing nucleic acid amplification tests are too expensive and complex for most low-resource settings. The small numbers of centralized laboratories that exist in developing countries tend to be in urban areas and primarily cater to the affluent. In contrast, rural area health care facilities commonly have only basic equipment and health workers have limited training and little ability to maintain equipment and handle reagents.1 Reliable electric power is a common infrastructure shortfall. In this paper, we discuss a practical approach to the design and development of non-instrumented molecular diagnostic tests that exploit the benefits of isothermal amplification strategies. We identify modular instrument-free technologies for sample collection, sample preparation, amplification, heating, and detection. By appropriately selecting and integrating these instrument-free modules, we envision development of an easy to use, infrastructure independent diagnostic test that will enable increased use of highly accurate molecular diagnostics at the point of care in low-resource settings.

LaBarre, Paul; Boyle, David; Hawkins, Kenneth; Weigl, Bernhard

2011-06-01

306

Progress in understanding preferential detection of live cells using viability dyes in combination with DNA amplification.  

PubMed

The ideal scenario in most applications of microbial diagnostics is that only viable cells are detected. Bacteria were traditionally considered viable when they could be cultured, whereas today's viability concept tends to be alternatively based on the presence of some form of metabolic activity, a positive energy status, responsiveness, detection of RNA transcripts that tend to degrade rapidly after cell death, or of an intact membrane. The latter criterion, although conservative, was the focus of one of the most successful recent approaches to detect viable cells in combination with DNA amplification techniques. The technology is based on sample treatment with the photoactivatable, and cell membrane impermeant, nucleic acid intercalating dyes ethidium monoazide (EMA) or propidium monoazide (PMA) followed by light exposure prior to extraction of DNA and amplification. Light activation of DNA-bound dye molecules results in irreversible DNA modification and subsequent inhibition of its amplification. Sample pretreatment with viability dyes has so far been mainly used in combination with PCR (leading to the term viability PCR, v-PCR), and increasingly with isothermal amplification method. The principle is not limited to bacteria, but has also successfully been applied to fungi, protozoa and viruses. Despite the success of the method, some practical limitations have been identified, especially when applied to environmental samples. In part they can be minimized by choice of experimental parameters and conditions adequate for a particular sample. This review summarizes current knowledge and presents aspects which are important when designing experiments employing viability dyes. PMID:22940102

Fittipaldi, Mariana; Nocker, Andreas; Codony, Francesc

2012-11-01

307

Amplification induced by white noise  

E-print Network

We investigate the amplification of the field induced by white noise. In the present study, we study a stochastic equation which has two parameters, the energy $\\omega(\\vec{k})$ of a free particle and the coupling strength $D$ between the field and white noise, where the quantity $\\vec{k}$ represents the momentum of a free particle. This equation is reduced to the equation with one parameter $\\alpha(\\vec{k})$ which is defined as $\\alpha(\\vec{k}) = D (\\omega(\\vec{k}))^{-3/2}$. We obtain the expression of the exponent statistically averaged over the unit time and derive an approximate expression of it. In addition, the exponent is obtained numerically by solving the stochastic equation. We find that the amplification increases with $\\alpha(\\vec{k})$. This indicates that white noise can amplify the fields for soft modes if the mass $m$ of the field is sufficiently light and if the strength of the coupling between the field and white noise is sufficiently strong, when the energy $\\omega(\\vec{k})$ is equal to $\\sqrt{m^{2} + \\vec{k}^{2}}$. We show that the $\\alpha(\\vec{k})$ dependence of the exponent statistically averaged is qualitatively similar to that of the exponent obtained by solving the stochastic equation numerically, and that these two exponents for the small value of $\\alpha(\\vec{k})$ are quantitatively similar.

Masamichi Ishihara

2006-03-01

308

Sorption isotherms and drying characteristics of mulberry ( Morus alba)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Drying characteristics of Mulberry (M. alba) including sorption isotherms and drying kinetics were investigated. Adsorption and desorption isotherms at 10, 20 and 30 °C and isosteric heats of sorption were determined. At higher water activities, as the temperature was increased, a crossing of the isotherm curves was detected. Some hysteresis effect decreasing with higher temperature was observed. Mulberry was dried

Medeni Maskan; Fahrettin Gö?ü?

1998-01-01

309

Self-lensing of a Singular Isothermal Sphere  

E-print Network

Many astrophysical systems can be approximated as isothermal spheres. In an isothermal sphere, the ``foreground'' objects can act as lenses on ``background'' objects in the same distribution. We study gravitational lensing by a singular isothermal sphere analytically. Our results may have interesting applications.

Yun Wang

1999-07-01

310

The MDM2 gene amplification database.  

PubMed Central

The p53 tumor suppressor gene is inactivated in human tumors by several distinct mechanisms. The best characterized inactivation mechanisms are: (i) gene mutation; (ii) p53 protein association with viral proteins; (iii) p53 protein association with the MDM2 cellular oncoprotein. The MDM2 gene has been shown to be abnormally up-regulated in human tumors and tumor cell lines by gene amplification, increased transcript levels and enhanced translation. This communication presents a brief review of the spectrum of MDM2 abnormalities in human tumors and compares the tissue distribution of MDM2 amplification and p53 mutation frequencies. In this study, 3889 samples from tumors or xenografts from 28 tumor types were examined for MDM2 amplification from previously published sources. The overall frequency of MDM2 amplification in these human tumors was 7%. Gene amplification was observed in 19 tumor types, with the highest frequency observed in soft tissue tumors (20%), osteosarcomas (16%) and esophageal carcinomas (13%). Tumors which showed a higher incidence of MDM2 amplification than p53 mutation were soft tissue tumors, testicular germ cell cancers and neuro-blastomas. Data from studies where both MDM2 amplification and p53 mutations were analyzed within the same samples showed that mutations in these two genes do not generally occur within the same tumor. In these studies, 29 out of a total of 33 MDM2 amplification-positive tumors had wild-type p53. We hypothesize that heretofore uncharacterized carcinogens favor MDM2 amplification over p53 mutations in certain tumor types. A database listing the MDM2 gene amplifications is available on the World Wide Web at http://www. infosci.coh.org/mdm2 . Charts of MDM2 amplification frequencies and comparisons with p53 genetic alterations are also available at this Web site. PMID:9671804

Momand, J; Jung, D; Wilczynski, S; Niland, J

1998-01-01

311

Isothermal crystallization kinetics of refined palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

The induction times for the crystallization, under isothermal conditions, of refined, bleached, and deodorized palm oil from\\u000a the melt were studied by viscometry. At temperatures below 295 K, the crystallization of palm oil was observed to occur in\\u000a a two-stage process. This two-stage process was caused by the fractionation of palm oil, most probably into the stearin and\\u000a olein fractions.

C. W. Chen; O. M. Lai; H. M. Ghazali; C. L. Chong

2002-01-01

312

On the Isothermality of Solar Plasmas  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent measurements have shown that the quiet unstructured solar corona observed at the solar limb is close to isothermal, at a temperature that does not appear to change over wide areas or with time. Some in dividual active loop structures have also been found to be nearly iso thermal both along their axis and across their cross-section. Even a complex active region observed at the solar limb has been found to be composed of three distinct isothermal plasmas. If confirmed, these r esults would pose formidable challenges to the current theoretical understanding of the thermal structure and heating of the solar corona. For example, no current theoretical model can explain the excess dens ities and lifetimes of many observed loops if the loops are in fact i sothermal. All of these measurements are based on the so-called emiss ion measure (EM) diagnostic technique that is applied to a set of opt ically thin lines under the assumption of isothermal plasma. It provi des simultaneous measurement of both the temperature and EM. However, no study has ever been carried out to quantify the uncertainties in the technique and to rigorously assess its ability to discriminate bet ween isothermal and multithermal plasmas. Such a study is the topic o f the present work. We define a formal measure of the uncertainty in the EM diagnostic technique that can easily be applied to real data. We here apply it to synthetic data based on a variety of assumed plas ma thermal distributions, and develop a method to quantitatively asse ss the degree of multithermality of a plasma.

Landi, E.; Klimchuk, J. A.

2010-01-01

313

Analysis of Cooperativity by Isothermal Titration Calorimetry  

PubMed Central

Cooperative binding pervades Nature. This review discusses the use of isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) in the identification and characterisation of cooperativity in biological interactions. ITC has broad scope in the analysis of cooperativity as it determines binding stiochiometries, affinities and thermodynamic parameters, including enthalpy and entropy in a single experiment. Examples from the literature are used to demonstrate the applicability of ITC in the characterisation of cooperative systems. PMID:20111687

Brown, Alan

2009-01-01

314

Third Sound Amplification and Detailed Balance  

SciTech Connect

Condensation of atoms from the vapor into a third sound resonance is expected to be capable of acoustic amplification. This results from normal to superfluid conversion that coherently accommodates atoms into the third sound velocity field. Consideration of third sound in light of the equilibrium detailed balance between vapor particles and the superfluid film provides further evidence that acoustic amplification is attainable.

Eddinger, J. D.; Ellis, F. M. [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459 (United States)

2006-09-07

315

Tsunami Amplification due to Focusing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tsunami runup measurements over the periphery of the Pacific Ocean after the devastating Great Japan tsunami of 11 March 2011 showed considerable variation in far-field and near-field impact. This variation of tsunami impact have been attributed to either directivity of the source or by local topographic effects. Directivity arguments alone, however, cannot explain the complexity of the radiated patterns in oceans with trenches and seamounts. Berry (2007, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 463, 3055-3071) discovered how such underwater features may concentrate tsunamis into cusped caustics and thus cause large local amplifications at specific focal points. Here, we examine focusing and local amplification, not by considering the effects of underwater diffractive lenses, but by considering the details of the dipole nature of the initial profile, and propose that certain regions of coastline are more at-risk, not simply because of directivity but because typical tsunami deformations create focal regions where abnormal tsunami wave height can be registered (Marchuk and Titov, 1989, Proc. IUGG/IOC International Tsunami Symposium, Novosibirsk, USSR). In this work, we present a new general analytical solution of the linear shallow-water wave equation for the propagation of a finite-crest-length source over a constant depth without any restriction on the initial profile. Unlike the analytical solution of Carrier and Yeh (2005, Comp. Mod. Eng. & Sci. 10(2), 113-121) which was restricted to initial conditions with Gaussian profiles and involved approximation, our solution is not only exact, but also general and allows the use of realistic initial waveform such as N-waves as defined by Tadepalli and Synolakis (1994, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 445, 99-112). We then verify our analytical solution for several typical wave profiles, both with the NOAA tsunami forecast model MOST (Titov and Synolakis, 1998, J. Waterw. Port Coast. Ocean Eng. 124(4), 157-171) which is validated and verified through (Synolakis et al., 2008, Pure Appl. Geophys. 165(11-12), 2197-2228), and with a Boussinesq model, to illustrate the role focusing can play for different initial conditions, and to show the robust nature of focusing with respect to dispersion. We also show how the focusing effect might have played a role in the 17 July 1998 Papua New Guinea and 17 July 2006 Java events, and also the 11 March 2011 Great Japan earthquake and tsunami. Our results strongly imply that focusing increases the shoreline amplification of the tsunami.; Schematic of focusing; initial displacement (upper left), wave evolution (upper right, lower left), maximum wave amplitude with focusing (lower right).

Moore, C. W.; Kanoglu, U.; Titov, V. V.; Aydin, B.; Spillane, M. C.; Synolakis, C. E.

2012-12-01

316

Optical sound generation and amplification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research has concentrated on sound propagation through a gas with a nonequilibrium distribution of internal states and the generation of sound following excitation of a fluid by a laser. When a sound wave propagates through a gas which has an overpopulation of vibrationally excited states, the wave can increase in amplitude while propagating. In simple terms, this represents a reversal of the absorption typically associated with vibrational relaxation. Amplification of a propagating wave has been theoretically predicted and experimentally observed for a gas undergoing chemical reaction and following an electrical discharge through a non-reacting mixture. Optoacoustic measurements have been completed in gaseous CO2 and SF6 and preliminary results are reported for several liquids. Following laser excitation of SF6 at low pressure, the gas actually cooled. A theoretical model for this behavior consistent with known energy transfer mechanisms has been developed and shown to be consistent with experiment measurements.

Bass, Henry E.; Shields, F. D.

1987-02-01

317

Numerical Model for Isothermal and Non-Isothermal Crystallization of Liquids and Glasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new numerical model of isothermal and non-isothermal first order phase transformations, such as the crystallization of liquids and glasses, is presented. This model computes directly the volume fraction transformed, taking into account time-dependent nucleation rates and cluster-size-dependent growth velocities. The model is applied to the crystallization of lithium disilicate glass, using the appropriate kinetic and thermodynamic parameters. The model is used (1) to determine the validity of common methods for computing the volume fraction transformed as a function of time in isothermal experiments when a time-dependent nucleation rate is expected, (2) to simulate non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies of glass devitrification as a function of scan rate, and (3) to compute the effect of preannealing on the DSC peak parameters. A novel behavior of the nucleation rate with scan rate is predicted, arising because the relaxation of the cluster distribution cannot be described by a single relaxation time. Comparisons of the calculations with experimental data on this glass demonstrate the validity of the model.

Kelton, K. F.

1993-01-01

318

Computer Modeling of Non-Isothermal Crystallization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A realistic computer model for simulating isothermal and non-isothermal phase transformations proceeding by homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation and interface-limited growth is presented. A new treatment for particle size effects on the crystallization kinetics is developed and is incorporated into the numerical model. Time-dependent nucleation rates, size-dependent growth rates, and surface crystallization are also included. Model predictions are compared with experimental measurements of DSC/DTA peak parameters for the crystallization of lithium disilicate glass as a function of particle size, Pt doping levels, and water content. The quantitative agreement that is demonstrated indicates that the numerical model can be used to extract key kinetic data from easily obtained calorimetric data. The model can also be used to probe nucleation and growth behavior in regimes that are otherwise inaccessible. Based on a fit to data, an earlier prediction that the time-dependent nucleation rate in a DSC/DTA scan can rise above the steady-state value at a temperature higher than the peak in the steady-state rate is demonstrated.

Kelton, K. F.; Narayan, K. Lakshmi; Levine, L. E.; Cull, T. C.; Ray, C. S.

1996-01-01

319

The Spatial Pattern of Cochlear Amplification  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Sensorineural hearing loss, which stems primarily from the failure of mechanosensory hair cells, changes the traveling waves that transmit acoustic signals along the cochlea. However, the connection between cochlear mechanics and the amplificatory function of hair cells remains unclear. Using an optical technique that permits the targeted inactivation of prestin, a protein of outer hair cells that generates forces on the basilar membrane, we demonstrate that these forces interact locally with cochlear traveling waves to achieve enormous mechanical amplification. By perturbing amplification in narrow segments of the basilar membrane, we further show that a cochlear traveling wave accumulates gain as it approaches its peak. Analysis of these results indicates that cochlear amplification produces negative damping that counters the viscous drag impeding traveling waves; targeted photoinactivation locally interrupts this compensation. These results reveal the locus of amplification in cochlear traveling waves and connect the characteristics of normal hearing to molecular forces. PMID:23217746

Fisher, Jonathan A.N.; Nin, Fumiaki; Reichenbach, Tobias; Uthaiah, Revathy C.; Hudspeth, A.J.

2012-01-01

320

AMPLIFICATION OF RIBOSOMAL RNA SEQUENCES - Book Chapter  

EPA Science Inventory

This book chapter contains the following headings and subheadings: Introduction; Experimental Approach - Precautions, Template, Primers, Reaction Conditions, Enhancers, Post Amplification; Procedures - Template DNA, Basic PCR, Thermal Cycle Parameters, Enzyme Addition, Agarose Ge...

321

EFFICIENT GENOTYPING OF SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI MIRACIDIA FOLLOWING WHOLE GENOME AMPLIFICATION  

PubMed Central

Small parasites and larval stages pose a problem for molecular analyses because limited amounts of DNA template are available. Isothermal methods for faithfully copying DNA have the potential to revolutionize studies of such organisms. We evaluated the fidelity of multiple displacement amplification (MDA) for amplifying DNA extracted from a single miracidium of Schistosoma mansoni. To do this we genotyped DNA extracted from 28 F1 miracidia following MDA using 56 microsatellite markers. Because these miracidia were obtained from a cross between a male and female worm of known genotypes, we were able to predict the alleles present in the progeny and quantify the genotyping error rate. We found just 8/1568 genotypes deviated from Mendelian expectations. Furthermore, because one of these resulted from a genuine mutation, the error rate due to MDA is 7/1568 (0.45%). We conclude that many hundreds of microsatellites or other genetic markers can be accurately genotyped from a single miracidium using this method, greatly expanding the scope of population genetic, epidemiological and evolutionary studies on this parasite. PMID:19428677

Valentim, Claudia L. L.; LoVerde, Philip T.; Anderson, Timothy J. C.; Criscione, Charles D.

2009-01-01

322

Efficient genotyping of Schistosoma mansoni miracidia following whole genome amplification.  

PubMed

Small parasites and larval stages pose a problem for molecular analyses because limited amounts of DNA template are available. Isothermal methods for faithfully copying DNA have the potential to revolutionize studies of such organisms. We evaluated the fidelity of multiple displacement amplification (MDA) for amplifying DNA extracted from a single miracidium of Schistosoma mansoni. To do this we genotyped DNA extracted from 28 F1 miracidia following MDA using 56 microsatellite markers. Because these miracidia were obtained from a cross between a male and female worm of known genotypes, we were able to predict the alleles present in the progeny and quantify the genotyping error rate. We found just 8/1568 genotypes deviated from Mendelian expectations. Furthermore, because 1 of these resulted from a genuine mutation, the error rate due to MDA is 7/1568 (0.45%). We conclude that many hundreds of microsatellites or other genetic markers can be accurately genotyped from a single miracidium using this method, greatly expanding the scope of population genetic, epidemiological and evolutionary studies on this parasite. PMID:19428677

Valentim, Claudia L L; LoVerde, Philip T; Anderson, Timothy J C; Criscione, Charles D

2009-07-01

323

Reciprocating-flow ATP amplification system for increasing the number of amplification cycles.  

PubMed

We constructed a novel ATP amplification reactor using a reciprocating-flow system to increase the number of ATP amplification cycles without an increase in backpressure. We previously reported a continuous-flow ATP amplification system that effectively and quantitatively amplified ATP and increased the sensitivity of a quantitative bioluminescence assay. However, it was difficult to increase the number of amplification cycles due to backpressure in the system. Because addition of immobilized adenylate kinase (ADK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) columns increased backpressure, the maximum number of ATP amplification cycles within column durability was only 4. In this study, ATP amplification was performed using a reciprocating-flow system, and 10 cycles of ATP amplification could be achieved without an increase in backpressure. As a result, ATP was amplified more than 100-fold after 10 cycles of reciprocating flow. The gradient of ATP amplification was approximately 1.76(N). The backpressure on the columns was 0.03 MPa in 1-10 ATP amplification cycles, and no increases in backpressure were observed. PMID:19699705

Satoh, Tetsuya; Tsuruta, Kosuke; Shinoda, Yasuharu; Hirota, Ryuichi; Noda, Kenichi; Kuroda, Akio; Murakami, Yuji

2009-12-15

324

Statistical Design in Isothermal Aging of Polyimide Resins  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent developments in research on polyimides for high temperature applications have led to the synthesis of many new polymers. Among the criteria that determines their thermal oxidative stability, isothermal aging is one of the most important. Isothermal aging studies require that many experimental factors are controlled to provide accurate results. In this article we describe a statistical plan that compares the isothermal stability of several polyimide resins, while minimizing the variations inherent in high-temperature aging studies.

Sutter, James K.; Jobe, Marcus; Crane, Elizabeth A.

1995-01-01

325

Chemical amplification based on fluid partitioning  

DOEpatents

A system for nucleic acid amplification of a sample comprises partitioning the sample into partitioned sections and performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample. Another embodiment of the invention provides a system for nucleic acid amplification and detection of a sample comprising partitioning the sample into partitioned sections, performing PCR on the partitioned sections of the sample, and detecting and analyzing the partitioned sections of the sample.

Anderson, Brian L. (Lodi, CA); Colston, Jr., Billy W. (San Ramon, CA); Elkin, Chris (San Ramon, CA)

2006-05-09

326

Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ  

DOEpatents

Amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ to increase the amount of DNA associated with a chromosome or chromosome region is described. The amplification of chromosomal DNA in situ provides for the synthesis of Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) painting probes from single dissected chromosome fragments, the production of cDNA libraries from low copy mRNAs and improved in Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) procedures.

Christian, Allen T. (Tracy, CA); Coleman, Matthew A. (Livermore, CA); Tucker, James D. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

327

Notch3 Gene Amplification in Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene amplification is one of the common mechanisms that activate oncogenes. In this study, we used single nucleotide polymorphism array to analyze genome-wide DNA copy number alterations in 31high-grade ovarian serous carcino- mas, the most lethal gynecologic neoplastic disease in women. We identified an amplicon at 19p13.12 in 6 of 31 (19.5%) ovarian high-grade serous carcinomas. This amplification was validated

Joon T. Park; Kentaro Nakayama; Tsui-Lien Mao; Ben Davidson; Zhen Zhang; Robert J. Kurman; Charles G. Eberhart; Tian-Li Wang

2006-01-01

328

Does poleward heat transport affect Arctic amplification?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of the coupled interactions creating Arctic amplification remains uncertain. To evaluate proposed mechanisms for Arctic amplification, we analyze the response to a carbon dioxide doubling in two equilibrium slab ocean model experiments with different representations of atmospheric processes (SOM1, SOM2) and a 300-year long integration of a fully coupled model with the same atmospheric physics as SOM1 (FC1).

J. E. Kay; E. Blanchard-Wrigglesworth; M. M. Holland; D. A. Bailey; C. M. Bitz

2010-01-01

329

Characterization of a novel close-to-root papillomavirus from a Florida manatee by using multiply primed rolling-circle amplification: Trichechus manatus latirostris papillomavirus type 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using an isothermal multiply primed rolling-circle amplification protocol, the complete genomic DNA of a novel papillomavirus was amplified from a skin lesion biopsy of a Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris), one of the most endangered marine mammals in United States coastal waters. The nucleotide sequence, genome organization, and phylogenetic position of the Trichechus manatus latirostris papillomavirus type 1 (TmPV-1)

Annabel Rector; Gregory D. Bossart; Shin-Je Ghim; John P. Sundberg; A. B. Jenson; R a Van

2004-01-01

330

Advances in Chemical Amplification Resist Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chemical amplification concept proposed in 1982 to boost resist sensitivities is now well accepted by the lithography community, which stems not only from high sensitivities that chemical amplification resist systems can offer but also from additional benefits of high contrasts and unexpectedly high resolution capabilities. The design flexibility and versatility that the use of acid as a catalytic species offers are another attractive feature of chemical amplification, giving rise to a birth of an entire family of advanced resist systems. Manufacture and prototype fabrication of DRAM’s by deep UV lithography have been accomplished with use of chemical amplification resists. However, some process problems uniquely associated with chemical amplification resists have surfaced recently, which include their latent image instability due to their sensitivity toward minute amounts of air-borne contaminants. This paper reviews recent advances made in our laboratory in the field of chemical amplification resist systems and discusses 1) influence of residual casting solvent on absorption of NMP by polymer films, 2) effects of polymer end groups on resist sensitivity, and 3) new imaging mechanisms based on acid-catalyzed dehydration.

Ito, Hiroshi

1992-12-01

331

Determination of Ibuprofen Isotherm Using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography.  

E-print Network

?? Chromatography is widely used to determine physiochemical properties data including adsorption isotherm. In the separation of enantiomers through sorptive processes, supercritical fluids allow efficient… (more)

Ho, Loi

2012-01-01

332

Determination of Ibuprofen Isotherm Using Supercritical Fluid Chromatography.  

E-print Network

??Chromatography is widely used to determine physiochemical properties data including adsorption isotherm. In the separation of enantiomers through sorptive processes, supercritical fluids allow efficient and… (more)

Ho, Loi

2012-01-01

333

Optical parametric amplification of a supercontinuum in a gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amplification of supercontinuum light via four-wave optical parametric amplification in a gas-filled hollow fiber is investigated. By pumping with a femtosecond pulse in the near-infrared, amplification was observed in the wavelength range 500-700 nm, with an amplification gain up to 100. The amplification bandwidth obtained here supports sub-10-fs pulse durations. The wavelength and gas-pressure dependence of the amplification gain in this regime significantly differ from those predicted from only the linear phase mismatch. The nonlinear phase mismatch, arising from nonlinear phase modulations induced by a pump pulse, dominates the features observed for the amplification, i.e., a low phase-matching pressure and an amplification gain depending on wavelength. To investigate the effect of phase modulations on the parametric amplification, numerical analysis and simulations are used to reproduce the measured wavelength dependence of the amplification gain.

Kida, Yuichiro; Imasaka, Totaro

2014-09-01

334

Reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the detection of middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus.  

PubMed

The emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the eastern Mediterranean and imported cases to Europe has alerted public health authorities. Currently, detection of MERS-CoV in patient samples is done by real-time RT-PCR. Samples collected from suspected cases are sent to highly-equipped centralized laboratories for screening. A rapid point-of-care test is needed to allow more widespread mobile detection of the virus directly from patient material. In this study, we describe the development of a reverse transcription isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RT-RPA) assay for the identification of MERS-CoV. A partial nucleocapsid gene RNA molecular standard of MERS-coronavirus was used to determine the assay sensitivity. The isothermal (42°C) MERS-CoV RT-RPA was as sensitive as real-time RT-PCR (10 RNA molecules), rapid (3-7 minutes) and mobile (using tubescanner weighing 1kg). The MERS-CoV RT-RPA showed cross-detection neither of any of the RNAs of several coronaviruses and respiratory viruses affecting humans nor of the human genome. The developed isothermal real-time RT-RPA is ideal for rapid mobile molecular MERS-CoV monitoring in acute patients and may also facilitate the search for the animal reservoir of MERS-CoV. PMID:24459611

Abd El Wahed, Ahmed; Patel, Pranav; Heidenreich, Doris; Hufert, Frank T; Weidmann, Manfred

2013-01-01

335

Electrochemical detection of Francisella tularensis genomic DNA using solid-phase recombinase polymerase amplification.  

PubMed

Solid-phase isothermal DNA amplification was performed exploiting the homology protein recombinase A (recA). The system was primarily tested on maleimide activated microtitre plates as a proof-of-concept and later translated to an electrochemical platform. In both cases, forward primer for Francisella tularensis holarctica genomic DNA was surface immobilised via a thiol or an amino moiety and then elongated during the recA mediated amplification, carried out in the presence of specific target sequence and reverse primers. The formation of the subsequent surface tethered amplicons was either colorimetrically or electrochemically monitored using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labelled DNA secondary probe complementary to the elongated strand. The amplification time was optimised to amplify even low amounts of DNA copies in less than an hour at a constant temperature of 37°C, achieving a limit of detection of 1.3×10(-13) M (4×10(6) copies in 50 ?L) for the colorimetric assay and 3.3×10(-14) M (2×10(5) copies in 10 ?L) for the chronoamperometric assay. The system was demonstrated to be highly specific with negligible cross-reactivity with non-complementary targets or primers. PMID:24334283

del Río, Jonathan Sabaté; Yehia Adly, Nouran; Acero-Sánchez, Josep Lluis; Henry, Olivier Y F; O'Sullivan, Ciara K

2014-04-15

336

Isothermal decomposition of ?-irradiated samarium acetate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Isothermal decomposition of un-irradiated and pre-?-irradiated samarium acetate has been investigated at different temperatures between 613 and 633 K. Irradiation was observed to enhance the rate of decomposition without modifying the mechanism of thermal decomposition. Thermal decomposition of samarium acetate has been shown to proceed by two-dimensional phase-boundary reaction both for un-irradiated and pre-?-irradiated samples. The enhancement of the decomposition was found to increase with an increase in the ?-ray dose applied to the sample and may be attributed to an increase in point defects and formation of additional nucleation centers generated in the host lattice. Thermodynamic values of the main decomposition process were calculated and evaluated.

Mahfouz, R. M.; Monshi, M. A. S.; Alshehri, S. M.; Abd El-Salam, N. M.

2000-10-01

337

Isothermal Folding of G-quadruplexes  

PubMed Central

Thermodynamic studies of G-quadruplex stability are an essential complement to structures obtained by NMR or x-ray crystallography. An understanding of the energetics of quadruplex folding provides a necessary foundation for the physical interpretation of quadruplex formation and reactivity. While thermal denaturation methods are most commonly used to evaluate quadruplex stability, it is also possible to study folding using isothermal titration methods. G-quadruplex folding is tightly coupled to specific cation binding. We describe here protocols for monitoring the cation-driven quadruplex folding transition using circular dichroism or absorbance, and for determination of the distribution of free and bound cation using a fluorescence indicator. Together these approaches provide insight into quadruplex folding at constant temperature, and characterize the linkage between cation binding and folding. PMID:22525787

Gray, Robert D.; Chaires, Jonathan B.

2012-01-01

338

Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment - SCN Dendrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE), flown on three Space Shuttle missions, is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. IDGE used transparent organic liquids that form dendrites (treelike structures) similar to the crystals that form inside metal alloys. Comparing Earth-based and space-based dentrite growth velocity, tip size and shape provid a better understanding of the fundamentals of dentritic growth, including gravity's effects. These shadowgraphic images show succinonitrile (SCN) dentrites growing in a melt (liquid). The space-grown crystals also have cleaner, better defined sidebranches. IDGE was developed by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institude (RPI) and NASA/ Glenn Research Center(GRC). Advanced follow-on experiments are being developed for flight on the International Space Station. Photo gredit: NASA/Glenn Research Center

1995-01-01

339

Heat induces gene amplification in cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study discovered that heat exposure (hyperthermia) results in gene amplification in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hyperthermia induces DNA double strand breaks. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA double strand breaks are considered to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The underlying mechanism of heat-induced gene amplification is generation of DNA double strand breaks. -- Abstract: Background: Hyperthermia plays an important role in cancer therapy. However, as with radiation, it can cause DNA damage and therefore genetic instability. We studied whether hyperthermia can induce gene amplification in cancer cells and explored potential underlying molecular mechanisms. Materials and methods: (1) Hyperthermia: HCT116 colon cancer cells received water-submerged heating treatment at 42 or 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min; (2) gene amplification assay using N-(phosphoacetyl)-L-aspartate (PALA) selection of cabamyl-P-synthetase, aspartate transcarbarmylase, dihydro-orotase (cad) gene amplified cells; (3) southern blotting for confirmation of increased cad gene copies in PALA-resistant cells; (4) {gamma}H2AX immunostaining to detect {gamma}H2AX foci as an indication for DNA double strand breaks. Results: (1) Heat exposure at 42 or 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min induces gene amplification. The frequency of cad gene amplification increased by 2.8 and 6.5 folds respectively; (2) heat exposure at both 42 and 44 Degree-Sign C for 30 min induces DNA double strand breaks in HCT116 cells as shown by {gamma}H2AX immunostaining. Conclusion: This study shows that heat exposure can induce gene amplification in cancer cells, likely through the generation of DNA double strand breaks, which are believed to be required for the initiation of gene amplification. This process may be promoted by heat when cellular proteins that are responsible for checkpoints, DNA replication, DNA repair and telomere functions are denatured. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide direct evidence of hyperthermia induced gene amplification.

Yan, Bin, E-mail: yanbin@mercyhealth.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39213 (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39213 (United States); Mercy Cancer Center, Mercy Medical Center-North Iowa, Mason City, IA 50401 (United States); Ouyang, Ruoyun [Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Xinagya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410011 (China)] [Department of Respiratory Medicine, The Second Xiangya Hospital, Xinagya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410011 (China); Huang, Chenghui [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39213 (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39213 (United States); Department of Oncology, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Xinagya School of Medicine, Central South University, Changsha 410013 (China); Liu, Franklin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Neill, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39213 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS 39213 (United States); Li, Chuanyuan [Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)] [Dermatology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Dewhirst, Mark [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)

2012-10-26

340

DNS of a periodic channel flow with isothermal ablative wall  

E-print Network

DNS of a periodic channel flow with isothermal ablative wall O. Cabrit1 and F. Nicoud2 1 CERFACS from a DNS of turbulent reacting multicomponent channel flow with isothermal ablative walls. Another space and time) is dedicated to LES/DNS of reacting flows and has been widely used and validated during

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

341

Isothermal reactivating Whiplash PCR for locally programmable molecular computation  

E-print Network

-009-9148-6 #12;Programmable molecular machines Á Polymerase chain reaction Á Isothermal computing Á Autocatalytic biomolecular computers Á State transition Abbreviations PCR Polymerase chain reaction WPCR Whiplash polymerase nucleic acid IR-WPCR Isothermal reactivating Whiplash polymerase chain reaction FRET Fluorescence

Reif, John H.

342

Multifractal characteristics of Nitrogen adsorption isotherms from tropical soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the primary methods used to characterize a wide range of porous materials, including soils, are gas adsorption isotherms. An adsorption isotherm is a function relating the amount of adsorbed gas or vapour to the respective equilibrium pressure, during pressure increase at constant temperature. Adsorption data allow easily estimates of specific surface area and also can provide a characterization

Eva Vidal Vázquez; Jorge Paz Ferreiro

2010-01-01

343

APPLICATION OF NELSON'S SORPTION ISOTHERM TO WOOD COMPOSITES AND OVERLAYS'  

E-print Network

APPLICATION OF NELSON'S SORPTION ISOTHERM TO WOOD COMPOSITES AND OVERLAYS' Qinglin Wu Assistant. It was found that Nelson's model can be used to describe the experimental data from different composite composite materials (Suchsland 1972). These relationships, known as sorption isotherms, greatly affect

344

Isothermal densification and metamorphism of new snow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interplay between overburden stress and surface energy induced growth and coarsening is relevant for the densification of snow and porous ice at all densities. The densification of new snow is amenable to high precision experiments on short time scales. To this end we investigate the coupling of densification and metamorphism of new snow via time-lapse tomography experiments in the laboratory. We compare the evolution of density, strain, and specific surface area to previous long-time metamorphism experiments of snow and creep of polycrystalline ice. Experimental conditions are tailored to the requirements of time-lapse tomography and the measurements are conducted under nearly isothermal conditions at -20°C with a duration of two days. Images were taken with temporal resolution of a few hours which reveal precise details of the microstructure evolution due to sintering and compaction. We used different crystal shapes of natural new snow and snow samples obtained by sieving crystals grown in a snowmaker in the laboratory. To simulate the effect of overburden stress due to an overlying snowpack additional weights were applied to the sample. As expected we find an influence of the densification rate on initial density and overburden stress. We calculated strain rates and identified a transient creep behavior with a similar power law for all crystal types which substantially differs from the Andrade creep of polycrystalline ice. As a main result we found that the evolution of the specific surface area is independent of the density and follows a unique decay form for all measurements of each crystal type. The accuracy of the measurements allows to obtain a decay exponent for the SSA which is the same as previously obtained from the long-time regime during isothermal metamorphism after several months. Our preliminary results for all available types of new snow suggest a correlation between the initial density and SSA. We also find snow samples which coincide in initial density and SSA but differ in SSA decay rate. This indicates that these parameters are insufficient to describe SSA evolution and the crystal shape has also to be considered.

Schleef, S.; Loewe, H.; Schneebeli, M.

2012-12-01

345

Whole Genome Analysis of Genetic Alterations in Small DNA Samples Using Hyperbranched Strand Displacement Amplification and Array–CGH  

PubMed Central

Structural genetic alterations in cancer often involve gene loss or gene amplification. With the advent of microarray approaches for the analysis of the genome, as exemplified by array–CGH (Comparative Genomic Hybridization), scanning for gene-dosage alterations is limited only by issues of DNA microarray density. However, samples of interest to the pathologist often comprise small clusters of just a few hundred cells, which do not provide sufficient DNA for array–CGH analysis. We sought to develop a simple method that would permit amplification of the whole genome without the use of thermocycling or ligation of DNA adaptors, because such a method would lend itself to the automated processing of a large number of tissue samples. We describe a method that permits the isothermal amplification of genomic DNA with high fidelity and limited sequence representation bias. The method is based on strand displacement reactions that propagate by a hyperbranching mechanism, and generate hundreds, or even thousands, of copies of the genome in a few hours. Using whole genome isothermal amplification, in combination with comparative genomic hybridization on cDNA microarrays, we demonstrate the ability to detect gene losses in yeast and gene dosage imbalances in human breast tumor cell lines. Although sequence representation bias in the amplified DNA presents potential problems for CGH analysis, these problems have been overcome by using amplified DNA in both control and tester samples. Gene-dosage alterations of threefold or more can be observed with high reproducibility with as few as 1000 cells of starting material. PMID:12566408

Lage, José M.; Leamon, John H.; Pejovic, Tanja; Hamann, Stefan; Lacey, Michelle; Dillon, Deborah; Segraves, Richard; Vossbrinck, Bettina; González, Antonio; Pinkel, Daniel; Albertson, Donna G.; Costa, Jose; Lizardi, Paul M.

2003-01-01

346

USE OF LOOP-MEDIATED ISOTHERMAL AMPLIFICATION METHOD FOR RAPID DETECTION OF EDWARDSIELLA ICTALURI AND FLAVOBACTERIUM COLUMNARE IN CHANNEL CATFISH  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

After two decades of fast growth, aquaculture will continue to be a crucial food-producing industry worldwide. Infectious diseases are a critical limiting factor in aquaculture. Traditionally, isolation and a series of biochemical tests are required for pathogen identification. However, these pro...

347

Pepino mosaic virus genotype shift in North America and rapid genotype identification using loop-mediated isothermal amplification  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pepino mosaic, once an emerging disease a decade ago, has become endemic on greenhouse tomatoes worldwide in recent years. Three distinct genotypes of Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), including EU, US1 and CH2 have been recognized. Our earlier study in 2006-2007 demonstrated a predominant EU genotype ...

348

Raman amplification in terrestrial DWDM systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman amplification has been one of the enabling technologies employed to push the capacity x distance product in terrestrial DWDM systems. Due to its broad gain spectrum and the commercial availability of desired Raman pump wavelengths, more than 100-nm bandwidth is made possible covering the low loss window of silica fibers. In addition, distributed Raman amplification in transmission fibers and/or dispersion-compensating fibers (DCF) can significantly improve the system signal-to-noise ratio. In this talk, we will discuss the advantages and issues of Raman amplification, including pump-pump and pump-signal crosstalk, and their impact on the design of next generation fibers. Recent transmission experiments over Raman enabled fibers will be presented. Optimization of the system performance by allocating the Raman gains in co-, counter- and DCF-pumping will also be discussed.

Leng, Lufeng

2002-08-01

349

Amplification, Redundancy, and the Quantum Chernoff Information  

E-print Network

Amplification was regarded, since the early days of quantum theory, as a mysterious ingredient that endows quantum microstates with macroscopic consequences, key to the "collapse of the wavepacket", and a way to avoid embarrassing problems exemplified by Schr\\"odinger's cat. Such a bridge between the quantum microworld and the classical world of our experience was postulated ad hoc in the Copenhagen Interpretation. Quantum Darwinism views amplification as replication, in many copies, of the information about quantum states. We show that such amplification is a natural consequence of a broad class of models of decoherence, including the photon environment we use to obtain most of our information. This leads to objective reality via the presence of robust and widely accessible records of selected quantum states. The resulting redundancy (the number of copies deposited in the environment) follows from the Quantum Chernoff Information that quantifies the information transmitted by a typical elementary subsystem of the environment.

Michael Zwolak; C. Jess Riedel; Wojciech H. Zurek

2014-04-12

350

Amplification, Redundancy, and Quantum Chernoff Information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amplification was regarded, since the early days of quantum theory, as a mysterious ingredient that endows quantum microstates with macroscopic consequences, key to the "collapse of the wave packet," and a way to avoid embarrassing problems exemplified by Schrödinger's cat. Such a bridge between the quantum microworld and the classical world of our experience was postulated ad hoc in the Copenhagen interpretation. Quantum Darwinism views amplification as replication, in many copies, of the information about quantum states. We show that such amplification is a natural consequence of a broad class of models of decoherence, including the photon environment we use to obtain most of our information. This leads to objective reality via the presence of robust and widely accessible records of selected quantum states. The resulting redundancy (the number of copies deposited in the environment) follows from the quantum Chernoff information that quantifies the information transmitted by a typical elementary subsystem of the environment.

Zwolak, Michael; Riedel, C. Jess; Zurek, Wojciech H.

2014-04-01

351

Isothermal thermogravimetric data acquisition analysis system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The description of an Isothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) Data Acquisition System is presented. The system consists of software and hardware to perform a wide variety of TGA experiments. The software is written in ANSI C using Borland's Turbo C++. The hardware consists of a 486/25 MHz machine with a Capital Equipment Corp. IEEE488 interface card. The interface is to a Hewlett Packard 3497A data acquisition system using two analog input cards and a digital actuator card. The system provides for 16 TGA rigs with weight and temperature measurements from each rig. Data collection is conducted in three phases. Acquisition is done at a rapid rate during initial startup, at a slower rate during extended data collection periods, and finally at a fast rate during shutdown. Parameters controlling the rate and duration of each phase are user programmable. Furnace control (raising and lowering) is also programmable. Provision is made for automatic restart in the event of power failure or other abnormal terminations. Initial trial runs were conducted to show system stability.

Cooper, Kenneth, Jr.

1991-01-01

352

Adsorption isotherm special study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The study was designed to identify methods to determine adsorption applicable to Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites, and to determine how changes in aquifer conditions affect metal adsorption, resulting retardation factors, and estimated contaminant migration rates. EPA and ASTM procedures were used to estimate sediment sorption of U, As, and Mo under varying groundwater geochemical conditions. Aquifer matrix materials from three distinct locations at the DOE UMTRA Project site in Rifle, CO, were used as the adsorbents under different pH conditions; these conditions stimulated geochemical environments under the tailings, near the tailings, and downgradient from the tailings. Grain size, total surface area, bulk and clay mineralogy, and petrography of the sediments were characterized. U and Mo yielded linear isotherms, while As had nonlinear ones. U and Mo were adsorbed strongly on sediments acidified to levels similar to tailings leachate. Changes in pH had much less effect on As adsorption. Mo was adsorbed very little at pH 7-7.3, U was weakly sorbed, and As was moderately sorbed. Velocities were estimated for metal transport at different pHs. Results show that the aquifer materials must be characterized to estimate metal transport velocities in aquifers and to develop groundwater restoration strategies for the UMTRA project.

NONE

1993-05-01

353

Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment - PVA Dendrites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE), flown on three Space Shuttle missions, is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. IDGE used transparent organic liquids that form dendrites (treelike structures) similar to those inside metal alloys. Comparing Earth-based and space-based dendrite growth velocity, tip size and shape provides a better understanding of the fundamentals of dentritic growth, including gravity's effects. Shalowgraphic images of pivalic acid (PVA) dendrites forming from the melt show the subtle but distinct effects of gravity-driven heat convection on dentritic growth. In orbit, the dendrite grows as its latent heat is liberated by heat conduction. This yields a blunt dendrite tip. On Earth, heat is carried away by both conduction and gravity-driven convection. This yields a sharper dendrite tip. In addition, under terrestrial conditions, the sidebranches growing in the direction of gravity are augmented as gravity helps carry heat out of the way of the growing sidebranches as opposed to microgravity conditions where no augmentation takes place. IDGE was developed by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and NASA/Glenn Research Center. Advanced follow-on experiments are being developed for flight on the International Space Station. Photo Credit: NASA/Glenn Research Center

1997-01-01

354

ISOTHERMAL AIR-INGRESS VALIDATION EXPERIMENTS  

SciTech Connect

Idaho National Laboratory has conducted airingress experiments as part of a campaign to validate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations for very high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR) analysis. An isothermal test loop was designed to recreate exchange or stratified flow that occurs in the lower plenum of VHTR after a break in the primary loop allows helium to leak out and reactor building air to enter the reactor core. The experiment was designed to measure stratified flow in the inlet pipe connecting to the lower plenum of the General Atomics gas turbine–modular helium reactor (GT-MHR). Instead of helium and air, brine and sucrose were used as heavy fluids, and water was used as the lighter fluid to create, using scaling laws, the appropriate flow characteristics of the lower plenum immediately after depressurization. These results clearly indicate that stratified flow is established even for very small density differences. Corresponding CFD results were validated with the experimental data. A grid sensitivity study on CFD models was also performed using the Richardson extrapolation and the grid convergence index method for the numerical accuracy of CFD calculations. The calculated current speed showed very good agreement with the experimental data, indicating that current CFD methods are suitable for simulating density gradient stratified flow phenomena in an air-ingress accident.

Chang H. Oh; Eung S. Kim

2013-01-01

355

Isothermal Dilatometric Study of Sintering in Kaolin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid-state sintering for kaolin samples was studied by dilatometric measurements in the isothermal regime in the temperature range from 600 °C to 1100 °C. The relative expansion was measured for a period of 10h. For the temperatures up to 850 °C, we observed only a small shrinkage (less than 0.5 %), most of which took place within the first 3h of the measurements. For the temperatures above 850 °C, a significant shrinkage occurred for the whole measured time interval and reached up to 2.7 %. Anomalous behavior—a decrease in the shrinkage with the temperature—was observed in the range from 700 °C to 850 °C. The dilatometric measurements are supplemented by porosity distribution measurements. The standard spherical-grains microscopic model was applied to determine that for the initial stages of the sintering process, grain boundary diffusion was the dominant mechanism at lower temperatures (600 °C to 850 °C), whereas lattice diffusion was dominant at higher temperatures (900 °C, 1050 °C, and 1100 °C).

Ondruška, Ján; Trník, Anton; Keppert, Martin; Medved', Igor; Vozár, Libor

2014-10-01

356

Site amplification at Avc?lar, Istanbul  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Avc?lar is the suburb of Istanbul that was most heavily damaged during the August 17, 1999 Mw 7.4 Izmit earthquake. Strong ground motion caused fatalities and damage in Avc?lar despite being ˜90 km from the epicenter. We deployed five portable seismograph stations equipped with Reftek 24-bit recorders and L4C-3D seismometers for 2 months, in order to understand why the local site response was different from elsewhere in Istanbul. A reference station was placed on a hard rock site, and the remaining four stations were placed on other geological units, in areas that had experienced varying levels of damage. We calculated frequency-dependent ground amplification curves by taking the ratios of the spectra at soft and hard rock sites. We obtained similar site response curves for most earthquakes at each site in the frequency range of 0.3-1.6 Hz, and observed no significant site amplification beyond 2.0 Hz at any site. The overall characteristics of the recorded S-waveforms and our modeling of the calculated site amplification curves are consistent with amplification as a result of trapping of seismic energy within a 100-150 m thick, low-velocity subsurface layer. We also review the applicability of microtremor measurements to estimate local site effects at Avc?lar. For these data, we used ratios of spectra of horizontal to vertical components to obtain each site response. These results are compared with standard spectral ratios. These microtremor measurements provide consistent estimates of the amplification at most sites at the higher end of the frequency band, namely above 1 Hz. The results from both methods indeed agree well in this part of the frequency band. However, the microtremor method fails to detect amplification at lower frequencies, namely <1.0 Hz.

Ergin, M.; Özalaybey, S.; Aktar, M.; Yalçin, M. N.

2004-10-01

357

Optical amplification enhancement in photonic crystals  

SciTech Connect

Improving and controlling the efficiency of a gain medium is one of the most challenging problems of laser research. By measuring the gain length in an opal-based photonic crystal doped with laser dye, we demonstrate that optical amplification is more than twenty-fold enhanced along the {Gamma}-K symmetry directions of the face-centered-cubic photonic crystal. These results are theoretically explained by directional variations of the density of states, providing a quantitative connection between density of the states and light amplification.

Sapienza, R.; Leonetti, M.; Froufe-Perez, L. S.; Galisteo-Lopez, J. F.; Lopez, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid (CSIC) and Unidad Asociada CSIC-UVigo, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Conti, C. [Research Center INFM-CNR, c/o Universita di Roma Sapienza, I-00185 Roma (Italy)

2011-02-15

358

On sensitivity amplification in intracellular signaling cascades  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensitivity amplification has long been regarded as a virtually universal property of signal transduction cascades, yet a comprehensive parameter analysis remains a challenge even for relatively simple networks. We use a fast and accurate method to compute properties of multilevel cascades of activation-inactivation cycles and show that the monocyclic cascades amplify sensitivity only under specific conditions. In particular, it is found that efficient sensitivity amplification in a cascade, relative to the sensitivities of individual cycles, requires asymmetry in saturation of converter enzymes, with inhibitors much more saturated than activators.

Rácz, Éva; Slepchenko, Boris M.

2008-09-01

359

Continuous phase amplification with a Sagnac interferometer  

E-print Network

We describe a weak value inspired phase amplification technique in a Sagnac interferometer. We monitor the relative phase between two paths of a slightly misaligned interferometer by measuring the average position of a split-Gaussian mode in the dark port. Although we monitor only the dark port, we show that the signal varies linearly with phase and that we can obtain similar sensitivity to balanced homodyne detection. We derive the source of the amplification both with classical wave optics and as an inverse weak value.

David J. Starling; P. Ben Dixon; Nathan S. Williams; Andrew N. Jordan; John C. Howell

2009-12-16

360

Isothermal moisture properties of wood-cementitious composites  

SciTech Connect

This article describes a study undertaken to examine the moisture properties of lightweight concrete prepared from clay, cement, and wood aggregates at isothermal conditions. The sorption-desorption isotherm curves of different mixtures show a strong hysteresis. The effect of wood aggregates on the water absorption of composite has been investigated by gamma ray absorption spectrometer. It is found that the sorptivity of the composite is very affected by the presence of wood aggregates in clay-cement matrix. Test results have been confirmed both qualitatively, using magnetic resonance imaging method, and quantitatively, from capillary suction curve calculated from sorption isotherm and pore size distribution.

Bouguerra, A. [Univ. de Rennes 1 (France)] [Univ. de Rennes 1 (France); Sallee, H. [CSTB de Grenoble, St. Martin d`Heres (France)] [CSTB de Grenoble, St. Martin d`Heres (France); Barquin, F. de [Centre Scientifique et Technique de la Construction, Limelette (Belgium). Div. Materiaux] [Centre Scientifique et Technique de la Construction, Limelette (Belgium). Div. Materiaux; Dheilly, R.M.; Queneudec, M. [Univ. de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens (France). Lab. Batiment] [Univ. de Picardie Jules Verne, Amiens (France). Lab. Batiment

1999-03-01

361

On the isothermal geometry of corrugated graphene sheets  

E-print Network

Variational geometries describing corrugated graphene sheets are proposed. The isothermal thermomechanical properties of these sheets are described by a 2-dimensional Weyl space. The equation that couples the Weyl geometry with isothermal distributions of the temperature of graphene sheets, is formulated. This material space is observed in a 3-dimensional orthogonal configurational point space as regular surfaces which are endowed with a thermal state vector field fulfilling the isothermal thermal state equation. It enables to introduce a non-topological dimensionless thermal shape parameter of non-developable graphene sheets. The properties of the congruence of lines generated by the thermal state vector field are discussed.

Andrzej Trzesowski

2014-12-22

362

Site Amplifications for Generic Rock Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seismic shear-wave velocity as a function of depth for generic rock sites has been estimated from borehole data and studies of crustal velocities, and these velocities have been used to compute frequency-dependent amplifications for zero attenuation for use in simulations of strong ground motion. We define a genetic rock site as one whose velocity at shallow depths equals the average

David M. Boore; William B. Joyner

1997-01-01

363

Optical amplifier-powered quantum optical amplification  

SciTech Connect

I show that an optical amplifier, when combined with photon subtraction, can be used for quantum state amplification, adding noise at a level below the standard minimum. The device could be used to significantly decrease the probability of incorrectly identifying coherent states chosen from a finite set.

Jeffers, John [Department of Physics, Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

2011-05-15

364

Common Randomness Amplification: A Constructive View  

E-print Network

probabilistic game over the Internet requires some randomness shared among the players. This common randomnessCommon Randomness Amplification: A Constructive View Gr´egory Demay Ueli Maurer Department of Computer Science, ETH Z¨urich, Switzerland Email: {demayg,maurer}@inf.ethz.ch Abstract--Common randomness

Maurer, Ueli

365

Inhibition and Facilitation of Nucleic Acid Amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors that inhibit the amplification of nucleic acids by PCR are present with target DNAs from many sources. The inhib- itors generally act at one or more of three essential points in the reaction in the following ways: they interfere with the cell lysis necessary for extraction of DNA, they interfere by nucleic acid degradation or capture, and they inhibit

IAN G. WILSON

1997-01-01

366

Detection of Cochlear Amplification and Its Activation  

PubMed Central

The operation of the mammalian cochlea relies on a mechanical traveling wave that is actively boosted by electromechanical forces in sensory outer hair cells (OHCs). This active cochlear amplifier produces the impressive sensitivity and frequency resolution of mammalian hearing. The cochlear amplifier has inspired scientists since its discovery in the 1970s, and is still not well understood. To explore cochlear electromechanics at the sensory cell/tissue interface, sound-evoked intracochlear pressure and extracellular voltage were measured using a recently developed dual-sensor with a microelectrode attached to a micro-pressure sensor. The resulting coincident in vivo observations of OHC electrical activity, pressure at the basilar membrane and basilar membrane displacement gave direct evidence for power amplification in the cochlea. Moreover, the results showed a phase shift of voltage relative to mechanical responses at frequencies slightly below the peak, near the onset of amplification. Based on the voltage-force relationship of isolated OHCs, the shift would give rise to effective OHC pumping forces within the traveling wave peak. Thus, the shift activates the cochlear amplifier, serving to localize and thus sharpen the frequency region of amplification. These results are the most concrete evidence for cochlear power amplification to date and support OHC somatic forces as its source. PMID:23972858

Dong, Wei; Olson, Elizabeth S.

2013-01-01

367

Physics of Waveguide Photodetectors with Integrated Amplification  

E-print Network

for the refractive index of aluminum oxide. For the device investigated here, the width of the oxide aperture-waveguide structure as well as by lateral oxidation. The continuous amplification of the optical wave makes. DEVICE STRUCTURE AND MATERIAL PROPERTIES The layer structure of the device is listed in Tab. 1

Bowers, John

368

Nanoliter Reactors Improve Multiple Displacement Amplification  

E-print Network

Nanoliter Reactors Improve Multiple Displacement Amplification of Genomes from Single Cells Yann was greatly reduced in nanoliter volumes, thereby providing a more even representation of all sequences. Single-cell amplicons from both microliter and nanoliter volumes provided high-quality sequence data

Quake, Stephen R.

369

Preparation of DNA nanostructures with repetitive binding motifs by rolling circle amplification.  

PubMed

A long one-dimensional single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecule with a periodic sequence motif is an attractive building block for DNA nanotechnology because it allows the positioning of oligonucleotide-labeled particles or molecules with high spatial resolution via molecular self-assembly simply by hybridization reactions. In vitro enzymatic isothermal rolling circle amplification (RCA) produces such long concatemeric ssDNA molecules. These are complementary in sequence to their circular template. In this chapter, the preparation of stretched and surface-attached RCA products at the single molecule level is described. The methods presented comprise the enzymatic circularization of a ssDNA oligonucleotide, the covalent coupling of amino-modified primers to carboxylated fluorescence beads, the preparation of a hydrophobic glass substrate, the RCA in a flow-through system, the postsynthetic staining and stretching of the RCA products as well as the microscopic observation of individual ssDNA molecules. PMID:21674371

Reiss, Edda; Hölzel, Ralph; Bier, Frank F

2011-01-01

370

Synthesis and stretching of rolling circle amplification products in a flow-through system.  

PubMed

Enzymatic isothermal rolling circle amplification (RCA) produces long concatemeric single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules if a small circular ssDNA molecule is applied as the template. A method is presented here in which the RCA reaction is carried out in a flow-through system, starting from isolated surface-tethered DNA primers. This approach combines gentle fluidic handling of the single-stranded RCA products, such as staining or stretching via a receding meniscus, with the option of simultaneous (fluorescence) microscopic observation. It is shown that the stretched and surface-attached RCA products are accessible for hybridization of complementary oligonucleotides, which demonstrates their addressability by complementary base pairing. The long RCA products should be well suited to bridge the gap between biomolecular nanoscale building-blocks and structures at the micro- and macroscale, especially at the single-molecule level presented here. PMID:19492351

Reiss, Edda; Hölzel, Ralph; Bier, Frank F

2009-10-01

371

Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming  

E-print Network

Observationally based assessment of polar amplification of global warming Igor V. Polyakov,1) are similar, and do not support the predicted polar amplification of global warming. The possible moderating amplification of global warming. Intrinsic arctic variability obscures long-term changes, limiting our ability

Bhatt, Uma

372

Whole-genome multiple displacement amplification from single cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) is a recently described method of whole-genome amplification (WGA) that has proven efficient in the amplification of small amounts of DNA, including DNA from single cells. Compared with PCR-based WGA methods, MDA generates DNA with a higher molecular weight and shows better genome coverage. This protocol was developed for preimplantation genetic diagnosis, and details a method

Claudia Spits; Cédric Le Caignec; Martine De Rycke; Lindsey Van Haute; André Van Steirteghem; Inge Liebaers; Karen Sermon

2006-01-01

373

The Calculation of Adsorption Isotherms from Chromatographic Peak Shapes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the relationship between adsorption isotherms and elution peak shapes in gas chromatography, and describes a laboratory experiment which involves the adsorption of hexane, cyclohexane, and benzene on alumina at different temperatures. (MLH)

Neumann, M. G.

1976-01-01

374

Isothermal model of ICF burn with finite alpha range treatment  

E-print Network

A simple model for simulating deuterium tritium burn in inertial confinement fusion capsules is developed. The model, called the Isothermal Rarefaction Model, is zero dimensional (represented as ordinary differential ...

Galloway, Conner Daniel (Conner Daniel Cross)

2009-01-01

375

Adsorption of nitrophenol onto activated carbon: isotherms and breakthrough curves  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption isotherm of p-nitrophenol onto granular activated carbon in 25°C aqueous solution was experimentally determined by batch tests. Both the Freundlich and the Redlich-Peterson models were found to fit the adsorption isotherm data well. A series of column tests were performed to determine the breakthrough curves with varying bed depths (3–6cm) and water flow rates (21.6–86.4cm3\\/h). Explicit equations for

Jia-Ming Chern; Yi-Wen Chien

2002-01-01

376

Initial research regarding isothermal shear fatigue of solder joints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a versatile load frame apparatus constructed to provide the capabilities needed for performing isothermal shear fatigue of solder joints in a variety of thermal environments. Initial isothermal data from -55\\/degree\\/C to 125\\/degree\\/C gathered with 60Sn-40Pb and 5Sn-95Pb solder joints are then furnished to illustrate simple use of the apparatus. 15 refs., 15 figs.

1988-01-01

377

Water Adsorption Isotherms of Chia ( Salvia hispanica L.) Seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The adsorption isotherms of chia seed (CS), black chia seed (BCS), white chia seed (WCS), and chia seed flour (CSF) were determined\\u000a at different temperatures (20, 35, 50, and 65 °C) using gravimetric method. Several saturated salt solutions were selected\\u000a to obtain different water activities in the range of 0.07 to 0.91. Adsorption isotherms were of type II, according to Brunauer’s

Ramón Moreira; Francisco Chenlo; Diego M. Prieto; María D. Torres

378

Algorithmic comparisons of decaying, isothermal, supersonic turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: Simulations of astrophysical turbulence have reached such a level of sophistication that quantitative results are now starting to emerge. However, contradicting results have been reported in the literature with respect to the performance of the numerical techniques employed for its study and their relevance to the physical systems modelled. Aims: We aim at characterising the performance of a variety of hydrodynamics codes including different particle-based and grid-based techniques on the modelling of decaying supersonic turbulence. This is the first such large-scale comparison ever conducted. Methods: We modelled driven, compressible, supersonic, isothermal turbulence with an rms Mach number of M_rms ˜ 4, and then let it decay in the absence of gravity, using runs performed with four different grid codes (ENZO, FLASH, TVD, ZEUS) and three different SPH codes (GADGET, PHANTOM, VINE). We additionally analysed two calculations denoted as PHANTOM A and PHANTOM B using two different implementations of artificial viscosity in PHANTOM. We analysed the results of our numerical experiments using volume-averaged quantities like the rms Mach number, volume- and density-weighted velocity Fourier spectrum functions, and probability distribution functions of density, velocity, and velocity derivatives. Results: Our analysis indicates that grid codes tend to be less dissipative than SPH codes, though details of the techniques used can make large differences in both cases. For example, the Morris & Monaghan viscosity implementation for SPH results in less dissipation (PHANTOM B and VINE versus GADGET and PHANTOM A). For grid codes, using a smaller diffusion parameter leads to less dissipation, but results in a larger bottleneck effect (our ENZO versus FLASH runs). As a general result, we find that by using a similar number of resolution elements N for each spatial direction means that all codes (both grid-based and particle-based) show encouraging similarity of all statistical quantities for isotropic supersonic turbulence on spatial scales k? N/32 (all scales resolved by more than 32 grid cells), while scales smaller than that are significantly affected by the specific implementation of the algorithm for solving the equations of hydrodynamics. At comparable numerical resolution (N_particles? N_cells), the SPH runs were on average about ten times more computationally intensive than the grid runs, although with variations of up to a factor of ten between the different SPH runs and between the different grid runs. Conclusions: At the resolutions employed here, the ability to model supersonic to transonic flows is comparable across the various codes used in this study. Current address: Hellenic-American Educational Foundation, Psychiko College, Stefanou Delta 15, GR-15452 P. Psychiko, Greece.

Kitsionas, S.; Federrath, C.; Klessen, R. S.; Schmidt, W.; Price, D. J.; Dursi, L. J.; Gritschneder, M.; Walch, S.; Piontek, R.; Kim, J.; Jappsen, A.-K.; Ciecielag, P.; Mac Low, M.-M.

2009-12-01

379

The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) constituted a series of three NASA-supported microgravity experiments, all of which flew aboard the space shuttle, Columbia. This experimental space flight series was designed and operated to grow and record dendrite solidification in the absence of gravity-induced convective heat transfer, and thereby produce a wealth of benchmark-quality data for testing solidification scaling laws. The data and analysis performed on the dendritic growth speed and tip size in Succinontrie (SCN) demonstrates that although the theory yields predictions that are reasonably in agreement with experiment, there are significant discrepancies. However, some of these discrepancies can be explained by accurately describing the diffusion of heat. The key finding involves recognition that the actual three-dimensional shape of dendrites includes time-dependent side-branching and a tip region that is not a paraboloid of revolution. Thus, the role of heat transfer in dendritic growth is validated, with the caveat that a more realistic model of the dendrite then a paraboloid is needed to account for heat flow in an experimentally observed dendrite. We are currently conducting additional analysis to further confirm and demonstrate these conclusions. The data and analyses for the growth selection physics remain much less definitive. From the first flight, the data indicated that the selection parameter, sigma*, is not exactly a constant, but exhibits a slight dependence on the supercooling. Additional data from the second flight are being examined to investigate the selection of a unique dendrite speed, tip size and shape. The IDGE flight series is now complete. We are currently completing analyses and moving towards final data archiving. It is gratifying to see that the IDGE published results and archived data sets are being used actively by other scientists and engineers. In addition, we are also pleased to report that the techniques and IDGE hardware system that the authors developed with NASA, are being currently employed on both designated flight experiments, like EDSE, and on flight definition experiments, like TDSE.

Glicksman, Martin E.; Koss, M. B.; Lupulescu, A. O.; LaCombe, J. C.; Frei, J. E.; Malarik, D. C.

1999-01-01

380

Comparing Experimental and Simulated Pressure-Area Isotherms for DPPC  

PubMed Central

Although pressure-area isotherms are commonly measured for lipid monolayers, it is not always appreciated how much they can vary depending on experimental factors. Here, we compare experimental and simulated pressure-area isotherms for dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) at temperatures ranging between 293.15 K and 323.15 K, and explore possible factors influencing the shape and position of the isotherms. Molecular dynamics simulations of DPPC monolayers using both coarse-grained (CG) and atomistic models yield results that are in rough agreement with some of the experimental isotherms, but with a steeper slope in the liquid-condensed region than seen experimentally and shifted to larger areas. The CG lipid model gives predictions that are very close to those of atomistic simulations, while greatly improving computational efficiency. There is much more variation among experimental isotherms than between isotherms obtained from CG simulations and from the most refined simulation available. Both atomistic and CG simulations yield liquid-condensed and liquid-expanded phase area compressibility moduli that are significantly larger than those typically measured experimentally, but compare well with some experimental values obtained under rapid compression. PMID:18199666

Duncan, Susan L.; Larson, Ronald G.

2008-01-01

381

Non-instrumented incubation of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the rapid and sensitive detection of proviral HIV-1 DNA.  

PubMed

Sensitive diagnostic tests for infectious diseases often employ nucleic acid amplification technologies (NAATs). However, most NAAT assays, including many isothermal amplification methods, require power-dependent instrumentation for incubation. For use in low resource settings (LRS), diagnostics that do not require consistent electricity supply would be ideal. Recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) is an isothermal amplification technology that has been shown to typically work at temperatures ranging from 25-43°C, and does not require a stringent incubation temperature for optimal performance. Here we evaluate the ability to incubate an HIV-1 RPA assay, intended for use as an infant HIV diagnostic in LRS, at ambient temperatures or with a simple non-instrumented heat source. To determine the range of expected ambient temperatures in settings where an HIV-1 infant diagnostic would be of most use, a dataset of the seasonal range of daily temperatures in sub Saharan Africa was analyzed and revealed ambient temperatures as low as 10°C and rarely above 43°C. All 24 of 24 (100%) HIV-1 RPA reactions amplified when incubated for 20 minutes between 31°C and 43°C. The amplification from the HIV-1 RPA assay under investigation at temperatures was less consistent below 30°C. Thus, we developed a chemical heater to incubate HIV-1 RPA assays when ambient temperatures are between 10°C and 30°C. All 12/12 (100%) reactions amplified with chemical heat incubation from ambient temperatures of 15°C, 20°C, 25°C and 30°C. We also observed that incubation at 30 minutes improved assay performance at lower temperatures where detection was sporadic using 20 minutes incubation. We have demonstrated that incubation of the RPA HIV-1 assay via ambient temperatures or using chemical heaters yields similar results to using electrically powered devices. We propose that this RPA HIV-1 assay may not need dedicated equipment to be a highly sensitive tool to diagnose infant HIV-1 in LRS. PMID:25264766

Lillis, Lorraine; Lehman, Dara; Singhal, Mitra C; Cantera, Jason; Singleton, Jered; Labarre, Paul; Toyama, Anthony; Piepenburg, Olaf; Parker, Mathew; Wood, Robert; Overbaugh, Julie; Boyle, David S

2014-01-01

382

Real-time detection of H5N1 influenza virus through hyperbranched rolling circle amplification.  

PubMed

An isothermal amplification method was developed for the sensitive detection of the H5N1 influenza virus. The padlock probe specifically bound to the H5N1 target and circularized with T4 DNA ligase enzyme. Then this circular probe was amplified by hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA) using Phi29 DNA polymerase. The fluorescence intensity was recorded at different intervals by intercalation of SYBR green molecules into the double-stranded product of the HRCA reaction. At an optimum time of 88 min, a calibration plot with fine linearity was obtained. Using HRCA based on a padlock probe and Phi29 DNA polymerase, high selectivity and sensitivity were achieved. The biosensor response was linear toward H5N1 in the concentration range from 10 fM to 0.25 pM, with a detection limit of 9 fM at a signal/noise ratio of 3. By replacing the heat shock with pH shock, not only was the procedure for detection of H5N1 influenza simplified, but also the DNA molecules were protected from possible breaking at high temperature. PMID:25627866

Hamidi, Seyed Vahid; Ghourchian, Hedayatollah; Tavoosidana, Gholamreza

2015-03-01

383

Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification assay for the detection of pathogenic Leptospira.  

PubMed

Detection of leptospires based on DNA amplification techniques is essential for the early diagnosis of leptospirosis when anti-Leptospira antibodies are below the detection limit of most serological tests. In middle and low income countries where leptospirosis is endemic, routine implementation of real-time PCR is financially and technically challenging due to the requirement of expensive thermocycler equipment. In this study we report the development and evaluation of a novel isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay (RPA) for detection of pathogenic Leptospira based on TwistAmp chemistry. RPA enabled the detection of less than two genome copies per reaction. Retrospective evaluation revealed a high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity of 94.7% and 97.7%, respectively) compared to culturing as the reference standard. RPA presents a powerful tool for the early diagnosis of leptospirosis in humans and in animals. Furthermore, it enables the detection of the causative agent in reservoirs and environment, and as such is a valuable adjunct to current tools for surveillance and early outbreak warning. PMID:24814943

Ahmed, Ahmed; van der Linden, Hans; Hartskeerl, Rudy A

2014-05-01

384

A paper and plastic device for performing recombinase polymerase amplification of HIV DNA.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of early diagnosis and treatment of HIV, only a small fraction of HIV-exposed infants in low- and middle-income countries are tested for the disease. The gold standard for early infant diagnosis, DNA PCR, requires resources that are unavailable in poor settings, and no point-of-care HIV DNA test is currently available. We have developed a device constructed of layers of paper, glass fiber, and plastic that is capable of performing isothermal, enzymatic amplification of HIV DNA. The device is inexpensive, small, light-weight, and easy to assemble. The device stores lyophilized enzymes, facilitates mixing of reaction components, and supports recombinase polymerase amplification in five steps of operation. Using commercially available lateral flow strips as a detection method, we demonstrate the ability of our device to amplify 10 copies of HIV DNA to detectable levels in 15 min. Our results suggest that our device, which is designed to be used after DNA extraction from dried-blood spots, may serve in conjunction with lateral flow strips as part of a point-of-care HIV DNA test to be used in low resource settings. PMID:22733333

Rohrman, Brittany A; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R

2012-09-01

385

Amplification effects in optomechanics via weak measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We revisit the scheme of single-photon weak-coupling optomechanics using postselection, proposed by Pepper, Ghobadi, Jeffrey, Simon, and Bouwmeester [Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 023601 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.109.023601], by analyzing the exact solution of the dynamical evolution. Positive and negative amplification effects of the displacement of the mirror's position can be generated when the Kerr phase is considered. This effect occurs when the postselected state of the photon is orthogonal to the initial state, which cannot be explained by the usual weak measurement results. The amplification effect can be further modulated by a phase shifter, and the maximal displacement state can appear within a short evolution time.

Li, Gang; Wang, Tao; Song, He-Shan

2014-07-01

386

Injection-amplification IR-photodiodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The results of the investigations of the injection photodiodes p-i-n structures, based on high-resistivity semiconductors, compensated by deep-level impurities, are presented. Mechanisms of the photoelectric injection amplification are discussed, which consists in the direct influence of light on the charge currier distribution parameters in the semiconductor volume. The diodes are shown to by sensitive in a broad spectral range. The integral sensitivity of photodetectors of this type is much higher than that of injectionless devices. The physical mechanism of the injection amplification of photocurrent in mercuri- compensated and indium antimonide under the effect of the middle IR-wavelength band electromagnetic radiation has been studied both theoretically and experimentally.

Kurmashev, Shamil D.; Stafeev, Vitaly I.; Vikulin, I.; Sofronkov, Alexandr N.

1997-08-01

387

Magnetic field amplification in supernova shock precursor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Galactic cosmic rays are believed to be mostly accelerated at supernova shocks. However, the interstellar magnetic field is too weak to efficiently accelerate galactic cosmic rays up to the highest energies. A stronger magnetic field in the preshock region could provide the efficiency required. Cosmic ray streaming instability has been claimed to be responsible for the amplification of precursor magnetic fields. An alternative mechanism has been proposed in which the cosmic ray pressure gradient forms the shock precursor and drives turbulence, amplifying the magnetic field via the small-scale dynamo. We explore this last scenario through 3-D MHD numerical simulations. We show under which conditions an efficient amplification of the magnetic field is achieved.

Del Valle, Maria Victoria; Lazarian, Alex

388

Label-free and sensitive fluorescence detection of nucleic acid, based on combination of a graphene oxid /SYBR green I dye platform and polymerase assisted signal amplification  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new label-free isothermal fluorescence amplification detection for nucleic acid has been developed. In this paper, we first developed a novel sensitive and specific detection platform with an unmodified hairpin probe (HP) combination of the graphene oxid (GO)/ SYBR green I dye (SG), which was relied on the selective principle of adsorption and the high quenching efficiency of GO. Then for the application of this new strategy, we used Mirco RNA-21 (Mir-21) as the target to evaluate this working principle of our design. When the target was hybridizing with the HP and inducing its conformation of change, an efficient isothermal circular strand-displacement polymerization reaction was activating to assist the first signal amplification. In this format, the formed complex conformation of DNA would interact with its high affinity dye, then detached from the surface of GO after incubating with the platform of GO/intercalating dye. This reaction would accompany with obvious fluorescence recovery, and accomplish farther signal enhancement by a mass of intercalating dye inserting into the minor groove of the long duplex replication product. By taking advantage of the multiple amplification of signal, this method exerted substantial enhancement in sensitivity and could be used for rapid and selective detection of Mir-21 with attomole range. It is expected that this cost-effective GO based sensor might hold considerable potential to apply in bioanalysis studies.

Zhu, Xiao; Xing, Da

2012-12-01

389

Rolling-circle amplification under topological constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have performed rolling-circle amplification (RCA) reactions on three DNA templates that differ distinctly in their topology: an unlinked DNA circle, a linked DNA circle within a pseudorotaxane-type structure and a linked DNA circle within a catenane. In the linked templates, the single-stranded circle (dubbed earring probe) is threaded, with the aid of two peptide nucleic acid openers, between the

Heiko Kuhn; Vadim V. Demidov; Maxim D. Frank-Kamenetskii

2002-01-01

390

Improved Amplification of Genital Human Papillomaviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

system (McNemar's x2 5 17.2; P < 0.001). The proportion of multiple infections detected increased with the PGMY09\\/11 system (40.0 versus 33.8% of positive infections). HPV types 26, 35, 42, 45, 52, 54, 55, 59, 66, 73, and MM7 were detected at least 25% more often with the PGMY09\\/11 system. The PGMY09\\/11 primer system affords an increase in type-specific amplification

P. E. GRAVITT; C. L. PEYTON; T. Q. ALESSI; C. M. WHEELER; F. COUTLEE; A. HILDESHEIM

391

Quantum amplification effect in a horizon fluctuation  

SciTech Connect

The appearance of a few unevenly spaced bright flashes of light on top of Hawking radiation is the sign of the amplification effect in black hole horizon fluctuations. Previous studies on this problem suffer from the lack of considering all emitted photons in the theoretical spectroscopy of these fluctuations. In this paper, we include all of the physical transition weights and present a consistent intensity formula. This modifies a black hole radiation pattern.

Ansari, Mohammad H. [Department of Combinatorics and Optimization, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)

2010-05-15

392

Amplification of trace amounts of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

Methods of reducing background during amplification of small amounts of nucleic acids employ careful analysis of sources of low level contamination. Ultraviolet light can be used to reduce nucleic acid contaminants in reagents and equipment. "Primer-dimer" background can be reduced by judicious design of primers. We have shown clean signal-to-noise with as little as starting material as one single human cell (.about.6 picogram), E. coli cell (.about.5 femtogram) or Prochlorococcus cell (.about.3 femtogram).

Church, George M. (Brookline, MA); Zhang, Kun (Brighton, MA)

2008-06-17

393

Two Pump OPA for OTDM Pulses Amplification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Necessity to exploit new bandwidth has moved research interest towards new amplification solution, which support the exploitation\\u000a of the fiber bandwidth and of short optical pulses. 2P-OPA seems quite promising as they offer high project flexibility, high\\u000a gain uniformity and low accumulated dispersion. We present and discuss a 2P-OPA realization and its behavior with CW and picosecond\\u000a pulses.

Lucia Marazzi; Paola Parolari; Pierpaolo Boffi; Elisabetta Rognoni; Paolo Gaviraghi; Mario Martinelli

2004-01-01

394

Amplification of hofmeister effect by alcohols.  

PubMed

We have demonstrated that Hofmeister effect can be amplified by adding alcohols to aqueous solutions. The lower critical solution temperature behavior of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) has been employed as the model system to study the amplification of Hofmeister effect. The alcohols can more effectively amplify the Hofmeister effect following the series methanol < ethanol < 1-propanol < 2-propanol for the monohydric alcohols and following the series d-sorbitol ? xylitol ? meso-erythritol < glycerol < ethylene glycol < methanol for the polyhydric alcohols. Our study reveals that the relative extent of amplification of Hofmeister effect is determined by the stability of the water/alcohol complex, which is strongly dependent on the chemical structure of alcohols. The more stable solvent complex formed via stronger hydrogen bonds can more effectively differentiate the anions through the anion-solvent complex interactions, resulting in a stronger amplification of Hofmeister effect. This study provides an alternative method to tune the relative strength of Hofmeister effect besides salt concentration. PMID:24921669

Xu, Yun; Liu, Guangming

2014-07-01

395

A new photoelectrochemical biosensors based on DNA conformational changes and isothermal circular strand-displacement polymerization reaction.  

PubMed

We report a strategy for the transduction of DNA hybridization into a readily detectable photoelectrochemical signal by means of a conformational change analogous to electrochemical DNA (E-DNA) approach. To demonstrate the effect of distance change for photosensitizer to the surface of electrode on the change of photocurrent, photosensitizer Ru(bpy)(2)(dcbpy)(2+) tagged DNA stem-loop structures were self-assembled onto a nanogold modified ITO electrode. Hybridization induced a large conformational change in DNA structure, which in turn significantly altered the electron-transfer tunneling distance between the electrode and photosensitizer. The resulting change in photocurrent was proportional to the concentration of DNA in the range of 1.0×10(-10)-8.0×10(-9)M. In order to improve the sensitivity of the photoelectrochemical biosensor, an amplified detection method based on isothermal strand displacement polymerization reaction was employed. With multiple rounds of isothermal strand replication, which led to strand displacement and constituted consecutive signal amplification, a detection limit of 9.4×10(-14)M target DNA was achieved. PMID:22902535

Zhang, Xiaoru; Xu, Yunpeng; Zhao, Yanqing; Song, Weiling

2013-01-15

396

Whole-genome amplification-based GenomiPhi for multiple genomic analysis of individual early porcine embryos.  

PubMed

The multiple displacement amplification (MDA) method, which relies on isothermal DNA amplification using the DNA polymerase of the bacteriophage phi29, was recently developed for high-performance, whole-genome amplification (WGA). The objective of the present study was to determine whether a target sequence could be successfully amplified by conventional PCR when the genomic DNA of a single Day-7 porcine blastocyst (derived from SCNT of a gene-engineered fibroblast) was amplified by the MDA method and used as a template. The yield of double-stranded DNA was 103.5 ± 16.0 ng/embryo (range, 75-125), as assessed by a PocoGreen assay. However, non-specific products (20 ± 5 ng/tube) were also generated, even in the negative control. Thus, ?81% of the 103.5 ng (84 ng) of amplified DNA was estimated to be porcine sequences (2.2 × 10(3)-fold enrichment). In addition, PCR confirmed the presence of transgenes, as well as endogenous ?-1,3-galactosyltransferase and homeobox Nanog genes in all embryos. Sequencing of the amplified products verified the fidelity of this system. In conclusion, the MDA-mediated WGA, which was simple, inexpensive, and did not require a thermal cycler, could be a powerful tool for multiple genomic analyses of individual early porcine embryos. PMID:21354605

Akasaka, Eri; Ozawa, Akio; Mori, Hironori; Mizobe, Yamato; Yoshida, Mitsutoshi; Miyoshi, Kazuchika; Sato, Masahiro

2011-05-01

397

Recombinase polymerase and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay as a DNA amplification-detection strategy for food analysis.  

PubMed

Polymerase chain reaction in conjunction with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) is a well-established technique that provides a suitable rapid, sensitive, and selective method for a broad range of applications. However, the need for precise rapid temperature cycling of PCR is an important drawback that can be overcome by employing isothermal amplification reactions such as recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA). The RPA-ELISA combination is proposed for amplification at a low, constant temperature (40°C) in a short time (40 min), for the hybridisation of labelled products to specific 5'-biotinylated probes/streptavidin in coated microtiter plates at room temperature, and for detection by colorimetric immunoassay. RPA-ELISA was applied to screen common safety threats in foodstuffs, such as allergens (hazelnut, peanut, soybean, tomato, and maize), genetically modified organisms (P35S and TNOS), pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella sp. and Cronobacter sp.), and fungi (Fusarium sp.). Satisfactory sensitivity and reproducibility results were achieved for all the targets. The RPA-ELISA technique does away with thermocycling and provides a suitable sensitive, specific, and cost-effective method for routine applications, and proves particularly useful for resource-limited settings. PMID:24456598

Santiago-Felipe, S; Tortajada-Genaro, L A; Puchades, R; Maquieira, A

2014-02-01

398

Pattern of adsorption isotherms in Ono-Kondo coordinates.  

PubMed

The Ono-Kondo lattice density functional theory is used to analyze adsorbate-adsorbate interactions for supercritical systems. In prior work, this approach has been used to study intermolecular interactions in subcritical adsorbed phases, and this has included the study of adsorbate-adsorbate repulsions in the regime of adsorption compression. In this paper, we present the general pattern of adsorption isotherms in Ono-Kondo coordinates; this has not been done in the past. For this purpose, experimental isotherms for adsorption of supercritical fluids (including nitrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide) are plotted in Ono-Kondo coordinates. In addition, we performed Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations of adsorption for Lennard-Jones molecules and plotted isotherms in Ono-Kondo coordinates. Our results indicate a pattern of isotherms with regimes of adsorbate-adsorbate attractions at low surface coverage and adsorbate-adsorbate repulsions at high surface coverage. When the generalized Ono-Kondo model is used over a wide range of pressures - from low pressures of the Henry's law regime to supercritical pressures - the slope of the isotherm varies from positive at low pressures to negative at high pressures. The linear sections of these graphs show when the adsorbate-adsorbate interaction energies are approximately constant. When these linear sections have negative slopes, it indicates that the system is in a state of adsorption compression. PMID:22122946

Sumanatrakul, Panita; Abaza, Sarah; Aranovich, Gregory L; Sangwichien, Chayanoot; Donohue, Marc D

2012-02-15

399

Modeling Langmuir isotherms with the Gillespie stochastic algorithm.  

PubMed

The overall goal of this work is to develop a robust modeling approach that is capable of simulating single and multicomponent isotherms for biological molecules interacting with a variety of adsorbents. Provided the ratio between the forward and reverse adsorption/desorption constants is known, the Gillespie stochastic algorithm has been shown to be effective in modeling isotherms consistent with the Langmuir theory and uptake curves that fall outside this traditional approach. We have used this method to model protein adsorption on ion-exchange adsorbents, hydrophobic interactive adsorbents and ice crystals. In our latest efforts we have applied the Gillespie approach to simulate binary and ternary isotherms from the literature involving gas-solid adsorption applications. In each case the model is consistent with the experimental results presented. PMID:25596764

Epstein, J; Michael, J; Mandona, C; Marques, F; Dias-Cabral, A C; Thrash, M

2015-02-01

400

Moisture adsorption isotherms and glass transition temperature of pectin.  

PubMed

The moisture adsorption isotherms of low methoxyl pectin were determined at 30-70°C and water activity ranging from 0.11 to 0.94. The moisture adsorption isotherms revealed that the equilibrium moisture content increased with water activity. Increase in temperature, in general, resulted in decreased equilibrium moisture content. However in some cases, equilibrium moisture content values increased with temperature at higher water activities. Selected sorption models (GAB, Halsey, Henderson, Oswin, modified Oswin) were tested for describing the adsorption isotherms. Parameters of each sorption models were determined by nonlinear regression analysis. Oswin model gave the best fit for pectin sorption behaviour. Isosteric heat of sorption decreased with increase in moisture content and varied between 14.607 and 0.552 kJ/mol. Glass transition temperature decreased with increase in moisture content of pectin. PMID:24425957

Basu, Santanu; Shivhare, U S; Muley, S

2013-06-01

401

Kinetics of isothermal phase transformations in a dental porcelain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissolution of leucite (KAlSi2O8) and the precipitation of sanidine (NaxK1-xAlSi3O8; 0.1isothermal heat treatments of a dental porcelain for porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations, was studied. The identification of phases was performed by X-ray diffraction, optical and scanning electron microscopy. An isothermal time-temperature-transformation (TTT) diagram, from 800 to 1000°C, and for periods up to 1440 min, is proposed. No metastable

M. M. Barreiro; E. E. Vicente

1993-01-01

402

Oxidation of tin on silicon substrate by rapid isothermal processing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an oxidation study of an Sn overlayer on Si(100) carried out at 400 °C by rapid isothermal processing (RIP) and furnace processing. Single oxide phase SnO2 could be obtained only by rapid isothermal processing. Based on x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-frequency capacitance-voltage characteristics, and breakdown measurements, improved quality of dielectric films was obtained by RIP. A possible explanation based on the difference in the radiation spectrum of the two sources of energy is also given.

Singh, R.; Chou, P.; Radpour, F.; Nelson, A. J.; Ullal, H. S.

1989-09-01

403

Modelling isothermal and non-isothermal recrystallisation kinetics: Application to Zircaloy-4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper considers the modelling of recovery and recrystallisation of single phased metals. The recrystallisation nucleation model of Zurob et al. [H. Zurob, Y. Bréchet, J. Dunlop, Acta Mater. 54 (2006) 3983] has been extended to allow for recrystallisation growth and the concurrent recovery in the non-recrystallised grains. The input parameters of the model are physically based and can be measured, being the recovery kinetics and boundary mobility. Output from the model gives critical strains and temperatures for recrystallisation, and the recrystallisation kinetics. As an example the model is applied to the recovery and recrystallisation kinetics of Zircaloy-4. The grain boundary mobility is not well known for this material, and so it is taken to be a free parameter with a temperature dependence coming from the Turnbull mobility. The model successfully describes recovery kinetics of Zircaloy-4, and once the mobility has been estimated gives good predictions of critical temperatures and strains as well as the kinetics of recrystallisation under non-isothermal heat treatments.

Dunlop, J. W. C.; Bréchet, Y. J. M.; Legras, L.; Zurob, H. S.

2007-06-01

404

Explanatory model for sound amplification in a stethoscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present paper we suggest an original physical explanatory model that explains the mechanism of the sound amplification process in a stethoscope. We discuss the amplification of a single pulse, a continuous wave of certain frequency, and finally we address the resonant frequencies. It is our belief that this model may provide students with opportunities to not only better understand the amplification mechanism of a stethoscope, but also to strengthen their understanding of sound, pressure, waves, resonance modes, etc.

Eshach, H.; Volfson, A.

2015-01-01

405

Highly Efficient Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification  

PubMed Central

Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) provides faithful replication of mammalian prions in vitro and has numerous applications in prion research. However, the low efficiency of conversion of PrPC into PrPSc in PMCA limits the applicability of PMCA for many uses including structural studies of infectious prions. It also implies that only a small sub-fraction of PrPC may be available for conversion. Here we show that the yield, rate, and robustness of prion conversion and the sensitivity of prion detection are significantly improved by a simple modification of the PMCA format. Conducting PMCA reactions in the presence of Teflon beads (PMCAb) increased the conversion of PrPC into PrPSc from ?10% to up to 100%. In PMCAb, a single 24-hour round consistently amplified PrPSc by 600-700-fold. Furthermore, the sensitivity of prion detection in one round (24 hours) increased by 2-3 orders of magnitude. Using serial PMCAb, a 1012-fold dilution of scrapie brain material could be amplified to the level detectible by Western blotting in 3 rounds (72 hours). The improvements in amplification efficiency were observed for the commonly used hamster 263K strain and for the synthetic strain SSLOW that otherwise amplifies poorly in PMCA. The increase in the amplification efficiency did not come at the expense of prion replication specificity. The current study demonstrates that poor conversion efficiencies observed previously have not been due to the scarcity of a sub-fraction of PrPC susceptible to conversion nor due to limited concentrations of essential cellular cofactors required for conversion. The new PMCAb format offers immediate practical benefits and opens new avenues for developing fast ultrasensitive assays and for producing abundant quantities of PrPSc in vitro. PMID:21347353

Ostapchenko, Valeriy G.; Savtchenk, Regina; Alexeeva, Irina; Rohwer, Robert G.; Baskakov, Ilia V.

2011-01-01

406

Parametric amplification by coupled flux qubits  

SciTech Connect

We report parametric amplification of a microwave signal in a Kerr medium formed from superconducting qubits. Two mutually coupled flux qubits, embedded in the current antinode of a superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator, are used as a nonlinear element. Shared Josephson junctions provide the qubit-resonator coupling, resulting in a device with a tunable Kerr constant (up to 3?×?10{sup ?3}) and a measured gain of about 20?dB. This arrangement represents a unit cell which can be straightforwardly extended to a quasi one-dimensional quantum metamaterial with large tunable Kerr nonlinearity, providing a basis for implementation of wide-band travelling wave parametric amplifiers.

Rehák, M.; Neilinger, P.; Grajcar, M. [Department of Experimental Physics, Comenius University, SK-84248 Bratislava (Slovakia); Institute of Physics, Slovak Academy of Science, 845 11 Bratislava (Slovakia); Oelsner, G.; Hübner, U.; Meyer, H.-G. [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, P.O. Box 100239, D-07702 Jena (Germany); Il'ichev, E. [Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, P.O. Box 100239, D-07702 Jena (Germany); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 K. Marx Ave., 630092 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

2014-04-21

407

Femtosecond optical pulse amplification in saturated media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generalized form of a nonlinear equation modeling the evolution of femtosecond pulses in a wide range of laser media is derived. Together with auxiliary equations, it describes both amplitude and phase changes owing to a variety of linear and nonlinear effects. These effects include gain saturation, more than one kind of self-phase modulation, and both gain and phase dispersions. The model is applied to previous experiments of ultrashort-pulse amplification in a dye-laser amplifier and is found to describe quantitatively the observed strong spectral changes. We show that the spectral changes are due both to gain dispersion and to the interplay of various dispersive and nonlinear effects.

Dienes, A.; Heritage, J. P.; Jasti, C.; Hong, M. Y.

1996-04-01

408

Amplification Without Inversion in Semiconductor Quantum Dot  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we have realized amplification without inversion (AWI) in quantum dot (QD). A Y-type four-level system of InxGa1-xN quantum dot has been obtained and investigated for AWI. It has been shown that, with proper setting of control fields' amplitude, we can obtain reasonable gain. With proper setting of phase difference of control fields and probe field, we can obtain considerable gain in resonant wavelength. We have designed this system by solving the Schrödinger-Poisson equations for InxGa1-xN quantum dot in GaN substrate, self-consistently.

Hajibadali, A.; Abbasian, K.; Rostami, A.

409

Parametric amplification by coupled flux qubits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report parametric amplification of a microwave signal in a Kerr medium formed from superconducting qubits. Two mutually coupled flux qubits, embedded in the current antinode of a superconducting coplanar waveguide resonator, are used as a nonlinear element. Shared Josephson junctions provide the qubit-resonator coupling, resulting in a device with a tunable Kerr constant (up to 3 × 10-3) and a measured gain of about 20 dB. This arrangement represents a unit cell which can be straightforwardly extended to a quasi one-dimensional quantum metamaterial with large tunable Kerr nonlinearity, providing a basis for implementation of wide-band travelling wave parametric amplifiers.

Rehák, M.; Neilinger, P.; Grajcar, M.; Oelsner, G.; Hübner, U.; Il'ichev, E.; Meyer, H.-G.

2014-04-01

410

Amplification of Signaling Events in Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Bacteria respond to extremely shallow chemical gradients by modifying their motility in a process called chemotaxis. This chemotactic response is characterized by high sensitivity to small concentration differences, which extends over a large range of concentrations. This combination of high signal gain and large dynamic range results from both a memory of past events and the ability to amplify small differences in signal between the memory and the current environment. Dahlquist describes the signaling mechanism used by bacteria to regulate the flagellar motor and the places in this pathway where signal amplification may occur.

Frederick W. Dahlquist (University of Oregon;Knight Professor and Head, Department of Chemistry, Member, Institute of Molecular Biology REV)

2002-05-14

411

Free electron laser designs for laser amplification  

DOEpatents

Method for laser beam amplification by means of free electron laser techniques. With wiggler magnetic field strength B.sub.w and wavelength .lambda..sub.w =2.pi./k.sub.w regarded as variable parameters, the method(s) impose conditions such as substantial constancy of B.sub.w /k.sub.w or k.sub.w or B.sub.w and k.sub.w (alternating), coupled with a choice of either constant resonant phase angle or programmed phase space "bucket" area.

Prosnitz, Donald (Walnut Creek, CA); Szoke, Abraham (Fremont, CA)

1985-01-01

412

Comparison of three DNA extraction methods for feed products and four amplification methods for the 5'-junction fragment of Roundup Ready soybean.  

PubMed

Three methods of DNA extraction from feed products and four detection methods for the 5'-junction fragment of genetically modified (GM) Roundup Ready soybean (RRS) were compared and evaluated. The DNA extraction methods, including cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and guanidine hydrochloride (Kit), were assessed for their yields and purity of DNA, extraction time, and reagent cost. The DNA yields of CTAB, SDS, and Kit were 52-694, 164-1750 and 23-105 ng/mg sample, and their extraction time was 2.5-3, 2-2.5, and 1.5-2 h with reagent cost about US dollar 0.24, 0.13, and 1.9 per extraction, respectively. The SDS method was generally well suited to all kinds of feed matrices tested. The limits of detection for the four amplification protocols, including loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), hyperbranched rolling circle amplification (HRCA), conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and real-time PCR, were 48.5, 4.85, 485, and 9 copies of the pTLH10 plasmid, respectively. The ranked results of the four detection methods were based on multiattribute utility theory as follows (from best to worse): HRCA, LAMP, PCR, and real-time PCR. This comparative evaluation was specifically useful for selection of a highly efficient DNA extraction or amplification method for detecting different GM ingredients. PMID:22515503

Wang, Xiumin; Teng, Da; Tian, Fang; Guan, Qingfeng; Wang, Jianhua

2012-05-01

413

Derivation of the Freundlich Adsorption Isotherm from Kinetics  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Freundlich adsorption isotherm is a useful description of adsorption phenomena. It is frequently presented as an empirical equation with little theoretical basis. In fact, a variety of derivations exist. Here a new derivation is presented using the concepts of fractal reaction kinetics. This derivation provides an alternative basis for…

Skopp, Joseph

2009-01-01

414

Determination of adsorption isotherms in supercritical fluid chromatography.  

PubMed

In this study we will demonstrate the potential of modern integrated commercial analytical SFC-systems for rapid and reliable acquisition of thermodynamic data. This will be done by transferring the following adsorption isotherm determination methods from liquid chromatography (LC) to supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC): Elution by Characteristic Points (ECP), the Retention Time Method (RTM), the Inverse Method (IM) and the Perturbation Peak (PP) method. In order to transfer these methods to SFC in a reliable, reproducible way we will demonstrate that careful system verification using external sensors of mass flow, temperature and pressure are needed first. The adsorption isotherm data generated by the different methods were analyzed and compared and the adsorption isotherms ability to predict new experimental elution profiles was verified by comparing experiments with simulations. It was found that adsorption isotherm data determined based on elution profiles, i.e., ECP, IM and RTM, were able to accurately predict overloaded experimental elution profiles while the more tedious and time-consuming PP method, based on small injections on concentration plateaus, failed in doing so. PMID:24041510

Enmark, Martin; Forssén, Patrik; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Fornstedt, Torgny

2013-10-18

415

Non-Isothermal Lava Flows over a Conical Surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the equations of a non-isothermal thin layer of viscous fluid with an exponential dependence of the viscosity on temperature, a family of hydrodynamic models of a cooling lava flow over a conical surface in the presence of mass supply is constructed. These models correspond to asymptotically different rates of heat exchange with the ambient medium. The evolution of the

A. A. Osiptsov

2005-01-01

416

Heat transfer to impinging isothermal gas and flame jets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heat transfer characteristics of single and multiple isothermal turbulent air and flame jets impinging on surfaces are reviewed. Both circular a