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Sample records for helium rydberg states

  1. Alignment of D-state Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löw, Robert; Krupp, Alexander; Gaj, Anita; Balewski, Jonathan; Ilzhöfer, Philipp; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Kurz, Markus; Schmelcher, Peter; Pfau, Tilman

    2014-05-01

    For highly excited Rydberg atoms with principal quantum numbers n ~ 40, single ground state atoms can be trapped in the potential created by the Rydberg electron, leading to so called trilobite Rydberg molecules. Until now mostly S-states have been studied in terms of lifetime, coherence properties, dimers, trimers and polymers, permanent electric dipole moments, etc. Recently we have extended this class of molecules by D-state molecules offering more complex azimuthal structures. By choosing various magnetic substates, well separated by a magnetic offset field, we are able to address specific ro-vibronical states. A peculiar property of our excitation scheme is that the resulting Rydberg molecules are excited to stationary states with a high degree of alignment or anti-alignment.

  2. Transmission-line decelerators for atoms in high Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lancuba, P.; Hogan, S. D.

    2014-11-01

    Beams of helium atoms in Rydberg states with principal quantum number n =52 , and traveling with an initial speed of 1950 m/s, have been accelerated, decelerated, and guided while confined in moving electric traps generated above a curved, surface-based electrical transmission line with a segmented center conductor. Experiments have been performed with atoms guided at constant speed, and with accelerations exceeding 107 m /s 2. In each case, the manipulated atoms were detected by spatially resolved, pulsed electric field ionization. The effects of tangential and centripetal accelerations on the effective trapping potentials experienced by the atoms in the decelerator have been studied, with the resulting observations highlighting contributions from the density of excited Rydberg atoms to the acceleration, deceleration, and guiding efficiencies in the experiments.

  3. Dipolar dephasing of Rydberg D-state polaritons

    E-print Network

    Christoph Tresp; Przemyslaw Bienias; Sebastian Weber; Hannes Gorniaczyk; Ivan Mirgorodskiy; Hans Peter Büchler; Sebastian Hofferberth

    2015-05-14

    We experimentally study the effects of the anisotropic Rydberg-interaction on $D$-state Rydberg polaritons slowly propagating through a cold atomic sample. In addition to the few-photon nonlinearity known from similar experiments with Rydberg $S$-states, we observe the interaction-induced dephasing of Rydberg polaritons at very low photon input rates into the medium. We develop a model combining the propagation of the two-photon wavefunction through our system with nonperturbative calculations of the anisotropic Rydberg-interaction to show that the observed effect can be attributed to pairwise interaction of individual Rydberg polaritons.

  4. Dipolar Dephasing of Rydberg D-State Polaritons.

    PubMed

    Tresp, C; Bienias, P; Weber, S; Gorniaczyk, H; Mirgorodskiy, I; Büchler, H P; Hofferberth, S

    2015-08-21

    We experimentally study the effects of the anisotropic Rydberg interaction on D-state Rydberg polaritons slowly propagating through a cold atomic sample. We observe the interaction-induced dephasing of Rydberg polaritons at very low photon input rates into the medium. We develop a model combining the propagation of the two-photon wave function through our system with nonperturbative calculations of the anisotropic Rydberg interaction to show that the observed effect can be attributed to pairwise interaction of individual Rydberg polaritons at distances larger than the Rydberg blockade. PMID:26340188

  5. Excitation of helium Rydberg states and doubly excited resonances in strong extreme ultraviolet fields: Full-dimensional quantum dynamics using exponentially tempered Gaussian basis sets

    SciTech Connect

    Kaprálová-Ž?ánská, Petra Ruth; Šmydke, Jan; Department of Radiation and Chemical Physics, Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Na Slovance 2, 182 21 Prague 8 ; Civiš, Svatopluk

    2013-09-14

    Recently optimized exponentially tempered Gaussian basis sets [P. R. Kapralova-Zdanska and J. Smydke, J. Chem. Phys. 138, 024105 (2013)] are employed in quantitative simulations of helium absorption cross-sections and two-photon excitation yields of doubly excited resonances. Linearly polarized half-infinite and Gaussian laser pulses at wavelengths 38–58 nm and large intensities up to 100 TW/cm{sup 2} are considered. The emphasis is laid on convergence of the results with respect to the quality of the Gaussian basis sets (typically limited by a number of partial waves, density, and spatial extent of the basis functions) as well as to the quality of the basis set of field-free states (typically limited by the maximum rotational quantum number and maximum excitation of the lower electron). Particular attention is paid to stability of the results with respect to varying complex scaling parameter. Moreover, the study of the dynamics is preceded by a thorough check of helium energies and oscillator strengths as they are obtained with the exponentially tempered Gaussian basis sets, being also compared with yet unpublished emission wavelengths measured in electric discharge experiments.

  6. Photodissociation Dynamics of Diacetylene Rydberg States.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongzhen; Yu, Shengrui; Su, Shu; Dai, Dongxu; Yuan, Kaijun; Yang, Xueming

    2015-11-19

    The state-selective photodissociation of diacetylene (C4H2) was studied in the wavelength range of 127.5-164.4 nm by high-resolution Rydberg H atom time-of-flight spectroscopy measurements. In the wavelength region, two Rydberg series nR and nR' were state-selectively excited using tunable vacuum-ultraviolet laser radiation. In all photolysis wavelengths, two decay channels with different dissociation dynamics were observed. In one channel, the characteristic and isotropic translational energy distributions with a peak around 1800 cm(-1) can be found, suggesting statistical dissociation through internal conversion (IC) from the Rydberg state to the ground state and then dissociation on the ground-state surface. In contrast to this, in the second channel, nonstatistical and anisotropic translational energy distributions were observed, possibly through IC to the excited repulsive state. The vibrational progressions of C4H (A(2)?) products have also been observed and assigned to the CCC bend and C?C stretch progressions in the second channel at 3R Rydberg states. PMID:26492566

  7. Alignment of D-state Rydberg molecules

    E-print Network

    Krupp, Alexander T; Balewski, Jonathan B; Ilzhöfer, Philipp; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Löw, Robert; Pfau, Tilman; Kurz, Markus; Schmelcher, Peter

    2014-01-01

    We report on the formation of ultralong-range Rydberg D-state molecules via photoassociation in an ultracold cloud of rubidium atoms. By applying a magnetic offset field on the order of 10 G and high resolution spectroscopy, we are able to resolve individual rovibrational molecular states. A full theory, using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation including s- and p-wave scattering, reproduces the measured binding energies. The calculated molecular wavefunctions show that in the experiment we can selectively excite stationary molecular states with an extraordinary degree of alignment or anti-alignment with respect to the magnetic field axis.

  8. Alignment of D-state Rydberg molecules

    E-print Network

    Alexander T. Krupp; Anita Gaj; Jonathan B. Balewski; Philipp Ilzhöfer; Sebastian Hofferberth; Robert Löw; Tilman Pfau; Markus Kurz; Peter Schmelcher

    2014-01-16

    We report on the formation of ultralong-range Rydberg D-state molecules via photoassociation in an ultracold cloud of rubidium atoms. By applying a magnetic offset field on the order of 10 G and high resolution spectroscopy, we are able to resolve individual rovibrational molecular states. A full theory, using the Born-Oppenheimer approximation including s- and p-wave scattering, reproduces the measured binding energies. The calculated molecular wavefunctions show that in the experiment we can selectively excite stationary molecular states with an extraordinary degree of alignment or anti-alignment with respect to the magnetic field axis.

  9. State-selective all-optical detection of Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlewski, Florian; Mack, Markus; Grimmel, Jens; Sándor, Nóra; Fortágh, József

    2015-04-01

    We present an all-optical protocol for detecting population in a selected Rydberg state of alkali-metal atoms. The detection scheme is based on the interaction of an ensemble of ultracold atoms with two laser pulses: one weak probe pulse which is resonant with the transition between the ground state and the first excited state, and a pulse with high intensity which couples the first excited state to the selected Rydberg state. We show that by monitoring the absorption signal of the probe laser over time, one can deduce the initial population of the Rydberg state. Furthermore, it is shown that—for suitable experimental conditions—the dynamical absorption curve contains information on the initial coherence between the ground state and the selected Rydberg state. We present the results of a proof-of-principle measurement performed on a cold gas of 87Rb atoms. The method is expected to find application in quantum computing protocols based on Rydberg atoms.

  10. State-selective all-optical detection of Rydberg atoms

    E-print Network

    Karlewski, Florian; Grimmel, Jens; Sándor, Nóra; Fortágh, and József

    2015-01-01

    We present an all-optical protocol for detecting population in a selected Rydberg state of alkali atoms. The detection scheme is based on the interaction of an ensemble of ultracold atoms with two laser pulses: one weak probe pulse which is resonant with the transition between the ground state and the first excited state, and a pulse with high intensity which couples the first excited state to the selected Rydberg state. We show that by monitoring the absorption signal of the probe laser over time, one can deduce the initial population of the Rydberg state. Furthermore, it is shown that - for suitable experimental conditions - the dynamical absorption curve contains information on the initial coherence between the ground state and the selected Rydberg state. We present the results of a proof-of-principle measurement performed on a cold gas of $^{87}$Rb atoms. The method is expected to find application in quantum computing protocols based on Rydberg atoms.

  11. Rydberg-Stark states in oscillating electric fields

    E-print Network

    Zhelyazkova, V

    2015-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of the effects of weak radio-frequency electric fields on Rydberg-Stark states with electric dipole moments as large as 10000 D are reported. High-resolution laser spectroscopic studies of Rydberg states with principal quantum number $n=52$ and $53$ were performed in pulsed supersonic beams of metastable helium with the excited atoms detected by pulsed electric field ionisation. Experiments were carried out in the presence of sinusoidally oscillating electric fields with frequencies of 20~MHz, amplitudes of up to 120~mV/cm, and dc offsets of up to 4.4~V/cm. In weak fields the experimentally recorded spectra are in excellent agreement with the results of calculations carried out using Floquet methods to account for electric dipole couplings in the oscillating fields. This highlights the validity of these techniques for the accurate calculation of the Stark energy level structure in such fields, and the limitations of the calculations in stronger fields where $n-$mixing and ...

  12. Rydberg States of Atoms and Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stebbings, R. F.; Dunning, F. B.

    2011-03-01

    List of contributors; Preface; 1. Rydberg atoms in astrophysics A. Dalgarno; 2. Theoretical studies of hydrogen Rydberg atoms in electric fields R. J. Damburg and V. V. Kolosov; 3. Rydberg atoms in strong fields D. Kleppner, Michael G. Littman and Myron L. Zimmerman; 4. Spectroscopy of one- and two-electron Rydberg atoms C. Fabre and S. Haroche; 5. Interaction of Rydberg atoms with blackbody radiation T. F. Gallagher; 6. Theoretical approaches to low-energy collisions of Rydberg atoms with atoms and ions A. P. Hickman, R. E. Olson and J. Pascale; 7. Experimental studies of the interaction of Rydberg atoms with atomic species at thermal energies F. Gounand and J. Berlande; 8. Theoretical studies of collisions of Rydberg atoms with molecules Michio Matsuzawa; 9. Experimental studies of thermal-energy collisions of Rydberg atoms with molecules F. B. Dunning and R. F. Stebbings; 10. High-Rydberg molecules Robert S. Freund; 11. Theory of Rydberg collisions with electrons, ions and neutrals M. R. Flannery; 12. Experimental studies of the interactions of Rydberg atoms with charged particles J. -F. Delpech; 13. Rydberg studies using fast beams Peter M. Koch; Index.

  13. Nonequilibrium Kinetics of Rydberg Atomic States

    SciTech Connect

    Bureyeva, L. A.; Kadomtsev, M. B.; Levashova, M. G.; Lisitsa, V. S.

    2008-10-22

    Two-dimensional quasi-classical model of the radiative-collisional cascade for hydrogen-like systems is developed. The model establishes the correspondence between the quantum and classical approaches. Our calculations of the two-dimensional populations of highly excited atomic hydrogen states for three-body and photorecombination sources of population allow the data of one-dimensional kinetic models to be refined. The calculated intensities of recombination lines demonstrate the degree of nonequilibrium of the Rydberg state populations under typical astrophysical plasma conditions.

  14. Excitation of ultracold molecules to trilobite-like Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellos, Michael; Carollo, Ryan; Banerjee, Jayita; Eyler, Edward; Gould, Phillip; Stwalley, William

    2013-05-01

    A class of long-range Rydberg molecules, sometimes called ``trilobite states,'' occurs when a ground-state atom is embedded in the electronic cloud of a Rydberg atom. The bond between the Rydberg atom and the ground-state atom originates from the low-energy scattering of the Rydberg electron from the ground-state atom. We produce trilobite-like states of ultracold Rb2 at low principal quantum numbers and at internuclear distances below 40 bohr. We populate these states through single-photon ultraviolet transitions starting from molecules in high-lying vibrational levels. This demonstrates that long-range Rydberg molecules can also be excited through bound-bound transitions, in contrast with previous studies that used free-bound transitions. We discuss the advantages of a bound-bound pathway. Supported by the NSF and AFOSR (MURI).

  15. Cold Rydberg atoms in circular states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, David; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Raithel, Georg

    2012-06-01

    Circular-state Rydberg atoms are interesting in that they exhibit a unique combination of extraordinary properties; long lifetimes (˜n^5), large magnetic moments (l=|m|=n-1) and no first order Stark shift. Circular states have found applications in cavity quantum electrodynamics and precision measurements [1,2], among other studies. In this work we present the production of circular states in an atom trapping apparatus using an adiabatic state-switching method (the crossed-field method [3]). To date, we have observed lifetimes of adiabatically prepared states of several milliseconds. Their relatively large ionization electric fields have been verified by time-of-flight signatures of ion trajectories. We intend to explore the magnetic trapping of circular state Rydberg atoms, as well as their production and interaction properties in ultra-cold and degenerate samples.[4pt] [1] P. Bertet et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 88, 14 (2002)[0pt] [2] M. Brune et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 72, 21 (1994)[0pt] [3] D. Delande and J.C. Gay, Europhys. Lett., 5, 303-308 (1988).

  16. Spectroscopy of strontium Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency

    E-print Network

    S. Mauger; J. Millen; M. P. A. Jones

    2007-10-07

    We report on the all-optical detection of Rydberg states in a effusive atomic beam of strontium atoms using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Using narrow-linewidth CW lasers we obtain an EIT linewidth of 5 MHz. To illustrate the high spectroscopic resolution offered by this method, we have measured isotope shifts of the 5s18d ^1D_2 and 5s19s ^1S_0 Rydberg states. This technique could be applied to high-resolution, non-destructive measurements of ultra-cold Rydberg gases and plasmas.

  17. Xenon low-n Rydberg states in supercritical argon near the critical point

    E-print Network

    Findley, Gary L.

    Xenon low-n Rydberg states in supercritical argon near the critical point Luxi Li a,b , Xianbo Shi simulation of the 6s and 6s Rydberg states (including the blue satellite bands) of xenon doped into argon

  18. Revealing photofragmentation dynamics through interactions between Rydberg states: REMPI of HI as a case study.

    PubMed

    Hróðmarsson, Helgi Rafn; Kvaran, Ágúst

    2015-12-01

    High energy regions of molecular electronic states are largely characterized by the nature and involvement of Rydberg states. Whereas there are a number of observed dynamical processes that are due to interactions between Rydberg and valence states, reports on the corresponding effect of Rydberg-Rydberg state interaction in the literature are scarce. Here we report a detailed characterization of the effects of interactions between two Rydberg states on photofragmentation processes, for a hydrogen halide molecule. Perturbation effects, showing as rotational line shifts, intensity alterations and line-broadenings in REMPI spectra of HI, for two-photon resonance excitations to the j(3)?(-)(0(+); v' = 0) and k(3)?1(v' = 2) Rydberg states, are analyzed. The data reveal pathways of further photofragmentation processes involving photodissociation, autoionization and photoionization affected by the Rydberg-Rydberg state interactions as well as the involvement of other states, close in energy. Detailed mechanisms of the involved processes are proposed. PMID:26593395

  19. Coherent excitation of a single atom to a Rydberg state

    SciTech Connect

    Miroshnychenko, Y.; Gaeetan, A.; Evellin, C.; Grangier, P.; Wilk, T.; Browaeys, A.; Comparat, D.; Pillet, P.

    2010-07-15

    We present the coherent excitation of a single Rubidium atom to the Rydberg state 58d{sub 3/2} using a two-photon transition. The experimental setup is described in detail, as are experimental techniques and procedures. The coherence of the excitation is revealed by observing Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states of the atom. We analyze the observed oscillations in detail and compare them to numerical simulations which include imperfections of our experimental system. Strategies for future improvements on the coherent manipulation of a single atom in our settings are given.

  20. Coherent excitation of a single atom to a Rydberg state

    E-print Network

    Y. Miroshnychenko; A. Gaëtan; C. Evellin; P. Grangier; D. Comparat; P. Pillet; T. Wilk; A. Browaeys

    2010-05-12

    We present the coherent excitation of a single Rubidium atom to the Rydberg state (58d3/2) using a two-photon transition. The experimental setup is described in detail, as well as experimental techniques and procedures. The coherence of the excitation is revealed by observing Rabi oscillations between ground and Rydberg states of the atom. We analyze the observed oscillations in detail and compare them to numerical simulations which include imperfections of our experimental system. Strategies for future improvements on the coherent manipulation of a single atom in our settings are given.

  1. Pulsed-field ionization spectroscopy of high Rydberg states ,,n=50200... -benzene...chromium

    E-print Network

    Kim, Sang Kyu

    Pulsed-field ionization spectroscopy of high Rydberg states ,,n=50­200... of bis,, 6 -benzene The ionization behavior of the high Rydberg states of bis 6 -benzene chromium in the presence of ac and/or dc are due to np Rydberg series. Based on the understanding of the ionization behavior of bis 6 -benzene

  2. Simultaneous position and state measurement of Rydberg atoms

    E-print Network

    C. S. E. van Ditzhuijzen; A. F. Koenderink; L. D. Noordam; H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell

    2007-05-22

    We present a technique for state-selective position detection of cold Rydberg atoms. Ground state Rb atoms in a magneto-optical trap are excited to a Rydberg state and are subsequently ionized with a tailored electric field pulse. This pulse selectively ionizes only atoms in e.g. the 54d state and not in the 53d state. The released electrons are detected after a slow flight towards a micro channel plate. From the time of flight of the electrons the position of the atoms is deduced. The state selectivity is about 20:1 when comparing 54d with 53d and the one-dimensional position resolution ranges from 6 to 40 $\\mu$m over a range of 300 $\\mu$m. This state selectivity and position resolution are sufficient to allow for the observation of coherent quantum excitation transport.

  3. Static and dynamic polarizability for C2+ in Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stancalie, V.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents results from a non-perturbative calculation of dynamic polarizability of C III ions in 1s22sns (1Se) Rydberg states. We employ a two-state model for dressed atomic states to investigate the effect of the frequency-dependent polarizability of optically dressed 1s22sns(1Se) states (n = 5 - 12) on transitions to nearby states (1s22pns(1P1o)). Our model calculation results indicate that the resonance structure of the polarizabilities is entirely captured by the transition terms whereas the free electron polarizability only provides a smooth background. The resonance structure is evident in the plots and the widths increase with increasing principal quantum number. This work refers to highly excited 1s22sns (1S) Rydberg states, embedded in the electric dipole field of the 2s - 2p core transition in Li-like C3+ ion. The contributions of the individual transitions to the static polarizabilities of these Rydberg states are obtained from the use of the sum-over-state method. To this aim, both the C2+ ground state and the C3+ target state energies have been carefully calculated based on the configuration interactions method implemented in the General-purpose Relativistic Atomic Structure Package. Agreement is reasonably good with existing data wherever available. These results are believed to be the first such values for this system and will be important for ionic spectroscopy and plasma diagnostics.

  4. Screening constant by unit nuclear charge calculations of 1,3Se, 1,3Po and 1,3De intershell Rydberg states of the helium-like ions below the N = 2 hydrogenic thresholds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakho, I.

    2011-01-01

    The 2(1,0)_n+ 1Se, 2(1,0)n- 3Se, 2(1,0)n- 1P^{circ}, 2(1,0)n+ 3P^{circ}, 2(0,1)n+ 1P^{circ}, 2(0,1)n- 3P^{circ}, 2(1,0)n+ 1De and 2(1,0)n- 3De intershell autoionizing states of the helium-like ions are studied using the screening constant by unit nuclear charge (SCUNC) method in the framework of a semi-empirical procedure. The results up to Z = 10 compared well to the available experimental and theoretical literature data. In addition, the possibility to apply the SCUNC method in the calculations of energy resonances of heavy- Z helium-like ions is demonstrated in the present work where energy positions for some low-lying 2 sns 1S e , 2 snp 1P^{circ} and 2 pnp 1D e (n le 4) autoionizing states with 11 le Z le 28 are tabulated and comparison with double sums over the complete hydrogen spectrum calculations [A.I. Ivanov, I.U. Safronova, Opt. Spectrosc. 75, 506 (1993)] is made. A host of results presented in this paper may be useful guideline for future experimental and theoretical investigations in high-lying ^{1,3}Se, ^{1,3}P^{circ} and ^{1,3}De doubly excited states as well as in lower than in heavy- Z two-electron systems.

  5. Intensity and amplitude correlations in the fluorescence from atoms with interacting Rydberg states

    E-print Network

    Qing Xu; Klaus Mølmer

    2015-08-04

    We explore the fluorescence signals from a pair of atoms driven towards Rydberg states on a three-level ladder transition. The dipole--dipole interactions between Rydberg excited atoms significantly distort the dark state and electromagnetically induced transparency behavior observed with independent atoms and, thus, their steady state light emission. We calculate and analyze the temporal correlations between intensities and amplitudes of the signals emitted by the atoms and explain their origin in the atomic Rydberg state interactions.

  6. Stimulated adiabatic passage in a dissipative ensemble of atoms with strong Rydberg-state interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, David; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    We study two-photon excitation of Rydberg states of atoms under stimulated adiabatic passage with delayed laser pulses. We find that the combination of strong interaction between the atoms in Rydberg state and the spontaneous decay of the intermediate exited atomic state leads to the Rydberg excitation of precisely one atom within the atomic ensemble. The quantum Zeno effect offers a lucid interpretation of this result: the Rydberg blocked atoms repetitively scattering photons effectively monitor a randomly excited atom, which therefore remains in the Rydberg state. This system can be used for deterministic creation and, possibly, extraction of Rydberg atoms or ions one at a time. The sympathetic monitoring via decay of ancilla particles may find wider applications for state preparation and probing of interactions in dissipative many-body systems.

  7. Ionization of Rydberg H atoms at band-gap metal surfaces via surface and image states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, E.; Gibbard, J. A.; Softley, T. P.

    2015-09-01

    Wavepacket propagation calculations are reported for the interaction of a Rydberg hydrogen atom (n=2-8) with Cu(111) and Cu(100) surfaces (represented by a Chulkov potential), in comparison with a Jellium surface. Both copper surfaces have a projected band gap at the surface in the energy range degenerate with some or all of the Rydberg energies. The charge transfer of the Rydberg electron to the surface is found to be enhanced for n values at which there is a near-degeneracy between the Rydberg energy level and an image state or a surface state of the surface. The enhancement is facilitated by the strong overlap of the surface image-state orbital lying outside the surface and the orbital of the incoming Rydberg atom. These calculations point to the possibility of using Rydberg-surface collisions as a probe of surface electronic structure.

  8. Double-resonance spectroscopy of quasi-linear Rydberg states of water W. L. Glaba)

    E-print Network

    Glab, Wallace L.

    Double-resonance spectroscopy of quasi-linear Rydberg states of water W. L. Glaba) Department September 2002 We have studied quasi-linear autoionizing Rydberg states of the water molecule with three quanta of bending vibration using double-resonance excitation through the quasi-linear (A~ )3pb2 state

  9. Excitation of Ultracold Molecules to ``TRILOBITE-LIKE" Long-Range Molecular Rydberg States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellos, M. A.; Carollo, R.; Banerjee, J.; Eyler, E. E.; Gould, P. L.; Stwalley, W. C.

    2013-06-01

    A class of long-range Rydberg molecules, sometimes called ``trilobite states", occurs when a ground-state atom is embedded in the electronic cloud of a Rydberg atom. The bond between the Rydberg atom and the ground-state atom originates from the low-energy scattering of the Rydberg electron from the ground-state atom. We produce trilobite-like states of ultracold Rb_2 at low principal quantum numbers and at internuclear separations less than 40 bohr. We populate these states through single-photon ultraviolet transitions starting from molecules in high-lying vibrational levels of the lowest triplet state. This demonstrates that long-range Rydberg molecules can also be excited through bound-bound transitions, in addition to previous studies that used free-bound transitions. We also discuss the advantages of a bound-bound pathway. C. H. Greene, A. S. Dickinson, and H. R. Sadeghpour, Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2458 (2000).

  10. Measurement of 87Rb Rydberg-state hyperfine splitting in a room-temperature vapor cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauschinsky, Atreju; Newell, Richard; van Linden van den Heuvell, H. B.; Spreeuw, R. J. C.

    2013-04-01

    We present direct measurements of the hyperfine splitting of Rydberg states in 87Rb using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) spectroscopy in a room-temperature vapor cell. With this method, and in spite of Doppler broadening, linewidths of 3.7 MHz FWHM, i.e., significantly below the intermediate-state natural linewidth, are reached. This allows resolving hyperfine splittings for Rydberg s states with n=20,...,24. With this method we are able to determine Rydberg state hyperfine splittings with an accuracy of approximately 100 kHz. Ultimately, our method allows accuracies of order 5 kHz to be reached. Furthermore, we present a direct measurement of hyperfine-resolved Rydberg-state Stark shifts. These results will be of great value for future experiments relying on excellent knowledge of Rydberg-state energies and polarizabilities.

  11. Multichannel quantum defect theory of strontium bound Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaillant, C. L.; Jones, M. P. A.; Potvliege, R. M.

    2014-08-01

    Using the reactance matrix approach, we systematically develop new multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT) models for the singlet and triplet S, P, D and F states of strontium below the first ionization limit, based on improved energy level measurements. The new models reveal additional insights into the character of doubly excited perturber states, and the improved energy level measurements for certain series allow fine structure to be resolved for those series’ perturbers. Comparison between the predictions of the new models and those of previous empirical and ab initio studies reveals good agreement with most series; however, some discrepancies are highlighted. Using the MQDT wave functions derived from our models we calculate other observables such as Landé {{g}J}-factors and radiative lifetimes. The analysis reveals the impact of perturbers on the Rydberg state properties of divalent atoms, highlighting the importance of including two-electron effects in the calculations of these properties. The work enables future investigations of properties such as Stark maps and long-range interactions of Rydberg states of strontium.

  12. Selective production of Rydberg-stark states of positronium.

    PubMed

    Wall, T E; Alonso, A M; Cooper, B S; Deller, A; Hogan, S D; Cassidy, D B

    2015-05-01

    Rydberg positronium (Ps) atoms have been prepared in selected Stark states via two-step (1s?2p?nd/ns) optical excitation. Two methods have been used to achieve Stark-state selection: a field ionization filter that transmits the outermost states with positive Stark shifts, and state-selected photoexcitation in a strong electric field. The former is demonstrated for n=17 and 18 while the latter is performed for n=11 in a homogeneous electric field of 1.9??kV/cm. The observed spectral intensities and their dependence on the polarization of the laser radiation are in agreement with calculations that include the perturbations of the intermediate n=2 manifold. Our results pave the way for the generation of Rydberg Ps atoms with large electric dipole moments that are required for the realization of schemes to control their motion using inhomogeneous electric fields, an essential feature of some proposed Ps free-fall measurements requiring focused beams of long-lived atoms. PMID:25978227

  13. Selective Production of Rydberg-Stark States of Positronium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, T. E.; Alonso, A. M.; Cooper, B. S.; Deller, A.; Hogan, S. D.; Cassidy, D. B.

    2015-05-01

    Rydberg positronium (Ps) atoms have been prepared in selected Stark states via two-step (1 s ?2 p ?n d /ns ) optical excitation. Two methods have been used to achieve Stark-state selection: a field ionization filter that transmits the outermost states with positive Stark shifts, and state-selected photoexcitation in a strong electric field. The former is demonstrated for n =17 and 18 while the latter is performed for n =11 in a homogeneous electric field of 1.9 kV /cm . The observed spectral intensities and their dependence on the polarization of the laser radiation are in agreement with calculations that include the perturbations of the intermediate n =2 manifold. Our results pave the way for the generation of Rydberg Ps atoms with large electric dipole moments that are required for the realization of schemes to control their motion using inhomogeneous electric fields, an essential feature of some proposed Ps free-fall measurements requiring focused beams of long-lived atoms.

  14. Radiative transitions between Rydberg states of polar diatomic molecule. Part I: Linearly polarized light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elfimov, Sergei V.; Dorofeev, Dmitrii L.; Zon, Boris A.

    2015-11-01

    With the help of a simple semi-analytical procedure the dipole matrix elements for Rydberg electron-rotational transitions in the SO molecule are calculated with account for dipole moment of rotating core. It results in non-zero matrix elements even for some transitions which are forbidden in conventional models of molecular Rydberg states.

  15. Rabi flopping between ground and Rydberg states with dipole-dipole atomic interactions

    E-print Network

    T. A. Johnson; E. Urban; T. Henage; L. Isenhower; D. D. Yavuz; T. G. Walker; M. Saffman

    2007-11-02

    We demonstrate Rabi flopping of small numbers of $\\rm{^{87}Rb}$ atoms between ground and Rydberg states with $n\\le 43$. Coherent population oscillations are observed for single atom flopping, while the presence of two or more atoms decoheres the oscillations. We show that these observations are consistent with van der Waals interactions of Rydberg atoms.

  16. Elliptic Rydberg states as direction indicators

    E-print Network

    Netanel H. Lindner; Asher Peres; Daniel R. Terno

    2003-05-28

    The orientation in space of a Cartesian coordinate system can be indicated by the two vectorial constants of motion of a classical Keplerian orbit: the angular momentum and the Laplace-Runge-Lenz vector. In quantum mechanics, the states of a hydrogen atom that mimic classical elliptic orbits are the coherent states of the SO(4) rotation group.It is known how to produce these states experimentally. They have minimal dispersions of the two conserved vectors and can be used as direction indicators. We compare the fidelity of this transmission method with that of the idealized optimal method.

  17. Coherent Control of Rydberg States in Silicon

    E-print Network

    Greenland, P T; van der Meer, A F G; Murdin, B N; Pidgeon, C R; Redlich, B; Vinh, N Q; Aeppli, G; 10.1038/nature09112

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate coherent control of donor wavefunctions in phosphorous-doped silicon. Our experiments take advantage of a free electron laser to stimulate and observe photon echoes from, and Rabi oscillations between the ground and first excited state of P donors in Si.

  18. Electron capture from coherent elliptic Rydberg states

    SciTech Connect

    Day, J.C.; DePaola, B.D.; Ehrenreich, T.; Hansen, S.B.; Horsdal-Pedersen, E.; Leontiev, Y.; Mogensen, K.S.

    1997-12-01

    Experimental relative cross sections for electron capture by singly charged ions (Na{sup +}) from coherent elliptic states of principal quantum number n=25 are presented. An interval of reduced impact velocities from about 1{endash}2 is covered. Absolute reaction cross sections could not be determined precisely, but the eccentricity of the coherent elliptic states and their orientation relative to the ion-impact velocity were varied to expose the dependence of the electron-capture process on the initial motion of the electron. The dependencies on eccentricity and orientation are generally strong and they vary sharply with impact velocity. Qualitatively, the observations agree fairly well with classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) calculations, as expected for the large quantum numbers involved, but significant deviations of a systematic nature do remain, showing that some aspects of the capture reactions studied are described poorly by classical physics as represented by the CTMC model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. State-Mixing of nS Rydberg Atoms in an External Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yuechun; Wang, Limei; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Linjie; Zhao, Jianming; Jia, Suotang

    2015-09-01

    State-mixing effect of ultracold nS cesium Rydberg atoms in an external electric field is investigated in a magneto-optical trap. Populated high-l Rydberg atoms due to the state-mixing through avoided crossings are measured with a state-selective field ionization technique. The measured transfer rates of high-l states increase with the electric field and get to the maximum at the field of about 3.0 V/cm for 49S1/2 Rydberg state, and show decrease behavior when the electric field increases further. The decrease behavior of the transfer rate is explained with the slower m-mixing effect caused by decreasing dipole-dipole interactions between high-l Rydberg atoms. During the m-mixing process the ultracold plasma is formed by the Penning ionization.

  20. Lensing effect of electromagnetically induced transparency involving a Rydberg state

    E-print Network

    Han, Jingshan; Manjappa, Manukumara; Guo, Ruixiang; Kiffner, Martin; Li, Wenhui

    2015-01-01

    We study the lensing effect experienced by a weak probe field under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) involving a Rydberg state. A Gaussian coupling beam tightly focused on a laser-cooled atomic cloud produces an inhomogeneity in the coupling Rabi frequency along the transverse direction and makes the EIT area acting like a gradient-index medium. We image the probe beam at the position where it exits the atomic cloud, and observe that a red-detuned probe light is strongly focused with a greatly enhanced intensity whereas a blue-detuned one is de-focused with a reduced intensity. Our experimental results agree very well with the numerical solutions of Maxwell-Bloch equations.

  1. Electro-optic control of atom-light interactions using Rydberg dark-state polaritons

    E-print Network

    M. G. Bason; A. K. Mohapatra; K. J. Weatherill; C. S. Adams

    2007-09-10

    We demonstrate a multiphoton Rydberg dark resonance where a Lambda-system is coupled to a Rydberg state. This N-type level scheme combines the ability to slow and store light pulses associated with long lived ground state superpositions, with the strongly interacting character of Rydberg states. For the nd_{5/2} Rydberg state in 87Rb (with n=26 or 44) and a beam size of 1 mm we observe a resonance linewidth of less than 100 kHz in a room temperature atomic ensemble limited by transit-time broadening. The resonance is switchable with an electric field of order 1 V/cm. We show that, even when photons with different wavevectors are involved, the resonance can be Doppler-free. Applications in electro-optic switching and photonic phase gates are discussed.

  2. Self-interaction corrected density functional calculations of molecular Rydberg states

    SciTech Connect

    Gudmundsdóttir, Hildur; Zhang, Yao; Weber, Peter M.; Jónsson, Hannes; Faculty of Physical Sciences, VR-III, University of Iceland, 107 Reykjavík

    2013-11-21

    A method is presented for calculating the wave function and energy of Rydberg excited states of molecules. A good estimate of the Rydberg state orbital is obtained using ground state density functional theory including Perdew-Zunger self-interaction correction and an optimized effective potential. The total energy of the excited molecule is obtained using the Delta Self-Consistent Field method where an electron is removed from the highest occupied orbital and placed in the Rydberg orbital. Results are presented for the first few Rydberg states of NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, H{sub 2}CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, and N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}. The mean absolute error in the energy of the 33 molecular Rydberg states presented here is 0.18 eV. The orbitals are represented on a real space grid, avoiding the dependence on diffuse atomic basis sets. As in standard density functional theory calculations, the computational effort scales as NM{sup 2} where N is the number of orbitals and M is the number of grid points included in the calculation. Due to the slow scaling of the computational effort with system size and the high level of parallelism in the real space grid approach, the method presented here makes it possible to estimate Rydberg electron binding energy in large molecules.

  3. Collective state synthesis in an optical cavity using Rydberg atom blockade

    E-print Network

    Santosh Kumar; Jiteng Sheng; Jonathon A. Sedlacek; Haoquan Fan; James P. Shaffer

    2015-10-03

    We investigate the coherent manipulation of interacting Rydberg atoms placed inside a high-finesse optical cavity for the deterministic preparation of strongly coupled light-matter systems. We consider a four-level diamond scheme with one common Rydberg level for N interacting atoms. One side of the diamond is used to excite the atoms into a collective `superatom' Rydberg state using either {\\pi}-pulses or stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) pulses. The upper transition on the other side of the diamond is used to transfer the collective state to one that is coupled to a field mode of an optical cavity. Due to the strong interaction between the atoms in the Rydberg level, the Rydberg blockade mechanism plays a key role in the deterministic quantum state synthesis of the atoms in the cavity. We use numerical simulation to show that non-classical states of light can be generated and that the state that is coupled to the cavity field is a collective one. We also investigate how different decay mechanisms affect this interacting many-body system. We also analyze our system in the case of two Rydberg excitations within the blockade volume. The simulations are carried out with parameters corresponding to realizable high-finesse optical cavities and alkali atoms like rubidium.

  4. Two-photon excitation of ultracold atoms to Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saakyan, S. A.; Sautenkov, V. A.; Vilshanskaya, E. V.; Zelener, B. B.; Zelener, B. V.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we discuss two-photon excitation and diagnostic of ultracold Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap. Lithium atoms were excited by using ultraviolet cw laser. For identification of Rydberg transitions, we recorded resonance fluorescence of ultracold atoms. Spectra of transitions 2P-nS, 2p-nD were measured. Our results are in good agreement with calculations and experimental data available in literature. Presented work is a part of our project focused on preparation and study of Rydberg matter and ultracold plasma.

  5. Non-classical Rydberg states for metrology experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietsche, Eva-Katharina; Facon, Adrien; Grosso, Dorian; Signoles, Adrien; Dotsenko, Igor; Haroche, Serge; Raimond, Jean-Michel; Brune, Michel; Gleyzes, Sebastien

    2015-05-01

    The Stark level structure of a Rydberg atom offers a large Hilbert space in which we can implement novel complex quantum dynamics. Coupled to a well polarized radio-frequency field, the atom behaves like a large angular momentum. We have recently demonstrated that we can use Quantum Zeno dynamics to prepare the atom in a quantum superposition of coherent spin states. The atom, initially in the circular state, is driven by the radio-frequency field while a microwave field selectively addresses a given Stark sub-level. The coupling to the microwave field leads to a restricted evolution in the Hilbert space, in which the atom periodically evolves in a quantum superposition of two spins pointing in different classical directions. Those states show a Wigner function with fast oscillating interference fringes, which are very sensitive to slight changes of the atomic frequency induced by either the Stark or the Zeeman effect. We explore how such Schrodinger cat states can be used to perform metrology experiments that measure small variations of electric or magnetic fields with a sensitivity beyond the standard quantum limit.

  6. Pulsed excitation of Rydberg-atom-pair states in an ultracold Cs gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saßmannshausen, Heiner; Merkt, Frédéric; Deiglmayr, Johannes

    2015-09-01

    Pulsed laser excitation of a dense ultracold Cs vapor has been used to study the pairwise interactions between Cs atoms excited to n p3 /2 Rydberg states of principal quantum numbers in the range n =22 -36 . Molecular resonances were observed that correspond to excitation of Rydberg-atom-pair states correlated not only to the n p3 /2+n p3 /2 dissociation asymptotes, but also to n s1 /2+(n +1 ) s1 /2 , n s1 /2+n'fj , and (n -4 ) fj+(n -3 ) fj(j =5 /2 ,7 /2 ) dissociation asymptotes. These pair resonances are interpreted as arising from dipole-dipole and higher-order long-range-interaction terms between the Rydberg atoms on the basis of (i) their spectral positions, (ii) their response to static and pulsed electric fields, and (iii) millimeter-wave spectra between pair states correlated to different pair-dissociation asymptotes. The Rydberg-atom-pair states were found to spontaneously decay by Penning ionization and the dynamics of the ionization process were investigated during the first 15 ? s following initial photoexcitation. To interpret the experimental observations, a potential model was derived that is based on the numerical determination of the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the long-range interaction Hamiltonian. With this potential model, which does not include adjustable parameters, all experimental observations could be accounted for, and the results demonstrate that long-range-interaction models provide a global and accurate description of interactions in ultracold Rydberg gases and that they correctly account for, and enable the analysis of, phenomena as diverse as the formation of Rydberg macrodimers, Penning ionization in dense Rydberg gases, and Rydberg-excitation-blockade effects.

  7. Predissociation of high-lying Rydberg states of molecular iodine via ion-pair states

    SciTech Connect

    Bogomolov, Alexandr S.; Grüner, Barbara; Mudrich, Marcel; Kochubei, Sergei A.; Baklanov, Alexey V.; Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova Str. 2, Novosibirsk 630090

    2014-03-28

    Velocity map imaging of the photofragments arising from two-photon photoexcitation of molecular iodine in the energy range 73?500–74?500 cm{sup ?1} covering the bands of high-lying gerade Rydberg states [{sup 2}?{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;0{sub g}{sup +} and [{sup 2}?{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;2{sub g} has been applied. The ion signal was dominated by the atomic fragment ion I{sup +}. Up to 5 dissociation channels yielding I{sup +} ions with different kinetic energies were observed when the I{sub 2} molecule was excited within discrete peaks of Rydberg states and their satellites in this region. One of these channels gives rise to images of I{sup +} and I{sup ?} ions with equal kinetic energy indicating predissociation of I{sub 2} via ion-pair states. The contribution of this channel was up to about 50% of the total I{sup +} signal. The four other channels correspond to predissociation via lower lying Rydberg states giving rise to excited iodine atoms providing I{sup +} ions by subsequent one-photon ionization by the same laser pulse. The ratio of these channels varied from peak to peak in the spectrum but their total ionic signal was always much higher than the signal of (2 + 1) resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization of I{sub 2}, which was previously considered to be the origin of ionic signal in this spectral range. The first-tier E0{sub g}{sup +} and D{sup ?}2{sub g} ion-pair states are concluded to be responsible for predissociation of Rydberg states [{sup 2}?{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;0{sub g}{sup +} and [{sup 2}?{sub 1/2}]{sub c}6d;2{sub g}, respectively. Further predissociation of these ion-pair states via lower lying Rydberg states gives rise to excited I(5s{sup 2}5p{sup 4}6s{sup 1}) atoms responsible for major part of ion signal. The isotropic angular distribution of the photofragment recoil directions observed for all channels indicates that the studied Rydberg states are long-lived compared with the rotational period of the I{sub 2} molecule.

  8. Generation of tunable coherent far-infrared radiation using atomic Rydberg states

    SciTech Connect

    Bookless, W.

    1980-12-01

    A source of tunable far-infrared radiation has been constructed. The system has been operated at 91.6 cm/sup -1/ with a demonstrated tunability of .63 cm/sup -1/. The system is based on a Rydberg state transition in optically pumped potassium vapor. The transition energy is tuned by the application of an electric field to the excited vapor. The transition wavelength and the shifted wavelength were detected and measured by the use of a Michelson interferometer and a liquid helium cooled Ga:Ge bolometer and the data was reduced using Fast Fourier transform techniques. Extensive spectroscopy was done on the potassium vapor to elucidate the depopulation paths and rates of the excited levels. Both theoretical and experimental results are presented to support the conclusions of the research effort. Additionally, possible alternative approaches to the population of the excited state are explored and recommendations are made for the future development of this source as well as the potential uses of it in molecular spectroscopy.

  9. Magnetic stabilization of a Rydberg quasimolecule in circular states

    SciTech Connect

    Flannery, M. R.; Oks, E.

    2006-01-15

    An exact analytical classical solution for the electronic terms of circular Rydberg states (CRS) in the presence of a magnetic field B is obtained for two-Coulomb-center systems. The classical electronic terms are shown to be significantly affected by the magnetic field. In particular, a sufficiently strong magnetic field is shown to cause the appearance of CRS above the ionization threshold. These CRS are the classical molecular counterparts of the quantal atomic quasi-Landau levels (resonances). Study of the stability of the nuclear motion in this system reveals that the system in CRS is, in the absence of the magnetic field, not really a molecule, but only a quasimolecule with antibonding molecular orbitals. We also find that the magnetic field creates a deep minimum in one of the branches of the effective potential of the relative motion of the nuclei, and thereby stabilizes the nuclear motion. We have therefore shown that a magnetic field can transform the quasimolecule into a real, classically described molecule where one of the molecular orbitals becomes bonding. This result reveals a phenomenon--the magnetically controlled stabilization of the quasimolecules in CRS--which is appropriate for future experimental studies.

  10. Two-color photoexcitation of Rydberg states via an electric quadrupole transition

    SciTech Connect

    Li Leping; Gu Quanli; Knee, J. L.; Wright, J. D.; DiSciacca, J. M.; Morgan, T. J.

    2008-03-15

    We report the observation of an electric quadrupole transition between the 4s{sup '}[1/2]{sub 0}{sup o} and 3d[3/2]{sub 2}{sup o} states in the spectrum of argon and use it in the first step of a scheme to excite Rydberg states. The initial identification of the transition is based on one-color, two-photon photoionization. A different experiment utilizing two-color, two-photon photoexcitation to Rydberg states confirms the identification. Despite the unavoidable background of one-color, two-photon photoionization, the latter experimental technique makes possible two-photon spectroscopy of Rydberg states using a resonant intermediate state populated by an electric quadrupole transition.

  11. Collisional and electric-field ionization of laser-prepared Rydberg states in an ion trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Ramsey, J.M.; Whitten, W.B.; Goeringer, D.E.; Buckley, B.T.

    1990-01-01

    Rydberg states of rubidium are selectively generated by one and two photon laser excitation in a quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. Collisional and electric-field ionization is investigated in trapping device. CCl{sub 4} is studied as a target for ionization of Rydberg states through electron attachment.

  12. Equation of state of metallic helium

    SciTech Connect

    Shvets, V. T.

    2013-01-15

    The effective ion-ion interaction, free energy, pressure, and electric resistance of metallic liquid helium have been calculated in wide density and temperature ranges using perturbation theory in the electron-ion interaction potential. In the case of conduction electrons, the exchange interaction has been taken into account in the random-phase approximation and correlations have been taken into account in the local-field approximation. The solid-sphere model has been used for the nuclear subsystem. The diameter of these spheres is the only parameter of this theory. The diameter and density of the system at which the transition of helium from the singly ionized to doubly ionized state occurs have been estimated by analyzing the pair effective interaction between helium atoms. The case of doubly ionized helium atoms has been considered. Terms up to the third order of perturbation theory have been taken into account in the numerical calculations. The contribution of the third-order term is significant in all cases. The electric resistance and its temperature dependence for metallic helium are characteristic of simple divalent metals in the liquid state. The thermodynamic parameters-temperature and pressure densities-are within the ranges characteristic of the central regions of giant planets. This makes it possible to assume the existence of helium in the metallic state within the solar system.

  13. Long-range quantum gate via Rydberg states of atoms in a thermal microwave cavity

    E-print Network

    L?rinc Sárkány; József Fortágh; David Petrosyan

    2015-09-11

    We propose an implementation of a universal quantum gate between pairs of spatially separated atoms in a microwave cavity at finite temperature. The gate results from reversible laser excitation of Rydberg states of atoms interacting with each other via exchange of virtual photons through a common cavity mode. Quantum interference of different transition paths between the two-atom ground and double-excited Rydberg states makes both the transition amplitude and resonance largely insensitive to the excitations in the microwave cavity "quantum bus" which can therefore be in any superposition or mixture of photon number states. Our scheme for attaining ultralong-range interactions and entanglement also applies to mesoscopic atomic ensembles in the Rydberg blockade regime and is scalable to many ensembles trapped within a centimeter sized microwave resonator.

  14. Long-range quantum gate via Rydberg states of atoms in a thermal microwave cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sárkány, L?rinc; Fortágh, József; Petrosyan, David

    2015-09-01

    We propose an implementation of a universal quantum gate between pairs of spatially separated atoms in a microwave cavity at finite temperature. The gate results from reversible laser excitation of Rydberg states of atoms interacting with each other via exchange of virtual photons through a common cavity mode. Quantum interference of different transition paths between the two-atom ground and double-excited Rydberg states makes both the transition amplitude and resonance largely insensitive to the excitations in the microwave cavity quantum bus which can therefore be in any superposition or mixture of photon number states. Our scheme for attaining ultra-long-range interactions and entanglement also applies to mesoscopic atomic ensembles in the Rydberg blockade regime and is scalable to many ensembles trapped within a centimeter-sized microwave resonator.

  15. Information and entanglement measures applied to the analysis of complexity in doubly excited states of helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo Cuartas, J. P.; Sanz-Vicario, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    Shannon entropy and Fisher information calculated from one-particle density distributions and von Neumann and linear entropies (the latter two as measures of entanglement) computed from the reduced one-particle density matrix are analyzed for the S e 1 ,3 ,P o 1 ,3 , and D e 1 ,3 Rydberg series of He doubly excited states below the second ionization threshold. In contrast with the Shannon entropy, we find that both the Fisher information and entanglement measures are able to discriminate low-energy resonances pertaining to different (K ,T ) n2A 2 series according to the Herrick-Sinano?lu-Lin classification. Contrary to bound states, which show a clear and unique asymptotic value for both Fisher information and entanglement measures in their Rydberg series 1 s n ? for n ?? (which implies a loss of spatial entanglement), the variety of behaviors and asymptotic values of entanglement above the noninteracting limit value in the Rydberg series of doubly excited states (K ,T ) n2A 2 indicates a signature of the intrinsic complexity and remnant entanglement in these high-lying resonances even with infinite excitation n2?? , for which all known attempts of resonance classifications fail in helium.

  16. Photoexcitation of n 305 Rydberg States in the Presence of an rf Drive Field

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, S; Reinhold, Carlos O; Burgdorfer, J.; Ye, S; Dunning, F. B.

    2012-01-01

    The response of highly excited potassium Rydberg states with n 305 to a sinusoidal electric drive field in the radio frequency (100 300 MHz) regime is examined by photoexcitation from the 4s ground state using a uv probe beam. The drive field couples many Rydberg levels simultaneously and results in a coherent response that leads to a variety of multiphoton processes. The excitation spectra are analyzed within the framework of Floquet theory and reveal signatures of quantum optical phenomena such as electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting seen with few-level systems.

  17. Perturbations in the Spectra of High Rydberg States: Channel Interactions, Stark and Zeeman Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, Christa; Schäfer, Martin; Hogan, Stephen D.; Merkt, Frédéric

    2011-06-01

    Rydberg states of principal quantum number n?50 have been prepared by irradiation of an atomic beam of xenon with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation. Narrowband submillimeter-wave (THz) radiation was then used to record spectra of transitions from these Rydberg states to higher or lower-lying Rydberg states. The transitions were detected by selective field ionization and recording either the electrons or the ions, the latter offering the advantage of mass selection. Rydberg states of high principal quantum number are extremely sensitive to their environment, which can be exploited to characterize the experimental conditions under which the spectroscopic measurements are carried out. The high resolution achieved in the experiments (better than 100 kHz) enabled the study of the spectral lineshapes and line positions in dependence of weak electric (down to below 100?V/cm) and magnetic fields (down to a few ?T), and of the density of Rydberg atoms and ions generated in the experimental volume. The experiments rely on the use of a pulsed, broadly tunable, laser-based source of THz radiation for survey scans, and of a phase- and frequency-stabilized submillimeter-wave backward-wave oscillator-based radiation source for precision measurements. To illustrate the use of these sources, we present the results of the spectroscopic investigations of the hyperfine structure of 129Xe Rydberg states in spectral regions where s-d interactions are expected to play a role. F. Merkt and A. Osterwalder Int. Rev. Phys. Chem. 21, 385, (2002). J. Liu and F. Merkt Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 131105, (2008). M. Schäfer, M. Andrist, H. Schmutz, F. Lewen, G. Winnewisser and F. Merkt J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39, 831, (2006).

  18. GHz Rabi Flopping to Rydberg States in Hot Atomic Vapor Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huber, B.; Baluktsian, T.; Schlagmueller, M.; Koelle, A.; Kuebler, H.; Loew, R.; Pfau, T.

    2011-12-09

    We report on the observation of Rabi oscillations to a Rydberg state on a time scale below 1 ns in thermal rubidium vapor. We use a bandwidth-limited pulsed excitation and observe up to 6 full Rabi cycles within a pulse duration of {approx}4 ns. We find good agreement between the experiment and numerical simulations based on a surprisingly simple model. This result shows that fully coherent dynamics with Rydberg states can be achieved even in thermal atomic vapor, thus suggesting small vapor cells as a platform for room-temperature quantum devices. Furthermore, the result implies that previous coherent dynamics in single-atom Rydberg gates can be accelerated by 3 orders of magnitude.

  19. Coherent population transfer and quantum entanglement generation involving a Rydberg state by stimulated Raman adiabatic passage

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Dong; Cui Cuili; Zhang Mei; Wu Jinhui

    2011-10-15

    We study a dilute sample of cold atoms to achieve efficient population transfer from a ground state to a Rydberg state. This sample is approximately divided into many independent microspheres containing only two atoms. Each pair of atoms in a microsphere may become quantum correlated via the dipole-dipole interaction characterized by a van der Waals potential. Our numerical results show that, by modulating detunings of a pump pulse and a Stokes pulse applied in the counterintuitive order, we can drive the dilute sample either into the blockade regime or into the antiblockade regime. In the blockade regime, only one atom is allowed to be coherently transferred into the Rydberg state in a microsphere, which then results in a maximal entangled state. In the antiblockade regime, however, both atoms in a microsphere can be efficiently excited into the Rydberg state, which is not accompanied by quantum entanglement. A second maximal entangled state may also be generated if we work between the blockade regime and the antiblockade regime. Note that the existence of a quasidark state is essential for exciting both atoms in a microsphere into the Rydberg state when the van der Waals potential is nonzero.

  20. Many-body physics of Rydberg dark-state polaritons in the strongly interacting regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moos, Matthias; Höning, Michael; Unanyan, Razmik; Fleischhauer, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Coupling light to Rydberg states of atoms under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) leads to the formation of interacting quasiparticles, termed Rydberg polaritons. We derive a one-dimensional model describing the time evolution of these polaritons under paraxial propagation conditions. Specifically, we obtain a master equation governing the dynamics of Rydberg polaritons and identify conditions when it can essentially be described by an effective Hamiltonian of a single-species polariton. We verify this Hamiltonian by numerical two-excitation simulations. Under typical stationary EIT conditions it is impossible to reach the strongly interacting regime where long-range density-density correlations emerge. In contrast, by employing the time dependence of the control field the regime of strong interactions can be reached where the polaritons attain quasicrystalline order. We provide a physical explanation for the differences between stationary and time-dependent schemes.

  1. Doppler- and recoil-free laser excitation of Rydberg states via three-photon transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Ryabtsev, I. I.; Beterov, I. I.; Tretyakov, D. B.; Entin, V. M.; Yakshina, E. A.

    2011-11-15

    Three-photon laser excitation of Rydberg states by three different laser beams can be arranged in a starlike geometry that simultaneously eliminates the recoil effect and Doppler broadening. Our analytical and numerical calculations for a particular laser excitation scheme 5S{sub 1/2}{yields}5P{sub 3/2}{yields}6S{sub 1/2}{yields}nP in Rb atoms have shown that, compared to the one- and two-photon laser excitation, this approach provides much narrower linewidth and longer coherence time for both cold atom samples and hot vapors, if the intermediate one-photon resonances of the three-photon transition are detuned by more than respective single-photon Doppler widths. This method can be used to improve fidelity of Rydberg quantum gates and precision of spectroscopic measurements in Rydberg atoms.

  2. Rydberg blockade, Förster resonances, and quantum state measurements with different atomic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beterov, I. I.; Saffman, M.

    2015-10-01

    We calculate interspecies Rydberg-Rydberg interaction strengths for the heavy alkali metals Rb and Cs. The presence of strong Förster resonances makes interspecies coupling a promising approach for long-range entanglement generation. We also provide an overview of the strongest Förster resonances for Rb-Rb and Cs-Cs using different principal quantum numbers for the two atoms. We show how interspecies coupling can be used for high fidelity quantum nondemolition state measurements with low cross-talk in qubit arrays.

  3. Observation of g/u-symmetry mixing in the high-n Rydberg states of HD

    SciTech Connect

    Sprecher, Daniel; Merkt, Frédéric

    2014-03-28

    The structure and dynamics of high-n Rydberg states belonging to series converging to the (v{sup +} = 0, N{sup +} = 0–2) levels of the X{sup +2}?{sub g}{sup +} electronic ground state of HD{sup +} were studied by high-resolution spectroscopy from the GK{sup 1}?{sub g}{sup +} (v= 1, N = 1) state under field-free conditions. Three effects of g/u-symmetry breaking were detected: (i) Single-photon transitions from the GK?(v = 1, N = 1) state of gerade symmetry to the 30d2{sub 1} and 31g2{sub 2} Rydberg states of gerade symmetry were observed after careful compensation of the stray electric fields. (ii) The singlet 61p1{sub 2} Rydberg state of ungerade symmetry was found to autoionize to the N{sup +} = 0,?? = 2 ionization continuum of gerade symmetry with a lifetime of 77(10)?ns. (iii) Shifts of up to 20?MHz induced by g/u-symmetry mixing were measured for members of the np1{sub 1} Rydberg series which lie close to nd2{sub 1} Rydberg states. These observations were analyzed in the framework of multichannel quantum-defect theory. From the observed level shifts, the off-diagonal eigenquantum-defect element ?{sub pd} of singlet-? symmetry was determined to be 0.0023(3) and the corresponding autoionization dynamics could be characterized. The ionization energy of the GK?(v = 1, N = 1) state of HD was determined to be 12?710.544?23(10)?cm{sup ?1}.

  4. Photoionization from excited states of helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, V. L.

    1973-01-01

    The cross sections for photoionization from the 2 1S, 2 3S, 2 1P and 2 3P excited states of helium are calculated for photoelectron energies below the n = 2 threshold of He(+) using Hylleraas bound state wave functions and 1s-2s-2p close coupling final state wave functions. The resonant structures associated with the lowest-lying 1S, 1P, 3P, and 1D autoionizing states of helium are found to be characterized by large values of the line profile parameter q. The cross sections and the photoelectron angular distribution asymmetry parameters for the P-states are calculated for various polarization states of the target atom and the incident photon. Experiments which would lead to the separate determinations of the S- and D- wave partial photoionization cross sections are discussed.

  5. Approximate Rydberg States of the Hydrogen Atom that are Concentrated near Kepler Orbits

    E-print Network

    Hagedorn, George A.

    Approximate Rydberg States of the Hydrogen Atom that are Concentrated near Kepler Orbits George A # - 1 |x| . For each Kepler orbit of the corresponding classical system, we construct a lowest order(~)] #(~, ·) # # C ~ 3/2 ##(~, ·)# . The probability density |#(~, x)| 2 is concentrated near the Kepler ellipse

  6. Approximate Rydberg States of the Hydrogen Atom that are Concentrated near Kepler Orbits

    E-print Network

    Approximate Rydberg States of the Hydrogen Atom that are Concentrated near Kepler Orbits George A \\Delta \\Gamma 1 jxj : For each Kepler orbit of the corresponding classical system, we construct a lowest is concentrated near the Kepler ellipse in position space, and its Fourier transform has probability density j b

  7. Field ionization process of Eu 4f76snp Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Shen, Li; Dai, Chang-Jian

    2015-11-01

    The field ionization process of the Eu 4f76snp Rydberg states, converging to the first ionization limit, 4f76s 9S4, is systematically investigated. The spectra of the Eu 4f76snp Rydberg states are populated with three-step laser excitation, and detected by electric field ionization (EFI) method. Two different kinds of the EFI pulses are applied after laser excitation to observe the possible impacts on the EFI process. The exact EFI ionization thresholds for the 4f76snp Rydberg states can be determined by observing the corresponding EFI spectra. In particular, some structures above the EFI threshold are found in the EFI spectra, which may be interpreted as the effect from black body radiation (BBR). Finally, the scaling law of the EFI threshold for the Eu 4f76snp Rydberg states with the effective quantum number is built. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11004151 and 11174218).

  8. Pulsed excitation of Rydberg-atom-pair states in an ultracold Cs gas

    E-print Network

    Saßmannshausen, Heiner; Deiglmayr, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed laser excitation of a dense ultracold Cs vapor has been used to study the pairwise interactions between Cs atoms excited to $n$p$_{3/2}$ Rydberg states of principal quantum numbers in the range $n=22-36$. Molecular resonances were observed that correspond to excitation of Rydberg-atom-pair states correlated not only to the $n$p$_{3/2}+n$p$_{3/2}$ dissociation asymptotes, but also to $n$s$_{1/2}+(n+1)$s$_{1/2}$, $n$s$_{1/2}+n'$f$_{j}$, and $(n-4)$f$_{j}+(n-3)$f$_{j}$ $(j=5/2,7/2)$ dissociation asymptotes. These pair resonances are interpreted as arising from dipole-dipole, and higher long-range-interaction terms between the Rydberg atoms on the basis of i) their spectral positions, ii) their response to static and pulsed electric fields, and iii) millimeter-wave spectra between pair states correlated to different pair-dissociation asymptotes. The Rydberg-atom--pair states were found to spontaneously decay by Penning ionization and the dynamics of the ionization process were investigated during the first...

  9. Photofragmentation, state interaction, and energetics of Rydberg and ion-pair states: Resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization of HI

    SciTech Connect

    Hróðmarsson, Helgi Rafn; Wang, Huasheng; Kvaran, Ágúst

    2014-06-28

    Mass resolved resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization data for hydrogen iodide (HI), for two-photon resonance excitation to Rydberg and ion-pair states in the 69?600–72?400 cm{sup ?1} region were recorded and analyzed. Spectral perturbations due to homogeneous and heterogeneous interactions between Rydberg and ion-pair states, showing as deformations in line-positions, line-intensities, and line-widths, were focused on. Parameters relevant to photodissociation processes, state interaction strengths and spectroscopic parameters for deperturbed states were derived. Overall interaction and dynamical schemes to describe the observations are proposed.

  10. Observation of interference effects via four-photon excitation of highly excited Rydberg states in thermal cesium vapor.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Jorge M; Šibali?, Nikola; Guttridge, Alexander; Wade, Christopher G; De Melo, Natalia R; Adams, Charles S; Weatherill, Kevin J

    2015-12-01

    We report on the observation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and absorption (EIA) of highly excited Rydberg states in thermal Cs vapor using a four-step excitation scheme. The advantage of this four-step scheme is that the final transition to the Rydberg state has a large dipole moment and one can achieve similar Rabi frequencies to two- or three-step excitation schemes using two orders of magnitude less laser power. This scheme enables new applications such as dephasing free Rydberg excitation. The observed lineshapes are in good agreement with simulations based on multilevel optical Bloch equations. PMID:26625053

  11. Chirped-pulse millimeter-wave spectroscopy, dynamics, and manipulation of Rydberg-Rydberg Transitions

    E-print Network

    Colombo, Anthony P. (Anthony Paul)

    2013-01-01

    The chirped-pulse millimeter-wave (CPmmW) technique is applied to transitions between Rydberg states, and calcium atoms are used as the initial test system. The unique feature of Rydberg{Rydberg transitions is that they ...

  12. Chirped-pulse millimeter-wave spectroscopy: Spectrum, dynamics, and manipulation of Rydberg–Rydberg transitions

    E-print Network

    Colombo, Anthony P.

    2013-01-01

    We apply the chirped-pulse millimeter-wave (CPmmW) technique to transitions between Rydberg states in calcium atoms. The unique feature of Rydberg–Rydberg transitions is that they have enormous electric dipole transition ...

  13. High Rydberg states of DABCO: Spectroscopy, ionization potential, and comparison with mass analyzed threshold ionization

    E-print Network

    Nijmegen, University of

    of the highly symmetric caged amine 1,4 diazabicyclo 2,2,2 octane DABCO . The IP of DABCO excited with one,5,6 has led to a number of different models,7,8,9 guided by the extensive work on atomic Rydberg states10 numbers n 50, which are the states probed by ZEKE/MATI. The highly symmetric caged amine DABCO see Fig. 1

  14. Long-lived Electronic Coherence of Rydberg States in the Strong-Field Ionization of a Polyatomic Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konar, Arkaprabha; Shu, Yinan; Levine, Benjamin; Lozovoy, Vadim; Dantus, Marcos

    2015-05-01

    Here, we report on quantum coherent control of a large (>20 atoms) polyatomic molecule. In particular, we explore the time resolved dynamics of dicyclopentadiene when excited by a pair of phase-locked intense 800nm femtosecond pulses by monitoring changes in ion yield of the parent and fragments. Long-lived oscillations are observed for ~ 500 fs in the parent ion yield indicating the presence of long lived-electronic states. We take advantage of the long-lived electronic coherence to control the yield of different fragment ions. The presence of Rydberg states is further supported by ab initio calculations at the EOM-CCSD/6-31 +G** level of theory which identified five low-lying electronic states of neutral DCPD in the regions between 6.4 and 7.0 eV in vertical excitation energy. States of both pure Rydberg and mixed ? --> ? */Rydberg character are observed in this low energy region and are known to originate from ethylene. The multiphoton excitation of two or more Rydberg states, separated by the photon energy is the key to the observed long-lived electronic coherence in DCPD with a quantum beat at the difference frequency. Rydberg states are expected to have very similar potential energy surfaces and the Rydberg electron is relatively uncoupled to the nuclear dynamics, therefore supporting long electronic coherence time.

  15. Heavy Rydberg behaviour in high vibrational levels of some ion-pair states of the halogens and inter-halogens

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, Robert J. E-mail: tr01@staffmail.ed.ac.uk; Lawley, Kenneth P. Ridley, Trevor E-mail: tr01@staffmail.ed.ac.uk

    2015-05-28

    We report the identification of heavy Rydberg resonances in the ion-pair spectra of I{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, ICl, and IBr. Extensive vibrational progressions are analysed in terms of the energy dependence of the quantum defect ?(E{sub b}) rather than as Dunham expansions. This is shown to define the heavy Rydberg region, providing a more revealing fit to the data with fewer coefficients and leads just as easily to numbering data sets separated by gaps in the observed vibrational progressions. Interaction of heavy Rydberg states with electronic Rydberg states at avoided crossings on the inner wall of the ion-pair potential is shown to produce distinctive changes in the energy dependence of ?(E{sub b}), with weak and strong interactions readily distinguished. Heavy Rydberg behaviour is found to extend well below near-dissociation states, down to vibrational levels ?18 000-20 000 cm{sup ?1} below dissociation. The rapid semi-classical calculation of ?(E{sub b}) for heavy Rydberg states is emphasised and shows their absolute magnitude to be essentially the volume of phase space excluded from the vibrational motion by avoiding core-core penetration of the ions.

  16. Heavy Rydberg behaviour in high vibrational levels of some ion-pair states of the halogens and inter-halogens.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Robert J; Lawley, Kenneth P; Ridley, Trevor

    2015-05-28

    We report the identification of heavy Rydberg resonances in the ion-pair spectra of I2, Cl2, ICl, and IBr. Extensive vibrational progressions are analysed in terms of the energy dependence of the quantum defect ?(Eb) rather than as Dunham expansions. This is shown to define the heavy Rydberg region, providing a more revealing fit to the data with fewer coefficients and leads just as easily to numbering data sets separated by gaps in the observed vibrational progressions. Interaction of heavy Rydberg states with electronic Rydberg states at avoided crossings on the inner wall of the ion-pair potential is shown to produce distinctive changes in the energy dependence of ?(Eb), with weak and strong interactions readily distinguished. Heavy Rydberg behaviour is found to extend well below near-dissociation states, down to vibrational levels ?18,000-20,000 cm(-1) below dissociation. The rapid semi-classical calculation of ?(Eb) for heavy Rydberg states is emphasised and shows their absolute magnitude to be essentially the volume of phase space excluded from the vibrational motion by avoiding core-core penetration of the ions. PMID:26026446

  17. Quantum defects of nonpenetrating Rydberg states of the SO molecule in adiabatic and nonadiabatic regions of the spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorofeev, Dmitry L.; Elfimov, Sergei V.; Zon, Boris A.

    2012-02-01

    This paper is dedicated to the implementation of a generalized approach for calculating quantum defects in high Rydberg states of polar molecules with an account for the dipole moment of the molecular core and l uncoupling of the Rydberg electron. Adiabatic (Born-Oppenheimer) and nonadiabatic (inverse Born-Oppenheimer) regions of the spectrum are considered. The nonadiabatic case with a nonzero projection of the core momentum on the core axis is considered and is illustrated by the example of the SO molecule.

  18. Theoretical description of electronically excited vinylidene up to 10 eV: first high level ab initio study of singlet valence and Rydberg states.

    PubMed

    Boyé-Péronne, Séverine; Gauyacq, Dolores; Liévin, Jacques

    2014-11-01

    The first quantitative description of the Rydberg and valence singlet electronic states of vinylidene lying in the 0-10 eV region is performed by using large scale ab initio calculations. A deep analysis of Rydberg-valence interactions has been achieved thanks to the comprehensive information contained in the accurate Multi-Reference Configuration Interaction wavefunctions and an original population analysis highlighting the respective role played by orbital and state mixing in such interactions. The present theoretical approach is thus adequate for dealing with larger than diatomic Rydberg systems. The nine lowest singlet valence states have been optimized. Among them, some are involved in strong Rydberg-valence interactions in the region of the Rydberg state equilibrium geometry. The Rydberg states of vinylidene present a great similarity with the acetylene isomer, concerning their quantum defects and Rydberg molecular orbital character. As in acetylene, strong s-d mixing is revealed in the n = 3 s-d supercomplex. Nevertheless, unlike in acetylene, the close-energy of the two vinylidene ionic cores (2)A1 and (2)B1 results into two overlapped Rydberg series. These Rydberg series exhibit local perturbations when an accidental degeneracy occurs between them and results in avoided crossings. In addition, some ?l = 1 (s-p and p-d) mixings arise for some Rydberg states and are rationalized in term of electrostatic interaction from the electric dipole moment of the ionic core. The strongest dipole moment of the (2)B1 cationic state also stabilizes the lowest members of the n = 3 Rydberg series converging to this excited state, as compared to the adjacent series converging toward the (2)A1 ionic ground state. The overall energies of vinylidene Rydberg states lie above their acetylene counterpart. Finally, predictions for optical transitions in singlet vinylidene are suggested for further experimental spectroscopic characterization of vinylidene. PMID:25381524

  19. Theoretical description of electronically excited vinylidene up to 10 eV: First high level ab initio study of singlet valence and Rydberg states

    SciTech Connect

    Boyé-Péronne, Séverine; Gauyacq, Dolores; Liévin, Jacques

    2014-11-07

    The first quantitative description of the Rydberg and valence singlet electronic states of vinylidene lying in the 0–10 eV region is performed by using large scale ab initio calculations. A deep analysis of Rydberg-valence interactions has been achieved thanks to the comprehensive information contained in the accurate Multi-Reference Configuration Interaction wavefunctions and an original population analysis highlighting the respective role played by orbital and state mixing in such interactions. The present theoretical approach is thus adequate for dealing with larger than diatomic Rydberg systems. The nine lowest singlet valence states have been optimized. Among them, some are involved in strong Rydberg-valence interactions in the region of the Rydberg state equilibrium geometry. The Rydberg states of vinylidene present a great similarity with the acetylene isomer, concerning their quantum defects and Rydberg molecular orbital character. As in acetylene, strong s-d mixing is revealed in the n = 3 s-d supercomplex. Nevertheless, unlike in acetylene, the close-energy of the two vinylidene ionic cores {sup 2}A{sub 1} and {sup 2}B{sub 1} results into two overlapped Rydberg series. These Rydberg series exhibit local perturbations when an accidental degeneracy occurs between them and results in avoided crossings. In addition, some ?l = 1 (s-p and p-d) mixings arise for some Rydberg states and are rationalized in term of electrostatic interaction from the electric dipole moment of the ionic core. The strongest dipole moment of the {sup 2}B{sub 1} cationic state also stabilizes the lowest members of the n = 3 Rydberg series converging to this excited state, as compared to the adjacent series converging toward the {sup 2}A{sub 1} ionic ground state. The overall energies of vinylidene Rydberg states lie above their acetylene counterpart. Finally, predictions for optical transitions in singlet vinylidene are suggested for further experimental spectroscopic characterization of vinylidene.

  20. Theoretical description of electronically excited vinylidene up to 10 eV: First high level ab initio study of singlet valence and Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyé-Péronne, Séverine; Gauyacq, Dolores; Liévin, Jacques

    2014-11-01

    The first quantitative description of the Rydberg and valence singlet electronic states of vinylidene lying in the 0-10 eV region is performed by using large scale ab initio calculations. A deep analysis of Rydberg-valence interactions has been achieved thanks to the comprehensive information contained in the accurate Multi-Reference Configuration Interaction wavefunctions and an original population analysis highlighting the respective role played by orbital and state mixing in such interactions. The present theoretical approach is thus adequate for dealing with larger than diatomic Rydberg systems. The nine lowest singlet valence states have been optimized. Among them, some are involved in strong Rydberg-valence interactions in the region of the Rydberg state equilibrium geometry. The Rydberg states of vinylidene present a great similarity with the acetylene isomer, concerning their quantum defects and Rydberg molecular orbital character. As in acetylene, strong s-d mixing is revealed in the n = 3 s-d supercomplex. Nevertheless, unlike in acetylene, the close-energy of the two vinylidene ionic cores 2A1 and 2B1 results into two overlapped Rydberg series. These Rydberg series exhibit local perturbations when an accidental degeneracy occurs between them and results in avoided crossings. In addition, some ?l = 1 (s-p and p-d) mixings arise for some Rydberg states and are rationalized in term of electrostatic interaction from the electric dipole moment of the ionic core. The strongest dipole moment of the 2B1 cationic state also stabilizes the lowest members of the n = 3 Rydberg series converging to this excited state, as compared to the adjacent series converging toward the 2A1 ionic ground state. The overall energies of vinylidene Rydberg states lie above their acetylene counterpart. Finally, predictions for optical transitions in singlet vinylidene are suggested for further experimental spectroscopic characterization of vinylidene.

  1. Double-Rydberg anions - Ground-state electronic and geometric stabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutowski, Maciej; Simons, Jack

    1990-09-01

    Each member of the class of Double-Rydberg (DR) molecular anions consists of an underlying closed-shell cation core around which a pair of highly correlated electrons move in diffuse orbitals. The geometric and electronic stabilities of the ground states of candidate DR anions resulting from the following cation cores are examined: H3(+), NeH(+), FH2(+), H3O(+), NH4(+), and CH5(+). Near the equilibrium geometry of the cation, all of the DR anions, except H3(-), are electronically stable with respect to the corresponding Rydberg radicals. Results of the geometry optimizations indicate, however, that only NH4(-) and H3O(-) are locally geometrically stable; the other DR anions undergo fragmentation. Vertical ionization potentials for the T(d) isomer of NH4(-) and the C(3v) isomer of H3O(-) are found to be 0.45 and 0.46 eV, respectively.

  2. Integral Cross Sections for Electron Impact Excitation of Rydberg and Valence States of Molecular Nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, C. P.; Johnson, P. V.; Kanik, I.; Liu, X.; Ajdari, B.; Khakoo, M. A.

    2012-06-01

    We present integral cross sections (ICSs) for electron impact excitation of N2 out of the ground state X (v=0), to the b, c3, o3, b', c'4, G, and F electronic states at incident energies ranging between 17.5 eV and 100 eV. The ICSs were derived from the differential cross sections (DCSs) of Khakoo et al. [Phys. Rev. A 77, 012704 (2008)], which were obtained by unfolding energy loss spectra in the ˜12-13.82 eV range. Recently, Heays et al. [Phys. Rev. A 85, 012705 (2012)] measured comparable higher resolution energy loss spectra, with a significantly different apparatus configuration, but in agreement with the Khakoo et al. (2008) spectra. This latter additional effort provided further confidence in the accuracy of the DCSs upon which the present ICS results are based. Of the higher-lying states studied, five are singlet states that radiate to the ground state via dipole allowed transitions. These include the b and b' valence states and the c'4 Rydberg state that give rise to the Birge-Hopfield I, II, and Carroll-Yoshino bands, respectively, all of which are observed in the atmospheres of Earth, Titan, and Triton. The c3 and o3 Rydberg states give rise to the Worley-Jenkins and Worley series of Rydberg bands, respectively. However, these emissions are not readily observed since predissociation for the c3 and o3 states approaches 100%. As such, direct electron excitation measurements, such as those presented here are superior to standard (spontaneous) emission based measurements in this case.

  3. Electronic Spectroscopy and Ultrafast Energy Relaxation Pathways in the lowest Rydberg States of Trimethylamine

    PubMed Central

    Cardoza, Job D.; Rudakov, Fedor M.; Weber, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization photoelectron spectroscopy has been applied to study the electronic spectroscopy and relaxation pathways amongst the 3p and 3s Rydberg states of trimethylamine. The experiments used femtosecond and picosecond duration laser pulses at wavelengths of 416 nm, 266 nm, and 208 nm, and employed two-photon and three-photon ionization schemes. The binding energy of the 3s Rydberg state was found to be 3.087 ± 0.005 eV. The degenerate 3px,y states have binding energies of 2.251 ± 0.005 eV, and 3pz is at 2.204 ± 0.005 eV. Using picosecond and femtosecond time-resolved experiments we spectrally and temporally resolved an intricate sequence of energy relaxation pathways leading from the 3p states to the 3s state. With excitation at 5.96 eV, trimethylamine is found to decay from the 3pz state to 3px,y in 539 fs. The decay to 3s from all the 3p states takes place with a 2.9 ps time constant. On these time scales, trimethylamine does not fragment at the given internal energies, which range from 0.42 to 1.54 eV depending on the excitation wavelength and the electronic state. PMID:18834091

  4. Modeling Two-Charge State Helium Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmert, Gilbert; Santarius, John

    2012-10-01

    A computational model for the flow of energetic helium ions and atoms through a background neutral helium gas is being developed. The essence of the method is to consider atomic reactions as creating a new source of ions or neutrals if the energy or charge state of the resulting particle is changed. A set of conservation equations in a two-dimensional (position -- energy) phase space is formulated. Atomic reactions that lead to ions being born with zero kinetic energy are modeled with a 1-D Volterra integral equation [1] that can quickly be solved numerically by finite differences. Atomic reactions leading to ions being born with finite kinetic energy are formulated as source terms in the position-energy phase space. The conservation equations are solved iteratively using the solution to the Volterra equation as a starting point. The current work focuses on multiple-pass, 1-D ion flow through neutral gas in a nearly transparent anode and cathode pair in planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometry for application to ^3He-^3He and D-^3He inertial electrostatic experiments.[4pt] [1] G.A. Emmert and J.F. Santarius, ``Atomic and Molecular Effects on Spherically Convergent Ion Flow I: Single Atomic Species,'' Phys. Plasmas 17, 013502 (2010)

  5. Observation of Cavity Rydberg Polaritons

    E-print Network

    Jia Ningyuan; Alexandros Georgakopoulos; Albert Ryou; Nathan Schine; Ariel Sommer; Jonathan Simon

    2015-11-12

    We demonstrate hybridization of optical cavity photons with atomic Rydberg excitations using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The resulting dark state Rydberg polaritons exhibit a compressed frequency spectrum and enhanced lifetime indicating strong light-matter mixing. We study the coherence properties of cavity Rydberg polaritons and identify the generalized EIT linewidth for optical cavities. Strong collective coupling suppresses polariton losses due to inhomogeneous broadening, which we demonstrate by using different Rydberg levels with a range of polarizabilities. Our results point the way towards using cavity Rydberg polaritons as a platform for creating photonic quantum materials.

  6. Time-resolved photoionization spectroscopy of mixed Rydberg-valence states: indole case study.

    PubMed

    Zawadzki, Magdalena M; Thompson, James O F; Burgess, Emma A; Paterson, Martin J; Townsend, Dave

    2015-10-28

    Time-resolved photoelectron imaging was used to study non-adiabatic relaxation dynamics in gas-phase indole following photo-excitation at 267 nm and 258 nm. Our data analysis was supported by various ab initio calculations using both coupled cluster and density functional methods. The highly differential energy- and angle-resolved information provided by our experimental approach provides extremely subtle details of the complex interactions occurring between several low-lying electronically excited states. In particular, new insight into the role and fate of the mixed Rydberg-valence 3s/??* state is revealed. This includes population residing on the excited state surface at large N-H separations for a relatively long period of time (?1 ps) prior to dissociation and/or internal conversion. Our findings may, in part, be rationalized by considering the rapid evolution of this state's electronic character as the N-H stretching coordinate is extended - as extensively demonstrated in the supporting theory. Overall, our findings highlight a number of important general caveats regarding the nature of mixed Rydberg-valence excited states, their spectral signatures and detection sensitivity in photoionization measurements, and the evaluation of their overall importance in mediating electronic relaxation in a wide range of small model-chromophore systems providing bio-molecular analogues - a topic of considerable interest within the chemical dynamics community over the last decade. PMID:26394263

  7. Evolution of Rydberg states in half-cycle pulses: Classical, semiclassical, and quantum dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Burgdoerfer, J.; Reinhold, C. |

    1994-12-31

    We summarize recent theoretical advances in the description of the evolution of Rydberg atoms subject to ultrashort pulses extending only a fraction of an optical cycle. We have performed classical. semiclassical and full quantum calculations in order to delineate the classical-quantum correspondence for impulsively perturbed atomic systems. We observe classical and quantum (or semiclassical) oscillations in excitation and ionization which depend on the initial state of atoms and on the strength of the perturbation. These predictions can be experimentally tested. 4 figs.

  8. Observation of electric quadrupole transitions to Rydberg nd states of ultracold rubidium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, D.; Farooqi, S. M.; van Kempen, E. G. M.; Pavlovic, Z.; Stanojevic, J.; Côté, R.; Eyler, E. E.; Gould, P. L.

    2009-05-01

    We report the observation of dipole-forbidden, but quadrupole-allowed, one-photon transitions to high-Rydberg states in Rb. Using pulsed uv excitation of ultracold atoms in a magneto-optical trap, we excite 5s?nd transitions over a range of principal quantum numbers n=27-59 . Compared to dipole-allowed (E1) transitions from 5s?np , these E2 transitions are weaker by a factor of approximately 2000. We also report measurements of the anomalous np3/2:np1/2 fine-structure transition strength ratio for n=28-75 . Both results are in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  9. Adiabatic energy levels and electric dipole moments of Rydberg states of Rb2 and Cs2 dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuskivadze, A. A.; Chibisov, M. I.; Fabrikant, I. I.

    2002-10-01

    We calculate potential energy curves for heavy alkali-metal dimers, Rb2 and Cs2 in which one of the atoms is in a highly excited Rydberg states. The method combines numerical integration of coupled equations, describing interaction of electron with the ground-state atom in the field of the Coulomb core of the Rydberg atom, with subsequent matching of the obtained wave function with the Coulomb Green's function in the form of the Kirchhoff integral. The spin-orbit interaction for the Rydberg electron is also included. The results show the existence of several groups of states. Most interesting of them are dominated either by the 3S symmetry near the ground-state atom or by the 3PJ symmetry, J=0,1,2. All states, except the 3P1 state, exhibit oscillatory dependence of energy on the internuclear distance that can support long-range molecular Rydberg states [e.g., ``trilobite states'' for the 3S symmetry, Greene et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2458 (2000)]. These states possess large diagonal and transition dipole moments which are expressed analytically in terms of the Coulomb wave functions and calculated in a broad range of internuclear separations.

  10. Observation of interference effects via four photon excitation of highly excited Rydberg states in thermal cesium vapor

    E-print Network

    Kondo, Jorge M; Guttridge, Alex; Wade, Christopher G; De Melo, Natalia R; Adams, Charles S; Weatherill, Kevin J

    2015-01-01

    We report on the observation of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT) and Absorption (EIA) of highly-excited Rydberg states in thermal Cs vapor using a 4-step excitation scheme. The advantage of this 4-step scheme is that the final transition to the Rydberg state has a large dipole moment and one can achieve similar Rabi frequencies to 2 or 3 step excitation schemes using two orders of magnitude less laser power. Consequently each step is driven by a relatively low power infra-red diode laser opening up the prospect for new applications. The observed lineshapes are in good agreement with simulations based on multilevel optical Bloch equations.

  11. Efficient production of Rydberg positronium.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, D B; Hisakado, T H; Tom, H W K; Mills, A P

    2012-01-27

    We demonstrate experimentally the production of Rydberg positronium (Ps) atoms in a two-step process, comprising incoherent laser excitation, first to the 2(3)P state and then to states with principal quantum numbers ranging from 10 to 25. We find that excitation of 2(3)P atoms to Rydberg levels occurs very efficiently (~90%) and that the ~25% overall efficiency of the production of Rydberg atoms is determined almost entirely by the spectral overlap of the primary excitation laser and the Doppler broadened width of the 1 (3)S-2(3)P transition. The observed efficiency of Rydberg Ps production can be explained if stimulated emission back to the 2P states is suppressed, for example, by intermixing of the Rydberg state Stark sublevels. The efficient production of long-lived Rydberg Ps in a high magnetic field may make it possible to perform direct measurements of the gravitational free fall of Ps. PMID:22400840

  12. Many-body physics of Rydberg dark-state polaritons in the strongly interacting regime

    E-print Network

    Matthias Moos; Michael Hoening; Razmik Unanyan; Michael Fleischhauer

    2015-06-23

    Coupling light to Rydberg states of atoms under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) leads to the formation of strongly interacting quasi-particles, termed Rydberg polaritons. We derive a one-dimensional model describing the time evolution of these polaritons under paraxial propagation conditions, which we verify by numerical two-excitation simulations. We determine conditions allowing for a description by an effective Hamiltonian of a single-species polariton, and calculate ground-state correlations by use of the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG). Under typical stationary slow-light EIT conditions it is difficult to reach the strongly interacting regime where the interaction energy dominates the kinetic energy. We show that by employing time dependence of the control field the regime of strong interactions can be reached where the polaritons attain quasi crystalline order. We analyze the dynamics and resulting correlations for a translational invariant system in terms of a time-dependent Luttinger liquid theory and exact few-particle simulations and address the effects of nonadiabatic corrections and initial excitations.

  13. Atomic parameters for transitions involving Rydberg states of singly ionized alkaline earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar Djerad, Mohamed

    1991-01-01

    Using quantum-defect theory wave functions, we have computed dipole radial matrix elements involving Rydberg states of the singly-ionized alkaline-earth atoms. In order to test the results, we have calculated a set of transition probabilities, absorption oscillator strengths and radiative lifetimes for S, P, D, and F states up to n sim 30. Transition probabilities are in good agreement with available data. We report the lifetimes in terms of scaling relations of type tau_{nl}=tau_0(n^*)^?. The variation of oscillator strengths with respect to the effective principal quantum number n^* is discussed. En utilisant des fonctions d'onde de la théorie du défaut quantique, nous avons calculé les éléments de matrice radiaux mettant en jeu les états de Rydberg des atomes alcalineux terreux une fois ionisés. Dans le but de tester les résultats, nous avons calculé les probabilités de transitions, les forces d'oscillateurs et les durées de vie radiative des états S, P, D et F jusqu'à n sim 30. Les probabilités de transitions sont en bon accord avec les résultats disponibles. Nous présentons les durées de vie en terme de lois d'échelles du type tau_{nl}=tau_0(n^*)^?. La variation des forces d'oscillateurs en fonction du nombre quantique effectif n^* est discutée.

  14. Calculating helium atomic excited states in coordinate space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Shane; Siegel, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    Two coupled Schrödinger equations are used to calculate excited states of atomic helium. Using product state functions for the two-electron state, the shooting method is used to numerically determine the energies of the allowed singlet and triplet levels. The calculations agree well with the data, and the coordinate-space basis yields Schrödinger equations for helium that are familiar to students who have used similar methods for the hydrogen atom.

  15. Femtosecond predissociation dynamics of the methyl radical from the 3pz Rydberg state.

    PubMed

    Balerdi, Garikoitz; Woodhouse, Joanne; Zanchet, Alexander; de Nalda, Rebeca; Senent, María L; García-Vela, Alberto; Bañares, Luis

    2016-01-01

    The real time dynamics of electronic predissociation of the CH3 radical (and its deuterated variant CD3) from selected vibrational states of the 3pz Rydberg state have been measured for the first time using a novel methodology based on a femtosecond three-color experiment to generate, two-photon excite and ionize methyl radicals as a function of time in combination with velocity map imaging detection. Subpicosecond lifetimes have been measured, showing a decreasing trend as vibrational excitation in the symmetric stretch and bending umbrella modes increases for both species. High-level ab initio calculations have been carried out in order to elucidate the CH3 3pz predissociation mechanism and support the lifetime measurements. The observed lifetimes are relevant for the understanding of the resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy of this radical. PMID:26473180

  16. Superradiance in ultracold Rydberg gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Yelin, S. F.; Côté, R.; Eyler, E. E.; Farooqi, S. M.; Gould, P. L.; Koštrun, M.; Tong, D.; Vrinceanu, D.

    2007-03-01

    Experiments in dense, ultracold gases of rubidium Rydberg atoms show a considerable decrease of the radiative excited state lifetimes compared to dilute gases. This accelerated decay is explained by collective and cooperative effects, leading to superradiance. A formalism to calculate effective decay times in a dense Rydberg gas shows that for these atoms the decay into nearby levels increases by up to three orders of magnitude. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment follows from this treatment of Rydberg decay behavior.

  17. Observation of electric quadrupole transitions to Rydberg nd states of ultracold rubidium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, D.; Farooqi, S. M.; Kempen, E. G. M. van; Pavlovic, Z.; Stanojevic, J.; Cote, R.; Eyler, E. E.; Gould, P. L.

    2009-05-15

    We report the observation of dipole-forbidden, but quadrupole-allowed, one-photon transitions to high-Rydberg states in Rb. Using pulsed uv excitation of ultracold atoms in a magneto-optical trap, we excite 5s{yields}nd transitions over a range of principal quantum numbers n=27-59. Compared to dipole-allowed (E1) transitions from 5s{yields}np, these E2 transitions are weaker by a factor of approximately 2000. We also report measurements of the anomalous np{sub 3/2}:np{sub 1/2} fine-structure transition strength ratio for n=28-75. Both results are in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  18. The Role of Excited Rydberg States in Electron Transfer Dissociation Monika Sobczyk and Jack Simons*

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    cation. The three sites are (1) the S-S * orbital to which electron attachment is rendered exothermic by Coulomb stabilization from the nearby positive site, (2) the ground Rydberg orbital of the -NH3 + site, and (3) excited Rydberg orbitals of the same -NH3 + site. It is found that attachment to the ground

  19. A heavy Rydberg quantum defect analysis of the perturbed D (0u+) ion-pair state of Br2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, Robert J.; Lawley, Kenneth P.; Ridley, Trevor

    2015-12-01

    A quantum defect (?) analysis, based on the heavy Rydberg model of ion-pair states, is applied to existing data on the D state of Br2. A linear dependence of the mass-scaled ? on the bound energy is found between 18,000 cm-1 and at least 22,000 cm-1 below dissociation, with local vibronic perturbations. At lower bound energies there is an abrupt reversal of the gradient of the energy dependence of ? in the region of strong interaction with the 5p electronic Rydberg states. The energy dependence of ? emphasizes changes in gradient of either the inner or outer wall of the potential. An adiabatic potential energy function for the D state with a modified inner wall is proposed which accounts for the quantum defect in the anomalous region. The highest vibrational levels that were omitted from the standard polynomial fit of the vibrational term values used by previous authors are now included.

  20. Multireference configuration interaction studies on higher valence and Rydberg states of OClO, ionization potentials, and electron detachment energies.

    PubMed

    Grein, Friedrich

    2011-07-28

    MRCI results are reported for the vertical excitation energies (VEE) and oscillator strengths f of doublet states of OClO up to 11 eV, including 3b(1) ? 4s, 4p, 3d, 5s, 5p, 4d, and most 1a(2), 8a(1), 5b(2) ? 4s and 4p Rydberg states. The lowest Rydberg states 3b(1) ? 4s and 3b(1) ? 4p(x) have mixed valence-Rydberg character. The observed spectral bands were reassigned to include valence states which have generally higher oscillator strengths. The well-known valence state 1(2)A(2) has a VEE of 3.63 eV, and a relatively high f of 0.042. Overall, the calculated oscillator strengths are in good agreement with measured values. The lowest quartet state, 1(4)B(2), lies at 6.95 eV. Quartet Rydberg states start with 1a(2) ? 4s at 9.28 eV. According to calculated vertical ionization potentials (VIP) of OClO, the second VIP at 12.59 eV is reassigned from 1(3)B(1) to 1(3)B(2) (ionization from 1a(2), rather than 8a(1)), and the third VIP at 12.63 eV from 1(1)B(1) to 1(3)B(1) (ionization from 8a(1)). Vertical electron detachment energies of OClO(-) have been calculated up to 8.9 eV. There is good agreement with experimental values. PMID:21806116

  1. Multireference configuration interaction studies on higher valence and Rydberg states of OClO, ionization potentials, and electron detachment energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grein, Friedrich

    2011-07-01

    MRCI results are reported for the vertical excitation energies (VEE) and oscillator strengths f of doublet states of OClO up to 11 eV, including 3b1 ? 4s, 4p, 3d, 5s, 5p, 4d, and most 1a2, 8a1, 5b2 ? 4s and 4p Rydberg states. The lowest Rydberg states 3b1 ? 4s and 3b1 ? 4px have mixed valence-Rydberg character. The observed spectral bands were reassigned to include valence states which have generally higher oscillator strengths. The well-known valence state 12A2 has a VEE of 3.63 eV, and a relatively high f of 0.042. Overall, the calculated oscillator strengths are in good agreement with measured values. The lowest quartet state, 14B2, lies at 6.95 eV. Quartet Rydberg states start with 1a2 ? 4s at 9.28 eV. According to calculated vertical ionization potentials (VIP) of OClO, the second VIP at 12.59 eV is reassigned from 13B1 to 13B2 (ionization from 1a2, rather than 8a1), and the third VIP at 12.63 eV from 11B1 to 13B1 (ionization from 8a1). Vertical electron detachment energies of OClO- have been calculated up to 8.9 eV. There is good agreement with experimental values.

  2. High Rydberg states of argon: Stark effect and field-ionization properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkt, F.; Osterwalder, A.; Seiler, R.; Signorell, R.; Palm, H.; Schmutz, H.; Gunzinger, R.

    1998-04-01

    The Rydberg states with principal quantum number 0953-4075/31/8/020/img1 located below the 0953-4075/31/8/020/img2 ground state of the 0953-4075/31/8/020/img3 ion have been studied by pulsed field ionization following single-photon excitation out of the 0953-4075/31/8/020/img4 ground state of Ar. The 0953-4075/31/8/020/img5 linewidth of the tunable extreme ultraviolet (XUV) laser source used enabled high-resolution measurement of the Stark effect over a wide range of principal quantum numbers and electric field strengths. Particular attention was given to the ionization of high Rydberg states induced by DC and pulsed electric fields. The lowering 0953-4075/31/8/020/img6 (expressed in 0953-4075/31/8/020/img7) of the ionization threshold by DC electric fields is accurately described by 0953-4075/31/8/020/img8 when the electric field strength F is expressed in 0953-4075/31/8/020/img9, a result that is in good agreement with predictions of the classical saddle-point model for field ionization. The field-ionization threshold is very sharp: its width decreases from 0.7 to 0953-4075/31/8/020/img10 when the DC field strength is reduced from 580 to 0953-4075/31/8/020/img11. Apart from the Stark states located in a very narrow energy range around the saddle-point energy in the 0953-4075/31/8/020/img12 potential which are found to ionize very slowly, all Stark states located below the saddle-point energy have lifetimes exceeding several microseconds, whereas those located beyond the saddle-point energy ionize within less than 20 ns. The very slow field ionization that is observed in a narrow range of energies around the classical saddle point can be used to obtain high state selectivity in the pulsed field ionization. The pulsed field-ionization behaviour observed in argon suggests that the 0953-4075/31/8/020/img13 rule that is now commonly assumed in the analysis of pulsed-field-ionization (PFI) zero-kinetic-energy (ZEKE) spectra to describe the low-wavenumber onset of a line relative to the position of the corresponding field-free ionization threshold must be used with caution.

  3. Formation of Triplet Positron-helium Bound State by Stripping of Positronium Atoms in Collision with Ground State Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    Formation of triplet positron-helium bound state by stripping of positronium atoms in collision with ground state helium JOSEPH DI RlENZI, College of Notre Dame of Maryland, RICHARD J. DRACHMAN, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center - The system consisting of a positron and a helium atom in the triplet state e(+)He(S-3)(sup e) was conjectured long ago to be stable [1]. Its stability has recently been established rigorously [2], and the values of the energies of dissociation into the ground states of Ps and He(+) have also been reported [3] and [4]. We have evaluated the cross-section for this system formed by radiative attachment of a positron in triplet He state and found it to be small [5]. The mechanism of production suggested here should result in a larger cross-section (of atomic size) which we are determining using the Born approximation with simplified initial and final wave functions.

  4. Manipulating Rydberg atoms close to surfaces at cryogenic temperatures

    E-print Network

    Tobias Thiele; Stefan Filipp; Josef Anton Agner; Hansjürg Schmutz; Johannes Deiglmayr; Mathias Stammeier; Pitt Allmendinger; Frédéric Merkt; Andreas Wallraff

    2014-02-28

    Helium atoms in Rydberg states have been manipulated coherently with microwave radiation pulses near a gold surface and near a superconducting NbTiN surface at a temperature of $3 \\text{K}$. The experiments were carried out with a skimmed supersonic beam of metastable $(1\\text{s})^1(2\\text{s})^1\\, {}^1\\text{S}_0$ helium atoms excited with laser radiation to $n\\text{p}$ Rydberg levels with principal quantum number $n$ between $30$ and $40$. The separation between the cold surface and the center of the collimated beam is adjustable down to $250 \\mu\\text{m}$. Short-lived $n\\text{p}$ Rydberg levels were coherently transferred to the long-lived $n\\text{s}$ state to avoid radiative decay of the Rydberg atoms between the photoexcitation region and the region above the cold surfaces. Further coherent manipulation of the $n\\text{s}$ Rydberg levels with pulsed microwave radiation above the surfaces enabled measurements of stray electric fields and allowed us to study the decoherence of the atomic ensemble. Adsorption of residual gas onto the surfaces and the resulting slow build-up of stray fields was minimized by controlling the temperature of the surface and monitoring the partial pressures of H$_2$O, N$_2$, O$_2$ and CO$_2$ in the experimental chamber during the cool-down. Compensation of the stray electric fields to levels below $100 \\text{mV}/\\text{cm}$ was achieved over a region of $6 \\text{mm}$ along the beam-propagation direction which, for the $1770 \\text{m}/\\text{s}$ beam velocity, implies the possibility to preserve the coherence of the atomic sample for several microseconds above the cold surfaces.

  5. $?^4$ Ry corrections to singlet states of helium

    E-print Network

    Krzysztof Pachucki

    2006-07-07

    Corrections of order $\\alpha^4$Ry are calculated for the singlet states $1^1S_0$ and $2^1S_0$ of the helium atom. The result for $1^1S_0$ state is in slight disagreement with that of Korobov and Yelkhovsky in [Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 87}, 193003 (2001)]. The results obtained lead to a significant improvement of transition frequencies between low lying levels of the helium atom. In particular theoretical predictions for the $2^1S_0 - 1^1S_0$ transition are found to be in disagreement with experimental values.

  6. Electron processes in ion-Rydberg-atom collisions with emphasis on directed linear Stark states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homan, Dean Matthew

    Both classical-trajectory calculations and measurements of electron capture in A+ + B(x) collisions, where the targets are Rydberg atoms, have been performed in the intermediate velocity range. Linear Stark-state targets were created inside a novel device called the Stark barrel. With this new apparatus, off-center atomic states with axial symmetry could be prepared with their axes set at angles 0-360o with respect to the ion beam. Comparison of calculated and measured total-capture cross sections has revealed a new spatial capture mechanism called variously 'three-swap', 'type-two', or 'low- velocity Thomas capture.' In Part I of this Dissertation a classical model of electron capture and ionization by singly charged ions from oriented and aligned elliptic and linear-state Rydberg targets will be introduced to describe the Coulomb three-body dynamics of these processes. Parameter space maps, which correlate initial conditions in the collision system with the final collision channels, are employed to demonstrate that capture events are confined to well-defined regions of phase space. These islands of capture can be characterized by the number of swaps. The number of swaps is defined as the number of times the electron crosses the mid-plane between the passing charge centers during a collision that leads to capture. In Part II measurements of the total electron capture by Li+,/ K+ or Cs+ from a linear-Rydberg target atom are presented as a function of the angle ? between the atom's electric-dipole moment and the ion-beam axis in the reduced-velocity range 0.15/le/tilde v/le 2.4, where /tilde v=Vp/vBohr. The capture cross section versus angle reveals a peak at /theta =180o for /tilde v=0.3 which bifurcates into two distinct peaks at /tilde v=0.7 and then becomes again a single peak near /tilde v=1.0. At /tilde v=1.6 two symmetric shoulders appear near /theta=120o and 240o on a peak at 180o and remain a feature of the capture cross section at higher velocities. Peaks and shoulders are also observed at /tilde v=0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 in the ratio of the capture cross section for electronic charge polarization parallel (/theta=180o) and anti-parallel (0o) to the ion beam direction. The resonance structures seen in these experiments are described classically as overlapping contributions from one-swap, three-swap, and five and greater odd-swap trajectories. Previously unexpected structure seen in the experimental cross sections has been reproduced qualitatively by classical- trajectory and close-coupling models, and in turn the theories have given new insight and direction for experimental work.

  7. Rydberg state, metastable, and electron dynamics in the low-pressure argon afterglow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsankov, Tsanko V.; Johnsen, Rainer; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    In this work a time-dependent collisional-radiative model for recombining plasmas is developed. It tracks the collisional and radiative capture of electrons into highly-excited (Rydberg) states and their consecutive deexcitation through collisions and radiation to the ground or the metastable state. The model allows the calculation of the net recombination rate and the electron energy gain by recombination. It is coupled to the volume-averaged balance equations for the electron density and temperature. The numerical solution of these equations includes a model for the diffusion cooling of the electrons (Celik et al 2012 Phys. Rev. E 85 046407) and a simplified model for the gas cooling. Using as only input the experimentally determined initial values of the electron density and temperature, gas temperature and metastable density, the temporal evolution of all parameters in the afterglow is calculated and compared with measurements. The results reproduce very well the measured quantities (electron density, light emission and metastable density) without the need to invoke adjustable parameters. This gives confidence in the validity of the model that allows it to be used not only to deepen the understanding of afterglow plasmas but also to tailor their properties as required for applications. The analysis of the model results further shows that gas heating and cooling must be explicitly taken into account to reproduce experimental observations. The electron heating by recombination is another process that is important for the good agreement. Both of these effects were largely ignored in previous works on afterglows.

  8. Electromagnetically induced transparency in a Y system with single Rydberg state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Xue-Dong; Liu, Yi-Mou; Yan, Xiao-Bo; Cui, Cui-Li; Zhang, Yan

    2015-06-01

    We study the transmitted intensity and correlation properties of a probe field propagating through a sample of cold interacting 87Rb atoms driven into the Y level configuration with single Rydberg state. We find two electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) windows in the transmission spectrum. One window is linear since it is immune to the incident probe field. The other window depth is sensitive to the incident probe intensity, exhibiting cooperative nonlinearity. Meanwhile, the linear window is low but the transmissivity at the nonlinear window can reach nearly 100% in case of the weak probe intensity. When two EIT windows overlap, the cooperative optical nonlinearity plays a leading role in the degenerate window. In addition, the probe propagation is affected by its two-photon correlation which is suppressed at the center of nonlinear window and is enhanced near the boundaries of two windows. The two-photon correlation is also sensitive to the probe field, and that means we can attain the strongest photon bunching (anti-bunching) effect by controlling the probe and coupling fields.

  9. Using Uncertainty Principle to Find the Ground-State Energy of the Helium and a Helium-like Hookean Atom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbola, Varun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we accurately estimate the ground-state energy and the atomic radius of the helium atom and a helium-like Hookean atom by employing the uncertainty principle in conjunction with the variational approach. We show that with the use of the uncertainty principle, electrons are found to be spread over a radial region, giving an electron…

  10. Method for laser spectroscopy of metastable pionic helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, M.; Sótér, A.; Aghai-Khozani, H.; Barna, D.; Dax, A.; Hayano, R. S.; Murakami, Y.; Yamada, H.

    2015-08-01

    The PiHe collaboration is currently attempting to carry out laser spectroscopy of metastable pionic helium atoms using the high-intensity ? - beam of the ring cyclotron facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute. These atoms are heretofore hypothetical three-body Coulomb systems each composed of a helium nucleus, a ? - occupying a Rydberg state, and an electron occupying the 1s ground state. We briefly review the proposed method by which we intend to detect the laser spectroscopic signal. This complements our experiments on metastable antiprotonic helium atoms at CERN.

  11. Observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules.

    PubMed

    Bendkowsky, Vera; Butscher, Björn; Nipper, Johannes; Shaffer, James P; Löw, Robert; Pfau, Tilman

    2009-04-23

    Rydberg atoms have an electron in a state with a very high principal quantum number, and as a result can exhibit unusually long-range interactions. One example is the bonding of two such atoms by multipole forces to form Rydberg-Rydberg molecules with very large internuclear distances. Notably, bonding interactions can also arise from the low-energy scattering of a Rydberg electron with negative scattering length from a ground-state atom. In this case, the scattering-induced attractive interaction binds the ground-state atom to the Rydberg atom at a well-localized position within the Rydberg electron wavefunction and thereby yields giant molecules that can have internuclear separations of several thousand Bohr radii. Here we report the spectroscopic characterization of such exotic molecular states formed by rubidium Rydberg atoms that are in the spherically symmetric s state and have principal quantum numbers, n, between 34 and 40. We find that the spectra of the vibrational ground state and of the first excited state of the Rydberg molecule, the rubidium dimer Rb(5s)-Rb(ns), agree well with simple model predictions. The data allow us to extract the s-wave scattering length for scattering between the Rydberg electron and the ground-state atom, Rb(5s), in the low-energy regime (kinetic energy, <100 meV), and to determine the lifetimes and the polarizabilities of the Rydberg molecules. Given our successful characterization of s-wave bound Rydberg states, we anticipate that p-wave bound states, trimer states and bound states involving a Rydberg electron with large angular momentum-so-called trilobite molecules-will also be realized and directly probed in the near future. PMID:19396141

  12. Ground State Hyperfine Structure of Muonic Helium Atom

    E-print Network

    A. A. Krutov; A. P. Martynenko

    2008-07-21

    On the basis of the perturbation theory in the fine structure constant $\\alpha$ and the ratio of the electron to muon masses we calculate one-loop vacuum polarization and electron vertex corrections and the nuclear structure corrections to the hyperfine splitting of the ground state of muonic helium atom $(\\mu e ^4_2He)$. We obtain total result for the ground state hyperfine splitting $\\Delta \

  13. Spectroscopic signatures of dressed Rydberg-Rydberg interactions in Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Rick; Hazzard, Kaden

    2015-05-01

    Ultracold Rydberg-dressed atoms exhibit strong, long-range interactions that can potentially create exotic phases of matter and entangled states that are useful in quantum computation and metrology. Rydberg-dressed atoms are obtained by off-resonantly admixing a Rydberg state | R > into a long-lived electronic state, often the ground state. As a tool to observe dressed Rydberg interactions, we theoretically consider a spectroscopic method that relies on strontium's unique long-lived (~ 23 ? s) electronic excited state 3P1. Specifically, we consider an effective two level system: the electronic ground state | G > and the Rydberg dressed state | D > = | 3 P1 > + ? | R > with ? << 1 . Using spin language to describe this two level system, our proposed Ramsey scheme rotates the spins by angle ?, allows the atoms to interact for a time t, and then measures the final spin vector. Our calculation is exact and includes experimental complications, such as dissipation and pulse timing errors. Excitingly, the dependence of the spin vector on time and ? can be used to experimentally measure the strength and power law dependence of the dressed Rydberg atom interaction.

  14. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 90, 053804 (2014) Scattering resonances and bound states for strongly interacting Rydberg polaritons

    E-print Network

    2014-01-01

    Rydberg polaritons P. Bienias,1,*, S. Choi,2,* O. Firstenberg,2 M. F. Maghrebi,3 M. Gullans,3 M. D. Lukin error corrected 4 May 2015) We provide a theoretical framework describing slow-light polaritons of two polaritons. We identify parameter regimes where polariton-polariton interactions are repulsive

  15. Simulations of the effect of final state interactions on the scattering reponses of helium droplets 

    E-print Network

    Yang, Jian

    1996-01-01

    We study the effect of final state interactions (FSI) on the scattering responses of Helium droplets. By computing the s-wave component of the one-body density matrix of a Helium droplet, we find strong similarity between ...

  16. Ab initio potential energy curves of the valence, Rydberg, and ion-pair states of iodine monochloride, ICl

    SciTech Connect

    Kalemos, Apostolos; Prosmiti, Rita

    2014-09-14

    We present for the first time a coherent ab initio study of 39 states of valence, Rydberg, and ion-pair character of the diatomic interhalogen ICl species through large scale multireference variational methods including spin-orbit effects coupled with quantitative basis sets. Various avoided crossings are responsible for a non-adiabatic behaviour creating a wonderful vista for its theoretical description. Our molecular constants are compared with all available experimental data with the aim to assist experimentalists especially in the high energy regime of up to ?95?000 cm{sup ?1}.

  17. Artificial Rydberg Atom

    E-print Network

    Yong S. Joe; Vanik E. Mkrtchian; Sun H. Lee

    2008-10-01

    We analyze bound states of an electron in the field of a positively charged nanoshell. We find that the binding and excitation energies of the system decrease when the radius of the nanoshell increases. We also show that the ground and the first excited states of this system have remarkably the same properties of the highly excited Rydberg states of a hydrogen-like atom i.e. a high sensitivity to the external perturbations and long radiative lifetimes.

  18. Interactions of Rydberg atoms in a Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia; Gacesa, Marko; Côté, Robin

    2014-05-01

    Recent developments in ultracold Rydberg gases led to the prediction and discovery of ultra-long-range Rydberg molecules. A Rydberg atom can interact with a ground state atom and form a bound state, the so-called ``trilobite state,'' via an oscillatory Born-Oppenheimer potential arising from Rydberg electron-ground state atom low-energy scattering. Two Rydberg atoms can also be bound via a dispersion potential, and form a ``macrodimer.'' Here we consider two Rydberg atoms immersed in a dilute Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The interaction between the two Rydberg atoms is studied, and the formation of a possible ultra-long-range Rydberg molecule is shown. Partially supported by DOE (JW), NSF (MG), and ARO (RC).

  19. Quantum mechanical calculation of Rydberg-Rydberg Auger decay rates

    E-print Network

    Kiffner, Martin; Li, Wenhui; Jaksch, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    We present quantum mechanical calculations of the Auger decay rate $\\Gamma_A$ of two Rubidium Rydberg atoms with weakly overlapping electron clouds. The two-electron wavefunction is modelled by a single Slater determinant of $nd$ Rydberg orbitals with principal quantum number $n\\le35$. The dependence of $\\Gamma_A$ on the atom-atom separation $R$ is well described by a power law $\\Gamma_A \\propto R^{\\alpha}$ and we calculate the exponents $\\alpha$ for various initial states. For atomic separations equal to the size of the Rydberg electron wave function $R_n$ we find that $\\Gamma_A \\propto n^{-5}$. We discuss the importance of Auger decay compared to other contributions to the electron dynamics in the two Rydberg atom system.

  20. Observation of intracluster Coulombic decay of Rydberg-like states triggered by intense near-infrared pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schütte, Bernd; Arbeiter, Mathias; Fennel, Thomas; Jabbari, Ghazal; Gokhberg, Kirill; Kuleff, Alexander I.; Vrakking, Marc J. J.; Rouzée, Arnaud

    2015-05-01

    Interatomic Coulombic decay (ICD) describes a process, where an excited atom relaxes by transferring its energy to an atom in the environment that gets ionized. So far, ICD has been observed following XUV ionization or excitation of clusters. Here we present novel results of an intracluster Coulombic decay mechanism induced by intense NIR pulses and following Rydberg atom formation in the generated nanoplasma. When a highly-excited Rydberg atom relaxes to its ground state by transferring its excess energy to a weakly bound electron in the environment, electrons with kinetic energies close to the atomic ionization potential are emitted. We show evidence for such an intracluster Coulombic decay process that leaves clear signatures in the electron kinetic energy spectra. ICD is time-resolved in a pump-probe experiment, where a weak probe pulse depopulates the excited states, leading to a quenching of the ICD signal. We find a decay time of 87 ps, which is siginificantly longer than for previous ICD observations, where inner-shell holes were created by XUV pulses. Intracluster Coulombic decay is found to be a generic process that takes places in atomic and molecular clusters and at different wavelengths. It may play an important role in biological systems and in astronomical plasmas. Previous affiliation: Max-Born-Institut, Berlin, Germany.

  1. Core-Penetrating Rydberg Series of BaF: New Electronic States in the n* ? 4 Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakubek, Zygmunt J.; Field, Robert W.

    1996-09-01

    We report results of our studies of the electronic spectrum of the BaF molecule in the energy region of T0= 31 460-32 400 cm -1(3.88 < n* < 4.16). We have observed four new electronic states (all constants in cm -1): K2? 1/2( T0= 31 996), 4.08 2? +( T0= 32 166.293(2), B0= 0.2333892(17)), 3.94 2? ( T1= 32 252.426(2), B1= 0.2294684(16), A1= 0.879(13)), and J2? ( T0= 32 297.918(2), B0= 0.22952165(51), A0= 57.196(1)). In addition, the previously observed G2? +( T0= 30 969.715(2), B0= 0.2297411(13)) and H2? +( T0= 31 606.238(2), B0= 0.23031573(85)) states were rotationally analyzed for the first time. We verified by isotope analysis that the G2? +state, previously reported by J. Singh and H. Mohan [ Indian J. Pure Appl. Phys.11,918-922 (1973)], had been incorrectly assigned vibrationally. The I2? +state, which Singh and Mohan observed at low resolution, was absent from our spectra and we suspect that this state belongs to a species other than BaF. Electronic term values for the remaining seven not yet observed BaF core-penetrating Rydberg states below n* = 6 were predicted by interpolation of well-characterized Rydberg series. We suggest that the E? state, assigned by Effantin et al.as a 2? 1/2state [C. Effantin, A. Bernard, J. D'Incan, E. Andrianavalona, and R. F. Barrow, J. Mol. Spectrosc.145,456-457 (1991)] must be reassigned as a 2? state.

  2. Spectrum and polarization of helium doubly excited triplet states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Robert L.; Pinnington, Eric H.

    1980-08-01

    The beam-foil spectrum of helium from 2050 to 3600 Å has been acquired at 160-keV incident ion energy using a multiple-scan, computerized system. Eleven doubly-excited-state transitions, including two not previously observed, have been assigned, and the agreement between experimental and theoretical energy levels is excellent. The Stokes parameters as a function of foil-tilt angle have been measured for the two strongest transitions (2578 and 3013 Å) from 0° to 80° in 10° increments and for two weaker transitions (2562 and 2818 Å) at 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60°. The polarization patterns are quite different from those of the helium singlets and include the first measurement of negative MI (a Stokes parameter) at 0° foil tilt for helium at this energy. The lifetime of the 2578-Å transition has been investigated in detail. The present result, 0.109+/-0.004 ns, agrees with previous measurements and yields an upper limit to the autoionization width of the 2p3p 3D levels of 6×10-6 eV.

  3. State-to-state dynamics of high-n Rydberg H-atom scattering with H2: inelastic scattering and reactive scattering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shengrui; Su, Shu; Dai, Dongxu; Yuan, Kaijun; Yang, Xueming

    2015-04-21

    The state-to-state dynamics of high-n Rydberg H-atom scattering with para-H2 at the collision energies of 0.45 and 1.07 eV have been studied using the H-atom Rydberg tagging time-of-flight technique. Both the inelastic scattering and reactive scattering are observed in the experimental time-of-flight spectra. The products H2(v', j' = odd) come only from reactive scattering and present clearly forward-backward asymmetric angular distributions, which differ from those of the corresponding ion-molecule reaction. The products H2(v', j' = even), however, come from both reactive scattering and inelastic scattering. Simulating the rotational distribution from reactive scattering, we found that most of the H2(v', j' = even) products come from inelastic scattering. The angular distributions of the product H2(v', j' = even) are consistent with what is predicted by the conventional textbook mechanism of inelastic scattering, and are a little different from those of the corresponding ion-molecule inelastic scattering. These results suggest that the effect of Rydberg electron could not be neglected in describing the differential cross sections of H* + para-H2 scattering. From the simulation, the branching ratios of the inelastic scattering channel were determined to be 66% and 79% at the collision energies of 0.45 and 1.07 eV, respectively. PMID:25162182

  4. Study of Rydberg lifetimes in BEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanojevic, Jovica; Cote, Robin

    2015-05-01

    Recent experiments are probing the behavior of Rydberg atoms immersed in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). One of the surprising result is the large shortening of the lifetime of the Rydberg state, by orders of magnitude compared to Rydberg atoms in vacuum. In this presentation, we explore possible processes that might explain these observations. In particular, we investigate the l-mixing arising from the electron scattering with many perturbers, and reactions involving the positive Rydberg core. We will compare our results to the experimental values. This work is supported by NSF.

  5. arXiv:1402.7333v1[quant-ph]28Feb2014 Scattering resonances and bound states for strongly interacting Rydberg polaritons

    E-print Network

    interacting Rydberg polaritons P. Bienias,1, S. Choi,2, O. Firstenberg,2 M. F. Maghrebi,3 M. Gullans,3 M. D-light polaritons interacting via atomic Ryd- berg states. We use a diagrammatic method to analytically derive the scattering properties of two polaritons. We identify new parameter regimes where polariton-polariton

  6. Observation of the Efimov state of the helium trimer

    E-print Network

    Maksim Kunitski; Stefan Zeller; Jörg Voigtsberger; Anton Kalinin; Lothar Ph. H. Schmidt; Markus Schöffler; Achim Czasch; Wieland Schöllkopf; Robert E. Grisenti; Till Jahnke; Dörte Blume; Reinhard Dörner

    2015-12-07

    Quantum theory dictates that upon weakening the two-body interaction in a three-body system, an infinite number of three-body bound states of a huge spatial extent emerge just before these three-body states become unbound. Three helium atoms have been predicted to form a molecular system that manifests this peculiarity under natural conditions without artificial tuning of the attraction between particles by an external field. Here we report experimental observation of this long predicted but experimentally elusive Efimov state of $^{4}$He$_{3}$ by means of Coulomb explosion imaging. We show spatial images of an Efimov state, confirming the predicted size and a typical structure where two atoms are close to each other while the third is far away.

  7. Cs Trilobite Molecules and Rydberg Atom Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Donald; Tallant, Jonathan; Zabawa, Patrick; Parker, Gregory; Shaffer, James

    2013-05-01

    We present results on our Cs ultracold Rydberg atom experiments involving trilobite molecules and Rydberg atom interactions. A novel binding mechanism arises from the attractive, low-energy scattering of a Rydberg electron from a neighboring ground state atom. The states formed by this binding mechanism are referred to as trilobite states. Trilobite molecules are predicted to have giant, body-fixed permanent dipole moments (~ 1 kD). To verify these dipole moments, it is necessary to observe the response to the molecules to an electric field. We present measurements of the Stark shifts of the trilobite states in Cs due to the application of a constant external electric field. We also will present progress on studies of anisotropic Rydberg atom interactions including collision calculations. We will compare and contrast Cs trilobite molecules and Rydberg atom macrodimers. We acknowledge funding from the NSF and the AFOSR.

  8. An Experimental Apparatus for Studying Rydberg-Rydberg Interactions in Quantum Degenerate Gases of Strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, Francisco; Ding, Roger; Aman, James; Zhang, Xinyue; Whalen, Joseph; Fields, Robert; Dunning, F. Barry; Killian, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    We discuss the design and construction of a new apparatus for creating and studying long-range interactions in ultracold gases of strontium by exploiting Rydberg states, either through their direct excitation or through laser-induced Rydberg dressing. Strontium features one fermionic (87Sr) and three bosonic (84Sr, 86Sr, 88Sr) isotopes, all of which have been brought to quantum degeneracy. It also possesses singlet and triplet Rydberg states that furnish a wide variety of attractive and repulsive interactions. Furthermore, strontium Rydberg atoms feature an optically active core electron which can be used to manipulate and detect Rydberg atoms. These features make strontium a promising system for studying interactions in ultracold Rydberg gases. Research supported by Rice University, the NSF, the AFOSR, Shell, and the Robert A. Welch Foundation.

  9. Quadratic Zeeman effect in hydrogen Rydberg states: Rigorous error estimates for energy eigenvalues, energy eigenfunctions, and oscillator strengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falsaperla, P.; Fonte, G.

    1994-10-01

    A variational method, based on some results due to T. Kato [Proc. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 4, 334 (1949)], and previously discussed is here applied to the hydrogen atom in uniform magnetic fields of tesla in order to calculate, with a rigorous error estimate, energy eigenvalues, energy eigenfunctions, and oscillator strengths relative to Rydberg states up to just below the field-free ionization threshold. Making use of a basis (parabolic Sturmian basis) with a size varying from 990 up to 5050, we obtain, over the energy range of -190 to -24 cm-1, all of the eigenvalues and a good part of the oscillator strengths with a remarkable accuracy. This, however, decreases with increasing excitation energy and, thus, above ~-24 cm-1, we obtain results of good accuracy only for eigenvalues ranging up to ~-12 cm-1.

  10. Multichannel long-range Rydberg molecules

    E-print Network

    Eiles, Matthew T

    2015-01-01

    A generalized class of ultra-long-range Rydberg molecules is proposed which consist of a multichannel Rydberg atom whose outermost electron creates a chemical bond with a distant ground state atom. Such multichannel Rydberg molecules exhibit favorable properties for laser excitation, because states exist where the quantum defect varies strongly with the principal quantum number. The resulting occurrence of near degeneracies with states of high orbital angular momentum promotes the admixture of low $l$ into the high $l$ deeply bound `trilobite' molecule states, thereby circumventing the usual difficulty posed by electric dipole selection rules. Such states also can exhibit multi-scale binding possibilities that could present novel options for quantum manipulation.

  11. Fano Resonances observed in Helium Nanodroplets

    E-print Network

    LaForge, A C; Jabbari, G; Gokhberg, K; Kryzhevoi, N V; Krishnan, S R; Hess, M; O'Kee?e, P; Ciavardini, A; Prince, K C; Richter, R; Moshammer, R; Cederbaum, L S; Pfeifer, T; Stienkemeier, F; Mudrich, M

    2015-01-01

    Doubly-excited Rydberg states of helium (He) nanodroplets have been studied using synchrotron radiation. We observed Fano resonances related to the atomic N = 2,0 series as a function of droplet size. Although similar qualitatively to their atomic counterparts, the resonance lines are broader and exhibit a shift in energy which increases for the higher excited states. Furthermore, additional resonances are observed which are not seen in atomic systems. We discuss these features in terms of delocalized atomic states perturbed by the surrounding He atoms and compare to singly excited droplets.

  12. Measurement of absolute transition frequencies of {sup 87}Rb to nS and nD Rydberg states by means of electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, Markus; Karlewski, Florian; Hattermann, Helge; Hoeckh, Simone; Jessen, Florian; Cano, Daniel; Fortagh, Jozsef

    2011-05-15

    We report the measurement of absolute excitation frequencies of {sup 87}Rb to nS and nD Rydberg states. The Rydberg transition frequencies are obtained by observing electromagnetically induced transparency on a rubidium vapor cell. The accuracy of the measurement of each state is < or approx. 1 MHz, which is achieved by frequency stabilizing the two diode lasers employed for the spectroscopy to a frequency comb and a frequency comb calibrated wavelength meter, respectively. Based on the spectroscopic data we determine the quantum defects of {sup 87}Rb, and compare it with previous measurements on {sup 85}Rb. We determine the ionization frequency from the 5S{sub 1/2}(F=1) ground state of {sup 87}Rb to 1010.029 164 6(3)THz, providing the binding energy of the ground state with an accuracy improved by two orders of magnitude.

  13. Towards exciting a Rydberg gas in optical lattices.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjappa, Manukumara; Han, Jingshan; Guo, Ruixiang; Vogt, Thibault; Li, Wenhui; Quantum Matter Group Team

    2013-05-01

    Rydberg atoms are highly excited atoms with principal quantum number n >10. They have exaggerated properties such as large dipole moment and high polarizability. Large dipole-dipole interactions between Rydberg atoms, which lead to Rydberg blockade and giant non linearity, provide unique opportunities for studying quantum many-body physics. Rydberg excitation of ground state quantum gas in optical lattices has already shown the formation of spatially organized structures and Rydberg dressed systems are promising for entering the strongly correlated regime. Our current project is to study the collective excitation to Rydberg states from a quantum gas of ground state atoms in an optical lattice. In this poster we present the latest development in building up the experimental apparatus and our plans on spectroscopic measurements and spatially imaging of Rydberg excitations. Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore.

  14. Helium P-State Energies and Quantum Defect Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, Travis; Peck, Ryan; Drake, Gordon W. F.

    2015-05-01

    Quantum defects provide a simple and accurate method of extending known atomic energies for low principal quantum number n to higher n up to the series limit, and including the scattering phase shift beyond. We will present new calculations of improved accuracy for the 1 snp1 P and 3 P states of helium up to n = 12 , based on variational calculations in Hylleraas coordinates. The results will be used to determine accurate values for the coefficients in the quantum defect expansion, ? =?0 +?2 /n*2 +?4 /n*4 + ... , where n* = n - ? . We will also test the usual assumption that only the even powers of 1 /n* need be included. In addition, we will study the effectiveness of a unitary transformation in reducing the numerical linear dependence of the basis set for large basis sets. Research supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

  15. Two-Electron Excitation of an Interacting Cold Rydberg Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Millen, J.; Lochead, G.; Jones, M. P. A.

    2010-11-19

    We report the creation of an interacting cold Rydberg gas of strontium atoms. We show that the excitation spectrum of the inner valence electron is sensitive to the interactions in the Rydberg gas, even though they are mediated by the outer Rydberg electron. By studying the evolution of this spectrum we observe density-dependent population transfer to a state of higher angular momentum l. We determine the fraction of Rydberg atoms transferred, and identify the dominant transfer mechanism to be l-changing electron-Rydberg collisions associated with the formation of a cold plasma.

  16. Polarization control of absorption of virtual dressed states in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reduzzi, Maurizio; Hummert, Johan; Dubrouil, Antoine; Calegari, Francesca; Nisoli, Mauro; Frassetto, Fabio; Poletto, Luca; Chen, Shaohao; Wu, Mengxi; Gaarde, Mette B.; Schafer, Kenneth; Sansone, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    The extreme ultraviolet absorption spectrum of an atom is strongly modified in the presence of a synchronized intense infrared field. In this work we demonstrate control of the absorption properties of helium atoms dressed by an infrared pulse by changing the relative polarization of the infrared and extreme ultraviolet fields. Light-induced features associated with the dressed 1 s 2 s , 1 s 3 s , and 1 s 3 d states, referred to as 2 s+ , 3 s± , and 3 d± light-induced states, are shown to be strongly modified or even eliminated when the relative polarization is rotated. The experimental results agree well with calculations based on the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation using a restricted excitation model that allows efficient treatment of the three-dimensional problem. We also present an analysis of the light-induced states based on Floquet theory, which allows for a simple explanation of their properties. Our results open a new route to creating controllable superpositions of dipole allowed and nondipole allowed states in atoms and molecules.

  17. Long-range Rydberg-Rydberg interactions and molecular resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanojevic, J.; Côté, R.; Tong, D.; Farooqi, S. M.; Eyler, E. E.; Gould, P. L.

    2006-10-01

    We present a detailed theoretical treatment to describe the lineshape of molecular resonances in a cold dense gas of rubidium Rydberg atoms. Molecular potentials in Hund's case (c) are calculated by diagonalization of an interaction matrix. We show how the strong ?-mixing due to long-range Rydberg-Rydberg interactions can lead to resonances in excitation spectra. Such resonances were first reported in [S.M. Farooqi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003)], where single UV photon excitations from the 5s ground state occurred at energies corresponding to normally forbidden transitions or very far detuned from the atomic energies. Here, we focus our attention on resonances at energies corresponding to excited atom pairs (n - 1)p3/2+(n + 1)p3/2. Very good agreement between the theoretical and experimental lineshapes is found.

  18. Quantum Field Theory and the Helium Atom: 101 Years Later

    E-print Network

    J. Sucher

    1996-12-11

    Helium was first isolated on Earth in 1895, by Sir William Ramsey. One hundred and one years later, it seems like a good time to review our current theoretical understanding of the helium atom. Helium has played an important role in the development of both quantum mechanics and of quantum field theory. The early history of helium is sketched. Various aspects of the modern theory are described in some detail, including (1) the computation of fine structure to order \\alpha^2 Ry and \\alpha^3 Ry, (2) the decay of metastable states, and (3) Rydberg states and long-range forces. A brief survey is made of some of the recent work on the quantum field theory of He and He-like ions.

  19. XUV frequency comb metrology on the ground state of helium

    E-print Network

    Kandula, Dominik Z; Pinkert, Tjeerd J; Ubachs, Wim; Eikema, Kjeld S E

    2011-01-01

    The operation of a frequency comb at extreme ultraviolet (XUV) wavelengths based on pair-wise amplification and nonlinear upconversion to the 15th harmonic of pulses from a frequency comb laser in the near-infrared range is reported. Following a first account of the experiment [Kandula et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 063001 (2010)], an extensive review is given of the demonstration that the resulting spectrum at 51 nm is fully phase coherent and can be applied to precision metrology. The pulses are used in a scheme of direct-frequency-comb excitation of helium atoms from the ground state to the 1s4p and 1s5p 1P_1 states. Laser ionization by auxiliary 1064 nm pulses is used to detect the excited state population, resulting in a cosine-like signal as a function of the repetition rate of the frequency comb with a modulation contrast of up to 55%. Analysis of the visibility of this comb structure yields an estimated timing jitter between the two upconverted comb laser pulses of 50 attoseconds, whch indicates that e...

  20. Rotational Action Spectroscopy via State-Selective Helium Attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kluge, Lars; Stoffels, Alexander; Brünken, Sandra; Asvany, Oskar; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2015-06-01

    Helium atoms can attach to molecular cations via ternary collision processes forming weakly bound (? 1 kcal/mol) He-M^+ complexes. We developed a novel sensitive action spectroscopic scheme for molecular ions based on an observed rotational state dependency of the He attachment process [1]. A detailed account of the underlying kinetics will be presented on the example of the CD^+ ion, where our studies indicate a decrease of around 50% for the rotational state dependent ternary He attachment rate coefficient of the J=1 level with respect to the J=0 level. Experiments are performed on mass-selected ions stored in a temperature-variable (T? 3.9~K) cryogenic rf 22-pole ion trap in the presence of a high number density of He (? 1015 cm-3) [2]. Rotational spectra of the bare ions are recorded by measuring the change in the number of formed He-M^+ complexes after a certain storage time as a function of excitation wavelength. Here we will also present the first measurements of the rotational ground state transitions of CF^+ (J=1-0, hfs resolved) and NH_3D^+ (J_K=1_0-0_0), recorded in this way. [1] Brünken et al., ApJL 783, L4 (2014) [2] Asvany et al., Applied Physics B 114, 203 (2014)

  1. Phase Modulation in Rydberg Dressed Multi-Wave Mixing processes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Zheng, Huaibin; Yao, Xin; Tian, Yaling; Che, Junling; Wang, Xiuxiu; Zhu, Dayu; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2015-01-01

    We study the enhancement and suppression of different multi-waving mixing (MWM) processes in a Rydberg-EIT rubidium vapor system both theoretically and experimentally. The nonlinear dispersion property of hot rubidium atoms is modulated by the Rydberg-Rydberg interaction, which can result in a nonlinear phase shift of the relative phase between dark and bright states. Such Rydberg-induced nonlinear phase shift can be quantitatively estimated by the lineshape asymmetry in the enhancedand suppressed MWM processes, which can also demonstrate the cooperative atom-light interaction caused by Rydberg blockaded regime. Current study on phase shift is applicable to phase-sensitive detection and the study of strong Rydberg-Rydberg interaction. PMID:26053438

  2. Phase Modulation in Rydberg Dressed Multi-Wave Mixing processes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Zheng, Huaibin; Yao, Xin; Tian, Yaling; Che, Junling; Wang, Xiuxiu; Zhu, Dayu; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2015-01-01

    We study the enhancement and suppression of different multi-waving mixing (MWM) processes in a Rydberg-EIT rubidium vapor system both theoretically and experimentally. The nonlinear dispersion property of hot rubidium atoms is modulated by the Rydberg-Rydberg interaction, which can result in a nonlinear phase shift of the relative phase between dark and bright states. Such Rydberg-induced nonlinear phase shift can be quantitatively estimated by the lineshape asymmetry in the enhancedand suppressed MWM processes, which can also demonstrate the cooperative atom-light interaction caused by Rydberg blockaded regime. Current study on phase shift is applicable to phase-sensitive detection and the study of strong Rydberg-Rydberg interaction. PMID:26053438

  3. LBNL-42730 1 Collisional Perturbation of States in Atomic Ytterbium by Helium and Neon

    E-print Network

    Budker, Dmitry

    LBNL-42730 1 Collisional Perturbation of States in Atomic Ytterbium by Helium and Neon D in atomic ytterbium by helium and neon buffer gases are reported. We find upper limits for the quenching and neon. PACS numbers: 34, 11.30.Er, 42.62.Fi (Submitted to Phys. Rev. A) 1. INTRODUCTION The 6s2 1 S0 6s

  4. Observation of Rydberg blockade effects at very high n, n ~ 300 , using strontium n1F3 states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyue; Dunning, F. B.; Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2015-05-01

    Rydberg blockade at very high n, n ~ 300 , is examined using strontium n1F3 Rydberg atoms excited in a small volume defined by two tightly-focused crossed laser beams. Measurements of the number distribution of Rydberg atoms created show deviations from a Poisson distribution revealing sizeable blockade effects. The statistics of the number distribution are studied using a Monte Carlo method in which the interaction between strontium Rydberg atoms is evaluated by solving the Schrödinger equation within a two-active-electron model. The strength of blockade is analyzed in detail with respect to the alignment of two atoms relative to the laser polarizations. With careful control of the experimental parameters the probability for creating one, and only one, Rydberg atom, P(1) , in the excitation volume can be sufficiently large, P(1) > 0 . 6 , as to enable detailed studies of strongly-coupled Rydberg atom pairs. Research supported by the NSF, the Robert A. Welch Foundation, and the FWF (Austria).

  5. Guiding of Rydberg atoms in a high-gradient magnetic guide

    E-print Network

    Traxler, M; Hempel, C; Lundquist, K; Power, E P; Raithel, G

    2012-01-01

    We study the guiding of $^{87}$Rb 59D$_{5/2}$ Rydberg atoms in a linear, high-gradient, two-wire magnetic guide. Time delayed microwave ionization and ion detection are used to probe the Rydberg atom motion. We observe guiding of Rydberg atoms over a period of 5 ms following excitation. The decay time of the guided atom signal is about five times that of the initial state. We attribute the lifetime increase to an initial phase of $l$-changing collisions and thermally induced Rydberg-Rydberg transitions. Detailed simulations of Rydberg atom guiding reproduce most experimental observations and offer insight into the internal-state evolution.

  6. Millimeter-wave spectroscopy of Zn I in 1D2, 1F3 and 1G4 Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsenko, A. S.; MacAdam, K. B.; Dyubko, S. F.; Pogrebnyak, N. L.

    2015-12-01

    We have measured the frequencies of 24 transitions between Rydberg singlet L = 2–4 levels of zinc in the frequency range 79–285 GHz. The transitions were driven from 4snf 1F3 levels that were excited by two-step laser excitation through 4s4d 1D2. Single-photon 4snf 1F3 \\to 4s(n + 2)d 1D2, 4snf 1F3 \\to 4s(n + 3)d 1D2, 4snf 1F3 \\to 4s(n + 1)g 1G4, and two-photon 4snf 1F3 \\to 4s(n + 1)f 1F3 series for principal quantum number n = 28–40 were observed. Ritz expansion coefficients in the single-channel quantum defect theory were obtained for D, F and G states by least square fitting analysis of the spectra. An estimate of the dipole polarizability of Zn+ has been obtained.

  7. Rotationally resolved photoelectron spectra in resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization of HCl via the F 1?2 Rydberg state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kwanghsi; McKoy, V.

    1991-12-01

    Results of studies of rotational ion distributions in the X 2?3/2 and X 2?1/2 spin-orbit states of HCl+ resulting from (2+1') resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) via the S(0) branch of the F 1?2 Rydberg state are reported and compared with measured threshold-field-ionization zero-kinetic-energy spectra reported recently [K. S. Haber, Y. Jiang, G. Bryant, H. Lefebvre-Brion, and E. R. Grant, Phys. Rev. A (in press)]. These results show comparable intensities for J+=3/2 of the X 2?3/2 ion and J+=1/2 of the X 2?1/2 ion. Both transitions require an angular momentum change of ?N=-1 upon photoionization. To provide further insight into the near-threshold dynamics of this process, we also show rotationally resolved photoelectron angular distributions, alignment of the ion rotational levels, and rotational distributions for the parity components of the ion rotational levels. About 18% population is predicted to occur in the (+) parity component, which would arise from odd partial-wave contributions to the photoelectron matrix element. This behavior is similar to that in (2+1) REMPI via the S(2) branch of the F 1?2 state of HBr and was shown to arise from significant l mixing in the electronic continuum due to the nonspherical molecular ion potential. Rotational ion distributions resulting from (2+1) REMPI via the S(10) branch of the F 1?2 state are also shown.

  8. Determination of the binding energies of the np Rydberg states of H{sub 2}, HD, and D{sub 2} from high-resolution spectroscopic data by multichannel quantum-defect theory

    SciTech Connect

    Sprecher, Daniel; Merkt, Frédéric; Jungen, Christian

    2014-03-14

    Multichannel quantum-defect theory (MQDT) is used to calculate the electron binding energies of np Rydberg states of H{sub 2}, HD, and D{sub 2} around n = 60 at an accuracy of better than 0.5?MHz. The theory includes the effects of rovibronic channel interactions and the hyperfine structure, and has been extended to the calculation of the asymmetric hyperfine structure of Rydberg states of a heteronuclear diatomic molecule (HD). Starting values for the eigenquantum-defect parameters of MQDT were extracted from ab initio potential-energy functions for the low-lying p Rydberg states of molecular hydrogen and subsequently refined in a global weighted fit to available experimental data on the singlet and triplet Rydberg states of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2}. The electron binding energies of high-np Rydberg states derived in this work represent important quantities for future determinations of the adiabatic ionization energies of H{sub 2}, HD, and D{sub 2} at sub-MHz accuracy.

  9. On the spectrum, radial wave functions, and hyperfine splittings of the Rydberg states in heavy alkali atoms

    E-print Network

    Ali Sanayei; Nils Schopohl

    2015-11-10

    We calculate the bound state spectrum of the highly excited valence electron in the heavy alkali atoms solving the radial Schr\\"odinger eigenvalue problem numerically with an accurate spectral collocation algorithm that applies also for a large principal quantum number $n\\gg1$. As an effective single-particle potential we favor the reputable potential of Marinescu \\emph{et al}., {[}Phys. Rev.A \\textbf{49}, 982(1994){]}. Recent quasiclassical calculations of the quantum defect of the valence electron agree for orbital angular momentum $l=0,1,2,...$ overall remarkably well with the results of the numerical calculations, but for the Rydberg states of rubidium and also cesium with $l=3$ this agreement is less fair. The reason for this anomaly is that the potential acquires for $l=3$ deep inside the ionic core a tiny second classical region, thus invalidating a standard WKB calculation with two widely spaced turning points. Comparing then our numerical solutions of the radial Schr\\"odinger eigenvalue problem with the uniform analytic WKB approximation of Langer we observe everywhere a remarkable agreement, apart from a tiny region around the inner turning point. With help of an ansatz proposed by Fock we obtain for the \\emph{s}-states a second uniform analytic approximation to the radial wave function complementary to the WKB approximation of Langer, which is exact for $r\\to0^{+}$. The value of the radial \\emph{s}-wave function at $r=0$ is analytically found, thus validating the Fermi-Segr\\`e formula for the magnetic dipole interaction constant $A_{n,j,0}^{\\left(\\mathrm{HFS}\\right)}$.

  10. The Atomic Chameleons: Rydberg Wavepackets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Robert

    2007-06-01

    The ability to prepare Rydberg electrons in well-defined coherent superpositions and measure time-dependent changes in their quantum states allows one to take advantage of their exaggerated properties to explore a variety of phenomena. For example, we are currently using Rydberg wavepackets to investigate schemes for suppressing quantum decoherence in single-electron systems as well as for probing and controlling electron correlation in two-electron atoms. In the former case, we have successfully used time-dependent fields to decouple Rydberg atoms from a noisy environment, essentially eliminating wavepacket decoherence. In the latter experiments, we employ double Rydberg wavepackets to study controlled, strong-field, non-sequential double ionization in a previously unexplored regime. Specifically, we measure double ionization probability as a function of the energies and radial positions of two atomic electrons at the instant of their exposure to a strong, impulsive, half-cycle electric field. We are examining the possibilities for using double ionization as a probe of time-dependent electron correlation in these systems.

  11. A laser system for the excitation of rubidium Rydberg states using single pass second harmonic generation in a periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide crystal

    E-print Network

    Koglbauer, Andreas; Gericke, Tatjana; Ott, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    We report on a laser system at a wavelength of 495 nm which is suitable for the excitations of low lying Rydberg states of rubidium atoms. The system is based on frequency doubling of a seeded diode laser in a periodically poled waveguide crystal. We achieve an output power of up to 35 mW and prove the single frequency performance by direct two photon laser spectroscopy of the rubidium 14D_5/2 and 14D_3/2 states. The measured finestructure splitting is consistent with quantum defect theory calculations.

  12. Vacuum Ultraviolet Laser Photoion and Pulsed Field Ionization-Photoion Study of Rydberg Series of Chlorine Atoms Prepared in the 2PJ (J = 3/2 and 1/2) Fine-structure States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lei; Gao, Hong; Zhou, Jingang; Ng, C. Y.

    2015-09-01

    We have measured the high-resolution vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoion (VUV-PI) and VUV pulsed-field ionization-photoion (VUV-PFI-PI) spectra of chlorine atoms (Cl) in the VUV energy range 103,580-105,600 cm-1 (12.842-13.093 eV) using a tunable VUV laser as the photoexcitation and photoionization source. Here, Cl atoms are prepared in the Cl(2P3/2) and Cl(2P1/2) fine-structure states by 193.3 nm laser photodissociation of chlorobenzene. The employment of VUV-PFI-PI detection has allowed the identification of Rydberg transitions that are not observed in VUV-PI measurements. More than 180 new Rydberg transition lines with principal quantum number up to n = 61 have been identified and assigned to members of nine Rydberg series originating from the neutral Cl(2P3/2) and Cl(2P1/2) fine-structure states. Two of these Rydberg series are found to converge to the Cl+(3P2), four to the Cl+(3P1), and three to the Cl+(3P0) ionization limits. Based on the convergence limits determined by least-squares fits of the observed Rydberg transitions to the modified Ritz formula, we have obtained a more precise ionization energy (IE) for the formation of the ionic Cl+(3P2) from the ground Cl(2P3/2) state to be 104,591.01 ± 0.13 cm-1. This is consistent with previous IE measurements, but has a smaller uncertainty. The analysis of the quantum defects obtained for the Rydberg transitions reveals that many high-n Rydberg transitions are perturbed.

  13. Millimeter-wave spectroscopy and multichannel quantum-defect-theory analysis of high Rydberg states of xenon: The hyperfine structure of {sup 129}Xe{sup +} and {sup 131}Xe{sup +}

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Martin; Raunhardt, Matthias; Merkt, Frederic

    2010-03-15

    Millimeter-wave transitions between high-n Rydberg states of several isotopes of xenon have been recorded at sub-megahertz resolution. The fine and, for {sup 129}Xe and {sup 131}Xe, hyperfine structures of s, p, d, and f Rydberg states with principal quantum number in the range 52{<=}n{<=}64 have been determined from combination differences and analyzed using multichannel quantum defect theory. Improved eigenquantum defects and channel interaction parameters for the odd- and even-parity Rydberg states of xenon and the hyperfine structure of the {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} ground state of {sup 129}Xe{sup +} and {sup 131}Xe{sup +} have been obtained. Nearly degenerate p and d fine or hyperfine levels are very easily mixed by even weak stray electric fields.

  14. An analysis of Helium resonant states in terms of entropy, information, complexity and entanglement measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, J. P.; Sanz-Vicario, J. L.

    2014-04-01

    Shannon entropies and Fisher information calculated from one-particle density distributions and von Neumann and linear entropies (the latter two as a measure of entanglement) computed from the reduced one-particle density matrix are analyzed for the 1,3se,1,3 P0 and 1,3De Rydberg series of He doubly excited states below the second ionization threshold. We find that both Fisher information and entanglement measures are able to discriminate resonances pertaining to different (K,T)A series.

  15. S-states of helium-like ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liverts, Evgeny Z.; Barnea, Nir

    2012-03-01

    A simple Mathematica (version 7) code for computing S-state energies and wave functions of two-electron (helium-like) ions is presented. The elegant technique derived from the classical papers of Pekeris is applied. The basis functions are composed of the Laguerre functions. The method is based on the perimetric coordinates and specific properties of the Laguerre polynomials. Direct solution of the generalized eigenvalues and eigenvectors problem is used, distinct from the Pekeris works. No special subroutines were used, only built-in objects supported by Mathematica. The accuracy of the results and computation times depend on the basis size. The ground state and the lowest triplet state energies can be computed with a precision of 12 and 14 significant figures, respectively. The accuracy of the higher excited states calculations is slightly worse. The resultant wave functions have a simple analytical form, that enables calculation of expectation values for arbitrary physical operators without any difficulties. Only three natural parameters are required in the input. The new version of Mathematica code takes into account the fact that the negative hydrogen ion has only one bound state. New version program summaryProgram title: TwoElAtomSL(SH) Catalogue identifier: AEHY_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHY_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 27 998 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 286 543 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica 7.0 and 8.0 Computer: Any PC with a Mathematica installation Operating system: Any which supports Mathematica; tested under Microsoft Windows XP and Linux SUSE 11.0 RAM:?10 bytes Classification: 2.1, 2.2, 2.7, 2.9 Catalogue identifier of previous version: AEHY_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 182 (2011) 1790 Does the new version supersede the previous version?: Yes Nature of problem: The Schrödinger equation for atoms (ions) with more than one electron has not been solved analytically. Approximate methods must be applied in order to obtain the wave functions or other physical attributes from quantum mechanical calculations. Solution method: The S-wave function is expanded into a triple set of basis functions which are composed of the exponentials combined with the Laguerre polynomials in the perimetric coordinates. Using specific properties of the Laguerre polynomials, solution of the two-electron Schrödinger equation reduces to solving the generalized eigenvalues and eigenvector problem for the proper Hamiltonian. The unknown exponential parameter is determined by means of minimization of the corresponding eigenvalue (energy). Reasons for new version: The need to take into account the fact that the negative hydrogen ion ( Z=1) has only one bound (ground) state. Summary of revisions: Minor amendments were made in Cell 2 and Cell 5 of both TwoElAtomSH and TwoElAtomSL programs. Restrictions: Firstly, the too large length of expansion (basis size) takes too much computation time and operative memory giving no perceptible improvement in accuracy. Secondly, the number of shells ? in the wave function expansion enables one to calculate the excited nS-states up to n=?+1 inclusive. Running time: 2-60 minutes (depends on basis size and computer speed).

  16. Bond angle variations in XH3 [X = N, P, As, Sb, Bi]: the critical role of Rydberg orbitals exposed using a diabatic state model.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Jeffrey R; McKemmish, Laura K; McKenzie, Ross H; Hush, Noel S

    2015-09-23

    Ammonia adopts sp(3) hybridization (HNH bond angle 108°) whereas the other members of the XH3 series PH3, AsH3, SbH3, and BiH3 instead prefer octahedral bond angles of 90-93°. We use a recently developed general diabatic description for closed-shell chemical reactions, expanded to include Rydberg states, to understand the geometry, spectroscopy and inversion reaction profile of these molecules, fitting its parameters to results from Equation of Motion Coupled-Cluster Singles and Doubles (EOM-CCSD) calculations using large basis sets. Bands observed in the one-photon absorption spectrum of NH3 at 18.3 eV, 30 eV, and 33 eV are reassigned from Rydberg (formally forbidden) double excitations to valence single-excitation resonances. Critical to the analysis is the inclusion of all three electronic states in which two electrons are placed in the lone-pair orbital n and/or the symmetric valence ?* antibonding orbital. An illustrative effective two-state diabatic model is also developed containing just three parameters: the resonance energy driving the high-symmetry planar structure, the reorganization energy opposing it, and HXH bond angle in the absence of resonance. The diabatic orbitals are identified as sp hybrids on X; for the radical cations XH3(+) for which only 2 electronic states and one conical intersection are involved, the principle of orbital following dictates that the bond angle in the absence of resonance is acos(-1/5) = 101.5°. The multiple states and associated multiple conical intersection seams controlling the ground-state structure of XH3 renormalize this to acos[3?sin(2)(2(1/2)atan(1/2))/2 - 1/2] = 86.7°. Depending on the ratio of the resonance energy to the reorganization energy, equilibrium angles can vary from these limiting values up to 120°, and the anomalously large bond angle in NH3 arises because the resonance energy is unexpectedly large. This occurs as the ordering of the lowest Rydberg orbital and the ?* orbital swap, allowing Rydbergization to compresses ?* to significantly increase the resonance energy. Failure of both the traditional and revised versions of the valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory to explain the ground-state structures in simple terms is attributed to exclusion of this key physical interaction. PMID:26190514

  17. Cs Trilobite Molecules and Rydberg atom Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, Donald; Jin, Yang; Shaffer, James

    2014-05-01

    We present results on our Cs ultracold Rydberg atom experiments involving trilobite molecules and Rydberg atom interactions. Trilobite molecules are predicted to have giant, body-fixed permanent dipole moments (~ 1 kD). We present measurements of the Stark shifts of the trilobite states in Cs due to the application of a constant external electric field. We also will present progress on studies of anisotropic interactions between pairs of Rydberg atoms. We will focus on angular-dependent S-matrix calculations of collisions between 89D+89D Rydberg atom pairs in a 100 mV/cm electric field. In this field, the dipole-dipole interaction dominates over the van-der-Waals interaction, creating a large anisotropy in the potential surfaces. We acknowledge funding from the NSF and the AFOSR.

  18. Scattering properties of strongly interacting Rydberg polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Soonwon; Bienias, Przemek; Firstenberg, Ofer; Maghrebi, Mohammad; Lukin, Mikhail; Gorshkov, Alexey; Gullans, Michael; Buchler, Hanspeter

    2014-05-01

    The combination of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency(EIT) and strong Rydberg-Rydberg interaction can lead to a system of interacting polaritons. In this poster, we present a theoretical analysis of two-polariton dynamics in Rydberg EIT medium. We show that the effective polariton-polariton interaction is tunable to both attraction and repulsion and investigate its scattering properties. In the regime of attraction, we identify the formation of multiple two-polariton bound states and compute their dispersions. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results to the ongoing experiments and to the effective many body theory for strongly interacting Rydberg polaritons. We acknowledge support by the Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology, the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, EU Marie Curie ITN COHERENCE, and the National Science Foundation under Grant No. NSF PHY11-25915.

  19. Rydberg atom mediated polar molecule interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghpour, Hossein

    2012-06-01

    Manipulating Rydberg interactions in ultracold ensemble is currently in vogue due to the long-range nature of forces and large dipole moments. Interactions between ultracold Rydberg and ground state atoms lead for formation of exotic classes of Rydberg molecules with peculiar properties. A particular class of such homonuclear molecules was recently observed to exhibit linear Stark shifts, pointing to significant permanent electric dipole moments. The symmetry-breaking in these molecules is explained. Rydberg atom mediated coupling with polar molecules leads to formation of ultralong range polyatomic molecules, which can be employed to dramatically enhance the range of controlled interaction between polar molecules, to coherently control molecular orientation, and to individually address polar molecules in optical lattices. A number of scenarios are described.

  20. EDITORIAL: Special issue on Rydberg physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Côté, Robin; Pattard, Thomas; Weidemüller, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    Atoms and molecules in highly excited electronic states ('Rydberg atoms') have been the object of broad scientific research for almost a century. Despite this long history, the field of research has never lost its buoyancy, and recent years in particular have seen a tremendous revival of interest in the physics of Rydberg atoms and molecules from many different perspectives. Rydberg systems touch a wide range of research areas including, among others, ultralong-range molecules, artificial ('designer') atoms, quantum chaos, quantum information, ultracold Rydberg gases and plasmas, and anti-hydrogen formation. Due to the many fields involved, the physical insight and technical know-how are scattered over different communities. The goal of this special issue is to provide an integral overview of the latest developments in this highly innovative research field and to make the physical knowledge available to a wide audience. Groups from various fields of atomic, molecular and optical physics as well as condensed matter and plasma physics have contributed to this issue, which therefore spans a wide range of areas connected through the common theme: 'Rydberg physics'. This name was given to a four-week International Workshop and Seminar which was held from 19 April to 14 May 2004 at the Max-Planck-Institut für Physik Komplexer Systeme in Dresden, Germany, and organized by the three of us. The workshop and seminar programme was a very successful mixture of topics bringing together colleagues working in different but related areas of research centred about the physics of highly excited Rydberg atoms and molecules. We would like to take this opportunity to express our gratitude to the organization team of the MPI-PKS Dresden, especially the Director, Jan-Michael Rost, and the Visitors' Programme coordinator, Mandy Lochar. The generous support of the Max Planck Society, which made this successful workshop and seminar possible, is also gratefully acknowledged. Inspired by the great response to the 'Rydberg physics' conference we thought that it would be timely and appropriate to recognize the importance of Rydberg physics with a special issue of a scientific journal. The 'unbureaucratic' and highly efficient editorial and publishing team of Journal of Physics B: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics (J. Phys. B) allowed this to become a reality; it was a real pleasure for us to serve as guest editors. Unlike a conventional conference proceedings, this special issue has not been restricted to participants of the 'Rydberg physics' conference, and all the original papers contained in it have been peer-reviewed to the usual high standards of J. Phys. B. The variety and integrated discussion on the physics of Rydberg systems during the 'Rydberg physics' conference is reflected in the papers presented here. We have tried to group the papers according to the subject areas which are addressed. The first part of this special issue is devoted to high-resolution spectroscopy revealing deeper insights into the structure of Rydberg atoms and molecules as well as electronic interaction processes. The second part contains experimental and theoretical investigations on the influence of external static and oscillatory fields on Rydberg atoms. The third part takes account of the newly established field of ultracold Rydberg gases and plasmas with special emphasis on the appearance of ultralong-range interactions in these systems. Finally, the issue is concluded by articles on new developments including 'exotic' Rydberg systems. We would like to thank all of the participants of the 'Rydberg physics' workshop and seminar, and, in particular, the contributors to this special collection of papers, for their involvement. We are deeply indebted to the J. Phys. B editorial and publishing team both for making its realization possible in an extremely efficient way, and for the journal's commitment to the physics of Rydberg systems. We are impressed by the continuing progress in this fascinating and rapidly growing field of research and we look forward to many

  1. S-states of helium-like ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liverts, Evgeny Z.; Barnea, Nir

    2011-09-01

    A simple Mathematica (version 7) code for computing S-state energies and wave functions of two-electron (helium-like) ions is presented. The elegant technique derived from the classical papers of Pekeris (1958, 1959, 1962, 1965, 1971) [1-3] is applied. The basis functions are composed of the Laguerre functions. The method is based on the perimetric coordinates and specific properties of the Laguerre polynomials. Direct solution of the generalized eigenvalues and eigenvectors problem is used, distinct from the Pekeris works. No special subroutines were used, only built-in objects supported by Mathematica. The accuracy of the results and computation times depend on the basis size. The ground state and the lowest triplet state energies can be computed with a precision of 12 and 14 significant figures, respectively. The accuracy of the higher excited states calculations is slightly worse. The resultant wave functions have a simple analytical form, that enables calculation of expectation values for arbitrary physical operators without any difficulties. Only three natural parameters are required in the input. The above Mathematica code is simpler than the earlier version (Liverts and Barnea, 2010 [4]). At the same time, it is faster and more accurate. Program summaryProgram title: TwoElAtomSL(SH) Catalogue identifier: AEHY_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEHY_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 11 434 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 540 063 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica 7.0 Computer: Any PC Operating system: Any which supports Mathematica; tested under Microsoft Windows XP and Linux SUSE 11.0 RAM:?10 bytes Classification: 2.1, 2.2, 2.7, 2.9 Nature of problem: The Schrödinger equation for atoms (ions) with more than one electron has not been solved analytically. Approximate methods must be applied in order to obtain the wave functions or another physical attributes from quantum mechanical calculations. Solution method: The S-wave function is expanded into a triple set of basis functions which are composed of the exponentials combined with the Laguerre polynomials in the perimetric coordinates. Using specific properties of the Laguerre polynomials, solution of the two-electron Schrödinger equation reduces to solving the generalized eigenvalues and eigenvector problem for the proper Hamiltonian. The unknown exponential parameter is determined by means of minimization of the corresponding eigenvalue (energy). Restrictions: First, the too large length of expansion (basis size) takes the too large computation time and operative memory giving no perceptible improvement in accuracy. Second, the number of shells ? in the wave function expansion enables one to calculate the excited nS-states up to n=?+1 inclusive. Running time: 2-60 minutes (depends on basis size and computer speed).

  2. Density-functional calculations on singly and doubly excited Rydberg states of many-electron atoms

    E-print Network

    Chu, Shih-I; Roy, Amlan K.

    2002-05-07

    excited state energies is within about 0.01% for He (for other atoms, it is less than 0.2%), while that for the doubly excited states of He is well within 3.6%. The deviations in the calculated single- and double-excitation energies for 31 selected states...

  3. Are there Helium-like Protonic States of Individual Water Molecules in Liquid H2O?

    E-print Network

    Mueller-Herold, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Are there indications that individual H2O molecules in liquid water can loose their bent structure, i.e. that the protons give up their rigid angular correlation and behave largely uncorrelated, similar to electrons in the ground-state of helium? In agreement with the two-state picture of liquid water this would allow for the thermal coexistence of tetraedrically coordinated and spherical water molecules in the liquid. In the Hooke-Calogero model of a confined triatomic of XY2-type it is shown that energetically low-lying zero orbital-momentum states, which are bent if unconfined can change to helium-like shape under increasing confinement strength f. For the respective states this occurs at different values for f. It turns out that at f = 2.79 a bent and a helium-like state can thermally coexist. In order to characterize more precisely 'helium-like' angular correlation a maximum entropy estimate for the marginal correlation of electrons in the helium ground state is given. KEY WORDS: Liquid water, molecular ...

  4. Bound-state QED calculations for antiprotonic helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobov, Vladimir I.; Hilico, Laurent; Karr, Jean-Philippe

    2015-08-01

    We present new theoretical results for the transition energies of the hydrogen isotope molecular ions and antiprotonic helium atoms. Our consideration includes corrections at the m? 7 order in the nonrecoil limit such as the one-loop self-energy, one-loop vacuum polarization, Wichman-Kroll, and complete two-loop contributions. That allowed to get transition energies for the fundamental transition in the hydrogen molecular ion with the relative theoretical uncertainty of ˜7?10-12 that corresponds to a fractional precision of 1.5?10-11 in determination of the electron-to-proton mass ratio, m p / m e . Correspondingly, for the two-photon transitions in the antiprotonic helium we have 4.7?10-11 as a relative uncertainty for the transition frequency and a fractional precision of 3.6?10-11 for an inferred antiproton-to-electron mass ratio.

  5. 532-nm intensity-modulated optical lattice for driving Rydberg-Rydberg transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maclennan, Jamie; Moore, Kaitlin; Ramos, Andira; Raithel, Georg

    2015-05-01

    We present progress towards implementing an experiment to make a precision measurement of the Rydberg constant using circular-state Rydberg atoms. An independent measurement of the Rydberg constant will contribute to solving discrepancies in fundamental physics, most notably the ``proton radius puzzle''. The experiment relies on driving a circular to near-circular, n = 51 to 53 Rydberg-Rydberg transition. This transition was chosen because it is insensitive to nuclear charge distribution and first-order Stark and Zeeman effects, yielding less uncertainty in a Rydberg constant measurement. The Rydberg atoms are trapped in a 532-nm optical lattice, which is intensity-modulated so that its temporal harmonics drive the microwave-frequency transitions, so-called ``ponderomotive spectroscopy.'' We have previously demonstrated ponderomotive spectroscopy using 1064-nm light modulated by a fiber-based electro-optic modulator (EOM). Here, the 532-nm light offers the benefit of a ``magic wavelength'' for the transition. Finding a method to prepare a tunable, high-power, intensity-modulated optical lattice at 532 nm presents a substantial challenge. Here, we report on progress in overcoming this challenge as well as on other recent experimental developments.

  6. Ultracold chemistry of a single Rydberg atom in a BEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebisch, Tara Cubel; Schlagmueller, Michael; Westphal, Karl Magnus; Kleinbach, Kathrin; Hermann, Udo; Nguyen, Huan; Boettcher, Fabian; Loew, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman; Perez-Rios, Jesus; Greene, Chris

    2015-05-01

    A single Rydberg excitation in the high density and low temperature environment of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) leads to a fascinating testbed of low-energy electron-neutral and ion-neutral scattering. For a Rydberg state with a principal quantum number of 100, there are thousands of ground-state atoms with which the Rydberg electron interacts. In a BEC the interparticle spacing is at approximately the same length scale as the Langevin impact parameter, making it possible to study the effect of ion-neutral collisions on time scales much faster than the Rydberg lifetime. Collisions between the Rydberg electron and the ground state atoms cause a mean field density shift of the Rydberg line. We present results on how this effect can be used to monitor phase transitions of the BEC and probe thin density shells of the BEC to monitor density-dependent, ultracold chemical reactions. We report on experimental findings, of Rydberg state-changing collisions on ?s timescales, due to collisions of the Rydberg ionic core with neutral ground state atoms. We compare our findings to simulations based on classical trajectory calculations for the motion of the ionic core and neutral atoms, whereas the dynamics of the electron is treated quantum mechanically.

  7. Strong-field excitation of helium: bound state distribution and spin effects.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, H; Buller, J; Eilzer, S; Eichmann, U

    2015-03-27

    Using field ionization combined with the direct detection of excited neutral atoms we measured the distribution of principal quantum number n of excited He Rydberg states after strong-field excitation at laser intensities well in the tunneling regime. Our results confirm theoretical predictions from semiclassical and quantum mechanical calculations and simultaneously underpin the validity of the semiclassical frustrated tunneling ionization model. Moreover, since our experimental detection scheme is spin sensitive in the case of He atoms, we show that strong-field excitation leads to strong population of triplet states. The origin of it lies in the fact that high angular momentum states are accessible in strong-field excitation. Thus, singlet-triplet transitions become possible due to the increased importance of spin-orbit interaction rather than due to direct laser induced spin-flip processes. PMID:25860739

  8. Resonant Photovoltaic Effect in Surface State Electrons on Liquid Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinov, Denis; Chepelianskii, Alexei; Kono, Kimitoshi

    2012-09-01

    We observed an ultra-strong photovoltaic effect induced by resonant intersubband absorption of microwaves in a two-dimensional electrons system on the surface of liquid helium. The effect emerges in the regime of microwave-induced vanishing of dissipative conductance, ?xx? 0, reported previously [D. Konstantinov and K. Kono: Phys. Rev. Lett. 105 (2010) 226801] and is characterized by a nonequilibrium spatial distribution of electrons in the confining electrostatic potential. The electrostatic energy acquired by an electron exceeds other relevant energies by several orders of magnitude.

  9. Trapping Rydberg Atoms in an Optical Lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Sarah E.

    2012-06-01

    Optical lattice traps for Rydberg atoms are of interest in advanced science and in practical applications. After a brief discussion of these areas of interest, I will review some basics of optical Rydberg-atom trapping. The trapping potential experienced by a Rydberg atom in an optical lattice is given by the spatial average of the free-electron ponderomotive energy weighted by the Rydberg electron's probability distribution. I will then present experimental results on the trapping of ^85Rb Rydberg atoms in a one-dimensional ponderomotive optical lattice (wavelength 1064 nm). The principal methods employed to study the lattice performance are microwave spectroscopy, which is used to measure the lattice's trapping efficiency, and photo-ionization, which is used to measure the dwell time of the atoms in the lattice. I have achieved a 90% trapping efficiency for ^85Rb 50S atoms by inverting the lattice immediately after laser excitation of ground-state atoms into Rydberg states. I have characterized the dwell time of the atoms in the lattice using photo-ionization of 50D5/2 atoms. In continued work, I have explored the dependence of the Rydberg-atom trapping potential on the angular portion of the atomic wavefunction. Distinct angular states exhibit different trapping behavior in the optical lattice, depending on how their wavefunctions are oriented relative to the lattice planes. Specifically, I have measured the lattice potential depth of sublevels of ^85Rb nD atoms (50<=n<=65) in a one-dimensional optical lattice with a transverse DC electric field. The trapping behavior varies substantially for the various angular sublevels, in agreement with theory. The talk will conclude with an outlook into planned experiments.

  10. Trap losses induced by Rydberg dressing of cold atomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aman, J. A.; Desalvo, B. J.; Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.

    2015-05-01

    The near-resonant dressing of ultracold strontium gases and BECs contained in an optical dipole trap (ODT) with the n = 303S1 Rydberg state is investigated as a function of the effective two-photon Rabi frequency, detuning, and dressing time. The measurements demonstrate that, even when well detuned from resonance, such dressing can lead to a rapid decrease in the ground-state atom population in the ODT. This decrease is attributed to Rydberg atom excitation which can lead to direct escape from the trap and/or population of very-long-lived metastable states. The large Rydberg atom production rates are explained using a reaction model in which the initial excitation of a Rydberg atom triggers the excitation of neighboring atoms leading to rapid avalanche-like growth in the Rydberg population. Research supported by the AFOSR, the NSF and the Robert A Welch Foundation.

  11. Electromagnetically induced transparency and fluorescence in blockaded Rydberg atomic system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Cheng; Zheng, Huaibin; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Yunzhe; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-10-28

    We investigate the interaction between dark states and Rydberg excitation blockade by using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), fluorescence, and four-wave mixing (FWM) signals both theoretically and experimentally. By scanning the frequency detunings of the probe and dressing fields, respectively, we first observe these signals (three coexisting EIT windows, two fluorescence signals, and two FWM signals) under Rydberg excitation blockade. Next, frequency detuning dependences of these signals are obtained, in which the modulated results are well explained by introducing the dressing effects (leading to the dark states) with the corrected factor of the Rydberg excitation blockade. In addition, the variations by changing the principal quantum number n of Rydberg state shown some interesting phenomena resulting from Rydberg blockade are observed. The unique nature of such blockaded signals can have potential application in the demonstration of quantum computing.

  12. Theoretical studies of ZEKE spectroscopy and dynamics of high Rydberg states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi-Hsieh; Teranishi, Y.; Mineo, H.; Chao, S. D.; Selzle, H. L.; Neusser, H. J.; Schlag, E. W.; Lin, S. H.

    2010-02-01

    A main purpose of this Letter is to show how to employ the inverse Born-Oppenheimer approximation as a basis set to study zero kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy and the autoionization dynamics of the ZEKE states. The calculations of channel couplings, quantum defects, intensity borrowing, vibrational and rotational autotionizations will be demonstrated by using a homonuclear diatomic molecule as an example.

  13. Ultracold Long-Range Rydberg Molecules with Complex Multichannel Spectra.

    PubMed

    Eiles, Matthew T; Greene, Chris H

    2015-11-01

    A generalized class of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules is predicted which consist of a multichannel Rydberg atom whose outermost electron creates a chemical bond with a distant ground state atom. Such multichannel Rydberg molecules exhibit favorable properties for laser excitation, because states exist where the quantum defect varies strongly with the principal quantum number. The resulting occurrence of near degeneracies with states of high orbital angular momentum promotes the admixture of low l into the high l deeply bound "trilobite" molecule states, thereby circumventing the usual difficulty posed by electric dipole selection rules. Such states also can exhibit multiscale binding possibilities that could present novel options for quantum manipulation. PMID:26588378

  14. Ultracold Long-Range Rydberg Molecules with Complex Multichannel Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiles, Matthew T.; Greene, Chris H.

    2015-11-01

    A generalized class of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules is predicted which consist of a multichannel Rydberg atom whose outermost electron creates a chemical bond with a distant ground state atom. Such multichannel Rydberg molecules exhibit favorable properties for laser excitation, because states exist where the quantum defect varies strongly with the principal quantum number. The resulting occurrence of near degeneracies with states of high orbital angular momentum promotes the admixture of low l into the high l deeply bound "trilobite" molecule states, thereby circumventing the usual difficulty posed by electric dipole selection rules. Such states also can exhibit multiscale binding possibilities that could present novel options for quantum manipulation.

  15. Formation and properties of Rydberg macrodimers

    SciTech Connect

    Samboy, Nolan; Cote, Robin; Stanojevic, Jovica

    2011-05-15

    We investigate the interaction between two rubidium atoms in highly excited Rydberg states, and find that very long-range potential wells exist. These wells are shown to support many bound states. We calculate the properties of the wells and bound levels, and show that their lifetimes are limited by that of the constituent Rydberg atoms. We also show how these micrometer-sized bound states can be populated via photoassociation (PA), and how the signature of the admixing of various l characters producing the potential wells could be probed. We discuss sharp variations of the PA rate, which could act as a switching mechanism with potential application to quantum information processing.

  16. Rabi Oscillations between Ground and Rydberg States with Dipole-Dipole Atomic Interactions T. A. Johnson, E. Urban, T. Henage, L. Isenhower, D. D. Yavuz, T. G. Walker, and M. Saffman

    E-print Network

    Yavuz, Deniz

    Rabi Oscillations between Ground and Rydberg States with Dipole-Dipole Atomic Interactions T. A November 2007; published 19 March 2008) We demonstrate Rabi oscillations of small numbers of 87 Rb atoms interaction effects between as few as two atoms and by observation of coherent Rabi oscillations between

  17. Transfer of a weakly bound electron in collisions of Rydberg atoms with neutral particles. II. Ion-pair formation and resonant quenching of the Rb(nl) and Ne(nl) States by Ca, Sr, and Ba atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Narits, A. A.; Mironchuk, E. S.; Lebedev, V. S.

    2013-10-15

    Electron-transfer processes are studied in thermal collisions of Rydberg atoms with alkaline-earth Ca(4s{sup 2}), Sr(5s{sup 2}), and Ba(6s{sup 2}) atoms capable of forming negative ions with a weakly bound outermost p-electron. We consider the ion-pair formation and resonant quenching of highly excited atomic states caused by transitions between Rydberg covalent and ionic terms of a quasi-molecule produced in collisions of particles. The contributions of these reaction channels to the total depopulation cross section of Rydberg states of Rb(nl) and Ne(nl) atoms as functions of the principal quantum number n are compared for selectively excited nl-levels with l Much-Less-Than n and for states with large orbital quantum numbers l = n - 1, n - 2. It is shown that the contribution from resonant quenching dominates at small values of n, and the ion-pair formation process begins to dominate with increasing n. The values and positions of the maxima of cross sections for both processes strongly depend on the electron affinity of an alkaline-earth atom and on the orbital angular momentum l of a highly excited atom. It is shown that in the case of Rydberg atoms in states with large l {approx} n - 1, the rate constants of ion-pair formation and collisional quenching are considerably lower than those for nl-levels with l Much-Less-Than n.

  18. High-order-harmonic generation from Rydberg states at fixed Keldysh parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bleda, E. A.; Yavuz, I.; Altun, Z.; Topcu, T.

    2013-10-01

    Because the commonly adopted viewpoint that the Keldysh parameter ? determines the dynamical regime in strong field physics has long been demonstrated to be misleading, one can ask what happens as relevant physical parameters, such as laser intensity and frequency, are varied while ? is kept fixed. We present results from our one- and fully three-dimensional quantum simulations of high-order-harmonic generation (HHG) from various bound states of hydrogen with n up to 40, where the laser intensities and the frequencies are scaled from those for n=1 in order to maintain a fixed Keldysh parameter ?<1 for all n. We find that as we increase n while keeping ? fixed, the position of the cutoff scales in a well-defined manner. Moreover, a secondary plateau forms with a new cutoff, splitting the HHG plateau into two regions. The first of these subplateaus is composed of lower harmonics, and has a higher yield than the second one. The latter extends up to the semiclassical Ip+3.17Up cutoff. We find that this structure is universal, and the HHG spectra look the same for all n?10 when plotted as a function of the scaled harmonic order. We investigate the n, l, and momentum distributions to elucidate the physical mechanism leading to this universal structure.

  19. Progress towards deterministic generation of entangled W-states of neutral atoms using Rydberg blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Alexander T.

    Every day, millions of cubic feet of natural gas is transported through interstate pipelines and consumed by customers all over the United States of America. Gas distributors, responsible for sending natural gas to individual customers, are eager for an estimate of how much natural gas will be used in the near future. GasHour(TM) software, a reliable forecasting tool from the Marquette University GasDay(TM) lab, has been providing highly accurate hourly forecasts over the past few years. Our goal is to improve current GasHour forecasts, and my thesis presents an approach to achieve that using a blending technique. This thesis includes detailed explanations of the multi-horizon forecasting technique employed by GasHour models. Several graphs are displayed to reveal the structure of hourly forecasts from GasHour. We present SMHF (Smoothing Multi-horizon Forecasts), a step-by-step method showing how a polynomial smoothing technique is applied to current GasHour predications. A slightly different approach of smoothing has also been introduced. We compare RMSEs of both GasHour forecasts and smoothed ones. Different comparisons resulting from different situations have been demonstrated as well. Several conclusions have been reached. Based on the results, blending techniques can improve current GasHour forecasts. We look forward to applying this blending technique to other fields of forecasting.

  20. Direct detection of Rydberg-Rydberg millimeter-wave transitions in a buffer gas cooled molecular beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yan; Grimes, David D.; Barnum, Timothy J.; Patterson, David; Coy, Stephen L.; Klein, Ethan; Muenter, John S.; Field, Robert W.

    2015-11-01

    Millimeter-wave transitions between molecular Rydberg states (n ? 35) of barium monofluoride are directly detected via Free Induction Decay (FID). Two powerful technologies are used in combination: Chirped-Pulse millimeter-Wave (CPmmW) spectroscopy and a buffer gas cooled molecular beam photoablation source. Hundreds of Rydberg-Rydberg transitions are recorded in 1 h with >10:1 signal:noise ratio and ?150 kHz resolution. This high resolution, high spectral velocity experiment promises new strategies for rapid measurements of structural and dynamical information, such as the electric structure (multipole moments and polarizabilities) of the molecular ion-core and the strengths and mechanisms of resonances between Rydberg electron and ion-core motions. Direct measurements of Rydberg-Rydberg transitions with kilo-Debye dipole moments support efficient and definitive spectral analysis techniques, such as the Stark demolition and polarization diagnostics, which enable semi-automatic assignments of core-nonpenetrating Rydberg states. In addition, extremely strong radiation-mediated collective effects (superradiance) in a dense Rydberg gas of barium atoms are observed.

  1. Ground-State Entanglement Properties of Helium Atom in a Finite Spherical Cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko?cik, Przemys?aw; Saha, Jayanta K.

    2015-10-01

    The effects of the spatial confinement on the ground-state entanglement properties of the helium atom have been studied. The finite oscillator potential is used to represent the confining potential. The transition to the free atom regime and the harmonic confinement regime are discussed in detail in dependence of the control parameters of the system.

  2. Subcycle ac Stark Shift of Helium Excited States Probed with Isolated Attosecond Pulses Michael Chini,1

    E-print Network

    Van Stryland, Eric

    Subcycle ac Stark Shift of Helium Excited States Probed with Isolated Attosecond Pulses Michael York 14623, USA (Received 17 October 2011; published 16 August 2012) Recent advances in attosecond using isolated attosecond pulses in a transient absorption scheme and uncover a subcycle laser

  3. Resonant Photovoltaic Effect in Surface State Electrons on Liquid Helium Denis KONSTANTINOV

    E-print Network

    Shepelyansky, Dima

    Resonant Photovoltaic Effect in Surface State Electrons on Liquid Helium Denis KONSTANTINOV 1;2Ã, 2012; published online August 2, 2012) We observed an ultra-strong photovoltaic effect induced-conductance oscillations, photovoltaic effect A nondegenerate two-dimensional electron system can be formed on the surface

  4. Spin squeezing in a Rydberg lattice clock.

    PubMed

    Gil, L I R; Mukherjee, R; Bridge, E M; Jones, M P A; Pohl, T

    2014-03-14

    We theoretically demonstrate a viable approach to spin squeezing in optical lattice clocks via optical dressing of one clock state to a highly excited Rydberg state, generating switchable atomic interactions. For realistic experimental parameters, these interactions are shown to generate over 10 dB of squeezing in large ensembles within a few microseconds and without degrading the subsequent clock interrogation. PMID:24679291

  5. Filtering single atoms from Rydberg blockaded mesoscopic ensembles

    E-print Network

    Petrosyan, David; Mølmer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    We propose an efficient method to filter out single atoms from trapped ensembles with unknown number of atoms. The method employs stimulated adiabatic passage to reversibly transfer a single atom to the Rydberg state which blocks subsequent Rydberg excitation of all the other atoms within the ensemble. This triggers the excitation of Rydberg blockaded atoms to short lived intermediate states and their subsequent decay to untrapped states. Using an auxiliary microwave field to carefully engineer the dissipation, we obtain a nearly deterministic single-atom source. Our method is applicable to small atomic ensembles in individual microtraps and in lattice arrays.

  6. Filtering single atoms from Rydberg blockaded mesoscopic ensembles

    E-print Network

    David Petrosyan; D. D. Bhaktavatsala Rao; Klaus Mølmer

    2015-01-21

    We propose an efficient method to filter out single atoms from trapped ensembles with unknown number of atoms. The method employs stimulated adiabatic passage to reversibly transfer a single atom to the Rydberg state which blocks subsequent Rydberg excitation of all the other atoms within the ensemble. This triggers the excitation of Rydberg blockaded atoms to short lived intermediate states and their subsequent decay to untrapped states. Using an auxiliary microwave field to carefully engineer the dissipation, we obtain a nearly deterministic single-atom source. Our method is applicable to small atomic ensembles in individual microtraps and in lattice arrays.

  7. Filtering single atoms from Rydberg-blockaded mesoscopic ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrosyan, David; Rao, D. D. Bhaktavatsala; Mølmer, Klaus

    2015-04-01

    We propose an efficient method to filter out single atoms from trapped ensembles with unknown numbers of atoms. The method employs stimulated adiabatic passage to reversibly transfer a single atom to the Rydberg state which blocks subsequent Rydberg excitation of all the other atoms within the ensemble. This triggers the excitation of Rydberg-blockaded atoms to short-lived intermediate states and their subsequent decay to untrapped states. Using an auxiliary microwave field to carefully engineer the dissipation, we obtain a nearly deterministic single-atom source. Our method is applicable to small atomic ensembles in individual microtraps and in lattice arrays.

  8. Testing time-dependent density functional theory with depopulated molecular orbitals for predicting electronic excitation energies of valence, Rydberg, and charge-transfer states and potential energies near a conical intersection

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shaohong L.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2014-09-14

    Kohn-Sham (KS) time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) with most exchange-correlation functionals is well known to systematically underestimate the excitation energies of Rydberg and charge-transfer excited states of atomic and molecular systems. To improve the description of Rydberg states within the KS TDDFT framework, Gaiduk et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 253005 (2012)] proposed a scheme that may be called HOMO depopulation. In this study, we tested this scheme on an extensive dataset of valence and Rydberg excitation energies of various atoms, ions, and molecules. It is also tested on a charge-transfer excitation of NH{sub 3}-F{sub 2} and on the potential energy curves of NH{sub 3} near a conical intersection. We found that the method can indeed significantly improve the accuracy of predicted Rydberg excitation energies while preserving reasonable accuracy for valence excitation energies. However, it does not appear to improve the description of charge-transfer excitations that are severely underestimated by standard KS TDDFT with conventional exchange-correlation functionals, nor does it perform appreciably better than standard TDDFT for the calculation of potential energy surfaces.

  9. High Resolution Rydberg Spectroscopy of ultracold Rubidium Atoms

    E-print Network

    Grabowski, A; Loew, R; Pfau, T; Stuhler, J

    2005-01-01

    We present experiments on two-photon excitation of ${\\rm ^{87}}$Rb atoms to Rydberg states. For this purpose, two continuous-wave (cw)-laser systems for both 780 nm and 480 nm have been set up. These systems are optimized to a small linewidth (well below 1 MHz) to get both an efficient excitation process and good spectroscopic resolution. To test the performance of our laser system, we investigated the Stark splitting of Rydberg states. For n=40 we were able to see the hyperfine levels splitting in the electrical field for different finestructure states. To show the ability of spatially selective excitation to Rydberg states, we excited rubidium atoms in an electrical field gradient and investigated both linewidths and lineshifts. Furthermore we were able to excite the atoms selectively from the two hyperfine ground states to Rydberg states. Finally, we investigated the Autler-Townes splitting of the 5S$_{1/2}

  10. Equation of State Calculations of Hydrogen-Helium Mixtures in Solar and Extrasolar Giant Planets Burkhard Militzer1

    E-print Network

    Militzer, Burkhard

    Equation of State Calculations of Hydrogen-Helium Mixtures in Solar and Extrasolar Giant Planets for hydrogen-helium mixtures at conditions of giant planet interiors of 0.2-2.3 g cm-3 and 1000-80000 K. INTRODUCTION The Kepler mission has provided us with over 2000 exo- planet candidates 1 that vary widely

  11. Rydberg excitation of a single trapped ion

    E-print Network

    T. Feldker; P. Bachor; M. Stappel; D. Kolbe; R. Gerritsma; J. Walz; F. Schmidt-Kaler

    2015-06-19

    We demonstrate excitation of a single trapped cold $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ion to Rydberg levels by laser radiation in the vacuum-ultraviolet at 122 nm wavelength. Observed resonances are identified as 3d$^2$D$_{3/2}$ to 51 F, 52 F and 3d$^2$D$_{5/2}$ to 64F. We model the lineshape and our results imply a large state-dependent coupling to the trapping potential. Rydberg ions are of great interest for future applications in quantum computing and simulation, in which large dipolar interactions are combined with the superb experimental control offered by Paul traps.

  12. Rydberg Excitation of a Single Trapped Ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldker, T.; Bachor, P.; Stappel, M.; Kolbe, D.; Gerritsma, R.; Walz, J.; Schmidt-Kaler, F.

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate excitation of a single trapped cold 40Ca + ion to Rydberg levels by laser radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet at a wavelength of 122 nm. Observed resonances are identified as 3 d 2D3/2 to 51 F , 52 F and 3 d 2D5/2 > to 64 F . We model the line shape and our results imply a large state-dependent coupling to the trapping potential. Rydberg ions are of great interest for future applications in quantum computing and simulation, in which large dipolar interactions are combined with the superb experimental control offered by Paul traps.

  13. Rydberg excitation of a single trapped ion

    E-print Network

    Feldker, T; Stappel, M; Kolbe, D; Gerritsma, R; Walz, J; Schmidt-Kaler, F

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate excitation of a single trapped cold $^{40}$Ca$^+$ ion to Rydberg levels by laser radiation in the vacuum-ultraviolet at 122 nm wavelength. Observed resonances are identified as 3d$^2$D$_{3/2}$ to 51 F, 52 F and 3d$^2$D$_{5/2}$ to 64F. We model the lineshape and our results imply a large state-dependent coupling to the trapping potential. Rydberg ions are of great interest for future applications in quantum computing and simulation, in which large dipolar interactions are combined with the superb experimental control offered by Paul traps.

  14. Rydberg Excitation of a Single Trapped Ion.

    PubMed

    Feldker, T; Bachor, P; Stappel, M; Kolbe, D; Gerritsma, R; Walz, J; Schmidt-Kaler, F

    2015-10-23

    We demonstrate excitation of a single trapped cold ^{40}Ca^{+} ion to Rydberg levels by laser radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet at a wavelength of 122 nm. Observed resonances are identified as 3d^{2}D_{3/2} to 51F, 52F and 3d^{2}D_{5/2} to 64F. We model the line shape and our results imply a large state-dependent coupling to the trapping potential. Rydberg ions are of great interest for future applications in quantum computing and simulation, in which large dipolar interactions are combined with the superb experimental control offered by Paul traps. PMID:26551109

  15. The 2D Rydberg series in Al I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Peter R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1987-01-01

    High quality ab initio electonic structure calculations were performed on the 2D Rydberg series in Al I. The configuration 3s3p2(2D) is shown to contribute substantially to the lowest four 2D Rydberg states. The same configuration also contributes substantially to a 2D state embedded in the ionization continuum. Computed oscillator strengths for the first six members of the 2D Rydberg transitions are given: these should be of substantially high accuracy than currently available values.

  16. The 2D Rydberg series in Al I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Peter R.; Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Langhoff, Stephen R.

    1988-01-01

    High-quality ab initio electronic structure calculations have been performed on the 2D Rydberg series in Al I. The configuration 3s3p2(2D) is shown to contribute substantially to the lowest four 2D Rydberg states. The same configuration also contributes substantially to a 2D state embedded in the ionization continuum. Computed oscillator strengths for the first six members of the 2D Rydberg transitions are given: these should be of substantially higher accuracy than currently available values.

  17. Long-Range Molecular Resonances in a Cold Rydberg Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooqi, S. M.; Tong, D.; Krishnan, S.; Stanojevic, J.; Zhang, Y. P.; Ensher, J. R.; Estrin, A. S.; Boisseau, C.; Côté, R.; Eyler, E. E.; Gould, P. L.

    2003-10-01

    We present evidence for molecular resonances in a cold dense gas of rubidium Rydberg atoms. Single UV photon excitation from the 5s ground state to np Rydberg states (n=50 90) reveals resonances at energies corresponding to excited atom pairs (n-1)d+ns. We attribute these normally forbidden transitions to avoided crossings between the long-range molecular potentials of two Rydberg atoms. These strong van der Waals interactions result in avoided crossings at extremely long range, e.g., ˜58 000 times the Bohr radius (a0) for n=70.

  18. Quantum-optical nonlinearities induced by Rydberg-Rydberg interactions: A perturbative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grankin, A.; Brion, E.; Bimbard, E.; Boddeda, R.; Usmani, I.; Ourjoumtsev, A.; Grangier, P.

    2015-10-01

    In this article, we theoretically study the quantum statistical properties of the light transmitted through or reflected from an optical cavity, filled by an atomic medium with strong optical nonlinearity induced by Rydberg-Rydberg van der Waals interactions. Atoms are driven on a two-photon transition from their ground state to a Rydberg level via an intermediate state by the combination of a weak signal field and a strong control beam. By using a perturbative approach, we get analytic results which remain valid in the regime of weak feeding fields, even when the intermediate state becomes resonant thus generalizing our previous results. We can thus investigate quantitatively new features associated with the resonant behavior of the system. We also propose an effective nonlinear three-boson model of the system which, in addition to leading to the same analytic results as the original problem, sheds light on the physical processes at work in the system.

  19. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with a Rydberg-blocked atomic ensemble

    SciTech Connect

    Guerlin, Christine; Brion, Etienne; Esslinger, Tilman; Moelmer, Klaus

    2010-11-15

    The realization of a Jaynes-Cummings model in the optical domain is proposed for an atomic ensemble. The scheme exploits the collective coupling of the atoms to a quantized cavity mode and the nonlinearity introduced by coupling to high-lying Rydberg states. A two-photon transition resonantly couples the single-atom ground state |g> to a Rydberg state |e> via a nonresonant intermediate state |i>, but due to the interaction between Rydberg atoms only a single atom can be resonantly excited in the ensemble. This restricts the state space of the ensemble to the collective ground state |G> and the collectively excited state |E> with a single Rydberg excitation distributed evenly on all atoms. The collectively enhanced coupling of all atoms to the cavity field with coherent coupling strengths which are much larger than the decay rates in the system leads to the strong coupling regime of the resulting effective Jaynes-Cummings model. We use numerical simulations to show that the cavity transmission can be used to reveal detailed properties of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder of excited states and that the atomic nonlinearity gives rise to highly nontrivial photon emission from the cavity. Finally, we suggest that the absence of interactions between remote Rydberg atoms may, due to a combinatorial effect, induce a cavity-assisted excitation blockade whose range is larger than the typical Rydberg dipole-dipole interaction length.

  20. Rydberg Spectroscopy in an Optical Lattice: Blackbody Thermometry for Atomic Clocks

    E-print Network

    Vitali D. Ovsiannikov; Andrei Derevianko; Kurt Gibble

    2011-07-15

    We show that optical spectroscopy of Rydberg states can provide accurate {\\em in situ} thermometry at room-temperature. Transitions from a metastable state to Rydberg states with principal quantum numbers of 25 to 30 have 200 times larger fractional frequency sensitivities to blackbody radiation than the Strontium clock transition. We demonstrate that magic wavelength lattices exist for both Strontium and Ytterbium transitions between the metastable and Rydberg states. Frequency measurements of Rydberg transitions with $10^{-16}$ accuracy provide $10 \\, \\mathrm{mK}$ resolution and yield a blackbody uncertainty for the clock transition of $10^{-18}$.

  1. Rydberg Spectroscopy in an Optical Lattice: Blackbody Thermometry for Atomic Clocks

    SciTech Connect

    Ovsiannikov, Vitali D.; Derevianko, Andrei; Gibble, Kurt

    2011-08-26

    We show that optical spectroscopy of Rydberg states can provide accurate in situ thermometry at room temperature. Transitions from a metastable state to Rydberg states with principal quantum numbers of 25-30 have 200 times larger fractional frequency sensitivities to blackbody radiation than the strontium clock transition. We demonstrate that magic-wavelength lattices exist for both strontium and ytterbium transitions between the metastable and Rydberg states. Frequency measurements of Rydberg transitions with 10{sup -16} accuracy provide 10 mK resolution and yield a blackbody uncertainty for the clock transition of 10{sup -18}.

  2. Rydberg spectroscopy in an optical lattice: blackbody thermometry for atomic clocks.

    PubMed

    Ovsiannikov, Vitali D; Derevianko, Andrei; Gibble, Kurt

    2011-08-26

    We show that optical spectroscopy of Rydberg states can provide accurate in situ thermometry at room temperature. Transitions from a metastable state to Rydberg states with principal quantum numbers of 25-30 have 200 times larger fractional frequency sensitivities to blackbody radiation than the strontium clock transition. We demonstrate that magic-wavelength lattices exist for both strontium and ytterbium transitions between the metastable and Rydberg states. Frequency measurements of Rydberg transitions with 10(-16) accuracy provide 10 mK resolution and yield a blackbody uncertainty for the clock transition of 10(-18). PMID:21929236

  3. Evolution dynamics of a dense frozen Rydberg gas to plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Li Wenhui; Noel, Michael W.; Robinson, Michael P.; Tanner, Paul J.; Gallagher, Thomas F.; Comparat, Daniel; Laburthe Tolra, Bruno; Vanhaecke, Nicolas; Vogt, Thibault; Zahzam, Nassim; Pillet, Pierre; Tate, Duncan A.

    2004-10-01

    Dense samples of cold Rydberg atoms have previously been observed to spontaneously evolve to a plasma, despite the fact that each atom may be bound by as much as 100 cm{sup -1}. Initially, ionization is caused by blackbody photoionization and Rydberg-Rydberg collisions. After the first electrons leave the interaction region, the net positive charge traps subsequent electrons. As a result, rapid ionization starts to occur after 1 {mu}s caused by electron-Rydberg collisions. The resulting cold plasma expands slowly and persists for tens of microseconds. While the initial report on this process identified the key issues described above, it failed to resolve one key aspect of the evolution process. Specifically, redistribution of population to Rydberg states other than the one initially populated was not observed, a necessary mechanism to maintain the energy balance in the system. Here we report new and expanded observations showing such redistribution and confirming theoretical predictions concerning the evolution to a plasma. These measurements also indicate that, for high n states of purely cold Rydberg samples, the initial ionization process which leads to electron trapping is one involving the interactions between Rydberg atoms.

  4. Spontaneous Avalanche Ionization of a Strongly Blockaded Rydberg Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, M.; Hofmann, C. S.; Schempp, H.; Günter, G.; Whitlock, S.; Weidemüller, M.

    2013-01-01

    We report the sudden and spontaneous evolution of an initially correlated gas of repulsively interacting Rydberg atoms to an ultracold plasma. Under continuous laser coupling we create a Rydberg ensemble in the strong blockade regime, which at longer times undergoes an ionization avalanche. By combining optical imaging and ion detection, we access the full information on the dynamical evolution of the system, including the rapid increase in the number of ions and a sudden depletion of the Rydberg and ground state densities. Rydberg-Rydberg interactions are observed to strongly affect the dynamics of plasma formation. Using a coupled rate-equation model to describe our data, we extract the average energy of electrons trapped in the plasma, and an effective cross section for ionizing collisions between Rydberg atoms and atoms in low-lying states. Our results suggest that the initial correlations of the Rydberg ensemble should persist through the avalanche. This would provide the means to overcome disorder-induced heating, and offer a route to enter new strongly coupled regimes.

  5. Optical nanoscopy with excited state saturation at liquid helium temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, B.; Trebbia, J.-B.; Baby, R.; Tamarat, Ph.; Lounis, B.

    2015-10-01

    Optical resolution of solid-state single quantum emitters at the nanometre scale is a challenging step towards the control of delocalized states formed by strongly and coherently interacting emitters. We have developed a simple super-resolution optical microscopy method operating at cryogenic temperatures, which is based on optical saturation of the excited state of single fluorescent molecules with a doughnut-shaped beam. Sub-10 nm resolution is achieved with extremely low excitation intensities, a million times lower than those used in room-temperature stimulated emission depletion microscopy. Compared with super-localization approaches, our technique offers a unique opportunity to super-resolve single molecules with overlapping optical resonance frequencies and paves the way to the study of coherent interactions between single emitters and to the manipulation of their degree of entanglement.

  6. Ultrafast structural dynamics and isomerization in Rydberg-exited Quadricyclane

    SciTech Connect

    Rudakov, Fedor M

    2012-01-01

    The quadricyclane - norbornadiene system is an important model for the isomerization dynamics between highly strained molecules. In a breakthrough observation for a polyatomic molecular system of that complexity, we follow the photoionization from Rydberg states in the time-domain to derive a measure for the time-dependent structural dynamics and the time-evolving structural dispersion even while the molecule is crossing electronic surfaces. The photoexcitation to the 3s and 3p Rydberg states deposits significant amounts of energy into vibrational motions. We observe the formation and evolution of the vibrational wavepacket on the Rydberg surface and the internal conversion from the 3p Rydberg states to the 3s state. In that state, quadricyclane isomerizes to norbornadiene with a time constant of {tau}{sub 2} = 136(45) fs. The lifetime of the 3p Rydberg state in quadricyclane is {tau}{sub 1} = 320(31) and the lifetime of the 3s Rydberg state in norbornadiene is {tau}{sub 3} = 394(32).

  7. Tune-out wavelengths and landscape-modulated polarizabilities of alkali-metal Rydberg atoms in infrared optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topcu, Turker; Derevianko, Andrei

    2013-11-01

    Intensity-modulated optical lattice potentials can change sign for an alkali-metal Rydberg atom, and the atoms are not always attracted to intensity minima in optical lattices with wavelengths near the CO2 laser band. Here we demonstrate that such IR lattices can be tuned so that the trapping potential experienced by the Rydberg atom can be made to vanish for atoms in “targeted” Rydberg states. Such state-selective trapping of Rydberg atoms can be useful in controlled cold Rydberg collisions, cooling Rydberg states, and species-selective trapping and transport of Rydberg atoms in optical lattices. We tabulate wavelengths at which the trapping potential vanishes for the ns, np, and nd Rydberg states of Na and Rb atoms and discuss advantages of using such optical lattices for state-selective trapping of Rydberg atoms. We also develop exact analytical expressions for the lattice-induced polarizability for the mz=0 Rydberg states and derive an accurate formula predicting tune-out wavelengths at which the optical trapping potential becomes invisible to Rydberg atoms in targeted l=0 states.

  8. The role of correlation in the ground state energy of confined helium atom

    SciTech Connect

    Aquino, N.

    2014-01-14

    We analyze the ground state energy of helium atom confined by spherical impenetrable walls, and the role of the correlation energy in the total energy. The confinement of an atom in a cavity is one way in which we can model the effect of the external pressure on an atom. The calculations of energy of the system are carried out by the variational method. We find that the correlation energy remains almost constant for a range values of size of the boxes analyzed.

  9. Local Blockade of Rydberg Excitation in an Ultracold Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, D.; Farooqi, S. M.; Stanojevic, J.; Krishnan, S.; Zhang, Y. P.; Côté, R.; Eyler, E. E.; Gould, P. L.

    2004-08-01

    In the laser excitation of ultracold atoms to Rydberg states, we observe a dramatic suppression caused by van der Waals interactions. This behavior is interpreted as a local excitation blockade: Rydberg atoms strongly inhibit excitation of their neighbors. We measure suppression, relative to isolated atom excitation, by up to a factor of 6.4. The dependences of this suppression on both laser irradiance and atomic density are in good agreement with a mean-field model. These results are an important step towards using ultracold Rydberg atoms in quantum information processing.

  10. Standoff detection of large organic molecules using Rydberg fingerprint spectroscopy and microwave Rayleigh scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Rudakov, Fedor M; Zhang, Zhili

    2012-01-01

    We present a technique for nonintrusive and standoff detection of large organic molecules using coherent microwave Rayleigh scattering from plasma produced by structure sensitive photoionization through Rydberg states. We test the method on 1,4-diazobicyclooctane. Transitions between the 3s Rydberg state and higher lying Rydberg states are probed using two-color photoionization with 266?nm photons and photons in the range of 460-2400 nm. Photoionization is detected using microwave radiation, which is scattered by the unbounded electrons. Highly resolved Rydberg spectra are acquired in vacuum and in air.

  11. Excitation Efficiency of a Cold Rydberg Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanojevic, J.; Farooqi, S. M.; Tong, D.; Krishnan, S.; Zhang, Y. P.; Estrin, A. S.; Côté, R.; Calsamiglia, John; Eyler, E. E.; Gould, P. L.

    2003-05-01

    We have investigated the excitation efficiency of a cold gas to highly-excited Rydberg states. We start with ^85Rb atoms at a density of ˜10^11 cm-3 in a magneto-optical trap, and illuminate them with a narrow-band UV pulse (? = 297 nm, ? = 8 ns), resonant with a single-photon transition from the 5s ground state to 90p. The number of Rydberg atoms thereby excited is determined by field ionization and electron detection. For a UV intensity of 1500 MW/cm^2, roughly 130 times the single-atom saturation intensity, we find a surprisingly small excitation efficiency of ˜4 %. Free electrons produced during or within ˜25 ns of the laser pulse constitute a small fraction of the observed signal. This reduced excitation efficiency may be related to the dipole blockade mechanism ( M.D. Lukin, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87), 037901 (2001). where strong Rydberg-Rydberg interactions inhibit neighboring atoms from being excited.

  12. Three-Body Dissociation Dynamics of the Low-Lying Rydberg States of H3 and D3 Christopher M. Laperle, Jennifer E. Mann, Todd G. Clements, and Robert E. Continetti*

    E-print Network

    Continetti, Robert E.

    Three-Body Dissociation Dynamics of the Low-Lying Rydberg States of H3 and D3 Christopher M (Received 19 April 2004; published 8 October 2004) The dynamics of the three-body dissociative charge into the nuclear motion during dissociation for the three lowest-lying 2s 2A0 1, 2p 2A00 2 , and 3p 2E0 metastable

  13. Stability limit of a metastable state of hcp solid helium-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souris, Fabien; Grucker, Jules; Dupont-Roc, Jacques; Jacquier, Philippe; Atomes dans Monocristaux Team

    2013-03-01

    Solid helium has the unique feature of having an horizontal melting curve in the P,T plane. This offers novel opportunities to study the stability limits of a metastable solid, by using the pressure as a control parameter of the metastability. The metastable state is obtained by focusing a 1 MHz ultrasonic sound wave inside an helium-4 crystal. Around 4 bar below the melting pressure, the metastable crystal becomes unstable. Different configurations with one or two ultrasonic emitters have been used and lead to the same stability limit. This happens at much lower depression than predicted by nucleation theory or by quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Repeated experiments show that the instability initially appears as a small defect (~ 0 . 2 mm) located at the maximum isotropic strain. Further studies are performed to understand the underlying mechanism of the instability. Possible scenarios accounting for this unexpected observation are discussed.

  14. Ionization states of helium in He-3-rich solar energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.; Moebius, E.; Scholer, M.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    Results of a systematic study of the ionic charge state of helium in the energy range 0.6-1.0 MeV/nucleon for He-3-rich solar energetic particle events during the time period August 1978 to October 1979 are reported. The data have been obtained with the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland experiment on ISEE-3. Whereas for solar energetic particle events with no enrichment of He-3 relative to He-4 surprisingly large abundances of singly ionized helium have been reported recently, He-3-rich solar energetic particle events do not show significant abundances of He-3(+). This result is consistent with current theories explaining large compositional anomalies by mass per charge dependent selective heating of the minor ion species.

  15. Interactions between Rydberg atoms and ultracold polar molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Haruza, Marek; Bigelow, Nicholas P.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate dipolar interactions arising in a hybrid system containing both ultracold polar molecules and atomic Rydberg states. Ultracold NaCs molecules are produced by photoassociation from laser cooled mixtures of sodium and cesium atoms and detected through resonant multi-photon ionization (REMPI). Rydberg atoms with large dipole moments are excited in the atomic cloud using a multi-photon process and detected via field-ionization. We look for evidence of the interactions in the observed spectra.

  16. Apparatus for excitation and detection of Rydberg atoms in quantum gases

    E-print Network

    Robert Loew; Ulrich Raitzsch; Rolf Heidemann; Vera Bendkowsky; Bjoern Butscher; Axel Grabowski; Tilman Pfau

    2007-06-18

    We present and characterize a versatile experimental setup which allows for excitation and detection of Rydberg atoms in quantum gases. The novel concept of the setup features two charged particle detectors and eight electrical field plates inside the vacuum chamber, which allows the detection and manipulation of Rydberg atoms. The setup presented here is applicable to all atomic species used in the field of quantum gases. We describe and characterize the production of Bose-Einstein condensates, the excitation scheme into Rydberg states, the detection of Rydberg states by field ionization followed by ion detection and the various electric field configurations provided by the eight field plates.

  17. Apparatus for excitation and detection of Rydberg atoms in quantum gases

    E-print Network

    Loew, Robert; Heidemann, Rolf; Bendkowsky, Vera; Butscher, Bjoern; Grabowski, Axel; Pfau, Tilman

    2007-01-01

    We present and characterize a versatile experimental setup which allows for excitation and detection of Rydberg atoms in quantum gases. The novel concept of the setup features two charged particle detectors and eight electrical field plates inside the vacuum chamber, which allows the detection and manipulation of Rydberg atoms. The setup presented here is applicable to all atomic species used in the field of quantum gases. We describe and characterize the production of Bose-Einstein condensates, the excitation scheme into Rydberg states, the detection of Rydberg states by field ionization followed by ion detection and the various electric field configurations provided by the eight field plates.

  18. Carbon synthesis in steady-state hydrogen and helium burning on accreting neutron stars

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Jeremy; Brown, Edward F.; Cyburt, Richard; Schatz, Hendrik; Cumming, Andrew

    2014-08-20

    Superbursts from accreting neutron stars probe nuclear reactions at extreme densities (? ? 10{sup 9} g cm{sup –3}) and temperatures (T > 10{sup 9} K). These bursts (?1000 times more energetic than type I X-ray bursts) are most likely triggered by unstable ignition of carbon in a sea of heavy nuclei made during the rapid proton capture process (rp-process) of regular type I X-ray bursts (where the accumulated hydrogen and helium are burned). An open question is the origin of sufficient amounts of carbon, which is largely destroyed during the rp-process in X-ray bursts. We explore carbon production in steady-state burning via the rp-process, which might occur together with unstable burning in systems showing superbursts. We find that for a wide range of accretion rates and accreted helium mass fractions large amounts of carbon are produced, even for systems that accrete solar composition. This makes stable hydrogen and helium burning a viable source of carbon to trigger superbursts. We also investigate the sensitivity of the results to nuclear reactions. We find that the {sup 14}O(?, p){sup 17}F reaction rate introduces by far the largest uncertainties in the {sup 12}C yield.

  19. Rydberg atoms in hollow-core photonic crystal fibres.

    PubMed

    Epple, G; Kleinbach, K S; Euser, T G; Joly, N Y; Pfau, T; Russell, P St J; Löw, R

    2014-01-01

    The exceptionally large polarizability of highly excited Rydberg atoms-six orders of magnitude higher than ground-state atoms--makes them of great interest in fields such as quantum optics, quantum computing, quantum simulation and metrology. However, if they are to be used routinely in applications, a major requirement is their integration into technically feasible, miniaturized devices. Here we show that a Rydberg medium based on room temperature caesium vapour can be confined in broadband-guiding kagome-style hollow-core photonic crystal fibres. Three-photon spectroscopy performed on a caesium-filled fibre detects Rydberg states up to a principal quantum number of n=40. Besides small energy-level shifts we observe narrow lines confirming the coherence of the Rydberg excitation. Using different Rydberg states and core diameters we study the influence of confinement within the fibre core after different exposure times. Understanding these effects is essential for the successful future development of novel applications based on integrated room temperature Rydberg systems. PMID:24942281

  20. Probing a quantum gas with single Rydberg atoms

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Huan; Schlagmüller, Michael; Lochead, Graham; Westphal, Karl M; Löw, Robert; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Pfau, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel spectroscopic method for probing the \\insitu~density of quantum gases. We exploit the density-dependent energy shift of highly excited {Rydberg} states, which is of the order $10$\\MHz\\,/\\,1E14\\,cm$^{\\text{-3}}$ for \\rubidium~for triplet s-wave scattering. The energy shift combined with a density gradient can be used to localize Rydberg atoms in density shells with a spatial resolution less than optical wavelengths, as demonstrated by scanning the excitation laser spatially across the density distribution. We use this Rydberg spectroscopy to measure the mean density addressed by the Rydberg excitation lasers, and to monitor the phase transition from a thermal gas to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC).

  1. Antiprotonic helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu; Morita, Norio; Hayano, Ryugo S.; Widmann, Eberhard; Eades, John

    2002-08-01

    Antiprotonic helium, a neutral three-body system p¯e -He2+ (= p¯He+) , produced when antiprotons ( p¯) are captured in various phases of helium, comprises a series of long-lived ( ? ?s lifetime) states in which the p¯ orbits the helium nucleus in a localized trajectory with large principal and orbital quantum numbers ( n, l). Typically, n? M ?/m e?38 and l? n-1, where M ? is the reduced mass of the p¯-He system, whereas the electron occupies the ground 1s orbital. Because the p¯ moves slowly compared to the electron, this system possesses a dual character as both an exotic atom and a peculiar diatomic molecule, and is often called an antiprotonic helium atom-molecule, or atomcule for short. Its unique character of being metastable among p¯-containing atomic systems has permitted it to be studied with high-resolution laser spectroscopic techniques, yielding rich information on its formation, structure and decay. We first discuss the discovery at KEK Japan of the unexpectedly long survival time of p¯'s in liquid helium and the consequent systematic studies at the CERN LEAR facility of delayed annihilation time spectra of p¯'s stopped in various phases of helium. Theoretical models are introduced to explain the longevity and to predict the characteristic properties of antiprotonic helium. Laser spectroscopic studies have advanced and clarified the structure of the atomcule. These provide high-precision data on the transition energies which can be compared with advanced theories on the three-body Coulomb system. The latter now include QED effects to ppm precision, while the hyperfine structure has also been investigated experimentally and theoretically. Chemical physics aspects of antiprotonic helium are also described, including such environment-dependent effects as the dependence of its transition frequencies and level lifetimes on the phase and density of the surrounding helium, and the quenching of state populations by surrounding foreign atoms and molecules at impurity-level concentrations. The future scope of experiments on antiprotonic helium is discussed.

  2. Entanglement of Qubits Encoded in Cesium Atoms via Rydberg Dressing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu; Hankin, Aaron; Keating, Tyler; Deutsch, Ivan; Biedermann, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Neutral-atom qubits are normally encoded in the ground-state sublevels for long coherent operations, but strong, tunable long-range interactions between ground-state neutral atoms are difficult to achieve. By applying off-resonant Rydberg excitation lasers to the atoms, we can in principle generate Rydberg-dressed, AC-Stark shifted qubit or spin states. Owing to the electric dipole-dipole interactions (EDDI) between atoms in the Rydberg states, different collective qubit states can acquire different AC Stark shifts, which cause effective interactions between qubits. On the other hand, transition blockades between collective qubit states also occur. We have experimentally demonstrated a strong ground-state interaction strength (~ MHz) between the two singly trapped, Rydberg-dressed Cs atoms. With a transition blockade between the two-qubit states due to Rydberg dressing, we are able to produce Bell-state entanglements of with >80% fidelity excluding the atom loss event. The two-atom survival (no loss) probability is 74% with about 10 Hz data rate. This gives us about 6 entangled qubit pair per second.

  3. Observation of ultralong range Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, James

    2009-05-01

    In 1934, Enrico Fermi described the scattering of a low energy electron from a neutral atom by using the ideas of scattering length and pseudopotential. Although the long range potential for an electron-atom interaction is always attractive, Fermi realized that the s-wave scattering length that characterizes the low energy collision can be either positive or negative. For a positive scattering length, the wavefunction of the electron is shifted away from the atom, the electron is repelled; whereas for a negative scattering length, the wavefunction of the electron is shifted to the atom, the electron is attracted. Based on Fermi's approach, Greene and co-workers predicted a novel molecular binding mechanism where a low energy Rydberg electron is scattered from a ground state atom in the case of negative scattering length. In this situation, the interaction between the electron and ground state atom is attractive and results in the formation of bound states of the ground state atom and the Rydberg atom. Molecules bound by electron scattering can have an internuclear separation of several thousand Bohr radii and are very different from molecules formed by 2 Rydberg atoms where the binding is the result of multipolar forces between the atoms alone. In this talk, we present experimental data on the observation of these exotic molecular states for Rb Rydberg atoms in S states for principal quantum numbers n between 34 and 40. The spectroscopic results for the vibrational ground and first excited state of the dimer Rb(5S)-Rb(nS) are presented and the s-wave scattering length for electron-Rb(5S) scattering in the low energy regime where the kinetic energy is less than 100 meV. Finally, we discuss and present data on the lifetimes and decay mechanisms of these molecules in a magnetic trap.

  4. Learning Approach on the Ground State Energy Calculation of Helium Atom

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Syed Naseem Hussain

    2010-07-28

    This research investigated the role of learning approach on the ground state energy calculation of Helium atom in improving the concepts of science teachers at university level. As the exact solution of several particles is not possible here we used approximation methods. Using this method one can understand easily the calculation of ground state energy of any given function. Variation Method is one of the most useful approximation methods in estimating the energy eigen values of the ground state and the first few excited states of a system, which we only have a qualitative idea about the wave function.The objective of this approach is to introduce and involve university teacher in new research, to improve their class room practices and to enable teachers to foster critical thinking in students.

  5. Rotational state-changing cold collisions of hydroxyl ions with helium

    E-print Network

    Hauser, Daniel; Carelli, Fabio; Spieler, Steffen; Lakhmanskaya, Olga; Endres, Eric S; Kumar, Sunil S; Gianturco, Franco; Wester, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Cold molecules are important for many applications, from fundamental precision measurements, quantum information processing, quantum-controlled chemistry, to understanding the cold interstellar medium. Molecular ions are known to be cooled efficiently in sympathetic collisions with cold atoms or ions. However, little knowledge is available on the elementary cooling steps, because the determination of quantum state-to-state collision rates at low temperature is prohibitively challenging for both experiment and theory. Here we present a method to manipulate molecular quantum states by non-resonant photodetachment. Based on this we provide absolute quantum scattering rate coefficients under full quantum state control for the rotationally inelastic collision of hydroxyl anions with helium. Experiment and quantum scattering theory show excellent agreement without adjustable parameters. Very similar rate coefficients are obtained for two different isotopes, which is linked to several quantum scattering resonances a...

  6. Three-body physics. Observation of the Efimov state of the helium trimer.

    PubMed

    Kunitski, Maksim; Zeller, Stefan; Voigtsberger, Jörg; Kalinin, Anton; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Schöffler, Markus; Czasch, Achim; Schöllkopf, Wieland; Grisenti, Robert E; Jahnke, Till; Blume, Dörte; Dörner, Reinhard

    2015-05-01

    Quantum theory dictates that upon weakening the two-body interaction in a three-body system, an infinite number of three-body bound states of a huge spatial extent emerge just before these three-body states become unbound. Three helium (He) atoms have been predicted to form a molecular system that manifests this peculiarity under natural conditions without artificial tuning of the attraction between particles by an external field. Here we report experimental observation of this long-predicted but experimentally elusive Efimov state of (4)He3 by means of Coulomb explosion imaging. We show spatial images of an Efimov state, confirming the predicted size and a typical structure where two atoms are close to each other while the third is far away. PMID:25931554

  7. Extension of the Core-Valence-Rydberg B3LYP Functional to Core-Excited-State Calculations of Third-Row Atoms.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Ayako; Imamura, Yutaka; Nakai, Hiromi

    2007-07-01

    A modified core-valence-Rydberg Becke's three-parameter exchange (B3) + Lee-Yang-Parr (LYP) correlation (CVR-B3LYP) functional is proposed in order to calculate core-excitation energies of third-row atoms with reasonable accuracy. The assessment of conventional exchange-correlation functionals shows that the appropriate portions of Hartree-Fock (HF) exchange for core-excited-state calculations depend on shells:? 70% and 50% for K-shell and L-shell excitations, respectively. Therefore, the modified CVR-B3LYP functional is designed to use the appropriate portions of HF exchange, 70%, 50%, and 20%, for K-shell, L-shell, and valence regions separately. Time-dependent density functional theory calculations with the modified CVR-B3LYP functional yield both K-shell and L-shell excitation energies with reasonable accuracy. The modified CVR-B3LYP also provides valence-excitation energies and standard enthalpies of formation accurately. Thus, the modified CVR-B3LYP describes all of the K-shell, L-shell, and valence electrons appropriately. PMID:26633203

  8. High Resolution Rydberg Spectroscopy of ultracold Rubidium Atoms

    E-print Network

    Axel Grabowski; Rolf Heidemann; Robert Löw; Jürgen Stuhler; Tilman Pfau

    2005-08-10

    We present experiments on two-photon excitation of ${\\rm ^{87}}$Rb atoms to Rydberg states. For this purpose, two continuous-wave (cw)-laser systems for both 780 nm and 480 nm have been set up. These systems are optimized to a small linewidth (well below 1 MHz) to get both an efficient excitation process and good spectroscopic resolution. To test the performance of our laser system, we investigated the Stark splitting of Rydberg states. For n=40 we were able to see the hyperfine levels splitting in the electrical field for different finestructure states. To show the ability of spatially selective excitation to Rydberg states, we excited rubidium atoms in an electrical field gradient and investigated both linewidths and lineshifts. Furthermore we were able to excite the atoms selectively from the two hyperfine ground states to Rydberg states. Finally, we investigated the Autler-Townes splitting of the 5S$_{1/2}$$\\to$5P$_{3/2}$ transition via a Rydberg state to determine the Rabi frequency of this excitation step.

  9. Simulations of the dissociation of small helium clusters with ab initio molecular dynamics in electronically excited states

    SciTech Connect

    Closser, Kristina D.; Head-Gordon, Martin; Ultrafast X-Ray Science Laboratory, Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 ; Gessner, Oliver

    2014-04-07

    The dynamics resulting from electronic excitations of helium clusters were explored using ab initio molecular dynamics. The simulations were performed with configuration interaction singles and adiabatic classical dynamics coupled to a state-following algorithm. 100 different configurations of He{sub 7} were excited into the 2s and 2p manifold for a total of 2800 trajectories. While the most common outcome (90%) was complete fragmentation to 6 ground state atoms and 1 excited state atom, 3% of trajectories yielded bound, He {sub 2}{sup *}, and <0.5% yielded an excited helium trimer. The nature of the dynamics, kinetic energy release, and connections to experiments are discussed.

  10. Inelastic electron collisions with Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Kashtanov, P. V. Myasnikov, M. I.; Smirnov, B. M.

    2009-01-15

    The standard classical method of computer simulation is used for evaluation of the inelastic cross section in electron collisions with a highly excited (Rydberg) atom. In the course of collision, the incident and bound electrons move along classical trajectories in the Coulomb field of the nucleus, and the scattering parameters are averaged over many initial conditions. The reduced ionization cross section of a Rydberg atom by electron impact approximately corresponds to that of atoms in the ground states with valence s-electrons and coincides with the results of the previous Monte Carlo calculations. The cross section of an atom transition between Rydberg atom states as a result of electron impact is used for finding the stepwise ionization rate constant of atoms in collisions with electrons or the rate constant of three-body electron-ion recombination in a dense ionized gas because these processes are determined by kinetics of highly excited atom states. Surprisingly, the low-temperature limit of electron temperatures is realized when the electron thermal energy is lower than the atom ionization potential by about three orders of magnitude, as follows from the kinetics of excited atom states.

  11. Superposition of Fragment Excitations for Excited States of Large Clusters with Application to Helium Clusters.

    PubMed

    Closser, Kristina D; Ge, Qinghui; Mao, Yuezhi; Shao, Yihan; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2015-12-01

    We develop a local excited-state method, based on the configuration interaction singles (CIS) wave function, for large atomic and molecular clusters. This method exploits the properties of absolutely localized molecular orbitals (ALMOs), which strictly limits the total number of excitations, and results in formal scaling with the third power of the system size for computing the full spectrum of ALMO-CIS excited states. The derivation of the equations and design of the algorithm are discussed in detail, with particular emphasis on the computational scaling. Clusters containing ?500 atoms were used in evaluating the scaling, which agrees with the theoretical predictions, and the accuracy of the method is evaluated with respect to standard CIS. A pioneering application to the size dependence of the helium cluster spectrum is also presented for clusters of 25-231 atoms, the largest of which results in the computation of 2310 excited states per sampled cluster geometry. PMID:26609558

  12. Topological matter with collective encoding and Rydberg blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Anne E. B.; Mølmer, Klaus

    2010-11-01

    We propose to use a permutation symmetric sample of multilevel atoms to simulate the properties of topologically ordered states. The Rydberg blockade interaction is used to prepare states of the sample which are equivalent to resonating valence bond states, Laughlin states, and string-net condensates and to create and study the properties of their quasi-particle-like fundamental excitations.

  13. Ab initio Equation of State data for hydrogen, helium, and water and the internal structure of Jupiter

    E-print Network

    N. Nettelmann; B. Holst; A. Kietzmann; M. French; R. Redmer; D. Blaschke

    2008-06-06

    The equation of state of hydrogen, helium, and water effects interior structure models of giant planets significantly. We present a new equation of state data table, LM-REOS, generated by large scale quantum molecular dynamics simulations for hydrogen, helium, and water in the warm dense matter regime, i.e.for megabar pressures and temperatures of several thousand Kelvin, and by advanced chemical methods in the complementary regions. The influence of LM-REOS on the structure of Jupiter is investigated and compared with state-of-the-art results within a standard three-layer model consistent with astrophysical observations of Jupiter. Our new Jupiter models predict an important impact of mixing effects of helium in hydrogen with respect to an altered compressibility and immiscibility.

  14. Production of very-high-$n$ strontium Rydberg atoms

    E-print Network

    Ye, Shuzhen; Killian, Thomas C; Dunning, F Barry; Hiller, Moritz; Yoshida, Shuhei; Nagele, Stefan; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2013-01-01

    The production of very-high-$n$, $n\\sim300$-500, strontium Rydberg atoms is explored using a crossed laser-atom beam geometry. $n$$^{1}$S$_{0}$ and $n$$^{1}$D$_{2}$ states are created by two-photon excitation via the 5s5p $^{1}$P$_{1}$ intermediate state using radiation with wavelengths of $\\sim$~461 and $\\sim$ 413 nm. Rydberg atom densities as high as $\\sim 3 \\times 10^{5}$ cm$^{-3}$ have been achieved, sufficient that Rydberg-Rydberg interactions can become important. The isotope shifts in the Rydberg series limits are determined by tuning the 461 nm light to preferentially excite the different strontium isotopes. Photoexcitation in the presence of an applied electric field is examined. The initially quadratic Stark shift of the $n$$^{1}$P$_{1}$ and $n$$^{1}$D$_{2}$ states becomes near-linear at higher fields and the possible use of $n{}^{1}$D$_{2}$ states to create strongly-polarized, quasi-one-dimensional electronic states in strontium is discussed. The data are analyzed with the aid of a two-active-elect...

  15. XUV frequency-comb metrology on the ground state of helium

    SciTech Connect

    Kandula, Dominik Z.; Gohle, Christoph; Pinkert, Tjeerd J.; Ubachs, Wim; Eikema, Kjeld S. E.

    2011-12-15

    The operation of a frequency comb at extreme ultraviolet (xuv) wavelengths based on pairwise amplification and nonlinear upconversion to the 15th harmonic of pulses from a frequency-comb laser in the near-infrared range is reported. It is experimentally demonstrated that the resulting spectrum at 51 nm is fully phase coherent and can be applied to precision metrology. The pulses are used in a scheme of direct-frequency-comb excitation of helium atoms from the ground state to the 1s4p and 1s5p {sup 1} P{sub 1} states. Laser ionization by auxiliary 1064 nm pulses is used to detect the excited-state population, resulting in a cosine-like signal as a function of the repetition rate of the frequency comb with a modulation contrast of up to 55%. Analysis of the visibility of this comb structure, thereby using the helium atom as a precision phase ruler, yields an estimated timing jitter between the two upconverted-comb laser pulses of 50 attoseconds, which is equivalent to a phase jitter of 0.38 (6) cycles in the xuv at 51 nm. This sets a quantitative figure of merit for the operation of the xuv comb and indicates that extension to even shorter wavelengths should be feasible. The helium metrology investigation results in transition frequencies of 5 740 806 993 (10) and 5 814 248 672 (6) MHz for excitation of the 1s4p and 1s5p {sup 1} P{sub 1} states, respectively. This constitutes an important frequency measurement in the xuv, attaining high accuracy in this windowless part of the electromagnetic spectrum. From the measured transition frequencies an eight-fold-improved {sup 4}He ionization energy of 5 945 204 212 (6) MHz is derived. Also, a new value for the {sup 4}He ground-state Lamb shift is found of 41 247 (6) MHz. This experimental value is in agreement with recent theoretical calculations up to order m{alpha}{sup 6} and m{sup 2}/M{alpha}{sup 5}, but with a six-times-higher precision, therewith providing a stringent test of quantum electrodynamics in bound two-electron systems.

  16. Chirped-pulse millimeter-wave spectroscopy: Spectrum, dynamics, and manipulation of Rydberg-Rydberg transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Colombo, Anthony P.; Zhou Yan; Prozument, Kirill; Coy, Stephen L.; Field, Robert W.

    2013-01-07

    We apply the chirped-pulse millimeter-wave (CPmmW) technique to transitions between Rydberg states in calcium atoms. The unique feature of Rydberg-Rydberg transitions is that they have enormous electric dipole transition moments ({approx}5 kiloDebye at n*{approx} 40, where n* is the effective principal quantum number), so they interact strongly with the mm-wave radiation. After polarization by a mm-wave pulse in the 70-84 GHz frequency region, the excited transitions re-radiate free induction decay (FID) at their resonant frequencies, and the FID is heterodyne-detected by the CPmmW spectrometer. Data collection and averaging are performed in the time domain. The spectral resolution is {approx}100 kHz. Because of the large transition dipole moments, the available mm-wave power is sufficient to polarize the entire bandwidth of the spectrometer (12 GHz) in each pulse, and high-resolution survey spectra may be collected. Both absorptive and emissive transitions are observed, and they are distinguished by the phase of their FID relative to that of the excitation pulse. With the combination of the large transition dipole moments and direct monitoring of transitions, we observe dynamics, such as transient nutations from the interference of the excitation pulse with the polarization that it induces in the sample. Since the waveform produced by the mm-wave source may be precisely controlled, we can populate states with high angular momentum by a sequence of pulses while recording the results of these manipulations in the time domain. We also probe the superradiant decay of the Rydberg sample using photon echoes. The application of the CPmmW technique to transitions between Rydberg states of molecules is discussed.

  17. Chirped-pulse millimeter-wave spectroscopy: spectrum, dynamics, and manipulation of Rydberg-Rydberg transitions.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Anthony P; Zhou, Yan; Prozument, Kirill; Coy, Stephen L; Field, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    We apply the chirped-pulse millimeter-wave (CPmmW) technique to transitions between Rydberg states in calcium atoms. The unique feature of Rydberg-Rydberg transitions is that they have enormous electric dipole transition moments (~5 kiloDebye at n* ~ 40, where n* is the effective principal quantum number), so they interact strongly with the mm-wave radiation. After polarization by a mm-wave pulse in the 70-84 GHz frequency region, the excited transitions re-radiate free induction decay (FID) at their resonant frequencies, and the FID is heterodyne-detected by the CPmmW spectrometer. Data collection and averaging are performed in the time domain. The spectral resolution is ~100 kHz. Because of the large transition dipole moments, the available mm-wave power is sufficient to polarize the entire bandwidth of the spectrometer (12 GHz) in each pulse, and high-resolution survey spectra may be collected. Both absorptive and emissive transitions are observed, and they are distinguished by the phase of their FID relative to that of the excitation pulse. With the combination of the large transition dipole moments and direct monitoring of transitions, we observe dynamics, such as transient nutations from the interference of the excitation pulse with the polarization that it induces in the sample. Since the waveform produced by the mm-wave source may be precisely controlled, we can populate states with high angular momentum by a sequence of pulses while recording the results of these manipulations in the time domain. We also probe the superradiant decay of the Rydberg sample using photon echoes. The application of the CPmmW technique to transitions between Rydberg states of molecules is discussed. PMID:23298035

  18. Quantum Simulation of Helium Hydride Cation in a Solid-State Spin Register.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ya; Dolde, Florian; Biamonte, Jacob; Babbush, Ryan; Bergholm, Ville; Yang, Sen; Jakobi, Ingmar; Neumann, Philipp; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán; Whitfield, James D; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2015-08-25

    Ab initio computation of molecular properties is one of the most promising applications of quantum computing. While this problem is widely believed to be intractable for classical computers, efficient quantum algorithms exist which have the potential to vastly accelerate research throughput in fields ranging from material science to drug discovery. Using a solid-state quantum register realized in a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) defect in diamond, we compute the bond dissociation curve of the minimal basis helium hydride cation, HeH(+). Moreover, we report an energy uncertainty (given our model basis) of the order of 10(-14) hartree, which is 10 orders of magnitude below the desired chemical precision. As NV centers in diamond provide a robust and straightforward platform for quantum information processing, our work provides an important step toward a fully scalable solid-state implementation of a quantum chemistry simulator. PMID:25905564

  19. Strong photon blockade with intracavity electromagnetically induced transparency in a blockaded Rydberg ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, G. W.; Qi, Y. H.; Lin, X. M.; Niu, Y. P.; Gong, S. Q.

    2015-10-01

    We consider the dynamics of intracavity electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an ensemble of strongly interacting Rydberg atoms. By combining the advantage of variable cavity lifetimes with intracavity EIT and strongly interacting Rydberg dark-state polaritons, we show that such an intracavity EIT system could exhibit a very strong photon blockade effect.

  20. Strong photon blockade with intracavity electromagnetically induced transparency in blockaded Rydberg ensemble

    E-print Network

    G. W. Lin; Y. H. Qi; X. M. Lin; Y. P. Niu; S. Q. Gong

    2015-12-14

    We consider the dynamics of intracavity electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an ensemble of strongly interacting Rydberg atoms. By combining the advantage of variable cavity lifetimes with intracavity EIT and strongly interacting Rydberg dark-state polaritons, we show that such intracavity EIT system could exhibit very strong photon blockade effect.

  1. Dipolar Rydberg-atom gas prepared by adiabatic passage through an avoided crossing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Limei; Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Linjie; Li, Changyong; Yang, Yonggang; Zhao, Jianming; Raithel, Georg; Jia, Suotang

    2015-06-01

    The passage of cold cesium 49S1/2 Rydberg atoms through an electric-field-induced multi-level avoided crossing with nearby hydrogen-like Rydberg levels is employed to prepare a cold, dipolar Rydberg atom gas. When the electric field is ramped through the avoided crossing on time scales on the order of 100 ns or slower, the 49S1/2 population adiabatically transitions into high-l Rydberg Stark states. The adiabatic state transformation results in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms with large electric dipole moments. After a waiting time of about 1 ?s and at sufficient atom density, the adiabatically transformed highly dipolar atoms become undetectable, enabling us to discern adiabatic from diabatic passage behavior through the avoided crossing. We attribute the state-selectivity to m-mixing collisions between the dipolar atoms. The data interpretation is supported by numerical simulations of the passage dynamics and of binary m-mixing collisions.

  2. Wave-packet approach to Rydberg resonances in dissociative recombination

    SciTech Connect

    Morisset, Sabine; Pichl, Lukas; Orel, Ann E.; Schneider, Ioan F.

    2007-10-15

    We report the time-dependent approach to resonant electron capture into Rydberg states in collisions with molecular cations at low impact energy, as an alternative to the method based on multichannel quantum defect theory (MQDT), and present the results for the HD{sup +} ion. The propagation of the initial wave function on 13 Rydberg states (besides one valence state) correctly describes the indirect dissociative recombination mechanism in the time domain. Notably, the nonlocal coupling operator between the ionization and dissociation channels is accounted for in the indirect process, extending previous work on the case of direct coupling. The present approach compares to the MQDT framework with remarkable precision: resonant structures in the cross section correctly emerge from the wave-packet propagation; the time-dependent result also forms a cross section envelope for the dense series of ultrafine MQDT resonances corresponding to the quasicontinuous part of the Rydberg state manifold.

  3. Lifetimes of ultra-long-range strontium Rydberg molecules

    E-print Network

    Camargo, F; Ding, R; Sadeghpour, H R; Yoshida, S; Burgdörfer, J; Dunning, F B; Killian, T C

    2015-01-01

    The lifetimes of the lower-lying vibrational states of ultralong-range strontium Rydberg molecules comprising one ground-state 5s2 1S0 atom and one Rydberg atom in the 5s38s 3S1 state are reported. The molecules are created in an ultracold gas held in an optical dipole trap and their numbers determined using ?eld ionization, the product electrons being detected by a microchannel plate. The measurements show that, in marked contrast to earlier measurements involving rubidium Rydberg molecules, the lifetimes of the low-lying molecular vibrational states are very similar to those of the parent Rydberg atoms. This results because the strong p-wave resonance in low-energy electronrubidium scattering, which plays an important role in determining the molecular lifetimes, is not present for strontium. The absence of this resonance o?ers advantages for experiments involving strontium Rydberg atoms as impurities in quantum gases and for testing theories of molecular formation and decay.

  4. Mass-polarization effects in the 1 s 2 s sup 1 S and sup 3 S states of helium

    SciTech Connect

    Veldt, T. van der; Vassen, W.; Hogervorst, W. )

    1990-04-01

    From a laser spectroscopic study of isotope shifts in the 1{ital s}2{ital s} {sup 1}{ital S},{sup 3}{ital S}{r arrow}1{ital snp} transitions in {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He and of the hyperfine structure in the 1{ital snp} Rydberg states of {sup 3}He we have derived highly accurate information on mass-polarization effects in the 1{ital s}2{ital s} {sup 1}{ital S} and {sup 3}{ital S} states. The experimental results, which are in good agreement with recent, high-precision variational calculations, confirm an isotope dependence of {l angle}{bold p}{sub 1}{center dot}{bold p}{sub 2}{r angle}.

  5. Engineering atomic wavepackets in very-high-n Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei

    The remarkable level of control of atomic wavepackets that can be achieved using very-high-n Rydberg atoms (n ? 350) is demonstrated. This control is accomplished with carefully-tailored sequences of short unidirectional electric-field pulses, termed half-cycle pulses (HCPs), with duration Tp ? Tn, where Tn is the classical orbital period. In this limit, each HCP simply delivers an impulsive momentum transfer or "kick" to the Rydberg electron. We show that strongly polarized very-high-n (n ˜ 600) potassium Rydberg atoms can be produced by manipulating lower- n (n ˜ 350) polarized atoms. This enables us to study the response of such quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) very-high- n Rydberg atoms to a periodic train of HCPs at high scaled frequencies, nu 0 > 15. Pronounced non-monotonic structure in the survival probability is observed as N, the number of HCPs in the train, is increased. This behavior is very sensitive to the polarization of the Rydberg states. A different protocol that enables us to localize and to steer Rydberg wavepackets in phase space is explained using classical phase-space portraits and confirmed experimentally by navigating phase-space localized wavepackets to targeted positions. Very-high-n quasi-1D Rydberg atoms also provide a valuable laboratory for studying irreversible dephasing, i.e., decoherence. This is demonstrated by observing the evolution of a Stark wavepacket containing states of different n in an external electric field. Based on a quantum beat echo technique we report the first demonstration of the reversibility of the dephasing of an ensemble of electric dipoles which is monitored by a probe HCP. This technique allows the measurement of decoherence in the presence of strong dephasing, which can be very important for quantum information processing. All experimental results are explained with the aid of classical trajectory Monte-Carlo simulations (CTMC) and good agreement is seen.

  6. Rydberg blockade effects at n ˜300 in strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Dunning, F. B.; Yoshida, S.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2015-11-01

    Rydberg blockade at n ˜300 , is examined using strontium n F13 Rydberg atoms excited in an atomic beam in a small volume defined by two tightly focused crossed laser beams. The observation of blockade for such states is challenging due to their extreme sensitivity to stray fields and the many magnetic sublevels associated with F states which results in a high local density of states. Nonetheless, with a careful choice of laser polarization to selectively excite only a limited number of these sublevels, sizable blockade effects are observed on an ˜0.1 mm length scale extending blockade measurements into the near-macroscopic regime and enabling study of the dynamics of strongly coupled many-body high-n Rydberg systems under carefully controlled conditions.

  7. Simplified scheme for entanglement preparation with Rydberg pumping via dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Shi-Lei; Guo, Qi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2015-08-01

    Inspired by recent work [Carr and Saffman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 033607 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.033607], we propose a simplified scheme to prepare the two-atom maximally entangled states via dissipative Rydberg pumping. Compared with the former scheme, the simplified one involves fewer classical laser fields and Rydberg interactions, and the asymmetric Rydberg interactions are avoided. Master equation simulations demonstrate that the fidelity and the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt correlation of the maximally entangled state could reach up to 0.999 and 2.821, respectively, under certain conditions. Furthermore, we extend the physical thoughts to prepare the three-dimensional entangled state, and the numerical simulations show that, in theory, both the fidelity and the negativity of the desired entanglement could be very close to unity under certain conditions.

  8. Imaging the evolution of an ultracold strontium Rydberg gas

    E-print Network

    McQuillen, P; Strickler, T; Dunning, F B; Killian, T C

    2012-01-01

    Clouds of ultracold strontium 5s48s 1S0 or 5s47d 1D2 Rydberg atoms are created by two photon excitation of laser cooled 5s2 1S0 atoms. The spontaneous evolution of the cloud of low orbital angular momentum (low-l) Rydberg states towards an ultracold neutral plasma is observed by imaging resonant light scattered from core ions, a technique that provides both spatial and temporal resolution. Evolution is observed to be faster for the S-states, which display isotropic attractive interactions, than for the D-states, which exhibit anisotropic, principally repulsive interactions. Immersion of the atoms in a dilute ultracold neutral plasma speeds up the evolution and allows the number of Rydberg atoms initially created to be determined.

  9. Rydberg-Blockade Effects in Autler-Townes Spectra of Ultracold Strontium

    E-print Network

    B. J. DeSalvo; J. A. Aman; C. Gaul; T. Pohl; S. Yoshida; J. Burgdörfer; K. R. A. Hazzard; F. B. Dunning; T. C. Killian

    2015-10-27

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the effects of Rydberg interactions on Autler-Townes spectra of ultracold gases of atomic strontium. Realizing two-photon Rydberg excitation via a long-lived triplet state allows us to probe the thus far unexplored regime where Rydberg state decay presents the dominant decoherence mechanism. The effects of Rydberg interactions are observed in shifts, asymmetries, and broadening of the measured atom-loss spectra. The experiment is analyzed within a one-body density matrix approach, accounting for interaction-induced level shifts and dephasing through nonlinear terms that approximately incorporate correlations due to the Rydberg blockade. This description yields good agreement with our experimental observations for short excitation times. For longer excitation times, the loss spectrum is altered qualitatively, suggesting additional dephasing mechanisms beyond the standard blockade mechanism based on pure van der Waals interactions.

  10. Rydberg-Blockade Effects in Autler-Townes Spectra of Ultracold Strontium

    E-print Network

    DeSalvo, B J; Gaul, C; Pohl, T; Yoshida, S; Burgdörfer, J; Hazzard, K R A; Dunning, F B; Killian, T C

    2015-01-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the effects of Rydberg interactions on Autler-Townes spectra of ultracold gases of atomic strontium. Realizing two-photon Rydberg excitation via a long-lived triplet state allows us to probe the thus far unexplored regime where Rydberg state decay presents the dominant decoherence mechanism. The effects of Rydberg interactions are observed in shifts, asymmetries, and broadening of the measured atom-loss spectra. The experiment is analyzed within a one-body density matrix approach, accounting for interaction-induced level shifts and dephasing through nonlinear terms that approximately incorporate correlations due to the Rydberg blockade. This description yields good agreement with our experimental observations for short excitation times. For longer excitation times, the loss spectrum is altered qualitatively, suggesting additional dephasing mechanisms beyond the standard blockade mechanism based on pure van der Waals interactions.

  11. Phase-Imprinting of Bose-Einstein Condensates with Rydberg Impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Rick; Ates, Cenap; Li, Weibin; Wüster, Sebastian

    2015-07-01

    We show how the phase profile of Bose-Einstein condensates can be engineered through its interaction with localized Rydberg excitations. The interaction is made controllable and long range by off-resonantly coupling the condensate to another Rydberg state with laser light. Our technique allows the mapping of entanglement generated in systems of few strongly interacting Rydberg atoms onto much larger atom clouds in hybrid setups. As an example we discuss the creation of a spatial mesoscopic superposition state from a bright soliton. Additionally, the phase imprinted onto the condensate using the Rydberg excitations is a diagnostic tool for the latter. For example, a condensate time-of-flight image would permit reconstructing the pattern of an embedded Rydberg crystal.

  12. Systematics of Rydberg Series of Diatomic Molecules and Correlation Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chun-Woo

    2015-06-01

    Rydberg states are studied for H2, Li2, HeH, LiH and BeH using the multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) method. The systematics and regularities of the physical properties such as potential energies curves (PECs), quantum defect curves, permanent dipole moment and transition dipole moment curves of the Rydberg series are studied. They are explained using united atom perturbation theory by Bingel and Byers-Brown, Fermi model, Stark theory, and Mulliken's theory. Interesting mirror relationships of the dipole moments are observed between l-mixed Rydberg series, indicating that the members of the l-mixed Rydberg series have dipole moments with opposite directions, which are related to the reversal of the polarity of a dipole moment at the avoided crossing points. The assignment of highly excited states is difficult because of the usual absence of the knowledge on the behaviors of potential energy curves at small internuclear separation whereby the correlation between the united atom limit and separated atoms limit cannot be given. All electron MRCI calculations of PECs are performed to obtain the correlation diagrams between Rydberg orbitals at the united-atom and separated atoms limits.

  13. Double Excitations of Helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menzel, Alexander

    1996-05-01

    The double excitations of helium offer an ideal case for investigating electron dynamics in a three-body system. Our study of the He ^1P^o double excitations comprises measurements of the partial photoionization cross sections ?n (He^+) and the partial photoelectron angular distribution parameters ?n for the series N(K,T)^Ai up to the N=5 threshold. The experiment was performed at the ALS undulator beam line 9.0.1., which provided a photon flux of 2 × 10^12 photons per second with a small photon energy bandpass of 7 to 12 meV. This level of differentiation, along with the small bandpass, offers the most critical assessment of the dynamics of the two-electron excitations to date. The principal series K=N-2 are clearly delineated in both ?n and ?_n. The ?n show all minor series with N=K-4 very clearly, in contrast to measurements of the total absorption cross section, as well as very weak members with A=-1. Excellent accord between experiment and theory, particularly the hyperspherical close-coupling method, was found for the dynamic properties in all instances, including the interference pattern due to an overlap of N=5 and N=6 series members. Generally, the Rydberg series of resonance-induced profiles vary greatly depending on the final ionic state He^+(n), whereas the peak-to-valley variation in the ?n within a given series N is of similar magnitude for all n. Interestingly, a striking systematic trend is noted through the various series: the resonance-induced profiles for both the ?n and ?n of the photoelectron satellites are virtually identical provided the final ionic state He^+(n), n >= 2, is reached via an excited series N with ?=1, or ?=2, where ?=N-n. This overall pattern might be attributed to the general similarity of states with the same set of approximately good quantum numbers (N-K), A, and T. We tentatively propose an extension of these systematics for higher series N >= 5, although further theoretical work toward understanding these features of the doubly excited states will be needed. The experiment was performed in close collaboration with C.D. Caldwell, M.O. Krause, S.P. Frigo, and S.B. Whitfield. Valuable theoretical contributions were made by J.-Z. Tang and I. Shimamura. Part of the work appeared in Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1479 (1995). This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grants PHY-9207634 and PHY-9507573.

  14. Rotational state-changing cold collisions of hydroxyl ions with helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauser, Daniel; Lee, Seunghyun; Carelli, Fabio; Spieler, Steffen; Lakhmanskaya, Olga; Endres, Eric S.; Kumar, Sunil S.; Gianturco, Franco; Wester, Roland

    2015-06-01

    Cold molecules are important for many applications, from fundamental precision measurements, quantum information processing, quantum-controlled chemistry, to understanding the cold interstellar medium. Molecular ions are known to be cooled efficiently in sympathetic collisions with cold atoms or ions. However, little knowledge is available on the elementary cooling steps, because the determination of quantum state-to-state collision rates at low temperature is very challenging for both experiment and theory. Here we present a method to manipulate molecular quantum states by non-resonant photodetachment. Based on this we provide absolute quantum scattering rate coefficients under full quantum state control for the rotationally inelastic collision of hydroxyl anions with helium. Experiment and quantum scattering theory show excellent agreement without adjustable parameters. Very similar rate coefficients are obtained for two different isotopes, which is linked to several quantum scattering resonances appearing at different energies. The presented method is also applicable to polyatomic systems and will help elucidate non-radiative processes in polyaromatic hydrocarbons and protein chromophores.

  15. Rydberg excitation of Bose-Einstein condensates

    E-print Network

    Rolf Heidemann; Ulrich Raitzsch; Vera Bendkowsky; Björn Butscher; Robert Löw; Tilman Pfau

    2007-10-30

    Rydberg atoms provide a wide range of possibilities to tailor interactions in a quantum gas. Here we report on Rydberg excitation of Bose-Einstein condensed 87Rb atoms. The Rydberg fraction was investigated for various excitation times and temperatures above and below the condensation temperature. The excitation is locally blocked by the van der Waals interaction between Rydberg atoms to a density-dependent limit. Therefore the abrupt change of the thermal atomic density distribution to the characteristic bimodal distribution upon condensation could be observed in the Rydberg fraction. The observed features are reproduced by a simulation based on local collective Rydberg excitations.

  16. Mass transfer of helium, neon, argon, and xenon through a steady-state upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porcelli, D.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1995-12-01

    We have examined the steady-state upper mantle model for helium, neon, argon, and xenon following the mass transfer approach presented by Kellogg and Wasserburg (1990) for helium and Porcelli and Wasserburg (1995a) for xenon. The model explains the available observational data of mantle helium, neon, argon, and xenon isotope compositions and provides specific predictions regarding the rare gas isotopic compositions of the lower mantle, subduction of rare gases, and mantle rare gas concentrations. Rare gases in the upper mantle are derived from mixing of rare gases from the lower mantle, subducted rare gases, and radiogenic nuclides produced in situ. Isotopic shifts in the closed system lower mantle are due to decay of uranium and thorium decay series nuclides, 40K, 129I, and 244Pu over 4.5 Ga, while isotopic shifts in the steady-state upper mantle are due to decay of uranium and thorium series nuclides, and 40K over a timescale of ˜1.4 Ga. The model predicts that the shift in 21Ne/ 22Ne in the upper mantle relative to that in the lower mantle is the same as that for 4He/ 3He between the mantle reservoirs. This is compatible with the available data for MORB and ocean islands. Subduction of atmospheric helium and neon is not significant. All of the 40Ar in the lower mantle has been produced by 40K decay in the lower mantle. In the upper mantle, 40K decay further increases the radiogenic 40Ar from the lower mantle by a factor of ˜3. The calculated minimum lower mantle 40Ar/36Ar ratio is substantially greater than the atmospheric ratio. The inferred rare gas relative abundances of the lower mantle are different from those of the atmosphere and are consistent with possible early solar system reservoirs. Both the calculated 3He/22Ne and 20Ne/36Ar ratios of the lower mantle are within the range for meteorites with 'solar' neon isotope compositions. The 130Xe/36Ar ratio of the lower mantle is greater than that of the atmosphere, and may be possibly as high as the ratio found for meteoritic "planetary" rare gases. The model treats the atmosphere as a separate reservoir with rare gas isotope compositions that are distinct from those in the mantle. If the Earth originally had uniform concentrations of rare gases as represented by those in the lower mantle, then degassing of the upper mantle would have provided only a small proportion of the nonradiogenic rare gases presently in the atmosphere. The remainder may have been derived from late-accreted material with a much higher concentration of rare gases than the lower mantle. However, the amount of radiogenic 129Xe and 136Xe in the atmosphere as well as the lower mantle implies a substantial loss of rare gases. It is most likely that rare gases have been lost during late accretion and/or during; the hypothesized moon-forming impact. The nonradiogenic rare gases in the atmosphere were then supplied by subsequently accreted material with nonradiogenic xenon, possibly in comets. Fractionation of atmospheric xenon isotopes relative to other early solar system components must have occurred either on the late-accreting materials or during subsequent loss from the Earth.

  17. Spatially resolved excitation of Rydberg atoms and surface effects on an atom chip

    SciTech Connect

    Tauschinsky, Atreju; Thijssen, Rutger M. T.; Whitlock, S.; Linden van den Heuvell, H. B. van; Spreeuw, R. J. C.

    2010-06-15

    We demonstrate spatially resolved, coherent excitation of Rydberg atoms on an atom chip. Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is used to investigate the properties of the Rydberg atoms near the gold-coated chip surface. We measure distance-dependent shifts ({approx}10 MHz) of the Rydberg energy levels caused by a spatially inhomogeneous electric field. The measured field strength and distance dependence is in agreement with a simple model for the electric field produced by a localized patch of Rb adsorbates deposited on the chip surface during experiments. The EIT resonances remain narrow (<4 MHz) and the observed widths are independent of atom-surface distance down to {approx} 20 {mu}m, indicating relatively long lifetime of the Rydberg states. Our results open the way to studies of dipolar physics, collective excitations, quantum metrology, and quantum information processing involving interacting Rydberg excited atoms on atom chips.

  18. HELIUM, SOLID 1 Helium, Solid

    E-print Network

    Glyde, Henry R.

    HELIUM, SOLID 1 Helium, Solid Henry R. Glyde Introduction Helium was first solidified at the famous focused on the melting curve, the specific heat, and the thermal conductivity of solid helium as a test criterion of melting does not hold in solid helium. This pioneering work up to 1957 is elegantly

  19. Anisotropic emission in quantum-beat spectroscopy of helium excited states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucchini, M.; Ludwig, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Kasmi, L.; Herrmann, J.; Scrinzi, A.; Landsman, A. S.; Gallmann, L.; Keller, U.

    2015-06-01

    We present quantum-beat spectroscopy of excited states of helium atoms populated selectively with high-order-harmonic emission below the atomic ionization potential by means of low-pass filtering of the pump radiation. The created electron wave packet is ionized by few-cycle infrared (IR) pulses leading to characteristic peaks in the photoelectron yield, which beat with a frequency proportional to the energy gap between the states involved in the two-color photoionization process. Minimizing the direct ionization by the extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation, we can follow the evolution of the electron wave packet also in the region of temporal pump-probe overlap. A detailed time-frequency analysis of the quantum beats and direct comparison with the solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation reveal the existence of quantum beats characterized by a final state of mixed parity. Finally, we show that by varying the carrier-envelope offset phase of the probe pulse, one can optically control the preferred direction of photoelectron emission and the contrast of such beats.

  20. Dynamic dipole polarizabilities for the low-lying triplet states of helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-Hui; Tang, Li-Yan; Zhang, Xian-Zhou; Shi, Ting-Yun

    2015-07-01

    The dynamic dipole polarizabilities for the four lowest triplet states (2 3S , 3 3S , 2 3P , and 3 3P ) of helium are calculated using the B -spline configuration interaction method. Present values of the static dipole polarizabilities in the length, velocity, and acceleration gauges are in good agreement with the best Hylleraas results. Also the tune-out wavelengths in the range 400 nm-4.2 ? m for the four lowest triplet states are identified, and the magic wavelengths in the range 460 nm-3.5 ? m for the 2 3S ?3 3S , 2 3S ?2 3P , and 2 3S ?3 3P transitions are determined. We show that the tune-out wavelength of 2 3S state is 413.038 28 (3 ) nm, which corroborates the value of Mitroy and Tang [Phys. Rev. A 88, 052515 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.88.052515], and the magic wavelength around 1066 nm for the 2 3S ?3 3P transition can be expected for precision measurement to determine the ratio of transition matrix elements (2 3S ?2 3P ) /(3 3P ?6 3S ) .

  1. Photon-Photon Interactions via Rydberg Blockade

    E-print Network

    Alexey V. Gorshkov; Johannes Otterbach; Michael Fleischhauer; Thomas Pohl; Mikhail D. Lukin

    2011-03-18

    We develop the theory of light propagation under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in systems involving strongly interacting Rydberg states. Taking into account the quantum nature and the spatial propagation of light, we analyze interactions involving few-photon pulses. We demonstrate that this system can be used for the generation of nonclassical states of light including trains of single photons with an avoided volume between them, for implementing photon-photon quantum gates, as well as for studying many-body phenomena with strongly correlated photons.

  2. Creation, Control, and Detection of Rydberg Excitations in Ultracold Strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, Joseph; Ding, Roger; Camargo, Francisco; Woehl Junior, Germano; Dunning, F. Barry; Killian, Thomas; Rice University Department of Physics; Astronomy / Rice Quantum Institute Team

    2015-05-01

    We benchmark a new apparatus for studying Rydberg physics in ultracold gases by demonstrating the ability to create, control, and detect high-lying excitations. Two-photon transitions via the narrow 5s5p 3Pj intercombination line, unique to alkaline-earth-like atoms, are used to create triplet 5snl Rydberg states with enhanced lifetimes that are inaccessible in alkali systems. These Rydberg excitations have strong, long-range dipolar interactions that can be tuned with principal quantum number and Rydberg fraction. To monitor n and the number of Rydberg atoms created we employ pulsed-field ionization and a microchannel plate detector. This work serves as an important milestone toward realizing many-body phenomena such as roton physics, 3D solitons, supersolidity and long-range spin models. Research supported by the AFOSR under grant no. FA9550-12-1-0267, the NSF under grants nos. 1301773 and 1205946, and the Robert A. Welch Foundation under grant no. C-0734.

  3. Slow-light polaritons in Rydberg gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Slow-light polaritons are quasi-particles generated in the interaction of photons with laser-driven atoms with a ?- or ladder-type coupling scheme under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). They are a superposition of electromagnetic and collective spin excitations. If one of the states making up the atomic spin is a high lying Rydberg level, the polaritons are subject to a strong and non-local interaction mediated by a dipole-dipole or van-der Waals coupling between excited Rydberg atoms. I will present and discuss an effective many-body model for these Rydberg polaritons. Depending on the detuning of the control laser the interaction potential between the polaritons can be repulsive or attractive and can have a large imaginary component for distances less than the so-called blockade radius. The non-local effective interaction gives rize to interesting many-body phenomena such as the generation of photons with an avoided volume, visible in stronlgy suppressed two-particle correlations inside the blockade volume. Moreover the long-range, power-law scaling of the interaction can in the repulsive case give rize to the formation of quasi-crystalline structures of photons. In a one dimensional system the low-energy dynamics of the polaritons can be described in terms of a Luttinger liquid. Using DMRG simulations the Luttinger K parameter is calculated and conditions for the formation of a quasi-crystal are derived. When confined to a two-dimensional geometry, e.g. using a resonator with quasi-degenerate transversal mode spectrum, Rydberg polaritons are an interesting candidate to study the bosonic fractional quantum Hall effect. I will argue that the formation of photons with an avoided volume is essential for explaining recent experiments on stationary EIT in Rydberg gases [1,2].[4pt] [1] J.D. Pritchard et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 193603 (2010). [0pt] [2] D. Petrosyan, J. Otterbach, and M. Fleischhauer, arXiv:1106.1360

  4. Photoassociation of long-range nD Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raithel, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Cold atomic systems have opened new frontiers at the interface of atomic and molecular physics. Of particular interest are a recently discovered class of long-range, homonuclear Rydberg molecules first predicted in and observed in. In rubidium, these molecules are formed via low-energy electron scattering of the Rydberg electron from a 5S1/2 ground-state atom that is present within the Rydberg atom's volume. The binding mostly arises from S-wave and P-wave triplet scattering. In recent work, we have observed long-range homonuclear diatomic nD Rydberg molecules photoassociated out of an ultracold gas of 87Rb atoms for principal quantum numbers 34 <= n <= 40. Related results have also been reported in. The measured ground-state binding energies of 87Rb(nD + 5S1 / 2) molecular states are larger than those of their 87Rb(nS + 5S1 / 2) counterparts, showing the dependence of the molecular bond on the angular momentum of the Rydberg atom. We have exhibited the transition of 87Rb(nD + 5S1 / 2) molecules from a molecular-binding-dominant regime at low n to a fine-structure-dominant regime at high n [akin to Hund's cases (a) and (c), respectively]. In our analysis, we use a Fermi model that includes S-wave and P-wave singlet and triplet scattering, the fine structure coupling of the Rydberg atom and the hyperfine structure coupling of the 5S1/2 atom. The hyperfine structure is important because it gives rise to mixed singlet-triplet potentials. This work was supported by the AFOSR (FA9550-10-1-0453) and the NSF (PHY-1205559).

  5. Dressing effects in the attosecond transient absorption spectra of doubly excited states in helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argenti, L.; Jiménez-Galán, Á.; Marante, C.; Ott, C.; Pfeifer, T.; Martín, F.

    2015-06-01

    Strong-field manipulation of autoionizing states is a crucial aspect of electronic quantum control. Recent measurements of the attosecond transient absorption spectrum (ATAS) of helium dressed by a few-cycle visible pulse [C. Ott et al., Nature (London) 516, 374 (2014), 10.1038/nature14026] provide evidence of the inversion of Fano profiles. With the support of accurate ab initio calculations that reproduce the results of the latter experiment, here we investigate the new physics that arise from ATAS when the laser intensity is increased. In particular, we show that (i) previously unnoticed signatures of the dark 2 p21S doubly excited state are observed in the experimental spectrum, (ii) inversion of Fano profiles is predicted to be periodic in the laser intensity, and (iii) the ac Stark shift of the higher terms in the s p2,n + autoionizing series exceeds the ponderomotive energy, which is the result of a genuine two-electron contribution to the polarization of the excited atom.

  6. Ionization of Rydberg atoms by standing-wave light fields.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sarah E; Raithel, Georg

    2013-01-01

    When electromagnetic radiation induces atomic transitions, the size of the atom is usually much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation, allowing the spatial variation of the radiation field's phase to be neglected in the description of transition rates. Somewhat unexpectedly, this approximation, known as the electric dipole approximation, is still valid for the ionization of micrometre-sized atoms in highly excited Rydberg states by laser light with a wavelength of about the same size. Here we employ a standing-wave laser field as a spatially resolving probe within the volume of a Rydberg atom to show that the photoionization process only occurs near the nucleus, within a volume that is small with respect to both the atom and the laser wavelength. This evidence resolves the apparent inconsistency of the electric dipole approximation's validity for photoionization of Rydberg atoms, and it verifies the theory of light-matter interaction in a limiting case. PMID:24336092

  7. Driving Rydberg-Rydberg transitions with an amplitude-modulated optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Kaitlin; Anderson, Sarah; Raithel, Georg

    2014-05-01

    We demonstrate a novel spectroscopic method that couples Rydberg states using an amplitude-modulated optical lattice. The method is fundamentally different from traditional microwave spectroscopy: it engages the A2-term rather than the Ap -term of the atom-field interaction Hamiltonian. The method allows us to drive microwave transitions between Rydberg states with optical spatial resolution, and it is not subject to the usual electric-dipole selection rules. Both features are attractive for quantum computing and precision metrology, such as measuring an improved value for the dipolar polarizibility of the Rb ionic core. In the experiment, cold Rb Rydberg atoms are first excited and confined in an optical lattice of wavelength 1064 nm. Then, the electric-quadrupole transition 58 S --> 59 S is driven by modulating the intensity of the optical lattice using a tunable electro-optic fiber modulator. Maximum population transfer occurs at a lattice modulation frequency of 38.768610(30) GHz, in close agreement with calculations. We briefly explain the theoretical background of the new spectroscopic method, show experimental results and discuss applications. We acknowledge support from DOE SCGF and NSF.

  8. Quantum entanglement of helium-like systems with varying-Z: compact state-of-the-art CI wave functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Rosa, S.; Esquivel, R. O.; Plastino, A. R.; Dehesa, J. S.

    2015-09-01

    In this work we have performed state-of-the-art configuration-interaction (CI) calculations to determine the linear and von Neumann entanglement entropies for the helium-like systems with varying nuclear charge Z in the range 1?slant Z?slant 10. The focus of the work resides on determining accurate entanglement values for 2-electron systems with the lowest computational cost through compact CI-wave functions. Our entanglement results for the helium atom fully agree with the results obtained with higher quality wave functions of the Kinoshita type (Dehesa [5]). We find that the correlation energy is linearly related to the entanglement measures associated with the linear and von Neumann entropies of the single-particle reduced density matrizes, which sheds new light on the physical implications of entanglement in helium-like systems. Moreover, we report CI-wave-function-based benchmark results for the entanglement values for all members of the helium isoelectronic series with an accuracy similar to that of Kinoshita-type wave functions. Finally, we give parametric expressions of the linear and von Neumann entanglement measures for two-electron systems as Z varies from 1 to 10.

  9. Entangled optical clocks via Rydberg blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komar, Peter; Kessler, Eric; Topcu, Turker; Derevianko, Andrei; Lukin, Mikhail

    2015-05-01

    We present an analysis of a protocol for creating fully entangled GHZ-type states of atoms in spatially separated optical atomic clocks. In our scheme, local operations make use of the strong dipole-dipole interaction between Rydberg excitations, which give rise to fast and reliable quantum operations involving all atoms in the ensemble. The necessary entanglement between distant ensembles is mediated by single-photon quantum channels and collectively enhanced light-matter couplings. These techniques can be used to create the recently proposed quantum clock network based on neutral atom optical clocks. We specifically analyze the realization of this scheme based on neutral Yb atoms.

  10. Minerals Yearbook 1989: Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Leachman, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    Grade-A helium (99.995% or better) sales volume in the United States by private industry and the Bureau of Mines was 2,083 million cubic feet (MMcf) in 1989. Grade-A helium exports by private producers were 796 MMcf, for total sales of 2,879 MMcf of U.S. helium. The price of Grade-A helium, f.o.b. plant, was about $37.50 per thousand cubic feet (Mcf) for both the Bureau and private industry. The Bureau price for bulk liquid helium was $45.00 per Mcf with additional costs for container services and rent. The liquid helium price for private industry was also about $45.00 per Mcf with some producers posting surcharges to the price.

  11. Estimation of length scale of RS II-$p$ braneworld model through perturbations in Helium's atom ground state energy

    E-print Network

    Nephtali Garrido; Hector H. Hernandez

    2012-01-19

    We put to the test an effective three-dimensional electrostatic potential, obtained effectively by considering an electrostatic source inside a (5+$p$)-dimensional braneworld scenario with $p$ compact and one infinite spacial extra dimensions in the RS II-$p$ model, for $p=1$ and $p=2$. This potential is regular at the source and matches the standard Coulomb potential outside a neighborhood. We use variational and perturbative approximation methods to calculate corrections to the ground energy of the Helium atom modified by this potential, by making use of a 6 and 39-parameter trial wave function of Hylleraas type for the ground state. These corrections to the ground-state energy are compared with experimental data for Helium atom in order to set bounds for the extra dimensions length scale. We find that these bounds are less restrictive than the ones obtained by Morales et. al. through a calculation using the Lamb shift in Hydrogen.

  12. M1 decay of the 2 sup 3 S sub 1 state of helium-like bromine

    SciTech Connect

    Dunford, R.W.; Liu, C.J.; Berry, H.G.; Raphaelian, M.L.A. ); Church, D.A. ); Hass, M. ); Curtis, L.J. )

    1990-01-01

    We have measured the lifetime of the 2 {sup 3}S{sub 1} level in helium-like bromine with the results {tau}{sup exp}(2 {sup 3}S{sub 1}) = 224.1 (7.1) ps, in agreement with theory. Our error is dominated by uncertainties in the correction for the effects of cascades from highly excited states. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Photo-excited states in germanium at liquid-helium temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Culbertson, J.C.

    1982-12-01

    A wide variety of experimental work dealing with the basic properties of photoexcited states in Ge at liquid helium temperatures is presented. The primary emphasis is on the electron-hole liquid (EHL) and the free exciton (FE). The EHL is composed of two interpenetrating Fermi liquids, one of electrons and one of holes, each with its own Fermi level. The FE dealt with here is a mobile, loosely bound state of an electron and a hole. We report the first absolute measurement of the density dependence of the enhancement factor g/sub eh/(0) for the EHL in Ge. This factor g/sub eh/(0) is a measure of the electron-hole spatial correlation function, and provides a valuable and sensitive test for the predictions of various many-body-theory approximations. An EHL droplet - FE gas system confined to a strain induced potential well was used. The measurement approach relied on only a few simple and verifiable assumptions. A byproduct of this work was the measurement as a function of stress of: the electron and hole Fermi levels E/sub F//sup e/ and E/sub F//sup h/, the EHL density n/sub l/, the condensation energy phi of a FE relative to the EHL, and the binding energy of a FE (E/sub x/) relative to free carriers (FC). The decay of a FE-FC system confined to a strain induced potential well is studied. The first direct measurement of the FE diffusivity D/sub x/ is reported. The evolution in time of spatial profiles of FE luminescence were measured. From these FE density profiles, D/sub x/(4.2K) approx. = to 300 cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/, the surface recombination velocity S approx. = 3000 cm s/sup -1/, and the FE lifetime tau/sub x/ = 27 ..mu..s with surface effects excluded were determined. (WHK)

  14. Femtosecond time-resolved XUV + UV photoelectron imaging of pure helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Ziemkiewicz, Michael P.; Bacellar, Camila; Siefermann, Katrin R.; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.; Gessner, Oliver

    2014-11-07

    Liquid helium nanodroplets, consisting of on average 2 × 10{sup 6} atoms, are examined using femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron imaging. The droplets are excited by an extreme ultraviolet light pulse centered at 23.7 eV photon energy, leading to states within a band that is associated with the 1s3p and 1s4p Rydberg levels of free helium atoms. The initially excited states and subsequent relaxation dynamics are probed by photoionizing transient species with a 3.2 eV pulse and using velocity map imaging to measure time-dependent photoelectron kinetic energy distributions. Significant differences are seen compared to previous studies with a lower energy (1.6 eV) probe pulse. Three distinct time-dependent signals are analyzed by global fitting. A broad intense signal, centered at an electron kinetic energy (eKE) of 2.3 eV, grows in faster than the experimental time resolution and decays in ?100 fs. This feature is attributed to the initially excited droplet state. A second broad transient feature, with eKE ranging from 0.5 to 4 eV, appears at a rate similar to the decay of the initially excited state and is attributed to rapid atomic reconfiguration resulting in Franck-Condon overlap with a broader range of cation geometries, possibly involving formation of a Rydberg-excited (He{sub n})* core within the droplet. An additional relaxation pathway leads to another short-lived feature with vertical binding energies ?2.4 eV, which is identified as a transient population within the lower-lying 1s2p Rydberg band. Ionization at 3.2 eV shows an enhanced contribution from electronically excited droplet states compared to ejected Rydberg atoms, which dominate at 1.6 eV. This is possibly the result of increased photoelectron generation from the bulk of the droplet by the more energetic probe photons.

  15. Production of very-high- n strontium Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Shuzhen; Zhang, Xinyue; Killian, Thomas; Dunning, F.; Hiller, Moritz; Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdoerfer, Joachim

    2013-05-01

    The production of very-high- n, n ~ 300, strontium Rydberg atoms is explored using a crossed laser-atom beam geometry. n1S0 and n1D2 states are created by two-photon excitation via the 5s5p 1P1 intermediate state using radiation at 461 and 413 nm. Rydberg series in the different strontium isotopes present in the beam can be selectively excited by tuning the 461 nm light allowing measurements of the isotope shifts in the series limits, that for 88Sr-86Sr being ~ + 210MHz, and that for 88Sr-84Sr being ~ + 440 MHz. Well-resolved Rydberg series can be seen for values of n approaching ~ 500. Photoexcitation spectra calculated using a two-active-electron model reproduce the relative strengths of the measured 1S0 and 1D2 lines. The surprisingly large photoexcitation rates provide new opportunities to study quasi-stable two-electron excited states and to explore the behavior of strongly coupled Rydberg systems at high n. Research supported by the NSF, the Robert A. Welch Foundation and the FWF (Austria).

  16. Quantum Interference in Field Ionization of Rydberg Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feynman, Rachel; Hollingsworth, Jacob; Vennittilli, Michael; Budner, Tamas; Zmiewski, Ryan; Fahey, Donald P.; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.

    2015-05-01

    We excite ultracold rubidium atoms in a magneto-optical trap to a coherent superposition of three | mj | sublevels of a Rydberg state. After a delay in which the relative phase of the states evolve, we field ionize the atoms. The process of ionization is complicated by the details of the state structure for a weakly bound electron in Rydberg states. As these states ionize, their ionization pathways overlap, allowing them to interfere. We find that the result of this interference is dependent on the relative phase between the three states, and that the phase evolves in time inversely with the energy separation between the states. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 1205897.

  17. Quantum information with Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Saffman, M.; Walker, T. G.; Moelmer, K.

    2010-07-15

    Rydberg atoms with principal quantum number n>>1 have exaggerated atomic properties including dipole-dipole interactions that scale as n{sup 4} and radiative lifetimes that scale as n{sup 3}. It was proposed a decade ago to take advantage of these properties to implement quantum gates between neutral atom qubits. The availability of a strong long-range interaction that can be coherently turned on and off is an enabling resource for a wide range of quantum information tasks stretching far beyond the original gate proposal. Rydberg enabled capabilities include long-range two-qubit gates, collective encoding of multiqubit registers, implementation of robust light-atom quantum interfaces, and the potential for simulating quantum many-body physics. The advances of the last decade are reviewed, covering both theoretical and experimental aspects of Rydberg-mediated quantum information processing.

  18. Electron scattering and dephasing rate of Rydberg atoms in a plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gocke, C.; Röpke, G.

    2006-04-01

    Rydberg atoms can be considered as mesoscopic systems at the interface between quantum and classical behaviour. The interaction with the surroundings (bath) becomes essential and leads to dephasing of the wavefunction. An important process in Rydberg plasmas is the collision with free charge carriers. Transition rates due to Coulomb interaction are considered in the Born approximation and are shown to coincide with the dephasing time according to linear response theory for mesoscopic devices. We point out that this description of the dephasing process relies on weak coupling between the Rydberg states and the bath and becomes invalid, if strong scattering is of importance.

  19. HELIUM-3 Enhancements and Unusual Ion Charge State Composition in Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, George Cho-Wah

    Using data from the MASS high-resolution solar wind spectrometer on the WIND spacecraft, six enhanced 3He2+/4He2+ periods were found from 1995 to 1998. The enhancements vary from a factor of five to almost a hundred times higher than average values previously reported. All enhanced 3He2+ periods were associated with the passage of CME-ejecta. The observed time periods were either within but towards the end of the CME-associated magnetic clouds or trailing the magnetic cloud by about 24 hours. Four of six events have enhanced overall densities (>30 cm-3) as well as enhanced 3He2+ abundances. All enhanced 3He2+ periods have a mixture of low (cold) iron charge states along with high (hot) oxygen charge states. Two periods have singly charged helium present with 4He+/4He2+ ratios of 1.0 ± 0.5% and 12 ± 6%. In addition, during one of these two periods we observed C2+, N2+, and O2+ for the first time in the solar wind. The unusual charge state composition of these enhanced 3He2+ events suggest the plasma came from a relatively cold and dense solar region. In addition one of our enhanced 3He2+ events has optical observations from SoHO to suggest it came from the prominence core within a partial halo CME. We suggest that the enhanced 3He2+ plasma in all six of our events originated from the prominence core embedded within the CME as observed from spaceborne coronagraphs. Different fractionation theories that might explain the 3He2+ enhancement will be discussed. In addition, ionic and elemental abundances were determined in -one magnetic clouds. Four of these magnetic clouds were associated with the four 3He2+-enhanced events. In general, charge states of carbon, nitrogen and oxygen indicate that the twenty-one magnetic clouds contain 'hotter' plasma than that found in the typical slow speed solar wind. Elemental abundances of other minor ions indicate that the 'FIP effect', in which the abundances of elements with low first ionization potentials is enhanced, was operating in magnetic clouds.

  20. Solid-state ring laser gyro behaving like its helium-neon counterpart at low rotation rates.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Sylvain; Gutty, François; Feugnet, Gilles; Loil, Eric; Pocholle, Jean-Paul

    2009-12-15

    Nonlinear couplings induced by crystal diffusion and spatial inhomogeneities of the gain have been suppressed over a broad range of angular velocities in a solid-state ring laser gyro by vibrating the gain crystal at 168 kHz and 0.4 microm along the laser cavity axis. This device behaves in the same way as a typical helium-neon ring laser gyro, with a zone of frequency lock-in (or dead band) resulting from the backscattering of light on the cavity mirrors. Furthermore, it is shown that the level of angular random-walk noise in the presence of mechanical dithering depends only on the quality of the cavity mirrors, as is the case with typical helium-neon ring laser gyros. PMID:20016646

  1. Long-Range Molecular Resonances in a Cold Rydberg Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farooqi, S. M.; Krishnan, S.; Stanojevic, J.; Tong, D.; Zhang, Y. P.; Estrin, A. S.; Côté, R.; Eyler, E. E.; Gould, P. L.

    2003-05-01

    Molecular resonances in a cold dense gas of Rb Rydberg atoms have been observed spectroscopically. These resonances occur a few GHz to the red of atomic single-photon transitions to np Rydberg states, in the range n=50-90. The resonance positions correspond closely to the expected energies for simultaneous excitation of a pair of atoms into two different Rydberg states, ns and (n-1)d. We attribute these normally forbidden ``pair photoassociation''transitions to avoided crossings between the long-range molecular potentials( C. Boisseau, I. Simbotin, and R. Côté, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88), 133004 (2002). of two Rydberg atoms. For n=70, the avoided crossing occurs at 60,000 a_0. This extremely large distance implies that a significant number of atom pairs in the sample are available to participate in the excitation. The signal size scales nonlinearly with laser intensity, consistent with a process involving a pair of excited atoms. This research is supported by NSF grants PHY-9987762 and ITR-0082913.

  2. Spin-orbit coupled Bose-Einstein condensates with Rydberg-dressing interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Hao; Zhu, Shao-Bing; Qian, Jun; Wang, Yu-Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Interaction between Rydberg atoms can be used to control the properties of interatomic interaction in ultracold gases by weakly dressing the atoms with a Rydberg state. Here we investigate the effect of the Rydberg-dressing interaction on the ground-state properties of a Bose-Einstein condensate imposed by Raman-induced spin-orbit coupling. We find that, in the case of SU(2)-invariant s-wave interactions, the gas is only in the plane-wave phase and the zero-momentum phase is absent. In particular, we also predict an unexpected magnetic stripe phase composed of two plane-wave components with unequal weight when s-wave interactions are non-symmetric, which originates from the Rydberg-dressing interaction. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921504) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11104292).

  3. Quantum Magnetism and Topological Ordering via Rydberg Dressing near Förster Resonances.

    PubMed

    van Bijnen, R M W; Pohl, T

    2015-06-19

    We devise a cold-atom approach to realizing a broad range of bilinear quantum magnets. Our scheme is based on off-resonant single-photon excitation of Rydberg P states (Rydberg dressing), whose strong interactions are shown to yield controllable XYZ interactions between effective spins, represented by different atomic ground states. The distinctive features of Förster-resonant Rydberg atom interactions are exploited to enhance the effectiveness of Rydberg dressing and, thereby, yield large spin interactions that greatly exceed the corresponding decoherence rates. We illustrate the concept on a spin-1 chain implemented with cold rubidium atoms, and demonstrate that this permits the dynamical preparation of topological magnetic phases. Generally, the described approach provides a viable route to exploring quantum magnetism with dynamically tunable (an)isotropic interactions as well as variable space and spin dimensions in cold-atom experiments. PMID:26196973

  4. Quantum interface between Rydberg ensembles and mechanical oscillators in free space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bariani, Francesco; Otterbach, Johannes; Tan, Huatang; Buchmann, L. F.; Meystre, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    We analyze theoretically an electro-mechanical interface between a charged mechanical oscillator and an ensemble of Rydberg atoms. The charged mechanical oscillator acting as an oscillating electric dipole is coupled to the large electric dipole of the Rydberg transition. The Rydberg blockade effect guarantees that only a single collective spin wave is excited in the atomic ensemble. This hybrid system allows for quantum control of the state of one or more mechanical oscillators. The rich atomic Rydberg spectrum and high level of control of atomic transitions allow to build feedback protocols that maximize its fidelity. We also comment on the use of this interface for phononic state tomography. We ackowledge financial support from NSF, ARO and the DARPA QuaSAR and ORCHID programs.

  5. Fermionic Collective Excitations in a Lattice Gas of Rydberg Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Olmos, B.; Gonzalez-Ferez, R.; Lesanovsky, I.

    2009-10-30

    We investigate the many-body quantum states of a laser-driven gas of Rydberg atoms confined to a large spacing ring lattice. If the laser driving is much stronger than the van der Waals interaction among the Rydberg atoms, these many-body states are collective fermionic excitations. The first excited state is a spin wave that extends over the entire lattice. We demonstrate that our system permits us to study fermions in the presence of disorder although no external atomic motion takes place. We analyze how this disorder influences the excitation properties of the fermionic states. Our work shows a route towards the creation of complex many-particle states with atoms in lattices.

  6. Direct observation of Rydberg-Rydberg transitions via CPmmW spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Yan, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2014-01-01

    Rydberg-Rydberg transitions of BaF molecules have been directly observed in our lab. The key to the experimental success is our ability to combine two powerful and new technologies, Chirped-Pulse millimeter-Wave spectroscopy ...

  7. Rydberg Spectroscopy and imaging of single Holmium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hostetter, James; Pritchard, Jonathan; Saffman, Mark

    2015-05-01

    Neutral holmium with its large number of hyperfine ground states provides a promising approach for collective encoding of a multi-qubit register. Collective encoding relies on the use of Rydberg blockade to create a one-to-one correspondence between singly excited states of the atomic ensemble and logical register states. As a step towards collective encoding with Rydberg blockade in holmium we have precisely measured the energy of ns and nd Rydberg states from n = 41-101 using MOT depletion spectroscopy. These measurements have resulted in a precise determination of the first ionization potential as well as the quantum defects of the singlet ns and nd series. The strong 410.5 nm cooling transition with ~ 33 MHz linewidth coupled with the large hyperfine splitting in the electronically excited state are predicted to enable fast, loss-free, and state sensitive measurements which are a prerequisite for collective encoding experiments. We report on progress towards single-atom trapping and state sensitive detection of holmium in a far off-resonant optical dipole trap. Work supported by NSF award PHY-1404357.

  8. Rotational hybridization, and control of alignment and orientation in triatomic ultralong-range Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Férez, Rosario; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Schmelcher, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We explore the electronic structure and rovibrational properties of an ultralong-range triatomic Rydberg molecule formed by a Rydberg atom and a ground state heteronuclear diatomic molecule. We focus here on the interaction of a Rb(n,l?slant 3) Rydberg atom with a KRb(N = 0) diatomic polar molecule. There is significant electronic hybridization with the Rb(n = 24, l?slant 3) degenerate manifold. The polar diatomic molecule is allowed to rotate in the electric fields generated by the Rydberg electron and core as well as an external field. We investigate the metamorphosis of the Born-Oppenheimer potential curves, essential for the binding of the molecule, with varying electric field and analyze the resulting properties such as the vibrational structure and the alignment and orientation of the polar diatomic molecule.

  9. Long-range Rydberg-Rydberg interactions in calcium, strontium and ytterbium

    E-print Network

    C. L. Vaillant; M. P. A. Jones; R. M. Potvliege

    2012-05-11

    Long-range dipole-dipole and quadrupole-quadrupole interactions between pairs of Rydberg atoms are calculated perturbatively for calcium, strontium and ytterbium within the Coulomb approximation. Quantum defects, obtained by fitting existing laser spectroscopic data, are provided for all $S$, $P$, $D$ and $F$ series of strontium and for the $^3P_2$ series of calcium. The results show qualitative differences with the alkali metal atoms, including isotropically attractive interactions of the strontium $^1S_0$ states and a greater rarity of F\\"orster resonances. Only two such resonances are identified, both in triplet series of strontium. The angular dependence of the long range interaction is briefly discussed.

  10. Pipkin Award Talk: Rydberg Charge Exchange: A Method for Producing Rydberg Positronium and Antihydrogen Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessels, E. A.

    2003-05-01

    Antihydrogen production via two-stage charge exchange(E.A.Hessels, D.M. Homan and M.J. Cavagnero, Phys. Rev. A. 57), (1998) 1668. may provide extremely cold antimatter atoms that can be trapped for spectroscopic studies. Positrons(J. Estrada, T. Roach, J.N. Tan, P. Yesley, and G. Gabrielse, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84), (2000) 859. and antiprotons(G. Gabrielse, N. S. Bowden, P. Oxley, A. Speck, C. H. Storry, J. N. Tan, M. Wessels, D. Grozonka, W. Oelert, G. Schepers, T. Sefzick, J. Walz, H. Pittner, T. W. Hansch, E. A. Hessels, Phys. Lett. B 548), (2002) 140-145., both cooled to 4 K and loaded into adjacent wells of a Penning trap, provide the basic components. Laser-excited Rydberg cesium atoms are passed through the cloud of trapped positrons and charge exchange with the positrons to form Rydberg states of positronium. These positronium atoms have been observed and are studied by ionizing them and counting the resulting positrons. State analysis of the positronium is obtained by varying the electric field used to ionize the atoms. Large numbers of positronium atoms are produced and their binding energies are found to be similar to that of the incoming Rydberg cesium atoms. A second charge exchange is proposed, in which the neutral positronium travels a short distance to an adjacent antiproton cloud. The result of this second charge exchange would be antihydrogen atoms. The apparatus to test this second charge exchange has already been constructed and preliminary studies have already been made.

  11. Attosecond Two-Photon Interferometry for Doubly Excited States of Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Feist, J.; Nagele, S.; Burgdoerfer, J.; Ticknor, C.; Collins, L. A.; Schneider, B. I.

    2011-08-26

    We show that the correlation dynamics in coherently excited doubly excited resonances of helium can be followed in real time by two-photon interferometry. This approach promises to map the evolution of the two-electron wave packet onto experimentally easily accessible noncoincident single-electron spectra. We analyze the interferometric signal in terms of a semianalytical model which is validated by a numerical solution of the time-dependent two-electron Schroedinger equation in its full dimensionality.

  12. Radioprotection in depressed metabolic states: The physiology of helium-cold hypothermia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.

    1973-01-01

    The use of hypothermia as a means of radiation protection was studied on a variety of mammals exposed to 80% helium-20% oxygen atmospheres at low ambient temperatures. Results show that the LD for normothermic animals significantly increased compared with hypothermic animals; similar results were obtained for hibernating mammalians. Pre-exposure of animals to cold temperatures increased their ability to withstand radiation levels close to LD sub 50.

  13. Population transfer in the Na s-p Rydberg ladder by a chirped microwave pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Maeda, H.; Gurian, J. H.; Gallagher, T. F.

    2011-12-15

    While quantum defects of nl Rydberg states of Na with l{>=}2 are nearly equal to zero, the quantum defects of ns and np states of Na are quite large due to the finite size of its ionic core. Since the Na ns and np states are energetically isolated from the higher angular momentum states of the same n, we can think of the Na ns and np Rydberg states as a specific example of a simple multilevel ladder system consisting of only alternating s and p angular momentum states. Here we report that population transfer in the Na s-p Rydberg ladder can be effectively achieved using a frequency-chirped microwave pulse, which couples only s and p states under suitable conditions.

  14. Rydberg-Rydberg interaction profile from the excitation dynamics of ultracold atoms in lattices

    SciTech Connect

    Mayle, Michael; Zeller, Wolfgang; Tezak, Nikolas; Schmelcher, Peter

    2011-07-15

    We propose a method for the determination of the interaction potential of Rydberg atoms. Specifically, we consider a laser-driven Rydberg gas confined in a one-dimensional lattice and demonstrate that the Rydberg atom number after a laser excitation cycle as a function of the laser detuning provides a measure for the Rydberg interaction coefficient. With the lattice spacing precisely known, the proposed scheme only relies on the measurement of the number of Rydberg atoms and thus circumvents the necessity to map the interaction potential by varying the interparticle separation.

  15. Controlling ultracold chemical reactions via Rydberg-dressed interactions

    E-print Network

    Jia Wang; Jason N. Byrd; Ion Simbotin; R. Côté

    2014-03-24

    We show that ultracold chemical reactions can be manipulated and controlled by using Rydberg-dressed interactions. Scattering in the ultracold regime is sensitive to long-range interactions, especially when weakly bound (or quasi-bound) states exist near the collision threshold. We investigate how, by Rydberg-dressing a reactant, one enhances its polarizability and modifies the long-range van der Waals collision complex, which can alter chemical reaction rates by shifting the position of near threshold bound states. We carry out a full quantum mechanical scattering calculation for the benchmark system H$_2$+D, and show that resonances can be moved substantially and that rate coefficients at cold and ultracold temperatures can be increased by several orders of magnitude.

  16. Tuning Ultracold Chemical Reactions via Rydberg-Dressed Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia; Byrd, Jason N.; Simbotin, Ion; Côté, R.

    2014-07-01

    We show that ultracold chemical reactions with an activation barrier can be tuned using Rydberg-dressed interactions. Scattering in the ultracold regime is sensitive to long-range interactions, especially when weakly bound (or quasibound) states exist near the collision threshold. We investigate how, by Rydberg dressing a reactant, one enhances its polarizability and modifies the long-range van der Waals collision complex, which can alter chemical reaction rates by shifting the position of near-threshold bound states. We carry out a full quantum mechanical scattering calculation for the benchmark system H2+D, and show that resonances can be moved substantially and that rate coefficients at cold and ultracold temperatures can be increased by several orders of magnitude.

  17. Robust quantum logic in neutral atoms via adiabatic Rydberg dressing

    E-print Network

    Tyler Keating; Robert L. Cook; Aaron Hankin; Yuan-Yu Jau; Grant W. Biedermann; Ivan H. Deutsch

    2015-02-23

    We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By employing adiabatic dressing of the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise because of atomic thermal motion. In addition, the adiabatic protocol allows for a Doppler-free configuration that involves counterpropagating lasers in a $\\sigma_+/\\sigma_-$ orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual motional error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. For reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of $^{133}$Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in $<10$ $\\mu$s with error probability on the order of $10^{-3}$.

  18. Ab Initio Equation of State for Hydrogen-Helium Mixtures with Recalibration of the Giant-Planet Mass-Radius Relation

    E-print Network

    Militzer, Burkhard

    Ab Initio Equation of State for Hydrogen-Helium Mixtures with Recalibration of the Giant an ab initio thermodynamic integration technique. A comprehensive equation of state (EOS) table with 391 energy fit for interpolation. Deviations between our ab initio EOS and the semi-analytical EOS model

  19. Calculation of Rydberg energy levels for the francium atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shi-Zhong; Chu, Jin-Min

    2010-06-01

    Based on the weakest bound electron potential model theory, the Rydberg energy levels and quantum defects of the np2Po1/2 (n = 7-50) and np2Po3/2 (n = 7-50) spectrum series for the francium atom are calculated. The calculated results are in excellent agreement with the 48 measured levels, and 40 energy levels for highly excited states are predicted.

  20. Attosecond two-photon interferometry for doubly excited states of helium

    E-print Network

    J. Feist; S. Nagele; C. Ticknor; B. I. Schneider; L. A. Collins; J. Burgdörfer

    2011-04-19

    We show that the correlation dynamics in coherently excited doubly excited resonances of helium can be followed in real time by two-photon interferometry. This approach promises to map the evolution of the two-electron wave packet onto experimentally easily accessible non-coincident single electron spectra. We analyze the interferometric signal in terms of a semi-analytical model which is validated by a numerical solution of the time-dependent two-electron Schr\\"odinger equation in its full dimensionality.

  1. Differential cross sections for state-selective electron capture in 25--100-keV proton-helium collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D.R.; Reinhold, C.O.; Olson, R.E.; Seely, D.G. Department of Physics, University of Missouri-Rolla, Rolla, Missouri 65401 )

    1992-07-01

    Cross sections differential in the scattering angle of the projectile are presented for electron capture summed over all states and to the 2{ital s}, 2{ital p}, 3{ital s}, 3{ital p}, 4{ital s}, and 4{ital p} states of hydrogen in 25-, 50-, and 100-keV proton-helium collisions. The classical-trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) technique was employed for these calculations as well as to compute total cross sections as a function of impact energy. The latter are compared with experiment to display the behavior of the integral state-selective cross sections in this energy regime. Detailed comparison is also made between the calculated angular differential cross sections and the experimental measurements of Martin {ital et} {ital al}. (Phys. Rev. A 23, 285 (1981)) for capture summed over all states and of Seely {ital et} {ital al}. (Phys. Rev. A 45, R1287 (1992)) for capture to the 2{ital p} state. Very good overall agreement is found. Regarding the cross section for capture summed over all states, an improved agreement is demonstrated by using an alternate representation of the initial state in the CTMC method, which improves the electronic radial distribution but which cannot presently be applied to state-selective determinations.

  2. Spectroscopy of triplet states of Rb{sub 2} by femtosecond pump-probe photoionization of doped helium nanodroplets

    SciTech Connect

    Mudrich, M.; Heister, Ph.; Hippler, T.; Giese, Ch.; Stienkemeier, F.; Dulieu, O.

    2009-10-15

    The dynamics of vibrational wave packets in triplet states of rubidium dimers (Rb{sub 2}) formed on helium nanodroplets are studied using femtosecond pump-probe photoionization spectroscopy. Due to fast desorption of the excited Rb{sub 2} molecules off the droplets and due to their low internal temperature, wave-packet oscillations can be followed up to very long pump-probe delay times > or approx. 1.5 ns. In the first-excited triplet state (1){sup 3}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}, full and fractional revivals are observed with high contrast. Fourier analysis provides high-resolution vibrational spectra which are in excellent agreement with ab initio calculations.

  3. Collective excitation of Rydberg-atom ensembles beyond the superatom model.

    PubMed

    Gärttner, Martin; Whitlock, Shannon; Schönleber, David W; Evers, Jörg

    2014-12-01

    In an ensemble of laser-driven atoms involving strongly interacting Rydberg states, the steady-state excitation probability is usually substantially suppressed. In contrast, here we identify a regime in which the Rydberg excited fraction is enhanced by the interaction. This effect is associated with the buildup of many-body coherences induced by coherent multiphoton excitations between collective states. The excitation enhancement should be observable under currently existing experimental conditions and may serve as a direct probe for the presence of coherent multiphoton dynamics involving collective quantum states. PMID:25526126

  4. EVOLUTION OF THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN HELIUM ABUNDANCE, MINOR ION CHARGE STATE, AND SOLAR WIND SPEED OVER THE SOLAR CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Kasper, J. C.; Stevens, M. L.; Korreck, K. E.; Maruca, B. A.; Kiefer, K. K.; Schwadron, N. A.; Lepri, S. T.

    2012-02-01

    The changing relationships between solar wind speed, helium abundance, and minor ion charge state are examined over solar cycle 23. Observations of the abundance of helium relative to hydrogen (A{sub He} {identical_to} 100 Multiplication-Sign n{sub He}/n{sub H}) by the Wind spacecraft are used to examine the dependence of A{sub He} on solar wind speed and solar activity between 1994 and 2010. This work updates an earlier study of A{sub He} from 1994 to 2004 to include the recent extreme solar minimum and broadly confirms our previous result that A{sub He} in slow wind is strongly correlated with sunspot number, reaching its lowest values in each solar minima. During the last minimum, as sunspot numbers reached their lowest levels in recent history, A{sub He} continued to decrease, falling to half the levels observed in slow wind during the previous minimum and, for the first time observed, decreasing even in the fastest solar wind. We have also extended our previous analysis by adding measurements of the mean carbon and oxygen charge states observed with the Advanced Composition Explorer spacecraft since 1998. We find that as solar activity decreased, the mean charge states of oxygen and carbon for solar wind of a given speed also fell, implying that the wind was formed in cooler regions in the corona during the recent solar minimum. The physical processes in the coronal responsible for establishing the mean charge state and speed of the solar wind have evolved with solar activity and time.

  5. Suppression of Rydberg excitation in an ultracold atomic sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, D.; Farooqi, S. M.; Stanojevic, J.; Krishnan, S.; Zhang, Y. P.; Côté, R.; Eyler, E. E.; Gould, P. L.

    2004-05-01

    Recently, the dipole blockade mechanism(M.D. Lukin et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 037901 (2001). has been proposed to implement quantum information processing using Rydberg atoms. We report an advance toward this goal, a local excitation blockade in an ultracold sample containing 10^7 ^85Rb atoms. We illuminate the sample with narrowband ( ˜ 100 MHz) 297 nm UV pulses to excite atoms to np_3/2 states (n=30, 70, and 80). The resulting Rydberg atoms are detected by pulsed field ionization. We observe a dramatic suppression of excitation for n=70 and 80, whereas n=30 behaves as isolated atoms. Our local blockade arises, not from dipolie interactions, but from van der Waals interactions which scale very rapidly with n. We present results on the dependence of the blockade on both laser irradiance and atom density, and compare with a mean-field model. The model and experimental measurements agree well.

  6. Dynamics of oxygen Rydberg atom generation following O 1s inner-shell excitation of H{sub 2}O

    SciTech Connect

    Gejo, T. Ikegami, T.; Honma, K.; Takahashi, O.; Shigemasa, E.; Hikosaka, Y.; Tamenori, Y.

    2014-06-07

    The emission of low-energy electrons from H{sub 2}O has been investigated at photon excitation energies in the vicinity of the O 1s ionization threshold. Neutral oxygen Rydberg atoms (O*) were found to form, and the correlation between the initial inner-shell excited state of H{sub 2}O and the Rydberg state of O* was determined. The initially excited electron in a Rydberg orbital is shown to remain associated with O* even after the cleavage of two O-H bonds. We also show that the energy discrepancy between two Rydberg states of H{sub 2}O and O* can be explained by the influence of the post-collision interaction, which becomes stronger as the excitation energy approaches the 1s ionization threshold.

  7. Two body and multibody interaction in a cold Rydberg gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jianing; Gallagher, Tom

    2009-05-01

    Cold Rydberg atoms trapped in a Magneto Optical Trap (MOT) are not isolated and they tend to bond through dipole-dipole and multiple-multiple interactions between Rydberg atoms. The dipole-dipole interaction and van der Waals interaction between two atoms have been intensively studied. However, the fact that the dipole-dipole interaction and van der Waals interaction show the same size of broadening, studied by Raithel's group, and there is transition between two molecular states, studied by Farooqi and Overstreet, can not be explained by the two atom picture. The purpose of this paper is to show the multibody nature of a dense cold Rydberg gas by studying the molecular state microwave spectrum. Specifically, single body, two body and three body interaction regions are separated. Moreover, the multibody energy levels for selected geometries are calculated. In addition, multibody blockade will be discussed. [3pt] [1] A. Reinhard, K. C. Younge, T. Cubel Liebisch, B. Knuffman, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 233201 (2008).[0pt] [2] S.M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic,Y.P. Zhang, J.R. Ensher, A.S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Cote, E.E. Eyler, and P.L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003).[0pt] [3] K. Richard Overstreet, Arne Schwettmann, Jonathan Tallant, and James P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. A 76, 011403 (2007).

  8. Strongly Correlated Gases of Rydberg-Dressed Atoms: Quantum and Classical Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Pupillo, G.; Micheli, A.; Zoller, P.; Boninsegni, M.; Lesanovsky, I.

    2010-06-04

    We discuss techniques to generate long-range interactions in a gas of ground state alkali atoms, by weakly admixing excited Rydberg states with laser light. This provides a tool to engineer strongly correlated phases with reduced decoherence from inelastic collisions and spontaneous emission. As an illustration, we discuss the quantum phases of dressed atoms with dipole-dipole interactions confined in a harmonic potential, as relevant to experiments. We show that residual spontaneous emission from the Rydberg state acts as a heating mechanism, leading to a quantum-classical crossover.

  9. Heating and cooling of an ultra-cold neutral plasma by Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Duncan; Crockett, Ethan; Newell, Ryan

    2015-05-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated a mechanism for controlling the expansion rate of an ultra-cold neutral plasma (UNP) so that it is different from the value determined by the photo-ionizing laser frequency. We achieved this by adding Rydberg atoms to the UNP 10-20 ns after its creation. Specifically, we added nd5 / 2 state atoms with n = 24- 60 to UNPs with initial electron temperatures, Te , 0, in the range 10-250 K. The evidence is both indirect, from the change in the electron evaporation rate from the UNP, and direct, from the change in the asymptotic plasma expansion velocity, v0, measured using the time-of-flight spectrum of Rb+ ions. In addition, the results strongly support the existence of a ``bottleneck'' in the state distribution of Rydberg atoms formed by three body recombination (TBR) where the binding energy of the bottleneck state is Eb ~ 2 . 3 ×kBTe , 0 . Finally, we show that the amount of heating or cooling is linear in the number density of Rydberg atoms added to the UNP for small Rydberg densities, but saturates at higher densities to a value that is determined solely by the Rydberg binding energy. These results are in good general agreement with Monte-Carlo calculations. Funded by NSF and Colby College.

  10. Dipolar Rydberg-atom gas prepared by adiabatic passage through an avoided crossing

    E-print Network

    Wang, Limei; Zhang, Linjie; Li, Changyong; Yang, Yonggang; Zhao, Jianming; Raithel, Georg; Jia, Suotang

    2015-01-01

    The passage of cold cesium 49S$_{1/2}$ Rydberg atoms through an electric-field-induced multi-level avoided crossing with nearby hydrogen-like Rydberg levels is employed to prepare a cold, dipolar Rydberg atom gas. When the electric field is ramped through the avoided crossing on time scales on the order of 100~ns or slower, the 49S$_{1/2}$ population adiabatically transitions into high-\\emph{l} Rydberg Stark states. The adiabatic state transformation results in a cold gas of Rydberg atoms with large electric dipole moments. After a waiting time of about $1~\\mu$s and at sufficient atom density, the adiabatically transformed highly dipolar atoms become undetectable, enabling us to discern adiabatic from diabatic passage behavior through the avoided crossing. We attribute the state-selectivity to $m$-mixing collisions between the dipolar atoms. The data interpretation is supported by numerical simulations of the passage dynamics and of binary $m$-mixing collisions.

  11. Dynamical processes in Rydberg-Stark deceleration and trapping of atoms and molecules.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Christian; Hogan, Stephen D; Merkt, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between inhomogeneous electric fields and the large electric dipole moments of atoms and molecules in Rydberg states of high principal quantum number can be used to efficiently accelerate and decelerate atoms and molecules in the gas phase. We describe here how hydrogen atoms and molecules initially moving with velocities of ?600 m/s in supersonic beams can be decelerated to zero velocity and loaded into electric traps. The long observation times that are made possible by the electrostatic trapping enables one to study slow relaxation processes. Experiments are presented in which we have observed photoionization processes and transitions between Rydberg states induced by blackbody radiation at temperatures between 10 K and 300 K on a time scale of several milliseconds. Comparison of these processes in Rydberg states of H and H(2) suggests the importance, in H(2), of collisional processes and of the process of blackbody-radiation-induced predissociation. PMID:22613151

  12. Communication: atomic and molecular Rydbergs from water.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Jyoti; Safvan, C P

    2011-05-28

    We report the formation of energetic neutral Rydberg hydrogen atoms and transient Rydberg molecular ions, [(H(2)O)(q+)](?) in ion-impact dissociation of isolated water molecules. The kinetic energy spectra of the neutral Rydberg H atoms are determined from the complete study of (H(?), H(+), O(+)) dissociation channel. This channel of water dissociation is suggested as a possible additional source of the energetic neutrals detected in upper atmospheres of extra solar planets, and of slow electrons which are known to play a major role in radiation induced damage to living cells. PMID:21639412

  13. Mesoscopic Rydberg Gate Based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, M.; Lesanovsky, I.; Zoller, P.; Weimer, H.; Buechler, H. P.

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate theoretically a parallelized C-NOT gate which allows us to entangle a mesoscopic ensemble of atoms with a single control atom in a single step, with high fidelity and on a microsecond time scale. Our scheme relies on the strong and long-ranged interaction between Rydberg atoms triggering electromagnetically induced transparency. By this we can robustly implement a conditional transfer of all ensemble atoms between two logical states, depending on the state of the control atom. We outline a many-body interferometer which allows a comparison of two many-body quantum states by performing a measurement of the control atom.

  14. Mesoscopic Rydberg Gate based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    E-print Network

    M. Müller; I. Lesanovsky; H. Weimer; H. P. Büchler; P. Zoller

    2009-07-10

    We demonstrate theoretically a parallelized C-NOT gate which allows to entangle a mesoscopic ensemble of atoms with a single control atom in a single step, with high fidelity and on a microsecond timescale. Our scheme relies on the strong and long-ranged interaction between Rydberg atoms triggering Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT). By this we can robustly implement a conditional transfer of all ensemble atoms among two logical states, depending on the state of the control atom. We outline a many body interferometer which allows a comparison of two many-body quantum states by performing a measurement of the control atom.

  15. From classical to quantum non-equilibrium dynamics of Rydberg excitations in optical lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Marco; Glätzle, Alexander W.; Lechner, Wolfgang

    2015-11-01

    The glass phase and its quantum analog are prominent challenges of current non-equilibrium statistical mechanics and condensed matter physics. As a model system to study the transition from classical to quantum glassy dynamics, we propose a setup of laser driven three-level atoms trapped in an optical lattice. Tuning the strength of the laser driving to the intermediate level allows one to study the transition from a classical kinetically constrained model to the coherent regime. For strong driving, Rydberg excitations evolve analogously to defects in the one-spin facilitated model, a minimal model known to exhibit glassy dynamics. In our setup, the constraints result from the interplay between Rydberg interactions and the laser detuning from the Rydberg state. The emerging heterogeneous relaxation timescales are tuneable over several orders of magnitudes. In the opposite limit of weak driving of the intermediate level, we find an effective cluster model which describes the dynamics in a reduced subspace of the allowed number and positions of Rydberg excitations. This subspace is uniquely determined by the initial state and is characterized by a fixed number of clusters of Rydberg excitations. In addition, we investigate the influence of random fields on the classical relaxation. We find that the glassy dynamics can relax faster in the presence of weak random fields.

  16. On the binary helium star DY Centauri: chemical composition and evolutionary state

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Gajendra; Rao, N. Kameswara; Jeffery, C. Simon; Lambert, David L. E-mail: nkrao@iiap.res.in E-mail: dll@astro.as.utexas.edu

    2014-10-01

    DY Cen has shown a steady fading of its visual light by about one magnitude in the last 40 yr, suggesting a secular increase in its effective temperature. We have conducted non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and LTE abundance analyses to determine the star's effective temperature, surface gravity, and chemical composition using high-resolution spectra obtained over two decades. The derived stellar parameters for three epochs suggest that DY Cen has evolved at a constant luminosity and has become hotter by about 5000 K in 23 yr. We show that the derived abundances remain unchanged for the three epochs. The derived abundances of the key elements, including F and Ne, are as observed for the extreme helium stars resulting from a merger of a He white dwarf with a C-O white dwarf. Thus DY Cen by chemical composition appears to also be a product of a merger of two white dwarfs. This appearance seems to be at odds with the recent suggestion that DY Cen is a single-lined spectroscopic binary.

  17. Vibronic and Rydberg series assignments in the vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectrum of nitrous oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastri, Aparna; Singh, Param Jeet; Krishnakumar, Sunanda; Mandal, Anuvab; Raja Sekhar, B. N.; D'Souza, R.; Jagatap, B. N.

    2014-11-01

    We report a comprehensive photoabsorption study of nitrous oxide (N2O) in the vacuum ultraviolet (45,000-95,000 cm-1) region using synchrotron radiation. The observed spectrum comprises of a few valence transitions and low lying Rydberg series converging to the two spin-orbit components (2?1/2,3/2) of the ground state of N2O+. Spectral analysis is aided by extensive quantum chemical calculations of vertical excited states, oscillator strengths and potential energy curves using the time dependent density functional theory. Vibronic bands observed in the first absorption system (45,000-60,000 cm-1) are assigned to hot band progressions in ?2? originating from v?=1 or 2. New insights into the assignment of the well-formed progression of bands in the X1?+?C1? system (60,000-72,000 cm-1) are afforded by consideration of the Renner-Teller interaction. A set of molecular vibrational parameters (?2=467 cm-1, x22=-2.9, ?=-0.24) for the C1? state are derived from a fitting of the experimental data. The 3p?1?+ state at ~77,600 cm-1 shows a large quantum defect (0.96) which is explained as arising due to mixed valence-Rydberg character. In the 85,000-95,000 cm-1 region, a number of absorption features are observed with greater clarity than in earlier photoabsorption studies and assigned to Rydberg series of type nl? (n=3,4; l=s,p,d; ?=?,?,?) and accompanying vibronic bands. This work has resulted in clarification of several discrepancies in earlier Rydberg series assignments. Additionally, the 3p? 3?- Rydberg state at 85,788 cm-1, the valence transition 7??3? (1?) at 87,433 cm-1 and the 3d? Rydberg series in the 91,700-92,600 cm-1 region are assigned for the first time.

  18. Resonant Rydberg-dressing of Alkaline-Earth Atoms via Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    E-print Network

    Gaul, C; Aman, J A; Dunning, F B; Killian, T C; Pohl, T

    2015-01-01

    We develop an approach to generate finite-range atomic interactions via optical Rydberg-state excitation and study the underlying excitation dynamics in theory and experiment. In contrast to previous work, the proposed scheme is based on resonant optical driving and the establishment of a dark state under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency. Analyzing the driven dissipative dynamics of the atomic gas, we show that the interplay between coherent light coupling, radiative decay and strong Rydberg-Rydberg atom interactions leads to the emergence of sizeable effective interactions while providing remarkably long coherence times. The latter are studied experimentally in a cold gas of Strontium atoms for which the proposed scheme is most efficient. Our measured atom loss is in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction based on binary effective interactions between the driven atoms.

  19. A Rydberg blockade CNOT gate and entanglement in a 2D array of neutral atom qubits

    E-print Network

    K. M. Maller; M. T. Lichtman; T. Xia; Y. Sun; M. J. Piotrowicz; A. W. Carr; L. Isenhower; M. Saffman

    2015-07-17

    We present experimental results on two-qubit Rydberg blockade quantum gates and entanglement in a two-dimensional qubit array. Without post selection against atom loss we achieve a Bell state fidelity of $0.73\\pm 0.05$, the highest value reported to date. The experiments are performed in an array of single Cs atom qubits with a site to site spacing of $3.8 ~ \\mu\\rm m$. Using the standard protocol for a Rydberg blockade C$_Z$ gate together with single qubit operations we create Bell states and measure their fidelity using parity oscillations. We analyze the role of AC Stark shifts that occur when using two-photon Rydberg excitation and show how to tune experimental conditions for optimal gate fidelity.

  20. Preparation for Acceleration and Deceleration of Cold Rydberg Atoms in the Field of a Charged Wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodsell, Anne; Nawarat, Poomirat; Harper, W. Colleen

    2015-05-01

    We are preparing for experiments using cold Rydberg atoms in linear Stark states. We cool and launch Rb atoms at 2-12 m/s toward a charged wire with a cylindrically-symmetric electric field. The cold cloud will be illuminated in mid-flight to promote atoms into the desired Rydberg state (e.g. n = 33-40). With a three-photon sequence we will access nf states and the nearby manifolds (parabolic quantum number 0 <=n1 <= (n -4)) with linear Stark shifts. This requires specific detuning of the the excitation laser, which allows us to selectively compare states that are strongly accelerated to states that are strongly decelerated. With the wire at +10 V, atoms launched at 10 m/s, and excitation near 750 ?m from the wire, the displacement during the Rydberg lifetime (e.g. n = 35, ? = 30 ?s) will be 200-300 ?m farther for extreme attracted states (n1 = 0) than for extreme repelled states (n1 = 31). Detection will occur by spatially-dependent field ionization. Observations of atoms with zero angular momentum around the wire can be extended to atoms with nonzero angular momentum and also to study the dynamics of Rydberg atoms with a quadratic Stark shift, building on previous work with ground-state atoms. (Current address: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY).

  1. Precision Spectroscopy in Cold Molecules: the First Rotational Intervals of He_2^+ by High-Resolution Spectroscopy and Rydberg-Series Extrapolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Paul; Semeria, Luca; Scheidegger, Simon; Merkt, Frederic

    2015-06-01

    Having only three electrons, He_2^+ represents a system for which highly accurate ab initio calculations are possible. The latest calculation of rovibrational energies in He_2^+ do not include relativistic or QED corrections but claim an accuracy of about 120 MHz The available experimental data on He_2^+, though accurate to 300 MHz, are not precise enough to rigorously test these calculations or reveal the magnitude of the relativistic and QED corrections. We have performed high-resolution Rydberg spectroscopy of metastable He_2 molecules and employed multichannel-quantum-defect-theory extrapolation techniques to determine the rotational energy-level structure in the He_2^+ ion. To this end we have produced samples of helium molecules in the a ^3?_u^+ state in supersonic beams with velocities tunable down to 100 m/s by combining a cryogenic supersonic-beam source with a multistage Zeeman decelerator. The metastable He_2 molecules are excited to np Rydberg states using the frequency doubled output of a pulse-amplified ring dye laser. Although the bandwidth of the laser systems is too large to observe the reduction of the Doppler width resulting from deceleration, the deceleration greatly simplifies the spectral assignments because of its spin-rotational state selectivity. Our approach enabled us to determine the rotational structure of He_2^+ with unprecedented accuracy, to determine the size of the relativistic and QED corrections by comparison with the results of Ref.~a and to precisely measure the rotational structure of the metastable state for comparison with the results of Focsa~et al. W.-C. Tung, M. Pavanello, L. Adamowicz, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 104309 (2012). D. Sprecher, J. Liu, T. Krähenmann, M. Schäfer, and F. Merkt, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 064304 (2014). M. Motsch, P. Jansen, J. A. Agner, H. Schmutz, and F. Merkt, Phys. Rev. A 89, 043420 (2014). C. Focsa, P. F. Bernath, and R. Colin, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 191, 209 (1998).

  2. Power law decay and phase rigidity for large-amplitude coherent phonons in bismuth at helium temperature: Possible evidence for transient supersolid state

    E-print Network

    O. V. Misochko; M. V. Lebedev

    2011-03-17

    Intense ultrafast laser excitation can produce transient states of condensed matter that would otherwise be inaccessible. At high excitation level, the interatomic forces can be altered resulting in an unusual lattice dynamics. Here we report the study of coherent lattice dynamics in Bi made for various excitation levels at helium temperature. We demonstrate that under certain conditions the fully symmetric phonons of large amplitude exhibit anomalous decay and phase rigidity, both of which possibly signaling the attainment of transient supersolid state.

  3. 30 CFR 256.11 - Helium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... LEASING OF SULPHUR OR OIL AND GAS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Oil, Gas, and... United States may provide. (c) The extraction of helium shall not cause a reduction in the value of the... and other equipment necessary for the extraction of helium. The extraction of helium shall not...

  4. Storage and Control of Optical Photons Using Rydberg Polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, D.; Szwer, D. J.; Paredes-Barato, D.; Busche, H.; Pritchard, J. D.; Gauguet, A.; Weatherill, K. J.; Jones, M. P. A.; Adams, C. S.

    2013-03-01

    We use a microwave field to control the quantum state of optical photons stored in a cold atomic cloud. The photons are stored in highly excited collective states (Rydberg polaritons) enabling both fast qubit rotations and control of photon-photon interactions. Through the collective read-out of these pseudospin rotations it is shown that the microwave field modifies the long-range interactions between polaritons. This technique provides a powerful interface between the microwave and optical domains, with applications in quantum simulations of spin liquids, quantum metrology and quantum networks.

  5. The effect of Rydberg atoms on electron temperature in ultra-cold neutral plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Duncan; Crockett, Ethan

    2013-05-01

    We describe recent developments in our ongoing research in which Rydberg atoms are embedded into an ultra-cold neutral plasma (UNP). The UNP is created with initial electron temperature Te , 0 by photoionization of rubidium atoms in a MOT. At a controllable time delay (5 ns - 10 ?s), atoms in a specific Rydberg state are embedded in the UNP by a narrow bandwidth pulsed laser. In such a system, it is predicted that the plasma electrons may be cooled if the Rydberg binding energy, Eb, is greater than 4kBTe (see, for example). We have identified an experimental signature that correlates with the plasma electron temperature change, namely, whether the plasma lifetime increases or decreases when Rydbergs are added. The ``crossover'' condition, where the UNP lifetime remains the same when Rydbergs are added, can then be plotted (i.e., Eb vs. Te , 0 at crossover) and compared with theoretically derived crossover conditions for UNP expansion velocity, electron temperature, etc., using a model derived from the work of Robicheaux and Hansen. Research supported by Colby College and NSF.

  6. Supplementary Information -Rotational state-changing cold collisions of hydroxyl ions with helium

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    1 Supplementary Information - Rotational state-changing cold collisions of hydroxyl ions of hydroxyl anions are coupled by a simple two-level rate model 1 that is fit enter through small entrance and exit electrodes. Rotational state-changing cold collisions of hydroxyl

  7. Sub-Poissonian Statistics of Jamming Limits in Ultracold Rydberg Gases

    E-print Network

    Jaron Sanders; Matthieu Jonckheere; Servaas Kokkelmans

    2015-04-10

    Several recent experiments have established by measuring the Mandel Q parameter that the number of Rydberg excitations in ultracold gases exhibits sub-Poissonian statistics. This effect is attributed to the Rydberg blockade that occurs due to the strong interatomic interactions between highly-excited atoms. Because of this blockade effect, the system can end up in a state in which all particles are either excited or blocked: a jamming limit. We analyze appropriately constructed random-graph models that capture the blockade effect, and derive formulae for the mean and variance of the number of Rydberg excitations in jamming limits. This yields an explicit relationship between the Mandel Q parameter and the blockade effect, and comparison to measurement data shows strong agreement between theory and experiment.

  8. Sub-Poissonian Statistics of Jamming Limits in Ultracold Rydberg Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Jaron; Jonckheere, Matthieu; Kokkelmans, Servaas

    2015-07-01

    Several recent experiments have established by measuring the Mandel Q parameter that the number of Rydberg excitations in ultracold gases exhibits sub-Poissonian statistics. This effect is attributed to the Rydberg blockade that occurs due to the strong interatomic interactions between highly excited atoms. Because of this blockade effect, the system can end up in a state in which all particles are either excited or blocked: a jamming limit. We analyze appropriately constructed random-graph models that capture the blockade effect, and derive formulae for the mean and variance of the number of Rydberg excitations in jamming limits. This yields an explicit relationship between the Mandel Q parameter and the blockade effect, and comparison to measurement data shows strong agreement between theory and experiment.

  9. Electric field sensing near the surface microstructure of an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, J. D. D.

    2013-05-01

    Rydberg atoms may enable hybrid systems that combine the benefits of gas-phase atoms with those of solid-state devices. However, these hybrid systems will require atoms to be located near a heterogeneous surface with exposed metal electrodes and dielectric insulators, which are sources of uncontrollable and unwanted electric fields. With this motivation, we have measured the electric fields near the heterogeneous metal-dielectric surface of an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms. We have also developed a technique for reducing the influence of dc and low-frequency electric fields on Rydberg atom transitions, while retaining their sensitivity to high-frequency resonant fields. Work performed in collaboration with J. D. Carter, L. A. Jones, and O. Cherry and supported by NSERC.

  10. Theoretical state-selective and total cross sections for electron capture from helium atoms by fully stripped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man?ev, I.; Milojevi?, N.; Belki?, Dž.

    2015-03-01

    The four-body boundary-corrected first Born (CB1-4B) approximation is used to compute cross sections for single electron capture from helium targets by fully stripped ions. The projectile ions are H+, He2+, Li3+, Be4+, B5+, C6+, N7+, O8+, and F9+. An extensive list of theoretical state-to-state cross sections in these collisions at energies ranging from 20 to 10 000 keV/amu is given. This list includes the state-selective cross sections Qnlm for each individual triple of the usual quantum numbers { n , l , m } of the final hydrogen-like states alongside Qnl and Qn for the pertinent sub-shells and shells where the respective summations over m and { l , m } have been carried out. The maximal value of the principal quantum number n was chosen to vary from 4 (H+) to 10 (F9+) so as to satisfy the condition n ?ZP, where ZP is the nuclear charge of the projectile. Usually, the largest cross sections stem from those values of n that match the projectile charge (n =ZP) . The total cross sections for capture summed over all the quantum numbers { n , l , m } are also tabulated. The overall goal of this study is to fill in lacunae in the existing databases of charge exchange cross sections that are needed in several inter-disciplinary fields. For example, in particle transport physics, which is of utmost importance in such emerging branches as hadron therapy, these cross sections constitute a part of the multifaceted input data for stochastic simulations of energy losses of multiply charged ions in matter, including tissue. Other significant uses of the present data are anticipated in charge exchange diagnostics within thermonuclear research project as well as in applications covering the relevant parts of plasma physics and astrophysics.

  11. Helium-cluster decay widths of molecular states in beryllium and carbon isotopes

    E-print Network

    J. C. Pei; F. R. Xu

    2007-02-01

    The $\\alpha$ particle and $^6$He emissions from possible molecular states in beryllium and carbon isotopes have been studied using a mean-field-type cluster potential. Calculations can reproduce well the $\\alpha$-decay widths of excited states in $^{8}$Be, $^{12}$C and $^{20}$Ne. For the nucleus $^{10}$Be, we discussed the $\\alpha$-decay widths with different shapes or decay modes, in order to understand the very different decay widths of two excited states. The widths of $^{6}$He decay from $^{12}$Be and $\\alpha$ decays from $^{13,14}$C are predicted, which could be useful for future experiments.

  12. a Study of Final State Effects in the Electrodisintegration of a Polarized HELIUM-3 Target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kievsky, A.; Pace, E.; Salmè, G.

    2005-02-01

    An approach for the description of the final state interaction in the evaluation of inclusive electromagnetic responses of a polarized 3He target, is briefly illustrated. Preliminary results of calculations, where the final state interaction is fully taken into account for the two-body break-up channel, are compared with experimental data, showing a very encouraging improvement with respect to the plane wave impulse approximation results.

  13. On the Formation of (Anionic) Excited Helium Dimers in Helium Droplets

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Metastable atomic and molecular helium anions exhibiting high-spin quartet configurations can be produced in helium droplets via electron impact. Their lifetimes allow detection in mass spectrometric experiments. Formation of atomic helium anions comprises collision-induced excitation of ground state helium and concomitant electron capture. Yet the formation of molecular helium anions in helium droplets has been an unresolved issue. In this work, we explore the interaction of excited helium atoms exhibiting high-spin triplet configurations with ground state helium using the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method. Transition barriers in the energetically lowest He*–He and He*––He interaction potentials prevent molecule formation at the extremely low temperatures present in helium droplets. In contrast, some excited states allow a barrier-free formation of molecular helium (anions). Moreover, we show that the necessary excitation energies pinpoint (higher) resonances in recently recorded mass spectra and emend the assignment of those resonances that have previously been assigned to electron-impact ionization of ground state helium necessitating subsequent double-electron capture. Embedding molecules or molecular clusters in helium droplets is a predestined experimental technique for the study of phenomena at very low temperatures. Profound knowledge about active processes in the helium environment is required for a proper assessment of experimental data. PMID:24866535

  14. Opto-Nanomechanics Strongly Coupled to a Rydberg Superatom: Coherent vs. Incoherent Dynamics

    E-print Network

    A. Carmele; B. Vogell; K. Stannigel; P. Zoller

    2013-12-27

    We propose a hybrid optomechanical quantum system consisting of a moving membrane strongly coupled to an ensemble of N atoms with a Rydberg state. Due to the strong van-der-Waals interaction between the atoms, the ensemble forms an effective two-level system, a Rydberg superatom, with a collectively enhanced atom-light coupling. Using this superatom imposed collective enhancement strong coupling between membrane and superatom is feasible for parameters within the range of current experiments. The quantum interface to couple the membrane and the superatom can be a pumped single mode cavity, or a laser field in free space, where the Rydberg superatom and the membrane are spatially separated. In addition to the coherent dynamics, we study in detail the impact of the typical dissipation processes, in particular the radiative decay as a source for incoherent superpositions of atomic excitations. We identify the conditions to suppress these incoherent dynamics and thereby a parameter regime for strong coupling. The Rydberg superatom in this hybrid system serves as a toolbox for the nanomechanical resonator allowing for a wide range of applications such as state transfer, sympathetic cooling and non-classical state preparation. As an illustration, we show that a thermally occupied membrane can be prepared in a non-classical state without the necessity of ground state cooling.

  15. Opto-nanomechanics strongly coupled to a Rydberg superatom: coherent versus incoherent dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmele, Alexander; Vogell, Berit; Stannigel, Kai; Zoller, Peter

    2014-06-01

    We propose a hybrid optomechanical quantum system consisting of a moving membrane strongly coupled to an ensemble of N atoms with a Rydberg state. Due to the strong van-der-Waals interaction between the atoms, the ensemble forms an effective two-level system, a Rydberg superatom, with a collectively enhanced atom-light coupling. Using this superatom imposed collective enhancement strong coupling between membrane and superatom is feasible for parameters within the range of current experiments. The quantum interface to couple the membrane and the superatom can be a pumped single mode cavity, or a laser field in free space, where the Rydberg superatom and the membrane are spatially separated. In addition to the coherent dynamics, we study in detail the impact of the typical dissipation processes, in particular the radiative decay as a source for incoherent superpositions of atomic excitations. We identify the conditions to suppress these incoherent dynamics and thereby a parameter regime for strong coupling. The Rydberg superatom in this hybrid system serves as a toolbox for the nanomechanical resonator allowing for a wide range of applications such as state transfer, sympathetic cooling and non-classical state preparation. As an illustration, we show that a thermally occupied membrane can be prepared in a non-classical state without the necessity of ground state cooling.

  16. Controlled photon-photon interactions using Rydberg polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Charles

    2014-05-01

    By coupling a strong optical transition to a highly-excited Rydberg state it is possible to realise giant optical non-linearities and hence strong photon-photon interactions. A remaining challenge is to implement an interaction that does not distort the photon mode and hence to realise high-fidelity photonic quantum gates. In this talk we will discuss how to control the photon-photon interact using microwave fields and how this could be used to implement deterministic non-linear optical computation. Acknowledgements EU Marie Curie Initial Training Network coherence.

  17. Landau-Zener Transitions in Frozen Pairs of Rydberg Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Saquet, Nicolas; Cournol, Anne; Beugnon, Jerome; Robert, Jacques; Pillet, Pierre; Vanhaecke, Nicolas

    2010-04-02

    We have induced adiabatic transitions in pairs of frozen Rydberg sodium atoms of a supersonic beam. The diatomic ns+ns{yields}np+(n-1)p transition takes place in a time-dependent electric field and originates from the adiabatic change of the internal state of the pair induced by the dipole-dipole interaction. This is experimentally achieved by sweeping an electric field across the energy degeneracy ns ns-np(n-1)p. Our results fully agree with a two-level Landau-Zener model in the diatom system.

  18. The kicked Rydberg atom: Regular and stochastic motion

    SciTech Connect

    Burgdoerfer, J.

    1988-01-01

    We have investigated the dynamics of a three-dimensional classical Rydberg atom driven by a sequence of pulses. Both the deterministic system with periodic pulses and the closely related ''noisy'' system with random pulses have been studied in parallel. The Lyapunov exponent is calculated as a function of pulse height and the angular momentum of the initial state. We find differences between noisy and deterministic perturbations to be most pronounced for small pulse heights. Low angular momentum orbits show enhanced diffusion in agreement with recent experimental data for ion-solid interaction. 22 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Near ultraviolet photolysis of ammonia and methylamine studied by H Rydberg atom

    E-print Network

    Kono, Mitsu

    Near ultraviolet photolysis of ammonia and methylamine studied by H Rydberg atom photofragment spectroscopy has been used to pro- vide new insights into the primary photochemistry of methylamine, ammonia of ammonia following excitation to the 00 and 21 levels of their respective ~A states. A similar model which

  20. Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory of Strontium Rydberg Series

    E-print Network

    C L Vaillant; M P A Jones; R M Potvliege

    2014-02-24

    Using the reactance matrix approach, we systematically develop new multichannel quantum defect theory models for the singlet and triplet S, P, D and F states of strontium based on improved energy level measurements. The new models reveal additional insights into the character of doubly excited perturber states, and the improved energy level measurements for certain series allow fine structure to be resolved for those series' perturbers. Comparison between the predictions of the new models and those of previous empirical and \\emph{ab initio} studies reveals good agreement with most series, however some discrepancies are highlighted. Using the multichannel quantum defect theory wave functions derived from our models we calculate other observables such as Land\\'e $g_J$-factors and radiative lifetimes. The analysis reveals the impact of perturbers on the Rydberg state properties of divalent atoms, highlighting the importance of including two-electron effects in the calculations of these properties. The work enables future investigations of properties such as Stark maps and long-range interactions of Rydberg states of strontium.

  1. Electroproduction of strangeness on (Lambda)H-3,4 bound states on helium

    SciTech Connect

    F. Dohrmann; D. Abbott; A. Ahmidouch; P. Ambrozewicz; C. S. Armstrong; J. Arrington; R. Asaturyan; K. Assamagan; S. Avery; K. Bailey; S. Beedoe; H. Bitao; H. Breuer; D. S. Brown; R. Carlini; J. Cha; N. Chant; E. Christy; A. Cochran; L. Cole; G. Collins; C. Cothran; J. Crowder; W. J. Cummings; S. Danagoulian; F. Duncan; J. Dunne; D. Dutta; T. Eden; M. Elaasar; R. Ent; L. Ewell; H. Fenker; H. T. Fortune; Y. Fujii; L. Gan; H. Gao; K. Garrow; D. F. Geesaman; P. Gueye; K. Gustafsson; K. Hafidi; J. O. Hansen; W. Hinton; H. E. Jackson; H. Juengst; C. Keppel; A. Klein; D. Koltenuk; Y. Liang; J. H. Liu; A. Lung; D. Mack; R. Madey; P. Markowitz; C. J. Martoff; D. Meekins; J. Mitchell; T. Miyoshi; H. Mkrtchyan; R. Mohring; S. K. Mtingwa; B. Mueller; T. G. O'Neill; G. Niculescu; I. Niculescu; D. Potterveld; J. W. Price; B. A. Raue; P. E. Reimer; J. Reinhold; J. Roche; P. Roos; M. Sarsour; Y. Sato; G. Savage; R. Sawafta; R. E. Segel; A. Yu. Semenov; S. Stepanyan; V. Tadevosian; S. Tajima; L. Tang; B. Terburg; A. Uzzle; S. Wood; H. Yamaguchi; C. Yan; C. Yan; L. Yuan; M. Zeier; B. Zeidman; B. Zihlmann

    2005-05-01

    The A(e,eK+)X reaction has been investigated at Jefferson Laboratory. Data were taken for Q{sup 2} approx. 0.35 GeV{sup 2} at a beam energy of 3.245 GeV for 1H,3He and 4He targets. Evidence for Lambda-hypernuclear bound states is seen for 3,4He targets. This is the first time that the electroproduction of these hypernuclei has been observed.

  2. Mobilities of ground-state and metastable O/+/, O2/+/, O/2+/, and O2/2+/ ions in helium and neon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsen, R.; Biondi, M. A.; Hayashi, M.

    1982-09-01

    The ionic mobilities of O(+), O2(+), O(2+), and O2(2+) in helium and neon have been measured using a selected-ion drift apparatus (SIDA). It is found that the mobilities of both O(+) and O2(+) ions in the metastable states (2D or 4Pi u) are measurably smaller than those of the same ions carried out by using known, state-selective ion-molecule reactions. A similar mobility differentiation of ground-state and metastable ions was not observed for the O(2+) and O2(2+) ions.

  3. Radioactive transitions in the helium isoelectronic sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalgarno, A.

    1971-01-01

    The principles of the atomic spectrum theory are used to quantitatively analyze radiation transitions in two-electron helium-like atomic systems. Quantum theoretical methods, describing absorption and emission of a single photon in a radiative transition between two stationary states of an atomic system, reproduced the energy level diagram for the low lying states of helium. Reliable values are obtained from accurate variationally determined two-electron nonrelativistic wave functions for radiative transition probabilities of 2 3p states in the helium isoelectric sequence, and for the 2 1s and 2 3s1 states of the helium sequence.

  4. Overview of helium-like structure measurements: A focus on the N = 2 triplet states

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, H.G.; Dunford, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of existing measurements of the 1s2s [sup 3]S[sub 1] [minus] 1s2p[sup 3]P[sub 0,1,2] transition energies in heliumlike ions for nuclear charges Z=2 to Z=92. We find agreement with the standard unified calculations of [vert bar]Drake except for the transitions from the 1s2p [sup 3]P[sub o] state. We find a deviation equal to 2.3x(Z/10)[sup 4] cm[sup [minus]1] for the most precise existing measurements.

  5. Alignment of the 2p State of 2-Mev Amu Helium-Like Sulfur 

    E-print Network

    Church, David A.; Kenefick, R. A.; Wang, D. W.; Watson, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    (Received 28 June 1982) The 2'P and 2'P levels of two-electron S xv have been aligned by collision at 2 MeV/amu with carbon atoms in a foil. The degree of alignment is obtained by analysis of the normal- ized angular distribution of It x-ray radiation... of the polarization fraction, and of the angle 8 between the forward (downstream) beam direction and the axis for light collection by 26 ALIGNMENT OF THE 2P STATE OF 2-MeV/amu HELIUMLIKE. . . 3095 III. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS The collision and detection geometry...

  6. Search for the eta-mesic Helium bound state with the WASA-at-COSY facility

    E-print Network

    M. Skurzok; W. Krzemien; O. Rundel; P. Moskal

    2015-12-02

    We performed a search for 4He-eta bound state with high statistics and high acceptance with the WASA-at-COSY facility using a ramped beam technique. The signature of eta-mesic nuclei is searched for in dd -> 3Henpi0 and dd -> 3Heppi- reactions by the measurement of the excitation functions in the vicinity of the {\\eta} production threshold. This paper presents the experimental method and the preliminary results of the data analysis for dd -> 3Henpi0 process.

  7. Search for the eta-mesic Helium bound state with the WASA-at-COSY facility

    E-print Network

    Skurzok, M; Rundel, O; Moskal, P

    2015-01-01

    We performed a search for 4He-eta bound state with high statistics and high acceptance with the WASA-at-COSY facility using a ramped beam technique. The signature of eta-mesic nuclei is searched for in dd -> 3Henpi0 and dd -> 3Heppi- reactions by the measurement of the excitation functions in the vicinity of the {\\eta} production threshold. This paper presents the experimental method and the preliminary results of the data analysis for dd -> 3Henpi0 process.

  8. Probing time-dependent electron interactions in double-Rydberg wave packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiangdong

    This dissertation has described a series of experiments leading to the first direct measurement of time-dependent energy exchange in double Rydberg wave packets (DRWs). Several preliminary experiments paved the way for the primary measurements. The first experiment characterized the field dependence of HCP ionization of ionic Rydberg states. The HCP ionization probability of Ba+ ng+ ions and Ba+ ng + Rydberg states with approximately the same binding energies were compared and found to be essentially identical within experiment noise, which reasonably agrees with the prediction of impulsive ionization model and classical trajectory Monte-Carlo (CTMC) simulation. The second experiment explored the time-dependent evolution of Rydberg ion wave packets via HCP ionization and a method for determining the quantum states of these wave packets was demonstrated. Finally, HCP aided double ionization was used as a probe of time-dependent energy exchange in DRWs both in the laboratory and in numerical CTMC simulations. Experimentally, energy exchange between the two wave packets is observed almost at the instant of the excitation ionic wave packets. However, the rate at which autoionization occurs depends on the relative initial positions and velocities of the two wave packets. Following autoionzation, the evolution of remaining "ionic" wave packet is reflected in modulations in the HCP aided double ionization yield. This feature is more visible in the CTMC simulations than in the experimental results.

  9. Dipole-dipole interaction between rubidium Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Altiere, Emily; Fahey, Donald P.; Noel, Michael W.; Smith, Rachel J.; Carroll, Thomas J.

    2011-11-15

    Ultracold Rydberg atoms in a static electric field can exchange energy via the dipole-dipole interaction. The Stark effect shifts the energy levels of the atoms which tunes the energy exchange into resonance at specific values of the electric field (Foerster resonances). We excite rubidium atoms to Rydberg states by focusing either a 480 nm beam from a tunable dye laser or a pair of diode lasers into a magneto-optical trap. The trap lies at the center of a configuration of electrodes. We scan the electric field by controlling the voltage on the electrodes while measuring the fraction of atoms that interact. Dipole-dipole interaction spectra are presented for initially excited rubidium nd states for n=31 to 46 and for four different pairs of initially excited rubidium ns states. We also present the dipole-dipole interaction spectra for individual rubidium 32d (j, m{sub j}) fine structure levels that have been selectively excited. The data are compared to calculated spectra.

  10. Measurement and numerical calculation of Rubidium Rydberg Stark spectra

    E-print Network

    Grimmel, Jens; Karlewski, Florian; Jessen, Florian; Reinschmidt, Malte; Sándor, Nóra; Fortágh, József

    2015-01-01

    We report on the measurement of Stark shifted energy levels of $^{87}$Rb Rydberg atoms in static electric fields by means of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Electric field strengths of up to 500V/cm, ranging beyond the classical ionisation threshold, were applied using electrodes inside a glass cell with rubidium vapour. Stark maps for principal quantum numbers $n=35$ and $n=70$ have been obtained with high signal-to-noise ratio for comparison with results from ab initio calculations following the method described in [M. L. Zimmerman et al., Phys. Rev. A 20, 2251 (1979)], which was originally only verified for states around $n=15$. We also calculate the dipole matrix elements between low-lying states and Stark shifted Rydberg states to give a theoretical estimate of the relative strength of the EIT signal. The present work significantly extends the experimental verification of this numerical method in the range of both high principal quantum numbers and high electric fields with an accuracy of...

  11. Monte Carlo Studies of the HELIUM-4 Ground State and Liquids in Porous Media.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macfarland, Thomas Joseph

    1995-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of two Monte Carlo simulations. The first is a study of the ground state of solid and liquid ^4He, using a shadow wavefunction. A new form of trial shadow wavefunction is introduced to describe this system. Monte Carlo integration was used to optimize the parameters of this function, and a thorough analysis of the shadow description of the system has been carried out. This shows improved pair correlations, an improved condensate fraction, substantially reduced variational energies and a good equation of state. The melting and freezing transition densities are found to be in good agreement with the exact results of Green's Function Monte Carlo (GFMC). A second shadow wavefunction is introduced in which a basis set expansion is used to optimize the two particle correlations. This shadow wavefunction yields pair correlation functions in excellent agreement with GFMC, as well as a substantial reduction in the variational energies at all densities. In the second part of this work, static critical phenomena of a 3D Ising model confined in a porous medium made by spinodal decomposition have been studied using large-scale Monte-Carlo simulations. The work explores the influence of the geometry of Vycor-like materials on liquid/vapor coexistence and the species separation of binary liquid mixtures. No surface lnteractions (preference of the Vycor-like material for one phase above the other) are taken into account. It was found that the critical temperature depends on the average pore size D as T _{c}(D) = T_{c }(infty) - c/D . The universality class of the phase transition is independent of the pore size, and the critical exponents obtained from our simulation data are upsilon = 0.8 +/- 0.1, gamma = 1.4 +/- 0.1, beta = 0.65 +/- 0.13. No divergence is observed in the specific heat, strongly suggesting that alpha <= 0. All data for all pore sizes can be collapsed well with the scaling function for the magnetic susceptibility chi L^{-gamma/ nu} = ~chi((T - T_{c}(D)/T_{c}(D))L ^{1/ nu}). These critical phenomena are consistent with those computed for the randomly diluted Ising model. Experimental realizations of the numerical experiments are discussed. To speed up the simulation of the Ising model in the porous medium, three parallel algorithms for simulating that model were introduced and implemented on the KSR-1 parallel computer. These are the parallel Metropolis algorithm, the parallel Swensen-Wang algorithm and the Parallel Local Cluster Algorithm. The parallel speedup that was obtained with each algorithm is presented, and the results discussed.

  12. Rovibrational-State-Selected Photoionization of Acetylene by the Two-Color IR VUV Scheme: Observation of Rotationally Resolved Rydberg Transitions

    E-print Network

    Kung, Andy

    Rovibrational-State-Selected Photoionization of Acetylene by the Two-Color IR VUV Scheme ultraviolet (VUV). However, these ion vibra- tional modes may be examined by employing a two-color infrared of interest. Furthermore, the two-color IR-VUV scheme is governed by optical selection rules different from

  13. Spin-dependent localized Hartree-Fock density-functional calculation of singly, doubly, and triply excited and Rydberg states of He- and Li-like ions

    E-print Network

    Chu, Shih-I; Zhou, Zhongyuan

    2005-02-28

    A spin-dependent density-functional approach for the calculation of highly and multiply excited state of atomic system is proposed based on the localized Hartree-Fock density-functional method and Slater’s diagonal sum rule. In this approach...

  14. Measuring the hydrogen Balmer series and Rydberg’s constant with a homemade spectrophotometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onorato, P.; Malgieri, M.; De Ambrosis, A.

    2015-09-01

    In a recent paper (Amrani 2014 Eur. J. Phys. 35 045001), the author presented two different methods to measure the wavelength of visible lines of Balmer series from the hydrogen atomic spectrum and estimate the value of Rydberg’s constant with an error difference of a few tenths of a per cent. Here we discuss how low cost spectrometers, based on the use of either transmission or reflection diffraction gratings coupled with a commercial digital camera, can be employed with the same aim. The Rydberg’s constant values obtained with our spectrometers are R = 1.096 ± 0.007 × 107 m-1 for the transmission grating spectrometer and R = 1.094 ± 0.005 × 107 m-1 for the reflection spectrometer, with a difference of less than 0.30% from the accepted value of 1.097 373 × 107 m-1.

  15. Ponderomotive spectroscopy: Driving Rydberg transitions using harmonics and magic wavelengths of an intensity-modulated optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Kaitlin; Raithel, Georg

    2015-05-01

    We describe recent developments in a novel spectroscopic method that couples Rydberg states using an intensity-modulated optical lattice. The method is fundamentally different from traditional microwave spectroscopy: it engages the A . A (ponderomotive) term rather than the A . p term of the atom-field interaction Hamiltonian, allowing us to drive microwave transitions between Rydberg states with optical spatial resolution, free from electric dipole selection rules. Experimentally, cold Rb Rydberg atoms are confined in a 1064 nm optical lattice. Transitions are driven by modulating the lattice intensity using a tunable electro-optic fiber modulator. Recently we have driven dipole-forbidden transitions in third and fifth order, at frequencies up to 94 GHz, using temporal harmonics in the intensity-modulated lattice. We also demonstrate, for two separate transitions, the novel use of a magic wavelength condition in ponderomotive spectroscopy. We discuss experimental results and propose applications of this method to a precision measurement of the Rydberg constant using circular-state Rydberg atoms. Support received from NSF, NIST, NASA

  16. Ionization of Rydberg atoms colliding with a metal surface

    SciTech Connect

    Sjakste, J.; Borisov, A. G.; Gauyacq, J. P.

    2006-04-15

    We report on a theoretical study of the ionization process of Xe* Rydberg atoms colliding with a metal surface, in the presence of an external electric field. The evolution of the Xe* outer electron is studied by a wave packet propagation approach, allowing to include all dynamical aspects of the collision, in particular nonadiabatic inter-Rydberg transitions. We investigate how the different Xe* Stark states formed in the external field couple together and ionize on the surface and how the different polarizations of the electronic cloud in the Xe* states are reflected in their ionization properties. We show that the presence of the external electric field can significantly perturb the dynamics of the ionization process. Our results account for recent results from Dunning et al. [Nucl. Inst. Meth. B 203, 69 (2003)]. In particular, it is explained how the external electric field present in the experimental procedure of Dunning et al. leads to the apparent absence of a polarization effect in the ionization process.

  17. Quantum interference in the field ionization of Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feynman, Rachel; Hollingsworth, Jacob; Vennettilli, Michael; Budner, Tamas; Zmiewski, Ryan; Fahey, Donald P.; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.

    2015-10-01

    We excite ultracold rubidium atoms in a magneto-optical trap to a coherent superposition of the three | mj| sublevels of the 37 d5 /2 Rydberg state. After some delay, during which the relative phases of the superposition components can evolve, we apply an electric field pulse to ionize the Rydberg electron and send it to a detector. The electron traverses many avoided crossings in the Stark levels as it ionizes. The net effect of the transitions at these crossings is to mix the amplitudes of the initial superposition into the same final states at ionization. Similar to a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the three initial superposition components have multiple paths by which they can arrive at ionization and, since the phases of those paths differ, we observe quantum beats as a function of the delay time between excitation and initiation of the ionization pulse. We present a fully quantum-mechanical calculation of the electron's path to ionization and the resulting interference pattern.

  18. Population coherent control of Rydberg potassium atom via adiabatic passage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Li-Juan; Zhang, Xian-Zhou; Jia, Guang-Rui; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Xia, Li-Hua

    2013-02-01

    The time-dependent multilevel approach (TDMA) and B-spline expansion technique are used to study the coherent population transfer between the quantum states of a potassium atom by a single frequency-chirped microwave pulse. The Rydberg potassium atom energy levels of n = 6-15, l = 0-5 states in zero field are calculated and the results are in good agreement with other theoretical values. The time evolutions of the population transfer of the six states from n = 70 to n = 75 in different microwave fields are obtained. The results show that the coherent control of the population transfer from the lower states to the higher ones can be accomplished by optimizing the microwave pulse parameters.

  19. Two-photon laser spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium and the antiproton-to-electron mass ratio.

    PubMed

    Hori, Masaki; Sótér, Anna; Barna, Daniel; Dax, Andreas; Hayano, Ryugo; Friedreich, Susanne; Juhász, Bertalan; Pask, Thomas; Widmann, Eberhard; Horváth, Dezso; Venturelli, Luca; Zurlo, Nicola

    2011-07-28

    Physical laws are believed to be invariant under the combined transformations of charge, parity and time reversal (CPT symmetry). This implies that an antimatter particle has exactly the same mass and absolute value of charge as its particle counterpart. Metastable antiprotonic helium (pHe(+)) is a three-body atom consisting of a normal helium nucleus, an electron in its ground state and an antiproton (p) occupying a Rydberg state with high principal and angular momentum quantum numbers, respectively n and l, such that n???l?+?1???38. These atoms are amenable to precision laser spectroscopy, the results of which can in principle be used to determine the antiproton-to-electron mass ratio and to constrain the equality between the antiproton and proton charges and masses. Here we report two-photon spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium, in which p(3)He(+) and p(4)He(+) isotopes are irradiated by two counter-propagating laser beams. This excites nonlinear, two-photon transitions of the antiproton of the type (n, l)???(n?-?2, l?-?2) at deep-ultraviolet wavelengths (? = 139.8, 193.0 and 197.0?nm), which partly cancel the Doppler broadening of the laser resonance caused by the thermal motion of the atoms. The resulting narrow spectral lines allowed us to measure three transition frequencies with fractional precisions of 2.3-5 parts in 10(9). By comparing the results with three-body quantum electrodynamics calculations, we derived an antiproton-to-electron mass ratio of 1,836.1526736(23), where the parenthetical error represents one standard deviation. This agrees with the proton-to-electron value known to a similar precision. PMID:21796208

  20. Quantum gates and multi-particle entanglement by Rydberg excitation blockade and adiabatic passage

    E-print Network

    Ditte Moller; Lars Bojer Madsen; Klaus Molmer

    2008-02-25

    We propose to apply stimulated adiabatic passage to transfer atoms from their ground state into Rydberg excited states. Atoms a few micrometers apart experience a dipole-dipole interaction among Rydberg states that is strong enough to shift the atomic resonance and inhibit excitation of more than a single atom. We show that the adiabatic passage in the presence of this interaction between two atoms leads to robust creation of maximally entangled states and to two-bit quantum gates. For many atoms, the excitation blockade leads to an effective implementation of collective-spin and Jaynes-Cummings-like Hamiltonians, and we show that the adiabatic passage can be used to generate collective Jx=0 eigenstates and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of tens of atoms.

  1. Ultra-long-range Rydberg molecules in a divalent atomic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSalvo, B. J.; Aman, J. A.; Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Yoshida, S.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2015-09-01

    We report the creation of ultra-long-range Sr2 molecules comprising one ground-state 5 s2 1S0 atom and one atom in a 5 s n s 3S1 Rydberg state for n ranging from 29 to 36. Molecules are created in a trapped ultracold atomic gas using two-photon excitation near resonant with the 5 s 5 p 3P1 intermediate state, and their formation is detected through ground-state atom loss from the trap. The observed molecular binding energies are reproduced with the aid of first-order perturbation theory that utilizes a Fermi pseudopotential with effective s -wave and p -wave scattering lengths to describe the interaction between an excited Rydberg electron and a ground-state Sr atom.

  2. Molecular ions, Rydberg spectroscopy and dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Jungen, Ch.

    2015-01-22

    Ion spectroscopy, Rydberg spectroscopy and molecular dynamics are closely related subjects. Multichannel quantum defect theory is a theoretical approach which draws on this close relationship and thereby becomes a powerful tool for the study of systems consisting of a positively charged molecular ion core interacting with an electron which may be loosely bound or freely scattering.

  3. Direct observation of ultrafast many-body electron dynamics in a strongly-correlated ultracold Rydberg gas

    E-print Network

    Nobuyuki Takei; Christian Sommer; Claudiu Genes; Guido Pupillo; Haruka Goto; Kuniaki Koyasu; Hisashi Chiba; Matthias Weidemüller; Kenji Ohmori

    2015-04-14

    Many-body interactions govern a variety of important quantum phenomena ranging from superconductivity and magnetism in condensed matter to solvent effects in chemistry. Understanding those interactions beyond mean field is a holy grail of modern sciences. AMO physics with advanced laser technologies has recently emerged as a new platform to study quantum many-body systems. One of its latest developments is the study of long-range interactions among ultracold particles to reveal the effects of many-body correlations. Rydberg atoms distinguish themselves by their large dipole moments and tunability of dipolar interactions. Most of ultracold Rydberg experiments have been performed with narrow-band lasers in the Rydberg blockade regime. Here we demonstrate an ultracold Rydberg gas in a complementary regime, where electronic coherence is created using a broadband picosecond laser pulse, thus circumventing the Rydberg blockade to induce strong many-body correlations. The effects of long-range Rydberg interactions have been investigated by time-domain Ramsey interferometry with attosecond precision. This approach allows for the real-time observation of coherent and ultrafast many-body dynamics in which the electronic coherence is modulated by the interaction-induced correlations. The modulation evolves more rapidly than expected for two-body correlations by several orders of magnitude. We have actively controlled such ultrafast many-body dynamics by tuning the principal quantum number and the population of the Rydberg state. The observed Ramsey interferograms are well reproduced by a theoretical model beyond mean-field approximation, which can be relevant to other similar many-body phenomena in condensed matter physics and chemistry. Our new approach opens a new avenue to observe and manipulate nonequilibrium dynamics of strongly-correlated quantum many-body systems on the ultrafast timescale.

  4. Quantification of the effects of Rydberg atoms on ultra-cold neutral plasma evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Duncan; Crockett, Ethan; Newell, Ryan

    2014-05-01

    We describe recent developments in our ongoing research in which Rydberg atoms are embedded into an ultra-cold neutral plasma (UNP). Atoms in a specific Rydberg state are embedded in the UNP within 10 ns of its creation using a second pulsed laser system. In such an environment, it is predicted that the plasma electrons may be heated or cooled by the Rydberg atoms (see, for example). We identified an experimental signature that correlates with the plasma electron temperature change, namely, the ``crossover'' between heating and cooling, where the UNP lifetime remains the same when Rydbergs are added. More recently, we have been working on quantifying the amount of heating or cooling that can be achieved using a passive technique. Specifically, we measure the time (t?) it takes for the UNP to shed a certain fraction of its electrons (?) as it expands in a small, externally applied, electric field. The work reported in shows that the quantity t?- 1 is a good proxy for the UNP asymptotic expansion velocity, which in turn depends on Te , 0. Research supported by Colby College and NSF.

  5. Capture of slow antiprotons by helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Shevchenko, N.V.; Revai, J.

    2005-10-26

    A consistent quantum mechanical calculation of partial cross sections leading to different final states of antiprotonic helium atom was performed. Calculations were carried out for a wide range of antiprotonic helium states and incident energies of the antiproton below the first ionization threshold of the He atom.

  6. Designing Frustrated Quantum Magnets with Laser-Dressed Rydberg Atoms

    E-print Network

    Alexander W. Glaetzle; Marcello Dalmonte; Rejish Nath; Christian Gross; Immanuel Bloch; Peter Zoller

    2015-04-30

    We show how a broad class of lattice spin-1/2 models with angular- and distance-dependent couplings can be realized with cold alkali atoms stored in optical or magnetic trap arrays. The effective spin-1/2 is represented by a pair of atomic ground states, and spin-spin interactions are obtained by admixing van der Waals interactions between fine-structure split Rydberg states with laser light. The strengths of the diagonal spin interactions as well as the "flip-flop", and "flip-flip" and "flop-flop" interactions can be tuned by exploiting quantum interference, thus realizing different spin symmetries. The resulting energy scales of interactions compare well with typical temperatures and decoherence time-scales, making the exploration of exotic forms of quantum magnetism, including emergent gauge theories and compass models, accessible within state-of-the-art experiments.

  7. Designing frustrated quantum magnets with laser-dressed Rydberg atoms.

    PubMed

    Glaetzle, Alexander W; Dalmonte, Marcello; Nath, Rejish; Gross, Christian; Bloch, Immanuel; Zoller, Peter

    2015-05-01

    We show how a broad class of lattice spin-1/2 models with angular- and distance-dependent couplings can be realized with cold alkali atoms stored in optical or magnetic trap arrays. The effective spin-1/2 is represented by a pair of atomic ground states, and spin-spin interactions are obtained by admixing van der Waals interactions between fine-structure split Rydberg states with laser light. The strengths of the diagonal spin interactions as well as the "flip-flop," and "flip-flip" and "flop-flop" interactions can be tuned by exploiting quantum interference, thus realizing different spin symmetries. The resulting energy scales of interactions compare well with typical temperatures and decoherence time scales, making the exploration of exotic forms of quantum magnetism, including emergent gauge theories and compass models, accessible within state-of-the-art experiments. PMID:25978228

  8. Entangling Atomic Spins with a Strong Rydberg-Dressed Interaction

    E-print Network

    Y. -Y. Jau; A. M. Hankin; Tyler Keating; I. H. Deutsch; G. W. Biedermann

    2015-01-16

    Controlling quantum entanglement between parts of a many-body system is the key to unlocking the power of quantum information processing for applications such as quantum computation, highprecision sensing, and simulation of many-body physics. Spin degrees of freedom of ultracold neutral atoms in their ground electronic state provide a natural platform given their long coherence times and our ability to control them with magneto-optical fields, but creating strong coherent coupling between spins has been challenging. We demonstrate a Rydberg-dressed ground-state blockade that provides a strong tunable interaction energy (~1 MHz in units of Planck's constant) between spins of individually trapped cesium atoms. With this interaction we directly produce Bell-state entanglement between two atoms with a fidelity >= 81(2)%, excluding atom loss events, and >= 60(3)% when loss is included.

  9. Entangling Atomic Spins with a Strong Rydberg-Dressed Interaction

    E-print Network

    Jau, Y -Y; Keating, Tyler; Deutsch, I H; Biedermann, G W

    2015-01-01

    Controlling quantum entanglement between parts of a many-body system is the key to unlocking the power of quantum information processing for applications such as quantum computation, highprecision sensing, and simulation of many-body physics. Spin degrees of freedom of ultracold neutral atoms in their ground electronic state provide a natural platform given their long coherence times and our ability to control them with magneto-optical fields, but creating strong coherent coupling between spins has been challenging. We demonstrate a Rydberg-dressed ground-state blockade that provides a strong tunable interaction energy (~1 MHz in units of Planck's constant) between spins of individually trapped cesium atoms. With this interaction we directly produce Bell-state entanglement between two atoms with a fidelity >= 81(2)%, excluding atom loss events, and >= 60(3)% when loss is included.

  10. Multichannel Quantum Defect Theory of Strontium Rydberg Series

    E-print Network

    Vaillant, C L; Potvliege, R M

    2014-01-01

    Using the reactance matrix approach, we systematically develop new multichannel quantum defect theory models for the singlet and triplet S, P, D and F states of strontium based on improved energy level measurements. The new models reveal additional insights into the character of doubly excited perturber states, and the improved energy level measurements for certain series allow fine structure to be resolved for those series' perturbers. Comparison between the predictions of the new models and those of previous empirical and \\emph{ab initio} studies reveals good agreement with most series, however some discrepancies are highlighted. Using the multichannel quantum defect theory wave functions derived from our models we calculate other observables such as Land\\'e $g_J$-factors and radiative lifetimes. The analysis reveals the impact of perturbers on the Rydberg state properties of divalent atoms, highlighting the importance of including two-electron effects in the calculations of these properties. The work enabl...

  11. Rydberg three-body recombination experiments in a Penning trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paradis, Eric; Hempel, Cornelius; Traxler, Mallory; Raithel, Georg

    2009-05-01

    In this poster, we present work towards observing three-body recombination in a Penning trap (B ˜ 3 T). Recombination is an important mechanism in anti-hydrogen formation. The rate of recombination of Rydberg atoms is strongly dependent on the electron temperature (˜ne^2 T-9/2), and has been numerically calculated for various magnetic fields and electron energies [1]. In our experiment, Rubidium atoms are ionized at the center of the trap, using a narrow-band (<˜5MHz linewidth) cw excitation laser. Due to the long lifetime of the Penning trap (?˜100s), electron accumulation leads to a high electron density, and cyclotron cooling to a low electron temperature (close to the 4 K background temperature). A field ionization ramp is applied to analyze the state distribution of Rydberg atoms formed in the ion-electron plasma. [1] ``Three-body recombination for protons moving in a strong magnetic field,'' F. Robicheaux and James D. Hanson, Phys. Rev. A 69, 010701 (2004).

  12. Quantum-defect analysis of 3p and 3d H{sub 3} Rydberg energy levels

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Jia; Greene, Chris H.

    2010-08-15

    In this work, Rydberg energy levels of the triatomic hydrogen molecule (H{sub 3}) are studied with multichannel quantum-defect theory. We extract the body-frame p-wave quantum defects from highly accurate ab initio electronic potential surfaces and calculate the quantum defects of higher angular-momentum states in a long-range multipole potential model. Laboratory-frame quantum-defect matrices emerge from a rovibrational-frame transformation carried out with accurate rovibrational states of H{sub 3}{sup +}. Finally, we use the laboratory-frame quantum defects to calculate Rydberg energy levels for the fundamental neutral triatomic molecule H{sub 3}.

  13. High-resolution Rydberg tagging time-of-flight measurements of atomic photofragments by single-photon vacuum ultraviolet laser excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Brant; Zhou Jingang; Yang Lei; Ng, C. Y.

    2008-12-15

    By coupling a comprehensive tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser system to a velocity-mapped ion imaging apparatus, we show that high-resolution high-n Rydberg tagging time-of-flight (TOF) measurements of nascent atomic photofragments formed by laser photodissociation can be made using single-photon VUV laser photoexcitation. To illustrate this single-photon Rydberg tagging TOF method, we present here the results of the VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF measurements of O({sup 3}P{sub 2}) and S({sup 3}P{sub 2}) formed in the photodissociation of SO{sub 2} and CS{sub 2} at 193.3 and 202.3 nm, respectively. These results are compared to those obtained by employing the VUV laser photoionization time-sliced velocity-mapped ion imaging technique. The fact that the kinetic energy resolutions achieved in the VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF measurements of O and S atoms are found to be higher than those observed in the VUV laser photoionization, time-sliced velocity-mapped ion imaging studies show that the single-photon VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF method is useful and complementary to state-of-the-art time-sliced velocity-mapped ion imaging measurements of heavier atomic photofragments, such as O and S atoms. Furthermore, the general agreement observed between the VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF and velocity-mapped ion imaging experiments supports the conclusion that the lifetimes of the tagged Rydberg states of O and S atoms are sufficiently long to allow the reliable determination of state-resolved UV photodissociation cross sections of SO{sub 2} and CS{sub 2} by using the VUV laser high-n Rydberg tagging TOF method.

  14. Charge capture from Rydberg targets: Comparison between theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, M.T.; Stoeckli, M.P.; Depaola, B.D.; Fehrenbach, C.W.; Lundeen, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    Absolute charge capture cross sections from laser excited rubidium Rydberg atoms have been measured from projectile velocities between 0.05 and 0.6 atomic units, and for projectile charges of 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, and 40. Projectile charge state dependence of capture cross sections at low projectile velocities are compared with predictions of the Bohr-Linhard model and with the results of CTMC calculations. To further test the Bohr-Linhard model, the appropriately scaled data are presented in a {open_quotes}Knudsen plot{close_quotes} and compared with reported capture cross sections between highly charged ions and ground state hydrogen. In general, the results are in excellent agreement with the classical calculations.

  15. Exotic topological density waves in cold atomic Rydberg-dressed fermions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaopeng; Sarma, S Das

    2015-01-01

    Versatile controllability of interactions in ultracold atomic and molecular gases has now reached an era where quantum correlations and unconventional many-body phases can be studied with no corresponding analogues in solid-state systems. Recent experiments in Rydberg atomic gases have achieved exquisite control over non-local interactions, allowing novel quantum phases unreachable with the usual local interactions in atomic systems. Here we study Rydberg-dressed atomic fermions in a three-dimensional optical lattice predicting the existence of hitherto unheard-of exotic mixed topological density wave phases. By varying the spatial range of the non-local interaction, we find various chiral density waves with spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking, whose quasiparticles form three-dimensional quantum Hall and Weyl semimetal states. Remarkably, certain density waves even exhibit mixed topologies beyond the existing topological classification. Our results suggest gapless fermionic states could exhibit far richer topology than previously expected. PMID:25972134

  16. Ultrafast Quantum Random Access Memory Utilizing Single Rydberg Atoms in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Kelly R.; Fischer, Uwe R.

    2013-12-01

    We propose a long-lived and rapidly accessible quantum memory unit, for which the operational Hilbert space is spanned by states involving the two macroscopically occupied hyperfine levels of a miscible binary atomic Bose-Einstein condensate and the Rydberg state of a single atom. It is shown that an arbitrary qubit state, initially prepared using a flux qubit, can be rapidly transferred to and from the trapped atomic ensemble in approximately 10 ns and with a large fidelity of 97%, via an effective two-photon process using an external laser for the transition to the Rydberg level. The achievable ultrafast transfer of quantum information therefore enables a large number of storage and retrieval cycles from the highly controllable quantum optics setup of a dilute ultracold gas, even within the typically very short flux qubit lifetimes of the order of microseconds.

  17. Polarizabilities of two-electron positive ions and Rydberg levels of lithium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.; Drachman, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Second-order sums are computed for the two-electron positive ions Li(+), Be(2+), and B(3+) by representing the intermediate states as discrete pseudostates. The Hamiltonian for the system is given and translated to semi-Jacobi variables for its derivation in reduced Rydberg units. The interaction potential is developed in its multipole form and employed in second-order perturbation theory. The perturbation is always a multipole-potential term, and the initial and intermediate states are constructed from two-particle Hylleraas basis sets. The resulting pseudostates are shown to represent the continuum with good convergence, and the asymptotic-optical-potential method is applied to the two-body quantities to determine the energy levels of three-electron systems in high Rydberg states. The method is shown to give accurate values for the polarizabilities of the two-electron isoelectronic systems.

  18. Autodissociating Rydberg states of positronium hydride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    Consequences of the nonrelativistic Coulomb Hamiltonian with a fixed proton are considered for positronium hydride (PsH). An optical-potential method and certain simplifying assumptions are used to compute the lowest s-wave resonance parameters on the basis of the /e(+)H(-)/ configuration. Resonance parameters corresponding to a Ps scattering energy of 4.0190 eV and a width of 0.0303 eV are obtained. These results are shown to be in very close agreement with those of previous studies.

  19. Ultracold Metastable HELIUM-4 and HELIUM-3 Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassen, W.; Jeltes, T.; McNamara, J. M.; Tychkov, A. S.; Hogervorst, W.; van Leeuwen, K. A. H.; Krachmalnicoff, V.; Schellekens, M.; Perrin, A.; Chang, H.; Boiron, D.; Aspect, A.; Westbrook, C. I.

    2008-04-01

    We discuss our work to obtain a condensate containing more than 107 atoms and the first degenerate Fermi gas in a metastable state. Sympathetic cooling with Helium-4 is used to cool 106 Helium-3 atoms to a temperature T/TF < 0.5. The ultracold bosonic and fermionic gases have been used to observe the Hanbury Brown and Twiss effect for both isotopes, showing bunching for the bosons and antibunching for the fermions. A proposal for high resolution spectroscopy at 1.557 ?m, connecting both metastable states directly, is discussed at the end.

  20. Long-range potentials and (n-1)d+ns molecular resonances in an ultracold Rydberg gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanojevic, J.; Côté, R.; Tong, D.; Eyler, E. E.; Gould, P. L.

    2008-11-01

    We have calculated long-range molecular potentials of the 0g+ , 0u- , and 1u symmetries between highly excited rubidium atoms. Strong np+np potentials characterized by these symmetries are important in describing interaction-induced phenomena in the excitation spectra of high np Rydberg states. Long-range molecular resonances are one such phenomenon and they were first reported in S. M. Farooqi , Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003). One class of these resonances occurs at energies corresponding to excited atom pairs (n-1)d+ns . Such resonances are attributed to l -mixing due to Rydberg-Rydberg interactions so that otherwise forbidden molecular transitions become allowed. We calculate molecular potentials in Hund’s case (c), use them to find the resonance line shape, and compare to experimental results.

  1. AB INITIO EQUATION OF STATE FOR HYDROGEN-HELIUM MIXTURES WITH RECALIBRATION OF THE GIANT-PLANET MASS-RADIUS RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Militzer, B.; Hubbard, W. B.

    2013-09-10

    Using density functional molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the equation of state (EOS) for hydrogen-helium mixtures spanning density-temperature conditions typical of giant-planet interiors, {approx}0.2-9 g cm{sup -3} and 1000-80,000 K for a typical helium mass fraction of 0.245. In addition to computing internal energy and pressure, we determine the entropy using an ab initio thermodynamic integration technique. A comprehensive EOS table with 391 density-temperature points is constructed and the results are presented in the form of a two-dimensional free energy fit for interpolation. Deviations between our ab initio EOS and the semi-analytical EOS model by Saumon and Chabrier are analyzed in detail, and we use the results for initial revision of the inferred thermal state of giant planets with known values for mass and radius. Changes are most pronounced for planets in the Jupiter mass range and below. We present a revision to the mass-radius relationship that makes the hottest exoplanets increase in radius by {approx}0.2 Jupiter radii at fixed entropy and for masses greater than {approx}0.5 Jupiter mass. This change is large enough to have possible implications for some discrepant ''inflated giant exoplanets''.

  2. Fixed-phase correlation-function quantum Monte Carlo calculations for ground and excited states of helium in neutron-star magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Dirk; Boblest, Sebastian; Wunner, Günter

    2013-03-01

    We apply the correlation-function quantum Monte Carlo (CFQMC) method to the calculation of the energies of ground and excited states for helium in neutron-star magnetic fields. The method has been successfully applied by Jones, Ortiz, and Ceperley to the calculation of helium in white dwarf magnetic fields [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.55.6202 55, 6202 (1997)]. We extend the accessible range of magnetic field strengths by introducing a fixed-phase variant of the CFQMC method. We find that with growing magnetic field strength the variances increase significantly and put a limit to the applicability of the method for atoms in strong magnetic fields. The behavior of the variances is traced back to the logarithmic divergence of the energy of the bosonic ground state with increasing magnetic field strength. We use basis sets, which account for the growing dominance of the cylindrical symmetry as the magnetic field is increased and incorporate them into the CFQMC algorithm. These basis sets are taken from Hartree-Fock calculations, performed using a B-Spline and Landau expansion beyond the adiabatic approximation.

  3. Trapping Rydberg Atoms in an Optical Lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S. E.; Younge, K. C.; Raithel, G.

    2011-12-23

    Rubidium Rydberg atoms are laser excited and subsequently trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice (wavelength 1064 nm). Efficient trapping is achieved by a lattice inversion immediately after laser excitation using an electro-optic technique. The trapping efficiency is probed via analysis of the trap-induced shift of the two-photon microwave transition 50S{yields}51S. The inversion technique allows us to reach a trapping efficiency of 90%. The dependence of the efficiency on the timing of the lattice inversion and on the trap laser power is studied. The dwell time of 50D{sub 5/2} Rydberg atoms in the lattice is analyzed using lattice-induced photoionization.

  4. Duality and bistability in an optomechanical cavity coupled to a Rydberg superatom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Dong; Wang, Zhi-Hai; Ren, Chun-Nian; Gao, Hang; Li, Yong; Wu, Jin-Hui

    2015-02-01

    We study the steady-state behaviors of a typical optomechanical cavity coupled to cold Rydberg atoms with dipole-dipole interactions. The interacting atoms are described as one superatom of three collective states in a ladder configuration in the limit of a strong dipole blockade and a weak cavity field. We find that this hybrid system exhibits phenomena of conditional duality and nonlinear bistability in terms of mirror displacement, number of cavity photons, and Rydberg population, depending on the detuning of the cavity field, the strength of the optical driving field, and the number of cold atoms. It is of particular interest that the two branches of relevant curves may intersect to yield a nontrivial duality and bistability. Such correlated optical, mechanical, and atomic responses arise from the efficient feedback between atom-light and optomechanical interactions and have realistic applications, e.g., in realizing accurate optomechanical detection or attaining deterministic single photons.

  5. MHz few-body frequency shift detected in a cold {sup 85}Rb Rydberg gas

    SciTech Connect

    Han Jianing

    2011-11-15

    We have observed a density-dependent frequency shift of more than 4 MHz in a cold {sup 85}Rb Rydberg gas trapped in a magneto-optical trap. A one-dimensional linearly aligned four-body model is proposed to explain the experimental data, and the calculation matches the experimental data. The calculation also shows that if the energy detuning between the two coupled states, the nsnsns(n+1)s and nsnsnpnp states in this case, is small, the lowest level of the nsnsnpnp manifold has the maximum mixing probability, causing a frequency shift instead of line broadening. The results reported may be used for few-body blockade, Rydberg single-atom imaging, studying few-body to many-body transitions and interactions, and few-body ionization as well as quantum metrology.

  6. Regimes of Helium Burning

    SciTech Connect

    Timmes, F. X.; Niemeyer, J. C.

    2000-07-10

    The burning regimes encountered by laminar deflagrations and Zeldovich von Neumann Doering [ZND] detonations propagating through helium-rich compositions in the presence of buoyancy-driven turbulence are analyzed. Particular attention is given to models of X-ray bursts that start with a thermonuclear runaway on the surface of a neutron star and to the thin-shell helium instability of intermediate-mass stars. In the X-ray burst case, turbulent deflagrations propagating in the lateral or radial direction encounter a transition from the distributed regime to the flamelet regime at a density of {approx}108 g cm-3. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}106 g cm-3. Self-sustained laminar deflagrations traveling in the radial direction cannot exist below this density. Similarly, the planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}107 g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. In the thin helium shell case, turbulent deflagrations traveling in the lateral or radial direction encounter the distributed regime at densities below {approx}107 g cm-3 and the flamelet regime at larger densities. In the radial direction, the purely laminar deflagration width is larger than the pressure scale height for densities smaller than {approx}104 g cm-3, indicating that steady state laminar deflagrations cannot form below this density. The planar ZND detonation width becomes larger than the pressure scale height at {approx}5x10{sup 4} g cm-3, suggesting that steady state, self-sustained detonations cannot come into existence in the radial direction. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society.

  7. Correlated Exciton Transport in Rydberg-Dressed-Atom Spin Chains.

    PubMed

    Schempp, H; Günter, G; Wüster, S; Weidemüller, M; Whitlock, S

    2015-08-28

    We investigate the transport of excitations through a chain of atoms with nonlocal dissipation introduced through coupling to additional short-lived states. The system is described by an effective spin-1/2 model where the ratio of the exchange interaction strength to the reservoir coupling strength determines the type of transport, including coherent exciton motion, incoherent hopping, and a regime in which an emergent length scale leads to a preferred hopping distance far beyond nearest neighbors. For multiple impurities, the dissipation gives rise to strong nearest-neighbor correlations and entanglement. These results highlight the importance of nontrivial dissipation, correlations, and many-body effects in recent experiments on the dipole-mediated transport of Rydberg excitations. PMID:26371647

  8. Laser resonance photoionization spectroscopy of Rydberg levels in Fr

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, S.V.; Letokhov, V.S.; Mishin, V.I.

    1987-09-21

    We investigated for the first time the high-lying Rydberg levels in the rare radioactive element francium (Fr). The investigations were conducted by the highly sensitive laser resonance atomic photoionization technique with Fr atoms produced at a rate of about 10/sup 3/ atoms/s in a hot cavity. We measured the wave numbers of the 7p/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/..-->..nd/sup 2/D (n = 22--33) and 7p/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/..-->..ns/sup 2/S (n = 23, 25--27,29--31) transitions and found the binding energy of the 7p/sup 2/P/sub 3/2/ state to be T = -18 924.8(3) cm/sup -1/, which made it possible to establish accurately the ionization potential of Fr.

  9. PHYSICAL REVIEW A 91, 012507 (2015) Measurement of holmium Rydberg series through magneto-optical trap depletion spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Yavuz, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    -state electronic configuration. As with other rare-earth elements, this open-shell structure results and sensitivity to external fields. Studies of the Rydberg spectra of neutral rare-earth ele- ments have been depletion measurements on a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The resulting spectra are used to extract accurate

  10. Ionization of Sodium and Rubidium nS, nP and nD Rydberg atoms by blackbody radiation

    E-print Network

    I. I. Beterov; D. B. Tretyakov; I. I. Ryabtsev; A. Ekers; N. N. Bezuglov

    2007-04-04

    Results of theoretical calculations of ionization rates of Rb and Na Rydberg atoms by blackbody radiation (BBR) are presented. Calculations have been performed for nS, nP and nD states of Na and Rb, which are commonly used in a variety of experiments, at principal quantum numbers n=8-65 and at three ambient temperatures of 77, 300 and 600 K. A peculiarity of our calculations is that we take into account the contributions of BBR-induced redistribution of population between Rydberg states prior to photoionization and field ionization by extraction electric field pulses. The obtained results show that these phenomena affect both the magnitude of measured ionization rates and shapes of their dependencies on n. The calculated ionization rates are compared with the results of our earlier measurements of BBR-induced ionization rates of Na nS and nD Rydberg states with n=8-20 at 300 K. A good agreement for all states except nS with n>15 is observed. We also present the useful analytical formulae for quick estimation of BBR ionization rates of Rydberg atoms.

  11. Closed-cycle cold helium magic-angle spinning for sensitivity-enhanced multi-dimensional solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuki, Yoh; Nakamura, Shinji; Fukui, Shigeo; Suematsu, Hiroto; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2015-10-01

    Magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR is a powerful tool for studying molecular structure and dynamics, but suffers from its low sensitivity. Here, we developed a novel helium-cooling MAS NMR probe system adopting a closed-loop gas recirculation mechanism. In addition to the sensitivity gain due to low temperature, the present system has enabled highly stable MAS (vR = 4-12 kHz) at cryogenic temperatures (T = 35-120 K) for over a week without consuming helium at a cost for electricity of 16 kW/h. High-resolution 1D and 2D data were recorded for a crystalline tri-peptide sample at T = 40 K and B0 = 16.4 T, where an order of magnitude of sensitivity gain was demonstrated versus room temperature measurement. The low-cost and long-term stable MAS strongly promotes broader application of the brute-force sensitivity-enhanced multi-dimensional MAS NMR, as well as dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced NMR in a temperature range lower than 100 K.

  12. Closed-cycle cold helium magic-angle spinning for sensitivity-enhanced multi-dimensional solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Yoh; Nakamura, Shinji; Fukui, Shigeo; Suematsu, Hiroto; Fujiwara, Toshimichi

    2015-10-01

    Magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR is a powerful tool for studying molecular structure and dynamics, but suffers from its low sensitivity. Here, we developed a novel helium-cooling MAS NMR probe system adopting a closed-loop gas recirculation mechanism. In addition to the sensitivity gain due to low temperature, the present system has enabled highly stable MAS (vR=4-12kHz) at cryogenic temperatures (T=35-120K) for over a week without consuming helium at a cost for electricity of 16kW/h. High-resolution 1D and 2D data were recorded for a crystalline tri-peptide sample at T=40K and B0=16.4T, where an order of magnitude of sensitivity gain was demonstrated versus room temperature measurement. The low-cost and long-term stable MAS strongly promotes broader application of the brute-force sensitivity-enhanced multi-dimensional MAS NMR, as well as dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced NMR in a temperature range lower than 100K. PMID:26302269

  13. Imaging electric fields in the vicinity of cryogenic surfaces using Rydberg atoms

    E-print Network

    T. Thiele; J. Deiglmayr; M. Stammeier; J. -A. Agner; H. Schmutz; F. Merkt; A. Wallraff

    2015-09-17

    The ability to characterize static and time-dependent electric fields in situ is an important prerequisite for quantum-optics experiments with atoms close to surfaces. Especially in experiments which aim at coupling Rydberg atoms to the near field of superconducting circuits, the identification and subsequent elimination of sources of stray fields is crucial. We present a technique that allows the determination of stray-electric-field distributions $(F^\\text{str}_\\text{x}(\\vec{r}),F^\\text{str}_\\text{y}(\\vec{r}),F^\\text{str}_\\text{z}(\\vec{r}))$ at distances of less than $2~\\text{mm}$ from (cryogenic) surfaces using coherent Rydberg-Stark spectroscopy in a pulsed supersonic beam of metastable $1\\text{s}^12\\text{s}^1~{}^{1}S_{0}$ helium atoms. We demonstrate the capabilities of this technique by characterizing the electric stray field emanating from a structured superconducting surface. Exploiting coherent population transfer with microwave radiation from a coplanar waveguide, the same technique allows the characterization of the microwave-field distribution above the surface.

  14. Imaging electric fields in the vicinity of cryogenic surfaces using Rydberg atoms

    E-print Network

    Thiele, T; Stammeier, M; Agner, J -A; Schmutz, H; Merkt, F; Wallraff, A

    2015-01-01

    The ability to characterize static and time-dependent electric fields in situ is an important prerequisite for quantum-optics experiments with atoms close to surfaces. Especially in experiments which aim at coupling Rydberg atoms to the near field of superconducting circuits, the identification and subsequent elimination of sources of stray fields is crucial. We present a technique that allows the determination of stray-electric-field distributions $(F^\\text{str}_\\text{x}(\\vec{r}),F^\\text{str}_\\text{y}(\\vec{r}),F^\\text{str}_\\text{z}(\\vec{r}))$ at distances of less than $2~\\text{mm}$ from (cryogenic) surfaces using coherent Rydberg-Stark spectroscopy in a pulsed supersonic beam of metastable $1\\text{s}^12\\text{s}^1~{}^{1}S_{0}$ helium atoms. We demonstrate the capabilities of this technique by characterizing the electric stray field emanating from a structured superconducting surface. Exploiting coherent population transfer with microwave radiation from a coplanar waveguide, the same technique allows the chara...

  15. Pulsed Rydberg four-wave mixing with motion-induced dephasing in a thermal vapor

    E-print Network

    Chen, Yi-Hsin; Löw, Robert; Pfau, Tilman

    2015-01-01

    We report on time-resolved pulsed four-wave mixing (FWM) signals in a thermal Rubidium vapor involving a Rydberg state. We observe FWM signals with dephasing times up to 7 ns, strongly dependent on the excitation bandwidth to the Rydberg state. The excitation to the Rydberg state is driven by a pulsed two-photon transition on ns time scales. Combined with a third cw de-excitation laser, a strongly directional and collective emission is generated according to a combination of the phase matching effect and averaging over Doppler classes. In contrast to a previous report [1] using off-resonant FWM, at a resonant FWM scheme we observe additional revivals of the signal shortly after the incident pulse has ended. We infer that this is a revival of motion-induced constructive interference between the coherent emissions of the thermal atoms. The resonant FWM scheme reveals a richer temporal structure of the signals, compared to similar, but off-resonant excitation schemes. A simple explanation lies in the selectivity...

  16. Robust and High Fidelity Quantum Logic with the Rydberg-Dressed Blockade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keating, Tyler; Cook, Robert; Deutsch, Ivan; Hankin, Aaron; Jau, Yuan-Yu; Biedermann, Grant

    2015-05-01

    We study a scheme for implementing a controlled-Z (CZ) gate between two neutral-atom qubits based on the Rydberg blockade mechanism in a manner that is robust to errors caused by atomic motion. By adiabatically dressing the ground electronic state, we can protect the gate from decoherence due to random phase errors that typically arise from atomic thermal motion. The adiabatic protocol also allows for a Doppler-free configuration with counterpropagating lasers in a ?+ /?- orthogonal polarization geometry that further reduces motional errors due to Doppler shifts. The residual error is dominated by dipole-dipole forces acting on doubly-excited Rydberg atoms when the blockade is imperfect. For reasonable parameters, with qubits encoded into the clock states of 133Cs, we predict that our protocol could produce a CZ gate in <10 ?s with error probability of order 10-3. We generalize this protocol to exploit the multi-body nature of the Rydberg blockade and go beyond two qubits. We show how one can implement a three-qubit Toffoli gate in a single-step. Finally, we consider encoding in collective states of small ensembles of atoms, and show how such a scheme can allow for scalable, robust, quantum logic.

  17. Helium fine structure theory for determination of Krzysztof Pachucki

    E-print Network

    Pachucki, Krzysztof

    Helium fine structure theory for determination of Krzysztof Pachucki Institute of Theoretical in the calculation of helium fine-structure splitting of the 23 PJ states, based on the quantum electrodynamic theory by comparison with all experimental results for light helium-like ions and with the known large nuclear charge

  18. Rydberg Electrons in a Bose-Einstein Condensate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Gacesa, Marko; Côté, R

    2015-06-19

    We investigate a hybrid system composed of ultracold Rydberg atoms immersed in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The coupling between Rydberg electrons and BEC atoms leads to excitations of phonons, the exchange of which induces a Yukawa interaction between Rydberg atoms. Because of the small electron mass, the effective charge associated with this quasiparticle-mediated interaction can be large. Its range, equal to the BEC healing length, is tunable using Feshbach resonances to adjust the scattering length between BEC atoms. We find that for small healing lengths, the distortion of the BEC can "image" the Rydberg electron wave function, while for large healing lengths the induced attractive Yukawa potentials between Rydberg atoms are strong enough to bind them. PMID:26196974

  19. Rydberg Electrons in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia; Gacesa, Marko; Côté, R.

    2015-06-01

    We investigate a hybrid system composed of ultracold Rydberg atoms immersed in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The coupling between Rydberg electrons and BEC atoms leads to excitations of phonons, the exchange of which induces a Yukawa interaction between Rydberg atoms. Because of the small electron mass, the effective charge associated with this quasiparticle-mediated interaction can be large. Its range, equal to the BEC healing length, is tunable using Feshbach resonances to adjust the scattering length between BEC atoms. We find that for small healing lengths, the distortion of the BEC can "image" the Rydberg electron wave function, while for large healing lengths the induced attractive Yukawa potentials between Rydberg atoms are strong enough to bind them.

  20. Molecular physics. Production of trilobite Rydberg molecule dimers with kilo-Debye permanent electric dipole moments.

    PubMed

    Booth, D; Rittenhouse, S T; Yang, J; Sadeghpour, H R; Shaffer, J P

    2015-04-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments are important for understanding symmetry breaking in molecular physics, control of chemical reactions, and realization of strongly correlated many-body quantum systems. However, large molecular permanent electric dipole moments are challenging to realize experimentally. We report the observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules with bond lengths of ~100 nanometers and kilo-Debye permanent electric dipole moments that form when an ultracold ground-state cesium (Cs) atom becomes bound within the electronic cloud of an extended Cs electronic orbit. The electronic character of this hybrid class of "trilobite" molecules is dominated by degenerate Rydberg manifolds, making them difficult to produce by conventional photoassociation. We used detailed coupled-channel calculations to reproduce their properties quantitatively. Our findings may lead to progress in ultracold chemistry and strongly correlated many-body physics. PMID:25838380

  1. Production of trilobite Rydberg molecule dimers with kilo-Debye permanent electric dipole moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, D.; Rittenhouse, S. T.; Yang, J.; Sadeghpour, H. R.; Shaffer, J. P.

    2015-04-01

    Permanent electric dipole moments are important for understanding symmetry breaking in molecular physics, control of chemical reactions, and realization of strongly correlated many-body quantum systems. However, large molecular permanent electric dipole moments are challenging to realize experimentally. We report the observation of ultralong-range Rydberg molecules with bond lengths of ~100 nanometers and kilo-Debye permanent electric dipole moments that form when an ultracold ground-state cesium (Cs) atom becomes bound within the electronic cloud of an extended Cs electronic orbit. The electronic character of this hybrid class of “trilobite” molecules is dominated by degenerate Rydberg manifolds, making them difficult to produce by conventional photoassociation. We used detailed coupled-channel calculations to reproduce their properties quantitatively. Our findings may lead to progress in ultracold chemistry and strongly correlated many-body physics.

  2. Deep permeable fault-controlled helium transport and limited mantle flux in two extensional geothermal systems in the Great Basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banerjee, Amlan; Person, Mark; Hofstra, Albert; Sweetkind, Donald S.; Cohen, Denis; Sabin, Andrew; Unruh, Jeff; Zyvoloski, George; Gable, Carl W.; Crossey, Laura; Karlstrom, Karl

    2011-01-01

    This study assesses the relative importance of deeply circulating meteoric water and direct mantle fluid inputs on near-surface 3He/4He anomalies reported at the Coso and Beowawe geothermal fields of the western United States. The depth of meteoric fluid circulation is a critical factor that controls the temperature, extent of fluid-rock isotope exchange, and mixing with deeply sourced fluids containing mantle volatiles. The influence of mantle fluid flux on the reported helium anomalies appears to be negligible in both systems. This study illustrates the importance of deeply penetrating permeable fault zones (10-12 to 10-15 m2) in focusing groundwater and mantle volatiles with high 3He/4He ratios to shallow crustal levels. These continental geothermal systems are driven by free convection.

  3. Helium-Recycling Plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Proposed system recovers and stores helium gas for reuse. Maintains helium at 99.99-percent purity, preventing water vapor from atmosphere or lubricating oil from pumps from contaminating gas. System takes in gas at nearly constant low back pressure near atmospheric pressure; introduces little or no back pressure into source of helium. Concept also extended to recycling of other gases.

  4. A portable helium sniffer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedman, Irving; Denton, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    A portable helium sniffer has been developed for field use. The instrument is mounted in a four-wheel-drive pickup truck and can detect 50 parts per billion of helium in soil gas. The usefulness of helium sniffing in soil is being investigated as a prospecting tool in gas, oil, uranium, and geothermal prospecting as well as in earthquake prediction.

  5. Quantum repeaters based on Rydberg-blockade-coupled atomic ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yang; He Bing; Heshami, Khabat; Simon, Christoph; Li Chengzu

    2010-05-15

    We propose a scheme for realizing quantum repeaters with Rydberg-blockade-coupled atomic ensembles, based on a recently proposed collective encoding strategy. Rydberg-blockade-mediated two-qubit gates and efficient cooperative photon emission are employed to create ensemble-photon entanglement. Thanks to deterministic entanglement swapping operations via Rydberg-based two-qubit gates, and to the suppression of multiexcitation errors by the blockade effect, the entanglement distribution rate of the present scheme is higher by orders of magnitude than the rates achieved by other ensemble-based repeaters. We also show how to realize temporal multiplexing with this system, which offers an additional speedup in entanglement distribution.

  6. The continuing u.s. Helium saga.

    PubMed

    Hammel, E F; Krupka, M C; Williamson, K D

    1984-02-24

    Helium, resident in relatively high concentrations in certain natural gas fields in the United States, can be lost to the atmosphere when the natural gas is burned as fuel. In 1960, Congress amended the Helium Act of 1925 to provide for stripping natural gas of its helium, for purchase of the separated helium by the government, and for its long-term storage. In 1971, after about 28 billion cubic feet had been stored, the purchase program was terminated by the government, an action that unleashed several lawsuits and not a little acrimony. After more than a decade of controversy, much of the litigation has been concluded, much of the helium that could have been saved has been wasted to the atmosphere, and the gas fields supplying the helium are almost depleted. A new rich source of helium has been discovered in southwestern Wyoming that could ensure adequate supplies for many decades if an appropriate new federal policy on helium is developed and implemented. PMID:17737740

  7. Emergence of stationary many-body entanglement in driven-dissipative Rydberg lattice gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sun Kyung; Cho, Jaeyoon; Choi, K. S.

    2015-11-01

    Non-equilibrium quantum dynamics represents an emerging paradigm for condensed matter physics, quantum information science, and statistical mechanics. Strongly interacting Rydberg atoms offer an attractive platform to examine driven-dissipative dynamics of quantum spin models with long-range order. Here, we explore the conditions under which stationary many-body entanglement persists with near-unit fidelity and high scalability. In our approach, coherent many-body dynamics is driven by Rydberg-mediated laser transitions, while atoms at the lattice boundary locally reduce the entropy of the many-body system. Surprisingly, the many-body entanglement is established by continuously evolving a locally dissipative Rydberg system towards the steady state, precisely as with optical pumping. We characterize the dynamics of multipartite entanglement in an one-dimensional lattice by way of quantum uncertainty relations, and demonstrate the long-range behavior of the stationary entanglement with finite-size scaling. Our work opens a route towards dissipative preparation of many-body entanglement with unprecedented scaling behavior.

  8. Population coherent control of a Rydberg sodium atom in a microwave field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Li-Juan; Zhang, Xian-Zhou; Jia, Guang-Rui; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Xia, Li-Hua

    2012-07-01

    The B-spline expansion technique and the time-dependent multilevel approach (TDMA) are used to study the interaction between a microwave field and sodium atoms. The Rydberg sodium atom energy levels of p states in zero field are calculated, and the results are in good agreement with the other theoretical ones. The time evolutions during the population transfers of the five states from n = 75 to n = 79 in different microwave fields are obtained. The results show that the coherent control of the population transfer from the lower states to the higher ones can be accomplished by optimizing the microwave pulse parameters.

  9. Spatially Resolved Observation of Dipole-Dipole Interaction between Rydberg Atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Ditzhuijzen, C. S. E. van; Noordam, L. D.; Heuvell, H. B. van Linden van den; Koenderink, A. F.; Hernandez, J. V.; Robicheaux, F.

    2008-06-20

    We have observed resonant energy transfer between cold Rydberg atoms in spatially separated cylinders. Resonant dipole-dipole coupling excites the 49s atoms in one cylinder to the 49p state while the 41d atoms in the second cylinder are transferred down to the 42p state. We have measured the production of the 49p state as a function of separation of the cylinders (0-80 {mu}m) and the interaction time (0-25 {mu}s). In addition, we measured the width of the electric field resonances. A full many-body quantum calculation reproduces the main features of the experiments.

  10. Thermal desorption behavior of helium in aged titanium tritide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, G. J.; Shi, L. Q.; Zhou, X. S.; Liang, J. H.; Wang, W. D.; Long, X. G.; Yang, B. F.; Peng, S. M.

    2015-11-01

    The desorption behavior of helium in TiT(1.5?1.8)-x3Hex film samples (x = 0.0022-0.22) was investigated by thermal desorption technique in vacuum condition in this paper. The thermal helium desorption spectrometry (THDS) of aging titanium tritide films prepared by electron beam evaporation revealed that, depending on the decayed 3He concentration in the samples, there are more than four states of helium existing in the films. The divided four zones in THDS based on helium states represent respectively: (1) the mobile single helium atoms with low activation energy in all aging samples resulted from the interstitial sites or dissociated from interstitial clusters, loops and dislocations, (2) helium bubbles inside the grain lattices, (3) helium bubbles in the grain boundaries and interconnected networks of dislocations in the helium concentration of 3Hegen/Ti > 0.0094, and (4) helium bubbles near or linked to the film surface by interconnected channel for later aging stage with 3Hegen/Ti > 0.18. The proportion of helium desorption in each zone was estimated, and dissociated energies of helium for different trapping states were given.

  11. Heavy-Rydberg ion-pair formation in Rydberg atom collisions: Probing dissociative electron attachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Michael; Buathong, Sitti; Dunning, F. Barry

    2015-05-01

    While electron transfer in Rydberg atom collisions with attaching targets forms a valuable technique with which to create heavy-Rydberg ion pairs to examine their properties, we demonstrate here that measurements of their velocity distributions can also provide insights into the behavior of the excited intermediates formed through initial electron transfer. The experimental results are analyzed with the aid of a Monte Carlo collision code that models the details of electron transfer reactions. Results for a variety of targets are presented that demonstrate the use of this approach to examine the dynamics of dissociative electron attachment, the lifetimes of the intermediates created, and the channels by which they decay. Research supported by the Robert A. Welch Foundation under Grant C-0734.

  12. Influence of the defect and structural state of FCC and BCC metals on the intensity of mechanodynamic penetration of helium atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klyavin, O. V.; Nikolaev, V. I.; Smirnov, B. I.; Khabarin, L. V.; Chernov, Yu. M.; Shpe?zman, V. V.

    2008-08-01

    The specific features of the mechanodynamic penetration of helium under plastic deformation into fcc (Cu) and bcc (Fe, Nb) metals with different initial defect structures (single-crystal, nanocrystalline, and porous samples) are investigated. The intensity of mechanodynamic penetration into these metals is shown to depend on the type of bonding (metallic or covalent), which determines the degree of localization of the plastic flow of these metals, as well as on the type of defect structure and on the character of plastic flow (dislocation deformation, twinning, grain-boundary sliding). Curves of helium extraction from samples at different strains are obtained. It is found that the helium release exhibits a wide variety of peaks depending on the degree and character of plastic deformation of the metals under investigation. This suggests that the metals contain different types of helium traps, which determine the content of helium and the specific features of its release in the temperature range studied.

  13. Borromean three-body FRET in frozen Rydberg gases

    PubMed Central

    Faoro, R.; Pelle, B.; Zuliani, A.; Cheinet, P.; Arimondo, E.; Pillet, P.

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the interactions between ultracold atoms is crucial for quantum simulation and computation purposes. Highly excited Rydberg atoms are considered in this prospect for their strong and controllable interactions known in the dipole-dipole case to induce non-radiative energy transfers between atom pairs, similarly to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in biological systems. Here we predict few-body FRET processes in Rydberg atoms and observe the first three-body resonance energy transfer in cold Rydberg atoms using cold caesium atoms. In these resonances, additional relay atoms carry away an energy excess preventing the two-body resonance, leading thus to a Borromean type of energy transfer. These few-body processes present strong similarities with multistep FRET between chromophores sometimes called donor-bridge-acceptor or superexchange. Most importantly, they generalize to any Rydberg atom and could lead to new implementations of few-body quantum gates or entanglement. PMID:26348821

  14. Borromean three-body FRET in frozen Rydberg gases.

    PubMed

    Faoro, R; Pelle, B; Zuliani, A; Cheinet, P; Arimondo, E; Pillet, P

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the interactions between ultracold atoms is crucial for quantum simulation and computation purposes. Highly excited Rydberg atoms are considered in this prospect for their strong and controllable interactions known in the dipole-dipole case to induce non-radiative energy transfers between atom pairs, similarly to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) in biological systems. Here we predict few-body FRET processes in Rydberg atoms and observe the first three-body resonance energy transfer in cold Rydberg atoms using cold caesium atoms. In these resonances, additional relay atoms carry away an energy excess preventing the two-body resonance, leading thus to a Borromean type of energy transfer. These few-body processes present strong similarities with multistep FRET between chromophores sometimes called donor-bridge-acceptor or superexchange. Most importantly, they generalize to any Rydberg atom and could lead to new implementations of few-body quantum gates or entanglement. PMID:26348821

  15. Van der Waals explosion of cold Rydberg clusters

    E-print Network

    R. Faoro; C. Simonelli; M. Archimi; G. Masella; M. M. Valado; E. Arimondo; R. Mannella; D. Ciampini; O. Morsch

    2015-06-28

    We report on the direct measurement in real space of the effect of the van der Waals forces between individual Rydberg atoms on their external degrees of freedom. Clusters of Rydberg atoms with inter-particle distances of around 5 {\\mu}m are created by first generating a small number of seed excitations in a magneto-optical trap, followed by off-resonant excitation that leads to a chain of facilitated excitation events. After a variable expansion time the Rydberg atoms are field ionized, and from the arrival time distributions the size of the Rydberg cluster after expansion is calculated. Our experimental results agree well with a numerical simulation of the van der Waals explosion.

  16. Rydberg series of calcium monofluoride : spectrum, structure, and dynamics

    E-print Network

    Kay, Jeffrey J

    2007-01-01

    This thesis summarizes progress toward the ultimate goal of building a complete structural and dynamical model for the CaF molecule. The quantum defects of the Rydberg series of the molecule, as well as their dependences ...

  17. Dynamics of multiphoton excitation and quantum diffusion in Rydberg atoms

    E-print Network

    Chu, Shih-I; Wang, Kwanghsi

    1989-02-15

    and ?q the quantum delocalization threshold), large discrepancies exist between 1D and 2D results. It is found that the 1D model seriously underestimates the ionization probabilities and, more importantly, the dominant channels for Rydberg atom excitation...

  18. Rydberg Electrons in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia; Gacesa, Marko; Côté, Robin

    2015-05-01

    We investigate a hybrid system composed of ultracold Rydberg atoms immersed in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The coupling between the Rydberg electrons and BEC atoms leads to the excitation of phonons, the exchange of which induces Yukawa interaction between Rydberg atoms. The range of such interaction is equal to the healing length of the BEC, which can be tuned by adjusting the scattering length of the BEC atoms. For a BEC with a small healing length, the Yukawa potential is short-ranged, and distorts the BEC locally, ``mapping'' the electron density onto the BEC density. For large healing lengths, the Yukawa potential is long-ranged and can bind Rydberg atoms and form a new type of ultra-long-range molecule. Partially supported by DOE (JW), NSF (MG), and ARO (RC).

  19. Strongly-coupled high- n Rydberg atom pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Zhang, Xinyue; Dunning, F. B.

    2015-05-01

    Creation of pairs of high n, n ~ 300 , Rydberg atoms with well-defined initial separations enables study and control of their mutual interactions. If the atoms are initially well separated, their interactions are weak and they evolve independently. Their interactions can be dramatically increased, however, by transferring them to even higher levels using carefully-tailored sequences of one, or more, short electric field pulses, the degree of coupling being strongly influenced by the final target state. Since both atoms are subject to the same pulse(s), strongly-correlated macroscopic two-electron wave packets can be created whose subsequent dynamics can be monitored by application of further probe fields. Interest focuses on energy exchange and formation of long lived two-electron-excited states in which, due to their correlated motions, the electrons remain far apart. The production and properties of such states, which lie at the classical-quantum interface, are being explored experimentally and through classical and quantum simulations. Research supported by the NSF, the Robert A. Welch Foundation, and the FWF (Austria).

  20. Precision spectroscopy of Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Cancio, P.; Giusfredi, G.; Mazzotti, D.; De Natale, P.; De Mauro, C.; Krachmalnicoff, V.; Inguscio, M.

    2005-05-05

    Accurate Quantum-Electrodynamics (QED) tests of the simplest bound three body atomic system are performed by precise laser spectroscopic measurements in atomic Helium. In this paper, we present a review of measurements between triplet states at 1083 nm (23S-23P) and at 389 nm (23S-33P). In 4He, such data have been used to measure the fine structure of the triplet P levels and, then, to determine the fine structure constant when compared with equally accurate theoretical calculations. Moreover, the absolute frequencies of the optical transitions have been used for Lamb-shift determinations of the levels involved with unprecedented accuracy. Finally, determination of the He isotopes nuclear structure and, in particular, a measurement of the nuclear charge radius, are performed by using hyperfine structure and isotope-shift measurements.

  1. Evolution of dopant-induced helium nanoplasmas

    E-print Network

    Krishnan, S R; Fechner, L; Sharma, V; Kremer, M; Fischer, B; Camus, N; Pfeifer, T; Jha, J; Krishnamurthy, M; Schroeter, C -D; Ullrich, J; Stienkemeier, F; Moshammer, R; Fennel, Th; Mudrich, M

    2012-01-01

    Two-component nanoplasmas generated by strong-field ionization of doped helium nanodroplets are studied in a pump-probe experiment using few-cycle laser pulses in combination with molecular dynamics simulations. High yields of helium ions and a pronounced, droplet size-dependent resonance structure in the pump-probe transients reveal the evolution of the dopant-induced helium nanoplasma. The pump-probe dynamics is interpreted in terms of strong inner ionization by the pump pulse and resonant heating by the probe pulse which controls the final charge states detected via the frustration of electron-ion recombination.

  2. Solving the electron and electron-nuclear Schrödinger equations for the excited states of helium atom with the free iterative-complement-interaction method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Hiroyuki; Hijikata, Yuh; Nakatsuji, Hiroshi

    2008-04-01

    Very accurate variational calculations with the free iterative-complement-interaction (ICI) method for solving the Schrödinger equation were performed for the 1sNs singlet and triplet excited states of helium atom up to N =24. This is the first extensive applications of the free ICI method to the calculations of excited states to very high levels. We performed the calculations with the fixed-nucleus Hamiltonian and moving-nucleus Hamiltonian. The latter case is the Schrödinger equation for the electron-nuclear Hamiltonian and includes the quantum effect of nuclear motion. This solution corresponds to the nonrelativistic limit and reproduced the experimental values up to five decimal figures. The small differences from the experimental values are not at all the theoretical errors but represent the physical effects that are not included in the present calculations, such as relativistic effect, quantum electrodynamic effect, and even the experimental errors. The present calculations constitute a small step toward the accurately predictive quantum chemistry.

  3. Generalized Ionization scaling law for high energy ion-aligned elliptic Rydberg hydrogen collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelius, Kevin; Ward, Marc; Cooper, Thomas

    2008-05-01

    The classical trajectory Monte Carlo method was used to calculate electron ionization cross sections involving fully stripped ions of He, C, Ar and Kr colliding with aligned elliptic Rydberg hydrogen for various excited n states. Cross sections from target eccentricities of -0.9 to 0.9 over the energy range 1.21 keV/u and 64 keV/u were used to develop a high energy ionization scaling law as a function of reduced collision speed , initial n state, projectile charge , and eccentricity. Our scaling law accurately predicts all theoretical CTMC cross section values for reduced collisions speeds larger than 2.5q.

  4. Ionization scaling law for ions colliding with elliptical Rydberg hydrogen targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Marc; Cooper, Thomas; Wilbanks, Zach; Cornelius, Kevin

    2012-06-01

    The classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) method has been used to model fully stripped ions of He, C, Ar, and Kr colliding with aligned elliptic Rydberg hydrogen in various excited initial n states. CTMC cross sections from target eccentricities of -0.99 to 0.99 and reduced ion velocities ranging from 5 to 40 were used to develop an ionization scaling law as a function of reduced velocity v*, initial n state, projectile charge q, and initial electron eccentricity ?. The nonelliptic part of our scaling law has been compared to other existing ionization models and found to be in very good agreement.

  5. Ionization scaling law for high energy ion-aligned elliptic Rydberg hydrogen collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelius, Kevin; Ward, Marc; Cooper, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    The classical trajectory Monte Carlo method was used to calculate electron ionization cross sections involving fully stripped ions of He, C, Ar and Kr colliding with an aligned elliptic Rydberg hydrogen atom for various excited n states. Cross sections from target eccentricities of -0.9 to 0.9 over the energy range 1.21 keV/u to 64 keV/u were used to develop a high energy ionization scaling law as a function of reduced collision speed, initial n state, projectile charge, and eccentricity. The proposed scaling law accurately predicts all theoretical CTMC cross section values for reduced collisions speeds larger than 2.5q.

  6. Oscillator Strengths and Predissociation Rates for Rydberg Transitions in 12C16O, 13C16O, and 13C18O Involving the E 1Pi, B 1Sigma+, and W 1Pi States

    E-print Network

    M. Eidelsberg; Y. Sheffer; S. R. Federman; J. L. Lemaire; J. H. Fillion; F. Rostas; J. Ruiz

    2006-05-06

    One of the processes controlling the interstellar CO abundance and the ratio of its isotopologues is photodissociation. Accurate oscillator strengths and predissociation rates for Rydberg transitions are needed for modeling this process. We present results on absorption from the E ^1Pi-X ^1Sigma^+ (1-0) and B ^1Sigma^+-X ^1Sigma^+ (6-0) bands at 1051 and 1002 \\AA, respectively, and the vibrational progression W ^1Pi-X ^1Sigma^+ (v'-0) bands with v' = 0 to 3 at 972, 956, 941, and 925 \\AA, respectively. The corresponding spectra were acquired at the high resolution (R ~ 30,000) SU5 beam line at the Super ACO Synchrotron in Orsay, France. Spectra were obtained for the ^12C^16O, ^13C^16O, and ^13C^18O isotopologues. These represent the most complete set of measurements available. Comparison is made with earlier results, both empirical and theoretical. While earlier determinations of oscillator strengths based on absorption from synchrotron radiation tend to be somewhat smaller than ours, the suite of measurements from a variety of techniques agree for the most part considering the mutual uncertainties. For the bands studied here, their relative weakness, or their significant line widths arising from predissociation, minimizes potential problems from large optical depths at line center in absorption measurements. Predissociating line widths could generally be extracted from the spectra thanks to the profile simulations used in the analysis. In many cases, these simulations allowed us to consider e and f parity levels separately and to determine the dependence of the width on rotational quantum number, J. Our results are consistent with earlier determinations, especially the widths inferred from laser experiments.

  7. The helium trimer with soft-core potentials

    E-print Network

    A. Kievsky; E. Garrido; C. Romero-Redondo; P. Barletta

    2011-01-10

    The helium trimer is studied using two- and three-body soft-core potentials. Realistic helium-helium potentials present an extremely strong short-range repulsion and support a single, very shallow, bound state. The description of systems with more than two helium atoms is difficult due to the very large cancellation between kinetic and potential energy. We analyze the possibility of describing the three helium system in the ultracold regime using a gaussian representation of a widely used realistic potential, the LM2M2 interaction. However, in order to describe correctly the trimer ground state a three-body force has to be added to the gaussian interaction. With this potential model the two bound states of the trimer and the low energy scattering helium-dimer phase shifts obtained with the LM2M2 potential are well reproduced.

  8. Metastable Aluminum Atoms Floating on the Surface of Helium Nanodroplets.

    PubMed

    Jeffs, Jay; Besley, Nicholas A; Stace, Anthony J; Sarma, Gautam; Cunningham, Ethan M; Boatwright, Adrian; Yang, Shengfu; Ellis, Andrew M

    2015-06-12

    Metal atoms have proved to be sensitive probes of the properties of superfluid helium nanodroplets. To date, all experiments on the doping of helium droplets have concentrated on the attachment of metal atoms in their ground electronic states. Here we report the first examples of metal atoms in excited states becoming attached to helium nanodroplets. The atoms in question are aluminum, and they have been generated by laser ablation in a metastable quartet state, which attaches to and remains on the surface of helium droplets. Evidence for a surface location comes from electronic spectra, which consist of very narrow absorption profiles that show very small spectral shifts. Supporting ab initio calculations show there to be an energy incentive for a metastable Al atom to remain on the surface of a helium droplet rather than move to the interior. The results suggest that helium droplets may provide a method for the capture and transport of metastable excited atomic and molecular species. PMID:26196800

  9. Metal tritides helium emission

    SciTech Connect

    Beavis, L.C.

    1980-02-01

    Over the past several years, we have been measuring the release of helium from metal tritides (primarily erbium tritide). We find that qualitatively all tritides of interest to us behave the same. When they are first formed, the helium is released at a low rate that appears to be related to the amount of surface area which has access to the outside of the material (either film or bulk). For example, erbium tritide films initially release about 0.3% of the helium generated. Most tritide films emit helium at about this rate initially. At some later time, which depends upon the amount of helium generated, the parent occluding element and the degree of tritium saturation of the dihydride phase the helium emission changes to a new mode in which it is released at approximately the rate at which it is generated (for example, we measure this value to be approx. = .31 He/Er for ErT/sub 1/./sub 9/ films). If erbium ditritide is saturated beyond 1.9 T/Er, the critical helium/metal ratio decreases. For example, in bulk powders ErT/sub 2/./sub 15/ reaches critical release concentration at approx. = 0.03. Moderate elevation of temperature above room temperature has little impact on the helium release rate. It appears that the process may have approx. = 2 kcal/mol activation energy. The first helium formed is well bound. As the tritide ages, the helium is found in higher energy sites. Similar but less extensive measurements on scandium, titanium, and zirconium tritides are also described. Finally, the thermal desorption of erbium tritides of various ages from 50 days to 3154 days is discussed. Significant helium is desorbed along with the tritium in all but the youngest samples during thermodesorption.

  10. AB INITIO EQUATIONS OF STATE FOR HYDROGEN (H-REOS.3) AND HELIUM (He-REOS.3) AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR THE INTERIOR OF BROWN DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Andreas; Lorenzen, Winfried; Schöttler, Manuel; Redmer, Ronald; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Nettelmann, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    We present new equations of state (EOSs) for hydrogen and helium covering a wide range of temperatures from 60 K to 10{sup 7} K and densities from 10{sup –10} g cm{sup –3} to 10{sup 3} g cm{sup –3}. They include an extended set of ab initio EOS data for the strongly correlated quantum regime with an accurate connection to data derived from other approaches for the neighboring regions. We compare linear mixing isotherms based on our EOS tables with available real mixture data. A first important astrophysical application of this new EOS data is the calculation of interior models for Jupiter and comparison with recent results. Second, mass-radius relations are calculated for Brown Dwarfs (BDs) which we compare with predictions derived from the widely used EOS of Saumon, Chabrier, and van Horn. Furthermore, we calculate interior models for typical BDs with different masses, namely, Corot-3b, Gliese-229b, and Corot-15b, and the giant planet KOI-889b. The predictions for the central pressures and densities differ by up to 10% dependent on the EOS used. Our EOS tables are made available in the supplemental material of this paper.

  11. Properties of Th4+ and Th3+ from rf spectroscopy of high-L thorium Rydberg ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keele, Julie Adel

    Several properties of radon-like Th4+ and francium-like Th3+ were determined from measurements of high-L Rydberg fine structure in Th3+ and Th2+ ions. The measurements were carried out using the resonant excitation Stark ionization spectroscopy (RESIS) technique to detect rf transitions between levels in the same n. The measured Rydberg fine structures were then fit to an effective potential model, and the properties of the ions were extracted. Properties of the 1S0 ground state of Th4+ extracted from the measurements of the n=37 Th3+ Rydberg fine structure were the scalar dipole polarizability, alpha D,0=7.702(6)a.u. and the scalar quadrupole polarizability, alphaQ,0=29.1(1.6) a.u. The Th2+ Rydberg fine structure is much more complex since the ground state of Th3+ is a 2 F5/2, and the presence of low-lying excited states cause non-adiabatic effects in the fine structure which are not well described by the effective potential. To extract the properties, non-adiabatic corrections had to be calculated. The properties of Th3+ extracted were the permanent quadrupole moment, Q=0.5931(14)a.u. , the scalar and tensor dipole polarizabilities, alpha D,0=15.224(33)a.u. and alpha D,2=--5.30(11)a.u., the permanent hexadecapole moment, pi=--0.69(28)a.u., and the reduced dipole and octupole matrix elements coupling the ground state to the 6 d 2D3/2 state, ||=1.436(2) a.u. and ||=3.3(1.1) a.u.

  12. Sub-wavelength imaging and field mapping via electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting in Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, Christopher L. Gordon, Joshua A.; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, David A.; Miller, Stephanie A.; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg

    2014-06-16

    We present a technique for measuring radio-frequency (RF) electric field strengths with sub-wavelength resolution. We use Rydberg states of rubidium atoms to probe the RF field. The RF field causes an energy splitting of the Rydberg states via the Autler-Townes effect, and we detect the splitting via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use this technique to measure the electric field distribution inside a glass cylinder with applied RF fields at 17.04?GHz and 104.77?GHz. We achieve a spatial resolution of ?100??m, limited by the widths of the laser beams utilized for the EIT spectroscopy. We numerically simulate the fields in the glass cylinder and find good agreement with the measured fields. Our results suggest that this technique could be applied to image fields on a small spatial scale over a large range of frequencies, up into the sub-terahertz regime.

  13. High teleportation rates using Rydberg-based quantum repeaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solmeyer, Neal; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2015-05-01

    Quantum networking over long distances may be achieved using repeater protocols to generate entanglement between memory nodes. Typically, long-lived memories have low entanglement generation rates. Neutral atom memories can be long-lived, emit at visible wavelengths and can be collectively excited leading to directionally emitted entangled photons. Here, we propose a simplified Rydberg-based quantum repeater based on recent work, where we reduce the number of ground states used for entanglement generation and use only one ensemble at each node, reducing the required resources. The collective excitation allows for deterministic memory generation that is mapped into a directionally emitted photonic qubit without the use of a high finesse optical cavity. We demonstrate a protocol between multiple memories stored within a single ensemble to implement a two-qubit gate. Additionally, we predict teleportation rates of 1 Hz without the use of a high finesse optical cavity, which could be increased to kHz if efficiencies are improved over the currently realized values. We plan to explore these protocols in ultra-cold ensemble of neutral 87Rb atoms and are currently building this setup.

  14. Advanced helium magnetometer for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slocum, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    The goal of this effort was demonstration of the concepts for an advanced helium magnetometer which meets the demands of future NASA earth orbiting, interplanetary, solar, and interstellar missions. The technical effort focused on optical pumping of helium with tunable solid state lasers. We were able to demonstrate the concept of a laser pumped helium magnetometer with improved accuracy, low power, and sensitivity of the order of 1 pT. A number of technical approaches were investigated for building a solid state laser tunable to the helium absorption line at 1083 nm. The laser selected was an Nd-doped LNA crystal pumped by a diode laser. Two laboratory versions of the lanthanum neodymium hexa-aluminate (LNA) laser were fabricated and used to conduct optical pumping experiments in helium and demonstrate laser pumped magnetometer concepts for both the low field vector mode and the scalar mode of operation. A digital resonance spectrometer was designed and built in order to evaluate the helium resonance signals and observe scalar magnetometer operation. The results indicate that the laser pumped sensor in the VHM mode is 45 times more sensitive than a lamp pumped sensor for identical system noise levels. A study was made of typical laser pumped resonance signals in the conventional magnetic resonance mode. The laser pumped sensor was operated as a scalar magnetometer, and it is concluded that magnetometers with 1 pT sensitivity can be achieved with the use of laser pumping and stable laser pump sources.

  15. Single-photon nonlinearity with intracavity electromagnetically induced transparency in blockaded Rydberg ensemble

    E-print Network

    G. W. Lin; J. Yang; X. M. Lin; Y. P. Niu; S. Q. Gong

    2015-07-14

    A scheme is presented to realize strong single-photon nonlinearity with intracavity electromagnetically induced transparency in blockaded Rydberg ensemble. In our scheme, the photons in the cavity are in the form of cavity dark-state polaritons and thus the effect of tuning the control field is equivalent to that of changing the cavity quality factors $Q$. Profiting from this especial feature, the system behaves very strong single-photon nonlinearity, and the nonlinear strength would be three orders of magnitude larger than both the effective cavity decay rate and atomic decay rate. We also show the application of the strong nonlinearity to strong photon blockade effect.

  16. Inversion symmetry breaking of atomic bound states in strong and short laser fields

    E-print Network

    Stooß, Veit; Ott, Christian; Blättermann, Alexander; Ding, Thomas; Pfeifer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In any atomic species, the spherically symmetric potential originating from the charged nucleus results in fundamental symmetry properties governing the structure of atomic states and transition rules between them. If atoms are exposed to external electric fields, these properties are modified giving rise to energy shifts such as the AC Stark-effect in varying fields and, contrary to this in a constant (DC) electric field for high enough field strengths, the breaking of the atomic symmetry which causes fundamental changes in the atom's properties. This has already been observed for atomic Rydberg states with high principal quantum numbers. Here, we report on the observation of symmetry breaking effects in Helium atoms for states with principal quantum number n=2 utilizing strong visible laser fields. These findings were enabled by temporally resolving the dynamics better than the sub-optical cycle of the applied laser field, utilizing the method of attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (ATAS). We ident...

  17. Measurement of time-varying electric fields near an atom chip using cold Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, J. D.; Martin, J. D. D.

    2013-05-01

    Inhomogeneous fluctuating electric fields near metal surfaces cause undesired heating or decoherence in devices which confine atoms or ions near such a surface (microfabricated ion traps or proposed gas-phase atom/solid-state hybrid quantum systems, for example). Heating of the motion of trapped ions has been used to measure the noise spectral density of these fields but the microscopic mechanism responsible is unknown. We have implemented a complementary measurement technique using cold atoms released from an atom chip and excited to Rydberg states. The dephasing of a coherent superposition of two Rydberg states is used to measure the inhomogeneous electric field, and spin-echo techniques are used to constrain the frequency scaling of the noise spectral density. Compared to ion trap measurements, this technique has the advantage of flexibility in varying parameters such as atom-surface distance since the atoms do not need to be trapped. Field noise at levels typical for room temperature ion traps is detectable in principle, though the frequency resolution and ultimate sensitivity are inferior to ion traps. Work performed in collaboration with O. Cherry and supported by NSERC.

  18. Quantum repeaters based on Rydberg-blockade coupled atomic ensembles

    E-print Network

    Han, Yang; Heshami, Khabat; Li, Cheng-Zu; Simon, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    We propose a scheme for realizing quantum repeaters with Rydberg-blockade coupled atomic ensembles, based on a recently proposed collective encoding strategy. Rydberg-blockade mediated two-qubit gates and efficient cooperative photon emission are employed to create ensemble-photon entanglement. Thanks to deterministic entanglement swapping operations via Rydberg-based two-qubit gates, and to the suppression of multi-excitation errors by the blockade effect, the entanglement distribution rate of the present scheme is higher by orders of magnitude than the rates achieved by other ensemble-based repeaters. We also show how to realize temporal multiplexing with this system, which offers an additional speedup in entanglement distribution.

  19. Quantum repeaters based on Rydberg-blockade coupled atomic ensembles

    E-print Network

    Yang Han; Bing He; Khabat Heshami; Cheng-Zu Li; Christoph Simon

    2010-03-11

    We propose a scheme for realizing quantum repeaters with Rydberg-blockade coupled atomic ensembles, based on a recently proposed collective encoding strategy. Rydberg-blockade mediated two-qubit gates and efficient cooperative photon emission are employed to create ensemble-photon entanglement. Thanks to deterministic entanglement swapping operations via Rydberg-based two-qubit gates, and to the suppression of multi-excitation errors by the blockade effect, the entanglement distribution rate of the present scheme is higher by orders of magnitude than the rates achieved by other ensemble-based repeaters. We also show how to realize temporal multiplexing with this system, which offers an additional speedup in entanglement distribution.

  20. Helium diffusion in uranium and plutonium oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronchi, C.; Hiernaut, J. P.

    2004-02-01

    Samples of UO 2, (U,Pu)O 2 and PuO 2 containing up to several 100 at. ppm helium were submitted to thermal annealing in a Knudsen-cell provided with a mass spectrometer. Gas release was measured on line with a great accuracy. In the examined materials helium was created by ?-decay of plutonium or laboratory infused at high temperature and high pressure. The selected samples exhibited different types of lattice damage, including reactor burn-up and high ?-radiation doses. Analysis of helium release as a function of temperature enabled the elementary diffusion processes to be investigated and the atomic diffusion coefficient to be deduced for a defined state of helium-in-solid. The helium diffusion coefficient has the expression: D=8×10 -7exp(-46 kcal mol -1/RT) m2 s-1, however, the enthalpy of diffusion increases to 70 kcal mol -1 in high burn-up fuel where helium is apparently stabilised in uranium/oxygen vacancy clusters.

  1. Measurement of the angular dependence of the dipole-dipole interaction between two individual Rydberg atoms at a Förster resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravets, Sylvain; Labuhn, Henning; Barredo, Daniel; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine

    2015-08-01

    We measure the angular dependence of the resonant dipole-dipole interaction between two individual Rydberg atoms with controlled relative positions. By applying a combination of static electric and magnetic fields on the atoms, we demonstrate the possibility to isolate a single interaction channel at a Förster resonance, that shows a well-defined angular dependence. We first identify spectroscopically the Förster resonance of choice and we then perform a direct measurement of the interaction strength between the two atoms as a function of the angle between the internuclear axis and the quantization axis. Our results show good agreement with the angular dependence ?(1 -3 cos2? ) expected for this resonance. Understanding in detail the angular dependence of resonant interactions is important in view of using Förster resonances for quantum state engineering with Rydberg atoms.

  2. Effect of Vapor-Cell Geometry on Rydberg-Atom-Based Measurements of Radio-Frequency Electric Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Haoquan; Kumar, Santosh; Sheng, Jiteng; Shaffer, James P.; Holloway, Christopher L.; Gordon, Joshua A.

    2015-10-01

    A new approach to detect absolute radio-frequency (rf) electric fields (E-fields) that uses Rydberg atoms at room temperature in vapor cells has been demonstrated recently. The large-transition dipole moments between energetically adjacent Rydberg states enable this technique to make traceable E-field measurements with high sensitivity over a large frequency range from 1 GHz to 1 THz. In this paper, we experimentally investigate how the vapor-cell geometry affects the accuracy of the measurements. We find that the effects of the vapor cell on the measured rf E-field are minimized by making the vapor-cell size small compared to the wavelength of the rf E-field.

  3. An experimental approach for investigating many-body phenomena in Rydberg-interacting quantum systems

    E-print Network

    Hofmann, C S; Schempp, H; Müller, N L M; Faber, A; Busche, H; Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, M; Whitlock, S; Weidemüller, M

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of ultracold Rydberg gases demand an advanced level of experimental sophistication, in which high atomic and optical densities must be combined with excellent control of external fields and sensitive Rydberg atom detection. We describe a tailored experimental system used to produce and study Rydberg-interacting atoms excited from dense ultracold atomic gases. The experiment has been optimized for fast duty cycles using a high flux cold atom source and a three beam optical dipole trap. The latter enables tuning of the atomic density and temperature over several orders of magnitude, all the way to the Bose-Einstein condensation transition. An electrode structure surrounding the atoms allows for precise control over electric fields and single-particle sensitive field ionization detection of Rydberg atoms. We review two experiments which highlight the influence of strong Rydberg--Rydberg interactions on different many-body systems. First, the Rydberg blockade effect is used to pre...

  4. Effect of photoions on the line shapes of the Förster resonance and microwave transitions in cold rubidium Rydberg atoms

    E-print Network

    D. B. Tretyakov; I. I. Beterov; V. M. Entin; E. A. Yakshina; I. I. Ryabtsev; S. F. Dyubko; E. A. Alekseev; N. L. Pogrebnyak; N. N. Bezuglov; E. Arimondo

    2012-02-10

    Experiments on the spectroscopy of the F\\"orster resonance Rb(37P)+Rb(37P) -> Rb(37S)+Rb(38S) and microwave transitions nP -> n'S, n'D between Rydberg states of cold Rb atoms in a magneto-optical trap have been performed. Under ordinary conditions, all spectra exhibited a 2-3 MHz line width independently of the interaction time of atoms with each other or with microwave radiation, although the ultimate resonance width should be defined by the inverse interaction time. Analysis of the experimental conditions has shown that the main source of the line broadening was the inhomogeneous electric field of cold photoions appeared at the excitation of initial Rydberg nP states by broadband pulsed laser radiation. Using an additional pulse of the electric field, which rapidly removed the photoions after the laser pulse, lead to a substantial narrowing of the microwave and F\\"orster resonances. An analysis of various sources of the line broadening in cold Rydberg atoms has been conducted.

  5. Effect of photoions on the line shape of the Foerster resonance lines and microwave transitions in cold rubidium Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Tretyakov, D. B.; Beterov, I. I.; Entin, V. M.; Yakshina, E. A.; Ryabtsev, I. I.; Dyubko, S. F.; Alekseev, E. A.; Pogrebnyak, N. L.; Bezuglov, N. N.; Arimondo, E.

    2012-01-15

    Experiments are carried out on the spectroscopy of the Foerster resonance lines Rb(37P) + Rb(37P) {yields} Rb(37S) + Rb(38S) and microwave transitions nP {yields} n Prime S, n Prime D between Rydberg states of cold rubidium atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). Under ordinary conditions, all spectra exhibit a linewidth of 2-3 MHz irrespective of the interaction time between atoms or between atoms and microwave radiation, although the limit resonance width should be determined by the inverse interaction time. The analysis of experimental conditions has shown that the main source of line broadening is the inhomogeneous electric field of cold photoions that are generated under the excitation of initial nP Rydberg states by broadband pulsed laser radiation. The application of an additional electric-field pulse that rapidly extracts photoions produced by a laser pulse leads to a considerable narrowing of lines of microwave resonances and the Foerster resonance. Various sources of line broadening in cold Rydberg atoms are analyzed.

  6. The Descending Helium Balloon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helseth, Lars Egil

    2014-01-01

    I describe a simple and fascinating experiment wherein helium leaks out of a rubber balloon, thereby causing it to descend. An estimate of the volumetric leakage rate is made by measuring its rate of descent.

  7. Noncavitating Pump For Liquid Helium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasenbein, Robert; Izenson, Michael; Swift, Walter; Sixsmith, Herbert

    1996-01-01

    Immersion pump features high efficiency in cryogenic service. Simple and reliable centrifugal pump transfers liquid helium with mass-transfer efficiency of 99 percent. Liquid helium drawn into pump by helical inducer, which pressurizes helium slightly to prevent cavitation when liquid enters impeller. Impeller then pressurizes liquid. Purpose of pump to transfer liquid helium from supply to receiver vessel, or to provide liquid helium flow for testing and experimentation.

  8. Strongly Correlated Growth of Rydberg Aggregates in a Vapor Cell.

    PubMed

    Urvoy, A; Ripka, F; Lesanovsky, I; Booth, D; Shaffer, J P; Pfau, T; Löw, R

    2015-05-22

    The observation of strongly interacting many-body phenomena in atomic gases typically requires ultracold samples. Here we show that the strong interaction potentials between Rydberg atoms enable the observation of many-body effects in an atomic vapor, even at room temperature. We excite Rydberg atoms in cesium vapor and observe in real time an out-of-equilibrium excitation dynamics that is consistent with an aggregation mechanism. The experimental observations show qualitative and quantitative agreement with a microscopic theoretical model. Numerical simulations reveal that the strongly correlated growth of the emerging aggregates is reminiscent of soft-matter type systems. PMID:26047226

  9. Strongly correlated growth of Rydberg aggregates in a vapor cell

    E-print Network

    A. Urvoy; F. Ripka; I. Lesanovsky; D. Booth; J. P. Shaffer; T. Pfau; R. Löw

    2015-03-09

    The observation of strongly interacting many-body phenomena in atomic gases typically requires ultracold samples. Here we show that the strong interaction potentials between Rydberg atoms enable the observation of many-body effects in an atomic vapor, even at room temperature. We excite Rydberg atoms in cesium vapor and observe in real-time an out-of-equilibrium excitation dynamics that is consistent with an aggregation mechanism. The experimental observations show qualitative and quantitative agreement with a microscopic theoretical model. Numerical simulations reveal that the strongly correlated growth of the emerging aggregates is reminiscent of soft-matter type systems.

  10. Strongly Correlated Growth of Rydberg Aggregates in a Vapor Cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urvoy, A.; Ripka, F.; Lesanovsky, I.; Booth, D.; Shaffer, J. P.; Pfau, T.; Löw, R.

    2015-05-01

    The observation of strongly interacting many-body phenomena in atomic gases typically requires ultracold samples. Here we show that the strong interaction potentials between Rydberg atoms enable the observation of many-body effects in an atomic vapor, even at room temperature. We excite Rydberg atoms in cesium vapor and observe in real time an out-of-equilibrium excitation dynamics that is consistent with an aggregation mechanism. The experimental observations show qualitative and quantitative agreement with a microscopic theoretical model. Numerical simulations reveal that the strongly correlated growth of the emerging aggregates is reminiscent of soft-matter type systems.

  11. Periodic Orbit Theory for Rydberg Atoms in External Fields

    E-print Network

    P. A. Dando; T. S. Monteiro; S. M. Owen

    1998-03-13

    Although hydrogen in external fields is a paradigm for the application of periodic orbits and the Gutzwiller trace formula to a real system, the trace formula has never been applied successfully to other Rydberg atoms. We show that spectral fluctuations of general Rydberg atoms are given with remarkable precision by the addition of diffractive terms. Previously unknown features in atomic spectra are exposed: there are new modulations that are neither periodic orbits nor combinations of periodic orbits; `core-shadowing' generally decreases primitive periodic orbit amplitudes but can also lead to increases.

  12. Electron transfer processes in collisions of highly charged energetic (0. 1 to 1. 0 MeV/nucleon) ions with helium atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Datz, S.; Hippler, R.; Andersen, L.H.; Dittner, P.F.; Knudsen, H.; Krause, H.F.; Miller, P.D.; Pepmiller, P.L.; Rosseel, T.; Stolterfoht, N.

    1987-01-01

    We have investigated charge transfer in collisions of energetic (0.1 - 1 MeV/nucleon) highly charged ions with helium atoms with the principal aim clarifying the nature of two-electron processes. The sensitivity of partial charge-changing cross sections (i.e., single- and double-charge transfer, transfer ionization (TI), and single and double ionization) to core configuration and scaling rules for one- and two-electron processes were investigated with iodine ions (q = 5+ ..-->.. 26+) and uranium ions (q = 17+ ..-->.. 44+) using an ion-charge state, recoil-ion coincidence method. Using zero-degree electron spectroscopy in coincidence with charge transfer, we found that at the higher energies, as in the case of 0.1 MeV/nucleon ions previously reported, TI involves the transfer of two electrons to a higher correlated state followed by loss of one electron to the continuum. In addition, we observe very high Rydberg electrons in coincidence with TI, implying a possible up-down correlation in the pair transfer. In addition, we made measurements of VUV photons emitted at the collision in coincidence with He/sup +/ and He/sup 2 +/ recoils. The results show that TI leads to capture into lower n states than single-charge transfer. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  13. a Luttinger Liquid Core Inside HELIUM-4 Filled Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Maestro, Adrian

    2014-10-01

    As helium-4 is cooled below 2.17 K it undergoes a phase transition to a fundamentally quantum mechanical state of matter known as a superfluid which supports flow without viscosity. This type of dissipationless transport can be observed by forcing helium to travel through a narrow constriction that the normal liquid could not penetrate. Recent experiments have highlighted the feasibility of fabricating smooth pores with nanometer radii, that approach the truly one-dimensional limit where it is believed that a system of bosons (like helium-4) may have startlingly different behavior than in three dimensions. The one-dimensional system is predicted to have a linear hydrodynamic description known as Luttinger liquid (LL) theory, where no type of long range order can be sustained. In the limit where the pore radius is small, LL theory would predict that helium inside the channel behaves as a sort of quasi-supersolid with all correlations decaying as power-law functions of distance at zero temperature. We have performed large scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations of helium-4 inside nanopores of varying radii at low temperature with realistic helium.helium and helium-pore interactions. The results indicate that helium inside the nanopore forms concentric cylindrical shells surrounding a core that can be described via LL theory and provides insights into the exciting possibility of the experimental detection of this intriguing low-dimensional state of matter.

  14. a Luttinger Liquid Core Inside HELIUM-4 Filled Nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Maestro, Adrian

    2012-09-01

    As helium-4 is cooled below 2.17 K it undergoes a phase transition to a fundamentally quantum mechanical state of matter known as a superfluid which supports flow without viscosity. This type of dissipationless transport can be observed by forcing helium to travel through a narrow constriction that the normal liquid could not penetrate. Recent experiments have highlighted the feasibility of fabricating smooth pores with nanometer radii, that approach the truly one-dimensional limit where it is believed that a system of bosons (like helium-4) may have startlingly different behavior than in three dimensions. The one-dimensional system is predicted to have a linear hydrodynamic description known as Luttinger liquid (LL) theory, where no type of long range order can be sustained. In the limit where the pore radius is small, LL theory would predict that helium inside the channel behaves as a sort of quasi-supersolid with all correlations decaying as power-law functions of distance at zero temperature. We have performed large scale quantum Monte Carlo simulations of helium-4 inside nanopores of varying radii at low temperature with realistic helium-helium and helium-pore interactions. The results indicate that helium inside the nanopore forms concentric cylindrical shells surrounding a core that can be described via LL theory and provides insights into the exciting possibility of the experimental detection of this intriguing low-dimensional state of matter.

  15. High teleportation rates using cold-atom ensemble based quantum repeaters with Rydberg blockade

    E-print Network

    Neal Solmeyer; Xiao Li; Qudsia Quraishi

    2015-10-30

    We present a simplified version of a repeater protocol in a cold neutral-atom ensemble with Rydberg excitations optimized for two-node entanglement generation and describe a protocol for quantum teleportation. Our proposal draws from previous proposals [Zhao, et al., Phys. Rev. A $\\mathbf{81}$, 052329 (2010)] and [Han, et al. Phys. Rev. A $\\mathbf{81}$, 052311 (2010)] who described efficient and robust protocols for long-distance entanglement with many nodes. Using realistic experimental values we predict an entanglement generation rate of $\\sim$30 Hz and teleportation rate of $\\sim$8 Hz. Our predicted rates match the current state of the art experiments for entanglement generation and teleportation between quantum memories [Hucul, et al., Nature Phys. $\\mathbf{11}$, p. 37-42 (2015)] and [Nolleke et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. $\\mathbf{110}$, 140403 (2013)]. With improved efficiencies we predict entanglement generation and teleportation rates of $\\sim$5 kHz and $\\sim$2 kHz respectively, representing a two order of magnitude improvement over the currently realized values. Cold-atom ensembles with Rydberg excitations are promising candidates for repeater nodes because collective effects in the ensemble can be used to deterministically generate a long-lived ground state memory which may be efficiently mapped onto a directionally emitted single photon.

  16. Quantum Simulation of a Topological Mott Insulator with Rydberg Atoms in a Lieb Lattice

    E-print Network

    A. Dauphin; M. Müller; M. A. Martin-Delgado

    2015-10-18

    We propose a realistic scheme to quantum simulate the so-far experimentally unobserved topological Mott insulator phase -- an interaction-driven topological insulator -- using cold atoms in an optical Lieb lattice. To this end, we study a system of spinless fermions in a Lieb lattice, exhibiting repulsive nearest and next-to-nearest neighbor interactions, and derive the associated zero temperature phase diagram within mean-field approximation. In particular, we analyze how the interactions can dynamically generate a charge density wave ordered, a nematic as well as a topologically non-trivial quantum anomalous Hall phase. We characterize the topology of the different phases by the Chern number and discuss the possibility of phase coexistence. Based on the identified phases, we propose a realistic implementation of this model using cold Rydberg-dressed atoms in an optical lattice. The scheme, which allows one to access in particular the topological Mott insulator phase, robustly and independently of its exact position in parameter space, merely requires global, always-on off-resonant laser coupling to Rydberg states and is feasible with state-of-the-art experimental techniques.

  17. Polarizability of the pionic helium atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korobov, V. I.; Bekbaev, A. K.; Aznabayev, D. T.; Zhaugasheva, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The static dipole polarizability of metastable states in pionic helium atoms is studied. We use the complex coordinate rotation method to properly take account of the resonant nature of the states. Our calculation shows that the (17, 14) states both in 3He and 4He are not stable due to strong collisional quenching. This explains the absence of signal in the PiHe experiment at the Paul Scherer Institute, Switzerland while studying the (16, 15) \\to (17, 14) transition.

  18. Excitation of helium ion by positron impact

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, P.; Ghosh, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    Three (1s,2s,2p) and five (1s,2s,2p,3s-bar,3p-bar) -state close-coupling methods have been employed to calculate the n = 2 excitation cross sections of helium ion by positron impact. The effect of pseudostate is found to be very pronounced in the case of 1s-2s excitation.

  19. Electrical conductivity and thermopower of metallic helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvets, V. T.; Kozitskii, S. V.

    2013-04-01

    The pair effective interionic interaction, electrical resistance, and thermopower of liquid metallic helium have been calculated over wide temperature and density ranges using the perturbation theory for the potential of electron-ion interaction. For conduction electrons, the random-phase approximation has been used taking into account the exchange interaction and correlations in the local-field approximation. The nuclear subsystem has been described by the hard-sphere model. The sphere diameter is the only parameter of the theory. The diameter and the system density at which helium is transformed from the singly ionized to doubly ionized state have been estimated based on an analysis of the pair effective interaction between helium nuclei. The case of doubly ionized helium atoms has been considered. The numerical calculations have been performed taking into account the perturbation theory in terms up to the third order. In all cases, the role of the third-order correction is significant. In the case of metallic helium, the values of the electrical resistance and its temperature dependence are characteristic of divalent simple liquid metals, as well as the dependences of the thermopower on the density and temperature.

  20. SCREW COMPRESSOR CHARACTERISTICS FOR HELIUM REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Knudsen, Peter; Creel, Jonathan; Arenius, Dana; Casagrande, Fabio; Howell, Matt

    2008-03-01

    The oil injected screw compressors have practically replaced all other types of compressors in modern helium refrigeration systems due to their large displacement capacity, minimal vibration, reliability and capability of handling helium's high heat of compression.At the present state of compressor system designs for helium systems, typically two-thirds of the lost input power is due to the compression system. Therefore it is important to understand the isothermal and volumetric efficiencies of these machines to help properly design these compression systems to match the refrigeration process. This presentation summarizes separate tests that have been conducted on Sullair compressors at the Superconducting Super-Collider Laboratory (SSCL) in 1993, Howden compressors at Jefferson Lab (JLab) in 2006 and Howden compressors at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) in 2006. This work is part of an ongoing study at JLab to understand the theoretical basis for these efficiencies and their loss

  1. Volume 113. number 5 CHEMICAL PHYSICS LETTERS 1 February 1985 VIBKATIONAL STATE SELECTION OF AMMONIA IONS

    E-print Network

    OF AMMONIA IONS USING RESONANT 2 + 1 MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION William E. CONAWAY, Richard J.S. MORRISON-enhanced multi- photon ionization of ammonia via the z and ? Rydberg states. These two Rydberg states show long that the Au = 0 transition should be strongly fa- vored in the ionization step. Thus, ammonia is an ex

  2. Many-body Rabi oscillations of Rydberg excitation in small mesoscopic samples

    E-print Network

    J. Stanojevic; R. Côté

    2008-01-15

    We investigate the collective aspects of Rydberg excitation in ultracold mesoscopic systems. Strong interactions between Rydberg atoms influence the excitation process and impose correlations between excited atoms. The manifestations of the collective behavior of Rydberg excitation are the many-body Rabi oscillations, spatial correlations between atoms as well as the fluctuations of the number of excited atoms. We study these phenomena in detail by numerically solving the many-body Schr\\"edinger equation.

  3. Mining for Helium Jurriaan Hage

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Mining for Helium Jurriaan Hage Peter van Keeken Department of Information and Computing Sciences-year functional programming course using the Helium compiler. The mining of such a collection is not trivial a type error. 1 #12;1 Introduction and motivation When the Helium compiler for learning Haskell

  4. Exciton binding energy and nonhydrogenic Rydberg series in monolayer WS(2).

    PubMed

    Chernikov, Alexey; Berkelbach, Timothy C; Hill, Heather M; Rigosi, Albert; Li, Yilei; Aslan, Ozgur Burak; Reichman, David R; Hybertsen, Mark S; Heinz, Tony F

    2014-08-15

    We have experimentally determined the energies of the ground and first four excited excitonic states of the fundamental optical transition in monolayer WS_{2}, a model system for the growing class of atomically thin two-dimensional semiconductor crystals. From the spectra, we establish a large exciton binding energy of 0.32 eV and a pronounced deviation from the usual hydrogenic Rydberg series of energy levels of the excitonic states. We explain both of these results using a microscopic theory in which the nonlocal nature of the effective dielectric screening modifies the functional form of the Coulomb interaction. These strong but unconventional electron-hole interactions are expected to be ubiquitous in atomically thin materials. PMID:25170725

  5. Entanglement in helium

    E-print Network

    Giuliano Benenti; Stefano Siccardi; Giuliano Strini

    2013-05-01

    Using a configuration-interaction variational method, we accurately compute the reduced, single-electron von Neumann entropy for several low-energy, singlet and triplet eigenstates of helium atom. We estimate the amount of electron-electron orbital entanglement for such eigenstates and show that it decays with energy.

  6. Singlet-triplet energy splitting between 1D and 3D (1s2 2s nd), n = 3, 4, 5, and 6, Rydberg states of the beryllium atom (9Be) calculated with all-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharkey, Keeper L.; Bubin, Sergiy; Adamowicz, Ludwik

    2014-11-01

    Accurate variational nonrelativistic quantum-mechanical calculations are performed for the five lowest 1D and four lowest 3D states of the 9Be isotope of the beryllium atom. All-electron explicitly correlated Gaussian (ECG) functions are used in the calculations and their nonlinear parameters are optimized with the aid of the analytical energy gradient determined with respect to these parameters. The effect of the finite nuclear mass is directly included in the Hamiltonian used in the calculations. The singlet-triplet energy gaps between the corresponding 1D and 3D states, are reported.

  7. Detailed and simplified nonequilibrium helium ionization in the solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Golding, Thomas Peter; Carlsson, Mats; Leenaarts, Jorrit E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no

    2014-03-20

    Helium ionization plays an important role in the energy balance of the upper chromosphere and transition region. Helium spectral lines are also often used as diagnostics of these regions. We carry out one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of the solar atmosphere and find that the helium ionization is set mostly by photoionization and direct collisional ionization, counteracted by radiative recombination cascades. By introducing an additional recombination rate mimicking the recombination cascades, we construct a simplified three-level helium model atom consisting of only the ground states. This model atom is suitable for modeling nonequilibrium helium ionization in three-dimensional numerical models. We perform a brief investigation of the formation of the He I 10830 and He II 304 spectral lines. Both lines show nonequilibrium features that are not recovered with statistical equilibrium models, and caution should therefore be exercised when such models are used as a basis for interpretating observations.

  8. The cryogenic helium cooling system for the Tokamak physics experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, B.; Slack, D.S.; Wendland, C.R.

    1995-09-29

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) will use supercritical helium to cool all the magnets and supply helium to the Vacuum cryopumping subsystem. The heat loads will come from the standard steady state conduction and thermal radiation sources and from the pulsed loads of the nuclear and eddy currents caused by the Central Solenoid Coils and the plasma positioning coils. The operations of the TPX will begin with pulses of up to 1000 seconds in duration every 75 minutes. The helium system utilizes a pulse load leveling scheme to buffer out the effects of the pulse load and maintain a constant cryogenic plant operation. The pulse load leveling scheme utilizes the thermal mass of liquid and gaseous helium stored in a remote dewar to absorb the pulses of the tokamak loads. The mass of the stored helium will buffer out the temperature pulses allowing 5 K helium to be delivered to the magnets throughout the length of the pulse. The temperature of the dewar will remain below 5 K with all the energy of the pulse absorbed. This paper will present the details of the heat load sources, of the pulse load leveling scheme operations, a partial helium schematic, dewar temperature as a function of time, the heat load sources as a function of time and the helium temperature as a function of length along the various components that will be cooled.

  9. Mantle Helium and Carbon Isotopes in Separation Creek Geothermal Springs, Three Sisters Area, Central Oregon: Evidence for Renewed Volcanic Activity or a Long Term Steady State System?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Soest, M. C.; Kennedy, B.M.; Evans, William C.; Mariner, R.H.

    2002-01-01

    Here we present the helium and carbon isotope results from the initial study of a fluid chemistry-monitoring program started in the summer of 2001 near the South Sister volcano in central Oregon. The Separation Creek area which is several miles due west of the volcano is the locus of strong crustal uplift currently occurring at a rate of 4-5 cm/yr (Wicks, et. al., 2001).Helium [RC/RA = 7.44 and 8.61 RA (RC/R A = (3He/4He)sample-. air corrected/(3He/4He)air))] and carbon (??13C = -11.59 to -9.03??? vs PDB) isotope data and CO2/3He (5 and 9 ?? 109) show that bubbling cold springs in the Separation Creek area near South Sister volcano carry a strong mantle signal, indicating the presence of fresh basaltic magma in the volcanic plumbing system. There is no evidence though, to directly relate this signal to the crustal uplift that is currently taking place in the area, which started in 1998. The geothermal system in the area is apparently much longer lived and shows no significant changes in chemistry compared to data from the early 1990s. Hot springs in the area, which are relatively far removed from the volcanic edifice, do not carry a strong mantle signal in helium isotope ratios (2.79 to 5.08 RA), unlike the cold springs, and also do not show any significant changes in helium isotope ratios compared to literature data for the same springs of over two decades ago. The cold springs of the Separation Creek area form a very diffuse but significant low temperature geothermal system, that should, due to its close vicinity to the center of up uplift, be more sensitive to changes in the deeper volcanic plumbing system than the far removed hot springs and therefore require much more study and consideration when dealing with volcano monitoring in the Cascade range or possibly with geothermal exploration in general.

  10. Rydberg Ion Fine Structure Measurements with the RESIS Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fehrenbach, C. W.; Lundeen, S. R.

    2007-06-01

    Measurements of Rydberg fine structure provide precise determinations of positive ion properties such as polarizabilities and permanent moments. The Resonant Excitation Stark Ionization Spectroscopy (RESIS) method, which has provided a range of such measurements in neutral atoms and molecules [1], has recently been extended to study of Rydberg ion fine structure. In principal, the method can be applied to study positive ions of arbitrary charge. The factors limiting signal to noise and frequency resolution in measurements of this type will be discussed, and some possible future applications will be described. [1] S.R. Lundeen in Advances in Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics, edited by Chun C. Lin and Paul Berman (Academic Press, 2005), Vol 52, pp. 161-208

  11. Coherent dynamics of Rydberg atoms in cosmic microwave background radiation

    E-print Network

    Timur V. Tscherbul; Paul Brumer

    2013-12-20

    Rydberg atoms excited by cold blackbody radiation are shown to display long-lived quantum coherences on timescales of tens of picoseconds. By solving non-Markovian equations of motion with no free parameters we obtain the time evolution of the density matrix, and demonstrate that the blackbody-induced temporal coherences manifest as slowly decaying (100 ps) quantum beats in time-resolved fluorescence. An analytic model shows the dependence of the coherent dynamics on the energy splitting between atomic eigenstates, transition dipole moments, and coherence time of the radiation. Experimental detection of the fluorescence signal from a trapped ensemble of $10^8$ Rydberg atom is discussed, but shown to be technically challenging at present, requiring CMB amplification somewhat beyond current practice.

  12. Dynamically probing ultracold lattice gases via Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manthey, T.; Niederprüm, T.; Thomas, O.; Ott, H.

    2015-10-01

    We show that the excitation of long-range Rydberg molecules in a three-dimensional optical lattice can be used as a position- and time-sensitive probe for doubly occupied sites in the system. To this end, we detect the ions which are continuously generated by the decay of the formed Rydberg molecules. While a superfluid gas shows molecule formation for all parameters, a Mott insulator with n = 1 filling reveals a strong suppression of the number of formed molecules. In the limit of weak probing, the technique can be used to probe the superfluid to Mott-insulator transition in real-time. Our method can be extended to higher fillings and has various applications for the real-time diagnosis and manipulation of ultracold lattice gases.

  13. Intrication de deux atomes en utilisant le blocage de Rydberg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaëtan, A.

    2010-12-01

    Considérons un système quantique constitué de deux sous-systèmes : on dit qu'il est dans un état intriqué s'il existe des corrélations quantiques entre les états de ces derniers. La compréhension et la mise en œuvre d'états intriqués ont de nombreuses applications (métrologie quantique, étude des systèmes fortement corrélés, traitement quantique de l'information, etc.) et constituent le contexte général de ce travail de thèse. Plus en détail, nous démontrons la réalisation d'un état intriqué de deux atomes neutres piégés indépendamment. Pour cela, nous exploitons le phénomène de blocage de Rydberg : lorsqu'on essaie d'exciter simultanément deux atomes séparés de quelques micromètres vers un état de Rydberg donné, la forte interaction entre atomes de Rydberg peut empêcher cette excitation simultanée. Dans ce cas, seul un des deux atomes est excité et l'on génère ainsi des corrélations quantiques entre les états des deux atomes, c'est-à-dire de l'intrication. Dans notre expérience, deux atomes de 87Rb dans l'état fondamental 5S1/2 sont piégés chacun dans une pince optique microscopique, à une distance relative de 4 micromètres. En réalisant des transitions entre l'état 5S1/2 et l'état de Rydberg 58D3/2 par des transitions à deux photons, nous obtenons un état intriqué des deux atomes dans les sous-niveaux |5S1/2, f = 1, mf = 1> et |5S1/2, f = 2, mf = 2>. Afin de quantifier l'intrication, nous mesurons la fidélité par rapport à l'état-cible en réalisant des transitions Raman entre ces deux sous-niveaux. La fidélité des paires d'atomes présentes à la fin de l'expérience est supérieure à la valeur seuil de 0,5, ce qui prouve la création d'un état intriqué.

  14. Interstellar helium and deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal-Madjar, A.

    The importance of helium and deuterium is underlined: both are probably ashes of the primordial nucleosynthesis and represent some of the most abundant elements in the universe. For both elements the different observational methods used in the interstellar medium are mentioned and the most precise ones described in more details. A discussion of the results in comparison with current theories shows that many more observations are needed. Typical future possibilities are suggested.

  15. Education in Helium Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect

    Gistau Baguer, G. M.

    2004-06-23

    On the one hand, at the end of the time I was active in helium refrigeration, I noticed that cryogenics was stepping into places where it was not yet used. For example, a conventional accelerator, operating at room temperature, was to be upgraded to reach higher particle energy. On the other hand, I was a little bit worried to let what I had so passionately learned during these years to be lost. Retirement made time available, and I came gradually to the idea to teach about what was my basic job. I thought also about other kinds of people who could be interested in such lessons: operators of refrigerators or liquefiers who, often by lack of time, did not get a proper introduction to their job when they started, young engineers who begin to work in cryogenics... and so on.Consequently, I have assembled a series of lessons about helium refrigeration. As the audiences have different levels of knowledge in the field of cryogenics, I looked for a way of teaching that is acceptable for all of them. The course is split into theory of heat exchangers, refrigeration cycles, technology and operation of main components, process control, and helium purity.

  16. Applications of Groundwater Helium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, Justin T.; Hilton, David R.

    2011-01-01

    Helium abundance and isotope variations have widespread application in groundwater-related studies. This stems from the inert nature of this noble gas and the fact that its two isotopes ? helium-3 and helium-4 ? have distinct origins and vary widely in different terrestrial reservoirs. These attributes allow He concentrations and 3He/4He isotope ratios to be used to recognize and quantify the influence of a number of potential contributors to the total He budget of a groundwater sample. These are atmospheric components, such as air-equilibrated and air-entrained He, as well as terrigenic components, including in situ (aquifer) He, deep crustal and/or mantle He and tritiogenic 3He. Each of these components can be exploited to reveal information on a number of topics, from groundwater chronology, through degassing of the Earth?s crust to the role of faults in the transfer of mantle-derived volatiles to the surface. In this review, we present a guide to how groundwater He is collected from aquifer systems and quantitatively measured in the laboratory. We then illustrate the approach of resolving the measured He characteristics into its component structures using assumptions of endmember compositions. This is followed by a discussion of the application of groundwater He to the types of topics mentioned above using case studies from aquifers in California and Australia. Finally, we present possible future research directions involving dissolved He in groundwater.

  17. Long coherence times for Rydberg qubits on a superconducting atom chip

    E-print Network

    Vallette, Bruno

    Long coherence times for Rydberg qubits on a superconducting atom chip Physical Review A 90, 040502(R) (2014) Thanh Long NGUYEN QuantumGDR Lyon 2014 Thanh Long NGUYEN (LKB) Rydberg atom on superconducting atom chip QuantumGDR 2014 1/17 #12;Introduction Introduction Poisson distribution ¯n 1 long data

  18. On the Possibility of Mixed Rydberg-Valence Bonds Alexander I. Boldyrev and Jack Simons*

    E-print Network

    Simons, Jack

    , via their 2s, 3s, or 4s valence orbitals, is examined using flexible atomic orbital basis sets frequencies, and plots of the Rydberg-valence bonding orbitals are given. The activation barriers separating- cal bond via the overlap of their Rydberg orbitals. The NH4 molecule consists of an underlying closed

  19. Measurement of the Spatial Distribution of Ultracold Cesium Rydberg Atoms by Time-of-Flight Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jingkui; Zhang, Linjie; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Jianming; Jia, Suotang

    2015-09-01

    We prepare nS (n = 49) cesium Rydberg atoms by two-photon excitation in a standard magnetooptical trap to obtain the spatial distribution of the Rydberg atoms by measuring the time-of-flight (TOF) spectra in the case of a low Rydberg density. We analyze the time evolution of the ultracold nS Rydberg atoms distribution by changing the delay time of the pulsed ionization field, defined as the duration from the moment of switching off the excitation lasers to the time of switching on the ionization field. TOF spectra of Rydberg atoms are observed as a function of the delay time and initial Rydberg atomic density. The corresponding full widths at half maximum (FWHMs) are obtained by fitting the spectra with a Gaussian profile. The FWHM decreases with increasing delay time at a relatively high Rydberg atom density (>5 × 107/cm3) because of the decreasing Coulomb interaction between released charges during their flight to the detector. The temperature of the cold atoms is deduced from the dependence of the TOF spectra on the delay time under the condition of low Rydberg atom density.

  20. Direct evidence of three-body interactions in a cold {sup 85}Rb Rydberg gas

    SciTech Connect

    Han Jianing

    2010-11-15

    Cold Rydberg atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are not isolated and they interact through dipole-dipole and multipole-multipole interactions. First-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions between two atoms have been intensively studied. However, the facts that the first-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions show the same size of broadening [A. Reinhard, K. C. Younge, T. C. Liebisch, B. Knuffman, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 233201 (2008)] and there are transitions between two dimer states [S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Cote, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 183002 (2003); K. R. Overstreet, Arne Schwettmann, Jonathan Tallant, and James P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. A 76, 011403(R) (2007)] cannot be explained by the two-atom picture. The purpose of this article is to show the few-body nature of a dense cold Rydberg gas by studying the molecular-state microwave spectra. Specifically, three-body energy levels have been calculated. Moreover, the transition from three-body energy levels to two-body coupled molecular energy levels and to isolated atomic energy levels as a function of the internuclear spacing is studied. Finally, single-body, two-body, and three-body interaction regions are estimated according to the experimental data. The results reported here provides useful information for plasma formation, further cooling, and superfluid formation.

  1. Direct evidence of three-body interactions in a cold Rb85 Rydberg gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jianing

    2010-11-01

    Cold Rydberg atoms trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) are not isolated and they interact through dipole-dipole and multipole-multipole interactions. First-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions between two atoms have been intensively studied. However, the facts that the first-order dipole-dipole interactions and van der Waals interactions show the same size of broadening [A. Reinhard, K. C. Younge, T. C. Liebisch, B. Knuffman, P. R. Berman, and G. Raithel, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.233201 100, 233201 (2008)] and there are transitions between two dimer states [S. M. Farooqi, D. Tong, S. Krishnan, J. Stanojevic, Y. P. Zhang, J. R. Ensher, A. S. Estrin, C. Boisseau, R. Cote, E. E. Eyler, and P. L. Gould, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.91.183002 91, 183002 (2003); K. R. Overstreet, Arne Schwettmann, Jonathan Tallant, and James P. Shaffer, Phys. Rev. APLRAAN1050-294710.1103/PhysRevA.76.011403 76, 011403(R) (2007)] cannot be explained by the two-atom picture. The purpose of this article is to show the few-body nature of a dense cold Rydberg gas by studying the molecular-state microwave spectra. Specifically, three-body energy levels have been calculated. Moreover, the transition from three-body energy levels to two-body coupled molecular energy levels and to isolated atomic energy levels as a function of the internuclear spacing is studied. Finally, single-body, two-body, and three-body interaction regions are estimated according to the experimental data. The results reported here provides useful information for plasma formation, further cooling, and superfluid formation.

  2. Evaluation of helium cooling for fusion divertors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baxi, C. B.

    1993-09-01

    The divertors of future fusion reactors will have a power throughput of several hundred MW. The peak heat flux on the diverter surface is estimated to be 5 to 15 MW/sq m at an average heat flux of 2 MW/sq m. The divertors have a requirement of both minimum temperature (100 C) and maximum temperature. The minimum temperature is dictated by the requirement to reduce the absorption of plasma, and the maximum temperature is determined by the thermo-mechanical properties of the plasma facing materials. Coolants that have been considered for fusion reactors are water, liquid metals, and helium. Helium cooling has been shown to be very attractive from safety and other considerations. Helium is chemically and neutronically inert and is suitable for power conversion. The challenges associated with helium cooling are as follows: (1) manifold sizes; (2) pumping power; and (3) leak prevention. In this paper the first two of the above design issues are addressed. A variety of heat transfer enhancement techniques are considered to demonstrate that the manifold sizes and the pumping power can be reduced to acceptable levels. A helium-cooled diverter module was designed and fabricated by GA for steady-state heat flux of 10 MW/sq m. This module was recently tested at Sandia National Laboratories. At an inlet pressure of 4 MPa, the module was tested at a steady-state heat flux of 10 MW/sq m. The pumping power required was less than 1% of the power removed. These results verified the design prediction.

  3. Precision spectroscopy of Kaonic helium-3 and helium-4 3d{yields}2p X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiwatari, T.; Cargnelli, M.; Marton, J.; Widmann, E.; Wuenschek, B.; Zmeskal, J.; Bazzi, M.; Corradi, G.; Curceanu, C.; D'Uffizi, A.; Guaraldo, C.; Levi Sandri, P.; Lucherini, V.; Okada, S.; Pietreanu, D.; Rizzo, A.; Romero Vidal, A.; Scordo, A.; Vazquez Doce, O.; Bhang, H.

    2010-08-05

    Recently, the shift of the kaonic helium-4 2p state was precisely determined by the E570 and SIDDHARTA experiments. Prior to the experiment by E570, the average of three earlier experimental results showed -43{+-}8 eV,while most of the theoretical calculations give {approx}0 eV. This five-sigma discrepancy between theory and experiment was known as the 'kaonic helium puzzle'. A recent theoretical model showed a possible resonance-like shift of maximum 10 eV for a certain value of a deep antikaon-nucleon interaction potential, which is different in helium 3 and helium 4.The E570 experiment determined the shift of the kaonic helium-4 2p state as +2{+-}2 (stat){+-}2 (sys) eV in 2007. The SIDDHARTA experiment determined the shift as 0{+-}6(stat){+-}2(sys) eV in 2009. The results of these experiments resolved the long-standing puzzle. A new experiment of the kaonic helium-3 X-ray measurement is being prepared by the J-PARC E17 collaborators, and the kaonic helium-3 X-ray data taken very recently by the SIDDHARTA experiment are on the way to be analyzed. The results of the E570, E17 and SIDDHARTA experiments examine the strong interaction for light nuclei with different isospin, and test furthermore recent theoretical predictions.

  4. Nuclear condensate and helium white dwarfs

    E-print Network

    Paulo F. Bedaque; Evan Berkowitz; Aleksey Cherman

    2011-11-05

    We consider a high density region of the helium phase diagram, where the nuclei form a Bose-Einstein condensate rather than a classical plasma or a crystal. Helium in this phase may be present in helium-core white dwarfs. We show that in this regime there is a new gapless quasiparticle not previously noticed, arising when the constraints imposed by gauge symmetry are taken into account. The contribution of this quasiparticle to the specific heat of a white dwarf core turns out to be comparable in a range of temperatures to the contribution from the particle-hole excitations of the degenerate electrons. The specific heat in the condensed phase is two orders of magnitude smaller than in the uncondensed plasma phase, which is the ground state at higher temperatures, and four orders of magnitude smaller than the specific heat that an ion lattice would provide, if formed. Since the specific heat of the core is an important input for setting the rate of cooling of a white dwarf star, it may turn out that such a change in the thermal properties of the cores of helium white dwarfs has observable implications.

  5. NUCLEAR CONDENSATE AND HELIUM WHITE DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Bedaque, Paulo F.; Berkowitz, Evan; Cherman, Aleksey E-mail: evanb@umd.edu

    2012-04-10

    We consider a high-density region of the helium phase diagram, where the nuclei form a Bose-Einstein condensate rather than a classical plasma or a crystal. Helium in this phase may be present in helium-core white dwarfs. We show that in this regime there is a new gapless quasiparticle not previously noticed, arising when the constraints imposed by gauge symmetry are taken into account. The contribution of this quasiparticle to the specific heat of a white dwarf core turns out to be comparable in a range of temperatures to the contribution from the particle-hole excitations of the degenerate electrons. The specific heat in the condensed phase is two orders of magnitude smaller than in the uncondensed plasma phase, which is the ground state at higher temperatures, and four orders of magnitude smaller than the specific heat that an ion lattice would provide, if formed. Since the specific heat of the core is an important input for setting the rate of cooling of a white dwarf star, it may turn out that such a change in the thermal properties of the cores of helium white dwarfs has observable implications.

  6. Nuclear Condensate and Helium White Dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedaque, Paulo F.; Berkowitz, Evan; Cherman, Aleksey

    2012-04-01

    We consider a high-density region of the helium phase diagram, where the nuclei form a Bose-Einstein condensate rather than a classical plasma or a crystal. Helium in this phase may be present in helium-core white dwarfs. We show that in this regime there is a new gapless quasiparticle not previously noticed, arising when the constraints imposed by gauge symmetry are taken into account. The contribution of this quasiparticle to the specific heat of a white dwarf core turns out to be comparable in a range of temperatures to the contribution from the particle-hole excitations of the degenerate electrons. The specific heat in the condensed phase is two orders of magnitude smaller than in the uncondensed plasma phase, which is the ground state at higher temperatures, and four orders of magnitude smaller than the specific heat that an ion lattice would provide, if formed. Since the specific heat of the core is an important input for setting the rate of cooling of a white dwarf star, it may turn out that such a change in the thermal properties of the cores of helium white dwarfs has observable implications.

  7. Rydberg-to-M -shell x-ray emission of hollow Xeq+ (q =27 - 30 ) atoms or ions above metallic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Z. Y.; Yang, Z. H.; Zhang, H. Q.; Shao, J. X.; Cui, Y.; Zhang, Y. P.; Zhang, X. A.; Zhao, Y. T.; Chen, X. M.; Xiao, G. Q.

    2015-04-01

    X rays originating from transitions from high Rydberg states to the M shell (here called Rydberg-to-M -shell x rays) have been measured in the interaction of Xeq+ (q =27 - 30 ) ions with aluminum, molybdenum, and beryllium surfaces in the energy range of 350-600 keV, by using a Si(Li) detector. The transition energy calculation by Cowan's program with relativistic correlation indicates that such x rays are mainly from the transition of the higher quantum states, with the principal quantum number from 6 up to 30, directly to M shell of xenon. The yield of the x ray per vacancy in M shell decreases slightly with increasing the projectile energies and is inversely proportional to the work functions of metallic surfaces used. However, it increases rapidly with the increase of the projectile charge states. All of these experimental facts combined with the transition rate calculations indicate that the measured Rydberg-to-M -shell x rays come from the "above the surface" hollow Xe atoms or ions deexcitation, when the inner shells such as N and O have not been filled.

  8. Formation of Positively Charged Liquid Helium Clusters in Supercritical Helium and their Solidification upon Compression.

    PubMed

    Tarchouna, Hejer Gharbi; Bonifaci, Nelly; Aitken, Frédéric; Mendoza Luna, Luis Guillermo; von Haeften, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    Positively charged ions were produced in supercritical helium at temperatures from 6 to 10 K and up to 2 MPa using a corona discharge. Their mobility was measured via current-voltage curves, and the hydrodynamic radius was derived using Stokes law. An initial increase and subsequent decrease of hydrodynamic radius was observed and interpreted in terms of growth, compression and solidification of ion clusters. The mobility was modeled using a van der Waals-type thermodynamic state equation for the ion-in-helium mixed system and a temperature-dependent Millikan-Cunningham factor, describing experimental data both in the Knudsen and the Stokes flow region. Regions of maximum hydrodynamic radius and large compressibility were interpreted as boiling points. These points were modeled over a large range of pressures and found to match the Frenkel line of pure helium up to 0.7 MPa, reflecting similarity of density fluctuations in pure supercritical helium and gas-liquid phase transitions of ionic helium clusters. PMID:26267199

  9. Resource Letter SH-1: Superfluid Helium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallock, Robert B.

    1982-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of books, textbooks, and films on superfluid helium. Also lists research reports/reviews arranged by category, including among others, early history, microscopic understanding, ions in helium, helium in rotation, vortices and quantization, helium films and constricted geometrics, persistence flow, and superfluid helium

  10. Helium runaways in white dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taam, R. E.

    1979-01-01

    The long term evolution of an accreting carbon white dwarf was studied from the onset of accretion to the ignition of helium. The variations in the details of the helium shell flash examined with respect to variations in mass accretion rate. For intermediate rates the helium flash is potentially explosive whereas for high rates the shell flash is relatively weak. The results are discussed in the context of the long term evolution of novae.

  11. Advanced fuels modeling: Evaluating the steady-state performance of carbide fuel in helium-cooled reactors using FRAPCON 3.4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallman, Luther, Jr.

    Uranium carbide (UC) has long been considered a potential alternative to uranium dioxide (UO2) fuel, especially in the context of Gen IV gas-cooled reactors. It has shown promise because of its high uranium density, good irradiation stability, and especially high thermal conductivity. Despite its many benefits, UC is known to swell at a rate twice that of UO2. However, the swelling phenomenon is not well understood, and we are limited to a weak empirical understanding of the swelling mechanism. One suggested cladding for UC is silicon carbide (SiC), a ceramic that demonstrates a number of desirable properties. Among them are an increased corrosion resistance, high mechanical strength, and irradiation stability. However, with increased temperatures, SiC exhibits an extremely brittle nature. The brittle behavior of SiC is not fully understood and thus it is unknown how SiC would respond to the added stress of a swelling UC fuel. To better understand the interaction between these advanced materials, each has been implemented into FRAPCON, the preferred fuel performance code of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC); additionally, the material properties for a helium coolant have been incorporated. The implementation of UC within FRAPCON required the development of material models that described not only the thermophysical properties of UC, such as thermal conductivity and thermal expansion, but also models for the swelling, densification, and fission gas release associated with the fuel's irradiation behavior. This research is intended to supplement ongoing analysis of the performance and behavior of uranium carbide and silicon carbide in a helium-cooled reactor.

  12. Mantle helium and carbon isotopes in Separation Creek Geothermal Springs, Three Sisters area, Central Oregon: Evidence for renewed volcanic activity or a long term steady state system?

    SciTech Connect

    van Soest, M.C.; Kennedy, B.M.; Evans, W.C.; Mariner, R.H.

    2002-04-30

    Cold bubbling springs in the Separation Creek area, the locus of current uplift at South Sister volcano show strong mantle signatures in helium and carbon isotopes and CO{sub 2}/{sup 3}He. This suggests the presence of fresh basaltic magma in the volcanic plumbing system. Currently there is no evidence to link this system directly to the uplift, which started in 1998. To the contrary, all geochemical evidence suggests that there is a long-lived geothermal system in the Separation Creek area, which has not significantly changed since the early 1990s. There was no archived helium and carbon data, so a definite conclusion regarding the strong mantle signature observed in these tracers cannot yet be drawn. There is a distinct discrepancy between the yearly magma supply required to explain the current uplift (0.006 km{sup 3}/yr) and that required to explain the discharge of CO{sub 2} from the system (0.0005 km{sup 3}/yr). This discrepancy may imply that the chemical signal associated with the increase in magma supply has not reached the surface yet. With respect to this the small changes observed at upper Mesa Creek require further attention, due to the recent volcanic vent in that area it may be the location were the chemical signal related to the uplift can most quickly reach the surface. Occurrence of such strong mantle signals in cold/diffuse geothermal systems suggests that these systems should not be ignored during volcano monitoring or geothermal evaluation studies. Although the surface-expression of these springs in terms of heat is minimal, the chemistry carries important information concerning the size and nature of the underlying high-temperature system and any changes taking place in it.

  13. Helium cryopumping for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sedgley, D.W.; Batzer, T.H.; Call, W.R.

    1988-05-01

    Large quantities of helium and hydrogen isotopes will be exhausted continuously from fusion power reactors. This paper summarizes two development programs undertaken to address vacuum pumping for this application: (i) A continuous duty cryopump for pumping helium and/or hydrogen species using charcoal sorbent and (ii) a cryopump configuration with an alternative shielding arrangement using charcoal sorbent or argon spray. A test program evaluated automatic pumping of helium, helium pumping by charcoal cryosorption and with argon spray, and cryosorption of helium/hydrogen mixtures. The continuous duty cryopump pumped helium continuously and conveniently. Helium pumping speed was 7.7 l/s/cm/sup 2/ of charcoal, compared to 5.8 l/s/cm/sup 2/ for the alternative pump. Helium speed using argon spray was 18% of that obtained by charcoal cryosorption in the same (W-panel) pump. During continuous duty cryopump mixture tests with helium and hydrogen copumped on charcoal, gas was released sporadically. Testing was insufficient to explain this unacceptable event.

  14. Miscibility of hydrogen and helium mixtures at megabar pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Klepeis, J.E.; Schafer, K.J.; Barbee, T.W. III; Ross, M.

    1991-09-01

    Models of Jupiter and Saturn postulate a central rock core surrounded by a fluid mixture of hydrogen and helium. These models suggest that the mixture is undergoing phase separation in Saturn but not Jupiter. State-of-the-art total energy calculations of the enthalpy of mixing for ordered alloys of hydrogen and helium confirm that at least partial phase separation has occurred in Saturn and predict that this process has also begun in Jupiter. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  15. Measurement of the Angular Dependence of the Dipole-Dipole Interaction Between Two Individual Rydberg Atoms at a F\\"orster Resonance

    E-print Network

    Ravets, Sylvain; Barredo, Daniel; Lahaye, Thierry; Browaeys, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    We measure the angular dependence of the resonant dipole-dipole interaction between two individual Rydberg atoms with controlled relative positions. By applying a combination of static electric and magnetic fields on the atoms, we demonstrate the possibility to isolate a single interaction channel at a F\\"orster resonance, that shows a well-defined angular dependence. We first identify spectroscopically the F\\"orster resonance of choice and we then perform a direct measurement of the interaction strength between the two atoms as a function of the angle between the internuclear axis and the quantization axis. Our results show good agreement with the expected angular dependence $\\propto(1-3\\cos^2\\theta)$, and represent an important step towards quantum state engineering in two-dimensional arrays of individual Rydberg atoms.

  16. The helium fine-structure controversy

    E-print Network

    Ingvar Lindgren

    2008-10-05

    There is presently disagreement between theory and experiment as well as between different theoretical calculations concerning the fine-structure splitting of the lowest P state of the neutral helium atom. We believe that we have found a minor error in the formulas used by Drake et al. (Can. J. Phys. 80, 1195 (2002)) in their calculations, and we may have an explanation how the error has occurred. To what extent this might resolve (part of) the discrepancy is not known at present.

  17. Magnetic Levitation and Noncoalescence of Liquid Helium

    SciTech Connect

    Weilert, M.; Whitaker, D.; Maris, H.; Seidel, G.

    1996-12-01

    We describe experiments in which drops of liquid helium-4, as large as 2cm in diameter, are magnetically levitated. We have found that, when two or more drops are levitated in the same magnetic trap, the drops often remain in a state of apparent contact without coalescing. It appears that this effect is caused by the slow evaporation of liquid from the drops. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  18. Simulation of liquid helium

    SciTech Connect

    Ceperley, D.M.

    1985-07-01

    The author discusses simulation methods for quantum mechanical systems at finite temperatures. Recently it has been shown that static properties of some quantum systems can be obtained by simulation in a straightforward manner using path integrals, albeit with an order of magnitude more computing effort needed than for the corresponding classical systems. Some dynamical information can be gleaned from these simulations as will be discussed below. But this is very limited - there is no quantum version of the molecular dynamics method. The path integral method is illustrated by discussing the application to liquid helium. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Helium Removal and Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, D.; Wiesen, S

    2004-03-15

    Removal of helium, the ash from the D-T-fusion reaction, from a burning plasma flame, is one of the critical issues for future thermonuclear burning plasma. Even in plasmas driven by additional heating to large Q-values this is a severe problem. Recombination of fuel and ash ions at plasma exposed surfaces, re-emission as neutral particles and subsequent pumping (''recycling'') provides, at least in principle, the mechanism to flush the plasma from its ash. However, plasma surface interaction has to be limited in order to protect vessel components from excessive thermal load, often a conflicting requirement.

  20. Ionization and dissociation equilibrium in strongly-magnetized helium atmosphere

    E-print Network

    Kaya Mori; Jeremy S. Heyl

    2007-02-23

    Recent observations and theoretical investigations of neutron stars indicate that their atmospheres consist not of hydrogen or iron but possibly other elements such as helium. We calculate the ionization and dissociation equilibrium of helium in the conditions found in the atmospheres of magnetized neutron stars. For the first time this investigation includes the internal degrees of freedom of the helium molecule. We found that at the temperatures and densities of neutron star atmospheres the rotovibrational excitations of helium molecules are populated. Including these excitations increases the expected abundance of molecules by up to two orders of magnitude relative to calculations that ignore the internal states of the molecule; therefore, if the atmospheres of neutron stars indeed consist of helium, helium molecules and possibly polymers will make the bulk of the atmosphere and leave signatures on the observed spectra from neutron stars. We applied our calculation to nearby radio-quiet neutron stars with B_{dipole}~10^{13}-10^{14} G. If helium comprises their atmospheres, our study indicates that isolated neutron stars with T_{BB}~10^6 K such as RXJ0720.4-3125 and RXJ1605.3+3249 will have He^+ ions predominantly, while isolated neutron stars with lower temperature (T_{BB}~5x10^5 K) such as RXJ1856.5-3754 and RXJ0420.0-5022 will have some fraction of helium molecules. If helium molecules are abundant, their spectroscopic signatures may be detected in the optical, UV and X-ray band. (Abridged)