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Sample records for helix-loop-helix protein-mediated regulation

  1. Regulation of Arabidopsis Brassinosteroid Signaling by Atypical Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Proteins[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Zhu, Yongyou; Fujioka, Shozo; Asami, Tadao; Li, Jiayang; Li, Jianming

    2009-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are highly conserved transcription factors critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. Recent studies have implicated bHLH proteins in many plant signaling processes, including brassinosteroid (BR) signaling. Here, we report identification of two families of atypical bHLH proteins capable of modulating BR signaling. We found that activation-tagged bri1 suppressor 1-Dominant (atbs1-D), previously identified as a dominant suppressor of a weak BR receptor mutant bri1-301, was caused by overexpression of a 93–amino acid atypical bHLH protein lacking amino acids critical for DNA binding. Interestingly, atbs1-D only suppresses weak BR mutants, while overexpression of a truncated ATBS1 lacking the basic motif also rescues bri1-301, suggesting that ATBS1 likely stimulates BR signaling by sequestering negative BR signaling components. A yeast two-hybrid screen using ATBS1 as bait discovered four ATBS1-Interacting Factors (AIFs) that are members of another atypical bHLH protein subfamily. AIF1 exhibits an overlapping expression pattern with ATBS1 and its homologs and interacts with ATBS1 in vitro and in vivo. AIF1 overexpression nullifies the suppressive effect of atbs1-D on bri1-301 and results in dwarf transgenic plants resembling BR mutants. By contrast, silencing of AIF1 partially suppressed the bri1-301 phenotype. Our results suggested that plants use these atypical bHLH proteins to regulate BR signaling. PMID:20023194

  2. A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, PhFBH4, regulates flower senescence by modulating ethylene biosynthesis pathway in petunia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in regulating multiple biological processes in plants. However, there are few reports about the function of bHLHs in flower senescence. In this study, a bHLH TF, PhFBH4, was found to be dramatically upregulated during...

  3. The basic helix loop helix transcription factor Twist1 is a novel regulator of ATF4 in osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Danciu, Theodora E; Li, Yan; Koh, Amy; Xiao, Guozhi; McCauley, Laurie K; Franceschi, Renny T

    2012-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an essential regulator of endochondral bone formation and an important anabolic agent for the reversal of bone loss. PTH mediates its functions in part by regulating binding of the bone-related activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) to the osteoblast-specific gene, osteocalcin. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factors Twist1 and Twist2 also regulate osteocalcin transcription in part through the interaction of the C-terminal "box" domain in these factors and Runx2. In this study, we discovered a novel function of PTH: its ability to dramatically decrease Twist1 transcription. Since ATF4 is a major regulator of the PTH response in osteoblasts, we assessed the mutual regulation between these factors and determined that Twist proteins and ATF4 physically interact in a manner that affects ATF4 DNA binding function. We mapped the interaction domain of Twist proteins to the C-terminal "box" domain and of ATF4, to the N-terminus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Twist1 overexpression in osteoblasts attenuates ATF4 binding to the osteocalcin promoter in response to PTH. This study thus identifies Twist proteins as novel inhibitory binding partners of ATF4 and explores the functional significance of this interaction. PMID:21866569

  4. The basic helix loop helix transcription factor Twist1 is a novel regulator of ATF4 in osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Danciu, Theodora E.; Li, Yan; Koh, Amy; Xiao, Guozhi; McCauley, Laurie K.; Franceschi, Renny T.

    2011-01-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is an essential regulator of endochondral bone formation and an important anabolic agent for the reversal of bone loss. PTH mediates its functions in part by regulating binding of the bone-related activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) to the osteoblast-specific gene, osteocalcin. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factors Twist1 and Twist2 also regulate osteocalcin transcription in part through the interaction of the C-terminal “box” domain in these factors and Runx2. In this study, we discovered a novel function of PTH: its ability to dramatically decrease Twist1 transcription. Since ATF4 is a major regulator of the PTH response in osteoblasts, we assessed the mutual regulation between these factors and determined that Twist proteins and ATF4 physically interact in a manner that affects ATF4 DNA binding function. We mapped the interaction domain of Twist proteins to the C-terminal “box” domain and of ATF4, to the N-terminus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Twist1 overexpression in osteoblasts attenuates ATF4 binding to the osteocalcin promoter in response to PTH. This study thus identifies Twist proteins as novel inhibitory binding partners of ATF4 and explores the functional significance of this interaction. PMID:21866569

  5. Genome-wide features of neuroendocrine regulation in Drosophila by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor DIMMED

    PubMed Central

    Hadžić, Tarik; Park, Dongkook; Abruzzi, Katharine C.; Yang, Lin; Trigg, Jennifer S.; Rohs, Remo; Rosbash, Michael; Taghert, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine (NE) cells use large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) to traffic, process, store and secrete neuropeptide hormones through the regulated secretory pathway. The dimmed (DIMM) basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor of Drosophila controls the level of regulated secretory activity in NE cells. To pursue its mechanisms, we have performed two independent genome-wide analyses of DIMM's activities: (i) in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to define genomic sites of DIMM occupancy and (ii) deep sequencing of purified DIMM neurons to characterize their transcriptional profile. By this combined approach, we showed that DIMM binds to conserved E-boxes in enhancers of 212 genes whose expression is enriched in DIMM-expressing NE cells. DIMM binds preferentially to certain E-boxes within first introns of specific gene isoforms. Statistical machine learning revealed that flanking regions of putative DIMM binding sites contribute to its DNA binding specificity. DIMM's transcriptional repertoire features at least 20 LDCV constituents. In addition, DIMM notably targets the pro-secretory transcription factor, creb-A, but significantly, DIMM does not target any neuropeptide genes. DIMM therefore prescribes the scale of secretory activity in NE neurons, by a systematic control of both proximal and distal points in the regulated secretory pathway. PMID:25634895

  6. A novel initiator regulates expression of the nontissue-specific helix-loop-helix gene ME1.

    PubMed Central

    Shain, D H; Neuman, T; Zuber, M X

    1995-01-01

    The mouse ME1 gene (HEB, REB and GE1, homologues in human, rat and chick, respectively) is a member of the nontissue-specific helix-loop-helix (HLH) gene family that includes E2A, E2-2 and Drosophila daughterless. We have examined the factors that control ME1 gene expression. ME1 is a single copy gene that spans > or = 150 kb of DNA and contains > 10 exons. Transcription was directed by an unusual initiator element that contained a 13 bp poly d(A) tract flanked by palindromic and inverted repeat sequences. Both RNase protection and primer extension analyses mapped the ME1 transcriptional start site to the center of the 13 bp poly d(A) tract. The ME1 initiator and its proximal sequences were required for promoter activity, supported basal levels of transcription, and contributed to cell type-specific gene expression. Other cis-elements utilized by the TATA-less ME1 promoter included a cluster of Sp1 response elements, E-boxes and a strong repressor. Collectively, our results suggest that the ME1 initiator and other cis-elements in the proximal promoter play an important role in regulating ME1 gene expression. Images PMID:7784173

  7. Regulation of T cell receptor beta gene rearrangements and allelic exclusion by the helix-loop-helix protein, E47.

    PubMed

    Agata, Yasutoshi; Tamaki, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Shuji; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Masuda, Kyoko; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Murre, Cornelis

    2007-12-01

    Allelic exclusion of antigen-receptor genes is ensured primarily by monoallelic locus activation upon rearrangement and subsequently by feedback inhibition of continued rearrangement. Here, we demonstrated that the basic helix-loop-helix protein, E47, promoted T cell receptor beta (TCRbeta) gene rearrangement by directly binding to target gene segments to increase chromatin accessibility in a dosage-sensitive manner. Feedback signaling abrogated E47 binding, leading to a decline in accessibility. Conversely, enforced expression of E47 induced TCRbeta gene rearrangement by antagonizing feedback inhibition. Thus, the abundance of E47 is rate limiting in locus activation, and feedback signaling downregulates E47 activity to ensure allelic exclusion. PMID:18093539

  8. Role of the basic helix-loop-helix protein ITF2 in the hormonal regulation of Sertoli cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Muir, Terla; Sadler-Riggleman, Ingrid; Stevens, Jeffrey D; Skinner, Michael K

    2006-04-01

    Sertoli cells are a post-mitotic terminally differentiated cell population that forms the seminiferous tubules in the adult testis and provides the microenvironment and structural support for developing germ cells. During pubertal development, Sertoli cells are responsive to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to promote the expression of differentiated gene products. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and inhibitors of differentiation (Id) transcription factors are involved in the differentiation of a variety of cell lineages during development. Both bHLH and Id transcription factors have been identified in Sertoli cells. A yeast two-hybrid screen was conducted using a rat Sertoli cell cDNA library to identify bHLH dimerization partners for the Id1 transcription factor. The ubiquitous bHLH protein ITF2 (i.e., E2-2) was identified as one of the interacting partners. The current study investigates the expression and function of ITF2 in Sertoli cells. ITF2 was found to be ubiquitously expressed in all testicular cell types including germ cells, peritubular myoid cells, and Sertoli cells. Stimulation of cultured Sertoli cells with FSH or dibutryl cAMP resulted in a transient decrease in expression of ITF2 mRNA levels followed by a rise in expression with FSH treatment. ITF2 expression was at its highest in mid-pubertal 20-day-old rat Sertoli cells. ITF2 was found to directly bind to negative acting Id HLH proteins and positive acting bHLH proteins such as scleraxis. Transient overexpression of ITF2 protein in cultured Sertoli cells stimulated transferrin promoter activity, which is a marker of Sertoli cell differentiation. Co-transfections of ITF2 and Id proteins sequestered the inhibitory effects of the Id family of proteins. Observations suggest ITF2 can enhance FSH actions through suppressing the inhibitory actions of the Id family of proteins and increasing the actions of stimulatory bHLH proteins (i.e., scleraxis) in Sertoli cells. PMID:16425294

  9. Arabidopsis Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 Regulate Glucosinolate Biosynthesis, Insect Performance, and Feeding Behavior[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Schweizer, Fabian; Fernández-Calvo, Patricia; Zander, Mark; Diez-Diaz, Monica; Fonseca, Sandra; Glauser, Gaétan; Lewsey, Mathew G.; Ecker, Joseph R.; Solano, Roberto; Reymond, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants fend off insect attack by constitutive and inducible production of toxic metabolites, such as glucosinolates (GSs). A triple mutant lacking MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4, three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that are known to additively control jasmonate-related defense responses, was shown to have a highly reduced expression of GS biosynthesis genes. The myc2 myc3 myc4 (myc234) triple mutant was almost completely devoid of GS and was extremely susceptible to the generalist herbivore Spodoptera littoralis. On the contrary, the specialist Pieris brassicae was unaffected by the presence of GS and preferred to feed on wild-type plants. In addition, lack of GS in myc234 drastically modified S. littoralis feeding behavior. Surprisingly, the expression of MYB factors known to regulate GS biosynthesis genes was not altered in myc234, suggesting that MYC2/MYC3/MYC4 are necessary for direct transcriptional activation of GS biosynthesis genes. To support this, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis showed that MYC2 binds directly to the promoter of several GS biosynthesis genes in vivo. Furthermore, yeast two-hybrid and pull-down experiments indicated that MYC2/MYC3/MYC4 interact directly with GS-related MYBs. This specific MYC–MYB interaction plays a crucial role in the regulation of defense secondary metabolite production and underlines the importance of GS in shaping plant interactions with adapted and nonadapted herbivores. PMID:23943862

  10. PIL5, a Phytochrome-Interacting Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Protein, Is a Key Negative Regulator of Seed Germination in Arabidopsis thalianaW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Eunkyoo; Kim, Jonghyun; Park, Eunae; Kim, Jeong-Il; Kang, Changwon; Choi, Giltsu

    2004-01-01

    The first decision made by an angiosperm seed, whether to germinate or not, is based on integration of various environmental signals such as water and light. The phytochromes (Phys) act as red and far-red light (Pfr) photoreceptors to mediate light signaling through yet uncharacterized pathways. We report here that the PIF3-like 5 (PIL5) protein, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, is a key negative regulator of phytochrome-mediated seed germination. PIL5 preferentially interacts with the Pfr forms of Phytochrome A (PhyA) and Phytochrome B (PhyB). Analyses of a pil5 mutant in conjunction with phyA and phyB mutants, a pif3 pil5 double mutant, and PIL5 overexpression lines indicate that PIL5 is a negative factor in Phy-mediated promotion of seed germination, inhibition of hypocotyl negative gravitropism, and inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Our data identify PIL5 as the first Phy-interacting protein that regulates seed germination. PMID:15486102

  11. A Divalent Ion Is Crucial in the Structure and Dominant-Negative Function of ID Proteins, a Class of Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Regulators

    PubMed Central

    Palasingam, Paaventhan; Kolatkar, Prasanna R.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitors of DNA binding and differentiation (ID) proteins, a dominant-negative group of helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription regulators, are well-characterized key players in cellular fate determination during development in mammals as well as Drosophila. Although not oncogenes themselves, their upregulation by various oncogenic proteins (such as Ras, Myc) and their inhibitory effects on cell cycle proteins (such as pRb) hint at their possible roles in tumorigenesis. Furthermore, their potency as inhibitors of cellular differentiation, through their heterodimerization with subsequent inactivation of the ubiquitous E proteins, suggest possible novel roles in engineering induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We present the high-resolution 2.1Å crystal structure of ID2 (HLH domain), coupled with novel biochemical insights in the presence of a divalent ion, possibly calcium (Ca2+), in the loop of ID proteins, which appear to be crucial for the structure and activity of ID proteins. These new insights will pave the way for new rational drug designs, in addition to current synthetic peptide options, against this potent player in tumorigenesis as well as more efficient ways for stem cells reprogramming. PMID:23119064

  12. MicroRNA-212 Post-Transcriptionally Regulates Oocyte-Specific Basic-Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor, Factor in the Germline Alpha (FIGLA), during Bovine Early Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tripurani, Swamy K.; Wee, Gabbine; Lee, Kyung-Bon; Smith, George W.; Wang, Lei; JianboYao

    2013-01-01

    Factor in the germline alpha (FIGLA) is an oocyte-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor essential for primordial follicle formation and expression of many genes required for folliculogenesis, fertilization and early embryonic survival. Here we report the characterization of bovine FIGLA gene and its regulation during early embryogenesis. Bovine FIGLA mRNA expression is restricted to gonads and is detected in fetal ovaries harvested as early as 90 days of gestation. FIGLA mRNA and protein are abundant in germinal vesicle and metaphase II stage oocytes, as well as in embryos from pronuclear to eight-cell stage but barely detectable at morula and blastocyst stages, suggesting that FIGLA might be a maternal effect gene. Recent studies in zebrafish and mice have highlighted the importance of non-coding small RNAs (microRNAs) as key regulatory molecules targeting maternal mRNAs for degradation during embryonic development. We hypothesized that FIGLA, as a maternal transcript, is regulated by microRNAs during early embryogenesis. Computational predictions identified a potential microRNA recognition element (MRE) for miR-212 in the 3’ UTR of the bovine FIGLA mRNA. Bovine miR-212 is expressed in oocytes and tends to increase in four-cell and eight-cell stage embryos followed by a decline at morula and blastocyst stages. Transient transfection and reporter assays revealed that miR-212 represses the expression of FIGLA in a MRE dependent manner. In addition, ectopic expression of miR-212 mimic in bovine early embryos dramatically reduced the expression of FIGLA protein. Collectively, our results demonstrate that FIGLA is temporally regulated during bovine early embryogenesis and miR-212 is an important negative regulator of FIGLA during the maternal to zygotic transition in bovine embryos. PMID:24086699

  13. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor BcbHLHpol functions as a positive regulator of pollen development in non-heading Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongkun; Li, Ying; Zhang, Changwei; Duan, Weike; Huang, Feiyi; Hou, Xilin

    2014-12-01

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is a common trait in higher plants, and several transcription factors regulate pollen development. Previously, we obtained a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, BcbHLHpol, via suppression subtractive hybridization in non-heading Chinese cabbage. However, the regulatory function of BcbHLHpol during anther and pollen development remains unclear. In this study, BcbHLHpol was cloned, and its tissue-specific expression profile was analyzed. The results of real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that BcbHLHpol was highly expressed in maintainer buds and that the transcripts of BcbHLHpol significantly decreased in the buds of pol CMS. A virus-induced gene silencing vector that targets BcbHLHpol was constructed and transformed into Brassica campestris plants to further explore the function of BcbHLHpol. Male sterility and short stature were observed in BcbHLHpol-silenced plants. The degradation of tapetal cells was inhibited in BcbHLHpol-silenced plants, and nutrients were insufficiently supplied to the microspore. These phenomena resulted in pollen abortion. This result indicates that BcbHLHpol functions as a positive regulator in pollen development. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays revealed that BcbHLHpol interacted with BcSKP1 in the nucleus. This finding suggests that BcbHLHpol and BcSKP1 are positive coordinating regulators of pollen development. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that BcbHLHpol and BcSKP1 can be induced at low temperatures. Thus, we propose that BcbHLHpol is necessary for meiosis. This study provides insights into the regulatory functions of the BcbHLHpol network during anther development. PMID:25147023

  14. A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, PhFBH4, regulates flower senescence by modulating ethylene biosynthesis pathway in petunia

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jing; Chang, Xiaoxiao; Kasuga, Takao; Bui, Mai; Reid, Michael S; Jiang, Cai-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in regulating multiple biological processes in plants. However, there are few reports about the function of bHLHs in flower senescence. In this study, a bHLH TF, PhFBH4, was found to be dramatically upregulated during flower senescence. Transcription of PhFBH4 is induced by plant hormones and abiotic stress treatments. Silencing of PhFBH4 using virus-induced gene silencing or an antisense approach extended flower longevity, while transgenic petunia flowers with an overexpression construct showed a reduction in flower lifespan. Abundance of transcripts of senescence-related genes (SAG12, SAG29) was significantly changed in petunia PhFBH4 transgenic flowers. Furthermore, silencing or overexpression of PhFBH4 reduced or increased, respectively, transcript abundances of important ethylene biosynthesis-related genes, ACS1 and ACO1, thereby influencing ethylene production. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the PhFBH4 protein physically interacted with the G-box cis-element in the promoter of ACS1, suggesting that ACS1 was a direct target of the PhFBH4 protein. In addition, ectopic expression of this gene altered plant development including plant height, internode length, and size of leaves and flowers, accompanied by alteration of transcript abundance of the gibberellin biosynthesis-related gene GA2OX3. Our results indicate that PhFBH4 plays an important role in regulating plant growth and development through modulating the ethylene biosynthesis pathway. PMID:26715989

  15. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors JASMONATE-ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3 Are Negative Regulators of Jasmonate Responses in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki-Sekimoto, Yuko; Jikumaru, Yusuke; Obayashi, Takeshi; Saito, Hikaru; Masuda, Shinji; Kamiya, Yuji; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Shirasu, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonates regulate transcriptional reprogramming during growth, development, and defense responses. Jasmonoyl-isoleucine, an amino acid conjugate of jasmonic acid (JA), is perceived by the protein complex composed of the F-box protein CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) and JASMONATE ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) proteins, leading to the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of JAZ proteins. This activates basic helix-loop-helix-type MYC transcription factors to regulate JA-responsive genes. Here, we show that the expression of genes encoding other basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, JASMONATE ASSOCIATED MYC2-LIKE1 (JAM1), JAM2, and JAM3, is positively regulated in a COI1- and MYC2-dependent manner in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). However, contrary to myc2, the jam1jam2jam3 triple mutant exhibited shorter roots when treated with methyl jasmonate (MJ), indicating enhanced responsiveness to JA. Our genome-wide expression analyses revealed that key jasmonate metabolic genes as well as a set of genes encoding transcription factors that regulate the JA-responsive metabolic genes are negatively regulated by JAMs after MJ treatment. Consistently, loss of JAM genes resulted in higher accumulation of anthocyanin in MJ-treated plants as well as higher accumulation of JA and 12-hydroxyjasmonic acid in wounded plants. These results show that JAMs negatively regulate the JA responses in a manner that is mostly antagonistic to MYC2. PMID:23852442

  16. B-lymphocyte development is regulated by the combined dosage of three basic helix-loop-helix genes, E2A, E2-2, and HEB.

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Y; Cheng, P; Weintraub, H

    1996-01-01

    B-lymphocyte development requires the basic helix-loop-helix proteins encoded by the E2A gene. In this study, the control mechanism of E2A was further explored by disruption of the E2A-related genes, E2-2 and HEB. In contrast to E2A, E2-2 and HEB are not essential for the establishment of the B-cell lineage. However, both E2-2 and HEB are required for the generation of the normal numbers of pro-B cells in mouse embryos. Breeding tests among mice carrying different mutations revealed that E2-2 and HEB interact with E2A in many developmental processes including generation of B cells. Specifically, mice transheterozygous for any two mutations of these three genes produced fewer pro-B cells than the singly heterozygous littermates. This study indicates that B-cell development is dependent not only on an essential function provided by the E2A gene but also on a combined dosage set by E2A, E2-2, and HEB. PMID:8649400

  17. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Nex-1/Math-2 promotes neuronal survival of PC12 cells by modulating the dynamic expression of anti-apoptotic and cell cycle regulators

    PubMed Central

    Uittenbogaard, Martine; Chiaramello, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Nex1/Math-2 belongs to the NeuroD subfamily, which plays a critical role during neuronal differentiation and maintenance of the differentiated state. Previously, we demonstrated that Nex1 is a key regulatory component of the nerve growth factor (NGF) pathway. Further supporting this hypothesis, this study shows that Nex1 has survival-inducing properties similar to NGF, as Nex1-overexpressing PC12 cells survive in the absence of trophic factors. We dissected the molecular mechanism by which Nex1 confers neuroprotection upon serum removal and found that constitutive expression of Nex1 maintained the expression of specific G1 phase cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and concomitantly induced a dynamic expression profile of key anti-apoptotic regulators. This study provides the first evidence of the underlying mechanism by which a member of the NeuroD-subfamily promotes an active anti-apoptotic program essential to the survival of neurons. Our results suggest that the survival program may be viewed as an integral component of the intrinsic programming of the differ entiated state. PMID:15659228

  18. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Heterocomplex of Yas1p and Yas2p Regulates Cytochrome P450 Expression in Response to Alkanes in the Yeast Yarrowia lipolytica▿

    PubMed Central

    Endoh-Yamagami, Setsu; Hirakawa, Kiyoshi; Morioka, Daisuke; Fukuda, Ryouichi; Ohta, Akinori

    2007-01-01

    The expression of the ALK1 gene, which encodes cytochrome P450, catalyzing the first step of alkane oxidation in the alkane-assimilating yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, is highly regulated and can be induced by alkanes. Previously, we identified a cis-acting element (alkane-responsive element 1 [ARE1]) in the ALK1 promoter. We showed that a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein, Yas1p, binds to ARE1 in vivo and mediates alkane-dependent transcription induction. Yas1p, however, does not bind to ARE1 by itself in vitro, suggesting that Yas1p requires another bHLH protein partner for its DNA binding, as many bHLH transcription factors function by forming heterodimers. To identify such a binding partner of Yas1p, here we screened open reading frames encoding proteins with the bHLH motif from the Y. lipolytica genome database and identified the YAS2 gene. The deletion of the YAS2 gene abolished the alkane-responsive induction of ALK1 transcription and the growth of the yeast on alkanes. We revealed that Yas2p has transactivation activity. Furthermore, Yas1p and Yas2p formed a protein complex that was required for the binding of these proteins to ARE1. These findings allow us to postulate a model in which bHLH transcription factors Yas1p and Yas2p form a heterocomplex and mediate the transcription induction in response to alkanes. PMID:17322346

  19. Concise review: Blood relatives: formation and regulation of hematopoietic stem cells by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors stem cell leukemia and lymphoblastic leukemia-derived sequence 1.

    PubMed

    Curtis, David J; Salmon, Jessica M; Pimanda, John E

    2012-06-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a large family of transcription factors that regulate the formation and fate of tissue stem cells. In hematopoiesis, the two major bHLH factors are stem cell leukemia (SCL) and lymphoblastic leukemia-derived sequence 1 (LYL1), both identified more than 20 years ago in chromosomal translocations occurring in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. SCL was termed the master regulator of hematopoiesis following the observation that SCL knockout mice die from complete lack of blood formation. However, once established, SCL is no longer required for maintenance of hematopoiesis. Pull-down experiments together with add-back experiments in SCL-null embryonic stem cells and generation of mice carrying a germline DNA binding mutation of SCL demonstrates that most of SCL function is mediated through the formation of a large DNA binding multiprotein complex with both repressor and activator potential. Recent genome-wide binding studies in a hematopoietic stem progenitor cell line suggest that SCL and LYL1 preferentially bind target DNA sequences as components of a heptad of transcription factors. LYL1, a paralog of SCL has been the forgotten sibling until recent mouse studies demonstrated that LYL1 replaced the function of SCL in adult hematopoiesis. Why LYL1 can replace the function of SCL for the maintenance but not formation of hematopoiesis remains a fundamental question. This review will compare and contrast the roles of these two transcription factors in hematopoiesis focusing on recent functional and genome-wide binding studies. PMID:22593015

  20. CHUK, a conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase, maps to human chromosome 10 and mouse chromosome 19

    SciTech Connect

    Mock, B.A.; McBride, O.W.; Kozak, C.A.

    1995-05-20

    Helix-loop-helix proteins contain stretches of DNA that encode two amphipathic {alpha}-helices joined by a loop structure and are involved in protein dimerization and transcriptional regulation essential to a variety of cellular processes. CHUK, a newly described conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase, was mapped by somatic cell hybrid analyses to human Chr 10q24-q25. Chuk and a related sequence, Chuk-rs1, were mapped to mouse chromosomes 19 and 16, respectively, by a combination of somatic cell hybrid, recombinant inbred, and backcross analyses. 17 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. A Composite Element that Binds Basic Helix Loop Helix and Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors Is Important for Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Regulation of the Follicle-Stimulating Hormone β Gene

    PubMed Central

    Ciccone, Nick A.; Lacza, Charlemagne T.; Hou, Melody Y.; Gregory, Susan J.; Kam, Kyung-Yoon; Xu, Shuyun; Kaiser, Ursula B.

    2008-01-01

    Although FSH plays an essential role in controlling gametogenesis, the biology of FSHβ transcription remains poorly understood, but is known to involve the complex interplay of multiple endocrine factors including GnRH. We have identified a GnRH-responsive element within the rat FSHβ promoter containing an E-box and partial cAMP response element site that are bound by the basic helix loop helix transcription factor family members, upstream stimulating factor (USF)-1/USF-2, and the basic leucine zipper member, cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), respectively. Expression studies with CREB, USF-1/USF-2, and activating protein-1 demonstrated that the USF transcription factors increased basal transcription, an effect not observed if the cognate binding site was mutated. Conversely, expression of a dominant negative CREB mutant or CREB knockdown attenuated induction by GnRH, whereas dominant negative Fos or USF had no effect on the GnRH response. GnRH stimulation specifically induced an increase in phosphorylated CREB occupation of the FSHβ promoter, leading to the recruitment of CREB-binding protein to enhance gene transcription. In conclusion, a composite element bound by both USF and CREB serves to integrate signals for basal and GnRH-stimulated transcription of the rat FSHβ gene. PMID:18550775

  2. E Proteins and ID Proteins: Helix-Loop-Helix Partners in Development and Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Hsin; Baker, Nicholas E

    2015-11-01

    The basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) proteins represent a well-known class of transcriptional regulators. Many bHLH proteins act as heterodimers with members of a class of ubiquitous partners, the E proteins. A widely expressed class of inhibitory heterodimer partners-the Inhibitor of DNA-binding (ID) proteins-also exists. Genetic and molecular analyses in humans and in knockout mice implicate E proteins and ID proteins in a wide variety of diseases, belying the notion that they are non-specific partner proteins. Here, we explore relationships of E proteins and ID proteins to a variety of disease processes and highlight gaps in knowledge of disease mechanisms. PMID:26555048

  3. Helix-loop-helix transcription factors mediate activation and repression of the p75LNGFR gene.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaramello, A; Neuman, K; Palm, K; Metsis, M; Neuman, T

    1995-01-01

    Sequence analysis of rat and human low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor p75LNGFR gene promoter regions revealed a single E-box cis-acting element, located upstream of the major transcription start sites. Deletion analysis of the E-box sequence demonstrated that it significantly contributes to p75LNGFR promoter activity. This E box has a dual function; it mediates either activation or repression of the p75LNGFR promoter activity, depending on the interacting transcription factors. We showed that the two isoforms of the class A basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor ME1 (ME1a and ME1b), the murine homolog of the human HEB transcription factor, specifically repress p75LNGFR promoter activity. This repression can be released by coexpression of the HLH Id2 transcriptional regulator. In vitro analyses demonstrated that ME1a forms a stable complex with the p75LNGFR E box and likely competes with activating E-box-binding proteins. By using ME1a-overexpressing PC12 cells, we showed that the endogenous p75LNGFR gene is a target of ME1a repression. Together, these data demonstrate that the p75LNGFR E box and the interacting bHLH transcription factors are involved in the regulation of p75LNGFR gene expression. These results also show that class A bHLH transcription factors can repress and Id-like negative regulators can stimulate gene expression. PMID:7565756

  4. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Mist1, induces maturation of mouse fetal hepatoblasts.

    PubMed

    Chikada, Hiromi; Ito, Keiichi; Yanagida, Ayaka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells, hepatoblasts, have a high proliferative ability and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Therefore, these cells are considered to be useful for regenerative medicine and drug screening for liver diseases. However, it is problem that in vitro maturation of hepatoblasts is insufficient in the present culture system. In this study, a novel regulator to induce hepatic differentiation was identified and the molecular function of this factor was examined in embryonic day 13 hepatoblast culture with maturation factor, oncostatin M and extracellular matrices. Overexpression of the basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factor, Mist1, induced expression of mature hepatocytic markers such as carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase1 and several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in this culture system. In contrast, Mist1 suppressed expression of cholangiocytic markers such as Sox9, Sox17, Ck19, and Grhl2. CYP3A metabolic activity was significantly induced by Mist1 in this hepatoblast culture. In addition, Mist1 induced liver-enriched transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α, which are known to be involved in liver functions. These results suggest that Mist1 partially induces mature hepatocytic expression and function accompanied by the down-regulation of cholangiocytic markers. PMID:26456005

  5. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Mist1, induces maturation of mouse fetal hepatoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chikada, Hiromi; Ito, Keiichi; Yanagida, Ayaka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells, hepatoblasts, have a high proliferative ability and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Therefore, these cells are considered to be useful for regenerative medicine and drug screening for liver diseases. However, it is problem that in vitro maturation of hepatoblasts is insufficient in the present culture system. In this study, a novel regulator to induce hepatic differentiation was identified and the molecular function of this factor was examined in embryonic day 13 hepatoblast culture with maturation factor, oncostatin M and extracellular matrices. Overexpression of the basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factor, Mist1, induced expression of mature hepatocytic markers such as carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase1 and several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in this culture system. In contrast, Mist1 suppressed expression of cholangiocytic markers such as Sox9, Sox17, Ck19, and Grhl2. CYP3A metabolic activity was significantly induced by Mist1 in this hepatoblast culture. In addition, Mist1 induced liver-enriched transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α, which are known to be involved in liver functions. These results suggest that Mist1 partially induces mature hepatocytic expression and function accompanied by the down-regulation of cholangiocytic markers. PMID:26456005

  6. Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway in a developmental checkpoint monitoring Helix-Loop-Helix proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan-Hsin; Baker, Nicholas E.

    2014-01-01

    The E-proteins and Id-proteins are, respectively, the positive and negative heterodimer partners for the basic-helix-loop-helix protein family, and as such contribute to a remarkably large number of cell fate decisions. E-proteins and Id-proteins also function to inhibit or promote cell proliferation and cancer. Using a genetic modifier screen in Drosophila, we show that the Id-protein Extramacrochaetae enables growth by suppressing activation of the Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway of tumor suppressors, activation that requires transcriptional activation of the expanded gene by the E-protein Daughterless. Daughterless protein binds to an intronic enhancer in the expanded gene, both activating the SWH pathway independently of the transmembrane protein Crumbs, and bypassing the negative feedback regulation that targets the same expanded enhancer. Thus the Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway has a cell-autonomous function to prevent inappropriate differentiation due to transcription factor imbalance, and monitors the intrinsic developmental status of progenitor cells, distinct from any responses to cell-cell interactions. PMID:25579975

  7. Suppression of mammary epithelial cell differentiation by the helix-loop-helix protein Id-1

    SciTech Connect

    Desprez, P.; Hara, E.; Bissell, M.J.

    1995-06-01

    Cell proliferation and differentiation are precisely coordinated during the development and maturation of the mammary gland, and this balance invariably is disrupted during carcinogenesis. Little is known about the cell-specific transcription factors that regulate these processes in the mammary gland. The mouse mammary epithelial cell line SCp2 grows well under standard culture conditions but arrests growth, forms alveolus-like structures, and expresses {beta}-casein, a differentiation marker, 4 to 5 days after exposure to basement membrane and lactogenic hormones (differentiation signals). The authors show that this differentiation entails a marked decline in the expression of Id-1, a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that inactivates basic HLH transcription factors in other cell types. SCp2 cells stably transfected with an Id-1 expression vector grew more rapidly than control cells under standard conditions, but in response to differentiation signals, they lost three-dimensional organization, invaded the basement membrane, and then resumed growth. SCp2 cells expressing an Id-1 antisense vector grew more slowly than controls; in response to differentiation signals, they remained stably growth arrested and fully differentiated, as did control cells. The authors suggest that Id-1 renders cells refractory to differentiation signals and receptive to growth signals by inactivating one or more basic HLH proteins that coordinate growth and differentiation in the mammary epithelium. 53 refs., 6 figs.

  8. Suppression of Chondrogenesis by Id Helix-Loop-Helix Proteins in Murine Embryonic Orofacial Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Rezzoug, Francine; Webb, Cynthia L.; Pisano, M. Michele; Greene, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    Inhibitors of differentiation (Id) proteins are helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors lacking a DNA binding domain. Id proteins modulate cell proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation in embryonic/fetal tissue. Perturbation of any of these processes in cells of the developing orofacial region results in orofacial anomalies. Chondrogenesis, a process integral to normal orofacial ontogenesis, is known to be modulated, in part, by Id proteins. In the present study, the mRNA and protein expression patterns of Id1, Id2, Id3 and Id4 were examined in developing murine orofacial tissue in vivo, as well as in murine embryonic maxillary mesenchymal cells in vitro. The functional role of Ids during chondrogenesis was also explored in vitro. Results reveal that cells derived from developing murine orofacial tissue: (1) express Id1, Id2, Id3 and Id4 mRNAs and proteins on each of gestational days 12-14, (2) express all four Id proteins in a developmentally regulated manner, (3) undergo chondrogenesis and express genes encoding various chondrogenic marker proteins (e.g. Runx2, Type X collagen, Sox9) when cultured under micromass conditions, and (4) can have their chondrogenic potential regulated via alteration of Id protein function through overexpression of a basic HLH factor. In summary, results from the current report reveal for the first time, the expression of all four Id proteins in cells derived from developing murine orofacial tissue, and demonstrate a functional role for the Ids in regulating the ability of these cells to undergo chondrogenesis. PMID:19349107

  9. Regulatory module network of basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factors in mouse brain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Liu, Zijing J; Pan, Yuchun C; Liu, Qi; Fu, Xing; Cooper, Nigel GF; Li, Yixue; Qiu, Mengsheng; Shi, Tieliu

    2007-01-01

    Background The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are important components of the transcriptional regulatory network, controlling a variety of biological processes, especially the development of the central nervous system. Until now, reports describing the regulatory network of the bHLH transcription factor (TF) family have been scarce. In order to understand the regulatory mechanisms of bHLH TFs in mouse brain, we inferred their regulatory network from genome-wide gene expression profiles with the module networks method. Results A regulatory network comprising 15 important bHLH TFs and 153 target genes was constructed. The network was divided into 28 modules based on expression profiles. A regulatory-motif search shows the complexity and diversity of the network. In addition, 26 cooperative bHLH TF pairs were also detected in the network. This cooperation suggests possible physical interactions or genetic regulation between TFs. Interestingly, some TFs in the network regulate more than one module. A novel cross-repression between Neurod6 and Hey2 was identified, which may control various functions in different brain regions. The presence of TF binding sites (TFBSs) in the promoter regions of their target genes validates more than 70% of TF-target gene pairs of the network. Literature mining provides additional support for five modules. More importantly, the regulatory relationships among selected key components are all validated in mutant mice. Conclusion Our network is reliable and very informative for understanding the role of bHLH TFs in mouse brain development and function. It provides a framework for future experimental analyses. PMID:18021424

  10. Phylogenetic analyses of vector mosquito basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D B; Wang, Y; Liu, A K; Wang, X H; Dang, C W; Yao, Q; Chen, K P

    2013-10-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play critical roles in the regulation of a wide range of developmental processes in higher organisms and have been identified in more than 20 organisms. Mosquitoes are important vectors of certain human diseases. In this study, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae str. PEST and Culex quinquefasciatus genomes were found to encode 55, 55 and 57 bHLH genes, respectively. Further phylogenetic analyses and OrthoDB and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes orthology database searches led us to define orthology for all the identified mosquito bHLHs successfully. This provides useful information with which to update annotations to 40 Ae. aegypti, 55 An. gambiae and 38 C. quinquefasciatus bHLH genes in VectorBase. The mosquito lineage has more bHLH genes in the Atonal, neurogenin (Ngn) and Hes-related with YRPW motif (Hey) families than do other insect species, suggesting that mosquitoes have evolved to be more sensitive to vibration, light and chemicals. Mosquito bHLH genes generally have higher evolutionary rates than other insect species. However, no pervasive positive selection occurred in the evolution of insect bHLH genes. Only episodic positive selection was found to affect evolution of bHLH genes in 11 families. Besides, coding regions of several Ae. aegypti bHLH motifs have unusually long introns in which multiple copies of transposable elements have been identified. These data provide a solid basis for further studies on structures and functions of bHLH proteins in the regulation of mosquito development and for prevention and control of mosquito-mediated human diseases. PMID:23906262

  11. The basic helix-loop-helix differentiation factor Nex1/MATH-2 functions as a key activator of the GAP-43 gene.

    PubMed

    Uittenbogaard, Martine; Martinka, Debra L; Chiaramello, Anne

    2003-02-01

    Nex1/MATH-2 is a neurogenic basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor that belongs to the NeuroD subfamily. Its expression parallels that of the GAP-43 gene and peaks during brain development, when neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis are highly active. We previously observed a direct correlation between the levels of expression of Nex1 and GAP-43 proteins, which resulted in extensive neurite outgrowth and neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells in the absence of nerve growth factor. Since the GAP-43 gene is a target for bHLH regulation, we investigated whether Nex1 could regulate the activity of the GAP-43 promoter. We found that among the members of the NeuroD subfamily, Nex1 promoted maximal activity of the GAP-43 promoter. The Nex1-mediated activity is restricted to the conserved E1-E2 cluster located near the major transcription start sites. By electrophoretic mobility shift assay and site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that Nex1 binds as homodimers and that the E1 E-box is a high affinity binding site. We further found that Nex1 released the ME1 E-protein-mediated repression in a concentration dependent manner. Thus, the E1-E2 cluster has a dual function: it can mediate activation or repression depending on the interacting bHLH proteins. Finally, a series of N-terminal and C-terminal deletions revealed that Nex1 transcriptional activity is linked to two distinct transactivation domains, TAD1 and TAD2, with TAD1 being unique to Nex1. Together, our results suggest that Nex1 may engage in selective interactions with components of the core transcriptional machinery whose assembly is dictated by the architecture of the GAP-43 promoter and cellular environment. PMID:12562512

  12. The basic helix-loop-helix differentiation factor Nex1/MATH-2 functions as a key activator of the GAP-43 gene

    PubMed Central

    Uittenbogaard, Martine; Martinka, Debra L.; Chiaramello, Anne

    2006-01-01

    Nex1/MATH-2 is a neurogenic basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factor that belongs to the NeuroD subfamily. Its expression parallels that of the GAP-43 gene and peaks during brain development, when neurite outgrowth and synaptogenesis are highly active. We previously observed a direct correlation between the levels of expression of Nex1 and GAP-43 proteins, which resulted in extensive neurite outgrowth and neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells in the absence of nerve growth factor. Since the GAP-43 gene is a target for bHLH regulation, we investigated whether Nex1 could regulate the activity of the GAP-43 promoter. We found that among the members of the NeuroD subfamily, Nex1 promoted maximal activity of the GAP-43 promoter. The Nex1-mediated activity is restricted to the conserved E1–E2 cluster located near the major transcription start sites. By electrophoretic mobility shift assay and site-directed mutagenesis, we showed that Nex1 binds as homodimers and that the E1 E-box is a high affinity binding site. We further found that Nex1 released the ME1 E-protein-mediated repression in a concentration dependent manner. Thus, the E1–E2 cluster has a dual function: it can mediate activation or repression depending on the interacting bHLH proteins. Finally, a series of N-terminal and C-terminal deletions revealed that Nex1 transcriptional activity is linked to two distinct transactivation domains, TAD1 and TAD2, with TAD1 being unique to Nex1. Together, our results suggest that Nex1 may engage in selective interactions with components of the core transcriptional machinery whose assembly is dictated by the architecture of the GAP-43 promoter and cellular environment. PMID:12562512

  13. A Classification of Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors of Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Karen A.; Hudson, Matthew E.

    2015-01-01

    The complete genome sequence of soybean allows an unprecedented opportunity for the discovery of the genes controlling important traits. In particular, the potential functions of regulatory genes are a priority for analysis. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors is known to be involved in controlling a wide range of systems critical for crop adaptation and quality, including photosynthesis, light signalling, pigment biosynthesis, and seed pod development. Using a hidden Markov model search algorithm, 319 genes with basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor domains were identified within the soybean genome sequence. These were classified with respect to their predicted DNA binding potential, intron/exon structure, and the phylogeny of the bHLH domain. Evidence is presented that the vast majority (281) of these 319 soybean bHLH genes are expressed at the mRNA level. Of these soybean bHLH genes, 67% were found to exist in two or more homeologous copies. This dataset provides a framework for future studies on bHLH gene function in soybean. The challenge for future research remains to define functions for the bHLH factors encoded in the soybean genome, which may allow greater flexibility for genetic selection of growth and environmental adaptation in this widely grown crop. PMID:25763382

  14. Iron-Binding E3 Ligase Mediates Iron Response in Plants by Targeting Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Selote, Devarshi; Samira, Rozalynne; Matthiadis, Anna; Gillikin, Jeffrey W.; Long, Terri A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron uptake and metabolism are tightly regulated in both plants and animals. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), BRUTUS (BTS), which contains three hemerythrin (HHE) domains and a Really Interesting New Gene (RING) domain, interacts with basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors that are capable of forming heterodimers with POPEYE (PYE), a positive regulator of the iron deficiency response. BTS has been shown to have E3 ligase capacity and to play a role in root growth, rhizosphere acidification, and iron reductase activity in response to iron deprivation. To further characterize the function of this protein, we examined the expression pattern of recombinant ProBTS::β-GLUCURONIDASE and found that it is expressed in developing embryos and other reproductive tissues, corresponding with its apparent role in reproductive growth and development. Our findings also indicate that the interactions between BTS and PYE-like (PYEL) basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors occur within the nucleus and are dependent on the presence of the RING domain. We provide evidence that BTS facilitates 26S proteasome-mediated degradation of PYEL proteins in the absence of iron. We also determined that, upon binding iron at the HHE domains, BTS is destabilized and that this destabilization relies on specific residues within the HHE domains. This study reveals an important and unique mechanism for plant iron homeostasis whereby an E3 ubiquitin ligase may posttranslationally control components of the transcriptional regulatory network involved in the iron deficiency response. PMID:25452667

  15. Conservation of lotus and Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix proteins reveals new players in root hair development.

    PubMed

    Karas, Bogumil; Amyot, Lisa; Johansen, Christopher; Sato, Shusei; Tabata, Satoshi; Kawaguchi, Masayoshi; Szczyglowski, Krzysztof

    2009-11-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins constitute a large family of transcriptional regulators in plants. Although they have been shown to play important roles in a wide variety of developmental processes, relatively few have been functionally characterized. Here, we describe the map-based cloning of the Lotus japonicus ROOTHAIRLESS1 (LjRHL1) locus. Deleterious mutations in this locus prevent root hair development, which also aborts root hair-dependent colonization of the host root by nitrogen-fixing bacteria. We show that the LjRHL1 gene encodes a presumed bHLH transcription factor that functions in a nonredundant manner to control root hair development in L. japonicus. Homology search and cross-species complementation experiments defined three members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) bHLH protein family, At2g24260, At4g30980, and At5g58010, as functionally equivalent to LjRHL1. Curiously, At2g24260 and At4g30980 mRNA species accumulate independently from the known positive regulators of root hair cell fate, while all three genes act in a partially redundant manner to regulate root hair development in Arabidopsis. PMID:19675148

  16. Genome-Wide Analysis of Basic/Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Family in Rice and Arabidopsis1[W

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoxing; Duan, Xuepeng; Jiang, Haixiong; Sun, Yujin; Tang, Yuanping; Yuan, Zheng; Guo, Jingkang; Liang, Wanqi; Chen, Liang; Yin, Jingyuan; Ma, Hong; Wang, Jian; Zhang, Dabing

    2006-01-01

    The basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors and their homologs form a large family in plant and animal genomes. They are known to play important roles in the specification of tissue types in animals. On the other hand, few plant bHLH proteins have been studied functionally. Recent completion of whole genome sequences of model plants Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa) allows genome-wide analysis and comparison of the bHLH family in flowering plants. We have identified 167 bHLH genes in the rice genome, and their phylogenetic analysis indicates that they form well-supported clades, which are defined as subfamilies. In addition, sequence analysis of potential DNA-binding activity, the sequence motifs outside the bHLH domain, and the conservation of intron/exon structural patterns further support the evolutionary relationships among these proteins. The genome distribution of rice bHLH genes strongly supports the hypothesis that genome-wide and tandem duplication contributed to the expansion of the bHLH gene family, consistent with the birth-and-death theory of gene family evolution. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that rice bHLH proteins can potentially participate in a variety of combinatorial interactions, endowing them with the capacity to regulate a multitude of transcriptional programs. In addition, similar expression patterns suggest functional conservation between some rice bHLH genes and their close Arabidopsis homologs. PMID:16896230

  17. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and epidermal cell fate determination in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xia; Ma, Ligeng

    2012-01-01

    Cell fate determination is an important process in multicellular organisms. Plant epidermis is a readily-accessible, well-used model for the study of cell fate determination. Our knowledge of cell fate determination is growing steadily due to genetic and molecular analyses of root hairs, trichomes, and stomata, which are derived from the epidermal cells of roots and aerial tissues. Studies have shown that a large number of factors are involved in the establishment of these cell types, especially members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) superfamily, which is an important family of transcription factors. In this mini-review, we focus on the role of bHLH transcription factors in cell fate determination in Arabidopsis. PMID:23073001

  18. The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor PIF5 Acts on Ethylene Biosynthesis and Phytochrome Signaling by Distinct Mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR5 (PIF5), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, interacts specifically with the photoactivated form of phytochrome B (phyB). Here, we report that dark-grown Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings overexpressing PIF5 (PIF5-OX) exhibit exaggerated apical hooks and short h...

  19. Recognition and binding of a helix-loop-helix peptide to carbonic anhydrase occurs via partly folded intermediate structures.

    PubMed

    Lignell, Martin; Becker, Hans-Christian

    2010-02-01

    We have studied the association of a helix-loop-helix peptide scaffold carrying a benzenesulfonamide ligand to carbonic anhydrase using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The helix-loop-helix peptide, developed for biosensing applications, is labeled with the fluorescent probe dansyl, which serves as a polarity-sensitive reporter of the binding event. Using maximum entropy analysis of the fluorescence lifetime of dansyl at 1:1 stoichiometry reveals three characteristic fluorescence lifetime groups, interpreted as differently interacting peptide/protein structures. We characterize these peptide/protein complexes as mostly bound but unfolded, bound and partly folded, and strongly bound and folded. Furthermore, analysis of the fluorescence anisotropy decay resulted in three different dansyl rotational correlation times, namely 0.18, 1.2, and 23 ns. Using the amplitudes of these times, we can correlate the lifetime groups with the corresponding fluorescence anisotropy component. The 23-ns rotational correlation time, which appears with the same amplitude as a 17-ns fluorescence lifetime, shows that the dansyl fluorophore follows the rotational diffusion of carbonic anhydrase when it is a part of the folded peptide/protein complex. A partly folded and partly hydrated interfacial structure is manifested in an 8-ns dansyl fluorescence lifetime and a 1.2-ns rotational correlation time. This structure, we believe, is similar to a molten-globule-like interfacial structure, which allows segmental movement and has a higher degree of solvent exposure of dansyl. Indirect excitation of dansyl on the helix-loop-helix peptide through Förster energy transfer from one or several tryptophans in the carbonic anhydrase shows that the helix-loop-helix scaffold binds to a tryptophan-rich domain of the carbonic anhydrase. We conclude that binding of the peptide to carbonic anhydrase involves a transition from a disordered to an ordered structure of the helix-loop-helix

  20. A genome-wide identification of basic helix-loop-helix motifs in Pediculus humanus corporis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-Hua; Wang, Yong; Zhang, De-Bao; Liu, A-Ke; Yao, Qin; Chen, Ke-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins comprise a large superfamily of transcription factors, which are involved in the regulation of various developmental processes. bHLH family members are widely distributed in various eukaryotes including yeast, fruit fly, zebrafish, mouse, and human. In this study, we identified 55 bHLH motifs encoded in genome sequence of the human body louse, Pediculus humanus corporis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae). Phylogenetic analyses of the identified P. humanus corporis bHLH (PhcbHLH) motifs revealed that there are 23, 11, 9, 1, 10, and 1 member(s) in groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively. Examination to GenBank annotations of the 55 PhcbHLH members indicated that 29 PhcbHLH proteins were annotated in consistence with our analytical result, 8 were annotated different with our analytical result, 12 were merely annotated as hypothetical protein, and the rest 6 were not deposited in GenBank. A comparison on insect bHLH gene composition revealed that human body louse possibly has more hairy and E(spl) genes than other insect species. Because hairy and E(spl) genes have been found to negatively regulate the differentiation of insect preneural cells, it is suggested that the existence of additional hairy and E(spl) genes in human body louse is probably the consequence of its long period adaptation to the relatively dark and stable environment. These data provide good references for further studies on regulatory functions of bHLH proteins in the growth and development of human body louse. PMID:25434030

  1. Macrocyclization and labeling of helix-loop-helix peptide with intramolecular bis-thioether linkage.

    PubMed

    Nishihara, Toshio; Kitada, Hidekazu; Fujiwara, Daisuke; Fujii, Ikuo

    2016-11-01

    Conformationally constrained peptides have been developed as an inhibitor for protein-protein interactions (PPIs), and we have de novo designed cyclized helix-loop-helix (cHLH) peptide with a disulfide bond consisting of 40 amino acids to generate molecular-targeting peptides. However, synthesis of long peptides has sometimes resulted in low yield according to the respective amino acid sequences. Here we developed a method for efficient synthesis and labeling for cHLH peptides. First, we synthesized two peptide fragments and connected them by the copper-mediated alkyne and azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Cyclization was performed by bis-thioether linkage using 1,3-dibromomethyl-5-propargyloxybenzene, and subsequently, the cHLH peptide was labeled with an azide-labeled probe. Finally, we designed and synthesized a peptide inhibitor for the p53-HDM2 interaction using a structure-guided design and successfully labeled it with a fluorescent probe or a functional peptide, respectively, by click chemistry. This macrocyclization and labeling method for cHLH peptide would facilitate the discovery of de novo bioactive ligands and therapeutic leads. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 415-421, 2016. PMID:26917088

  2. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene family phylogenetics and nomenclature.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Michael K; Rawls, Alan; Wilson-Rawls, Jeanne; Roalson, Eric H

    2010-07-01

    A phylogenetic analysis of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene superfamily was performed using seven different species (human, mouse, rat, worm, fly, yeast, and plant Arabidopsis) and involving over 600 bHLH genes (Stevens et al., 2008). All bHLH genes were identified in the genomes of the various species, including expressed sequence tags, and the entire coding sequence was used in the analysis. Nearly 15% of the gene family has been updated or added since the original publication. A super-tree involving six clades and all structural relationships was established and is now presented for four of the species. The wealth of functional data available for members of the bHLH gene superfamily provides us with the opportunity to use this exhaustive phylogenetic tree to predict potential functions of uncharacterized members of the family. This phylogenetic and genomic analysis of the bHLH gene family has revealed unique elements of the evolution and functional relationships of the different genes in the bHLH gene family. PMID:20219281

  3. Origin and Diversification of Basic-Helix-Loop-Helix Proteins in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Pires, Nuno; Dolan, Liam

    2010-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a class of transcription factors found throughout eukaryotic organisms. Classification of the complete sets of bHLH proteins in the sequenced genomes of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa (rice) has defined the diversity of these proteins among flowering plants. However, the evolutionary relationships of different plant bHLH groups and the diversity of bHLH proteins in more ancestral groups of plants are currently unknown. In this study, we use whole-genome sequences from nine species of land plants and algae to define the relationships between these proteins in plants. We show that few (less than 5) bHLH proteins are encoded in the genomes of chlorophytes and red algae. In contrast, many bHLH proteins (100–170) are encoded in the genomes of land plants (embryophytes). Phylogenetic analyses suggest that plant bHLH proteins are monophyletic and constitute 26 subfamilies. Twenty of these subfamilies existed in the common ancestors of extant mosses and vascular plants, whereas six further subfamilies evolved among the vascular plants. In addition to the conserved bHLH domains, most subfamilies are characterized by the presence of highly conserved short amino acid motifs. We conclude that much of the diversity of plant bHLH proteins was established in early land plants, over 440 million years ago. PMID:19942615

  4. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human nescient helix-loop-helix 2 (NHLH2) gene reduce mRNA stability and DNA binding.

    PubMed

    Al Rayyan, Numan; Wankhade, Umesh D; Bush, Korie; Good, Deborah J

    2013-01-01

    Nescient helix-loop-helix-2 (NHLH2) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, which has been implicated, using mouse knockouts, in adult body weight regulation and fertility. A scan of the known single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NHLH2 gene revealed one in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR), which lies within an AUUUA RNA stability motif. A second SNP is nonsynonymous within the coding region of NHLH2, and was found in a genome-wide association study for obesity. Both of these SNPs were examined for their effect on NLHL2 by creating mouse mimics and examining mRNA stability, and protein function in mouse hypothalamic cell lines. The 3'UTR SNP causes increased instability and, when the SNP-containing Nhlh2 3'UTR is attached to luciferase mRNA, reduced protein levels in cells. The nonsynonymous SNP at position 83 in the protein changes an alanine residue, conserved in NHLH2 orthologs through the Drosophila sp. to a proline residue. This change affects migration of the protein on an SDS-PAGE gel, and appears to alter secondary structure of the protein, as predicted using in silico methods. These results provide functional information on two rare human SNPs in the NHLH2 gene. One of these has been linked to human obese phenotypes, while the other is present in a relatively high proportion of individuals. Given their effects on NHLH2 protein levels, both SNPs deserve further analysis in whether they are causative and/or additive for human body weight and fertility phenotypes. PMID:23026212

  5. The Drosophila dysfusion basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS gene controls tracheal fusion and levels of the trachealess bHLH-PAS protein.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lan; Crews, Stephen T

    2003-08-01

    The development of the mature insect trachea requires a complex series of cellular events, including tracheal cell specification, cell migration, tubule branching, and tubule fusion. Here we describe the identification of the Drosophila melanogaster dysfusion gene, which encodes a novel basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS protein conserved between Caenorhabditis elegans, insects, and humans, and controls tracheal fusion events. The Dysfusion protein functions as a heterodimer with the Tango bHLH-PAS protein in vivo to form a putative DNA-binding complex. The dysfusion gene is expressed in a variety of embryonic cell types, including tracheal-fusion, leading-edge, foregut atrium cells, nervous system, hindgut, and anal pad cells. RNAi experiments indicate that dysfusion is required for dorsal branch, lateral trunk, and ganglionic branch fusion but not for fusion of the dorsal trunk. The escargot gene, which is also expressed in fusion cells and is required for tracheal fusion, precedes dysfusion expression. Analysis of escargot mutants indicates a complex pattern of dysfusion regulation, such that dysfusion expression is dependent on escargot in the dorsal and ganglionic branches but not the dorsal trunk. Early in tracheal development, the Trachealess bHLH-PAS protein is present at uniformly high levels in all tracheal cells, but since the levels of Dysfusion rise in wild-type fusion cells, the levels of Trachealess in fusion cells decline. The downregulation of Trachealess is dependent on dysfusion function. These results suggest the possibility that competitive interactions between basic helix-loop-helix-PAS proteins (Dysfusion, Trachealess, and possibly Similar) may be important for the proper development of the trachea. PMID:12897136

  6. The Rice Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor TDR INTERACTING PROTEIN2 Is a Central Switch in Early Anther Development[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Zhenzhen; Yu, Jing; Cheng, Xiaowei; Zong, Xu; Xu, Jie; Chen, Mingjiao; Li, Zongyun; Zhang, Dabing; Liang, Wanqi

    2014-01-01

    In male reproductive development in plants, meristemoid precursor cells possessing transient, stem cell–like features undergo cell divisions and differentiation to produce the anther, the male reproductive organ. The anther contains centrally positioned microsporocytes surrounded by four distinct layers of wall: the epidermis, endothecium, middle layer, and tapetum. Here, we report that the rice (Oryza sativa) basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein TDR INTERACTING PROTEIN2 (TIP2) functions as a crucial switch in the meristemoid transition and differentiation during early anther development. The tip2 mutants display undifferentiated inner three anther wall layers and abort tapetal programmed cell death, causing complete male sterility. TIP2 has two paralogs in rice, TDR and EAT1, which are key regulators of tapetal programmed cell death. We revealed that TIP2 acts upstream of TDR and EAT1 and directly regulates the expression of TDR and EAT1. In addition, TIP2 can interact with TDR, indicating a role of TIP2 in later anther development. Our findings suggest that the bHLH proteins TIP2, TDR, and EAT1 play a central role in regulating differentiation, morphogenesis, and degradation of anther somatic cell layers, highlighting the role of paralogous bHLH proteins in regulating distinct steps of plant cell–type determination. PMID:24755456

  7. The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor E47 Reprograms Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells to a Quiescent Acinar State With Reduced Tumorigenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Kim, SangWun; Lahmy, Reyhaneh; Riha, Chelsea; Yang, Challeng; Jakubison, Brad L.; van Niekerk, Jaco; Staub, Claudio; Wu, Yifan; Gates, Keith; Dong, Duc Si; Konieczny, Stephen F.; Itkin-Ansari, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) initiates from quiescent acinar cells that attain a Kras mutation, lose signaling from basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, undergo acinar-ductal metaplasia, and rapidly acquire increased growth potential. We queried whether PDA cells can be reprogrammed to revert to their original quiescent acinar cell state by shifting key transcription programs. Methods Human PDA cell lines were engineered to express an inducible form of the bHLH protein E47. Gene expression, growth, and functional studies were investigated using microarray, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, immunoblots, immunohistochemistry, small interfering RNA, chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses, and cell transplantation into mice. Results In human PDA cells, E47 activity triggers stable G0/G1 arrest, which requires the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 and the stress response protein TP53INP1. Concurrently, E47 induces high level expression of acinar digestive enzymes and feed forward activation of the acinar maturation network regulated by the bHLH factor MIST1. Moreover, induction of E47 in human PDA cells in vitro is sufficient to inhibit tumorigenesis. Conclusions Human PDA cells retain a high degree of plasticity, which can be exploited to induce a quiescent acinar cell state with reduced tumorigenic potential. Moreover, bHLH activity is a critical node coordinately regulating human PDA cell growth versus cell fate. PMID:25894862

  8. RETARDED GROWTH OF EMBRYO1, a New Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Protein, Expresses in Endosperm to Control Embryo Growth1[W

    PubMed Central

    Kondou, Youichi; Nakazawa, Miki; Kawashima, Mika; Ichikawa, Takanari; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Kumiko; Ishikawa, Akie; Koshi, Tomoko; Matsui, Ryo; Muto, Shu; Matsui, Minami

    2008-01-01

    We have isolated two dominant mutants from screening approximately 50,000 RIKEN activation-tagging lines that have short inflorescence internodes. The activation T-DNAs were inserted near a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene and expression of this gene was increased in the mutant lines. Overexpression of this bHLH gene produced the original mutant phenotype, indicating it was responsible for the mutants. Specific expression was observed during seed development. The loss-of-function mutation of the RETARDED GROWTH OF EMBRYO1 (RGE1) gene caused small and shriveled seeds. The embryo of the loss-of-function mutant showed retarded growth after the heart stage although abnormal morphogenesis and pattern formation of the embryo and endosperm was not observed. We named this bHLH gene RGE1. RGE1 expression was determined in endosperm cells using the β-glucuronidase reporter gene and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Microarray and real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed specific down-regulation of putative GDSL motif lipase genes in the rge1-1 mutant, indicating possible involvement of these genes in seed morphology. These data suggest that RGE1 expression in the endosperm at the heart stage of embryo development plays an important role in controlling embryo growth. PMID:18567831

  9. Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor from wild rice (OrbHLH2) improves tolerance to salt- and osmotic stress in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Li, Fei; Wang, Jin-Lan; Ma, Yun; Chong, Kang; Xu, Yun-yuan

    2009-08-15

    Salt stress adversely affects plant growth and development. Some plants reduce the damage of high-salt stress by expressing a series of salt-responsive genes. Studies of the molecular mechanism of the salt-stress response have focused on the characterization of components involved in signal perception and transduction. In the present work, we cloned and characterized a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) encoding gene, OrbHLH2, from wild rice (Oryza rufipogon), which encodes a homologue protein of ICE1 in Arabidopsis. OrbHLH2 protein localized in the nucleus. Overexpression of OrbHLH2 in Arabidopsis conferred increased tolerance to salt and osmotic stress, and the stress-responsive genes DREB1A/CBF3, RD29A, COR15A and KIN1 were upregulated in transgenic plants. Abscisic acid (ABA) treatment showed a similar effect on the seed germination or transcriptional expression of stress-responsive genes in both wild type and OrbHLH2-overexpressed plants, which implies that OrbHLH2 does not depend on ABA in responding to salt stress. OrbHLH2 may function as a transcription factor and positively regulate salt-stress signals independent of ABA in Arabidopsis, which provides some useful data for improving salt tolerance in crops. PMID:19324458

  10. Endosperm breakdown in Arabidopsis requires heterodimers of the basic helix-loop-helix proteins ZHOUPI and INDUCER OF CBP EXPRESSION 1.

    PubMed

    Denay, Grégoire; Creff, Audrey; Moussu, Steven; Wagnon, Pauline; Thévenin, Johanne; Gérentes, Marie-France; Chambrier, Pierre; Dubreucq, Bertrand; Ingram, Gwyneth

    2014-03-01

    In Arabidopsis seeds, embryo growth is coordinated with endosperm breakdown. Mutants in the endosperm-specific gene ZHOUPI (ZOU), which encodes a unique basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, have an abnormal endosperm that persists throughout seed development, significantly impeding embryo growth. Here we show that loss of function of the bHLH-encoding gene INDUCER OF CBP EXPRESSION 1 (ICE1) causes an identical endosperm persistence phenotype. We show that ZOU and ICE1 are co-expressed in the endosperm and interact in yeast via their bHLH domains. We show both genetically and in a heterologous plant system that, despite the fact that both ZOU and ICE1 can form homodimers in yeast, their role in endosperm breakdown requires their heterodimerization. Consistent with this conclusion, we confirm that ZOU and ICE1 regulate the expression of common target genes in the developing endosperm. Finally, we show that heterodimerization of ZOU and ICE1 is likely to be necessary for their binding to specific targets, rather than for their nuclear localization in the endosperm. By comparing our results with paradigms of bHLH function and evolution in animal systems we propose that the ZOU/ICE1 complex might have ancient origins, acquiring novel megagametophyte-specific functions in heterosporous land plants that were conserved in the angiosperm endosperm. PMID:24553285

  11. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor HEBAlt is expressed in pro-T cells and enhances the generation of T cell precursors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Duncheng; Claus, Carol L; Vaccarelli, Giovanna; Braunstein, Marsela; Schmitt, Thomas M; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan Carlos; Rothenberg, Ellen V; Anderson, Michele K

    2006-07-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors HEB and E2A are critical mediators of gene regulation during lymphocyte development. We have cloned a new transcription factor, called HEBAlt, from a pro-T cell cDNA library. HEBAlt is generated by alternative transcriptional initiation and splicing from the HEB gene locus, which also encodes the previously characterized E box protein HEBCan. HEBAlt contains a unique N-terminal coding exon (the Alt domain) that replaces the first transactivation domain of HEBCan. Downstream of the Alt domain, HEBAlt is identical to HEBCan, including the DNA binding domain. HEBAlt is induced in early thymocyte precursors and down-regulated permanently at the double negative to double positive (DP) transition, whereas HEBCan mRNA expression peaks at the DP stage of thymocyte development. HEBAlt mRNA is up-regulated synergistically by a combination of HEBCan activity and Delta-Notch signaling. Retroviral transduction of HEBAlt or HEBCan into hemopoietic stem cells followed by OP9-DL1 coculture revealed that HEBAlt-transduced precursors generated more early T lineage precursors and more DP pre-T cells than control transduced cells. By contrast, HEBCan-transduced cells that maintained high level expression of the HEBCan transgene were inhibited in expansion and progression through T cell development. HEB(-/-) fetal liver precursors transduced with HEBAlt were rescued from delayed T cell specification, but HEBCan-transduced HEB(-/-) precursors were not. Therefore, HEBAlt and HEBCan are functionally distinct transcription factors, and HEBAlt is specifically required for the efficient generation of early T cell precursors. PMID:16785505

  12. A basic-region helix-loop-helix protein-encoding gene (devR) involved in the development of Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Tüncher, André; Reinke, Hans; Martic, Goran; Caruso, Maria Louise; Brakhage, Axel A

    2004-04-01

    Basic-region helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins form an interesting class of eukaryotic transcription factors often involved in developmental processes. Here, a so far unknown bHLH protein-encoding gene of the filamentous ascomycete Aspergillus nidulans was isolated and designated devR for regulator of development. Deletion of devR revealed that the gene is non-essential for vegetative growth. However, the deletion mutant produced wrinkled colonies, a yellow pigment and did not form conidia on minimal agar plates. Conidiophore development was initiated normally, and colonies produced conidiophores with metulae and phialides. However, the phialides continued to grow filamentously and produced a second conidiophore with a vesicle at its end. The addition of KCl (0.6 M) to the medium suppressed the knock-out phenotype. The DeltadevR phenotype resembled that of a mutation in the tcsA gene encoding a histidine kinase domain and a response regulator domain. Here, we generated a tcsA deletion mutant. In a DeltatcsA strain, a DevR-Egfp protein fusion was detected in the cytoplasm, whereas in the wild type, the protein fusion was exclusively located in the nuclei, indicating that TcsA is required for nuclear localization of DevR. devR mRNA steady-state levels were similar in sporulating and vegetatively growing mycelia, and independent of a functional brlA gene. Moreover, under all conditions tested, self-crossing of the DeltadevR mutant strain was never observed. Taken together, devR encodes a bHLH regulatory protein that is part of the tcsA signal transduction network and required for development under standard growth conditions. PMID:15049823

  13. Net (ERP/SAP2) one of the Ras-inducible TCFs, has a novel inhibitory domain with resemblance to the helix-loop-helix motif.

    PubMed

    Maira, S M; Wurtz, J M; Wasylyk, B

    1996-11-01

    The three ternary complex factors (TCFs), Net (ERP/ SAP-2), ELK-1 and SAP-1, are highly related ets oncogene family members that participate in the response of the cell to Ras and growth signals. Understanding the different roles of these factors will provide insights into how the signals result in coordinate regulation of the cell. We show that Net inhibits transcription under basal conditions, in which SAP-1a is inactive and ELK-1 stimulates. Repression is mediated by the NID, the Net Inhibitory Domain of about 50 amino acids, which autoregulates the Net protein and also inhibits when it is isolated in a heterologous fusion protein. Net is particularly sensitive to Ras activation. Ras activates Net through the C-domain, which is conserved between the three TCFs, and the NID is an efficient inhibitor of Ras activation. The NID, as well as more C-terminal sequences, inhibit DNA binding. Net is more refractory to DNA binding than the other TCFs, possibly due to the presence of multiple inhibitory elements. The NID may adopt a helix-loop-helix (HLH) structure, as evidenced by homology to other HLH motifs, structure predictions, model building and mutagenesis of critical residues. The sequence resemblance with myogenic factors suggested that Net may form complexes with the same partners. Indeed, we found that Net can interact in vivo with the basic HLH factor, E47. We propose that Net is regulated at the level of its latent DNA-binding activity by protein interactions and/or phosphorylation. Net may form complexes with HLH proteins as well as SRF on specific promotor sequences. The identification of the novel inhibitory domain provides a new inroad into exploring the different roles of the ternary complex factors in growth control and transformation. PMID:8918463

  14. The poplar basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor BEE3 – Like gene affects biomass production by enhancing proliferation of xylem cells in poplar

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, Seol Ah Choi, Young-Im Cho, Jin-Seong Lee, Hyoshin

    2015-06-19

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) play important roles in many aspects of plant growth and development, including regulation of vascular cambium activities and cell elongation. BR-induced BEE3 (brassinosteroid enhanced expression 3) is required for a proper BR response. Here, we identified a poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) BEE3-like gene, PagBEE3L, encoding a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-type transcription factor. Expression of PagBEE3L was induced by brassinolide (BL). Transcripts of PagBEE3L were mainly detected in stems, with the internode having a low level of transcription and the node having a relatively higher level. The function of the PagBEE3L gene was investigated through phenotypic analyses with PagBEE3L-overexpressing (ox) transgenic lines. This work particularly focused on a potential role of PagBEE3L in stem growth and development of polar. The PagBEE3L-ox poplar showed thicker and longer stems than wild-type plants. The xylem cells from the stems of PagBEE3L-ox plants revealed remarkably enhanced proliferation, resulting in an earlier thickening growth than wild-type plants. Therefore, this work suggests that xylem development of poplar is accelerated in PagBEE3L-ox plants and PagBEE3L plays a role in stem growth by increasing the proliferation of xylem cells to promote the initial thickening growth of poplar stems. - Highlights: • We identify the BEE3-like gene form hybrid poplar (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa). • We examine effects of overexpression of PagBEE3L on growth in poplar. • We found that 35S:BEE3L transgenic plants showed more rapid growth than wild-type plants. • BEE3L protein plays an important role in the development of plant stem.

  15. A novel basic helix-loop-helix protein is expressed in muscle attachment sites of the Drosophila epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Armand, P; Knapp, A C; Hirsch, A J; Wieschaus, E F; Cole, M D

    1994-01-01

    We have found that a novel basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein is expressed almost exclusively in the epidermal attachments sites for the somatic muscles of Drosophila melanogaster. A Drosophila cDNA library was screened with radioactively labeled E12 protein, which can dimerize with many HLH proteins. One clone that emerged from this screen encoded a previously unknown protein of 360 amino acids, named delilah, that contains both basic and HLH domains, similar to a group of cellular transcription factors implicated in cell type determination. Delilah protein formed heterodimers with E12 that bind to the muscle creatine kinase promoter. In situ hybridization with the delilah cDNA localized the expression of the gene to a subset of cells in the epidermis which form a distinct pattern involving both the segmental boundaries and intrasegmental clusters. This pattern was coincident with the known sites of attachment of the somatic muscles to tendon cells in the epidermis. delilah expression persists in snail mutant embryos which lack mesoderm, indicating that expression of the gene was not induced by attachment of the underlying muscles. The similarity of this gene to other bHLH genes suggests that it plays an important role in the differentiation of epidermal cells into muscle attachment sites. Images PMID:8196652

  16. Selective utilization of basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper proteins at the immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer.

    PubMed

    Carter, R S; Ordentlich, P; Kadesch, T

    1997-01-01

    The microE3 E box within the immunoglobulin heavy-chain (IgH) enhancer binds several proteins of the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLHzip) class, including TFE3, USF1, and Max. Both TFE3 and USF have been described as transcriptional activators, and so we investigated their possible roles in activating the IgH enhancer in vivo. Although TFE3 activated various enhancer-based reporters, both USF1 and Max effectively inhibited transcription. Inhibition by USF correlated with the lack of a strong activation domain and was the result of the protein neutralizing the microE3 site. The effects of dominant-negative derivatives of TFE3 and USF1 confirmed that TFE3, or a TFE3-like protein, is the primary cellular bHLHzip protein that activates the IgH enhancer. In addition to providing a physiological role for TFE3, our results call into question the traditional view of USF1 as an obligate transcriptional activator. PMID:8972181

  17. GLABRA2 Directly Suppresses Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Genes with Diverse Functions in Root Hair Development

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qing; Ohashi, Yohei; Kato, Mariko; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Gu, Hongya; Qu, Li-Jia; Aoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana GLABRA2 (GL2) gene encodes a transcription factor involved in the cell differentiation of various epidermal tissues. During root hair pattern formation, GL2 suppresses root hair development in non-hair cells, acting as a node between the gene regulatory networks for cell fate determination and cell differentiation. Despite the importance of GL2 function, its molecular basis remains obscure because the GL2 target genes leading to the network for cell differentiation are unknown. We identified five basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor genes—ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE6 (RHD6), RHD6-LIKE1 (RSL1), RSL2, LjRHL1-LIKE1 (LRL1), and LRL2—as GL2 direct targets using transcriptional and post-translational induction systems. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed GL2 binding to upstream regions of these genes in planta. Reporter gene analyses showed that these genes are expressed in various stages of root hair development and are suppressed by GL2 in non-hair cells. GL2 promoter-driven green fluorescent protein fusions of LRL1 and LRL2, but not those of the other bHLH proteins, conferred root hair development on non-hair cells. These results indicate that GL2 directly suppresses bHLH genes with diverse functions in root hair development. PMID:26486447

  18. Phylogeny, Functional Annotation, and Protein Interaction Network Analyses of the Xenopus tropicalis Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Deyu

    2013-01-01

    The previous survey identified 70 basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins, but it was proved to be incomplete, and the functional information and regulatory networks of frog bHLH transcription factors were not fully known. Therefore, we conducted an updated genome-wide survey in the Xenopus tropicalis genome project databases and identified 105 bHLH sequences. Among the retrieved 105 sequences, phylogenetic analyses revealed that 103 bHLH proteins belonged to 43 families or subfamilies with 46, 26, 11, 3, 15, and 4 members in the corresponding supergroups. Next, gene ontology (GO) enrichment analyses showed 65 significant GO annotations of biological processes and molecular functions and KEGG pathways counted in frequency. To explore the functional pathways, regulatory gene networks, and/or related gene groups coding for Xenopus tropicalis bHLH proteins, the identified bHLH genes were put into the databases KOBAS and STRING to get the signaling information of pathways and protein interaction networks according to available public databases and known protein interactions. From the genome annotation and pathway analysis using KOBAS, we identified 16 pathways in the Xenopus tropicalis genome. From the STRING interaction analysis, 68 hub proteins were identified, and many hub proteins created a tight network or a functional module within the protein families. PMID:24312906

  19. Enhancer of splitD, a dominant mutation of Drosophila, and its use in the study of functional domains of a helix-loop-helix protein.

    PubMed Central

    Tietze, K; Oellers, N; Knust, E

    1992-01-01

    Helix-loop-helix proteins play important roles in developmental processes, such as myogenesis, neurogenesis, and sex determination. The gene Enhancer of split [E(spl)] of Drosophila, a member of a gene complex that is involved in early neurogenesis, encodes a protein with a basic domain and a helix-loop-helix motif. We took advantage of a dominant mutation of this gene, E(spl)D, to define in vivo structural features of this protein for proper function. The mutation renders the otherwise recessive eye phenotype of spl dominant. By germ-line transformation of different in vitro mutagenized versions of the E(spl) gene, we could demonstrate that the basic domain of this helix-loop-helix protein is functional and necessary for expression of the dominant phenotype. These results are supported by in vitro DNA-binding assays, which showed that the basic domain is in fact necessary for DNA binding, despite the presence of a proline residue. Furthermore, we could show that the dominant enhancement of spl is caused by truncation of the E(SPL)D protein in combination with deletion of a putative regulatory element. Images PMID:1631102

  20. A Novel Molecular Recognition Motif Necessary for Targeting Photoactivated Phytochrome Signaling to Specific Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription FactorsW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Khanna, Rajnish; Huq, Enamul; Kikis, Elise A.; Al-Sady, Bassem; Lanzatella, Christina; Quail, Peter H.

    2004-01-01

    The phytochrome (phy) family of sensory photoreceptors (phyA to phyE) in Arabidopsis thaliana control plant developmental transitions in response to informational light signals throughout the life cycle. The photoactivated conformer of the photoreceptor Pfr has been shown to translocate into the nucleus where it induces changes in gene expression by an unknown mechanism. Here, we have identified two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, designated PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR5 (PIF5) and PIF6, which interact specifically with the Pfr form of phyB. These two factors cluster tightly with PIF3 and two other phy-interacting bHLH proteins in a phylogenetic subfamily within the large Arabidopsis bHLH (AtbHLH) family. We have identified a novel sequence motif (designated the active phytochrome binding [APB] motif) that is conserved in these phy-interacting AtbHLHs but not in other noninteractors. Using the isolated domain and site-directed mutagenesis, we have shown that this motif is both necessary and sufficient for binding to phyB. Transgenic expression of the native APB-containing AtbHLH protein, PIF4, in a pif4 null mutant, rescued the photoresponse defect in this mutant, whereas mutated PIF4 constructs with site-directed substitutions in conserved APB residues did not. These data indicate that the APB motif is necessary for PIF4 function in light-regulated seedling development and suggest that conformer-specific binding of phyB to PIF4 via the APB motif is necessary for this function in vivo. Binding assays with the isolated APB domain detected interaction with phyB, but none of the other four Arabidopsis phys. Collectively, the data suggest that the APB domain provides a phyB-specific recognition module within the AtbHLH family, thereby conferring photoreceptor target specificity on a subset of these transcription factors and, thus, the potential for selective signal channeling to segments of the transcriptional network. PMID:15486100

  1. The Basic/Helix-Loop-Helix Protein Family in Gossypium: Reference Genes and Their Evolution during Tetraploidization

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qian; Liu, Hou-Sheng; Yao, Dan; Li, Xin; Chen, Han; Dou, Yang; Wang, Yi; Pei, Yan; Xiao, Yue-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families and play important roles in diverse cellular and molecular processes. Comprehensive analyses of the composition and evolution of the bHLH family in cotton are essential to elucidate their functions and the molecular basis of cotton development. By searching bHLH homologous genes in sequenced diploid cotton genomes (Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum), a set of cotton bHLH reference genes containing 289 paralogs were identified and named as GobHLH001-289. Based on their phylogenetic relationships, these cotton bHLH proteins were clustered into 27 subfamilies. Compared to those in Arabidopsis and cacao, cotton bHLH proteins generally increased in number, but unevenly in different subfamilies. To further uncover evolutionary changes of bHLH genes during tetraploidization of cotton, all genes of S5a and S5b subfamilies in upland cotton and its diploid progenitors were cloned and compared, and their transcript profiles were determined in upland cotton. A total of 10 genes of S5a and S5b subfamilies (doubled from A- and D-genome progenitors) maintained in tetraploid cottons. The major sequence changes in upland cotton included a 15-bp in-frame deletion in GhbHLH130D and a long terminal repeat retrotransposon inserted in GhbHLH062A, which eliminated GhbHLH062A expression in various tissues. The S5a and S5b bHLH genes of A and D genomes (except GobHLH062) showed similar transcription patterns in various tissues including roots, stems, leaves, petals, ovules, and fibers, while the A- and D-genome genes of GobHLH110 and GobHLH130 displayed clearly different transcript profiles during fiber development. In total, this study represented a genome-wide analysis of cotton bHLH family, and revealed significant changes in sequence and expression of these genes in tetraploid cottons, which paved the way for further functional analyses of bHLH genes in the cotton genus. PMID:25992947

  2. The Basic/Helix-Loop-Helix Protein Family in Gossypium: Reference Genes and Their Evolution during Tetraploidization.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qian; Liu, Hou-Sheng; Yao, Dan; Li, Xin; Chen, Han; Dou, Yang; Wang, Yi; Pei, Yan; Xiao, Yue-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families and play important roles in diverse cellular and molecular processes. Comprehensive analyses of the composition and evolution of the bHLH family in cotton are essential to elucidate their functions and the molecular basis of cotton development. By searching bHLH homologous genes in sequenced diploid cotton genomes (Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum), a set of cotton bHLH reference genes containing 289 paralogs were identified and named as GobHLH001-289. Based on their phylogenetic relationships, these cotton bHLH proteins were clustered into 27 subfamilies. Compared to those in Arabidopsis and cacao, cotton bHLH proteins generally increased in number, but unevenly in different subfamilies. To further uncover evolutionary changes of bHLH genes during tetraploidization of cotton, all genes of S5a and S5b subfamilies in upland cotton and its diploid progenitors were cloned and compared, and their transcript profiles were determined in upland cotton. A total of 10 genes of S5a and S5b subfamilies (doubled from A- and D-genome progenitors) maintained in tetraploid cottons. The major sequence changes in upland cotton included a 15-bp in-frame deletion in GhbHLH130D and a long terminal repeat retrotransposon inserted in GhbHLH062A, which eliminated GhbHLH062A expression in various tissues. The S5a and S5b bHLH genes of A and D genomes (except GobHLH062) showed similar transcription patterns in various tissues including roots, stems, leaves, petals, ovules, and fibers, while the A- and D-genome genes of GobHLH110 and GobHLH130 displayed clearly different transcript profiles during fiber development. In total, this study represented a genome-wide analysis of cotton bHLH family, and revealed significant changes in sequence and expression of these genes in tetraploid cottons, which paved the way for further functional analyses of bHLH genes in the cotton genus. PMID:25992947

  3. TCFL4: a gene at 17q21.1 encoding a putative basic helix-loop-helix leucine-zipper transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Bjerknes, M; Cheng, H

    1996-11-28

    TCFL4 (transcription factor like 4) is the HGMW-approved symbol for the gene of a widely expressed putative basic helix-loop-helix leucine-zipper (bHLH-zip) transcription factor which is located 3' to HSD17B1 (17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase gene) at 17q21.1, centromeric to the BRCA1 (a gene implicated in familial breast cancer) locus. We report the human gene structure and the murine cDNA sequence of two variants, about 1.5 and 2.2 kb in size. The deduced protein is highly conserved between mouse and man. PMID:8973301

  4. The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor MYC2 Directly Represses PLETHORA Expression during Jasmonate-Mediated Modulation of the Root Stem Cell Niche in Arabidopsis[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Sun, Jiaqiang; Zhai, Qingzhe; Zhou, Wenkun; Qi, Linlin; Xu, Li; Wang, Bao; Chen, Rong; Jiang, Hongling; Qi, Jing; Li, Xugang; Palme, Klaus; Li, Chuanyou

    2011-01-01

    The root stem cell niche, which in the Arabidopsis thaliana root meristem is an area of four mitotically inactive quiescent cells (QCs) and the surrounding mitotically active stem cells, is critical for root development and growth. We report here that during jasmonate-induced inhibition of primary root growth, jasmonate reduces root meristem activity and leads to irregular QC division and columella stem cell differentiation. Consistently, jasmonate reduces the expression levels of the AP2-domain transcription factors PLETHORA1 (PLT1) and PLT2, which form a developmentally instructive protein gradient and mediate auxin-induced regulation of stem cell niche maintenance. Not surprisingly, the effects of jasmonate on root stem cell niche maintenance and PLT expression require the functioning of MYC2/JASMONATE INSENSITIVE1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that involves versatile aspects of jasmonate-regulated gene expression. Gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments reveal that MYC2 directly binds the promoters of PLT1 and PLT2 and represses their expression. We propose that MYC2-mediated repression of PLT expression integrates jasmonate action into the auxin pathway in regulating root meristem activity and stem cell niche maintenance. This study illustrates a molecular framework for jasmonate-induced inhibition of root growth through interaction with the growth regulator auxin. PMID:21954460

  5. Peptide and metal ion-dependent association of isolated helix-loop-helix calcium binding domains: studies of thrombic fragments of calmodulin.

    PubMed Central

    Brokx, R. D.; Vogel, H. J.

    2000-01-01

    Calmodulin (CaM), the ubiquitous, eukaryotic, bilobal calcium-binding regulatory protein, has been cleaved by thrombin to create two fragments. TM1 (1-106) and TM2 (107-148). NMR and CD results indicate that TMI and TM2 can associate in the presence of Ca2+ to form a complex similar to native CaM, even though the cleavage site is not in the linker region between two helix-loop-helix domains, but rather within an alpha-helix. Cadmium-113 NMR results show that this complex has enhanced metal-ion binding properties when compared to either TM1 or TM2 alone. This complex can bind several CaM-binding target peptides, as shown by gel bandshift assays, circular dichroism spectra, and 13C NMR spectra of biosynthetically methyl-13C-Met-labeled TM1 and TM2; moreover, gel bandshift assays show that the addition of a target peptide strengthens the interactions between TM1 and TM2 and increases the stability of the complex. Cadmium-113 NMR spectra indicate that the TM1:TM2 complex can also bind the antipsychotic drug trifluoperazine. However, in contrast to CaM:peptide complexes, the TM1:TM2:peptide complexes are disrupted by 4 M urea; moreover, TM1 and TM2 in combination are unable to activate CaM-dependent enzymes. This suggests that TM1:TM2 mixtures cannot bind target molecules as tightly as intact CaM, or perhaps that binding occurs but additional interactions with the target enzymes that are necessary for proper activation are perturbed by the proteolytic cleavage. The results presented here reflect the importance of the existence of helix-loop-helix Ca2+-binding domains in pairs in proteins such as CaM, and extend the understanding of the association of such domains in this class of proteins in general. PMID:10850806

  6. Dynamic Antagonism between Phytochromes and PIF Family Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Factors Induces Selective Reciprocal Responses to Light and Shade in a Rapidly Responsive Transcriptional Network in Arabidopsis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants respond to shade-modulated light signals via phytochrome (phy)-induced adaptive changes, termed shade avoidance. To examine the roles of Phytochrome-Interacting basic helix-loop-helix Factors, PIF1, 3, 4, and 5, in relaying such signals to the transcriptional network, we compared the shade-re...

  7. A Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor, PtrbHLH, of Poncirus trifoliata Confers Cold Tolerance and Modulates Peroxidase-Mediated Scavenging of Hydrogen Peroxide1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao-San; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Qian; Liu, Ji-Hong

    2013-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are involved in a variety of physiological processes. However, plant bHLHs functioning in cold tolerance and the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we report the identification and functional characterization of PtrbHLH isolated from trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata). The transcript levels of PtrbHLH were up-regulated under various abiotic stresses, particularly cold. PtrbHLH was localized in the nucleus with transactivation activity. Overexpression of PtrbHLH in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) or lemon (Citrus limon) conferred enhanced tolerance to cold under chilling or freezing temperatures, whereas down-regulation of PtrbHLH in trifoliate orange by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in elevated cold sensitivity. A range of stress-responsive genes was up-regulated or down-regulated in the transgenic lemon. Of special note, several peroxidase (POD) genes were induced after cold treatment. Compared with the wild type, POD activity was increased in the overexpression plants but decreased in the RNAi plants, which was inversely correlated with the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels in the tested lines. Treatment of the transgenic tobacco plants with POD inhibitors elevated the H2O2 levels and greatly compromised their cold tolerance, while exogenous replenishment of POD enhanced cold tolerance of the RNAi line. In addition, transgenic tobacco and lemon plants were more tolerant to oxidative stresses. Yeast one-hybrid assay and transient expression analysis demonstrated that PtrbHLH could bind to the E-box elements in the promoter region of a POD gene. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PtrbHLH plays an important role in cold tolerance, at least in part, by positively regulating POD-mediated reactive oxygen species removal. PMID:23624854

  8. Dynamic Antagonism between Phytochromes and PIF Family Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Factors Induces Selective Reciprocal Responses to Light and Shade in a Rapidly Responsive Transcriptional Network in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Leivar, Pablo; Tepperman, James M.; Cohn, Megan M.; Monte, Elena; Al-Sady, Bassem; Erickson, Erika; Quail, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Plants respond to shade-modulated light signals via phytochrome (phy)-induced adaptive changes, termed shade avoidance. To examine the roles of Phytochrome-Interacting basic helix-loop-helix Factors, PIF1, 3, 4, and 5, in relaying such signals to the transcriptional network, we compared the shade-responsive transcriptome profiles of wild-type and quadruple pif (pifq) mutants. We identify a subset of genes, enriched in transcription factor–encoding loci, that respond rapidly to shade, in a PIF-dependent manner, and contain promoter G-box motifs, known to bind PIFs. These genes are potential direct targets of phy-PIF signaling that regulate the primary downstream transcriptional circuitry. A second subset of PIF-dependent, early response genes, lacking G-box motifs, are enriched for auxin-responsive loci, and are thus potentially indirect targets of phy-PIF signaling, mediating the rapid cell expansion induced by shade. Comparing deetiolation- and shade-responsive transcriptomes identifies another subset of G-box–containing genes that reciprocally display rapid repression and induction in response to light and shade signals. These data define a core set of transcriptional and hormonal processes that appear to be dynamically poised to react rapidly to light-environment changes via perturbations in the mutually antagonistic actions of the phys and PIFs. Comparing the responsiveness of the pifq and triple pif mutants to light and shade confirms that the PIFs act with overlapping redundancy on seedling morphogenesis and transcriptional regulation but that each PIF contributes differentially to these responses. PMID:22517317

  9. The neurogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD6 enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics to confer tolerance of neuronal PC12-NeuroD6 cells to the mitochondrial stressor rotenone

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, Kristin Kathleen; Uittenbogaard, Martine; Chiaramello, Anne

    2012-10-15

    The fundamental question of how and which neuronal specific transcription factors tailor mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics to the need of developing neuronal cells has remained largely unexplored. In this study, we report that the neurogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD6 possesses mitochondrial biogenic properties by amplifying the mitochondrial DNA content and TFAM expression levels, a key regulator for mitochondrial biogenesis. NeuroD6-mediated increase in mitochondrial biogenesis in the neuronal progenitor-like PC12-NEUROD6 cells is concomitant with enhanced mitochondrial bioenergetic functions, including increased expression levels of specific subunits of respiratory complexes of the electron transport chain, elevated mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels produced by oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, NeuroD6 augments the bioenergetic capacity of PC12-NEUROD6 cells to generate an energetic reserve, which confers tolerance to the mitochondrial stressor, rotenone. We found that NeuroD6 induces an adaptive bioenergetic response throughout rotenone treatment involving maintenance of the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels in conjunction with preservation of the actin network. In conclusion, our results support the concept that NeuroD6 plays an integrative role in regulating and coordinating the onset of neuronal differentiation with acquisition of adequate mitochondrial mass and energetic capacity to ensure energy demanding events, such as cytoskeletal remodeling, plasmalemmal expansion, and growth cone formation. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NeuroD6 induces mitochondrial biogenesis in neuroprogenitor-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NeuroD6 augments the bioenergetic reserve of the neuronal PC12-NeuroD6 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NeuroD6 increases the mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NeuroD6 confers tolerance to rotenone via an adaptive

  10. Inhibitor of differentiation 4 (ID4) acts as an inhibitor of ID-1, -2 and -3 and promotes basic helix loop helix (bHLH) E47 DNA binding and transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Pankaj; Chinaranagari, Swathi; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2015-05-01

    The four known ID proteins (ID1-4, Inhibitor of Differentiation) share a homologous helix loop helix (HLH) domain and act as dominant negative regulators of basic-HLH transcription factors. ID proteins also interact with many non-bHLH proteins in complex networks. The expression of ID proteins is increasingly observed in many cancers. Whereas ID-1, ID-2 and ID-3, are generally considered as tumor promoters, ID4 on the contrary has emerged as a tumor suppressor. In this study we demonstrate that ID4 heterodimerizes with ID-1, -2 and -3 and promote bHLH DNA binding, essentially acting as an inhibitor of inhibitors of differentiation proteins. Interaction of ID4 was observed with ID1, ID2 and ID3 that was dependent on intact HLH domain of ID4. Interaction with bHLH protein E47 required almost 3 fold higher concentration of ID4 as compared to ID1. Furthermore, inhibition of E47 DNA binding by ID1 was restored by ID4 in an EMSA binding assay. ID4 and ID1 were also colocalized in prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. The alpha helix forming alanine stretch N-terminal, unique to HLH ID4 domain was required for optimum interaction. Ectopic expression of ID4 in DU145 prostate cancer line promoted E47 dependent expression of CDKNI p21. Thus counteracting the biological activities of ID-1, -2 and -3 by forming inactive heterodimers appears to be a novel mechanism of action of ID4. These results could have far reaching consequences in developing strategies to target ID proteins for cancer therapy and understanding biologically relevant ID-interactions. PMID:25778840

  11. Inhibitor of Differentiation 4 (ID4) Acts as an Inhibitor of ID-1, -2 and -3 and Promotes basic Helix Loop Helix (bHLH) E47 DNA Binding and Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pankaj; Chinaranagari, Swathi; Chaudhary, Jaideep

    2015-01-01

    The four known ID proteins (ID1-4, Inhibitor of Differentiation) share a homologous helix loop helix (HLH) domain and act as dominant negative regulators of basic-HLH transcription factors. ID proteins also interact with many non-bHLH proteins in complex networks. The expression of ID proteins is increasingly observed in many cancers. Whereas ID-1, ID-2 and ID-3, are generally considered as tumor promoters, ID4 on the contrary has emerged as a tumor suppressor. In this study we demonstrate that ID4 heterodimerizes with ID-1, -2 and -3 and promote bHLH DNA binding, essentially acting as an inhibitor of inhibitors of differentiation proteins. Interaction of ID4 was observed with ID1, ID2 and ID3 that was dependent on intact HLH domain of ID4. Interaction with bHLH protein E47 required almost 3 fold higher concentration of ID4 as compared to ID1. Furthermore, inhibition of E47 DNA binding by ID1 was restored by ID4 in an EMSA binding assay. ID4 and ID1 were also colocalized in prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. The alpha helix forming alanine stretch N-terminal, unique to HLH ID4 domain was required for optimum interaction. Ectopic expression of ID4 in DU145 prostate cancer line promoted E47 dependent expression of CDKNI p21. Thus counteracting the biological activities of ID-1, -2 and -3 by forming inactive heterodimers appears to be a novel mechanism of action of ID4. These results could have far reaching consequences in developing strategies to target ID proteins for cancer therapy and understanding biologically relevant ID- interactions. PMID:25778840

  12. A Cyclized Helix-Loop-Helix Peptide as a Molecular Scaffold for the Design of Inhibitors of Intracellular Protein-Protein Interactions by Epitope and Arginine Grafting.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Daisuke; Kitada, Hidekazu; Oguri, Masahiro; Nishihara, Toshio; Michigami, Masataka; Shiraishi, Kazunori; Yuba, Eiji; Nakase, Ikuhiko; Im, Haeri; Cho, Sunhee; Joung, Jong Young; Kodama, Seiji; Kono, Kenji; Ham, Sihyun; Fujii, Ikuo

    2016-08-26

    The design of inhibitors of intracellular protein-protein interactions (PPIs) remains a challenge in chemical biology and drug discovery. We propose a cyclized helix-loop-helix (cHLH) peptide as a scaffold for generating cell-permeable PPI inhibitors through bifunctional grafting: epitope grafting to provide binding activity, and arginine grafting to endow cell-permeability. To inhibit p53-HDM2 interactions, the p53 epitope was grafted onto the C-terminal helix and six Arg residues were grafted onto another helix. The designed peptide cHLHp53-R showed high inhibitory activity for this interaction, and computational analysis suggested a binding mode for HDM2. Confocal microscopy of cells treated with fluorescently labeled cHLHp53-R revealed cell membrane penetration and cytosolic localization. The peptide inhibited the growth of HCT116 and LnCap cancer cells. This strategy of bifunctional grafting onto a well-structured peptide scaffold could facilitate the generation of inhibitors for intracellular PPIs. PMID:27467415

  13. Mutations of TCF12, encoding a basic-helix-loop-helix partner of TWIST1, are a frequent cause of coronal craniosynostosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vikram P; Fenwick, Aimée L; Brockop, Mia S; McGowan, Simon J; Goos, Jacqueline A C; Hoogeboom, A Jeannette M; Brady, Angela F; Jeelani, N u Owase; Lynch, Sally Ann; Mulliken, John B; Murray, Dylan J; Phipps, Julie M; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Tomkins, Susan E; Wilson, Louise C; Bennett, Sophia; Cornall, Richard J; Broxholme, John; Kanapin, Alexander; Johnson, David; Wall, Steven A; van der Spek, Peter J; Mathijssen, Irene M J; Maxson, Robert E; Twigg, Stephen R F; Wilkie, Andrew O M

    2013-01-01

    Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the cranial sutures, is a heterogeneous disorder with a prevalence of ~1 in 2,200 (refs. 1,2). A specific genetic etiology can be identified in ~21% of cases3, including mutations of TWIST1, which encodes a class II basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, and causes Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, typically associated with coronal synostosis4-6. Starting with an exome sequencing screen, we identified 38 heterozygous TCF12 mutations in 347 samples from unrelated individuals with craniosynostosis. The mutations predominantly occurred in patients with coronal synostosis and accounted for 32% and 10% of subjects with bilateral and unilateral pathology, respectively. TCF12 encodes one of three class I E-proteins that heterodimerize with class II bHLH proteins such as TWIST1. We show that TCF12 and TWIST1 act synergistically in a transactivation assay, and that mice doubly heterozygous for loss-of-function mutations in Tcf12 and Twist1 exhibit severe coronal synostosis. Hence, the dosage of TCF12/TWIST1 heterodimers is critical for coronal suture development. PMID:23354436

  14. Mutations in TCF12, encoding a basic helix-loop-helix partner of TWIST1, are a frequent cause of coronal craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vikram P; Fenwick, Aimée L; Brockop, Mia S; McGowan, Simon J; Goos, Jacqueline A C; Hoogeboom, A Jeannette M; Brady, Angela F; Jeelani, Nu Owase; Lynch, Sally Ann; Mulliken, John B; Murray, Dylan J; Phipps, Julie M; Sweeney, Elizabeth; Tomkins, Susan E; Wilson, Louise C; Bennett, Sophia; Cornall, Richard J; Broxholme, John; Kanapin, Alexander; Johnson, David; Wall, Steven A; van der Spek, Peter J; Mathijssen, Irene M J; Maxson, Robert E; Twigg, Stephen R F; Wilkie, Andrew O M

    2013-03-01

    Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of the cranial sutures, is a heterogeneous disorder with a prevalence of ∼1 in 2,200 (refs. 1,2). A specific genetic etiology can be identified in ∼21% of cases, including mutations of TWIST1, which encodes a class II basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, and causes Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, typically associated with coronal synostosis. Using exome sequencing, we identified 38 heterozygous TCF12 mutations in 347 samples from unrelated individuals with craniosynostosis. The mutations predominantly occurred in individuals with coronal synostosis and accounted for 32% and 10% of subjects with bilateral and unilateral pathology, respectively. TCF12 encodes one of three class I E proteins that heterodimerize with class II bHLH proteins such as TWIST1. We show that TCF12 and TWIST1 act synergistically in a transactivation assay and that mice doubly heterozygous for loss-of-function mutations in Tcf12 and Twist1 have severe coronal synostosis. Hence, the dosage of TCF12-TWIST1 heterodimers is critical for normal coronal suture development. PMID:23354436

  15. Identification and functional analysis of porcine basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional factor 3 (TCF3) and its alternative splicing isoforms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Wang, Ning; Liu, Yajun; Wang, Huayan

    2016-04-01

    The transcription factor 3 (TCF3) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor and is essential for lymphocyte development and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. The splicing isoform, genomic organization and physiological roles of TCF3 have not been elucidated well in pig. Based on RNA-seq database, four alternative splicing isoforms were identified. Splicing isoforms TCF3(E12), TCF3(E47), and TCF3A expressed globally in porcine tissues, but TCF3B mainly expressed in spleen and endoderm derived tissues, such as pancreas and lung. The functional analysis showed that TCF3(E12), TCF3(E47), and TCF3B were translocated exclusively into nuclei, yet TCF3A was distributed in cytoplasm. The investigation of clinical specimens showed that TCF3 expression was significantly reduced in spleen tissues that were infected by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). This study is for the first time to report two novel splicing isoforms TCF3A and TCF3B, which may play an important role in lymphocyte maturation and have the correlation with CSFV evasion. PMID:27033898

  16. Effects of postweaning administration of conjugated linoleic acid on development of obesity in nescient basic helix-loop-helix 2 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoo; Kim, Daeyoung; Good, Deborah J; Park, Yeonhwa

    2015-06-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been reported to prevent body weight gain and fat accumulation in part by improving physical activity in mice. However, the effects of postweaning administration of CLA on the development of obesity later in life have not yet been demonstrated. The current study investigated the role of postweaning CLA treatment on skeletal muscle energy metabolism in genetically induced inactive adult-onset obese model, nescient basic helix-loop-helix 2 knockout (N2KO) mice. Four-week-old male N2KO and wild type mice were fed either control or a CLA-containing diet (0.5%) for 4 weeks, and then CLA was withdrawn and control diet provided to all mice for the following 8 weeks. Postweaning CLA supplementation in wild type animals, but not N2KO mice, may activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) as well as promote desensitization of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and sensitization of protein kinase B (AKT) at threonine 308 in gastrocnemius skeletal muscle, improving voluntary activity and glucose homeostasis. We suggest that postweaning administration of CLA may in part stimulate the underlying molecular targets involved in muscle energy metabolism to reduce weight gain in normal animals, but not in the genetically induced inactive adult-onset animal model. PMID:25976059

  17. Identification of a novel basic helix-loop-helix-PAS factor, NXF, reveals a Sim2 competitive, positive regulatory role in dendritic-cytoskeleton modulator drebrin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ooe, Norihisa; Saito, Koichi; Mikami, Nobuyoshi; Nakatuka, Iwao; Kaneko, Hideo

    2004-01-01

    Sim2, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS transcriptional repressor, is thought to be involved in some symptoms of Down's syndrome. In the course of searching for hypothetical Sim2 relatives, we isolated another bHLH-PAS factor, NXF. NXF was a novel gene and was selectively expressed in neuronal tissues. While no striking homolog of NXF was found in vertebrates, a Caenorhabditis elegans putative transcription factor, C15C8.2, showed similarity in the bHLH-PAS domain. NXF had an activation domain as a transcription activator, and Arnt-type bHLH-PAS subfamily members were identified as the heterodimer partners of NXF. The NXF/Arnt heterodimer was capable of binding and activating a subset of Sim2/Arnt target DNA variants, and Sim2 could compete with the NXF activity on the elements. We showed that Drebrin had several such NXF/Arnt binding elements on the promoter, which could be direct or indirect cross talking points between NXF (activation) and Sim2 (repression) action. Drebrin has been reported to be engaged in dendritic-cytoskeleton modulation at synapses, and such a novel NXF signaling system on neural gene promoter may be a molecular target of the adverse effects of Sim2 in the mental retardation of Down's syndrome. PMID:14701734

  18. The cold-induced basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene MdCIbHLH1 encodes an ICE-like protein in apple

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plant growth is greatly affected by low temperatures, and the expression of a number of genes is induced by cold stress. Although many genes in the cold signaling pathway have been identified in Arabidopsis, little is known about the transcription factors involved in the cold stress response in apple. Results Here, we show that the apple bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) gene MdCIbHLH1 (Cold-Induced bHLH1), which encodes an ICE-like protein, was noticeably induced in response to cold stress. The MdCIbHLH1 protein specifically bound to the MYC recognition sequences in the AtCBF3 promoter, and MdCIbHLH1 overexpression enhanced cold tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis. In addition, the MdCIbHLH1 protein bound to the promoters of MdCBF2 and favorably contributed to cold tolerance in transgenic apple plants by upregulating the expression of MdCBF2 through the CBF (C-repeat-binding factor) pathway. Our findings indicate that MdCIbHLH1 functions in stress tolerance in different species. For example, ectopic MdCIbHLH1 expression conferred enhanced chilling tolerance in transgenic tobacco. Finally, we observed that cold induces the degradation of the MdCIbHLH1 protein in apple and that this degradation was potentially mediated by ubiquitination and sumoylation. Conclusions Based on these findings, MdCIbHLH1 encodes a transcription factor that is important for the cold tolerance response in apple. PMID:22336381

  19. Reovirus FAST Proteins Drive Pore Formation and Syncytiogenesis Using a Novel Helix-Loop-Helix Fusion-Inducing Lipid Packing Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Muzaddid; de Antueno, Roberto; Langelaan, David N.; Parmar, Hiren B.; Shin, Kyungsoo; Rainey, Jan K.; Duncan, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Pore formation is the most energy-demanding step during virus-induced membrane fusion, where high curvature of the fusion pore rim increases the spacing between lipid headgroups, exposing the hydrophobic interior of the membrane to water. How protein fusogens breach this thermodynamic barrier to pore formation is unclear. We identified a novel fusion-inducing lipid packing sensor (FLiPS) in the cytosolic endodomain of the baboon reovirus p15 fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein that is essential for pore formation during cell-cell fusion and syncytiogenesis. NMR spectroscopy and mutational studies indicate the dependence of this FLiPS on a hydrophobic helix-loop-helix structure. Biochemical and biophysical assays reveal the p15 FLiPS preferentially partitions into membranes with high positive curvature, and this partitioning is impeded by bis-ANS, a small molecule that inserts into hydrophobic defects in membranes. Most notably, the p15 FLiPS can be functionally replaced by heterologous amphipathic lipid packing sensors (ALPS) but not by other membrane-interactive amphipathic helices. Furthermore, a previously unrecognized amphipathic helix in the cytosolic domain of the reptilian reovirus p14 FAST protein can functionally replace the p15 FLiPS, and is itself replaceable by a heterologous ALPS motif. Anchored near the cytoplasmic leaflet by the FAST protein transmembrane domain, the FLiPS is perfectly positioned to insert into hydrophobic defects that begin to appear in the highly curved rim of nascent fusion pores, thereby lowering the energy barrier to stable pore formation. PMID:26061049

  20. The Helix-Loop-Helix Protein ID2 Governs NK Cell Fate by Tuning Their Sensitivity to Interleukin-15.

    PubMed

    Delconte, Rebecca B; Shi, Wei; Sathe, Priyanka; Ushiki, Takashi; Seillet, Cyril; Minnich, Martina; Kolesnik, Tatiana B; Rankin, Lucille C; Mielke, Lisa A; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Busslinger, Meinrad; Smyth, Mark J; Hutchinson, Dana S; Nutt, Stephen L; Nicholson, Sandra E; Alexander, Warren S; Corcoran, Lynn M; Vivier, Eric; Belz, Gabrielle T; Carotta, Sebastian; Huntington, Nicholas D

    2016-01-19

    The inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (Id2) is essential for natural killer (NK) cell development with its canonical role being to antagonize E-protein function and alternate lineage fate. Here we have identified a key role for Id2 in regulating interleukin-15 (IL-15) receptor signaling and homeostasis of NK cells by repressing multiple E-protein target genes including Socs3. Id2 deletion in mature NK cells was incompatible with their homeostasis due to impaired IL-15 receptor signaling and metabolic function and this could be rescued by strong IL-15 receptor stimulation or genetic ablation of Socs3. During NK cell maturation, we observed an inverse correlation between E-protein target genes and Id2. These results shift the current paradigm on the role of ID2, indicating that it is required not only to antagonize E-proteins during NK cell commitment, but constantly required to titrate E-protein activity to regulate NK cell fitness and responsiveness to IL-15. PMID:26795246

  1. Differential activities of murine single minded 1 (SIM1) and SIM2 on a hypoxic response element. Cross-talk between basic helix-loop-helix/per-Arnt-Sim homology transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Woods, Susan L; Whitelaw, Murray L

    2002-03-22

    The basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim homology (bHLH/PAS) protein family comprises a group of transcriptional regulators that often respond to a variety of developmental and environmental stimuli. Two murine members of this family, Single Minded 1 (SIM1) and Single Minded 2 (SIM2), are essential for postnatal survival but differ from other prototypical family members such as the dioxin receptor (DR) and hypoxia-inducible factors, in that they behave as transcriptional repressors in mammalian one-hybrid experiments and have yet to be ascribed a regulating signal. In cell lines engineered to stably express SIM1 and SIM2, we show that both are nuclear proteins that constitutively complex with the general bHLH/PAS partner factor, ARNT. We report that the murine SIM factors, in combination with ARNT, attenuate transcription from the hypoxia-inducible erythropoietin (EPO) enhancer during hypoxia. Such cross-talk between coexpressed bHLH/PAS factors can occur through competition for ARNT, which we find evident in SIM repression of DR-induced transcription from a xenobiotic response element reporter gene. However, SIM1/ARNT, but not SIM2/ARNT, can activate transcription from the EPO enhancer at normoxia, implying that the SIM proteins have the ability to bind hypoxia response elements and affect either activation or repression of transcription. This notion is supported by co-immunoprecipitation of EPO enhancer sequences with the SIM2 protein. SIM protein levels decrease with hypoxia treatment in our stable cell lines, although levels of the transcripts encoding SIM1 and SIM2 and the approximately 2-h half-lives of each protein are unchanged during hypoxia. Inhibition of protein synthesis, known to occur in cells during hypoxic stress in order to decrease ATP utilization, appears to account for the fall in SIM levels. Our data suggest the existence of a hypoxic switch mechanism in cells that coexpress hypoxia-inducible factor and SIM proteins, where up-regulation and

  2. Backbone dynamics of a symmetric calmodulin dimer in complex with the calmodulin-binding domain of the basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor SEF2-1/E2-2: a highly dynamic complex.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Göran; Schleucher, Jürgen; Onions, Jacqueline; Hermann, Stefan; Grundström, Thomas; Wijmenga, Sybren S

    2005-08-01

    Calmodulin (CaM) interacts specifically as a dimer with some dimeric basic-Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) transcription factors via a novel high affinity binding mode. Here we report a study of the backbone dynamics by (15)N-spin relaxation on the CaM dimer in complex with a dimeric peptide that mimics the CaM binding region of the bHLH transcription factor SEF2-1. The relaxation data were measured at multiple magnetic fields, and analyzed in a model-free manner using in-house written software designed to detect nanosecond internal motion. Besides picosecond motions, all residues also experience internal motion with an effective correlation time of approximately 2.5 ns with squared order parameter (S(2)) of approximately 0.75. Hydrodynamic calculations suggest that this can be attributed to motions of the N- and C-terminal domains of the CaM dimer in the complex. Moreover, residues with significant exchange broadening are found. They are clustered in the CaM:SEF2-1mp binding interface, the CaM:CaM dimer interface, and in the flexible helix connecting the CaM N- and C-terminal domains, and have similar exchange times (approximately 50 micros), suggesting a cooperative mechanism probably caused by protein:protein interactions. The dynamic features presented here support the conclusion that the conformationally heterogeneous bHLH mimicking peptide trapped inside the CaM dimer exchanges between different binding sites on both nanosecond and microsecond timescales. Nature has thus found a way to specifically recognize a relatively ill-fitting target. This novel mode of target-specific binding, which neither belongs to lock-and-key nor induced-fit binding, is characterized by dimerization and continuous exchange between multiple flexible binding alternatives. PMID:15894636

  3. Significant dissociation of expression patterns of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors Dec1 and Dec2 in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Ni, Yinhua; Zhuge, Fen; Sun, Lu; Xu, Bin; Kato, Hisanori; Fu, Zhengwei

    2011-04-15

    Dec1 and Dec2 are regulators of the mammalian molecular clock that show robust circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and various peripheral tissues. Although the expression of Dec1 and Dec2 is altered by multiple stimuli in different organs, their transcriptional regulatory mechanisms have not been fully elucidated for the kidney. In the present study, we describe for the first time significant dissociation of expression patterns with arrhythmic expression of Dec1 and rhythmic expression of Dec2 in rat kidney under a normal light-dark (LD) cycle. Daytime restricted feeding (RF) significantly altered the expression patterns of these two clock genes, and even induced circadian expression of Dec1 with an amplitude of 2.2 on day 3 and 4.2 on day 7. However, when a reversed feeding schedule was coupled with a reversed LD cycle, the expression of Dec1 but not Dec2 reverted to being arrhythmic. Moreover, exogenous injection of the glucocorticoid analogue dexamethasone (Dex) at certain times of the day resulted in rhythmic expression of Dec1, which was similar to that seen following RF for 7 days. In contrast, endogenous disruption of glucocorticoids by adrenalectomy abolished RF-induced rhythmic expression of Dec1 in the kidney. These observations suggest the existence of a glucocorticoid gating mechanism in the circadian expression of Dec1 in rat kidney. PMID:21430201

  4. Human variants in the neuronal basic helix-loop-helix/Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH/PAS) transcription factor complex NPAS4/ARNT2 disrupt function.

    PubMed

    Bersten, David C; Bruning, John B; Peet, Daniel J; Whitelaw, Murray L

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal Per-Arnt-Sim homology (PAS) Factor 4 (NPAS4) is a neuronal activity-dependent transcription factor which heterodimerises with ARNT2 to regulate genes involved in inhibitory synapse formation. NPAS4 functions to maintain excitatory/inhibitory balance in neurons, while mouse models have shown it to play roles in memory formation, social interaction and neurodegeneration. NPAS4 has therefore been implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases which are underpinned by defects in excitatory/inhibitory balance. Here we have explored a broad set of non-synonymous human variants in NPAS4 and ARNT2 for disruption of NPAS4 function. We found two variants in NPAS4 (F147S and E257K) and two variants in ARNT2 (R46W and R107H) which significantly reduced transcriptional activity of the heterodimer on a luciferase reporter gene. Furthermore, we found that NPAS4.F147S was unable to activate expression of the NPAS4 target gene BDNF due to reduced dimerisation with ARNT2. Homology modelling predicts F147 in NPAS4 to lie at the dimer interface, where it appears to directly contribute to protein/protein interaction. We also found that reduced transcriptional activation by ARNT2 R46W was due to disruption of nuclear localisation. These results provide insight into the mechanisms of NPAS4/ARNT dimerisation and transcriptional activation and have potential implications for cognitive phenotypic variation and diseases such as autism, schizophrenia and dementia. PMID:24465693

  5. Human Variants in the Neuronal Basic Helix-Loop-Helix/Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH/PAS) Transcription Factor Complex NPAS4/ARNT2 Disrupt Function

    PubMed Central

    Bersten, David C.; Bruning, John B.; Peet, Daniel J.; Whitelaw, Murray L.

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal Per-Arnt-Sim homology (PAS) Factor 4 (NPAS4) is a neuronal activity-dependent transcription factor which heterodimerises with ARNT2 to regulate genes involved in inhibitory synapse formation. NPAS4 functions to maintain excitatory/inhibitory balance in neurons, while mouse models have shown it to play roles in memory formation, social interaction and neurodegeneration. NPAS4 has therefore been implicated in a number of neuropsychiatric or neurodegenerative diseases which are underpinned by defects in excitatory/inhibitory balance. Here we have explored a broad set of non-synonymous human variants in NPAS4 and ARNT2 for disruption of NPAS4 function. We found two variants in NPAS4 (F147S and E257K) and two variants in ARNT2 (R46W and R107H) which significantly reduced transcriptional activity of the heterodimer on a luciferase reporter gene. Furthermore, we found that NPAS4.F147S was unable to activate expression of the NPAS4 target gene BDNF due to reduced dimerisation with ARNT2. Homology modelling predicts F147 in NPAS4 to lie at the dimer interface, where it appears to directly contribute to protein/protein interaction. We also found that reduced transcriptional activation by ARNT2 R46W was due to disruption of nuclear localisation. These results provide insight into the mechanisms of NPAS4/ARNT dimerisation and transcriptional activation and have potential implications for cognitive phenotypic variation and diseases such as autism, schizophrenia and dementia. PMID:24465693

  6. Functional diversification of the potato R2R3 MYB anthocyanin activators AN1, MYBA1, and MYB113 and their interaction with basic helix-loop-helix cofactors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhui; Lin-Wang, Kui; Espley, Richard V; Wang, Li; Yang, Hongyu; Yu, Bin; Dare, Andrew; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Junlian; Wang, Di; Allan, Andrew C

    2016-04-01

    In potato (Solanum tuberosumL.), R2R3 MYBs are involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. We examined sequences of these MYBs in cultivated potatoes, which are more complex than diploid potato due to ploidy and heterozygosity. We found amino acid variants in the C-terminus of the MYB StAN1, termed R0, R1, and R3, due to the presence of a repeated 10-amino acid motif. These variant MYBs showed some expression in both white and pigmented tubers. We found several new alleles or gene family members of R2R3 MYBs,StMYBA1andStMYB113, which were also expressed in white potato tubers. From functional analysis in tobacco, we showed that the presence of a C-terminal 10-amino acid motif is optimal for activating anthocyanin accumulation. Engineering a motif back into a MYB lacking this sequence enhanced its activating ability. Versions ofStMYBA1andStMYB113can also activate anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco leaves, with the exception ofStMYB113-3, which has a partial R2R3 domain. We isolated five family members of potatoStbHLH1, and oneStJAF13, to test their ability to interact with MYB variants. The results showed that two alleles ofStbHLH1from white skin and red skin are non-functional, while three otherStbHLH1s have different co-regulating abilities, and need to be activated by StJAF13. Combined with expression analysis in potato tuber, results suggest thatStbHLH1andStJAF13are key co-regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, while the transcripts of MYB variantsStAN1,StMYBA1, andStMYB113are well expressed, even in the absence of pigmentation. PMID:26884602

  7. Functional diversification of the potato R2R3 MYB anthocyanin activators AN1, MYBA1, and MYB113 and their interaction with basic helix-loop-helix cofactors

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuhui; Lin-Wang, Kui; Espley, Richard V.; Wang, Li; Yang, Hongyu; Yu, Bin; Dare, Andrew; Varkonyi-Gasic, Erika; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Junlian; Wang, Di; Allan, Andrew C.

    2016-01-01

    In potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), R2R3 MYBs are involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. We examined sequences of these MYBs in cultivated potatoes, which are more complex than diploid potato due to ploidy and heterozygosity. We found amino acid variants in the C-terminus of the MYB StAN1, termed R0, R1, and R3, due to the presence of a repeated 10-amino acid motif. These variant MYBs showed some expression in both white and pigmented tubers. We found several new alleles or gene family members of R2R3 MYBs, StMYBA1 and StMYB113, which were also expressed in white potato tubers. From functional analysis in tobacco, we showed that the presence of a C-terminal 10-amino acid motif is optimal for activating anthocyanin accumulation. Engineering a motif back into a MYB lacking this sequence enhanced its activating ability. Versions of StMYBA1 and StMYB113 can also activate anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco leaves, with the exception of StMYB113-3, which has a partial R2R3 domain. We isolated five family members of potato StbHLH1, and one StJAF13, to test their ability to interact with MYB variants. The results showed that two alleles of StbHLH1 from white skin and red skin are non-functional, while three other StbHLH1s have different co-regulating abilities, and need to be activated by StJAF13. Combined with expression analysis in potato tuber, results suggest that StbHLH1 and StJAF13 are key co-regulators of anthocyanin biosynthesis, while the transcripts of MYB variants StAN1, StMYBA1, and StMYB113 are well expressed, even in the absence of pigmentation. PMID:26884602

  8. Responses of a triple mutant defective in three iron deficiency-induced Basic Helix-Loop-Helix genes of the subgroup Ib(2) to iron deficiency and salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Felix; Naranjo Arcos, Maria Augusta; Bauer, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that adapt to external stress by inducing molecular and physiological responses that serve to better cope with the adverse growth condition. Upon low supply of the micronutrient iron, plants actively increase the acquisition of soil iron into the root and its mobilization from internal stores. The subgroup Ib(2) BHLH genes function as regulators in this response, however their concrete functions are not fully understood. Here, we analyzed a triple loss of function mutant of BHLH39, BHLH100 and BHLH101 (3xbhlh mutant). We found that this mutant did not have any iron uptake phenotype if iron was provided. However, under iron deficiency the mutant displayed a more severe leaf chlorosis than the wild type. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed that this mutant phenotype resulted in the mis-regulation of 198 genes, out of which only 15% were associated with iron deficiency regulation itself. A detailed analysis revealed potential targets of the bHLH transcription factors as well as genes reflecting an exaggerated iron deficiency response phenotype. Since the BHLH genes of this subgroup have been brought into the context of the plant hormone salicylic acid, we investigated whether the 3xbhlh mutant might have been affected by this plant signaling molecule. Although a very high number of genes responded to SA, also in a differential manner between mutant and wild type, we did not find any indication for an association of the BHLH gene functions in SA responses upon iron deficiency. In summary, our study indicates that the bHLH subgroup Ib(2) transcription factors do not only act in iron acquisition into roots but in other aspects of the adaptation to iron deficiency in roots and leaves. PMID:24919188

  9. Responses of a Triple Mutant Defective in Three Iron Deficiency-Induced BASIC HELIX-LOOP-HELIX Genes of the Subgroup Ib(2) to Iron Deficiency and Salicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Maurer, Felix; Naranjo Arcos, Maria Augusta; Bauer, Petra

    2014-01-01

    Plants are sessile organisms that adapt to external stress by inducing molecular and physiological responses that serve to better cope with the adverse growth condition. Upon low supply of the micronutrient iron, plants actively increase the acquisition of soil iron into the root and its mobilization from internal stores. The subgroup Ib(2) BHLH genes function as regulators in this response, however their concrete functions are not fully understood. Here, we analyzed a triple loss of function mutant of BHLH39, BHLH100 and BHLH101 (3xbhlh mutant). We found that this mutant did not have any iron uptake phenotype if iron was provided. However, under iron deficiency the mutant displayed a more severe leaf chlorosis than the wild type. Microarray-based transcriptome analysis revealed that this mutant phenotype resulted in the mis-regulation of 198 genes, out of which only 15% were associated with iron deficiency regulation itself. A detailed analysis revealed potential targets of the bHLH transcription factors as well as genes reflecting an exaggerated iron deficiency response phenotype. Since the BHLH genes of this subgroup have been brought into the context of the plant hormone salicylic acid, we investigated whether the 3xbhlh mutant might have been affected by this plant signaling molecule. Although a very high number of genes responded to SA, also in a differential manner between mutant and wild type, we did not find any indication for an association of the BHLH gene functions in SA responses upon iron deficiency. In summary, our study indicates that the bHLH subgroup Ib(2) transcription factors do not only act in iron acquisition into roots but in other aspects of the adaptation to iron deficiency in roots and leaves. PMID:24919188

  10. Overexpression of a citrus basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor (CubHLH1), which is homologous to Arabidopsis activation-tagged bri1 suppressor 1 interacting factor genes, modulates carotenoid metabolism in transgenic tomato.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tomoko; Fujii, Hiroshi; Sugiyama, Aiko; Nakano, Michiharu; Nakajima, Naoko; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-02-01

    To explore the transcription factors associated with carotenoid metabolism in citrus fruit, one transcription factor (CubHLH1) was selected through microarray screening in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit, which was treated with exogenous ethylene or gibberellin (GA), accelerating or retarding carotenoid accumulation in peel, respectively. The amino acid sequence of CubHLH1 has homology to Arabidopsis activation-tagged bri1 suppressor 1 (ATBS1) interacting factor (AIF), which is functionally characterized as a negative regulator of the brassinolide (BR) signalling pathway. Yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that protein for CubHLH1 could interact with Arabidopsis and tomato ATBS1. Overexpression of CubHLH1 caused a dwarf phenotype in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), suggesting that CubHLH1 has a similar function to Arabidopsis AIF. In the transgenic tomato fruit at ripening stage, the lycopene content was reduced along with the changes in carotenoid biosynthetic gene expression. The abscisic acid (ABA) content of all the transgenic tomato fruit was higher than that of the wild type. These results implied that CubHLH1 is considered to have a similar function to Arabidopsis AIFs and might be directly involved in carotenoid metabolism in mature citrus fruit. PMID:26795149

  11. Differential transcriptional regulation by mouse single-minded 2s.

    PubMed

    Metz, Richard P; Kwak, Hyeong-Il; Gustafson, Tanya; Laffin, Brian; Porter, Weston W

    2006-04-21

    Single-minded 1 and 2 are unique members of the basic helix-loop-helix Per-Arnt-Sim family as they are transcriptional repressors. Here we report the identification and transcriptional characterization of mouse Sim2s, a splice variant of Sim2, which is missing the carboxyl Pro/Ala-rich repressive domain. Sim2s is expressed at high levels in kidney and skeletal muscle; however, the ratio of Sim2 to Sim2s mRNA differs between these tissues. Similar to full-length Sim2, Sim2s interacts with Arnt and to a lesser extent, Arnt2. The effects of Sim2s on transcriptional regulation through hypoxia, dioxin, and central midline response elements are different than that of full-length Sim2. Specifically, Sim2s exerts a less repressive effect on hypoxia-induced gene expression than full-length Sim2, but is just as effective as Sim2 at repressing TCDD-induced gene expression from a dioxin response element. Interestingly, Sim2s bind to and activates expression from a central midline response element-controlled reporter through an Arnt transactivation domain-dependent mechanism. The differences in expression pattern, protein interactions, and transcriptional activities between Sim2 and Sim2s may reflect differential roles each isoform plays during development or in tissue-specific effects on other protein-mediated pathways. PMID:16484282

  12. Amino-terminal domains of c-myc and N-myc proteins mediate binding to the retinoblastoma gene product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rustgi, Anil K.; Dyson, Nicholas; Bernards, Rene

    1991-08-01

    THE proteins encoded by the myc gene family are involved in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation, and aberrant expression of myc proteins has been implicated in the genesis of a variety of neoplasms1. In the carboxyl terminus, myc proteins have two domains that encode a basic domain/helix-loop-helix and a leucine zipper motif, respectively. These motifs are involved both in DNA binding and in protein dimerization2-5. In addition, myc protein family members share several regions of highly conserved amino acids in their amino termini that are essential for transformation6,7. We report here that an N-terminal domain present in both the c-myc and N-myc proteins mediates binding to the retinoblastoma gene product, pRb. We show that the human papilloma virus E7 protein competes with c-myc for binding to pRb, indicating that these proteins share overlapping binding sites on pRb. Furthermore, a mutant Rb protein from a human tumour cell line that carried a 35-amino-acid deletion in its C terminus failed to bind to c-myc. Our results suggest that c-myc and pRb cooperate through direct binding to control cell proliferation.

  13. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family in the sacred lotus, Nelumbo nucifera

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nelumbo nucifera (Sacred Lotus) is a basal eudicot with exceptional physiological and metabolic properties including seed longevity, adaptations for an aquatic habit, and floral thermiogenesis. It also occupies a unique position in the phylogeny of land plants and can be a useful species for studies...

  14. The MYB182 Protein Down-Regulates Proanthocyanidin and Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Poplar by Repressing Both Structural and Regulatory Flavonoid Genes1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kazuko; Ma, Dawei; Constabel, C. Peter

    2015-01-01

    Trees in the genus Populus (poplar) contain phenolic secondary metabolites including the proanthocyanidins (PAs), which help to adapt these widespread trees to diverse environments. The transcriptional activation of PA biosynthesis in response to herbivory and ultraviolet light stress has been documented in poplar leaves, and a regulator of this process, the R2R3-MYB transcription factor MYB134, has been identified. MYB134-overexpressing transgenic plants show a strong high-PA phenotype. Analysis of these transgenic plants suggested the involvement of additional MYB transcription factors, including repressor-like MYB factors. Here, MYB182, a subgroup 4 MYB factor, was found to act as a negative regulator of the flavonoid pathway. Overexpression of MYB182 in hairy root culture and whole poplar plants led to reduced PA and anthocyanin levels as well as a reduction in the expression of key flavonoid genes. Similarly, a reduced accumulation of transcripts of a MYB PA activator and a basic helix-loop-helix cofactor was observed in MYB182-overexpressing hairy roots. Transient promoter activation assays in poplar cell culture demonstrated that MYB182 can disrupt transcriptional activation by MYB134 and that the basic helix-loop-helix-binding motif of MYB182 was essential for repression. Microarray analysis of transgenic plants demonstrated that down-regulated targets of MYB182 also include shikimate pathway genes. This work shows that MYB182 plays an important role in the fine-tuning of MYB134-mediated flavonoid metabolism. PMID:25624398

  15. Id transcriptional regulators in adipogenesis and adipose tissue metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Mallikarjun; Sharma, Bal Krishan; Satyanarayana, Ande

    2014-01-01

    Id proteins (Id1-Id4) are helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcriptional regulators that lack a basic DNA binding domain. They act as negative regulators of basic helixloop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors by forming heterodimers and inhibit their DNA binding and transcriptional activity. Id proteins are implicated in the regulation of various cellular mechanisms such as cell proliferation, cellular differentiation, cell fate determination, angiogenesis and tumorigenesis. A handful of recent studies also disclosed that Id proteins have critical functions in adipocyte differentiation and adipose tissue metabolism. Here, we reviewed the progress made thus far in understanding the specific functions of Id proteins in adipose tissue differentiation and metabolism. In addition to reviewing the known mechanisms of action, we also discuss possible additional mechanisms in which Id proteins might participate in regulating adipogenic and metabolic pathways. PMID:24896358

  16. The Arabidopsis NRG2 Protein Mediates Nitrate Signaling and Interacts with and Regulates Key Nitrate Regulators[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lufei; Zhang, Chengfei; Li, Zehui; Lei, Zhao; Liu, Fei; Guan, Peizhu; Crawford, Nigel M.

    2016-01-01

    We show that NITRATE REGULATORY GENE2 (NRG2), which we identified using forward genetics, mediates nitrate signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. A mutation in NRG2 disrupted the induction of nitrate-responsive genes after nitrate treatment by an ammonium-independent mechanism. The nitrate content in roots was lower in the mutants than in the wild type, which may have resulted from reduced expression of NRT1.1 (also called NPF6.3, encoding a nitrate transporter/receptor) and upregulation of NRT1.8 (also called NPF7.2, encoding a xylem nitrate transporter). Genetic and molecular data suggest that NRG2 functions upstream of NRT1.1 in nitrate signaling. Furthermore, NRG2 directly interacts with the nitrate regulator NLP7 in the nucleus, but nuclear retention of NLP7 in response to nitrate is not dependent on NRG2. Transcriptomic analysis revealed that genes involved in four nitrogen-related clusters including nitrate transport and response to nitrate were differentially expressed in the nrg2 mutants. A nitrogen compound transport cluster containing some members of the NRT/PTR family was regulated by both NRG2 and NRT1.1, while no nitrogen-related clusters showed regulation by both NRG2 and NLP7. Thus, NRG2 plays a key role in nitrate regulation in part through modulating NRT1.1 expression and may function with NLP7 via their physical interaction. PMID:26744214

  17. Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper II family of transcription factors to the limelight: central regulators of plant development.

    PubMed

    Carabelli, Monica; Turchi, Luana; Ruzza, Valentino; Morelli, Giorgio; Ruberti, Ida

    2013-09-01

    The Arabidopsis genome encodes 10 Homeodomain-Leucine Zipper (HD-Zip) II transcription factors that can be subdivided into 4 clades (α-δ). All the γ (ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA HOMEOBOX 2 [ATHB2], HOMEOBOX ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA 1 [HAT1], HAT2) and δ (HAT3, ATHB4) genes are regulated by light quality changes (Low Red [R]/Far-Red [FR]) that induce the shade avoidance response in most of the angiosperms. HD-Zip IIγ and HD-Zip IIδ transcription factors function as positive regulators of shade avoidance, and there is evidence that at least ATHB2 is directly positively regulated by the basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) proteins PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PIF5. Recent evidence demonstrate that, in addition to their function in shade avoidance, HD-Zip IIγ and HD-Zip IIδ proteins play an essential role in plant development from embryogenesis onwards in a white light environment. PMID:23838958

  18. Phosphorylation in intrinsically disordered regions regulates the activity of Neurogenin2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuronal differentiation is largely under the control of basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) proneural transcription factors that play key roles during development of the embryonic nervous system. In addition to well-characterised regulation of their expression, increasing evidence is emerging for additional post-translational regulation of proneural protein activity. Of particular interest is the bHLH proneural factor Neurogenin2 (Ngn2), which orchestrates progression from neural progenitor to differentiated neuron in several regions of the central nervous system. Previous studies have demonstrated a key role for cell cycle-dependent multi-site phosphorylation of Ngn2 protein at Serine-Proline (SP) sites for regulation of its neuronal differentiation activity, although the potential structural and functional consequences of phosphorylation at different regions of the protein are unclear. Results Here we characterise the role of phosphorylation of specific regions of Ngn2 on the stability of Ngn2 protein and on its neuronal differentiation activity in vivo in the developing embryo, demonstrating clearly that the location of SP sites is less important than the number of SP sites available for control of Ngn2 activity in vivo. We also provide structural evidence that Ngn2 contains large, intrinsically disordered regions that undergo phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks). Conclusions Phosphorylation of Ngn2 occurs in both the N- and C-terminal regions, either side of the conserved basic Helix-Loop-Helix domain. While these phosphorylation events do not change the intrinsic stability of Ngn2, phosphorylation on multiple sites acts to limit its ability to drive neuronal differentiation in vivo. Phosphorylated regions of Ngn2 are predicted to be intrinsically disordered and cdk-dependent phosphorylation of these intrinsically disordered regions contributes to Ngn2 regulation. PMID:25374254

  19. Identifying Novel Helix-Loop-Helix Genes in "Caenorhabditis elegans" through a Classroom Demonstration of Functional Genomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Vernetta; McMiller, Tracee; Jones, Erika; Johnson, Casonya M.

    2003-01-01

    A 14-week, undergraduate-level Genetics and Population Biology course at Morgan State University was modified to include a demonstration of functional genomics in the research laboratory. Students performed a rudimentary sequence analysis of the "Caenorhabditis elegans" genome and further characterized three sequences that were predicted to encode…

  20. Characterization of npas3, a novel basic helix-loop-helix PAS gene expressed in the developing mouse nervous system.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, E W; Witte, D P; Shreiner, A B; Potter, S S

    1999-11-01

    Here we describe the cloning and expression pattern of a new bHLH-PAS domain gene, Npas3. Npas3 shares 50.2% amino acid sequence identity with Npas1 and a lesser similarity with other members of the bHLH-PAS domain family of transcription factors. Northern blot analysis detected Npas3 mRNA between 11.5 and 17.5 d.p.c. in embryonic development and exclusively in the adult brain. Whole-mount and section in situ hybridization assays revealed expression of Npas3 between 9.5 and 11.5 d.p.c. in the developing neural tube. In addition, Npas3 mRNA was expressed throughout the neuroepithelium of the developing central nervous system between 10. 5 and 12.5 d.p.c. Interestingly, at 14.5 d.p.c., the expression of Npas3 mRNA became restricted to the neopallial layer of the cortex. At 12.5 d.p.c., Npas3 mRNA was evident in nonneural tissues such as the developing dermis and mesenchyme surrounding the otic and nasal placodes. Expression was also detected in the developing cardiac valves, limb and developing kidney. PMID:10534623

  1. Niemann-Pick Type C2 Protein Mediates Hepatic Stellate Cells Activation by Regulating Free Cholesterol Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Twu, Yuh-Ching; Lee, Tzong-Shyuan; Lin, Yun-Lian; Hsu, Shih-Ming; Wang, Yuan-Hsi; Liao, Chia-Yu; Wang, Chung-Kwe; Liang, Yu-Chih; Liao, Yi-Jen

    2016-01-01

    In chronic liver diseases, regardless of their etiology, the development of fibrosis is the first step toward the progression to cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) are the main profibrogenic cells that promote the pathogenesis of liver fibrosis, and so it is important to identify the molecules that regulate HSCs activation and liver fibrosis. Niemann-Pick type C2 (NPC2) protein plays an important role in the regulation of intracellular cholesterol homeostasis by directly binding with free cholesterol. However, the roles of NPC2 in HSCs activation and liver fibrosis have not been explored in detail. Since a high-cholesterol diet exacerbates liver fibrosis progression in both rodents and humans, we propose that the expression of NPC2 affects free cholesterol metabolism and regulates HSCs activation. In this study, we found that NPC2 is decreased in both thioacetamide- and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver fibrosis tissues. In addition, NPC2 is expressed in quiescent HSCs, but its activation status is down-regulated. Knockdown of NPC2 in HSC-T6 cells resulted in marked increases in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1)-induced collagen type 1 α1 (Col1a1), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression, and Smad2 phosphorylation. In contrast, NPC2 overexpression decreased TGF-β1-induced HSCs activation. We further demonstrated that NPC2 deficiency significantly increased the accumulation of free cholesterol in HSCs, increasing Col1a1 and α-SMA expression and activating Smad2, and leading to sensitization of HSCs to TGF-β1 activation. In contrast, overexpression of NPC2 decreased U18666A-induced free cholesterol accumulation and inhibited the subsequent HSCs activation. In conclusion, our study has demonstrated that NPC2 plays an important role in HSCs activation by regulating the accumulation of free cholesterol. NPC2 overexpression may thus represent a new treatment strategy for liver fibrosis. PMID:27420058

  2. p53 Protein-mediated regulation of phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) is crucial for the apoptotic response upon serine starvation.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yang; Wang, Shang-Jui; Jiang, Le; Zheng, Bin; Gu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Although p53 is frequently mutated in human cancers, about 80% of human melanomas retain wild-type p53. Here we report that PHGDH, the key metabolic enzyme that catalyzes the rate-limiting step of the serine biosynthesis pathway, is a target of p53 in human melanoma cells. p53 suppresses PHGDH expression and inhibits de novo serine biosynthesis. Notably, upon serine starvation, p53-mediated cell death is enhanced dramatically in response to Nutlin-3 treatment. Moreover, PHGDH has been found recently to be amplified frequently in human melanomas. We found that PHGDH overexpression significantly suppresses the apoptotic response, whereas RNAi-mediated knockdown of endogenous PHGDH promotes apoptosis under the same treatment. These results demonstrate an important role of p53 in regulating the serine biosynthesis pathway through suppressing PHGDH expression and reveal serine deprivation as a novel approach to sensitize p53-mediated apoptotic responses in human melanoma cells. PMID:25404730

  3. An Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized RRL protein mediates abscisic acid signal transduction through mitochondrial retrograde regulation involving ABI4

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xuan; Li, Juanjuan; Liu, Jianping; Liu, Kede

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling have been studied for many years; however, how mitochondria-localized proteins play roles in ABA signalling remains unclear. Here an Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized protein RRL (RETARDED ROOT GROWTH-LIKE) was shown to function in ABA signalling. A previous study had revealed that the Arabidopsis mitochondria-localized protein RRG (RETARDED ROOT GROWTH) is required for cell division in the root meristem. RRL shares 54% and 57% identity at the nucleotide and amino acid sequences, respectively, with RRG; nevertheless, RRL shows a different function in Arabidopsis. In this study, disruption of RRL decreased ABA sensitivity whereas overexpression of RRL increased ABA sensitivity during seed germination and seedling growth. High expression levels of RRL were found in germinating seeds and developing seedlings, as revealed by β-glucuronidase (GUS) staining of ProRRL–GUS transgenic lines. The analyses of the structure and function of mitochondria in the knockout rrl mutant showed that the disruption of RRL causes extensively internally vacuolated mitochondria and reduced ABA-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Previous studies have revealed that the expression of alternative oxidase (AOX) in the alternative respiratory pathway is increased by mitochondrial retrograde regulation to regain ROS levels when the mitochondrial electron transport chain is impaired. The APETALA2 (AP2)-type transcription factor ABI4 is a regulator of ALTERNATIVE OXIDASE1a (AOX1a) in mitochondrial retrograde signalling. This study showed that ABA-induced AOX1a and ABI4 expression was inhibited in the rrl mutant, suggesting that RRL is probably involved in ABI4-mediated mitochondrial retrograde signalling. Furthermore, the results revealed that ABI4 is a downstream regulatory factor in RRL-mediated ABA signalling in seed germination and seedling growth. PMID:26163700

  4. Amyloid protein-mediated differential DNA methylation status regulates gene expression in Alzheimer's disease model cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Sung, Hye Youn; Choi, Eun Nam; Ahn Jo, Sangmee; Oh, Seikwan; Ahn, Jung-Hyuck

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Genome-wide DNA methylation pattern in Alzheimer's disease model cell line. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Integrated analysis of CpG methylation and mRNA expression profiles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identify three Swedish mutant target genes; CTIF, NXT2 and DDR2 gene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effect of Swedish mutation on alteration of DNA methylation and gene expression. -- Abstract: The Swedish mutation of amyloid precursor protein (APP-sw) has been reported to dramatically increase beta amyloid production through aberrant cleavage at the beta secretase site, causing early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). DNA methylation has been reported to be associated with AD pathogenesis, but the underlying molecular mechanism of APP-sw-mediated epigenetic alterations in AD pathogenesis remains largely unknown. We analyzed genome-wide interplay between promoter CpG DNA methylation and gene expression in an APP-sw-expressing AD model cell line. To identify genes whose expression was regulated by DNA methylation status, we performed integrated analysis of CpG methylation and mRNA expression profiles, and identified three target genes of the APP-sw mutant; hypomethylated CTIF (CBP80/CBP20-dependent translation initiation factor) and NXT2 (nuclear exporting factor 2), and hypermethylated DDR2 (discoidin domain receptor 2). Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2 Prime -deoxycytidine restored mRNA expression of these three genes, implying methylation-dependent transcriptional regulation. The profound alteration in the methylation status was detected at the -435, -295, and -271 CpG sites of CTIF, and at the -505 to -341 region in the promoter of DDR2. In the promoter region of NXT2, only one CpG site located at -432 was differentially unmethylated in APP-sw cells. Thus, we demonstrated the effect of the APP-sw mutation on alteration of DNA methylation and subsequent gene expression. This epigenetic regulatory mechanism may

  5. Molecular characterization of SIG1, a Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene involved in negative regulation of G-protein-mediated signal transduction.

    PubMed Central

    Leberer, E; Dignard, D; Harcus, D; Whiteway, M; Thomas, D Y

    1994-01-01

    Two recessive mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae SIG1 (suppressor of inhibitory G-protein) gene have been identified by their ability to suppress the signalling defect of dominant-negative variants of the mating response G-protein beta-subunit. The mutations and deletion of SIG1 enhance the sensitivity of the cells to pheromone and stimulate the basal transcription of a mating specific gene, FUS1, suggesting that Sig1p plays a negatively regulatory role in G beta gamma-mediated signal transduction. An additional function of Sig1p in vegetatively growing cells is suggested by the finding that the mutations and deletion of SIG1 cause temperature-sensitive growth defects. The SIG1 gene encodes a protein with a molecular weight of 65 kDa that contains at the amino-terminus two zinc finger-like sequence motifs. Epistasis experiments localize the action of Sig1p within the pheromone signalling pathway at a position at or shortly after the G-protein. We propose that Sig1p represents a novel negative regulator of G beta gamma-mediated signal transduction. Images PMID:8039500

  6. Protein kinase C modulates aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator protein-mediated transactivation potential in a dimer context.

    PubMed

    Long, W P; Chen, X; Perdew, G H

    1999-04-30

    Protein kinase C (PKC)- and protein kinase A (PKA)-mediated modulation of the transactivation potential of human aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (hARNT), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-PAS transcription factor, and the bHLH-ZIP transcription factors USF-1 (for upstream regulatory factor 1) and c-Myc were examined. An 81 nM dose of the PKC activator phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), shown here to specifically activate PKC in COS-1 cells, or a 1 nM dose of the PKA activator 8-bromoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Br-cAMP) results in 2. 6- and 1.9-fold enhancements, respectively, in hARNT-mediated transactivation of the class B, E-box-driven reporter pMyc3E1bLuc relative to identically transfected, carrier solvent-treated COS-1 cells. In contrast, 81 nM PMA and 1 nM 8-Br-cAMP did not enhance transactivation of pMyc3E1bLuc-driven by USF-1 and c-Myc expression relative to identically transfected, carrier-treated COS-1 cells. Co-transfection of pcDNA3/ARNT-474-Flag, expressing a hARNT carboxyl-terminal transactivation domain deletion, and pMyc3E1bLuc does not result in induction of reporter activity, suggesting PMA's effects do not involve formation of unknown hARNT-protein heterodimers. Additionally, PMA had no effect on hARNT expression relative to Me2SO-treated cells. Metabolic 32P labeling of hARNT in cells treated with carrier solvent or 81 nM PMA demonstrates that PMA does not increase the overall phosphorylation level of hARNT. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that the transactivation potential of ARNT in a dimer context can be specifically modulated by PKC or PKA stimulation and that the bHLH-PAS and bHLH-ZIP transcription factors are differentially regulated by these pathways in COS-1 cells. PMID:10212212

  7. Auxin signaling modules regulate maize inflorescence architecture

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Mary; Liu, Qiujie; Moss, Britney L.; Malcomber, Simon; Li, Wei; Gaines, Craig; Federici, Silvia; Roshkovan, Jessica; Meeley, Robert; Nemhauser, Jennifer L.; Gallavotti, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In plants, small groups of pluripotent stem cells called axillary meristems are required for the formation of the branches and flowers that eventually establish shoot architecture and drive reproductive success. To ensure the proper formation of new axillary meristems, the specification of boundary regions is required for coordinating their development. We have identified two maize genes, BARREN INFLORESCENCE1 and BARREN INFLORESCENCE4 (BIF1 and BIF4), that regulate the early steps required for inflorescence formation. BIF1 and BIF4 encode AUXIN/INDOLE-3-ACETIC ACID (Aux/IAA) proteins, which are key components of the auxin hormone signaling pathway that is essential for organogenesis. Here we show that BIF1 and BIF4 are integral to auxin signaling modules that dynamically regulate the expression of BARREN STALK1 (BA1), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcriptional regulator necessary for axillary meristem formation that shows a striking boundary expression pattern. These findings suggest that auxin signaling directly controls boundary domains during axillary meristem formation and define a fundamental mechanism that regulates inflorescence architecture in one of the most widely grown crop species. PMID:26464512

  8. Ribosomal protein S14 negatively regulates c-Myc activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Hao, Qian; Liao, Jun-Ming; Liao, Peng; Lu, Hua

    2013-07-26

    The ribosomal gene RPS14 is associated with the cancer-prone 5q-syndrome, which is caused by an interstitial deletion of the long arm of human chromosome 5. Previously, we found that ribosomal protein S14 (RPS14) binds to and inactivates MDM2, consequently leading to p53-dependent cell-cycle arrest and growth inhibition. However, it remains elusive whether RPS14 regulates cell proliferation in a p53-independent manner. Here, we show that RPS14 interacts with the Myc homology box II (MBII) and the C-terminal basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-LZ) domains of the oncoprotein c-Myc. Further, RPS14 inhibited c-Myc transcriptional activity by preventing the recruitment of c-Myc and its cofactor, TRRAP, to the target gene promoters, as thus suppressing c-Myc-induced cell proliferation. Also, siRNA-mediated RPS14 depletion elevated c-Myc transcriptional activity determined by its target gene, Nucleolin, expression. Interestingly, RPS14 depletion also resulted in the induction of c-Myc mRNA and subsequent protein levels. Consistent with this, RPS14 promoted c-Myc mRNA turnover through an Argonaute 2 (Ago2)- and microRNA-mediated pathway. Taken together, our study demonstrates that RPS14 negates c-Myc functions by directly inhibiting its transcriptional activity and mediating its mRNA degradation via miRNA. PMID:23775087

  9. Ccndbp1 is a new positive regulator of skeletal myogenesis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan; Chen, Bohong; Ye, Miaoman; Liang, Puping; Zhangfang, Yingnan; Huang, Junjiu; Liu, Mingyao; Songyang, Zhou; Ma, Wenbin

    2016-07-15

    Skeletal myogenesis is a multistep process in which basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, such as MyoD (also known as MyoD1), bind to E-boxes and activate downstream genes. Ccndbp1 is a HLH protein that lacks a DNA-binding region, and its function in skeletal myogenesis is currently unknown. We generated Ccndbp1-null mice by using CRISPR-Cas9. Notably, in Ccndbp1-null mice, the cross sectional area of the skeletal tibialis anterior muscle was smaller, and muscle regeneration ability and grip strength were impaired, compared with those of wild type. This phenotype resembled that of myofiber hypotrophy in some human myopathies or amyoplasia. Ccndbp1 expression was upregulated during C2C12 myogenesis. Ccndbp1 overexpression promoted myogenesis, whereas knockdown of Ccndbp1 inhibited myogenic differentiation. Co-transfection of Ccndbp1 with MyoD and/or E47 (encoded by TCF3) significantly enhanced E-box-dependent transcription. Furthermore, Ccndbp1 physically associated with MyoD but not E47. These data suggest that Ccndbp1 regulates muscle differentiation by interacting with MyoD and enhancing its binding to target genes. Our study newly identifies Ccndbp1 as a positive modulator of skeletal myogenic differentiation in vivo and in vitro, providing new insights in order to decipher the complex network involved in skeletal myogenic development and related diseases. PMID:27235421

  10. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor: Regulation of hematopoiesis and involvement in the progression of blood diseases

    PubMed Central

    Casado, Fanny L.; Singh, Kameshwar P.; Gasiewicz, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a basic helix-loop-helix protein that belongs to the superfamily of environment-sensing PAS (Per-ARNT-Sim) proteins. A large number of ligands have been described to bind AhR and promote its nuclear translocation. In the nucleus, the AhR and its dimerization partner the AhR nuclear translocase (ARNT), also known as HIF1β, form a DNA-binding complex that acts as a transcriptional regulator. Animal and human data suggest that, beyond its mediating responses to xenobiotic and/or unknown endogenous ligands, the AhR has a role, although as yet undefined, in the regulation of cell cycle and inflammation. The AhR also appears to regulate the hematopoietic and immune systems during development and adult life in a cell-specific manner. While accidental exposure to xenobiotic AhR ligands has been associated with leukemia in humans, the specific mechanisms of AhR involvement are still not completely understood. However, recent data are consistent with a functional role of the AhR in the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and/or progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs). Studies highlighting AhR-regulation of HSCs/HPCs provide a rational framework to understand their biology, a role of the AhR in hematopoietic diseases, and a means to develop interventions for these diseases. PMID:20171126

  11. SUMOylation of DEC1 Protein Regulates Its Transcriptional Activity and Enhances Its Stability

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shujing; Bi, Hailian; Yang, Chunhua; Zhao, Feng; Liu, Ying; Ao, Xiang; Chang, Alan K.; Wu, Huijian

    2011-01-01

    Differentiated embryo-chondrocyte expressed gene 1 (DEC1, also known as sharp2, stra13, or BHLHB2) is a mammalian basic helix-loop-helix protein that is involved in many aspects of gene regulation through acting as a transcription factor. Changes in DEC1 expression levels have been implicated in the development of cancers. Using COS-7 cell, we showed that DEC1 can be modified by the small ubiquitin-like modifiers, SUMO1, 2 and 3. Two major SUMOylation sites (K159 and K279) were identified in the C-terminal domain of DEC1. Substitution of either K159 or K279 with arginine reduced DEC1 SUMOylation, but substitution of both K159 and K279 abolished SUMOylation, and more protein appeared to be retained in the cytoplasm compared to wild-type DEC1. The expression of DEC1 was up-regulated after serum starvation as previously reported, but at the same time, serum starvation also led to more SUMOylation of DEC1. In MCF-7 cells SUMOylation also stabilized DEC1 through inhibiting its ubiquitination. Moreover, SUMOylation of DEC1 promoted its repression of CLOCK/BMAL1-mediated transcriptional activity through recruitment of histone deacetylase1. These findings suggested that posttranslational modification of DEC1 in the form of SUMOylation may serve as a key factor that regulates the function of DEC1 in vivo. PMID:21829689

  12. Complex domain interactions regulate stability and activity of closely related proneural transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    McDowell, Gary S.; Hardwick, Laura J.A.; Philpott, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Characterising post-translational regulation of key transcriptional activators is crucial for understanding how cell division and differentiation are coordinated in developing organisms and cycling cells. One important mode of protein post-translational control is by regulation of half-life via ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Two key basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factors, Neurogenin 2 (Ngn2) and NeuroD, play central roles in development of the central nervous system but despite their homology, Ngn2 is a highly unstable protein whilst NeuroD is, by comparison, very stable. The basis for and the consequences of the difference in stability of these two structurally and functionally related proteins has not been explored. Here we see that ubiquitylation alone does not determine Ngn2 or NeuroD stability. By making chimeric proteins, we see that the N-terminus of NeuroD in particular has a stabilising effect, whilst despite their high levels of homology, the most conserved bHLH domains of these proneural proteins alone can confer significant changes in protein stability. Despite widely differing stabilities of Ngn2, NeuroD and the chimeric proteins composed of domains of both, there is little correlation between protein half-life and ability to drive neuronal differentiation. Therefore, we conclude that despite significant homology between Ngn2 and NeuroD, the regulation of their stability differs markedly and moreover, stability/instability of the proteins is not a direct correlate of their activity. PMID:24998442

  13. A smallest 6 kda metalloprotease, mini-matrilysin, in living world: a revolutionary conserved zinc-dependent proteolytic domain- helix-loop-helix catalytic zinc binding domain (ZBD)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Aim of this study is to study the minimum zinc dependent metalloprotease catalytic folding motif, helix B Met loop-helix C, with proteolytic catalytic activities in metzincin super family. The metzincin super family share a catalytic domain consisting of a twisted five-stranded β sheet and three long α helices (A, B and C). The catalytic zinc is at the bottom of the cleft and is ligated by three His residues in the consensus sequence motif, HEXXHXXGXXH, which is located in helix B and part of the adjacent Met turn region. An interesting question is - what is the minimum portion of the enzyme that still possesses catalytic and inhibitor recognition?” Methods We have expressed a 60-residue truncated form of matrilysin which retains only the helix B-Met turn-helix C region and deletes helix A and the five-stranded β sheet which form the upper portion of the active cleft. This is only 1/4 of the full catalytic domain. The E. coli derived 6 kDa MMP-7 ZBD fragments were purified and refolded. The proteolytic activities were analyzed by Mca-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2 peptide assay and CM-transferrin zymography analysis. SC44463, BB94 and Phosphoramidon were computationally docked into the 3day structure of the human MMP7 ZBD and TAD and thermolysin using the docking program GOLD. Results This minimal 6 kDa matrilysin has been refolded and shown to have proteolytic activity in the Mca-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2 peptide assay. Triton X-100 and heparin are important factors in the refolding environment for this mini-enzyme matrilysin. This minienzyme has the proteolytic activity towards peptide substrate, but the hexamer and octamer of the mini MMP-7 complex demonstrates the CM-transferrin proteolytic activities in zymographic analysis. Peptide digestion is inhibited by SC44463, specific MMP7 inhibitors, but not phosphorimadon. Interestingly, the mini MMP-7 can be processed by autolysis and producing ~ 6 ~ 7 kDa fragments. Thus, many of the functions of the enzyme are retained indicating that the helix B-Met loop-helix C is the minimal functional “domain” found to date for the matrixin family. Conclusions The helix B-Met loop-helix C folding conserved in metalloprotease metzincin super family is able to facilitate proteolytic catalysis for specific substrate and inhibitor recognition. The autolysis processing and producing 6 kDa mini MMP-7 is the smallest metalloprotease in living world. PMID:22642296

  14. Members of the bHLH-PAS family regulate Shh transcription in forebrain regions of the mouse CNS.

    PubMed

    Epstein, D J; Martinu, L; Michaud, J L; Losos, K M; Fan, C; Joyner, A L

    2000-11-01

    The secreted protein sonic hedgehog (Shh) is required to establish patterns of cellular growth and differentiation within ventral regions of the developing CNS. The expression of Shh in the two tissue sources responsible for this activity, the axial mesoderm and the ventral midline of the neural tube, is regulated along the anteroposterior neuraxis. Separate cis-acting regulatory sequences have been identified which direct Shh expression to distinct regions of the neural tube, supporting the view that multiple genes are involved in activating Shh transcription along the length of the CNS. We show here that the activity of one Shh enhancer, which directs reporter expression to portions of the ventral midbrain and diencephalon, overlaps both temporally and spatially with the expression of Sim2. Sim2 encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH-PAS) PAS domain containing transcriptional regulator whose Drosophila homolog, single-minded, is a master regulator of ventral midline development. Both vertebrate and invertebrate Sim family members were found sufficient for the activation of the Shh reporter as well as endogenous Shh mRNA. Although Shh expression is maintained in Sim2(-)(/)(-) embryos, it was determined to be absent from the rostral midbrain and caudal diencephalon of embryos carrying a dominant-negative transgene that disrupts the function of bHLH-PAS proteins. Together, these results suggest that bHLH-PAS family members are required for the regulation of Shh transcription within aspects of the ventral midbrain and diencephalon. PMID:11023872

  15. Inhibitory PAS domain protein is a negative regulator of hypoxia-inducible gene expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makino, Yuichi; Cao, Renhai; Svensson, Kristian; Bertilsson, Göran; Asman, Mikael; Tanaka, Hirotoshi; Cao, Yihai; Berkenstam, Anders; Poellinger, Lorenz

    2001-11-01

    Alteration of gene expression is a crucial component of adaptive responses to hypoxia. These responses are mediated by hypoxia-inducible transcription factors (HIFs). Here we describe an inhibitory PAS (Per/Arnt/Sim) domain protein, IPAS, which is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)/PAS protein structurally related to HIFs. IPAS contains no endogenous transactivation function but demonstrates dominant negative regulation of HIF-mediated control of gene expression. Ectopic expression of IPAS in hepatoma cells selectively impairs induction of genes involved in adaptation to a hypoxic environment, notably the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene, and results in retarded tumour growth and tumour vascular density in vivo. In mice, IPAS was predominantly expressed in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and in corneal epithelium of the eye. Expression of IPAS in the cornea correlates with low levels of expression of the VEGF gene under hypoxic conditions. Application of an IPAS antisense oligonucleotide to the mouse cornea induced angiogenesis under normal oxygen conditions, and demonstrated hypoxia-dependent induction of VEGF gene expression in hypoxic corneal cells. These results indicate a previously unknown mechanism for negative regulation of angiogenesis and maintenance of an avascular phenotype.

  16. Transcriptional regulation of neuropeptide and peptide hormone expression by the Drosophila dimmed and cryptocephal genes.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Sebastien A; Hewes, Randall S

    2006-05-01

    The regulation of neuropeptide and peptide hormone gene expression is essential for the development and function of neuroendocrine cells in integrated physiological networks. In insects, a decline in circulating ecdysteroids triggers the activation of a neuroendocrine system to stimulate ecdysis, the behaviors used to shed the old cuticle at the culmination of each molt. Here we show that two evolutionarily conserved transcription factor genes, the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) gene dimmed (dimm) and the basic-leucine zipper (bZIP) gene cryptocephal (crc), control expression of diverse neuropeptides and peptide hormones in Drosophila. Central nervous system expression of three neuropeptide genes, Dromyosuppressin, FMRFamide-related and Leucokinin, is activated by dimm. Expression of Ecdysis triggering hormone (ETH) in the endocrine Inka cells requires crc; homozygous crc mutant larvae display markedly reduced ETH levels and corresponding defects in ecdysis. crc activates ETH expression though a 382 bp enhancer, which completely recapitulates the ETH expression pattern. The enhancer contains two evolutionarily conserved regions, and both are imperfect matches to recognition elements for activating transcription factor-4 (ATF-4), the vertebrate ortholog of the CRC protein and an important intermediate in cellular responses to endoplasmic reticulum stress. These regions also contain a putative ecdysteroid response element and a predicted binding site for the products of the E74 ecdysone response gene. These results suggest that convergence between ATF-related signaling and an important intracellular steroid response pathway may contribute to the neuroendocrine regulation of insect molting. PMID:16651547

  17. The Transcription Factor Hand1 Is Involved In Runx2-Ihh-Regulated Endochondral Ossification

    PubMed Central

    Laurie, Lindsay E.; Kokubo, Hiroki; Nakamura, Masataka; Saga, Yumiko; Funato, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    The developing long bone is a model of endochondral ossification that displays the morphological layers of chondrocytes toward the ossification center of the diaphysis. Indian hedgehog (Ihh), a member of the hedgehog family of secreted molecules, regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation, as well as osteoblast differentiation, through the process of endochondral ossification. Here, we report that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Hand1, which is expressed in the cartilage primordia, is involved in proper osteogenesis of the bone collar via its control of Ihh production. Genetic overexpression of Hand1 in the osteochondral progenitors resulted in prenatal hypoplastic or aplastic ossification in the diaphyses, mimicking an Ihh loss-of-function phenotype. Ihh expression was downregulated in femur epiphyses of Hand1-overexpressing mice. We also confirmed that Hand1 downregulated Ihh gene expression in vitro by inhibiting Runx2 transactivation of the Ihh proximal promoter. These results demonstrate that Hand1 in chondrocytes regulates endochondral ossification, at least in part through the Runx2-Ihh axis. PMID:26918743

  18. Arabidopsis MYC2 Interacts with DELLA Proteins in Regulating Sesquiterpene Synthase Gene Expression[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Gao-Jie; Xue, Xue-Yi; Mao, Ying-Bo; Wang, Ling-Jian; Chen, Xiao-Ya

    2012-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana flowers emit volatile terpenes, which may function in plant–insect interactions. Here, we report that Arabidopsis MYC2, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, directly binds to promoters of the sesquiterpene synthase genes TPS21 and TPS11 and activates their expression. Expression of TPS21 and TPS11 can be induced by the phytohormones gibberellin (GA) and jasmonate (JA), and both inductions require MYC2. The induction of TPS21 and TPS11 results in increased emission of sesquiterpene, especially (E)-β-caryophyllene. DELLAs, the GA signaling repressors, negatively affect sesquiterpene biosynthesis, as the sesquiterpene synthase genes were repressed in plants overaccumulating REPRESSOR OF GA1-3 (RGA), one of the Arabidopsis DELLAs, and upregulated in a penta DELLA-deficient mutant. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that DELLAs, represented by RGA, directly interact with MYC2. In yeast cells, the N terminus of MYC2 was responsible for binding to RGA. MYC2 has been proposed as a major mediator of JA signaling and crosstalk with abscisic acid, ethylene, and light signaling pathways. Our results demonstrate that MYC2 is also connected to GA signaling in regulating a subset of genes. In Arabidopsis inflorescences, it integrates both GA and JA signals into transcriptional regulation of sesquiterpene synthase genes and promotes sesquiterpene production. PMID:22669881

  19. The Transcriptional Repressor MYB2 Regulates Both Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Proanthocyandin and Anthocyanin Pigmentation in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Jun, Ji Hyung; Liu, Chenggang; Xiao, Xirong; Dixon, Richard A

    2015-10-01

    Accumulation of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) is limited to specific cell types and developmental stages, but little is known about how antagonistically acting transcriptional regulators work together to determine temporal and spatial patterning of pigmentation at the cellular level, especially for PAs. Here, we characterize MYB2, a transcriptional repressor regulating both anthocyanin and PA biosynthesis in the model legume Medicago truncatula. MYB2 was strongly upregulated by MYB5, a major regulator of PA biosynthesis in M. truncatula and a component of MYB-basic helix loop helix-WD40 (MBW) activator complexes. Overexpression of MYB2 abolished anthocyanin and PA accumulation in M. truncatula hairy roots and Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, respectively. Anthocyanin deposition was expanded in myb2 mutant seedlings and flowers accompanied by increased anthocyanin content. PA mainly accumulated in the epidermal layer derived from the outer integument in the M. truncatula seed coat, starting from the hilum area. The area of PA accumulation and ANTHOCYANIDIN REDUCTASE expression was expanded into the seed body at the early stage of seed development in the myb2 mutant. Genetic, biochemical, and cell biological evidence suggests that MYB2 functions as part of a multidimensional regulatory network to define the temporal and spatial pattern of anthocyanin and PA accumulation linked to developmental processes. PMID:26410301

  20. A Conserved Network of Transcriptional Activators and Repressors Regulates Anthocyanin Pigmentation in Eudicots[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Nick W.; Davies, Kevin M.; Lewis, David H.; Zhang, Huaibi; Montefiori, Mirco; Brendolise, Cyril; Boase, Murray R.; Ngo, Hanh; Jameson, Paula E.; Schwinn, Kathy E.

    2014-01-01

    Plants require sophisticated regulatory mechanisms to ensure the degree of anthocyanin pigmentation is appropriate to myriad developmental and environmental signals. Central to this process are the activity of MYB-bHLH-WD repeat (MBW) complexes that regulate the transcription of anthocyanin genes. In this study, the gene regulatory network that regulates anthocyanin synthesis in petunia (Petunia hybrida) has been characterized. Genetic and molecular evidence show that the R2R3-MYB, MYB27, is an anthocyanin repressor that functions as part of the MBW complex and represses transcription through its C-terminal EAR motif. MYB27 targets both the anthocyanin pathway genes and basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) ANTHOCYANIN1 (AN1), itself an essential component of the MBW activation complex for pigmentation. Other features of the regulatory network identified include inhibition of AN1 activity by the competitive R3-MYB repressor MYBx and the activation of AN1, MYB27, and MYBx by the MBW activation complex, providing for both reinforcement and feedback regulation. We also demonstrate the intercellular movement of the WDR protein (AN11) and R3-repressor (MYBx), which may facilitate anthocyanin pigment pattern formation. The fundamental features of this regulatory network in the Asterid model of petunia are similar to those in the Rosid model of Arabidopsis thaliana and are thus likely to be widespread in the Eudicots. PMID:24642943

  1. ULTRAPETALA trxG Genes Interact with KANADI Transcription Factor Genes to Regulate Arabidopsis Gynoecium Patterning[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Monfared, Mona M.; Shemyakina, Elena A.; Fletcher, Jennifer C.

    2014-01-01

    Organ formation relies upon precise patterns of gene expression that are under tight spatial and temporal regulation. Transcription patterns are specified by several cellular processes during development, including chromatin remodeling, but little is known about how chromatin-remodeling factors contribute to plant organogenesis. We demonstrate that the trithorax group (trxG) gene ULTRAPETALA1 (ULT1) and the GARP transcription factor gene KANADI1 (KAN1) organize the Arabidopsis thaliana gynoecium along two distinct polarity axes. We show that ULT1 activity is required for the kan1 adaxialized polarity defect, indicating that ULT1 and KAN1 act oppositely to regulate the adaxial-abaxial axis. Conversely, ULT1 and KAN1 together establish apical-basal polarity by promoting basal cell fate in the gynoecium, restricting the expression domain of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor gene SPATULA. Finally, we show that ult alleles display dose-dependent genetic interactions with kan alleles and that ULT and KAN proteins can associate physically. Our findings identify a dual role for plant trxG factors in organ patterning, with ULT1 and KAN1 acting antagonistically to pattern the adaxial-abaxial polarity axis but jointly to pattern the apical-basal axis. Our data indicate that the ULT proteins function to link chromatin-remodeling factors with DNA binding transcription factors to regulate target gene expression. PMID:25381352

  2. Complement Component 3 Is Regulated by TWIST1 and Mediates Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Soon; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Choi, Hyun-Jin; Noh, Kyunghee; Chen, Jichao; Hu, Qianghua; Sood, Anil K; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid

    2016-02-01

    We have previously shown that complement component 3 (C3) is secreted by malignant epithelial cells. To understand the mechanism of upregulation of C3 expression in tumor cells, we studied the C3 promoter and identified that twist basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor 1 (TWIST1) binds to the C3 promoter and enhances its expression. Because TWIST1 mediates epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), we studied the effect of C3 on EMT and found that C3 decreased E-cadherin expression on cancer cells and promoted EMT. We showed that C3-induced reduction in E-cadherin expression in ovarian cancer cells was mediated by C3a and is Krüppel-like factor 5 dependent. We investigated the association between TWIST1 and C3 in malignant tumors and in murine embryos. TWIST1 and C3 colocalized at the invasive tumor edges, and in the neural crest and limb buds of mouse embryos. Our results identified TWIST1 as a transcription factor that regulates C3 expression during pathologic and physiologic EMT. PMID:26718342

  3. Restricted leucine zipper dimerization and specificity of DNA recognition of the melanocyte master regulator MITF.

    PubMed

    Pogenberg, Vivian; Ogmundsdóttir, Margrét H; Bergsteinsdóttir, Kristín; Schepsky, Alexander; Phung, Bengt; Deineko, Viktor; Milewski, Morlin; Steingrímsson, Eiríkur; Wilmanns, Matthias

    2012-12-01

    Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) is a master regulator of melanocyte development and an important oncogene in melanoma. MITF heterodimeric assembly with related basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors is highly restricted, and its binding profile to cognate DNA sequences is distinct. Here, we determined the crystal structure of MITF in its apo conformation and in the presence of two related DNA response elements, the E-box and M-box. In addition, we investigated mouse and human Mitf mutations to dissect the functional significance of structural features. Owing to an unusual three-residue shift in the leucine zipper register, the MITF homodimer shows a marked kink in one of the two zipper helices to allow an out-of-register assembly. Removal of this insertion relieves restricted heterodimerization by MITF and permits assembly with the transcription factor MAX. Binding of MITF to the M-box motif is mediated by an unusual nonpolar interaction by Ile212, a residue that is mutated in mice and humans with Waardenburg syndrome. As several related transcription factors have low affinity for the M-box sequence, our analysis unravels how these proteins discriminate between similar target sequences. Our data provide a rational basis for targeting MITF in the treatment of important hereditary diseases and cancer. PMID:23207919

  4. In vivo Atoh1 targetome reveals how a proneural transcription factor regulates cerebellar development.

    PubMed

    Klisch, Tiemo J; Xi, Yuanxin; Flora, Adriano; Wang, Liguo; Li, Wei; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2011-02-22

    The proneural, basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Atoh1 governs the development of numerous key neuronal subtypes, such as cerebellar granule and brainstem neurons, inner ear hair cells, and several neurons of the proprioceptive system, as well as diverse nonneuronal cell types, such as Merkel cells and intestinal secretory lineages. However, the mere handful of targets that have been identified barely begin to account for Atoh1's astonishing range of functions, which also encompasses seemingly paradoxical activities, such as promoting cell proliferation and medulloblastoma formation in the cerebellum and inducing cell cycle exit and suppressing tumorigenesis in the intestine. We used a multipronged approach to create a comprehensive, unbiased list of over 600 direct Atoh1 target genes in the postnatal cerebellum. We found that Atoh1 binds to a 10 nucleotide motif (AtEAM) to directly regulate genes involved in migration, cell adhesion, metabolism, and other previously unsuspected functions. This study expands current thinking about the transcriptional activities driving neuronal differentiation and provides a framework for further neurodevelopmental studies. PMID:21300888

  5. Brg1 directly regulates Olig2 transcription and is required for oligodendrocyte progenitor cell specification.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Steven; Banine, Fatima; Feistel, Kerstin; Foster, Scott; Xing, Rubing; Struve, Jaime; Sherman, Larry S

    2016-05-15

    The Olig2 basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor promotes oligodendrocyte specification in early neural progenitor cells (NPCs), including radial glial cells, in part by recruiting SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes to the enhancers of genes involved in oligodendrocyte differentiation. How Olig2 expression is regulated during oligodendrogliogenesis is not clear. Here, we find that the Brg1 subunit of SWI/SNF complexes interacts with a proximal Olig2 promoter and represses Olig2 transcription in the mouse cortex at E14, when oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPCs) are not yet found in this location. Brg1 does not interact with the Olig2 promoter in the E14 ganglionic eminence, where NPCs differentiate into Olig2-positive OPCs. Consistent with these findings, Brg1-null NPCs demonstrate precocious expression of Olig2 in the cortex. However, these cells fail to differentiate into OPCs. We further find that Brg1 is necessary for neuroepithelial-to-radial glial cell transition, but not neuronal differentiation despite a reduction in expression of the pro-neural transcription factor Pax6. Collectively, these and earlier findings support a model whereby Brg1 promotes neurogenic radial glial progenitor cell specification but is dispensable for neuronal differentiation. Concurrently, Brg1 represses Olig2 expression and the specification of OPCs, but is required for OPC differentiation and oligodendrocyte maturation. PMID:27067865

  6. Members of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor family in Petunia are developmentally and environmentally regulated to control complex floral and vegetative pigmentation patterning.

    PubMed

    Albert, Nick W; Lewis, David H; Zhang, Huaibi; Schwinn, Kathy E; Jameson, Paula E; Davies, Kevin M

    2011-03-01

    We present an investigation of anthocyanin regulation over the entire petunia plant, determining the mechanisms governing complex floral pigmentation patterning and environmentally induced vegetative anthocyanin synthesis. DEEP PURPLE (DPL) and PURPLE HAZE (PHZ) encode members of the R2R3-MYB transcription factor family that regulate anthocyanin synthesis in petunia, and control anthocyanin production in vegetative tissues and contribute to floral pigmentation. In addition to these two MYB factors, the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) factor ANTHOCYANIN1 (AN1) and WD-repeat protein AN11, are also essential for vegetative pigmentation. The induction of anthocyanins in vegetative tissues by high light was tightly correlated to the induction of transcripts for PHZ and AN1. Interestingly, transcripts for PhMYB27, a putative R2R3-MYB active repressor, were highly expressed during non-inductive shade conditions and repressed during high light. The competitive inhibitor PhMYBx (R3-MYB) was expressed under high light, which may provide feedback repression. In floral tissues DPL regulates vein-associated anthocyanin pigmentation in the flower tube, while PHZ determines light-induced anthocyanin accumulation on exposed petal surfaces (bud-blush). A model is presented suggesting how complex floral and vegetative pigmentation patterns are derived in petunia in terms of MYB, bHLH and WDR co-regulators. PMID:21235651

  7. A Light-Regulated Genetic Module Was Recruited to Carpel Development in Arabidopsis following a Structural Change to SPATULA[W

    PubMed Central

    Reymond, Mathieu C.; Brunoud, Géraldine; Chauvet, Aurélie; Martínez-Garcia, Jaime F.; Martin-Magniette, Marie-Laure; Monéger, Françoise; Scutt, Charles P.

    2012-01-01

    A key innovation of flowering plants is the female reproductive organ, the carpel. Here, we show that a mechanism that regulates carpel margin development in the model flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana was recruited from light-regulated processes. This recruitment followed the loss from the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SPATULA (SPT) of a domain previously responsible for its negative regulation by phytochrome. We propose that the loss of this domain was a prerequisite for the light-independent expression in female reproductive tissues of a genetic module that also promotes shade avoidance responses in vegetative organs. Striking evidence for this proposition is provided by the restoration of wild-type carpel development to spt mutants by low red/far-red light ratios, simulating vegetation shade, which we show to occur via phytochrome B, PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4), and PIF5. Our data illustrate the potential of modular evolutionary events to generate rapid morphological change and thereby provide a molecular basis for neo-Darwinian theories that describe this nongradualist phenomenon. Furthermore, the effects shown here of light quality perception on carpel development lead us to speculate on the potential role of light-regulated mechanisms in plant organs that, like the carpel, form within the shade of surrounding tissues. PMID:22851763

  8. Nato3 integrates with the Shh-Foxa2 transcriptional network regulating the differentiation of midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Nissim-Eliraz, Einat; Zisman, Sophie; Schatz, Omri; Ben-Arie, Nissim

    2013-09-01

    Mesencephalic dopaminergic (mesDA) neurons originate from the floor plate of the midbrain, a transient embryonic organizing center located at the ventral-most midline. Since the loss of mesDA leads to Parkinson's disease, the molecular mechanisms controlling the genesis and differentiation of dopaminergic progenitors are extensively studied and the identification and characterization of new genes is of interest. Here, we show that the expression of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Nato3 (Ferd3l) increases in parallel to the differentiation of SN4741 dopaminergic cells in vitro. Nato3 transcription is directly regulated by the transcription factor Foxa2, a target and effector of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling cascade. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of Shh signaling downregulated the expression of Nato3, thus defining Nato3 as a novel component of one of the major pathways controlling cell patterning and generation of mesDA. Furthermore, we show that Nato3 regulated Shh and Foxa2 through a novel feed-backward loop. Up- and downregulation of Nato3 further affected the transcription of Nurr1, implicated in the genesis of mesDA, but not of TH. Taken together, these data shed new light on the transcriptional networks controlling the generation of mesDA and may be utilized in the efforts to direct stem cells towards a dopaminergic fate. PMID:23254923

  9. Regulation of the Mechanism of TWIST1 Transcription by BHLHE40 and BHLHE41 in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Asanoma, Kazuo; Liu, Ge; Yamane, Takako; Miyanari, Yoko; Takao, Tomoka; Yagi, Hiroshi; Ohgami, Tatsuhiro; Ichinoe, Akimasa; Sonoda, Kenzo; Wake, Norio; Kato, Kiyoko

    2015-12-01

    BHLHE40 and BHLHE41 (BHLHE40/41) are basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factors that play key roles in multiple cell behaviors. BHLHE40/41 were recently shown to be involved in an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, the precise mechanism of EMT control by BHLHE40/41 remains unclear. In the present study, we demonstrated that BHLHE40/41 expression was controlled in a pathological stage-dependent manner in human endometrial cancer (HEC). Our in vitro assays showed that BHLHE40/41 suppressed tumor cell invasion. BHLHE40/41 also suppressed the transcription of the EMT effectors SNAI1, SNAI2, and TWIST1. We identified the critical promoter regions of TWIST1 for its basal transcriptional activity. We elucidated that the transcription factor SP1 was involved in the basal transcriptional activity of TWIST1 and that BHLHE40/41 competed with SP1 for DNA binding to regulate gene transcription. This study is the first to report the detailed functions of BHLHE40 and BHLHE41 in the suppression of EMT effectors in vitro. Our results suggest that BHLHE40/41 suppress tumor cell invasion by inhibiting EMT in tumor cells. We propose that BHLHE40/41 are promising markers to predict the aggressiveness of each HEC case and that molecular targeting strategies involving BHLHE40/41 and SP1 may effectively regulate HEC progression. PMID:26391953

  10. DEC2 is a negative regulator for the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocyte lineage-committed mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sasamoto, Tomoko; Fujimoto, Katsumi; Kanawa, Masami; Kimura, Junko; Takeuchi, Junpei; Harada, Naoko; Goto, Noriko; Kawamoto, Takeshi; Noshiro, Mitsuhide; Suardita, Ketut; Tanne, Kazuo; Kato, Yukio

    2016-09-01

    Differentiated embryo chondrocyte 2 (DEC2) is a basic helix-loop-helix-Orange transcription factor that regulates cell differentiation in various mammalian tissues. DEC2 has been shown to suppress the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into myocytes and adipocytes. In the present study, we examined the role of DEC2 in the chondrogenic differentiation of human MSCs. The overexpression of DEC2 exerted minimal effects on the proliferation of MSCs in monolayer cultures with the growth medium under undifferentiating conditions, whereas it suppressed increases in DNA content, glycosaminoglycan content, and the expression of several chondrocyte-related genes, including aggrecan and type X collagen alpha 1, in MSC pellets in centrifuge tubes under chondrogenic conditions. In the pellets exposed to chondrogenesis induction medium, DEC2 overexpression downregulated the mRNA expression of fibroblast growth factor 18, which is involved in the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, and upregulated the expression of p16INK4, which is a cell cycle inhibitor. These findings suggest that DEC2 is a negative regulator of the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocyte lineage-committed mesenchymal cells. PMID:27430159

  11. The Transcriptional Repressor MYB2 Regulates Both Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Proanthocyandin and Anthocyanin Pigmentation in Medicago truncatula[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Accumulation of anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PAs) is limited to specific cell types and developmental stages, but little is known about how antagonistically acting transcriptional regulators work together to determine temporal and spatial patterning of pigmentation at the cellular level, especially for PAs. Here, we characterize MYB2, a transcriptional repressor regulating both anthocyanin and PA biosynthesis in the model legume Medicago truncatula. MYB2 was strongly upregulated by MYB5, a major regulator of PA biosynthesis in M. truncatula and a component of MYB-basic helix loop helix-WD40 (MBW) activator complexes. Overexpression of MYB2 abolished anthocyanin and PA accumulation in M. truncatula hairy roots and Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, respectively. Anthocyanin deposition was expanded in myb2 mutant seedlings and flowers accompanied by increased anthocyanin content. PA mainly accumulated in the epidermal layer derived from the outer integument in the M. truncatula seed coat, starting from the hilum area. The area of PA accumulation and ANTHOCYANIDIN REDUCTASE expression was expanded into the seed body at the early stage of seed development in the myb2 mutant. Genetic, biochemical, and cell biological evidence suggests that MYB2 functions as part of a multidimensional regulatory network to define the temporal and spatial pattern of anthocyanin and PA accumulation linked to developmental processes. PMID:26410301

  12. A wheat R2R3-MYB protein PURPLE PLANT1 (TaPL1) functions as a positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Ho; Choi, Myoung-Goo; Kang, Chon-Sik; Park, Chul-Soo; Choi, Sang-Bong; Park, Youn-Il

    2016-01-15

    Transcriptional activation of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in vegetative tissues of monocotyledonous plants is mediated by cooperative activity of one component from each of the following two transcription factor families: MYB encoded by PURPLE PLANT1/COLORED ALEURONE1 (PL1/C1), and basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) encoded by RED/BOOSTER (R1/B1). In the present study, putative PL cDNA was cloned from the wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar Iksan370, which preferentially expresses anthocyanins in coleoptiles. Phylogenetic tree analysis of deduced amino acid sequences showed that a putative TaPL1 is highly homologous to barley (Hordeum vulgare) HvPL1, but is distinct from wheat TaC1. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana stably expressing putative TaPL1 accumulated anthocyanin pigments in leaves and up-regulated structural genes involved in both early and late anthocyanin biosynthesis steps. TaPL1 transcript levels in Iksan370 were more prominent in vegetative tissues such as young coleoptiles than in reproductive tissues such as spikelets. TaPL1 expression was significantly up-regulated by environmental stresses including cold, salt, and light, which are known to induce anthocyanin accumulation. These combined results suggest that TaPL1 is an active positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in wheat coleoptiles. PMID:26692488

  13. Testicular Nuclear Receptor 4 (TR4) Regulates UV Light-induced Responses via Cockayne Syndrome B Protein-mediated Transcription-coupled DNA Repair*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Su; Yan, Shian-Jang; Lee, Yi-Fen; Liu, Ning-Chun; Ting, Huei-Ju; Li, Gonghui; Wu, Qiao; Chen, Lu-Min; Chang, Chawnshang

    2011-01-01

    UV irradiation is one of the major external insults to cells and can cause skin aging and cancer. In response to UV light-induced DNA damage, the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathways are activated to remove DNA lesions. We report here that testicular nuclear receptor 4 (TR4), a member of the nuclear receptor family, modulates DNA repair specifically through the transcription-coupled (TC) NER pathway but not the global genomic NER pathway. The level of Cockayne syndrome B protein (CSB), a member of the TC-NER pathway, is 10-fold reduced in TR4-deficient mouse tissues, and TR4 directly regulates CSB at the transcriptional level. Moreover, restored CSB expression rescues UV hypersensitivity of TR4-deficient cells. Together, these results indicate that TR4 modulates UV sensitivity by promoting the TC-NER DNA repair pathway through transcriptional regulation of CSB. These results may lead to the development of new treatments for UV light-sensitive syndromes, skin cancer, and aging. PMID:21918225

  14. RICE SALT SENSITIVE3 Forms a Ternary Complex with JAZ and Class-C bHLH Factors and Regulates Jasmonate-Induced Gene Expression and Root Cell Elongation[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Yosuke; Tanaka, Maiko; Ogawa, Daisuke; Kurata, Kyo; Kurotani, Ken-ichi; Habu, Yoshiki; Ando, Tsuyu; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Katoh, Etsuko; Abe, Kiyomi; Miyao, Akio; Hirochika, Hirohiko; Hattori, Tsukaho; Takeda, Shin

    2013-01-01

    Plasticity of root growth in response to environmental cues and stresses is a fundamental characteristic of land plants. However, the molecular basis underlying the regulation of root growth under stressful conditions is poorly understood. Here, we report that a rice nuclear factor, RICE SALT SENSITIVE3 (RSS3), regulates root cell elongation during adaptation to salinity. Loss of function of RSS3 only moderately inhibits cell elongation under normal conditions, but it provokes spontaneous root cell swelling, accompanied by severe root growth inhibition, under saline conditions. RSS3 is preferentially expressed in the root tip and forms a ternary complex with class-C basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors and JASMONATE ZIM-DOMAIN proteins, the latter of which are the key regulators of jasmonate (JA) signaling. The mutated protein arising from the rss3 allele fails to interact with bHLH factors, and the expression of a significant portion of JA-responsive genes is upregulated in rss3. These results, together with the known roles of JAs in root growth regulation, suggest that RSS3 modulates the expression of JA-responsive genes and plays a crucial role in a mechanism that sustains root cell elongation at appropriate rates under stressful conditions. PMID:23715469

  15. NeuroD1 mediates nicotine-induced migration and invasion via regulation of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits in a subset of neural and neuroendocrine carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Jihan K.; Guerra, Marcy L.; Gonzales, Joshua X.; McMillan, Elizabeth A.; Minna, John D.; Cobb, Melanie H.

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for acquisition of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). A role has been demonstrated for the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD1 in the pathogenesis of neural and neuroendocrine lung cancer, including SCLC. In the present study we investigate the possible function of NeuroD1 in established tumors, as well as actions early on in pathogenesis, in response to nicotine. We demonstrate that nicotine up-regulates NeuroD1 in immortalized normal bronchial epithelial cells and a subset of undifferentiated carcinomas. Increased expression of NeuroD1 subsequently leads to regulation of expression and function of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit cluster of α3, α5, and β4. In addition, we find that coordinated expression of these subunits by NeuroD1 leads to enhanced nicotine-induced migration and invasion, likely through changes in intracellular calcium. These findings suggest that aspects of the pathogenesis of neural and neuroendocrine lung cancers may be affected by a nicotine- and NeuroD1-induced positive feedback loop. PMID:24719457

  16. The bHLH142 Transcription Factor Coordinates with TDR1 to Modulate the Expression of EAT1 and Regulate Pollen Development in Rice[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Swee-Suak; Li, Min-Jeng; Sun-Ben Ku, Maurice; Ho, Yi-Cheng; Lin, Yi-Jyun; Chuang, Ming-Hsing; Hsing, Hong-Xian; Lien, Yi-Chen; Yang, Hui-Ting; Chang, Hung-Chia; Chan, Ming-Tsair

    2014-01-01

    Male sterility plays an important role in F1 hybrid seed production. We identified a male-sterile rice (Oryza sativa) mutant with impaired pollen development and a single T-DNA insertion in the transcription factor gene bHLH142. Knockout mutants of bHLH142 exhibited retarded meiosis and defects in tapetal programmed cell death. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization analyses showed that bHLH142 is specifically expressed in the anther, in the tapetum, and in meiocytes during early meiosis. Three basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, UDT1 (bHLH164), TDR1 (bHLH5), and EAT1/DTD1 (bHLH141) are known to function in rice pollen development. bHLH142 acts downstream of UDT1 and GAMYB but upstream of TDR1 and EAT1 in pollen development. In vivo and in vitro assays demonstrated that bHLH142 and TDR1 proteins interact. Transient promoter assays demonstrated that regulation of the EAT1 promoter requires bHLH142 and TDR1. Consistent with these results, 3D protein structure modeling predicted that bHLH142 and TDR1 form a heterodimer to bind to the EAT1 promoter. EAT1 positively regulates the expression of AP37 and AP25, which induce tapetal programmed cell death. Thus, in this study, we identified bHLH142 as having a pivotal role in tapetal programmed cell death and pollen development. PMID:24894043

  17. The bHLH Transcription Factor Hand Regulates the Expression of Genes Critical to Heart and Muscle Function in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Hallier, Benjamin; Hoffmann, Julia; Roeder, Thomas; Tögel, Markus; Meyer, Heiko; Paululat, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Hand proteins belong to the highly conserved family of basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factors and are critical to distinct developmental processes, including cardiogenesis and neurogenesis in vertebrates. In Drosophila melanogaster a single orthologous hand gene is expressed with absence of the respective protein causing semilethality during early larval instars. Surviving adult animals suffer from shortened lifespan associated with a disorganized myofibrillar structure being apparent in the dorsal vessel, the wing hearts and in midgut tissue. Based on these data, the major biological significance of Hand seems to be related to muscle development, maintenance or function; however, up to now the physiological basis for Hand functionality remains elusive. Thus, the identification of genes whose expression is, directly or indirectly, regulated by Hand has considerable relevance with respect to understanding its biological functionality in flies and vertebrates. Beneficially, hand mutants are viable and exhibit affected tissues, which renders Drosophila an ideal model to investigate up- or downregulated target genes by a comparative microarray approach focusing on the respective tissues from mutant specimens. Our present work reveals for the first time that Drosophila Hand regulates the expression of numerous genes of diverse physiological relevancy, including distinct factors required for proper muscle development and function such as Zasp52 or Msp-300. These results relate Hand activity to muscle integrity and functionality and may thus be highly beneficial to the evaluation of corresponding hand phenotypes. PMID:26252215

  18. Multiprotein bridging factor 2 regulates the expression of the fibroin heavy chain gene by interacting with Bmdimmed in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhou, C; Zha, X; Shi, P; Wei, S; Wang, H; Zheng, R; Xia, Q

    2016-08-01

    Multiprotein bridging factor 2 (MBF2) was first isolated from the posterior silk gland of Bombyx mori. However, its function in B. mori is still unknown. Herein, MBF2 transcripts were detected mainly in the posterior silk gland and Malpighian tubules of B. mori larvae via a quantitative PCR analysis. An analysis of temporal expression patterns showed that the expression pattern of MBF2 was the opposite of that of the fibroin heavy chain (fibH) gene, as its expression was high during the fourth-instar moulting stage, decreased gradually during the fifth-instar feeding stage and disappeared at the end of the fifth-instar phase. Furthermore, bimolecular fluorescent complementation and Far-Western blot assays showed that MBF2 interacted with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Bmdimmed. Dual luciferase reporter assays showed that MBF2 down-regulated the promoter activity of fibH and inhibited the effect of Bmdimmed (Bmdimm) on fibH expression. MBF2 expression was induced in silk glands after treatment with 20-hydroxyecdysone in vivo and in vitro. These findings suggest that MBF2 is a transcriptional repressor that is involved in controlling the regulation of the fibH gene in the posterior silk gland by interacting with Bmdimm. PMID:27110998

  19. Integrated Expression Profiling and Genome-Wide Analysis of ChREBP Targets Reveals the Dual Role for ChREBP in Glucose-Regulated Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Seok; Kim, Ha-Jung; Han, Jung-Youn; Im, Seung-Soon; Chong, Hansook Kim; Kwon, Je-Keun; Cho, Yun-Ho; Kim, Woo Kyung; Osborne, Timothy F.; Horton, Jay D.; Jun, Hee-Sook; Ahn, Yong-Ho; Ahn, Sung-Min; Cha, Ji-Young

    2011-01-01

    The carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), a basic helix-loop-helix/leucine zipper transcription factor, plays a critical role in the control of lipogenesis in the liver. To identify the direct targets of ChREBP on a genome-wide scale and provide more insight into the mechanism by which ChREBP regulates glucose-responsive gene expression, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing and gene expression analysis. We identified 1153 ChREBP binding sites and 783 target genes using the chromatin from HepG2, a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. A motif search revealed a refined consensus sequence (CABGTG-nnCnG-nGnSTG) to better represent critical elements of a functional ChREBP binding sequence. Gene ontology analysis shows that ChREBP target genes are particularly associated with lipid, fatty acid and steroid metabolism. In addition, other functional gene clusters related to transport, development and cell motility are significantly enriched. Gene set enrichment analysis reveals that ChREBP target genes are highly correlated with genes regulated by high glucose, providing a functional relevance to the genome-wide binding study. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that ChREBP may function as a transcriptional repressor as well as an activator. PMID:21811631

  20. Loss of singleminded-2s in the mouse mammary gland induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition associated with up-regulation of slug and matrix metalloprotease 2.

    PubMed

    Laffin, Brian; Wellberg, Elizabeth; Kwak, Hyeong-Il; Burghardt, Robert C; Metz, Richard P; Gustafson, Tanya; Schedin, Pepper; Porter, Weston W

    2008-03-01

    The short splice variant of the basic helix-loop-helix Per-Arnt-Sim transcription factor Singleminded-2, SIM2s, has been implicated in development and is frequently lost or reduced in primary breast tumors. Here, we show that loss of Sim2s causes aberrant mouse mammary gland ductal development with features suggestive of malignant transformation, including increased proliferation, loss of polarity, down-regulation of E-cadherin, and invasion of the surrounding stroma. Additionally, knockdown of SIM2s in MCF-7 breast cancer cells contributed to an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and increased tumorigenesis. In both Sim2(-/-) mammary glands and SIM2s-depleted MCF7 cells, these changes were associated with increased SLUG and MMP2 levels. SIM2s protein was detectable on the SLUG promoter, and overexpression of SIM2s repressed expression from a SLUG-controlled reporter in a dose-dependent manner. To our knowledge, SIM2s is the first protein shown to bind and repress the SLUG promoter, providing a plausible explanation for the development role and breast tumor-suppressive activity of SIM2s. Together, our results suggest that SIM2s is a key regulator of mammary-ductal development and that loss of SIM2s expression is associated with an invasive, EMT-like phenotype. PMID:18160708

  1. Twist2 promotes kidney cancer cell proliferation and invasion by regulating ITGA6 and CD44 expression in the ECM-receptor interaction pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hao-jie; Tao, Jing; Sheng, Lu; Hu, Xin; Rong, Rui-ming; Xu, Ming; Zhu, Tong-yu

    2016-01-01

    Twist2 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family and plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. Growing evidence has proven that Twist2 is involved in tumor progression; however, the role of Twist2 in human kidney cancer and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of Twist2 in kidney cancer cells and tissues. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration, and invasion assay were analyzed using the Cell Count Kit-8, flow cytometry, wound healing, and Transwell analysis, respectively. In this study, we showed that Twist2 was upregulated in human kidney cancer tissues compared with normal kidney tissues. Twist2 promoted cell proliferation, inhibited cell apoptosis, and augmented cell migration and invasion in human kidney-cancer-derived cells in vitro. Twist2 also promoted tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, we found that the knockdown of Twist2 decreased the levels of ITGA6 and CD44 expression. This result indicates that Twist2 may promote migration and invasion of kidney cancer cells by regulating ITGA6 and CD44 expression. Therefore, our data demonstrated that Twist2 is involved in kidney cancer progression. The identification of the role of Twist2 in the migration and invasion of kidney cancer provides a potential appropriate treatment for human kidney cancer. PMID:27099513

  2. A Steroid Receptor Coactivator Acts as the DNA-binding Partner of the Methoprene-tolerant Protein in Regulating Juvenile Hormone Response Genes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Liu, Pengcheng; Wiley, Jessica D.; Ojani, Reyhaneh; Bevan, David R.; Li, Jianyong; Zhu, Jinsong

    2014-01-01

    Methoprene-tolerant (Met) protein is a juvenile hormone (JH) receptor in insects. JH-bound Met forms a complex with the βFtz-F1-interacting steroid receptor coactivator (FISC) and together they regulate JH response genes in mosquitoes. Both proteins contain basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and PAS motifs. Here we demonstrated that FISC is the obligatory partner of Met for binding to JH-response elements (JHREs). Met or FISC alone could not bind a previously characterized JHRE, while formation of the Met-FISC complex was necessary and sufficient to bind to the JHRE. This binding required participation of the DNA-binding domains of both Met and FISC. The optimal DNA sequence recognized by Met and FISC contained a core consensus sequence GCACGTG. While formation of the Met-FISC complex in mosquito cells was induced by JH, heterodimerization and DNA binding of bacterially expressed Met and FISC were JH-independent, implying that additional mosquito proteins were required to modulate formation of the receptor complex. PMID:25004255

  3. A steroid receptor coactivator acts as the DNA-binding partner of the methoprene-tolerant protein in regulating juvenile hormone response genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng; Liu, Pengcheng; Wiley, Jessica D; Ojani, Reyhaneh; Bevan, David R; Li, Jianyong; Zhu, Jinsong

    2014-08-25

    Methoprene-tolerant (Met) protein is a juvenile hormone (JH) receptor in insects. JH-bound Met forms a complex with the βFtz-F1-interacting steroid receptor coactivator (FISC) and together they regulate JH response genes in mosquitoes. Both proteins contain basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and PAS motifs. Here we demonstrated that FISC is the obligatory partner of Met for binding to JH-response elements (JHREs). Met or FISC alone could not bind a previously characterized JHRE, while formation of the Met-FISC complex was necessary and sufficient to bind to the JHRE. This binding required participation of the DNA-binding domains of both Met and FISC. The optimal DNA sequence recognized by Met and FISC contained a core consensus sequence GCACGTG. While formation of the Met-FISC complex in mosquito cells was induced by JH, heterodimerization and DNA binding of bacterially expressed Met and FISC were JH-independent, implying that additional mosquito proteins were required to modulate formation of the receptor complex. PMID:25004255

  4. DNA binding by the ETS-domain transcription factor PEA3 is regulated by intramolecular and intermolecular protein.protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Greenall, A; Willingham, N; Cheung, E; Boam, D S; Sharrocks, A D

    2001-05-11

    The control of DNA binding by eukaryotic transcription factors represents an important regulatory mechanism. Many transcription factors are controlled by cis-acting autoinhibitory modules that are thought to act by blocking promiscuous DNA binding in the absence of appropriate regulatory cues. Here, we have investigated the determinants and regulation of the autoinhibitory mechanism employed by the ETS-domain transcription factor, PEA3. DNA binding is inhibited by a module composed of a combination of two short motifs located on either side of the ETS DNA-binding domain. A second type of protein, Ids, can act in trans to mimic the effect of these cis-acting inhibitory motifs and reduce DNA binding by PEA3. By using a one-hybrid screen, we identified the basic helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription factor USF-1 as an interaction partner for PEA3. PEA3 and USF-1 form DNA complexes in a cooperative manner. Moreover, the formation of ternary PEA3.USF-1.DNA complexes requires parts of the same motifs in PEA3 that form the autoinhibitory module. Thus the binding of USF-1 to PEA3 acts as a switch that modifies the autoinhibitory motifs in PEA3 to first relieve their inhibitory action, and second, promote ternary nucleoprotein complex assembly. PMID:11278941

  5. Association Between Seed Dormancy and Pericarp Color Is Controlled by a Pleiotropic Gene That Regulates Abscisic Acid and Flavonoid Synthesis in Weedy Red Rice

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xing-You; Foley, Michael E.; Horvath, David P.; Anderson, James V.; Feng, Jiuhuan; Zhang, Lihua; Mowry, Chase R.; Ye, Heng; Suttle, Jeffrey C.; Kadowaki, Koh-ichi; Chen, Zongxiang

    2011-01-01

    Seed dormancy has been associated with red grain color in cereal crops for a century. The association was linked to qSD7-1/qPC7, a cluster of quantitative trait loci for seed dormancy/pericarp color in weedy red rice. This research delimited qSD7-1/qPC7 to the Os07g11020 or Rc locus encoding a basic helix-loop-helix family transcription factor by intragenic recombinants and provided unambiguous evidence that the association arises from pleiotropy. The pleiotropic gene expressed in early developing seeds promoted expression of key genes for biosynthesis of abscisic acid (ABA), resulting in an increase in accumulation of the dormancy-inducing hormone; activated a conserved network of eight genes for flavonoid biosynthesis to produce the pigments in the lower epidermal cells of the pericarp tissue; and enhanced seed weight. Thus, the pleiotropic locus most likely controls the dormancy and pigment traits by regulating ABA and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways, respectively. The dormancy effect could be eliminated by a heat treatment, but could not be completely overcome by gibberellic acid or physical removal of the seed maternal tissues. The dormancy-enhancing alleles differentiated into two groups basically associated with tropical and temperate ecotypes of weedy rice. Of the pleiotropic effects, seed dormancy could contribute most to the weed adaptation. Pleiotropy prevents the use of the dormancy gene to improve resistance of white pericarp cultivars against pre-harvest sprouting through conventional breeding approaches. PMID:21954164

  6. The bHLH/Per-Arnt-Sim transcription factor SIM2 regulates muscle transcript myomesin2 via a novel, non-canonical E-box sequence.

    PubMed

    Woods, Susan; Farrall, Alexandra; Procko, Carl; Whitelaw, Murray L

    2008-06-01

    Despite a growing number of descriptive studies that show Single-minded 2 (Sim2) is not only essential for murine survival, but also upregulated in colon, prostate and pancreatic tumours, there is a lack of direct target genes identified for this basic helix-loop-helix/PAS transcription factor. We have performed a set of microarray experiments aimed at identifying genes that are differentially regulated by SIM2, and successfully verified that the Myomesin2 (Myom2) gene is SIM2-responsive. Although SIM2 has been reported to be a transcription repressor, we find that SIM2 induces transcription of Myom2 and activates the Myom2 promoter sequence when co-expressed with the heterodimeric partner protein, ARNT1, in human embryonic kidney cells. Truncation and mutation of the Myom2 promoter sequence, combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation studies in cells, has lead to the delineation of a non-canonical E-box sequence 5'-AACGTG-3' that is bound by SIM2/ARNT1 heterodimers. Interestingly, in immortalized human myoblasts knock down of Sim2 results in increased levels of Myom2 RNA, suggesting that SIM2 is acting as a repressor in these cells and so its activity is likely to be highly context dependent. This is the first report of a direct SIM2/ARNT1 target gene with accompanying analysis of a functional response element. PMID:18480125

  7. Up-regulation of the Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ Coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) Genes in White Adipose Tissue of Id1 Protein-deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ying; Ling, Flora; Griffin, Timothy M.; He, Ting; Towner, Rheal; Ruan, Hong; Sun, Xiao-Hong

    2014-01-01

    Id1, a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that inhibits the function of basic HLH E protein transcription factors in lymphoid cells, has been implicated in diet- and age-induced obesity by unknown mechanisms. Here we show that Id1-deficient mice are resistant to a high fat diet- and age-induced obesity, as revealed by reduced weight gain and body fat, increased lipid oxidation, attenuated hepatosteatosis, lower levels of lipid droplets in brown adipose tissue, and smaller white adipocytes after a high fat diet feeding or in aged animals. Id1 deficiency improves glucose tolerance, lowers serum insulin levels, and reduces TNFα gene expression in white adipose tissue. Id1 deficiency also increased expression of Sirtuin 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy expenditure, in the white adipose tissue. This effect was accompanied by the elevation of several genes encoding proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation, such as cytochrome c, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and adipocyte protein 2. Moreover, the phenotype for Id1 deficiency was similar to that of mice expressing an E protein dominant-positive construct, ET2, suggesting that the balance between Id and E proteins plays a role in regulating lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. PMID:25190816

  8. Nuclear translocation of Hand-1 acts as a molecular switch to regulate vascular radiosensitivity in medulloblastoma tumors: the protein uPAR is a cytoplasmic sequestration factor for Hand-1.

    PubMed

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Gogineni, Venkateswara Rao; Rao, Jasti S; Velpula, Kiran Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is overexpressed in the tumor-stromal invasive microenvironment in many human cancers, including medulloblastoma. The role of uPAR in tumor progression and angiogenesis has been well characterized. Previously, in medulloblastoma cells, we showed that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced uPAR is a potent activator of cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties and is associated with various transcription factors that are involved during embryonic development and cancer. In the present study, we show that uPAR protein acts as a cytoplasmic sequestration factor for a novel basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Hand-1. The Hand-1 protein plays an essential role in the differentiation of trophoblast giant cells and cardiac morphogenesis, and yet its precise cellular function and its contribution to cancer remain mostly unknown. We also observed that the Hand-1 protein is upregulated in uPAR short hairpin RNA-treated medulloblastoma cells and accompanies sustained cell growth and angiogenesis. Furthermore, IR-induced uPAR overexpression negatively regulates Hand-1 activity and results in the stabilization of angiogenesis-promoting molecules, including hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Finally, uPAR overexpression and its association with Hand-1 after IR treatment indicate that uPAR is capable of regulating Hand-1 and that uPAR has a role in the process of IR-induced tumor angiogenesis. PMID:24623737

  9. Arabidopsis thaliana G2-LIKE FLAVONOID REGULATOR and BRASSINOSTEROID ENHANCED EXPRESSION1 are low-temperature regulators of flavonoid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Petridis, Antonios; Döll, Stefanie; Nichelmann, Lars; Bilger, Wolfgang; Mock, Hans-Peter

    2016-08-01

    Flavonoid synthesis is predominantly regulated at the transcriptional level through the MYB-basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 (MBW) (MYB: transcription factor of the myeloblastosis protein family, WD40: tanscription factor with a short structural motif of 40 amino acids which terminates in an aspartic acid-tryptophan dipeptide) complex, and responds to both environmental and developmental stimuli. Although the developmental regulation of flavonoid accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana has been examined in great detail, the response of the flavonoid synthesis pathway to abiotic stress (particularly low temperature) remains unclear. A screen of a Dissociation element (Ds) transposon-induced mutation collection identified two lines which exhibited an altered profile of phenylpropanoid accumulation following exposure to low-temperature stress. One of the mutated genes (BRASSINOSTEROID ENHANCED EXPRESSION1 (BEE1)) encoded a brassinosteroid enhanced expression transcription factor, while the other (G2-LIKE FLAVONOID REGULATOR (GFR)) encoded a G2-like flavonoid regulator. Phenylpropanoid-targeted analysis was performed using high-performance LC-MS, and gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. In both mutants, the accumulation of quercetins and scopolin was reduced under low-temperature growing conditions, whereas that of anthocyanin was increased. BEE1 and GFR were both shown to negatively regulate anthocyanin accumulation by inhibiting anthocyanin synthesis genes via the suppression of the bHLH (TRANSPARENT TESTA8 (TT8) and GLABROUS3 (GL3)) and/or the MYB (PRODUCTION OF ANTHOCYANIN PIGMENTS2 (PAP2)) components of the MBW complex. Our results provide new insight into the regulatory control of phenylpropanoid metabolism at low temperatures, and reveal that BEE1 and GFR act as important components of the signal transduction chain. PMID:27125220

  10. An RNA Virus-Encoded Zinc-Finger Protein Acts as a Plant Transcription Factor and Induces a Regulator of Cell Size and Proliferation in Two Tobacco Species[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Lukhovitskaya, Nina I.; Solovieva, Anna D.; Boddeti, Santosh K.; Thaduri, Srinivas; Solovyev, Andrey G.; Savenkov, Eugene I.

    2013-01-01

    Plant viruses cause a variety of diseases in susceptible hosts. The disease symptoms often include leaf malformations and other developmental abnormalities, suggesting that viruses can affect plant development. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying virus interference with plant morphogenesis. Here, we show that a C-4 type zinc-finger (ZF) protein, p12, encoded by a carlavirus (chrysanthemum virus B) can induce cell proliferation, which results in hyperplasia and severe leaf malformation. We demonstrate that the p12 protein activates expression of a regulator of cell size and proliferation, designated upp-L (upregulated by p12), which encodes a transcription factor of the basic/helix-loop-helix family sufficient to cause hyperplasia. The induction of upp-L requires translocation of the p12 protein into the nucleus and ZF-dependent specific interaction with the conserved regulatory region in the upp-L promoter. Our results establish the role of the p12 protein in modulation of host cell morphogenesis. It is likely that other members of the conserved C-4 type ZF family of viral proteins instigate reprogramming of plant development by mimicking eukaryotic transcriptional activators. PMID:23482855

  11. Up-regulation of the Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) genes in white adipose tissue of Id1 protein-deficient mice: implications in the protection against diet and age-induced glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ying; Ling, Flora; Griffin, Timothy M; He, Ting; Towner, Rheal; Ruan, Hong; Sun, Xiao-Hong

    2014-10-17

    Id1, a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that inhibits the function of basic HLH E protein transcription factors in lymphoid cells, has been implicated in diet- and age-induced obesity by unknown mechanisms. Here we show that Id1-deficient mice are resistant to a high fat diet- and age-induced obesity, as revealed by reduced weight gain and body fat, increased lipid oxidation, attenuated hepatosteatosis, lower levels of lipid droplets in brown adipose tissue, and smaller white adipocytes after a high fat diet feeding or in aged animals. Id1 deficiency improves glucose tolerance, lowers serum insulin levels, and reduces TNFα gene expression in white adipose tissue. Id1 deficiency also increased expression of Sirtuin 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α, regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy expenditure, in the white adipose tissue. This effect was accompanied by the elevation of several genes encoding proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation, such as cytochrome c, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, and adipocyte protein 2. Moreover, the phenotype for Id1 deficiency was similar to that of mice expressing an E protein dominant-positive construct, ET2, suggesting that the balance between Id and E proteins plays a role in regulating lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. PMID:25190816

  12. Zinc Finger Transcription Factors Displaced SREBP Proteins as the Major Sterol Regulators during Saccharomycotina Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Sarah L.; Wang, Can; Holland, Linda M.; Brunel, François; Neuvéglise, Cécile; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Zavrel, Martin; White, Theodore C.; Wolfe, Kenneth H.; Butler, Geraldine

    2014-01-01

    In most eukaryotes, including the majority of fungi, expression of sterol biosynthesis genes is regulated by Sterol-Regulatory Element Binding Proteins (SREBPs), which are basic helix-loop-helix transcription activators. However, in yeasts such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans sterol synthesis is instead regulated by Upc2, an unrelated transcription factor with a Gal4-type zinc finger. The SREBPs in S. cerevisiae (Hms1) and C. albicans (Cph2) have lost a domain, are not major regulators of sterol synthesis, and instead regulate filamentous growth. We report here that rewiring of the sterol regulon, with Upc2 taking over from SREBP, likely occurred in the common ancestor of all Saccharomycotina. Yarrowia lipolytica, a deep-branching species, is the only genome known to contain intact and full-length orthologs of both SREBP (Sre1) and Upc2. Deleting YlUPC2, but not YlSRE1, confers susceptibility to azole drugs. Sterol levels are significantly reduced in the YlUPC2 deletion. RNA-seq analysis shows that hypoxic regulation of sterol synthesis genes in Y. lipolytica is predominantly mediated by Upc2. However, YlSre1 still retains a role in hypoxic regulation; growth of Y. lipolytica in hypoxic conditions is reduced in a Ylupc2 deletion and is abolished in a Ylsre1/Ylupc2 double deletion, and YlSre1 regulates sterol gene expression during hypoxia adaptation. We show that YlSRE1, and to a lesser extent YlUPC2, are required for switching from yeast to filamentous growth in hypoxia. Sre1 appears to have an ancestral role in the regulation of filamentation, which became decoupled from its role in sterol gene regulation by the arrival of Upc2 in the Saccharomycotina. PMID:24453983

  13. PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORα (PPARα) AGONISTS DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATE INHIBITOR OF DNA BINDING (ID2) EXPRESSION IN RODENTS AND HUMAN CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id2) is a member of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factor family whose members play important roles in cell differentiation and proliferation. Id2 has been linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases since thiazolidinediones,...

  14. Multiscale Simulation of Protein Mediated Membrane Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Ayton, Gary S.; Voth, Gregory A.

    2009-01-01

    Proteins interacting with membranes can result in substantial membrane deformations and curvatures. This effect is known in its broadest terms as membrane remodeling. This review article will survey current multiscale simulation methodologies that have been employed to examine protein-mediated membrane remodeling. PMID:19922811

  15. An ABA down-regulated bHLH transcription repressor gene, bHLH129 regulates root elongation and ABA response when overexpressed in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Hainan; Guo, Hongyan; Dai, Xuemei; Cheng, Yuxin; Zheng, Kaijie; Wang, Xiaoping; Wang, Shucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in modulating plant responses to environmental stresses. Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are one of the largest transcription factor families that regulate multiple aspects of plant growth and development, as well as of plant metabolism in Arabidopsis. Several bHLH transcription factors have been shown to be involved in the regulation of ABA signaling. We report here the characterization of bHLH129, a bHLH transcription factor in Arabidopsis. We found that the expression level of bHLH129 was reduced in response to exogenously applied ABA, and elevated in the ABA biosynthesis mutant aba1-5. Florescence observation of transgenic plants expressing bHLH129-GFP showed that bHLH129 was localized in the nucleus, and transient expression of bHLH129 in protoplasts inhibited reporter gene expression. When expressed in Arabidopsis under the control of the 35S promoter, bHLH129 promoted root elongation, and the transgenic plants were less sensitivity to ABA in root elongation assays. Quantitative RT-PCR results showed that ABA response of several genes involved in ABA signaling, including ABI1, SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6 were altered in the transgenic plants overexpressing bHLH129. Taken together, our study suggests that bHLH129 is a transcription repressor that negatively regulates ABA response in Arabidopsis. PMID:26625868

  16. CjbHLH1 homologs regulate sanguinarine biosynthesis in Eschscholzia californica cells.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Motomura, Yukiya; Sato, Fumihiko

    2015-05-01

    Isoquinoline alkaloids (IQAs), terpenoid indole alkaloid and nicotine are some of the most studied alkaloids. Recently, several groups have reported that the biosynthesis of these alkaloids is regulated by basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. Whereas the biosyntheses of nicotine and terpenoid indole alkaloid in Nicotiana plants and Catharanthus roseus are directly or indirectly regulated by Arabidopsis thaliana MYC2 homologs, a non-MYC2-type bHLH transcription factor, CjbHLH1, comprehensively regulates berberine biosynthesis in Coptis japonica. Interestingly, CjbHLH1 homologous genes were found in many IQA-producing plant species, which suggests that non-MYC2-type CjbHLH homologs are specifically associated with IQA biosynthesis. To test whether CjbHLH1 homologs are involved in the biosynthesis of IQA in a plant other than C. japonica, we isolated two genes homologous to CjbHLH1, i.e. EcbHLH1-1 and EcbHLH1-2, from Eschscholzia californica (California poppy). Stable transformants in which the expression levels of EcbHLH1 genes were constitutively suppressed by RNA interference (RNAi) showed a reduced expression of some IQA biosynthetic enzyme genes. A metabolite analysis confirmed that the suppression of EcbHLH1, particularly EcbHLH1-2, caused a decrease in sanguinarine accumulation in transgenic cultured cells. These results indicate that non-MYC2-type EcbHLH1s regulate IQA biosynthesis in California poppy like CjbHLH1 in C. japonica. PMID:25713177

  17. Cytokinins negatively regulate the root iron uptake machinery in Arabidopsis through a growth-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Séguéla, Mathilde; Briat, Jean-François; Vert, Grégory; Curie, Catherine

    2008-07-01

    Plants display a number of biochemical and developmental responses to low iron availability in order to increase iron uptake from the soil. The ferric-chelate reductase FRO2 and the ferrous iron transporter IRT1 control iron entry from the soil into the root epidermis. In Arabidopsis, expression of IRT1 and FRO2 is tightly controlled to maintain iron homeostasis, and involves local and long-distance signals, as well as transcriptional and post-transcriptional events. FIT encodes a putative basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that regulates iron uptake responses in Arabidopsis. Here, we uncover a new regulation of the root iron uptake genes. We show that IRT1, FRO2 and FIT are repressed by the exogenous addition of cytokinins (CKs), and that this repression acts at the level of transcript accumulation, and depends on the AHK3 and CRE1 CK receptors. The CKs and iron-deficiency signals act through distinct pathways to regulate the soil iron uptake genes, as (i) CK repression is independent of the iron status, (ii) IRT1 and FRO2 downregulation is unchanged in a fit loss-of-function mutant, indicating that FIT does not mediate CK repression, and (iii) the iron-regulated genes AtNRAMP3 and AtNRAMP4 are not downregulated by CKs. We show that root growth-inhibitory conditions, such as abiotic stresses (mannitol, NaCl) and hormonal treatments (auxin, abscissic acid), repress the iron starvation response genes. We propose that CKs control the root iron uptake machinery through a root growth dependent pathway in order to adapt nutrient uptake to the demand of the plant. PMID:18397377

  18. Extracellular and intracellular regulation of oligodendrocyte development: roles of Sonic hedgehog and expression of E proteins.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Caroline R; Davies, Jeannette E; Miller, Robert H

    2002-10-01

    Recent advances in understanding oligodendrocyte development have revealed the importance of both extra- and intracellular molecules in regulating the induction, survival, and proliferation of early oligodendrocyte progenitors. The signaling molecule Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is critical for normal development of oligodendrocytes, although the precise influences of Shh on cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage are unclear. The present study shows that Shh increased the number of oligodendrocyte precursors in both pure cultures of oligodendrocyte precursors and mixed cultures from embryonic rat spinal cord. In pure precursor cultures Shh increased cell survival. In mixed cultures, Shh increased both the survival and proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursors in a concentration dependent manner. One intracellular consequence of exposure to Shh is the activation of transcription factors in oligodendrocyte lineage cells, which are critical for oligodendrocyte development, helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors, Olig1 and 2. In many cases, HLH proteins such as Olig1 and Olig2 heterodimerize with other HLH proteins, such as members of the E subfamily, which are critical regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation. Immature (A2B5(+)) and more mature (O4(+)) rat oligodendrocyte precursors in dissociated cell culture expressed Olig1 as well as E proteins, HEB and E2A. Similarly, cells bearing the morphology of oligodendrocyte precursors expressed both Olig1 and HEB or E2A. We propose that E2A and/or HEB, possibly in combination with Olig1 and 2, are critical components of oligodendrogenesis and may regulate cell survival, proliferation, and fate decisions in the oligodendrocyte lineage. PMID:12237843

  19. Regulation of anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin biosynthesis by Medicago truncatula bHLH transcription factor MtTT8.

    PubMed

    Li, Penghui; Chen, Beibei; Zhang, Gaoyang; Chen, Longxiang; Dong, Qiang; Wen, Jiangqi; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Zhao, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The MYB- basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-WD40 complexes regulating anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin (PA) biosynthesis in plants are not fully understood. Here Medicago truncatula bHLH MtTT8 was characterized as a central component of these ternary complexes that control anthocyanin and PA biosynthesis. Mttt8 mutant seeds have a transparent testa phenotype with reduced PAs and anthocyanins. MtTT8 restores PA and anthocyanin productions in Arabidopsis tt8 mutant. Ectopic expression of MtTT8 restores anthocyanins and PAs in mttt8 plant and hairy roots and further enhances both productions in wild-type hairy roots. Transcriptomic analyses and metabolite profiling of mttt8 mutant seeds and M. truncatula hairy roots (mttt8 mutant, mttt8 mutant complemented with MtTT8, or MtTT8 overexpression lines) indicate that MtTT8 regulates a subset of genes involved in PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis. MtTT8 is genetically regulated by MtLAP1, MtPAR and MtWD40-1. Combinations of MtPAR, MtLAP1, MtTT8 and MtWD40-1 activate MtTT8 promoter in yeast assay. MtTT8 interacts with these transcription factors to form regulatory complexes. MtTT8, MtWD40-1 and an MYB factor, MtPAR or MtLAP1, interacted and activated promoters of anthocyanidin reductase and anthocyanidin synthase to regulate PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis, respectively. Our results provide new insights into the complex regulation of PA and anthocyanin biosynthesis in M. truncatula. PMID:26725247

  20. Cell-Autonomous and Non-Cell-Autonomous Regulation of a Feeding State-Dependent Chemoreceptor Gene via MEF-2 and bHLH Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Winbush, Ari; van der Linden, Alexander M.

    2016-01-01

    Food and feeding-state dependent changes in chemoreceptor gene expression may allow Caenorhabditis elegans to modify their chemosensory behavior, but the mechanisms essential for these expression changes remain poorly characterized. We had previously shown that expression of a feeding state-dependent chemoreceptor gene, srh-234, in the ADL sensory neuron of C. elegans is regulated via the MEF-2 transcription factor. Here, we show that MEF-2 acts together with basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors to regulate srh-234 expression as a function of feeding state. We identify a cis-regulatory MEF2 binding site that is necessary and sufficient for the starvation-induced down regulation of srh-234 expression, while an E-box site known to bind bHLH factors is required to drive srh-234 expression in ADL. We show that HLH-2 (E/Daughterless), HLH-3 and HLH-4 (Achaete-scute homologs) act in ADL neurons to regulate srh-234 expression. We further demonstrate that the expression levels of srh-234 in ADL neurons are regulated remotely by MXL-3 (Max-like 3 homolog) and HLH-30 (TFEB ortholog) acting in the intestine, which is dependent on insulin signaling functioning specifically in ADL neurons. We also show that this intestine-to-neuron feeding-state regulation of srh-234 involves a subset of insulin-like peptides. These results combined suggest that chemoreceptor gene expression is regulated by both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous transcriptional mechanisms mediated by MEF2 and bHLH factors, which may allow animals to fine-tune their chemosensory responses in response to changes in their feeding state. PMID:27487365

  1. The Cardiomyocyte Molecular Clock Regulates the Circadian Expression of Kcnh2 and Contributes to Ventricular Repolarization

    PubMed Central

    Schroder, Elizabeth A.; Burgess, Don E.; Zhang, Xiping; Lefta, Mellani; Smith, Jennifer L.; Patwardhan, Abhijit; Bartos, Daniel C.; Elayi, Claude S.; Esser, Karyn A.; Delisle, Brian P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sudden Cardiac Death (SCD) follows a diurnal variation. Data suggest the timing of SCD is influenced by circadian (~24 hour) changes in neurohumoral and cardiomyocyte-specific regulation of the heart’s electrical properties. Objective The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors BMAL1 and CLOCK coordinate the circadian expression of select genes. We tested whether Bmal1 expression in cardiomyocytes contributes to K+ channel expression and diurnal changes in ventricular repolarization. Methods We utilized transgenic mice that allow for the inducible cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Bmal1 (iCSΔBmal1−/−). We used quantitative PCR, voltage-clamping, promoter-reporter bioluminescence assays, and electrocardiographic (ECG) telemetry. Results Although several K+ channel gene transcripts were downregulated in iCSΔBmal1−/− mouse hearts, only Kcnh2 exhibited a robust circadian pattern of expression that was disrupted in iCSΔBmal1−/− hearts. Kcnh2 underlies the rapidly activating delayed-rectifier K+ current (IKr), and IKr recorded from iCSΔBmal1−/− ventricular cardiomyocytes was ~50% compared to control myocytes. Promoter-reporter assays demonstrated that the human Kcnh2 promoter is transactivated by the co-expression of BMAL1 and CLOCK. ECG analysis showed iCSΔBmal1−/− mice developed a prolongation in the heart rate corrected QT (QTc) interval during the light (resting)-phase. This was secondary to an augmented circadian rhythm in the uncorrected QT interval without a corresponding change in the RR interval. Conclusion The molecular clock in the heart regulates the circadian expression of Kcnh2, modifies K+ channel gene expression and is important for normal ventricular repolarization. Disruption of the cardiomyocyte circadian clock mechanism likely unmasks diurnal changes in ventricular repolarization that could contribute to an increased risk of cardiac arrhythmias/SCD. PMID:25701773

  2. A novel bHLH transcription factor PebHLH35 from Populus euphratica confers drought tolerance through regulating stomatal development, photosynthesis and growth in Arabidopsis

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Yan; Wang, Congpeng; Han, Xiao; Tang, Sha; Liu, Sha; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • PebHLH35 is firstly cloned from Populus euphratica and characterized its functions. • PebHLH35 is important for earlier seedling establishment and vegetative growth. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating growth. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating stomatal development. • PebHLH35 enhances tolerance to drought by regulating photosynthesis and transpiration. - Abstract: Plant basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) are involved in a variety of physiological processes including the regulation of plant responses to various abiotic stresses. However, few drought-responsive bHLH family members in Populus have been reported. In this study, a novel bHLH gene (PebHLH35) was cloned from Populus euphratica. Expression analysis in P. euphratica revealed that PebHLH35 was induced by drought and abscisic acid. Subcellular localization studies using a PebHLH35-GFP fusion showed that the protein was localized to the nucleus. Ectopic overexpression of PebHLH35 in Arabidopsis resulted in a longer primary root, more leaves, and a greater leaf area under well-watered conditions compared with vector control plants. Notably, PebHLH35 overexpression lines showed enhanced tolerance to water-deficit stress. This finding was supported by anatomical and physiological analyses, which revealed a reduced stomatal density, stomatal aperture, transpiration rate, and water loss, and a higher chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate. Our results suggest that PebHLH35 functions as a positive regulator of drought stress responses by regulating stomatal density, stomatal aperture, photosynthesis and growth.

  3. The bHLH Transcription Factors TSAR1 and TSAR2 Regulate Triterpene Saponin Biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Jan; Pollier, Jacob; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Lopez-Vidriero, Irene; Franco-Zorrilla, José Manuel; Goossens, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to stresses by producing a broad spectrum of bioactive specialized metabolites. Hormonal elicitors, such as jasmonates, trigger a complex signaling circuit leading to the concerted activation of specific metabolic pathways. However, for many specialized metabolic pathways, the transcription factors involved remain unknown. Here, we report on two homologous jasmonate-inducible transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix family, TRITERPENE SAPONIN BIOSYNTHESIS ACTIVATING REGULATOR1 (TSAR1) and TSAR2, which direct triterpene saponin biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula. TSAR1 and TSAR2 are coregulated with and transactivate the genes encoding 3-HYDROXY-3-METHYLGLUTARYL-COENZYME A REDUCTASE1 (HMGR1) and MAKIBISHI1, the rate-limiting enzyme for triterpene biosynthesis and an E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls HMGR1 levels, respectively. Transactivation is mediated by direct binding of TSARs to the N-box in the promoter of HMGR1. In transient expression assays in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts, TSAR1 and TSAR2 exhibit different patterns of transactivation of downstream triterpene saponin biosynthetic genes, hinting at distinct functionalities within the regulation of the pathway. Correspondingly, overexpression of TSAR1 or TSAR2 in M. truncatula hairy roots resulted in elevated transcript levels of known triterpene saponin biosynthetic genes and strongly increased the accumulation of triterpene saponins. TSAR2 overexpression specifically boosted hemolytic saponin biosynthesis, whereas TSAR1 overexpression primarily stimulated nonhemolytic soyasaponin biosynthesis. Both TSARs also activated all genes of the precursor mevalonate pathway but did not affect sterol biosynthetic genes, pointing to their specific role as regulators of specialized triterpene metabolism in M. truncatula. PMID:26589673

  4. The bHLH Transcription Factors TSAR1 and TSAR2 Regulate Triterpene Saponin Biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Plants respond to stresses by producing a broad spectrum of bioactive specialized metabolites. Hormonal elicitors, such as jasmonates, trigger a complex signaling circuit leading to the concerted activation of specific metabolic pathways. However, for many specialized metabolic pathways, the transcription factors involved remain unknown. Here, we report on two homologous jasmonate-inducible transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix family, TRITERPENE SAPONIN BIOSYNTHESIS ACTIVATING REGULATOR1 (TSAR1) and TSAR2, which direct triterpene saponin biosynthesis in Medicago truncatula. TSAR1 and TSAR2 are coregulated with and transactivate the genes encoding 3-HYDROXY-3-METHYLGLUTARYL-COENZYME A REDUCTASE1 (HMGR1) and MAKIBISHI1, the rate-limiting enzyme for triterpene biosynthesis and an E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls HMGR1 levels, respectively. Transactivation is mediated by direct binding of TSARs to the N-box in the promoter of HMGR1. In transient expression assays in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) protoplasts, TSAR1 and TSAR2 exhibit different patterns of transactivation of downstream triterpene saponin biosynthetic genes, hinting at distinct functionalities within the regulation of the pathway. Correspondingly, overexpression of TSAR1 or TSAR2 in M. truncatula hairy roots resulted in elevated transcript levels of known triterpene saponin biosynthetic genes and strongly increased the accumulation of triterpene saponins. TSAR2 overexpression specifically boosted hemolytic saponin biosynthesis, whereas TSAR1 overexpression primarily stimulated nonhemolytic soyasaponin biosynthesis. Both TSARs also activated all genes of the precursor mevalonate pathway but did not affect sterol biosynthetic genes, pointing to their specific role as regulators of specialized triterpene metabolism in M. truncatula. PMID:26589673

  5. ChIP-seq and In Vivo Transcriptome Analyses of the Aspergillus fumigatus SREBP SrbA Reveals a New Regulator of the Fungal Hypoxia Response and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Merriman, Brittney; Werner, Ernst R.; Lechner, Beatrix E.; Dhingra, Sourabh; Cheng, Chao; Xu, Wenjie; Blosser, Sara J.; Morohashi, Kengo; Mazurie, Aurélien; Mitchell, Thomas K.; Haas, Hubertus; Mitchell, Aaron P.; Cramer, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The Aspergillus fumigatus sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) SrbA belongs to the basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors and is crucial for antifungal drug resistance and virulence. The latter phenotype is especially striking, as loss of SrbA results in complete loss of virulence in murine models of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA). How fungal SREBPs mediate fungal virulence is unknown, though it has been suggested that lack of growth in hypoxic conditions accounts for the attenuated virulence. To further understand the role of SrbA in fungal infection site pathobiology, chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) was used to identify genes under direct SrbA transcriptional regulation in hypoxia. These results confirmed the direct regulation of ergosterol biosynthesis and iron uptake by SrbA in hypoxia and revealed new roles for SrbA in nitrate assimilation and heme biosynthesis. Moreover, functional characterization of an SrbA target gene with sequence similarity to SrbA identified a new transcriptional regulator of the fungal hypoxia response and virulence, SrbB. SrbB co-regulates genes involved in heme biosynthesis and demethylation of C4-sterols with SrbA in hypoxic conditions. However, SrbB also has regulatory functions independent of SrbA including regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Loss of SrbB markedly attenuates A. fumigatus virulence, and loss of both SREBPs further reduces in vivo fungal growth. These data suggest that both A. fumigatus SREBPs are critical for hypoxia adaptation and virulence and reveal new insights into SREBPs' complex role in infection site adaptation and fungal virulence. PMID:25375670

  6. Functionally Similar WRKY Proteins Regulate Vacuolar Acidification in Petunia and Hair Development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Verweij, Walter; Spelt, Cornelis E; Bliek, Mattijs; de Vries, Michel; Wit, Niek; Faraco, Marianna; Koes, Ronald; Quattrocchio, Francesca M

    2016-03-01

    The WD40 proteins ANTHOCYANIN11 (AN11) from petunia (Petunia hybrida) and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1 (TTG1) fromArabidopsis thalianaand associated basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and MYB transcription factors activate a variety of differentiation processes. In petunia petals, AN11 and the bHLH protein AN1 activate, together with the MYB protein AN2, anthocyanin biosynthesis and, together with the MYB protein PH4, distinct genes, such asPH1andPH5, that acidify the vacuole. To understand how AN1 and AN11 activate anthocyanin biosynthetic andPHgenes independently, we isolatedPH3 We found thatPH3is a target gene of the AN11-AN1-PH4 complex and encodes a WRKY protein that can bind to AN11 and is required, in a feed-forward loop, together with AN11-AN1-PH4 for transcription ofPH5 PH3 is highly similar to TTG2, which regulates hair development, tannin accumulation, and mucilage production in Arabidopsis. Like PH3, TTG2 can bind to petunia AN11 and the Arabidopsis homolog TTG1, complementph3in petunia, and reactivate the PH3 target genePH5 Our findings show that the specificity of WD40-bHLH-MYB complexes is in part determined by interacting proteins, such as PH3 and TTG2, and reveal an unanticipated similarity in the regulatory circuitry that controls petunia vacuolar acidification and Arabidopsis hair development. PMID:26977085

  7. BTB-Kelch protein Krp1 regulates proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Camille W.; Cosgrove, Ruth A.; Drozd, Anja C.; Wiggins, Emma L.; Woodhouse, Sam; Watson, Rachel A.; Spence, Heather J.; Ozanne, Brad W.

    2011-01-01

    The BTB-Kelch protein Krp1 is highly and specifically expressed in skeletal muscle, where it is proposed to have a role in myofibril formation. We observed significant upregulation of Krp1 in C2 cells early in myoblast differentiation, well before myofibrillogenesis. Krp1 has a role in cytoskeletal organization and cell motility; since myoblast migration and elongation/alignment are important events in early myogenesis, we hypothesized that Krp1 is involved with earlier regulation of differentiation. Krp1 protein levels were detectable by 24 h after induction of differentiation in C2 cells and were significantly upregulated by 48 h, i.e., following the onset myogenin expression and preceding myosin heavy chain (MHC) upregulation. Upregulation of Krp1 required a myogenic stimulus as signaling derived from increased myoblast cell density was insufficient to activate Krp1 expression. Examination of putative Krp1 proximal promoter regions revealed consensus E box elements associated with myogenic basic helix-loop-helix binding. The activity of a luciferase promoter-reporter construct encompassing this 2,000-bp region increased in differentiating C2 myoblasts and in C2 cells transfected with myogenin and/or MyoD. Knockdown of Krp1 via short hairpin RNA resulted in increased C2 cell number and proliferation rate as assessed by bromodeoxyuridine incorporation, whereas overexpression of Krp1-myc had the opposite effect; apoptosis was unchanged. No effects of changed Krp1 protein levels on cell migration were observed, either by scratch wound assay or live cell imaging. Paradoxically, both knockdown and overexpression of Krp1 inhibited myoblast differentiation assessed by expression of myogenin, MEF2C, MHC, and cell fusion. PMID:21368295

  8. Juvenile hormone regulates Aedes aegypti Krüppel homolog 1 through a conserved E box motif.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yingjun; Sui, Yipeng; Xu, Jingjing; Zhu, Fang; Palli, Subba Reddy

    2014-09-01

    Juvenile hormone (JH) plays important roles in regulation of many physiological processes including development, reproduction and metabolism in insects. However, the molecular mechanisms of JH signaling pathway are not completely understood. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms of JH regulation of Krüppel homolog 1 gene (Kr-h1) in Aedes aegypti, we employed JH-sensitive Aag-2 cells developed from the embryos of this insect. In Aag-2 cells, AaKr-h1 gene is induced by nanomolar concentration of JH III, its expression peaked at 1.5 h after treatment with JH III. RNAi studies showed that JH induction of this gene requires the presence of Ae. aegypti methoprene-tolerant (AaMet). A conserved 13 nucleotide JH response element (JHRE, TGCCTCCACGTGC) containing canonical E box motif (underlined) identified in the promoter of AaKr-h1 is required for JH induction of this gene. Critical nucleotides in the JHRE required for JH action were identified by employing mutagenesis and reporter assays. Reporter assays also showed that basic helix loop helix (bHLH) domain of AaMet is required for JH induction of AaKr-h1. 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends method identified two isoforms of AaKr-h1, AaKr-h1α and AaKr-h1β, the expression of both isoforms is induced by JH III, but AaKr-h1α is the predominant isoform in both Aag-2 cells and Ae. aegypti larvae. PMID:24931431

  9. Decoding c-Myc networks of cell cycle and apoptosis regulated genes in a transgenic mouse model of papillary lung adenocarcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Ciribilli, Yari; Singh, Prashant; Spanel, Reinhard; Inga, Alberto; Borlak, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The c-Myc gene codes for a basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper transcription factor protein and is reported to be frequently over-expressed in human cancers. Given that c-Myc plays an essential role in neoplastic transformation we wished to define its activity in lung cancer and therefore studied its targeted expression to respiratory epithelium in a transgenic mouse disease model. Using histological well-defined tumors, transcriptome analysis identified novel c-Myc responsive cell cycle and apoptosis genes that were validated as direct c-Myc targets using EMSA, Western blotting, gene reporter and ChIP assays. Through computational analyses c-Myc cooperating transcription factors emerged for repressed and up-regulated genes in cancer samples, namely Klf7, Gata3, Sox18, p53 and Elf5 and Cebpα, respectively. Conversely, at promoters of genes regulated in transgenic but non-carcinomatous lung tissue enriched binding sites for c-Myc, Hbp1, Hif1 were observed. Bioinformatic analysis of tumor transcriptomic data revealed regulatory gene networks and highlighted mortalin and moesin as master regulators while gene reporter and ChIP assays in the H1299 lung cancer cell line as well as cross-examination of published ChIP-sequence data of 7 human and 2 mouse cell lines provided strong evidence for the identified genes to be c-Myc targets. The clinical significance of findings was established by evaluating expression of orthologous proteins in human lung cancer. Taken collectively, a molecular circuit for c-Myc-dependent cellular transformation was identified and the network analysis broadened the perspective for molecularly targeted therapies. PMID:26427040

  10. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DOUBLE-STAINING FOR AH RECEPTOR AND ARNT IN HUMAN EMBRYONIC PALATAL SHELVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and the AhR nuclear translocation protein (ARNT) are helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins involved in transcriptional regulation. olycyclic aromatic halogenated chemicals, of which 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is the most potent, bind ...

  11. Fruit development: new directions for an old pathway.

    PubMed

    Moran, Colin N; Halliday, Karen J

    2010-12-21

    A recent study investigating the molecular mechanisms of seed pod shattering has shown that the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins INDEHISCENT and ALCATRAZ appear to regulate fruit patterning through gibberellic acid (GA)-DELLA signalling, revealing a central role for bHLH family members in GA response specificity. PMID:21172630

  12. Twist2 promotes kidney cancer cell proliferation and invasion via regulating ITGA6 and CD44 expression in the ECM-Receptor-Interaction pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hao-Jie; Tao, Jing; Sheng, Lu; Hu, Xin; Rong, Rui-Ming; Xu, Ming; Zhu, Tong-Yu

    2016-07-01

    Twist2 is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family and plays a critical role in tumorigenesis. Growing evidence proves that Twist2 involves in tumor progression; however, the role of Twist2 in human kidney cancer and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were used to detect the expression of Twist2 in kidney cancer cells and tissues. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, migration and invasion assay was measured by the Cell Count Kit-8 (CCK8), flow cytometry, wound healing and transwell analysis, respectively. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to identify correlation of Twist2 with ECM-Receptor-Interaction pathway. In this report, we show that Twist2 up-regulated in human kidney cancer tissues compared with normal kidney tissues. Twist2 promotes cell proliferation, inhibits cell apoptosis, augments cell migration and invasion in human kidney cancer-derived cell in vitro, and promotes tumor growth in vivo. Moreover, we found that knockdown of Twist2 decreased the levels of ITGA6 and CD44 which contribute to cell migration and invasion correlated with ECM-Receptor-Interaction pathway. This result indicates Twist2 may promote migration and invasion of kidney cancer cells by regulating ITGA6 and CD44 expression. Therefore, our data demonstrated that Twist2 involves in kidney cancer progression. The identification of the role Twist2 on the migration and invasion of kidney cancer provides a potential appropriate treatment after radical nephrectomy to get a better prognosis that reducing recurrence. PMID:27261625

  13. FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3 activates SEPALLATA2 but inhibits CLAVATA3 to regulate meristem determinacy and maintenance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongming; Fu, Xing; Guo, Lin; Huang, Zhigang; Li, Yongpeng; Liu, Yang; He, Zishan; Cao, Xiuwei; Ma, Xiaohan; Zhao, Meicheng; Zhu, Guohui; Xiao, Langtao; Wang, Haiyang; Chen, Xuemei; Liu, Renyi; Liu, Xigang

    2016-08-16

    Plant meristems are responsible for the generation of all plant tissues and organs. Here we show that the transcription factor (TF) FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3 (FHY3) plays an important role in both floral meristem (FM) determinacy and shoot apical meristem maintenance in Arabidopsis, in addition to its well-known multifaceted roles in plant growth and development during the vegetative stage. Through genetic analyses, we show that WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3), two central players in the establishment and maintenance of meristems, are epistatic to FHY3 Using genome-wide ChIP-seq and RNA-seq data, we identify hundreds of FHY3 target genes in flowers and find that FHY3 mainly acts as a transcriptional repressor in flower development, in contrast to its transcriptional activator role in seedlings. Binding motif-enrichment analyses indicate that FHY3 may coregulate flower development with three flower-specific MADS-domain TFs and four basic helix-loop-helix TFs that are involved in photomorphogenesis. We further demonstrate that CLV3, SEPALLATA1 (SEP1), and SEP2 are FHY3 target genes. In shoot apical meristem, FHY3 directly represses CLV3, which consequently regulates WUS to maintain the stem cell pool. Intriguingly, CLV3 expression did not change significantly in fhy3 and phytochrome B mutants before and after light treatment, indicating that FHY3 and phytochrome B are involved in light-regulated meristem activity. In FM, FHY3 directly represses CLV3, but activates SEP2, to ultimately promote FM determinacy. Taken together, our results reveal insights into the mechanisms of meristem maintenance and determinacy, and illustrate how the roles of a single TF may vary in different organs and developmental stages. PMID:27469166

  14. A role for PacMYBA in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinjie; Zhao, Kai; Liu, Linlin; Zhang, Kaichun; Yuan, Huazhao; Liao, Xiong; Wang, Qi; Guo, Xinwei; Li, Fang; Li, Tianhong

    2014-05-01

    The MYB transcription factors and plant hormone ABA have been suggested to play a role in fruit anthocyanin biosynthesis, but supporting genetic evidence has been lacking in sweet cherry. The present study describes the first functional characterization of an R2R3-MYB transcription factor, PacMYBA, from red-colored sweet cherry cv. Hong Deng (Prunus avium L.). Transient promoter assays demonstrated that PacMYBA physically interacted with several anthocyanin-related basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors to activate the promoters of PacDFR, PacANS and PacUFGT, which are thought to be involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. Furthermore, the immature seeds of transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing PacMYBA exhibited ectopic pigmentation. Silencing of PacMYBA, using a Tobacco rattle virus (TRV)-induced gene silencing technique, resulted in sweet cherry fruit that lacked red pigment. ABA treatment significantly induced anthocyanin accumulation, while treatment with the ABA biosynthesis inhibitor nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) blocked anthocyanin production. PacMYBA expression peaked after 2 h of pre-incubation in ABA and was 15.2-fold higher than that of sweet cherries treated with NDGA. The colorless phenotype was also observed in the fruits silenced in PacNCED1, which encodes a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthesis pathway. The endogenous ABA content as well as the transcript levels of six structural genes and PacMYBA in PacNCED1-RNAi (RNA interference) fruit were significantly lower than in the TRV vector control fruit. These results suggest that PacMYBA plays an important role in ABA-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis and ABA is a signal molecule that promotes red-colored sweet cherry fruit accumulating anthocyanin. PMID:24443499

  15. Arabidopsis AtbHLH112 regulates the expression of genes involved in abiotic stress tolerance by binding to their E-box and GCG-box motifs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yujia; Ji, Xiaoyu; Nie, Xianguang; Qu, Min; Zheng, Lei; Tan, Zilong; Zhao, Huimin; Huo, Lin; Liu, Shengnan; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Yucheng

    2015-08-01

    Plant basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play essential roles in abiotic stress tolerance. However, most bHLHs have not been functionally characterized. Here, we characterized the functional role of a bHLH transcription factor from Arabidopsis, AtbHLH112, in response to abiotic stress. AtbHLH112 is a nuclear-localized protein, and its nuclear localization is induced by salt, drought and abscisic acid (ABA). In addition, AtbHLH112 serves as a transcriptional activator, with the activation domain located at its N-terminus. In addition to binding to the E-box motifs of stress-responsive genes, AtbHLH112 binds to a novel motif with the sequence 'GG[GT]CC[GT][GA][TA]C' (GCG-box). Gain- and loss-of-function analyses showed that the transcript level of AtbHLH112 is positively correlated with salt and drought tolerance. AtbHLH112 mediates stress tolerance by increasing the expression of P5CS genes and reducing the expression of P5CDH and ProDH genes to increase proline levels. AtbHLH112 also increases the expression of POD and SOD genes to improve reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability. We present a model suggesting that AtbHLH112 is a transcriptional activator that regulates the expression of genes via binding to their GCG- or E-boxes to mediate physiological responses, including proline biosynthesis and ROS scavenging pathways, to enhance stress tolerance. PMID:25827016

  16. Specificity for the Hairy/enhancer of split basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins maps outside the bHLH domain and suggests two separable modes of transcriptional repression

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, S.R.; Turner, D.L.; Weintraub, H.; Parkhurst, S.M.

    1995-12-01

    This report investigates transcriptional repressors in Drosophila melanogaster and their function in and effect on developmental processes such as sex determination. Details on the mechanism of function of these transcriptional repressors are also discussed. 50 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Mechanics of Protein-Mediated DNA Looping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiners, Jens-Christian

    2009-03-01

    The formation of looped DNA-protein complexes in which a protein or protein assembly binds to multiple distant operator sites on the DNA is a common feature for many regulatory schemes on the transcriptional level. In a living cell, a multitude of mechanical forces and constraints act on these complexes, and it is imperative to understand their effects on biological function. For this aim, we study the lactose repressor as a model system for protein-mediated DNA looping in single-molecule experiments. Using a novel axial constant-force optical trapping scheme that allows us to manipulate sub-micron DNA fragments with well-controlled forces down to the 10 fN range, we show that mechanical tension in the substrate DNA of hundred femtonewton is sufficient to disrupt the loop formation process, which suggests that such mechanical tension may provide a mechanical pathway to controlling gene expression in vivo. From the force sensitivity of the loop formation process, we can also infer the topology of the looped complex; in our case an antiparallel conformation. In addition, we will present new tethered-particle microscopy data that shows lifetimes of the looped complexes that are two to three orders of magnitude shorter than those measured in biochemical competition assays and discuss possible interpretations, including the suggestion that operator binding of the lactose repressor tetramer leads to a destabilization of the dimer-dimer interface and that thus the loop breakdown process is mostly a dissociation of the tetramer into two dimers, instead, as widely assumed, an unbinding of the tetramer from the DNA.

  18. A novel sterol regulatory element-binding protein gene (sreA) identified in penicillium digitatum is required for prochloraz resistance, full virulence and erg11 (cyp51) regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Yuan, Yongze; Wu, Zhi; Li, Na; Chen, Yuanlei; Qin, Tingting; Geng, Hui; Xiong, Li; Liu, Deli

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum is the most destructive postharvest pathogen of citrus fruits, causing fruit decay and economic loss. Additionally, control of the disease is further complicated by the emergence of drug-resistant strains due to the extensive use of triazole antifungal drugs. In this work, an orthologus gene encoding a putative sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) was identified in the genome of P. digitatum and named sreA. The putative SreA protein contains a conserved domain of unknown function (DUF2014) at its carboxyl terminus and a helix-loop-helix (HLH) leucine zipper DNA binding domain at its amino terminus, domains that are functionally associated with SREBP transcription factors. The deletion of sreA (ΔsreA) in a prochloraz-resistant strain (PdHS-F6) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation led to increased susceptibility to prochloraz and a significantly lower EC50 value compared with the HS-F6 wild-type or complementation strain (COsreA). A virulence assay showed that the ΔsreA strain was defective in virulence towards citrus fruits, while the complementation of sreA could restore the virulence to a large extent. Further analysis by quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that prochloraz-induced expression of cyp51A and cyp51B in PdHS-F6 was completely abolished in the ΔsreA strain. These results demonstrate that sreA is a critical transcription factor gene required for prochloraz resistance and full virulence in P. digitatum and is involved in the regulation of cyp51 expression. PMID:25699519

  19. A Novel Sterol Regulatory Element-Binding Protein Gene (sreA) Identified in Penicillium digitatum Is Required for Prochloraz Resistance, Full Virulence and erg11 (cyp51) Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Yuan, Yongze; Wu, Zhi; Li, Na; Chen, Yuanlei; Qin, Tingting; Geng, Hui; Xiong, Li; Liu, Deli

    2015-01-01

    Penicillium digitatum is the most destructive postharvest pathogen of citrus fruits, causing fruit decay and economic loss. Additionally, control of the disease is further complicated by the emergence of drug-resistant strains due to the extensive use of triazole antifungal drugs. In this work, an orthologus gene encoding a putative sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) was identified in the genome of P. digitatum and named sreA. The putative SreA protein contains a conserved domain of unknown function (DUF2014) at its carboxyl terminus and a helix-loop-helix (HLH) leucine zipper DNA binding domain at its amino terminus, domains that are functionally associated with SREBP transcription factors. The deletion of sreA (ΔsreA) in a prochloraz-resistant strain (PdHS-F6) by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation led to increased susceptibility to prochloraz and a significantly lower EC50 value compared with the HS-F6 wild-type or complementation strain (COsreA). A virulence assay showed that the ΔsreA strain was defective in virulence towards citrus fruits, while the complementation of sreA could restore the virulence to a large extent. Further analysis by quantitative real-time PCR demonstrated that prochloraz-induced expression of cyp51A and cyp51B in PdHS-F6 was completely abolished in the ΔsreA strain. These results demonstrate that sreA is a critical transcription factor gene required for prochloraz resistance and full virulence in P. digitatum and is involved in the regulation of cyp51 expression. PMID:25699519

  20. Induction of jasmonate signalling regulators MaMYC2s and their physical interactions with MaICE1 in methyl jasmonate-induced chilling tolerance in banana fruit.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming-Lei; Wang, Jun-Ning; Shan, Wei; Fan, Jia-Geng; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Wu, Ke-Qiang; Li, Xue-Ping; Chen, Wei-Xin; He, Fang-Yuan; Chen, Jian-Ye; Lu, Wang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    MYC2, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, is a key regulator in the activation of jasmonate (JA) response. However, the molecular details of MYC2 involving in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-induced chilling tolerance of fruit remain largely unclear. In the present work, two MYC2 genes, MaMYC2a and MaMYC2b, and one homolog of the inducer of the C-repeat-binding factor (CBF) gene, MaICE1 were isolated and characterized from banana fruit. MaMYC2s and MaICE1 were found to be all localized in the nucleus. In addition, the proline-rich domain (PRD) and the acidic domain (AD) in the N-terminus were important for the transcriptional activation of MaMYC2 in yeast cells. Unlike MaICE1's constitutive expression, MaMYC2a and MaMYC2b were induced rapidly following MeJA treatment during cold storage. Moreover, protein-protein interaction analysis confirmed that MaMYC2s interacted with MaICE1. The expression of ICE-CBF cold-responsive pathway genes including MaCBF1, MaCBF2, MaCOR1, MaKIN2, MaRD2 and MaRD5 was also significantly induced by MeJA. Taken together, our work provides strong evidence that MaMYC2 is involved in MeJA-induced chilling tolerance in banana fruit through physically interacting and likely functionally coordinating with MaICE1, revealing a novel mechanism for ICE1 in response to cold stress as well as during development of induced chilling tolerance. PMID:22651394

  1. Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 mutations W1684R and V1696I alter G protein-mediated regulation of Ca(V)2.1 voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Garza-López, Edgar; Sandoval, Alejandro; González-Ramírez, Ricardo; Gandini, María A; Van den Maagdenberg, Arn; De Waard, Michel; Felix, Ricardo

    2012-08-01

    Familial hemiplegic migraine type 1 (FHM-1) is a monogenic form of migraine with aura that is characterized by recurrent attacks of a typical migraine headache with transient hemiparesis during the aura phase. In a subset of patients, additional symptoms such as epilepsy and cerebellar ataxia are part of the clinical phenotype. FHM-1 is caused by missense mutations in the CACNA1A gene that encodes the pore-forming subunit of Ca(V)2.1 voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Although the functional effects of an increasing number of FHM-1 mutations have been characterized, knowledge on the influence of most of these mutations on G protein regulation of channel function is lacking. Here, we explored the effects of G protein-dependent modulation on mutations W1684R and V1696I which cause FHM-1 with and without cerebellar ataxia, respectively. Both mutations were introduced into the human Ca(V)2.1α(1) subunit and their functional consequences investigated after heterologous expression in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK-293) cells using patch-clamp recordings. When co-expressed along with the human μ-opioid receptor, application of the agonist [d-Ala2, N-MePhe4, Gly-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) inhibited currents through both wild-type (WT) and mutant Ca(V)2.1 channels, which is consistent with the known modulation of these channels by G protein-coupled receptors. Prepulse facilitation, which is a way to characterize the relief of direct voltage-dependent G protein regulation, was reduced by both FHM-1 mutations. Moreover, the kinetic analysis of the onset and decay of facilitation showed that the W1684R and V1696I mutations affect the apparent dissociation and reassociation rates of the Gβγ dimer from the channel complex, suggesting that the G protein-Ca(2+) channel affinity may be altered by the mutations. These biophysical studies may shed new light on the pathophysiology underlying FHM-1. PMID:22549042

  2. C2-Domain Abscisic Acid-Related Proteins Mediate the Interaction of PYR/PYL/RCAR Abscisic Acid Receptors with the Plasma Membrane and Regulate Abscisic Acid Sensitivity in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Lesia; Diaz, Maira; Rodrigues, Americo; Izquierdo-Garcia, Ana C.; Peirats-Llobet, Marta; Fernandez, Maria A.; Antoni, Regina; Fernandez, Daniel; Marquez, Jose A.; Mulet, Jose M.; Albert, Armando; Rodriguez, Pedro L.

    2014-01-01

    Membrane-delimited abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction plays a critical role in early ABA signaling, but the molecular mechanisms linking core signaling components to the plasma membrane are unclear. We show that transient calcium-dependent interactions of PYR/PYL ABA receptors with membranes are mediated through a 10-member family of C2-domain ABA-related (CAR) proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Specifically, we found that PYL4 interacted in an ABA-independent manner with CAR1 in both the plasma membrane and nucleus of plant cells. CAR1 belongs to a plant-specific gene family encoding CAR1 to CAR10 proteins, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that PYL4-CAR1 as well as other PYR/PYL-CAR pairs interacted in plant cells. The crystal structure of CAR4 was solved, which revealed that, in addition to a classical calcium-dependent lipid binding C2 domain, a specific CAR signature is likely responsible for the interaction with PYR/PYL receptors and their recruitment to phospholipid vesicles. This interaction is relevant for PYR/PYL function and ABA signaling, since different car triple mutants affected in CAR1, CAR4, CAR5, and CAR9 genes showed reduced sensitivity to ABA in seedling establishment and root growth assays. In summary, we identified PYR/PYL-interacting partners that mediate a transient Ca2+-dependent interaction with phospholipid vesicles, which affects PYR/PYL subcellular localization and positively regulates ABA signaling. PMID:25465408

  3. C2-domain abscisic acid-related proteins mediate the interaction of PYR/PYL/RCAR abscisic acid receptors with the plasma membrane and regulate abscisic acid sensitivity in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Lesia; Gonzalez-Guzman, Miguel; Diaz, Maira; Rodrigues, Americo; Izquierdo-Garcia, Ana C; Peirats-Llobet, Marta; Fernandez, Maria A; Antoni, Regina; Fernandez, Daniel; Marquez, Jose A; Mulet, Jose M; Albert, Armando; Rodriguez, Pedro L

    2014-12-01

    Membrane-delimited abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction plays a critical role in early ABA signaling, but the molecular mechanisms linking core signaling components to the plasma membrane are unclear. We show that transient calcium-dependent interactions of PYR/PYL ABA receptors with membranes are mediated through a 10-member family of C2-domain ABA-related (CAR) proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Specifically, we found that PYL4 interacted in an ABA-independent manner with CAR1 in both the plasma membrane and nucleus of plant cells. CAR1 belongs to a plant-specific gene family encoding CAR1 to CAR10 proteins, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation and coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that PYL4-CAR1 as well as other PYR/PYL-CAR pairs interacted in plant cells. The crystal structure of CAR4 was solved, which revealed that, in addition to a classical calcium-dependent lipid binding C2 domain, a specific CAR signature is likely responsible for the interaction with PYR/PYL receptors and their recruitment to phospholipid vesicles. This interaction is relevant for PYR/PYL function and ABA signaling, since different car triple mutants affected in CAR1, CAR4, CAR5, and CAR9 genes showed reduced sensitivity to ABA in seedling establishment and root growth assays. In summary, we identified PYR/PYL-interacting partners that mediate a transient Ca(2+)-dependent interaction with phospholipid vesicles, which affects PYR/PYL subcellular localization and positively regulates ABA signaling. PMID:25465408

  4. ATG proteins mediate efferocytosis and suppress inflammation in mammary involution

    PubMed Central

    Teplova, Irina; Lozy, Fred; Price, Sandy; Singh, Sukhwinder; Barnard, Nicola; Cardiff, Robert D.; Birge, Raymond B.; Karantza, Vassiliki

    2013-01-01

    Involution is the process of post-lactational mammary gland regression to quiescence and it involves secretory epithelial cell death, stroma remodeling and gland repopulation by adipocytes. Though reportedly accompanying apoptosis, the role of autophagy in involution has not yet been determined. We now report that autophagy-related (ATG) proteins mediate dead cell clearance and suppress inflammation during mammary involution. In vivo, Becn1+/− and Atg7-deficient mammary epithelial cells (MECs) produced ‘competent’ apoptotic bodies, but were defective phagocytes in association with reduced expression of the MERTK and ITGB5 receptors, thus pointing to defective apoptotic body engulfment. Atg-deficient tissues exhibited higher levels of involution-associated inflammation, which could be indicative of a tumor-modulating microenvironment, and developed ductal ectasia, a manifestation of deregulated post-involution gland remodeling. In vitro, ATG (BECN1 or ATG7) knockdown compromised MEC-mediated apoptotic body clearance in association with decreased RAC1 activation, thus confirming that, in addition to the defective phagocytic processing reported by other studies, ATG protein defects also impair dead cell engulfment.   Using two different mouse models with mammary gland-associated Atg deficiencies, our studies shed light on the essential role of ATG proteins in MEC-mediated efferocytosis during mammary involution and provide novel insights into this important developmental process. This work also raises the possibility that a regulatory feedback loop exists, by which the efficacy of phagocytic cargo processing in turn regulates the rate of engulfment and ultimately determines the kinetics of phagocytosis and dead cell clearance. PMID:23380905

  5. Transcriptome Profiling of Light-Regulated Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in the Pericarp of Litchi.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Na; Li, Wei-Cai; Wang, Hui-Cong; Shi, Sheng-You; Shu, Bo; Liu, Li-Qin; Wei, Yong-Zan; Xie, Jiang-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Light is a key environmental factor that affects anthocyanin biosynthesis. To enhance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in light-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in the pericarp of litchi, we performed transcriptomic analyses on the basis of Illumina sequencing. Fruit clusters were bagged with double-layer Kraft paper bags at 42 days after anthesis. The bags were removed after 2 weeks. Under light conditions, anthocyanins accumulated rapidly in the pericarp. RNA sequences were de novo assembled into 75,935 unigenes with an average length of 913 bp. Approximately 74.5% of unigenes (56,601) were annotated against four public protein databases. A total of 16,622 unigenes that significantly differed in terms of abundance were identified. These unigenes are implicated in light signal perception and transduction, flavonoid biosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis, plant hormone signal transduction, and photosynthesis. In photoreceptors, the expression levels of UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8), Phototropin 2 (PHOT2), Phytochrome B (PHYB), and Phytochrome C (PHYC) increased significantly when the fruits were exposed to light. This result indicated that they likely play important roles in anthocyanin biosynthesis regulation. After analyzed digital gene expression (DGE), we found that the light signal transduction elements of COP1 and COP10 might be responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis regulation. After the bags were removed, nearly all structural and regulatory genes, such as UDP-glucose: flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), and WD40, involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were upregulated. In addition to MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcription complex, ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (HY5), NAM/ATAF/CUC (NAC), homeodomain leucine zipper proteins (ATHBs), and FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (FHY) possibly participate in light-induced responses. On the basis of DGEs and qRT-PCR validation, we observed a light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis

  6. Transcriptome Profiling of Light-Regulated Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in the Pericarp of Litchi

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-Na; Li, Wei-Cai; Wang, Hui-Cong; Shi, Sheng-You; Shu, Bo; Liu, Li-Qin; Wei, Yong-Zan; Xie, Jiang-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Light is a key environmental factor that affects anthocyanin biosynthesis. To enhance our understanding of the mechanisms involved in light-regulated anthocyanin biosynthesis in the pericarp of litchi, we performed transcriptomic analyses on the basis of Illumina sequencing. Fruit clusters were bagged with double-layer Kraft paper bags at 42 days after anthesis. The bags were removed after 2 weeks. Under light conditions, anthocyanins accumulated rapidly in the pericarp. RNA sequences were de novo assembled into 75,935 unigenes with an average length of 913 bp. Approximately 74.5% of unigenes (56,601) were annotated against four public protein databases. A total of 16,622 unigenes that significantly differed in terms of abundance were identified. These unigenes are implicated in light signal perception and transduction, flavonoid biosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis, plant hormone signal transduction, and photosynthesis. In photoreceptors, the expression levels of UV RESISTANCE LOCUS 8 (UVR8), Phototropin 2 (PHOT2), Phytochrome B (PHYB), and Phytochrome C (PHYC) increased significantly when the fruits were exposed to light. This result indicated that they likely play important roles in anthocyanin biosynthesis regulation. After analyzed digital gene expression (DGE), we found that the light signal transduction elements of COP1 and COP10 might be responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis regulation. After the bags were removed, nearly all structural and regulatory genes, such as UDP-glucose: flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT), MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), and WD40, involved in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway were upregulated. In addition to MYB-bHLH-WD40 transcription complex, ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (HY5), NAM/ATAF/CUC (NAC), homeodomain leucine zipper proteins (ATHBs), and FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL (FHY) possibly participate in light-induced responses. On the basis of DGEs and qRT-PCR validation, we observed a light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis

  7. miRNA-342 Regulates CEACAM1-induced Lumen Formation in a Three-dimensional Model of Mammary Gland Morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chunyue; Nguyen, Tung; Shively, John E

    2016-08-01

    Lumen formation of breast epithelium is rapidly lost during tumorigenesis along with expression of cell adhesion molecule CEACAM1. CEACAM1 induces lumena in a three-dimensional culture of MCF7/CEACAM1 cells that otherwise fail to form lumena. We hypothesized miRNAs may be involved because >400 genes were up- or down-regulated in MCF7/CEACAM1 cells and miRNAs may modify global expression patterns. Comparative analysis of miRNA expression in MCF7 versus MCF7/CEACAM1 cells revealed two miRNAs significantly down-regulated (hsa-miR-30a-3p by 6.73-fold and hsa-miR-342-5p by 5.68-fold). Location of miR-342 within an intron of the EVL gene, hypermethylated and involved in tumorigenesis, suggested that miR-342 overexpression may block lumen formation. In fact, overexpression of miR-342 in MCF7/CEACAM1 cells significantly blocked lumen formation (p < 0.001). ID4, a dominant-negative inhibitor of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, up-regulated in MCF7/CEACAM1 cells, down-regulated in breast cancer, and containing a miR-342 binding site, was tested as a potential target of miR-342. The ratio of ID4 to miR-342 increased from 1:2 in MCF7 cells to 30:1 in MCF7/CEACAM1 cells and a miR-342 inhibitor was able to induce 3'-UTR ID4 reporter activity in MCF7 cells. Because 5-methylcytosine methyltransferase DNMT1 is also a potential target of miR-342, we inhibited miR-342 in MCF7 cells and found DNMT1 was up-regulated with no change in EVL expression, suggesting that miR-342 regulates DNMT1 expression but DNMT1 does not affect the EVL expression in these cells. We conclude that the regulation of lumen formation by miR-342 involves at least two of its known targets, namely ID4 and DNMT1. PMID:27302063

  8. miR-342 Regulates BRCA1 Expression through Modulation of ID4 in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Crippa, Elisabetta; Lusa, Lara; De Cecco, Loris; Marchesi, Edoardo; Calin, George Adrian; Radice, Paolo; Manoukian, Siranoush; Peissel, Bernard; Daidone, Maria Grazia

    2014-01-01

    A miRNAs profiling on a group of familial and sporadic breast cancers showed that miRNA-342 was significantly associated with estrogen receptor (ER) levels. To investigate at functional level the role of miR-342 in the pathogenesis of breast cancer, we focused our attention on its “in silico” predicted putative target gene ID4, a transcription factor of the helix-loop-helix protein family whose expression is inversely correlated with that of ER. ID4 is expressed in breast cancer and can negatively regulate BRCA1 expression. Our results showed an inverse correlation between ID4 and miR-342 as well as between ID4 and BRCA1 expression. We functionally validated the interaction between ID4 and miR-342 in a reporter Luciferase system. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that regulation of ID4 mediated by miR-342 could be involved in the pathogenesis of breast cancer by downregulating BRCA1 expression. We functionally demonstrated the interactions between miR-342, ID4 and BRCA1 in a model provided by ER-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line that presented high levels of ID4. Overexpression of miR-342 in these cells reduced ID4 and increased BRCA1 expression, supporting a possible role of this mechanism in breast cancer. In the ER-positive MCF7 and in the BRCA1-mutant HCC1937 cell lines miR-342 over-expression only reduced ID4. In the cohort of patients we studied, a correlation between miR-342 and BRCA1 expression was found in the ER-negative cases. As ER-negative cases were mainly BRCA1-mutant, we speculate that the mechanism we demonstrated could be involved in the decreased expression of BRCA1 frequently observed in non BRCA1-mutant breast cancers and could be implicated as a causal factor in part of the familial cases grouped in the heterogeneous class of non BRCA1 or BRCA2-mutant cases (BRCAx). To validate this hypothesis, the study should be extended to a larger cohort of ER-negative cases, including those belonging to the BRCAx class. PMID:24475217

  9. HEY1 functions are regulated by its phosphorylation at Ser-68.

    PubMed

    López-Mateo, Irene; Arruabarrena-Aristorena, Amaia; Artaza-Irigaray, Cristina; López, Juan A; Calvo, Enrique; Belandia, Borja

    2016-07-01

    HEY1 (hairy/enhancer-of-split related with YRPW motif 1) is a member of the basic helix-loop-helix-orange (bHLH-O) family of transcription repressors that mediate Notch signalling. HEY1 acts as a positive regulator of the tumour suppressor p53 via still unknown mechanisms. A MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis has uncovered a novel HEY1 regulatory phosphorylation event at Ser-68. Strikingly, this single phosphorylation event controls HEY1 stability and function: simulation of HEY1 Ser-68 phosphorylation increases HEY1 protein stability but inhibits its ability to enhance p53 transcriptional activity. Unlike wild-type HEY1, expression of the phosphomimetic mutant HEY1-S68D failed to induce p53-dependent cell cycle arrest and it did not sensitize U2OS cells to p53-activating chemotherapeutic drugs. We have identified two related kinases, STK38 (serine/threonine kinase 38) and STK38L (serine/threonine kinase 38 like), which interact with and phosphorylate HEY1 at Ser-68. HEY1 is phosphorylated at Ser-68 during mitosis and it accumulates in the centrosomes of mitotic cells, suggesting a possible integration of HEY1-dependent signalling in centrosome function. Moreover, HEY1 interacts with a subset of p53-activating ribosomal proteins. Ribosomal stress causes HEY1 relocalization from the nucleoplasm to perinucleolar structures termed nucleolar caps. HEY1 interacts physically with at least one of the ribosomal proteins, RPL11, and both proteins cooperate in the inhibition of MDM2-mediated p53 degradation resulting in a synergistic positive effect on p53 transcriptional activity. HEY1 itself also interacts directly with MDM2 and it is subjected to MDM2-mediated degradation. Simulation of HEY1 Ser-68 phosphorylation prevents its interaction with p53, RPL11 and MDM2 and abolishes HEY1 migration to nucleolar caps upon ribosomal stress. Our findings uncover a novel mechanism for cross-talk between Notch signalling and nucleolar stress. PMID:27129302

  10. Two LcbHLH Transcription Factors Interacting with LcMYB1 in Regulating Late Structural Genes of Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Nicotiana and Litchi chinensis During Anthocyanin Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Biao; Du, Li-Na; Liu, Rui; Hu, Bing; Su, Wen-Bing; Qin, Yong-Hua; Zhao, Jie-Tang; Wang, Hui-Cong; Hu, Gui-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Anthocyanin biosynthesis requires the MYB-bHLH-WD40 protein complex to activate the late biosynthetic genes. LcMYB1 was thought to act as key regulator in anthocyanin biosynthesis of litchi. However, basic helix-loop-helix proteins (bHLHs) as partners have not been identified yet. The present study describes the functional characterization of three litchi bHLH candidate anthocyanin regulators, LcbHLH1, LcbHLH2, and LcbHLH3. Although these three litchi bHLHs phylogenetically clustered with bHLH proteins involved in anthcoyanin biosynthesis in other plant, only LcbHLH1 and LcbHLH3 were found to localize in the nucleus and physically interact with LcMYB1. The transcription levels of all these bHLHs were not coordinated with anthocyanin accumulation in different tissues and during development. However, when co-infiltrated with LcMYB1, both LcbHLH1 and LcbHLH3 enhanced anthocyanin accumulation in tobacco leaves with LcbHLH3 being the best inducer. Significant accumulation of anthocyanins in leaves transformed with the combination of LcMYB1 and LcbHLH3 were noticed, and this was associated with the up-regulation of two tobacco endogenous bHLH regulators, NtAn1a and NtAn1b, and late structural genes, like NtDFR and NtANS. Significant activity of the ANS promoter was observed in transient expression assays either with LcMYB1-LcbHLH1 or LcMYB1-LcbHLH3, while only minute activity was detected after transformation with only LcMYB1. In contrast, no activity was measured after induction with the combination of LcbHLH2 and LcMYB1. Higher DFR expression was also oberseved in paralleling with higher anthocyanins in co-transformed lines. LcbHLH1 and LcbHLH3 are essential partner of LcMYB1 in regulating the anthocyanin production in tobacco and probably also in litchi. The LcMYB1-LcbHLH complex enhanced anthocyanin accumulation may associate with activating the transcription of DFR and ANS. PMID:26925082

  11. Functional characterization of ETV6 and ETV6/CBFA2 in the regulation of the MCSFR proximal promoter.

    PubMed

    Fears, S; Gavin, M; Zhang, D E; Hetherington, C; Ben-David, Y; Rowley, J D; Nucifora, G

    1997-03-01

    The ETV6/CBFA2 (TEL/AML1) fusion gene occurs as a result of the chromosome translocation t(12;21)(p13;q22) in up to 30% of children diagnosed with B cell precursor (cd10+, cd19+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemic cells that have acquired the t(12;21) usually demonstrate loss of the remaining normal ETV6 (TEL) allele. Using reporter gene assays we have functionally characterized both the normal ETV6 and ETV6/CBFA2 fusion proteins in the regulation of the MCSFR proximal promoter. Neither ETV6 or ETV6/CBFA2 has any significant, detectable effect on the promoter by itself. However, both ETV6 and ETV6/CBFA2 inhibit the activation of the promoter by CBFA2B(AML1B) and C/EBPa. We have shown that a 29-bp region of the MCSFR promoter containing the binding sites for CBFA2B and C/EBPa is sufficient for the inhibition by ETV6 and ETV6/CBFA2. Mutational analysis of the MCSFR promoter revealed that binding of both CBFA2B and C/EBPa to their respective sites is necessary for the inhibition by ETV6 and ETV6/CBFA2. Deletion of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) region from the cDNAs of ETV6 and ETV6/CBFA2 decreased but did not completely abrogate the ability of either construct to inhibit promoter activation. We also found that the ETS DNA binding region of ETV6 is necessary for inhibition of the promoter. Addition of ETS1 and FLI1, two ETS family members that have homology in the 5' HLH region, but not Spi1, an ETS family member without the 5' HLH region, also inhibited reporter gene expression. Our data show that the inhibition mediated by ETV6 and ETV6/CBFA2, in the context of the MCSFR promoter, depend on interactions with other proteins, not just CBFA2B. Our results also indicate that the transactivation characteristics of ETV6/CBFA2 are a combination of positive and negative regulatory properties. PMID:9050885

  12. Coronary Artery Disease Associated Transcription Factor TCF21 Regulates Smooth Muscle Precursor Cells That Contribute to the Fibrous Cap

    PubMed Central

    Raiesdana, Azad; Kundu, Ramendra; Miller, Clint L.; Kim, Juyong B.; Arora, Komal; Carcamo-Oribe, Ivan; Xiong, Yiqin; Tellakula, Nikhil; Nanda, Vivek; Murthy, Nikitha; Boisvert, William A.; Hedin, Ulf; Perisic, Ljubica; Aldi, Silvia; Maegdefessel, Lars; Pjanic, Milos; Owens, Gary K.; Tallquist, Michelle D.; Quertermous, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Recent genome wide association studies have identified a number of genes that contribute to the risk for coronary heart disease. One such gene, TCF21, encodes a basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor believed to serve a critical role in the development of epicardial progenitor cells that give rise to coronary artery smooth muscle cells (SMC) and cardiac fibroblasts. Using reporter gene and immunolocalization studies with mouse and human tissues we have found that vascular TCF21 expression in the adult is restricted primarily to adventitial cells associated with coronary arteries and also medial SMC in the proximal aorta of mouse. Genome wide RNA-Seq studies in human coronary artery SMC (HCASMC) with siRNA knockdown found a number of putative TCF21 downstream pathways identified by enrichment of terms related to CAD, including “vascular disease,” “disorder of artery,” and “occlusion of artery,” as well as disease-related cellular functions including “cellular movement” and “cellular growth and proliferation.” In vitro studies in HCASMC demonstrated that TCF21 expression promotes proliferation and migration and inhibits SMC lineage marker expression. Detailed in situ expression studies with reporter gene and lineage tracing revealed that vascular wall cells expressing Tcf21 before disease initiation migrate into vascular lesions of ApoE-/- and Ldlr-/- mice. While Tcf21 lineage traced cells are distributed throughout the early lesions, in mature lesions they contribute to the formation of a subcapsular layer of cells, and others become associated with the fibrous cap. The lineage traced fibrous cap cells activate expression of SMC markers and growth factor receptor genes. Taken together, these data suggest that TCF21 may have a role regulating the differentiation state of SMC precursor cells that migrate into vascular lesions and contribute to the fibrous cap and more broadly, in view of the association of this gene with human CAD, provide

  13. TabHLH1, a bHLH-type transcription factor gene in wheat, improves plant tolerance to Pi and N deprivation via regulation of nutrient transporter gene transcription and ROS homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tongren; Hao, Lin; Yao, Sufei; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Lu, Wenjing; Xiao, Kai

    2016-07-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors (TFs) comprise a large TF family and act as crucial regulators in various biological processes in plants. Here, we report the functional characterization of TabHLH1, a bHLH TF member in wheat (Triticum aestivum). TabHLH1 shares conserved bHLH domain and targets to nucleus with transactivation activity. Upon Pi and N deprivation, the expression of TabHLH1 was up-regulated in roots and leaves, showing a pattern to be gradually increased within 23-h treatment regimes. The lines with overexpression of TabHLH1 exhibited drastically improved tolerance to Pi and N deprivation, showing larger plant phenotype, more biomass, higher concentration and more accumulation of P and N than wild type (WT) upon the Pi- and N-starvation stresses. NtPT1 and NtNRT2.2, the genes encoding phosphate transporter (PT) and nitrate transporter (NRT) in tobacco, respectively, showed up-regulated expression in TabHLH1-overexpressing plants; knockdown expression of them led to deteriorated growth feature, lowered biomass, and decreased nutrient accumulation of plants under Pi- and N-deficient conditions. Compared with WT, the TabHLH1-overexpressing plants also showed lowered reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and improved antioxidant enzyme (AE) activities, such as those of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD). NtSOD1, NtCAT1, and NtPOD1;6 that encode SOD, CAT, and POD, respectively, were up-regulated in TabHLH1-overexpressing plants. Further knockdown of these AE gene expression caused reduced antioxidant enzymatic activities, indicative of their crucial roles in mediating cellular ROS homeostasis in Pi- and N-starvation conditions. Together, TabHLH1 plays an important role in mediating adaptation to the Pi- and N-starvation stresses through transcriptional regulation of a set of genes encoding PT, NRT and AEs that mediate the taken up of Pi and N and the cellular homeostasis of ROS initiated by the nutrient

  14. ABC-F Proteins Mediate Antibiotic Resistance through Ribosomal Protection

    PubMed Central

    Sharkey, Liam K. R.; Edwards, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Members of the ABC-F subfamily of ATP-binding cassette proteins mediate resistance to a broad array of clinically important antibiotic classes that target the ribosome of Gram-positive pathogens. The mechanism by which these proteins act has been a subject of long-standing controversy, with two competing hypotheses each having gained considerable support: antibiotic efflux versus ribosomal protection. Here, we report on studies employing a combination of bacteriological and biochemical techniques to unravel the mechanism of resistance of these proteins, and provide several lines of evidence that together offer clear support to the ribosomal protection hypothesis. Of particular note, we show that addition of purified ABC-F proteins to an in vitro translation assay prompts dose-dependent rescue of translation, and demonstrate that such proteins are capable of displacing antibiotic from the ribosome in vitro. To our knowledge, these experiments constitute the first direct evidence that ABC-F proteins mediate antibiotic resistance through ribosomal protection. PMID:27006457

  15. Jasmonic acid promotes degreening via MYC2/3/4- and ANAC019/055/072-mediated regulation of major chlorophyll catabolic genes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Junyi; Xie, Zuokun; Gao, Jiong; Ren, Guodong; Gao, Shan; Zhou, Xin; Kuai, Benke

    2015-11-01

    Degreening caused by rapid chlorophyll (Chl) degradation is a characteristic event during green organ senescence or maturation. Pheophorbide a oxygenase gene (PAO) encodes a key enzyme of Chl degradation, yet its transcriptional regulation remains largely unknown. Using yeast one-hybrid screening, coupled with in vitro and in vivo assays, we revealed that Arabidopsis MYC2/3/4 basic helix-loop-helix proteins directly bind to PAO promoter. Overexpression of the MYCs significantly enhanced the transcriptional activity of PAO promoter in Arabidopsis protoplasts, and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment greatly induced PAO expression in wild-type Arabidopsis plants, but the induction was abolished in myc2 myc3 myc4. In addition, MYC2/3/4 proteins could promote the expression of another Chl catabolic enzyme gene, NYC1, as well as a key regulatory gene of Chl degradation, NYE1/SGR1, by directly binding to their promoters. More importantly, the myc2 myc3 myc4 triple mutant showed a severe stay-green phenotype, whereas the lines overexpressing the MYCs showed accelerated leaf yellowing upon MeJA treatment. These results suggest that MYC2/3/4 proteins may mediate jasmonic acid (JA)-induced Chl degradation by directly activating these Chl catabolic genes (CCGs). Three NAC family proteins, ANAC019/055/072, downstream from MYC2/3/4 proteins, could also directly promote the expression of a similar set of CCGs (NYE1/SGR1, NYE2/SGR2 and NYC1) during Chl degradation. In particular, anac019 anac055 anac072 triple mutant displayed a severe stay-green phenotype after MeJA treatment. Finally, we revealed that MYC2 and ANAC019 may interact with each other and synergistically enhance NYE1 expression. Together, our study reveals a hierarchical and coordinated regulatory network of JA-induced Chl degradation. PMID:26407000

  16. Functional antagonism between inhibitor of DNA binding (Id) and adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1/sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (ADD1/SREBP-1c) trans-factors for the regulation of fatty acid synthase promoter in adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Moldes, M; Boizard, M; Liepvre, X L; Fève, B; Dugail, I; Pairault, J

    1999-01-01

    We show that Id (inhibitor of DNA binding) 2 and Id3, dominant negative members of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) family, interact with the adipocyte determination and differentiation factor 1 (ADD1)/sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1c, a transcription factor of the basic HLH-leucine zipper family that controls the expression of several key genes of adipose metabolism. Gel mobility-shift assays performed with in vitro-translated ADD1, Id2 or Id3 proteins and a fatty acid synthase (FAS) promoter oligonucleotide showed evidence for a marked inhibition of the formation of DNA-ADD1 complexes by Id2 or Id3 proteins. Co-immunoprecipitation studies using in vitro-translated proteins demonstrated further the physical interaction of Id and ADD1/SREBP-1c proteins in the absence of DNA. Using the FAS gene as a model of an ADD1-regulated promoter in transiently transfected isolated rat adipocytes or mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, a potent inhibition of the activity of the FAS-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene was observed by overexpression of Id2 or Id3. Reciprocally, co-transfection of Id3 antisense and ADD1 expression vectors in preadipocytes potentiated the ADD1/SREBP-1c effect on the FAS promoter activity. Finally, in the non adipogenic NIH-3T3 cell line, most of the ADD1-mediated trans-activation of the FAS promoter was counteracted by co-transfection of Id2 or Id3 expression vectors. Previous studies have indicated Id gene expression to be down-regulated during adipogenesis [Moldes, Lasnier, Fève, Pairault and Djian (1997) Mol. Cell. Biol. 17, 1796-1804]. We here demonstrated that there was a dramatic rise of Id2 and Id3 mRNA levels when 3T3-L1 adipocytes or isolated rat fat cells were exposed to lipolytic and anti-lipogenic agents, forskolin and isoproterenol. Taken together, our data show that Id products are functionally involved in modulating ADD1/SREBP-1c transcriptional activity, and thus lipogenesis in adipocytes. PMID:10585876

  17. Armet is an effector protein mediating aphid-plant interactions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Dai, Huaien; Zhang, Yi; Chandrasekar, Raman; Luo, Lan; Hiromasa, Yasuaki; Sheng, Changzhong; Peng, Gongxin; Chen, Shaoliang; Tomich, John M; Reese, John; Edwards, Owain; Kang, Le; Reeck, Gerald; Cui, Feng

    2015-05-01

    Aphid saliva is predicted to contain proteins that modulate plant defenses and facilitate feeding. Armet is a well-characterized bifunctional protein in mammalian systems. Here we report a new role of Armet, namely as an effector protein in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Pea aphid Armet's physical and chemical properties and its intracellular role are comparable to those reported for mammalian Armets. Uniquely, we detected Armet in aphid watery saliva and in the phloem sap of fava beans fed on by aphids. Armet's transcript level is several times higher in the salivary gland when aphids feed on bean plants than when they feed on an artificial diet. Knockdown of the Armet transcript by RNA interference disturbs aphid feeding behavior on fava beans measured by the electrical penetration graph technique and leads to a shortened life span. Inoculation of pea aphid Armet protein into tobacco leaves induced a transcriptional response that included pathogen-responsive genes. The data suggest that Armet is an effector protein mediating aphid-plant interactions. PMID:25678626

  18. Prostacyclin-induced hyperthermia - Implication of a protein mediator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandasamy, S. B.; Williams, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of the prostacyclin-linked hyperthermia is studied in rabbits. Results show that intracerebroventricular administration of prostacyclin (PGI2) induces dose-related hyperthermia at room temperature (21 C), as well as at low (4 C) and high (30 C) ambient temperatures. It is found that this PGI2-induced hyperthermia is not mediated by its stable metabolite 6-keto prostaglandin F-1(alpha). Only one of the three anion transport systems, the liver transport system, appears to be important to the central inactivation of pyrogen, prostaglandin E2, and PGI2. Phenoxybenzamine and pimozide have no thermolytic effect on PGI2-induced hyperthermia, while PGI2 still induces hyperthermia after norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine levels are depleted by 6-hydroxydopamine. Indomethacin and SC-19220 (a PG antagonist) do not antagonize PGI2 induced hyperthermia, while theophylline does not accentuate the PGI2-induced hyperthermia. However, the hyperthermic response to PGI2 is attenuated by central administration of the protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin. It is concluded that PGI2-induced hyperthermia is not induced by NE, dopamine, or cyclic AMP, but rather that a protein mediator is implicated in the induction of fever by PG12.

  19. A bile‐inducible membrane protein mediates bifidobacterial bile resistance

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Lorena; O'Connell‐Motherway, Mary; Zomer, Aldert; de los Reyes‐Gavilán, Clara G.; Margolles, Abelardo; van Sinderen, Douwe

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bbr_0838 from Bifidobacterium breve UCC2003 is predicted to encode a 683 residue membrane protein, containing both a permease domain that displays similarity to transporters belonging to the major facilitator superfamily, as well as a CBS (cystathionine beta synthase) domain. The high level of similarity to bile efflux pumps from other bifidobacteria suggests a significant and general role for Bbr_0838 in bile tolerance. Bbr_0838 transcription was shown to be monocistronic and strongly induced upon exposure to bile. Further analysis delineated the transcriptional start site and the minimal region required for promoter activity and bile regulation. Insertional inactivation of Bbr_0838 in B. breve UCC2003 resulted in a strain, UCC2003:838800, which exhibited reduced survival upon cholate exposure as compared with the parent strain, a phenotype that was reversed when a functional, plasmid‐encoded Bbr_0838 gene was introduced into UCC2003:838800. Transcriptome analysis of UCC2003:838800 grown in the presence or absence of bile demonstrated that transcription of Bbr_0832, which is predicted to encode a macrolide efflux transporter gene, was significantly increased in the presence of bile, representing a likely compensatory mechanism for bile removal in the absence of Bbr_0838. This study represents the first in‐depth analysis of a bile‐inducible locus in bifidobacteria, identifying a key gene relevant for bifidobacterial bile tolerance. PMID:22296641

  20. The “Sharp” blade against HIF-mediated metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Amelio, Ivano; Melino, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) control cellular adaptation to oxygen deprivation. Cancer cells engage HIFs to sustain their growth in adverse conditions, thus promoting a cellular reprograming that includes metabolism, proliferation, survival and mobility. HIFs overexpression in human cancer biopsies correlates with high metastasis and mortality. A recent report has elucidated a novel mechanism for HIFs regulation in triple-negative breast cancer. Specifically, the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), Sharp-1, serves HIF1α to the proteasome and promotes its O2-indendpendet degradation, counteracting HIF-mediated metastasis. These findings shed light on how HIFs are manipulated during cancer pathogenesis. PMID:23187809

  1. ID Proteins Regulate Diverse Aspects of Cancer Progression and Provide Novel Therapeutic Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Radhika; Teo, Wee Siang; Mittal, Vivek; Swarbrick, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The inhibitor of differentiation (ID) proteins are helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressors with established roles in stem cell self-renewal, lineage commitment, and niche interactions. While deregulated expression of ID proteins in cancer was identified more than a decade ago, emerging evidence has revealed a central role for ID proteins in neoplastic progression of multiple tumor types that often mirrors their function in physiological stem and progenitor cells. ID proteins are required for the maintenance of cancer stem cells, self-renewal, and proliferation in a range of malignancies. Furthermore, ID proteins promote metastatic dissemination through their role in remodeling the tumor microenvironment and by promoting tumor-associated endothelial progenitor cell proliferation and mobilization. Here, we discuss the latest findings in this area and the clinical opportunities that they provide. PMID:24827908

  2. HEB associates with PRC2 and SMAD2/3 to regulate developmental fates.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Se-Jin; Foley, Joseph W; Baker, Julie C

    2015-01-01

    In embryonic stem cells, extracellular signals are required to derepress developmental promoters to drive lineage specification, but the proteins involved in connecting extrinsic cues to relaxation of chromatin remain unknown. We demonstrate that the helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein, HEB, directly associates with the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) at a subset of developmental promoters, including at genes involved in mesoderm and endoderm specification and at the Hox and Fox gene families. While we show that depletion of HEB does not affect mouse ESCs, it does cause premature differentiation after exposure to Activin. Further, we find that HEB deposition at developmental promoters is dependent upon PRC2 and independent of Nodal, whereas HEB association with SMAD2/3 elements is dependent of Nodal, but independent of PRC2. We suggest that HEB is a fundamental link between Nodal signalling, the derepression of a specific class of poised promoters during differentiation, and lineage specification in mouse ESCs. PMID:25775035

  3. Epigenetic regulation of puberty via Zinc finger protein-mediated transcriptional repression

    PubMed Central

    Lomniczi, Alejandro; Wright, Hollis; Castellano, Juan Manuel; Matagne, Valerie; Toro, Carlos A.; Ramaswamy, Suresh; Plant, Tony M.; Ojeda, Sergio R.

    2015-01-01

    In primates, puberty is unleashed by increased GnRH release from the hypothalamus following an interval of juvenile quiescence. GWAS implicates Zinc finger (ZNF) genes in timing human puberty. Here we show that hypothalamic expression of several ZNFs decreased in agonadal male monkeys in association with the pubertal reactivation of gonadotropin secretion. Expression of two of these ZNFs, GATAD1 and ZNF573, also decreases in peripubertal female monkeys. However, only GATAD1 abundance increases when gonadotropin secretion is suppressed during late infancy. Targeted delivery of GATAD1 or ZNF573 to the rat hypothalamus delays puberty by impairing the transition of a transcriptional network from an immature repressive epigenetic configuration to one of activation. GATAD1 represses transcription of two key puberty-related genes, KISS1 and TAC3, directly, and reduces the activating histone mark H3K4me2 at each promoter via recruitment of histone demethylase KDM1A. We conclude that GATAD1 epitomizes a subset of ZNFs involved in epigenetic repression of primate puberty. PMID:26671628

  4. The Gαi AND Gαq Proteins Mediate the Effects of Melatonin on Steroid/Thyroid Hormone Receptor Transcriptional Activity and Breast Cancer Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Ling; Yuan, Lin; Chen, Qi; Dong, Chunmin; Mao, Lulu; Rowan, Brian; Frasch, Tripp; Hill, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Melatonin, via its MT1 receptor, but not the MT2 receptor, can modulate the transcriptional activity of various nuclear receptors (ERα and RARα, but not ERβ) in MCF-7, T47D and ZR-75-1 human breast cancer cell lines. The anti-proliferative and nuclear receptor modulatory actions of melatonin are mediated via the MT1 G protein-coupled receptor expressed in human breast cancer cells. However, the specific G proteins and associated pathways involved in nuclear receptor transcriptional regulation by melatonin are not yet clear. Upon activation, the MT1 receptor specifically couples to the Gαi2, Gαi3, Gαq and Gαll proteins, and via activation of Gαi2 proteins, melatonin suppresses forskolin-induced cyclic AMP (cAMP) production, while melatonin activation of Gαq, is able to inhibit phospholipid hydrolysis and ATP’s induction of inositol triphosphate (IP3) production in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Employing dominant-negative (DN) and dominant-positive (DP) forms of these G proteins we demonstrate that Gαi2 proteins mediate the suppression of estrogen-induced ERα transcriptional activity by melatonin, while the Gq protein mediates the enhancement of retinoid-induced RARα transcriptional activity by melatonin. However, the growth-inhibitory actions of melatonin are mediated via both Gαi2 and Gαq proteins. PMID:18705646

  5. NGF-dependent and tissue-specific transcription of vgf is regulated by a CREB-p300 and bHLH factor interaction.

    PubMed

    Mandolesi, Georgia; Gargano, Silvia; Pennuto, Maria; Illi, Barbara; Molfetta, Rosa; Soucek, Laura; Mosca, Laura; Levi, Andrea; Jucker, Richard; Nasi, Sergio

    2002-01-01

    Neurotrophins support neuronal survival, development, and plasticity through processes requiring gene expression. We studied how vgf target gene transcription is mediated by a critical promoter region containing E-box, CCAAT and cAMP response element (CRE) sites. The p300 acetylase was present in two distinct protein complexes bound to this region. One complex, containing HEB (ubiquitous basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)), bound the promoter in non-neuronal cells and was involved in repressing vgf expression. Neurotrophin-dependent transcription was mediated by the second complex, specific for neuronal cells, which included CRE binding protein and MASH1 (neuro-specific bHLH), bound the CCAAT motif, and was target of neurotrophin signalling. The interaction, mediated by p300, of different transcription factors may add specificity to the neurotrophin response. PMID:11755530

  6. Targeting ID2 expression triggers a more differentiated phenotype and reduces aggressiveness in human salivary gland cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Tomoki; Ishikawa, Akiko; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Tomohiro; Mori, Yoshihide; Desprez, Pierre-Yves

    2016-08-01

    Inhibitors of DNA-binding (ID) proteins are negative regulators of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and generally stimulate cell proliferation and inhibit differentiation. We previously determined that ID1 was highly expressed in aggressive salivary gland cancer (SGC) cells in culture. Here, we show that ID2 is also expressed in aggressive SGC cells. ID2 knockdown triggers important changes in cell behavior, that is, it significantly reduces the expression of N-cadherin, vimentin and Snail, induces E-cadherin expression and leads to a more differentiated phenotype exemplified by changes in cell shape. Moreover, ID2 knockdown almost completely suppresses invasion and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 9. In conclusion, ID2 expression maintains an aggressive phenotype in SGC cells, and ID2 repression triggers a reduction in cell aggressiveness. ID2 therefore represents a potential therapeutic target during SGC progression. ID proteins are negative regulators of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors and generally stimulate cell proliferation and inhibit differentiation. ID2 knockdown triggers important changes in cell behavior, that is, it significantly reduces the expression of N-cadherin, vimentin and Snail, induces E-cadherin expression and leads to a more differentiated phenotype exemplified by changes in cell shape. ID2 therefore represents a potential therapeutic target during SGC progression. PMID:27364596

  7. A juvenile hormone transcription factor Bmdimm-fibroin H chain pathway is involved in the synthesis of silk protein in silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Chun; Jiang, Li-Jun; Li, Qiong-Yan; Zhou, Meng-Ting; Cheng, Ting-Cai; Mita, Kazuei; Xia, Qing-You

    2015-01-01

    The genes responsible for silk biosynthesis are switched on and off at particular times in the silk glands of Bombyx mori. This switch appears to be under the control of endogenous and exogenous hormones. However, the molecular mechanisms by which silk protein synthesis is regulated by the juvenile hormone (JH) are largely unknown. Here, we report a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Bmdimm, its silk gland-specific expression, and its direct involvement in the regulation of fibroin H-chain (fib-H) by binding to an E-box (CAAATG) element of the fib-H gene promoter. Far-Western blots, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that Bmdimm protein interacted with another basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Bmsage. Immunostaining revealed that Bmdimm and Bmsage proteins are co-localized in nuclei. Bmdimm expression was induced in larval silk glands in vivo, in silk glands cultured in vitro, and in B. mori cell lines after treatment with a JH analog. The JH effect on Bmdimm was mediated by the JH-Met-Kr-h1 signaling pathway, and Bmdimm expression did not respond to JH by RNA interference with double-stranded BmKr-h1 RNA. These data suggest that the JH regulatory pathway, the transcription factor Bmdimm, and the targeted fib-H gene contribute to the synthesis of fibroin H-chain protein in B. mori. PMID:25371208

  8. SPATULA, a gene that controls development of carpel margin tissues in Arabidopsis, encodes a bHLH protein.

    PubMed

    Heisler, M G; Atkinson, A; Bylstra, Y H; Walsh, R; Smyth, D R

    2001-04-01

    Studies involving mutants of the gene SPATULA indicate that it promotes the growth of carpel margins and of pollen tract tissues derived from them. We show that it encodes a new member of the basic-helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. SPATULA is expressed in marginal and pollen tract tissues throughout their development confirming its role in regulating their growth. It is also expressed in many other tissues where it may act redundantly to control growth, including the peripheral zone of the shoot apical meristem, and specific tissues within leaves, petals, stamens and roots. Expression in the stomium, funiculus and valve dehiscence zone indicates an additional role in abscission. SPATULA expression does not require the function of the other carpel development genes CRABS CLAW and AGAMOUS, although its expression is repressed in first whorl organs by the A function gene APETALA2. Further, we have shown that disruptions to gynoecial pattern formation seen in ettin mutants can largely be attributed to ectopic SPATULA action. ETTIN's role seems to be to negatively regulate SPATULA expression in abaxial regions of the developing gynoecium. SPATULA is the first basic-helix-loop-helix gene in plants known to play a role in floral organogenesis. PMID:11245574

  9. CRYPTOCHROME 2 and PHOTOTROPIN 2 regulate resistance protein mediated viral 2 defense by negatively regulating a E3 ubiquitin ligase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Light harvested by plants is essential for the survival of most life forms. This light perception ability requires the activities of proteins termed photoreceptors. We report a function for photoreceptors in mediating resistance (R) protein-derived plant defense. The blue-light photoreceptors, crypt...

  10. Transcriptional regulation of secretin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Nishitani, J; Rindi, G; Lopez, M J; Upchurch, B H; Leiter, A B

    1995-01-01

    Expression of the gene encoding the hormone secretin is restricted to a specific enteroendocrine cell type and to beta-cells in developing pancreatic islets. To characterize regulatory elements in the secretin gene responsible for its expression in secretin-producing cells, we used a series of reporter genes for transient expression assays in transfection studies carried out in secretin-producing islet cell lines. Analysis of the transcriptional activity of deletion mutants identified a positive cis regulatory domain between 174 and 53 base pairs upstream from the transcriptional initiation site which was required for secretin gene expression in secretin-producing HIT insulinoma cells. Within this enhancer were sequences resembling two binding sites for the transcription factor Sp1, as well as a consensus sequence for binding to helix-loop-helix proteins. Analysis of these three elements by site-directed mutagenesis suggests that each is important for full transcriptional activity. The role of proximal enhancer sequences in directing secretin gene expression to appropriate tissues is further supported by studies in transgenic mice revealing that 1.6 kilobases of the secretin gene 5' flanking sequence were sufficient to direct the expression of either human growth hormone or simian virus 40 large T-antigen reporter genes to all major secretin-producing tissues. PMID:8774991

  11. Rhizobium nod factor signaling. Evidence for a g protein-mediated transduction mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Pingret, JL; Journet, EP; Barker, DG

    1998-01-01

    Rhizobium nodulation (Nod) factors are lipochitooligosaccharide signals that elicit key symbiotic developmental responses in the host legume root. In this study, we have investigated Nod factor signal transduction in the Medicago root epidermis by using a pharmacological approach in conjunction with transgenic plants expressing the Nod factor-responsive reporter construct pMtENOD12-GUS. Evidence for the participation of heterotrimeric G proteins in Nod factor signaling has come from three complementary observations: (1) the amphiphilic peptides mastoparan and Mas7, known G protein agonists, are able to mimic Nod factor-induced epidermal MtENOD12 expression; (2) growth of plants in nodulation-inhibiting conditions (10 mM NH4NO3) leads to a dramatic reduction in both Nod factor- and mastoparan-elicited gene expression; and (3) bacterial pertussis toxin, a well-characterized G protein antagonist, blocks the activities of both the Nod factor and mastoparan. In addition, we have found that antagonists that interfere with phospholipase C activity (neomycin and U73122) and Ca2+ influx/release (EGTA, La3+, and ruthenium red) block Nod factor/mastoparan activity. Taken together, these results are consistent with a Nod factor signal transduction mechanism involving G protein mediation coupled to the activation of both phosphoinositide and Ca2+ second messenger pathways. PMID:9596628

  12. Refractive-Index-Based Screening of Membrane-Protein-Mediated Transfer across Biological Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Brändén, Magnus; Tabaei, Seyed R.; Fischer, Gerhard; Neutze, Richard; Höök, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Numerous membrane-transport proteins are major drug targets, and therefore a key ingredient in pharmaceutical development is the availability of reliable, efficient tools for membrane transport characterization and inhibition. Here, we present the use of evanescent-wave sensing for screening of membrane-protein-mediated transport across lipid bilayer membranes. This method is based on a direct recording of the temporal variations in the refractive index that occur upon a transfer-dependent change in the solute concentration inside liposomes associated to a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) active sensor surface. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by a functional study of the aquaglyceroporin PfAQP from the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Assays of the temperature dependence of facilitated diffusion of sugar alcohols on a single set of PfAQP-reconstituted liposomes reveal that the activation energies for facilitated diffusion of xylitol and sorbitol are the same as that previously measured for glycerol transport in the aquaglyceroporin of Escherichia coli (5 kcal/mole). These findings indicate that the aquaglyceroporin selectivity filter does not discriminate sugar alcohols based on their length, and that the extra energy cost of dehydration of larger sugar alcohols, upon entering the pore, is compensated for by additional hydrogen-bond interactions within the aquaglyceroporin pore. PMID:20655840

  13. RNA-induced silencing attenuates G protein-mediated calcium signals.

    PubMed

    Philip, Finly; Sahu, Shriya; Golebiewska, Urszula; Scarlata, Suzanne

    2016-05-01

    Phospholipase Cβ (PLCβ) is activated by G protein subunits in response to environmental stimuli to increase intracellular calcium. In cells, a significant portion of PLCβ is cytosolic, where it binds a protein complex required for efficient RNA-induced silencing called C3PO (component 3 promoter of RISC). Binding between C3PO and PLCβ raises the possibility that RNA silencing activity can affect the ability of PLCβ to mediate calcium signals. By use of human and rat neuronal cell lines (SK-N-SH and PC12), we show that overexpression of one of the main components of C3PO diminishes Ca(2+) release in response to Gαq/PLCβ stimulation by 30 to 40%. In untransfected SK-N-SH or PC12 cells, the introduction of siRNA(GAPDH) [small interfering RNA(glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase)] reduces PLCβ-mediated calcium signals by ∼30%, but addition of siRNA(Hsp90) (heat shock protein 90) had little effect. Fluorescence imaging studies suggest an increase in PLCβ-C3PO association in cells treated with siRNA(GAPDH) but not siRNA(Hsp90). Taken together, our studies raise the possibility that Ca(2+) responses to extracellular stimuli can be modulated by components of the RNA silencing machinery.-Philip, F., Sahu, S., Golebiewska, U., Scarlata, S. RNA-induced silencing attenuates G protein-mediated calcium signals. PMID:26862135

  14. Cytotoxicity of carteolol to human corneal epithelial cells by inducing apoptosis via triggering the Bcl-2 family protein-mediated mitochondrial pro-apoptotic pathway.

    PubMed

    Shan, Ming; Fan, Ting-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Carteolol is a frequently used nonselective β-adrenoceptor antagonist for glaucoma and ocular hypertension treatment, and its repeated/prolonged usage might be cytotoxic to the cornea, especially the outmost human corneal epithelium (HCEP). The aim of the present study was to characterize the cytotoxicity of carteolol to HCEP and its underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms using an in vitro model of HCEP cells. After HCEP cells were treated with carteolol at concentrations varying from 2% to 0.015625%, the cytotoxicity, apoptosis-inducing effect and pro-apoptotic pathway was investigated, respectively. Our results showed that carteolol at concentrations above 0.03125% induced time- and dose-dependent growth retardation, cytopathic morphological changes and viability decline of HCEP cells. Moreover, carteolol induced G1 phase arrest, plasma membrane permeability elevation, phosphatidylserine externalization, DNA fragmentation, and apoptotic body formation of HCEP cells. Furthermore, carteolol also induced activation of caspase-9 and -3, disruption of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, up-regulation the cytoplasmic amount of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor, and up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bad, down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. In conclusion, carteolol above 1/64 of its clinical therapeutic dosage has a time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity to HCEP cells, which is achieved by inducing apoptosis via triggering Bcl-2 family protein-mediated mitochondrial pro-apoptotic pathway. PMID:27216471

  15. Effect of Reactor Turbulence on the Binding-Protein-Mediated Aspartate Transport System in Thin Wastewater Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Eighmy, T. Taylor; Bishop, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    This research documents an effect of reactor turbulence on the ability of gram-negative wastewater biofilm bacteria to actively transport l-aspartate via a binding-protein-mediated transport system. Biofilms which were not preadapted to turbulence and which possessed two separate and distinct aspartate transport systems (systems 1 and 2) were subjected to a turbulent flow condition in a hydrodynamically defined closed-loop reactor system. A shear stress treatment of 3.1 N · m−2 for 10 min at a turbulent Reynolds number (Re = 11,297) inactivated the low-affinity, high-capacity binding-protein-mediated transport system (system 2) and resolved the high-affinity, low-capacity membrane-bound proton symport system (system 1). The Kt and Vmax values for the resolved system were statistically similar to Kt and Vmax values for system 1 when system 2 was inactivated either by osmotic shock or arsenate, two treatments which are known to inactivate binding-protein-mediated transport systems. We hypothesize that shear stress disrupts system 2 by deforming the outer membranes of the firmly adhered gram-negative bacteria. PMID:16346830

  16. An alternative pathway for gene regulation by Myc.

    PubMed Central

    Peukert, K; Staller, P; Schneider, A; Carmichael, G; Hänel, F; Eilers, M

    1997-01-01

    The c-Myc protein activates transcription as part of a heteromeric complex with Max. However, Myc-transformed cells are characterized by loss of expression of several genes, suggesting that Myc may also repress gene expression. Two-hybrid cloning identifies a novel POZ domain Zn finger protein (Miz-1; Myc-interacting Zn finger protein-1) that specifically interacts with Myc, but not with Max or USF. Miz-1 binds to start sites of the adenovirus major late and cyclin D1 promoters and activates transcription from both promoters. Miz-1 has a potent growth arrest function. Binding of Myc to Miz-1 requires the helix-loop-helix domain of Myc and a short amphipathic helix located in the carboxy-terminus of Miz-1. Expression of Myc inhibits transactivation, overcomes Miz-1-induced growth arrest and renders Miz-1 insoluble in vivo. These processes depend on Myc and Miz-1 association and on the integrity of the POZ domain of Miz-1, suggesting that Myc binding activates a latent inhibitory function of this domain. Fusion of a nuclear localization signal induces efficient nuclear transport of Miz-1 and impairs the ability of Myc to overcome transcriptional activation and growth arrest by Miz-1. Our data suggest a model for how gene repression by Myc may occur in vivo. PMID:9312026

  17. Role of arabidopsis MYC and MYB homologs in drought- and abscisic acid-regulated gene expression.

    PubMed Central

    Abe, H; Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, K; Urao, T; Iwasaki, T; Hosokawa, D; Shinozaki, K

    1997-01-01

    In Arabidopsis, the induction of a dehydration-responsive gene, rd22, is mediated by abscisic acid (ABA) and requires protein biosynthesis for ABA-dependent gene expression. Previous experiments established that a 67-bp DNA fragment of the rd22 promoter is sufficient for dehydration- and ABA-induced gene expression and that this DNA fragment contains two closely located putative recognition sites for the basic helix-loop-helix protein MYC and one putative recognition site for MYB. We have carefully analyzed the 67-bp region of the rd22 promoter in transgenic tobacco plants and found that both the first MYC site and the MYB recognition site function as cis-acting elements in the dehydration-induced expression of the rd22 gene. A cDNA encoding a MYC-related DNA binding protein was isolated by DNA-ligand binding screening, using the 67-bp region as a probe, and designated rd22BP1. The rd22BP1 cDNA encodes a 68-kD protein that has a typical DNA binding domain of a basic region helix-loop-helix leucine zipper motif in MYC-related transcription factors. The rd22BP1 protein binds specifically to the first MYC recognition site in the 67-bp fragment. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that transcription of the rd22BP1 gene is induced by dehydration stress and ABA treatment, and its induction precedes that of rd22. We have reported a drought- and ABA-inducible gene that encodes the MYB-related protein ATMYB2. In a transient transactivation experiment using Arabidopsis leaf protoplasts, we demonstrated that both the rd22BP1 and ATMYB2 proteins activate transcription of the rd22 promoter fused to the beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. These results indicate that both the rd22BP1 (MYC) and ATMYB2 (MYB) proteins function as transcriptional activators in the dehydration- and ABA-inducible expression of the rd22 gene. PMID:9368419

  18. The Rhodococcus opacus TadD protein mediates triacylglycerol metabolism by regulating intracellular NAD(P)H pools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Gram-positive actinomycete Rhodococcus opacus is widely studied for its innate ability to store large amounts of carbon in the form of triacylglycerol (TAG). Several groups have demonstrated that R. opacus PD630 is capable of storing anywhere from 50 to 76% of its cell dry weight as TAG. While numerous studies have focused on phenomenological aspects of this process, few have sought to identify the underlying molecular and biochemical mechanisms responsible for the biosynthesis and storage of this molecule. Results Herein we further our previous efforts to illuminate the black box that is lipid metabolism in actinomycetes using a genetic approach. Utilizing a simple, colorimetric genetic screen, we have identified a gene, referred to herein as tadD (triacylglycerol accumulation deficient), which is critical for TAG biosynthesis in R. opacus PD630. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the purified protein product of this gene is capable of oxidizing glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, while simultaneously reducing NAD(P)+ to NAD(P)H. Supporting this biochemical data, we observed that the ratio of NAD(P)H to NAD(P)+ is elevated in wildtype cultures grown under lipid production conditions as compared to cultures grown under vegetative growth conditions, while the mutant strain demonstrated no change irrespective of growth conditions. Finally, we demonstrate that over-expressing a putative phosphorylative glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase leads to decreased TAG production during growth on TAG accumulation conditions. Conclusion Taken together, the data support the identification of a key metabolic branch point separating vegetative growth and lipid accumulation lifestyles in Rhodococcus. PMID:24209886

  19. G-protein mediates voltage regulation of agonist binding to muscarinic receptors: effects on receptor-Na/sup +/ channel interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen-Armon, M.; Garty, H.; Sokolovsky, M.

    1988-01-12

    The authors previous experiments in membranes prepared from rat heart and brain led them to suggest that the binding of agonist to the muscarinic receptors and to the Na/sup +/ channels is a coupled event mediated by guanine nucleotide binding protein(s) (G-protein(s)). These in vitro findings prompted us to employ synaptoneurosomes from brain stem tissue to examine (i) the binding properties of (/sup 3/H) acetylcholine at resting potential and under depolarization conditions in the absence and presence of pertussis toxin; (ii) the binding of (/sup 3/H)batrachotoxin to Na/sup +/ channel(s) in the presence of the muscarinic agonists; and (iii) muscarinically induced /sup 22/Na/sup +/ uptake in the presence and absence of tetrodotoxin, which blocks Na/sup +/ channels. The findings indicate that agonist binding to muscarinic receptors is voltage dependent, that this process is mediated by G-protein(s), and that muscarinic agonists induce opening of Na/sup +/channels. The latter process persists even after pertussis toxin treatment, indicating that it is not likely to be mediated by pertussis toxin sensitive G-protein(s). The system with its three interacting components-receptor, G-protein, and Na/sup +/ channel-is such that at resting potential the muscarinic receptor induces opening of Na/sup +/ channels; this property may provide a possible physiological mechanism for the depolarization stimulus necessary for autoexcitation or repetitive firing in heart or brain tissues.

  20. Grasses use an alternatively wired bHLH transcription factor network to establish stomatal identity.

    PubMed

    Raissig, Michael T; Abrash, Emily; Bettadapur, Akhila; Vogel, John P; Bergmann, Dominique C

    2016-07-19

    Stomata, epidermal valves facilitating plant-atmosphere gas exchange, represent a powerful model for understanding cell fate and pattern in plants. Core basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors regulating stomatal development were identified in Arabidopsis, but this dicot's developmental pattern and stomatal morphology represent only one of many possibilities in nature. Here, using unbiased forward genetic screens, followed by analysis of reporters and engineered mutants, we show that stomatal initiation in the grass Brachypodium distachyon uses orthologs of stomatal regulators known from Arabidopsis but that the function and behavior of individual genes, the relationships among genes, and the regulation of their protein products have diverged. Our results highlight ways in which a kernel of conserved genes may be alternatively wired to produce diversity in patterning and morphology and suggest that the stomatal transcription factor module is a prime target for breeding or genome modification to improve plant productivity. PMID:27382177

  1. Network theory inspired analysis of time-resolved expression data reveals key players guiding P. patens stem cell development.

    PubMed

    Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Bao, Jie; Hanke, Sebastian T; Hiss, Manuel; Tiko, Theodhor; Rensing, Stefan A

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) often trigger developmental decisions, yet, their transcripts are often only moderately regulated and thus not easily detected by conventional statistics on expression data. Here we present a method that allows to determine such genes based on trajectory analysis of time-resolved transcriptome data. As a proof of principle, we have analysed apical stem cells of filamentous moss (P. patens) protonemata that develop from leaflets upon their detachment from the plant. By our novel correlation analysis of the post detachment transcriptome kinetics we predict five out of 1,058 TFs to be involved in the signaling leading to the establishment of pluripotency. Among the predicted regulators is the basic helix loop helix TF PpRSL1, which we show to be involved in the establishment of apical stem cells in P. patens. Our methodology is expected to aid analysis of key players of developmental decisions in complex plant and animal systems. PMID:23637751

  2. Flavonoids: biosynthesis, biological functions, and biotechnological applications

    PubMed Central

    Falcone Ferreyra, María L.; Rius, Sebastián P.; Casati, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoids are widely distributed secondary metabolites with different metabolic functions in plants. The elucidation of the biosynthetic pathways, as well as their regulation by MYB, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH), and WD40-type transcription factors, has allowed metabolic engineering of plants through the manipulation of the different final products with valuable applications. The present review describes the regulation of flavonoid biosynthesis, as well as the biological functions of flavonoids in plants, such as in defense against UV-B radiation and pathogen infection, nodulation, and pollen fertility. In addition, we discuss different strategies and achievements through the genetic engineering of flavonoid biosynthesis with implication in the industry and the combinatorial biosynthesis in microorganisms by the reconstruction of the pathway to obtain high amounts of specific compounds. PMID:23060891

  3. Network Theory Inspired Analysis of Time-Resolved Expression Data Reveals Key Players Guiding P. patens Stem Cell Development

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Hauke; Boerries, Melanie; Rensing, Stefan A.

    2013-01-01

    Transcription factors (TFs) often trigger developmental decisions, yet, their transcripts are often only moderately regulated and thus not easily detected by conventional statistics on expression data. Here we present a method that allows to determine such genes based on trajectory analysis of time-resolved transcriptome data. As a proof of principle, we have analysed apical stem cells of filamentous moss (P. patens) protonemata that develop from leaflets upon their detachment from the plant. By our novel correlation analysis of the post detachment transcriptome kinetics we predict five out of 1,058 TFs to be involved in the signaling leading to the establishment of pluripotency. Among the predicted regulators is the basic helix loop helix TF PpRSL1, which we show to be involved in the establishment of apical stem cells in P. patens. Our methodology is expected to aid analysis of key players of developmental decisions in complex plant and animal systems. PMID:23637751

  4. Direct roles of SPEECHLESS in the specification of stomatal self-renewing cells

    PubMed Central

    Lau, On Sun; Davies, Kelli A.; Chang, Jessica; Adrian, Jessika; Rowe, Matthew H.; Ballenger, Catherine E.; Bergmann, Dominique C.

    2015-01-01

    Lineage-specific stem cells are critical for the production and maintenance of specific cell types and tissues in multicellular organisms. In Arabidopsis, the initiation and proliferation of stomatal lineage cells is controlled by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH). SPCH-driven asymmetric and self-renewing divisions allow flexibility in stomatal production and overall organ growth. How SPCH directs stomatal lineage cell behaviors, however, is unclear. Here, we improved the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay and profiled the genome-wide targets of Arabidopsis SPCH in vivo. We found that SPCH controls key regulators of cell fate and asymmetric cell divisions and modulates responsiveness to peptide and phytohormone-mediated intercellular communication. Our results delineate the molecular pathways that regulate an essential adult stem cell lineage in plants. PMID:25190717

  5. Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Control of Adaptive Immunity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that belongs to the family of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Although the AhR was initially recognized as the receptor mediating the pathologic effects of dioxins and other pollutants, the activation of AhR by endogenous and environmental factors has important physiologic effects, including the regulation of the immune response. Thus, the AhR provides a molecular pathway through which environmental factors modulate the immune response in health and disease. In this review, we discuss the role of AhR in the regulation of the immune response, the source and chemical nature of AhR ligands, factors controlling production and degradation of AhR ligands, and the potential to target the AhR for therapeutic immunomodulation. PMID:23908379

  6. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Membrane Protein-Mediated Hypersaline Sensitivity and Adaptation in Halophilic Nocardiopsis xinjiangensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yao; Li, Yanchang; Zhang, Yongguang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Mingzhi; Su, Na; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Lingsheng; Wei, Wei; Luo, Jing; Zhou, Yanxia; Xu, Yongru; Xu, Ping; Li, Wenjun; Tao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    The genus Nocardiopsis is one of the most dominant Actinobacteria that survives in hypersaline environments. However, the adaptation mechanisms for halophilism are still unclear. Here, we performed isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification based quantitative proteomics to investigate the functions of the membrane proteome after salt stress. A total of 683 membrane proteins were identified and quantified, of which 126 membrane proteins displayed salt-induced changes in abundance. Intriguingly, bioinformatics analyses indicated that these differential proteins showed two expression patterns, which were further validated by phenotypic changes and functional differences. The majority of ABC transporters, secondary active transporters, cell motility proteins, and signal transduction kinases were up-regulated with increasing salt concentration, whereas cell differentiation, small molecular transporter (ions and amino acids), and secondary metabolism proteins were significantly up-regulated at optimum salinity, but down-regulated or unchanged at higher salinity. The small molecule transporters and cell differentiation-related proteins acted as sensing proteins that played a more important biological role at optimum salinity. However, the ABC transporters for compatible solutes, Na(+)-dependent transporters, and cell motility proteins acted as adaptive proteins that actively counteracted higher salinity stress. Overall, regulation of membrane proteins may provide a major protection strategy against hyperosmotic stress. PMID:26549328

  7. A role for Id in the regulation of TGF-beta-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Kondo, M; Cubillo, E; Tobiume, K; Shirakihara, T; Fukuda, N; Suzuki, H; Shimizu, K; Takehara, K; Cano, A; Saitoh, M; Miyazono, K

    2004-10-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transdifferentiation (EMT) is a critical morphogenic event that occurs during embryonic development and during the progression of various epithelial tumors. EMT can be induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta in mouse NMuMG mammary epithelial cells. Here, we demonstrate a central role of helix-loop-helix factors, E2A and inhibitor of differentiation (Id) proteins, in TGF-beta-induced EMT. Epithelial cells ectopically expressing E2A adopt a fibroblastic phenotype and acquire migratory/invasive properties, concomitant with the suppression of E-cadherin expression. Id proteins interacted with E2A proteins and antagonized E2A-dependent suppression of the E-cadherin promoter. Levels of Id proteins were dramatically decreased by TGF-beta. Moreover, NMuMG cells overexpressed Id2 showed partial resistance to TGF-beta-induced EMT. Id proteins thus inhibit the action of E2A proteins on the expression of E-cadherin, but after TGF-beta stimulation, E2A proteins are present in molar excess of the Id proteins, thus over-riding their inhibitory function and leading to EMT. PMID:15181457

  8. A Role for Id2 in Regulating Photic Entrainment of the Mammalian Circadian System

    PubMed Central

    Duffield, Giles E.; Watson, Nathan P.; Mantani, Akio; Peirson, Stuart N.; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Loros, Jennifer J.; Israel, Mark A.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Inhibitor of DNA binding genes (Id1–Id4) encode helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcriptional repressors associated with development and tumorigenesis [1, 2], but little is known concerning the function(s) of these genes in normal adult animals. Id2 was identified in DNA microarray screens for rhythmically expressed genes [3–5], and further analysis revealed a circadian pattern of expression of all four Id genes in multiple tissues including the suprachiasmatic nucleus. To explore an in vivo function, we generated and characterized deletion mutations of Id2 and of Id4. Id2−/− mice exhibit abnormally rapid entrainment and an increase in the magnitude of the phase shift of the pacemaker. A significant proportion of mice also exhibit disrupted rhythms when maintained under constant darkness. Conversely, Id4−/− mice did not exhibit a noticeable circadian phenotype. In vitro studies using an mPer1 and an AVP promoter reporter revealed the potential for ID1, ID2, and ID3 proteins to interact with the canonical basic HLH clock proteins BMAL1 and CLOCK. These data suggest that the Id genes may be important for entrainment and operation of the mammalian circadian system, potentially acting through BMAL1 and CLOCK targets. PMID:19217292

  9. Phosphorylation Regulates OLIG2 Cofactor Choice and the Motor Neuron-Oligodendrocyte Fate Switch

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huiliang; Paes de Faria, Joana; Andrew, Paul; Nitarska, Justyna; Richardson, William D.

    2011-01-01

    Summary A fundamental feature of central nervous system development is that neurons are generated before glia. In the embryonic spinal cord, for example, a group of neuroepithelial stem cells (NSCs) generates motor neurons (MNs), before switching abruptly to oligodendrocyte precursors (OLPs). We asked how transcription factor OLIG2 participates in this MN-OLP fate switch. We found that Serine 147 in the helix-loop-helix domain of OLIG2 was phosphorylated during MN production and dephosphorylated at the onset of OLP genesis. Mutating Serine 147 to Alanine (S147A) abolished MN production without preventing OLP production in transgenic mice, chicks, or cultured P19 cells. We conclude that S147 phosphorylation, possibly by protein kinase A, is required for MN but not OLP genesis and propose that dephosphorylation triggers the MN-OLP switch. Wild-type OLIG2 forms stable homodimers, whereas mutant (unphosphorylated) OLIG2S147A prefers to form heterodimers with Neurogenin 2 or other bHLH partners, suggesting a molecular basis for the switch. PMID:21382552

  10. Rice Undeveloped Tapetum1 Is a Major Regulator of Early Tapetum DevelopmentW⃞

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ki-Hong; Han, Min-Jung; Lee, Yang-Seok; Kim, Yong-Woo; Hwang, Inhwan; Kim, Min-Jeong; Kim, Yeon-Ki; Nahm, Baek Hie; An, Gynheung

    2005-01-01

    The tapetum, the innermost of four sporophytic layers in the anther wall, comes in direct contact with the developing male gametophyte and is thought to play a crucial role in the development and maturation of microspores. Here, we report the identification of rice (Oryza sativa) Undeveloped Tapetum1 (Udt1), which is required for the differentiation of secondary parietal cells to mature tapetal cells. T-DNA or retrotransposon Tos17 insertions in the Udt1 gene caused male sterility. The anther walls and meiocytes of the mutants were normal during the early premeiosis stage, but their tapeta failed to differentiate and became vacuolated during the meiotic stage. In addition, meiocytes did not develop to microspores, and middle layer degeneration was inhibited. Consequently, the anther locules contained no pollen. The UDT1:green fluorescent protein fusion protein was localized to the nucleus. This, together with its homology with other basic helix-loop-helix proteins, suggests that UDT1 is a transcription factor. DNA microarray analysis identified 958 downregulated and 267 upregulated genes in the udt1-1 anthers, suggesting that Udt1 plays a major role in maintaining tapetum development, starting in early meiosis. PMID:16141453

  11. Tissue-Specific Regulation of Gibberellin Signaling Fine-Tunes Arabidopsis Iron-Deficiency Responses.

    PubMed

    Wild, Michael; Davière, Jean-Michel; Regnault, Thomas; Sakvarelidze-Achard, Lali; Carrera, Esther; Lopez Diaz, Isabel; Cayrel, Anne; Dubeaux, Guillaume; Vert, Grégory; Achard, Patrick

    2016-04-18

    Iron is an essential element for most living organisms. Plants acquire iron from the rhizosphere and have evolved different biochemical and developmental responses to adapt to a low-iron environment. In Arabidopsis, FIT encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that activates the expression of iron-uptake genes in root epidermis upon iron deficiency. Here, we report that the gibberellin (GA)-signaling DELLA repressors contribute substantially in the adaptive responses to iron-deficient conditions. When iron availability decreases, DELLAs accumulate in the root meristem, thereby restraining root growth, while being progressively excluded from epidermal cells in the root differentiation zone. Such DELLA exclusion from the site of iron acquisition relieves FIT from DELLA-dependent inhibition and therefore promotes iron uptake. Consistent with this mechanism, expression of a non-GA-degradable DELLA mutant protein in root epidermis interferes with iron acquisition. Hence, spatial distribution of DELLAs in roots is essential to fine-tune the adaptive responses to iron availability. PMID:27093087

  12. An atypical bHLH transcription factor regulates early xylem development downstream of auxin.

    PubMed

    Ohashi-Ito, Kyoko; Matsukawa, Manami; Fukuda, Hiroo

    2013-03-01

    The vascular system in plants, which comprises xylem, phloem and vascular stem cells, originates from provascular cells and forms a continuous network throughout the plant body. Although various aspects of vascular development have been extensively studied, the early process of vascular development remains largely unknown. LONESOME HIGHWAY (LHW), which encodes an atypical basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, plays an essential role in establishing vascular cells. Here, we report the analysis of LHW homologs in relation to vascular development. Three LHW homologs, LONESOME HIGHWAY LIKE 1-3 (LHL1-LHL3), were preferentially expressed in the plant vasculature. Genetic analysis indicated that, although the LHL3 loss-of-function mutant showed no obvious phenotype, the lhw lhl3 double mutant displayed more severe phenotypic defects in the vasculature of the cotyledons and roots than the lhw single mutant. Only one xylem vessel was formed at the metaxylem position in lhw lhl3 roots, whereas the lhw root formed one protoxylem and one or two metaxylem vessels. Conversely, overexpression of LHL3 enhanced xylem development in the roots. Moreover, N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid caused ectopic LHL3 expression in accordance with induced auxin maximum. These results suggest that LHL3 plays a positive role in xylem differentiation downstream of auxin. PMID:23359424

  13. Attenuation of G protein-mediated inhibition of N-type calcium currents by expression of caveolins in mammalian NG108–15 cells

    PubMed Central

    Toselli, M; Taglietti, V; Parente, V; Flati, S; Pavan, A; Guzzi, F; Parenti, M

    2001-01-01

    Caveolins are integral proteins of glycolipid/cholesterol-rich plasmalemmal caveolae domains, where, they may function as a plasma membrane scaffold onto which many classes of signalling molecules, including receptors and heterotrimeric G proteins, can assemble. To ascertain whether caveolins influence G protein-mediated signal transduction, we stably expressed caveolin-1 and −3 isoforms in the neuroblastoma × glioma NG108–15 hybrid cell line, lacking endogenous caveolins. Subsequently, using whole-cell voltage clamp methods, we examined whether the modulation of N-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels by Go protein-coupled, δ-type opioid receptors might be affected by recombinant caveolin expression. In transfected NG108–15 cells, caveolins localized at the plasma membrane and, upon subcellular fractionation on sucrose density gradients, they co-localized in Triton-resistant, low buoyancy fractions, with endogenous Go protein α-subunits. The voltage-dependent inhibition of ω-conotoxin GVIA-sensitive Ba2+ currents following either activation of δ-opioid receptors by the agonist [o-pen2,o-pen5]-enkephalin (DPDPE), or direct stimulation of G proteins with guanosine 5′-O-(thiotriphosphate) (GTPγS) was significantly attenuated in caveolin-expressing cells. The kinetics of Ca2+ channel inhibition were also modified by caveolins. Overall, these results suggest that caveolins may negatively affect G protein-dependent regulation of voltage-gated N-type Ca2+ channels, presumably by causing a reduction of the available pool of activated G proteins. PMID:11600672

  14. New insights into the role of ID proteins in breast cancer metastasis: a MET affair

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The establishment of lethal metastases depends on the capacity of a small number of cancer cells to regenerate a tumor after entering a target organ. Stankic and colleagues have identified a role for the inhibitor of differentiation protein, ID1, as a critical regulator of breast cancer stem-like properties and metastatic colonization. Under the control of tumor growth factor-beta signaling, ID1 induces mesenchymal-epithelial transition at the metastatic site by antagonizing the activity of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist1. This study sheds light on mechanisms that initiate metastatic outgrowth, and strengthens the concept that epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity is crucial at different stages of metastasis. PMID:25927844

  15. The bHLH transcription factor Tcf12 (ME1) mRNA is abundantly expressed in Paneth cells of mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Tanigawa, Yoko; Yakura, Rieko; Komiya, Tohru

    2007-06-01

    Using a large-scale in situ hybridization screening system, we found that mRNA coding for ME1, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, was abundantly expressed in Paneth cells of adult small intestinal crypts. Other functionally related E-protein mRNAs, ME2, and E2A, however, could not be detected in the cells. ME1 mRNA was first detected in the jejunum and ileum two weeks after birth when the number of Paneth cells starts to increase. ME1 is the first identified bHLH transcription factor expressed in the Paneth cells and may be used as a molecular marker and a key molecule for analyzing transcriptional regulation in the Paneth cell. PMID:17405739

  16. E proteins in lymphocyte development and lymphoid diseases.

    PubMed

    Belle, Ian; Zhuang, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    As members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors, E proteins function in the immune system by directing and maintaining a vast transcriptional network that regulates cell survival, proliferation, differentiation, and function. Proper activity of this network is essential to the functionality of the immune system. Aberrations in E protein expression or function can cause numerous defects, ranging from impaired lymphocyte development and immunodeficiency to aberrant function, cancer, and autoimmunity. Additionally, disruption of inhibitor of DNA-binding (Id) proteins, natural inhibitors of E proteins, can induce additional defects in development and function. Although E proteins have been investigated for several decades, their study continues to yield novel and exciting insights into the workings of the immune system. The goal of this chapter is to discuss the various classical roles of E proteins in lymphocyte development and highlight new and ongoing research into how these roles, if compromised, can lead to disease. PMID:25248476

  17. Unique CCT repeats mediate transcription of the TWIST1 gene in mesenchymal cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ohkuma, Mizue; Funato, Noriko; Higashihori, Norihisa; Murakami, Masanori; Ohyama, Kimie; Nakamura, Masataka . E-mail: naka.gene@cmn.tmd.ac.jp

    2007-01-26

    TWIST1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, plays critical roles in embryo development, cancer metastasis and mesenchymal progenitor differentiation. Little is known about transcriptional regulation of TWIST1 expression. Here we identified DNA sequences responsible for TWIST1 expression in mesenchymal lineage cell lines. Reporter assays with TWIST1 promoter mutants defined the -102 to -74 sequences that are essential for TWIST1 expression in human and mouse mesenchymal cell lines. Tandem repeats of CCT, but not putative CREB and NF-{kappa}B sites in the sequences substantially supported activity of the TWIST1 promoter. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that the DNA sequences with the CCT repeats formed complexes with nuclear factors, containing, at least, Sp1 and Sp3. These results suggest critical implication of the CCT repeats in association with Sp1 and Sp3 factors in sustaining expression of the TWIST1 gene in mesenchymal cells.

  18. The Transcriptional Coregulator LEUNIG_HOMOLOG Inhibits Light-Dependent Seed Germination in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nayoung; Park, Jeongmoo; Kim, Keunhwa; Choi, Giltsu

    2015-08-01

    PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1) is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that inhibits light-dependent seed germination in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it remains unclear whether PIF1 requires other factors to regulate its direct targets. Here, we demonstrate that LEUNIG_HOMOLOG (LUH), a Groucho family transcriptional corepressor, binds to PIF1 and coregulates its targets. Not only are the transcriptional profiles of the luh and pif1 mutants remarkably similar, more than 80% of the seeds of both genotypes germinate in the dark. We show by chromatin immunoprecipitation that LUH binds a subset of PIF1 targets in a partially PIF1-dependent manner. Unexpectedly, we found LUH binds and coregulates not only PIF1-activated targets but also PIF1-repressed targets. Together, our results indicate LUH functions with PIF1 as a transcriptional coregulator to inhibit seed germination. PMID:26276832

  19. Molecular mechanisms of epithelial–mesenchymal transition

    PubMed Central

    Lamouille, Samy; Xu, Jian; Derynck, Rik

    2014-01-01

    The transdifferentiation of epithelial cells into motile mesenchymal cells, a process known as epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT), is integral in development, wound healing and stem cell behaviour, and contributes pathologically to fibrosis and cancer progression. This switch in cell differentiation and behaviour is mediated by key transcription factors, including SNAIL, zinc-finger E-box-binding (ZEB) and basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, the functions of which are finely regulated at the transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. The reprogramming of gene expression during EMT, as well as non-transcriptional changes, are initiated and controlled by signalling pathways that respond to extracellular cues. Among these, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) family signalling has a predominant role; however, the convergence of signalling pathways is essential for EMT. PMID:24556840

  20. Modified bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay to study the inhibition of transcription complex formation by JAZ proteins.

    PubMed

    Qi, Tiancong; Song, Susheng; Xie, Daoxin

    2013-01-01

    The jasmonate (JA) ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins of Arabidopsis thaliana repress JA signaling and negatively regulate the JA responses. Recently, JAZ proteins have been found to inhibit the transcriptional function of several transcription factors, among which the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) (GLABRA3 [GL3], ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 [EGL3], and TRANSPARENT TESTA8 [TT8]) and R2R3-MYB (GL1 and MYB75) that can interact with each other to form bHLH-MYB complexes and further control gene expression. The bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay is a widely used technique to study protein-protein interactions in living cells. Here we describe a modified BiFC experimental procedure to study the inhibition of the formation of the bHLH (GL3)-MYB (GL1) complex by JAZ proteins. PMID:23615997

  1. Stress-responsive gene ICE1 from Vitis amurensis increases cold tolerance in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chang; Zhang, Zhen; Ren, Junpeng; Qin, Yang; Huang, Jinfeng; Wang, Yan; Cai, Binhua; Wang, Bailin; Tao, Jianmin

    2013-10-01

    We report the identification of the inducer of CBF expression 1 (ICE1) from Vitis amurensis, an upstream transcription factor that regulates the transcription of CBF-like genes. The structure of the basic helix-loop-helix domain of VaICE1 is closely related to that of ICE1 in woody plants. This gene is strongly induced in leaves, roots, stems, and petioles by cold temperature. With longer duration of exposure to cold treatments, the expression patterns of organs exhibit differences, which are not observed in normal condition. Transgenic tobacco over-expressing VaICE1 has higher chilling tolerance and survival ability by improving the activities of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, and catalase, as well as the chlorophyll yield. PMID:23968929

  2. Impaired Thermogenesis and a Molecular Signature for Brown Adipose Tissue in Id2 Null Mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peng; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Mathew, Deepa; Duffield, Giles E

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) is a helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor rhythmically expressed in many adult tissues. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Id2 null mice have sex-specific elevated glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Here we further explored the role of Id2 in the regulation of core body temperature over the circadian cycle and the impact of Id2 deficiency on genes involved in insulin signaling and adipogenesis in BAT. We discovered a reduced core body temperature in Id2-/- mice. Moreover, in Id2-/- BAT, 30 genes including Irs1, PPARs, and PGC-1s were identified as differentially expressed in a sex-specific pattern. These data provide valuable insights into the impact of Id2 deficiency on energy homeostasis of mice in a sex-specific manner. PMID:27144179

  3. Impaired Thermogenesis and a Molecular Signature for Brown Adipose Tissue in Id2 Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Peng; Robles-Murguia, Maricela; Mathew, Deepa; Duffield, Giles E.

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitor of DNA binding 2 (ID2) is a helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor rhythmically expressed in many adult tissues. Our previous studies have demonstrated that Id2 null mice have sex-specific elevated glucose uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Here we further explored the role of Id2 in the regulation of core body temperature over the circadian cycle and the impact of Id2 deficiency on genes involved in insulin signaling and adipogenesis in BAT. We discovered a reduced core body temperature in Id2−/− mice. Moreover, in Id2−/− BAT, 30 genes including Irs1, PPARs, and PGC-1s were identified as differentially expressed in a sex-specific pattern. These data provide valuable insights into the impact of Id2 deficiency on energy homeostasis of mice in a sex-specific manner. PMID:27144179

  4. A Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Cascade Module, MKK3-MPK6 and MYC2, Is Involved in Blue Light-Mediated Seedling Development in Arabidopsis[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Vishmita; Raghuram, Badmi; Sinha, Alok Krishna; Chattopadhyay, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are involved in several signal transduction processes in eukaryotes. Light signal transduction pathways have been extensively studied in plants; however, the connection between MAPK and light signaling pathways is currently unknown. Here, we show that MKK3-MPK6 is activated by blue light in a MYC2-dependent manner. MPK6 physically interacts with and phosphorylates a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, MYC2, and is phosphorylated by a MAPK kinase, MKK3. Furthermore, MYC2 binds to the MPK6 promoter and regulates its expression in a feedback regulatory mechanism in blue light signaling. We present mutational and physiological studies that illustrate the function of the MKK3-MPK6-MYC2 module in Arabidopsis thaliana seedling development and provide a revised mechanistic view of photomorphogenesis. PMID:25139007

  5. Launching the T-Lineage Developmental Programme

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, Ellen V.; Moore, Jonathan E.; Yui, Mary A.

    2011-01-01

    Preface Multipotent blood progenitor cells enter the thymus and begin a protracted differentiation process in which they gradually acquire T-cell characteristics while shedding their legacy of developmental plasticity. Notch signalling and basic helix-loop-helix E-protein transcription factors collaborate repeatedly to trigger and sustain this process throughout the period leading up to T-cell lineage commitment. Nevertheless, the process is discontinuous with separately regulated steps that demand roles for additional collaborating factors. This review discusses new evidence on the coordination of specification and commitment in the early T-cell pathway; effects of microenvironmental signals; the inheritance of stem-cell regulatory factors; and the ensemble of transcription factors that modulate the effects of Notch and E proteins, to distinguish individual stages and to polarize T-lineage fate determination. PMID:18097446

  6. Characterization and developmental expression of xSim, a Xenopus bHLH/PAS gene related to the Drosophila neurogenic master gene single-minded.

    PubMed

    Coumailleau, P; Penrad-Mobayed, M; Lecomte, C; Bollérot, K; Simon, F; Poellinger, L; Angelier, N

    2000-12-01

    We have isolated a novel gene from Xenopus, denominated xSim, which encodes a protein of 760 amino acids containing a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) motif contiguous to a PAS domain characteristic of an emerging family of transcriptional regulators so called bHLH/PAS. xSim shares a strong amino acid sequence identity with the Drosophila Single-minded (dSim) and with the murine Sim1 and Sim2 proteins. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that xSim gene is an ortholog gene of the mSim2 gene. Spatio-temporal analysis shows a maternal and a zygotic expression of xSim throughout early Xenopus development. In situ hybridization assays reveal that the transcripts are enriched in the animal hemisphere until blastula stage and extend to the marginal zone at early gastrula stage. As development proceeds, xSim is mainly restricted to the central nervous system. PMID:11091086

  7. High mobility group protein-mediated transcription requires DNA damage marker γ-H2AX

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Indrabahadur; Ozturk, Nihan; Cordero, Julio; Mehta, Aditi; Hasan, Diya; Cosentino, Claudia; Sebastian, Carlos; Krüger, Marcus; Looso, Mario; Carraro, Gianni; Bellusci, Saverio; Seeger, Werner; Braun, Thomas; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Barreto, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    The eukaryotic genome is organized into chromatins, the physiological template for DNA-dependent processes including replication, recombination, repair, and transcription. Chromatin-mediated transcription regulation involves DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, and histone modifications. However, chromatin also contains non-histone chromatin-associated proteins, of which the high-mobility group (HMG) proteins are the most abundant. Although it is known that HMG proteins induce structural changes of chromatin, the processes underlying transcription regulation by HMG proteins are poorly understood. Here we decipher the molecular mechanism of transcription regulation mediated by the HMG AT-hook 2 protein (HMGA2). We combined proteomic, ChIP-seq, and transcriptome data to show that HMGA2-induced transcription requires phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX at S139 (H2AXS139ph; γ-H2AX) mediated by the protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). Furthermore, we demonstrate the biological relevance of this mechanism within the context of TGFβ1 signaling. The interplay between HMGA2, ATM, and H2AX is a novel mechanism of transcription initiation. Our results link H2AXS139ph to transcription, assigning a new function for this DNA damage marker. Controlled chromatin opening during transcription may involve intermediates with DNA breaks that may require mechanisms that ensure the integrity of the genome. PMID:26045162

  8. MicroProtein-Mediated Recruitment of CONSTANS into a TOPLESS Trimeric Complex Represses Flowering in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Graeff, Moritz; Straub, Daniel; Eguen, Tenai; Dolde, Ulla; Rodrigues, Vandasue; Brandt, Ronny; Wenkel, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    MicroProteins are short, single domain proteins that act by sequestering larger, multi-domain proteins into non-functional complexes. MicroProteins have been identified in plants and animals, where they are mostly involved in the regulation of developmental processes. Here we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana microProteins, miP1a and miP1b, physically interact with CONSTANS (CO) a potent regulator of flowering time. The miP1a/b-type microProteins evolved in dicotyledonous plants and have an additional carboxy-terminal PF(V/L)FL motif. This motif enables miP1a/b microProteins to interact with TOPLESS/TOPLESS-RELATED (TPL/TPR) proteins. Interaction of CO with miP1a/b/TPL causes late flowering due to a failure in the induction of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression under inductive long day conditions. Both miP1a and miP1b are expressed in vascular tissue, where CO and FT are active. Genetically, miP1a/b act upstream of CO thus our findings unravel a novel layer of flowering time regulation via microProtein-inhibition. PMID:27015278

  9. MicroProtein-Mediated Recruitment of CONSTANS into a TOPLESS Trimeric Complex Represses Flowering in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Graeff, Moritz; Straub, Daniel; Eguen, Tenai; Dolde, Ulla; Rodrigues, Vandasue; Brandt, Ronny; Wenkel, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    MicroProteins are short, single domain proteins that act by sequestering larger, multi-domain proteins into non-functional complexes. MicroProteins have been identified in plants and animals, where they are mostly involved in the regulation of developmental processes. Here we show that two Arabidopsis thaliana microProteins, miP1a and miP1b, physically interact with CONSTANS (CO) a potent regulator of flowering time. The miP1a/b-type microProteins evolved in dicotyledonous plants and have an additional carboxy-terminal PF(V/L)FL motif. This motif enables miP1a/b microProteins to interact with TOPLESS/TOPLESS-RELATED (TPL/TPR) proteins. Interaction of CO with miP1a/b/TPL causes late flowering due to a failure in the induction of FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) expression under inductive long day conditions. Both miP1a and miP1b are expressed in vascular tissue, where CO and FT are active. Genetically, miP1a/b act upstream of CO thus our findings unravel a novel layer of flowering time regulation via microProtein-inhibition. PMID:27015278

  10. E2A promotes the survival of precursor and mature B lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Lazorchak, Adam S; Wojciechowski, Jason; Dai, Meifang; Zhuang, Yuan

    2006-08-15

    The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor E2A is an essential regulator of B lymphocyte lineage commitment and is required to activate the expression of numerous B lineage-specific genes. Studies involving ectopic expression of Id proteins, which inhibit E2A as well as other basic helix-loop-helix proteins such as HEB, suggest additional roles of E2A at later stages of B cell development. We use E2A-deficient and E2A and HEB double-deficient pre-B cell lines to directly assess the function of E2A and HEB in B cell development after lineage commitment. We show that, in contrast to the established role of E2A in lineage commitment, elimination of E2A and HEB in pre-B cell lines has only a modest negative impact on B lineage gene expression. However, E2A single and E2A and HEB double-deficient but not HEB single-deficient cell lines show dramatically enhanced apoptosis upon growth arrest. To address the possible role of E2A in the regulation of B cell survival in vivo, we crossed IFN-inducible Cre-transgenic mice to E2A conditional mice. Cre-mediated E2A deletion resulted in a block in bone marrow B cell development and a significant reduction in the proportion and total number of splenic B cells in these mice. We show that Cre-mediated deletion of E2A in adoptively transferred mature B cells results in the rapid depletion of the transferred population within 24 h of Cre induction. These results reveal that E2A is not required to maintain B cell fate but is essential in promoting pre-B and B cell survival. PMID:16888011