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Sample records for helium atom scattering

  1. Adsorption of atomic hydrogen on Cu(001) studied with helium-atom scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, A. P.; Fang, D.; McCash, E. M.; Allison, W.

    1998-05-01

    The adsorption and structures formed when atomic hydrogen is adsorbed on Cu(001) at 170 K have been investigated using helium-atom scattering. At low coverages a (21) structure forms with split half-order diffraction spots. The splitting indicates a small domain length, with antiphase regions separated by boundaries having a c(22) atom arrangement. The surface corrugation obtained by diffraction intensity analysis is consistent with a single fourfold adsorption site. At higher coverages an intermediate structure forms, which is characterized by predominantly (11) diffraction peaks, from which the saturation phase develops. Diffraction peaks corresponding to a (2222)R45 structure were observed at saturation, with additional broad peaks indicating domain boundaries where lattice strain in the reconstructed substrate may be relieved. The data indicate the domain boundaries have a width of 4a0-6a0.

  2. Selective detection of metastable helium atoms by elastic scattering collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, K.; Fitzakerley, D. W.; George, M. C.; Vutha, A. C.; Weel, M.; Storry, C. H.; Kirchner, T.; Hessels, E. A.

    2012-07-01

    A method for efficient and selective detection of 21S and 23S metastable He atoms is presented. Elastic collisions with Ar atoms in a diffuse gas spatially separate these 2S atoms from the copropagating UV photons that are inherently present in metastable beams. The deflected 2S atoms are detected on a large-solid-angle Faraday cup. A He discharge lamp can selectively quench 21S atoms, and optical pumping together with a Stern-Gerlach magnet can selectively remove 23S atoms. As a result, we are able to efficiently detect either 21S or 23S atoms (or both) without a UV background.

  3. A New Time-Dependent Scattering Theory: Application to the Capture of Antiprotons by Hydrogen Atoms and Helium Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, X. M.; Hino, K.; Toshima, N.

    2008-08-08

    We present a theoretical method for Coulomb three-body rearrangement collisions solving a Chew-Goldberger-type integral equation directly. The scattering boundary condition is automatically satisfied by adiabatically switching on the interaction between the projectile and target. Hence the outgoing wave function is obtained without the tedious procedure of adjusting the total wave function in the asymptotic region. All the dynamical information can be derived from the scattering wave function obtained on pseudo-spectral grids numerically. Using this method, we obtained the state-specified capture cross sections when antiprotons collide with hydrogen atoms or helium atoms. Differing from the capture processes of antiprotons by hydrogen atoms, the anomalous bumpy structures are revealed in the total angular momentum dependent capture cross sections by helium atoms. Further analysis shows that the bumps arise from the partial channel closing due to the removal of the energy degeneracy in the antiprotonic helium atom. The ejected electron energy distributions are also provided for the comparison with future experiments.

  4. A New Time-Dependent Scattering Theory: Application to the Capture of Antiprotons by Hydrogen Atoms and Helium Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, X. M.; Hino, K.; Toshima, N.

    2008-08-01

    We present a theoretical method for Coulomb three-body rearrangement collisions solving a Chew-Goldberger-type integral equation directly. The scattering boundary condition is automatically satisfied by adiabatically switching on the interaction between the projectile and target. Hence the outgoing wave function is obtained without the tedious procedure of adjusting the total wave function in the asymptotic region. All the dynamical information can be derived from the scattering wave function obtained on pseudo-spectral grids numerically. Using this method, we obtained the state-specified capture cross sections when antiprotons collide with hydrogen atoms or helium atoms. Differing from the capture processes of antiprotons by hydrogen atoms, the anomalous bumpy structures are revealed in the total angular momentum dependent capture cross sections by helium atoms. Further analysis shows that the bumps arise from the partial channel closing due to the removal of the energy degeneracy in the antiprotonic helium atom. The ejected electron energy distributions are also provided for the comparison with future experiments.

  5. Graphene on Ni(111): Electronic Corrugation and Dynamics from Helium Atom Scattering

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Using helium atom scattering, we have studied the structure and dynamics of a graphene layer prepared in situ on a Ni(111) surface. Graphene/Ni(111) exhibits a helium reflectivity of ?20% for a thermal helium atom beam and a particularly small surface electron density corrugation ((0.06 0.02) peak to peak height). The DebyeWaller attenuation of the elastic diffraction peaks of graphene/Ni(111) and Ni(111) was measured at surface temperatures between 150 and 740 K. A surface Debye temperature of ?D = (784 14) K is determined for the graphene/Ni(111) system and ?D = (388 7) K for Ni(111), suggesting that the interlayer interaction between graphene and the Ni substrate is intermediary between those for strongly interacting systems like graphene/Ru(0001) and weakly interacting systems like graphene/Pt(111). In addition we present measurements of low frequency surface phonon modes on graphene/Ni(111) where the phonon modes of the Ni(111) substrate can be clearly observed. The similarity of these findings with the graphene/Ru(0001) system indicates that the bonding of graphene to a metal substrate alters the dynamic properties of the graphene surface strongly and is responsible for the high helium reflectivity of these systems. PMID:26617683

  6. Surface-phonon dispersion curves of KBr(001) via helium-atom scattering: Comparison with calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, G.; Skofronick, J. G.; Brug, W. P.; Safron, S. A.

    1989-06-01

    A helium-atom surface-scattering instrument, employing a time-of-flight technique to observe inelastically scattered He atoms, has been used to measure the surface-phonon dispersion curves of the KBr(001) surface. Data were collected in the two high-symmetry directions, <100> and <110>, over the entire Brillouin zone for a target temperature of ~115 K and incident He wave vector ki~=7 Å-1. The results show important differences from some theoretical predictions of shell-model calculations that use parameters obtained by fitting bulk dispersion curves. In addition, the measured surface dispersion curves of KBr and of RbCl (reported previously) deviate from ``mirror-symmetry'' behavior, unlike their bulk dispersion curves.

  7. Self-consistent theory of helium atom scattering by a thermally excited monolayer solid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruch, L. W.; Hansen, F. Y.

    2015-03-01

    The inelastic scattering of a helium atom beam by an incommensurate monolayer solid of Xe/Pt(111) for incident energies in the range 4 -16 meV and monolayer temperatures of 25 - 75 K is evaluated self-consistently (SC) in the one-phonon approximation. The target is very corrugated and the final scattering state comprises strong diffraction and inelastic terms. At 50 and 75 K, the atom energy gain (phonon annihilation) processes have strength comparable to the energy loss (phonon creation) processes; there are pervasive and large departures from expectations based on weak-coupling detailed balance ratios. The SC results are compared to experimental data and to results from a simpler non-self-consistent approximation (NSC) that relies on harmonic approximations to the Debye-Waller attenuations of elastic and inelastic strengths. There are major differences in the trends seen in the SC and NSC results.

  8. Atomic scattering from an adsorbed monolayer solid with a helium beam that penetrates to the substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, F. Y.; Bruch, L. W.; Dammann, B.

    2013-03-01

    Diffraction and one-phonon inelastic scattering of a thermal energy helium atomic beam are evaluated in the situation that the target monolayer lattice is so dilated that the atomic beam penetrates to the interlayer region between the monolayer and the substrate. The scattering is simulated by propagating a wavepacket and including the effect of a feedback of the inelastic wave onto the diffracted wave, which represents a coherent re-absorption of the created phonons. Parameters are chosen to be representative of an observed p(1 1) commensurate monolayer solid of H2/NaCl(001) and a conjectured p(1 1) commensurate monolayer solid of H2/KCl(001). For the latter, there are cases where part of the incident beam is trapped in the interlayer region for times exceeding 50 ps, depending on the spacing between the monolayer and the substrate and on the angle of incidence. The feedback effect is large for cases of strong transient trapping.

  9. Positronium formation in the n = 2 level in positron scattering from hydrogen and helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, P.; Mazumdar, P.S.; Ghosh, A.S.

    1985-03-01

    A distorted-wave model (Phys. Rev. A 27, 1904 (1983); 28, 2180 (1983)) is applied to calculate the formation of positronium in the n = 2 states in e/sup +/ scattering from hydrogen and helium atoms. The incident wave is represented by a polarized-orbital method. The first-Born-approximation results of the 2p-excited-state capture cross section in the case of helium is reported for the first time. The first Born approximation is found to be unsuitable for prediction of the rearrangement processes. The present total (ground- and excited-state) positronium-formation cross sections have been compared with the corresponding observed values of Fornari et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 51, 2276 (1983)) and of Charlton et al. (J. Phys. B 16, L465 (1983)).

  10. The surface phase diagram of Li/Cu(001) explored by helium atom scattering.

    PubMed

    Huang, Congcong; MacLaren, D A; Bacon, R T; Allison, W

    2011-09-01

    We use helium atom scattering to investigate the structures formed by Li adsorption onto Cu(001) in the 0-2 ML regime. Submonolayer growth at 180 K proceeds through a sequence of ordered overlayers, including a c(2 2) structure at 0.5 ML and a series of 'ladder' superlattices around 0.6 ML. Beyond 1 ML, incommensurate, three-dimensional Li islands develop. A quantum close-coupled scattering analysis is performed to study the empirical He-surface potential of the structurally heterogeneous ladder structures. Good agreement with the measured distribution of diffracted intensity is obtained by describing the He-ladder interaction potential as the summation of only six one-dimensional Fourier components. The fitted potential indicates a remarkably flat surface that is punctuated by substantial, striped protrusions in the electron density. The result is consistent with the formation of one-dimensional Li wires, indicating an inhomogeneous metallization process. PMID:21775801

  11. Excitation of the shear horizontal mode in a monolayer by inelastic helium atom scattering.

    PubMed

    Bruch, L W; Hansen, F Y

    2005-03-15

    Inelastic scattering of a low-energy atomic helium beam (HAS) by a physisorbed monolayer is treated in the one-phonon approximation using a time-dependent wave packet formulation. The calculations show that modes with shear horizontal polarization can be excited near high symmetry azimuths of the monolayer, in agreement with recent experiments. The parameters of the calculations are chosen to match the conditions of HAS experiments for triangular incommensurate monolayer solids of xenon, krypton, and argon adsorbed on the (111) face of platinum, and the results show many of the systematic experimental trends for relative excitation probability of the shear horizontal and longitudinal acoustic phonon branches. The inelastic scattering at beam energies near 8 meV is exceedingly sensitive to small misalignment between the scattering plane and the high symmetry directions of the monolayer solid. The diffraction and inelastic processes arise from a strong coupling of the incident atom to the target and the calculated results show large departures from expectations based on analogies to inelastic thermal neutron scattering. PMID:15836250

  12. A helium atom scattering study of well-ordered TCNQ adlayers on Cu(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fladischer, Katrin; Politano, Antonio; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Faras, Daniel; Miranda, Rodolfo

    2014-02-01

    Helium atom scattering and low-energy electron diffraction have been used for studying the adsorption of TCNQ molecules on Cu(100). By optimizing the TCNQ growth procedure through the analysis of He-diffraction spectra, a long range (over 2000 ), ordered molecular overlayer has been attained by TCNQ deposition at 110 K followed by thermal annealing at 315 K. By contrast, no He-diffraction spectra could be obtained by employing growth methods reported previously. Moreover, TCNQ molecules were found to form a single-domain incommensurate overlayer on Cu(100). The lattice parameters of this structure have been determined from an analysis of the measured high-resolution He-diffraction spectra.

  13. Helium atom scattering from the Si(111) surface at high temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, G.; Meli, C. A.; Toennies, J. P.; Greene, E. F.

    1997-08-01

    Helium atom scattering has been used to investigate the structure of the Si(111) surface in the temperature range from 900 to 1600 K. Even below the well-known (77) to ``(11)'' transition the adatoms become mobile, and, when the transition is reached near 1140 K, the specular- and integral-order diffraction peaks have sudden intensity changes, some up and others down, while the seventh-order peaks disappear. Above the transition the adatoms remain, moving rapidly on, and supported by, the ordered but relaxed, outer bilayer of the surface. A second transition, first reported by Ishizaka and co-workers occurs near 1470 K. The loss of all diffraction peaks and the attenuation of the specular peak indicate a completely disordered surface as the temperature approaches the melting point.

  14. Structure and dynamics of {CO}/{MgO(001) }: a helium atom scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, R.; Glebov, A.; Lange, G.; Toennies, J. P.; Weiss, H.

    1995-07-01

    The structure and dynamics of CO adsorbed on MgO(001) surfaces cleaved in situ under UHV has been studied in the temperature range from 36 to 59 K by means of helium atom scattering. The monolayer was prepared at Tsample = 36 K under a CO pressure of 1 10 -8 mbar. Two stable adsorbate phases were observed. For the lower temperature phase < 40 K a c(4 2) pattern was found. Increasing the temperature to 51 K leads to a (1 1) symmetry. The change in the diffraction pattern is accompanied by desorption of CO from the MgO surface. The observed phase transition is reversible only if gaseous CO is offered during cooling down to < 40 K again. Thus, the measured (1 1) symmetry corresponds to a coverage of ? < 1. While the time-of-flight experiments only one dispersion-free mode at ? 9 meV was found for the '(1 1)' phase, an additional mode at ? 10.5 meV was measured for the low-temperature c(4 2) structure. From the intensity ratio of both Einstein modes a c(4 2) unit cell containing six partially tilted molecules is suggested, while the '(1 1)' is attributed to a CO lattice gas.

  15. Surface Structure of Lithium Doped Potassium Tantalate (KLT) using Helium Atom Scattering.

    SciTech Connect

    Fatema, Rifat; Van Winkle, David; Skofronick, J. G.; Sanfron, Sanford a; Flaherty, F. A.; Boatner, Lynn A

    2013-01-01

    The structures of the (001) surface of potassium tantalate doped with nominally 2, 4 and 7% lithium have been investigated using high resolution helium atom scattering. The surfaces were prepared by cleaving single crystal samples in situ under UHV conditions. Diraction measurements in the region around the He specular re ection angle soon after cleaving yielded specular peaks initially with broad shoulders. However, over a period of about an hour, the widths of these specular peaks decreased markedly as the shoulders diminished into the background. Drift spectra measurements of the stabilized surfaces revealed that the step heights separating surface terraces were predominantly multiples of the cubic unit cell dimension, about 4A, rather than multiples of a half unit cell, 2A, expected from the cleaving of these crystals. Together these results suggest that after cleaving these surfaces are rapidly modied by migration of ions to the surface from the near-surface. Further, half-order diraction peaks were observed in the <100> azimuth a short time after cleaving samples at room temperature, indicating that domains with (21) structure had formed.

  16. Surface structure of lithium-doped potassium tantalate using helium atom scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatema, Rifat; Van Winkle, David H.; Skofronick, J. G.; Safron, Sanford A.; Flaherty, F. A.; Boatner, L. A.

    2013-02-01

    The structures of the (001) surface of potassium tantalate doped with nominally 2%, 4%, and 7% lithium have been investigated using high-resolution helium atom scattering. The surfaces were prepared by cleaving single-crystal samples in situ under UHV conditions. Diffraction measurements in the region around the He specular reflection angle soon after cleaving yielded specular peaks initially with broad shoulders. However, over a period of about an hour, the shoulders diminished into the background. Drift spectra measurements of the stabilized surfaces revealed that the step heights separating surface terraces were predominantly multiples of the approximately 4-Å unit-cell dimension rather than multiples of the approximately 2-Å half-unit-cell dimension expected from the cleaving of these crystals. Together, these results suggest that these surfaces are rapidly modified after cleaving by migration of ions to the surface from the near surface. Further, half-order diffraction peaks were observed in the <100> azimuth a short time after cleaving samples at room temperature, indicating that domains with (2×1) structure had formed.

  17. Surface and subsurface phonons of Bi(111) measured with helium atom scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamtgl, Anton; Kraus, Patrick; Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Campi, Davide; Bernasconi, Marco; Benedek, Giorgio; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2013-01-01

    The surface phonon dispersion curves of Bi(111) have been measured by inelastic helium atom scattering (HAS) along the two symmetry directions. The complex set of observed dispersion curves, including several branches in the acoustic region, plus a localized and a resonant branch in the optical region, is interpreted by means of calculations based on density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). It is recognized that the upper phonon branches in the acoustic region starting at about 5.3 meV and 4.3 meV at zero wave vector correspond to shear-vertical and longitudinal modes localized on the third surface layer (second bilayer), respectively. The HAS ability of detecting subsurface phonons previously observed for Pb(111) multilayers is attributed to the comparatively strong electron-phonon interaction, and confirmed through a DFPT calculation of the phonon-induced surface charge-density oscillations. A comparison of the integrated HAS intensities with those of Pb(111) multilayers measured under similar kinematic conditions allows for an estimation of the electron-phonon mass-enhancement parameter for the Bi(111) surface. An anomaly at the M point, quite sharp at 123 K but very broad at room temperature, is associated with recombination processes of bulk M-point pocket electrons with bulk pocket holes at either ? or equivalent M points.

  18. The structure and dynamics of CO2 on NaCl(001) studied by helium atom scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, G.; Schmicker, D.; Toennies, J. P.; Vollmer, R.; Weiss, H.

    1995-08-01

    The structure and dynamics of physisorbed carbon dioxide on in situ cleaved single crystal sodium chloride surfaces was studied by means of elastic as well as inelastic helium atom scattering. At Tsurface=80-83.5 K the diffraction patterns indicate a commensurate (21) monolayer superstructure on the (001) plane of the substrate, the unit cell containing a glide plane. This is in agreement with results obtained from low energy electron diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. In time-of-flight experiments single phonon low-energy loss and gain features were observed which can be attributed to acoustic and optical modes. Two higher-energy features are probably due to the first combination modes observed by helium atom scattering so far. The growth of solid CO2 adsorbed on NaCl(001) was also studied.

  19. Lattice dynamics of the (7 7) reconstructed Si(111) surface from high-resolution helium atom scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, G.; Toennies, J. P.; Ruggerone, P.; Benedek, G.

    1998-03-01

    The low-energy part of the surface vibrational spectrum of the Si(111)(77) surface has been measured along both symmetry directions using high-resolution helium atom scattering. The analysis of the experimental data with a simple model enables the identification of contributions arising from the geometrical back-folding of the Rayleigh wave and from vibrations of adatoms, in excellent agreement with recent ab initio results.

  20. Electron-Phonon Coupling Strength at Metal Surfaces Directly Determined from the Helium Atom Scattering Debye-Waller Factor.

    PubMed

    Manson, J R; Benedek, G; Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2016-03-17

    A new quantum-theoretical derivation of the elastic and inelastic scattering probability of He atoms from a metal surface, where the energy and momentum exchange with the phonon gas can occur only through the mediation of the surface free-electron density, shows that the Debye-Waller exponent is directly proportional to the electron-phonon mass coupling constant λ. The comparison between the values of λ extracted from existing data on the Debye-Waller factor for various metal surfaces and the λ values known from literature indicates a substantial agreement, which opens the possibility of directly extracting the electron-phonon coupling strength in quasi-2D conducting systems from the temperature or incident energy dependence of the elastic helium atom scattering intensities. PMID:26927966

  1. Helium-atom-scattering measurements of surface-phonon dispersion curves of the C(111)-H(11) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Gerrit; Toennies, J. Peter

    1996-04-01

    The surface-phonon dispersion curves of the hydrogen-terminated diamond (111)-(11) surface have been measured by inelastic helium-atom scattering. By using a very high incident-beam energy of 80.5 meV, the Rayleigh-wave dispersion curve could be observed throughout the entire Brillouin zone. The measured zone-boundary energies at the K point are 64.4 and 70.6 meV, respectively. The data lie about 5% above the Rayleigh-wave dispersion curve obtained from semiempirical total-energy calculations.

  2. Surface-phonon dispersion curves and the longitudinal resonance in Ag(001) observed by helium-atom scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunjes, N.; Luo, N. S.; Ruggerone, P.; Toennies, J. P.; Witte, G.

    1994-09-01

    An intense longitudinal-surface-phonon resonance in addition to the Rayleigh mode is observed on Ag(001) by inelastic helium-atom scattering (HAS). This mode, which is only barely visible by electron-energy-loss spectroscopy, is similar to the one previously detected by HAS for Cu(001). This observation provides additional evidence for the pseudocharge model previously invoked to explain the anomalous longitudinal resonance observed in several metal surfaces by HAS. The observed differences between Cu(001) and Ag(001) are also shown to be consistent with the pseudocharge model.

  3. The growth of ultra thin Cu-films on Pt(111), probed by helium atom scattering and scanning tunnelling microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, B.; Nohlen, M.; Wandelt, K.; Allison, W.

    1997-04-01

    The growth of ultra thin Cu films (up to 25 ML) on Pt(111) at a substrate temperature of 340 K has been investigated using helium atom scattering (HAS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). In the first monolayer the growth is 2D-pseudomorphic with nucleation at step sites. No reconstruction of the substrate is observed. Diffusion limitation along the step edges leads to the formation of branched island structures which coalesce leaving randomly distributed holes (on average 30 in diameter) as revealed by STM measurements.

  4. On the Scattering of the Electron off the Hydrogen Atom and the Helium Ion Below and Above the Ionization Threshold: Temkin-Poet Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarevsky, E.; Yakovlev, S. L.; Elander, N.; Volkov, M. V.

    2014-08-01

    We generalize here the splitting approach to the long range (Coulomb) interaction for the three body scattering problem. With this approach, the exterior complex rotation technique can be applied for systems with asymptotic Coulomb interaction. We illustrate the method with calculations of the electron scattering on the hydrogen atom and positive helium ion in the frame of the Temkin-Poet model.

  5. Evidence for an Order-Order Transition on the Ge(111) Surface near 1050 K from High-Resolution Helium Atom Scattering Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meli, C. A.; Greene, E. F.; Lange, G.; Toennies, J. P.

    1995-03-01

    Helium atom scattering has been used to investigate the Ge(111) surface phase transition at Tc = 1050 K. The elastically scattered helium atoms show sharp, integral-order diffraction peaks that change only in their relative amplitudes at Tc and persist up to 1160 K, the highest temperature studied. Contrary to previous reports based on low-energy electron and x-ray diffraction, ion backscattering, and a recent theoretical study, the present findings show that the surface remains highly ordered above Tc, with a reduced height of the top bilayer, and that it may be metallic as was recently observed in electron energy loss spectroscopy.

  6. Approximating the Helium Wavefunction in Positronium-Helium Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiRienzi, Joseph; Drachman, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    In the Kohn variational treatment of the positronium- hydrogen scattering problem the scattering wave function is approximated by an expansion in some appropriate basis set, but the target and projectile wave functions are known exactly. In the positronium-helium case, however, a difficulty immediately arises in that the wave function of the helium target atom is not known exactly, and there are several ways to deal with the associated eigenvalue in formulating the variational scattering equations to be solved. In this work we will use the Kohn variational principle in the static exchange approximation to d e t e e the zero-energy scattering length for the Ps-He system, using a suite of approximate target functions. The results we obtain will be compared with each other and with corresponding values found by other approximation techniques.

  7. Investigations of the dynamics and growth of insulator films by high resolution helium atom scattering. Final report, May 1, 1985--April 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Safron, S.A.; Skofronick, J.G.

    1997-07-01

    Over the twelve years of this grant from the U.S. Department of Energy, DE-FG05-85ER45208, the over-reaching aims of this work have been to explore and to attempt to understand the fundamental physics and chemistry of surfaces and interfaces. The instrument we have employed m in this work is high-resolution helium atom scattering (HAS) which we have become even more convinced is an exceptionally powerful and useful tool for surface science. One can follow the evolution of the development and progress of the experiments that we have carried out by the evolution of the proposal titles for each of the four three-year periods. At first, m in 1985-1988, the main objective of this grant was to construct the HAS instrument so that we could begin work on the surface vibrational dynamics of crystalline materials; the title was {open_quotes}Helium Atom-Surface Scattering Apparatus for Studies of Crystalline Surface Dynamics{close_quotes}. Then, as we became more interested m in the growth of films and interfaces the title m in 1988-1991 became {open_quotes}Helium Atom Surface Spectroscopy: Surface Lattice Dynamics of Insulators, Metal and Metal Overlayers{close_quotes}. In 1991-1994, we headed even more m in this direction, and also recognized that we should focus more on insulator materials as very few techniques other than helium atom scattering could be applied to insulators without causing surface damage. Thus, the proposal title became {open_quotes}Helium Atom-Surface Scattering: Surface Dynamics of Insulators, Overlayers and Crystal Growth{close_quotes}. M in the final period of this grant the title ended up {open_quotes}Investigations of the Dynamics and Growth of Insulator Films by High Resolution Helium Atom Scattering{close_quotes} m in 1994-1997. The list of accomplishments briefly discussed in this report are: tests of the shell model; multiphoton scattering; physisorbed monolayer films; other surface phase transitions; and surface magnetic effects.

  8. Helium atom scattering study of the interaction of water with the BaF2(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Jochen

    2007-06-01

    The interaction of water with the BaF2(111) single crystal surface is investigated using the helium atom scattering technique. It is found that H2O forms a long-range ordered two-dimensional (2D) phase with (11) translational symmetry already after an exposure of 3L (1L =10-6Torrs) at temperatures below 150K. The activation energy for desorption of the saturated 2D phase, which is assigned to a bilayer, is estimated to be 462kJmol-1, corresponding to a desorption temperature of 165K. The desorption of multilayers was observed at 150K, consistent with a binding energy of 422kJmol-1. Before completion and after desorption of the saturated 2D phase, a superstructure consistent with a disordered (?3 ?3 )R30 lattice has been observed, which is attributed to the first layer of water with a coverage of one molecule per surface unit cell, in accordance with recent theoretical studies. Desorption of this phase is observed at temperatures above 200K, consistent with an unexpectedly strong bonding of the molecules to the substrate.

  9. Surface Structure of Bi(111) from Helium Atom Scattering Measurements. Inelastic Close-Coupling Formalism

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Elastic and inelastic close-coupling (CC) calculations have been used to extract information about the corrugation amplitude and the surface vibrational atomic displacement by fitting to several experimental diffraction patterns. To model the three-dimensional interaction between the He atom and the Bi(111) surface under investigation, a corrugated Morse potential has been assumed. Two different types of calculations are used to obtain theoretical diffraction intensities at three surface temperatures along the two symmetry directions. Type one consists of solving the elastic CC (eCC) and attenuating the corresponding diffraction intensities by a global Debye–Waller (DW) factor. The second one, within a unitary theory, is derived from merely solving the inelastic CC (iCC) equations, where no DW factor is necessary to include. While both methods arrive at similar predictions for the peak-to-peak corrugation value, the variance of the value obtained by the iCC method is much better. Furthermore, the more extensive calculation is better suited to model the temperature induced signal asymmetries and renders the inclusion for a second Debye temperature for the diffraction peaks futile. PMID:26257838

  10. Studies of stucture and lattice dynamics of the strontium-copper-chloride(001) surface by helium-atom scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farzaneh, Maryam

    This thesis presents the results of elastic and inelastic helium-atom scattering (HAS) measurements from the insulating Sr2CuO2 Cl2(001) surface. Elastic HAS provided diffraction patterns which contain information about the surface periodicity and the topology of the surface charge density. Inelastic HAS, implemented via time-of-flight techniques, determined the corresponding surface phonon dispersion curves and was used to characterize surface vibrational modes. Elastic HAS revealed a surface periodicity consistent with the bulk termination, which suggests that the surface is non-polar and stable. This seems to favor one of the two surface candidates that may be exposed by the process of in-situ surface cleaving, namely SrCl and not CuO2. In order to interpret the experimental phonon dispersion data, lattice dynamical calculations based on the shell model were carried out for the bulk and the two surface terminations of SrCl and CuO2. From the bulk calculations, appropriate model parameters were derived that were subsequently extended to a surface dynamical model via a slab method. Comparison between the experimental data and theoretical results for two different slabs with SrCl and CuO2 terminations showed that the experimental data conform exclusively with the SrCl surface modes. Finally I report on a theoretical investigation of the anomalous magnetic properties of the CoO(001) surface. Recent experimental studies of the temperature-dependent antiferromagnetic ordering of the CoO(001) surface, using metastable He-atom scattering, revealed an anomalous enhancement in the sublattice magnetization with increasing temperature that straddles the bulk Neel temperature ( TbN ) of 290 K. I developed a Bogolyubov variational mean-field model based on a model Hamiltonian for the CoO(001) system by taking exchange, crystal field and magnetoelastic interactions into account. This model revealed that the enhancement in magnetization is closely related to the low-lying spin excited states on the CoO surface, and reproduced the observed anomalies.

  11. Positronium and Electron Scattering on Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiRienzi, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    A recent work [1] establishes experimentally that Positronium scattering by atoms of various elements is surprisingly close in total cross-section to that of an isolated electron of the same velocity. In this work we will look at the scattering of Ps on Helium and compare it to a determination of the scattering of an e- with the same element. For both the Ps scattering and the e- scattering on He, we assume the symmetrization of the e- with the closed shell He electrons is the dominant interaction. A local effective potential employed in [2] and [3] is used to model the electron exchange and cross- sections are determined for a set of partial waves. For the Ps scattering we include as a secondary effect the Van der Waals interaction. For single e- scattering of He, we also employ a short range Coulomb potential and dispersion as contributing effects. Results of the cross-sections determined in each case are then compared

  12. Potential-splitting approach applied to the Temkin-Poet model for electron scattering off the hydrogen atom and the helium ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarevsky, E.; Yakovlev, S. L.; Larson, ; Elander, N.

    2015-06-01

    The study of scattering processes in few body systems is a difficult problem especially if long range interactions are involved. In order to solve such problems, we develop here a potential-splitting approach for three-body systems. This approach is based on splitting the reaction potential into a finite range core part and a long range tail part. The solution to the Schrdinger equation for the long range tail Hamiltonian is found analytically, and used as an incoming wave in the three body scattering problem. This reformulation of the scattering problem makes it suitable for treatment by the exterior complex scaling technique in the sense that the problem after the complex dilation is reduced to a boundary value problem with zero boundary conditions. We illustrate the method with calculations on the electron scattering off the hydrogen atom and the positive helium ion in the frame of the Temkin-Poet model.

  13. A high resolution helium atom scattering and far infrared study of the dynamics and the lateral potential energy surface of CO molecules chemisorbed on Cu(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Andrew P.; Hofmann, Frank; Toennies, J. Peter; Williams, Gwyn P.; Hirschmugl, Carol J.; Ellis, John

    1998-05-01

    Inelastic helium scattering (HAS) and infrared reflection adsorption spectroscopy (IRAS) have been used to measure the isotope shifts of the frequencies of both the parallel and perpendicular frustrated translation modes, as well as the frustrated rotation mode of CO molecules at on top sites on Cu(001). The measured isotope shifts for four different isotopomers indicates a significant rotational contribution to the parallel frustrated translation (T-mode), where the vibrational amplitude of the oxygen atom is significantly larger than for the carbon atom. Conversely, for the frustrated rotation the vibrational amplitude of the carbon atom was observed to be larger than for the oxygen atom. At surface temperatures above Ts=100 K a careful analysis of the peak shape of the HAS quasielastic peak shows a small broadening, which is attributed to a rapid diffusion of the CO molecules. The measured dynamic diffusion barrier of 31±10 meV is compatible with the shape of the potential at the on-top site and makes it possible to extend the potential energy surface to the region between the on-top sites.

  14. Atom lithography with metastable helium

    SciTech Connect

    Allred, Claire S.; Reeves, Jason; Corder, Christopher; Metcalf, Harold

    2010-02-15

    A bright metastable helium (He*) beam is collimated sequentially with the bichromatic force and three optical molasses velocity compression stages. Each He* atom in the beam has 20 eV of internal energy that can destroy a molecular resist assembled on a gold coated silicon wafer. Patterns in the resist are imprinted onto the gold layer with a standard selective etch. Patterning of the wafer with the He{sup *} was demonstrated with two methods. First, a mesh was used to protect parts of the wafer making an array of grid lines. Second, a standing wave of {lambda}=1083 nm light was used to channel and focus the He* atoms into lines separated by {lambda}/2. The patterns were measured with an atomic force microscope establishing an edge resolution of 80 nm. Our results are reliable and repeatable.

  15. Surface Phonon Dispersion Curves of Rubidium Chloride, Potassium Bromide, Rubidium Bromide and Sodium Iodide Studied by Inelastic Helium Atom Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, Gung

    The alkali halide surfaces were the first for which full surface phonon dispersion curves were measured. Most of the early work was mainly concerned with the low-energy modes for the lighter alkali halides, such as LiF and NaF, and a full survey of a more representative sampling of these crystals was never made. A recent theoretical calculation has also suggested that relaxation effects might provide interesting features on the surface phonon modes especially for the optical modes of the heavier compounds. The work of this dissertation is an effort to measure the surface dynamics of other, usually heavier, alkali halide crystals. This work describes measurements on the surfaces of RbCl(001), RbBr(001), KBr(001), and NaI(001) with the inelastic He atom scattering technique. The energy gain or loss and the momentum change is measured by the time of flight method. For the four crystals, the surface phonon dispersion curves are obtained along both high symmetry directions. The general agreement between the theory and the experimental results is very good. Some new features of the surface vibration have been found. First, the optical mode, crossing resonance and acoustic modes were clearly seen from the KBr surface over the entire zone. The strong interaction coupling between the He and the optical mode is rather unique. Secondly, crossing resonances (S_8 mode) were observed for the KBr, RbBr and NaI surfaces. This observation suggests that this mode is a general feature of all the alkali halide surfaces. The origin of this mode might be due to the perpendicular polarized bulk acoustic motion. Thirdly, NaI results show that bound-state resonance effects could strongly enhance the bulk mode especially when there is a high density of phonon states. Finally, there is no experimental evidence supporting any surface relaxation effects. In fact, the experimental results seem to agree better with the unrelaxed calculations. In addition to the inelastic scattering measurements, we also did angular distribution, low pressure He beam scattering and a temperature-dependent dynamical study. Information such as the surface corrugation, He-surface potential, bound state energies, the surface Debye-Waller temperature and a measure of multi-phonon contributions can be obtained from these experimental results.

  16. Positronium formation in positron-helium scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, P.; Ghosh, A.S.

    1983-10-01

    The positronium-formation cross sections in positron-helium scattering have been calculated with the use of a distorted-wave polarized-orbital method from the threshold to 100 eV. The results with and without the matrix elements involving the distorted target wave functions are found to differ appreciably. The results of the first Born approximation are not expected to be correct even at the incident-positron energy 100 eV. The measured values at 20 eV are found to be less than (1/2) of the present predicted values. The sharp rise of the formation cross section within the ore-gap region as observed by Charlton et al. has also been noticed by us. The minimum in the differential cross section has been found at all energies as in the case of hydrogen atom.

  17. Measurements on exotic atoms of helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, S.; Batty, C. J.; Russell, F. M.; Sharman, P.; Bird, P. M.; Clough, A. S.; Parker, K. R.; Pyle, G. J.; Squier, G. T. A.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of X-ray yields, energies and strong interaction effects have been made for muonic, pionic, kaonic, antiprotonic and sigma-helium atoms. The strong interaction measurements for kaons confirm the discrepancy previously reported between experiment and values calculated with an optical model. However, in contradiction to previous work there is good agreement between theory and experimental measurements of strong interaction effects in antiprotonic-helium. The first observation of X-rays from sigma-helium atoms is reported.

  18. Polar catastrophe and the structure of KTa1-xNbxO₃ surfaces: Results from elastic and inelastic helium atom scattering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Flaherty, F. A.; Trelenberg, T. W.; Li, J. A.; Fatema, R.; Skofronick, J. G.; Van Winkle, D. H.; Safron, S. A.; Boatner, L. A.

    2015-07-13

    The structure and dynamics of cleaved (001) surfaces of potassium tantalates doped with niobium, KTa1-xNbxO₃ (KTN), with x ranging from 0% to 30%, were measured by helium atom scattering (HAS). Through HAS time-of-flight (TOF) experiments, a dispersionless branch (Einstein phonon branch) with energy of 13-14 meV was observed across the surface Brillouin zone in all samples. When this observation is combined with the results from earlier experimental and theoretical studies on these materials, a consistent picture of the stable surface structure emerges: After cleaving the single-crystal sample, the surface should be composed of equal areas of KO and TaO₂/NbO₂ terraces.more » The data, however, suggest that K⁺ and O²⁻ ions migrate from the bulk to the surface, forming a charged KO lattice that is neutralized primarily by additional K⁺ ions bridging pairs of surface oxygens. This structural and dynamic modification at the (001) surface of KTN appears due to its formally charged KO(-1) and TaO₂/NbO₂(+1) layers and avoids a “polar catastrophe.” This behavior is contrasted with the (001) surface behavior of the fluoride perovskite KMnF₃ with its electrically neutral KF and MnF₂ layers.« less

  19. Polar catastrophe and the structure of KT a1 - xN bxO3 surfaces: Results from elastic and inelastic helium atom scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flaherty, F. A.; Trelenberg, T. W.; Li, J. A.; Fatema, R.; Skofronick, J. G.; Van Winkle, D. H.; Safron, S. A.; Boatner, L. A.

    2015-07-01

    The structure and dynamics of cleaved (001 ) surfaces of potassium tantalates doped with niobium, KT a1 - xN bxO3 (KTN), with x ranging from 0 % to 30 % , were measured by helium atom scattering (HAS). Through HAS time-of-flight (TOF) experiments, a dispersionless branch (Einstein phonon branch) with energy of 13 -14 meV was observed across the surface Brillouin zone in all samples. When this observation is combined with the results from earlier experimental and theoretical studies on these materials, a consistent picture of the stable surface structure emerges: After cleaving the single-crystal sample, the surface should be composed of equal areas of KO and Ta O2/Nb O2 terraces. The data, however, suggest that K+ and O2 - ions migrate from the bulk to the surface, forming a charged KO lattice that is neutralized primarily by additional K+ ions bridging pairs of surface oxygens. This structural and dynamic modification at the (001 ) surface of KTN appears due to its formally charged KO (-1 ) and Ta O2/Nb O2(+1 ) layers and avoids a "polar catastrophe." This behavior is contrasted with the (001 ) surface behavior of the fluoride perovskite KMn F3 with its electrically neutral KF and Mn F2 layers.

  20. Polar catastrophe and the structure of KTa1-xNbxO₃ surfaces: Results from elastic and inelastic helium atom scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Flaherty, F. A.; Trelenberg, T. W.; Li, J. A.; Fatema, R.; Skofronick, J. G.; Van Winkle, D. H.; Safron, S. A.; Boatner, L. A.

    2015-07-13

    The structure and dynamics of cleaved (001) surfaces of potassium tantalates doped with niobium, KTa1-xNbxO₃ (KTN), with x ranging from 0% to 30%, were measured by helium atom scattering (HAS). Through HAS time-of-flight (TOF) experiments, a dispersionless branch (Einstein phonon branch) with energy of 13-14 meV was observed across the surface Brillouin zone in all samples. When this observation is combined with the results from earlier experimental and theoretical studies on these materials, a consistent picture of the stable surface structure emerges: After cleaving the single-crystal sample, the surface should be composed of equal areas of KO and TaO₂/NbO₂ terraces. The data, however, suggest that K⁺ and O²⁻ ions migrate from the bulk to the surface, forming a charged KO lattice that is neutralized primarily by additional K⁺ ions bridging pairs of surface oxygens. This structural and dynamic modification at the (001) surface of KTN appears due to its formally charged KO(-1) and TaO₂/NbO₂(+1) layers and avoids a “polar catastrophe.” This behavior is contrasted with the (001) surface behavior of the fluoride perovskite KMnF₃ with its electrically neutral KF and MnF₂ layers.

  1. Interactions of satellite-speed helium atoms with satellite-surfaces. 1: Spatial distributions of reflected helium atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, S. M.; Rodgers, W. E.; Knuth, E. L.

    1975-01-01

    Interactions of satellite-speed helium atoms with practical satellite surfaces were investigated experimentally, and spatial distributions of satellite-speed helium beams scattered from four different engineering surfaces were measured. The 7000 m/sec helium beams were produced using an arc-heated supersonic molecular beam source. The test surfaces included cleaned 6061-T6 aluminum plate, anodized aluminum foil, white paint, and quartz surfaces. Both in-plane (in the plane containing the incident beam and the surface normal) and out-of-plane spatial distributions of reflected helium atoms were measured for six different incidence angles (0, 15, 30, 45, 60, and 75 deg from the surface normal). It was found that a large fraction of the incident helium atoms were scattered back in the vicinity of the incoming beam, particularly in the case of glancing incidence angles. This unexpected scattering feature results perhaps from the gross roughness of these test surfaces. This prominent backscattering could yield drag coefficients which are higher than for surfaces with either forward-lobed or diffusive (cosine) scattering patterns.

  2. A comparative study of the He-Sb(111) interaction potential from close-coupling calculations and helium atom scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Patrick; Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Gsweiner, Christian; Apolloner, Florian; Miret-Arts, Salvador; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2014-12-01

    The exact elastic close-coupling formalism is used to compare the performance of several interaction potentials suggested in literature for describing the measured elastic diffraction peak intensities in helium scattering experiments. The coupling parameters have been analytically calculated for the corrugated Morse potential on a hexagonal surface structure and adapted for usage with similar interaction potentials. The potentials used have been fitted to previously known bound state energies complemented by two additional levels which are found by improving energy resolution. It is established that the shifted Morse potential reproduces the experimental He-Sb(111) bound state more closely than the other considered potential shapes. The performance of several interaction potentials in describing the elastic scattering intensities is presented and discussed. Morse and Morse-related potentials provide the best compromise for the description of elastic scattering intensities. The different effects of the potential shape were determined by comparing the calculated scattering intensities.

  3. Pion Scattering from HELIUM-4.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blilie, Charles Louis

    Data were taken for both the elastic and inelastic scattering of (pi)('+) and (pi)('-) from ('4)He at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Faculty (LAMPF). Elastic (pi)('+) - ('4)He angular distributions were taken for 32(DEGREES) (LESSTHEQ) (theta)(,cm) (LESSTHEQ) 114(DEGREES) at five pion energies: T(,(pi)) = 90, 110, 130, 150, and 180 MeV. At T(,(pi)) = 180 Mev (pi)('-) - ('4)He elastic data were also taken. Inelastic data were taken for both (pi)('+) and (pi)('-) at T(,(pi)) = 180 MeV at (theta)(,lab) = 20(DEGREES), 30(DEGREES), and 40(DEGREES). The inelastic data provide important new information with regard to isospin mixing in the J('(pi)) = 1('-) levels. We find an isospin mixing matrix element completely consistent with Coulomb mixing ((TURN)150 keV). This stands in sharp contrast to ('4)He photoproton and photoneutron disintegration data, which indicate a mixing much larger ((TURN)450 keV) than that attributable to the Coulomb force. Recoil-corrected continuum shell model (RCCSM) calculations, using Coulomb mixing, reproduce the (pi) - ('4)He inelastic double-differential cross-sections (d(sigma)/d(OMEGA)dE) very well. A phase shift analysis of the elastic scattering data is presented. The phase shifts for the L (GREATERTHEQ) 2 partial waves are fixed to the predictions of an optical model program. Our results for the L = 0 and L = 1 partial waves are compared to earlier phase shift analyses of (pi) - ('4)He elastic scattering.

  4. Depolarized collision-induced light scattering by gaseous helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillot-Nol, Christophe; Chrysos, Michael; LeDuff, Yves; Rachet, Florent

    2000-02-01

    We have carried out a joint study, experimental and theoretical, of the binary depolarized collision-induced light scattering spectrum by gaseous helium at room temperature. The intensities from helium pairs, calibrated on an absolute scale, have been measured in the much extended, previously unexplored, 5-680 cm-1 spectral domain. A critical analysis of the spectrum has been made by using ab initio anisotropy models available in the literature. Quantum-mechanical computations have enabled us to determine the spectral response of the pair polarizability terms which compose the most up-to-date anisotropy data (Moszynski et al 1996 J. Chem. Phys. 104 6997). The conclusion has been drawn that internuclear distances shorter than the helium atomic diameter are probed via the very far wing of our spectrum.

  5. Electron-helium scattering in Debye plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Zammit, Mark C.; Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bray, Igor; Janev, R. K.

    2011-11-15

    Electron-helium scattering in weakly coupled hot-dense (Debye) plasma has been investigated using the convergent close-coupling method. The Yukawa-type Debye-Hueckel potential has been used to describe plasma Coulomb screening effects. Benchmark results are presented for momentum transfer cross sections, excitation, ionization, and total cross sections for scattering from the ground and metastable states of helium. Calculations cover the entire energy range up to 1000 eV for the no screening case and various Debye lengths (5-100 a{sub 0}). We find that as the screening interaction increases, the excitation and total cross sections decrease, while the total ionization cross sections increase.

  6. Polarizability of the pionic helium atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobov, V. I.; Bekbaev, A. K.; Aznabayev, D. T.; Zhaugasheva, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The static dipole polarizability of metastable states in pionic helium atoms is studied. We use the complex coordinate rotation method to properly take account of the resonant nature of the states. Our calculation shows that the (17, 14) states both in 3He and 4He are not stable due to strong collisional quenching. This explains the absence of signal in the PiHe experiment at the Paul Scherer Institute, Switzerland while studying the (16, 15) \\to (17, 14) transition.

  7. Neutral atom lithography with metastable helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, Claire Shean

    In this dissertation we describe our performance of resist assisted neutral atom lithography using a bright beam of metastable 23S1 Helium (He*). Metastable Helium atoms have 20 eV of internal energy making them easy to detect and able to destroy a resist. The He* is produced by a reverse flow DC discharge source and then collimated with the bichromatic force, followed by three optical molasses velocity compression stages. The atoms in the resulting beam have a mean longitudinal velocity of 1125 m/s and a divergence of 1.1 mrad. The typical beam flux is 2 x 109 atoms/mm2s through a 0.1mm diameter aperture 70 cm away from the source. The internal energy of the atoms damages the molecules of a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of nonanethiol. The undisturbed SAM protects a 200 A layer of gold that has been evaporated onto a prepared Silicon wafer from a wet chemical etch. Two methods are used to pattern the He* atoms before they destroy the SAM. First, a Nickel micro mesh was used to protect the SAM. These experiments established an appropriate dosage and etch time for patterning. The samples were analyzed with an atomic force microscope and found to have an edge resolution of 63 nm. Then, patterning was accomplished using the dipole force the atoms experience while traversing a standing wave of lambda = 1083nm light tuned 500MHz below the 23S 1 ? 23P2 transition. Depending on the intensity of the light, the He* atoms are focused or channeled into lines separated by lambda/2. The lines cover the entire exposed length of the substrate, about 3 mm. They are about 3 mm long, corresponding to about twice the beam waist of the laser standing wave. Thus there are 6 x 10 3 lines of length 5500lambda. These results agree with our numerical simulations of the experiment.

  8. Metastable Aluminum Atoms Floating on the Surface of Helium Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffs, Jay; Besley, Nicholas A.; Stace, Anthony J.; Sarma, Gautam; Cunningham, Ethan M.; Boatwright, Adrian; Yang, Shengfu; Ellis, Andrew M.

    2015-06-01

    Metal atoms have proved to be sensitive probes of the properties of superfluid helium nanodroplets. To date, all experiments on the doping of helium droplets have concentrated on the attachment of metal atoms in their ground electronic states. Here we report the first examples of metal atoms in excited states becoming attached to helium nanodroplets. The atoms in question are aluminum, and they have been generated by laser ablation in a metastable quartet state, which attaches to and remains on the surface of helium droplets. Evidence for a surface location comes from electronic spectra, which consist of very narrow absorption profiles that show very small spectral shifts. Supporting ab initio calculations show there to be an energy incentive for a metastable Al atom to remain on the surface of a helium droplet rather than move to the interior. The results suggest that helium droplets may provide a method for the capture and transport of metastable excited atomic and molecular species.

  9. Metastable Aluminum Atoms Floating on the Surface of Helium Nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Jay; Besley, Nicholas A; Stace, Anthony J; Sarma, Gautam; Cunningham, Ethan M; Boatwright, Adrian; Yang, Shengfu; Ellis, Andrew M

    2015-06-12

    Metal atoms have proved to be sensitive probes of the properties of superfluid helium nanodroplets. To date, all experiments on the doping of helium droplets have concentrated on the attachment of metal atoms in their ground electronic states. Here we report the first examples of metal atoms in excited states becoming attached to helium nanodroplets. The atoms in question are aluminum, and they have been generated by laser ablation in a metastable quartet state, which attaches to and remains on the surface of helium droplets. Evidence for a surface location comes from electronic spectra, which consist of very narrow absorption profiles that show very small spectral shifts. Supporting abinitio calculations show there to be an energy incentive for a metastable Al atom to remain on the surface of a helium droplet rather than move to the interior. The results suggest that helium droplets may provide a method for the capture and transport of metastable excited atomic and molecular species. PMID:26196800

  10. Interactions of satellite-speed helium atoms with satellite surfaces. 3: Drag coefficients from spatial and energy distributions of reflected helium atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, P. K.; Knuth, E. L.

    1977-01-01

    Spatial and energy distributions of helium atoms scattered from an anodized 1235-0 aluminum surface as well as the tangential and normal momentum accommodation coefficients calculated from these distributions are reported. A procedure for calculating drag coefficients from measured values of spatial and energy distributions is given. The drag coefficient calculated for a 6061 T-6 aluminum sphere is included.

  11. The scattering of low energy positrons by helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humberston, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    Kohn's variational method is used to calculate the positron-helium scattering length and low energy S-wave phase shifts for a quite realistic Hylleraas type of helium function containing an electron-electron correlation term. The zero energy wavefunction is used to calculate the value of the annihilation rate parameter Z sub eff. All the results are significantly different from those for Drachman's helium model B, but are in better agreement with the available experimental data.

  12. Adsorption of Helium Atoms on Two-Dimensional Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burganova, Regina; Lysogorskiy, Yury; Nedopekin, Oleg; Tayurskii, Dmitrii

    2016-01-01

    The study of the adsorption phenomenon of helium began many decades ago with the discovery of graphite as a homogeneous substrate for the investigation of physically adsorbed monolayer films. In particular, helium monoatomic layers on graphite were found to exhibit a very rich phase diagram. In the present work we have investigated the adsorption phenomenon of helium atoms on graphene and silicene substrates by means of density functional theory with Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Helium-substrate and helium-helium interactions were considered from first principles. Vibrational properties of adsorbed monolayers have been used to explore the stability of the system. This approach reproduces results describing the stability of a helium monolayer on graphene calculated by quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations for low and high coverage cases. However, for the moderate coverage value there is a discrepancy with QMC results due to the lack of helium zero point motion.

  13. Almost fully polarized collision-induced light scattering in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysos, M.; Rachet, F.; Guillot-Nol, C.; Le Duff, Y.

    2001-04-01

    For the first time in collision-induced light scattering (CILS), a CCD camera has been implemented for the detection of the He2 far spectral wing. We have thus been able to detect signals as low as one photoelectron per pixel and per week, i.e. signals weaker than the electronic noise of our detection device. With our recorded experimental spectra, depolarized and isotropic ones, the frequency domain probed by the thus far available in the literature experimental spectra has greatly been extended up to ?=680 cm-1 and 1200 cm-1 respectively. The depolarization ratio has been found to attain values as low as 0.03 in the helium far wing, that is the signature of an almost fully polarized spectrum. This is a finding thus far unique in CILS by inert gases. Comparison with quantum mechanical computations (where use of up-to-date ab initio incremental polarizabilities has been made) has clearly shown that the origin of this striking property is an almost perfect, probably accidental, destructive interference between polarization and exchange spectral components in the depolarized intensities. In addition, what has been found is that the interference takes place in a very small interval of interatomic distances that are shorter than the diameter of the helium atom.

  14. Helium nanobubble release from Pd surface: An atomic simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liang; Hu, Wangyu; Deng, Huiqiu; Xiao, Shifang; Yang, Jianyu; Gao, Fei; Heinisch, Howard L.; Hu, Shilin

    2011-02-14

    Molecular dynamic simulations of helium atoms escaping from a helium-filled nano-bubble near the surface of crystalline palladium reveal unexpected behavior. Significant deformation and cracking near the helium bubble occur initially, and then a channel forms between the bubble and the surface, providing a pathway for helium atoms to propagate towards the surface. The helium atoms erupt from the bubble in an instantaneous and volcano-like process, which leads to surface deformation consisting of cavity formation on the surface, along with modification and atomic rearrangement at the periphery of the cavity. The present simulation results show that, near the palladium surface, there is a helium-bubble-free zone, or denuded zone, with a typical thickness of about 3.0 nm. Combined with experimental measurements and continuum-scale evolutionary model predictions, the present atomic simulations demonstrate that the thickness of the denuded zone, which contains a low concentration of helium atoms, is somewhat larger than the diameter of the helium bubbles in the metal tritide. Furthermore, a relationship between the tensile strength and thickness of metal film is also determined.

  15. Energy Relaxation of Helium Atoms in Astrophysical Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewkow, N. R.; Kharchenko, V.; Zhang, P.

    2012-09-01

    We report accurate parameters describing energy relaxation of He atoms in atomic gases, important for astrophysics and atmospheric science. Collisional energy exchange between helium atoms and atomic constituents of the interstellar gas, heliosphere, and upper planetary atmosphere has been investigated. Energy transfer rates, number of collisions required for thermalization, energy distributions of recoil atoms, and other major parameters of energy relaxation for fast He atoms in thermal H, He, and O gases have been computed in a broad interval of energies from 10 meV to 10 keV. This energy interval is important for astrophysical applications involving the energy deposition of energetic atoms and ions into atmospheres of planets and exoplanets, atmospheric evolution, and analysis of non-equilibrium processes in the interstellar gas and heliosphere. Angular- and energy-dependent cross sections, required for an accurate description of the momentum-energy transfer, are obtained using ab initio interaction potentials and quantum mechanical calculations for scattering processes. Calculation methods used include partial wave analysis for collisional energies below 2 keV and the eikonal approximation at energies higher than 100 eV, keeping a significant energy region of overlap, 0.1-2 keV, between these two methods for their mutual verification. The partial wave method and the eikonal approximation excellently match results obtained with each other as well as experimental data, providing reliable cross sections in the astrophysically important interval of energies from 10 meV to 10 keV. Analytical formulae, interpolating obtained energy- and angular-dependent cross sections, are presented to simplify potential applications of the reported database. Thermalization of fast He atoms in the interstellar gas and energy relaxation of hot He and O atoms in the upper atmosphere of Mars are considered as illustrative examples of potential applications of the new database.

  16. ENERGY RELAXATION OF HELIUM ATOMS IN ASTROPHYSICAL GASES

    SciTech Connect

    Lewkow, N. R.; Kharchenko, V.; Zhang, P.

    2012-09-01

    We report accurate parameters describing energy relaxation of He atoms in atomic gases, important for astrophysics and atmospheric science. Collisional energy exchange between helium atoms and atomic constituents of the interstellar gas, heliosphere, and upper planetary atmosphere has been investigated. Energy transfer rates, number of collisions required for thermalization, energy distributions of recoil atoms, and other major parameters of energy relaxation for fast He atoms in thermal H, He, and O gases have been computed in a broad interval of energies from 10 meV to 10 keV. This energy interval is important for astrophysical applications involving the energy deposition of energetic atoms and ions into atmospheres of planets and exoplanets, atmospheric evolution, and analysis of non-equilibrium processes in the interstellar gas and heliosphere. Angular- and energy-dependent cross sections, required for an accurate description of the momentum-energy transfer, are obtained using ab initio interaction potentials and quantum mechanical calculations for scattering processes. Calculation methods used include partial wave analysis for collisional energies below 2 keV and the eikonal approximation at energies higher than 100 eV, keeping a significant energy region of overlap, 0.1-2 keV, between these two methods for their mutual verification. The partial wave method and the eikonal approximation excellently match results obtained with each other as well as experimental data, providing reliable cross sections in the astrophysically important interval of energies from 10 meV to 10 keV. Analytical formulae, interpolating obtained energy- and angular-dependent cross sections, are presented to simplify potential applications of the reported database. Thermalization of fast He atoms in the interstellar gas and energy relaxation of hot He and O atoms in the upper atmosphere of Mars are considered as illustrative examples of potential applications of the new database.

  17. Atomic origins of solid helium bubbles in tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Min; Guo, Hong-Yan; Dai, Yong; Yan, Qing-Zhi; Guo, Li-Ping; Li, Tie-Cheng; Qiao, Yi; Ge, Chang-Chun

    2014-12-01

    Solid helium bubbles were directly observed in the helium ion implanted tungsten (W), by different transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques at room temperature. The diameters of these solid helium bubbles range from 1 nm to 8 nm in diameter with the mean bubble size about 3 nm. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and fast Fourier transform (FFT) images revealed that solid helium bubbles possess body-centered cubic (bcc) structure with a lattice constant of 0.447 nm. High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) images further confirmed the existence of helium bubble in tungsten. The present findings provide an atomic level view of the microstructure evolution of helium in the materials, and revealed the existence of solid helium bubbles in materials.

  18. Positron-alkali atom scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceachran, R. P.; Horbatsch, M.; Stauffer, A. D.; Ward, S. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron-alkali atom scattering was recently investigated both theoretically and experimentally in the energy range from a few eV up to 100 eV. On the theoretical side calculations of the integrated elastic and excitation cross sections as well as total cross sections for Li, Na and K were based upon either the close-coupling method or the modified Glauber approximation. These theoretical results are in good agreement with experimental measurements of the total cross section for both Na and K. Resonance structures were also found in the L = 0, 1 and 2 partial waves for positron scattering from the alkalis. The structure of these resonances appears to be quite complex and, as expected, they occur in conjunction with the atomic excitation thresholds. Currently both theoretical and experimental work is in progress on positron-Rb scattering in the same energy range.

  19. Calculating helium atomic excited states in coordinate space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Shane; Siegel, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Two coupled Schrdinger equations are used to calculate excited states of atomic helium. Using product state functions for the two-electron state, the shooting method is used to numerically determine the energies of the allowed singlet and triplet levels. The calculations agree well with the data, and the coordinate-space basis yields Schrdinger equations for helium that are familiar to students who have used similar methods for the hydrogen atom.

  20. Convergent close-coupling calculations of positron scattering on metastable helium

    SciTech Connect

    Utamuratov, R.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Fursa, D. V.; Bray, I.; Stelbovics, A. T.

    2010-10-15

    The convergent close-coupling method has been applied to positron scattering on a helium atom in the 2 {sup 3}S metastable state. For this system the positronium (Ps) formation channel is open even at zero scattering energy making the inclusion of the Ps channels especially important. Spin algebra is presented for the general case of arbitrary spins. A proof is given of the often-used assumption about the relationship between the amplitudes for ortho-positronium and para-positronium formation. The cross sections for scattering from 2 {sup 3}S are shown to be significantly larger than those obtained for the ground state.

  1. Heuristic theory of positron-helium scattering.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    An error in a previous modified adiabatic approximation (Drachman, 1966), due to a lack of generality in the form of the short-range correlation part of the wave function for L greater than zero, is corrected heuristically by allowing the monopole suppression parameter to depend on L. An L-dependent local potential is constructed to fit the well-known positron-hydrogen s, p, and d wave phase shifts below the rearrangement threshold. The same form of potential yields a positron-helium cross-section in agreement with a recent experimental measurement near threshold.

  2. The Weakest Link: Bonding between Helium Atoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Lawrence L.; Blinder, S. M.

    2007-01-01

    A highly simplified model for helium dimers that reproduces their essential features without the need for elaborate computation is presented. The He-He potential is predicted to have minimum of 10.9 K at a nuclear separation of 5.61 bohrs.

  3. Electronically excited rubidium atom in a helium cluster or film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leino, Markku; Viel, Alexandra; Zillich, Robert E.

    2008-11-01

    We present theoretical studies of helium droplets and films doped with one electronically excited rubidium atom Rb? (P2). Diffusion and path integral Monte Carlo approaches are used to investigate the energetics and the structure of clusters containing up to 14 helium atoms. The surface of large clusters is approximated by a helium film. The nonpair additive potential energy surface is modeled using a diatomic in molecule scheme. Calculations show that the stable structure of Rb?Hen consists of a seven helium atom ring centered at the rubidium, surrounded by a tirelike second solvation shell. A very different structure is obtained when performing a "vertical Monte Carlo transition." In this approach, a path integral Monte Carlo equilibration starts from the stable configuration of a rubidium atom in the electronic ground state adsorbed to the helium surface after switching to the electronically excited surface. In this case, Rb?Hen relaxes to a weakly bound metastable state in which Rb? sits in a shallow dimple. The interpretation of the results is consistent with the recent experimental observations [G. Aubck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 035301 (2008)].

  4. Helium atom in an external electric field: Exact diagonalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antsygina, T. N.; Chishko, K. A.

    2014-09-01

    An exact diagonalization method is applied to solve the quantum-mechanical problem of spinless helium atom in an external electric field of arbitrary magnitude. The basis set for two-electron problem is built from different pair combinations ?nalama(?ra)?nblbmb(?rb) of orthonormalized single-particle hydrogen-like wave functions ?nml(r) belonging to any possibly bound states of the individual a- and b-electrons in the Coulomb central field renormalized by the scale parameter ? > 0. Within the selected basis the matrix elements of the total Hamiltonian allows an exact analytical representation in the form of finite numerical sums. The diagonalization procedure is performed by Jacobi algorithm for N N square Hermitian matrix built on the basis of dimension N = 25. The systematics and the numerical values of the low-lying energy levels at zero field are in good agreement with known experimental data. The field dependences of low-lying levels (Stark effect) and polarizability in the ground state of helium atom are presented. It is shown that even extremely high external fields lead only to shifting or splitting of existing low levels, without disturbance of their systematics. Typically, no new low-energy excitation can be created under external electric field of moderate intensity. Radical reconstruction in spectrum of individual helium atoms can be expected in condensed helium phases where each atom is deeply affected by interaction fields from neighbors. This result should be taken into account at interpretation of electrodynamic experiments on superfluid helium.

  5. Spectroscopy of barium atoms in liquid and solid helium matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, V.; Moroshkin, P.; Weis, A.

    2011-08-15

    We present an exhaustive overview of optical absorption and laser-induced fluorescence lines of Ba atoms in liquid and solid helium matrices in visible and near-infrared spectral ranges. Due to the increased density of isolated atoms, we have found a large number of spectral lines that were not observed in condensed helium matrices before. We have also measured the lifetimes of metastable states. The lowest {sup 3}D{sub 1} metastable state has lifetime of 2.6 s and can be used as an intermediate state in two-step excitations of high-lying states. Various matrix-induced radiationless population transfer channels have been identified.

  6. Metastable helium atom stimulated desorption of H+ Ion

    PubMed

    Kurahashi; Yamauchi

    2000-05-15

    H+ desorption induced by the impact of metastable helium atoms has been found for H(2)O/Na/Ni(110) coadsorption systems. The measurements were carried out using a time-of-flight technique and a pulsed-discharge type metastable helium atom ( He(*)) source. It is concluded that the H+ desorption by He(*) is induced by a hole created on the valence levels via the Auger deexcitation of He(*). The H+ desorption by He(*) may be understood within the framework of the Menzel-Gomer-Readhead model. PMID:10990781

  7. Elastic Electron Scattering from Tritium and Helium-3

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Collard, H.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E. B.; Johansson, A.; Yearian, M. R.; Day, R. B.; Wagner, R. T.

    1964-10-01

    The mirror nuclei of tritium and helium-3 have been studied by the method of elastic electron scattering. Absolute cross sections have been measured for incident electron energies in the range 110 - 690 MeV at scattering angles lying between 40 degrees and 135 degrees in this energy range. The data have been interpreted in a straightforward manner and form factors are given for the distributions of charge and magnetic moment in the two nuclei over a range of four-momentum transfer squared 1.0 - 8.0 F{sup -2}. Model-independent radii of the charge and magnetic moment distributions are given and an attempt is made to deduce form factors describing the spatial distribution of the protons in tritium and helium-3.

  8. Spin physics with laser-pumped helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Schearer, L.D.

    1993-05-01

    With the development of new, tunable lasers at 1083 nm, direct optical pumping of the triplet metastable atoms of helium yields an almost perfectly aligned ensemble. In {sup 3}He the hyperflne interaction and collisions transfer the orientation to the groundstate nuclear spins. The optical pumping process in {sup 3}He is extraordinarily efficient- nearly 2.5 nuclei are oriented per absorbed photon at turn-on. Applications to magnetometry, the production of spin-polarized electron and ion beams, and the development of polarized neutron beams and dense targets will be discussed. The progress of the UNI-Mainz experiment to measure the electric and magnetic form factors of the neutron will be described. In this experiment the polarized {sup 3}He target is mechanically compressed to several atmospheres with minimal loss of nuclear polarization. Extension of this dense nuclear target for use as a neutron spin filter is also in progress. We will also describe the status of our experiment to observe scattering asymmetries of polarized electrons by chiral molecules. Progress on the development of a compact, moderate current, polarized e-beam will be discussed.

  9. PREFACE: Atom-surface scattering Atom-surface scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2010-08-01

    It has been a privilege and a real pleasure to organize this special issue or festschrift in the general field of atom-surface scattering (and its interaction) in honor of J R Manson. This is a good opportunity and an ideal place to express our deep gratitude to one of the leaders in this field for his fundamental and outstanding scientific contributions. J R Manson, or Dick to his friends and colleagues, is one of the founding fathers, together with N Cabrera and V Celli, of the 'Theory of surface scattering and detection of surface phonons'. This is the title of the very well-known first theoretical paper by Dick published in Physical Review Letters in 1969. My first meeting with Dick was around twenty years ago in Saclay. J Lapujoulade organized a small group seminar about selective adsorption resonances in metal vicinal surfaces. We discussed this important issue in surface physics and many other things as if we had always known each other. This familiarity and warm welcome struck me from the very beginning. During the coming years, I found this to be a very attractive aspect of his personality. During my stays in Göttingen, we had the opportunity to talk widely about science and life at lunch or dinner time, walking or cycling. During these nice meetings, he showed, with humility, an impressive cultural background. It is quite clear that his personal opinions about history, religion, politics, music, etc, come from considering and analyzing them as 'open dynamical systems'. In particular, with good food and better wine in a restaurant or at home, a happy cheerful soirée is guaranteed with him, or even with only a good beer or espresso, and an interesting conversation arises naturally. He likes to listen before speaking. Probably not many people know his interest in tractors. He has an incredible collection of very old tractors at home. In one of my visits to Clemson, he showed me the collection, explaining to me in great detail, their technical properties; all of them were ready for use! We cannot imagine him without his two old-fashioned Mercedes, also in his collection. He also has technical skills in construction and music and always has time for jogging. I would finally say that he is an even-tempered person. In brief, mens sana in corpore sano 1 . Dick is a theorist bound to experimental work, extremely intuitive and very dedicated. In his long stays outside Clemson, he always visited places where experiments were being carried out. He has been, and still is, of great help to experimental PhD students, postdocs or senior scientists in providing valuable advice and suggestions towards new measurements. Plausible interpretations of their results developing theoretical models or always searching for good agreement with experiment are two constants in his daily scientific work. Experimental work is present in most of his 150 papers. One of the main theoretical challenges in this field was to develop a formalism where the plethora of experimental results reported in the literature were accommodated. His transition matrix formalism was also seminal in the field of atom-surface scattering. Elastic and inelastic (single and double phonon) contributions were determined as well as the multiphonon background. This work was preceded by a theory for diffuse inelastic scattering and a posterior contribution for multiphonon scattering, both with V Celli. In a similar vein, a theory of molecule-surface scattering was also derived and, more recently, a theory for direct scattering, trapping and desorption. Very interesting extensions to scattering with molten metal and liquid surfaces have also been carried out. Along with collaborators he has studied energy accommodation and sticking coefficients, providing a better understanding of their meaning. G Armand and Dick proposed the well-known corrugated Morse potential as an interaction potential model providing reliable results of diffraction patterns and selective adsorption resonances. This proposal was, in a certain sense, the result of many previous studies carried out by the authors studying the hard corrugated wall, the eikonal approximation and the quantum theory of surface scattering. His stays with J Lapujoulade's group in Saclay were very fruitful for understanding diffraction patterns, surface phonons and selective adsorption resonances in metal vicinal surfaces. Together with R H Ritchie, he proposed some corrections to Van der Waals forces in 1985 and 1986. Self-energies of a charge near a surface or image states or potentials for electrons were also studied in collaboration with R H Ritchie in Oak Ridge and P Echenique in San Sebastian. In particular, they proposed a theory for cluster impact fusion in 1990. With J P Toennies and his group and visitors in Göttingen, many experimental features or effects were interpreted with Dick's invaluable collaboration. Thus, for example, we have (i) the large-momentum transfer undulations observed in the angular distribution of He atoms scattered by a platinum surface in the presence of a single CO adsorbate (the so-called reflection symmetry interference); (ii) the inelastic interference structures of the frustrated translational mode of CO on a copper surface; (iii) defect mediated diffraction resonances; (iv) inelastic focusing; (v) diffraction from nanostructure transmission gratings, etc. With J G Skofronick and S A Safron and their group in Tallahassee, He atom inelastic scattering from insulator experiments were carried out to test his theory. With K-H Rieder and his group in Berlin, Dick mainly considered the scattering of atoms from clean surfaces and in the presence of defects at grazing angles. And, finally, with W Ernst and his group in Graz, glass surface dynamics was developed as well as observation of the so-called boson peak. Finally, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all contributors and those who were contacted but could not participate in this festschrift. They had to decline with regret because they had been retired for a long time, or had changed their research field, or were not able to meet the deadline. In any case, this initiative was really very welcome and supported with great enthusiasm by everybody. From all of the correspondence I have received expressing gratitude and honor for being invited to contribute, I would like to quote some words from G Comsa which reflect all of these feelings: 'Dick deserves, indeed, to be honored for both his scientific accomplishments and certainly no less for his modesty, honesty, friendliness and human warmth, qualities which are rarely honored'. I certainly cannot close this preface without mentioning the praiseworthy and professional work carried out by the Editorial Board, publishing team and Editors; in particular, L Smith and G Wright for their help and enthusiastic disposition. Thank you very much to everybody. 1 A healthy mind in a healthy body.

  10. Using Uncertainty Principle to Find the Ground-State Energy of the Helium and a Helium-like Hookean Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbola, Varun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we accurately estimate the ground-state energy and the atomic radius of the helium atom and a helium-like Hookean atom by employing the uncertainty principle in conjunction with the variational approach. We show that with the use of the uncertainty principle, electrons are found to be spread over a radial region, giving an electron…

  11. Using Uncertainty Principle to Find the Ground-State Energy of the Helium and a Helium-like Hookean Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbola, Varun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we accurately estimate the ground-state energy and the atomic radius of the helium atom and a helium-like Hookean atom by employing the uncertainty principle in conjunction with the variational approach. We show that with the use of the uncertainty principle, electrons are found to be spread over a radial region, giving an electron

  12. The Helium Atom and Isoelectronic Ions in Two Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    The energy levels of the helium atom and isoelectronic ions in two dimensions are considered. The difficulties encountered in the analytical evaluation of the perturbative and variational expressions for the ground state, promote an interesting factorization of the inter-electronic interaction, leading to simple expressions for the energy. This…

  13. The Helium Atom and Isoelectronic Ions in Two Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    The energy levels of the helium atom and isoelectronic ions in two dimensions are considered. The difficulties encountered in the analytical evaluation of the perturbative and variational expressions for the ground state, promote an interesting factorization of the inter-electronic interaction, leading to simple expressions for the energy. This

  14. CPT tests with antihydrogen and antiprotonic helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayano, Ryugo

    2014-09-01

    Recent progress of the CPT tests with antihydrogen and antiprotonic helium atoms by the ASACUSA collaboration at CERN's antiproton decelerator will be presented. The antiprotonic helium atom (antiproton+electron+helium nucleus) is a serendipitously discovered metastable three-body system, whose energy levels can now be studied by laser spectroscopy techniques to a relative precision of ~10-9. By comparing these precise experimental results with the result of three-body QED calculation, the antiproton-to-electron mass ratio was determined to a relative precision of 1 . 2 10-9 . While this can be used as a precise test of the CPT symmetry, CODATA instead assumed the CPT, and combined our results with the proton-to-electron mass ratio measured by the Penning trap method in their adjustment of the fundamental physical constants. In addition to the laser spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium, ASACUSA collaboration also aims at measuring the ground-state hyperfine splitting of antihydrogen using the (anti)-atomic beam method. Extraction of antihydrogen atoms from a ``cusp'' trap has so far been demonstrated. Both of these experiments will benefit from the completing of a new antiproton decelerator-cooler ring called ELENA, which is under construction at CERN.

  15. Photoionization of atoms and molecules. [of hydrogen, helium, and xenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samson, J. A. R.

    1976-01-01

    A literature review on the present state of knowledge in photoionization is presented. Various experimental techniques that have been developed to study photoionization, such as fluorescence and photoelectron spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, are examined. Various atoms and molecules were chosen to illustrate these techniques, specifically helium and xenon atoms and hydrogen molecules. Specialized photoionization such as in positive and negative ions, excited states, and free radicals is also treated. Absorption cross sections and ionization potentials are also discussed.

  16. Raman Scattering from Solid and Fluid Helium at High Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, George Henry, Jr.

    Raman spectra were measured in solid helium at two molar volumes: 7.74 cm('3) ("10 kbar") and 9.06 cm('3) ("5 kbar"). The Raman-active E(,2g) phonon has been observed in the hcp phase of each crystal. The volume dependence measured for this phonon frequency is well represented by the mode Gruneisen parameter (gamma) = 1.06 + 0.097 V. Conventional lattice dynamics, using modern helium potentials, predicts a frequency and volume dependence for the E(,2g) phonon in good agreement with the measurements over this range of volume. Temperature dependence of the E(,2g) phonon frequency and linewidth was measured under isochoric conditions. Over the limited range of temperature in which the hcp phase exists, the thermal shift of frequency was measured to be negative by an amount no more than 1 cm('-1). The phonon linewidth was observed to be non-zero at 0 K, increasing in width with increasing temperature. The temperature dependence is compatible with a strong interaction between the E(,2g) phonon and zone-edge phonons, where the optical phonon combines with a transverse acoustic phonon to create a longitudinal acoustic phonon. In addition, second-order Raman spectra were collected for both high-pressure solid phases, hcp and fcc. Structure has been observed in the two-phonon portion of the solid helium spectra and is remarkably similar in both phases. Significant intensity extends beyond the expected cut-off for two-phonon processes, though to a decreasing extent with increasing pressure. Thus multi-phonon processes remain important in helium even at high pressure. Raman scattering from dense fluid helium shows clear departure from the behavior of collision-induced scattering from the more classical fluids. Even at room temperature, a departure from the usual roughly-exponential behavior is observed at low frequency in helium at high pressure. The departure becomes even more pronounced near the freezing temperature, with a dramatic reduction in low-frequency intensity. Helium in the quantum regime (low-density, low-temperature) has previously been shown to have a Raman spectrum consisting of a broad peak with no intensity at low frequency. Further study of the change in this low-frequency behavior from classical to quantum by variation of the density may lead to an increased understanding of dense fluids.

  17. Ultrafast probing of ejection dynamics of Rydberg atoms and molecular fragments from electronically excited helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Buenermann, Oliver; Kornilov, Oleg; Neumark, Daniel M.; Haxton, Daniel J.; Gessner, Oliver; Leone, Stephen R.

    2012-12-07

    The ejection dynamics of Rydberg atoms and molecular fragments from electronically excited helium nanodroplets are studied with time-resolved extreme ultraviolet ion imaging spectroscopy. At excitation energies of 23.6 {+-} 0.2 eV, Rydberg atoms in n= 3 and n= 4 states are ejected on different time scales and with significantly different kinetic energy distributions. Specifically, n= 3 Rydberg atoms are ejected with kinetic energies as high as 0.85 eV, but their appearance is delayed by approximately 200 fs. In contrast, n= 4 Rydberg atoms appear within the time resolution of the experiment with considerably lower kinetic energies. Major features in the Rydberg atom kinetic energy distributions for both principal quantum numbers can be described within a simple elastic scattering model of localized perturbed atomic Rydberg atoms that are expelled from the droplet due to their repulsive interaction with the surrounding helium bath. Time-dependent kinetic energy distributions of He{sub 2}{sup +} and He{sub 3}{sup +} ions are presented that support the formation of molecular ions in an indirect droplet ionization process and the ejection of neutral Rydberg dimers on a similar time scale as the n= 3 Rydberg atoms.

  18. Effects of strong laser fields on hadronic helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Han-Chieh; Jiang, Tsin-Fu

    2015-12-01

    The metastable hadronic helium atoms in microseconds lifetime are available in laboratory, and two-photon spectroscopy was reported recently. This exotic helium atom has an electron in the ground state and a negative hadron rotating around the helium nucleus. We theoretically study the excitation on hadronic helium by femtosecond pulse and elucidate the influence of moleculelike structure and rotation behavior on the photoelectron spectra and high-order harmonic generation. Because of the moleculelike structure, the electronic ground state consists of several angular orbitals. These angular orbitals can enhance photoelectron spectra at high energies, and also influence the harmonic generation spectra considerably. In particular, the harmonic spectra can occur at even harmonic orders because of the transition between these angular orbitals and continuum states. On the other side, the rotation behavior of hadron can induce a frequency shift in the harmonic spectra. The magnitude of the frequency shift depends on the orbiting speed of the hadron, which is considerable because the rotation period is in a few femtoseconds, a time scale that is comparable to that of infrared laser and is feasible in current laser experiments.

  19. Similarity between positronium-atom and electron-atom scattering.

    PubMed

    Fabrikant, I I; Gribakin, G F

    2014-06-20

    We employ the impulse approximation for a description of positronium-atom scattering. Our analysis and calculations of Ps-Kr and Ps-Ar collisions provide a theoretical explanation of the similarity between the cross sections for positronium scattering and electron scattering for a range of atomic and molecular targets observed by S.?J. Brawley et al. [Science 330, 789 (2010)]. PMID:24996087

  20. Atomic Masses of Tritium and Helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, E. G.; Wagner, A.; Kracke, H.; Wesson, B. A.

    2015-01-01

    By measuring the cyclotron frequency ratios of 3He+ to HD+ and T+ to HD+ , and using HD+ as a mass reference, we obtain new atomic masses for 3He and T. Our results are M [3He]=3.016 029 322 43 (19 ) u and M [T ]=3.016 049 281 78 (19 ) u , where the uncertainty includes an uncertainty of 0.12 nu in the mass reference. Allowing for cancellation of common systematic errors, we find the Q value for tritium β decay to be (M [T ]-M [3He])c2=18 592.01 (7 ) eV . This allows an improved test of systematics in measurements of tritium β decay that set limits on neutrino mass.

  1. Atomic masses of tritium and helium-3.

    PubMed

    Myers, E G; Wagner, A; Kracke, H; Wesson, B A

    2015-01-01

    By measuring the cyclotron frequency ratios of (3)He(+) to HD(+) and T(+) to HD(+), and using HD(+) as a mass reference, we obtain new atomic masses for (3)He and T. Our results are M[(3)He]=3.016 029 322 43(19)  u and M[T]=3.016 049 281 78(19)  u, where the uncertainty includes an uncertainty of 0.12 nu in the mass reference. Allowing for cancellation of common systematic errors, we find the Q value for tritium β decay to be (M[T]-M[(3)He])c(2)=18 592.01(7)  eV. This allows an improved test of systematics in measurements of tritium β decay that set limits on neutrino mass. PMID:25615466

  2. Quantum entanglement for helium atom in the Debye plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yen-Chang; Fang, Te-Kuei; Ho, Yew Kam

    2015-03-15

    In the present work, we present an investigation on quantum entanglement of the two-electron helium atom immersed in weakly coupled Debye plasmas, modeled by the Debye-Hückel, or screened Coulomb, potential to mimic the interaction between two charged particles inside the plasma. Quantum entanglement is related to correlation effects in a multi-particle system. In a bipartite system, a measurement made on one of the two entangled particles affects the outcome of the other particle, even if such two particles are far apart. Employing wave functions constructed with configuration interaction B-spline basis, we have quantified von Neumann entropy and linear entropy for a series of He {sup 1,3}S{sup e} and {sup 1,3}P{sup o} states in plasma-embedded helium atom.

  3. Further Examination of a Simplified Model for Positronium-Helium Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiRienzi, J.; Drachman, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    While carrying out investigations on Ps-He scattering we realized that it would be possible to improve the results of a previous work on zero-energy scattering of ortho-positronium by helium atoms. The previous work used a model to account for exchange and also attempted to include the effect of short-range Coulomb interactions in the close-coupling approximation. The 3 terms that were then included did not produce a well-converged result but served to give some justification to the model. Now we improve the calculation by using a simple variational wave function, and derive a much better value of the scattering length. The new result is compared with other computed values, and when an approximate correction due to the van der Waals potential is included the total is consistent with an earlier conjecture.

  4. Electron impact excitation of helium atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiao-Ying; Zeng, De-Ling; Gao, Xiang; Li, Jia-Ming

    2015-08-01

    A method to deal with the electron impact excitation cross sections of an atom from low to high incident energies are presented. This method combines the partial wave method and the first Born approximation (FBA), i.e., replacing the several lowest partial wave cross sections of the total cross sections within FBA by the corresponding exact partial wave cross sections. A new set of codes are developed to calculate the FBA partial wave cross sections. Using this method, the convergent e-He collision cross sections of optical-forbidden and optical-allowed transitions at low to high incident energies are obtained. The calculation results demonstrate the validity and efficiency of the method. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB921501 and 2013CB922200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274035, 11275029, 11328401, 11371218, 11474031, 11474032, and 11474034), and the Foundation of Development of Science and Technology of Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant Nos. 2013A0102005 and 2014A0102005).

  5. Attenuation of Scattered Thermal Energy Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce a.; Seroka, Katelyn T.; McPhate, Jason B.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2011-01-01

    The attenuation of scattered thermal energy atomic oxygen is relevant to the potential damage that can occur within a spacecraft which sweeps through atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO). Although there can be significant oxidation and resulting degradation of polymers and some metals on the external surfaces of spacecraft, there are often openings on a spacecraft such as telescope apertures, vents, and microwave cavities that can allow atomic oxygen to enter and scatter internally to the spacecraft. Atomic oxygen that enters a spacecraft can thermally accommodate and scatter to ultimately react or recombine on surfaces. The atomic oxygen that does enter a spacecraft can be scavenged by use of high erosion yield polymers to reduce its reaction on critical surfaces and materials. Polyoxymethylene and polyethylene can be used as effective atomic oxygen scavenging polymers.

  6. Attenuation of Scattered Thermal Energy Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Seroka, Katelyn T.; McPhate, Jason B.; Miller, Sharon K.

    The attenuation of scattered thermal energy atomic oxygen is relevant to the potential damage that can occur within a spacecraft which sweeps through atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO). Although there can be significant oxidation and resulting degradation of polymers and some metals on the external surfaces of spacecraft, there are often openings on a spacecraft such as telescope apertures, vents, and microwave cavities that can allow atomic oxygen to enter and scatter internally to the spacecraft. Atomic oxygen that enters a spacecraft can thermally accommodate and scatter to ultimately react or recombine on surfaces. The atomic oxygen that does enter a spacecraft can be scavenged by use of high erosion yield polymers to reduce its reaction on critical surfaces and materials. Polyoxymethylene and polyethylene can be used as effective atomic oxygen scavenging polymers.

  7. Experimental study of {mu}-atomic and {mu}-molecular processes in pure helium and deuterium-helium mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Bystritsky, V.M.; Boreiko, V.F.; Gerasimov, V.V.; Pavlov, V.N.; Sandukovsky, V.G.; Stolupin, V.A.; Volnykh, V.P.; Czaplinski, W.; Popov, N.P.; Wozniak, J.; Filipowicz, M.; Huot, O.; Knowles, P.E.; Schaller, L.A.; Schneuwly, H.; Mulhauser, F.

    2005-03-01

    We present experimental results of {mu}-atomic and {mu}-molecular processes induced by negative muons in pure helium and helium-deuterium mixtures. The experiment was performed at the Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland). We measured relative intensities of muonic x-ray K series transitions in ({mu}{sup 3,4}He){sup *} atoms in pure helium as well as in helium-deuterium mixtures. The d{mu}{sup 3}He radiative decay probabilities for two different helium densities in D{sub 2}+{sup 3}He mixture were also determined. Finally, the q{sub 1s}{sup He} probability for a d{mu} atom formed in an excited state to reach the ground state was measured and compared with theoretical calculations using a simple cascade model.

  8. Ionization of helium atoms under the effect of the antineutrino magnetic moment

    SciTech Connect

    Martemyanov, V. P. Tsinoev, V. G.

    2011-12-15

    Differential cross sections for inelastic antineutrino interaction with a helium atom are calculated. It is shown that, in the energy-transfer range extending up to 1 keV, the cross sections in question are considerably enhanced in the electromagnetic-interaction channel in relation to the cross sections for elastic scattering on a free electron. Absolute cross-section values are of interest in searches for the antineutrino magnetic moment, provided that its value in Bohr magneton units falls within the range (10{sup -13}-10{sup -12}){sub Micro-Sign B}.

  9. A four-body approach to electron-impact single ionization of helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari-Adivi, Ebrahim; Abdollahi-Tadi, Rayhaneh

    2013-12-01

    A four-body approach based on the three-Coulomb distorted wave (3CDW) model is applied to study of the electron-impact single ionization of helium atoms. Triply differential cross sections (TDCS) are calculated for different values of the incident and ejection energies and various amounts of the scattering angles. The ejection angular distribution of the TDCS in general exhibits two peaks, binary and recoil peaks. The obtained results are compared with the available experimental data as well as other theoretical predictions. The comparison shows a good agreement between the present calculations and the measurements. Also, the obtained results are compatible with the other theories.

  10. Homonuclear ionizing collisions of laser-cooled metastable helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Stas, R. J. W.; McNamara, J. M.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.

    2006-03-15

    We present a theoretical and experimental investigation of homonuclear ionizing collisions of laser-cooled metastable (2 {sup 3}S{sub 1}) helium atoms, considering both the fermionic {sup 3}He and bosonic {sup 4}He isotopes. The theoretical description combines quantum threshold behavior, Wigner's spin-conservation rule, and quantum-statistical symmetry requirements in a single-channel model, complementing a more complete close-coupling theory that has been reported for collisions of metastable {sup 4}He atoms. The model is supported with measurements (in the absence of light fields) of ionization rates in magneto-optically trapped samples that contain about 3x10{sup 8} atoms of a single isotope. The ionization rates are determined from measurements of trap loss due to light-assisted collisions combined with comparative measurements of the ion production rate in the absence and presence of trapping light. Theory and experiment show good agreement.

  11. Efficient detection of 2^3S1m=0 states of atomic helium for improved precision measurements of helium 2^3P fine structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, K.; Beica, H.; Davidson, E. B.; Fitzakerley, D. W.; George, M. C.; Storry, C. H.; Vutha, A. C.; Weel, M.; Hessels, E. A.

    2012-06-01

    Thermal helium 2^3S metastable atoms can be detected with near unit efficiency by the electron ejected when they strike a stainless-steel surface. However, the 2^1S atoms and UV photons created in generating the metastable beam also produce ejected electrons. We remove the 2^1S atoms from our beam using 2.06-micron photons from a dc discharge lamp to drive the 2^1S atoms to the 2^1P state (which subsequently decays to the ground state). A Stern-Gerlach magnet removes the m=-1 and m=+1 2^3S atoms. Elastic collisions with argon gas scatters the 2^3S atoms out of the initial beam path, and thus away from the direction of the UV photons. The combination of these elements allows for high-efficiency detection of 2^3S1 m=0 atoms with very low background due to singlet atoms, UV photons or 2^3S1 m=1 atoms, allowing for an improved signal-to-noise ratio for precision helium fine-structure measurements.

  12. Electronic Relaxation Processes of Transition Metal Atoms in Helium Nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kautsch, Andreas; Lindebner, Friedrich; Koch, Markus; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2014-06-01

    Spectroscopy of doped superfluid helium nanodroplets (He_N) gives information about the influence of this cold, chemically inert, and least interacting matrix environment on the excitation and relaxation dynamics of dopant atoms and molecules. We present the results from laser induced fluorescence (LIF), photoionization (PI), and mass spectroscopy of Cr and Cu doped He_N. From these results, we can draw a comprehensive picture of the complex behavior of such transition metal atoms in He_N upon photo-excitation. The strong Cr and Cu ground state transitions show an excitation blueshift and broadening with respect to the bare atom transitions which can be taken as indication for the solvation inside the droplet. From the originally excited states the atoms relax to energetically lower states and are ejected from the He_N. The relaxation processes include bare atom spin-forbidden transitions, which clearly bears the signature of the He_N influence. Two-color resonant two-photon ionization (2CR2PI) also shows the formation of bare atoms and small Cr-He_n and Cu-He_n clusters in their ground and metastable states ^c. Currently, Cr dimer excitation studies are in progress and a brief outlook on the available results will be given. C. Callegari and W. E. Ernst, Helium Droplets as Nanocryostats for Molecular Spectroscopy - from the Vacuum Ultraviolet to the Microwave Regime, in Handbook of High-Resolution Spectroscopy, eds. M. Quack and F. Merkt, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 2011. A. Kautsch, M. Koch, and W. E. Ernst, J. Phys. Chem. A, 117 (2013) 9621-9625, DOI: 10.1021/jp312336m F. Lindebner, A. Kautsch, M. Koch, and W. E. Ernst, Int. J. Mass Spectrom. (2014) in press, DOI: 10.1016/j.ijms.2013.12.022 M. Koch, A. Kautsch, F. Lackner, and W. E. Ernst, submitted to J. Phys. Chem. A

  13. Re-examination of a Simplified Model for Positronium-Helium Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DiRienzi, Joseph; Drachman, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    Using a local effective potential to account for electron exchange, R J Drachman and S K Houston analyzed the zero-energy scattering of ortho-positronium by helium atoms in 1970. The idea was to use the existing static-exchange results to fit the parameters of the local potential and then to use the potential in a variational target-elastic calculation. The results were remarkably good, both for the scattering length and the annihilation parameter. Recently, however, a rigorous target-elastic calculation by Blackwood et al disagreed so strongly with these old results that we have undertaken a re-examination. We find that one of the apparently trivial assumptions of the local potential method is much more important than previously believed.

  14. Re-Examination of a Simplified Model for Positronium-Helium Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J.; DiRienzi, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Using a local effective potential to account for electron exchange, R J Drachman and S K Houston analyzed the zero-energy scattering of ortho-positronium by helium atoms in 1970. The idea was to use the existing static-exchange results to fit the parameters of the local potential and then to use the potential in a variational target-elastic calculation. The results were remarkably good, both for the scattering length and the annihilation parameter. Recently, however, a rigorous target-elastic calculation by Blackwood et al disagreed so strongly with these old results that we have undertaken a re-examination. We find that the assumption made in the earlier work, that the direct potential is negligible compared with the exchange potential, is not quantitatively correct. But the original idea that omission of the direct potential might compensate approximately for the omission of the van der Waals potential still seems reasonable.

  15. Ionization of highly excited helium atoms in an electric field

    SciTech Connect

    van de Water, W.; Mariani, D.R.; Koch, P.M.

    1984-11-01

    We present detailed measurements of ionization of highly excited triplet helium atoms in a static electric field. The atoms were prepared in states with energy E close to the saddle-point threshold E = -2(F(a.u.))/sup 1/2/. The electric field F was sufficiently strong for the states to be characterized by total spin S and absolute value of the magnetic quantum number M/sub L/. For M/sub L/ = 0 states the experiments measured ionization properties of adiabatic states. In another case, Vertical BarM/sub L/Vertical Bar = 2, they predominantly measured those of diabatic states. In both cases the ionization rate was found to be a highly nonmonotonic function of the field strength. The observations are analyzed in terms of a theory of the helium density of states in an electric field. A companion paper (D. A. Harmin, Phys. Rev. A 30, 2413 (1984)) develops in detail the general theory, which uses quantum defects to parametrize the effect of the core interaction. The agreement between measured and calculated ionization curves is good, indicating that the field ionization of a nonhydrogenic atom can now be understood in a detailed, quantitative, and predictive sense.

  16. Toward improved photon-atom scattering predictions

    SciTech Connect

    Kissel, L.

    1994-10-21

    Photon-atom scattering is important in a variety of applications, but scattering from a composite system depends on the accurate characterization of the scattering from an isolated atom or ion. We have been examining the validity of simpler approximations of elastic scattering in the light of second-order S-matrix theory. Partitioning the many-body amplitude into Rayleigh and Delbrueck components, processes beyond photoionization contribute. Subtracted cross sections for bound-bound atomic transitions, bound pair annihilation, and bound pair production are required in anomalous scattering factors for: (1) convergence of the dispersion integral; (2) agreement with predictions of the more sophisticated S-matrix approach; (3) satisfying the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule. New accurate tabulations of anomalous scattering factors have been prepared for all Z, for energies 0--10,000 keV, within the independent particle approximation (IPA) using a Dirac-Slater model of the atom. Separately, experimental atomic photoabsorption threshold information has been used to modify these IPA predictions for improved comparison with experiment.

  17. Spectroscopy of Lithium Atoms and Molecules on Helium Nanodroplets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report on the spectroscopic investigation of lithium atoms and lithium dimers in their triplet manifold on the surface of helium nanodroplets (HeN). We present the excitation spectrum of the 3p ← 2s and 3d ← 2s two-photon transitions for single Li atoms on HeN. The atoms are excited from the 2S(Σ) ground state into Δ, Π, and Σ pseudodiatomic molecular substates. Excitation spectra are recorded by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight (REMPI-TOF) mass spectroscopy, which allows an investigation of the exciplex (Li*–Hem, m = 1–3) formation process in the Li–HeN system. Electronic states are shifted and broadened with respect to free atom states, which is explained within the pseudodiatomic model. The assignment is assisted by theoretical calculations, which are based on the Orsay–Trento density functional where the interaction between the helium droplet and the lithium atom is introduced by a pairwise additive approach. When a droplet is doped with more than one alkali atom, the fragility of the alkali–HeN systems leads preferably to the formation of high-spin molecules on the droplets. We use this property of helium nanodroplets for the preparation of Li dimers in their triplet ground state (13Σu+). The excitation spectrum of the 23Πg(ν′ = 0–11) ← 13Σu+(ν″ = 0) transition is presented. The interaction between the molecule and the droplet manifests in a broadening of the transitions with a characteristic asymmetric form. The broadening extends to the blue side of each vibronic level, which is caused by the simultaneous excitation of the molecule and vibrations of the droplet (phonons). The two isotopes of Li form 6Li2 and 7Li2 as well as isotope mixed 6Li7Li molecules on the droplet surface. By using REMPI-TOF mass spectroscopy, isotope-dependent effects could be studied. PMID:23895106

  18. Helium-surface interaction potential of Sb(111) from scattering experiments and close-coupling calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, M.; Kraus, P.; Tamtgl, A.; Miret-Arts, S.; Ernst, W. E.

    2013-11-01

    Helium atom scattering (HAS) was used to study the antimony Sb(111) surface beyond the hard-wall model. HAS angular distributions and drift spectra show a number of selective adsorption resonance features, which correspond to five bound-state energies for He atoms trapped in the surface-averaged He-Sb(111) potential. As their best representation, a 9-3 potential with a depth of 4.40.1 meV was determined. Furthermore, the charge density corrugation of the surface was analyzed using close-coupling calculations. By using a hybrid potential, consisting of a corrugated Morse potential (short range) and a 9-3 potential (long range), a peak-to-peak corrugation of 17% was obtained. The kinematic focusing effects that occurred were in good agreement with surface phonon dispersion curves from already published density functional perturbation theory calculations.

  19. Analysis of helium-ion scattering with a desktop computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. W.

    1986-04-01

    This paper describes a program written in an enhanced BASIC language for a desktop computer, for simulating the energy spectra of high-energy helium ions scattered into two concurrent detectors (backward and glancing). The program is designed for 512-channel spectra from samples containing up to 8 elements and 55 user-defined layers. The program is intended to meet the needs of analyses in materials sciences, such as metallurgy, where more than a few elements may be present, where several elements may be near each other in the periodic table, and where relatively deep structure may be important. These conditions preclude the use of completely automatic procedures for obtaining the sample composition directly from the scattered ion spectrum. Therefore, efficient methods are needed for entering and editing large amounts of composition data, with many iterations and with much feedback of information from the computer to the user. The internal video screen is used exclusively for verbal and numeric communications between user and computer. The composition matrix is edited on screen with a two-dimension forms-fill-in text editor and with many automatic procedures, such as doubling the number of layers with appropriate interpolations and extrapolations. The control center of the program is a bank of 10 keys that initiate on-event branching of program flow. The experimental and calculated spectra, including those of individual elements if desired, are displayed on an external color monitor, with an optional inset plot of the depth concentration profiles of the elements in the sample.

  20. Neutral Atom Lithography Using a Bright Metastable Helium Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shean, Claire V.; Reeves, Jason; Keller, Michael; Riedmann, Matthias; Metcalf, Harold

    2006-05-01

    We have performed neutral atom lithography using a beam of metastable 2,3S Helium (He*) that is brightened sequentially by the bichromatic force and then optical molasses. We have successfully demonstrated this technique using a physical mask of fine mesh covering a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of nonanethiol over a 20 nm evaporated film of Au on a Si wafer substrate. The 20 eV internal energy of He* damages the SAM so that those damaged molecules and the underlying Au layer can be removed using a wet chemical etch^5. Samples created this way have an edge resolution of ,63 nm that we measured with an atomic force microscope. This technique has promise for creating nano-structured meta-materials with unusual optical properties. M. Partlow et al., Phys. Rev. Lett 93, 213004 (2004). Younan Xia et al. Chem. Mater. 7, 2332 (1995).

  1. Binding of two helium atoms in confined geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Kilic, S.; Krotscheck, E.; Zillich, R.

    1999-08-01

    The authors carry out a comprehensive study of the binding of two helium atoms in unrestricted and, in particular, in restricted geometries in both two and three dimensions. Besides the well known binding of the {sup 4}He dimer in unrestricted geometry in two and three dimensions, the authors also find weakly bound states of the {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He molecule and the {sup 3}He dimer in 2 dimensions. Furthermore, any combination of two {sup 4}He or {sup 3}He atoms can form a molecule if their motion is sufficiently confined. The calculations are carried out by numerically solving the Schroedinger equation as well as by constructing a suitable variational wave function.

  2. Theoretical survey on positronium formation and ionisation in positron atom scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, Madhumita; Ghosh, A. S.

    1990-01-01

    The recent theoretical studies are surveyed and reported on the formation of exotic atoms in positron-hydrogen, positron-helium and positron-lithium scattering specially at intermediate energy region. The ionizations of these targets by positron impact was also considered. Theoretical predictions for both the processes are compared with existing measured values.

  3. Pressure dependent line shifts of atoms in superfluid helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putlitz, Gisbert Zu; Baumann, I.; Foerste, M.; Jungmann, K.; Tabbert, B.; Wiebe, J.; Zhlke, C.

    1998-05-01

    Defect atoms and ions in superfluid helium open the possibility to study the nature of the defect with respect to its environment. Depending on the electronic structure and charge of the foreign particles two forms of defects are built: so-called "bubbles" and "snowballs"(B. Tabbert, H. Gnther and G. zu Putlitz, J. Low. Temp. Phys.) 109, 653 (1997). Defect ions are produced by laser sputtering, they can recombine with electrons from a field emission tip(I. Baumann, M. Foerste, K. Layer, G. zu Putlitz, B. Tabbert and C. Zhlke, J. Low. Temp. Phys.) 110, 213 (1998). The spectral lines observed are shifted and broadened compared to the free atomic transitions. The radius and the shape of the defect structure are supposed to be pressure dependent. Consequently we employ a pressure cell which allows for the spectroscopic measurements up to external pressures of 40 bar. Since liquid helium solidifies above 25 bar a study of the phase transition from the liquid to the solid can be made.

  4. Luminescence of oxygen atoms stimulated by metastable helium at cryogenic temperatures.

    PubMed

    Khmelenko, V V; Mao, S; Meraki, A; Wilde, S C; McColgan, P; Pelmenev, A A; Boltnev, R E; Lee, D M

    2013-11-01

    We present investigations of the afterglow of oxygen-helium gas mixtures at cryogenic temperatures. The cooling of a helium jet containing trace amounts of oxygen after passing through a radio frequency discharge zone led to the observation of strong emissions from atomic oxygen. The effect results from the increasing efficiency of energy transfer from metastable helium atoms and molecules to oxygen impurities in the cold dense helium vapor. This effect might find an application for the detection of small quantities of the impurities in helium gas. PMID:24237513

  5. Study of Injection of Helium into Supersonic Air Flow Using Rayleigh Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seaholtz, Richard G.; Buggele, Alvin E.

    1997-01-01

    A study of the transverse injection of helium into a Mach 3 crossflow is presented. Filtered Rayleigh scattering is used to measure penetration and helium mole fraction in the mixing region. The method is based on planar molecular Rayleigh scattering using an injection-seeded, frequency-doubled ND:YAG pulsed laser and a cooled CCD camera. The scattered light is filtered with an iodine absorption cell to suppress stray laser light. Preliminary data are presented for helium mole fraction and penetration. Flow visualization images obtained with a shadowgraph and wall static pressure data in the vicinity of the injection are also presented.

  6. Neutral Atom Lithography Using a Bright Metastable Helium Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allred, Claire; Reeves, Jason; Corder, Chris; Metcalf, Harold

    2009-05-01

    We have performed neutral atom lithography using a bright beam of metastable 2^3S1 Helium (He*) that is collimated with the bichromatic force, followed by three optical molasses velocity compression stages. Because bichromatic collimation makes such an intense He* beam, our exposure time is measured in minutes instead of hours. We have exploited the focusing and channeling of the He* beam into lines by the dipole force the atoms experience while traversing a standing wave of ? = 1083 nm light tuned 500 MHz below the 2^3S1-> 2^3P2 transition. Focused He* atoms damage the molecules of a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of nonanethiol by depositing their 20 eV of internal energy on its surface. The undisturbed SAM then protects a 200 ,ayer of gold that has been evaporated onto a prepared Silicon wafer from a wet chemical etch. Samples created with this method have an edge resolution of 63 nm that was observed using an atomic force microscope. The lines are separated by ?/2 and cover the entire exposed length of the substrate, about 3 mm. They are about 3 mm long, corresponding to about twice the beam waist of the laser standing wave. Thus there are 6 x10^3 lines of length 1500 ?. These results agree with our numerical simulations of the experiment.

  7. Parametric Amplification of Scattered Atom Pairs

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, Gretchen K.; Mun, Jongchul; Boyd, Micah; Streed, Erik W.; Ketterle, Wolfgang; Pritchard, David E.

    2006-01-20

    We have observed parametric generation and amplification of ultracold atom pairs. A {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate was loaded into a one-dimensional optical lattice with quasimomentum k{sub 0} and spontaneously scattered into two final states with quasimomenta k{sub 1} and k{sub 2}. Furthermore, when a seed of atoms was first created with quasimomentum k{sub 1} we observed parametric amplification of scattered atoms pairs in states k{sub 1} and k{sub 2} when the phase-matching condition was fulfilled. This process is analogous to optical parametric generation and amplification of photons and could be used to efficiently create entangled pairs of atoms. Furthermore, these results explain the dynamic instability of condensates in moving lattices observed in recent experiments.

  8. Probing crystalline insulator surfaces with neutral helium atom scattering: A study of mixed potassium tantalate/niobate and thin films of potassium chloride and p-quaterphenyl on sodium chloride(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trelenberg, Thomas Walter

    Results from experiments using a thermal-energy beam of helium atoms as a probe in studying three crystalline insulator surfaces are presented. The primary focus is the simple ferroelectric perovskite, KTa1- xNbxO3 (or KTN when not specifying an Nb concentration) with x = 0.06, 0.10, 0.20, 0.30, and 0.52. Thin films of KCl and p-quaterphenyl grown onto NaCl(001) were also studied. Extending an earlier work on potassium tantalate (KTaO3), freshly cleaved (001) surfaces of niobium-doped potassium tantalate (KTN) were studied. While KTaO3 is an incipient ferroelectric undergoing no bulk phase changes, KTN, with Nb concentration greater than 1.5%, is a tunable ferroelectric, existing in several bulk phases depending on the temperature of the material. A metastable feature observed in KTN immediately after cleaving results in satellite peaks around the specular peak which decay over time. Also, small, broad half-order peaks were observed when the surface temperature was cycled between 50 K and 270 K for the first time. Surface hysteresis effects and responses to electric fields were also studied. Surface dispersion curves for the two high-symmetry directions are given for various Nb doping levels and substrate temperatures. This work compares the above phenomena to similar occurrences observed previously in KTaO3, and notes how the responses differ as a function of niobium doping. Also building on previous experience, the growth of KCl on NaCl was studied. Several recent works have focused on the physical interpretation of 3/4-order peaks observed during LEED investigations of this system. A HAS study of this system revealed, at best, a weak indication of several n/4-order peaks, but at film thicknesses well above those reported. In our first attempt to examine the surfaces of films of large organic molecules using HAS, p-quaterphenyl (p-4P) was deposited onto an NaCl surface held at 300K. Diffraction intensities from the NaCl were reduced but produced no other effects. However, cooling the surface to 50 K revealed many smaller diffraction peaks from the p-4P in addition to the larger NaCl peaks. The organic film peaks were isotropic, appearing as a two-dimensional diffraction powder pattern.

  9. Symmetric And Non-Symmetric Muonic Helium Atoms Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammadi, S.

    2011-10-28

    The ground state hyperfine structure and other properties are calculated for muonic helium atoms ({sup 3}He{sup +2}{mu}{sup -}e{sup -} or {sup 4}He{sup +2}{mu}{sup -}e{sup -}) with the use of some local properties of the wave functions in the domains where two particles are close to each other or far away. Simple wave functions incorporating these properties with one variational parameter is developed. The calculated values for hyperfine structure, energy and average interparticle distances in ground state are compared with the correlation function hyper-spherical harmonic method and multibox variational approach. The obtained results are very close to the values calculated by mentioned methods, giving strong indications that the proposed wave functions provide relatively accurate values.

  10. Optical detection of nonradiating alkali atoms in solid helium.

    PubMed

    Eichler, T; Mller-Siebert, R; Nettels, D; Kanorsky, S; Weis, A

    2002-03-25

    We have detected by optical means nonfluorescing 85Rb and 87Rb atoms implanted in a body centered cubic 4He crystal. In contrast to cesium the resonance fluorescence of rubidium is strongly quenched by the helium matrix, and the weak resonance absorption of the two Rb isotopes was detected using a double resonance technique. From a comparative study of the (optically detected) magnetic resonance spectra of 85Rb, 87Rb, and 133Cs we infer their effective g(F) factors and conclude that they are not perturbed by the He matrix at a level of 2 x 10(-4). We show further that optical pumping of Rb proceeds via depopulation, whereas for Cs it proceeds via repopulation. PMID:11909454

  11. Double Photoionization of helium atom using Screening Potential Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Haripada

    2014-05-01

    The triple differential cross section for double Photoionization of helium atom will be investigated using our recently extended MCHF method. It is well known that electron correlation effects in both the initial and the final states are very important. To incorporate these effects we will use the multi-configuration Hartree-Fock method to account for electron correlation in the initial state. The electron correlation in the final state will be taken into account using the angle-dependent screening potential approximation. The triple differential cross section (TDCS) will be calculated for 20 eV photon energy, which has experimental results. Our results will be compared with available experimental and the theoretical observations.

  12. Neutral Atom Lithography Using a Bright Metastable Helium Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shean, Claire; Reeves, Jason; Metcalf, Harold

    2008-05-01

    We have performed neutral atom lithography using a bright beam of metastable Helium (He*) that is collimated with the bichromatic force followed by two Doppler molasses velocity compression stages. We have previously demonstrated this lithography method using a metal grid to project its image on a self assembled monolayer (SAM) of nonanethiol. The open areas of the grid allow incident He* to damage the SAM molecules by depositing their 20 eV of internal energy on the surface. The undisturbed SAM regions then protect a gold coated Silicon wafer from a wet chemical etch. Samples created with this method have an edge resolution of 63 nm that was observed using an atomic force microscope. We have now achieved focusing of the He* beam into lines by the dipole force that the atoms experience while traversing a standing wave of ? = 1083 nm light tuned 500 MHz above the 2^3S1-->2^3P2 transition. The lines are separated by ?/2 and their length is comparable to the laser beam waist. Because bichromatic collimation makes such an intense He* beam, our exposure time can be as short as 10 minutes.

  13. Random scattering by atomic density fluctuations in optical lattices.

    PubMed

    Blaauboer, M; Kurizki, G; Akulin, V M

    2001-04-16

    We investigate hitherto unexplored regimes of probe scattering by atoms trapped in optical lattices: weak scattering by effectively random atomic density distributions and multiple scattering by arbitrary atomic distributions. Both regimes are predicted to exhibit a universal semicircular scattering line shape for large density fluctuations, which depend on temperature and quantum statistics. PMID:11328012

  14. Random Scattering by Atomic Density Fluctuations in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaauboer, M.; Kurizki, G.; Akulin, V. M.

    2001-04-01

    We investigate hitherto unexplored regimes of probe scattering by atoms trapped in optical lattices: weak scattering by effectively random atomic density distributions and multiple scattering by arbitrary atomic distributions. Both regimes are predicted to exhibit a universal semicircular scattering line shape for large density fluctuations, which depend on temperature and quantum statistics.

  15. Positronium formation for positron scattering from helium ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi Zhang, Yong; Yu, Rong Mei; Xia Li, Shu; Song, Xiu Dan; Jiao, Li Guang

    2015-09-01

    Positronium (Ps) formation processes from helium ions by positron impact are studied using the two-channel two-center eikonal final state-continuum initial distorted wave method. The Ps(n = 1 and 2) and total Ps formation cross sections are calculated from the threshold to the high energy region, and the results are compared with other theoretical calculations available in the literature. It is found that the present results agree reasonably well with the close-coupling calculations, while other predictions, such as the Coulomb-Born approximation, the optical potential method, and the recent classical trajectory Monte Carlo method (Naginey 2014 Phys. Rev. A 89, 062704), are all much higher in the entire energy region. The maximum positions of the Ps(n) formation cross sections in our present work are in good agreement with the wave vector matching model of (Charlton 2014 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 4575). Finally, we discuss the scaling law of the Ps(n) formation cross sections with respect to the principal quantum number n of the Ps atom.

  16. A new time-dependent scattering theory and its application to the capture of antiprotons by atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, X. M.; Hino, K.; Toshima, N.

    2009-09-01

    We presented a theoretical method to study the capture of the antiprotrons by atoms solving a Chew-Goldberger-type integral equation directly. The scattering boundary conditions are automatically satisfied by adiabatically switching on the interaction between the antiprotons and targets. Hence the outgoing wave function is obtained without the tedious procedure of adjusting the total wave function in the asymptotic region. All the dynamical information can be derived from the scattering wave function obtained on pseudo-spectral grids numerically. Using this method, we obtained the state-specified capture cross sections when antiprotons collide with helium atoms. Differing from the capture processes of antiprotons by hydrogen atoms, the anomalous bumpy structures are revealed in the angular momentum dependent capture cross sections by helium atoms. Further analysis shows that the bumps arise from the partial channel closing due to the removal of the energy degeneracy in the antiprotonic helium atoms.

  17. Method and means for helium/hydrogen ratio measurement by alpha scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. B.; Tombrello, T. A. (inventors)

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for determining helium to hydrogen ratios in a gaseous sample is presented. The sample is bombarded with alpha particles created by a self contained radioactive source and scattering products falling within a predetermined forward scattering angular range impact a detector assembly. Two detectors are mounted in tandem, the first completely blocking the second with respect to incident scattering products. Alpha particle/hydrogen or alpha particle/helium collisions are identified by whether scattering product impacts occur simultaneously in both detectors or only in the first detector. Relative magnitudes of the two pulses can be used to further discriminate against other effects such as noise and cosmic ray events.

  18. Formation of Triplet Positron-helium Bound State by Stripping of Positronium Atoms in Collision with Ground State Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    Formation of triplet positron-helium bound state by stripping of positronium atoms in collision with ground state helium JOSEPH DI RlENZI, College of Notre Dame of Maryland, RICHARD J. DRACHMAN, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center - The system consisting of a positron and a helium atom in the triplet state e(+)He(S-3)(sup e) was conjectured long ago to be stable [1]. Its stability has recently been established rigorously [2], and the values of the energies of dissociation into the ground states of Ps and He(+) have also been reported [3] and [4]. We have evaluated the cross-section for this system formed by radiative attachment of a positron in triplet He state and found it to be small [5]. The mechanism of production suggested here should result in a larger cross-section (of atomic size) which we are determining using the Born approximation with simplified initial and final wave functions.

  19. Scattering of twisted relativistic electrons by atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbo, V.; Ivanov, I. P.; Fritzsche, S.; Seipt, D.; Surzhykov, A.

    2015-07-01

    The Mott scattering of high-energetic twisted electrons by atoms is investigated within the framework of the first Born approximation and Dirac's relativistic equation. Special emphasis is placed on the angular distribution and longitudinal polarization of the scattered electrons. In order to evaluate these angular and polarization properties we consider two experimental setups in which the twisted electron beam collides with either a single well-localized atom or macroscopic atomic target. Detailed relativistic calculations have been performed for both setups and for the electrons with kinetic energy from 10 to 1000 keV. The results of these calculations indicate that the emission pattern and polarization of outgoing electrons differ significantly from the scattering of plane-wave electrons and can be very sensitive to the parameters of the incident twisted beam. In particular, it is shown that the angular- and polarization-sensitive Mott measurements may reveal valuable information about both the transverse and longitudinal components of the linear momentum and the projection of the total angular momentum of twisted electron states. Thus, the Mott scattering emerges as a diagnostic tool for the relativistic vortex beams.

  20. Prospects for measurement and control of the scattering length of metastable helium using photoassociation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelemeij, J. C. J.; Leduc, M.

    2004-11-01

    A numerical investigation of two-laser photoassociation (PA) spectroscopy on spin-polarized metastable helium (He*) atoms is presented within the context of experimental observation of the least-bound energy level in the scattering potential and subsequent determination of the s-wave scattering length. Starting out from the model developed by Bohn and Julienne [Phys. Rev. A 60, 414 (1999)], PA rate coefficients are obtained as a function of the parameters of the two lasers. The rate coefficients are used to simulate one- and two-laser PA spectra. The results demonstrate the feasibility of a spectroscopic determination of the binding energy of the least-bound level. The simulated spectra may be used as a guideline when designing such an experiment, whereas the model may also be employed for fitting experimentally obtained PA spectra. In addition, the prospects for substantial modification of the He* scattering length by means of optical Feshbach resonances are considered. Several experimental issues relating to the numerical investigation presented here are discussed.

  1. Atomic analysis of the (n; t)-reaction of the helium-3 atoms with slow neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Alexei M.; Wardlaw, David M.

    2011-05-01

    Probabilities of formation of various hydrogenic species during the exothermic nuclear (n, 3He; t, p)-reaction of atomic helium-3 with slow neutrons are determined. In particular, we have found that the probability of forming the tritium atom 3H in its ground state is ?55.192 87 %, while the analogous probability of forming the protium atom 1H in its ground state is ?1.023 63%. Analogous probabilities of formation of the negatively charged hydrogen ions, i.e. the 3H- and 1H- ions, in the nuclear (n, 3He; t, p)-reaction with slow neutrons are ?7.8680% and ?0.065 83%, respectively. We also consider bremsstrahlung from fast fission-type reactions in atomic systems. The spectrum of emitted radiation is analysed.

  2. X-ray observation of a helium atom and placing a nitrogen atom inside He@C60 and He@C70

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morinaka, Yuta; Sato, Satoru; Wakamiya, Atsushi; Nikawa, Hidefumi; Mizorogi, Naomi; Tanabe, Fumiyuki; Murata, Michihisa; Komatsu, Koichi; Furukawa, Ko; Kato, Tatsuhisa; Nagase, Shigeru; Akasaka, Takeshi; Murata, Yasujiro

    2013-03-01

    Single crystal X-ray analysis has been used as a powerful method to determine the structure of molecules. However, crystallographic data containing helium has not been reported, owing to the difficulty in embedding helium into crystalline materials. Here we report the X-ray diffraction study of He@C60 and the clear observation of a single helium atom inside C60. In addition, the close packing of a helium atom and a nitrogen atom inside fullerenes is realized using two stepwise insertion techniques, that is, molecular surgery to synthesize the fullerenes encapsulating a helium atom, followed by nitrogen radio-frequency plasma methods to generate the fullerenes encapsulating both helium and nitrogen atoms. Electron spin resonance analysis reveals that the encapsulated helium atom has a small but detectable influence on the electronic properties of the highly reactive nitrogen atom coexisting inside the fullerene, suggesting the potential usage of helium for controlling electronic properties of reactive species.

  3. MISSE Scattered Atomic Oxygen Characterization Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2006-01-01

    An experiment designed to measure the atomic oxygen (AO) erosion profile of scattered AO was exposed to Low Earth Orbital (LEO) AO for almost four years as part of the Materials International Space Station Experiment 1 and 2 (MISSE 1 and 2). The experiment was flown in MISSE Passive Experiment Carrier 2 (PEC 2), Tray 1, attached to the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS) Quest Airlock. The experiment consisted of an aperture disk lid of Kapton H (DuPont) polyimide coated on the space exposed surface with a thin AO durable silicon dioxide film. The aperture lid had a small hole in its center to allow AO to enter into a chamber and impact a base disk of aluminum. The AO that scattered from the aluminum base could react with the under side of the aperture lid which was coated sporadically with microscopic sodium chloride particles. Scattered AO erosion can occur to materials within a spacecraft that are protected from direct AO attack but because of apertures in the spacecraft the AO can attack the interior materials after scattering. The erosion of the underside of the Kapton lid was sufficient to be able to use profilometry to measure the height of the buttes that remained after washing off the salt particles. The erosion pattern indicated that peak flux of scattered AO occurred at and angle of approximately 45 from the incoming normal incidence on the aluminum base unlike the erosion pattern predicted for scattering based on Monte Carlo computational predictions for AO scattering from Kapton H polyimide. The effective erosion yield for the scattered AO was found to be a factor of 0.214 of that for direct impingement on Kapton H polyimide.

  4. Resonance-enhanced inelastic He-atom scattering from subsurface optical phonons of Bi(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Patrick; Tamtgl, Anton; Mayrhofer-Reinhartshuber, Michael; Benedek, Giorgio; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2013-06-01

    Helium-atom scattering angular distributions from Bi(111) show a number of selective-adsorption resonance features corresponding to three bound states of the He atom in the surface-averaged Bi(111) potential. They are well represented by a 3-9 potential with a potential depth of 8.3meV. The bound-state resonance enhancement of inelastic scattering is shown to provide the mechanism for the observation of subsurface optical phonons and for their comparatively large intensity.

  5. Thermal equilibrium/disequilibrium features in the excited-state temperature of atomic helium in MAP-II divertor simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kado, S.

    2015-08-01

    Doppler-Stark spectrometry and laser Thomson scattering diagnostics for helium plasmas were applied to the MAP-II (material and plasma) steady-state linear divertor simulator at the University of Tokyo. In recombining plasmas, as the volumetric recombination proceeded, atomic, ionic and electron temperatures converged to the same values, which indicated the achievement of thermal equilibrium. On the other hand, in ionizing plasmas, in addition to the collisional heating of bulk atoms, excess heating of atoms in the high principal quantum number states (above Griem's boundary) was observed. This disequilibrium feature can be attributed to the presence of two prevailing conditions: that the characteristic time of the charge-exchange process of the atoms with ions in the system became shorter than the lifetime of the excited atoms spent above Griem's boundary, and that the population influx from above Griem's boundary is considerably larger than that from below the boundary.

  6. Atomic-scale mechanisms of helium bubble hardening in iron

    SciTech Connect

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-06-03

    Generation of helium due to (n,α) transmutation reactions changes the response of structural materials to neutron irradiation. The whole process of radiation damage evolution is affected by He accumulation and leads to significant changes in the material s properties. A population of nanometric He-filled bubbles affects mechanical properties and the impact can be quite significant because of their high density. Understanding how these basic mechanisms affect mechanical properties is necessary for predicting radiation effects. In this paper we present an extensive study of the interactions between a moving edge dislocation and bubbles using atomic-scale modeling. We focus on the effect of He bubble size and He concentration inside bubbles. Thus, we found that ability of bubbles to act as an obstacle to dislocation motion is close to that of voids when the He-to-vacancy ratio is in the range from 0 to 1. A few simulations made at higher He contents demonstrated that the interaction mechanism is changed for over-pressurized bubbles and they become weaker obstacles. The results are discussed in light of post-irradiation materials testing.

  7. Atomic-scale mechanisms of helium bubble hardening in iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osetsky, Yuri N.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-10-01

    Generation of helium due to (n,?) transmutation reactions changes the response of structural materials to neutron irradiation. The whole process of radiation damage evolution is affected by He accumulation and leads to significant changes in the material's properties. A population of nanometric He-filled bubbles affects mechanical properties and the impact can be quite significant because of their high density. Understanding how these basic mechanisms affect mechanical properties is necessary for predicting radiation effects. In this paper we present an extensive study of the interactions between a moving edge dislocation and bubbles using atomic-scale modeling. We focus on the effect of He bubble size and He concentration inside bubbles. We found that ability of bubbles to act as an obstacle to dislocation motion is close to that of voids when the He-to-vacancy ratio is in the range from 0 to 1. A few simulations made at higher He contents demonstrated that the interaction mechanism is changed for over-pressurized bubbles and they become weaker obstacles. The results are discussed in light of post-irradiation materials testing.

  8. Atomic-scale mechanisms of helium bubble hardening in iron

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-06-03

    Generation of helium due to (n,α) transmutation reactions changes the response of structural materials to neutron irradiation. The whole process of radiation damage evolution is affected by He accumulation and leads to significant changes in the material s properties. A population of nanometric He-filled bubbles affects mechanical properties and the impact can be quite significant because of their high density. Understanding how these basic mechanisms affect mechanical properties is necessary for predicting radiation effects. In this paper we present an extensive study of the interactions between a moving edge dislocation and bubbles using atomic-scale modeling. We focus on the effectmore » of He bubble size and He concentration inside bubbles. Thus, we found that ability of bubbles to act as an obstacle to dislocation motion is close to that of voids when the He-to-vacancy ratio is in the range from 0 to 1. A few simulations made at higher He contents demonstrated that the interaction mechanism is changed for over-pressurized bubbles and they become weaker obstacles. The results are discussed in light of post-irradiation materials testing.« less

  9. The application of laser Rayleigh scattering to gas density measurements in hypersonic helium flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppe, J. C.; Honaker, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the mean static free-stream gas density have been made in two Langley Research Center helium facilities, the 3-inch leg of the high-Reynolds-number helium complex and the 22-inch hypersonic helium tunnel. Rayleigh scattering of a CW argon ion laser beam at 514.5 nm provided the basic physical mechanism. The behavior of the scattered signal was linear, confirmed by a preliminary laboratory study. That study also revealed the need to introduce baffles to reduce stray light. A relatively simple optical system and associated photon-counting electronics were utilized to obtain data for densities from 10 to the 23rd to 10 to the 25th per cu m. The major purpose, to confirm the applicability of this technique in the hypersonic helium flow, was accomplished.

  10. Unique Case of Highly Polarized Collision-Induced Light Scattering: The Very Far Spectral Wing by the Helium Pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachet, Florent; Chrysos, Michael; Guillot-Nol, Christophe; Le Duff, Yves

    2000-03-01

    Contrary to what has been observed thus far collision-induced light scattering (CILS) can be completely polarized. This exceptional behavior characterizes the very far wing of the binary CILS spectrum by gaseous helium. This conclusion is drawn from an experimental study of the depolarization ratio of He 2 in a much extended, previously unexplored, spectral domain. Our analysis shows that this property, unique thus far, is mainly due to an almost perfect cancellation between polarization and exchange pair polarizability contributions to the depolarized spectrum, taking place at internuclear distances shorter than the atomic diameter.

  11. Atom-interferometric studies of light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, S.; Barrett, B.; Chan, I.; Mok, C.; Yavin, I.; Kumarakrishnan, A.

    2009-07-01

    We have used an echo-type atom interferometer that manipulates laser-cooled atoms in a single ground state to investigate the effect of light scattering from pulsed and continuous-wave light. The interferometer uses two off-resonant standing-wave pulses applied at times t=0 and t=T to diffract and recombine momentum states separated by 2?k at t=2T . Matter wave interference is associated with the formation of a density grating with period ?/2 in the vicinity of this echo time. The grating contrast is measured by recording the intensity of coherently backscattered light. The interferometer is perturbed by an additional pulse applied at t=2T-?T or by continuous-wave background light. If the additional pulse is a standing wave, the momentum states interfering at t=2T are displaced and the grating contrast can be completely recovered due to constructive interference. In this case, the contrast shows a periodic modulation at the atomic recoil frequency as a function of ?T . In a recent work, it was shown that the atomic recoil frequency can be measured easily and precisely when using coherence functions to model the signal shape. This paper provides an alternative description of the signal shape through an analytical calculation of echo formation in the presence of an additional standing-wave pulse. Using this treatment, it is possible to model the effects of spontaneous emission and spatial profile of the laser beam on the signal shape. Additionally, the theory predicts scaling laws as a function of the pulse area and the number of additional standing-wave pulses. These scaling laws are investigated experimentally and can be exploited to improve precision measurements of the atomic recoil frequency. We also show that coherence functions can be used to make a direct measurement of the populations of momentum states associated with the ground state under conditions where the Doppler-broadened velocity distribution of the sample is much larger than the recoil velocity. These measurements are consistent with Monte Carlo wave-function simulations. If the additional pulse is a traveling wave, we find that the grating contrast measured as a function of ?T can be modeled by a quasiperiodic coherence function as in previous experiments that utilized atomic beams. In this work, we investigate the dependence of the photon scattering rate on the intensity and detuning of the traveling wave. We also study the effects of perturbing the interferometer with continuous-wave light and find that the dependence of the photon scattering rate on the intensity and detuning of the perturbing field is consistent with expectations.

  12. Correlated wave functions for three-particle systems with Coulomb interaction - The muonic helium atom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, K.-N.

    1977-01-01

    A computational procedure for calculating correlated wave functions is proposed for three-particle systems interacting through Coulomb forces. Calculations are carried out for the muonic helium atom. Variational wave functions which explicitly contain interparticle coordinates are presented for the ground and excited states. General Hylleraas-type trial functions are used as the basis for the correlated wave functions. Excited-state energies of the muonic helium atom computed from 1- and 35-term wave functions are listed for four states.

  13. Correlation between elastic and inelastic atom scattering from single adsorbed molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, B. H.; Graham, A. P.; Tang, K. T.; Toennies, J. P.

    2001-02-01

    High resolution measurements of the angular distributions for the elastic and inelastic scattering of helium atoms from the translational vibrations (T modes) of single CO molecules on Pt(111) agree quantitatively with a simple transformation which predicts the inelastic cross section from the measured elastic cross section. The new theory predicts not only the inelastic interference structures and their correlations with the elastic channel, but also the individual state-to-state transitions.

  14. Precision Measurement for Metastable Helium Atoms of the 413 nm Tune-Out Wavelength at Which the Atomic Polarizability Vanishes.

    PubMed

    Henson, B M; Khakimov, R I; Dall, R G; Baldwin, K G H; Tang, Li-Yan; Truscott, A G

    2015-07-24

    We present the first measurement for helium atoms of the tune-out wavelength at which the atomic polarizability vanishes. We utilize a novel, highly sensitive technique for precisely measuring the effect of variations in the trapping potential of confined metastable (2^{3}S_{1}) helium atoms illuminated by a perturbing laser light field. The measured tune-out wavelength of 413.0938(9_{stat})(20_{syst}) nm compares well with the value predicted by a theoretical calculation [413.02(9) nm] which is sensitive to finite nuclear mass, relativistic, and quantum electrodynamic effects. This provides motivation for more detailed theoretical investigations to test quantum electrodynamics. PMID:26252681

  15. Submonolayer alloying of copper on vicinal platinum: A combined atom and ion scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLaren, D. A.; Bacon, R. T.; Allison, W.; O'Connor, D. J.; Dastoor, P. C.; Noakes, T. C. Q.; Bailey, P.

    2004-09-01

    We present a combined helium atom scattering (HAS) and medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) study to provide a detailed description of sub-monolayer growth of copper on vicinal platinum. Initial growth is epitaxial but induces a small relaxation in the substrate. A strong temperature dependence of growth is observed and MEIS indicates the formation of a thin (two-layer) alloy between 450K and 500K . In-situ HAS measurements allow for the direct observation of alloying and reveal that it occurs in two unusually sharp phase transitions. Both HAS and MEIS indicate the onset of bulk alloying and dissolution of copper at surface temperatures above 600K .

  16. Active helium target: Neutron scalar polarizability extraction via Compton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Meg; Annand, John; Hornidge, David; Strandberg, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    Precise measurement of the neutron scalar polarizabilities has been a lasting challenge because of the lack of a free-neutron target. Led by the University of Glasgow and the Mount Allison University groups of the A2 collaboration in Mainz, Germany, preparations have begun to test a recent theoretical model with an active helium target with the hope of determining these elusive quantities with small statistical, systematic, and model-dependent errors. Apparatus testing and background-event simulations have been carried out, with the full experiment projected to run in 2015. Once determined, these values can be applied to help understand quantum chromodynamics in the nonperturbative region.

  17. Introduction to Density Functional Theory: Calculations by Hand on the Helium Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baseden, Kyle A.; Tye, Jesse W.

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is a type of electronic structure calculation that has rapidly gained popularity. In this article, we provide a step-by-step demonstration of a DFT calculation by hand on the helium atom using Slater's X-Alpha exchange functional on a single Gaussian-type orbital to represent the atomic wave function. This DFT…

  18. Introduction to Density Functional Theory: Calculations by Hand on the Helium Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baseden, Kyle A.; Tye, Jesse W.

    2014-01-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is a type of electronic structure calculation that has rapidly gained popularity. In this article, we provide a step-by-step demonstration of a DFT calculation by hand on the helium atom using Slater's X-Alpha exchange functional on a single Gaussian-type orbital to represent the atomic wave function. This DFT

  19. Principles and procedures for determining absolute differential electron-molecule (atom) scattering cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickel, J. C.; Zetner, P. W.; Shen, G.; Trajmar, S.

    1989-01-01

    Procedures and calibration techniques for measuring the absolute elastic and inelastic differential cross sections (DCS) for electron impact on molecular (atomic) species are described and illustrated by examples. The elastic DCS for the molecule under study is first determined by calibration against helium using the relative flow technique. The second step involves the production of energy-loss spectra for the instrument response function, the unfolding of overlapping inelastic structures and the normalization of inelastic intensities to the elastic cross sections. It is concluded that this method of determining absolute differential electron-molecule (atom) scattering cross sections is generally applicable and provides reliable results.

  20. Excitation of metastable argon and helium atoms by electron impact

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borst, W. L.

    1974-01-01

    Using a time-of-flight method, the excitation of argon and helium metastables by electron impact is investigated in the energy range from threshold to about 50 eV. The secondary-electron yields of the metastable detector used are reviewed in detail. The effect of metastable recoil is also discussed. Comparisons with data from other investigators are presented.

  1. Collisional lasing on a self-terminating transition of a helium atom

    SciTech Connect

    Bel'skaya, E V; Bokhan, P A; Zakrevskii, D E; Lavrukhin, M A

    2011-01-24

    Laser on a self-contained transition of a helium atom is studied under excitation of the helium mixture with molecular gases by single long-duration (up to 700ns) or double nanosecond pulses. In He - H{sub 2}O and He - NH{sub 3} mixtures, no limitations were found on the pulse repetition rate and the laser pulse duration obtained was equal to that of the pump pulse. (lasers and amplifiers)

  2. The role of correlation in the ground state energy of confined helium atom

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, N.

    2014-01-14

    We analyze the ground state energy of helium atom confined by spherical impenetrable walls, and the role of the correlation energy in the total energy. The confinement of an atom in a cavity is one way in which we can model the effect of the external pressure on an atom. The calculations of energy of the system are carried out by the variational method. We find that the correlation energy remains almost constant for a range values of size of the boxes analyzed.

  3. Atoms riding Rayleigh waves.

    PubMed

    Benedek, G; Echenique, P M; Toennies, J P; Traeger, F

    2010-08-01

    Under special kinematic conditions helium atoms impinging upon a crystal surface can be inelastically trapped into a surface bound state and ride the created Rayleigh wave. This special case of phonon-assisted selective adsorption, leading to an atom-phonon bound state (atomic polaron), can explain previously unassigned resonant features observed in published helium atom scattering distributions. PMID:21399348

  4. The Effects of the Pauli Exclusion Principle in Determining the Ionization Energies of the Helium Atom and Helium-Like Ions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeney, F. A.; O'Leary, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    For helium and helium-like ions, we have examined the differences between the values of the ionization energies as calculated from the Bohr theory and those measured in experiments. We find that these differences vary linearly with the atomic number of the system. Using this result, we show how the Bohr model for single-electron systems may be…

  5. The Effects of the Pauli Exclusion Principle in Determining the Ionization Energies of the Helium Atom and Helium-Like Ions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeney, F. A.; O'Leary, J. P.

    2012-01-01

    For helium and helium-like ions, we have examined the differences between the values of the ionization energies as calculated from the Bohr theory and those measured in experiments. We find that these differences vary linearly with the atomic number of the system. Using this result, we show how the Bohr model for single-electron systems may be

  6. Calculation of fully differential cross sections for the near threshold double ionization of helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prithvi; Purohit, Ghanshyam; Dorn, Alexander; Ren, Xueguang; Patidar, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Fully differential cross sectional (FDCS) results are reported for the electron-impact double ionization of helium atoms at 5 and 27 eV excess energy. The present attempt to calculate the FDCS in the second Born approximation and treating the postcollision interaction is helpful to analyze the measurements of Ren et al (2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 101 093201) and Durr et al (2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 193201). The second-order processes and postcollision interaction have been found to be significant in describing the trends of the FDCS. More theoretical effort is required to describe the collision dynamics of electron-impact double ionization of helium atoms at near threshold.

  7. Exploiting Universality in Atoms with Large Scattering Lengths

    SciTech Connect

    Braaten, Eric

    2012-05-31

    The focus of this research project was atoms with scattering lengths that are large compared to the range of their interactions and which therefore exhibit universal behavior at sufficiently low energies. Recent dramatic advances in cooling atoms and in manipulating their scattering lengths have made this phenomenon of practical importance for controlling ultracold atoms and molecules. This research project was aimed at developing a systematically improvable method for calculating few-body observables for atoms with large scattering lengths starting from the universal results as a first approximation. Significant progress towards this goal was made during the five years of the project.

  8. Deep Inelastic Neutron Scattering from Liquid HELIUM-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snow, William Michael

    We have performed an extensive series of high resolution deep inelastic neutron scattering measurements on liquid ^4He at a number of high momentum transfers for several temperatures and densities in both the normal and superfluid phases. The primary goal of these measurements was to obtain information on the momentum distribution of liquid ^4He. The shape of the momentum distribution of liquid ^4 He in the superfluid phase is of fundamental interest since, according to our present theoretical understanding of superfluidity in bulk ^4He, a delta-function singularity at p = 0 should exist due to the Bose condensate. A secondary goal, motivated by our momentum distribution studies, was to investigate the nature of the corrections to the Impulse Approximation, called final state effects (FSE), in deep inelastic neutron scattering from liquid ^4 He. The observed Compton profiles, whose shape depends on both the underlying momentum distribution and FSE, have been analyzed under two complementary assumptions. Under the assumption that calculations of the momentum distribution using the Green's Function Monte Carlo method are accurate, we have used the low density scattering data to evaluate FSE theories and to extract the form of FSE corrections. At a momentum transfer of Q = 23A^{-1 }, we find that only recent theories due to Silver and Carraro and Koonin are consistent with the data. At lower values of Q, we find that no current theory describes the observed FSE completely. Under the assumption that the recent theory by Silver for FSE in liquid ^4He is accurate, we have compared the data at Q = 23A ^{-1} with theoretical calculations of the momentum distribution. We obtain excellent agreement between the theoretical calculations of the momentum distribution, Silver's theory for FSE, and the scattering data at all temperatures and densities in both phases. In addition, we have extracted information on the shape of the underlying momentum distribution, including the average kinetic energy and the condensate fraction. Our results provide strong evidence for a narrow component in the momentum distribution of the superfluid phase corresponding to the Bose condensate.

  9. Lattice location and annealing behaviour of helium atoms implanted in uranium dioxide single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belhabib, T.; Desgardin, P.; Sauvage, T.; Erramli, H.; Barthe, M. F.; Garrido, F.; Carlot, G.; Nowicki, L.; Garcia, P.

    2015-12-01

    Helium behaviour in irradiated uranium dioxide may play an important role in the mechanical stability of nuclear fuels during and after its use in nuclear power plants. Helium migration mechanisms in bulk UO2 have already been the subject of theoretical studies but there is a lack of experimental data relating to the most stable location in the crystal. To this end, we have studied uranium dioxide samples implanted with helium ions at low fluence before and after thermal annealing in the range 600 and 800 °C. UO2 single crystals were implanted with 50 keV-3He ions at the fluence of 1 × 1015 at cm-2 and the location in the lattice of helium atoms was investigated using NRA (Nuclear Reaction Analysis) based on the reaction of 3He with deuterons (3He (d,p) 4He) in a channelling mode, recording angular scans across axes and planes. Furthermore, the uranium sub-lattice was analysed by the classical RBS method. After implantation, the experimental angular scans recorded across the main crystallographic axes and along major planes show that the helium atoms in their large majority occupy octahedral interstitial sites. No modification of the occupied crystallographic site was found after annealing at 600 °C. Conversely, no crystallographic relationship between matrix and helium signals was revealed following annealing at 800 °C. The latter feature is likely related to the clustering of implanted helium atoms into gas-filled bubbles. These experimental results have been quantified and interpreted using Monte Carlo simulations with the McChasy code.

  10. Resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy of Al atoms and dimers solvated in helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnokutski, Serge A.; Huisken, Friedrich

    2015-02-28

    Resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI) spectroscopy has been applied to investigate the solvation of Al atoms in helium droplets. The R2PI spectra reveal vibrational progressions that can be attributed to Al–He{sub n} vibrations. It is found that small helium droplets have very little chance to pick up an aluminum atom after collision. However, the pick-up probability increases with the size of the helium droplets. The absorption band that is measured by monitoring the ions on the mass of the Al dimer is found to be very little shifted with respect to the Al monomer band (∼400 cm{sup −1}). However, using the same laser wavelength, we were unable to detect any Al{sub n} photoion with n larger than two.

  11. Light scattering by ultracold atoms in an optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rist, Stefan; Menotti, Chiara; Morigi, Giovanna

    2010-01-01

    We investigate theoretically light scattering of photons by ultracold atoms in an optical lattice in the linear regime. A full quantum theory for the atom-photon interactions is developed as a function of the atomic state in the lattice along the Mott-insulator-superfluid phase transition, and the photonic-scattering cross section is evaluated as a function of the energy and of the direction of emission. The predictions of this theory are compared with the theoretical results of a recent work on Bragg scattering in time-of-flight measurements [A.M. Rey , Phys. Rev. A 72, 023407 (2005)]. We show that, when performing Bragg spectroscopy with light scattering, the photon recoil gives rise to an additional atomic site-to-site hopping, which can interfere with ordinary tunneling of matter waves and can significantly affect the photonic-scattering cross section.

  12. The effect of Compton scattering on the double to single ionization ratio in helium

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, R.J.; Sagurton, M.; Samson, J.A.R.; He, Z.X.

    1993-10-01

    The ratio of double to single ionization in Helium produced by photon impact has been measured for photon energies from 2.1 to 5.5 keV. The measurements suggest that a significant contribution to the single ionization cross section is caused by Compton scattering for energies greater than {approximately} 3.8 keV. After accounting for the ionizing Compton scattering the measured ratio is not inconsistent with recent calculations of the asymptotic limit of the ionization ratio caused by photoabsorption which predict a limit near 1.66%.

  13. Rotational Study of Carbon Monoxide Solvated with Helium Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surin, L. A.; Potapov, A. V.; Dumesh, B. S.; Schlemmer, S.; Xu, Y.; Raston, P. L.; Jger, W.

    2008-12-01

    High resolution microwave and millimeter-wave spectra of HeN-CO clusters with N up to 10, produced in a molecular expansion, were observed. Two series of J=1-0 transitions were detected, which correspond to the a-type and b-type J=1-0 transitions of He1-CO. The B rotational constant initially decreases with N and reaches a minimum at N=3. Its subsequent rise indicates the transition from a molecular complex to a quantum solvated system already for N=4. For N?6, the B value becomes larger than that of He1-CO, indicating an almost free rotation of CO within the helium environment.

  14. Enhanced Raman scattering by spatially distributed atomic coherence

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L. Q.; Zhang Guowan; Yuan Chunhua; Jing Jietai; Zhang Weiping; Ou, Z. Y.

    2009-07-27

    We demonstrate experimentally an enhancement in Raman scattering in Rb atomic vapor due to the atomic coherence initially prepared by a weak write laser. We find that the enhanced Raman scattering depends on the spatial distribution of the atomic spin coherence and can be explained with a simple picture of three-wave mixing. This effect can in principle be used to have a light conversion efficiency near unity in Raman process. Such an enhanced Raman scattering may have practical applications in quantum information, nonlinear optics, and laser spectroscopy.

  15. Relativistic Multichannel Theory: Doubly Excited States of Atomic Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yu; Fang, Quan-yu; Li, Jia-ming

    1998-03-01

    In the report, the recently developed relativistic multichannel theory (RMCT) is a full relativistic non-perturbative method and can be applied to the high-Z atomic ions which have given rise to some recent interests because of researches of inertial confinement fusion and x-ray laser. Based on the RMCT, the positions and widths of doubly excited sp2n+, sp2n-, and 2pnd1 P1 resonances are calculated, which are in agreement with the recent experimental measurements. It sets up a sound foundation on which the RMCT should be applicable to high Z atomic ions.

  16. Spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms and its contribution to the fundamental physical constants

    PubMed Central

    Hayano, Ryugo S.

    2010-01-01

    Antiprotonic helium atom, a metastable neutral system consisting of an antiproton, an electron and a helium nucleus, was serendipitously discovered, and has been studied at CERN’s antiproton decelerator facility. Its transition frequencies have recently been measured to nine digits of precision by laser spectroscopy. By comparing these experimental results with three-body QED calculations, the antiproton-to-electron massratio was determined as 1836.152674(5). This result contributed to the CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants. PMID:20075605

  17. Prospects for precision measurements of atomic helium using direct frequency comb spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyler, E. E.; Chieda, D. E.; Stowe, M. C.; Thorpe, M. J.; Schibli, T. R.; Ye, J.

    2008-06-01

    We analyze several possibilities for precisely measuring electronic transitions in atomic helium by the direct use of phase-stabilized femtosecond frequency combs. Because the comb is self-calibrating and can be shifted into the ultraviolet spectral region via harmonic generation, it offers the prospect of greatly improved accuracy for UV and far-UV transitions. To take advantage of this accuracy an ultracold helium sample is needed. For measurements of the triplet spectrum a magneto-optical trap (MOT) can be used to cool and trap metastable 23S state atoms. We analyze schemes for measuring the two-photon 23S ?43S interval, and for resonant two-photon excitation to high Rydberg states, 23S ?33P ?n3S, D. We also analyze experiments on the singlet-state spectrum. To accomplish this we propose schemes for producing and trapping ultracold helium in the 11S or 21S state via intercombination transitions. A particularly intriguing scenario is the possibility of measuring the 11S ?21S transition with extremely high accuracy by use of two-photon excitation in a magic wavelength trap that operates identically for both states. We predict a triple magic wavelength at 412 nm that could facilitate numerous experiments on trapped helium atoms, because here the polarizabilities of the 11S, 21S and 23S states are all similar, small, and positive.

  18. Interaction of positronium with helium atoms the classical treatment of the 5-body collision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T?ksi, Kroly; DuBois, Robert D.; Mukoyama, Takeshi

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between positronium and a helium atom is studied using the 5-body classical trajectory Monte Carlo method. We present the total cross sections for the dominant channels, namely for single ionization of the target, and ionization of the projectile, resulting from pure ionization and also from electron transfer (capture or loss) processes for 1-5.7 a.u. incident velocities of the positronium atom. Our results were compared with the calculated data using hydrogen projectiles having the same velocities as well as with the experimental data in collisions between H and He [R.D. DuBois, . Kvr, Phys. Rev. A 40, 3605 (1989)]. We analyze the similarities and deviations for ionization of helium atoms by positronium and hydrogen projectile impact. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Electron and Positron Induced Processes", edited by Michael Brunger, Radu Campeanu, Masamitsu Hoshino, Oddur Inglfsson, Paulo Limo-Vieira, Nigel Mason, Yasuyuki Nagashima and Hajime Tanuma.

  19. Resonant x-ray Raman scattering from atoms and molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, P.L.

    1992-12-31

    Inelastic x-ray scattering and elastic x-ray scattering are fundamentally related processes. When the x-ray photon energy is near the ionization threshold for an inner shell, the inelastic channel is dominated by resonant x-ray Raman scattering. Studies of this emission not only illuminate the resonant scattering process in general, they also point to new opportunities for spectral studies of electronic structure using x-rays. Atoms in the form of a free gas provide an ideal target for testing the current theoretical understanding of resonant x-ray Raman scattering. In addition, x-ray scattering from molecular gases demonstrates the effect of bonding symmetry on the polarization and angular distribution of the scattered x-rays. Comparisons of experimental data with theory demonstrate both the successes and limitations of simple, single-electron interpretations of the scattering process.

  20. Resonant x-ray Raman scattering from atoms and molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    Inelastic x-ray scattering and elastic x-ray scattering are fundamentally related processes. When the x-ray photon energy is near the ionization threshold for an inner shell, the inelastic channel is dominated by resonant x-ray Raman scattering. Studies of this emission not only illuminate the resonant scattering process in general, they also point to new opportunities for spectral studies of electronic structure using x-rays. Atoms in the form of a free gas provide an ideal target for testing the current theoretical understanding of resonant x-ray Raman scattering. In addition, x-ray scattering from molecular gases demonstrates the effect of bonding symmetry on the polarization and angular distribution of the scattered x-rays. Comparisons of experimental data with theory demonstrate both the successes and limitations of simple, single-electron interpretations of the scattering process.

  1. Laser spectroscopy of atoms in superfluid helium for the measurement of nuclear spins and electromagnetic moments of radioactive atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, T.; Furukawa, T.; Imamura, K.; Yang, X. F.; Hatakeyama, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Ueno, H.; Asahi, K.; Shimoda, T.; Matsuo, Y.

    2015-11-01

    A new laser spectroscopic method named "OROCHI (Optical RI-atom Observation in Condensed Helium as Ion catcher)" has been developed for deriving the nuclear spins and electromagnetic moments of low-yield exotic nuclei. In this method, we observe atomic Zeeman and hyperfine structures using laser-radio-frequency/microwave double-resonance spectroscopy. In our previous works, double-resonance spectroscopy was performed successfully with laser-sputtered stable atoms including non-alkali Au atoms as well as alkali Rb and Cs atoms. Following these works, measurements with 84-87Rb energetic ion beams were carried out in the RIKEN projectile fragment separator (RIPS). In this paper, we report the present status of OROCHI and discuss its feasibility, especially for low-yield nuclei such as unstable Au isotopes.

  2. Heteronuclear ionizing collisions between laser-cooled metastable helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, J. M.; Stas, R. J. W.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.

    2007-06-15

    We have investigated cold ionizing heteronuclear collisions in dilute mixtures of metastable (2 {sup 3}S{sub 1}) {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He atoms, extending our previous work on the analogous homonuclear collisions [R. J. W. Stas et al., Phys. Rev. A 73, 032713 (2006)]. A simple theoretical model of such collisions enables us to calculate the heteronuclear ionization rate coefficient, for our quasiunpolarized gas, in the absence of resonant light (T=1.2 mK): K{sub 34}{sup (th)}=2.4x10{sup -10} cm{sup 3}/s. This calculation is supported by a measurement of K{sub 34} using magneto-optically trapped mixtures containing about 1x10{sup 8} atoms of each species, K{sub 34}{sup (exp)}=2.5(8)x10{sup -10} cm{sup 3}/s. Theory and experiment show good agreement.

  3. Determination of ?? scattering lengths from measurement of ?? atom lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeva, B.; Afanasyev, L.; Benayoun, M.; Benelli, A.; Berka, Z.; Brekhovskikh, V.; Caragheorgheopol, G.; Cechak, T.; Chiba, M.; Chliapnikov, P. V.; Ciocarlan, C.; Constantinescu, S.; Costantini, S.; Curceanu (Petrascu), C.; Doskarova, P.; Dreossi, D.; Drijard, D.; Dudarev, A.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Fungueirio Pazos, J. L.; Gallas Torreira, M.; Gerndt, J.; Gianotti, P.; Goldin, D.; Gomez, F.; Gorin, A.; Gorchakov, O.; Guaraldo, C.; Gugiu, M.; Hansroul, M.; Hons, Z.; Hosek, R.; Iliescu, M.; Karpukhin, V.; Kluson, J.; Kobayashi, M.; Kokkas, P.; Komarov, V.; Kruglov, V.; Kruglova, L.; Kulikov, A.; Kuptsov, A.; Kuroda, K. I.; Lamberto, A.; Lanaro, A.; Lapshin, V.; Lednicky, R.; Leruste, P.; Levi Sandri, P.; Lopez Aguera, A.; Lucherini, V.; Maki, T.; Manuilov, I.; Marin, J.; Narjoux, J. L.; Nemenov, L.; Nikitin, M.; Nunez Pardo, T.; Okada, K.; Olchevskii, V.; Pazos, A.; Pentia, M.; Penzo, A.; Perreau, J. M.; Plo, M.; Ponta, T.; Rappazzo, G. F.; Riazantsev, A.; Rodriguez, J. M.; Rodriguez Fernandez, A.; Romero Vidal, A.; Ronjin, V. M.; Rykalin, V.; Saborido, J.; Santamarina, C.; Schacher, J.; Schuetz, C.; Sidorov, A.; Smolik, J.; Takeutchi, F.; Tarasov, A.; Tauscher, L.; Tobar, M. J.; Trojek, T.; Trusov, S.; Utkin, V.; Vzquez Doce, O.; Vlachos, S.; Voskresenskaya, O.; Vrba, T.; Willmott, C.; Yazkov, V.; Yoshimura, Y.; Zhabitsky, M.; Zrelov, P.

    2011-10-01

    The DIRAC experiment at CERN has achieved a sizeable production of ?? atoms and has significantly improved the precision on its lifetime determination. From a sample of 21 227 atomic pairs, a 4% measurement of the S-wave ?? scattering length difference |a-a||syst-0.0073+0.0078)M?-1 has been attained, providing an important test of Chiral Perturbation Theory.

  4. Modeling of atom-diatom scattering. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sindoni, J.M.

    1992-05-30

    This report entails the work performed on modeling atom-diatom scattering processes utilizing the Impulse Approach (IA). Results of the model, obtained with a computer code, have proven to be in remarkable agreement with laboratory measurements for several atom-diatom scattering systems. Two scattering systems, in particular, that were successfully modeled and compared to measurements were Ar-KBr and Ar-CsF. The IA model provided an explanation for the rapid deactivation evident in the Ar-KBr system. Experimental results in the Ar-CsF experiment that could not be explained by conventional models were also successfully modeled using the IA. Results fit the experimental observations.

  5. Dynamics of entanglement between two atomic samples with spontaneous scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Di Lisi, Antonio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-07-01

    We investigate the effects of spontaneous scattering on the evolution of entanglement of two atomic samples, probed by phase-shift measurements on optical beams interacting with both samples. We develop a formalism of conditional quantum evolutions and present a wave function analysis implemented in numerical simulations of the state vector dynamics. This method allows us to track the evolution of entanglement and to compare it with the predictions obtained when spontaneous scattering is neglected. We provide numerical evidence that the interferometric scheme to entangle atomic samples is only marginally affected by the presence of spontaneous scattering and should thus be robust even in more realistic situations.

  6. Atomic delay in helium, neon, argon and krypton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palatchi, Caryn; Dahlström, J. M.; Kheifets, A. S.; Ivanov, I. A.; Canaday, D. M.; Agostini, P.; DiMauro, L. F.

    2014-12-01

    Photoionization by an eXtreme UltraViolet (XUV) attosecond pulse train (APT) in the presence of an infrared pulse (RABBITT method) conveys information about the atomic photoionization delay. By taking the difference of the spectral delays between pairs of rare gases (Ar,He), (Kr,He) and (Ne,He) it is possible to eliminate in each case the larger group delay (‘attochirp’) associated with the APT itself and obtain the Ar, Kr and Ne Wigner delays referenced to model calculations of the He delay. In this work we measure how the delays vary as a function of XUV photon energy but we cannot determine the absolute delay difference between atoms due to lack of precise knowledge of the initial conditions. The extracted delays are compared with several theoretical predictions and the results are consistent within 30 as over the energy range from 10 to 50 eV. An ‘effective’ Wigner delay over all emission angles is found to be more consistent with our angle-integrated measurement near the Cooper minimum in Ar. We observe a few irregular features in the delay that may be signatures of resonances. .

  7. Some notes on the role of meta-stable excited state of helium atom in laser-induced helium gas breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramli, M.; Kagawa, K.; Abdulmadjid, S. N.; Idris, N.; Budi, W. S.; Marpaung, M. A.; Kurniawan, K. H.; Lie, T. J.; Suliyanti, M. M.; Hedwig, R.; Pardede, M.; Lie, Z. S.; Tjia, M. O.

    2007-03-01

    A study of the experimental results on the plasma emissions of water and ethanol vapor samples, induced by Nd:YAG laser in ambient helium and nitrogen gases at atmospheric pressure, is presented here. The result reveals distinct geometrical and spectral characteristics of the plasma emissions generated in the helium gas when compared to those observed from nitrogen gas plasma. Most remarkable is the narrow line width and low continuum background exhibited by emission lines of the analyte atoms from helium plasma, including the hydrogen emission line which is known to suffer from notorious broadening effects in conventional laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). It is further shown on the basis of the measured spatial distributions and time profiles of the emission intensities, that the excellent spectral quality is attained by taking advantage of the meta-stable excited state of helium atoms for the delayed excitation of the hydrogen and other analyte atoms, this allows the detection of those atomic emissions to be performed under more favorable conditions. The result of this study has thus demonstrated the feasibility of achieving high-quality spectrochemical analysis, including hydrogen analysis with laser-induced helium gas breakdown spectroscopy.

  8. Multiple scattering and charged-particle - hydrogen-atom collisions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, V.; Thomas, B. K.

    1979-01-01

    Glauber-approximation scattering amplitudes for charged-particle - hydrogen-atom elastic and inelastic collisions are derived directly in terms of the known particle-electron and particle-proton Coulomb scattering amplitudes and the known hydrogen-atom form factors. It is shown that the particle-hydrogen amplitude contains no single-scattering term. The double-scattering term is obtained as a two-dimensional integral in momentum space. It is demonstrated how the result can be used as the starting point for an alternative and relatively simple derivation, in closed form, of the Glauber particle-hydrogen scattering amplitude for transitions from the ground state to an arbitrary (nlm) state.

  9. A discrete variable representation for electron-hydrogen atom scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Gaucher, L.F.

    1994-08-01

    A discrete variable representation (DVR) suitable for treating the quantum scattering of a low energy electron from a hydrogen atom is presented. The benefits of DVR techniques (e.g. the removal of the requirement of calculating multidimensional potential energy matrix elements and the availability of iterative sparse matrix diagonalization/inversion algorithms) have for many years been applied successfully to studies of quantum molecular scattering. Unfortunately, the presence of a Coulomb singularity at the electrically unshielded center of a hydrogen atom requires high radial grid point densities in this region of the scattering coordinate, while the presence of finite kinetic energy in the asymptotic scattering electron also requires a sufficiently large radial grid point density at moderate distances from the nucleus. The constraints imposed by these two length scales have made application of current DVR methods to this scattering event difficult.

  10. Optical and electron spin resonance studies of xenon-nitrogen-helium condensates containing nitrogen and oxygen atoms.

    PubMed

    Boltnev, Roman E; Bykhalo, Igor B; Krushinskaya, Irina N; Pelmenev, Alexander A; Khmelenko, Vladimir V; Mao, Shun; Meraki, Adil; Wilde, Scott C; McColgan, Patrick T; Lee, David M

    2015-03-19

    We present the first observations of excimer XeO* molecules in molecular nitrogen films surrounding xenon cores of nanoclusters. Multishell nanoclusters form upon the fast cooling of a helium jet containing small admixtures of nitrogen and xenon by cold helium vapor (T = 1.5 K). Such nanoclusters injected into superfluid helium aggregate into porous impurity-helium condensates. Passage of helium gas with admixtures through a radio frequency discharge allows the storage of high densities of radicals stabilized in impurity-helium condensates. Intense recombination of the radicals occurs during destruction of such condensates and generates excited species observable because of optical emission. Rich spectra of xenon-oxygen complexes have been detected upon destruction of xenon-nitrogen-helium condensates. A xenon environment quenches metastable N((2)D) atoms but has a much weaker effect on the luminescence of N((2)P) atoms. Electron spin resonance spectra of N((4)S) atoms trapped in xenon-nitrogen-helium condensates have been studied. High local concentrations of nitrogen atoms (up to 10(21) cm(-3)) stabilized in xenon-nitrogen nanoclusters have been revealed. PMID:25353614

  11. Theory of direct scattering of neutral and charged atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, V.

    1979-01-01

    The theory for direct elastic and inelastic collisions between composite atomic systems formulated within the framework of the Glauber approximation is presented. It is shown that the phase-shift function is the sum of a point Coulomb contribution and of an expression in terms of the known electron-hydrogen-atom and proton-hydrogen-atom phase shift function. The scattering amplitude is reexpressed, the pure Coulomb scattering in the case of elastic collisions between ions is isolated, and the exact optical profile function is approximated by a first-order expansion in Glauber theory which takes into account some multiple collisions. The approximate optical profile function terms corresponding to interactions involving one and two electrons are obtained in forms of Meijer G functions and as a one-dimensional integral, and for collisions involving one or two neutral atoms, the scattering amplitude is further reduced to a simple closed-form expression.

  12. Ballistic Evaporation and Solvation of Helium Atoms at the Surfaces of Protic and Hydrocarbon Liquids.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alexis M; Lancaster, Diane K; Faust, Jennifer A; Hahn, Christine; Reznickova, Anna; Nathanson, Gilbert M

    2014-11-01

    Atomic and molecular solutes evaporate and dissolve by traversing an atomically thin boundary separating liquid and gas. Most solutes spend only short times in this interfacial region, making them difficult to observe. Experiments that monitor the velocities of evaporating species, however, can capture their final interactions with surface solvent molecules. We find that polarizable gases such as N2 and Ar evaporate from protic and hydrocarbon liquids with Maxwell-Boltzmann speed distributions. Surprisingly, the weakly interacting helium atom emerges from these liquids at high kinetic energies, exceeding the expected energy of evaporation from salty water by 70%. This super-Maxwellian evaporation implies in reverse that He atoms preferentially dissolve when they strike the surface at high energies, as if ballistically penetrating into the solvent. The evaporation energies increase with solvent surface tension, suggesting that He atoms require extra kinetic energy to navigate increasingly tortuous paths between surface molecules. PMID:26278769

  13. Reversal of photon-scattering errors in atomic qubits.

    PubMed

    Akerman, N; Kotler, S; Glickman, Y; Ozeri, R

    2012-09-01

    Spontaneous photon scattering by an atomic qubit is a notable example of environment-induced error and is a fundamental limit to the fidelity of quantum operations. In the scattering process, the qubit loses its distinctive and coherent character owing to its entanglement with the photon. Using a single trapped ion, we show that by utilizing the information carried by the photon, we are able to coherently reverse this process and correct for the scattering error. We further used quantum process tomography to characterize the photon-scattering error and its correction scheme and demonstrate a correction fidelity greater than 85% whenever a photon was measured. PMID:23005287

  14. Effects of temperature and surface orientation on migration behaviours of helium atoms near tungsten surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoshuang; Wu, Zhangwen; Hou, Qing

    2015-10-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study the dependence of migration behaviours of single helium atoms near tungsten surfaces on the surface orientation and temperature. For W{100} and W{110} surfaces, He atoms can quickly escape out near the surface without accumulation even at a temperature of 400 K. The behaviours of helium atoms can be well-described by the theory of continuous diffusion of particles in a semi-infinite medium. For a W{111} surface, the situation is complex. Different types of trap mutations occur within the neighbouring region of the W{111} surface. The trap mutations hinder the escape of He atoms, resulting in their accumulation. The probability of a He atom escaping into vacuum from a trap mutation depends on the type of the trap mutation, and the occurrence probabilities of the different types of trap mutations are dependent on the temperature. This finding suggests that the escape rate of He atoms on the W{111} surface does not show a monotonic dependence on temperature. For instance, the escape rate at T = 1500 K is lower than the rate at T = 1100 K. Our results are useful for understanding the structural evolution and He release on tungsten surfaces and for designing models in other simulation methods beyond molecular dynamics.

  15. Visualization of steps and surface reconstructions in Helium Ion Microscopy with atomic precision.

    PubMed

    Hlawacek, Gregor; Jankowski, Maciej; Wormeester, Herbert; van Gastel, Raoul; Zandvliet, Harold J W; Poelsema, Bene

    2016-03-01

    Helium Ion Microscopy is known for its surface sensitivity and high lateral resolution. Here, we present results of a Helium Ion Microscopy based investigation of a surface confined alloy of Ag on Pt(111). Based on a change of the work function of 25meV across the atomically flat terraces we can distinguish Pt rich from Pt poor areas and visualize the single atomic layer high steps between the terraces. Furthermore, dechanneling contrast has been utilized to measure the periodicity of the hcp/fcc pattern formed in the 2-3 layers thick Ag/Pt alloy film. A periodicity of 6.65nm along the ?112? surface direction has been measured. In terms of crystallography a hcp domain is obtained through a lateral displacement of a part of the outermost layer by 1/3 of a nearest neighbor spacing along ?112?. This periodicity is measured with atomic precision: coincidence between the Ag and the Pt lattices is observed for 23 Ag atoms on 24 Pt atoms. The findings are perfectly in line with results obtained with Low Energy Electron Microscopy and Phase Contrast Atomic Force Microscopy. PMID:26720438

  16. Helium in chirped laser fields as a time-asymmetric atomic switch

    SciTech Connect

    Kaprlov-?nsk, Petra Ruth; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2014-07-07

    Tuning the laser parameters exceptional points in the spectrum of the dressed laser helium atom are obtained. The weak linearly polarized laser couples the ground state and the doubly excited P-states of helium. We show here that for specific chirped laser pulses that encircle an exceptional point one can get the time-asymmetric phenomenon, where for a negative chirped laser pulse the ground state is transformed into the doubly excited auto-ionization state, while for a positive chirped laser pulse the resonance state is not populated and the neutral helium atoms remains in the ground state as the laser pulse is turned off. Moreover, we show that the results are very sensitive to the closed contour we choose. This time-asymmetric state exchange phenomenon can be considered as a time-asymmetric atomic switch. The optimal time-asymmetric switch is obtained when the closed loop that encircles the exceptional point is large, while for the smallest loops, the time-asymmetric phenomenon does not take place. A systematic way for studying the effect of the chosen closed contour that encircles the exceptional point on the time-asymmetric phenomenon is proposed.

  17. Helium in chirped laser fields as a time-asymmetric atomic switch.

    PubMed

    Kaprálová-Žďánská, Petra Ruth; Moiseyev, Nimrod

    2014-07-01

    Tuning the laser parameters exceptional points in the spectrum of the dressed laser helium atom are obtained. The weak linearly polarized laser couples the ground state and the doubly excited P-states of helium. We show here that for specific chirped laser pulses that encircle an exceptional point one can get the time-asymmetric phenomenon, where for a negative chirped laser pulse the ground state is transformed into the doubly excited auto-ionization state, while for a positive chirped laser pulse the resonance state is not populated and the neutral helium atoms remains in the ground state as the laser pulse is turned off. Moreover, we show that the results are very sensitive to the closed contour we choose. This time-asymmetric state exchange phenomenon can be considered as a time-asymmetric atomic switch. The optimal time-asymmetric switch is obtained when the closed loop that encircles the exceptional point is large, while for the smallest loops, the time-asymmetric phenomenon does not take place. A systematic way for studying the effect of the chosen closed contour that encircles the exceptional point on the time-asymmetric phenomenon is proposed. PMID:25005289

  18. Absolute number densities of helium metastable atoms determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in helium plasma-based discharges used as ambient desorption/ionization sources for mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reininger, Charlotte; Woodfield, Kellie; Keelor, Joel D.; Kaylor, Adam; Fernndez, Facundo M.; Farnsworth, Paul B.

    2014-10-01

    The absolute number densities of helium atoms in the 2s 3S1 metastable state were determined in four plasma-based ambient desorption/ionization sources by atomic absorption spectroscopy. The plasmas included a high-frequency dielectric barrier discharge (HF-DBD), a low temperature plasma (LTP), and two atmospheric-pressure glow discharges, one with AC excitation and the other with DC excitation. Peak densities in the luminous plumes downstream from the discharge capillaries of the HF-DBD and the LTP were 1.39 1012 cm- 3 and 0.011 1012 cm- 3, respectively. Neither glow discharge produced a visible afterglow, and no metastable atoms were detected downstream from the capillary exits. However, densities of 0.58 1012 cm- 3 and 0.97 1012 cm- 3 were measured in the interelectrode regions of the AC and DC glow discharges, respectively. Time-resolved measurements of metastable atom densities revealed significant random variations in the timing of pulsed absorption signals with respect to the voltage waveforms applied to the discharges.

  19. A Hartree-Fock study of the confined helium atom: Local and global basis set approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Toby D.; Vargas, Rubicelia; Garza, Jorge

    2016-02-01

    Two different basis set methods are used to calculate atomic energy within Hartree-Fock theory. The first is a local basis set approach using high-order real-space finite elements and the second is a global basis set approach using modified Slater-type orbitals. These two approaches are applied to the confined helium atom and are compared by calculating one- and two-electron contributions to the total energy. As a measure of the quality of the electron density, the cusp condition is analyzed.

  20. CASCADE CALCULATION OF EXOTIC HELIUM ATOMS -- s-orbit vs. p-orbit absorption rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, T.; Akaishi, Y.

    2000-09-01

    We construct a new model for the Stark-mixing process of exotic helium atoms using the impact-parameter method, and compared it with a phenomenological one used so far (sliding transition model). It turns out that the sliding transition model is justified only for low-n states and largely overestimates the Stark-mixing transition rate at high-n states. As a result of the atomic-cascade calculation, the s-(p-)orbit absorption rates in our new model are considerably smaller (larger) than those in the phenomenological one, although both our new model and old one well reproduce the experimental x-ray yields.

  1. Atom-diatom scattering dynamics of spinning molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Eyles, C. J.; Floß, J.; Averbukh, I. Sh.; Leibscher, M.

    2015-01-14

    We present full quantum mechanical scattering calculations using spinning molecules as target states for nuclear spin selective atom-diatom scattering of reactive D+H{sub 2} and F+H{sub 2} collisions. Molecules can be forced to rotate uni-directionally by chiral trains of short, non-resonant laser pulses, with different nuclear spin isomers rotating in opposite directions. The calculations we present are based on rotational wavepackets that can be created in this manner. As our simulations show, target molecules with opposite sense of rotation are predominantly scattered in opposite directions, opening routes for spatially and quantum state selective scattering of close chemical species. Moreover, two-dimensional state resolved differential cross sections reveal detailed information about the scattering mechanisms, which can be explained to a large degree by a classical vector model for scattering with spinning molecules.

  2. Investigating the dynamics of laser induced sparks in atmospheric helium using Rayleigh and Thomson scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Nedanovska, E.; Nersisyan, G.; Lewis, C. L. S.; Riley, D.; Graham, W. G.; Morgan, T. J.; Hüwel, L.; Murakami, T.

    2015-01-07

    We have used optical Rayleigh and Thomson scattering to investigate the expansion dynamics of laser induced plasma in atmospheric helium and to map its electron parameters both in time and space. The plasma is created using 9 ns duration, 140 mJ pulses from a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm, focused with a 10 cm focal length lens, and probed with 7 ns, 80 mJ, and 532 nm Nd:YAG laser pulses. Between 0.4 μs and 22.5 μs after breakdown, the electron density decreases from 3.3 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3} to 9 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −3}, while the temperature drops from 3.2 eV to 0.1 eV. Spatially resolved Thomson scattering data recorded up to 17.5 μs reveal that during this time the laser induced plasma expands at a rate given by R ∼ t{sup 0.4} consistent with a non-radiative spherical blast wave. This data also indicate the development of a toroidal structure in the lateral profile of both electron temperature and density. Rayleigh scattering data show that the gas density decreases in the center of the expanding plasma with a central scattering peak reemerging after about 12 μs. We have utilized a zero dimensional kinetic global model to identify the dominant particle species versus delay time and this indicates that metastable helium and the He{sub 2}{sup +} molecular ion play an important role.

  3. Analytical evaluation of atomic form factors: Application to Rayleigh scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Safari, L.; Santos, J. P.; Amaro, P.; Jnkl, K.; Fratini, F.

    2015-05-15

    Atomic form factors are widely used for the characterization of targets and specimens, from crystallography to biology. By using recent mathematical results, here we derive an analytical expression for the atomic form factor within the independent particle model constructed from nonrelativistic screened hydrogenic wave functions. The range of validity of this analytical expression is checked by comparing the analytically obtained form factors with the ones obtained within the Hartee-Fock method. As an example, we apply our analytical expression for the atomic form factor to evaluate the differential cross section for Rayleigh scattering off neutral atoms.

  4. The Dynamics of Atom-Surface Interactions Involving HELIUM(2(1)S), HELIUM(2(3)P) and Electron-Spin HELIUM(2(3)S) Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oro, David Michael

    1994-01-01

    For several years Metastable Atom Deexcitation Spectroscopy (MDS) has been employed as a probe of surface electronic structure offering unparalleled surface specificity. In MDS a thermal-energy beam of rare-gas metastable atoms is directed at the surface under study, and the energy distribution of electrons ejected as a result of metastable atom deexcitation is measured. However, correct interpretation of the data requires detailed knowledge of the dynamics of the deexcitation process. In the present work spin -labeling techniques, specifically the use of electron-spin -polarized metastable He(2^3S) atoms, coupled with spin analysis of the ejected electrons, are used to probe the dynamics of He(2^3S) deexcitation at a variety of surfaces. Such measurements, coupled with studies of the deexcitation of He(2 ^1S) and He(2^3P) atoms at Cu(100) and Au(100) show that each species deexcites exclusively through resonance ionization followed by Auger neutralization. The data also provide the first direct confirmation of spin correlation in the Auger neutralization of ions outside a paramagnetic surface. Two proposed models for spin correlation are discussed and potential experimental tests for distinguishing between them are suggested. Studies of SPMDS at surfaces comprising layers of Ar or Xe atoms frozen onto a cryogenically cooled substrate are described and exhibit behavior similar to that observed in gas phase Penning ionization studies indicating that ejection results, in part, from surface Penning ionization (SPI). For Xe, however, additional features are observed and can be attributed to resonance ionization of the incident excited atoms followed by neutralization of the resulting He^+ ions through an interaction involving neighboring Xe atoms in the film. These results provide a rare example of a surface at which the rates for resonance ionization and Auger deexcitation are comparable. Also, the data show that the electron yield from both films is substantially higher than that from atomically clean metal surfaces. Potential experimental applications of the large spin correlation in He(2^3S) deexcitation at Cu and Au, and of deexcitation at Xe(100) and Ar(100) films are discussed.

  5. Formation of bimetallic clusters in superfluid helium nanodroplets analysed by atomic resolution electron tomography

    PubMed Central

    Haberfehlner, Georg; Thaler, Philipp; Knez, Daniel; Volk, Alexander; Hofer, Ferdinand; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Kothleitner, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Structure, shape and composition are the basic parameters responsible for properties of nanoscale materials, distinguishing them from their bulk counterparts. To reveal these in three dimensions at the nanoscale, electron tomography is a powerful tool. Advancing electron tomography to atomic resolution in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope remains challenging and has been demonstrated only a few times using strong constraints or extensive filtering. Here we demonstrate atomic resolution electron tomography on silver/gold core/shell nanoclusters grown in superfluid helium nanodroplets. We reveal morphology and composition of a cluster identifying gold- and silver-rich regions in three dimensions and we estimate atomic positions without using any prior information and with minimal filtering. The ability to get full three-dimensional information down to the atomic scale allows understanding the growth and deposition process of the nanoclusters and demonstrates an approach that may be generally applicable to all types of nanoscale materials. PMID:26508471

  6. Formation of bimetallic clusters in superfluid helium nanodroplets analysed by atomic resolution electron tomography.

    PubMed

    Haberfehlner, Georg; Thaler, Philipp; Knez, Daniel; Volk, Alexander; Hofer, Ferdinand; Ernst, Wolfgang E; Kothleitner, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    Structure, shape and composition are the basic parameters responsible for properties of nanoscale materials, distinguishing them from their bulk counterparts. To reveal these in three dimensions at the nanoscale, electron tomography is a powerful tool. Advancing electron tomography to atomic resolution in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope remains challenging and has been demonstrated only a few times using strong constraints or extensive filtering. Here we demonstrate atomic resolution electron tomography on silver/gold core/shell nanoclusters grown in superfluid helium nanodroplets. We reveal morphology and composition of a cluster identifying gold- and silver-rich regions in three dimensions and we estimate atomic positions without using any prior information and with minimal filtering. The ability to get full three-dimensional information down to the atomic scale allows understanding the growth and deposition process of the nanoclusters and demonstrates an approach that may be generally applicable to all types of nanoscale materials. PMID:26508471

  7. Observation of cooperative Mie scattering from an ultracold atomic cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, H.; Stehle, C.; Slama, S.; Zimmermann, C.; Kaiser, R.; Piovella, N.; Courteille, Ph. W.

    2010-07-15

    Scattering of light at a distribution of scatterers is an intrinsically cooperative process, which means that the scattering rate and the angular distribution of the scattered light are essentially governed by bulk properties of the distribution, such as its size, shape, and density, although local disorder and density fluctuations may have an important impact on the cooperativity. Via measurements of the radiation pressure force exerted by a far-detuned laser beam on a very small and dense cloud of ultracold atoms, we are able to identify the respective roles of superradiant acceleration of the scattering rate and of Mie scattering in the cooperative process. They lead, respectively, to a suppression or an enhancement of the radiation pressure force. We observe a maximum in the radiation pressure force as a function of the phase shift induced in the incident laser beam by the cloud's refractive index. The maximum marks the borderline of the validity of the Rayleigh-Debye-Gans approximation from a regime, where Mie scattering is more complex. Our observations thus help to clarify the intricate relationship between Rayleigh scattering of light at a coarse-grained ensemble of individual scatterers and Mie scattering at the bulk density distribution.

  8. Differential cross sections for muonic atom scattering from hydrogenic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamczak, Andrzej

    2006-10-01

    The differential cross sections for low-energy muonic hydrogen atom scattering from hydrogenic molecules are directly expressed by the corresponding amplitudes for muonic atom scattering from hydrogen-isotope nuclei. The energy and angular dependence of these three-body amplitudes is thus taken naturally into account in scattering from molecules, without involving any pseudopotentials. Effects of the internal motion of nuclei inside the target molecules are included for every initial rotational-vibrational state. These effects are very significant as the considered three-body amplitudes often vary strongly within the energy interval ?0.1eV . The differential cross sections, calculated using the presented method, have been successfully used for planning and interpreting many experiments in low-energy muon physics. Studies of ?- nuclear capture in p? and the measurement of the Lamb shift in p? atoms created in H2 gaseous targets are recent examples.

  9. Exotic atoms, K-nucleus scattering and hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, P. D.

    1981-01-01

    Recent progress in exotic atom physics, kaon-nucleus scattering, and hypernuclear physics is reviewed. Specific problems discussed include searches for muon-nucleon interactions beyond QED, a comparison of data and recent calculation of K/sup + -/ + /sup 12/C elastic and inelastic scattering, as well as recent studies of ..sigma.. and ..lambda.. hypernuclei including new data on the level structure of /sup 13/C/..lambda...

  10. Helium scattering structure analyses of the c(28) reconstruction and the high-temperature (11) structures of Ge(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faras, D.; Lange, G.; Rieder, K. H.; Toennies, J. P.

    1997-03-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of high-resolution helium-atom scattering measurements obtained from the Ge(111)-c(28) surface. The presence of quarter-order beams as well as the symmetries observed along [112-bar] and [21-bar1-bar] confirm that the angular distributions are originated by three equivalent c(28) domains. The corrugation function derived from the calculations reveals clearly that the two rest atoms within the unit cell are buckled, as was also observed previously with scanning tunneling microscopy. Intensity analyses of diffraction scans measured above and below the order-order transition at Tc=1050 K suggest that for T>Tc the first-layer atoms are shifted from their regular bulk places to the hexagonal diamond sites.

  11. Atomic collisions in suprafluid helium-nanodroplets: timescales for metal-cluster formation derived from He-density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Andreas W; Volk, Alexander; Thaler, Philipp; Ernst, Wolfgang E

    2015-04-28

    Collision times for the coinage metal atoms Cu, Ag and Au in He-droplets are derived from helium density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations. The strength of the attractive interaction between the metal atoms turns out to be less important than the mass of the propagating metal atoms. Even for small droplets consisting of a few thousand helium atoms, the collision times are shortest for Cu, followed by Ag and Au, despite the higher binding energy of Au2 compared to Cu2. PMID:25812719

  12. Atomic collisions in suprafluid helium-nanodroplets: timescales for metal-cluster formation derived from He-density functional theory

    PubMed Central

    Volk, Alexander; Thaler, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    Collision times for the coinage metal atoms Cu, Ag and Au in He-droplets are derived from helium density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations. The strength of the attractive interaction between the metal atoms turns out to be less important than the mass of the propagating metal atoms. Even for small droplets consisting of a few thousand helium atoms, the collision times are shortest for Cu, followed by Ag and Au, despite the higher binding energy of Au2 compared to Cu2. PMID:25812719

  13. Elastic scattering of electrons and positrons by atomic magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail Hossain, M.; Haque, A. K. F.; Atiqur, M.; Patoary, R.; Uddin, M. A.; Basak, A. K.

    2016-02-01

    The elastic, differential and integrated, and total cross sections for the scattering of electrons and positrons by magnesium atom have been calculated. These calculations are done within the framework of complex electron/positron-atom optical potential and relativistic Dirac partial wave analysis at the impact energies 0.1-1000 eV for both the projectiles. The present results are compared with available experimental data and some other theoretical calculations.

  14. Ramsauer-Townsend effect in muonic atom scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mulhauser, F.; Huot, O.; Jacot-Guillarmod, R.; Knowles, P. E.; Schaller, L. A.; Adamczak, A.; Beer, G. A.; Bystritsky, V. M.; Stolupin, V. A.; Filipowicz, M.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Marshall, G. M.; Olin, A.; Porcelli, T. A.; Huber, T. M.; Kammel, P.; Kim, S. K.; Kunselman, A. R.; Petitjean, C.; Wozniak, J.

    2006-03-15

    We present the final results of an experimental study of {mu}d and {mu}t atom scattering in solid hydrogen cooled to 3 K. Strong effects resulting from the Ramsauer-Townsend effect have been observed in the TRIUMF experiment E742 where muons were stopped in thin frozen layers of hydrogen. The measured Ramsauer-Townsend minimum energy for both {mu}d and {mu}t atoms and the minimum cross section are in agreement with theory.

  15. Ultrahigh-resolution study of protein atomic displacement parameters at cryotemperatures obtained with a helium cryostat.

    SciTech Connect

    Petrova, T.; Ginell, S.; Mitschler, A.; Hazemann, I.; Schneider, T.; Cousido, A.; Lunin, V.; Joachimiak, A.; Podjarny, A,; Biosciences Division; Russian Academy of Sciences; IGBMC; Inst. of Molecular Oncology

    2006-01-01

    Two X-ray data sets for a complex of human aldose reductase (h-AR) with the inhibitor IDD 594 and the cofactor NADP(+) were collected from two different parts of the same crystal to a resolution of 0.81 A at 15 and 60 K using cold helium gas as cryogen. The contribution of temperature to the atomic B values was estimated by comparison of the independently refined models. It was found that although being slightly different for different kinds of atoms, the differences (deltaB) in the isotropic equivalents B of atomic displacement parameters (ADPs) were approximately constant (about 1.7 A(2)) for well ordered atoms as the temperature was increased from 15 to 60 K. The mean value of this difference varied according to the number of non-H atoms covalently bound to the parent atom. Atoms having a B value of higher than 8 A(2) at 15 K showed much larger deviations of deltaB from the average value, which might reflect partial occupancy of atomic sites. An analysis of the anisotropy of ADPs for individual atoms revealed an increase in the isotropy of ADPs with the increase of the temperature from 15 to 60 K. In a separate experiment, a 0.93 A resolution data set was collected from a different crystal of the same complex at 100 K using cold nitrogen as a cryogen. The effects of various errors on the atomic B values were estimated by comparison of the refined models and the temperature-dependent component was inferred. It was found that both decreasing the data redundancy and increasing the resolution cutoff led to an approximately constant increase in atomic B values for well ordered atoms.

  16. Full quantum study of non-radiative inelastic processes in lithium-helium ion-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, A. K.; Rodionov, D. S.; Augustovi?ov, L.; Soldn, P.; Kraemer, W. P.

    2015-05-01

    A full quantum study of non-radiative inelastic processes in lithium-helium ion-atom collisions is presented. The study uses the 13 lowest-lying electronic molecular states of LiHe+ of the 1?+, 3?+, 1?, and 3? symmetries. Radial non-adiabatic coupling matrix elements between states of the same symmetry are calculated. Quantum non-adiabatic nuclear dynamics is studied by the reprojection method, which takes into account all non-adiabatic couplings, including those that exhibit non-vanishing asymptotic values. The energy dependence of the cross-sections and temperature dependence of the rate coefficients for all partial processes between the scattering channels is determined. It is shown that the temperature dependence of rate coefficients for the non-radiative and the radiative processes behave differently: the non-radiative rate coefficients increase with increasing temperature, while the radiative rate coefficients decrease. Consequently, in the depopulation of the same scattering channel the non-radiative processes dominate in high-temperature environments, whereas at low temperature, such as in interstellar molecular clouds, the radiative processes are typically more efficient.

  17. Generalized pseudopotential approach for electron-atom scattering.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zarlingo, D. G.; Ishihara, T.; Poe, R. T.

    1972-01-01

    A generalized many-electron pseudopotential approach is presented for electron-neutral-atom scattering problems. A calculation based on this formulation is carried out for the singlet s-wave and p-wave electron-hydrogen phase shifts with excellent results. We compare the method with other approaches as well as discuss its applications for inelastic and rearrangement collision problems.

  18. Probe Scattering by Fluctuating Multi-Atom Ensembles in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaauboer, M.; Kurizki, G.; Akulin, V. M.

    We investigate probe scattering by fluctuating ensembles of atoms trapped in optical lattices: weak scattering by effectively random atomic density distributions and multiple scattering by arbitrary atomic distributions. Both regimes are predicted to exhibit a universal semicircular scattering lineshape for large density fluctuations, which depend on temperature and quantum statistics.

  19. Energetic neutral helium atoms as a tool to study the heliosphere and the local interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaczyna, Pawel; Grzedzielski, Stan; Bzowski, Maciej

    2015-04-01

    The aim of our study is to determine the utility of helium energetic neutral atoms (ENA) in the studies of the outer heliosphere, its boundary region, and the nearby interstellar medium, and to assess the requirements for future instruments to enable them to observe He ENA fluxes. Presently, studying these regions is rendered possible mostly by combining the in-situ measurements by the plasma and cosmic-ray instruments on Voyagers and the remote-sensing observations of H ENA from IBEX. Helium as the second most abundant species in the universe could potentially enable further extension of our knowledge about nearest surroundings of the Sun. We assessed the expected emission of the heliospheric He ENA and of He ENA from the nearby interstellar medium. To estimate the heliospheric emission of He ENA we used a simple model of the heliosphere and performed numerical simulations to determine the distribution of various populations of helium ions in the inner heliosphere. Based on this model, we calculated fluxes of He ENA created by charge exchange between helium ions and neutral atoms over a wide energy range from 0.5 keV/nuc up to 1 MeV/nuc. We included binary interactions between various combinations of hydrogen and helium ions and atoms. We also included the signal from the vicinity of the heliosphere produced via the secondary ENA mechanism, which is most likely the source for the observed IBEX Ribbon. The mean free path against ionization of He ENA in the local interstellar medium reaches about 8000 AU for atoms with an energy of a few keV. This is about 10 times more than the mean free path against ionization for hydrogen atoms at the same energy. Thus emission of helium ENA from hypothetic extraheliospheric sources could be detectable from larger distances than the hydrogen atoms. This could provide a novel method of sounding the sources of suprathermal ions that might operate in the surrounding of the heliosphere. The He ENA produced by charge-exchange could then be detectable by an instrument on the Earth's orbit. We found that expected fluxes of He ENA from the heliosheath are smaller by about 2-3 orders of magnitudes than the fluxes of H ENA. Thus, to observe the heliospheric He ENA emission, the future instrument with a mass spectrometer should have sensitivity at least an order of magnitude higher than IBEX. On the other hand, the "darkness" and transparency of the heliosheath in He ENA could provide opportunity to discover hypothetic extraheliospheric sources of He ENA on distances comparable with the distance to the edge of the Local Interstellar Cloud. Such sources could be even brighter than the heliospheric emission of He ENA.

  20. Emergence of a measurement basis in atom-photon scattering.

    PubMed

    Glickman, Yinnon; Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-03-01

    After measurement, a wave-function is postulated to collapse on a predetermined set of states--the measurement basis. Using quantum process tomography, we show how a measurement basis emerges in the evolution of the electronic spin of a single trapped atomic ion after spontaneous photon scattering and detection. This basis is determined by the excitation laser polarization and the direction along which the photon was detected. Quantum tomography of the combined spin-photon state reveals that although photon scattering entangles all superpositions of the measurement-basis states with the scattered photon polarization, the measurement-basis states themselves remain classically correlated with it. Our findings shed light on the process of quantum measurement in atom-photon interactions. PMID:23471403

  1. Four -body calculation of the 2p level shift in antikaonic helium K3 He atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsiklauri, Shalva; Tenon, Joshua

    2015-05-01

    The strong interaction of charged antikaons (K -) with nucleons and nuclei in the low-energy is a intriguing subject matter. The antikaon plays an unusual role in nuclear physics due to the strong attraction antikaon-nucleon which is a key question for possible kaonic nuclear bound states. Low-lying energy levels of kaonic atoms are shifted from their pure electromagnetic values and widened due to the strong interaction between the antikaon and nucleon. The level shift and width of the kaonic atoms can be determined by x-ray spectroscopy. The X-ray measurements of K He atoms introduced inconsistency between theory and experiment both in the shift and width of the K He 2 p state. The average of the shift was large ~40 eV, while a majority of theoretical calculations suggested very small shift below 1 eV. This significant disagreement between the experimental results and the theoretical calculations is known as the ``kaonic helium puzzle.'' We suggest a new theoretical analysis of the four-body antikaonic 3He in the framework of the method of hyperspherical harmonics (HH) for solving four body Schrodinger equations. This is the first time when the HH microscopic method is applied to study kaonic helium.

  2. Electron emission in collisions of fast highly charged bare ions with helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Abhoy; Mandal, Chittranjan; Purkait, Malay

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the electron emission from ground state helium atom in collision with fast bare heavy ions at intermediate and high incident energies. In the present study, we have applied the present three-body formalism of the three Coulomb wave (3C-3B) model and the previously adopted four-body formalism of the three Coulomb wave (3C-4B). To represent the active electron in the helium atom in the 3C-3B model, the initial bound state wavefunction is chosen to be hydrogenic with an effective nuclear charge. The wavefunction for the ejected electron in the exit channel has been approximated to be a Coulomb continuum wavefunction with same effective nuclear charge. Effectively the continuum-continuum correlation effect has been considered in the present investigation. Here we have calculated the energy and angular distribution of double differential cross sections (DDCS) at low and high energy electron emission from helium atom. The large forward-backward asymmetry is observed in the angular distribution which is explained in terms of the two-center effect (TCE). Our theoretical results are compared with available experimental results as well as other theoretical calculations based on the plain wave Born approximation (PWBA), continuum-distorted wave (CDW) approximation, continuum-distorted wave eikonal-initial state (CDW-EIS) approximation, and the corresponding values obtained from the 3C-4B model [S. Jana, R. Samanta, M. Purkait, Phys. Scr. 88, 055301 (2013)] respectively. It is observed that the four-body version of the present investigation produces results which are in better agreement with experimental observations for all cases.

  3. Quantum entanglement for doubly-excited resonance states of the helium atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.-C.; Fang, T. K.; Ho, Y. K.

    2014-05-01

    It is well known that quantum entanglement is relevant to quantum information, quantum computation, quantum teleportation, and quantum cryptography. In our present work, quantum entanglement for doubly-excited resonance states are quantified by calculating the linear entropy (SL) and von Neumann entropy (SvN) for such states. The linear entropy is defined as SL = 1 - Tr?red2 and the von Neumann entropy as SvN = - Tr?redlog2?red , where ?red is the reduced density matrix, and Tr denotes the trace of the matrix. In our previous works, we calculated the linear entropy for the bound states of the helium atom in free space [1]. Here, we employ the projection operator method [2] to calculate the energies and wave functions of doubly-excited resonance states in the helium atom. Using the projection operators P and Q with P | > = (1 - Q) | > , we can evaluate the eigenvalues of < | QHQ | > =?res < | QQ | > , and such eigenvalues ?res approximate the resonance energies. Once the wave functions for the resonance states are obtained, we can use them to calculate the von Neumann and linear entropies of the doubly-excited resonance states. In the present work, we investigate the 1,3Se ,1,3Po ,1,3De , and 1,3Fo resonance series in the helium atom lying below the He+ (N = 2) threshold. Our results indicate that different series will have different behaviors for their entropies. The detail of our findings will be presented at the meeting. Supported by NSC of Taiwan.

  4. Theory of evaporative cooling with energy-dependent elastic scattering cross section and application to metastable helium

    SciTech Connect

    Tol, Paul J.J.; Hogervorst, Wim; Vassen, Wim

    2004-07-01

    The kinetic theory of evaporative cooling developed by Luiten et al. [Phys. Rev. A 53, 381 (1996)] is extended to include the dependence of the elastic scattering cross section on collision energy. We introduce a simple approximation by which the transition range between the low-temperature limit and the unitarity limit is described as well. Applying the modified theory to our measurements on evaporative cooling of metastable helium, we find a scattering length a=10(5) nm.

  5. Metastable helium Bose-Einstein condensate with a large number of atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Tychkov, A. S.; Jeltes, T.; McNamara, J. M.; Tol, P. J. J.; Herschbach, N.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.

    2006-03-15

    We have produced a Bose-Einstein condensate of metastable helium ({sup 4}He*) containing over 1.5x10{sup 7} atoms, which is a factor of 25 higher than previously achieved. The improved starting conditions for evaporative cooling are obtained by applying one-dimensional Doppler cooling inside a magnetic trap. The same technique is successfully used to cool the spin-polarized fermionic isotope ({sup 3}He*), for which thermalizing collisions are highly suppressed. Our detection techniques include absorption imaging, time-of-flight measurements on a microchannel plate detector, and ion counting to monitor the formation and decay of the condensate.

  6. Monte Carlo calculation of the Born-Oppenheimer potential between two helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Lowther, R.E.; Coldwell, R.L.

    1980-07-01

    Fully correlated Hylleraas-type electronic wave functions and a biased-selection Monte Carlo method have been used to find a rigorous upper bound to the Born-Oppenheimer potential between two helium atoms. The potential agrees with the experimental results of Burgmans, Farrar, and Lee (BFL) to within 1.4 Monte Carlo standard deviations for all nuclear separation distances calculated (4.5--15.0a/sub B/). At the potential minimum of 5.6a/sub B/ this bound (-7.10 +- 0.30 Ry) is slightly below the BFL value of -6.70 Ry.

  7. Bound States of One-Dimensional Helium Atom by Discretization of Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherford, Charles

    2001-05-01

    The computational theory for calculation of the solution of the time-dependent Schrdinger equation for two electrons [C.A. Weatherford, Computational Chemistry: Reviews of Current Trends, Vol. 5, ed. J. Leszczynski, World Scientific 2000] is reviewed and adapted to the case of the one-dimensional helium atom. This results in a new computational time-dependent exchange/correlation theory. A solution algorithm which discretizes space using a spectral discrete variable basis of synthetic cartesian polynomials, and discretizes time using a spectral element discrete variable basis of Chebyshev polynomials, is presented. Supported by NSF CREST grant HRD-9707076, and by NASA grant NAG5-10148.

  8. Spin-statistic selection rules for multiphoton transitions: Application to helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalialiutdinov, T.; Solovyev, D.; Labzowsky, L.; Plunien, G.

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical investigation of the three-photon transition rates 2 1P1→2 1S0,1 1S0 and 2 3P2→2 1S0,1 1S0 for the helium atom is presented. Photon energy distributions and precise values of the nonrelativistic transition rates are obtained with employment of correlated wave functions of the Hylleraas type. The possible experiments for the tests of the Bose-Einstein statistics for multiphoton systems are discussed.

  9. Researches on interactions of satellite-speed helium atoms with aluminum and quartz surfaces. [atomic collisions with aluminum skin (structural member) of satellites (laboratory study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, S. M.; Knuth, E. L.

    1976-01-01

    Three major areas were experimentally studied: (1) energy transfer in collisions of satellite-speed (700 m/sec) helium atoms with a cleaned satellite-type aluminum surface was investigated using the molecular-beam technique. Spatial and energy distributions of reflected helium atoms were measured and analyzed, (2) The gross accommodation coefficient for a satellite-speed (7000 m/sec) helium beam entering a 2-inch-diameter aluminum spherical cavity was determined by measuring the exit velocity distribution of the leaving helium atoms using a metastable time-of-flight method. Results indicate that the 7000-m/sec satellite-speed helium atoms entering the cavity gain full accommodation with the room-temperature inner surface of the sphere through a large number of collisions before leaving the spherical cavity; and (3) the feasibility of producing a satellite-speed atomic hydrogen beam by arc-heating, for use in studies of interactions of satellite-surfaces with hydrogen atoms under laboratory conditions, was investigated. It was found that a stable arc-heated molecular hydrogen beam can be obtained using the arc-heater, and that a partially dissociated hydrogen beam can be produced. Photographs of laboratory equipment are shown.

  10. Speckle-intensity correlations of photons scattered by cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mller, Cord A.; Grmaud, Benoît.; Miniatura, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The irradiation of a dilute cloud of cold atoms with a coherent light field produces a random intensity distribution known as laser speckle. Its statistical fluctuations contain information about the mesoscopic scattering processes at work inside the disordered medium. Following up on earlier work by Assaf and Akkermans [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 083601 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.98.083601], we analyze how static speckle-intensity correlations are affected by an internal Zeeman degeneracy of the scattering atoms. It is proven on general grounds that the speckle correlations cannot exceed the standard Rayleigh law. On the contrary, because which-path information is stored in the internal atomic states, the intensity correlations suffer from strong decoherence and become exponentially small in the diffusive regime applicable to an optically thick cloud.

  11. Ultra-precise single-ion atomic mass measurements on deuterium and helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafonte, S. L.; Van Dyck, R. S., Jr.

    2015-04-01

    The former University of Washington Penning Trap Mass Spectrometer (UW-PTMS), now located at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg, Germany, was used in the decade before the move to determine new values for the deuteron atomic mass, M (2H+) = 2.013?553 212?745(40) u, and the deuterium atomic mass, M (2H) = 2.014?101 778?052(40) u, both of which are now more than an order-of-magnitude more accurate than the previous best 1994-MIT measurements of these quantities. The new value for the deuterons mass can then be used with the accepted 2010-CODATA proton mass and the most recent 1999-measurement of the 2.2 MeV gamma-ray binding energy of the deuteron to refine the neutrons mass to mn = 1.008?664 916?018(435) u which has about half the uncertainty relative to the value computed using that previous 1994-MIT deuterium measurement. As a result, further improvements of mn must now come from a more accurate determination of the wavelength of this gamma ray. In this same period of time, this spectrometer has also been used to determine new values for the helion atomic mass, M (3He2+) = 3.014?932 246?668(43) u, and the neutral helium-3 atomic mass, M (3He) = 3.016?029 321?675(43) u, which are both about 60 times more accurate than the 2006-SMILETRAP measurements, but disagree with the 4.4-times less-accurate 2015-Florida-State measurements by 0.76 nu. It is expected that these helium-3 results will be used in the future 3H/3He mass ratio (to be determined by the Heidelberg, Germany version of the old UW-PTMS) in order to generate a more accurate value for the tritium atomic mass.

  12. In-Situ Lattice Polarization Measurement by Atomic Wave Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Felix; Bauer, Michael; Kindermann, Farina; Lausch, Tobias; Mayer, Daniel; Widera, Artur

    2015-05-01

    Optical dipole traps and lattices have become indispensable tools in atomic physics and atom optics. Especially the accurate alignment of the beam polarization is crucial, because a deviation from purely linear polarization will result in state dependent AC-stark vector light shifts, which are proportional to the atoms' magnetic mF substates. Such shifts can be either utilized as a tool for state dependent atomic transport and the creation of artificial gauge fields, or, in contrast, could cause unwanted dephasing in quantum information processing and spectroscopic experiments. Here, we present an in-situ measurement method of an optical lattice's polarization purity by employing the Kapitza-Dirac effect - the scattering of atoms by a standing light wave: We create a Rubidium-87 (Rb) BEC and shine in an optical lattice at 790 nm that is tuned in between the D1 and D2 lines of Rb. At this wavelength, the scalar dipole potentials of both lines counteract and ideally cancel out, yielding a high sensitivity to vector light shifts for different mF states. By analysing the scattering of Rb atoms in the residual potential for different mF states, we can extract the lattice polarization with high accuracy below 10-3.

  13. Formation of the muonic helium atom /alpha particle-muon-electron/ and observation of its Larmor precession

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souder, P. A.; Casperson, D. E.; Crane, T. W.; Hughes, V. W.; Lu, D. C.; Yam, M. H.; Orth, H.; Reist, H. W.; Zu Putlitz, G.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments are described in which it proved possible to form the muonic helium atom by stopping polarized negative muons in a helium gas with a 2% xenon admixture at a pressure of 14 atm. The observed Larmor precession amplitudes are plotted against the gyromagnetic ratio for both muons and antimuons stopped in He + 2% Xe. In addition, a non-zero residual polarization of 0.06 plus or minus 0.01 was measured for muons stopped in pure helium gas, which corresponds to a depolarization factor of 18 plus or minus 3.

  14. Wave functions and two-electron probability distributions of the Hooke's-law atom and helium

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neill, Darragh P.; Gill, Peter M. W.

    2003-08-01

    The Hooke's-law atom (hookium) provides an exactly soluble model for a two-electron atom in which the nuclear-electron Coulombic attraction has been replaced by a harmonic one. Starting from the known exact position-space wave function for the ground state of hookium, we present the momentum-space wave function. We also look at the intracules, two-electron probability distributions, for hookium in position, momentum, and phase space. These are compared with the Hartree-Fock results and the Coulomb holes (the difference between the exact and Hartree-Fock intracules) in position, momentum, and phase space are examined. We then compare these results with analogous results for the ground state of helium using a simple, explicitly correlated wave function.

  15. Electron scattering by laser-excited barium atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Register, D. F.; Trajmar, S.; Jensen, S. W.; Poe, R. T.

    1978-01-01

    Inelastic and superelastic scattering of 30- and 100-eV electrons by laser-excited 6s 6p 1P and subsequent cascade-populated 6s 6p 3P, 6s 5d 1D, and 6s 5d 3D Ba atoms have been observed. Absolute differential cross sections for the singlet and relative scattering intensities for the triplet species have been determined in the 5 to 20 deg angular region. Under the present conditions excitations dominate over deexcitations.

  16. Recent progress in electron scattering from atoms and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Sullivan, J. P.; Palihawadana, P.; Jones, D. B.; Chiari, L.; Pettifer, Z.; da Silva, G. B.; Lopes, M. C. A.; Duque, H. V.; Masin, Z.; Gorfinkiel, J. D.; Garcia, G.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.; Limo-Vieira, P.

    2014-03-01

    We present and discuss recent results, both experimental and theoretical (where possible), for electron impact excitation of the 3s[3/2]1 and 3s'[1/2]1 electronic states in neon, elastic electron scattering from the structurally similar molecules benzene, pyrazine, and 1,4-dioxane and excitation of the electronic states of the important bio-molecule analogue ?-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. While comparison between theoretical and experimental results suggests that benchmarked cross sections for electron scattering from atoms is feasible in the near-term, significant further theoretical development for electron-molecule collisions, particularly in respect to discrete excitation processes, is still required.

  17. Recent progress in electron scattering from atoms and molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Sullivan, J. P.; Palihawadana, P.; Jones, D. B.; Chiari, L.; Pettifer, Z.; Silva, G. B. da; Lopes, M. C. A.; Duque, H. V.; Masin, Z.; Gorfinkiel, J. D.; Garcia, G.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.; Limão-Vieira, P.

    2014-03-05

    We present and discuss recent results, both experimental and theoretical (where possible), for electron impact excitation of the 3s[3/2 ]{sub 1} and 3s′[1/2 ]{sub 1} electronic states in neon, elastic electron scattering from the structurally similar molecules benzene, pyrazine, and 1,4-dioxane and excitation of the electronic states of the important bio-molecule analogue α-tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol. While comparison between theoretical and experimental results suggests that benchmarked cross sections for electron scattering from atoms is feasible in the near-term, significant further theoretical development for electron-molecule collisions, particularly in respect to discrete excitation processes, is still required.

  18. Double-charge-transfer cross sections in inelastic collisions of bare ions with helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Purkait, M.; Sounda, S.; Dhara, A.; Mandal, C. R.

    2006-10-15

    Double-charge-transfer cross sections into singly and doubly excited states for collisions of {alpha} particles with helium atoms have been studied in the energy range of 50 to 500 keV/amu. We have also studied the double electron capture cross sections into ground states for collisions of {sup 7}Li{sup 3+} and {sup 10}B{sup 5+} with helium atoms. In our study we have applied the four-body boundary corrected continuum intermediate state approximation. The intermediate continuum states of each electron and static correlations of the electrons have been taken into account in this formalism. Present calculated results for total charge transfer cross sections for the reaction {alpha}+He and Li{sup 3+}+He compare favorably well with the existing experimental and other theoretical predictions. Due to the nonavailability of any theoretical and experimental finding for the reaction B{sup 5+}+He, the energy variation of capture cross sections into the ground state of B{sup 5+} ion has been shown within the same energy range. However, charge transfer cross sections into singly and doubly excited states of He are compared with the available theoretical observations only due to nonavailability of any experimental result. In this case as well, agreement is very encouraging.

  19. Rubidium Atoms on Helium Droplets: Analysis of AN Exotic Rydberg Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, Florian; Krois, Gnter; Koch, Markus; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2012-06-01

    Rubidium atoms on the surface of superfluid helium droplets have been excited into Rydberg states. The excitation spectrum of the Rb-He_N system has been recorded from the 5^2D state manifold up to the ionization threshold by resonant three-photon-ionization time-of-flight spectroscopy. The observation of droplet size dependent shifts of excited states with respect to bare atom states is explained by a decreased quantum defect and a lowered ionization threshold. Within the scope of a Rydberg model we demonstrate that quantum defects and ionization thresholds are constant for each specific Rydberg series, which confirms the Rydberg character of excited Rubidium states on helium droplets. A set of six Rydberg series could be identified. Individual Rydberg states are observed with effective principle quantum numbers up to n* ? 19 and l ? 3, for which the expectation value of the electron orbital radius is about ten times larger than the droplet radius. M. Theisen, F. Lackner, G. Krois, and W.E. Ernst, J. Phys. Chem. Lett., 2, 2778-2782 (2011) F. Lackner, G. Krois, M. Theisen, M. Koch, and W.E. Ernst, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 13, 18781-18788 (2011) J.E. Murphy, J.M. Berg, A.J. Merer, N.A. Harris, and R.W. Field, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1861 (1990)

  20. Communication: angular momentum alignment and fluorescence polarization of alkali atoms photodetached from helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Hernando, Alberto; Beswick, J Alberto; Halberstadt, Nadine

    2013-12-14

    The theory of photofragments angular momentum polarization is applied to the photodetachment of an electronically excited alkali atom from a helium nanocluster (N = 200). The alignment of the electronic angular momentum of the bare excited alkali atoms produced is calculated quantum mechanically by solving the excited states coupled equations with potentials determined by density functional theory (DFT). Pronounced oscillations as a function of excitation energy are predicted for the case of Na@(He)200, in marked contrast with the absorption cross-section and angular distribution of the ejected atoms which are smooth functions of the energy. These oscillations are due to quantum interference between different coherently excited photodetachment pathways. Experimentally, these oscillations should be reflected in the fluorescence polarization and polarization-resolved photoelectron yield of the ejected atoms, which are proportional to the electronic angular momentum alignment. In addition, this result is much more general than the test case of NaHe200 studied here. It should be observable for larger droplets, for higher excited electronic states, and for other alkali as well as for alkali-earth atoms. Detection of these oscillations would show that the widely used pseudo-diatomic model can be valid beyond the prediction of absorption spectra and could help in interpreting parts of the dynamics, as already hinted by some experimental results on angular anisotropy of bare alkali fragments. PMID:24329048

  1. Communication: Angular momentum alignment and fluorescence polarization of alkali atoms photodetached from helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Hernando, Alberto; Beswick, J. Alberto; Halberstadt, Nadine

    2013-12-14

    The theory of photofragments angular momentum polarization is applied to the photodetachment of an electronically excited alkali atom from a helium nanocluster (N = 200). The alignment of the electronic angular momentum of the bare excited alkali atoms produced is calculated quantum mechanically by solving the excited states coupled equations with potentials determined by density functional theory (DFT). Pronounced oscillations as a function of excitation energy are predicted for the case of Na@(He){sub 200}, in marked contrast with the absorption cross-section and angular distribution of the ejected atoms which are smooth functions of the energy. These oscillations are due to quantum interference between different coherently excited photodetachment pathways. Experimentally, these oscillations should be reflected in the fluorescence polarization and polarization-resolved photoelectron yield of the ejected atoms, which are proportional to the electronic angular momentum alignment. In addition, this result is much more general than the test case of NaHe{sub 200} studied here. It should be observable for larger droplets, for higher excited electronic states, and for other alkali as well as for alkali-earth atoms. Detection of these oscillations would show that the widely used pseudo-diatomic model can be valid beyond the prediction of absorption spectra and could help in interpreting parts of the dynamics, as already hinted by some experimental results on angular anisotropy of bare alkali fragments.

  2. Scattering approach to dispersive atom-surface interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dalvit, Diego; Messina, Riccardo; Maia Neto, Paulo; Lambrecht, Astrid; Reynaud, Serge

    2009-01-01

    We develop the scattering approach for the dispersive force on a ground state atom on top of a corrugated surface. We present explicit results to first order in the corrugation amplitude. A variety of analytical results are derived in different limiting cases, including the van der Waals and Casimir-Polder regimes. We compute numerically the exact first-order dispersive potential for arbitrary separation distances and corrugation wavelengths, for a Rubidium atom on top of a silicon or gold corrugated surface. We consider in detail the correction to the proximity force approximation, and present a very simple approximation algorithm for computing the potential.

  3. Measuring helium bubble diameter distributions in tungsten with grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, M.; Kluth, P.; Doerner, R. P.; Kirby, N.; Riley, D.; Corr, C. S.

    2016-02-01

    Grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering was performed on tungsten samples exposed to helium plasma in the MAGPIE and Pisces-A linear plasma devices to measure the size distributions of resulting helium nano-bubbles. Nano-bubbles were fitted assuming spheroidal particles and an exponential diameter distribution. These particles had mean diameters between 0.36 and 0.62 nm. Pisces-A exposed samples showed more complex patterns, which may suggest the formation of faceted nano-bubbles or nano-scale surface structures.

  4. Solvation and Spectral Line Shifts of Chromium Atoms in Helium Droplets Based on a Density Functional Theory Approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The interaction of an electronically excited, single chromium (Cr) atom with superfluid helium nanodroplets of various size (10 to 2000 helium (He) atoms) is studied with helium density functional theory. Solvation energies and pseudo-diatomic potential energy surfaces are determined for Cr in its ground state as well as in the y7P, a5S, and y5P excited states. The necessary CrHe pair potentials are calculated by standard methods of molecular orbital-based electronic structure theory. In its electronic ground state the Cr atom is found to be fully submerged in the droplet. A solvation shell structure is derived from fluctuations in the radial helium density. Electronic excitations of an embedded Cr atom are simulated by confronting the relaxed helium density (?He), obtained for Cr in the ground state, with interaction pair potentials of excited states. The resulting energy shifts for the transitions z7P ? a7S, y7P ? a7S, z5P ? a5S, and y5P ? a5S are compared to recent fluorescence and photoionization experiments. PMID:24906160

  5. Temperature and Atomic Oxygen Effects on Helium Leak Rates of a Candidate Main Interface Seal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penney, Nicholas; Wasowski, Janice L.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    Helium leak tests were completed to characterize the leak rate of a 54 in. diameter composite space docking seal design in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA's) Low Impact Docking System (LIDS). The evaluated seal design was a candidate for the main interface seal on the LIDS, which would be compressed between two vehicles, while docked, to prevent the escape of breathable air from the vehicles and into the vacuum of space. Leak tests completed at nominal temperatures of -30, 20, and 50 C on untreated and atomic oxygen (AO) exposed test samples were examined to determine the influence of both test temperature and AO exposure on the performance of the composite seal assembly. Results obtained for untreated seal samples showed leak rates which increased with increased test temperature. This general trend was not observed in tests of the AO exposed specimens. Initial examination of collected test data suggested that AO exposure resulted in higher helium leak rates, however, further analysis showed that the differences observed in the 20 and 50 C tests between the untreated and AO exposed samples were within the experimental error of the test method. Lack of discernable trends in the test data prevented concrete conclusions about the effects of test temperature and AO exposure on helium leak rates of the candidate seal design from being drawn. To facilitate a comparison of the current test data with results from previous leak tests using air as the test fluid, helium leak rates were converted to air leak rates using standard conversion factors for viscous and molecular flow. Flow rates calculated using the viscous flow conversion factor were significantly higher than the experimental air leakage values, whereas values calculated using the molecular flow conversion factor were significantly lower than the experimentally obtained air leak rates. The difference in these sets of converted flow rates and their deviation from the experimentally obtained air leak rate data suggest that neither conversion factor can be used alone to accurately convert helium leak rates to equivalent air leak rates for the test seals evaluated in this study; other leak phenomena, including permeation, must also be considered.

  6. Carrier Injection and Scattering in Atomically Thin Chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song-Lin; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    2015-12-01

    Atomically thin two-dimensional chalcogenides such as MoS2 monolayers are structurally ideal channel materials for the ultimate atomic electronics. However, a heavy thickness dependence of electrical performance is shown in these ultrathin materials, and the device performance normally degrades while exhibiting a low carrier mobility as compared with corresponding bulks, constituting a main hurdle for application in electronics. In this brief review, we summarize our recent work on electrode/channel contacts and carrier scattering mechanisms to address the origins of this adverse thickness dependence. Extrinsically, the Schottky barrier height increases at the electrode/channel contact area in thin channels owing to bandgap expansion caused by quantum confinement, which hinders carrier injection and degrades device performance. Intrinsically, thin channels tend to suffer from intensified Coulomb impurity scattering, resulting from the reduced interaction distance between interfacial impurities and channel carriers. Both factors are responsible for the adverse dependence of carrier mobility on channel thickness in two-dimensional semiconductors.

  7. Cavity-modified collective Rayleigh scattering of two atoms.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Ren; Alt, Wolfgang; Kampschulte, Tobias; Macha, Tobias; Ratschbacher, Lothar; Thau, Natalie; Yoon, Seokchan; Meschede, Dieter

    2015-01-16

    We report on the observation of cooperative radiation of exactly two neutral atoms strongly coupled to the single mode field of an optical cavity, which is close to the lossless-cavity limit. Monitoring the cavity output power, we observe constructive and destructive interference of collective Rayleigh scattering for certain relative distances between the two atoms. Because of cavity backaction onto the atoms, the cavity output power for the constructive two-atom case (N=2) is almost equal to the single-emitter case (N=1), which is in contrast to free-space where one would expect an N^{2} scaling of the power. These effects are quantitatively explained by a classical model as well as by a quantum mechanical model based on Dicke states. We extract information on the relative phases of the light fields at the atom positions and employ advanced cooling to reduce the jump rate between the constructive and destructive atom configurations. Thereby we improve the control over the system to a level where the implementation of two-atom entanglement schemes involving optical cavities becomes realistic. PMID:25635545

  8. Orientation effects in thermal collisions between ''circular''--Rydberg-state atoms and ground-state helium

    SciTech Connect

    de Prunele, E.

    1985-06-01

    A general formulation for thermal collisions between a Rydberg-state atom and a ground-state rare-gas atom is developed within the framework of the impulse approximation. This formulation allows calculation of cross sections for state-to-state transitions for an arbitrary initial orientation between the Rydberg-state atom and the relative velocity of the two partners of the collision. It also allows a direct computation of these cross sections averaged over all orientations, a situation corresponding to a cell experiment. In this formulation, the differential cross sections with respect to the modulus of the momentum transfer are obtained analytically in terms of rotation matrix elements. Numerical applications are made for the case of a sodium atom in a ''circular'' Rydberg state (Vertical Barn,l,m>, with l = m = n-1) colliding with helium. The collisional processes are found to be highly anisotropic. In particular, a selection rule may appear, or disappear, depending upon the initial orientation. The extension to the case where an external electric field is present is also discussed, with special emphasis on symmetry properties.

  9. Fraunhofer-type diffraction patterns of matter-wave scattering of projectiles: Electron transfer in energetic ion-atom collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agueny, Hicham

    2015-07-01

    We present results for single and double electron captures in intermediate energies H+ and 2H+ projectiles colliding with a helium target. The processes under investigations are treated using a nonperturbative semiclassical approach in combination with Eikonal approximation to calculate the scattering differential cross sections. The latter reveals pronounced minima and maxima in the scattering angles, in excellent agreement with the recent experimental data. It turns out that the present structure depends strongly on the projectile energy and shows only slight variations with different capture channels. The observed structure demonstrates the analogy of atomic de Broglie's matter-wave scattering with ?d B=1.3 -3.2 10-3 a.u. and Fraunhofer-type diffraction of light waves.

  10. Phonon dispersion curves of the Ge(111)-c(28) surface determined by He atom scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobo, J.; Faras, D.; Hulpke, E.; Toennies, J. P.; Michel, E. G.

    2006-07-01

    The phonon dispersion curves of the Ge(111)-c(28) surface have been measured using high-resolution helium atom scattering. Experimental data points were obtained along two high-symmetry directions of the surface at room temperature and at 170K . The main features are explained by a (22) geometrical backfolding of the Rayleigh wave. The experimental phonon density of states obtained is qualitatively similar to the phonon density of states of the Si(111)-(77) surface.

  11. Cooperative scattering and radiation pressure force in dense atomic clouds

    SciTech Connect

    Bachelard, R.; Piovella, N.; Courteille, Ph. W.

    2011-07-15

    Atomic clouds prepared in ''timed Dicke'' states, i.e. states where the phase of the oscillating atomic dipole moments linearly varies along one direction of space, are efficient sources of superradiant light emission [Scully et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 010501 (2006)]. Here, we show that, in contrast to previous assertions, timed Dicke states are not the states automatically generated by incident laser light. In reality, the atoms act back on the driving field because of the finite refraction of the cloud. This leads to nonuniform phase shifts, which, at higher optical densities, dramatically alter the cooperative scattering properties, as we show by explicit calculation of macroscopic observables, such as the radiation pressure force.

  12. Regge Oscillations in Electron-Atom Total Scattering Cross Sections?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolovski, D.; Ovchinnikov, S. Yu.; Felfli, Z.; Macek, J. H.; Msezane, A. Z.

    2006-05-01

    In quantum scattering, the presence of a sufficiently narrow resonance allows the collision partners to form a long-lived intermediate complex which rotates as it decays to preserve the total angular momentum. Here we consider a system trapped in such a resonance state and allow it to decay at zero scattering angle, which through the optical theorem can be related to the total cross section (TCS). If the complex has a large angular life, it will return to forward scattering %θ=0^o many times. For the resonance to contribute to the TCS requires: (i) Several rotations of the complex (Regge trajectory stays close to real axis) and (ii) Coherent addition of forward scattering sub-amplitudes (real part of Regge pole is close to an integer). Our analysis is based on the recent complex angular momentum approach [1] used to explain low energy oscillations in proton-H collision. Specifically, we want to establish whether similar oscillations can also be observed in electron-atom scattering. To this end, we present a detailed analysis of Regge trajectories and their contributions to the TCS for the model Thomas-Fermi potential. J. H. Macek et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 183203 (2004).

  13. On the Size and Structure of Helium Snowballs Formed around Charged Atoms and Clusters of Noble Gases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Helium nanodroplets doped with argon, krypton, or xenon are ionized by electrons and analyzed in a mass spectrometer. HenNgx+ ions containing up to seven noble gas (Ng) atoms and dozens of helium atoms are identified; the high resolution of the mass spectrometer combined with advanced data analysis make it possible to unscramble contributions from isotopologues that have the same nominal mass but different numbers of helium or Ng atoms, such as the magic He2084Kr2+ and the isobaric, nonmagic He4184Kr+. Anomalies in these ion abundances reveal particularly stable ions; several intriguing patterns emerge. Perhaps most astounding are the results for HenAr+, which show evidence for three distinct, solid-like solvation shells containing 12, 20, and 12 helium atoms. This observation runs counter to the common notion that only the first solvation shell is solid-like but agrees with calculations by Galli et al. for HenNa+ [J. Phys. Chem. A2011, 115, 730021568337] that reveal three shells of icosahedral symmetry. HenArx+ (2 ? x ? 7) ions appear to be especially stable if they contain a total of n + x = 19 atoms. A sequence of anomalies in the abundance distribution of HenKrx+ suggests that rings of six helium atoms are inserted into the solvation shell each time a krypton atom is added to the ionic core, from Kr+ to Kr3+. Previously reported strong anomalies at He12Kr2+ and He12Kr3+ [KimJ. H.; et al. J. Chem. Phys.2006, 124, 21430116774401] are attributed to a contamination. Only minor local anomalies appear in the distributions of HenXex+ (x ? 3). The distributions of HenKr+ and HenXe+ show strikingly similar, broad features that are absent from the distribution of HenAr+; differences are tentatively ascribed to the very different fragmentation dynamics of these ions. PMID:24128371

  14. On the size and structure of helium snowballs formed around charged atoms and clusters of noble gases.

    PubMed

    Bartl, Peter; Leidlmair, Christian; Denifl, Stephan; Scheier, Paul; Echt, Olof

    2014-09-18

    Helium nanodroplets doped with argon, krypton, or xenon are ionized by electrons and analyzed in a mass spectrometer. HenNgx(+) ions containing up to seven noble gas (Ng) atoms and dozens of helium atoms are identified; the high resolution of the mass spectrometer combined with advanced data analysis make it possible to unscramble contributions from isotopologues that have the same nominal mass but different numbers of helium or Ng atoms, such as the magic He20(84)Kr2(+) and the isobaric, nonmagic He41(84)Kr(+). Anomalies in these ion abundances reveal particularly stable ions; several intriguing patterns emerge. Perhaps most astounding are the results for HenAr(+), which show evidence for three distinct, solid-like solvation shells containing 12, 20, and 12 helium atoms. This observation runs counter to the common notion that only the first solvation shell is solid-like but agrees with calculations by Galli et al. for HenNa(+) [J. Phys. Chem. A 2011, 115, 7300] that reveal three shells of icosahedral symmetry. HenArx(+) (2 ≤ x ≤ 7) ions appear to be especially stable if they contain a total of n + x = 19 atoms. A sequence of anomalies in the abundance distribution of HenKrx(+) suggests that rings of six helium atoms are inserted into the solvation shell each time a krypton atom is added to the ionic core, from Kr(+) to Kr3(+). Previously reported strong anomalies at He12Kr2(+) and He12Kr3(+) [Kim , J. H.; et al. J. Chem. Phys. 2006, 124, 214301] are attributed to a contamination. Only minor local anomalies appear in the distributions of HenXex(+) (x ≤ 3). The distributions of HenKr(+) and HenXe(+) show strikingly similar, broad features that are absent from the distribution of HenAr(+); differences are tentatively ascribed to the very different fragmentation dynamics of these ions. PMID:24128371

  15. J-matrix calculation of electron-helium S-wave scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Konovalov, D. A.; Fursa, D. V.; Bray, I.

    2011-09-15

    The J-matrix approach to electron-atom scattering is revised by merging it with the Fano's multiconfiguration interaction matrix elements [U. Fano, Phys. Rev. 140, A67 (1965)]. The revised method is then applied to the S-wave model of the e-He scattering problem demonstrating remarkable computational efficiency and accuracy. In particular, the method is in complete agreement with the convergent-close-coupling elastic, 2{sup 1,3}S excitation and single ionization cross sections for impact energies in the range 0.1-1000 eV. The S-wave resonance structures in the elastic and 2{sup 1,3}S excitation cross sections are highlighted.

  16. Scattering of cold-atom coherences by hot atoms: frequency shifts from background-gas collisions.

    PubMed

    Gibble, Kurt

    2013-05-01

    Frequency shifts from background-gas collisions currently contribute significantly to the inaccuracy of atomic clocks. Because nearly all collisions with room-temperature background gases that transfer momentum eject the cold atoms from the clock, the interference between the scattered and unscattered waves in the forward direction dominates these frequency shifts. We show they are ? 10 times smaller than in room-temperature clocks and that van der Waals interactions produce the cold-atom background-gas shift. General considerations allow the loss of the Ramsey fringe amplitude to bound this frequency shift. PMID:23683186

  17. Diffusion coefficient of krypton atoms in helium gas at low and moderate temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouazza, M. T.; Bouledroua, M.

    In the present work, using the Chapman-Enskog method for dilute gases, the diffusion coefficients of ground krypton atoms in a very weakly ionized helium buffer gas are revisited. The calculations are carried out quantum mechanically in the range of low and moderate temperatures. The 1 ?+ potential-energy curve via which Kr approaches He is constructed from the most recent ab initio energy points. The reliable data points used in the construction are smoothly connected to adequate long- and short-range forms. The calculations of the classical second virial coefficients and the Boyle temperature of the helium-krypton mixture are also discussed. These coefficients and their variations in terms of temperature are analysed by adopting the constructed HeKr potential and the Lennard-Jones form that fits it. The diffusion and elastic cross sections are also explored and the resonance features they exhibit are closely examined. The variation law of the diffusion coefficients with temperature is determined for typical values of density and pressure. The coefficients show excellent agreement with the available experimental data; the discrepancies do not exceed 5%.

  18. Generalized Hartree-Fock method for electron-atom scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, L.

    1997-09-01

    In the widely used Hartree-Fock procedure for atomic structure calculations, trial functions in the form of linear combinations of Slater determinants are constructed and the Rayleigh-Ritz minimum principle is applied to determine the best in that class. A generalization of this approach, applicable to low-energy electron-atom scattering, is developed here. The method is based on a unique decomposition of the scattering wave function into open- and closed-channel components, so chosen that an approximation to the closed-channel component may be obtained by adopting it as a trial function in a minimum principle, whose rigor can be maintained even when the target wave functions are imprecisely known. Given a closed-channel trial function, the full scattering function may be determined from the solution of an effective one-body Schr{umlt o}dinger equation. Alternatively, in a generalized Hartree-Fock approach, the minimum principle leads to coupled integrodifferential equations to be satisfied by the basis functions appearing in a Slater-determinant representation of the closed-channel wave function; it also provides a procedure for optimizing the choice of nonlinear parameters in a variational determination of these basis functions. Inclusion of additional Slater determinants in the closed-channel trial function allows for systematic improvement of that function, as well as the calculated scattering parameters, with the possibility of spurious singularities avoided. Electron-electron correlations can be important in accounting for long-range forces and resonances. These correlation effects can be included explicitly by suitable choice of one component of the closed-channel wave function; the remaining component may then be determined by the generalized Hartree-Fock procedure. As a simple test, the method is applied to s-wave scattering of positrons by hydrogen. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. Single ionization of helium atoms by energetic fully stripped carbon ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahim, Ghanbari-Adivi; Sadjad, Eskandari

    2015-10-01

    A four-body distorted wave approximation is presented for theoretical investigations of the single ionization of ground-state helium atoms by fully stripped carbon ions at impact energies of 2 MeV/amu and 100 MeV/amu. The nine-dimensional integrals for the partial quantum-mechanical transition amplitudes of the specified reaction are reduced to some analytical expressions or one-dimensional integrals over real variables. Fully differential cross sections (FDCSs) are calculated and compared with their experimental values as well as the results obtained from other theories. Despite the simplicity and quickness of the proposed quadrature, the comparison shows that the obtained results are in reasonable agreement with the experiment and are compatible with those of other complicated theories.

  20. Learning Approach on the Ground State Energy Calculation of Helium Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Syed Naseem Hussain

    2010-07-01

    This research investigated the role of learning approach on the ground state energy calculation of Helium atom in improving the concepts of science teachers at university level. As the exact solution of several particles is not possible here we used approximation methods. Using this method one can understand easily the calculation of ground state energy of any given function. Variation Method is one of the most useful approximation methods in estimating the energy eigen values of the ground state and the first few excited states of a system, which we only have a qualitative idea about the wave function. The objective of this approach is to introduce and involve university teacher in new research, to improve their class room practices and to enable teachers to foster critical thinking in students.

  1. Role of electron wavepacket interference in the optical response of helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchini, Matteo; Herrmann, Jens; Ludwig, Andr; Locher, Reto; Sabbar, Mazyar; Gallmann, Lukas; Keller, Ursula

    2013-10-01

    Attosecond control of the optical response of helium atoms to extreme ultraviolet radiation in the presence of moderately strong infrared laser light has been recently demonstrated both by employing attosecond pulse trains (APTs) and single attosecond pulses. In the case of APTs the interference between different transiently bound electron wavepackets excited by consecutive attosecond light bursts in the train was indicated as the predominant mechanism leading to the control. We studied the same physical system with transient absorption spectroscopy using elliptically polarized infrared pulses or APTs with a varying number of pulses down to a single pulse. Our new results are not consistent with this kind of wavepacket interference being the dominant mechanism and show that its role in the control over the photoabsorption probability has to be rediscussed.

  2. Learning Approach on the Ground State Energy Calculation of Helium Atom

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Syed Naseem Hussain

    2010-07-28

    This research investigated the role of learning approach on the ground state energy calculation of Helium atom in improving the concepts of science teachers at university level. As the exact solution of several particles is not possible here we used approximation methods. Using this method one can understand easily the calculation of ground state energy of any given function. Variation Method is one of the most useful approximation methods in estimating the energy eigen values of the ground state and the first few excited states of a system, which we only have a qualitative idea about the wave function.The objective of this approach is to introduce and involve university teacher in new research, to improve their class room practices and to enable teachers to foster critical thinking in students.

  3. Laser absorption spectroscopy diagnostics of helium metastable atoms generated in dielectric barrier discharge cryoplasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urabe, Keiichiro; Muneoka, Hitoshi; Stauss, Sven; Sakai, Osamu; Terashima, Kazuo

    2015-10-01

    Cryoplasmas, which are plasmas whose gas temperatures are below room temperature (RT), have shown dynamic changes in their physical and chemical characteristics when the gas temperature in the plasmas (Tgp) was decreased from RT. In this study, we measured the temporal behavior of helium metastable (Hem) atoms generated in a parallel-plate dielectric barrier discharge at ambient gas temperatures (Tga) of 300, 100, and 14 K and with a gas density similar to atmospheric conditions by laser absorption spectroscopy. The increments of Tgp to Tga were less than 20 K. We found from the results that the Hem lifetime and maximum density become longer and larger over one order of magnitude for lower Tga. The reasons for the long Hem lifetime at low Tga are decreases in the rate coefficients of three-body Hem quenching reactions and in the amounts of molecular impurities with boiling points higher than that of He.

  4. Ultracold atomic collisions in tight harmonic traps: Quantum-defect model and application to metastable helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Peach, Gillian; Whittingham, Ian B.; Beams, Timothy J.

    2004-09-01

    We analyze a system of two colliding ultracold atoms under strong harmonic confinement from the viewpoint of quantum defect theory and formulate a generalized self-consistent method for determining the allowed energies. We also present two highly efficient computational methods for determining the bound state energies and eigenfunctions of such systems. The perturbed harmonic oscillator problem is characterized by a long asymptotic region beyond the effective range of the interatomic potential. The first method, which is based on quantum defect theory and is an adaptation of a technique developed by one of the authors (G.P.) for highly excited states in a modified Coulomb potential, is very efficient for integrating through this outer region. The second method is a direct numerical solution of the radial Schroedinger equation using a discrete variable representation of the kinetic energy operator and a scaled radial coordinate grid. The methods are applied to the case of trapped spin-polarized metastable helium atoms. The calculated eigenvalues agree very closely for the two methods, and with the eigenvalues computed using the generalized self-consistent method.

  5. Electron-helium and electron-neon scattering cross sections at low electron energies using a photoelectron source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, Vijay; Subramanian, K. P.; Krishnakumar, E.

    1987-01-01

    Absolute electron-helium and electron-neon scattering cross sections have been measured at low electron energies using the powerful technique of photoelectron spectroscopy. The measurements have been carried out at 17 electron energies varying from 0.7 to 10 eV with an accuracy of + or - 2.7 percent. The results obtained in the present work have been compared with other recent measurement and calculations.

  6. Scattering of wave packets on atoms in the Born approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlovets, D. V.; Kotkin, G. L.; Serbo, V. G.

    2015-11-01

    It has recently been demonstrated experimentally that 200 -300 keV electrons with the unusual spatial profiles can be produced and even focused to a subnanometer scale—namely, electrons carrying nonzero orbital angular momentum and also the so-called Airy beams. Since the wave functions of such electrons do not represent plane waves, the standard Born formula for scattering of them off a potential field is no longer applicable and, hence, needs modification. In the present paper, we address the generic problem of elastic scattering of a wave packet of a fast nonrelativistic particle off a potential field. We obtain simple and convenient formulas for a number of events and an effective cross section in such a scattering, which represent generalization of the Born formula for a case when finite sizes and spatial inhomogeneity of the initial packet should be taken into account. As a benchmark, we consider two simple models corresponding to scattering of a Gaussian wave packet on a Gaussian potential and on a hydrogen atom, and perform a detailed analysis of the effects brought about by the limited sizes of the incident beam and by the finite impact parameter between the potential center and the packet's axis.

  7. Optical Manipulation of Light Scattering in Cold Atomic Rubidium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olave, R. G.; Win, A. L.; Kemp, K.; Roof, S. J.; Balik, S.; Havey, M. D.; Sokolov, I. M.; Kupriyanov, D. V.

    2015-06-01

    A brief perspective on light scattering in dense and cold atomic rubidium is presented. We particularly focus on the influence of auxiliary applied fields on the system response to a weak and nearly resonant probe field. Auxiliary fields can strongly disturb light propagation; in addition to the steady state case, dynamically interesting effects appear clearly in both the time domain, and in the optical polarization dependence of the processes. Following a general introduction, two examples of features found in such studies are presented. These include nonlinear optical effects in (a) comparative studies of forward- and fluorescence-configuration scattering under combined excitation of a control and probe field, and (b) manipulation of the spatial structure of the optical response due to a light shifting strong applied field.

  8. Spontaneous Raman scattering by ground-state oxygen atoms.

    PubMed

    Dasch, C J; Bechtel, J H

    1981-01-01

    We report the first known observation of Raman scattering by oxygen atoms. The (3)P(2)?(3)P(1) and (3)P(2)?(3)P(0) transitions in the electronic ground state that produced Raman shifts of 158 and 227 cm(-1) were detected. These transitions were observed in a fuel-lean atmospheric H(2) + O(2) flame. By comparing the O electronic and O(2) pure-rotational Raman-scattering intensities, we measured the polarized cross sections for the two lines to be 6 +/- 1 x 10(-31) and 4 +/- 1 x 10(-31) cm(2)/sr, respectively, with an excitation source at 532.1 nm. These cross sections are two to three times stronger than those predicted by a single-configuration single-excitation Coulomb approximation. PMID:19701318

  9. Broadening of the interplanetary helium cone structure due to elastic collisions of LISM helium atoms with solar wind ions

    SciTech Connect

    Fahr, H.J.; Nass, H.U.; Rucinski, D.

    1984-11-01

    Neutral interstellar particles penetrating into the heliosphere, besides being subject there to specific loss processes, suffer elastic collisions with KeV-solar wind ions. The momentum transfer to the neutrals connected with these collisions leads to a loss of angular momentum with respect to the Sun and to a fractional compensation of the effective solar gravity. The dynamical particle trajectories hence are changed into non-Keplerians leading to density and temperature distributions differing from those calculated in the past. This is found from a solution of the Boltzmann equation that linearizes the effect of this additional force. It is shown that the HeI-584A resonance glow of the heliospheric helium cone lead to substantially lower interstellar helium temperatures if re-interpreted on the basis of this revised theory. These temperatures now seem to be in accordance with the derived temperatures for interstellar hydrogen.

  10. Broadening of the Interplanetary Helium Cone Structure Due to Elastic Collisions of LISM Helium Atoms with Solar Wind Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahr, H. J.; Nass, H. U.; Rucinski, D.

    1984-01-01

    Neutral interstellar particles penetrating into the heliosphere, besides being subject there to specific loss processes, suffer elastic collisions with KeV-solar wind ions. The momentum transfer to the neutrals connected with these collisions leads to a loss of angular momentum with respect to the Sun and to a fractional compensation of the effective solar gravity. The dynamical particle trajectories hence are changed into non-Keplerians leading to density and temperature distributions differing from those calculated in the past. This is found from a solution of the Boltzmann equation that linearizes the effect of this additional force. It is shown that the HeI-584A resonance glow of the heliospheric helium cone lead to substantially lower interstellar helium temperatures if re-interpreted on the basis of this revised theory. These temperatures now seem to be in accordance with the derived temperatures for interstellar hydrogen.

  11. Scattering of low-energy neutrinos on atomic shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babi?, Andrej; imkovic, Fedor

    2015-10-01

    We present a derivation of the total cross section for inelastic scattering of low-energy solar neutrinos and reactor antineutrinos on bound electrons, resulting in a transition of the electron to an excited state. The atomic-shell structure of various chemical elements is treated in terms of a nonrelativistic approximation. We estimate the interaction rates for modern neutrino detectors, in particular the Borexino and GEMMA experiments. We establish that in these experiments the effect can be safely neglected, but it could be accessible to future large-volume neutrino detectors with low energy threshold.

  12. Scattering of positrons and electrons by alkali atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, T. S.; Kauppila, W. E.; Kwan, C. K.; Lukaszew, R. A.; Parikh, S. P.; Wan, Y. J.; Zhou, S.; Dababneh, M. S.

    1990-01-01

    Absolute total scattering cross sections (Q sub T's) were measured for positrons and electrons colliding with sodium, potassium, and rubidium in the 1 to 102 eV range, using the same apparatus and experimental approach (a beam transmission technique) for both projectiles. The present results for positron-sodium and -rubidium collisions represent the first Q sub T measurements reported for these collision systems. Features which distinguish the present comparisons between positron- and electron-alkali atom Q sub T's from those for other atoms and molecules (room-temperature gases) which have been used as targets for positrons and electrons are the proximity of the corresponding positron- and electron-alkali atom Q sub T's over the entire energy range of overlap, with an indication of a merging or near-merging of the corresponding positron and electron Q sub T's near (and above) the relatively low energy of about 40 eV, and a general tendency for the positron-alkali atom Q sub T's to be higher than the corresponding electron values as the projectile energy is decreased below about 40 eV.

  13. Two-photon double ionization of the helium atom by ultrashort pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Palacios, Alicia; Horner, Daniel A; Rescigno, Thomas N; McCurdy, C William

    2010-05-14

    Two-photon double ionization of the helium atom was the subject of early experiments at FLASH and will be the subject of future benchmark measurements of the associated electron angular and energy distributions. As the photon energy of a single femtosecond pulse is raised from the threshold for two-photon double ionization at 39.5 eV to beyond the sequential ionization threshold at 54.4 eV, the electron ejection dynamics change from the highly correlated motion associated with nonsequential absorption to the much less correlated sequential ionization process. The signatures of both processes have been predicted in accurate \\textit{ab initio} calculations of the joint angular and energy distributions of the electrons, and those predictions contain some surprises. The dominant terms that contribute to sequential ionization make their presence apparent several eV below that threshold. In two-color pump probe experiments with short pulses whose central frequencies require that the sequential ionization process necessarily dominates, a two-electron interference pattern emerges that depends on the pulse delay and the spin state of the atom.

  14. Scattering of an ultrashort electromagnetic radiation pulse by an atom in a broad spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Astapenko, V. A.

    2011-02-15

    The scattering of an ultrashort electromagnetic pulse by atomic particles is described using a consistent quantum-mechanical approach taking into account excitation of a target and nondipole electromagnetic interaction, which is valid in a broad spectral range. This approach is applied to the scattering of single- and few-cycle pulses by a multielectron atom and a hydrogen atom. Scattering spectra are obtained for ultrashort pulses of different durations. The relative contribution of 'elastic' scattering of a single-cycle pulse by a hydrogen atom is studied in the high-frequency limit as a function of the carrier frequency and scattering angle.

  15. Shifts in the ESR Spectra of Alkali-Metal Atoms (Li, Na, K, Rb) on Helium Nanodroplets

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Andreas W; Gruber, Thomas; Filatov, Michael; Ernst, Wolfgang E

    2013-01-01

    He-droplet-induced changes of the hyperfine structure constants of alkali-metal atoms are investigated by a combination of relativistically corrected ab initio methods with a simulation of the helium density distribution based on He density functional theory. Starting from an accurate description of the variation of the hyperfine structure constant in the MHe diatomic systems (M=Li, Na, K, Rb) as a function of the interatomic distance we simulate the shifts induced by droplets of up to 10 000 4He atoms. All theoretical predictions for the relative shifts in the isotropic hyperfine coupling constants of the alkali-metal atoms attached to helium droplets of different size are then tied to a single, experimentally derived parameter of Rb. PMID:23125112

  16. Low-Energy Elastic Electron Scattering by Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zatsarinny O.; Bartschat, K.; Tayal, S. S.

    2006-01-01

    The B-spline R-matrix method is employed to investigate the low-energy elastic electron scattering by atomic oxygen. Flexible non-orthogonal sets of radial functions are used to construct the target description and to represent the scattering functions. A detailed investigation regarding the dependence of the predicted partial and total cross sections on the scattering model and the accuracy of the target description is presented. The predicted angle-integrated elastic cross sections are in good agreement with experiment, whereas significant discrepancies are found in the angle-differential elastic cross sections near the forward direction. .The near-threshold results are found to strongly depend on the treatment of inner-core short-range correlation effects in the target description, as well as on a proper account of the target polarizability. A sharp increase in the elastic cross sections below 1 eV found in some earlier calculations is judged to be an artifact of an unbalanced description of correlation in the N-electron target structure and the (N+l)-electron-collision problems.

  17. Classical and semiclassical theories of atom scattering from corrugated surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, W. W.; Manson, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    A theory based in the semiclassical eikonal approximation is developed to describe energy transfer in the collision of an atomic projectile with a surface which is either ordered or disordered. This theory is extended from the quantum mechanical regime to the classical regime of complete quantum decoherence via the Bohr correspondence principle of large numbers of excited quanta. In the quantum mechanical regime, the theory reproduces the well-known eikonal approximation for elastic collisions, provides a simple and useful expression for single-phonon inelastic scattering, and leads to further expressions for multiple-phonon transfers. In the classical limit, the theory produces an expression that includes the effects of surface corrugation in addition to the excitations of large numbers of phonons. This theory shows that a simple measurement of the most probable intensity of energy-resolved scattering spectra taken as a function of surface temperature, with all other experimentally controllable parameters held fixed, can be used to extract the surface corrugation amplitude. Comparisons with data for Ar scattering from the molten metals Ga and In show good agreement with the measured energy-resolved spectra, the in-plane angular distributions, the out-of-plane angular distributions, and produces values for the corrugation amplitudes that range from 10% to 30% of the average interparticle spacing.

  18. Influence of an external electric field on thermal collisions between ''circular'' Rydberg-state atoms and ground-state helium

    SciTech Connect

    de Prunele, E.

    1986-05-01

    The influence of an external electric field on thermal collisions between a sodium atom excited in a ''circular'' Rydberg state (n = l+1 = m+1 = 20) and a ground-state helium atom is studied numerically within the framework of the impulse approximation. The effect of the field is determined by using parabolic wave functions for the initial and final hydrogenic atomic states. The removal of degeneracy induced by the field appears to have no significant effect for fields in the range of 0-400 V/cm. However, the state-to-state transition cross sections are strongly dependent on the initial orientation as found in previous calculations without electric field.

  19. Cold magnetically trapped 2Dg scandium atoms. II. Scattering dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karman, Tijs; Groenenboom, Gerrit C.

    2014-11-01

    The binary collision dynamics of 2Dg ,3 /2 ground state scandium atoms is studied from first principles. We employ 30 coupled diabatic ab initio potentials in a coupled-channels study of the scattering dynamics of cold and ultracold scandium atoms in external magnetic fields. Due to the long-ranged magnetic dipolar interaction, the field dependence of the cross section does not follow the threshold laws derived by Volpi and Bohn [Phys. Rev. A 65, 052712 (2002), 10.1103/PhysRevA.65.052712]. In the field-free case, the near-threshold cross section is independent of the collision energy, and hence the cross section does not follow the well-established Wigner threshold laws. The observed threshold behavior is explained in the Born approximation. For energies above 1 ? K , inelastic collisions are driven by the anisotropic nonrelativistic electronic interaction. For energies below 100 ? K , the ratio of elastic-to-inelastic collisions is likely to be favorable for evaporative cooling. Both anisotropy in the long-range interaction and in the short-range potential contribute to large cross sections for inelastic collisions at higher energies and lead to a small ratio of elastic-to-inelastic collisions. This is in agreement with the large rates for Zeeman relaxation of submerged-shell atoms observed experimentally. The effect of the uncertainty in the ab initio potential is sampled by scaling the reduced mass and is found to have little influence on the conclusions drawn from this work.

  20. Esr Spectra of Alkali-Metal Atoms on Helium Nanodroplets: a Theoretical Model for the Prediction of Helium Induced Hyperfine Structure Shifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, Reas W.; Filatov, Michael; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2013-06-01

    We predict He-droplet-induced changes of the isotropic HFS constant a_{HFS} of the alkali-metal atoms M = Li, Na, K and Rb on the basis of a model description. Optically detected electron spin resonance spectroscopy has allowed high resolution measurements that show the influence of the helium droplet and its size on the unpaired electron spin density at the alkali nucleus. Our theoretical approach to describe this dependence is based on a combination of two well established techniques: Results of relativistic coupled-cluster calculations on the alkali-He dimers (energy and HFS constant as functions of the binding length) are mapped onto the doped-droplet-situation with the help of helium-density functional theory. We simulate doped droplets He_{N} with N ranging from 50 to 10000, using the diatomic alkali-He-potential energy curves as input. From the obtained density profiles we evaluate average distances between the dopant atom and its direct helium neighborhood. The distances are then set in relation to the variation of the HFS constant with binding length in the simplified alkali-He-dimer model picture. This method yields reliable relative shifts but involves a systematic absolute error. Hence, the absolute values of the shifts are tied to one experimentally determined HFS constant for ^{85}Rb-He_{N = 2000}. With this parameter choice we obtain results in good agreement with the available experimental data for Rb and K^{a,b} confirming the predicted 1/N trend of the functional dependence^{c}. M. Koch, G. Aubck, C. Callegari, and W. E. Ernst, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 035302-1-4 (2009) M. Koch, C. Callegari, and W. E. Ernst, Mol. Phys. 108 (7), 1005-1011 (2010) A. W. Hauser, T. Gruber, M. Filatov, and W. E. Ernst, ChemPhysChem (2013) online DOI: 10.1002/cphc.201200697

  1. He atom surface scattering: Surface dynamics of insulators, overlayers and crystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Safron, S. A.; Skofronick, J. G.

    1992-01-01

    Investigations have focused primarily on surface structure and dynamics of ionic insulators, epitaxial growth onto alkali halide crystals and multiphoton studies. The surface dynamics of RbCl has been re-examined. We have developed a simple force constant model which provides insight into the dynamics of KBr overlayers on NaCl(001), a system with a large lattice mismatch. The KBr/NaCl(001) results are compared to Na/Cu(001) and NaCl/Ge(001). We have completed epitaxial growth experiments for KBr onto RbCl(001). Slab dynamics calculations using a shell model for this system with very small lattice mismatch are being carried out in collaboration with Professor Manson of Clemson University and with Professor Schroeder in Regensburg, Germany. Extensive experiments on multiphoton scattering of helium atoms onto NaCl and, particularly, LiF have been carried out and the theory has been developed to a rather advanced stage by Professor Manson. This work will permit the extraction of more information from time-of-flight spectra. It is shown that the theoretical model provides a very good description of the multiphoton scattering from organic films. Work has started on self-assembling organic films on gold (alkyl thiols/Au(111)). We have begun to prepare and characterize the gold crystal; one of the group members has spent two weeks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory learning the proper Au(111) preparation techniques. One of our students has carried out neutron scattering experiments on NiO, measuring both bulk phonon and magnon dispersion curves.

  2. The Helium Resonant Scattering in the Corona and Heliosphere (HERSCHEL) Suborbital Investigation: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, Daniel

    Although solar elemental abundances have historically been assumed to be representative of cosmic abundances, the advent of measurements from space-borne platforms has provided evidence that solar abundances vary with location within the sun and the heliosphere. The HERSCHEL investigation achieves imaging observations of the hydrogen, helium and electron components of the solar corona in order to establish a link between the variations in helium abundance in the solar chromosphere and and variations in the helium abundance in the solar wind. Three different aspects of this observation are achieved in the three separate instruments constituting the HERSCHEL payload. The mutual support of these three components leads to a measurement of the coronal helium abundance with the minimal a priori assumptions.

  3. Plasmon enhanced Raman scattering effect for an atom near a carbon nanotube.

    PubMed

    Bondarev, I V

    2015-02-23

    Quantum electrodynamics theory of the resonance Raman scattering is developed for an atom in a close proximity to a carbon nanotube. The theory predicts a dramatic enhancement of the Raman intensity in the strong atomic coupling regime to nanotube plasmon near-fields. This resonance scattering is a manifestation of the general electromagnetic surface enhanced Raman scattering effect, and can be used in designing efficient nanotube based optical sensing substrates for single atom detection, precision spontaneous emission control, and manipulation. PMID:25836436

  4. Inelastic cross sections for positron scattering from atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, M.; Hofmann, A.; Raith, W.; Sperber, W.; Jacobsen, F.; Lynn, K.G.

    1994-12-31

    Positronium formation (Ps) cross sections for positrons impinging on atomic hydrogen were measured in the impact energy range from 13eV to 255eV at the High Intensity Positron (HIP) beam at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). The Ps-formation cross section was found to rise rapidly from the threshold at 6.8eV to a maximum value of (2.98 {plus_minus} 0.18) {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} for {approx} 15eV positrons. By 75eV it drops below the detection limit of 0.17 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} cm{sup 2} which is the present level of statistical uncertainty. The experiment was modified to enable the measurement of doubly differential scattering cross sections.

  5. Positron scattering from hydrogen atom embedded in dense quantum plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Arka; Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ghoshal, Arijit; Ratnavelu, K.

    2013-08-01

    Scattering of positrons from the ground state of hydrogen atoms embedded in dense quantum plasma has been investigated by applying a formulation of the three-body collision problem in the form of coupled multi-channel two-body Lippmann-Schwinger equations. The interactions among the charged particles in dense quantum plasma have been represented by exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potentials. Variationally determined hydrogenic wave function has been employed to calculate the partial-wave scattering amplitude. Plasma screening effects on various possible mode of fragmentation of the system e++H(1s) during the collision, such as 1s →1s and 2s→2s elastic collisions, 1s→2s excitation, positronium formation, elastic proton-positronium collisions, have been reported in the energy range 13.6-350 eV. Furthermore, a comparison has been made on the plasma screening effect of a dense quantum plasma with that of a weakly coupled plasma for which the plasma screening effect has been represented by the Debye model. Our results for the unscreened case are in fair agreement with some of the most accurate results available in the literature.

  6. Positron scattering from hydrogen atom embedded in dense quantum plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, Arka; Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ghoshal, Arijit; Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur ; Ratnavelu, K.

    2013-08-15

    Scattering of positrons from the ground state of hydrogen atoms embedded in dense quantum plasma has been investigated by applying a formulation of the three-body collision problem in the form of coupled multi-channel two-body Lippmann-Schwinger equations. The interactions among the charged particles in dense quantum plasma have been represented by exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potentials. Variationally determined hydrogenic wave function has been employed to calculate the partial-wave scattering amplitude. Plasma screening effects on various possible mode of fragmentation of the system e{sup +}+H(1s) during the collision, such as 1s?1s and 2s?2s elastic collisions, 1s?2s excitation, positronium formation, elastic proton-positronium collisions, have been reported in the energy range 13.6-350 eV. Furthermore, a comparison has been made on the plasma screening effect of a dense quantum plasma with that of a weakly coupled plasma for which the plasma screening effect has been represented by the Debye model. Our results for the unscreened case are in fair agreement with some of the most accurate results available in the literature.

  7. The Primordial Helium Abundance: Toward Understanding and Removing the Cosmic Scatter in the DY/DZ Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Ferland, G. J.; Martin, P. G.

    2000-06-01

    We present results from photoionization models of low-metallicity H II regions. These nebulae form the basis for measuring the primordial helium abundance. Our models show that the helium ionization correction factor (ICF) can be nonnegligible for nebulae excited by stars with effective temperatures larger than 40,000 K. Furthermore, we find that when the effective temperature rises to above 45,000 K, the ICF can be significantly negative. This result is independent of the choice of stellar atmosphere. However, if an H II region has an [O III] ?5007/[O I] ?6300 ratio greater than 300, then our models show that, regardless of its metallicity, it will have a negligibly small ICF. A similar, but metallicity-dependent, result was found using the [O III] ?5007/H? ratio. These two results can be used as selection criteria to remove nebulae with potentially nonnegligible ICFs. Use of our metallicity-independent criterion on the data of Izotov & Thuan results in a 20% reduction of the rms scatter about the best-fit Y-Z line. A fit to the selected data results in a slight increase of the value of the primordial helium abundance.

  8. Observation of Localized Vibrational Modes of Graphene Nanodomes by Inelastic Atom Scattering.

    PubMed

    Maccariello, D; Al Taleb, A; Calleja, F; Vzquez de Parga, A L; Perna, P; Camarero, J; Gnecco, E; Faras, D; Miranda, R

    2016-01-13

    Inelastic helium atom scattering (HAS) is suitable to determine low-energy (few meV) vibrations spatially localized on structures in the nanometer range. This is illustrated for the nanodomes that appear often on graphene (Gr) epitaxially grown on single crystal metal surfaces. The nature of the inelastic losses observed in Gr/Ru(0001) and Gr/Cu/Ru(0001) has been clarified by intercalation of Cu below the Gr monolayer, which decouples the Gr layer from the Ru substrate and changes substantially the out-of-plane, flexural phonon dispersion of epitaxial Gr, while maintaining the nanodomes and their localized vibrations. He diffraction proves that the Cu-intercalated Gr layer is well ordered structurally, while scanning tunneling microscopy reveals the persistence of the (slightly modified) periodic array of Gr nanodomes. A simple model explains the order of magnitude of the energy losses associated with the Gr nanodomes and their size dependence. The dispersionless, low-energy phonon branches may radically alter the transport of heat in intercalated Gr. PMID:26630565

  9. High-lying resonances in positron scattering by the helium ion below the Ps(n=3) threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Z.-C.; Ho, Y. K.

    2005-05-01

    Ever since Bhatia and Drachman [1] reported two S-wave resonances in positron scattering by a helium ion, there has been considerable interest in and sometimes controversial on the investigation of the resonances in such a system [2]. In the present work, we apply the method of complex-coordinate rotation to investigate resonances in positron scattering by helium ions. Highly correlated Hylleraas functions are used to calculate resonances for high-angular-momentum states up to L=9. We will report the results for high-lying resonances below Ps(n=3) threshold. A comparison will be made with the available results in the literature. [1] A. K. Bhatia and R. J. Drachman, Phys. Rev. A 42, 5117 (1990) [2] Y. K. Ho, Phys. Rev. A 53, 3165 (1996); A. Igarashi and I. Shimamura, Phys. Rev. A 56, 4733 (1997); Y. K. Ho and Z.-C. Yan, Phys. Rev. A 66, 062705 (2002); A. Igarashi and I. Shimamura, Phys. Rev. A 70, 012706 (2004); N. Yamanaka, et al. Phys. Rev. A 70, 062701 (2004)

  10. Differential elastic scattering cross sections for 54.9eV positrons incident on helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaplin, R. L.; Diana, L. M.; Brooks, D. L.

    1990-01-01

    Absolute differential elastic scattering cross sections measured with the 3-m, high resolution, time-of-flight spectrometer are presented for 54.9eV positrons incident on He. Five point moving average differential cross sections are plotted against average scattering angles which range from 14 to 36 deg. Also the averages of five differential cross sections which have adjacent values of scattering angle are plotted versus the corresponding averages of the scattering angles. The curve fitted to these data is shaped like the theoretical curve but has its minimum and its maximum at scattering angles that are about 4 deg higher and 15 deg lower respectively than predicted by theory.

  11. Light scattering from ultracold atomic gases in optical lattices at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, James S.; Burnett, Keith

    2011-09-15

    We study light scattering from atoms in optical lattices at finite temperature. We examine the light scattered by fermions in the noninteracting regime and by bosons in the superfluid and Mott insulating regimes. We extend previous theoretical studies to include the full band structure of the optical lattice. We find that light scattering that excites atoms out of the lowest band leads to an increase in light scattering away from the classical diffraction peaks and is largely temperature independent. This additional light scattering leads to lower efficiency of temperature measurements based on photon counting.

  12. Compton scattering of two x-ray photons by an atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopersky, Alexey N.; Nadolinsky, Alexey M.; Novikov, Sergey A.

    2015-11-01

    The process of inelastic nonresonant two x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) photon Compton scattering by a free atom is theoretically investigated. The object of the study is the He atom. We obtain the absolute values and the shape of the double differential scattering cross section. The quantum effect of creation of "hot" scattered photons with maximum energy 2 ? ? -I1 s is predicted (? ? is the energy of the incident XFEL photon on the atom, and I1 s is the energy of the ionization threshold of an atomic 1 s2 shell).

  13. Atom scattering from disordered surfaces in the sudden approximation: double collisions effects and quantum liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidar (Hamburger), Daniel A.

    1998-08-01

    The sudden approximation (SA) for scattering of atoms from surfaces is generalized to allow for double collision events and scattering from time-dependent quantum liquid surfaces. The resulting new schemes retain the simplicity of the original SA, while requiring little extra computational effort. The results suggest that inert atom (and in particular He) scattering can be used profitably to study hitherto unexplored forms of complex surface disorder.

  14. State-to-state dynamics of high-n Rydberg H-atom scattering with H2: inelastic scattering and reactive scattering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shengrui; Su, Shu; Dai, Dongxu; Yuan, Kaijun; Yang, Xueming

    2015-04-21

    The state-to-state dynamics of high-n Rydberg H-atom scattering with para-H2 at the collision energies of 0.45 and 1.07 eV have been studied using the H-atom Rydberg tagging time-of-flight technique. Both the inelastic scattering and reactive scattering are observed in the experimental time-of-flight spectra. The products H2(v', j' = odd) come only from reactive scattering and present clearly forward-backward asymmetric angular distributions, which differ from those of the corresponding ion-molecule reaction. The products H2(v', j' = even), however, come from both reactive scattering and inelastic scattering. Simulating the rotational distribution from reactive scattering, we found that most of the H2(v', j' = even) products come from inelastic scattering. The angular distributions of the product H2(v', j' = even) are consistent with what is predicted by the conventional textbook mechanism of inelastic scattering, and are a little different from those of the corresponding ion-molecule inelastic scattering. These results suggest that the effect of Rydberg electron could not be neglected in describing the differential cross sections of H* + para-H2 scattering. From the simulation, the branching ratios of the inelastic scattering channel were determined to be 66% and 79% at the collision energies of 0.45 and 1.07 eV, respectively. PMID:25162182

  15. Electron elastic scattering off A @C60 : The role of atomic polarization under confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmatov, V. K.; Amusia, M. Ya.; Chernysheva, L. V.

    2015-10-01

    The present paper explores possible features of electron elastic scattering off endohedral fullerenes A @C60 . It focuses on how dynamical polarization of the encapsulated atom A by an incident electron might alter scattering off A @C60 compared to the static-atom-A case, as well as how the C60 confinement modifies the impact of atomic polarization on electron scattering compared to the free-atom case. The aim is to provide researchers with a "relative frame of reference" for understanding which part of the scattering processes could be due to electron scattering off the encapsulated atom and which could be due to scattering off the C60 cage. To meet the goal, the C60 cage is modeled by an attractive spherical potential of a certain inner radius, thickness, and depth which is a model used frequently in a great variety of fullerene studies to date. Then, the Dyson equation for the self-energy part of the Green's function of an incident electron moving in the combined field of an encapsulated atom A and C60 is solved in order to account for the impact of dynamical polarization of the encaged atom upon e +A @C60 scattering. The Ba@C60 endohedral is chosen as the case study. The impact is found to be significant, and its utterly different role compared to that in e +Ba scattering is unraveled.

  16. Double photoionization of helium with synchrotron x-rays: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Overview and comparison of photoionization with charged particle impact; The ratio of double to single ionization of helium: the relationship of photon and bare charged particle impact ionization; Double photoionization of helium at high energies; Compton scattering of photons from electrons bound in light elements; Electron ionization and the Compton effect in double ionization of helium; Elimination of two atomic electrons by a single energy photon; Double photoionization of helium at intermediate energies; Double Photoionization: Gauge Dependence, Coulomb Explosion; Single and Double Ionization by high energy photon impact; The effect of Compton Scattering on the double to single ionization ratio in helium; and Double ionization of He by photoionization and Compton scattering. These papers have been cataloged separately for the database.

  17. One- and two-photon spectroscopy of highly excited states of alkali-metal atoms on helium nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Pifrader, Alexandra; Allard, Olivier; Aubck, Gerald; Callegari, Carlo; Ernst, Wolfgang E; Huber, Robert; Ancilotto, Francesco

    2010-10-28

    Alkali-metal atoms captured on the surface of superfluid helium droplets are excited to high energies (?3?eV) by means of pulsed lasers, and their laser-induced-fluorescence spectra are recorded. We report on the one-photon excitation of the (n+1)p?ns transition of K, Rb, and Cs (n=4, 5, and 6, respectively) and on the two-photon one-color excitation of the 5d?5s transition of Rb. Gated-photon-counting measurements are consistent with the relaxation rates of the bare atoms, hence consistent with the reasonable expectation that atoms quickly desorb from the droplet and droplet-induced relaxation need not be invoked. PMID:21033800

  18. One- and two-photon spectroscopy of highly excited states of alkali-metal atoms on helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Pifrader, Alexandra; Allard, Olivier; Auboeck, Gerald; Callegari, Carlo; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Huber, Robert; Ancilotto, Francesco

    2010-10-28

    Alkali-metal atoms captured on the surface of superfluid helium droplets are excited to high energies ({approx_equal}3 eV) by means of pulsed lasers, and their laser-induced-fluorescence spectra are recorded. We report on the one-photon excitation of the (n+1)p(leftarrow)ns transition of K, Rb, and Cs (n=4, 5, and 6, respectively) and on the two-photon one-color excitation of the 5d(leftarrow)5s transition of Rb. Gated-photon-counting measurements are consistent with the relaxation rates of the bare atoms, hence consistent with the reasonable expectation that atoms quickly desorb from the droplet and droplet-induced relaxation need not be invoked.

  19. Dissipative light scattering by a trapped atom approaching electromagnetically-induced-transparency conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Roghani, Maryam; Breuer, Heinz-Peter; Helm, Hanspeter

    2010-03-15

    We study the time dependence of the spectrum of inelastically scattered radiation from a trapped atom. The atom is illuminated by two lasers tuned to the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of the free atom. For counterpropagating laser beams, rapid removal of vibrational energy is observed as the atom approaches near-EIT conditions. We show that the imbalance in the sidebands of the scattered radiation spectrum explains quantitatively the cooling of the center-of-mass motion of the trapped atom. We also examine parameters critical for EIT cooling in situations far from the Lamb-Dicke limit.

  20. Quantum dynamics of the pick up process of atoms by superfluid helium nanodroplets: the Ne + ((4)He)1000 system.

    PubMed

    Vil, Arnau; Gonzlez, Miguel; Mayol, Ricardo

    2016-01-21

    The capture dynamics of a Ne atom by a superfluid helium nanodroplet (((4)He)N=1000; T = 0.37 K), Ne + ((4)He)N? Ne@((4)He)N', was investigated using a quantum approach (TDDFT (helium) + quantum wave packet (Ne)) at zero angular momentum and a rather wide range of Ne atom initial mean velocities (?v0?: 90-1300 m s(-1)). This is probably the first quantum dynamics study focusing on the pick up process and the evolution of the dopant inside the nanodroplet and the second more detailed investigation on this topic. For ?v0? = 210 m s(-1) and above the atom is always captured, but for lower velocities the probability of capture is somewhat below the unity and decreases as ?v0? diminishes. The main energy exchange begins with the collision of the atom with the nanodroplet surface, and the excess of energy placed in the doped nanodroplet is progressively released by the evaporation of a small amount of (4)He atoms. Once the atom has entered into the nanodroplet its mean position follows an oscillatory trajectory, due to multiple sequential collisions with the inner surface of the nanodroplet, and its mean velocity reaches values which are below Landau's critical velocity. This probably corresponds to the general behavior of nanodroplets with a bulk-like region when moderate collision energies (i.e., similar to the ones considered here) are involved. In the future we hope to investigate the influence of angular momentum on the mechanism of the pick up process, using the same quantum dynamics method. PMID:26688071

  1. Effect of charge polarization on inelastic scattering - Differential and integral cross sections for excitation of the 2/super 1/S state of helium by electron impact.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. K.; Truhlar, D. G.; Cartwright, D. C.; Trajmar, S.

    1972-01-01

    Experimental differential scattering cross sections for excitation of helium by electron impact from its ground state to its 2(super 1)S state are presented at four incident electron energies in the range from 26 to 55.5 eV for scattering angles between 10 and 70 deg and at 81.6 eV for scattering angles between 10 and 80 deg. These cross sections are normalized and compared with results predicted by the Born approximation, the polarized Born approximation, and several other first-order approximations in which direct excitation is calculated in the Born approximation and exchange scattering in various Ochkur-like approximations.

  2. LIF Measurements on an Atomic Helium Beam in the Edge of a Fusion Plasma—possible derivation of the electron density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krychowiak, M.; Mertens, Ph.; Schweer, B.; Brezinsek, S.; König, R.; Schmitz, O.; Brix, M.; Klinger, T.; Samm, U.

    2008-03-01

    Local values of the electron density and temperature in the edge of a fusion plasma can be derived with high space and time resolution by the use of line radiation of atomic helium beams. The accuracy of this method is mainly limited by the uncertainties in the collisional-radiative model which is needed in order to obtain both plasma parameters from the measured relative intensities of atomic helium lines. Combination of a helium beam with a pulsed high-power laser provides a possibility of ne measurement which does not require a detailed knowledge of the collisional-radiative model. The method relies on resonant laser pumping of some levels and analyzing their fluorescence after the end of the laser pulse. Such measurements were already performed in low temperature plasmas with some content of atomic helium [1,2,3]. In this paper, we discuss the applicability of this method in the fusion edge plasma in the density range of ˜1012-1013 cm-3 when exciting helium atoms with a laser at the wavelength of λ = 388.9 nm tuned to the triplet transition 23S⃗33P ° and observing the fluorescence light at the laser wavelength and at λ = 587.6 nm(33D⃗23P °). A first test measurement at the TEXTOR tokamak in Jülich performed by use of an excimer-pumped dye laser in connection with a thermal helium beam is shown and discussed.

  3. Comment on The spectral decomposition of the helium atom two-electron configuration in terms of hydrogenic orbitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Rocco, Hctor O.

    2013-03-01

    Brief remarks are made concerning Hutchinson et al 's paper (2013 Eur. J. Phys. 34 111) about the ground configuration of the helium atom and the importance of continuum states. The purpose of our comment is twofold: firstly, to indicate that even when using a good basis set, obtained using the self-consistent Hartree-Fock method, the contribution of other bound states and continuum ones is of some importance to calculate energy levels; and secondly, to emphasize that continuum states can be of great importance to satisfy several rigorous sum rules.

  4. Absolute isotropic spectral intensities in collision-induced light scattering by helium pairs over a large frequency domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachet, Florent; Le Duff, Yves; Guillot-Nol, Christophe; Chrysos, Michael

    2000-06-01

    We measured the polarized binary collision-induced light scattering spectrum from room-temperature gaseous helium over the greatly extended spectral domain ?=5-1200 cm-1, and then deduced the isotropic spectrum that we report in the interval ?=100-1200 cm-1. Our experimental results were calibrated on an absolute scale. These data were compared to those from quantum-mechanical computations, where use of advanced induced-polarizability incremental traces was made. This comparison enabled us to check several trace models and to show that for certain ab initio ones the computed spectra agree well with our measurements. As was borne out from our computations the main contributions to the spectral intensities come from the exchange component of the incremental trace and its negative mixing with the rest of the trace components.

  5. Scattering of a photon by an electron of the atom continuous spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khopersky, A. N.; Nadolinsky, A. M.; Koneev, R. V.; Yavna, V. A.

    2015-08-01

    The quantum effect of anomalous inelastic scattering of an X-ray photon by an ? p-electron of the 1 s ? ? p continuous spectrum of the state of atom photoionization is predicted theoretically. It is established that, in the region of elastic photon scattering by an electron of the continuous spectrum, together with the known contribution of the Thomson component ( l = 0), there appears a contribution of the infinite (and countable) number of scattering harmonics l ? [1;?]. As an object of the investigation, the Be atom is taken. The absolute values and shape of the triple differential cross section of the elastic, normal, and anomalous Compton scattering have been obtained.

  6. Phase-operation for conduction electron by atomic-scale scattering via single point-defect

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaoka, Katsumi Yaginuma, Shin; Nakayama, Tomonobu

    2014-03-17

    In order to propose a phase-operation technique for conduction electrons in solid, we have investigated, using scanning tunneling microscopy, an atomic-scale electron-scattering phenomenon on a 2D subband state formed in Si. Particularly, we have noticed a single surface point-defect around which a standing-wave pattern created, and a dispersion of scattering phase-shifts by the defect-potential against electron-energy has been measured. The behavior is well-explained with appropriate scattering parameters: the potential height and radius. This result experimentally proves that the atomic-scale potential scattering via the point defect enables phase-operation for conduction electrons.

  7. He atom-surface scattering: Surface dynamics of insulators, overlayers and crystal growth. Progress report, May 1, 1991--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Safron, S.A.; Skofronick, J.G.

    1994-04-01

    This progress report describes work carried out in the study of surface structure and dynamics of ionic insulators, the microscopic interactions controlling epitaxial growth and the formation of overlayers, and energy exchange in multiphonon surface scattering. The approach used is to employ high resolution helium atom scattering to study the geometry and structural features of the surfaces. Experiments have been carried out on the surface dynamics of RbCl and preliminary studies done on CoO and NiO. Epitaxial growth and overlayer dynamics experiments on the systems NaCl/NaCl(001), KBr/NaCl(001), NaCl/KBr(001) and KBr/RbCl(001) have been performed. They have collaborated with two theoretical groups to explore models of overlayer dynamics with which to compare and to interpret their experimental results. They have carried out extensive experiments on the multiphonon scattering of helium atoms from NaCl and, particularly, LiF. Work has begun on self-assembling organic films on gold and silver surfaces (alkyl thiols/Au(111) and Ag(111)).

  8. Elastic scattering of polarized protons on helium three at 800 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Azizi, A.

    1985-07-01

    A set of spin dependent parameters and cross sections has been measured for polarized p-/sup 3/He elastic scattering over the range of q .7 to 4.2 fm/sup -1/. The experiment was done at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) using the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) with a polarized proton beam at .8 GeV. The focal plane polarimeter of the HRS was used to determine the spin direction of the scattered proton. Since /sup 3/He is one of the simplest nuclei, polarized p-/sup 3/He scattering provides a very sensitive test of multiple scattering theories. The theoretical analysis was done by using two different wave functions for /sup 3/He as input to the multiple scattering theory. The theoretical calculations and experimental data together will give us useful information about nucleon-nucleon amplitudes and also help us to obtain a better understanding of the scattering process. 68 refs., 55 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Atom interferometric studies of light scattering - A new technique for measuring atomic recoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beattie, Scott

    This dissertation presents two techniques for measuring the atomic recoil frequency, oq, using a single-state atom interferometer that utilizes a dilute cloud of laser-cooled 85Rb atoms. An important motivation for these measurements is that o q, which is related to the ratio of Planck's constant and the atomic mass of rubidium hmRb , can be used to infer the atomic fine structure constant, alpha. The two techniques presented here involve time domain measurements carried out with standing-wave laser fields that manipulate atoms in the same atomic ground state and exploit the wave nature of cold atoms. The first technique uses two off-resonant standing-wave pulses to interfere momentum states so that the recoil frequency can be determined. However, to model the signal shape it is necessary to include effects of spontaneous emission during the interaction with light and the spatial profile of the laser beam. The second technique provides a robust alternative approach for measuring the recoil frequency because the signal shape is considerably simpler and can be modeled easily. We report measurements of atomic recoil using both techniques that are precise to 1 part per million. The precision was limited mainly by the time scale of the experiment ( 20 ms) due to the presence of magnetic field gradients. The dissertation also discusses recent improvements that have extended the time scale to the transit time limit for cold atoms. This is the time of travel of cold atoms through the region of interaction defined by the laser beams. The interferometer uses two standing-wave pulses separated by time T to put the atoms in a superposition of momentum states. Interference between momentum states produce a density grating echo signal at time 2 T. The echo time, 2T, corresponds to the time at which the Doppler phases of the momentum states associated with all atoms in the sample cancel. The echo technique is, therefore, a general method to overcome the effect of the velocity distribution of the sample. The amplitude of the echo signal is related to the contrast of the density grating and is periodic in T. The first technique exploits this dependence to measure oq. To carry out the measurement of oq using the first technique, it is necessary to understand the effects of spontaneous emission and the spatial profile of the laser beam. We find that spontaneous emission influences both the shape of the echo signal and its periodic T dependent amplitude in a manner consistent with theoretical predictions. The results show that the T dependent signal is related to the effective radiative decay rate of the excited state. We also present results that test theoretical predictions for several properties of the echo formation, such as the variation in momentum transfer due to the change in the angle between the traveling-wave components of the excitation pulses, strength of the atom-field interaction, and the effect of spatial profile of the excitation beams. We have also demonstrated a considerable improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio of the echo signal by using intensity detection with a photomultiplier tube in place of heterodyne detection. We have also used this interferometer to investigate the effect of light scattering due to an additional standing wave pulse applied at t = 2T -- deltaT. In this case, the grating contrast can be fully recovered if deltaT is an integral multiple of the recoil period Tr = pi/o q. Measuring the revival in contrast over the time scale of the experiment has resulted in the development of the second technique to measure oq. The contrast is accurately described by a coherence function which is the Fourier transform of the momentum distribution produced by the additional standing wave pulse. The effects of spontaneous emission and spatial profile of the laser beam are only to modify the Fourier coefficients used to fit the data and, therefore, no prior knowledge of these parameters is required, ensuring that the technique is both simple and robust. We also show that coherence functions can be used to make

  10. Multiphonon atom-surface scattering from corrugated surfaces: derivation of the inelastic scattering spectrum for diffraction states.

    PubMed

    Gumhalter, Branko

    2012-03-14

    A strictly quantum mechanical derivation of the energy and parallel momentum resolved scattering spectrum formula that combines the effects of the diffraction of atoms from corrugated surfaces and multiple inelastic scattering by dispersive phonons is presented. The final result is expressed in the compact and numerically tractable form of a Fourier transform of a cumulant expansion in which each term embodies an interplay between the processes of projectile diffraction and multiphonon scattering to all orders in the respective interaction potentials. The Debye-Waller reduction of the intensities of diffraction peaks is explicitly formulated. PMID:22353468

  11. OROCHI experiment: Laser spectroscopy of RI atoms in superfluid helium for measurements of nuclear spins and electromagnetic moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Takeshi

    2014-09-01

    We have been developing a new laser spectroscopy technique named as OROCHI (Optical RI-atom Observation in Condensed Helium as Ion-catcher) for measurements of nuclear spins and electromagnetic moments of low yield exotic radioisotopes (RIs). In this technique, we use superfluid helium (He II) liquid as a stopping material of RI beam in which in-situ laser spectroscopy of the RI atoms stopped in He II is carried out. The characteristic features of He II, i.e. high trapping efficiency of He II liquid for accelerated ion beams and the characteristics of atomic spectra in He II, enables us to measure the nuclear spins and moments of the extremely low yield RIs. So far, we have demonstrated the feasibility of our method to deduce the nuclear spins and moments with stable Rb, Cs, Ag and Au isotopes supplied into He II by laser sputtering technique. In addition, we have also succeeded in observing laser-radiowave/microwave double resonance signals of 84-87Rb atoms injected into He II as energetic ion beam. In these on-line experiment, the 84-87Rb isotope beams (intensity: up to 105 particles/s) were provided with RIPS beamline in RIKEN, and introduced into He II filled in a cryostat. Special care was taken in controlling the stopping position of injected Rb isotopes. Aluminum energy degraders of varied thickness from 0 to 0.8 mm were placed upstream of the beam injection window of the He II cryostat for optimizing the stopping position The 84-87Rb atoms stopped and then neutralized in He II were optically pumped and polarized with circularly polarized pumping laser light whose wavelength were tuned to 780 nm, D1 absorption line of Rb atoms in He II. The polarized atoms were subjected to irradiation of radiowave or microwave, and then we demonstrated the double resonance spectroscopy for observing the Zeeman transition of 84-87Rb atoms and the hyperfine transition of 87Rb, respectively In this presentation we will show the details of OROCHI technique and the present status of our development, in particular the result of the recent on-line experiment.

  12. Theory of light and atom scattering in the Bose-Einstein condensate of a dilute gas

    SciTech Connect

    Avetisyan, Ya. A.; Trifonov, E. D.

    2006-11-15

    A semiclassical theory of superradiant light scattering from a Bose-Einstein condensate of a dilute gas is developed without recourse to the mean field approximation. The dynamics and spectrum of superradiant field, as well as the kinetics of formation of coherent atomic states with various translational momenta are calculated. The results are qualitatively consistent with experimental data for atoms scattered in the backward direction relative to that of the exciting laser beam propagation.

  13. Intershell correlations in nonresonant Compton scattering of an X-ray photon by an atom

    SciTech Connect

    Hopersky, A. N. Nadolinsky, A. M.; Ikoeva, K. Kh.; Khoroshavina, O. A.

    2011-11-15

    The role of intershell correlations in nonresonant Compton scattering of an X-ray photon by a free multielectron atom is studied theoretically for the Ar atom. The results of calculation are of a predictive nature. The developed mathematical formalism is general in nature and can be applied to a wide set of elements from the Periodic Table, for which the description of the wavefunctions of scattering states in the nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock approximation remains correct.

  14. Microscopic theory of scattering of weak electromagnetic radiation by a dense ensemble of ultracold atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolov, I. M. Kupriyanov, D. V.; Havey, M. D.

    2011-02-15

    Based on the developed quantum microscopic theory, the interaction of weak electromagnetic radiation with dense ultracold atomic clouds is described in detail. The differential and total cooperative scattering cross sections are calculated for monochromatic radiation as particular examples of application of the general theory. The angular, spectral, and polarization properties of scattered light are determined. The dependence of these quantities on the sample size and concentration of atoms is studied and the influence of collective effects is analyzed.

  15. Elastic scattering of electrons and positrons by atoms. Schrdinger and Dirac partial wave analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvat, Francesc; Mayol, Ricardo

    1993-03-01

    Two FORTRAN 77 codes are described which provide a complete description of elastic scattering of electrons and positrons by atoms using the static field approximation with non-relativistic (Schrdinger) and relativistic (Dirac) partial wave analysis. The delivered information includes phase shifts, differential cross-sections, scattering amplitudes and percentage points of the single scattering angular distribution. The scattering field may be internally generated by the codes (which incorporate an accurate analytical approximation to the Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater field of free atoms) or read from the input file. Solid state effects for scattering in solids are described by means of a simple muffin-tin model. For electron scattering, exchange corrections are also taken into account. Phase shifts are obtained by using the RADWEQ subroutine package [Comput. Phys. Commun. 62 (1991) 65] to solve the radial equations. The relativistic code provides reliable cross-section data for kinetic energies between ? 1 keV and ? 1 MeV.

  16. Effects of cold work and niobium on the blistering of zirconium by helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zee, R. H.; Watters, J. F.

    1984-05-01

    Zr-2.5 wt% Nb and high purity zirconium, in either the fully annealed or 40% cold-worked conditions, were irradiated with 50 keV helium ions at temperatures between 100 K and 773 K to doses up to 2 10 22 ions/m 2. Above 300 K, blisters were not observed in annealed zirconium whereas at lower temperatures, extensive surface damage was produced. In Zr-2.5 wt% Nb, blisters were found in both the annealed and cold-worked alloys at all temperatures. The blistering behaviour in zirconium is related to the trapping of the implanted helium ions and the mechanical properties of these materials. Two zirconium single crystals were irradiated at 573 K and 773 K for comparison. Extensive blistering was observed in both single crystals even though no surface damage was found in the polycrystalline material irradiated under the same conditions.

  17. Comparison of atomic oxygen measurements by incoherent scatter and satellite-borne mass spectrometer techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, A. E.; Alcayde, D.

    1974-01-01

    Atomic oxygen densities determined by the incoherent scatter technique are compared to densities deduced from satellite-borne mass spectrometer measurements and are found to agree within experimental error. The diurnal variations inferred from the incoherent scatter measurements do show, however, some departure from diurnal variations found by modeling the mass spectrometer results. Some implications of these departures are briefly discussed.

  18. Interacting double dark resonances in a hot atomic vapor of helium

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, S.; Ghosh, R.; Laupretre, T.; Bretenaker, F.; Goldfarb, F.

    2011-08-15

    We experimentally and theoretically study two different tripod configurations using metastable helium ({sup 4}He*), with the probe field polarization perpendicular and parallel to the quantization axis, defined by an applied weak magnetic field. In the first case, the two dark resonances interact incoherently and merge together into a single electromagnetically induced transparency peak with increasing coupling power. In the second case, we observe destructive interference between the two dark resonances inducing an extra absorption peak at the line center.

  19. Influence of coherent Raman scattering on coherent population trapping in atomic sodium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Vincent; Bennink, Ryan S.; Marino, Alberto M.; Boyd, Robert W.; Stroud, C.R. Jr.; Narducci, F.A.

    2004-11-01

    We study how coherent Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman scattering influence coherent population trapping. In an experiment using an atomic sodium vapor cell we observe induced transparency, induced absorption, and gain features, all of subnatural linewidth. The electromagnetically induced resonance is a peak or a dip depending on which side of the optical transition the fields are tuned to, and thus whether coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering or coherent Stokes Raman scattering is the dominant process.

  20. The Scattering of Gas Atoms from Solid Surfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Alan J.

    1977-01-01

    Traditional undergraduate courses in gas kinetic theory encourage the view that in all collisions between a gas atom and a surface, the angle of incidence of the gas atom equals its angle of reflection. This article illustrates and explains the incorrectness in assuming specular reflection and zero dwell time. (Author/MA)

  1. Detection of individual atoms in helium buffer gas and observation of their real-time motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pan, C. L.; Prodan, J. V.; Fairbank, W. M., Jr.; She, C. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Single atoms are detected and their motion measured for the first time to our knowledge by the fluorescence photon-burst method in the presence of large quantities of buffer gas. A single-clipped digital correlator records the photon burst in real time and displays the atom's transit time across the laser beam. A comparison is made of the special requirements for single-atom detection in vacuum and in a buffer gas. Finally, the probability distribution of the bursts from many atoms is measured. It further proves that the bursts observed on resonance are due to single atoms and not simply to noise fluctuations.

  2. Inter-atomic force constants of BaF{sub 2} by diffuse neutron scattering measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Sakuma, Takashi Makhsun,; Sakai, Ryutaro; Xianglian; Takahashi, Haruyuki; Basar, Khairul; Igawa, Naoki; Danilkin, Sergey A.

    2015-04-16

    Diffuse neutron scattering measurement on BaF{sub 2} crystals was performed at 10 K and 295 K. Oscillatory form in the diffuse scattering intensity of BaF{sub 2} was observed at 295 K. The correlation effects among thermal displacements of F-F atoms were obtained from the analysis of oscillatory diffuse scattering intensity. The force constants among neighboring atoms in BaF{sub 2} were determined and compared to those in ionic crystals and semiconductors.

  3. Solid-state effects on Rayleigh-scattering experiments: Limits for the free-atom approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonalves, O. D.; Cusatis, C.; Mazzaro, I.

    1993-12-01

    Elastic scattering of photons from solid samples of Pb, Pt, and W was measured in order to investigate the limits within which scattering experiments can be described as being due to free atoms. The experiments were performed with photons of 22.1 keV from an x-ray tube and from an 241Am (59.54 keV) ? source, providing a momentum transfer ranging from x=0.1 to 2.0 Å-1. It is shown that the low-momentum-transfer limit for the free-atom approximation will depend on the scatterer, temperature, geometrical resolution, and on the accuracy of the experiment.

  4. Experimental visualization of scattering at defects in electronic transport through a single atomic junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-hui; Wahl, Peter; Kern, Klaus

    2013-05-01

    For electronic transport at the nanoscale, coherent scattering at defects plays an important role. Therefore, the capability of visualizing the influence of defects on the conductivity of single atomic junctions may benefit the development of future nano-electronics. Here, we report imaging the coherent scattering from a defect with well-controlled geometry by quantum point contact microscopy recently developed by us. An ˜10% modulation in transport conductance of a single atomic junction is observed, with a phase shift of nearly π compared to the tunneling conductance. With the well-defined scattering geometry, we performed a theoretical calculation of the conductance and found the result consistent with the experiment.

  5. Nanometer-range atomic order directly recovered from resonant diffuse scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopecký, M.; Kub, J.; Fábry, J.; Hlinka, J.

    2016-02-01

    The method for three-dimensional imaging with an atomic resolution, based on the measurement of resonant scattering of x rays, is presented and tested on a nanoscale-range occupational ordering of niobium and magnesium ions in the lead magnesium niobate (PbMg1 /3Nb2 /3O3 ) single crystal. X-ray diffuse scattering experiments performed at two wavelengths close to the absorption edge of niobium allowed us to record two 1024 ×1024 ×1024 data sets of scattering intensities covering densely a large volume of the reciprocal space (up to Qmax=8.5 Å-1 , with steps smaller than δ Q =0.05 Å-1 ). It is demonstrated that the anomalous part of the scattering intensity, including both discrete diffraction spots and diffuse scattering, can be employed to reconstruct the local atomic environment around the niobium cation up to the distance of several nanometers.

  6. Numerical simulation of the double-to-single ionization ratio for the helium atom in strong laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhangjin; Zheng, Yanyan; Yang, Weifeng; Song, Xiaohong; Xu, Junliang; DiMauro, L. F.; Zatsarinny, Oleg; Bartschat, Klaus; Morishita, Toru; Zhao, Song-Feng; Lin, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    We present calculations on the ratio between double and single ionization of helium by a strong laser pulse at a wavelength of 780 nm using the quantitative rescattering (QRS) model. According to this model, the yield for the doubly charged ion He+2 can be obtained by multiplying the returning electron wave packet (RWP) with the total cross sections (TCSs) for electron impact ionization and electron impact excitation of +He in the singlet spin channel. The singlet constraint was imposed since the interaction of the helium atom with the laser and the recollision processes both preserve the total spin of the system. An R -matrix (close-coupling) code is used to obtain accurate TCSs, while the RWPs, according to the QRS, are calculated by the strong-field approximation for high-energy photoelectrons. The laser field, which lowers the required energy for the electron to escape from the nucleus at the time of recollision, is also taken into account. The simulated results are in good agreement with the measured He+2/+He ratio over a broad range of laser intensities. The result demonstrates that the QRS approach based on the rescattering model is fully capable of quantitatively interpreting nonsequential double ionization processes.

  7. Potential of Energetic Neutral Helium Atoms to Resolve Structure of the Local Interstellar Medium within 0.1 Parsec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaczyna, P.; Grzedzielski, S.; Bzowski, M.

    2014-12-01

    Expected fluxes of energetic neutral helium atoms (He ENA) emitted from the heliosheath and created by the Ribbon secondary ENA mechanism are relatively small for the directions of the nose and flanks of the heliosphere. The mean free path against ionization in the Local Interstellar Cloud (LIC) for the He ENA reaches ~8,000 AU for atoms of energy ~5 keV, i.e., about 10 times higher than the mean free path against ionization for hydrogen atoms for the same energy. Thus observation of potential sources in the Local Interstellar Medium by an ENA detector could be possible for distances over a dozen thousand AU. This includes a potential to observe processes at the LIC boundary, to which the closest distance is likely smaller than 10,000 AU. Measurements of He ENA could potentially be used to bridge the gap between direct in situ sampling of our Galactic environment, available from Ulysses and IBEX, and the parsec-scale telescopic observations of interstellar absorption lines. Estimates of the expected heliospheric emission of He ENA are taken from a simple model of the heliosphere, for which we have obtained results consistent with HSTOF observation of He ENA. We use analytical model of the secondary ENA emission with a simple heliolatitude dependence in the supersonic solar wind. For the extraheliospheric sources, we examine simple He ENA production models on distant (<~0.1 pc) boundary layer. One such model, proposed earlier as an extraheliospheric source for the IBEX Ribbon at the hypothetic interface between the LIC and the Local Bubble, is now extended to provide estimates of the fluxes at a wider energy range, from a few to a few tens of keV, taking various distances to the interface into account. Including an appropriate mass spectrometer in the IMAP energetic neutral atom detector will give opportunity to distinguish helium atoms from the general ENA flux. This added capability would provide IMAP with a potential to discover possible enhancements in the He ENA fluxes other than from the heliotail direction, which could enable studying kinetic non-equilibrium processes operating in the "dark gap" region currently inaccessible for observations by IBEX and by traditional astrophysical techniques. These processes are potentially ubiquitous in the interstellar medium.

  8. Development of a Supersonic Atomic Oxygen Nozzle Beam Source for Crossed Beam Scattering Experiments

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Sibener, S. J.; Buss, R. J.; Lee, Y. T.

    1978-05-01

    A high pressure, supersonic, radio frequency discharge nozzle beam source was developed for the production of intense beams of ground state oxygen atoms. An efficient impedance matching scheme was devised for coupling the radio frequency power to the plasma as a function of both gas pressure and composition. Techniques for localizing the discharge directly behind the orifice of a water-cooled quartz nozzle were also developed. The above combine to yield an atomic oxygen beam source which produces high molecular dissociation in oxygen seeded rare gas mixtures at total pressures up to 200 torr: 80 to 90% dissociation for oxygen/argon mixtures and 60 to 70% for oxygen/helium mixtures. Atomic oxygen intensities are found to be greater than 10{sup 17} atom sr{sup -1} sec{sup -1}. A brief discussion of the reaction dynamics of 0 + IC1 ..-->.. I0 + C1 is also presented.

  9. Electron capture by alpha particles from helium atoms in a Coulomb-Born distorted-wave approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari-Adivi, E.; Ghavaminia, H.

    2012-12-01

    A three-body Coulomb-Born continuum distorted-wave approximation is applied to calculate the differential and total cross sections for single-electron exchange in the collision of fast alpha particles with helium atoms in their ground states. The applied first-order distorted wave theory satisfies correct Coulomb boundary conditions. Both post and prior forms of the transition amplitude are calculated. The nuclear-screening effect of the passive electron on the differential and total cross sections is investigated. The results are compared with those of other theories and with the available experimental data. For differential cross sections, the comparisons show a reasonable agreement with empirical measurements at higher impact energies. The agreement between experimental data and the present calculations for total cross sections with the average of the post and prior forms of the transition amplitude is reasonable at all the specified energies.

  10. Energy-dependent photoelectron angular distributions of two-color two-photon above threshold ionization of atomic helium

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, Louis H.; Doughty, Benjamin; Leone, Stephen R.

    2011-07-15

    Energy-dependent photoelectron angular distributions from two-color two-photon above threshold ionizations are investigated to determine the partial-wave characteristics of free-free electronic transitions in helium. Sideband photoelectron energies ranging from 0.18 to 13.0 eV are measured with different wavelengths of the perturbative infrared dressing field as well as different individually selected high-order harmonics. Using the experimentally measured cross-section ratios and anisotropy parameters together with analytical expressions derived from second-order perturbation theory, the partial-wave branching fractions going to the S and D waves in the positive and negative sidebands are determined as a function of photoelectron kinetic energy. The results provide a sensitive test for theoretical models of two-color two-photon above threshold ionization in atoms and molecules.

  11. Advances in the helium-jet coupled on-line mass separator RAMA. [Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Moltz, D M; Aysto, J; Cable, M D; Parry, R F; Haustein, P E; Wouters, J M; Cerny, J

    1980-01-01

    General improvements to the on-line mass separator RAMA (Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer) have yielded a greater reliability and efficiency for some elements. A new utilitarian helium-jet chamber has been installed to facilitate quick target and degrader foil changes in addition to a new ion source holder. A higher efficiency hollow-cathode, cathode-extraction ion source, for lower melting point elements (< 1200/sup 0/C) has also been designed. Tests with the beta-delayed proton emitter /sup 37/Ca showed a factor of five increase in yield over the old hollow-cathode, anode-extraction source. A differentially-pumped-tape drive system compatible with both ..gamma..-..gamma.. and ..beta..-..gamma.. experiments has been incorporated into the general detection system. All major operating parameters will soon be monitored by a complete stand-alone microprocessor system which will eventually be upgraded to a closed-loop control system.

  12. A streak camera study of superfluorescence at multiple wavelengths from helium atoms excited using free electron laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harries, James R.; Iwayama, Hiroshi; Nagasono, Mitsuru; Togashi, Tadashi; Yabashi, Makina; Kuma, Susumu; Nakajima, Kyo; Miyamoto, Yuki; Ohae, Chiaki; Sasao, Noboru; Shigemasa, Eiji

    2015-05-01

    We report the observation of superfluourescence at wavelengths (in air) of 501.6 nm, 667.8 nm, and 728.1 nm following the excitation of helium atoms with free-electron laser pulses at wavelengths of 53.7 nm (n = 3 excitation) and 52.2 nm (n = 4 excitation). The observed wavelengths of the superfluorescence pulses correspond to 1s3p-1s2s, 1s3d-1s2p, and 1s3s-1s2p transitions. Observation of superfluorescence on these transitions implies either competing cascade decays, or direct excitation of non-dipole allowed transitions. We have studied the time structure of the emitted pulses using a streak camera, and the results cannot be explained by straightforward considerations using the usual model for two-level superfluorescence.

  13. Subnanogram determination of inorganic and organic mercury by helium-microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushi, K. ); Willie, S.N.; Sturgeon, R.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Inorganic and organic mercury were determined by helium-microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following cold vapor generation. Whereas only inorganic mercury was reduced by stannous ion in an acidic medium, both inorganic and organic mercury (total mercury) were reduced by stannous ion in the presence of cupric ion in a basic medium. Organic mercury was determined as the difference between total and inorganic mercury. Detection limits for inorganic and organic mercury were 11 and 10 pg, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was verified through the determination of inorganic, total and organic mercury in two marine biological standard reference materials, DORM-1 and TORT-1. 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  14. Investigations of surface structural, dynamical, and magnetic properties of systems exhibiting multiferroicity, and topological phases by helium scattering spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    El-Batanouny, Maged

    2015-08-03

    We propose to investigate the surface structural, dynamics and magnetic properties of the novel class of topological insulator crystals, as well as crystals that exhibit multiferroicity, magnetoelectricity and thermoelectricity. Topological insulators (TIs) are a new class of insulators in which a bulk gap for electronic excitations is generated because of the strong spin-orbit coupling inherent to these systems. These materials are distinguished from ordinary insulators by the presence of gapless metallic surface states, resembling chiral edge modes in quantum Hall systems, but with unconventional spin textures. These exotic metallic states are formed by topological conditions that also render the electrons travelling on such surfaces insensitive to scattering by impurities. The electronic quasi-particles populating the topological surface state are Dirac fermions; they have a linear dispersion and thus are massless just like photons. We propose to investigate the interaction of these massless Dirac fermions with the massive lattice in the newly discovered crystals, Bi2Se3, Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3. We shall use inelastic helium beam scattering from surfaces to search for related signatures in surface phonon dispersions mappings that cover the entire surface Brillouin zone of these materials. Our recent investigations of the (001) surface of the multiferroic crystals (Li/Na)Cu2O2 revealed an anomalous surface structural behavior where surface Cu$^{2+}$ row rise above the surface plane as the crystal was cooled. Subsequent worming revealed the onset of a thermally activated incommensurate surface phase, driven by the elevated rows. We are currently investigating the structure of the magnetic phases in these quasi-one-dimensional magnetic rows. Multiferroics are excellent candidates for large magnetoelectric response. We propose to extend this investigation to the class of delafossites which are also multiferroics and have been investigated as good candidates for thermoelectric power devices. They are also typical triangular lattice antiferromagnets with geometric magnetic frustration that leads to helimagnetic structures.

  15. Atomic scattering factors for K-shell and L-shell ionization by fast electrons

    PubMed

    Oxley; Allen

    2000-09-01

    Atomic scattering factors have been calculated for K-shell ionization for elements in the range Z = 6 (carbon) to Z = 50 (tin) and for L-shell ionization in the range Z = 20 (calcium) to Z = 60 (neodymium). The calculations are based on relativistic Hartree-Fock wave functions for the atomic bound states and Hartree-Slater wave functions for the continuum wave functions. The results are presented in tabular form such that accurate values of the scattering factors can be obtained by cubic spline interpolation for incident electron energies between 50 and 400 keV and for scattering vectors with magnitude s = sin straight theta / lambda up to 2.5 A(-1) (2straight theta is the scattering angle and lambda the wavelength of the incident electrons). A separate parameterization of the form factors is given for 2.5 atomic scattering factors in an exponential form has been obtained by fitting the calculated form factors in the region s scattering factors are suitable for the calculation of ionization cross sections for use in atom location by channelling-enhanced microanalysis (ALCHEMI). PMID:10967525

  16. Inelastic and reactive scattering of hyperthermal atomic oxygen from amorphous carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, Timothy K.; Nelson, Christine M.; Brinza, David E.; Liang, Ranty H.

    1991-01-01

    The reaction of hyperthermal oxygen atoms with an amorphous carbon-13 surface was studied using a modified universal crossed molecular beams apparatus. Time-of-flight distributions of inelastically scattered O-atoms and reactively scattered CO-13 and CO2-13 were measured with a rotatable mass spectrometer detector. Two inelastic scattering channels were observed, corresponding to a direct inelastic process in which the scattered O-atoms retain 20 to 30 percent of their initial kinetic energy and to a trapping desorption process whereby O-atoms emerge from the surface at thermal velocities. Reactive scattering data imply the formation of two kinds of CO products, slow products whose translational energies are determined by the surface temperature and hyperthermal (Approx. 3 eV) products with translational energies comprising roughly 30 percent of the total available energy (E sub avl), where E sub avl is the sum of the collision energy and the reaction exothermicity. Angular data show that the hyperthermal CO is scattered preferentially in the specular direction. CO2 product was also observed, but at much lower intensities than CO and with only thermal velocities.

  17. Imaging Nonequilibrium Atomic Vibrations with X-ray Diffuse Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Trigo, M.; Chen, J.; Vishwanath, V.H.; Sheu, Y.M.; Graber, T.; Henning, R.; Reis, D; ,

    2011-03-03

    We use picosecond x-ray diffuse scattering to image the nonequilibrium vibrations of the lattice following ultrafast laser excitation. We present images of nonequilibrium phonons in InP and InSb throughout the Brillouin-zone which remain out of equilibrium up to nanoseconds. The results are analyzed using a Born model that helps identify the phonon branches contributing to the observed features in the time-resolved diffuse scattering. In InP this analysis shows a delayed increase in the transverse acoustic (TA) phonon population along high-symmetry directions accompanied by a decrease in the longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonons. In InSb the increase in TA phonon population is less directional.

  18. Compton scattering of an X-ray photon by an open-shell atom

    SciTech Connect

    Hopersky, A. N. Nadolinsky, A. M.

    2012-09-15

    A nonrelativistic quantum theory for the nonresonant Compton scattering of an X-ray photon by a free many-electron atom with an open shell in the ground state has been constructed in the single-configuration Hartree-Fock approximation outside the impulse approximation widely used in the literature. The transition to an atom with closed shells reproduces the results obtained previously in [6, 7]. The results of a test calculation for atoms with open (Ti, Fe) and closed (Zn) 3d core shells are presented. The effects of the radial relaxation of one-electron states in the field of core vacancies have been taken into account. The results of the calculation agree well with the experimental results [15, 16]. It has been established that the results of the impulse approximation in the investigated X-ray photon energy ranges disagree with those of our theory not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. In particular, the impulse approximation near the elastic (Thomson and Rayleigh) scattering line leads to a gross overestimation of the contributions from the deep atomic shells involved in the inelastic photon scattering only virtually to the scattering probability. The presented theory is general in character and its applicability to a particular element of the Mendeleev table with an open core shell or to a many-electron atomic ion is limited only by the requirement that the nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock approximation be properly used in describing the scattering-state wave functions.

  19. Converged cross-section results for double photoionization of helium atoms in hyperspherical partial wave theory at 6 eV above threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Das, J.N.; Paul, S.; Chakrabarti, K.

    2004-04-01

    Here we report a set of converged cross-section results for double photoionization of helium atoms obtained in the hyperspherical partial wave theory for equal energy sharing kinematics at 6 eV energy above threshold. The calculated cross section results are generally in excellent agreement with the absolute measured results of Doerner et al. [Phys. Rev. 57, 1074 (1998)].

  20. Scattering amplitude of ultracold atoms near the p-wave magnetic Feshbach resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Peng; Naidon, Pascal; Ueda, Masahito

    2010-12-15

    Most of the current theories on the p-wave superfluid in cold atomic gases are based on the effective-range theory for the two-body scattering, where the low-energy p-wave scattering amplitude f{sub 1}(k) is given by f{sub 1}(k)=-1/[ik+1/(Vk{sup 2})+1/R]. Here k is the incident momentum, V and R are the k-independent scattering volume and effective range, respectively. However, due to the long-range nature of the van der Waals interaction between two colliding ultracold atoms, the p-wave scattering amplitude of the two atoms is not described by the effective-range theory [J. Math. Phys. 4, 54 (1963); Phys. Rev. A 58, 4222 (1998)]. In this paper we provide an explicit calculation for the p-wave scattering of two ultracold atoms near the p-wave magnetic Feshbach resonance. We show that in this case the low-energy p-wave scattering amplitude f{sub 1}(k)=-1/[ik+1/(V{sup eff}k{sup 2})+1/(S{sup eff}k)+1/R{sup eff}] where V{sup eff}, S{sup eff}, and R{sup eff} are k-dependent parameters. Based on this result, we identify sufficient conditions for the effective-range theory to be a good approximation of the exact scattering amplitude. Using these conditions we show that the effective-range theory is a good approximation for the p-wave scattering in the ultracold gases of {sup 6}Li and {sup 40}K when the scattering volume is enhanced by the resonance.

  1. Laser-assisted XUV few-photon double ionization of helium atoms: joint angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Aihua; Thumm, Uwe

    2014-05-01

    We have studied the multi-(XUV+IR)-photon double ionization of helium by solving the fully dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation within a finite-element discrete-variable-representation scheme. We analyze the joint angular distributions for both equal and unequal energy sharing of the two emitted electrons for XUV-photon double ionization in the presence of a short IR pulse. For equal energy sharing, we find that the assisting IR pulse temporary promotes side-by-side emission and enables back-to-back emission. For unequal energy sharing case, we find enhanced back-to-back emission. Supported by the Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences Division, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Office of Science, U.S. Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER13491 and NSF Grant PHY-1068752.

  2. Complete breakup of the helium atom by proton and antiproton impact.

    PubMed

    Guan, Xiaoxu; Bartschat, Klaus

    2009-11-20

    We present a fully ab initio, nonperturbative, time-dependent approach to describe single and double ionization of helium by proton and antiproton impact. The problem is discretized by a flexible finite-element discrete-variable representation on the radial grid. Good agreement with the most recent experimental data for absolute angle-integrated cross sections is obtained for projectile energies between 3 keV and 6 MeV. Also, angle-differential cross sections for two-electron ejection are predicted for a proton impact energy of 6 MeV. The time evaluation of the ionization process is portrayed by displaying the electron density as a function of the projectile location. PMID:20366034

  3. Complete Breakup of the Helium Atom by Proton and Antiproton Impact

    SciTech Connect

    Guan Xiaoxu; Bartschat, Klaus

    2009-11-20

    We present a fully ab initio, nonperturbative, time-dependent approach to describe single and double ionization of helium by proton and antiproton impact. The problem is discretized by a flexible finite-element discrete-variable representation on the radial grid. Good agreement with the most recent experimental data for absolute angle-integrated cross sections is obtained for projectile energies between 3 keV and 6 MeV. Also, angle-differential cross sections for two-electron ejection are predicted for a proton impact energy of 6 MeV. The time evaluation of the ionization process is portrayed by displaying the electron density as a function of the projectile location.

  4. Complete Breakup of the Helium Atom by Proton and Antiproton Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Xiaoxu; Bartschat, Klaus

    2009-11-01

    We present a fully ab initio, nonperturbative, time-dependent approach to describe single and double ionization of helium by proton and antiproton impact. The problem is discretized by a flexible finite-element discrete-variable representation on the radial grid. Good agreement with the most recent experimental data for absolute angle-integrated cross sections is obtained for projectile energies between 3 keV and 6 MeV. Also, angle-differential cross sections for two-electron ejection are predicted for a proton impact energy of 6 MeV. The time evaluation of the ionization process is portrayed by displaying the electron density as a function of the projectile location.

  5. Cavity-enhanced superradiant Rayleigh scattering with ultracold and Bose-Einstein condensed atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Slama, Sebastian; Krenz, Gordon; Bux, Simone; Zimmermann, Claus; Courteille, Philippe W.

    2007-06-15

    We report on the observation of collective atomic recoil lasing and superradiant Rayleigh scattering with ultracold and Bose-Einstein condensed atoms in an optical ring cavity. Both phenomena are based on instabilities evoked by the collective interaction of light with cold atomic gases. This publication clarifies the link between the two effects. The observation of superradiant behavior with thermal clouds as hot as several tens of {mu}K proves that the phenomena are driven by the cooperative dynamics of the atoms, which is strongly enhanced by the presence of the ring cavity.

  6. Ground State Properties of Cold Bosonic Atoms at Large Scattering Lengths

    SciTech Connect

    Song Junliang; Zhou Fei

    2009-07-10

    In this Letter, we study bosonic atoms at large scattering lengths using a variational method where the condensate amplitude is a variational parameter. We further examine momentum distribution functions, chemical potentials, the speed of sound, and spatial density profiles of cold bosonic atoms in a trap in this limit. The latter two properties turn out to bear similarities to those of Fermi gases. The estimates obtained here are applicable near Feshbach resonances, particularly when the fraction of atoms forming three-body structures is small and can be tested in future cold atom experiments.

  7. An atom-focusing mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holst, Bodil; Allison, William

    1997-11-01

    The recent interest in atom-optics has mainly been directed at the manipulation of atomic beams by static fields or lasers. Using an alternative approach we have succeeded in focusing in two dimensions a neutral atomic helium beam at room temperature with a reflective optical element (an atom mirror). Such focusing relies on specular elastic scattering, which leaves the coherence of incoming wavepackets unchanged.

  8. Ultralow energy scattering of a He atom off a He dimer

    SciTech Connect

    Kolganova, E.A.; Motovilov, A.K.; Sofianos, S.A.

    1997-09-01

    We present a mathematically rigorous method suitable for bound-state and scattering process calculations for various three-atomic or molecular systems where the underlying forces are of a hard-core nature. We employed this method to calculate the binding energies and the ultra-low-energy scattering phase shifts below as well as above the breakup threshold for the three-He-atom system. The method has proved to be highly successful and suitable for solving the three-body bound-state and scattering problem in configuration space and thus it paves the way to study various three-atomic systems, and to calculate important quantities such as the cross sections, recombination rates, etc. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Positron scattering from hydrogen atom with screened Coulomb potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoshal, Arijit; Nayek, Sujay; Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2014-03-05

    Elastic positron-hydrogen collisions with screened Coulomb potentials have been investigated using a second-order distorted wave Born approximation in the momentum space. Two types of potentials have been considered, namely, static screened Coulomb potential and exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potential. Using a simple variationally determined hydrogenic wave function it has been possible to obtain the scattering amplitude in a closed form. A detailed study has been made on the differential and total cross sections in the energy range 20–300 eV.

  10. Comment on ``Semiempirical potentials for positron scattering by atoms''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, J. P.; Machacek, J. R.; Buckman, S. J.; Bray, I.

    2012-03-01

    In their recent paper, Assafro [D. Assafro, H. R. J. Walters, F. Arretche, A. Dutra, and J. R. Mohallem, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.84.022713 84, 022713 (2011)] use a scaled adiabatic potential to calculate total and differential cross sections for positron scattering from a variety of targets. They claimed that the results are very close to experimental and best theoretical data. A brief examination of the recent literature on this subject demonstrates, however, that comparisons with several important and recent results have not been made, and that such comparisons clearly affect the accuracy of their conclusions.

  11. Design and construction of a sample preparation chamber for atomic beam scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, C.

    1992-05-18

    A new type of atomic beam scattering spectrometer was built to advance the usefulness of the atomic beam scattering technique as a surface dynamics probe. The facility was not only built to investigate the typical alkali halide samples such as NaCl, NaF, and LiF, but also to investigate metallic surfaces. Metal samples are more complicated to study, due to their reactive surfaces and the sample preparation process. A surface analysis chamber was constructed as an attachment to the scattering facility to treat samples under ultra high vacuum (UHV) and then transfer these samples into the scattering facility. This surface analysis chamber is referred to as the sample preparation chamber and is the basis for this thesis.

  12. Inelastic scattering of electrons by metastable hydrogen atoms in a laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buica, Gabriela

    2015-09-01

    The inelastic scattering of fast electrons by metastable hydrogen atoms in the presence of a linearly polarized laser field is theoretically studied in the domain of field intensities below 1010 W/cm2. The interaction of the hydrogen atom with the laser field is described by first-order time-dependent perturbation theory, while the projectile electrons interacting with the laser field are described by the Gordon-Volkov wave functions. An analytic expression is obtained for the differential scattering cross section in the first-order Born approximation for laser-assisted inelastic e--H (2 s ) scattering for the 2 s →n l excitation. Detailed analytical and numerical results are presented for inelastic scattering accompanied by one-photon absorption, and the angular dependence and resonance structure of the differential cross sections are discussed for the 2 s →4 l excitation of metastable hydrogen.

  13. He atom surface scattering: Surface dynamics of insulators, overlayers and crystal growth. Progress report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    Investigations have focused primarily on surface structure and dynamics of ionic insulators, epitaxial growth onto alkali halide crystals and multiphoton studies. The surface dynamics of RbCl has been re-examined. We have developed a simple force constant model which provides insight into the dynamics of KBr overlayers on NaCl(001), a system with a large lattice mismatch. The KBr/NaCl(001) results are compared to Na/Cu(001) and NaCl/Ge(001). We have completed epitaxial growth experiments for KBr onto RbCl(001). Slab dynamics calculations using a shell model for this system with very small lattice mismatch are being carried out in collaboration with Professor Manson of Clemson University and with Professor Schroeder in Regensburg, Germany. Extensive experiments on multiphoton scattering of helium atoms onto NaCl and, particularly, LiF have been carried out and the theory has been developed to a rather advanced stage by Professor Manson. This work will permit the extraction of more information from time-of-flight spectra. It is shown that the theoretical model provides a very good description of the multiphoton scattering from organic films. Work has started on self-assembling organic films on gold (alkyl thiols/Au(111)). We have begun to prepare and characterize the gold crystal; one of the group members has spent two weeks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory learning the proper Au(111) preparation techniques. One of our students has carried out neutron scattering experiments on NiO, measuring both bulk phonon and magnon dispersion curves.

  14. Momentum density of hcp and liquid helium-4 by inelastic neutron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Hilleke, Russell Otto

    1983-01-01

    A measurement of the momentum density in hcp and liquid /sup 4/He by inelastic neutron scattering is reported. Using the Low Resolution Medium Energy Chopper Spectrometer at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source at Argonne National Laboratory, momentum transfers in the range 12 to 22.5 A/sup -1/ were attained. At these momentum transfers, the momentum density of the sample is related to the dynamic structure factor by the impulse approximation. The measured momentum distribution is Gaussian and the kinetic energy is larger than proposed by existing theories. Data were taken on two solid samples, the first was a 19.45 cm/sup 3//mole hcp solid, the second was 18.20 cm/sup 3// mole; both solid samples were maintained at 1.70 K during data collection. Data were also taken on a liquid sample with a molar volume of 18.20 cm/sup 3//mole at 4.00 K. At 1.70 K the two solid samples are essentially in their ground states so that the measurement is of the ground state momentum density. The liquid sample was included to see if the difference between the liquid and solid momentum density at the same molar volume was observable.

  15. Impact of hollow-atom formation on coherent x-ray scattering at high intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Sang-Kil; Young, Linda; Santra, Robin

    2011-03-15

    X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) are promising tools for structural determination of macromolecules via coherent x-ray scattering. During ultrashort and ultraintense x-ray pulses with an atomic-scale wavelength, samples are subject to radiation damage and possibly become highly ionized, which may influence the quality of x-ray scattering patterns. We develop a toolkit to treat detailed ionization, relaxation, and scattering dynamics for an atom within a consistent theoretical framework. The coherent x-ray scattering problem including radiation damage is investigated as a function of x-ray FEL parameters such as pulse length, fluence, and photon energy. We find that the x-ray scattering intensity saturates at a fluence of {approx}10{sup 7} photon/A{sup 2} per pulse but can be maximized by using a pulse duration much shorter than the time scales involved in the relaxation of the inner-shell vacancy states created. Under these conditions, both inner-shell electrons in a carbon atom are removed, and the resulting hollow atom gives rise to a scattering pattern with little loss of quality for a spatial resolution >1 A. Our numerical results predict that in order to scatter from a carbon atom 0.1 photon per x-ray pulse, within a spatial resolution of 1.7 A, a fluence of 1x10{sup 7} photons/A{sup 2} per pulse is required at a pulse length of 1 fs and a photon energy of 12 keV. By using a pulse length of a few hundred attoseconds, one can suppress even secondary ionization processes in extended systems. The present results suggest that high-brightness attosecond x-ray FELs would be ideal for single-shot imaging of individual macromolecules.

  16. Normalized distorted-wave Born approximation for soft potentials in atom-surface scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, N.

    1982-04-15

    In recent papers Armand and Manson have dealt with atom-surface scattering from a soft-exponential corrugated potential. In this work, we present a normalized distorted-wave Born approximation whose results compare well with exact calculations by Armand. This approximation may reproduce the intensities of the main beams for He scattering from dense metallic surfaces where the corrugations are not too large.

  17. Temperature dependence in rainbow scattering of hyperthermal Ar atoms from LiF(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, W. W.; Manson, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    Recent experiments have reported measurements of rainbow scattering features in the angular distributions of hyperthermal Ar colliding with LiF(001) [Kondo et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 244713 (2005)]. A theory of atom-surface collisions recently developed by the authors, based on the eikonal approximation, that includes multiphonon energy transfers is used to explain the temperature dependence of the measured scattered angular distribution spectra.

  18. s-wave scattering of a polarizable atom by an absorbing nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Martin; Arnecke, Florian; Eiglsperger, Johannes; Friedrich, Harald; Madronero, Javier; Raab, Patrick; Naranjo, Andres; Wirzba, Andreas

    2010-06-15

    We study the scattering of a polarizable atom by a conducting cylindrical wire with incoming boundary conditions, that is, total absorption, near the surface of the wire. Based on the explicit expression given recently [C. Eberlein and R. Zietal, Phys. Rev. A 75, 032516 (2007)] for the nonretarded atom-wire potential, we formulate a hierarchy of approximations that enables the numerical determination of this potential to any desired accuracy as economically as possible. We calculate the complex s-wave scattering length for the effectively two-dimensional atom-wire scattering problem. The scattering length a depends on the radius R of the wire and a characteristic length {beta} related to the polarizability of the atom via a simple scaling relation, a=R a{approx}({beta}/R). The 'scaled scattering length' a{approx} tends to unity in the thick-wire limit {beta}/R{yields}0, and it grows almost proportional to 1/R in the opposite thin-wire limit.

  19. Precise Measurement of the Hyperfine-Structure Interval and Zeeman Effect in the Muonic Helium Atom.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Christopher John

    The ground state hfs interval, (DELTA)(nu), of muonic helium (('4)He(mu)('-)e('-)), and the ratio of the negative muon magnetic moment to that of the proton, (mu)(,(mu)(' -))/(mu)(,p), have been measured by means of microwave magnetic resonance techniques at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). Muonic helium was formed by stopping low momentum polarized negative muons in a resonant cavity containing 5 or 15 atm of He gas with a 1.5% admixture of Xe. A strong static magnetic field of 11.5 kG or 13.6 kG was applied to split the four Zeeman levels in the ground state and the transitions (DELTA)M(,(mu)) = (+OR-)1, (DELTA)M(,J) = 0 were induced by microwave magnetic fields. Resonance curves were obtained by sweeping the magnetic field with the microwave frequency fixed or by sweeping the frequency with the field fixed, and a Lorentzian lineshape was fit to each curve to determine the line center, the linewidth, and the signal height. A value of (DELTA)(nu)(p) at each pressure p was then extracted from each line center using the Breit-Rabi equations with the value of (mu)(,(mu)(' -))/(mu)(,p) set equal to the more accurately determined value of (mu)(,(mu)('+))/(mu)(,p). Linear extrapolation of the values of (DELTA)(nu)(p) to zero pressure yielded. (DELTA)(nu)(0) = 4465.004(29) MHz {6.5 ppm }. and the linear pressure shift coefficient. A = a(DELTA)(nu)(0) = 11.4(2.7) kHz/atm (0(DEGREES)C). With (mu)(,(mu)('-))/(mu)(,p) treated as a free parameter in the Breit-Rabi equations the fitted line centers were also used to obtain. (mu)(,(mu)('-))/(mu)(,p) = 3.18328(15) {47 ppm}. The indicated one-standard-deviation errors in these results are predominantly statistical. The value of (DELTA)(nu)(0) obtained is in good agreement with a previous less precise determination of (DELTA)(nu) at zero magnetic field and is consistent with, but an order of magnitude more precise than the theoretical values. As required by CPT invariance for particle and antiparticle the value of (mu)(,(mu)('-))/(mu)(,p) is in good agreement with the more accurately determined value of (mu)(,(mu)('+))/(mu)(,p).

  20. Polarization and absorption effects in electron-helium scattering at 30--400 eV

    SciTech Connect

    Thirumalai, D.; Truhlar, D.G.; Brandt, M.A.; Eades, R.A.; Dixon, D.A.

    1982-06-01

    We report several calculations of the differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic scattering, and of the absorption cross sections (for the sum of all electronically inelastic and ionization processes) for electron-He collisions at 30--400 eV. We consider two basically different approaches to include the effect of absorption, i.e., loss of flux from the initial channel. The first is the matrix effective potential (MEP) based on a variational calculation of the polarization potential; this models absorption by including a pseudochannel whose properties are based on a variational adiabatic polarization potential. This method predicts both the absorption and elastic cross sections. The second method involves phenomenological absorption (A) potentials, calibrated against experimental absorption cross sections. These potentials, when combined with static (S), exchange (E), and real polarization (P) potentials form an SEPA optical model potential that is used to predict the elastic cross sections. The MEP model based on the variational polarization potential predicts the absorption cross sections with an average absolute error of 28% at 30 and 50 eV and 5% at 100--400 eV. It predicts the elastic integral cross sections with an average absolute error of 8% over the whole energy range. The SEPA models, including a nonadiabatic polarization potential, predict the elastic integral cross sections with average absolute errors of 12 or 6%, depending on the shape function (i.e., r dependence) of the absorption potential. The adiabatic approximation for polarization is less accurate than the nonadiabatic one, even when absorption effects are included. Five new calculations of the differential cross sections at each of five impact energies are compared to experimental results in detail.

  1. Polarization and absorption effects in electron-helium scattering at 30-400 eV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirumalai, Devarajan; Truhlar, Donald G.; Brandt, Maynard A.; Eades, Robert A.; Dixon, David A.

    1982-06-01

    We report several calculations of the differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic scattering, and of the absorption cross sections (for the sum of all electronically inelastic and ionization processes) for electron-He collisions at 30-400 eV. We consider two basically different approaches to include the effect of absorption, i.e., loss of flux from the initial channel. The first is the matrix effective potential (MEP) based on a variational calculation of the polarization potential; this models absorption by including a pseudochannel whose properties are based on a variational adiabatic polarization potential. This method predicts both the absorption and elastic cross sections. The second method involves phenomenological absorption (A) potentials, calibrated against experimental absorption cross sections. These potentials, when combined with static (S), exchange (E), and real polarization (P) potentials form an SEPA optical model potential that is used to predict the elastic cross sections. The MEP model based on the variational polarization potential predicts the absorption cross sections with an average absolute error of 28% at 30 and 50 eV, and 5% at 100-400 eV. It predicts the elastic integral cross sections with an average absolute error of 8% over the whole energy range. The SEPA models, including a nonadiabatic polarization potential, predict the elastic integral cross sections with average absolute errors of 12 or 6%, depending on the shape function (i.e., r dependence) of the absorption potential. The adiabatic approximation for polarization is less accurate than the nonadiabatic one, even when absorption effects are included. Five new calculations of the differential cross sections at each of five impact energies are compared to experimental results in detail.

  2. Analytic description of atomic interaction at ultracold temperatures. II. Scattering around a magnetic Feshbach resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Bo

    2011-08-15

    Starting from a multichannel quantum-defect theory, we derive analytic descriptions of a magnetic Feshbach resonance in an arbitrary partial wave l and the atomic interactions around it. An analytic formula, applicable to both broad and narrow resonances of arbitrary l, is presented for ultracold atomic scattering around a Feshbach resonance. Other related issues addressed include (a) the parametrization of a magnetic Feshbach resonance of arbitrary l, (b) rigorous definitions of ''broad'' and ''narrow'' resonances of arbitrary l and their different scattering characteristics, and (c) the tuning of the effective range and the generalized effective range by a magnetic field.

  3. Impact of anisotropic atomic motions in proteins on powder-averaged incoherent neutron scattering intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Kneller, Gerald R.; Chevrot, Guillaume

    2012-12-14

    This paper addresses the question to which extent anisotropic atomic motions in proteins impact angular-averaged incoherent neutron scattering intensities, which are typically recorded for powder samples. For this purpose, the relevant correlation functions are represented as multipole series in which each term corresponds to a different degree of intrinsic motional anisotropy. The approach is illustrated by a simple analytical model and by a simulation-based example for lysozyme, considering in both cases the elastic incoherent structure factor. The second example shows that the motional anisotropy of the protein atoms is considerable and contributes significantly to the scattering intensity.

  4. Impact of anisotropic atomic motions in proteins on powder-averaged incoherent neutron scattering intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kneller, Gerald R.; Chevrot, Guillaume

    2012-12-01

    This paper addresses the question to which extent anisotropic atomic motions in proteins impact angular-averaged incoherent neutron scattering intensities, which are typically recorded for powder samples. For this purpose, the relevant correlation functions are represented as multipole series in which each term corresponds to a different degree of intrinsic motional anisotropy. The approach is illustrated by a simple analytical model and by a simulation-based example for lysozyme, considering in both cases the elastic incoherent structure factor. The second example shows that the motional anisotropy of the protein atoms is considerable and contributes significantly to the scattering intensity.

  5. Quantum versus semiclassical treatment of multiphonon effects in He-atom scattering from surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bili?, A.; Gumhalter, B.

    1995-10-01

    We develop a formalism appropriate for studying multiple inelastic scattering of thermal-energy He atoms from surface phonons in the collision regimes in which both the motion of the particle and surface vibrations must be treated quantum mechanically. Having in mind recent experiments on He-atom scattering (HAS) from surfaces, we first point out some difficulties connected with calculating the reflection coefficients under extreme multiphonon conditions by resorting to the standard T-matrix approach. To circumvent these problems we make use of the connection between the reflection coefficients and angular resolved scattering spectra and show how the latter can be conveniently obtained in the form of a cumulant expansion for multiphonon-scattering amplitudes in powers of inelastic atom-surface coupling. This yields the expression for the scattering spectrum whose advantageous characteristics are the unitarity (which manifests itself through a Debye-Waller factor in exponential form with a complete Debye-Waller exponent encompassing contributions from all inelastic scattering channels) and the amenability to perturbational treatment in terms of uncorrelated and correlated atom-phonon interactions. In the scattering regimes in which the contributions of correlated multiphonon excitations become negligible relative to those of uncorrelated ones, the scattering spectrum acquires a particularly simple form of an exponentiated Born approximation (EBA). As various other semiclassical and classical approximations regarding the particle dynamics can be shown to emerge from the EBA, we estimate its validity for treating multiple He-atom scattering by Einstein- and Debye-like phonons in representative collision systems He-->CO(?3 ?3 )R30/Rh(111) and He-->Cu(001) in which such modes have been experimentally detected. We find that under the conditions of these experiments the EBA can be considered as exact, which enables accurate calculation of the corresponding multiphonon-scattering spectra. The obtained results compare well with experimental data, thereby confirming the potentiality and applicability of the developed formalism in HAS. We also show that the semiclassical trajectory and fast collision or impulse approximations, which naturally derive as special limits of the EBA, can largely deviate from the so-defined exact EBA treatment in the considered range of the parameter space. From this we conclude that they may become unreliable in the scattering regimes in which either the validity of the EBA is violated or their deviation from the EBA is large.

  6. Measurement of effective atomic number of gunshot residues using scattering of gamma rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Y?lmaz, Demet; Tur?ucu, Ahmet; Uzuno?lu, Zeynep; Korucu, Demet

    2014-09-01

    Better understanding of gunshot residues and the major elemental composition would be valuable to forensic scientists for their analysis work and interpretation of results. In the present work, the effective atomic numbers of gunshot residues (cartridge case, bullet core, bullet jacket and gunpowder) were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The scattering of 59.54 keV gamma rays is studied using a high-resolution HPGe detector. The experiment is performed on various elements with atomic number in the 4?Z?82. The intensity ratio of coherent to Compton scattered peaks, corrected for photo-peak efficiency of gamma detector and absorption of photons in the sample and air, is plotted as a function of atomic number and constituted a best-fit-curve. From this fit-curve, the respective effective atomic numbers of gunshot residues are determined.

  7. HIPPO: A supersonic helium jet gas target for nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontos, Antonios; Schrmann, Daniel; Akers, Charles; Couder, Manoel; Grres, Joachim; Robertson, Daniel; Stech, Ed; Talwar, Rashi; Wiescher, Michael

    2012-02-01

    A high density supersonic helium jet gas target has been developed for the newly installed St. George Recoil Mass Separator, at the Nuclear Science Laboratory, University of Notre Dame. The jet's properties for both helium and nitrogen have been studied by means of elastic scattering and energy loss experiments. The helium jet's full width at half maximum was found to be 2.1 mm, assuming axially symmetric gas expansion with a maximum target thickness of (2.670.16)1017 atoms/cm2 at 1500 mbar of inlet pressure, and well confined within the jet region.

  8. Energy Levels in Helium and Neon Atoms by an Electron-Impact Method.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Electronic energy levels in noble gas atoms may be determined with a simple teaching apparatus incorporating a resonance potentials tube in which the electron beam intensity is held constant. The resulting spectra are little inferior to those obtained by more elaborate electron-impact methods and complement optical emission spectra. (Author/SK)

  9. Crossed-molecular-beams reactive scattering of oxygen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Baseman, R.J.

    1982-11-01

    The reactions of O(/sup 3/P) with six prototypical unsaturated hydrocarbons, and the reaction of O(/sup 1/D) with HD, have been studied in high-resolution crossed-molecular-beams scattering experiments with mass-spectrometric detection. The observed laboratory-product angular and velocity distributions unambiguously identify parent-daughter ion pairs, distinguish different neutral sources of the same ion, and have been used to identify the primary products of the reactions. The derived center-of-mass product angular and translational energy distributions have been used to elucidate the detailed reaction dynamics. These results demonstrate that O(/sup 3/P)-unsaturated hydrocarbon chemistry is dominated by single bond cleavages, leading to radical products exclusively.

  10. Positron scattering from hydrogen atom embedded in weakly coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoshal, Arijit; Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2013-01-15

    The positron-hydrogen collision problem in weakly coupled plasma environment has been investigated by applying a formulation of the three-body collision problem in the form of coupled multi-channel two-body Lippmann-Schwinger equations. The interactions among the charged particles in the plasma have been represented by Debye-Huckel potentials. A simple variational hydrogenic wave function has been employed to calculate the partial-wave scattering amplitude. Plasma screening effects on various possible mode of fragmentation of the system e{sup +}+H(1s) during the collision, such as 1s{yields}1s and 2s{yields}2s elastic collisions, 1s{yields}2s excitation, positronium formation, elastic proton-positronium collisions, have been reported. Furthermore, a detailed study has been made on differential and total cross sections of the above processes in the energy range 13.6-350 eV of the incident positron.

  11. Positron scattering from hydrogen atom embedded in weakly coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoshal, Arijit; Kamali, M. Z. M.; Ratnavelu, K.

    2013-01-01

    The positron-hydrogen collision problem in weakly coupled plasma environment has been investigated by applying a formulation of the three-body collision problem in the form of coupled multi-channel two-body Lippmann-Schwinger equations. The interactions among the charged particles in the plasma have been represented by Debye-Huckel potentials. A simple variational hydrogenic wave function has been employed to calculate the partial-wave scattering amplitude. Plasma screening effects on various possible mode of fragmentation of the system e++H(1s) during the collision, such as 1s →1s and 2s→2s elastic collisions, 1s→2s excitation, positronium formation, elastic proton-positronium collisions, have been reported. Furthermore, a detailed study has been made on differential and total cross sections of the above processes in the energy range 13.6-350 eV of the incident positron.

  12. Probing of the neutrino magnetic moment at the level of 10{sup -22} μ{sub B} with an intense tritium source of (anti)neutrino and helium target (project)

    SciTech Connect

    Martemyanov, V.P.; Aleshin, V.I.; Tarasenko, V.G.; Tsinoev, V.G.; Sabelnikov, A.A.; Yukhimchuk, A.A.; Popov, V.V.; Baluev, V.V.; Golubkov, A.N.; Klevtsov, V.G.; Kuryakin, A.V.; Sitdikov, D.T.; Bogdanova, L.N.

    2015-03-15

    We present research results of the preparation project for the experimental measurement of the (anti)neutrino magnetic moment at the level of 10{sup -12} μ{sub B} using an intense tritium source of antineutrinos and a liquid helium scintillation detector. The neutrino detection in the scintillation detector is based on the scattering of neutrinos by the electrons of the helium atoms that produces fast electrons able to ionize and exciting helium atoms. The detection of the atomic radiation emitted during the relaxation process of the helium atoms and the knowledge of its parameters will allow us to conclude on the neutrino properties.

  13. Thickness-dependent interfacial Coulomb scattering in atomically thin field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Li, Song-Lin; Wakabayashi, Katsunori; Xu, Yong; Nakaharai, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuyoshi; Li, Wen-Wu; Lin, Yen-Fu; Aparecido-Ferreira, Alex; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    2013-08-14

    Two-dimensional semiconductors are structurally ideal channel materials for the ultimate atomic electronics after silicon era. A long-standing puzzle is the low carrier mobility (?) in them as compared with corresponding bulk structures, which constitutes the main hurdle for realizing high-performance devices. To address this issue, we perform a combined experimental and theoretical study on atomically thin MoS2 field effect transistors with varying the number of MoS2 layers (NLs). Experimentally, an intimate ?-NL relation is observed with a 10-fold degradation in ? for extremely thinned monolayer channels. To accurately describe the carrier scattering process and shed light on the origin of the thinning-induced mobility degradation, a generalized Coulomb scattering model is developed with strictly considering device configurative conditions, that is, asymmetric dielectric environments and lopsided carrier distribution. We reveal that the carrier scattering from interfacial Coulomb impurities (e.g., chemical residues, gaseous adsorbates, and surface dangling bonds) is greatly intensified in extremely thinned channels, resulting from shortened interaction distance between impurities and carriers. Such a pronounced factor may surpass lattice phonons and serve as dominant scatterers. This understanding offers new insight into the thickness induced scattering intensity, highlights the critical role of surface quality in electrical transport, and would lead to rational performance improvement strategies for future atomic electronics. PMID:23862641

  14. The use of electron scattering for studying atomic momentum distributions: the case of graphite and diamond.

    PubMed

    Vos, M; Moreh, R; Toksi, K

    2011-07-14

    The momentum distributions of C atoms in polycrystalline diamond (produced by chemical vapor deposition) and in highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) are studied by scattering of 40 keV electrons at 135. By measuring the Doppler broadening of the energy of the elastically scattered electrons, we resolve a Compton profile of the motion of the C atoms. The aim of the present work is to resolve long-standing disagreements between the calculated kinetic energies of carbon atoms in HOPG and in diamond films and the measured ones, obtained both by neutron Compton scattering (NCS) and by nuclear resonance photon scattering (NRPS). The anisotropy of the momentum distribution in HOPG was measured by rotating the HOPG sample relative to the electron beam. The obtained kinetic energies for the motion component along, and perpendicular to, the graphite planes were somewhat higher than those obtained from the most recent NCS data of HOPG. Monte Carlo simulations indicate that multiple scattering adds about 2% to the obtained kinetic energies. The presence of different isotopes in carbon affects the measurement at a 1% level. After correcting for these contributions, the kinetic energies are 3%-6% larger than the most recent NCS results for HOPG, but 15%-25% smaller than the NRPS results. For diamond, the corrected direction-averaged kinetic energy is ? 6% larger than the calculated value. This compares favorably to the ?25% discrepancy between theory and both the NCS and NRPS results for diamond. PMID:21766954

  15. Molecular Beam Studies of Hot Atom Chemical Reactions: Reactive Scattering of Energetic Deuterium Atoms

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Continetti, R. E.; Balko, B. A.; Lee, Y. T.

    1989-02-01

    A brief review of the application of the crossed molecular beams technique to the study of hot atom chemical reactions in the last twenty years is given. Specific emphasis is placed on recent advances in the use of photolytically produced energetic deuterium atoms in the study of the fundamental elementary reactions D + H{sub 2} -> DH + H and the substitution reaction D + C{sub 2}H{sub 2} -> C{sub 2}HD + H. Recent advances in uv laser and pulsed molecular beam techniques have made the detailed study of hydrogen atom reactions under single collision conditions possible.

  16. Search for Elastic Coherent Neutrino Scattering off Atomic Nuclei at the Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akimov, D. Yu.; Belov, V. A.; Bolozdynya, A. I.; Burenkov, A. A.; Efremenko, Yu. V.; Etenko, A. V.; Kaplin, V. A.; Khromov, A. V.; Konovalov, A. M.; Kovalenko, A. G.; Kumpan, A. V.; Melikyan, Yu. A.; Rudik, D. G.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.

    We propose to detect and study neutrino neutral elastic coherent scattering off atomic nuclei with two-phase emission detector with liquid xenon as a target medium. One of the possible experimental site is a Kalinin Nuclear Power Plant (KNPP) situated in the Russian Federation. In this paper we discuss the design of the detector and expected signals and background for this site.

  17. Is solid helium a supersolid?

    SciTech Connect

    Hallock, Robert

    2015-05-15

    Recent experiments suggest that helium-4 atoms can flow through an experimental cell filled with solid helium. But that incompletely understood flow is quite different from the reported superfluid-like motion that so excited physicists a decade ago.

  18. Inelastic scattering in atom-diatomic molecule collisions. I - Rotational transitions in the sudden approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stallcop, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The impact parameter method and the sudden approximation are applied to determine the total probability of inelastic rotational transitions arising from a collision of an atom and a homonuclear diatomic molecule at large impact parameters. An analytical approximation to this probability is found for conditions where the electron exchange or overlap forces dominate the scattering. An approximate upper bound to the range of impact parameters for which rotational scattering can be important is determined. In addition, an estimate of the total inelastic cross section is found at conditions for which a statistical model describes the scattering well. The results of this analysis are applied to Ar-O2 collisions and may be readily applied to other combinations of atoms and molecules.

  19. Helicity Resolved Raman Scattering of Atomic Layers of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shao-Yu; Yan, Jun

    2015-03-01

    Semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2 are promising two dimensional (2D) materials for electronic and optoelectronic applications. Moreover, the unique capability to manipulate the valley degree of freedom with circularly polarized light has attracted widespread attention for potential applications in valley- and spin-tronics. In this talk we present helicity resolved Raman scattering of TMDC atomic layers. The dominant first order Raman bands, including the low energy breathing and shear modes as well as the high energy zone center optical phonons, are found to either maintain or completely switch the helicity of incident photons. This helicity selectivity due to phonon scattering is interpreted by symmetry of lattice vibrations without involving intervalley scattering. Our results provide a useful tool for characterization of TMDC atomic layers and offer new insights into the connection between photon helicity and valley polarization.

  20. Simultaneous correction of scattering in ICP-excited atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omenetto, N.; Crabi, G.; Nesti, A.; Cavalli, P.; Rossi, G.

    A method for correcting the scattering in atomic fluorescence spectrometry excited by an inductively coupled argon plasma source is described. Unlike the sequential method so far proposed in the literature, it is shown here that by aspirating into the plasma a solution containing both the analyte and the element used to monitor the scattering signal, the correction can be achieved simultaneously by subtracting the signals obtained with two high luminosity monochromators, facing the flame and each other in opposite directions. This subtraction is accomplished with a home-made, two channel differential lock-in amplifier. The system is calibrated, as in the sequential method, by aspirating a pure scattering solution into the flame. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated for cadmium atomized in a separated air-acetylene flame in the presence of a 10 6-fold excess of aluminium.

  1. Second order classical perturbation theory for atom surface scattering: Analysis of asymmetry in the angular distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Yun Pollak, Eli; Miret-Artés, Salvador

    2014-01-14

    A second order classical perturbation theory is developed and applied to elastic atom corrugated surface scattering. The resulting theory accounts for experimentally observed asymmetry in the final angular distributions. These include qualitative features, such as reduction of the asymmetry in the intensity of the rainbow peaks with increased incidence energy as well as the asymmetry in the location of the rainbow peaks with respect to the specular scattering angle. The theory is especially applicable to “soft” corrugated potentials. Expressions for the angular distribution are derived for the exponential repulsive and Morse potential models. The theory is implemented numerically to a simplified model of the scattering of an Ar atom from a LiF(100) surface.

  2. Sensitive polarization dependence for helium Rydberg atoms driven by strong microwave fields

    SciTech Connect

    Zelazny, S.A.; Bellermann, M.R.W.; Smith, L.L.; Koch, P.M.

    1996-05-01

    The authors prepare n{sup 3}S He Rydberg atoms with selected values n {ge} 25 in a fast beam using CO{sub 2} lasers and double-resonance excitation. They then fly through a TE{sub 121} mode cavity, exposing them to a half-sine pulse (about 350 field osc.) of 9.904 GHz electric field whose polarization can be varied; linear (LP), elliptical (EP), and circular (CP). Making EP close to LP can lead to substantial changes in microwave-power-dependent transitions to nearby bound states. In at least one case, a sharp dip in the LP signal is transformed by EP into a pattern reminiscent of Stueckelberg oscillations, previously observed with LP at higher frequencies. Calculations suggest that pulse-shape-induced dynamics at Floquet avoided-crossing(s) explain the LP behavior. Changing the field to EP clearly must modify this behavior. The authors will discuss this kind of data as well as the polarization dependence of microwave ionization of n{sup 3}S He Rydberg atoms.

  3. {ital Ab initio} study of the anomalies in the He-atom-scattering spectra of H/Mo(110) and H/W(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Kohler, B.; Ruggerone, P.; Scheffler, M.

    1997-11-01

    Helium-atom-scattering (HAS) studies of the H-covered Mo(110) and W(110) surfaces reveal a twofold anomaly in the respective dispersion curves. In order to explain this unusual behavior we performed density-functional theory calculations of the atomic and electronic structure, the vibrational properties, and the spectrum of electron-hole excitations of those surfaces. Our work provides evidence for hydrogen-adsorption induced Fermi-surface nesting. The respective nesting vectors are in excellent agreement with the HAS data and recent angle resolved photoemission experiments of the H-covered alloy system Mo{sub 0.95}Re{sub 0.05}(110). Also, we investigated the electron-phonon coupling and discovered that the Rayleigh phonon frequency is lowered for those critical wave vectors. Moreover, the smaller indentation in the HAS spectra can be clearly identified as a Kohn anomaly. Based on our results for the susceptibility and the recently improved understanding of the He-scattering mechanism we argue that the larger anomalous dip is due to a direct interaction of the He atoms with electron-hole excitations at the Fermi level. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Coherent and spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in atomic and molecular gases and gas mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Vieitez, M. O.; Duijn, E. J. van; Ubachs, W.; Witschas, B.; Meijer, A.; Wijn, A. S. de; Dam, N. J.; Water, W. van de

    2010-10-15

    We study Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in gases of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and SF{sub 6} molecules, Kr atoms, and He-Xe and He-CO{sub 2} mixtures at pressures ranging from 1 to 3 bar and using two different experimental setups. In one setup, we measure spectra of light scattered by thermal density fluctuations (spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering); in the second setup density waves are induced in the overlap region of two counterpropagating laser beams (coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering). We compare measured spectra to the Tenti models and to a recent model for mixtures. We find new values of the bulk viscosity, which is a parameter in line-shape models that allows for internal degrees of freedom. Both experiments agree on the value of the bulk viscosity. Our results indicate a need for new line-shape models for mixtures of molecules with internal degrees of freedom.

  5. Coherent and spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in atomic and molecular gases and gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieitez, M. O.; van Duijn, E. J.; Ubachs, W.; Witschas, B.; Meijer, A.; de Wijn, A. S.; Dam, N. J.; van de Water, W.

    2010-10-01

    We study Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering in gases of N2, O2, and SF6 molecules, Kr atoms, and He-Xe and He-CO2 mixtures at pressures ranging from 1 to 3 bar and using two different experimental setups. In one setup, we measure spectra of light scattered by thermal density fluctuations (spontaneous Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering); in the second setup density waves are induced in the overlap region of two counterpropagating laser beams (coherent Rayleigh-Brillouin scattering). We compare measured spectra to the Tenti models and to a recent model for mixtures. We find new values of the bulk viscosity, which is a parameter in line-shape models that allows for internal degrees of freedom. Both experiments agree on the value of the bulk viscosity. Our results indicate a need for new line-shape models for mixtures of molecules with internal degrees of freedom.

  6. Rayleigh scatter in kilovoltage x-ray imaging: is the independent atom approximation good enough?

    PubMed

    Poludniowski, G; Evans, P M; Webb, S

    2009-11-21

    Monte Carlo simulation is the gold standard method for modelling scattering processes in medical x-ray imaging. General-purpose Monte Carlo codes, however, typically use the independent atom approximation (IAA). This is known to be inaccurate for Rayleigh scattering, for many materials, in the forward direction. This work addresses whether the IAA is sufficient for the typical modelling tasks in medical kilovoltage x-ray imaging. As a means of comparison, we incorporate a more realistic 'interference function' model into a custom-written Monte Carlo code. First, we conduct simulations of scatter from isolated voxels of soft tissue, adipose, cortical bone and spongiosa. Then, we simulate scatter profiles from a cylinder of water and from phantoms of a patient's head, thorax and pelvis, constructed from diagnostic-quality CT data sets. Lastly, we reconstruct CT numbers from simulated sets of projection images and investigate the quantitative effects of the approximation. We show that the IAA can produce errors of several per cent of the total scatter, across a projection image, for typical x-ray beams and patients. The errors in reconstructed CT number, however, for the phantoms simulated, were small (typically < 10 HU). The IAA can therefore be considered sufficient for the modelling of scatter correction in CT imaging. Where accurate quantitative estimates of scatter in individual projection images are required, however, the appropriate interference functions should be included. PMID:19887715

  7. A design for a pinhole scanning helium microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, M.; Fahy, A.; Jardine, A.; Ellis, J.; Ward, D.; MacLaren, D. A.; Allison, W.; Dastoor, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    We present a simplified design for a scanning helium microscope (SHeM) which utilises almost entirely off the shelf components. The SHeM produces images by detecting scattered neutral helium atoms from a surface, forming an entirely surface sensitive and non-destructive imaging technique. This particular prototype instrument avoids the complexities of existing neutral atom optics by replacing them with an aperture in the form of an ion beam milled pinhole, resulting in a resolution of around 5 microns. Using the images so far produced, an initial investigation of topological contrast has been performed.

  8. Multiphoton effects in laser-assisted ionization of a helium atom by electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh Deb, S.; Sinha, C.

    2010-11-01

    The dynamics of the electron impact multiphoton ionization of a He atom in the presence of an intense laser field ( n γ _e, 2 e) is studied theoretically for laser polarization (\\vert\\vert^l) and perpendicular (bot^r) to the incident momentum. The triple differential (TDCS) as well as the double differential (DDCS) cross sections are studied for the coplanar asymmetric geometry. The results are compared with the only available kinematically complete experiment at high incident energy (1000 eV). Significant laser modification (enhancement) is noted due to multiphoton effects in the present binary and recoil peak intensities of the TDCS for both the geometries, in qualitative agreement with the experiment. In the single photon case, the net effect of the laser field is to suppress the field free (FF) TDCS as well as the DDCS in the zeroth order approximation of the ejected electron wave function (CV), while in the first order (MCV), the cross sections are found to be enhanced. The CV multiphoton cross sections obey the famous Kroll Watson (KW) sum rule while the latter does not hold good in the corresponding MCV approximation.

  9. Theoretical Studies of Energy and Momentum Exchange in Atomic and Molecular Scattering from Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph R. Manson

    2005-06-30

    The contributions that we have made during the grant period of DE-FG02-98ER45704 can be placed into six different categories: (1) advances in the Theory of Molecule-Surface Scattering, (2) advances in the Theory of Atom-Surface Scattering, (3) utilization of scattering theory to Extract Physical Information about Surfaces, (4) Gas-Surface Interactions, (5) Ion Scattering from surfaces and (6) Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM). These six topics are discussed below as individual listings under the title 'IV. Detailed description of research accomplishments'. These advances show that we have made significant progress on several scientific problems in atomic and molecular surface scattering during the course of this grant as well as contributions to other areas. It is also noted that this work, although fundamentally theoretical, is marked by its strong motivation to explain current experimental measurements. This was an important secondary goal in the proposed work. We have developed theory that is useful to experimentalists in the explanation and analysis of their experimental data.

  10. An x ray scatter approach for non-destructive chemical analysis of low atomic numbered elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H. Richard

    1993-01-01

    A non-destructive x-ray scatter (XRS) approach has been developed, along with a rapid atomic scatter algorithm for the detection and analysis of low atomic-numbered elements in solids, powders, and liquids. The present method of energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (EDXRF) makes the analysis of light elements (i.e., less than sodium; less than 11) extremely difficult. Detection and measurement become progressively worse as atomic numbers become smaller, due to a competing process called 'Auger Emission', which reduces fluorescent intensity, coupled with the high mass absorption coefficients exhibited by low energy x-rays, the detection and determination of low atomic-numbered elements by x-ray spectrometry is limited. However, an indirect approach based on the intensity ratio of Compton and Rayleigh scattered has been used to define light element components in alloys, plastics and other materials. This XRS technique provides qualitative and quantitative information about the overall constituents of a variety of samples.

  11. Suppressed grain-boundary scattering in atomic layer deposited Nb:TiO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niemelä, Janne-Petteri; Hirose, Yasushi; Shigematsu, Kei; Sano, Masahito; Hasegawa, Tetsuya; Karppinen, Maarit

    2015-11-01

    We have fabricated high-quality thin films of the transparent conducting anatase Nb:TiO2 on glass substrates through atomic layer deposition, and a subsequent reductive heat treatment of the as-deposited amorphous films. Hall-effect measurements and Drude-fitting of the Vis-NIR spectra indicate that for lightly doped films deposited at temperatures around 170 °C, grain boundary scattering becomes negligible and the mobility is predominately limited by phonon-electron scattering inherent to the anatase lattice and by impurities. Simultaneously, such lighter doping leads to reduced plasma absorption, thereby improving material's performance as a transparent conductor.

  12. Beyond the single-atom response in absorption line shapes: probing a dense, laser-dressed helium gas with attosecond pulse trains.

    PubMed

    Liao, Chen-Ting; Sandhu, Arvinder; Camp, Seth; Schafer, Kenneth J; Gaarde, Mette B

    2015-04-10

    We investigate the absorption line shapes of laser-dressed atoms beyond the single-atom response, by using extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse trains to probe an optically thick helium target under the influence of a strong infrared (IR) field. We study the interplay between the IR-induced phase shift of the microscopic time-dependent dipole moment and the resonant-propagation-induced reshaping of the macroscopic XUV pulse. Our experimental and theoretical results show that as the optical depth increases, this interplay leads initially to a broadening of the IR-modified line shape, and subsequently, to the appearance of new, narrow features in the absorption line. PMID:25910116

  13. Superradiant Rayleigh Scattering and Collective Atomic Recoil Lasing in a Ring Cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Slama, S.; Bux, S.; Krenz, G.; Zimmermann, C.; Courteille, Ph. W.

    2007-02-02

    Collective interaction of light with an atomic gas can give rise to superradiant instabilities. We experimentally study the sudden buildup of a reverse light field in a laser-driven high-finesse ring cavity filled with ultracold thermal or Bose-Einstein condensed atoms. While superradiant Rayleigh scattering from atomic clouds is normally observed only at very low temperatures (i.e., well below 1 {mu}K), the presence of the ring cavity enhances cooperativity and allows for superradiance with thermal clouds as hot as several 10 {mu}K. A characterization of the superradiance at various temperatures and cooperativity parameters allows us to link it to the collective atomic recoil laser.

  14. Ultracold-neutron production and up-scattering in superfluid helium between 1.1 K and 2.4 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, K. K. H.; Ivanov, S.; Piegsa, F. M.; Simson, M.; Zimmer, O.

    2016-02-01

    Ultracold neutrons (UCNs) were produced in superfluid helium using the PF1B cold-neutron beam facility at the Institut Laue-Langevin. A 4-liter beryllium-coated converter volume with a mechanical valve and windowless stainless-steel extraction system were used to accumulate and guide UCNs to a detector at room temperature. At a converter temperature of 1.08 K the total storage time constant in the vessel was (20.3 ±1.2 )s and the number of UCNs counted after accumulated was 91 700 ±300 . From this, we derive a volumetric UCN production rate of (6.9 ±1.7 ) cm-3s-1 , which includes a correction for losses in the converter during UCN extraction caused by the short storage time, but not accounting for UCN transport and detection efficiencies. The up-scattering rate of UCNs caused by excitations in the superfluid was studied by scanning the temperature between 1.2 K and 2.4 K . Using the temperature-dependent UCN production rate calculated from inelastic neutron scattering data, the only UCN up-scattering process found to occur was from two-phonon scattering. Our analysis for T <1.95 K rules out the contributions from roton-phonon scattering to <29 % (95% C.I.) and from one-phonon absorption to <47 % (95% C.I.) of their predicted levels.

  15. Measurements of ultra-low-energy electron scattering cross sections of atoms and molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Kitajima, M.; Shigemura, K.; Kurokawa, M.; Odagiri, T.; Kato, H.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.; Ito, K.

    2014-03-05

    A new experimental technique for the total cross section measurements of ultra-low energy electron collisions with atoms and molecules utilizing the synchrotron radiation is presented. The technique employs a combination of the penetrating field technique and the threshold photoionization of rare gas atoms using the synchrotron radiation as an electron source in order to produce a high resolution electron beam at very low energy. Absolute total cross sections for electron scattering from He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe in the energy region from extremely low electron energy to 20 eV are presented.

  16. An atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray diffraction and scattering analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Scott M.; Methaapanon, Rungthiwa; Johnson, Richard W.; Kim, Woo-Hee; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Metha, Apurva; Bent, Stacey F.

    2014-05-01

    The crystal structure of thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) will determine important performance properties such as conductivity, breakdown voltage, and catalytic activity. We report the design of an atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray analysis that can be used to monitor changes to the crystal structural during ALD. The application of the chamber is demonstrated for Pt ALD on amorphous SiO2 and SrTiO3 (001) using synchrotron-based high resolution x-ray diffraction, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and grazing incidence small angle scattering.

  17. An atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray diffraction and scattering analysis.

    PubMed

    Geyer, Scott M; Methaapanon, Rungthiwa; Johnson, Richard W; Kim, Woo-Hee; Van Campen, Douglas G; Metha, Apurva; Bent, Stacey F

    2014-05-01

    The crystal structure of thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) will determine important performance properties such as conductivity, breakdown voltage, and catalytic activity. We report the design of an atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray analysis that can be used to monitor changes to the crystal structural during ALD. The application of the chamber is demonstrated for Pt ALD on amorphous SiO2 and SrTiO3 (001) using synchrotron-based high resolution x-ray diffraction, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and grazing incidence small angle scattering. PMID:24880424

  18. Light-scattering detection of quantum phases of ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Jinwu; Zhang, J. M.; Liu, W. M.; Zhang Keye; Li Yan; Zhang Weiping

    2011-05-15

    Ultracold atoms loaded on optical lattices can provide unprecedented experimental systems for the quantum simulations and manipulations of many quantum phases. However, so far, how to detect these quantum phases effectively remains an outstanding challenge. Here, we show that the optical Bragg scattering of cold atoms loaded on optical lattices can be used to detect many quantum phases, which include not only the conventional superfluid and Mott insulating phases, but also other important phases, such as various kinds of charge density wave (CDW), valence bond solid (VBS), CDW supersolid (CDW-SS) and Valence bond supersolid (VB-SS).

  19. An atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray diffraction and scattering analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, Scott M.; Methaapanon, Rungthiwa; Kim, Woo-Hee; Bent, Stacey F.; Johnson, Richard W.; Van Campen, Douglas G.; Metha, Apurva

    2014-05-15

    The crystal structure of thin films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) will determine important performance properties such as conductivity, breakdown voltage, and catalytic activity. We report the design of an atomic layer deposition chamber for in situ x-ray analysis that can be used to monitor changes to the crystal structural during ALD. The application of the chamber is demonstrated for Pt ALD on amorphous SiO{sub 2} and SrTiO{sub 3} (001) using synchrotron-based high resolution x-ray diffraction, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, and grazing incidence small angle scattering.

  20. QED effects in scattering processes involving atomic bound states: Radiative recombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindgren, Ingvar; Salomonson, Sten; Holmberg, Johan

    2014-06-01

    The standard perturbative expansion of the S matrix cannot generally be used in the treatment of atomic scattering processes, involving atomic bound states, due to the special type of singularity that can appear here. It is demonstrated in the present paper that as a consequence of the optical theorem for free particles the effective Hamiltonian is closely related to the total cross section, a relation that is valid also when bound states are present. This implies that methods designed for structure calculations also can be used in dynamical processes. We have found that the covariant-evolution-operator technique that we have developed for structure calculations is here particularly useful. This is a consequence of the fact that the regular part of this operator (the Green's operator), running over all times, is essentially equal to the effective Hamiltonian and therefore directly related to the scattering cross section. In this paper the procedure is demonstrated for the case of radiative recombination.

  1. Diffraction of swift atoms after grazing scattering from metal surfaces: N/Ag(111) system

    SciTech Connect

    Gravielle, M. S.; Bocan, G. A.; Diez Muino, R.

    2010-11-15

    Diffraction patterns produced by grazing scattering of fast N atoms from a Ag(111) surface are investigated by employing the surface eikonal approximation. This method is a distorted-wave theory that takes into account the coherent addition of contributions coming from different projectile paths. In the model the projectile-surface potential is obtained from an accurate density-functional theory calculation. The dependence of the scattered projectile spectra on impact energy and incidence channel is analyzed, and possible incident direction and energy range for the observation of the interference patterns are predicted. In addition, it is found that as a result of the high reactivity of N atoms, asymmetries of the surface potential might be detected through their effects on diffraction patterns.

  2. Photon antibunching upon scattering by an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate

    SciTech Connect

    Ilichev, L. V. Chapovsky, P. L.

    2010-05-15

    Antibunching of photodetections from different modes is shown to arise when two quantized light modes are scattered by an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. This effect appears because of the uncertainty in the position of the condensate wave function relative to the optical lattice formed by the light beams. It is shown how the information contained in the history of photodetections leads to a spatial localization of the condensate wave function.

  3. Electron-indium atom scattering and analysis of electron and optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabasović, Maja S.

    2014-12-01

    Experimental study of indium atom using electron and optical spectroscopy is presented in this paper. Both experimental techniques including experimental setups are described. Differential and integrated cross sections on elastic and inelastic electron scattering by indium atom are measured using electron spectrometer. The measurements are performed at incident electron energies of E0 = 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 eV within the large scattering angles ranging from 10° to 150° in steps of 10°. The experimental results are presented and comparison with the values predicted by calculated optical potentials method is conducted, showing good agreement. The differential cross sections (DCSs) for electron-impact excitation of the resonant state 6s 2S1/2 of Indium atom are measured at small and large angles. The forward scattering function method has been used for normalizing the generalized oscillator strengths (GOS) to determine optical oscillator strength and obtaining the absolute DCS values. Optical spectrum of In I and In II lines has been acquired by a streak camera. The experimental results regarding indium lines obtained by time resolved laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) could be useful for obtaining the important plasma parameters such as temperature, electron density as well as plasma-expansion velocity and plasma starting times.

  4. The ionization degree of Ar atoms single scattered from pure metal and alloy surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Abdulkasimov, F.B.; Ferleger, V.K.

    1996-12-31

    A procedure of deflection of backscattered neutral atoms with low energy E{sub o} = (250 {divided_by} 3,000) eV based on neutral ionization by electron impact has been developed. The ionization degrees {eta}{sup +} of Ar atoms single scattered at the angle {Theta} = 138{degree} from V and VI period metal polycrystal surfaces as well as inelastic energy losses Q have been measured. It has been found that both {eta}{sup +} and Q changed nonmonotonically within each period. It has been shown that for the elements of the same group under otherwise equal conditions {eta}{sup +} at the scattering from V period elements appeared to be always higher than those for the VI period. It has been established that at scattering from MoRe alloy surface {eta}{sup +} in peaks of single scattering from Mo and Re the metal target values coincided with corresponding values measured for pure Mo and Re metal targets. Using the results obtained one could draw some conclusions about the dependence of the charge state on the target structure.

  5. Study of Hot Atomic Oxygen in Mars' Upper Thermosphere and Exosphere Using Different Scattering Collision Approximations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.; Combi, M. R.; Tenishev, V.; Bougher, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    The production of energetic particles results in the formation of hot atom coronas on the Martian atmosphere. Being the most important reaction for the exosphere on Mars, dissociative recombination (DR) of O2+ ion is the dominant source of the production of hot atomic oxygen, which occurs mostly deep in the dayside thermosphere of Mars. As noted by Krestyanikova and Shematovitch [2005], the collision cross sections are critical parameters. The two different assumptions for scattering collision cross sections are: (1) considering total cross section and scattering collisions as elastic hard sphere encounters [Nagy et al. 1981], and (2) using the distribution of scattering angles in the center-of-mass frame. In this study, the DR of O2+ is assumed to be the only source of hot oxygen in the Martian thermosphere. The total and differential cross sections are obtained separately to calculate the hot oxygen fluxes from Martian upper atmosphere. The two different approximations for the O + O collision cross section are compared to study how they affect the calculation of hot oxygen escape fluxes. One assumes a single total cross section and hard sphere scattering. The other uses the scattering angle dependent differential scattering cross section of Kharchencko et al. [2000]. To describe self-consistently the exosphere and the upper thermosphere, a combination of our 3D Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) model [Valeille, A., Combi, M., Bougher, S., Tenishev, V., Nagy, A., 2009. J. Geophys. Res. 114, E11006. doi:10.1029/2009JE003389] and the 3D Mars Thermosphere General Circulation Model (MTGCM) [Bougher, S., Bell, J., Murphy, J., Lopez-Valverde, M., Withers, P., 2006. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32, doi: 10.1029/2005GL024059. L02203] is used. Profiles of density and temperature, atmospheric loss rates and return fluxes as functions of the Solar Zenith Angle (SZA) are studied using the model for the cases considered. Comparisons of DSMC model outputs will be made with those from other recent exosphere model studies.

  6. Charge exchange in atom-surface scattering: Thermal versus quantum mechanical non-adiabaticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brako, R.; Newns, D. M.

    1981-07-01

    We consider the ionic fraction in the reflected beam when an atom or ion is scattered from a metal surface at finite temperature. Our starting point is the zero temperature theory of Blandin, Nourtier and Hone, applicable to a non-interacting Anderson model description of the coupling between the valence level of the atom and the metal electron states, in which the energy and lifetime broadening of the valence level are explicitly time-dependent as a result of the classical motion of the atom centre of mass. This model is generalised to give an exact formula applicable to finite temperature. Three regimes are distinguished. If the atom valence level lies far from the Fermi level, and is initially out of equilibrium, then the scattered non-adiabatic fraction is a memory of the initial state and is correctly described by a simple semi-classical decay model of the Cobas-Lamb type. In the contrary case memory of the initial state may be neglected and equilibrium established during closest approach to the surface, leading to a theory equivalent to sputtering. Then in the high temperature limit a simple result is obtained which may also be derived from a classical master equation. In the low temperature limit the non-adiabatic fraction is shown to be of the form A exp(- c/ v), where v is normal component of atom velocity and a prescription for calculating A and c is given. The exact formula is applied numerically to experiments on Na scattering from W(110). The results are compatible with theory at high temperatures, but at low temperatures a much higher non-adiabatic fraction is observed than expected, for which an explanation is suggested.

  7. A comparative study on total reflection X-ray fluorescence determination of low atomic number elements in air, helium and vacuum atmospheres using different excitation sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, N. L.; Kanrar, Buddhadev; Aggarwal, S. K.; Wobrauschek, Peter; Rauwolf, M.; Streli, Christina

    2014-09-01

    A comparison of trace element determinations of low atomic number (Z) elements Na, Mg, Al, P, K and Ca in air, helium and vacuum atmospheres using W L?1, Mo K? and Cr K? excitations has been made. For Mo K? and W L?1 excitations a Si (Li) detector with beryllium window was used and measurements were performed in air and helium atmospheres. For Cr K? excitation, a Si (Li) detector with an ultra thin polymer window (UTW) was used and measurements were made in vacuum and air atmospheres. The sensitivities of the elemental X-ray lines were determined using TXRF spectra of standard solutions and processing them by IAEA QXAS program. The elemental concentrations of the elements in other solutions were determined using their TXRF spectra and pre-determined sensitivity values. The study suggests that, using the above experimental set up, Mo K? excitation is not suited for trace determination of low atomic number element. Excitation by WL?1 and helium atmosphere, the spectrometer can be used for the determination of elements with Z = 15 (P) and above with fairly good detection limits whereas Cr K? excitation with ultra thin polymer window and vacuum atmosphere is good for the elements having Z = 11 (Na) and above. The detection limits using this set up vary from 7048 pg for Na to 83 pg for Ti.

  8. Changes in the Atomic Structure through Glass Transition Observed by X-Ray Scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Egami, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    The glass transition involves a minor change in the internal energy, and yet the physical and mechanical properties of a glass change dramatically. In order to determine the evolution of the atomic structure through the glass transition, we employed in-situ synchrotron X-ray scattering measurements as a function of temperature on a model material: Zr-Cu-Al metallic glass. We found that the thermal expansion at the atomic level is smaller than the macroscopic thermal expansion, and significantly increases above the glass transition temperature. The observed changes in the pair-distribution function (PDF) are explained in terms of the fluctuations in the local atomic volume and their change through the glass transition.

  9. Recent investigations of silk fibers utilizing x-ray scattering and atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Lance D.

    1998-12-01

    Silks from the mulberry silkworm, Bombyx mori, and the golden-orb spider, Nephila clavipes, are materials that possess respectable properties. Even pitted against the high performance fibers of Kevlar, polyethylene, and carbon, the advantages of some of nature's fibers are clear. The tensile strength of the golden-orb spider dragline is of the same order of magnitude as many synthetic fibers, yet the dragline's compressive strength as a percentage of its tensile strength is greater. The spider's ampullate glands, responsible for the manufacture of the dragline, also excel. The spider spins its fiber from a liquid crystalline solution that is water based versus the solutions at high temperatures containing volatile solvents that are required for current synthetic fibers. Understanding the morphology of silks will provide the basis for improved manufacturing and better performing synthetic fibers. The studies presented here have centered on the use of small-angle x-ray scattering, SAXS, to describe the large-scale morphology of silk fibers. We have determined minimum scattering dimensions on the order of 150-300 nm. A detailed analysis of the Porod scattering region has revealed correlation lengths of the same magnitude. Both of these dimensions are similar to with direct atomic force microscopy, AFM, measurements of nanofibers found in samples of abraded or peeled silk. The incorporation of discrete Fourier transform theory and AFM topographic information has yielded results in general agreement with measured SAXS patterns. This incorporation allows the materials scientist a way of visualizing the relationship between a material and its resulting scattering function. We have also found that x-ray scattering gives insight to new periodic distances of the morphology of golden-orb dragline. All of these studies yield a more complete view of the silk morphology and give a new method of model building from scattering experiments.

  10. Absolute optical oscillator strengths for the electronic excitation of atoms at high resolution: Experimental methods and measurements for helium

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, W.F.; Cooper, G.; Brion, C.E. )

    1991-07-01

    An alternative method is described for the measurement of absolute optical oscillator strengths (cross sections) for electronic excitation of free atoms and molecules throughout the discrete region of the valence-shell spectrum at high energy resolution (full width at half maximum of 0.048 eV). The technique, utilizing the virtual-photon field of a fast electron inelastically scattered at negligible momentum transfer, avoids many of the difficulties associated with the various direct optical techniques that have traditionally been used for absolute optical oscillator strength measurements. The method is also free of the bandwidth (line saturation) effects that can seriously limit the accuracy of photoabsorption cross-section measurements for discrete transitions of narrow linewidth obtained using the Beer-Lambert law ({ital I}{sub 0}/{ital I}=exp({ital nl}{sigma}{sub {ital p}})). Since the line-saturation effects are not widely appreciated and are only usually considered in the context of peak heights, a detailed analysis of this problem is presented, with consideration of the integrated cross section (oscillator strength) over the profile of each discrete peak.

  11. Spacelab 2 measurement of the solar coronal helium abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, A. H.; Culhane, J. L.; Patchett, B. E.; Breeveld, E. R.; Lang, J.; Parkinson, J. H.; Payne, J.; Norman, K.

    1995-07-01

    The abundance of helium relative to hydrogen has been measured with the 'Coronal Helium Abundance Spacelab Experiment' (CHASE) from the space shuttle Challenger in 1985. Previous solar measurements have proved difficult due to the temperature-sensitivity of the electron excitation rates for the observed lines. In this approach, scattered Lyman Alpha radiation of helium and hydrogen formed in the corona were measured with a grazing-incidence spectrometer and compared with the intensity of the illuminating flux from the solar chromosphere. The abundance ratio by number of atoms was found to be 0.070 with an uncertainty of 0.011. Scattered light in the telescope is the main source of error.

  12. Scattering characteristics and imaging of energetic neutral atoms from the Moon in the terrestrial magnetosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lue, Charles; Futaana, Yoshifumi; Barabash, Stas; Saito, Yoshifumi; Nishino, Masaki; Wieser, Martin; Asamura, Kazushi; Bhardwaj, Anil; Wurz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    We study hydrogen energetic neutral atom (ENA) emissions from the lunar surface, when the Moon is inside the terrestrial magnetosheath. The ENAs are generated by neutralization and backscattering of incident protons of solar wind origin. First, we model the effect of the increased ion temperature in the magnetosheath (>10 times larger than that in the undisturbed solar wind) on the ENA scattering characteristics. Then, we apply these models to ENA measurements by Chandrayaan-1 and simultaneous ion measurements by Kaguya at the Moon, in the magnetosheath. We produce maps of the ENA scattering fraction, covering a region at the lunar near-side that includes mare and highland surfaces and several lunar magnetic anomalies. We see clear signatures of plasma shielding by the magnetic anomalies. The maps are made at different lunar local times, and the results indicate an extended influence and altered morphology of the magnetic anomalies at shallower incidence angles of the magnetosheath protons. The scattering fraction from the unmagnetized regions remains consistent with that in the undisturbed solar wind (10%-20%). Moreover, the observed ENA energy spectra are well reproduced by our temperature-dependent model. We conclude that the ENA scattering process is unchanged in the magnetosheath. Similarly to the undisturbed solar wind case, it is only magnetic anomalies that provide contrast in the ENA maps, not any selenomorphological features such as mare and highland regions.

  13. Disappearance of Mott Oscillations in Sub-barrier Elastic Scattering of Identical Nuclei and Atomic Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, M. S.; Canto, L. F.; Donangelo, R.; Mittig, W.

    2016-03-01

    The scattering of identical nuclei at low energies exhibits conspicuous Mott oscillations which can be used to investigate the presence of components in the predominantly Coulomb interaction arising from several physical effects. It is found that at a certain critical value of the Sommerfeld parameter the Mott oscillations disappear and the cross section becomes quite flat. We call this effect Transverse Isotropy (TI). The critical value of the Sommerfeld parameter at which TI sets in is found to be {ηc = √{3s + 2}}, where s is the spin of the nuclei participating in the scattering. No TI is found in the Mott scattering of identical Fermionic nuclei. The critical center of mass energy corresponding to {η_c} is found to be {E_c = 0.40} MeV for {α + α} (s = 0), 1.2 MeV for {6}Li + {6}LI (s = 1) and 7.1 MeV for {^{10}}B + {^{10}}B (s = 3). We further found that the inclusion of the nuclear interaction induces a significant modification in the TI. We suggest measurements at these sub-barrier energies for the purpose of extracting useful information about the nuclear interaction between light heavy ions. We also suggest extending the study of the TI to the scattering of identical atomic ions.

  14. Disappearance of Mott Oscillations in Sub-barrier Elastic Scattering of Identical Nuclei and Atomic Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, M. S.; Canto, L. F.; Donangelo, R.; Mittig, W.

    2016-01-01

    The scattering of identical nuclei at low energies exhibits conspicuous Mott oscillations which can be used to investigate the presence of components in the predominantly Coulomb interaction arising from several physical effects. It is found that at a certain critical value of the Sommerfeld parameter the Mott oscillations disappear and the cross section becomes quite flat. We call this effect Transverse Isotropy (TI). The critical value of the Sommerfeld parameter at which TI sets in is found to be {?c = ?{3s + 2}} , where s is the spin of the nuclei participating in the scattering. No TI is found in the Mott scattering of identical Fermionic nuclei. The critical center of mass energy corresponding to {?_c} is found to be {E_c = 0.40} MeV for {? + ?} (s = 0), 1.2 MeV for {6} Li + {6} LI (s = 1) and 7.1 MeV for {^{10}} B + {^{10}} B (s = 3). We further found that the inclusion of the nuclear interaction induces a significant modification in the TI. We suggest measurements at these sub-barrier energies for the purpose of extracting useful information about the nuclear interaction between light heavy ions. We also suggest extending the study of the TI to the scattering of identical atomic ions.

  15. Toward measurements of total cross sections for positrons and electrons scattered by potassium and rubidium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parikh, S. P.; Kauppila, W. E.; Kwan, C. K.; Lukaszew, R. A.; Przybyla, D.; Stein, T. S.; Zhou, S.

    1993-02-01

    We have attempted to measure total cross sections (QT's) for positrons and electrons scattered by potassium and rubidium atoms in the energy range 1-102 eV using a beam-transmission technique. The measurements are subject to increasing errors as the projectile energy is reduced below 20 eV due to the incomplete discrimination of our apparatus against projectiles scattered through small angles. Our measured positron-K and -Rb QT's each show a peak in the vicinity of 6 eV and decrease substantially as the positron energy is reduced below 6 eV. The observed peaks may be artifacts due to the incomplete-discrimination problems referred to above, but careful consideration of those problems does not resolve the marked discrepancies between our low-energy positron-Rb results and those obtained in recent five-state close-coupling-approximation calculations.

  16. Quantum theory of neutral-atom scattering at long range from solid cylinders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehl, M. J.; Schaich, W. L.

    1980-04-01

    Qualitative arguments suggest that diffraction effects might be important for the interpretation of the experiments of Shih et al. We derive a tractable quantum theory to describe the scattering of neutral atoms at long range by van der Waals forces from solid cylinders. The theory is based on an angular-momentum expansion and evaluates the scattered intensity close to the cylinder in the geometrical shadow region. The formal quantum theory indicates that one is far from the conventional classical limit, in the sense that WKB and stationary-phase approximations are not valid. Yet an essentially exact evaluation appears to agree with the classical prediction, at least over the range of deflections that have been experimentally studied. This surprising classical-quantum correspondence is clarified by a Regge-pole analysis. Finally we also set limits on the extent of specular reflection from the cylinder surfaces. The discrepancy between theory and experiment remains unresolved.

  17. Calculation of the total and total ionization cross sections for positron scattering on atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, I. ); Stelbovics, A.T. )

    1994-04-01

    The total and total ionization cross sections for positron scattering on atomic hydrogen are calculated by applying the convergent-close-coupling method to the model where positronium-formation channels are omitted. This model accurately describes the physics of the scattering whenever the positronium formation cross section is negligible, in particular, above 100 eV for this system. The total ionization cross section results in this energy region are in excellent agreement with the recent measurements of Jones [ital et] [ital al]. [J. Phys. B 26, L483 (1993)], and so lie below the earlier measurements of Spicher [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1019 (1990)], and the recent calculations of Acacia [ital et] [ital al]. [Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published)]. The total cross section is in very good agreement with the recent measurements of Zhou [ital et] [ital al]. (unpublished) down to 30 eV.

  18. Focused inelastic resonances in the scattering of He atoms from NaCl(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedek, G.; Gerlach, R.; Glebov, A.; Lange, G.; Miret-Artes, S.; Skofronick, J. G.; Toennies, J. P.

    1996-04-01

    High-resolution inelastic He-atom surface scattering experiments have been carried out on an in situ cleaved NaCl(001) crystal surface for the incident wave-vector range of 4.29-6.07 Å-1 in the <110> high-symmetry direction to detect the recently predicted effect, the focused inelastic resonance (FIR). The scattering angle for the resonance in the <110> direction is uniquely predicted based on the reciprocal lattice vector exchanged in the process for the bound state ||?1||=3.4+/-0.1 meV. This value is slightly lower than the 3.7+/-0.4 meV value found in the literature. The convincing evidence for the FIR effect comes from a systematic analysis of the angular distributions in combination with an energy analysis based on time-of-flight spectra.

  19. Analysis of scattering mechanisms in zinc oxide films grown by the atomic layer deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajewski, Tomasz A.; Dybko, Krzysztof; Luka, Grzegorz; Wachnicki, Lukasz; Kopalko, Krzysztof; Paszkowicz, Wojciech; Godlewski, Marek; Guziewicz, Elzbieta

    2015-07-01

    In this work, the analysis of the temperature-dependent electrical conductivity of highly crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films obtained by the Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) method is performed. It is deduced that the most important scattering mechanisms are: scattering by ionized defects (at low temperatures) as well as by phonons (mainly optical ones) at higher temperatures. Nevertheless, the role of grain boundaries in the carrier mobility limitation ought to be included as well. These conclusions are based on theoretical analysis and temperature-dependent Hall mobility measurements. The presented results prove that existing models can explain the mobility behavior in the ALD-ZnO films, being helpful for understanding their transport properties, which are strongly related both to the crystalline quality of deposited ZnO material and defects in its lattice.

  20. Fission-fusion correlations for swelling and microstructure in stainless steels: effect of the helium-to-displacement-per-atom ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Odette, G.R.; Maziaz, P.J.; Spitznagel, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The initial irradiated structural materials data base for fusion applications will be developed in fission reactors. Hence, this data may need to be adjusted using physically-based procedures to represent behavior in fusion environments, viz. - fission-fusion correlations. Such correlation should reflect a sound mechanistic understanding, and be verified in facilities which most closely simulate fusion conditions. In this paper we review the effects of only one of a number of potentially significant damage variables, the helium to displacement per atom ratio, on microstructural evolution in austenitic stainless steels. Dual-ion and helium preinjection data are analyzed to provide mechanistic guidance; these results appear to be qualitatively consistent with a more detailed comparison made between fast (EBR-II) and mixed (HFIR) spectrum neutron data for a single heat of 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steel. These two fission environments bound fusion (He/dpa ratios. A model calibrated to the fission reactor data is used to extrapolate to fusion conditions. Both the theory and broad empirical observation suggest that helium to dpa ratios have both a qualitative and quantitative influence on microstructural evolution; and that the very high and low ratios found in HFIR and EBR-II may not result in behavior which brackets intermediate fusion conditions.

  1. He atom-surface scattering: Surface dynamics of insulators, overlayers and crystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Investigations in this laboratory have focused on the surface structure and dynamics of ionic insulators and on epitaxial growth onto alkali halide crystals. In the later the homoepitaxial growth of NaCl/NaCl(001) and the heteroepitaxial growth of KBr/NaCl(001), NaCl/KBr(001) and KBr/RbCl(001) have been studied by monitoring the specular He scattering as a function of the coverage and by measuring the angular and energy distributions of the scattered He atoms. These data provide information on the surface structure, defect densities, island sizes and surface strain during the layer-by-layer growth. The temperature dependence of these measurements also provides information on the mobilities of the admolecules. He atom scattering is unique among surface probes because the low-energy, inert atoms are sensitive only to the electronic structure of the topmost surface layer and are equally applicable to all crystalline materials. It is proposed for the next year to exploit further the variety of combinations possible with the alkali halides in order to carry out a definitive study of epitaxial growth in the ionic insulators. The work completed so far, including measurements of the Bragg diffraction and surface dispersion at various stages of growth, appears to be exceptionally rich in detail, which is particularly promising for theoretical modeling. In addition, because epitaxial growth conditions over a wide range of lattice mismatches is possible with these materials, size effects in growth processes can be explored in great depth. Further, as some of the alkali halides have the CsCl structure instead of the NaCl structure, we can investigate the effects of the heteroepitaxy with materials having different lattice preferences. Finally, by using co-deposition of different alkali halides, one can investigate the formation and stability of alloys and even alkali halide superlattices.

  2. Simplified tight-binding model for conductance calculation with phonon scattering for atomic junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Xia, H.; Shrestha, S.; Conibeer, G.

    2015-11-01

    Intrigued by the high demand of fast design and development of nanoscale electronic devices, electronic transport across atomic dimensions becomes an important theoretical and computational problem. In this paper we present a tight-binding based model specially tailed for calculating realistic tunneling structures with scattering region dimensions of several nanometers. The proposed model allows for a proper treatment of the electron-phonon coupling effects in a tractable manner. By greatly reducing the complexity of the phonon-involved problem down to a quadratic level, transmission calculation for large-scale systems, including both planar structures and quantum wire structures, becomes practically feasible.

  3. High energy elastic and inelastic electron scattering by the Ne and Ar atoms: Electron correlation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Duguet, A.; Bennani, A.L.; Rouault, M.

    1983-09-15

    Elastic and inelastic differential cross sections (DCS) of high energy electrons (25 keV) scattered by neon and argon have been separately measured by totally independent methods. The effects of electronic correlations on the DCS and on the radial distribution functions D(R) and P(R) are deduced from experiment by comparison with theoretical Hartree--Fock values. An estimate of the correlation energy is also given. In the case of neon, the differences, with respect to Hartree--Fock, of the various contributions to atomic potential energy ..delta.. Vne, ..delta.. Vee/sup Coul/, and ..delta..Vee/sup exch/ are calculated from experiment and compared to theoretical results.

  4. Comparison of Electron Elastic-Scattering Cross Sections Calculated from Two Commonly Used Atomic Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jablonski, A.; Salvat, F.; Powell, C. J.

    2004-06-01

    We have analyzed differential cross sections (DCSs) for the elastic scattering of electrons by neutral atoms that have been derived from two commonly used atomic potentials: the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac (TFD) potential and the Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) potential. DCSs from the latter potential are believed to be more accurate. We compared DCSs for six atoms (H, Al, Ni, Ag, Au, and Cm) at four energies (100, 500, 1000, and 10 000 eV) from two databases issued by the National Institute of Standards and Technology in which DCSs had been obtained from the TFD and DHF potentials. While the DCSs from the two potentials had similar shapes and magnitudes, there can be pronounced deviations (up to 70%) for small scattering angles for Al, Ag, Au, and Cm. In addition, there were differences of up to 400% at scattering angles for which there were deep minima in the DCSs; at other angles, the differences were typically less than 20%. The DCS differences decreased with increasing electron energy. DCSs calculated from the two potentials were compared with measured DCSs for six atoms (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, and Hg) at energies between 50 eV and 3 keV. For Ar, the atom for which experimental data are available over the largest energy range there is good agreement between the measured DCSs and those calculated from the TFD and DHF potentials at 2 and 3 keV, but the experimental DCSs agree better with the DCSs from the DHF potential at lower energies. A similar trend is found for the other atoms. At energies less than about 1 keV, there are increasing differences between the measured DCSs and the DCSs calculated from the DHF potential. These differences were attributed to the neglect of absorption and polarizability effects in the calculations. We compare transport cross sections for H, Al, Ni, Ag, Au, and Cm obtained from the DCSs for each potential. For energies between 200 eV and 1 keV, the largest differences are about 20% (for H, Au, and Cm); at higher energies, the differences are smaller. We also examine the extent to which three quantities derived from DCSs vary depending on whether the DCSs were obtained from the TFD or DHF potential. First, we compare calculated and measured elastic-backscattered intensities for thin films of Au on a Ni substrate with different measurement conditions, but it is not clear whether DCSs from the TFD or DHF potential should be preferred. Second, we compare electron inelastic mean free paths (IMFPs) derived from relative and absolute measurements by elastic-peak electron spectroscopy and from analyses with DCSs obtained from the TFD and DHF potentials. In four examples, for a variety of materials and measurement conditions, we find differences between the IMFPs from the TFD and DHF potentials ranging from 1.3% to 17.1%. Third, we compare mean escape depths for two photoelectron lines and two Auger-electron lines in solid Au obtained using DCSs from the TFD and DHF potentials. The relative differences between these mean escape depths vary from 4.3% at 70 eV to0.5% at 2016 eV at normal electron emission, and become smaller with increasing emission angle. Although measured DCSs for atoms can differ from DCSs calculated from the DHF potential by up to a factor of 2, we find that the atomic DCSs are empirically useful for simulations of electron transport in solids for electron energies above about 300 eV. The atomic DCSs can also be useful for energies down to at least 200 eV if relative measurements are made.

  5. Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations on scattering of hyperthermal H atoms from Cu(111) and Au(111).

    PubMed

    Kroes, Geert-Jan; Pavanello, Michele; Blanco-Rey, Mara; Alducin, Maite; Auerbach, Daniel J

    2014-08-01

    Energy loss from the translational motion of an atom or molecule impinging on a metal surface to the surface may determine whether the incident particle can trap on the surface, and whether it has enough energy left to react with another molecule present at the surface. Although this is relevant to heterogeneous catalysis, the relative extent to which energy loss of hot atoms takes place to phonons or electron-hole pair (ehp) excitation, and its dependence on the system's parameters, remain largely unknown. We address these questions for two systems that present an extreme case of the mass ratio of the incident atom to the surface atom, i.e., H + Cu(111) and H + Au(111), by presenting adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) predictions of the energy loss and angular distributions for an incidence energy of 5 eV. The results are compared to the results of AIMDEFp calculations modeling energy loss to ehp excitation using an electronic friction ("EF") model applied to the AIMD trajectories, so that the energy loss to the electrons is calculated "post" ("p") the computation of the AIMD trajectory. The AIMD calculations predict average energy losses of 0.38 eV for Cu(111) and 0.13-0.14 eV for Au(111) for H-atoms that scatter from these surfaces without penetrating the surface. These energies closely correspond with energy losses predicted with Baule models, which is suggestive of structure scattering. The predicted adiabatic integral energy loss spectra (integrated over all final scattering angles) all display a lowest energy peak at an energy corresponding to approximately 80% of the average adiabatic energy loss for non-penetrative scattering. In the adiabatic limit, this suggests a way of determining the approximate average energy loss of non-penetratively scattered H-atoms from the integral energy loss spectrum of all scattered H-atoms. The AIMDEFp calculations predict that in each case the lowest energy loss peak should show additional energy loss in the range 0.2-0.3 eV due to ehp excitation, which should be possible to observe. The average non-adiabatic energy losses for non-penetrative scattering exceed the adiabatic losses to phonons by 0.9-1.0 eV. This suggests that for scattering of hyperthermal H-atoms from coinage metals the dominant energy dissipation channel should be to ehp excitation. These predictions can be tested by experiments that combine techniques for generating H-atom beams that are well resolved in translational energy and for detecting the scattered atoms with high energy-resolution. PMID:25106598

  6. Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations on scattering of hyperthermal H atoms from Cu(111) and Au(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Kroes, Geert-Jan Pavanello, Michele; Blanco-Rey, María; Alducin, Maite

    2014-08-07

    Energy loss from the translational motion of an atom or molecule impinging on a metal surface to the surface may determine whether the incident particle can trap on the surface, and whether it has enough energy left to react with another molecule present at the surface. Although this is relevant to heterogeneous catalysis, the relative extent to which energy loss of hot atoms takes place to phonons or electron-hole pair (ehp) excitation, and its dependence on the system's parameters, remain largely unknown. We address these questions for two systems that present an extreme case of the mass ratio of the incident atom to the surface atom, i.e., H + Cu(111) and H + Au(111), by presenting adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) predictions of the energy loss and angular distributions for an incidence energy of 5 eV. The results are compared to the results of AIMDEFp calculations modeling energy loss to ehp excitation using an electronic friction (“EF”) model applied to the AIMD trajectories, so that the energy loss to the electrons is calculated “post” (“p”) the computation of the AIMD trajectory. The AIMD calculations predict average energy losses of 0.38 eV for Cu(111) and 0.13-0.14 eV for Au(111) for H-atoms that scatter from these surfaces without penetrating the surface. These energies closely correspond with energy losses predicted with Baule models, which is suggestive of structure scattering. The predicted adiabatic integral energy loss spectra (integrated over all final scattering angles) all display a lowest energy peak at an energy corresponding to approximately 80% of the average adiabatic energy loss for non-penetrative scattering. In the adiabatic limit, this suggests a way of determining the approximate average energy loss of non-penetratively scattered H-atoms from the integral energy loss spectrum of all scattered H-atoms. The AIMDEFp calculations predict that in each case the lowest energy loss peak should show additional energy loss in the range 0.2-0.3 eV due to ehp excitation, which should be possible to observe. The average non-adiabatic energy losses for non-penetrative scattering exceed the adiabatic losses to phonons by 0.9-1.0 eV. This suggests that for scattering of hyperthermal H-atoms from coinage metals the dominant energy dissipation channel should be to ehp excitation. These predictions can be tested by experiments that combine techniques for generating H-atom beams that are well resolved in translational energy and for detecting the scattered atoms with high energy-resolution.

  7. Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations on scattering of hyperthermal H atoms from Cu(111) and Au(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroes, Geert-Jan; Pavanello, Michele; Blanco-Rey, Mara; Alducin, Maite; Auerbach, Daniel J.

    2014-08-01

    Energy loss from the translational motion of an atom or molecule impinging on a metal surface to the surface may determine whether the incident particle can trap on the surface, and whether it has enough energy left to react with another molecule present at the surface. Although this is relevant to heterogeneous catalysis, the relative extent to which energy loss of hot atoms takes place to phonons or electron-hole pair (ehp) excitation, and its dependence on the system's parameters, remain largely unknown. We address these questions for two systems that present an extreme case of the mass ratio of the incident atom to the surface atom, i.e., H + Cu(111) and H + Au(111), by presenting adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) predictions of the energy loss and angular distributions for an incidence energy of 5 eV. The results are compared to the results of AIMDEFp calculations modeling energy loss to ehp excitation using an electronic friction ("EF") model applied to the AIMD trajectories, so that the energy loss to the electrons is calculated "post" ("p") the computation of the AIMD trajectory. The AIMD calculations predict average energy losses of 0.38 eV for Cu(111) and 0.13-0.14 eV for Au(111) for H-atoms that scatter from these surfaces without penetrating the surface. These energies closely correspond with energy losses predicted with Baule models, which is suggestive of structure scattering. The predicted adiabatic integral energy loss spectra (integrated over all final scattering angles) all display a lowest energy peak at an energy corresponding to approximately 80% of the average adiabatic energy loss for non-penetrative scattering. In the adiabatic limit, this suggests a way of determining the approximate average energy loss of non-penetratively scattered H-atoms from the integral energy loss spectrum of all scattered H-atoms. The AIMDEFp calculations predict that in each case the lowest energy loss peak should show additional energy loss in the range 0.2-0.3 eV due to ehp excitation, which should be possible to observe. The average non-adiabatic energy losses for non-penetrative scattering exceed the adiabatic losses to phonons by 0.9-1.0 eV. This suggests that for scattering of hyperthermal H-atoms from coinage metals the dominant energy dissipation channel should be to ehp excitation. These predictions can be tested by experiments that combine techniques for generating H-atom beams that are well resolved in translational energy and for detecting the scattered atoms with high energy-resolution.

  8. Suppression of Bragg scattering by collective interference of spatially ordered atoms with a high-Q cavity mode.

    PubMed

    Zippilli, Stefano; Morigi, Giovanna; Ritsch, Helmut

    2004-09-17

    When N driven atoms emit in phase into a high-Q cavity mode, the intracavity field generated by collective scattering interferes destructively with the pump driving the atoms. Hence atomic fluorescence is suppressed and cavity loss becomes the dominant decay channel for the whole ensemble. Microscopically, 3D light-intensity minima are formed in the vicinity of the atoms that prevent atomic excitation and form a regular lattice. The effect gets more pronounced for large atom numbers, when the sum of the atomic decay rates exceeds the rate of cavity losses and one would expect the opposite behavior. These results provide new insight into recent experiments on collective atomic dynamics in cavities. PMID:15447259

  9. Ground state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreck, Simon; Pietzsch, Annette; Kennedy, Brian; Såthe, Conny; Miedema, Piter S.; Techert, Simone; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Schmitt, Thorsten; Hennies, Franz; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Thermally driven chemistry as well as materials’ functionality are determined by the potential energy surface of a systems electronic ground state. This makes the potential energy surface a central and powerful concept in physics, chemistry and materials science. However, direct experimental access to the potential energy surface locally around atomic centers and to its long-range structure are lacking. Here we demonstrate how sub-natural linewidth resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at vibrational resolution is utilized to determine ground state potential energy surfaces locally and detect long-range changes of the potentials that are driven by local modifications. We show how the general concept is applicable not only to small isolated molecules such as O2 but also to strongly interacting systems such as the hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The weak perturbation to the potential energy surface through hydrogen bonding is observed as a trend towards softening of the ground state potential around the coordinating atom. The instrumental developments in high resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering are currently accelerating and will enable broad application of the presented approach. With this multidimensional potential energy surfaces that characterize collective phenomena such as (bio)molecular function or high-temperature superconductivity will become accessible in near future.

  10. Ground state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering

    PubMed Central

    Schreck, Simon; Pietzsch, Annette; Kennedy, Brian; Såthe, Conny; Miedema, Piter S.; Techert, Simone; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Schmitt, Thorsten; Hennies, Franz; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Thermally driven chemistry as well as materials’ functionality are determined by the potential energy surface of a systems electronic ground state. This makes the potential energy surface a central and powerful concept in physics, chemistry and materials science. However, direct experimental access to the potential energy surface locally around atomic centers and to its long-range structure are lacking. Here we demonstrate how sub-natural linewidth resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at vibrational resolution is utilized to determine ground state potential energy surfaces locally and detect long-range changes of the potentials that are driven by local modifications. We show how the general concept is applicable not only to small isolated molecules such as O2 but also to strongly interacting systems such as the hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The weak perturbation to the potential energy surface through hydrogen bonding is observed as a trend towards softening of the ground state potential around the coordinating atom. The instrumental developments in high resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering are currently accelerating and will enable broad application of the presented approach. With this multidimensional potential energy surfaces that characterize collective phenomena such as (bio)molecular function or high-temperature superconductivity will become accessible in near future. PMID:26821751

  11. Ground state potential energy surfaces around selected atoms from resonant inelastic x-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Schreck, Simon; Pietzsch, Annette; Kennedy, Brian; Såthe, Conny; Miedema, Piter S; Techert, Simone; Strocov, Vladimir N; Schmitt, Thorsten; Hennies, Franz; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Föhlisch, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Thermally driven chemistry as well as materials' functionality are determined by the potential energy surface of a systems electronic ground state. This makes the potential energy surface a central and powerful concept in physics, chemistry and materials science. However, direct experimental access to the potential energy surface locally around atomic centers and to its long-range structure are lacking. Here we demonstrate how sub-natural linewidth resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering at vibrational resolution is utilized to determine ground state potential energy surfaces locally and detect long-range changes of the potentials that are driven by local modifications. We show how the general concept is applicable not only to small isolated molecules such as O2 but also to strongly interacting systems such as the hydrogen bond network in liquid water. The weak perturbation to the potential energy surface through hydrogen bonding is observed as a trend towards softening of the ground state potential around the coordinating atom. The instrumental developments in high resolution resonant inelastic soft x-ray scattering are currently accelerating and will enable broad application of the presented approach. With this multidimensional potential energy surfaces that characterize collective phenomena such as (bio)molecular function or high-temperature superconductivity will become accessible in near future. PMID:26821751

  12. Elastic Electron Scattering by Laser-Excited (sup 138)Ba (...6s6p (sup 1)P(sub 1)) Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Csanak, G.

    1997-01-01

    The result of a joint experimental and theoretical study concerning elastic electron scattering by laser-excited (sup 138)Ba (...6s6p (sup 1)P(sub 1)) atoms are presented. From these studies, we extracted differential scattering cross sections (DCS's) and collision parameters for elastic scattering by the coherently prepared (sup 1)P(sub 1) atoms.

  13. Semiclassical multi-phonon theory for atom-surface scattering: Application to the Cu(111) system

    SciTech Connect

    Daon, Shauli; Pollak, Eli

    2015-05-07

    The semiclassical perturbation theory of Hubbard and Miller [J. Chem. Phys. 80, 5827 (1984)] is further developed to include the full multi-phonon transitions in atom-surface scattering. A practically applicable expression is developed for the angular scattering distribution by utilising a discretized bath of oscillators, instead of the continuum limit. At sufficiently low surface temperature good agreement is found between the present multi-phonon theory and the previous one-, and two-phonon theory derived in the continuum limit in our previous study [Daon, Pollak, and Miret-Artés, J. Chem. Phys. 137, 201103 (2012)]. The theory is applied to the measured angular distributions of Ne, Ar, and Kr scattered from a Cu(111) surface. We find that the present multi-phonon theory substantially improves the agreement between experiment and theory, especially at the higher surface temperatures. This provides evidence for the importance of multi-phonon transitions in determining the angular distribution as the surface temperature is increased.

  14. Photoionization of the Sodium Atom and Electron Scattering from Ionized Sodium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dasgupta, Arati

    The method of polarized orbitals developed by Temkin has been used to calculate the photoionization cross sections from sodium atoms, from threshold to about 60 ev. The polarized orbitals are calculated by using Sternheimer's equation. The polarizability of Na('+) is found to be 1.091 a(,0)('3), which is very close to the experimental value. The scattering equation is solved in the exchange, the exchange-adiabatic and the polarized orbital approximations. Both the bound state and the continuum state wave functions are solved in the same approximation, consistently. The bound state wave functions for the sodium atom are calculated by finding the binding energy for the 3s electron corresponding to each approximation. The scattering state wave function is found for the p wave, needed for photoionization cross sections, as well as for the s and d waves, for use in the (e+Na('+)) scattering problem. In the calculation of these wave functions all perturbed orbitals are taken into account in the direct polarization potential and only the perturbation of the very tightly bound 1s orbital is neglected in the exchange -polarization terms. The length form for the photoionization cross section formula is used and all terms (both first and second order) are included in the photoionization matrix element. Our results are in good agreement with the considerably more complicated many-body calculations of Chang and Kelly. However, no calculation to date, including this one, agrees well with experiment except at low energies. The phase shifts thus obtained for s, p, and d waves for the e+Na('+) system are also believed to be very accurate. These phase shifts are used to calculate the differential cross sections and the phase shifts, as well as these cross sections, agree very well with other available results.

  15. Elastic differential cross sections for C₄F₆ isomers in the 1.5-200 eV energy electron impact: similarities with six fluorine containing molecules and evidence of F-atom like scattering.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, M; Limão-Vieira, P; Anzai, K; Kato, H; Cho, H; Mogi, D; Tanioka, T; Ferreira da Silva, F; Almeida, D; Blanco, F; García, G; Ingólfsson, O; Tanaka, H

    2014-09-28

    We report absolute elastic differential cross sections for electron interactions with the C4F6 isomers, hexafluoro-1,3-butadiene (1,3-C4F6), hexafluoro-2-butyne (2-C4F6), and hexafluorocyclobutene (c-C4F6). The incident electron energy range is 1.5-200 eV, and the scattered electron angular range for the differential measurements varies from 15° to 150°. In all cases the absolute scale of the differential cross section was set using the relative flow technique, with helium as the reference species. Atomic-like behaviour in these scattering systems is shown here for the first time, and is further investigated by comparing the elastic cross sections for the C4F6 isomers with other fluorinated molecules, such as SF6 and CnF6 (n = 2, 3, and 6). We note that for all the six-F containing molecules, the scattering process for electron energies above 30 eV is indistinguishable. Finally, we report results for calculations of elastic differential cross sections for electron scattering from each of these isomers, within an optical potential method and assuming a screened corrected independent atom representation. The level of agreement between these calculations and our measurements is found to be quite remarkable in all cases. PMID:25273432

  16. Low-energy electron elastic scattering from Os atom: New electron affinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felfli, Z.; Kiros, F.; Msezane, A. Z.

    2013-05-01

    Bilodeau and Haugan measured the binding energies (BEs) of the ground state and the excited state of the Os- ion to be 1.07780(12) eV and 0.553(3) eV, respectively. These values are consistent with those calculated in. Here our investigation, using the recent complex angular momentum methodology wherein is embedded the crucial electron-electron correlations and the vital core polarization interaction, has found that the near threshold electron-Os elastic scattering total cross section (TCS) is characterized by three stable bound states of the Os- ion formed as resonances during the slow electron collision, with BEs of 1.910 eV, 1.230 eV and 0.224 eV. The new extracted electron affinity (EA) value from the TCS of 1.910 eV for the Os atom is significantly different from that measured in. Our calculated elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) also yield the relevant BEs for the ground and the two excited states of the Os- ion. The complex characteristic resonance structure in the TCS for the Os atom is ideal for catalysis, but makes it difficult to execute the Wigner threshold law in describing the threshold detachment behavior of complex atoms and extracting the reliable attendant EAs. Supported by U.S. DOE, AFOSR and CAU CFNM, NSF-CREST Program.

  17. Atomic force microscopy and Raman scattering studies of femtosecond laser-induced nanohillocks on CR-39

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashir, Shazia; Rafique, M. Shahid; Husinsky, Wolfgang; Hobro, Alison; Lendl, Bernhard

    2009-12-01

    The phenomenon of nanohillock-like defect formation on the surfaces of CR-39 by ultra-short laser irradiation is investigated using an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and Raman Scattering. A polymer CR-39 target was exposed to Ti:sapphire 25-fs laser pulses with a central wavelength at 800 nm. Samples were irradiated for different laser fluences both in air and vacuum. Detailed surface topographical features of the bombarded samples were characterized by atomic force microscopy in contact mode in air at room temperature. AFM reveals that the growth of nanohillocks and their features are strongly dependent on the ambient condition, target position from focus, and irradiation fluence. The appearance of these nanohillocks in the range 1-20 nm in height and 10-90 nm in diameter are regarded as typical features for fast electronic processes (correlated with existence of hot electrons) and are explained on the basis of Coulomb explosion. These nanostructures due to localization of laser energy deposition in small areas provide a possible pathway from dense electronic excitation to atomic motion causing permanent structural modification which are well correlated to structural alterations, like crosslinking and chain scissions, inferred from Raman spectroscopy.

  18. REVIEW ARTICLE: Negative ion formation in the scattering of atoms and ions from dielectric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A. G.; Esaulov, V. A.

    2000-04-01

    Interaction of atomic and molecular particles with dielectric surfaces has been attracting considerable attention over the past years, in order to understand various fundamental problems important in catalysis, development of gas sensors, problems of adhesion etc. Detailed quantitative information about the dynamics of electron transfer, which plays an important role in chemisorption and reactions at surfaces, has been recently obtained from experiments in which ionic or atomic beams are scattered off dielectric surfaces and the charge states of particles are analysed, providing in particular site-specific information on electron transfer. These experiments have shown that the dynamics of electron transfer on semiconductor and insulator surfaces cannot be understood within simple models extensively used for the case of metal surfaces. It was shown in particular that in spite of the existence of large bandgaps and at first sight the unfavourable situation for resonant electron transfer, negative ion formation occurs quite efficiently. Together with the existence of an efficient electron capture process associated with negative ion formation the existence of electron loss processes was demonstrated by use of both atoms and negative ions as projectiles. Various theoretical descriptions for describing electron capture and loss phenomena have been developed. In this review the experimental approaches and results are outlined along with the theoretical concepts and approaches developed to treat electron transfer phenomena on dielectric surfaces.

  19. Ultra-low-temperature reactions of C({sup 3}P{sub 0}) atoms with benzene molecules in helium droplets

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnokutski, Serge A. Huisken, Friedrich

    2014-12-07

    The reaction of carbon atoms with benzene has been investigated in liquid helium droplets at T = 0.37 K. We found an addition of the carbon atom to form an initial intermediate complex followed by a ring opening and the formation of a seven-membered ring. In contrast to a previous gas phase study, the reaction is frozen after these steps and the loss of hydrogen does not occur. A calorimetric technique was applied to monitor the energy balance of the reaction. It was found that more than 267 kJ mol{sup −1} were released in this reaction. This estimation is in line with quantum chemical calculations of the formation energy of a seven-membered carbon ring. It is suggested that reactions of this kind could be responsible for the low abundance of small polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules in the interstellar medium. We also found the formation of weakly bonded water-carbon adducts, in which the carbon atom is linked to the oxygen atom of the water molecule with a binding energy of about 33.4 kJ mol{sup −1}.

  20. The interaction of a nanoscale coherent helium-ion probe with a crystal.

    PubMed

    D'Alfonso, A J; Forbes, B D; Allen, L J

    2013-11-01

    Thickness fringing was recently observed in helium ion microscopy (HIM) when imaging magnesium oxide cubes using a 40 keV convergent probe in scanning transmission mode. Thickness fringing is also observed in electron microscopy and is due to quantum mechanical, coherent, multiple elastic scattering attenuated by inelastic phonon excitation (thermal scattering). A quantum mechanical model for elastic scattering and phonon excitation correctly models the thickness fringes formed by the helium ions. However, unlike the electron case, the signal in the diffraction plane is due mainly to the channeling of ions which have first undergone inelastic thermal scattering in the first few atomic layers so that the origin of the thickness fringes is not due to coherent interference effects. This quantum mechanical model affords insight into the interaction of a nanoscale, focused coherent ion probe with the specimen and allows us to elucidate precisely what is needed to achieve atomic resolution HIM. PMID:23876709

  1. Interferences of real trajectories and the emergence of quantum features in electron-atom scattering in a strong laser field

    SciTech Connect

    Cerkic, A.; Milosevic, D. B.

    2006-03-15

    Using the example of electron-atom scattering in a strong laser field, it is shown that the oscillatory structure of the scattered electron spectrum can be explained as a consequence of the interference of the real electron trajectories in terms of Feynman's path integral. While in previous work on quantum-orbit theory the complex solutions of the saddle-point equations were considered, we show here that for the electron-atom scattering with much simpler real solutions a satisfactory agreement with the strong-field-approximation results can be achieved. Real solutions are applicable both for the direct (low-energy) and the rescattering (high-energy) plateau in the scattered electron spectrum. In between the plateaus and beyond the rescattering cutoff good results can be obtained using the complex (quantum) solutions and the uniform approximation. The interference of real solutions is related to the recent attosecond double-slit experiment in time.

  2. Helium cluster isolation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, John Paul

    Clusters of helium, each containing ~103- 104 atoms, are produced in a molecular beam and are doped with alkali metal atoms (Li, Na, and K) and large organic molecules. Electronic spectroscopy in the visible and UV regions of the spectrum is carried out on the dopant species. Since large helium clusters are liquid and attain an equilibrium internal temperature of 0.4 K, they interact weakly with atoms or molecules absorbed on their surface or resident inside the cluster. The spectra that are obtained are characterized by small frequency shifts from the positions of the gas phase transitions, narrow lines, and cold vibrational temperatures. Alkali atoms aggregate on the helium cluster surface to form dimers and trimers. The spectra of singlet alkali dimers exhibit the presence of elementary excitations in the superfluid helium cluster matrix. It is found that preparation of the alkali molecules on the surface of helium clusters leads to the preferential formation of high-spin, van der Waals bound, triplet dimers and quartet trimers. Four bound-bound and two bound-free transitions are observed in the triplet manifold of the alkali dimers. The quartet trimers serve as an ideal system for the study of a simple unimolecular reaction in the cold helium cluster environment. Analysis of the lowest quartet state provides valuable insight into three-body forces in a van der Waals trimer. The wide range of atomic and molecular systems studied in this thesis constitutes a preliminary step in the development of helium cluster isolation spectroscopy, a hybrid technique combining the advantages of high resolution spectroscopy with the synthetic, low temperature environment of matrices.

  3. Doubly differential spectra of scattered protons in ionization of atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, M.; Laforge, A. C.; Egodapitiya, K. N.; Alexander, J. S.; Hasan, A.; Ciappina, M. F.; Roy, A. C.; Dey, R.; Samolov, A.; Godunov, A. L.

    2010-05-15

    We have measured and calculated doubly differential cross sections for ionization of atomic hydrogen using 75-keV proton impact for fixed projectile energy losses as a function of scattering angle. This collision system represents a pure three-body system and thus offers an accurate test of the theoretical description of the few-body dynamics without any complications presented by electron correlation in many-electron targets. Comparison between experiment and several theoretical models reveals that the projectile-target nucleus interaction is best described by the operator of a second-order term of the transition amplitude. Higher-order contributions in the projectile-electron interaction, on the other hand, are more appropriately accounted for in the final-state wave function.

  4. Scattering Theory of Kondo Mirages and Observation of Single Kondo Atom Phase Shift*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiete, Gregory A.; Hersch, Jesse S.; Heller, Eric J.; Manoharan, H. C.; Lutz, C. P.; Eigler, D. M.

    2001-03-01

    We explain the origin of the Kondo mirage seen in recent quantum corral Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) experiments with a scattering theory of electrons on the surfaces of metals. Our theory combined with experimental data provides the first direct observation of a single Kondo atom phase shift. The Kondo mirage observed at the empty focus of an elliptical quantum corral is shown to arise from multiple electron bounces off the corral wall adatoms in a manner analagous to the formation of a real image in optics. We demonstrate our theory with direct quantitive comparision to experimental data. *This research was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CHE9610501 and by ITAMP.

  5. Low-energy electron elastic scattering cross sections for excited Au and Pt atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felfli, Zineb; Eure, Amanda R.; Msezane, Alfred Z.; Sokolovski, Dmitri

    2010-05-01

    Electron elastic total cross sections (TCSs) and differential cross sections (DCSs) in both impact energy and scattering angle for the excited Au and Pt atoms are calculated in the electron impact energy range 0 ⩽ E ⩽ 4.0 eV. The cross sections are found to be characterized by very sharp long-lived resonances whose positions are identified with the binding energies of the excited anions formed during the collisions. The recent novel Regge-pole methodology wherein is embedded through the Mulholland formula the electron-electron correlations is used together with a Thomas-Fermi type potential incorporating the crucial core-polarization interaction for the calculations of the TCSs. The DCSs are evaluated using a partial wave expansion. The Ramsauer-Townsend minima, the shape resonances and the binding energies of the excited Au - and Pt - anions are extracted from the cross sections, while the critical minima are determined from the DCSs.

  6. Applications of Quantum Theory of Atomic and Molecular Scattering to Problems in Hypersonic Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, F. Bary

    1995-01-01

    The general status of a grant to investigate the applications of quantum theory in atomic and molecular scattering problems in hypersonic flow is summarized. Abstracts of five articles and eleven full-length articles published or submitted for publication are included as attachments. The following topics are addressed in these articles: fragmentation of heavy ions (HZE particles); parameterization of absorption cross sections; light ion transport; emission of light fragments as an indicator of equilibrated populations; quantum mechanical, optical model methods for calculating cross sections for particle fragmentation by hydrogen; evaluation of NUCFRG2, the semi-empirical nuclear fragmentation database; investigation of the single- and double-ionization of He by proton and anti-proton collisions; Bose-Einstein condensation of nuclei; and a liquid drop model in HZE particle fragmentation by hydrogen.

  7. Spin Observables for Polarized Proton - Polarized HELIUM-3 Elastic and Quasielastic Scattering at 197, 299 and 414 Mev.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Adam H.

    The ^3He nucleus has attracted considerable interest among both experimental and theoretical physicists. As a three body system this nucleus is calculable with Faddeev techniques and this serves as an important test of our knowledge of nuclear physics. Faddeev techniques result in detailed predictions which show small corrections to simple models which have the spin of the ^3 He nucleus totally carried by the neutron. This has resulted in many proposals to use polarized ^3He as a polarized neutron target. Measurements of spin dependent scattering from polarized ^3 He are used to test the calculations and on a more practical level explore the conditions under which polarized ^3He can be used as an effective polarized neutron target. We have used a laser optically-pumped polarized ^3He target with a polarized proton beam in the Indiana University Cooler light ion storage ring to measure the spin observables in vec p-{buildrellongrightarrowover{ ^3He}} scattering at beam energies of 197, 299 and 414 MeV. This represents the first experiment in the world to utilize this type of target in a storage ring. The experimental apparatus covered an angular range of 21^circ to 67^circ in the laboratory and simultaneously detected both elastic and quasielastic reactions. We have extracted the beam analyzing powers, target analyzing powers and spin correlation coefficients at all three beam energies for the two quasielastic reactions, {buildrellongrightarrowover {^3He}}(vec p, 2p) and {buildrellongrightarrow over{^3He}}(vec p, pn), and the elastic {buildrel longrightarrowover{^3He }}(vec p, p^3rm He) reaction. The large acceptance allowed us to use the quasielastic data to identify regions of phase space where it is possible to test the Faddeev calculations and also verify that polarized ^3He may serve as an effective polarized neutron target. The elastic scattering data have also pointed out deficiencies in current p-^3 He elastic scattering theories.

  8. State-Selective and Total Single-Capture Cross Sections for Fast Collisions of Multiply Charged Ions with Helium Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man?ev, Ivan; Milojevi?, Nenad; Belki?, Devad

    2013-11-01

    The four-body boundary corrected first Born approximation (CB1-4B) is used to calculate the single electron capture cross sections for collisions between fully stripped ions (He2+, Be4+, B5+ and C6+) and helium target at intermediate and high impact energies. The main goal of this study is to assess the usefulness of the CB1-4B method at intermediate and high impact energies for these collisions. Detailed comparisons with the measurements are carried out and the obtained theoretical cross sections are in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data.

  9. Total cross sections for electron scattering from noble-gas atoms in near- and below-thermal energy collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitajima, M.; Shigemura, K.; Hosaka, K.; Odagiri, T.; Hoshino, M.; Tanaka, H.

    2015-09-01

    Absolute total cross sections for electron scattering from He, Ne, Ar, Kr and Xe at very low electron energies are presented. The cross sections were obtained using the threshold- photoelectron source, which employs a combination of the penetrating field technique together with the threshold photoionization of atoms by synchrotron radiation. Obtained total cross sections for electron scattering from these noble gas atoms generally agree well with those obtained in the previous experiments above 100 meV, where several experimental works have been reported. Comparison of the measured cross section for He with that of theoretical ones shows very good agreement at very low energies even below 10 meV, which confirms the validity of theoretical cross sections of He which have been regarded as the standard cross sections. Scattering lengths for the e- - noble gas scatterings determined from the our cross sections using the modified effective range theory (MERT) showed that scattering lengths for He and Ne agree well with the values obtained in the previous experimental and theoretical studies. On the other hand, in case of heavier noble gas atoms, significant discrepancies were found between the scattering lengths derived from MERT analysis to our total cross sections and those reported in previous studies.

  10. Quantum scattering calculations for ro-vibrational de-excitation of CO by hydrogen atoms.

    PubMed

    Song, Lei; Balakrishnan, N; van der Avoird, Ad; Karman, Tijs; Groenenboom, Gerrit C

    2015-05-28

    We present quantum-mechanical scattering calculations for ro-vibrational relaxation of carbon monoxide (CO) in collision with hydrogen atoms. Collisional cross sections of CO ro-vibrational transitions from v = 1, j = 0 - 30 to v' = 0, j' are calculated using the close coupling method for collision energies between 0.1 and 15,000 cm(-1) based on the three-dimensional potential energy surface of Song et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 7571 (2013)]. Cross sections of transitions from v = 1, j ? 3 to v' = 0, j' are reported for the first time at this level of theory. Also calculations by the more approximate coupled states and infinite order sudden (IOS) methods are performed in order to test the applicability of these methods to H-CO ro-vibrational inelastic scattering. Vibrational de-excitation rate coefficients of CO (v = 1) are presented for the temperature range from 100 K to 3000 K and are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data. All of these results and additional rate coefficients reported in a forthcoming paper are important for including the effects of H-CO collisions in astrophysical models. PMID:26026443

  11. Quantum scattering calculations for ro-vibrational de-excitation of CO by hydrogen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Lei; Avoird, Ad van der; Karman, Tijs; Groenenboom, Gerrit C.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2015-05-28

    We present quantum-mechanical scattering calculations for ro-vibrational relaxation of carbon monoxide (CO) in collision with hydrogen atoms. Collisional cross sections of CO ro-vibrational transitions from v = 1, j = 0 ? 30 to v? = 0, j? are calculated using the close coupling method for collision energies between 0.1 and 15?000 cm{sup ?1} based on the three-dimensional potential energy surface of Song et al. [J. Phys. Chem. A 117, 7571 (2013)]. Cross sections of transitions from v = 1, j ? 3 to v? = 0, j? are reported for the first time at this level of theory. Also calculations by the more approximate coupled states and infinite order sudden (IOS) methods are performed in order to test the applicability of these methods to HCO ro-vibrational inelastic scattering. Vibrational de-excitation rate coefficients of CO (v = 1) are presented for the temperature range from 100 K to 3000 K and are compared with the available experimental and theoretical data. All of these results and additional rate coefficients reported in a forthcoming paper are important for including the effects of HCO collisions in astrophysical models.

  12. Transition in electron scattering mechanism in atomic layer deposited Nb:TiO{sub 2} thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Niemel, Janne-Petteri; Karppinen, Maarit; Hirose, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2015-01-26

    We characterized transport and optical properties of atomic layer deposited Nb:TiO{sub 2} thin films on glass substrates. These promising transparent conducting oxide (TCO) materials show minimum resistivity of 1.0??10{sup ?3?}??cm at 300?K and high transmittance in the visible range. Low-temperature (2300?K) Hall measurements and the Drude fitting of the Vis-NIR optical spectra indicate a transition in the scattering mechanism from grain boundary scattering to intra-grain scattering with increasing Nb content, thus underlining enhancement of the grain size in the low doping regime as the key for further improved TCO properties.

  13. Classical and quantum mechanical rainbow-scattering of fast He atoms from a KCl(0 0 1) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specht, U.; Busch, M.; Seifert, J.; Winter, H.; Grtner, K.; W?odarczyk, R.; Sierka, M.; Sauer, J.

    2011-05-01

    Fast He atoms with energies from 200 eV up to 16 keV are scattered under grazing polar angles of incidence from a flat and clean KCl(0 0 1) surface. For scattering along low-index directions (axial surface channeling) we observe pronounced peaks in the angular distributions of scattered projectiles which can be attributed to rainbow scattering. From classical and semiclassical trajectory calculations based on individual Hartree-Fock pair and density functional theory (DFT) potentials, we obtain corresponding rainbow angles for comparison with the experimental data. The calculations were performed taking into account the rumpling of K and Cl in the topmost surface layer. Fair agreement with the experimental data is found for scattering along <1 0 0> for DFT as well as individual pair potentials calculated from Hartree-Fock wave functions.

  14. Differential cross sections for dobule photoionoiization ({gamma}, 2e) and double ionization by electron impact (e,3e) of helium and alkaline earth atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Stehman, R.M.; Ceraulo, S.C.; Berry, S.

    1996-05-01

    The authors have calculated fivefold differential cross sections for double photoionization and eightfold differential cross sections for double ionization by electron impact of helium and alkaline earth atoms for energies of the ionized electrons ranging from a few eV up to 100 eV. Calculations have been done in first Born approximation, using well-converged CI wave functions to describe the initial state, and final state wave functions incorporating the correlation factor used by Brauner, Briggs, and Klar. The angular distributions of the ionized electrons will be discussed. The characteristics of these angular distributions will be analyzed in terms of the partial waves that contribute most strongly to the double ionization processes.

  15. Ratios of double-to-single photoionization cross sections of helium atom embedded in dense quantum plasmas at high nonrelativistic photon energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ghoshal, Arijit; Ho, Y. K.

    2009-07-15

    An investigation on the asymptotic ratios of double-to-single photoionization cross sections of the helium atom (He) embedded in dense quantum plasmas at very high nonrelativistic photon energies has been made. Exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potential has been used to represent the effective potential of a test charge in a dense quantum plasma. Making use of highly correlated wave functions for the ground states of He, results of the asymptotic ratios (R) of double-to-single photoionization cross sections for the screening parameter in the range [0,0.5] a.u. are reported. The reported value of R for the unscreened case confirms its established value. A comparative study of the behavior of R in weakly coupled plasmas and in dense quantum plasmas has also been made.

  16. Measurement of the helium 23S metastable atom density by observation of the change in the 23S23P emission line shape due to radiation reabsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shikama, T.; Ogane, S.; Iida, Y.; Hasuo, M.

    2016-01-01

    In helium discharge plasmas, the relative emission intensities of the fine-structure transitions belonging to the HeI 23S23P transition can be affected by radiation reabsorption. Since the magnitude of the reabsorption depends on the density and temperature of the 23S metastable atoms, their density can be determined by measuring the 23S23P emission line shape using a high wavelength-resolution spectrometer. In this study, the applicable conditions of the method in terms of the opacity and line broadening are revealed, and possible causes of errors in the measurement, i.e. spatial distributions of the density and temperature and the effects of external magnetic and electric fields, are investigated. The effect of reabsorption under an external magnetic field is experimentally confirmed using a glow discharge plasma installed in a superconducting magnet.

  17. Probe integrated scattering cross sections in the analysis of atomic resolution HAADF STEM images.

    PubMed

    E, H; Macarthur, K E; Pennycook, T J; Okunishi, E; D'Alfonso, A J; Lugg, N R; Allen, L J; Nellist, P D

    2013-10-01

    The physical basis for using a probe-position integrated cross section (PICS) for a single column of atoms as an effective way to compare simulation and experiment in high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is described, and the use of PICS in order to make quantitative use of image intensities is evaluated. It is based upon the calibration of the detector and the measurement of scattered intensities. Due to the predominantly incoherent nature of HAADF STEM, it is found to be robust to parameters that affect probe size and shape such as defocus and source coherence. The main imaging parameter dependencies are on detector angle and accelerating voltage, which are well known. The robustness to variation in other parameters allows for a quantitative comparison of experimental data and simulation without the need to fit parameters. By demonstrating the application of the PICS to the chemical identification of single atoms in a heterogeneous catalyst and in thin, layered-materials, we explore some of the experimental considerations when using this approach. PMID:23969066

  18. Continuous-flow determination of aqueous sulfur by atmospheric-pressure helium microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry with gas-phase sample introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakahara, Taketoshi; Mori, Toshio; Morimoto, Satoru; Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    1995-06-01

    A simple continuous-flow generation of volatile hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide by acidification of aqueous sulfide and sulfite ions, respectively, is described for the determination of low concentrations of sulfur by atmospheric-pressure helium microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES) in the normal ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) regions of the spectrum. For measuring spectral lines in the VUV region, the monochromator and the enclosed external optical path between the MIP source and the entrance slit of the monochromator have both been purged with nitrogen to minimize oxygen absorption below 190 nm. Sulfur atomic emission lines at 180.73, 182.04 and 217.05 nm have been selected as the analytical lines. Of the various acids examined, 1.0 M hydrochloric acid is the most favorable for both the generation of hydrogen sulfide from sulfide ions and sulfur dioxide from sulfite ions. Either generated hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide is separated from the solution in a simple gas-liquid separator and swept into the helium stream of a microwave-induced plasma for analysis. The best attainable detection limits (3 σ criterion) for sulfur at 180.73 nm were 0.13 and 1.28 ng ml -1 for the generation of hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide, respectively, with the corresponding background equivalent concentrations of 20.9 and 62.2 ng ml -1 in sulfur concentration. The typical analytical working graphs obtained under the optimized experimental conditions were rectilinear over approximately four orders of magnitude in sulfur concentration. The present method has been successfully applied to the recovery test of the sulfide spiked to waste water samples and to the determination of sulfite in some samples of commercially available wine.

  19. Stable complex-rotation eigenvalues that correspond to no full resonances in scattering: Examples in positron scattering by the helium ion

    SciTech Connect

    Igarashi, Akinori; Shimamura, Isao

    2004-07-01

    Hyperspherical close-coupling calculations for S- and P-wave positron scattering by He{sup +} ions produce no full resonances in the eigenphase sum {delta}(E) in the two regions of energy E where stable eigenvalues E{sub r}-i{gamma}/2 with large {gamma} were found previously by the complex-rotation method (CRM); {delta}(E) increases only by one radian in the lower-E region, and even decreases almost monotonically in the higher-E region, implying time advance, rather than time delay, due to the collision. However, the peaks found in the trace of time-delay matrix, Tr Q(E), are consistent with the CRM eigenvalues. This suggests that these eigenvalues indeed represent S-matrix poles in the complex-E plane, but that their effects on scattering are almost masked by the background {delta} due to the large {gamma}. This work uses a general relation Tr Q(E)=2({Dirac_h}/2{pi})(d{delta}/dE), proved here for any functional form of {delta}(E), and hence, both on and off resonance. This is a generalization of the well-known single-channel time-delay formula and of the multichannel formula proved previously for the Breit-Wigner resonance with a constant background S matrix.

  20. Scattering of NH3 and ND3 with rare gas atoms at low collision energy.

    PubMed

    Loreau, J; van der Avoird, A

    2015-11-14

    We present a theoretical study of elastic and rotationally inelastic collisions of NH3 and ND3 with rare gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) at low energy. Quantum close-coupling calculations have been performed for energies between 0.001 and 300 cm(-1). We focus on collisions in which NH3 is initially in the upper state of the inversion doublet with j = 1, k = 1, which is the most relevant in an experimental context as it can be trapped electrostatically and Stark-decelerated. We discuss the presence of resonances in the elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as the trends in the inelastic cross sections along the rare gas series and the differences between NH3 and ND3 as a colliding partner. We also demonstrate the importance of explicitly taking into account the umbrella (inversion) motion of NH3 in order to obtain accurate scattering cross sections at low collision energy. Finally, we investigate the possibility of sympathetic cooling of ammonia using cold or ultracold rare gas atoms. We show that some systems exhibit a large ratio of elastic to inelastic cross sections in the cold regime, which is promising for sympathetic cooling experiments. The close-coupling calculations are based on previously reported ab initio potential energy surfaces for NH3-He and NH3-Ar, as well as on new, four-dimensional, potential energy surfaces for the interaction of ammonia with Ne, Kr, and Xe, which were computed using the coupled-cluster method and large basis sets. We compare the properties of the potential energy surfaces corresponding to the interaction of ammonia with the various rare gas atoms. PMID:26567658

  1. Scattering of NH3 and ND3 with rare gas atoms at low collision energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loreau, J.; van der Avoird, A.

    2015-11-01

    We present a theoretical study of elastic and rotationally inelastic collisions of NH3 and ND3 with rare gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) at low energy. Quantum close-coupling calculations have been performed for energies between 0.001 and 300 cm-1. We focus on collisions in which NH3 is initially in the upper state of the inversion doublet with j = 1, k = 1, which is the most relevant in an experimental context as it can be trapped electrostatically and Stark-decelerated. We discuss the presence of resonances in the elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as the trends in the inelastic cross sections along the rare gas series and the differences between NH3 and ND3 as a colliding partner. We also demonstrate the importance of explicitly taking into account the umbrella (inversion) motion of NH3 in order to obtain accurate scattering cross sections at low collision energy. Finally, we investigate the possibility of sympathetic cooling of ammonia using cold or ultracold rare gas atoms. We show that some systems exhibit a large ratio of elastic to inelastic cross sections in the cold regime, which is promising for sympathetic cooling experiments. The close-coupling calculations are based on previously reported ab initio potential energy surfaces for NH3-He and NH3-Ar, as well as on new, four-dimensional, potential energy surfaces for the interaction of ammonia with Ne, Kr, and Xe, which were computed using the coupled-cluster method and large basis sets. We compare the properties of the potential energy surfaces corresponding to the interaction of ammonia with the various rare gas atoms.

  2. Total cross sections for positrons scattered elastically from helium based on new measurements of total ionization cross sections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diana, L. M.; Chaplin, R. L.; Brooks, D. L.; Adams, J. T.; Reyna, L. K.

    1990-01-01

    An improved technique is presented for employing the 2.3m spectrometer to measure total ionization cross sections, Q sub ion, for positrons incident on He. The new ionization cross section agree with the values reported earlier. Estimates are also presented of total elastic scattering cross section, Q sub el, obtained by subtracting from total scattering cross sections, Q sub tot, reported in the literature, the Q sub ion and Q sub Ps (total positronium formation cross sections) and total excitation cross sections, Q sub ex, published by another researcher. The Q sub ion and Q sub el measured with the 3m high resolution time-of-flight spectrometer for 54.9eV positrons are in accord with the results from the 2.3m spectrometer. The ionization cross sections are in fair agreement with theory tending for the most part to be higher, especially at 76.3 and 88.5eV. The elastic cross section agree quite well with theory to the vicinity of 50eV, but at 60eV and above the experimental elastic cross sections climb to and remain at about 0.30 pi a sub o sq while the theoretical values steadily decrease.

  3. PROPERTIES OF THE DIFFUSE NEUTRAL HELIUM IN THE INNER HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Moise, E.; Raymond, J.; Kuhn, J. R.

    2010-10-20

    Sensitive SOLARC imaging spectropolarimetric observations from Haleakala reveal a diffuse coronal surface brightness in the He I 1083 nm line. A series of observations suggests that this signal originates from an 'inner source' of neutral helium atoms in the solar corona. Here, we explore the possibility that this cold coronal component originates from helium ions that are neutralized by the near-Sun dust and subsequently excited to the metastable 1s2s {sup 3} S state, which then scatters photons from the solar disk. This picture suggests a deficit of coronal dust inside about 2-4 R{sub sun} in order to account for both the flat radial brightness distribution and the small velocity line width of the observations. We find a strong correlation between the polarized He brightness and coronal white light brightness that supports the argument that electronic collisional excitation of the metastable helium triplet level is responsible for our polarization signal.

  4. Bridging the Gap between Small Clusters and Nanodroplets: Spectroscopic Study and Computer Simulation of Carbon Dioxide Solvated with Helium Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.; McKellar, A. R.; Mezzacapo, F.; Moroni, S.

    2004-04-01

    High resolution infrared spectra of HeN-CO2 clusters with N up to 17 have been studied in the region of the CO2 ?3 fundamental band. The B rotational constant initially drops as expected for a normal molecule, reaching a minimum for N=5. Its subsequent rise for N=6 to 11 can be interpreted as the transition from a normal (though floppy) molecule to a quantum solvation regime. For N>13, the B value becomes approximately constant with a value about 17% larger than that measured in much larger helium nanodroplets. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of pure rotational spectra are in excellent agreement with the measured B in this size range and complement the experimental study with detailed structural information. For a larger cluster size (N=30 50) the simulations show a clear sign of convergence towards the nanodroplet B value.

  5. LRO-LAMP Observations of Lunar Exospheric Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grava, Cesare; Retherford, Kurt D.; Hurley, Dana M.; Feldman, Paul D.; Gladstone, Randy; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Cook, Jason C.; Stern, Alan; Pryor, Wayne R.; Halekas, Jasper S.; Kaufmann, David E.

    2015-11-01

    We present results from Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s (LRO) UV spectrograph LAMP (Lyman-Alpha Mapping Project) campaign to study the lunar atmosphere. Two kinds of off-nadir maneuvers (lateral rolls and pitches towards and opposite the direction of motion of LRO) were performed to search for resonantly scattering species, increasing the illuminated line-of-sight (and hence the signal from atoms resonantly scattering the solar photons) compared to previously reported LAMP “twilight observations” [Cook & Stern, 2014]. Helium was the only element distinguishable on a daily basis, and we present latitudinal profiles of its line-of-sight column density in December 2013. We compared the helium line-of-sight column densities with solar wind alpha particle fluxes measured from the ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, & Electrodynamics of Moon’s Interaction with the Sun) twin spacecraft. Our data show a correlation with the solar wind alpha particle flux, confirming that the solar wind is the main source of the lunar helium, but not with a 1:1 relationship. Assuming that the lunar soil is saturated with helium atoms, our results suggest that not all of the incident alpha particles are converted to thermalized helium, allowing for a non-negligible fraction (~50 %) to escape as suprathermal helium or simply backscattered from the lunar surface. We also support the finding by Benna et al. [2015] and Hurley et al. [2015], that a non-zero contribution from endogenic helium, coming from radioactive decay of 232Th and 238U within the mantle, is present, and is estimated to be (4.5±1.2) x 106 He atoms cm-2 s-1. Finally, we compare LAMP-derived helium surface density with the one recorded by the mass spectrometer LACE (Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment) deployed on the lunar surface during the Apollo 17 mission, finding good agreement between the two measurements. These LRO off-nadir maneuvers allow LAMP to provide unique coverage of local solar time and latitude of the lunar exospheric helium, allowing for a better understanding of the temporal and spatial structure of the lunar exosphere.

  6. Confinement-correlation impact upon electron elastic scattering off endohedral atoms: the e + Ne @C60 case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmatov, Valeriy; Amusia, Miron; Chernysheva, Larissa

    2015-05-01

    A recent work has provided the initial insight into electron elastic scattering off endohedral atoms A @C60 . There, the atom A and C60 cage were regraded as non-polarizable targets. A question of how lifting the rigid- A-rigid-C60 constrain can affect e + A @C60 scattering has remained open. The present study provides a partial insight into the problem. It accounts for polarization of the atom by incoming electrons in the presence of rigid C60. This is an interesting in itself topic of study from the point of view of basic science. The Dyson theory for the self-energy part of the Green function Σe(ɛ) of an electron moving in the field of A confined inside of rigid C60 is employed in the study. The function Σe(ɛ) is regarded in the framework of the RPAE theory. The e + Ne @C60 elastic scattering is chosen as a case study. The s, p, d, f, g, and h phase shifts and partial (and total) electron elastic-scattering cross sections are calculated with and without accounting for Σe(ɛ) . Calculated results provide the first insight into the confinement-correlation impact upon e + A @C60 elastic scattering. Supported by the NSF grant PHY-1305085.

  7. a Measurement of Spin-Dependent Asymmetries in Quasielastic Scattering of Polarized Electrons from Polarized HELIUM-3.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Jens-Ole

    1995-01-01

    We report a measurement of the spin-dependent asymmetries A_{T^' } and A_{TL^' } in ^3vec He(vec e, e^') quasielastic scattering at momentum transfer Q^2~ 0.2(GeV/c) ^2 and beam energy 370 MeV. The data were acquired at the MIT-Bates Linear Accelerator Center using a metastability-exchange optically-pumped polarized ^3He gas target, with which an average luminosity of ~10 ^{33}cm^ {-2}s^{-1} and an average polarization of 37% was achieved. The scattered electrons were detected in single-arm mode with the One Hundred Inch Proton Spectrometer (OHIPS) and the Medium Energy Pion Spectrometer (MEPS), each equipped with an x-y drift chamber, three planes of plastic scintillators, and a Cerenkov detector. Two spectrometers were used to measure both responses simultaneously. Background from the target walls used between 5% and 15%. As a check of the experimental procedure, a sample of elastic data was also collected. The experiment improves the statistical precision of the existing quasielastic data set by a factor of three. The result for the transverse asymmetry, -10.92 +/- 1.23 (stat.) +/- 0.81 (syst.) %, is well reproduced by recent calculations based on the Plane Wave Impulse Approximation (PWIA). The magnetic elastic form factor of the neutron, G_sp{M}{n}, was extracted from the data using the PWIA models. The result agrees with the dipole prediction as well as with data obtained in elastic electron scattering from deuterium at comparable Q^2. The transverse-longitudinal asymmetry, A _{TL^'}, was determined to be +1.60 +/- 0.55 (stat.) +/- 0.12 (syst.)%. The PWIA prediction for A_{TL^'} ranges from 2.1% and 2.9%, where the variation is due to the uncertainty in the nucleon-nucleon potential, nucleon form factors, and off-shell prescription. The overprediction of the data by 1-2.5sigma may indicate that final-state interactions (or other processes) play an important role for the inclusive reaction mechanism at this Q^2, as has been observed for the unpolarized longitudinal response function. In the absence of a theory for this reaction which includes final-state interactions, no reliable extraction of the neutron electric form factor, G_sp{E }{n}, is possible at present at this Q^2. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14-0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617 -253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.).

  8. ELSEPA—Dirac partial-wave calculation of elastic scattering of electrons and positrons by atoms, positive ions and molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvat, Francesc; Jablonski, Aleksander; Powell, Cedric J.

    2005-01-01

    The FORTRAN 77 code system ELSEPA for the calculation of elastic scattering of electrons and positrons by atoms, positive ions and molecules is presented. These codes perform relativistic (Dirac) partial-wave calculations for scattering by a local central interaction potential V(r). For atoms and ions, the static-field approximation is adopted, with the potential set equal to the electrostatic interaction energy between the projectile and the target, plus an approximate local exchange interaction when the projectile is an electron. For projectiles with kinetic energies up to 10 keV, the potential may optionally include a semiempirical correlation-polarization potential to describe the effect of the target charge polarizability. Also, for projectiles with energies less than 1 MeV, an imaginary absorptive potential can be introduced to account for the depletion of the projectile wave function caused by open inelastic channels. Molecular cross sections are calculated by means of a single-scattering independent-atom approximation in which the electron density of a bound atom is approximated by that of the free neutral atom. Elastic scattering by individual atoms in solids is described by means of a muffin-tin model potential. Partial-wave calculations are feasible on modest personal computers for energies up to about 5 MeV. The ELSEPA code also implements approximate factorization methods that allow the fast calculation of elastic cross sections for much higher energies. The interaction model adopted in the calculations is defined by the user by combining the different options offered by the code. The nuclear charge distribution can be selected among four analytical models (point nucleus, uniformly charged sphere, Fermi's distribution and Helm's uniform-uniform distribution). The atomic electron density is handled in numerical form. The distribution package includes data files with electronic densities of neutral atoms of the elements hydrogen to lawrencium ( Z=1-103) obtained from multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock self-consistent calculations. For comparison purposes, three simple analytical approximations to the electron density of neutral atoms (corresponding to the Thomas-Fermi, the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac and the Dirac-Hartree-Fock-Slater models) are also included. For calculations of elastic scattering by ions, the electron density should be provided by the user. The exchange potential for electron scattering can be selected among three different analytical approximations (Thomas-Fermi, Furness-McCarthy, Riley-Truhlar). The offered options for the correlation-polarization potential are based on the empirical Buckingham potential. The imaginary absorption potential is calculated from the local-density approximation proposed by Salvat [Phys. Rev. A 68 (2003) 012708]. Program summaryTitle of program:ELSEPA Catalogue identifier: ADUS Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/cpc/summaries/ADUS Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland License provisions: none Computer for which the program is designed and others in which it is operable: Any computer with a FORTRAN 77 compiler Operating systems under which the program has been tested: Windows XP, Windows 2000, Debian GNU/Linux 3.0r0 (sarge) Compilers:Compaq Visual Fortran v6.5 (Windows); GNU FORTRAN, g77 (Windows and Linux) Programming language used: FORTRAN 77 No. of bits in a word: 32 Memory required to execute with typical data: 0.6 Mb No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:135 489 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 1 280 006 Distribution format: tar.gz Keywords: Dirac partial-wave analysis, electron elastic scattering, positron elastic scattering, differential cross sections, momentum transfer cross sections, transport cross sections, scattering amplitudes, spin polarization, scattering by complex potentials, high-energy atomic screening functions Nature of the physical problem: The code calculates differential cross sections, total cross sections and transport cross sections for single elastic scattering of electrons and positrons by neutral atoms, positive ions and randomly oriented molecules. For projectiles with kinetic energies less than about 5 MeV, the programs can also compute scattering amplitudes and spin polarization functions. Method of solution: The effective interaction between the projectile and a target atom is represented by a local central potential that can optionally include an imaginary (absorptive) part to account approximately for the coupling with inelastic channels. For projectiles with kinetic energy less that about 5 MeV, the code performs a conventional relativistic Dirac partial-wave analysis. For higher kinetic energies, where the convergence of the partial-wave series is too slow, approximate factorization methods are used. Restrictions on the complexity of the program: The calculations are based on the static-field approximation. The optional correlation-polarization and inelastic absorption corrections are obtained from approximate, semiempirical models. Calculations for molecules are based on a single-scattering independent-atom approximation. To ensure accuracy of the results for scattering by ions, the electron density of the ion must be supplied by the user. Typical running time: on a 2.8 GHz Pentium 4, the calculation of elastic scattering by atoms and ions takes between a few seconds and about two minutes, depending on the atomic number of the target, the adopted potential model and the kinetic energy of the projectile. Unusual features of the program: The program calculates elastic cross sections for electrons and positrons with kinetic energies in a wide range, from a few tens of eV up to about 1 GeV. Calculations can be performed for neutral atoms of all elements, from hydrogen to lawrencium ( Z=1-103), ions and simple molecules. Commercial products are identified to specify the calculational procedures. Such identification does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the University of Barcelona or the Polish Academy of Sciences, nor does it imply that the products are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

  9. Possibility of giant enhancement of low-frequency non-resonant Rayleigh scattering by atomic systems within dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Joyee Ray, Debasis

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility of electron density-induced giant growth of non-resonant Rayleigh scattering of electromagnetic radiation (in the low-frequency limit) by atomic systems within dense plasmas. Non-relativistic quantum mechanical calculation is performed under electric dipole approximation, for elastic scattering of radiation by the ground states 1s of plasma-embedded hydrogen-like atomic ions treated within the framework of the ion-sphere model. The results indicate giant enhancement of the non-resonant (photon frequency ? being much smaller than the lowest resonance frequency ?{sub 1s?2p}) Rayleigh cross-section by an order of magnitude, at (atomic system-specific) high enough plasma electron densities under present consideration. The Z{sup ?8}-scaling of the non-resonant Rayleigh cross-section in free and isolated H-isoelectronic sequence of ions is shown to be broken in dense plasma environments.

  10. Single atom spectroscopy: Decreased scattering delocalization at high energy losses, effects of atomic movement and X-ray fluorescence yield.

    PubMed

    Tizei, Luiz H G; Iizumi, Yoko; Okazaki, Toshiya; Nakanishi, Ryo; Kitaura, Ryo; Shinohara, Hisanori; Suenaga, Kazu

    2016-01-01

    Single atom localization and identification is crucial in understanding effects which depend on the specific local environment of atoms. In advanced nanometer scale materials, the characteristics of individual atoms may play an important role. Here, we describe spectroscopic experiments (electron energy loss spectroscopy, EELS, and Energy Dispersed X-ray spectroscopy, EDX) using a low voltage transmission electron microscope designed towards single atom analysis. For EELS, we discuss the advantages of using lower primary electron energy (30keV and 60keV) and higher energy losses (above 800eV). The effect of atomic movement is considered. Finally, we discuss the possibility of using atomically resolved EELS and EDX data to measure the fluorescence yield for X-ray emission. PMID:26550931

  11. Laser Induced Optical Pumping Measurements of Cross Sections for Fine and Hyperfine Structure Transitions in Sodium Induced by Collisions with Helium Argon Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, Chris C.; Sung, C. C.

    1998-01-01

    Optical pumping of the ground states of sodium can radically alter the shape of the laser induced fluorescence excitation spectrum, complicating measurements of temperature, pressure, etc., which are based on these spectra. Modeling of the fluorescence using rate equations for the eight hyperfine states of the sodium D manifolds can be used to quantify the contribution to the ground state pumping of transitions among the hyperfine excited states induced by collisions with buffer gas atoms. This model is used here to determine, from the shape of experimental spectra, cross sections for (Delta)F transitions of the P(sub 3/2) state induced by collisions with helium and argon atoms, for a range of values assumed for the P(sub 1/2), (Delta)F cross sections. The hyperfine cross sections measured using this method, which is thought to be novel, are compared with cross sections for transitions involving polarized magnetic substates, m(sub F), measured previously using polarization sensitive absorption. Also, fine structure transition ((Delta)J) cross sections were measured in the pumped vapor, giving agreement with previous measurements made in the absence of pumping.

  12. Laser-Induced Optical Pumping Measurements of Cross Section for Fine- and Hyperfine-Structure Transitions in Sodium Induced by Collisions with Helium and Argon Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobson, Chris C.; Sung, C. C.

    1999-01-01

    Optical pumping of the ground states of sodium can radically alter the shape of the laser-induced fluorescence excitation spectrum, complicating measurements of temperature, pressure, etc., which are based on these spectra. Modeling of the fluorescence using rate equations for the eight hyperfine states of the sodium D manifolds can be used to quantify the contribution to the ground state pumping of transitions among the hyperfine excited states induced by collisions with buffer gas atoms. This model is used here to determine, from the shape of experimental spectra, cross sections lor DELTA.F transitions of the P(sub 3/2) state induced by collisions with helium and argon atoms, for a range of values assumed for the P(sub 1/2), DELTA.F cross sections. The hyperfine cross sections measured using this method, which to our knowledge is novel, are compared with cross sections for transitions involving polarized magnetic substates m(sub F) measured previously using polarization sensitive absorption. Also, fine-structure transition cross sections were measured in the pumped vapor, giving agreement with previous measurements made in the absence of pumping.

  13. Experimental location of helium atoms in 6H-SiC crystal lattice after implantation and after annealing at 400 C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linez, F.; Garrido, F.; Erramli, H.; Sauvage, T.; Courtois, B.; Desgardin, P.; Barthe, M.-F.

    2015-04-01

    The question of the helium behavior in silicon carbide has been studied at the atomic scale by numerical simulations, but no experiment has been carried out to assess the results hitherto. This paper describes the first experiments allowing this comparison. 6H-SiC single crystals were implanted with 50-keV He ions at a fluence of 1015 He/cm2 at room temperature. The as-received and as-implanted samples were analyzed by RBS and NRA in channeling mode along the main crystallographic planes and across three main axes. The measurements have shown that a portion of the He is located in the interstitial tetrahedral sites as predicted by the numerical simulations. The same measurements were performed on an implanted sample subsequently annealed at 400 C under Ar atmosphere. They have shown that the quantity of He detected in interstitial tetrahedral sites TSi and TC has not significantly changed whereas that of He detected in the main crystallographic plane and in the main axis has increased. This increase is likely caused by He atoms migration at 400 C toward interstitial positions located inside vacancies such as VSi and VSiVC. In parallel a partial recovery of the Si and C sublattices has been observed.

  14. RNA and its ionic cloud: solution scattering experiments and atomically detailed simulations.

    PubMed

    Kirmizialtin, Serdal; Pabit, Suzette A; Meisburger, Steve P; Pollack, Lois; Elber, Ron

    2012-02-22

    RNA molecules play critical roles in many cellular processes. Traditionally viewed as genetic messengers, RNA molecules were recently discovered to have diverse functions related to gene regulation and expression. RNA also has great potential as a therapeutic and a tool for further investigation of gene regulation. Metal ions are an integral part of RNA structure and should be considered in any experimental or theoretical study of RNA. Here, we report a multidisciplinary approach that combines anomalous small-angle x-ray scattering and molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations with explicit solvent and ions around RNA. From experiment and simulation results, we find excellent agreement in the number and distribution of excess monovalent and divalent ions around a short RNA duplex. Although similar agreement can be obtained from a continuum description of the solvent and mobile ions (by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation and accounting for finite ion size), the use of MD is easily extended to flexible RNA systems with thermal fluctuations. Therefore, we also model a short RNA pseudoknot and find good agreement between the MD results and the experimentally derived solution structures. Surprisingly, both deviate from crystal structure predictions. These favorable comparisons of experiment and simulations encourage work on RNA in all-atom dynamic models. PMID:22385853

  15. Large extrinsic spin Hall effect in Au-Cu alloys by extensive atomic disorder scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, L. K.; Wang, S. H.; Zhang, Y.; Sun, J. R.; Cai, J. W.; Kang, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Spin Hall angle, which denotes the conversion efficiency between spin and charge current, is a key parameter in the pure spin current phenomenon. The search for materials with large spin Hall angle is indeed important for scientific interest and potential application in spintronics. Here the large enhanced spin Hall effect (SHE) of Au-Cu alloy is reported by investigating the spin Seebeck effect, spin Hall anomalous Hall effect, and spin Hall magnetoresistance of the Y3F e5O12 (YIG)/A uxC u1 -x hybrid structure over the full composition. At the near equiatomic Au-Cu composition with maximum atomic disorder scattering, the spin Hall angle of the Au-Cu alloy increases by two to three times together with a moderate spin diffusion length in comparison with Au. The longitudinal spin Seebeck voltage and the spin Hall magnetoresistance ratio also increase by two to three times. More importantly, no evidence of anomalous Hall effect is observed in all YIG/Au-Cu samples, in contrast to the cases of other giant SHE materials Pt(Pd), Ta, and W. This behavior makes Au-Cu free from any suspicion of the magnetic proximity effect involved in the hybrid structure, and thus the Au-Cu alloy can be an ideal material for pure spin current study.

  16. Low-energy electron-impact ionization of the helium atom using the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, Hari P.

    2010-10-15

    We have extended the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method for electron-impact ionization of atoms to investigate the effects of polarization and electron correlation of the target in the initial state. As a test case, the method is applied to calculate triple differential cross sections for electron-impact ionization of He atom at an excess energy of 2 eV for the coplanar {theta}{sub 12}={pi} geometry for equal and unequal energies of two final-state outgoing electrons. To determine the effects of electron correlation between the two outgoing electrons in the final state, the variationally determined screening potential approximation is used. It is found that target correlation in the initial state has smaller effect on the triple differential cross section but the polarization of the target by the incident electron has considerable effect on the triple differential cross section at low incident energy. The results are compared with absolute measurement and other available theoretical results.

  17. Theoretical state-selective and total cross sections for electron capture from helium atoms by fully stripped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man?ev, I.; Milojevi?, N.; Belki?, D.

    2015-03-01

    The four-body boundary-corrected first Born (CB1-4B) approximation is used to compute cross sections for single electron capture from helium targets by fully stripped ions. The projectile ions are H+, He2+, Li3+, Be4+, B5+, C6+, N7+, O8+, and F9+. An extensive list of theoretical state-to-state cross sections in these collisions at energies ranging from 20 to 10 000 keV/amu is given. This list includes the state-selective cross sections Qnlm for each individual triple of the usual quantum numbers { n , l , m } of the final hydrogen-like states alongside Qnl and Qn for the pertinent sub-shells and shells where the respective summations over m and { l , m } have been carried out. The maximal value of the principal quantum number n was chosen to vary from 4 (H+) to 10 (F9+) so as to satisfy the condition n ?ZP, where ZP is the nuclear charge of the projectile. Usually, the largest cross sections stem from those values of n that match the projectile charge (n =ZP) . The total cross sections for capture summed over all the quantum numbers { n , l , m } are also tabulated. The overall goal of this study is to fill in lacunae in the existing databases of charge exchange cross sections that are needed in several inter-disciplinary fields. For example, in particle transport physics, which is of utmost importance in such emerging branches as hadron therapy, these cross sections constitute a part of the multifaceted input data for stochastic simulations of energy losses of multiply charged ions in matter, including tissue. Other significant uses of the present data are anticipated in charge exchange diagnostics within thermonuclear research project as well as in applications covering the relevant parts of plasma physics and astrophysics.

  18. Spatial profiles of electron and metastable atom densities in positive polarity fast ionization waves sustained in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weatherford, Brandon R.; Xiong, Zhongmin; Barnat, E. V.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-09-01

    Fast ionization waves (FIWs), often generated with high voltage pulses over nanosecond timescales, are able to produce large volumes of ions and excited states at moderate pressures. The mechanisms of FIW propagation were experimentally and computationally investigated to provide insights into the manner in which these large volumes are excited. The two-dimensional structure of electron and metastable densities produced by short-pulse FIWs sustained in helium were measured using laser-induced fluorescence and laser collision-induced fluorescence diagnostics for times of 100-120 ns after the pulse, as the pressure was varied from 1 to 20 Torr. A trend of center-peaked to volume-filling to wall-peaked electron density profiles was observed as the pressure was increased. Instantaneous FIW velocities, obtained from plasma-induced emission, ranged from 0.1 to 3 109 cm s-1, depending on distance from the high voltage electrode and pressure. Predictions from two-dimensional modeling of the propagation of a single FIW correlated well with the experimental trends in electron density profiles and wave velocity. Results from the model show that the maximum ionization rate occurs in the wavefront, and the discharge continues to propagate forward after the removal of high voltage from the powered electrode due to the potential energy stored in the space charge. As the pressure is varied, the radial distribution of the ionization rate is shaped by changes in the electron mean free path, and subsequent localized electric field enhancement at the walls or on the centerline of the discharge.

  19. Spatial profiles of electron and metastable atom densities in positive polarity fast ionization waves sustained in helium

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherford, Brandon R. E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Barnat, E. V. E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Xiong, Zhongmin E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Kushner, Mark J. E-mail: zax@esi-group.com E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu

    2014-09-14

    Fast ionization waves (FIWs), often generated with high voltage pulses over nanosecond timescales, are able to produce large volumes of ions and excited states at moderate pressures. The mechanisms of FIW propagation were experimentally and computationally investigated to provide insights into the manner in which these large volumes are excited. The two-dimensional structure of electron and metastable densities produced by short-pulse FIWs sustained in helium were measured using laser-induced fluorescence and laser collision-induced fluorescence diagnostics for times of 100–120 ns after the pulse, as the pressure was varied from 1 to 20 Torr. A trend of center-peaked to volume-filling to wall-peaked electron density profiles was observed as the pressure was increased. Instantaneous FIW velocities, obtained from plasma-induced emission, ranged from 0.1 to 3×10⁹cm s⁻¹, depending on distance from the high voltage electrode and pressure. Predictions from two-dimensional modeling of the propagation of a single FIW correlated well with the experimental trends in electron density profiles and wave velocity. Results from the model show that the maximum ionization rate occurs in the wavefront, and the discharge continues to propagate forward after the removal of high voltage from the powered electrode due to the potential energy stored in the space charge. As the pressure is varied, the radial distribution of the ionization rate is shaped by changes in the electron mean free path, and subsequent localized electric field enhancement at the walls or on the centerline of the discharge.

  20. Measurement of OH, NO, O and N atoms in helium plasma jet for ROS/RNS controlled biomedical processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yonemori, Seiya; Kamakura, Taku; Ono, Ryo

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasmas are of emerging interest for new plasma applications such as cancer treatment, cell activation and sterilization. In those biomedical processes, reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) are said that they play significant role. It is though that active species give oxidative stress and induce biomedical reactions. In this study, we measured OH, NO, O and N atoms using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) measurement and found that voltage polarity affect particular ROS. When negative high voltage was applied to the plasma jet, O atom density was tripled compared to the case of positive applied voltage. In that case, O atom density was around 3 1015 [cm-3] at maximum. In contrast, OH and NO density did not change their density depending on the polarity of applied voltage, measured as in order of 1013 and 1014 [cm-3] at maximum, respectively. From ICCD imaging measurement, it could be seen that negative high voltage enhanced secondary emission in plasma bullet propagation and it can affect the effective production of particular ROS. Since ROS/RNS dose can be a quantitative criterion to control plasma biomedical application, those measurement results is able to be applied for in vivo and in vitro plasma biomedical experiments. This study is supported by the Grant-in-Aid for Science Research by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science and Technology.

  1. Non-resonant elastic scattering of low-energy photons by atomic sodium confined in quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Avijit Ray, Debasis

    2015-03-15

    The non-resonant elastic scattering of low-energy photons by the bound valence electron in the ground state 3s of atomic sodium confined in quantum plasmas is investigated theoretically. The incident photon energy is assumed to be much smaller than the 3s-3p excitation energy. The alkali atom sodium is first formulated as an effective one-electron problem in which the attractive interaction between the valence electron and the atomic ion core is simulated by a spherically symmetric model potential. The Shukla-Eliasson oscillatory exponential cosine screened-Coulomb potential model is then used to mimic the effective two-body (valence-core) interaction within quantum plasmas. Non-relativistic calculations performed within the electric dipole approximation indicate that the non-resonant elastic photon scattering cross-section undergoes a dramatic growth by several orders of magnitude as the quantum wave number increases. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is presented. In the absence of the oscillatory cosine screening term, a similar growth is observed at larger values of the quantum wave number. Our computed relevant atomic data are in very good agreement with the experimental as well as the previous theoretical data for the zero-screening (free atom) case, and with the very limited, accurate theoretical results available for the case of exponential screened-Coulomb two-body interaction, without the cosine screening term.

  2. Non-resonant elastic scattering of low-energy photons by atomic sodium confined in quantum plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Avijit; Ray, Debasis

    2015-03-01

    The non-resonant elastic scattering of low-energy photons by the bound valence electron in the ground state 3s of atomic sodium confined in quantum plasmas is investigated theoretically. The incident photon energy is assumed to be much smaller than the 3s-3p excitation energy. The alkali atom sodium is first formulated as an effective one-electron problem in which the attractive interaction between the valence electron and the atomic ion core is simulated by a spherically symmetric model potential. The Shukla-Eliasson oscillatory exponential cosine screened-Coulomb potential model is then used to mimic the effective two-body (valence-core) interaction within quantum plasmas. Non-relativistic calculations performed within the electric dipole approximation indicate that the non-resonant elastic photon scattering cross-section undergoes a dramatic growth by several orders of magnitude as the quantum wave number increases. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is presented. In the absence of the oscillatory cosine screening term, a similar growth is observed at larger values of the quantum wave number. Our computed relevant atomic data are in very good agreement with the experimental as well as the previous theoretical data for the zero-screening (free atom) case, and with the very limited, accurate theoretical results available for the case of exponential screened-Coulomb two-body interaction, without the cosine screening term.

  3. Multiple scattering of matter waves: An analytic model of the refractive index for atomic and molecular gases

    SciTech Connect

    Lemeshko, Mikhail; Friedrich, Bretislav

    2010-08-15

    We present an analytic model of the refractive index for matter waves propagating through atomic or molecular gases. The model, which combines the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) treatment of the long-range attraction with the Fraunhofer model treatment of the short-range repulsion, furnishes a refractive index in compelling agreement with recent experiments of Jacquey et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 240405 (2007)] on Li atom matter waves passing through dilute noble gases. We show that the diffractive contribution, which arises from scattering by a two-dimensional 'hard core' of the potential, is essential for obtaining a correct imaginary part of the refractive index.

  4. Quantum properties of light scattered from structured many-body phases of ultracold atoms in quantum optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F.; Mekhov, Igor B.

    2015-12-01

    Quantum trapping potentials for ultracold gases change the landscape of classical properties of scattered light and matter. The atoms in a quantum many-body correlated phase of matter change the properties of light and vice versa. The properties of both light and matter can be tuned by design and depend on the interplay between long-range (nonlocal) interactions mediated by an optical cavity and short-range processes of the atoms. Moreover, the quantum properties of light get significantly altered by this interplay, leading the light to have nonclassical features. Further, these nonclassical features can be designed and optimised.

  5. Thermodynamic properties of hydrogen-helium plasmas.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, H. F.

    1972-01-01

    Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of an atomic hydrogen-helium plasma for postulated conditions present in a stagnation shock layer of a spacecraft entering the atmosphere of Jupiter. These properties can be used to evaluate transport properties, to calculate convective heating, and to investigate nonequilibrium behavior. The calculations have been made for temperatures from 10,000 to 100,000 K, densities of 10 to the minus 7th and .00001 g cu cm, and three plasma compositions: pure hydrogen, 50% hydrogen/50% helium, and pure helium. The shock layer plasma consists of electrons, protons, atomic hydrogen, atomic helium, singly ionized helium, and doubly atomized helium. The thermodynamic properties which have been investigated are: pressure, average molecular weight, internal energy, enthalpy, entropy, specific heat, and isentropic speed of sound. A consistent model was used for the reduction of the ionization potential in the calculation of the partition functions.

  6. Radioactive transitions in the helium isoelectronic sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalgarno, A.

    1971-01-01

    The principles of the atomic spectrum theory are used to quantitatively analyze radiation transitions in two-electron helium-like atomic systems. Quantum theoretical methods, describing absorption and emission of a single photon in a radiative transition between two stationary states of an atomic system, reproduced the energy level diagram for the low lying states of helium. Reliable values are obtained from accurate variationally determined two-electron nonrelativistic wave functions for radiative transition probabilities of 2 3p states in the helium isoelectric sequence, and for the 2 1s and 2 3s1 states of the helium sequence.

  7. Resonance scattering at excited atoms and ions of the upper atmosphere as a possible mechanism for ionosphere investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, Vasily V.; Nepomnyashchiy, Yuri A.; Perezhogin, Andrey S.; Shevtsov, Boris M.

    2015-11-01

    According to the results of lidar observations in 2014, new experimental data are presented. They confirm the possibility of correlation of lidar signals backscattering at the wavelength of 532 nm with the parameters determining plasma content in the nighttime ionospheric F2 layer. The possibility of application of the lidar method in ionosphere investigations is discussed. The physical basis of this method may be the resonance scattering on the exited atoms and ions of the upper atmosphere.

  8. Relationship between the atomic pair distribution function and small-angle scattering: implications for modeling of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Christopher L; Billinge, Simon J L

    2009-05-01

    The relationship between the equations used in the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) method and those commonly used in small-angle-scattering (SAS) analyses is explicitly shown. The origin of the sloping baseline, -4pirrho0, in PDFs of bulk materials is identified as originating from the SAS intensity that is neglected in PDF measurements. The nonlinear baseline in nanoparticles has the same origin, and contains information about the shape and size of the nanoparticles. PMID:19349667

  9. Redistribution - Why half a collision is better than a whole one. [spectra of scattered light from perturbed atomic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J.

    1983-01-01

    The study of spectral line shapes has traditionally been mainly concerned with the measurement and interpretation of absorption or emission profiles. Often only the line widths are studied. The present investigation has the objective to evaluate the additional information which can be obtained by scattering light (usually from a laser) from an atomic system which is being perturbed by collisions. A scattering experiment is discussed. The scattered light consists of two components, a (coherent) Rayleigh component and a redistributed (fluorescent) component. In order to obtain the absorption spectrum, questions regarding the probability of photon absorption are considered. By observing the fluorescence subsequent to absorption during a collision it is found possible to obtain information on the evolution of the system from the point of absorption to the completion of the collision. The information on the intracollisional evolution is the justification for the title of the study, namely 'Why half a collision is better than a whole one'.

  10. A MATLAB-based finite-element visualization of quantum reactive scattering. I. Collinear atom-diatom reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Warehime, Mick; Alexander, Millard H.

    2014-07-14

    We restate the application of the finite element method to collinear triatomic reactive scattering dynamics with a novel treatment of the scattering boundary conditions. The method provides directly the reactive scattering wave function and, subsequently, the probability current density field. Visualizing these quantities provides additional insight into the quantum dynamics of simple chemical reactions beyond simplistic one-dimensional models. Application is made here to a symmetric reaction (H+H{sub 2}), a heavy-light-light reaction (F+H{sub 2}), and a heavy-light-heavy reaction (F+HCl). To accompany this article, we have written a MATLAB code which is fast, simple enough to be accessible to a wide audience, as well as generally applicable to any problem that can be mapped onto a collinear atom-diatom reaction. The code and user's manual are available for download from http://www2.chem.umd.edu/groups/alexander/FEM.

  11. Phases of superfluid helium in smooth cylindrical pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisk, Timothy R.; Das, Narayan C.; Diallo, Souleymane O.; Ehlers, Georg; Podlesnyak, Andrey A.; Wada, Nobuo; Inagaki, Shinji; Sokol, Paul E.

    2013-07-01

    This paper reports an inelastic neutron scattering study of superfluid helium confined with highly monodisperse, smooth, and unidimensional silica pores only a few nanometers in diameter, previously studied only by means of macroscopic, thermodynamic techniques. Helium gas sorption isotherms show that the adsorption of helium gas proceeds by film growth, providing quantitative information about the thickness of the adsorbed film and its two-dimensional compressibility. Two different microscopic phases were observed using inelastic neutron scattering. When the adsorbed superfluid helium forms a thin film only a few atomic layers thick, it supports a dramatically modified phonon-roton spectrum as well as a compressed layer roton. The energies of these modified phonon-roton modes are consistent with those of a dilute, low-density film, one in which the average interatomic spacing is greater than in the bulk liquid. In contrast, when the pores are saturated with liquid, the modified phonon-roton spectrum disappears, and instead bulklike modes coexist with the compressed layer mode. The qualitative difference between these two pore-filling regimes is reflected in the effective vibrational density of states.

  12. Effective atomic numbers for materials of medical interest at low photon energy using the Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Lama, L. S.; Soares, L. D. H.; Antoniassi, M.; Poletti, M. E.

    2015-06-01

    The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio (R/C) has been used as a reliable quantitative method for materials analysis, especially biological ones Unlike the conventional transmission method, which is sensitive to linear attenuation coefficients, the R/C ratio is more useful for situations where the ? variations are small and the atomic number variations become more significant. In the present study, gamma rays from an 241Am source with an energy of 59.54 keV were used to determine the effective atomic numbers for several materials considering the conventional total cross-section based method (ZeffATTEN) and also the intensity ratio between elastic (Rayleigh) and inelastic (Compton) scattered photons (ZeffR/C). Common liquid and solid compounds used as phantoms for investigation of radiation interaction effects on biological tissues were analyzed. This work aimed to use the R/C method in choosing the most suitable phantom to simulate biological tissues, considering two different experimental conditions: attenuation and scattering. The Rayleigh to Compton scattering ratio was shown to be a complementary approach to assist in the selection of appropriate tissue substitute materials.

  13. Electron transfer processes in collisions of highly charged energetic (0. 1 to 1. 0 MeV/nucleon) ions with helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S.; Hippler, R.; Andersen, L.H.; Dittner, P.F.; Knudsen, H.; Krause, H.F.; Miller, P.D.; Pepmiller, P.L.; Rosseel, T.; Stolterfoht, N.

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated charge transfer in collisions of energetic (0.1 - 1 MeV/nucleon) highly charged ions with helium atoms with the principal aim clarifying the nature of two-electron processes. The sensitivity of partial charge-changing cross sections (i.e., single- and double-charge transfer, transfer ionization (TI), and single and double ionization) to core configuration and scaling rules for one- and two-electron processes were investigated with iodine ions (q = 5+ ..-->.. 26+) and uranium ions (q = 17+ ..-->.. 44+) using an ion-charge state, recoil-ion coincidence method. Using zero-degree electron spectroscopy in coincidence with charge transfer, we found that at the higher energies, as in the case of 0.1 MeV/nucleon ions previously reported, TI involves the transfer of two electrons to a higher correlated state followed by loss of one electron to the continuum. In addition, we observe very high Rydberg electrons in coincidence with TI, implying a possible up-down correlation in the pair transfer. In addition, we made measurements of VUV photons emitted at the collision in coincidence with He/sup +/ and He/sup 2 +/ recoils. The results show that TI leads to capture into lower n states than single-charge transfer. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Electron Scattering and Doping Mechanisms in Solid-Phase-Crystallized In2O3:H Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Macco, Bart; Knoops, Harm C M; Kessels, Wilhelmus M M

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen-doped indium oxide (In2O3:H) has recently emerged as an enabling transparent conductive oxide for solar cells, in particular for silicon heterojunction solar cells because its high electron mobility (>100 cm(2)/(V s)) allows for a simultaneously high electrical conductivity and optical transparency. Here, we report on high-quality In2O3:H prepared by a low-temperature atomic layer deposition (ALD) process and present insights into the doping mechanism and the electron scattering processes that limit the carrier mobility in such films. The process consists of ALD of amorphous In2O3:H at 100 C and subsequent solid-phase crystallization at 150-200 C to obtain large-grained polycrystalline In2O3:H films. The changes in optoelectronic properties upon crystallization have been monitored both electrically by Hall measurements and optically by analysis of the Drude response. After crystallization, an excellent carrier mobility of 128 4 cm(2)/(V s) can be obtained at a carrier density of 1.8 10(20) cm(-3), irrespective of the annealing temperature. Temperature-dependent Hall measurements have revealed that electron scattering is dominated by unavoidable phonon and ionized impurity scattering from singly charged H-donors. Extrinsic defect scattering related to material quality such as grain boundary and neutral impurity scattering was found to be negligible in crystallized films indicating that the carrier mobility is maximized. Furthermore, by comparison of the absolute H-concentration and the carrier density in crystallized films, it is deduced that <4% of the incorporated H is an active dopant in crystallized films. Therefore, it can be concluded that inactive H atoms do not (significantly) contribute to defect scattering, which potentially explains why In2O3:H films are capable of achieving a much higher carrier mobility than conventional In2O3:Sn (ITO). PMID:26168056

  15. EFFECTS OF LASER RADIATION ON MATTER. LASER PLASMA: Characteristics of the scattering of neutral atoms by two counterpropagating pulsed optical fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinchuk, V. A.; Grishina, I. A.; Kuzin, E. F.; Nagaeva, M. L.; Ryabenko, G. A.; Yakovlev, V. P.

    1994-04-01

    The scattering of neutral sodium atoms by a strong field of two counterpropagating (incident on and reflected from a mirror) short laser pulses was used in an experimental investigation of a stimulated radiation pressure. The reasons for the anomalous frequency structure in the scattering of atoms were identified. The oscillatory nature of the dependence of the scattering on the detuning from resonance was found to be significant in strong laser radiation fields. The oscillation period depended on the distance between the reflecting mirror and the atomic beam.

  16. The stereo-dynamics of collisional autoionization of ammonia by helium and neon metastable excited atoms through molecular beam experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falcinelli, Stefano; Bartocci, Alessio; Cavalli, Simonetta; Pirani, Fernando; Vecchiocattivi, Franco

    2015-10-01

    A combined analysis of both new (energy spectra of emitted electrons) and previously published (ionization cross sections) experimental data, measured under the same conditions and concerning electronically excited lighter noble gas -NH3 collisional autoionization processes, is carried out. Such an analysis, performed by exploiting a formulation of the full potential energy surface both in the real and imaginary parts, provides direct information on energetics, structure, and lifetime of the intermediate collision complex over all the configuration space. The marked anisotropy in the attraction of the real part, driving the approach of reagents, and the selective role of the imaginary component, associated to the charge transfer coupling between entrance and exit channels, suggests that reactive events occur almost exclusively in the molecular hemisphere containing the nitrogen lone pair. Crucial details on the stereo-dynamics of elementary collisional autoionization processes are then obtained, in which the open shell nature of the disclosed ionic core of metastable atom plays a crucial role. The same analysis also suggests that the strength of the attraction and the anisotropy of the interaction increases regularly along the series Ne*(3P), He*(3S), He*(1S)-NH3. These findings can be ascribed to the strong rise of the metastable atom electronic polarizability (deformability) along the series. The obtained results can stimulate state of the art ab initio calculations focused on specific features of the transition state (energetics, structure, lifetime, etc.) which can be crucial for a further improvement of the adopted treatment and to better understand the nature of the leading interaction components which are the same responsible for the formation of the intermolecular halogen and hydrogen bond.

  17. The stereo-dynamics of collisional autoionization of ammonia by helium and neon metastable excited atoms through molecular beam experiments.

    PubMed

    Falcinelli, Stefano; Bartocci, Alessio; Cavalli, Simonetta; Pirani, Fernando; Vecchiocattivi, Franco

    2015-10-28

    A combined analysis of both new (energy spectra of emitted electrons) and previously published (ionization cross sections) experimental data, measured under the same conditions and concerning electronically excited lighter noble gas -NH3 collisional autoionization processes, is carried out. Such an analysis, performed by exploiting a formulation of the full potential energy surface both in the real and imaginary parts, provides direct information on energetics, structure, and lifetime of the intermediate collision complex over all the configuration space. The marked anisotropy in the attraction of the real part, driving the approach of reagents, and the selective role of the imaginary component, associated to the charge transfer coupling between entrance and exit channels, suggests that reactive events occur almost exclusively in the molecular hemisphere containing the nitrogen lone pair. Crucial details on the stereo-dynamics of elementary collisional autoionization processes are then obtained, in which the open shell nature of the disclosed ionic core of metastable atom plays a crucial role. The same analysis also suggests that the strength of the attraction and the anisotropy of the interaction increases regularly along the series Ne(*)((3)P), He(*)((3)S), He(*)((1)S)-NH3. These findings can be ascribed to the strong rise of the metastable atom electronic polarizability (deformability) along the series. The obtained results can stimulate state of the art ab initio calculations focused on specific features of the transition state (energetics, structure, lifetime, etc.) which can be crucial for a further improvement of the adopted treatment and to better understand the nature of the leading interaction components which are the same responsible for the formation of the intermolecular halogen and hydrogen bond. PMID:26520512

  18. On the formation of (anionic) excited helium dimers in helium droplets.

    PubMed

    Huber, Stefan E; Mauracher, Andreas

    2014-08-21

    Metastable atomic and molecular helium anions exhibiting high-spin quartet configurations can be produced in helium droplets via electron impact. Their lifetimes allow detection in mass spectrometric experiments. Formation of atomic helium anions comprises collision-induced excitation of ground state helium and concomitant electron capture. Yet the formation of molecular helium anions in helium droplets has been an unresolved issue. In this work, we explore the interaction of excited helium atoms exhibiting high-spin triplet configurations with ground state helium using the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method. Transition barriers in the energetically lowest He*-He and He*(-)-He interaction potentials prevent molecule formation at the extremely low temperatures present in helium droplets. In contrast, some excited states allow a barrier-free formation of molecular helium (anions). Moreover, we show that the necessary excitation energies pinpoint (higher) resonances in recently recorded mass spectra and emend the assignment of those resonances that have previously been assigned to electron-impact ionization of ground state helium necessitating subsequent double-electron capture. Embedding molecules or molecular clusters in helium droplets is a predestined experimental technique for the study of phenomena at very low temperatures. Profound knowledge about active processes in the helium environment is required for a proper assessment of experimental data. PMID:24866535

  19. Screening Effects on Nonrelativistic Bremsstrahlung in the Scattering of Electrons by Neutral Atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Young-Dae; Lee, Kun-Sang

    1995-01-01

    Atomic screening effects on nonrelativistic electron-atom bremsstrahlung radiation are investigated using a simple analytic solution of the Thomas-Fermi model for many-electron atoms. The Born approximation is assumed for the initial and final states of the projectile electron. The results show that the screening effect is important in the soft radiation region and is decreasing with increasing radiation. These results help provide correct information about the behavior of bound electrons in the target atom in bremsstrahlung processes.

  20. Absolute cross sections for the dissociation of hydrogen cluster ions in high-energy collisions with helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Eden, S.; Tabet, J.; Samraoui, K.; Louc, S.; Farizon, B.; Farizon, M.; Ouaskit, S.; Maerk, T. D.

    2006-02-15

    Absolute dissociation cross sections are reported for H{sub n}{sup +} clusters of varied mass (n=3,5,...,35) following collisions with He atoms at 60 keV/amu. Initial results have been published previously for a smaller range of cluster sizes [Ouaskit et al., Phys. Rev. A 49, 1484 (1994)]. The present extended study includes further experimental results, reducing the statistical errors associated with the absolute cross sections. The previously suggested quasilinear dependence of the H{sub n}{sup +} dissociation cross sections upon n is developed with reference to expected series of geometrical shells of H{sub 2} molecules surrounding a H{sub 3}{sup +} core. Recent calculations identify n=9 as corresponding to the first closed H{sub 2} shell [e.g., Stich et al., J. Chem. Phys. 107, 9482 (1997)]. Recurrence of the distinct characteristics observed in the dissociation-cross-section dependence upon cluster size around n=9 provides the basis for the presently proposed subsequent closed shells at n=15, 21, 27, and 33, in agreement with the calculations of Nagashima et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 96, 4294 (1992)].

  1. Influence of the defect and structural state of FCC and BCC metals on the intensity of mechanodynamic penetration of helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyavin, O. V.; Nikolaev, V. I.; Smirnov, B. I.; Khabarin, L. V.; Chernov, Yu. M.; Shpe?zman, V. V.

    2008-08-01

    The specific features of the mechanodynamic penetration of helium under plastic deformation into fcc (Cu) and bcc (Fe, Nb) metals with different initial defect structures (single-crystal, nanocrystalline, and porous samples) are investigated. The intensity of mechanodynamic penetration into these metals is shown to depend on the type of bonding (metallic or covalent), which determines the degree of localization of the plastic flow of these metals, as well as on the type of defect structure and on the character of plastic flow (dislocation deformation, twinning, grain-boundary sliding). Curves of helium extraction from samples at different strains are obtained. It is found that the helium release exhibits a wide variety of peaks depending on the degree and character of plastic deformation of the metals under investigation. This suggests that the metals contain different types of helium traps, which determine the content of helium and the specific features of its release in the temperature range studied.

  2. Atomic oxygen effects on thin film space coatings studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry, atomic force microscopy, and laser light scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Synowicki, R. A.; Hale, Jeffrey S.; Woollam, John A.

    1992-01-01

    The University of Nebraska is currently evaluating Low Earth Orbit (LEO) simulation techniques as well as a variety of thin film protective coatings to withstand atomic oxygen (AO) degradation. Both oxygen plasma ashers and an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) source are being used for LEO simulation. Thin film coatings are characterized by optical techniques including Variable Angle Spectroscopic Ellipsometry, Optical spectrophotometry, and laser light scatterometry. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is also used to characterize surface morphology. Results on diamondlike carbon (DLC) films show that DLC degrades with simulated AO exposure at a rate comparable to Kapton polyimide. Since DLC is not as susceptible to environmental factors such as moisture absorption, it could potentially provide more accurate measurements of AO fluence on short space flights.

  3. Quenching of the resonance 5s({sup 3}P{sub 1}) state of krypton atoms in collisions with krypton and helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Zayarnyi, D A; L'dov, A Yu; Kholin, I V

    2014-11-30

    The processes of collision quenching of the resonance 5s[3/2]{sub 1}{sup o}({sup 3}P{sub 1}) state of the krypton atom are studied by the absorption probe method in electron-beam-excited high-pressure He – Kr mixtures with a low content of krypton. The rate constants of plasmochemical reactions Kr* + Kr + He → Kr*{sub 2} + He [(4.21 ± 0.42) × 10{sup -33} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1}], Kr* + 2He → HeKr* + He [(4.5 ± 1.2) × 10{sup -36} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1}] and Kr* + He → products + He [(2.21 ± 0.22) × 10{sup -15} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}] are measured for the first time. The rate constants of similar reactions are refined for krypton in the metastable 5s[3/2]{sub 2}{sup o} ({sup 3}P{sub 2}) state. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  4. Quenching of krypton atoms in the metastable 5s ({sup 3}P{sub 2}) state in collisions with krypton and helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Zayarnyi, D A; L'dov, A Yu; Kholin, I V

    2013-08-31

    We have used the absorption probe method to study the processes of collisional quenching of the metastable 5s [3/2]{sup o}{sub 2}({sup 3}P{sub 2}) state of the krypton atom in electron-beam-excited high-pressure He – Kr mixtures with a low content of krypton. The rate constants of plasma-chemical reactions Kr* + Kr + He → Kr*{sub 2}+He [(2.88 ± 0.29) × 10{sup -33} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1}], Kr* + 2He → HeKr* + He [(4.6 ± 1.3) × 10{sup -36} cm{sup 6} s{sup -1}] and Kr* + He → products + He [(1.51 ± 0.15) × 10{sup -15} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}] are measured for the first time. The rate constants of similar reactions in the Ar – Kr mixture are refined. (active media)

  5. Production of a Biomimetic Fe(I)-S Phase on Pyrite by Atomic-Hydrogen Beam-Surface Reactive Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Che, Li; Gardenghi, David J.; Szilagyi, Robert K.; Minton, Timothy K.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular beam-surface scattering and X-ray absorption spectroscopic experiments were employed to study the reaction of deuterium atoms with a pyrite, FeS2 (100), surface and to investigate the electronic and geometric structures of the resulting Fe-S phases. Incident D atoms, produced by a radio frequency plasma and expanded in an effusive beam, were directed at a pyrite surface held at various temperatures from ambient up to 200 °C. During exposure to the D-atom beam, D2S products were released with a thermal distribution of molecular speeds, indicating that the D atoms likely reacted in thermal equilibrium with the surface. The yield of D2S from the surface decreased approximately exponentially with exposure duration, suggesting that the surface accessible sulfur atoms were depleted, thus leaving an iron-rich surface. This conclusion is consistent with X-ray absorption measurements of the exposed surfaces, which indicated the formation of a layered structure, with elemental iron as the outermost layer on top of a formally Fe(I)-S phase as an intermediate layer and a formally Fe(II)-S2 bulk pyrite layer at lower depths. The reduced Fe(I)-S phase is particularly remarkable because of its similarity to the catalytically active sites of small molecule metalloenzymes, such as FeFe-hydrogenases and MoFe-nitrogenases. PMID:21526811

  6. Angular distributions of 5eV atomic oxygen scattered from solid surfaces on the LDEF satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.; Peters, Palmer N.

    1992-01-01

    The angular distribution of 5eV atomic oxygen scattered off several smooth solid surfaces was measured by experiment A0114 which flew on board the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Target surfaces were silver, vitreous carbon, and lithium fluoride crystal. The apparatus was entirely passive. It used the property of silver surfaces to absorb oxygen atoms with high efficiency; the silver is converted to optically transmissive silver oxide. A collimated beam of oxygen atoms is allowed to fall on the target surface at some pre-set angle. Reflected atoms are then intercepted by a silver film placed so that it subtends a considerable solid angle from the primary beam impact on the target surface. The silver films are evaporated onto flexible optically-clear polycarbonate sheets which are scanned later to determine oxygen uptake. While the silver detector cannot measure atom velocity or energy, its physical configuration allows easy coverage of large angular space both in the beam-plane (that which includes the incident beam and the surface normal), and in the azimuthal plane of the target surface.

  7. Proposal to directly observe the Kondo effect through enhanced photo-induced scattering of cold fermionic and bosonic atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundar, Bhuvanesh; Mueller, Erich

    2015-05-01

    We propose an experimental protocol to directly observe the Kondo effect by scattering ultracold atoms with spin-dependent interactions. The Kondo effect is a transport anomaly which occurs when conduction electrons interact with magnetic impurities. We consider an ultracold system consisting of a gas of fermionic 6Li atoms and a gas of bosonic 87Rb atoms, where 6Li atoms play the role of conduction electrons and 87Rb atoms play the role of magnetic impurities. We propose a method to engineer Kondo-like interactions between them. To measure the Kondo effect, we imagine launching the 87Rb gas into the 6Li gas, and calculate the momentum transferred to the 6Li gas. We show that the temperature dependence of this momentum is logarithmic at low temperatures and has a minimum, characteristic of the Kondo effect and analogous to the behavior of electrical resistance of magnetic alloys. Experimental implementation of our proposal will give a new perspective on an iconic problem.

  8. Energy-related atomic and molecular structure and scattering studies. Annual progress report, July 1, 1980-June 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Bederson, B.

    1981-02-01

    The basic goals of this program concern the experimental determination of properties of atoms and molecules and molecular clusters that are important in a wide range of energy-related processes, in particular, measurements of polarizabilities of highly polar molecules and their polymers, and of a number of important atomic elements distributed through the periodic table, as well as of the scattering of low-energy electrons by these same systems. The most significant scientific accomplishment of the program during the past year has been the completion of measurements of the dc electric dipole polarizabilities of a number of alkali halide dimers ((KCl)/sub 2/, (RbCl)/sub 2/, (CsCl)/sub 2/, (KF)/sub 2/, and (CsF)/sub 2/). An experiment was completed to measure the total cross sections for the scattering of low-energy electrons by atomic lithium, a very significant experimental test of a relatively simple, many-body system, which is amenable to elaborate computational determination.

  9. Interaction-induced dipoles of hydrogen molecules colliding with helium atoms: a new ab initio dipole surface for high-temperature applications.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoping; Mandal, Anirban; Miliordos, Evangelos; Hunt, Katharine L C

    2012-01-28

    We report new ab initio results for the interaction-induced dipole moments Δμ of hydrogen molecules colliding with helium atoms. These results are needed in order to calculate collision-induced absorption spectra at high temperatures; applications include modeling the radiative profiles of very cool white dwarf stars, with temperatures from 3500 K to 9000 K. We have evaluated the dipoles based on finite-field calculations, with coupled cluster methods in MOLPRO 2006 and aug-cc-pV5Z (spdfg) basis sets for both the H and He centers. We have obtained values of Δμ for eight H(2) bond lengths ranging from 0.942 a.u. to 2.801 a.u., for 15 intermolecular separations R ranging from 2.0 a.u. to 10.0 a.u., and for 19 different relative orientations. In general, our values agree well with earlier ab initio results, for the geometrical configurations that are treated in common, but we have determined more points on the collision-induced dipole surface by an order of magnitude. These results make it possible to calculate transition probabilities for molecules in excited vibrational states, overtones, and rotational transitions with ΔJ > 4. We have cast our results in the symmetry-adapted form needed for absorption line shape calculations, by expressing Δμ as a series in the spherical harmonics of the orientation angles of the intermolecular vector and of a unit vector along the H(2) bond axis. The expansion coefficients depend on the H(2) bond length and the intermolecular distance R. For large separations R, we show that the ab initio values of the leading coefficients converge to the predictions from perturbation theory, including both classical multipole polarization and dispersion effects. PMID:22299884

  10. Paramagnetic Attraction of Impurity-Helium Solids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernard, E. P.; Boltnev, R. E.; Khmelenko, V. V.; Lee, D. M.

    2003-01-01

    Impurity-helium solids are formed when a mixture of impurity and helium gases enters a volume of superfluid helium. Typical choices of impurity gas are hydrogen deuteride, deuterium, nitrogen, neon and argon, or a mixture of these. These solids consist of individual impurity atoms and molecules as well as clusters of impurity atoms and molecules covered with layers of solidified helium. The clusters have an imperfect crystalline structure and diameters ranging up to 90 angstroms, depending somewhat on the choice of impurity. Immediately following formation the clusters aggregate into loosely connected porous solids that are submerged in and completely permeated by the liquid helium. Im-He solids are extremely effective at stabilizing high concentrations of free radicals, which can be introduced by applying a high power RF dis- charge to the impurity gas mixture just before it strikes the super fluid helium. Average concentrations of 10(exp 19) nitrogen atoms/cc and 5 x 10(exp 18) deuterium atoms/cc can be achieved this way. It shows a typical sample formed from a mixture of atomic and molecular hydrogen and deuterium. It shows typical sample formed from atomic and molecular nitrogen. Much of the stability of Im-He solids is attributed to their very large surface area to volume ratio and their permeation by super fluid helium. Heat resulting from a chance meeting and recombination of free radicals is quickly dissipated by the super fluid helium instead of thermally promoting the diffusion of other nearby free radicals.

  11. A study of pseudoresonances in the application of the Schwinger variational principle to electron scattering from atomic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weatherford, Charles A.; Odom, Gregory; Tucker, Roy

    1989-01-01

    The Schwinger variational principle is applied to s-wave electron-hydrogen atom scattering. Computationally, consistent with a recent paper by Apagyi et al. (1988), there are pseudoresonances at the static exchange level of approximation, but not at the static level. The T-matrix as well as the K-matrix version of the Schwinger principle is used with a real Slater basis, and the same results are obtained in both. The origin of the pseudoresonances from singularities in the separable potential that is effectively employed in the Lippman-Schwinger equation from which the Schwinger variational principle can be derived. The determination of the pseudoresonance parameters from the separable potential is computationally inexpensive and may be used to predict the pseudoresonance parameters for the scattering calculations so as to avoid them.

  12. A study of pseudoresonances in the application of the Schwinger variational principle to electron scattering from atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Weatherford, C.A.; Odom, G.; Tucker, R. )

    1989-01-01

    The Schwinger variational principle is applied to s-wave electron-hydrogen atom scattering. Computationally, consistent with a recent paper by Apagyi et al. (1988), there are pseudoresonances at the static exchange level of approximation, but not at the static level. The T-matrix as well as the K-matrix version of the Schwinger principle is used with a real Slater basis, and the same results are obtained in both. The origin of the pseudoresonances from singularities in the separable potential that is effectively employed in the Lippman-Schwinger equation from which the Schwinger variational principle can be derived. The determination of the pseudoresonance parameters from the separable potential is computationally inexpensive and may be used to predict the pseudoresonance parameters for the scattering calculations so as to avoid them. 19 refs.

  13. Dependence of scatter on atomic number for x rays from tungsten and molybdenum anodes in the mammographic energy range.

    PubMed

    Aus, R J; DeWerd, L A; Pearson, D W; Micka, J A; Ng, K H

    1999-07-01

    A study was done to determine the relative amounts of scatter for the following materials with atomic numbers ranging from Z=6 to Z=82: C, Al, Ti, Fe, Cu, Zn, Zr, Y, Mo, Ta, and Pb. Measurements were performed for each material on two constant potential x-ray units--one fitted with a molybdenum (Mo) anode-Mo filter and the other with a tungsten (W) anode-aluminum (Al) filter (medium filtration) at 30 kVp. Theoretical calculations were also performed for each anode to explain the scatter behavior and to aid in predicting the behavior for materials where measurements were not made. There was good agreement between the theoretical calculations and the experimental data. PMID:10435532

  14. In-situ Synchrotron Radiation X-ray Scattering Study On The Initial Structure Of Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y. J.; Lee, D. R.; Baik, S.

    2011-12-23

    Due to the excellent conformality of ALD, it is not only adopted thin film, but also has been adopted for the fabrication of nanostructures. The surface reaction of ALD process is dependent on the substrate condition, thus the study on initial stage of ALD process is crucial to achieve controllable film growth. By the way, because of quite low scattering intensity of initial ultra thin layer, the high flux Synchrotron Radiation is needed. Synchrotron radiation x-ray scattering measurements allow us to investigate the atomic structure evolution of a few nanometer thickness films at the initial growth stage, nondestructively. Ru and TaN ALD films were grown. The thickness, roughness, and electron density were estimated by X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) analysis. The island structures and its coverage also were estimated.

  15. Antiprotonic helium atomcules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauge, Sébastien

    2012-10-01

    About 3% of antiprotons (bar{p}) stopped in helium are long-lived with microsecond lifetimes, against picoseconds in all other materials. This unusual longevity has been ascribed to the trapping of bar{p} on metastable bound states in bar{p}He+ helium atom-molecules thus named atomcules. Apart from their unique dual structure investigated by laser spectroscopy - a near-circular quasi-classical Rydberg atom with l n - 1 37 or a special diatomic molecule with a negatively charged bar{p} nucleus in high rotational state with J = l - the chemical physics aspects of their interaction with other atoms or molecules constitute an interesting topic for molecular physics. While atomcules may resist to million collisions in helium, molecular contaminants such as H2 are likely to destroy them in a single one, down to very low temperatures. In the Born-Oppenheimer framework, we interpret the molecular interaction obtained by ab initio quantum chemical calculations in terms of classical reactive channels, with activation barriers accounting for the experiments carried out in He and H2. From classical trajectory Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the thermalization stage strongly quenches initial populations, thus reduced to a recovered 3 % trapping fraction. This work illustrates the pertinence of chemical physics concepts to the study of exotic processes involving antimatter. New insights into the physico-chemistry of cold interstellar radicals are anticipated.

  16. Speckle Patterns with Atomic and Molecular de Broglie Waves

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Forest S.; Deponte, Daniel P.; Kevan, Stephen D.; Elliott, Greg S.

    2006-07-07

    We have developed a nozzle source that delivers a continuous beam of atomic helium or molecular hydrogen having a high degree of transverse coherence and with adequate optical brightness to enable new kinds of experiments. Using this source we have measured single slit diffraction patterns and the first ever speckle-diffraction patterns using atomic and molecular de Broglie waves. Our results suggest fruitful application of coherent matter beams in dynamic scattering and diffractive imaging at short wavelength and with extreme surface sensitivity.

  17. Energy-related atomic and molecular structure and scattering studies. Annual progress report, July 1, 1979-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Bederson, B.

    1980-03-01

    The basic goals of this program concern the experimental determination of properties of atoms and simple molecules that are important in a wide range of energy-related processes. In particular we have initiated measurements of polarizabilities of highly polar molecules and dimers, and of a number of atoms distributed through the periodic table, and, of the scattering of low energy electrons by highly polar molecules. For this latter series of measurements an entirely new apparatus has been designed and its external components have been completed. A new electron optics assembly has also been designed and is currently under construction. Details of all these projects are presented; analysis and data of the polarizability measurements are also given.

  18. Exploring local atomic arrangements in amorphous and metastable phase change materials with x-ray and neutron total scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Page, Katharine; Daemen, Luc; Proffen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Very little experimental work has conclusively explored the structural transformation between the amorphous and metastable crystalline phases of phase change chalcogenides. A recent flurry of theoretical work has supported likely mechanisms for the phase transition process in Ge-Sb-Te (GST) compositions and invigorated efforts at probing local atomic arrangements experimentally. The pair distribution function (PDF) formalism of total scattering data provides directly both local structure correlations at low real-space dimensions, and intermediate range order at higher length scales, a distinct advantage for following the relevant phase transition in phase change materials (PCM). A challenge facing the field is the difficulty in distinguishing separate peak contributions to pair correlation functions in amorphous and highly disordered samples. For example, various types of local order have been reported for Ge{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} phases, including both random mixtures and discrete structural units, and both 4-fold and 6-fold coordination around Ge. We describe our efforts in advancing capabilities for extracting and refining differential or partial pair distribution function data sets by combining neutron and x-ray total scattering, with extensions to isotopic substitution and anomalous x-ray scattering. Our results combining neutron and x-ray scattering for the Ge{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} series, for example, clearly distinguish Ge-Te and Te-Te contributions in nearest neighbor correlations. Presenting an additional challenge, phase change materials with fast switching speeds (those arguably of greatest technological interest) have stable bulk crystalline phases and do not readily form glasses until reduced to small dimensions. Thin film samples are inherently difficult to probe with conventional crystallographic methods. We demonstrate successful synchrotron x-ray total scattering experiments for PCM thin films with thicknesses between 100 nm and 1 um and describe how chemical short-range order and local bonding environments vary in amorphous, metastable and crystalline GeSb{sub 2}Te{sub 4} films. Total scattering methods for powders and thin films allow for a direct comparison of PCM properties (crystallization temperature, optical contrast between phases, phase change speed, etc.) with observed local structure and motivate further exploration into the atomic configurations enabling this fascinating class of materials.

  19. Simultaneous detection of surface coverage and structure of krypton films on gold by helium atom diffraction and quartz crystal microbalance techniques.

    PubMed

    Dan??man, M Fatih; zkan, Berrin

    2011-11-01

    We describe a quartz crystal microbalance setup that can be operated at low temperatures in ultra high vacuum with gold electrode surfaces acting as substrate surface for helium diffraction measurements. By simultaneous measurement of helium specular reflection intensity from the electrode surface and resonance frequency shift of the crystal during film adsorption, helium diffraction data can be correlated to film thickness. In addition, effects of interfacial viscosity on the helium diffraction pattern could be observed. To this end, first, flat gold films on AT cut quartz crystals were prepared which yield high enough helium specular reflection intensity. Then the crystals were mounted in the helium diffractometer sample holder and driven by means of a frequency modulation driving setup. Different crystal geometries were tested to obtain the best quality factor and preliminary measurements were performed on Kr films on gold surfaces. While the crystal structure and coverage of krypton films as a function of substrate temperature could successfully be determined, no depinning effects could be observed. PMID:22129010

  20. Simultaneous detection of surface coverage and structure of krypton films on gold by helium atom diffraction and quartz crystal microbalance techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Danisman, M. Fatih; Oezkan, Berrin

    2011-11-15

    We describe a quartz crystal microbalance setup that can be operated at low temperatures in ultra high vacuum with gold electrode surfaces acting as substrate surface for helium diffraction measurements. By simultaneous measurement of helium specular reflection intensity from the electrode surface and resonance frequency shift of the crystal during film adsorption, helium diffraction data can be correlated to film thickness. In addition, effects of interfacial viscosity on the helium diffraction pattern could be observed. To this end, first, flat gold films on AT cut quartz crystals were prepared which yield high enough helium specular reflection intensity. Then the crystals were mounted in the helium diffractometer sample holder and driven by means of a frequency modulation driving setup. Different crystal geometries were tested to obtain the best quality factor and preliminary measurements were performed on Kr films on gold surfaces. While the crystal structure and coverage of krypton films as a function of substrate temperature could successfully be determined, no depinning effects could be observed.