Science.gov

Sample records for helje kaarma sde

  1. Flight dynamics system software development environment (FDS/SDE) tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buell, John; Myers, Philip

    1986-01-01

    A sample development scenario using the Flight Dynamics System Software Development Environment (FDS/SDE) is presented. The SDE uses a menu-driven, fill-in-the-blanks format that provides online help at all steps, thus eliminating lengthy training and allowing immediate use of this new software development tool.

  2. The pion distribution amplitude from SDE-BSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobos-Martínez, J. J.

    2015-11-01

    A brief exposition of the Schwinger-Dyson-Bethe-Salpeter equations of Quantum Chromodynamics and their application to hadron physics is given. Results for the rainbow- ladder trucantion scheme are presented. The Pion distribution amplitude is calculated in the SDE-BSE approach to hadron physics employing a novel method of computation [28]. The SDE-BSE is a well founded continuum approach to nonperturbative hadron physics that unifies a range of hadron observables.

  3. Dissemination Capacity Building in an SDE. [State Department of Education].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddu, Roland

    Capacity building for dissemination in a State requires the development of a completely responsive linkage system. The State Department of Education (SDE) capacity building effort should focus on people delivering kinds of service, not kinds of information. The service will depend on ready and immediate access to information, but the humanizing…

  4. BASELINE MEMBRANE SELECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION FOR AN SDE

    SciTech Connect

    Colon-Mercado, H; David Hobbs, D

    2007-04-03

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In FY05 and FY06, testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) explored a low temperature fuel cell design concept for the SDE. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint that are crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. A key component of the SDE is the ion conductive membrane through which protons produced at anode migrate to the cathode and react to produce hydrogen. An ideal membrane for the SDE should have both low ionic resistivity and low sulfur dioxide transport. These features allow the electrolyzer to perform at high currents with low potentials, along with preventing contamination of both the hydrogen output and poisoning of the catalysts involved. Another key component is the electrocatalyst material used for the anode and cathode. Good electrocatalysts should be chemically stable and have a low overpotential for the desired electrochemical reactions. This report summarizes results from activities to evaluate commercial and experimental membranes for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for sulfur dioxide transport as a function of acid strength including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated poly-etherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membranes. Experimental membranes from the sulfonated diels-alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) and modified Nafion{reg_sign} 117 were evaluated for SO{sub 2} transport as well. These membranes exhibited reduced transport coefficient for SO{sub 2} transport without the loss in ionic conductivity. The use of Nafion{reg_sign} with EW 1100 is recommended for the present SDE testing due to the limited data regarding chemical

  5. Sde2: A novel nuclear protein essential for telomeric silencing and genomic stability in Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    SciTech Connect

    Sugioka-Sugiyama, Rie; Sugiyama, Tomoyasu

    2011-03-18

    Research highlights: {yields} Sde2 is essential for telomere silencing. {yields} Sde2 is involved in the maintenance of genomic stability. {yields} Sde2 promotes the recruitment of SHREC, a histone deacetylase complex, to telomeres. -- Abstract: Telomeres, specialized domains assembled at the ends of linear chromosomes, are essential for genomic stability in eukaryotes. The formation and maintenance of telomeres are governed by numerous factors such as telomeric repeats, telomere-binding proteins, heterochromatin proteins, and telomerase. Here, we report Sde2, a novel nuclear protein essential for telomeric silencing and genomic stability in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. A deficiency in sde2 results in the derepression of the ura4{sup +} gene inserted near telomeric repeats, and the noncoding transcripts from telomeric regions accumulate in sde2{Delta} cells. The loss of Sde2 function compromises transcriptional silencing at telomeres, and this silencing defect is accompanied by increased levels of acetylated histone H3K14 and RNA polymerase II occupancy at telomeres as well as reduced recruitment of the SNF2 ATPase/histone deacetylase-containing complex SHREC to telomeres. Deletion of sde2 also leads to a higher frequency of mitotic minichromosome loss, and sde2{Delta} cells often form asci that contain spores in abnormal numbers, shapes, or both. In addition, sde2{Delta} cells are highly sensitive to several stresses, including high/low temperatures, bleomycin, which induces DNA damage, and thiabendazole, a microtubule-destabilizing agent. Furthermore, Sde2 genetically interacts with the telomere regulators Taz1, Pof3, and Ccq1. These findings demonstrate that Sde2 cooperates with other telomere regulators to maintain functional telomeres, thereby preventing genomic instability.

  6. ENISI SDE: A New Web-Based Tool for Modeling Stochastic Processes.

    PubMed

    Mei, Yongguo; Carbo, Adria; Hoops, Stefan; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Modeling and simulations approaches have been widely used in computational biology, mathematics, bioinformatics and engineering to represent complex existing knowledge and to effectively generate novel hypotheses. While deterministic modeling strategies are widely used in computational biology, stochastic modeling techniques are not as popular due to a lack of user-friendly tools. This paper presents ENISI SDE, a novel web-based modeling tool with stochastic differential equations. ENISI SDE provides user-friendly web user interfaces to facilitate adoption by immunologists and computational biologists. This work provides three major contributions: (1) discussion of SDE as a generic approach for stochastic modeling in computational biology; (2) development of ENISI SDE, a web-based user-friendly SDE modeling tool that highly resembles regular ODE-based modeling; (3) applying ENISI SDE modeling tool through a use case for studying stochastic sources of cell heterogeneity in the context of CD4+ T cell differentiation. The CD4+ T cell differential ODE model has been published [8] and can be downloaded from biomodels.net. The case study reproduces a biological phenomenon that is not captured by the previously published ODE model and shows the effectiveness of SDE as a stochastic modeling approach in biology in general and immunology in particular and the power of ENISI SDE. PMID:26357217

  7. ClusterBoron Implant Alternative to BF{sub 2} PMOS SDE

    SciTech Connect

    Feudel, Thomas; Illgen, Ralf; Krueger, Christian; Braun, Marek; Sekar, Karuppanan; Lee, David; Krull, Wade

    2008-11-03

    As device geometries scale, the formation of the SDE becomes increasingly difficult and increasingly important. For advanced technologies, new methods such as ultra-low-energy boron implantation and millisecond annealing (flash or laser) are necessary to achieve the required junction characteristics. In addition, these processes must be compatible with the remainder of the process flow, which might include advanced dielectrics, stress technologies, SOI, etc. The emergence of ClusterBoron as a high productivity alternative for the low energy implant creates interest in device performance possible in a realistic process flow. This paper will present an evaluation of the use of ClusterBoron for the PMOS SDE in an advanced 65 nm logic process which includes laser annealing, e-SiGe stress layers and SOI. The conventional process uses a BF2 SDE process. Complete device characteristics will be shown comparing the ClusterBoron SDE to the conventional BF2. It will be shown that the ClusterBoron process achieves better boron activation, leading to enhanced transistor drive current. It will also be shown that the ClusterBoron is compatible with the SiGe stress layers and SOI structure. In summary, ClusterBoron presents an attractive alternative to the conventional BF2 process for advanced PMOS SDE.

  8. SDE and SPME Analysis of Flavor Compounds in Jin Xuan Oolong Tea.

    PubMed

    Sheibani, Ershad; Duncan, Susan E; Kuhn, David D; Dietrich, Andrea M; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2016-02-01

    Simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and solid phase micro extraction (SPME) are procedures used for the isolation of flavor compounds in foods. The purpose of this study was to optimize SDE conditions (solvent and time) and to compare SDE with SPME for the isolation of flavor compounds in Jin Xuan oolong tea using GC-MS and GC-O. The concentration of volatile compounds isolated with diethyl ether was higher (P < 0.05) than for dichloromethane and concentration was higher at 40 min (P < 0.05) than 20 or 60 min extractions. For SDE, 128 volatiles were identified using GC-MS and 45 aroma active compounds using GC-O. Trans-nerolidol was the most abundant compound in oolong tea. The number of volatiles identified using GC-MS was lower in SPME than SDE. For SPME, 59 volatiles and 41 aroma active compounds were identified. The composition of the volatiles isolated by the 2 methods differed considerably but provided complementary information. PMID:26756123

  9. The Establishment of the SAR images database System Based on Oracle and ArcSDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jijin; Li, Zhen; Chen, Quan; Tian, Bangsen

    2014-03-01

    Synthetic aperture radar is a kind of microwave imaging system, and has the advantages of multi-band, multi-polarization and multi-angle. At present, there is no SAR images database system based on typical features. For solving problems in interpretation and identification, a new SAR images database system of the typical features is urgent in the current development need. In this article, a SAR images database system based on Oracle and ArcSDE was constructed. The main works involving are as follows: (1) SAR image data was calibrated and corrected geometrically and geometrically. Besides, the fully polarimetric image was processed as the coherency matrix[T] to preserve the polarimetric information. (2) After analyzing multiple space borne SAR images, the metadata table was defined as: IMAGEID; Name of features; Latitude and Longitude; Sensor name; Range and Azimuth resolution etc. (3) Through the comparison between GeoRaster and ArcSDE, result showed ArcSDE is a more appropriate technology to store images in a central database. The System stores and manages multisource SAR image data well, reflects scattering, geometry, polarization, band and angle characteristics, and combines with analysis of the managed objects and service objects of the database as well as focuses on constructing SAR image system in the aspects of data browse and data retrieval. According the analysis of characteristics of SAR images such as scattering, polarization, incident angle and wave band information, different weights can be given to these characteristics. Then an interpreted tool is formed to provide an efficient platform for interpretation.

  10. Accuracy of Maximum Likelihood Parameter Estimators for Heston Stochastic Volatility SDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azencott, Robert; Gadhyan, Yutheeka

    2015-04-01

    We study approximate maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs) for the parameters of the widely used Heston Stock price and volatility stochastic differential equations (SDEs). We compute explicit closed form estimators maximizing the discretized log-likelihood of observations recorded at times . We compute the asymptotic biases of these parameter estimators for fixed and , as well as the rate at which these biases vanish when . We determine asymptotically consistent explicit modifications of these MLEs. For the Heston volatility SDE, we identify a canonical form determined by two canonical parameters and which are explicit functions of the original SDE parameters. We analyze theoretically the asymptotic distribution of the MLEs and of their consistent modifications, and we outline their concrete speeds of convergence by numerical simulations. We clarify in terms of the precise dichotomy between asymptotic normality and attraction by stable like distributions with heavy tails. We illustrate numerical model fitting for Heston SDEs by two concrete examples, one for daily data and one for intraday data, both with moderate values of.

  11. The effects of magnetic field modifications on the solar modulation of cosmic rays with a SDE-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raath, J. L.; Potgieter, M. S.; Strauss, R. D.; Kopp, A.

    2016-05-01

    A numerical model for the solar modulation of cosmic rays, based on the solution of a set of stochastic differential equations (SDEs), is used to illustrate the effects of modifying the heliospheric magnetic field, particularly in the polar regions of the heliosphere. SDE-based models are well suited for such studies so that new insights are gained. To this end, the differences in the modulation brought about by each of three choices for the heliospheric magnetic field, i.e. the unmodified Parker field, the Smith-Bieber modified field, and the Jokipii-Kóta modified field, are studied as typical well-known cases. It is illustrated that although both these modifications change the Parker field satisfactorily in the polar regions of the heliosphere, the Smith-Bieber modification is more effective in reducing cosmic ray drift effects in these regions. The features of these two modifications, as well as the effects on the solar modulation of cosmic rays, are illustrated qualitatively and quantitatively. In particular, it is shown how the Smith-Bieber modified field is applied in a cosmic ray modulation model to reproduce observational proton spectra from the PAMELA mission during the solar minimum of 2006-2009. These SDE-based results are compared with those obtained in previous studies of this unusual solar minimum activity period and found to be in good qualitative agreement.

  12. The effects of magnetic field modifications on the solar modulation of cosmic rays with a SDE-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raath, Jan-Louis; Toit Strauss, Du; Kopp, Andreas; Potgieter, Marius

    2016-07-01

    The effects of modifying the heliospheric magnetic field, particularly in the polar regions of the heliosphere, are illustrated by utilizing a numerical model based on the solution of a set of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). Because SDE-based models are especially well suited for such studies, we are able to gain new insights into this subject. The differences in the modulation brought about by each of three choices for the heliospheric magnetic field are studied as typical well-known cases; they are the unmodified Parker field, and the Smith-Bieber and Jokipii-Kóta modified fields. It is illustrated that both these modifications change the Parker field satisfactorily in the heliospheric polar regions, but that the modification of Smith and Bieber affects a larger reduction in cosmic ray drift effects in these regions. The general features of these two modifications are illustrated and the Smith-Bieber modified field is applied in a cosmic ray modulation model to reproduce observational proton spectra from the PAMELA mission during the solar minimum of 2006 - 2009. These SDE-based results are compared to the results from other studies and found to be in good qualitative agreement.

  13. Characterization of Aronia melanocarpa volatiles by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), simultaneous distillation/extraction (SDE), and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) methods.

    PubMed

    Kraujalytė, Vilma; Leitner, Erich; Venskutonis, Petras Rimantas

    2013-05-22

    The profiles of volatile constituents of berry fruit of two Aronia melanocarpa genotypes were evaluated by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), simultaneous distillation and extraction (SDE), and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O). In total, 74 volatile compounds were identified in chokeberry juice, 3-penten-2-one, 3,9-epoxy-p-menth-1-ene, and benzaldehyde being the most abundant constituents; however, their percentage concentrations were remarkably different in the HS-SPME and SDE profiles. Twenty two aroma-active compounds were detected and characterized by the trained panelists in HS-SPME using GC-O detection frequency analysis. Olfactometry revealed that ethyl-2-methyl butanoate, ethyl-3-methyl butanoate, ethyl decanoate ("fruity" aroma notes), nonanal ("green" notes), unidentified compound possessing "moldy" odor, and some other volatiles may be very important constituents in formation of chokeberry aroma of both analyzed plant cultivars. PMID:23662795

  14. CRADA Final Report For CRADA NO. CR-12-006 [Operation and Testing of an SO{sub 2}-depolarized Electrolyzer (SDE) for the Purpose of Hydrogen and Sulfuric Acid Production

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, W. A.; Colon-Mercado, H. R.; Steimke, J. L.; Zahn, Steffen

    2014-02-24

    Over the past several years, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has led a team of collaborators under the Department of Energy’s (DOE) nuclear hydrogen production program to develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process. HyS is a 2-step water-splitting process consisting of high temperature decomposition of sulfuric acid to generate SO{sub 2}, followed by the electrolysis of aqueous SO{sub 2} to generate hydrogen and sulfuric acid. The latter is fed back into the high temperature reactor. SRNL designed and built an SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) and a test facility. Over 40 SDE’s were tested using different catalysts, membranes and other components. SRNL demonstrated that an SDE could be operated continuously for approximately 200 hours under certain conditions without buildup of sulfur at the SDE’s cathode, thus solving a key technical problem with SDE technology. Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. (APCI) is a major supplier of hydrogen production systems, and they have proprietary technology that could benefit from the SDE developed by SRNS, or some improved version thereof. However, to demonstrate that SRNL’s SDE is a truly viable approach to the electrolyzer design, continuous operation for far greater periods of time than 200 hours must be demonstrated, and the electrolyzer must be scaled up to greater hydrogen production capacities. SRNL and Air Products entered into a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with the objective of demonstrating the effectiveness of the SDE for hydrogen and sulfuric acid production and to demonstrate long-term continuous operation so as to dramatically increase the confidence in the SDE design for commercial operation. SRNL prepared a detailed technical report documenting previous SDE development, including the current SDE design and operating conditions that led to the 200-hour sulfurfree testing. SRNL refurbished its single cell SDE test facility and qualified the equipment for continuous operation. A

  15. Ten-year study of fine aerosol at Sde Boker, Israel, using PIXE: Time trends, seasonal variation, correlations, and source areas for anthropogenic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maenhaut, Willy; Karnieli, Arnon; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    2014-01-01

    From January 1995 through December 2004 aerosol samples were collected at Sde Boker, Israel, with a Gent stacked filter unit sampler. The collections were done according to a 2-2-3 day schedule, which resulted in about 150 samples per year. The samples were analysed for the particulate mass (PM) by weighing, for black carbon (BC) by a light reflectance technique, and for up to 46 elements by a combination of PIXE and instrumental neutron activation analysis. Here, we report on the fine (PM2) size fraction data for the PM, BC, and the following nine anthropogenic elements S, V, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sb, and Pb, and discuss their time trends, seasonal variation, correlations, and source areas. The largest changes in the annual medians over the 10-year period were found for S, Ni, Se, Sb, and Pb, i.e., of -34%, -25%, -47%, +26%, and -40%, respectively. The seasonal variation was largest for S, with 1.6 times higher concentrations in summer than in the other three seasons. Vanadium and Ni were very highly correlated with each other (r = 0.95), pointing to a dominant common source, which is undoubtedly oil burning. Trajectory statistics, using 10-day back trajectories with arrival at 300 m above ground, were applied to assess the source areas. Sulphur originated mostly from south-eastern Europe (i.e., Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, and southern Russia) and As from the south-eastern part of European Russia, whilst the source picture for Zn was rather unclear. The other six anthropogenic elements and BC seemed to originate mainly from regional sources.

  16. ODE, RDE and SDE Models of Cell Cycle Dynamics and Clustering in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Boczko, Erik M.; Stowers, Chris C.; Gedeon, Tomas; Young, Todd R.

    2009-01-01

    Biologists have long observed periodic-like oxygen consumption oscillations in yeast populations under certain conditions and several unsatisfactory explanations for this phenomenon have been proposed. These “autonomous oscillations” have often appeared with periods that are nearly integer divisors of the calculated doubling time of the culture. We hypothesize that these oscillations could be caused by a form of cell cycle synchronization that we call clustering. We develop some novel ordinary differential equation models of the cell cycle. For these models, and for random and stochastic perturbations, we give both rigorous proofs and simulations showing that both positive and negative growth rate feedback within the cell cycle are possible agents that can cause clustering of populations within the cell cycle. It occurs for a variety of models and for a broad selection of parameter values. These results suggest that the clustering phenomenon is robust and is likely to be observed in nature. Since there are necessarily an integer number of clusters, clustering would lead to periodic-like behavior with periods that are nearly integer divisors of the period of the cell cycle. Related experiments have shown conclusively that cell cycle clustering occurs in some oscillating yeast cultures. PMID:20563236

  17. The ArcSDE GIS Dynamic Population Model Tool for Savannah River Site Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    MCLANE, TRACY; JONES, DWIGHT

    2005-10-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile Department of Energy site located near Aiken, South Carolina. With a workforce of over 10,000 employees and subcontractors, SRS emergency personnel must be able to respond to an emergency event in a timely and effective manner, in order to ensure the safety and security of the Site. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provides the technology needed to give managers and emergency personnel the information they need to make quick and effective decisions. In the event of a site evacuation, knowing the number of on-site personnel to evacuate from a given area is an essential piece of information for emergency staff. SRS has developed a GIS Dynamic Population Model Tool to quickly communicate real-time information that summarizes employee populations by facility area and building and then generates dynamic maps that illustrate output statistics.

  18. The Kernel Adaptive Autoregressive-Moving-Average Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Li, Kan; Príncipe, José C

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we present a novel kernel adaptive recurrent filtering algorithm based on the autoregressive-moving-average (ARMA) model, which is trained with recurrent stochastic gradient descent in the reproducing kernel Hilbert spaces. This kernelized recurrent system, the kernel adaptive ARMA (KAARMA) algorithm, brings together the theories of adaptive signal processing and recurrent neural networks (RNNs), extending the current theory of kernel adaptive filtering (KAF) using the representer theorem to include feedback. Compared with classical feedforward KAF methods, the KAARMA algorithm provides general nonlinear solutions for complex dynamical systems in a state-space representation, with a deferred teacher signal, by propagating forward the hidden states. We demonstrate its capabilities to provide exact solutions with compact structures by solving a set of benchmark nondeterministic polynomial-complete problems involving grammatical inference. Simulation results show that the KAARMA algorithm outperforms equivalent input-space recurrent architectures using first- and second-order RNNs, demonstrating its potential as an effective learning solution for the identification and synthesis of deterministic finite automata. PMID:25935049

  19. New spatial diversity equalizer based on PLL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Wei

    2011-10-01

    A new Spatial Diversity Equalizer (SDE) based on phase-locked loop (PLL) is proposed to overcome the inter-symbol interference (ISI) and phase rotations simultaneously in the digital communication system. The proposed SDE consists of equal gain combining technique based on a famous blind equalization algorithm constant modulus algorithm (CMA) and a PLL. Compared with conventional SDE, the proposed SDE has not only faster convergence rate and lower residual error but also the ability to recover carrier phase rotation. The efficiency of the method is proved by computer simulation.

  20. Performance of electrocatalytic gold coating on bipolar plates for SO2 depolarized electrolyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santasalo-Aarnio, A.; Lokkiluoto, A.; Virtanen, J.; Gasik, M. M.

    2016-02-01

    One of the largest obstacles for SO2 depolarized electrolyser (SDE) commercialization is the material stability in rough operating conditions. In this work stainless steel bipolar plates have been coated with thin Au layer having bifunctional role: providing electrocatalytic surface for both electrode reactions and simultaneously improves the stainless steel support corrosion tolerance at the potential window of SDE. The stability and performance of the coated bipolar plates were tested in a bench-scale electrolyser set-up and the results indicate that these plates can be utilized as economic catalyst for SDE, moreover, they show corrosion resistance in SDE operation.

  1. Anti-Inflammatory and Antiosteoarthritis Effects of Saposhnikovia divaricata ethanol Extract: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Jin Mi; Kim, Hyo Seon; Lee, A Yeong; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2016-01-01

    Saposhnikovia divaricata Schischkin has been used in traditional medicine to treat pain, inflammation, and arthritis. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory and antiosteoarthritis activities of Saposhnikovia divaricata extract (SDE). The anti-inflammatory effect of SDE was evaluated in vitro in lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) treated RAW 264.7 cells. The antiosteoarthritic effect of SDE was investigated in an in vivo rat model of monosodium iodoacetate- (MIA-) induced osteoarthritis (OA) in which rats were treated orally with SDE (200 mg/kg) for 28 days. The effects of SDE were assessed in vivo by histopathological analysis and by measuring weight-bearing distribution, cytokine serum levels, and joint tissue inflammation-related gene expression. SDE showed anti-inflammatory activity by inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. In addition, SDE promoted recovery of hind limb weight-bearing, inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines and mediators, and protected cartilage and subchondral bone tissue in the OA rat model. Therefore, SDE is a potential therapeutic agent for OA and/or associated symptoms. PMID:27042186

  2. Initial Teacher Licensure Testing in Tennessee: Legislative Requirements and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, John R.; Bowman, Harry L.

    The licensure of public school personnel in Tennessee is a function of the State Department of Education (SDE). Additional requirements for this certification function were added by the Comprehensive Education Reform Act (Senate Bill Number 1) of the 1984 Tennessee General Assembly. The Act mandated that the SDE use tests to assess the competence…

  3. Language and Meaning in Environmental Education: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stables, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The devotion of this special issue of EER to the language of environmental and sustainable developmental education (SDE) serves as a timely reminder that SDE cannot simply be seen as a culturally neutral or value-free package that can be "delivered". In a variety of ways, contributors to this volume address the issues involved in re-engineering…

  4. Sustainable Development Education in Scottish Schools: The Sleeping Beauty Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Marie Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews and discusses the development of Sustainable Development Education (SDE) policy within the context of the Scottish formal school system. The focus is on the progress, and lack thereof, of implementation of SDE in schools in the light of some of the key curriculum documents and associated political decisions and advisory reports.…

  5. Impacts of Snow Darkening by Absorbing Aerosols on Eurasian Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Kyu-Myong; Lau, William K M.; Yasunari, Teppei J.; Kim, Maeng-Ki; Koster, Randal D.

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of absorbing aerosols on snow surfaces reduces snow-albedo and allows snowpack to absorb more sunlight. This so-called snow darkening effect (SDE) accelerates snow melting and leads to surface warming in spring. To examine the impact of SDE on weather and climate during late spring and early summer, two sets of NASA GEOS-5 model simulations with and without SDE are conducted. Results show that SDE-induced surface heating is particularly pronounced in Eurasian regions where significant depositions of dust transported from the North African deserts, and black carbon from biomass burning from Asia and Europe occur. In these regions, the surface heating due to SDE increases surface skin temperature by 3-6 degrees Kelvin near the snowline in spring. Surface energy budget analysis indicates that SDE-induced excess heating is associated with a large increase in surface evaporation, subsequently leading to a significant reduction in soil moisture, and increased risks of drought and heat waves in late spring to early summer. Overall, we find that rainfall deficit combined with SDE-induced dry soil in spring provide favorable condition for summertime heat waves over large regions of Eurasia. Increased frequency of summer heat waves with SDE and the region of maximum increase in heat-wave frequency are found along the snow line, providing evidence that early snowmelt by SDE may increase the risks of extreme summer heat wave. Our results suggest that climate models that do not include SDE may significantly underestimate the effect of global warming over extra-tropical continental regions.

  6. Impression management ("lie") scales are associated with interpersonally oriented self-control, not other-deception.

    PubMed

    Uziel, Liad

    2014-06-01

    This article explores the status of impression management (IM) scales ("lie scales," notably, BIDR-IM) as measures of response bias, offers theory-driven substantive meaning to them, and compares them with self-deception enhancement (SDE). Study 1 (N = 99) compared self-descriptions of actual self and ideal self given in a non-anonymous setting. High similarity indicates self-enhancement. Study 2 (70 dyads) analyzed self-other agreement about IM and SDE. Agreement indicates substantive basis to the scales' scores. Study 3 (N = 182) explored the centrality of self-control in the self-perception of individuals varying in IM and SDE. Study 4 (95 dyads) corroborated self-reports about self-control using informants' reports. In Study 1, IM was associated with relative humility, whereas SDE was associated with self-enhancement. In Study 2, strong self-other agreement was found only for IM, indicating that high IM (but not SDE) is grounded in real-life behavior. In Study 3, self-control was central in the self-perception of high IM and high SDE individuals. In Study 4, strong relations with self-control were corroborated by informants only for IM. IM scales measure substantive content associated with self-control aimed at social adaptation, whereas the SDE scale depicts individuals with a grandiose self-perception, who fail to impress knowledgeable others. PMID:23750550

  7. Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd. Leaves: Mechanical Antinociceptive Properties of a Standardized Dried Extract and Its Chemical Markers

    PubMed Central

    Quintão, Nara L. M.; Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Silva, Gislaine F.; Antonialli, Carla S.; Rocha, Lilian W.; Lucinda-Silva, Ruth M.; Malheiros, Angela; Souza, Márcia M.; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Bresolin, Tania M. B.

    2011-01-01

    Seeking to develop a new analgesic phytomedicine, a spray-dried extract (SDE) of Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd. leaves was developed in scale up (5 kg). The SDE was standardized at 3% w/w in relation to the flavonoid 2′′-O-rhamnosylswertisin. The SDE batches were evaluated in relation to their physical, physiochemical, and pharmacological characteristics. The results demonstrated the reproducibility of the scale up SDE process which, when dosed orally, reduced carrageenan-induced mechanical hypernociception, with an ID50% of 443 mg/kg. Similar results were obtained with animals injected with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA), in which SDE caused inhibition of 48 ± 4%. SDE was effective in preventing prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-induced mechanical hypernociception (inhibition of 26 ± 10% and 33 ± 3%, at 250 and 500 mg/kg, respectively). Swertisin and 2′′-O-rhamnosylswertisin isolated from the own extract were effective in inhibiting the hypernociceptive response induced by carrageenan (70 ± 2% and 50 ± 5%, resp.). Furthermore, 2′′-O-rhamnosylswertisin was capable of significantly inhibiting the mechanical sensitization induced by CFA or PGE2, with inhibitions of 25 ± 3% and 94 ± 6%, respectively. These results suggest that the effects of SDE are related, at least in part, to the presence of these flavonoids. PMID:21660087

  8. Assessment of Antioxidant Activity of Spray Dried Extracts of Psidium guajava Leaves by DPPH and Chemiluminescence Inhibition in Human Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, M. R. V.; Azzolini, A. E. C. S.; Martinez, M. L. L.; Souza, C. R. F.; Lucisano-Valim, Y. M.; Oliveira, W. P.

    2014-01-01

    This work evaluated the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of spray dried extracts (SDE) from Psidium guajava L. leaves. Different drying carriers, namely, maltodextrin, colloidal silicon dioxide, Arabic gum, and β-cyclodextrin at concentrations of 40 and 80% relative to solids content, were added to drying composition. SDE were characterized through determination of the total phenolic, tannins, and flavonoid content. Antioxidant potential of the SDE was assessed by two assays: cellular test that measures the luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence (LumCL) produced by neutrophils stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and the DPPH radical scavenging (DPPH∗ method). In both assays the antioxidant activity of the SDE occurred in a concentration-dependent manner and showed no toxicity to the cells. Using the CLlum method, the IC50 ranged from 5.42 to 6.50 µg/mL. The IC50 of the SDE ranged from 7.96 to 8.11 µg/mL using the DPPH• method. Psidium guajava SDE presented significant antioxidant activity; thus they show high potential as an active phytopharmaceutical ingredient. Our findings in human neutrophils are pharmacologically relevant since they indicate that P. guajava SDE is a potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent in human cells. PMID:24822200

  9. Hepatoprotective effect of Scoparia dulcis on carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chiu, Tai-Hui; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Shang-Chih; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Lee, Chao-Ying

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the hepatoprotective activity and active constituents of the ethanol extract of Scoparia dulcis (SDE). The hepatoprotective effect of SDE (0.1, 0.5 and 1 g/kg) was evaluated on the carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury. The active constituents were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mice pretreated orally with SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and silymarin (200 mg/kg) for five consecutive days before the administering of a single dose of 0.2% CCl(4) (10 ml/kg of bw, ip) showed a significant inhibition of the increase of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Histological analyses also showed that SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and silymarin reduced the extent of liver lesions induced by CCl(4), including vacuole formation, neutrophil infiltration and necrosis. Moreover, SDE decreased the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and elevated the content of reduced glutathione (GSH) in the liver as compared to those in the CCl(4) group. Furthermore, SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) enhanced the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRd) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). The quantities of active constituents in SDE were about 3.1 mg luteolin/g extract and 1.1 mg apigenin/g extract. The hepatoprotective mechanisms of SDE were likely associated to the decrease in MDA level and increase in GSH level by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, GPx, GRd and GST. These results demonstrated that SDE could alleviate CCl(4)-induced acute liver injury in mice. PMID:20626061

  10. An integrated simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus for the extraction of essential oils from herb materials and its application in Flos Magnoliae.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yuhui; Li, Boxia; Duan, Haogang; Wu, Xin'an; Yao, Xiaojun

    2010-03-01

    A large number of herb materials contain essential oils with extensive bioactivities. In this work, an integrated simultaneous distillation-extraction (ISDE) apparatus was developed. To demonstrate its feasibility, the performance of ISDE was evaluated for the extraction of essential oil from Flos Magnoliae and compared with conventional techniques including steam distillation (SD) and simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE). According to the product yield, the time consumed and the composition of oil, the essential oils isolated by ISDE were better than that obtained by SD and similar to those obtained by SDE. ISDE was also better than SDE due to its simple operation and lower consumption of energy and organic solvent. PMID:19634121

  11. 75 FR 70265 - Proposed Data Collections Submitted for Public Comment and Recommendations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... using Survey Monkey, an electronic Web-based interface. The estimated burden per response is two hours... to the Survey Monkey site. One of the two required SDE submissions will coincide approximately...

  12. Behavioural and physiological effect of dental environment sensory adaptation on children's dental anxiety.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Michele; Melmed, Raphael N; Sgan-Cohen, Harold D; Eli, Ilana; Parush, Shula

    2007-12-01

    Dental anxiety is a serious obstacle in conventional oral healthcare delivery. A sensory adapted dental environment (SDE) might be effective in reducing anxiety and inducing relaxation. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a Snoezelen SDE in reducing anxiety among children undergoing scaling and polishing by a dental hygienist. The Snoezelen environment consists of a partially dimmed room with lighting effects, vibroacoustic stimuli, and deep pressure. Nineteen children, aged 6-11 yr, participated in a cross-over intervention trial. Behavioral parameters included the mean number, duration, and magnitude of anxious behaviors, as monitored by videotaped recordings. Physiological parameters reflecting arousal were monitored by changes in dermal resistance. Results, by all measures, consistently indicated that both behavioral and psychophysiological measures of relaxation improved significantly in the SDE compared with a conventional dental environment. The findings support recommending the SDE as an effective and practical alternative in oral healthcare delivery to anxious children. PMID:18028056

  13. Resist Profile Control Obtained Through A Desirability Function And Statistically Designed Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Kenneth L.; Christensen, Lorna D.

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes a technique used to determine an optimized microlithographic process using statistical methods which included a statistically designed experiment (SDE); a desirability function, d(θ*) and a rigorous daily statistical process control program, (SPC).

  14. Causal dynamical triangulation with extended interactions in 1+1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuji, Hiroyuki; Sato, Yuki; Watabiki, Yoshiyuki

    2011-10-01

    We study the Causal Dynamical Triangulation (CDT) with extended interactions in 1 + 1 dimensions applying the method in the non-critical String Field Theory (SFT) constructed by Ishibashi and Kawai. For this model, we solve Schwinger-Dyson's Equation (SDE) for disk amplitude perturbatively, and find a matrix model in the continuum limit reproducing the SDE in the non-critical SFT approach as the loop equation.

  15. Multinomial diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balter, Ariel; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2011-06-01

    We describe a new, microscopic model for diffusion that captures diffusion induced fluctuations at scales where the concept of concentration gives way to discrete particles. We show that in the limit as the number of particles N→∞, our model is equivalent to the classical stochastic diffusion equation (SDE). We test our new model and the SDE against Langevin dynamics in numerical simulations, and show that our model successfully reproduces the correct ensemble statistics, while the classical model fails.

  16. Multinomial diffusion equation

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, Ariel I.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.

    2011-06-24

    We describe a new, microscopic model for diffusion that captures diffusion induced uctuations at scales where the concept of concentration gives way to discrete par- ticles. We show that in the limit as the number of particles N ! 1, our model is equivalent to the classical stochastic diffusion equation (SDE). We test our new model and the SDE against Langevin dynamics in numerical simulations, and show that our model successfully reproduces the correct ensemble statistics, while the classical model fails.

  17. Symmetries of stochastic differential equations: A geometric approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vecchi, Francesco C.; Morando, Paola; Ugolini, Stefania

    2016-06-01

    A new notion of stochastic transformation is proposed and applied to the study of both weak and strong symmetries of stochastic differential equations (SDEs). The correspondence between an algebra of weak symmetries for a given SDE and an algebra of strong symmetries for a modified SDE is proved under suitable regularity assumptions. This general approach is applied to a stochastic version of a two dimensional symmetric ordinary differential equation and to the case of two dimensional Brownian motion.

  18. A New Mass Spectrometry-compatible Degradable Surfactant for Tissue Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ying-Hua; Gregorich, Zachery R.; Chen, Albert J.; Hwang, Leekyoung; Guner, Huseyin; Yu, Deyang; Zhang, Jianyi; Ge, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Tissue proteomics is increasingly recognized for its role in biomarker discovery and disease mechanism investigation. However, protein solubility remains a significant challenge in mass spectrometry (MS)-based tissue proteomics. Conventional surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), the preferred surfactant for protein solubilization, are not compatible with MS. Herein, we have screened a library of surfactant-like compounds and discovered an MS-compatible degradable surfactant (MaSDeS) for tissue proteomics that solubilizes all categories of proteins with performance comparable to SDS. The use of MaSDeS in the tissue extraction significantly improves the total number of protein identifications from commonly used tissues, including tissue from the heart, liver, and lung. Notably, MaSDeS significantly enriches membrane proteins, which are often under-represented in proteomics studies. The acid degradable nature of MaSDeS makes it amenable for high-throughput mass spectrometry-based proteomics. In addition, the thermostability of MaSDeS allows for its use in experiments requiring high temperature to facilitate protein extraction and solubilization. Furthermore, we have shown that MaSDeS outperforms the other MS-compatible surfactants in terms of overall protein solubility and the total number of identified proteins in tissue proteomics. Thus, the use of MaSDeS will greatly advance tissue proteomics and realize its potential in basic biomedical and clinical research. MaSDeS could be utilized in a variety of proteomics studies as well as general biochemical and biological experiments that employ surfactants for protein solubilization. PMID:25589168

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and betulinic acid.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Peng, Wen-Huang; Chiu, Tai-Hui; Lai, Shang-Chih; Lee, Chao-Ying

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study intended to investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of the 70% ethanol extract from Scoparia dulcis (SDE) and betulinic acid on λ-carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The anti-inflammatory mechanism of SDE and betulinic acid was examined by detecting the levels of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the edema paw tissue and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GRd) in the liver. The betulinic acid content in SDE was detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In the anti-inflammatory model, the results showed that SDE (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg) and betulinic acid (20 and 40 mg/kg) reduced the paw edema at 3, 4 and 5 h after λ-carrageenan administration. Moreover, SDE and betulinic acid affected the levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α and IL1-β in the λ-carrageenan-induced edema paws. The activities of SOD, GPx and GRd in the liver tissue were increased and the MDA levels in the edema paws were decreased. It is suggested that SDE and betulinic acid possessed anti-inflammatory activities and the anti-inflammatory mechanisms appear to be related to the reduction of the levels of COX-2, NO, TNF-α and IL1-β in inflamed tissues, as well as the inhibition of MDA level via increasing the activities of SOD, GPx and GRd. The analytical result showed that the content of betulinic acid in SDE was 6.25 mg/g extract. PMID:21905284

  20. Effects of dietary spray-dried egg on growth performance and health of weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Song, M; Che, T M; Liu, Y; Soares, J A; Harmon, B G; Pettigrew, J E

    2012-09-01

    Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutrient contributions and physiological health benefits of spray-dried egg (SDE) containing only unfertilized eggs as a protein source in nursery pig diets. In all experiments, all diets were formulated to the same ME and Lys content, and each pen within a block (by BW) housed the same number of barrows and gilts. In Exp. 1 and 2 (168 and 140 pigs, respectively; 5 kg BW; 16 d old; 14 replicates/experiment), conducted at a university farm, treatments were with or without 5% SDE in a nursery control diet, which included antibiotics and zinc oxide. Pigs were fed for 10 d after weaning to measure ADG, ADFI, and G:F. The SDE increased (P < 0.05) ADG (Exp. 1: 243 vs. 204 g/d; Exp. 2: 204 vs. 181 g/d) and ADFI (Exp. 1: 236 vs. 204 g/d; Exp. 2: 263 vs. 253 g/d) compared with the control diet but did not affect G:F. In Exp. 3 (1,008 pigs; 5.2 kg BW; 20 d old; 12 replicates/treatment), conducted at a commercial farm, treatments were in a factorial arrangement of with or without SDE and high or low spray-dried plasma (SDP) in nursery diets, which included antibiotics and zinc oxide. Pigs were fed for 6 wk using a 4-phase feeding program (phases of 1, 1, 2, and 2 wk, respectively) with declining diet complexity to measure ADG, ADFI, G:F, removal rate (mortality plus morbidity), and frequency of medical treatments per pen and day (MED). The diets with the SDE increased (P < 0.05) ADFI during phase 1 only (180 vs. 164 g/d) compared with the diets without the SDE but did not affect growth performance during any other phases. The diets with SDE reduced MED during phase 1 (0.75% vs. 1.35%; P < 0.05) and the overall period (0.84% vs. 1.01%; P = 0.062) compared with the diets without the SDE but did not affect removal rate. In Exp. 4 (160 pigs; 6.7 kg BW; 21 d old; 10 replicates/treatment), conducted at a university farm to determine whether SDE can replace SDP, treatments were in a factorial arrangement of with or without SDP or SDE

  1. Arsenic removal from groundwater of the Chaco-Pampean plain (Argentina) using natural geological materials as adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Bundschuh, Jochen; Bhattacharya, Prosun; Sracek, Ondra; Mellano, M Fernanda; Ramírez, Antonio E; Storniolo, Angel del R; Martín, Raúl A; Cortés, Julia; Litter, Marta I; Jean, Jiin-Shuh

    2011-01-01

    Use of natural geological materials for arsenic (As) removal is an emerging solution at a household level for poor people in remote rural settlements, especially when the materials are locally available and can be collected by the local population. Their low or zero cost makes these materials very attractive compared with synthetic or commercial materials. Sometimes, this may be the only option to provide safe water to very poor settlements. Their suitability for As removal from water is mainly due to adsorption, co-precipitation and ion exchange processes involving Fe- and Al-rich minerals and clay minerals present in the soils or sediments. In the present study, various clay-rich soils from the Santiago del Estero province (SDE, NW Argentina) and, for comparison, a laterite from the Misiones province have been tested as adsorbents for As in shallow naturally contaminated groundwaters of the Río Dulce alluvial aquifer in SDE. Batch adsorption experiments showed higher As(V) removal for the Misiones laterite sample (99 %) as compared with the soils from SDE (40-53 %), which can be related to lower contents of water-soluble and oxalate extractable Al and Fe in the last samples. These results suggest the application of the Misiones laterite soil as an alternative for As removal. However, high transportation costs from Misiones to SDE can be an economical restriction for the low-income population of SDE. PMID:21879863

  2. Application of Sequence-Dependent Electrophoresis Fingerprinting in Exploring Biodiversity and Population Dynamics of Human Intestinal Microbiota: What Can Be Revealed?

    PubMed Central

    Huys, Geert; Vanhoutte, Tom; Vandamme, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Sequence-dependent electrophoresis (SDE) fingerprinting techniques such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) have become commonplace in the field of molecular microbial ecology. The success of the SDE technology lays in the fact that it allows visualization of the predominant members of complex microbial ecosystems independent of their culturability and without prior knowledge on the complexity and diversity of the ecosystem. Mainly using the prokaryotic 16S rRNA gene as PCR amplification target, SDE-based community fingerprinting turned into one of the leading molecular tools to unravel the diversity and population dynamics of human intestinal microbiota. The first part of this review covers the methodological concept of SDE fingerprinting and the technical hurdles for analyzing intestinal samples. Subsequently, the current state-of-the-art of DGGE and related techniques to analyze human intestinal microbiota from healthy individuals and from patients with intestinal disorders is surveyed. In addition, the applicability of SDE analysis to monitor intestinal population changes upon nutritional or therapeutic interventions is critically evaluated. PMID:19277102

  3. A model for structured data entry based on explicit descriptional knowledge.

    PubMed

    Moorman, P W; van Ginneken, A M; van der Lei, J; van Bemmel, J H

    1994-12-01

    Clinical narratives in patient records are usually recorded in free text, limiting the use of this information for research, quality assessment, and decision support. This study focuses on the capture of clinical narratives in a structured format by supporting physicans with structured data entry (SDE). We analyzed and made explicit which requirements SDE should meet to be acceptable for the physician on the one hand, and generate unambiguous patient data on the other. Starting from these requirements, we found that in order to support SDE, the knowledge on which it is based needs to be made explicit: we refer to this knowledge as descriptional knowledge. We articulate the nature of this knowledge, and propose a model in which it can be formally represented. The model allows the construction of specific knowledge bases, each representing the knowledge needed to support SDE within a circumscribed domain. Data entry is made possible through a general entry program, of which the behavior is determined by a combination of user input and the content of the applicable domain knowledge base. We clarify how descriptional knowledge is represented, modeled, and used for data entry to achieve SDE, which meets the proposed requirements. PMID:7869942

  4. A stochastic SIRS epidemic model with infectious force under intervention strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yongli; Kang, Yun; Banerjee, Malay; Wang, Weiming

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we extend a classical SIRS epidemic model with the infectious forces under intervention strategies from a deterministic framework to a stochastic differential equation (SDE) one through introducing random fluctuations. The value of our study lies in two aspects. Mathematically, by using the Markov semigroups theory, we prove that the reproduction number R0S can be used to govern the stochastic dynamics of SDE model. If R0S < 1, under mild extra conditions, the SDE system has a disease-free absorbing set which means the extinction of disease with probability one. If R0S > 1, under mild extra conditions, it has an endemic stationary distribution which leads to the stochastical persistence of the disease. Epidemiologically, we find that random fluctuations can suppress disease outbreak, which can provide us some useful control strategies to regulate disease dynamics.

  5. The use of copulas to practical estimation of multivariate stochastic differential equation mixed effects models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupšys, P.

    2015-10-01

    A system of stochastic differential equations (SDE) with mixed-effects parameters and multivariate normal copula density function were used to develop tree height model for Scots pine trees in Lithuania. A two-step maximum likelihood parameter estimation method is used and computational guidelines are given. After fitting the conditional probability density functions to outside bark diameter at breast height, and total tree height, a bivariate normal copula distribution model was constructed. Predictions from the mixed-effects parameters SDE tree height model calculated during this research were compared to the regression tree height equations. The results are implemented in the symbolic computational language MAPLE.

  6. The use of copulas to practical estimation of multivariate stochastic differential equation mixed effects models

    SciTech Connect

    Rupšys, P.

    2015-10-28

    A system of stochastic differential equations (SDE) with mixed-effects parameters and multivariate normal copula density function were used to develop tree height model for Scots pine trees in Lithuania. A two-step maximum likelihood parameter estimation method is used and computational guidelines are given. After fitting the conditional probability density functions to outside bark diameter at breast height, and total tree height, a bivariate normal copula distribution model was constructed. Predictions from the mixed-effects parameters SDE tree height model calculated during this research were compared to the regression tree height equations. The results are implemented in the symbolic computational language MAPLE.

  7. CATALYST EVALUATION FOR A SULFUR DIOXIDE-DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H

    2007-01-31

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as the electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium. Testing also showed that the catalyst activity is strongly influenced by the concentration of the sulfuric acid electrolyte.

  8. A view of software management issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manley, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    The Software Development Environment (SDE) Panel addressed key programmatic, scope, and structural issues raised by its members and the general audience regarding the proposed software development environment for the Space Station program. The general team approach taken by this group led to a consensus on 18 recommendations to NASA mangament regarding the acquisition and definition of the SDE. This approach was keyed by the initial issues presentation given to the general audience. Additional issues (for a total of 23) were developed by the panelists in their first closed session from which key areas were selected and discussed in open session. These discussions led to key recommendations which are summarized and described.

  9. Multilevel ensemble Kalman filtering

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Hoel, Hakon; Law, Kody J. H.; Tempone, Raul

    2016-06-14

    This study embeds a multilevel Monte Carlo sampling strategy into the Monte Carlo step of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) in the setting of finite dimensional signal evolution and noisy discrete-time observations. The signal dynamics is assumed to be governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE), and a hierarchy of time grids is introduced for multilevel numerical integration of that SDE. Finally, the resulting multilevel EnKF is proved to asymptotically outperform EnKF in terms of computational cost versus approximation accuracy. The theoretical results are illustrated numerically.

  10. How many biological replicates are needed in an RNA-seq experiment and which differential expression tool should you use?

    PubMed Central

    Gierliński, Marek; Sherstnev, Alexander; Singh, Vijender; Wrobel, Nicola; Gharbi, Karim; Simpson, Gordon G.; Owen-Hughes, Tom; Blaxter, Mark

    2016-01-01

    RNA-seq is now the technology of choice for genome-wide differential gene expression experiments, but it is not clear how many biological replicates are needed to ensure valid biological interpretation of the results or which statistical tools are best for analyzing the data. An RNA-seq experiment with 48 biological replicates in each of two conditions was performed to answer these questions and provide guidelines for experimental design. With three biological replicates, nine of the 11 tools evaluated found only 20%–40% of the significantly differentially expressed (SDE) genes identified with the full set of 42 clean replicates. This rises to >85% for the subset of SDE genes changing in expression by more than fourfold. To achieve >85% for all SDE genes regardless of fold change requires more than 20 biological replicates. The same nine tools successfully control their false discovery rate at ≲5% for all numbers of replicates, while the remaining two tools fail to control their FDR adequately, particularly for low numbers of replicates. For future RNA-seq experiments, these results suggest that at least six biological replicates should be used, rising to at least 12 when it is important to identify SDE genes for all fold changes. If fewer than 12 replicates are used, a superior combination of true positive and false positive performances makes edgeR and DESeq2 the leading tools. For higher replicate numbers, minimizing false positives is more important and DESeq marginally outperforms the other tools. PMID:27022035

  11. How many biological replicates are needed in an RNA-seq experiment and which differential expression tool should you use?

    PubMed

    Schurch, Nicholas J; Schofield, Pietá; Gierliński, Marek; Cole, Christian; Sherstnev, Alexander; Singh, Vijender; Wrobel, Nicola; Gharbi, Karim; Simpson, Gordon G; Owen-Hughes, Tom; Blaxter, Mark; Barton, Geoffrey J

    2016-06-01

    RNA-seq is now the technology of choice for genome-wide differential gene expression experiments, but it is not clear how many biological replicates are needed to ensure valid biological interpretation of the results or which statistical tools are best for analyzing the data. An RNA-seq experiment with 48 biological replicates in each of two conditions was performed to answer these questions and provide guidelines for experimental design. With three biological replicates, nine of the 11 tools evaluated found only 20%-40% of the significantly differentially expressed (SDE) genes identified with the full set of 42 clean replicates. This rises to >85% for the subset of SDE genes changing in expression by more than fourfold. To achieve >85% for all SDE genes regardless of fold change requires more than 20 biological replicates. The same nine tools successfully control their false discovery rate at ≲5% for all numbers of replicates, while the remaining two tools fail to control their FDR adequately, particularly for low numbers of replicates. For future RNA-seq experiments, these results suggest that at least six biological replicates should be used, rising to at least 12 when it is important to identify SDE genes for all fold changes. If fewer than 12 replicates are used, a superior combination of true positive and false positive performances makes edgeR and DESeq2 the leading tools. For higher replicate numbers, minimizing false positives is more important and DESeq marginally outperforms the other tools. PMID:27022035

  12. Comparing the Ideal Dispositions of Administrative Internship Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sidney L.

    2015-01-01

    This research will examine the dispositions of Instructional Leader Residents/interns (ILR/I's) at a State Department of Education (SDE) mandated redesigned masters principal preparation program at a Predominantly White Institution (PWI). Once the dispositions' findings were tabulated they were compared with the dispositions findings of…

  13. Telephone Teaching: Towards Constructivist Teaching for Rural and Remote Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Glenn; Rotolo, Carolyn

    In 1998 the Charleville School of Distance Education (SDE) in Queensland, Australia, began using telephone teaching to replace high frequency radio as its means of communicating with rural and remote students. A study investigated the extent to which telephone teaching has contributed to the development of a constructivist teaching and learning…

  14. State of New Mexico State Plan: Education of Homeless Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Dept. of Education, Santa Fe.

    New Mexico's State plan for the education of homeless children and youth is submitted in compliance with Title VII-B of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987. The plan is comprised of 10 sections and five appendices. Section 1 states that the State Department of Education (SDE) is responsible for the administration of the…

  15. SoftAR: visually manipulating haptic softness perception in spatial augmented reality.

    PubMed

    Punpongsanon, Parinya; Iwai, Daisuke; Sato, Kosuke

    2015-11-01

    We present SoftAR, a novel spatial augmented reality (AR) technique based on a pseudo-haptics mechanism that visually manipulates the sense of softness perceived by a user pushing a soft physical object. Considering the limitations of projection-based approaches that change only the surface appearance of a physical object, we propose two projection visual effects, i.e., surface deformation effect (SDE) and body appearance effect (BAE), on the basis of the observations of humans pushing physical objects. The SDE visualizes a two-dimensional deformation of the object surface with a controlled softness parameter, and BAE changes the color of the pushing hand. Through psychophysical experiments, we confirm that the SDE can manipulate softness perception such that the participant perceives significantly greater softness than the actual softness. Furthermore, fBAE, in which BAE is applied only for the finger area, significantly enhances manipulation of the perception of softness. We create a computational model that estimates perceived softness when SDE+fBAE is applied. We construct a prototype SoftAR system in which two application frameworks are implemented. The softness adjustment allows a user to adjust the softness parameter of a physical object, and the softness transfer allows the user to replace the softness with that of another object. PMID:26340774

  16. State Plan for the Education of Homeless Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This report describes Oklahoma's response to requirements for the education of homeless children and youth of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act of 1987. The report includes an introduction and an overview of Subtitle B of the McKinney Act and is divided into four sections. Section I, "Functions of the SDE Office," describes the role…

  17. Confidence analysis of standard deviational ellipse and its extension into higher dimensional euclidean space.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shi, Wenzhong; Miao, Zelang

    2015-01-01

    Standard deviational ellipse (SDE) has long served as a versatile GIS tool for delineating the geographic distribution of concerned features. This paper firstly summarizes two existing models of calculating SDE, and then proposes a novel approach to constructing the same SDE based on spectral decomposition of the sample covariance, by which the SDE concept is naturally generalized into higher dimensional Euclidean space, named standard deviational hyper-ellipsoid (SDHE). Then, rigorous recursion formulas are derived for calculating the confidence levels of scaled SDHE with arbitrary magnification ratios in any dimensional space. Besides, an inexact-newton method based iterative algorithm is also proposed for solving the corresponding magnification ratio of a scaled SDHE when the confidence probability and space dimensionality are pre-specified. These results provide an efficient manner to supersede the traditional table lookup of tabulated chi-square distribution. Finally, synthetic data is employed to generate the 1-3 multiple SDEs and SDHEs. And exploratory analysis by means of SDEs and SDHEs are also conducted for measuring the spread concentrations of Hong Kong's H1N1 in 2009. PMID:25769048

  18. A Synchronous Distance Education Course for Non-Scientists Coordinated among Three Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tamara Floyd; Baah, David; Bradley, James; Sidler, Michelle; Hall, Rosine; Daughtrey, Terrell; Curtis, Christine

    2010-01-01

    A Synchronous Distance Education (SDE) course, jointly offered by Auburn University, Tuskegee University and Auburn University at Montgomery, introduced non-science majors to the concepts of nanoscience. Lectures originated from each of the three campuses during the semester, and video conferencing equipment allowed students at all three campuses…

  19. MAINE 1:24,000 HYDROLOGY POLYGONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maine 1:24,000 Hydrology Polygons SDE feature class depicts double line river features, single line streams, pond, lake and coastal outlines in Maine from USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangles. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick features are also included. Codes are included to ...

  20. MAINE BEDROCK SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bedrocksqpa_region_pws is a REGIONS SDE layer of bedrock source water protection areas in Maine with a high, moderate, or low probability of contributing water to community public water supplies. The Maine Drinking Water Program (MEDWP), in cooperation with the Maine Geological S...

  1. MAINE 1:24,000 HYDROLOGY LINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Maine 1:24,000 Hydrology Lines SDE feature class depicts double line river features, single line streams, pond, lake and coastal outlines in Maine from USGS 1:24,000 scale quadrangles. Some New Hampshire and New Brunswick features are also included. Codes are included to sel...

  2. Giant frontal mucocele complicated by subdural empyema: treatment of a rare association.

    PubMed

    Visocchi, Massimiliano; Esposito, Giuseppe; Della Pepa, Giuseppe Maria; Doglietto, Francesco; Nucci, Carlotta Ginevra; Fontanella, Marco Maria; Montano, Nicola

    2012-03-01

    Giant frontal mucocele (GFM) is an extremely rare cause of frontal lobe syndrome. Subdural empyema (SDE) is an uncommon complication of paranasal sinisutis, for which craniotomy and decompressive craniotomy are the most effective surgical procedures. A 54-year-old man was brought unconscious to the emergency room where recurrent generalized seizures occurred. Heroine abuse, HCV-related hepatitis, prolonged antibiotic therapy for treatment of purulent rhinorrhea, along with recent personality changes were reported. High white blood cell count, pansinusitis, GFM, SDE and cerebritis were documented. The patient underwent bifrontal craniotomy in emergency, extensive drilling of the inner aspect of the frontal bone, surgical toilet of the enlarged frontal sinus and its "cranialization". Prevotella intermedia and Fusobacterium nucleatum were isolated and antibiotic therapy was started intravenously and then continued orally for 3 months. 2 years later the patient has recovered, though minor signs of frontal lobe syndrome persist. To the authors knowledge, this is the first case of GFM with SDE reported in the literature. Although decompressive craniectomy is advocated in extreme conditions, as in this case, "internal decompressive craniectomy", obtained with craniotomy and cranialization of the frontal sinuses, is strongly advocated in cases of SDE associated with megasinuses. PMID:22427297

  3. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities and chemical compositions of volatile oils extracted from Schisandra chinensis Baill. seeds using simultaneous distillation extraction method, and comparison with Soxhlet and microwave-assisted extraction.

    PubMed

    Teng, Hui; Lee, Won Y

    2014-01-01

    The volatile oils were isolated from dried Schisandra chinensis Baill. seeds by Soxhlet extraction (SE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), and fractions were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The essential oils were assessed for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. GC-MS results also revealed that the major ingredients in the oil extracted by SDE were terpenoids compounds such as ylangene (15.01%), α-phellandrene (8.23%), β-himachalene (6.95%), and cuparene (6.74), and the oil extracts of MAE and SE mainly contained aromatics such as schizandrins, wuweizisu C, and gomisin A. HPLC analysis results confirmed that more schizandrin was obtained through extraction by MAE (996.64 μg/g) and SE (722.13 μg/g). SDE oil extract showed more significant antioxidant activity than MAE or SE oil. Only volatile oil from SDE showed good antibacterial activity against all tested strains. PMID:25036488

  4. Which Aspects of the English Language Do Distance Learners Find Difficult?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teoh, George Boon Sai; Lin, Agnes Liau Wei; Belaja, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    This study reports the findings of a research carried out on distance learners at the School of Distance Education (SDE), University Sains Malaysia (USM). The study was explorative in nature with the purpose identifying the aspects of the English language which distance learners found difficult to learn. A quantitative survey questionnaire design…

  5. Biochemical and Structural Characterization of a Five-domain GH115 α-Glucuronidase from the Marine Bacterium Saccharophagus degradans 2-40T.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weijun; Yan, Ruoyu; Nocek, Boguslaw P; Vuong, Thu V; Di Leo, Rosa; Xu, Xiaohui; Cui, Hong; Gatenholm, Paul; Toriz, Guillermo; Tenkanen, Maija; Savchenko, Alexei; Master, Emma R

    2016-07-01

    Glucuronic acid (GlcAp) and/or methylglucuronic acid (MeGlcAp) decorate the major forms of xylan in hardwood and coniferous softwoods as well as many cereal grains. Accordingly, the complete utilization of glucuronoxylans or conversion to sugar precursors requires the action of main chain xylanases as well as α-glucuronidases that release the α- (1→2)-linked (Me)GlcAp side groups. Herein, a family GH115 enzymefrom the marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans 2-40(T), SdeAgu115A, demonstrated activity toward glucuronoxylan and oligomers thereof with preference toward MeGlcAp linked to internal xylopyranosyl residues. Unique biochemical characteristics of NaCl activation were also observed. The crystal structure of SdeAgu115A revealed a five-domain architecture, with an additional insertion C(+) domain that had significant impact on the domain arrangement of SdeAgu115A monomer and its dimerization. The participation of domain C(+) in substrate binding was supported by reduced substrate inhibition upon introducing W773A, W689A, and F696A substitutions within this domain. In addition to Asp-335, the catalytic essentiality of Glu-216 was revealed by site-specific mutagenesis. A primary sequence analysis suggested that the SdeAgu115A architecture is shared by more than half of GH115 members, thus defining a distinct archetype for GH115 enzymes. PMID:27129264

  6. Quantifying the aerosol semi-direct effect in the NASA GEOS-5 AGCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randles, C. A.; Colarco, P. R.; da Silva, A.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosols such as black carbon, dust, and some organic carbon species both scatter and absorb incoming solar radiation. This direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF) redistributes solar energy both by cooling the surface and warming the atmosphere. As a result, these aerosols affect atmospheric stability and cloud cover (the semi-direct effect, or SDE). Furthermore, in regions with persistent high loadings of absorbing aerosols (e.g. Asia), regional circulation patterns may be altered, potentially resulting in changes in precipitation patterns. Here we investigate aerosol-climate coupling using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System model version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), in which we have implemented an online version of the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GOCART includes representations of the sources, sinks, and chemical transformation of externally mixed dust, sea salt, sulfate, and carbonaceous aerosols. We examine a series of free-running ensemble climate simulations of the present-day period (2000-2009) forced by observed sea surface temperatures to determine the impact of aerosols on the model climate. The SDE and response of each simulation is determined by differencing with respect to the control simulation (no aerosol forcing). In a free-running model, any estimate of the SDE includes changes in clouds due both to atmospheric heating from aerosols and changes in circulation. To try and quantify the SDE without these circulation changes we then examine the DARF and SDE in GEOS-5 with prescribed meteorology introduced by the MERRA analysis. By doing so, we are able to examine changes in model clouds that occur on shorter scales (six hours). In the GEOS-5 data assimilation system (DAS), the analysis is defined as the best estimate of the atmospheric state at any given time, and it is determined by optimally combining a first-guess short-term GCM forecast with all available observations. The

  7. Quantifying the Aerosol Semi-Direct Effect in the NASA GEOS-5 AGCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randles, Cynthia A.; Colarco, Peter R.; daSilva, Arlindo

    2011-01-01

    Aerosols such as black carbon, dust, and some organic carbon species both scatter and absorb incoming solar radiation. This direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF) redistributes solar energy both by cooling the surface and warming the atmosphere. As a result, these aerosols affect atmospheric stability and cloud cover (the semi-direct effect, or SDE). Furthermore, in regions with persistent high loadings of absorbing aerosols (e.g. Asia), regional circulation patterns may be altered, potentially resulting in changes in precipitation patterns. Here we investigate aerosol-climate coupling using the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System model version 5 (GEOS-5) atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), in which we have implemented an online version of the Goddard Chemistry, Aerosol, Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model. GOCART includes representations of the sources, sinks, and chemical transformation of externally mixed dust, sea salt, sulfate, and carbonaceous aerosols. We examine a series of free-running ensemble climate simulations of the present-day period (2000-2009) forced by observed sea surface temperatures to determine the impact of aerosols on the model climate. The SDE and response of each simulation is determined by differencing with respect to the control simulation (no aerosol forcing). In a free-running model, any estimate of the SDE includes changes in clouds due both to atmospheric heating from aerosols and changes in circulation. To try and quantify the SDE without these circulation changes we then examine the DARF and SDE in GEOS-5 with prescribed meteorological analyses introduced by the MERRA analysis. By doing so, we are able to examine changes in model clouds that occur on shorter scales (six hours). In the GEOS-5 data assimilation system (DAS), the analysis is defined as the best estimate of the atmospheric state at any given time, and it is determined by optimally combining a first-guess short-term GCM forecast with all available

  8. Mechanism of subdural effusion evolves into chronic subdural hematoma: IL-8 inducing neutrophil oxidative burst.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zhiqiang; Lin, Yingying; Hu, Maotong; Ding, Shenghong; Li, Jianwei; Qiu, Yongming

    2016-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is still a mysterious disease. Though great success has been has achieved by neuro-surgery treatment, the origin and development of CSDH remains unknown. Tremendous clinical observations have found the correlation of subdural effusion (SDE) and CSDH. However, systematic elucidation of CSDH's origin and progression is lacking while almost all the current hypothesis only explained partial phenomenon. This hypothesis proposes Interleukin (IL)-8 inducing neutrophil respiratory burst is the crucial impact when SDE evolves into CSDH. IL-8 initially secreted by dural border layer cells, accumulates and the concentration of IL-8 rises in the SDE cavity. Accompanied by the formation of neo-membrane under the dura meninges, IL-8 firstly prompts to establish the neo-vasculature in it, and then attracts lymphocytes aggregation in the neo-membrane. Both the newly recruited lymphocytes and endothelial cells assist the further elevation of local IL-8 concentration. When the IL-8 concentration elevated to a particular level, it attracts neutrophils to the inner wall of neo-vessels and primes them to oxidative burst. Lysosomes and superoxide released by these neutrophils make the fragile neo-capillary became leaky, and subsequently the plasma and blood cells run into SDE. However, as long as the erythrocytes come into the cavity, they shall bind large quantity of IL-8 and decrease IL-8 concentration to a lower level relatively that reduce the neutrophils recruit. When this negative feedback is stagnancy, for example, the SDE space is so large in elder man who is experiencing brain atrophy, the neo-vessels have to release more erythrocytes to bind IL-8, the liquid cavity will expand and the high intracranial pressure symptoms appeared. Our hypothesis holds potential for the proper therapeutic intervention of CSDH. IL-8 antagonist and other anti-inflammation drugs like macrolides antibiotics, glucocorticoid and atorvastatin might be optional to resist

  9. A Short Open Reading Frame Encompassing the MicroRNA173 Target Site Plays a Role in trans-Acting Small Interfering RNA Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Manabu; Iki, Taichiro; Numa, Hisataka; Miyashita, Kyoko; Meshi, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Masayuki

    2016-05-01

    trans-Acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs) participate in the regulation of organ morphogenesis and determination of developmental timing in plants by down-regulating target genes through mRNA cleavage. The production of tasiRNAs is triggered by microRNA173 (miR173) and other specific microRNA-mediated cleavage of 5'-capped and 3'-polyadenylated primary TAS transcripts (pri-TASs). Although pri-TASs are not thought to encode functional proteins, they contain multiple short open reading frames (ORFs). For example, the primary TAS2 transcript (pri-TAS2) contains 11 short ORFs, and the third ORF from the 5' terminus (ORF3) encompasses the miR173 target site. Here, we show that nonsense mutations in ORF3 of pri-TAS2 upstream of the miR173 recognition site suppress tasiRNA accumulation and that ORF3 is translated in vitro. Glycerol gradient centrifugation analysis of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) plant extracts revealed that pri-TAS2 and its miR173-cleaved 5' and 3' fragments are fractionated together in the polysome fractions. These and previous results suggest that the 3' fragment of pri-TAS2, which is a source of tasiRNAs, forms a huge complex containing SGS3, miR173-programmed AGO1 RNA-induced silencing complex, the 5' fragment, and ribosomes. This complex overaccumulated, moderately accumulated, and did not accumulate in rdr6, sde5, and sgs3 mutants, respectively. The sgs3 sde5 and rdr6 sde5 double mutants showed phenotypes similar to those of sgs3 and sde5 single mutants, respectively, with regard to the TAS2-related RNA accumulation, suggesting that the complex is formed in an SGS3-dependent manner, somehow modified and stabilized by SDE5, and becomes competent for RDR6 action. Ribosomes in this complex likely play an important role in this process. PMID:26966170

  10. Evaluation of Uncertainty in Runoff Analysis Incorporating Theory of Stochastic Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimi, Kazuhiro; Wang, Chao-Wen; Yamada, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a theoretical framework of uncertainty estimate on rainfall-runoff analysis based on theory of stochastic process. SDE (stochastic differential equation) based on this theory has been widely used in the field of mathematical finance due to predict stock price movement. Meanwhile, some researchers in the field of civil engineering have investigated by using this knowledge about SDE (stochastic differential equation) (e.g. Kurino et.al, 1999; Higashino and Kanda, 2001). However, there have been no studies about evaluation of uncertainty in runoff phenomenon based on comparisons between SDE (stochastic differential equation) and Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is a partial differential equation that describes the temporal variation of PDF (probability density function), and there is evidence to suggest that SDEs and Fokker-Planck equations are equivalent mathematically. In this paper, therefore, the uncertainty of discharge on the uncertainty of rainfall is explained theoretically and mathematically by introduction of theory of stochastic process. The lumped rainfall-runoff model is represented by SDE (stochastic differential equation) due to describe it as difference formula, because the temporal variation of rainfall is expressed by its average plus deviation, which is approximated by Gaussian distribution. This is attributed to the observed rainfall by rain-gauge station and radar rain-gauge system. As a result, this paper has shown that it is possible to evaluate the uncertainty of discharge by using the relationship between SDE (stochastic differential equation) and Fokker-Planck equation. Moreover, the results of this study show that the uncertainty of discharge increases as rainfall intensity rises and non-linearity about resistance grows strong. These results are clarified by PDFs (probability density function) that satisfy Fokker-Planck equation about discharge. It means the reasonable discharge can be

  11. FISCAL YEAR 2006 REPORT ON ELECTROLYZER COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT FOR THE HYBRID SULFUR PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Colon-Mercado, H; David Hobbs, D; Daryl Coleman, D; Amy Ekechukwu, A

    2006-08-03

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In FY05, testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) explored a low temperature fuel cell design concept for the SDE. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small volumetric footprint that is crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. A key component of the SDE is the ion conductive membrane through which protons produced at anode migrate to the cathode and react to produce hydrogen. An ideal membrane for the SDE should have both low ionic resistivity and low sulfur dioxide transport. These features allow the electrolyzer to perform at high currents with low potentials, along with preventing contamination of both the hydrogen output and poisoning of the catalysts involved. Another key component is the electrocatalyst material used for the anode and cathode. Good electrocatalysts should be chemically stable and low overpotential for the desired electrochemical reactions. This report summarizes results from activities to evaluate different membrane and electrocatalyst materials for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for ionic resistance and sulfur dioxide transport including perfluorinated sulfonic acid, sulfonated poly-etherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole membranes. Of these membrane types, the poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membrane, Celtec-L, exhibited the best combination of characteristics for use in an SDE. Testing examined the activity and stability of platinum and palladium as electrocatalyst for the SDE in sulfuric acid solutions. Cyclic and linear sweep voltammetry revealed that platinum provided better catalytic activity with much lower potentials and higher currents than palladium

  12. A shared data environment for the Military Traffic Management Command Directorate of International Traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, D.L.; Wheeler, V.V.; Truett, L.F.

    1992-01-01

    In September 1991, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed tasking to assist the Military Traffic Management Command Directorate of International Traffic (MTIT) in the analysis of a potential Shared Data Environment (SDE) for MTIT automated cargo traffic systems. This analysis was a preliminary effort with emphasis on documentation of requirements, examination of design alternatives, and identification of specific MTIT systems` data sharing problems. This report records the results of the ORNL analysis. The SDE envisioned by ORNL at this point in the analysis is not merely a repository of information; it is also a system that allows processing of distributed data. To provide high-level access to and control over international cargo processes, ORNL recommends a loosely coupled, replicated database design with high-speed communications among all sites.

  13. A shared data environment for the Military Traffic Management Command Directorate of International Traffic

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, D.L.; Wheeler, V.V. ); Truett, L.F. )

    1992-01-01

    In September 1991, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) completed tasking to assist the Military Traffic Management Command Directorate of International Traffic (MTIT) in the analysis of a potential Shared Data Environment (SDE) for MTIT automated cargo traffic systems. This analysis was a preliminary effort with emphasis on documentation of requirements, examination of design alternatives, and identification of specific MTIT systems' data sharing problems. This report records the results of the ORNL analysis. The SDE envisioned by ORNL at this point in the analysis is not merely a repository of information; it is also a system that allows processing of distributed data. To provide high-level access to and control over international cargo processes, ORNL recommends a loosely coupled, replicated database design with high-speed communications among all sites.

  14. Modeling of long-range memory processes with inverse cubic distributions by the nonlinear stochastic differential equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaulakys, B.; Alaburda, M.; Ruseckas, J.

    2016-05-01

    A well-known fact in the financial markets is the so-called ‘inverse cubic law’ of the cumulative distributions of the long-range memory fluctuations of market indicators such as a number of events of trades, trading volume and the logarithmic price change. We propose the nonlinear stochastic differential equation (SDE) giving both the power-law behavior of the power spectral density and the long-range dependent inverse cubic law of the cumulative distribution. This is achieved using the suggestion that when the market evolves from calm to violent behavior there is a decrease of the delay time of multiplicative feedback of the system in comparison to the driving noise correlation time. This results in a transition from the Itô to the Stratonovich sense of the SDE and yields a long-range memory process.

  15. Stochastic dynamic models and Chebyshev splines

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ruzong; Zhu, Bin; Wang, Yuedong

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we establish a connection between a stochastic dynamic model (SDM) driven by a linear stochastic differential equation (SDE) and a Chebyshev spline, which enables researchers to borrow strength across fields both theoretically and numerically. We construct a differential operator for the penalty function and develop a reproducing kernel Hilbert space (RKHS) induced by the SDM and the Chebyshev spline. The general form of the linear SDE allows us to extend the well-known connection between an integrated Brownian motion and a polynomial spline to a connection between more complex diffusion processes and Chebyshev splines. One interesting special case is connection between an integrated Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process and an exponential spline. We use two real data sets to illustrate the integrated Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process model and exponential spline model and show their estimates are almost identical. PMID:26045632

  16. Option pricing during post-crash relaxation times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dibeh, Ghassan; Harmanani, Haidar M.

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents a model for option pricing in markets that experience financial crashes. The stochastic differential equation (SDE) of stock price dynamics is coupled to a post-crash market index. The resultant SDE is shown to have stock price and time dependent volatility. The partial differential equation (PDE) for call prices is derived using risk-neutral pricing. European call prices are then estimated using Monte Carlo and finite difference methods. Results of the model show that call option prices after the crash are systematically less than those predicted by the Black-Scholes model. This is a result of the effect of non-constant volatility of the model that causes a volatility skew.

  17. Stochastic models for the Trojan Y-Chromosome eradication strategy of an invasive species.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xueying; Walton, Jay R; Parshad, Rana D

    2016-01-01

    The Trojan Y-Chromosome (TYC) strategy, an autocidal genetic biocontrol method, has been proposed to eliminate invasive alien species. In this work, we develop a Markov jump process model for this strategy, and we verify that there is a positive probability for wild-type females going extinct within a finite time. Moreover, when sex-reversed Trojan females are introduced at a constant population size, we formulate a stochastic differential equation (SDE) model as an approximation to the proposed Markov jump process model. Using the SDE model, we investigate the probability distribution and expectation of the extinction time of wild-type females by solving Kolmogorov equations associated with these statistics. The results indicate how the probability distribution and expectation of the extinction time are shaped by the initial conditions and the model parameters. PMID:26674016

  18. Surface preparation via grit-blasting for thermal spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Varacalle, D.J. Jr.; Lundberg, L.B.; Hartley, R.S.

    1995-11-01

    The major reason for grit blasting for thermal spray applications is to ensure a strong mechanical bond between the substrate and the coating by the enhanced roughening of the substrate material. This study presents five statistically designed experiments that were accomplished to investigate the grit blasting process. The experiments were conducted using a Box statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. A substantial range of grit blasting parameters and their effect on the resultant substrate roughness were investigated, including grit type, pressure, working distance, and exposure time. The substrates were characterized for surface characteristics using image analysis. These attributes are correlated with the changes in operating parameters. Optimized process parameters for the two machines used in this study as predicted by the SDE analysis are presented.

  19. Characterization of Microgravity Environment on Mir

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyoung; Kaouk, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the microgravity analysis results using dynamic response data collected during the first phase of the Mir Structural Dynamics Experiment (MiSDE). Although MiSDE was designed and performed to verify structural dynamic models, it also provided information for determining microgravity characteristics of the structure. This study analyzed ambient responses acquired during orbital day-to-night and night-to-day transitions, crew treadmill and ergometer exercises, and intentional crew activities. Acceleration levels for one-third octave bands were calculated to characterize the microgravity environment of the station. Spectrograms were also used to analyze the time transient nature of the responses. Detailed theoretical background and analysis results will also be included in the final draft.

  20. Autocorrelation function of channel matrix in few-mode fibers with strong mode coupling.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qian; Shieh, William

    2013-09-23

    Channel matrix plays a critical role in receiver design and ultimate channel performance. To fully describe the channel matrix of a few-mode fiber (FMF), we choose the generalized high-dimensional Gell-Mann matrices, an equivalent of the 2-dimensional Pauli matrices used for a single-mode fiber (SMF), as the basis for the channel matrix decomposition. The frequency dependence of channel matrix can be studied in terms of the autocorrelation function (ACF), showing how fast channel changes in frequency domain. In this paper, we derive a canonical stochastic differential equation (SDE) for the FMF channel matrix in the regime of strong coupling. With the SDE, we develop an analytical form for the ACF of FMF channel matrix, from which the channel correlation bandwidth is obtained. PMID:24104107

  1. Stochastic differential equation model for linear growth birth and death processes with immigration and emigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granita, Bahar, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper discusses on linear birth and death with immigration and emigration (BIDE) process to stochastic differential equation (SDE) model. Forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) with a central-difference approximation was used to find Fokker-Planckequation corresponding to a diffusion process having the stochastic differential equation of BIDE process. The exact solution, mean and variance function of BIDE process was found.

  2. Nonlinear Diffusions and Stable-Like Processes with Coefficients Depending on the Median or VaR

    SciTech Connect

    Kolokoltsov, Vassili N.

    2013-08-01

    The paper is devoted to the well-posedness for nonlinear McKean-Vlasov type diffusions with coefficients depending on the median or, more generally, on the {alpha}-quantile of the underlying distribution. The median is not a continuous function on the space of probability measures equipped with the weak convergence. This is one reason why well-posedness of the SDE considered in the paper does not follow by standard arguments.

  3. Real time programming environment for Windows, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-05

    This appendix contains all source code for the RTProE system. The following file contents are included: pdb.h; hgen.l; hgen.y; igen.l; igen.y; pdm.l; pdm.y; rtdata.l; rtdata.y; framegen.c; librt.c; librt.h; rtsched.c; build.tsh; sde.tcl; rtsched.def.

  4. Non Perturbative Aspects of Field Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bashir, A.

    2009-04-20

    For any quantum field theory (QFT), there exists a set of Schwinger-Dyson equations (SDE) for all its Green functions. However, it is not always straight forward to extract quantitatively exact physical information from this set of equations, especially in the non perturbative regime. The situation becomes increasingly complex with growing number of external legs. I give a qualitative account of the hunt for the non perturbative Green functions in gauge theories.

  5. Stochastic differential equation model for linear growth birth and death processes with immigration and emigration

    SciTech Connect

    Granita; Bahar, A.

    2015-03-09

    This paper discusses on linear birth and death with immigration and emigration (BIDE) process to stochastic differential equation (SDE) model. Forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) with a central-difference approximation was used to find Fokker-Planckequation corresponding to a diffusion process having the stochastic differential equation of BIDE process. The exact solution, mean and variance function of BIDE process was found.

  6. Lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) bind to seaweed polysaccharides and activate the prophenoloxidase system in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Lin, Yong-Chin; Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Gong, Hong-Yi; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2016-02-01

    Lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), important pattern recognition proteins (PRPs), recognize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and β-1,3-glucan (βG), known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and subsequently trigger innate immunity. Several seaweed polysaccharides and seaweed extracts increase immune parameters and resistance to pathogens. Here, we constructed the expression vector pET28b-LvLGBP and transferred it into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) for protein expression and to produce the recombinant protein LGBP (rLvLGBP) in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. We examined the binding of rLvLGBP with seaweed-derived polysaccharides including alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, laminarin, Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE), and Sargassum duplicatum extract (SDE), and examined the phenoloxidase activity of shrimp haemocytes incubated with a mixture of rLvLGBP and each polysaccharide. We also examined the binding of rLvLGBP with LPS and βG, and the phenoloxidase activity of shrimp haemocytes incubated with a mixture of rLvLGBP and LPS (rLvLGBP-LPS) or a mixture of rLvLGBP and βG (rLvLGBP-βG). An ELISA binding assay indicated that rLvLGBP binds to LPS, βG, alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, laminarin, GTE, and SDE with dissociation constants of 0.1138-0.1770 μM. Furthermore, our results also indicated that the phenoloxidase activity of shrimp haemocytes incubated with a mixture of rLvLGBP and LPS, βG, alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, laminarin, GTE, and SDE significantly increased by 328%, 172%, 200%, 213%, 197%, 194%, 191%, and 197%, respectively compared to controls (cacodylate buffer). We conclude that LvLGBP functions as a PRP, recognizes and binds to LPS, βG, alginate, carrageenan, fucoidan, laminarin, GTE, and SDE, and subsequently leads to activating innate immunity in shrimp. PMID:26522339

  7. Hybrid sulfur cycle operation for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Gorensek, Maximilian B

    2015-02-17

    A hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycle process for the production of hydrogen is provided. The process uses a proton exchange membrane (PEM) SO.sub.2-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) for the low-temperature, electrochemical reaction step and a bayonet reactor for the high-temperature decomposition step The process can be operated at lower temperature and pressure ranges while still providing an overall energy efficient cycle process.

  8. Evolution equations for the joint probability of several compositions in turbulent combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Bakosi, Jozsef

    2010-01-01

    One-point statistical simulations of turbulent combustion require models to represent the molecular mixing of species mass fractions, which then determine the reaction rates. For multi-species mixing the Dirichlet distribution has been used to characterize the assumed joint probability density function (PDF) of several scalars, parametrized by solving modeled evolution equations for their means and the sum of their variances. The PDF is then used to represent the mixing state and to obtain the chemical reactions source terms in moment closures or large eddy simulation. We extend the Dirichlet PDF approach to transported PDF methods by developing its governing stochastic differential equation (SDE). The transport equation, as opposed to parametrizing the assumed PDF, enables (1) the direct numerical computation of the joint PDF (and therefore the mixing model to directly account for the flow dynamics (e.g. reaction) on the shape of the evolving PDF), and (2) the individual specification of the mixing timescales of each species. From the SDE, systems of equations are derived that govern the first two moments, based on which constraints are established that provide consistency conditions for material mixing. A SDE whose solution is the generalized Dirichlet PDF is also developed and some of its properties from the viewpoint of material mixing are investigated. The generalized Dirichlet distribution has the following advantages over the standard Dirichlet distribution due to its more general covariance structure: (1) its ability to represent differential diffusion (i.e. skewness) without affecting the scalar means, and (2) it can represent both negatively and positively correlated scalars. The resulting development is a useful representation of the joint PDF of inert or reactive scalars in turbulent flows: (1) In moment closures, the mixing physics can be consistently represented by one underlying modeling principle, the Dirichlet or the generalized Dirichlet PDF, and

  9. Schwinger-Dyson Equations and Dynamical gluon mass generation

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, A.C.; Natale, A.A.

    2004-12-02

    We obtain a solution for the gluon propagador in Landau gauge within two distinct approximations for the Schwinger-Dyson equations (SDE). The first, named Mandelstam's approximation, consist in neglecting all contributions that come from fermions and ghosts fields while in the second, the ghosts fields are taken into account leading to a coupled system of integral equations. In both cases we show that a dynamical mass for the gluon propagator can arise as a solution.

  10. Final Report for project titled "New fluoroionomer electrolytes with high conductivity and low SO2 crossover for use in electrolyzers being developed for hydrogen production from nuclear power plants"

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis W. Smith; Stephen Creager

    2012-09-13

    Thermochemical water splitting cycles, using the heat of nuclear power plants, offer an alternate highly efficient route for the production of hydrogen. Among the many possible thermochemical cycles for the hydrogen production, the sulfur-based cycles lead the competition in overall energy efficiency. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce hydrogen. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) selected the fuel cell MEA design concept for the SDE in the HyS process since the MEA concept provides a much smaller cell footprint than conventional parallel plate technology. The electrolyzer oxidizes sulfur dioxide to form sulfuric acid at the anode and reduces protons to form hydrogen at the cathode. The overall electrochemical cell reaction consists of the production of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and H{sub 2}. There is a significant need to provide the membrane materials that exhibit reduced sulfur dioxide transport characteristics without sacrificing other important properties such as high ionic conductivity and excellent chemical stability in highly concentrated sulfuric acid solutions saturated with sulfur dioxide. As an alternative membrane, sulfonated Perfluorocyclobutyl aromatic ether polymer (sPFCB) were expected to posses low SO2 permeability due to their stiff backbones as well as high proton conductivity, improved mechanical properties. The major accomplishments of this project were the synthesis, characterizations, and optimizations of suitable electrolyzers for good SDE performance and higher chemical stability against sulfuric acid. SDE performance results of developed sPFCB polyelectrolytes have shown that these membranes exhibit good chemical stability against H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}.

  11. Stochastic differential equation models for ion channel noise in Hodgkin-Huxley neurons.

    PubMed

    Goldwyn, Joshua H; Imennov, Nikita S; Famulare, Michael; Shea-Brown, Eric

    2011-04-01

    The random transitions of ion channels between conducting and nonconducting states generate a source of internal fluctuations in a neuron, known as channel noise. The standard method for modeling the states of ion channels nonlinearly couples continuous-time Markov chains to a differential equation for voltage. Beginning with the work of R. F. Fox and Y.-N. Lu [Phys. Rev. E 49, 3421 (1994)], there have been attempts to generate simpler models that use stochastic differential equation (SDEs) to approximate the stochastic spiking activity produced by Markov chain models. Recent numerical investigations, however, have raised doubts that SDE models can capture the stochastic dynamics of Markov chain models.We analyze three SDE models that have been proposed as approximations to the Markov chain model: one that describes the states of the ion channels and two that describe the states of the ion channel subunits. We show that the former channel-based approach can capture the distribution of channel noise and its effects on spiking in a Hodgkin-Huxley neuron model to a degree not previously demonstrated, but the latter two subunit-based approaches cannot. Our analysis provides intuitive and mathematical explanations for why this is the case. The temporal correlation in the channel noise is determined by the combinatorics of bundling subunits into channels, but the subunit-based approaches do not correctly account for this structure. Our study confirms and elucidates the findings of previous numerical investigations of subunit-based SDE models. Moreover, it presents evidence that Markov chain models of the nonlinear, stochastic dynamics of neural membranes can be accurately approximated by SDEs. This finding opens a door to future modeling work using SDE techniques to further illuminate the effects of ion channel fluctuations on electrically active cells. PMID:21599202

  12. Self-organized criticality as Witten-type topological field theory with spontaneously broken Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, Igor V.

    2011-05-15

    Here, a scenario is proposed, according to which a generic self-organized critical (SOC) system can be looked upon as a Witten-type topological field theory (W-TFT) with spontaneously broken Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) symmetry. One of the conditions for the SOC is the slow driving noise, which unambiguously suggests Stratonovich interpretation of the corresponding stochastic differential equation (SDE). This, in turn, necessitates the use of Parisi-Sourlas-Wu stochastic quantization procedure, which straightforwardly leads to a model with BRST-exact action, i.e., to a W-TFT. In the parameter space of the SDE, there must exist full-dimensional regions where the BRST symmetry is spontaneously broken by instantons, which in the context of SOC are essentially avalanches. In these regions, the avalanche-type SOC dynamics is liberated from overwise a rightful dynamics-less W-TFT, and a Goldstone mode of Fadeev-Popov ghosts exists. Goldstinos represent moduli of instantons (avalanches) and being gapless are responsible for the critical avalanche distribution in the low-energy, long-wavelength limit. The above arguments are robust against moderate variations of the SDE's parameters and the criticality is 'self-tuned'. The proposition of this paper suggests that the machinery of W-TFTs may find its applications in many different areas of modern science studying various physical realizations of SOC. It also suggests that there may in principle exist a connection between some SOC's and the concept of topological quantum computing.

  13. Comprehensive Study of Mediterranean (Croatian) Propolis Peculiarity: Headspace, Volatiles, Anti-Varroa-Treatment Residue, Phenolics, and Antioxidant Properties.

    PubMed

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Kuś, Piotr M; Tuberoso, Carlo I G

    2016-02-01

    Eight propolis samples from Croatia were analyzed in detail, to study the headspace, volatiles, anti-Varroa-treatment residue, phenolics, and antioxidant properties. The samples exhibited high qualitative/quantitative variability of the chemical profiles, total phenolic content (1,589.3-14,398.3 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent)/l EtOH extract), and antioxidant activity (11.1-133.5 mmol Fe(2+) /l extract and 6.2-65.3 mmol TEAC (Trolox® equivalent antioxidant capacity)/l extract). The main phenolics quantified by HPLC-DAD at 280 and 360 nm were vanillin, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, chrysin, galangin, and caffeic acid phenethyl ester. The major compounds identified by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), and subsequent GC-FID and GC/MS analyses were α-eudesmol (up to 19.9%), β-eudesmol (up to 12.6%), γ-eudesmol (up to 10.5%), benzyl benzoate (up to 28.5%), and 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol (up to 18.1%). Vanillin was determined as minor constituent by SDE/GC-FID/MS and HPLC-DAD. The identified acaricide residue thymol was ca. three times more abundant by HS-SPME/GC-FID/MS than by SDE/GC-FID/MS and was not detected by HPLC-DAD. PMID:26880433

  14. The location of Oort Cloud comets C/2011 L4 Panstarrs and C/2012 S1 ISON on a comet evolutionary diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrín, Ignacio

    2014-08-01

    The secular light-curves (SLCs) of comets C/2011 L4 Panstarrs and C/2012 S1 ISON are plotted. The brightness of both comets increased steeply after discovery but decreased sharply at ˜4-5 au, a characteristic of Oort Cloud cometary light-curves referred to as a slope discontinuity event (SDE). After the SDE, the SLC of C/2011 L4 continued to increase and had a surge near perihelion. The SLC of comet C/2012 S1 ISON, on the other hand, is very unusual and exhibits a SDE plus a near-standstill after the event. Five other comets with similar behaviour, namely C/1996 Q1 Tabur, C/1999 S4 LINEAR, C/2002 O4 Hönig, C/2010 X1 Elenin and C/2012 T5 Bressi, are known, all of which disintegrated. Thus it is predicted that comet ISON will disintegrate too. Published production rates of water, dust and CO were compiled and used to calculate the mass-loss budget. This information was used for ISON to calculate the diameter and to plot 29 comets in an evolutionary diagram that separates comets by class. A diameter D = 1030 ± 70 m was found, in excellent agreement with the upper limit found by Delamere and colleagues, D(mean) < 1126 m. It is evident that the SLCs exhibit complexity beyond current scientific understanding. Note: the comet disintegrated as predicted (CBET 3731) while this paper was being refereed.

  15. "Rabbit Ear" scalp deformity caused by massive subdural effusion in infant following bilateral burr-hole drainage.

    PubMed

    Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Pankaj, Dawar; Sharma, B S

    2013-09-01

    Subdural effusion (SDE) in an infant is a rare clinical scenario, which may be secondary to a variety of etiologies. Massive SDE is an extremely rare complication of head injury. It usually runs a self-limiting course. Though neurosurgical intervention is occasionally needed, different methods of surgical procedure for management includes burr-hole alone, burr-holes with subdural drain placement, twist drill craniotomy with drain and even craniotomy. The authors report a rare case of progressive massive SDE, which despite bilateral burr-hole placement and drainage failed and presented with visual deterioration and massive bulge of scalp at burr-hole sites producing rabbit ear sign in a 10 month old infant. Ultimately cystoperitoneal shunt was carried out in a desperate attempt to prevent impending rupture of scalp sutures at sites of previous burr-hole placement. Astonishingly not only complete resolution of hygroma, but visual recovery also took place. Patient is doing well at 6 months following shunt with regaining normal vision and appropriate developmental milestones. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of brain at last follow-up revealed mild ventriculomegaly with subduro-peritoneal shunt in situ and rest of brain was unremarkable. Such cases have not been reported in literature until date. PMID:24470822

  16. Device parameter optimization for sub-20 nm node HK/MG-last bulk FinFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Xu; Huaxiang, Yin; Huilong, Zhu; Xiaolong, Ma; Weijia, Xu; Yongkui, Zhang; Zhiguo, Zhao; Jun, Luo; Hong, Yang; Chunlong, Li; Lingkuan, Meng; Peizhen, Hong; Jinjuan, Xiang; Jianfeng, Gao; Qiang, Xu; Wenjuan, Xiong; Dahai, Wang; Junfeng, Li; Chao, Zhao; Dapeng, Chen; Simon, Yang; Tianchun, Ye

    2015-04-01

    Sub-20 nm node bulk FinFET PMOS devices with an all-last high-k/metal gate (HK/MG) process are fabricated and the influence of a series of device parameters on the device scaling is investigated. The high and thin Fin structure with a tapered sidewall shows better performance than the normal Fin structure. The punch through stop layer (PTSL) and source drain extension (SDE) doping profiles are carefully optimized. The device without SDE annealing shows a larger drive current than that with SDE annealing due to better Si crystal regrowth in the amorphous Fin structure after source/drain implantation. The band-edged MG has a better short channel effect immunity, but the lower effective work function (EWF) MG shows a larger driveability. A tradeoff choice for different EWF MGs should be carefully designed for the device's scaling. Project supported by the National 02 IC Projects and the Opening Project of Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  17. Does human presynaptic striatal dopamine function predict social conformity?

    PubMed

    Stokes, Paul R A; Benecke, Aaf; Puraite, Julita; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Shotbolt, Paul; Reeves, Suzanne J; Lingford-Hughes, Anne R; Howes, Oliver; Egerton, Alice

    2014-03-01

    Socially desirable responding (SDR) is a personality trait which reflects either a tendency to present oneself in an overly positive manner to others, consistent with social conformity (impression management (IM)), or the tendency to view one's own behaviour in an overly positive light (self-deceptive enhancement (SDE)). Neurochemical imaging studies report an inverse relationship between SDR and dorsal striatal dopamine D₂/₃ receptor availability. This may reflect an association between SDR and D₂/₃ receptor expression, synaptic dopamine levels or a combination of the two. In this study, we used a [¹⁸F]-DOPA positron emission tomography (PET) image database to investigate whether SDR is associated with presynaptic dopamine function. Striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA uptake, (k(i)(cer), min⁻¹), was determined in two independent healthy participant cohorts (n=27 and 19), by Patlak analysis using a cerebellar reference region. SDR was assessed using the revised Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-R) Lie scale, and IM and SDE were measured using the Paulhus Deception Scales. No significant associations were detected between Lie, SDE or IM scores and striatal [¹⁸F]-DOPA k(i)(cer). These results indicate that presynaptic striatal dopamine function is not associated with social conformity and suggests that social conformity may be associated with striatal D₂/₃ receptor expression rather than with synaptic dopamine levels. PMID:24257812

  18. Stochastic nonlinear mixed effects: a metformin case study.

    PubMed

    Matzuka, Brett; Chittenden, Jason; Monteleone, Jonathan; Tran, Hien

    2016-02-01

    In nonlinear mixed effect (NLME) modeling, the intra-individual variability is a collection of errors due to assay sensitivity, dosing, sampling, as well as model misspecification. Utilizing stochastic differential equations (SDE) within the NLME framework allows the decoupling of the measurement errors from the model misspecification. This leads the SDE approach to be a novel tool for model refinement. Using Metformin clinical pharmacokinetic (PK) data, the process of model development through the use of SDEs in population PK modeling was done to study the dynamics of absorption rate. A base model was constructed and then refined by using the system noise terms of the SDEs to track model parameters and model misspecification. This provides the unique advantage of making no underlying assumptions about the structural model for the absorption process while quantifying insufficiencies in the current model. This article focuses on implementing the extended Kalman filter and unscented Kalman filter in an NLME framework for parameter estimation and model development, comparing the methodologies, and illustrating their challenges and utility. The Kalman filter algorithms were successfully implemented in NLME models using MATLAB with run time differences between the ODE and SDE methods comparable to the differences found by Kakhi for their stochastic deconvolution. PMID:26585899

  19. Identification of volatile compounds in codfish ( Gadus) by a combination of two extraction Methods coupled with GC-MS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yufei; Hou, Hu; Li, Bafang

    2016-06-01

    Codfish is a kind of abyssal fish species with a great value in food industry. However, the flavor of codfish, especially the unpleasant odor, has caused serious problems in its processing. To accurately identify the volatile compounds in codfish, a combination of solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) method and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) method was used to extract the volatiles. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) along with Kovats indices (KI) and authentic standard compounds were used to identify the volatiles. The results showed that a total of 86 volatile compounds were identified in codfish, of them 24 were extracted by SDE, 69 compounds by SPME, and 10 compounds by both SDE and SPME. Seventy volatile compounds were found to have specific odors, of them 7 typical compounds contributed significantly to the flavor of codfish. Alcohols ( i.e., (E)-2-penten-1-ol and 2-octanol), esters ( i.e., ethyl butyrate and methyl geranate), aldehydes ( i.e., 2-dodecenal and pentadecanal) contributed the most to fresh flavor while nitrogen compounds, sulphur compounds, furans, as well as some ketones ( i.e., 2-hydroxy-3-pentanone) brought unpleasant odor, such as fishy and earthy odor. It was indicated that the combination of multiple extraction methods and GC-MS analysis can enhance the accuracy of identification, and provide a reference for the further study on flavor of aquatic products.

  20. The ISI distribution of the stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuron

    PubMed Central

    Rowat, Peter F.; Greenwood, Priscilla E.

    2014-01-01

    The simulation of ion-channel noise has an important role in computational neuroscience. In recent years several approximate methods of carrying out this simulation have been published, based on stochastic differential equations, and all giving slightly different results. The obvious, and essential, question is: which method is the most accurate and which is most computationally efficient? Here we make a contribution to the answer. We compare interspike interval histograms from simulated data using four different approximate stochastic differential equation (SDE) models of the stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley neuron, as well as the exact Markov chain model simulated by the Gillespie algorithm. One of the recent SDE models is the same as the Kurtz approximation first published in 1978. All the models considered give similar ISI histograms over a wide range of deterministic and stochastic input. Three features of these histograms are an initial peak, followed by one or more bumps, and then an exponential tail. We explore how these features depend on deterministic input and on level of channel noise, and explain the results using the stochastic dynamics of the model. We conclude with a rough ranking of the four SDE models with respect to the similarity of their ISI histograms to the histogram of the exact Markov chain model. PMID:25339894

  1. Development and testing of a PEM SO2-depolarized electrolyzer and an operating method that prevents sulfur accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, John L.; Steeper, Timothy J.; Colon-Mercado, Hector R.; Gorensek, Maximilian B.

    2015-09-02

    The hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycle is being developed as a technology to generate hydrogen by splitting water, using heat and electrical power from a nuclear or solar power plant. A key component is the SO2-depolarized electrolysis (SDE) cell, which reacts SO2 and water to form hydrogen and sulfuric acid. SDE could also be used in once-through operation to consume SO2 and generate hydrogen and sulfuric acid for sale. A proton exchange membrane (PEM) SDE cell based on a PEM fuel cell design was fabricated and tested. Measured cell potential as a function of anolyte pressure and flow rate, sulfuric acid concentration, and cell temperature are presented for this cell. Sulfur accumulation was observed inside the cell, which could have been a serious impediment to further development. A method to prevent sulfur formation was subsequently developed. As a result, this was made possible by a testing facility that allowed unattended operation for extended periods.

  2. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  3. Effect of light polarization on holographic recording in glassy azocompounds and chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozols, Andris; Kokars, Valdis; Augustovs, Peteris; Uiska, Ilze; Traskovskis, Kaspars; Saharov, Dmitry

    2011-04-01

    Light polarization effects on a holographic grating recording in a glassy chalcogenide a-As40S15Se45 film has been experimentally studied and compared with previously studied glassy molecular azobenzene film 8a at 633, using s - s,p - p, CE-1 and CE-2 circular-elliptic recording-beam polarizations (differing by light electric field rotation directions). The azocompound exhibited much higher self-diffraction efficiency (SDE) and diffraction efficiency whereas chalcogenide was more sensitive. Their recording efficiency polarization dependences also were different. SDE up to 45% was achieved in 8a with p - p and up to 2.6% in a-As40S15Se45 with CE-2 polarized recording beams. The polarization changes in the diffraction process were studied as well in these and other materials ( 11, 16, 19 and a-As2S3 film, LiTaO3:Fe crystal). It was found that light polarization changes in the process of diffraction from gratings recorded vectorially by s- p polarizations depended on chemical composition, wavelength, and exposure time. Vector gratings with SDE up to 25% were recorded in 8a, rotating a linear polarization by 90°. No light polarization changes were found in azobenzene 19 and chalcogenide films and in LiTaO3:Fe crystal, thus showing a vector recording of scalar holograms. The recording mechanisms in azocompounds and chalcogenides are discussed and compared.

  4. Effect of light polarization on holographic recording in glassy azocompounds and chalcogenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozols, Andris; Kokars, Valdis; Augustovs, Peteris; Uiska, Ilze; Traskovskis, Kaspars; Saharov, Dmitry

    2011-04-01

    Light polarization effects on a holographic grating recording in a glassy chalcogenide a-As40S15Se45 film has been experimentally studied and compared with previously studied glassy molecular azobenzene film 8a at 633, using s - s,p - p, CE-1 and CE-2 circular-elliptic recording-beam polarizations (differing by light electric field rotation directions). The azocompound exhibited much higher self-diffraction efficiency (SDE) and diffraction efficiency whereas chalcogenide was more sensitive. Their recording efficiency polarization dependences also were different. SDE up to 45% was achieved in 8a with p - p and up to 2.6% in a-As40S15Se45 with CE-2 polarized recording beams. The polarization changes in the diffraction process were studied as well in these and other materials (11, 16, 19 and a-As2S3 film, LiTaO3:Fe crystal). It was found that light polarization changes in the process of diffraction from gratings recorded vectorially by s-p polarizations depended on chemical composition, wavelength, and exposure time. Vector gratings with SDE up to 25% were recorded in 8a, rotating a linear polarization by 90°. No light polarization changes were found in azobenzene 19 and chalcogenide films and in LiTaO3:Fe crystal, thus showing a vector recording of scalar holograms. The recording mechanisms in azocompounds and chalcogenides are discussed and compared.

  5. Real time heart rate variability assessment from Android smartphone camera photoplethysmography: Postural and device influences.

    PubMed

    Guede-Fernandez, F; Ferrer-Mileo, V; Ramos-Castro, J; Fernandez-Chimeno, M; Garcia-Gonzalez, M A

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a smartphone based system for real-time pulse-to-pulse (PP) interval time series acquisition by frame-to-frame camera image processing. The developed smartphone application acquires image frames from built-in rear-camera at the maximum available rate (30 Hz) and the smartphone GPU has been used by Renderscript API for high performance frame-by-frame image acquisition and computing in order to obtain PPG signal and PP interval time series. The relative error of mean heart rate is negligible. In addition, measurement posture and the employed smartphone model influences on the beat-to-beat error measurement of heart rate and HRV indices have been analyzed. Then, the standard deviation of the beat-to-beat error (SDE) was 7.81 ± 3.81 ms in the worst case. Furthermore, in supine measurement posture, significant device influence on the SDE has been found and the SDE is lower with Samsung S5 than Motorola X. This study can be applied to analyze the reliability of different smartphone models for HRV assessment from real-time Android camera frames processing. PMID:26737985

  6. Development and testing of a PEM SO2-depolarized electrolyzer and an operating method that prevents sulfur accumulation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Steimke, John L.; Steeper, Timothy J.; Colon-Mercado, Hector R.; Gorensek, Maximilian B.

    2015-09-02

    The hybrid sulfur (HyS) cycle is being developed as a technology to generate hydrogen by splitting water, using heat and electrical power from a nuclear or solar power plant. A key component is the SO2-depolarized electrolysis (SDE) cell, which reacts SO2 and water to form hydrogen and sulfuric acid. SDE could also be used in once-through operation to consume SO2 and generate hydrogen and sulfuric acid for sale. A proton exchange membrane (PEM) SDE cell based on a PEM fuel cell design was fabricated and tested. Measured cell potential as a function of anolyte pressure and flow rate, sulfuric acidmore » concentration, and cell temperature are presented for this cell. Sulfur accumulation was observed inside the cell, which could have been a serious impediment to further development. A method to prevent sulfur formation was subsequently developed. As a result, this was made possible by a testing facility that allowed unattended operation for extended periods.« less

  7. Modal Analysis and Model Correlation of the Mir Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyoung M.; Kaouk, Mohamed

    2000-01-01

    This paper will discuss on-orbit dynamic tests, modal analysis, and model refinement studies performed as part of the Mir Structural Dynamics Experiment (MiSDE). Mir is the Russian permanently manned Space Station whose construction first started in 1986. The MiSDE was sponsored by the NASA International Space Station (ISS) Phase 1 Office and was part of the Shuttle-Mir Risk Mitigation Experiment (RME). One of the main objectives for MiSDE is to demonstrate the feasibility of performing on-orbit modal testing on large space structures to extract modal parameters that will be used to correlate mathematical models. The experiment was performed over a one-year span on the Mir-alone and Mir with a Shuttle docked. A total of 45 test sessions were performed including: Shuttle and Mir thruster firings, Shuttle-Mir and Progress-Mir dockings, crew exercise and pushoffs, and ambient noise during night-to-day and day-to-night orbital transitions. Test data were recorded with a variety of existing and new instrumentation systems that included: the MiSDE Mir Auxiliary Sensor Unit (MASU), the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), the Russian Mir Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS), the Mir and Shuttle Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs), and the Shuttle payload bay video cameras. Modal analysis was performed on the collected test data to extract modal parameters, i.e. frequencies, damping factors, and mode shapes. A special time-domain modal identification procedure was used on free-decay structural responses. The results from this study show that modal testing and analysis of large space structures is feasible within operational constraints. Model refinements were performed on both the Mir alone and the Shuttle-Mir mated configurations. The design sensitivity approach was used for refinement, which adjusts structural properties in order to match analytical and test modal parameters. To verify the refinement results, the analytical responses calculated using

  8. Strength Differential Measured in Inconel 718: Effects of Hydrostatic Pressure Studied

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, John J.; Wesseling, Paul; Prabhu, Nishad S.; Larose, Joel; Lissenden, Cliff J.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2003-01-01

    Aeropropulsion components, such as disks, blades, and shafts, are commonly subjected to multiaxial stress states at elevated temperatures. Experimental results from loadings as complex as those experienced in service are needed to help guide the development of accurate viscoplastic, multiaxial deformation models that can be used to improve the design of these components. During a recent study on multiaxial deformation (ref. 1) on a common aerospace material, Inconel 718, it was shown that the material in the aged state exhibits a strength differential effect (SDE), whereby the uniaxial compressive yield and subsequent flow behavior are significantly higher than those in uniaxial tension. Thus, this material cannot be described by a standard von Mises yield formulation. There have been other formulations postulated (ref. 2) that involve other combinations of the stress invariants, including the effect of hydrostatic stress. The question remained as to which invariants are necessary in the flow model. To capture the physical mechanisms occurring during deformation and reflect them in the plasticity formulation, researchers examined the flow of Inconel 718 under various amounts of hydrostatic stress to determine whether or not hydrostatic stress is needed in the formulation. Under NASA Grant NCC3-464, monitored by the NASA Glenn Research Center, a series of tensile tests were conducted at Case Western Reserve University on aged (precipitation hardened) Inconel 718 at 650 C and with superimposed hydrostatic pressure. Dogbone shaped tensile specimens (3-mm-diameter gauge by 16-mm gauge length) and cylindrical compression specimens (3-mm-diameter gauge by 6-mm gauge length) were strain gauged and loaded in a high-pressure testing apparatus. Hydrostatic pressures were obtained with argon and ranged from 210 to 630 MPa. The aged Inconel 718 showed a pronounced difference in the tension and compression yield strength (i.e., an SDE), as previously observed. Also, there were

  9. Spatiotemporal Regulation of a Legionella pneumophila T4SS Substrate by the Metaeffector SidJ

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Kwang Cheol; Sexton, Jessica A.; Vogel, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of host cell function is vital for intracellular pathogens to survive and replicate within host cells. Most commonly, these pathogens utilize specialized secretion systems to inject substrates (also called effector proteins) that function as toxins within host cells. Since it would be detrimental for an intracellular pathogen to immediately kill its host cell, it is essential that secreted toxins be inactivated or degraded after they have served their purpose. The pathogen Legionella pneumophila represents an ideal system to study interactions between toxins as it survives within host cells for approximately a day and its Dot/Icm type IVB secretion system (T4SS) injects a vast number of toxins. Previously we reported that the Dot/Icm substrates SidE, SdeA, SdeB, and SdeC (known as the SidE family of effectors) are secreted into host cells, where they localize to the cytoplasmic face of the Legionella containing vacuole (LCV) in the early stages of infection. SidJ, another effector that is unrelated to the SidE family, is also encoded in the sdeC-sdeA locus. Interestingly, while over-expression of SidE family proteins in a wild type Legionella strain has no effect, we found that their over-expression in a ∆sidJ mutant completely inhibits intracellular growth of the strain. In addition, we found expression of SidE proteins is toxic in both yeast and mammalian HEK293 cells, but this toxicity can be suppressed by co-expression of SidJ, suggesting that SidJ may modulate the function of SidE family proteins. Finally, we were able to demonstrate both in vivo and in vitro that SidJ acts on SidE proteins to mediate their disappearance from the LCV, thereby preventing lethal intoxication of host cells. Based on these findings, we propose that SidJ acts as a metaeffector to control the activity of other Legionella effectors. PMID:25774515

  10. HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER DEVELOPMENT FY09 SECOND QUARTER REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, D; David Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Timothy Steeper, T; John Steimke, J; Mark Elvington, M

    2009-04-15

    The primary objective of the DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is to develop the nuclear hydrogen production technologies necessary to produce hydrogen at a cost competitive with other alternative transportation fuels. The focus of the NHI is on thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis that can be powered by heat from high temperature gas reactors. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been tasked with the primary responsibility to perform research and development in order to characterize, evaluate and develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) thermochemical process. This report documents work during the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2009, for the period between January 1, 2009 and March 31, 2009. The HyS Process is a two-step hybrid thermochemical cycle that is part of the 'Sulfur Family' of cycles. As a sulfur cycle, it uses high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and to regenerate the sulfur dioxide reactant. The second step of the process uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to split water and produce hydrogen by electrochemically reacting sulfur dioxide with H{sub 2}O. The SDE produces sulfuric acid, which is then sent to the acid decomposer to complete the cycle. The DOE NHI program is developing the acid decomposer at Sandia National Laboratory for application to both the HyS Process and the Sulfur Iodine Cycle. The SDE is being developed at SRNL. During FY05 and FY06, SRNL designed and conducted proof-of-concept testing for a SDE using a low temperature, PEM fuel cell-type design concept. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency, small footprint and potential for low capital cost, characteristics that are crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. During FY07, SRNL extended the range of testing of the SDE to higher temperature and pressure, conducted a 100-hour longevity test with a 60-cm{sup 2} single cell electrolyzer, and

  11. Subglacial bedform orientation, one-dimensional size, and directional shape measurement method accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorge, Marco G.; Brennand, Tracy A.

    2016-04-01

    This study is an assessment of previously reported automated methods and of a new method for measuring longitudinal subglacial bedform (LSB) morphometry. It evaluates the adequacy (accuracy and precision) of orientation, length and longitudinal asymmetry data derived from the longest straight line (LSL) enclosed by the LSB's footprint, the footprint's minimum bounding rectangle longitudinal axis (RLA) and the footprint's standard deviational ellipse (SDE) longitudinal axis (LA) (new method), and the adequacy of length based on an ellipse fitted to the area and perimeter of the footprint (elliptical length). Tests are based on 100 manually mapped drumlins and mega-scale glacial lineations representing the size and shape range of LSBs in the Puget Lowland drumlin field, WA, USA. Data from manually drawn LAs are used as reference for method evaluation. With the exception of elliptical length, errors decrease rapidly with increasing footprint elongation (decreasing potential angular divergence between LAs). For LSBs with elongation <5 and excluding the 5% largest errors (outliers), 1) the LSL, RLA and SDE methods had very small mean absolute error (MAE) in all measures (e.g., MAE <5° in orientation and <5 m in length); they can be confidently used to characterize the central tendency of LSB samples. 2) When analyzing data spatially at large cartographic scales, the LSL method should be avoided for orientation (36% of the errors were larger than 5°). 3) Elliptical length was the least accurate of all methods (MAE of 56.1 m and 15% of the errors larger than 5%); its use should be discontinued. 4) The relative adequacy of the LSL and RLA depends on footprint shape; SDE computed with the footprint's structural vertices is relatively shape-independent and is the preferred method. This study is significant also for negative-relief, and fluvial and aeolian bedforms.

  12. Bird and ant synergy increases the seed dispersal effectiveness of an ornithochoric shrub.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Paulo H S A; Martins, Milene M; Feitosa, Rodrigo M; Christianini, Alexander V

    2016-06-01

    Seed dispersal may involve different vectors of dispersal in two or more sequential phases (i.e., diplochory). However, contributions of each phase to the overall seed dispersal effectiveness (SDE) are poorly understood and hard to evaluate due to post-dispersal processes that affect seed and seedling survival. We investigated the simultaneous bird (phase 1, in plant canopy) and ant (phase 2, on the floor) contributions to SDE with the ornithochoric shrub Erythroxylum ambiguum in a Brazilian Atlantic forest. Twelve species of birds fed on fruit and dispersed approximately 26 % of the seed crop. The remaining seed crop, 90 % of which contained viable seeds, fell to the ground beneath the parental plant. Ants either cleaned seeds in fruits or carried fallen fruit and seeds from bird feces to their nests. Although E. ambiguum has no adaptation for ant dispersal, ants were as quantitatively important as birds. Birds and ants equally increased germination rates compared to controls. However, birds deposited seeds farther from the parent, where seedling survival was higher (78 %) than it was beneath the parent (44 %), whereas ants carried seeds to their nests, where seedling survival was higher (83 %) than in controls away from their nests (63 %). Diplochory allowed a 42 % increase in SDE compared to dispersal in phase 1 alone. High lipid content in the fruit pulp of E. ambiguum may facilitate the inclusion of ants in a second step of dispersal after diaspores reach the floor. Ants can also buffer the dispersal of diplochorous plants against decreases in phase 1 dispersers. PMID:26899481

  13. Toxicity and SidJ-Mediated Suppression of Toxicity Require Distinct Regions in the SidE Family of Legionella pneumophila Effectors

    PubMed Central

    Havey, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular bacteria use a variety of strategies to evade degradation and create a replicative niche. Legionella pneumophila is an intravacuolar pathogen that establishes a replicative niche through the secretion of more than 300 effector proteins. The function of most effectors remains to be determined. Toxicity in yeast has been used to identify functional domains and elucidate the biochemical function of effectors. A library of L. pneumophila effectors was screened using an expression plasmid that produces low levels of each protein. This screen identified the effector SdeA as a protein that confers a strong toxic phenotype that inhibits yeast replication. The toxicity of SdeA was suppressed in cells producing the effector SidJ. The effector SdeA is a member of the SidE family of L. pneumophila effector proteins. All SidE orthologs encoded by the Philadelphia isolate of Legionella pneumophila were toxic to yeast, and SidJ suppressed the toxicity of each. We identified a conserved central region in the SidE proteins that was sufficient to mediate yeast toxicity. Surprisingly, SidJ did not suppress toxicity when this central region was produced in yeast. We determined that the amino-terminal region of SidE was essential for SidJ-mediated suppression of toxicity. Thus, there is a genetic interaction that links the activity of SidJ and the amino-terminal region of SidE, which is required to modulate the toxic activity displayed by the central region of the SidE protein. This suggests a complex mechanism by which the L. pneumophila effector SidJ modulates the function of the SidE proteins after translocation into host cells. PMID:26099583

  14. Compositional variance in extracted particulate matter using different filter extraction techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bein, K. J.; Wexler, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Collection and subsequent extraction of particulate matter (PM) from filter substrates is a common requirement for in vivo and in vitro toxicological studies, as well as chemical analyses such as ion chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Several filter extraction protocols exist and different laboratories employ different methods, potentially biasing inter-study comparisons. Previous studies have shown significant differences in extraction efficiency between techniques and identified the relevant extraction artifacts. However, a comprehensive inter-comparison of different methods based on the chemical composition of the extracted PM has never been conducted. In the current study, an exhaustive suite of chemical analyses is performed on PM extracted from glass micro-fiber filters using techniques commonly employed in different laboratories: Multi-solvent extraction (MSE) and spin-down extraction (SDE). PM samples were collected simultaneously during field studies conducted in an urban and rural setting using a high-volume PM2.5 sampler. Results show remarkable compositional variance between the PM extracts for all chemical components analyzed, including metals, water soluble ions, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, non-aromatic organics, elemental carbon and organic carbon. Mass closure was greater than 90% for MSE but deviated substantially for SDE. Detailed retrospective gravimetric analysis of archived SDE samples revealed that a process-based loss of PM mass is the root cause of the differences. These losses are shown to be compositionally biased, both externally between different PM mixtures and internally within a given PM mixture. In combination, the results of this study are the first to demonstrate (i) an exhaustive chemical characterization of a single PM extract, (ii) the significance of directly characterizing the extracted PM used in toxicological studies, (iii) the existence of substantial compositional biases between

  15. Prediction of flow and drawdown for the site characterization and validation site in the Stripa Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.C.S.; Mauldon, A.D.; Nelson, K.; Martel, S.; Fuller, P.; and Karasaki, K.

    1992-01-01

    Geophysical and hydrologic data from a location in the Stripa Mine in Sweden, called the Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) block, has been used to create a series of models for flow through the fracture network. The models can be characterized as ``equivalent discontinuum`` models. Equivalent discontinuum models are derived starting from a specified lattice or 6 ``template``. An inverse analysis called ``Simulated Annealing`` is used to make a random search through the elements of the lattice to find a configuration that can reproduce the measured responses. Evidence at Stripa points to hydrology which is dominated by fracture zones. These have been identified and located through extensive characterization efforts. Lattice templates were arranged to lie on the fracture zones identified by Black and Olsson. The fundamental goal of this project was to build a fracture flow model based an initial data set, and use this model to make predictions of the flow behavior during a new test. Then given data from the new test, predict a second test, etc. The first data set was an interference test called C1-2. Both a two-dimensional and a three-dimensional model were annealed to the C1-2 data and use this model to predict the behavior of the Simulated Drift Experiment (SDE). The SDE measured the flow into, and drawdown due to reducing the pressure in a group of 6 parallel boreholes. Then both the C1-2 and SDE data were used to predict the flow into and drawdown due to an excavation, the Validation Drift (VD), made through the boreholes. Finally, all the data was used to predict the hydrologic response to opening another hole, T1.

  16. Prediction of flow and drawdown for the site characterization and validation site in the Stripa Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.C.S.; Mauldon, A.D.; Nelson, K.; Martel, S.; Fuller, P.; and Karasaki, K.

    1992-01-01

    Geophysical and hydrologic data from a location in the Stripa Mine in Sweden, called the Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) block, has been used to create a series of models for flow through the fracture network. The models can be characterized as equivalent discontinuum'' models. Equivalent discontinuum models are derived starting from a specified lattice or 6 template''. An inverse analysis called Simulated Annealing'' is used to make a random search through the elements of the lattice to find a configuration that can reproduce the measured responses. Evidence at Stripa points to hydrology which is dominated by fracture zones. These have been identified and located through extensive characterization efforts. Lattice templates were arranged to lie on the fracture zones identified by Black and Olsson. The fundamental goal of this project was to build a fracture flow model based an initial data set, and use this model to make predictions of the flow behavior during a new test. Then given data from the new test, predict a second test, etc. The first data set was an interference test called C1-2. Both a two-dimensional and a three-dimensional model were annealed to the C1-2 data and use this model to predict the behavior of the Simulated Drift Experiment (SDE). The SDE measured the flow into, and drawdown due to reducing the pressure in a group of 6 parallel boreholes. Then both the C1-2 and SDE data were used to predict the flow into and drawdown due to an excavation, the Validation Drift (VD), made through the boreholes. Finally, all the data was used to predict the hydrologic response to opening another hole, T1.

  17. Attenuation of Diabetic Conditions by Sida rhombifolia in Moderately Diabetic Rats and Inability to Produce Similar Effects in Severely Diabetic in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chaturvedi, Padmaja; Kwape, Tebogo Elvis

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study was done out to evaluate the effects of Sida rhombifolia methanol extract (SRM) on diabetes in moderately diabetic (MD) and severely diabetic (SD) Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: SRM was prepared by soaking the powdered plant material in 70% methanol and rota evaporating the methanol from the extract. Effective hypoglycemic doses were established by performing oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) in normal rats. Hourly effects of SRM on glucose were observed in the MD and the SD rats. Rats were grouped, five rats to a group, into normal control 1 (NC1), MD control 1 (MDC1), MD experimental 1 (MDE1), SD control 1 (SDC1), and SD experimental 1 (SDE1) groups. All rats in the control groups were administered 1 mL of distilled water (DW). The rats in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups were administered SRM orally at 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight (BW), respectively, dissolved in 1 mL of DW. Blood was collected initially and at intervals of 1 hour for 6 hours to measure blood glucose. A similar experimental design was followed for the 30-day long-term trial. Finally, rats were sacrificed, and blood was collected to measure blood glucose, lipid profiles, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Results: OGTTs indicated that two doses (200 and 300 mg/kg BW) were effective hypoglycemic doses in normal rats. Both doses reduced glucose levels after 1 hour in the MDE1 and the SDE1 groups. A long-term trial of SRM in the MD group showed a reduced glucose level, a normal lipid profile, and normal GSH and TBARS levels. In SD rats, SRM had no statistically significant effects on these parameters. Normal weight was achieved in the MD rats, but the SD rats showed reduced BW. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that SRM has potential to alleviate the conditions of moderate diabetic, but not severe diabetes. PMID:26998385

  18. Boosting Bayesian parameter inference of stochastic differential equation models with methods from statistical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Carlo; Ulzega, Simone; Stoop, Ruedi

    2016-04-01

    Measured time-series of both precipitation and runoff are known to exhibit highly non-trivial statistical properties. For making reliable probabilistic predictions in hydrology, it is therefore desirable to have stochastic models with output distributions that share these properties. When parameters of such models have to be inferred from data, we also need to quantify the associated parametric uncertainty. For non-trivial stochastic models, however, this latter step is typically very demanding, both conceptually and numerically, and always never done in hydrology. Here, we demonstrate that methods developed in statistical physics make a large class of stochastic differential equation (SDE) models amenable to a full-fledged Bayesian parameter inference. For concreteness we demonstrate these methods by means of a simple yet non-trivial toy SDE model. We consider a natural catchment that can be described by a linear reservoir, at the scale of observation. All the neglected processes are assumed to happen at much shorter time-scales and are therefore modeled with a Gaussian white noise term, the standard deviation of which is assumed to scale linearly with the system state (water volume in the catchment). Even for constant input, the outputs of this simple non-linear SDE model show a wealth of desirable statistical properties, such as fat-tailed distributions and long-range correlations. Standard algorithms for Bayesian inference fail, for models of this kind, because their likelihood functions are extremely high-dimensional intractable integrals over all possible model realizations. The use of Kalman filters is illegitimate due to the non-linearity of the model. Particle filters could be used but become increasingly inefficient with growing number of data points. Hamiltonian Monte Carlo algorithms allow us to translate this inference problem to the problem of simulating the dynamics of a statistical mechanics system and give us access to most sophisticated methods

  19. Application of high-temperature gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to the investigation of glycosidically bound components related to cashew apple (Anacardium occidentale L. Var. Nanum) volatiles.

    PubMed

    Bicalho, B; Pereira, A S; Aquino Neto, F R; Pinto, A C; Rezende, C M

    2000-04-01

    Free and bound volatile components of a Brazilian cashew apple variety (Anacardium occidentale L. var. nanum) were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and XAD-2 adsorption. According to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses and retention indices, 62 free volatile constituents were characterized and quantified. They were esters (40%), terpenes (20%), hydrocarbons (14%), fatty acids (9%), aldehydes (8%), alcohols (3%), lactones (3%), ketones (1%), phenols (1%), and norisoprenoids (1%). The glycosidically bound volatile precursors were analyzed by high-temperature GC-MS, after room temperature silylation. Several conjugated alcohols and cinnamic acids were detected and reported as cashew apple glycosyl constituents for the first time. PMID:10775367

  20. Geospatial analysis of spaceborne remote sensing data for assessing disaster impacts and modeling surface runoff in the built-environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wodajo, Bikila Teklu

    Every year, coastal disasters such as hurricanes and floods claim hundreds of lives and severely damage homes, businesses, and lifeline infrastructure. This research was motivated by the 2005 Hurricane Katrina disaster, which devastated the Mississippi and Louisiana Gulf Coast. The primary objective was to develop a geospatial decision-support system for extracting built-up surfaces and estimating disaster impacts using spaceborne remote sensing satellite imagery. Pre-Katrina 1-m Ikonos imagery of a 5km x 10km area of Gulfport, Mississippi, was used as source data to develop the built-up area and natural surfaces or BANS classification methodology. Autocorrelation of 0.6 or higher values related to spectral reflectance values of groundtruth pixels were used to select spectral bands and establish the BANS decision criteria of unique ranges of reflectance values. Surface classification results using GeoMedia Pro geospatial analysis for Gulfport sample areas, based on BANS criteria and manually drawn polygons, were within +/-7% of the groundtruth. The difference between the BANS results and the groundtruth was statistically not significant. BANS is a significant improvement over other supervised classification methods, which showed only 50% correctly classified pixels. The storm debris and erosion estimation or SDE methodology was developed from analysis of pre- and post-Katrina surface classification results of Gulfport samples. The SDE severity level criteria considered hurricane and flood damages and vulnerability of inhabited built-environment. A linear regression model, with +0.93 Pearson R-value, was developed for predicting SDE as a function of pre-disaster percent built-up area. SDE predictions for Gulfport sample areas, used for validation, were within +/-4% of calculated values. The damage cost model considered maintenance, rehabilitation and reconstruction costs related to infrastructure damage and community impacts of Hurricane Katrina. The developed

  1. Experimental Validation of Stochastic Wireless Urban Channel Model: Estimation and Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Ma, Xiao; Djouadi, Seddik M

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic differential equations (SDE) can be used to describe the time-varying nature of wireless channels. This paper validates a long-term fading channel model for estimation and prediction from solely using measured received signal strength measurements. Such channel models can be used for optimizing wireless networks deployed for industrial automation, public access, and communication. This paper uses two different sets of received signal measurement data to estimate an predict the signal strength based on past measurements. The realworld performance of the estimation and prediction algorithm is demonstrated.

  2. Comparative study of MnO2 nanoparticle synthesis by marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans and yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Salunke, Bipinchandra K; Sawant, Shailesh S; Lee, Sang-Ill; Kim, Beom Soo

    2015-07-01

    Microorganisms are one of the most attractive and simple sources for the synthesis of different types of metal nanoparticles. The synthesis of manganese dioxide nanoparticles (MnO2 NPs) by microorganisms from reducing potassium permanganate was investigated for the first time in the present study. The microbial supernatants of the bacterium Saccharophagus degradans ATCC 43961 (Sde 2-40) and of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed positive reactions to the synthesis of MnO2 NPs by displaying a change of color in the permanganate solution from purple to yellow. KMnO4-specific peaks also disappeared and MnO2-specific peaks emerged at an absorption maximum of 365 nm in UV-visible spectrophotometry. The washed Sde 2-40 cells did not show any ability to synthesize MnO2 NPs. The medium and medium constituents of Sde 2-40 showed similar positive reactions as supernatants, which indicate the role of the Sde 2-40 medium constituents in the synthesis of MnO2 NPs. This suggests that microorganisms without nanoparticle synthesis ability can be misreported for their abilities to synthesize nanoparticles. S. cerevisiae washed cells showed an ability to synthesize MnO2 NPs. The strategies of keeping yeast cells in tea bags and dialysis membranes showed positive tests for the synthesis of MnO2 NPs. A Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy study suggested roles for the proteins, alcoholic compounds, and cell walls of S. cerevisiae cells in the synthesis of MnO2 NPs. Electron-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses confirmed the presence of Mn and O in the sample. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed characteristic binding energies for MnO2 NPs. Transmission electron microscopy micrographs revealed the presence of uniformly dispersed hexagonal- and spherical-shaped particles with an average size of 34.4 nm. The synthesis approach using yeast is possible by a simple reaction at low temperature without any need for catalysts, templates, or expensive and precise equipment

  3. Beyond the rainbow: Effects from pion back-coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Christian S.; Williams, Richard

    2008-10-01

    We investigate hadronic unquenching effects in light quarks and mesons. To this end, we take into account the back-coupling of the pion onto the quark propagator within the nonperturbative continuum framework of Schwinger-Dyson equations (SDE) and Bethe-Salpeter equations (BSE). We improve on a previous approach by explicitly solving both the coupled system of SDEs and BSEs in the complex plane and the normalization problem for Bethe-Salpeter kernels depending on the total momentum of the meson. As a result of our study, we find considerable unquenching effects in the spectrum of light pseudoscalar, vector and axial-vector mesons.

  4. Co-expression of endoglucanase and β-glucosidase in Corynebacterium glutamicum DM1729 towards direct lysine fermentation from cellulose.

    PubMed

    Anusree, Murali; Wendisch, Volker F; Nampoothiri, K Madhavan

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study is the development of a consolidated bioprocess for the production of lysine with recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum DM1729 strains expressing endoglucanase and β-glucosidase genes. Here, the endoglucanase genes from Xanthomonas campestris XCC3521 and XCC2387 and betaglucosidase gene from Saccharophagus degradans Sde1394 were cloned in C. glutamicum DM1729 and expressed either extracellularly or on cell surface. The highest β-glucosidase activity of 9±0.5U/OD600 of 1 and endoglucanase activity of 5.5±0.8U was obtained in C. glutamicum DM 1729 (pVWEx1-TATXCC2387) (pEKEx3-PorC-Sde1394) when cellobiose (20g/L) alone or in combination with carboxymethyl cellulose (20g/L) was used as the carbon sources respectively. The overall efforts resulted in a lysine titre of 5.9±0.5mM. The ability of the constructs to utilize carboxymethyl cellulose and cellobiose for growth and amino acid production proves the concept of utilization of C. glutamicum as a biocatalyst in the lignocellulosic biorefinery. PMID:27020126

  5. Direct L-lysine production from cellobiose by Corynebacterium glutamicum displaying beta-glucosidase on its cell surface.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Noriko; Takahashi, Chihiro; Ono-Murota, Naoko; Yamaguchi, Rie; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-08-01

    We constructed beta-glucosidase (BGL)-displaying Corynebacterium glutamicum, and direct L-lysine fermentation from cellobiose was demonstrated. After screening active BGLs, Sde1394, which is a BGL from Saccharophagus degradans, was successfully displayed on the C. glutamicum cell surface using porin as an anchor protein, and cellobiose was directly assimilated as a carbon source. The optical density at 600 nm of BGL-displaying C. glutamicum grown on cellobiose as a carbon source reached 23.5 after 48 h of cultivation, which was almost the same as that of glucose after 24 h of cultivation. Finally, Sde1394-displaying C. glutamicum produced 1.08 g/l of L-lysine from 20 g/l of cellobiose after 4 days of cultivation, which was about threefold higher than the amount of produced L-lysine using BGL-secretory C. glutamicum strains (0.38 g/l after 5 days of cultivation). This is the first report on amino acid production using cellobiose as a carbon source by BGL-expressing C. glutamicum. PMID:23749228

  6. Recent findings in the chemistry of odorants from four Baccharis species and their impact as chemical markers.

    PubMed

    Minteguiaga, Manuel; Umpiérrez, Noelia; Xavier, Vanessa; Lucas, Aline; Mondin, Claudio; Fariña, Laura; Cassel, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo

    2015-09-01

    Baccharis is a widespread genus belonging to the Asteraceae family that includes almost 400 species exclusively from the Americas. Even when studied in detail, the taxonomic classification among species from this genus is not yet fully defined. Within the framework of our study of the volatile composition of the Baccharis genus, four species (B. trimera, B. milleflora, B. tridentata, and B. uncinella) were collected from the 'Campos de Cima da Serra' highlands of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. The aerial parts were dried and extracted by the simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) procedure. This is the first time that SDE has been applied to obtain and compare the volatile-extract composition in the Baccharis genus. Characterization of the volatile extracts allowed the identification of 180 peaks with many coeluting components; these latter being detailed for the first time for this genus. The multivariate statistical analyses allowed separating the volatile extracts of the four populations of Baccharis into two separate groups. The first one included the B. milleflora, B. trimera, and B. uncinella volatile extracts. The three species showed a high degree of similarity in their volatile composition, which was characterized by the presence of high contents of sesquiterpene compounds, in particular of spathulenol. The second group comprised the extract of B. tridentata, which contained α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, and (E)-β-ocimene in high amounts. PMID:26363878

  7. Using stochastic models calibrated from nanosecond nonequilibrium simulations to approximate mesoscale information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Christopher P.; Janosi, Lorant; Kosztin, Ioan

    2009-04-01

    We demonstrate how the surrogate process approximation (SPA) method can be used to compute both the potential of mean force along a reaction coordinate and the associated diffusion coefficient using a relatively small number (10-20) of bidirectional nonequilibrium trajectories coming from a complex system. Our method provides confidence bands which take the variability of the initial configuration of the high-dimensional system, continuous nature of the work paths, and thermal fluctuations into account. Maximum-likelihood-type methods are used to estimate a stochastic differential equation (SDE) approximating the dynamics. For each observed time series, we estimate a new SDE resulting in a collection of SPA models. The physical significance of the collection of SPA models is discussed and methods for exploiting information in the population of estimated SPA models are demonstrated and suggested. Molecular dynamics simulations of potassium ion dynamics inside a gramicidin A channel are used to demonstrate the methodology, although SPA-type modeling has also proven useful in analyzing single-molecule experimental time series [J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 118 (2009)].

  8. Comparison of different extraction methods for the analysis of volatile secondary metabolites of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown, grown in Colombia, and evaluation of its in vitro antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Stashenko, Elena E; Jaramillo, Beatriz E; Martínez, Jairo René

    2004-01-30

    Hydrodistillation (HD), simultaneous distillation solvent extraction (SDE), microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MWHD), and supercritical fluid (CO2) extraction (SFE) were employed to isolate volatile secondary metabolites from fresh leaves and stems of Colombian Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown. Kovàts indices, mass spectra or standard compounds were used to identify around 40 components in the various volatile fractions. Carvone (40-57%) was the most abundant component, followed by limonene (24-37%), bicyclosesquiphellandrene (5-22%), piperitenone (1-2%), piperitone (ca. 1.0%), and beta-bourbonene (0.6-1.5%), in the HD, SDE, MWHD, and SFE volatile fractions. Static headspace (S-HS), simultaneous purge and trap in solvent (CH2Cl2) (P&T), and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) were used to sample volatiles from fresh L. alba stems and leaves. The main components isolated from the headspace of the fresh plant material were limonene (27-77%), carvone (14-30%), piperitone (0.3-0.5%), piperitenone (ca. 0.4%), and beta-bourbonene (0.5-6.5%). The in vitro antioxidant activity of L. alba essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation was evaluated by determination of hexanal, the main carbonyl compound released by linoleic acid subjected to peroxidation (1 mm Fe2+, 37 degrees C, 12 h), and by quantification of this acid as its methyl ester. Under the same conditions, L. alba HD-essential oil and Vitamin E exhibited similar antioxidant effects. PMID:14753676

  9. Changes in flavor volatile composition of oolong tea after panning during tea processing.

    PubMed

    Sheibani, Ershad; Duncan, Susan E; Kuhn, David D; Dietrich, Andrea M; Newkirk, Jordan J; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2016-05-01

    Panning is a processing step used in manufacturing of some varieties of oolong tea. There is limited information available on effects of panning on oolong tea flavors. The goal of this study was to determine effects of panning on flavor volatile compositions of oolong using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). SDE and SPME techniques were applied for extraction of volatiles in panned and unpanned teas. A total of 190 volatiles were identified from SDE and SPME extractions using GC-MS and GC-O. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in aldehyde or terpene contents of unpanned and panned tea. However, alcohols, ketones, acids and esters contents were significantly reduced by panning. Among 12 major volatiles previously used for identification and quality assessment of oolong tea, trans nerolidol, 2- hexenal, benzaldehyde, indole, gernaiol, and benzenacetaldehyde contents were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) by panning. Panning increased (P < 0.05) contents of linalool oxide, cis jasmone, and methyl salicylate. The GC-O study also showed an increase of aroma active compounds with sweet descriptions and decrease of aroma active compounds with fruity and smoky descriptions after panning. Panning significantly changes the volatile compositions of the tea and created new aroma active compounds. Results from this study can be used in quality assessment of panned oolong tea. PMID:27247775

  10. Channel-noise-induced critical slowing in the subthreshold Hodgkin-Huxley neuron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bukoski, Alex; Steyn-Ross, D. A.; Steyn-Ross, Moira L.

    2015-03-01

    The dynamics of a spiking neuron approaching threshold is investigated in the framework of Markov-chain models describing the random state-transitions of the underlying ion-channel proteins. We characterize subthreshold channel-noise-induced transmembrane potential fluctuations in both type-I (integrator) and type-II (resonator) parametrizations of the classic conductance-based Hodgkin-Huxley equations. As each neuron approaches spiking threshold from below, numerical simulations of stochastic trajectories demonstrate pronounced growth in amplitude simultaneous with decay in frequency of membrane voltage fluctuations induced by ion-channel state transitions. To explore this progression of fluctuation statistics, we approximate the exact Markov treatment with a 12-variable channel-based stochastic differential equation (SDE) and its Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) linearization and show excellent agreement between Markov and SDE numerical simulations. Predictions of the OU theory with respect to membrane potential fluctuation variance, autocorrelation, correlation time, and spectral density are also in agreement and illustrate the close connection between the eigenvalue structure of the associated deterministic bifurcations and the observed behavior of the noisy Markov traces on close approach to threshold for both integrator and resonator point-neuron varieties.

  11. On the forward-backward-in-time approach for Monte Carlo solution of Parker's transport equation: One-dimensional case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobik, P.; Boschini, M. J.; Della Torre, S.; Gervasi, M.; Grandi, D.; La Vacca, G.; Pensotti, S.; Putis, M.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rozza, D.; Tacconi, M.; Zannoni, M.

    2016-05-01

    The cosmic rays propagation inside the heliosphere is well described by a transport equation introduced by Parker in 1965. To solve this equation, several approaches were followed in the past. Recently, a Monte Carlo approach became widely used in force of its advantages with respect to other numerical methods. In this approach the transport equation is associated to a fully equivalent set of stochastic differential equations (SDE). This set is used to describe the stochastic path of quasi-particle from a source, e.g., the interstellar space, to a specific target, e.g., a detector at Earth. We present a comparison of forward-in-time and backward-in-time methods to solve the cosmic rays transport equation in the heliosphere. The Parker equation and the related set of SDE in the several formulations are treated in this paper. For the sake of clarity, this work is focused on the one-dimensional solutions. Results were compared with an alternative numerical solution, namely, Crank-Nicolson method, specifically developed for the case under study. The methods presented are fully consistent each others for energy greater than 400 MeV. The comparison between stochastic integrations and Crank-Nicolson allows us to estimate the systematic uncertainties of Monte Carlo methods. The forward-in-time stochastic integrations method showed a systematic uncertainty <5%, while backward-in-time stochastic integrations method showed a systematic uncertainty <1% in the studied energy range.

  12. Fractionation and identification of minor and aroma-active constituents in Kangra orthodox black tea.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Robin; Gulati, Ashu

    2015-01-15

    The aroma constituents of Kangra orthodox black tea were isolated by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), supercritical fluid extraction and beverage method. The aroma-active compounds were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Geraniol, linalool, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, (E)-2-hexenal, phytol, β-ionone, hotrienol, methylpyrazine and methyl salicylate were major volatile constituents in all the extracts. Minor volatile compounds in all the extracts were 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, ethylpyrazine, 2-6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, acetylfuran, hexanoic acid, dihydroactinidiolide and (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal. The concentrated SDE extract was fractionated into acidic, basic, water-soluble and neutral fractions. The neutral fraction was further chromatographed on a packed silica gel column eluted with pentane and diethyl ether to separate minor compounds. The aroma-active compounds identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry were 2-amylfuran, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-pentanol, epoxylinalool, (Z)-jasmone, 2-acetylpyrrole, farnesyl acetone, geranyl acetone, cadinol, cubenol and dihydroactinidiolide. AEDA studies showed 2-hexenal, 3-hexenol, ethylpyrazine, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, linalool, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, geraniol, phenylethanol, β-ionone, hotrienol and dihydroactinidiolide to be odour active components. PMID:25148991

  13. Quantum-field-theoretical approach to phase-space techniques: Generalizing the positive-P representation

    SciTech Connect

    Plimak, L.I.; Fleischhauer, M.; Olsen, M.K.; Collett, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    We present an introduction to phase-space techniques (PST) based on a quantum-field-theoretical (QFT) approach. In addition to bridging the gap between PST and QFT, our approach results in a number of generalizations of the PST. First, for problems where the usual PST do not result in a genuine Fokker-Planck equation (even after phase-space doubling) and hence fail to produce a stochastic differential equation (SDE), we show how the system in question may be approximated via stochastic difference equations (S{delta}E). Second, we show that introducing sources into the SDE's (or S{delta}E's) generalizes them to a full quantum nonlinear stochastic response problem (thus generalizing Kubo's linear reaction theory to a quantum nonlinear stochastic response theory). Third, we establish general relations linking quantum response properties of the system in question to averages of operator products ordered in a way different from time normal. This extends PST to a much wider assemblage of operator products than are usually considered in phase-space approaches. In all cases, our approach yields a very simple and straightforward way of deriving stochastic equations in phase space.

  14. Magnitude comparisons by children with specific language impairments: evidence of unimpaired symbolic processing.

    PubMed

    Donlan, C; Bishop, D V; Hitch, G J

    1998-01-01

    A size judgement task was used to investigate number processing skills in children with specific language impairments (SLI). Previous work with unimpaired adults and children has shown that when comparing the size of written numbers and other ordinal stimuli, there is a symbolic distance effect (SDE) such that decision time decreases with the size distance between items. This study examined the ability of children to judge stimulus pairs which were varied to contrast the processing of symbolic material against direct perceptual judgement and to test processing of numeric versus non-numeric material. Children with SLI were compared with a control group matched on verbal comprehension level. The children with SLI responded faster than the control subjects. The SLI and control groups showed similar SDE and a similar pattern of response across materials. No indication was found in the SLI data of any selective deficit in processing symbolic information. Findings are discussed in relation to theories of numeracy acquisition which acknowledge the importance of non-verbal representation of number meanings. PMID:9709434

  15. Discovery and Characterization of Cadherin Domains in Saccharophagus degradans 2-40▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Fraiberg, Milana; Borovok, Ilya; Weiner, Ronald M.; Lamed, Raphael

    2010-01-01

    Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 is a prominent member of newly discovered group of marine and estuarine bacteria that recycle complex polysaccharides. The S. degradans 2-40 genome codes for 15 extraordinary long polypeptides, ranging from 274 to 1,600 kDa. Five of these contain at least 52 cadherin (CA) and cadherin-like (CADG) domains, the types of which were reported to bind calcium ions and mediate protein/protein interactions in metazoan systems. In order to evaluate adhesive features of these domains, recombinant CA doublet domains (two neighboring domains) from CabC (Sde_3323) and recombinant CADG doublet domains from CabD (Sde_0798) were examined qualitatively and quantitatively for homophilic and heterophilic interactions. In addition, CA and CADG doublet domains were tested for adhesion to the surface of S. degradans 2-40. Results showed obvious homophilic and heterophilic, calcium ion-dependent interactions between CA and CADG doublet domains. Likewise, CA and CADG doublet domains adhered to the S. degradans 2-40 surface of cells that were grown on xylan from birch wood or pectin, respectively, as a sole carbon source. This research shows for the first time that bacterial cadherin homophilic and heterophilic interactions may be similar in their nature to cadherin domains from metazoan lineages. We hypothesize that S. degradans 2-40 cadherin and cadherin-like multiple domains contribute to protein-protein interactions that may mediate cell-cell contact in the marine environment. PMID:20023015

  16. [Synthesis and application of the polyacrylamide beads acting as LDL adsorbent's matrices].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xixun; Li, Li; Yue, Yilun; Chen, Huaiqing

    2004-08-01

    This study in pursuit of the synthetic technologies and structure characterization of polyacrylamide-based matrices (PAM beads) for low density lipoprotein (LDL) adsorbent and their adsorbability for LDL was intended for an experimental evidence of developing advanced matrices for LDL adsorbent. PAM beads were synthesized by inverse suspension polymerization, and their structure characterization was characterized by SEM, image analyzer and small angle X-ray scattering. The tripeptide serine-aspartic-glutamic acid (SDE) was coupled on the PAM beads to prepare the LDL adsorbents whose adsorbability for LDL was determined in vitro. The results showed that the PAM beads with the average size diameter 142.1 microm and the average pore diameter 119.8 nm could act as the matrices in accordance with the requirement of adsorbent for LDL. When the amount of acrylamide and the crosslinking agent N,N'-methylene-bis(acrylamide) was fixed, the average pore diameter decreased with the increase of the crosslinking agent content. Although the nonspecific binding of PAM beads for LDL was low, they could selectively adsorb LDL after coupling the SDE on the PAM beads. PMID:15357437

  17. STOCHASTIC ACCRETION AND THE VARIABILITY OF SUPERGIANT FAST X-RAY TRANSIENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Pizzolato, Fabio; Sidoli, Lara E-mail: sidoli@iasf-milano.inaf.it

    2013-01-10

    In this paper, we consider the variability of the luminosity of a compact object (CO) powered by the accretion of an extremely inhomogeneous (clumpy) stream of matter. The accretion of a single clump results in an X-ray flare; we adopt a simple model for the response of the CO to its arrival, and derive a stochastic differential equation (SDE) for the accretion-powered luminosity L(t). We set the SDE in the equivalent form of an equation for the flare luminosity distribution (FLD) and discuss its solution in the stationary case. We apply our formalism to the analysis of the FLDs of supergiant fast X-ray transients (SFXTs), a peculiar sub-class of high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) systems. We compare our theoretical FLDs to the distributions observed in the SFXTs IGR J16479-4514, IGR J17544-2619, and XTE J1739-302. Despite its simplicity, our model agrees well with the observed distributions and allows us to predict some properties of the stellar wind. Finally, we discuss how our model may explain the difference between the broad FLDs of SFXTs and the much narrower FLDs of persistent HMXBs.

  18. Using stochastic models calibrated from nanosecond nonequilibrium simulations to approximate mesoscale information

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Christopher P.; Janosi, Lorant; Kosztin, Ioan

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate how the surrogate process approximation (SPA) method can be used to compute both the potential of mean force along a reaction coordinate and the associated diffusion coefficient using a relatively small number (10–20) of bidirectional nonequilibrium trajectories coming from a complex system. Our method provides confidence bands which take the variability of the initial configuration of the high-dimensional system, continuous nature of the work paths, and thermal fluctuations into account. Maximum-likelihood-type methods are used to estimate a stochastic differential equation (SDE) approximating the dynamics. For each observed time series, we estimate a new SDE resulting in a collection of SPA models. The physical significance of the collection of SPA models is discussed and methods for exploiting information in the population of estimated SPA models are demonstrated and suggested. Molecular dynamics simulations of potassium ion dynamics inside a gramicidin A channel are used to demonstrate the methodology, although SPA-type modeling has also proven useful in analyzing single-molecule experimental time series [J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 118 (2009)]. PMID:19368472

  19. Adsorption characterization of gaseous volatile organic compound on mesoporous silica particles prepared from spent diatomaceous earth.

    PubMed

    Bei, Lei-Lei; Tao, Hong; Ma, Chih-Ming; Shiue, Angus; Chang, Chang-Tang

    2014-04-01

    This study used spent diatomaceous earth (SDE) from drink processing as source of Si and cationic surfactant (CTAB) as a template for the synthesis of mesoporous silica Materials (MSM) through hydrothermal method. The MSM was characterized by Small-angle X-ray Diffraction (SXRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and N2 adsorption-desorption analyzer. The results showed that the surface area, pore volume and pore size was roughly ranged from 880 to 1060 m2 g(-1), 1.05 cm3 g(-1) and 4.0 nm, respectively. The properties of the synthesized MSM were also compared with those prepared from pure silica sources (MCM-41) and got almost the same characteristics. The synthesized MSM was used as adsorbent at 25 degrees C with carrier gas of air. The adsorption equilibrium revealed that adsorption capacity of MSM was 59.6, 65.7, 69.6, 84.9 mg g(-1) while the acetone concentration was 600, 800, 1000 ppm, 1600 ppm respectively. Results showed that breakthrough curves correlate to the challenge vapor concentration, adsorbent loading, and the flow rate. The results obtained in the present work demonstrated that it was feasibility of using the SDE as a potential source of silica to prepare MSM. PMID:24734749

  20. Comparison of Essential Oils Obtained from Different Extraction Techniques as an Aid in Identifying Aroma Significant Compounds of Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans).

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, S Prasad

    2015-08-01

    Distribution of volatile constituents in the essential oil of nutmeg obtained by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), high vacuum distillation (HVD) and super critical fluid extraction (SFE) was compared with reduced pressure distillation (RPD) and head space (HS) analysis. HS and RPD volatiles were characterized by a high content of sabinene, followed by α-pinene and β-pinene. Interestingly, unlike the SDE, HVD and SFE oils, distillates from HS and RPD were marked by the absence of phenolic ethers namely myristicin, elemicin and safrole. The HS and RPD volatiles possessed a pleasant nutmeg aroma indicating a significant role of terpenic constituents in contributing to the top aroma note. GC-olfactometry (GC-O) of the oils aided in establishing the role of sabinene, α-pinene and β-pinene in contributing to the distinctive note of the spice. A high odor activity value (OAV) of sabinene and α-pinene established the role of these two constituents in imparting the characteristic nutmeg odor. PMID:26434138

  1. An integrated GIS application system for soil moisture data assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Di; Shen, Runping; Huang, Xiaolong; Shi, Chunxiang

    2014-11-01

    The gaps in knowledge and existing challenges in precisely describing the land surface process make it critical to represent the massive soil moisture data visually and mine the data for further research.This article introduces a comprehensive soil moisture assimilation data analysis system, which is instructed by tools of C#, IDL, ArcSDE, Visual Studio 2008 and SQL Server 2005. The system provides integrated service, management of efficient graphics visualization and analysis of land surface data assimilation. The system is not only able to improve the efficiency of data assimilation management, but also comprehensively integrate the data processing and analysis tools into GIS development environment. So analyzing the soil moisture assimilation data and accomplishing GIS spatial analysis can be realized in the same system. This system provides basic GIS map functions, massive data process and soil moisture products analysis etc. Besides,it takes full advantage of a spatial data engine called ArcSDE to effeciently manage, retrieve and store all kinds of data. In the system, characteristics of temporal and spatial pattern of soil moiture will be plotted. By analyzing the soil moisture impact factors, it is possible to acquire the correlation coefficients between soil moisture value and its every single impact factor. Daily and monthly comparative analysis of soil moisture products among observations, simulation results and assimilations can be made in this system to display the different trends of these products. Furthermore, soil moisture map production function is realized for business application.

  2. Degradation of phthalate and di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate by indigenous and inoculated microorganisms in sludge-amended soil

    SciTech Connect

    Roslev, P.; Madsen, P.L.; Thyme, J.B.; Henriksen, K.

    1998-12-01

    The metabolism of phthalic acid (PA) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) (DEHP) in sludge-amended agricultural soil was studied with radiotracer techniques. The initial rates of metabolism of PA and DEHP were estimated to be 731.8 and 25.6 pmol/g (dry weight) per day, respectively. Indigenous microorganisms assimilated 28 and 17% of the carbon in [{sup 14}C]PA and [{sup 14}C]DEHP, respectively, into microbial biomass. The rates of DEHP metabolism were much greater in sludge assays without soil than in assays with sludge-amended soil. Mineralization of [{sup 14}C]DEHP to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} increased fourfold after inoculation of sludge and soil samples with DEHP-degrading strain SDE 2. The elevated mineralization potential was maintained for more than 27 days. Experiments performed with strain SDE 2 suggested that the bioavailability and mineralization of DEHP decreased substantially in the presence of soil and sludge components. The microorganisms metabolizing PA and DEHP in sludge and sludge-amended soil were characterized by substrate-specific radiolabelling, followed by analysis of {sup 14}C-labelled phospholipid ester-linked fatty acids ({sup 14}C-PLFAs).

  3. Determination of phthalate esters in teas and tea infusions by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Du, Liping; Ma, Lijuan; Qiao, Yang; Lu, Yan; Xiao, Dongguang

    2016-04-15

    Phthalate esters (PAEs), a group of environmental pollutants which are carcinogenic to human body, have been detected in teas. In this work, five PAEs in teas and tea infusions were quantitatively determined by a modified simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After the optimization of SDE, the proposed method afforded a wide range of linearity and high linear regression coefficients with the limits of detection range of 0.24-3.72 μg/kg. The average recoveries were 79.83-116.67% for tea samples and 78.22-101.64% for tea infusions with all the relative standard deviations below 20%. The total content of five PAEs in teas was 1.135-3.734 mg/kg and the total dissolving ratio of five PAEs from tea to infusion was 19.05-28.07% for the selected tea samples. The risk assessment result of all the selected tea samples demonstrated that the population with the habit of drinking tea won't cause risk to human health. PMID:26675858

  4. Large Deviations in Fast-Slow Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchet, Freddy; Grafke, Tobias; Tangarife, Tomás; Vanden-Eijnden, Eric

    2016-02-01

    The incidence of rare events in fast-slow systems is investigated via analysis of the large deviation principle (LDP) that characterizes the likelihood and pathway of large fluctuations of the slow variables away from their mean behavior—such fluctuations are rare on short time-scales but become ubiquitous eventually. Classical results prove that this LDP involves an Hamilton-Jacobi equation whose Hamiltonian is related to the leading eigenvalue of the generator of the fast process, and is typically non-quadratic in the momenta—in other words, the LDP for the slow variables in fast-slow systems is different in general from that of any stochastic differential equation (SDE) one would write for the slow variables alone. It is shown here that the eigenvalue problem for the Hamiltonian can be reduced to a simpler algebraic equation for this Hamiltonian for a specific class of systems in which the fast variables satisfy a linear equation whose coefficients depend nonlinearly on the slow variables, and the fast variables enter quadratically the equation for the slow variables. These results are illustrated via examples, inspired by kinetic theories of turbulent flows and plasma, in which the quasipotential characterizing the long time behavior of the system is calculated and shown again to be different from that of an SDE.

  5. Discovery and characterization of cadherin domains in Saccharophagus degradans 2-40.

    PubMed

    Fraiberg, Milana; Borovok, Ilya; Weiner, Ronald M; Lamed, Raphael

    2010-02-01

    Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 is a prominent member of newly discovered group of marine and estuarine bacteria that recycle complex polysaccharides. The S. degradans 2-40 genome codes for 15 extraordinary long polypeptides, ranging from 274 to 1,600 kDa. Five of these contain at least 52 cadherin (CA) and cadherin-like (CADG) domains, the types of which were reported to bind calcium ions and mediate protein/protein interactions in metazoan systems. In order to evaluate adhesive features of these domains, recombinant CA doublet domains (two neighboring domains) from CabC (Sde_3323) and recombinant CADG doublet domains from CabD (Sde_0798) were examined qualitatively and quantitatively for homophilic and heterophilic interactions. In addition, CA and CADG doublet domains were tested for adhesion to the surface of S. degradans 2-40. Results showed obvious homophilic and heterophilic, calcium ion-dependent interactions between CA and CADG doublet domains. Likewise, CA and CADG doublet domains adhered to the S. degradans 2-40 surface of cells that were grown on xylan from birch wood or pectin, respectively, as a sole carbon source. This research shows for the first time that bacterial cadherin homophilic and heterophilic interactions may be similar in their nature to cadherin domains from metazoan lineages. We hypothesize that S. degradans 2-40 cadherin and cadherin-like multiple domains contribute to protein-protein interactions that may mediate cell-cell contact in the marine environment. PMID:20023015

  6. A Stochastic Differential Equation Model for the Spread of HIV amongst People Who Inject Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xuerong

    2016-01-01

    We introduce stochasticity into the deterministic differential equation model for the spread of HIV amongst people who inject drugs (PWIDs) studied by Greenhalgh and Hay (1997). This was based on the original model constructed by Kaplan (1989) which analyses the behaviour of HIV/AIDS amongst a population of PWIDs. We derive a stochastic differential equation (SDE) for the fraction of PWIDs who are infected with HIV at time. The stochasticity is introduced using the well-known standard technique of parameter perturbation. We first prove that the resulting SDE for the fraction of infected PWIDs has a unique solution in (0, 1) provided that some infected PWIDs are initially present and next construct the conditions required for extinction and persistence. Furthermore, we show that there exists a stationary distribution for the persistence case. Simulations using realistic parameter values are then constructed to illustrate and support our theoretical results. Our results provide new insight into the spread of HIV amongst PWIDs. The results show that the introduction of stochastic noise into a model for the spread of HIV amongst PWIDs can cause the disease to die out in scenarios where deterministic models predict disease persistence. PMID:27051461

  7. Bayesian Analysis of Ambulatory Blood Pressure Dynamics with Application to Irregularly Spaced Sparse Data

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhao-Hua; Chow, Sy-Miin; Sherwood, Andrew; Zhu, Hongtu

    2015-01-01

    Ambulatory cardiovascular (CV) measurements provide valuable insights into individuals' health conditions in “real-life,” everyday settings. Current methods of modeling ambulatory CV data do not consider the dynamic characteristics of the full data set and their relationships with covariates such as caffeine use and stress. We propose a stochastic differential equation (SDE) in the form of a dual nonlinear Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (OU) model with person-specific covariates to capture the morning surge and nighttime dipping dynamics of ambulatory CV data. To circumvent the data analytic constraint that empirical measurements are typically collected at irregular and much larger time intervals than those evaluated in simulation studies of SDEs, we adopt a Bayesian approach with a regularized Brownian Bridge sampler (RBBS) and an efficient multiresolution (MR) algorithm to fit the proposed SDE. The MR algorithm can produce more efficient MCMC samples that is crucial for valid parameter estimation and inference. Using this model and algorithm to data from the Duke Behavioral Investigation of Hypertension Study, results indicate that age, caffeine intake, gender and race have effects on distinct dynamic characteristics of the participants' CV trajectories. PMID:26941885

  8. Kinematic dynamo, supersymmetry breaking, and chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Igor V.; Enßlin, Torsten A.

    2016-04-01

    The kinematic dynamo (KD) describes the growth of magnetic fields generated by the flow of a conducting medium in the limit of vanishing backaction of the fields onto the flow. The KD is therefore an important model system for understanding astrophysical magnetism. Here, the mathematical correspondence between the KD and a specific stochastic differential equation (SDE) viewed from the perspective of the supersymmetric theory of stochastics (STS) is discussed. The STS is a novel, approximation-free framework to investigate SDEs. The correspondence reported here permits insights from the STS to be applied to the theory of KD and vice versa. It was previously known that the fast KD in the idealistic limit of no magnetic diffusion requires chaotic flows. The KD-STS correspondence shows that this is also true for the diffusive KD. From the STS perspective, the KD possesses a topological supersymmetry, and the dynamo effect can be viewed as its spontaneous breakdown. This supersymmetry breaking can be regarded as the stochastic generalization of the concept of dynamical chaos. As this supersymmetry breaking happens in both the diffusive and the nondiffusive cases, the necessity of the underlying SDE being chaotic is given in either case. The observed exponentially growing and oscillating KD modes prove physically that dynamical spectra of the STS evolution operator that break the topological supersymmetry exist with both real and complex ground state eigenvalues. Finally, we comment on the nonexistence of dynamos for scalar quantities.

  9. Three-Dimensional GIS for the storage, analysis, and visualization of large complex models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marc, W. S.; Keating, G. S.; Riggs, T. L.; Rich, P. M.

    2002-12-01

    Large, complex numerical models are typically composed of many different input data sources and produce results that are in a variety of data formats not easily integrated into a single visualization environment. Results from geologic models, groundwater models, digital elevation models (DEMs), and microclimate models are examples of such model data. Through the use of a three-dimensional geographic information system (3DGIS), all model (both model inputs and outputs), field and experimental data can be effectively integrated on one platform. We employ a 3DGIS comprised of a Raid storage device, an Oracle database, a spatial database engine (SDE), GIS software, and custom GIS tools for three-dimensional (3D) analysis. We create tables within the Oracle database that can be assembled to store model components, including information about nodes, elements, and calculations at a given time step. This allows for efficient query of the model within the 3DGIS visualization environment. Effective database storage with access via SDE, and coupled with spatial analysis tools, provide key capabilities for addressing complex problems. Because our 3DGIS is enterprise capable (connected through a series of high-speed networks and accessible concurrently) many users can access and share the same data. By integrating the latest GIS technologies with 3D numerical modeling techniques, we provide effective means to analyze, store, and visualize model results.

  10. Measurements of Ice Nuclei properties at the Jungfraujoch using the Portable Ice Nucleation Chamber (PINC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Cédric

    2010-05-01

    undisturbed free troposphere, but is also influenced by the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) especially in summer. The probability of Saharan Dust Events (SDE) at the Jungfraujoch is usually high from March to July (Collaud Coen et al., 2004). Two campaigns have been performed during this period in order to investigate the influence of a SDE on the IN number concentration and properties: PINC II took place from February 23rd to March 16th, 2009 and PINC III from June 3rd to 17th, 2009. The operating conditions inside the chamber during both campaigns were -31°C with relative humidities with respect to ice and water of 127% and 91%, respectively. During the first campaign, no SDE were detected and the average number concentration of IN was <10 particles/liter. Two SDE of different intensity occurred during the second campaign on June 15th and 16th where significantly higher IN number concentrations have been observed. We found that the larger the particles are, the more efficient they are as IN especially during SDE. References: Collaud Coen M., Weingartner E., Schaub D., Hueglin C., Corrigan C., Henning S., Schwikowski M., and Baltensperger U. (2004). Saharan dust events at the Jungfraujoch: detection by wavelength dependence of the single scattering albedo and first climatology analysis. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 4, 2465-2480, 2004 Rogers, D. C. (1988), Development of a Continuous Flow Thermal Gradient Diffusion Chamber for Ice Nucleation Studies, Atmos. Res. 22:149-181. Stetzer, O., Baschek, B., Lueoend, F., Lohmann, U. (2008), The Zurich Ice Nucleation Chamber (ZINC)-A New Instrument to Investigate Atmospheric Ice Formation, Aerosol Science and Technology, 42:64-74, 2008

  11. A suite of methods for representing activity space in a healthcare accessibility study

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Jill E; Spencer, John; Preisser, John S; Gesler, Wilbert M; Arcury, Thomas A

    2005-01-01

    Background "Activity space" has been used to examine how people's habitual movements interact with their environment, and can be used to examine accessibility to healthcare opportunities. Traditionally, the standard deviational ellipse (SDE), a Euclidean measure, has been used to represent activity space. We describe the construction and application of the SDE at one and two standard deviations, and three additional network-based measures of activity space using common tools in GIS: the road network buffer (RNB), the 30-minute standard travel time polygon (STT), and the relative travel time polygon (RTT). We compare the theoretical and methodological assumptions of each measure, and evaluate the measures by examining access to primary care services, using data from western North Carolina. Results Individual accessibility is defined as the availability of healthcare opportunities within that individual's activity space. Access is influenced by the shape and area of an individual's activity space, the spatial distribution of opportunities, and by the spatial structures that constrain and direct movement through space; the shape and area of the activity space is partly a product of how it is conceptualized and measured. Network-derived measures improve upon the SDE by incorporating the spatial structures (roads) that channel movement. The area of the STT is primarily influenced by the location of a respondent's residence within the road network hierarchy, with residents living near primary roads having the largest activity spaces. The RNB was most descriptive of actual opportunities and can be used to examine bypassing. The area of the RTT had the strongest correlation with a healthcare destination being located inside the activity space. Conclusion The availability of geospatial technologies and data create multiple options for representing and operationalizing the construct of activity space. Each approach has its strengths and limitations, and presents a different

  12. FY08 MEMBRANE CHARACTERIZATION REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Mark Elvington, M

    2008-09-01

    This report summarizes results from all of the membrane testing completed to date at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for the sulfur dioxide-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). Several types of commercially-available membranes have been analyzed for ionic resistance and sulfur dioxide transport including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated polyether-ketone-ketone (SPEKK), and polybenzimidazole membranes (PBI). Of these membrane types, the poly-benzimidazole membrane, Celtec-L, exhibited the best combination of characteristics for use in an SDE. Several experimental membranes have also been analyzed including hydrated sulfonated Diels-Alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) membranes from Sandia National Laboratory, perfluorosulfonimide (PFSI) and sulfonated perfluorocyclobutyl aromatic ether (S-PFCB) prepared by Clemson University, hydrated platinum-treated PFSA prepared by Giner Electrochemical Systems (GES) and Pt-Nafion{reg_sign} 115 composites prepared at SRNL. The chemical stability, SO{sub 2} transport and ionic conductivity characteristics have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton-conducting membranes. Commercially available PFSA membranes such as the Nafion{reg_sign} series exhibited excellent chemical stability and ionic conductivity in sulfur dioxide saturated sulfuric acid solutions. Sulfur dioxide transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes varied proportionally with the thickness and equivalent weight of the membrane. Although the SO{sub 2} transport in the Nafion{reg_sign} membranes is higher than desired, the excellent chemical stability and conductivity makes this membrane the best commercially-available membrane at this time. Initial results indicated that a modified Nafion{reg_sign} membrane incorporating Pt nanoparticles exhibited significantly reduced SO{sub 2} transport. Reduced SO{sub 2} transport was also measured with commercially available PBI membrane and several experimental membranes produced

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of the Complex Carbohydrate-Degrading Marine Bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, Ronald M; TaylorII, Larry E; Henrissat, Bernard; Hauser, Loren John; Land, Miriam L; Coutinho, Pedro M; Rancurel, Corinne; Saunders, Elizabeth H; Longmire, Atkinson G; Zhang, Haitao; Bayer, Ed; Gilbert, Harry J; Larimer, Frank W; Zhulin, Igor B; Ekborg, Nathan A.; Lamed, Raphael; Richardson, P M; Borovok, Ilya; Hutcheson, Steven

    2008-05-01

    The marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 (Sde 2-40) is emerging as a vanguard of a recently discovered group of marine and estuarine bacteria that recycles complex polysaccharides (CP). We report its complete genome sequence, analysis of which identifies an unusually large number of enzymes that degrade >10 CP. Not only is this an extraordinary range of catabolic capability, but many of the enzymes contain domains and features - some unusual, others unique - that are believed to facilitate depolymerization of CP. This is the first sequenced genome of a marine bacterium that can degrade plant cell walls, an important component of the carbon cycle that is not well characterized in the marine environment.

  14. A novel fitness evaluation method for evolutionary algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ji-feng; Tang, Ke-zong

    2013-03-01

    Fitness evaluation is a crucial task in evolutionary algorithms because it can affect the convergence speed and also the quality of the final solution. But these algorithms may require huge computation power for solving nonlinear programming problems. This paper proposes a novel fitness evaluation approach which employs similarity-base learning embedded in a classical differential evolution (SDE) to evaluate all new individuals. Each individual consists of three elements: parameter vector (v), a fitness value (f), and a reliability value(r). The f is calculated using NFEA, and only when the r is below a threshold is the f calculated using true fitness function. Moreover, applying error compensation system to the proposed algorithm further enhances the performance of the algorithm to make r much closer to true fitness value for each new child. Simulation results over a comprehensive set of benchmark functions show that the convergence rate of the proposed algorithm is much faster than much that of the compared algorithms.

  15. Stochastic differential equation model to Prendiville processes

    SciTech Connect

    Granita; Bahar, Arifah

    2015-10-22

    The Prendiville process is another variation of the logistic model which assumes linearly decreasing population growth rate. It is a continuous time Markov chain (CTMC) taking integer values in the finite interval. The continuous time Markov chain can be approximated by stochastic differential equation (SDE). This paper discusses the stochastic differential equation of Prendiville process. The work started with the forward Kolmogorov equation in continuous time Markov chain of Prendiville process. Then it was formulated in the form of a central-difference approximation. The approximation was then used in Fokker-Planck equation in relation to the stochastic differential equation of the Prendiville process. The explicit solution of the Prendiville process was obtained from the stochastic differential equation. Therefore, the mean and variance function of the Prendiville process could be easily found from the explicit solution.

  16. RAPID MAPPING TOOL: AN ARCMAP EXTENSION

    SciTech Connect

    STEVE P. LINGER; PAUL M. RICH; DOUG WALTHER; MARC S. WITKOWSKI; MARCIA A. JONES; HARI S. KHALSA

    2002-06-18

    Cartographic production laboratories produce large volumes of maps for diverse customers. Turnaround time and consistency are key concerns. The Rapid Mapping Tool is an ArcMap based tool that enables rapid creation of maps to meet customer needs. This tool was constructed using VB/VBA, ArcObjects, and ArcGIS templates. The core capability of ArcMap is extended for custom map production by storing specifications associated with a map or template in a companion XML document. These specifications include settings and preferences used to create custom maps. The tool was developed as a component of an enterprise GIS, which enables spatial data management and delivery using ArcSDE, ArcIMS, Oracle, and a web-based request tracking system.

  17. Rapid mapping tool : an ArcMap extension /

    SciTech Connect

    Linger, S. P.; Rich, P. M.; Walther, D.; Witkowski, M. S.; Jones, M. A.; Khalsa, H. S.

    2002-01-01

    Cartographic production laboratories produce large volumes of maps for diverse customers. Turnaround time and consistency are key concerns. The Rapid Mapping Tool is an ArcMap based tool that enables rapid creation of maps to meet customer needs. This tool was constructed using VB/VBA, ArcObjects, and ArcGIS templates. The core capability of ArcMap is extended for custom map production by storing specifications associated with a map or template in a companion XML document. These specifications include settings and preferences used to create custom maps. The tool was developed as a component of an enterprise GIS, which enables spatial data management and delivery using ArcSDE, ArcIMS, Oracle, and a web-based request tracking system.

  18. Complete Genome Sequence of the Complex Carbohydrate-Degrading Marine Bacterium, Saccharophagus degradans Strain 2-40T

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Ronald M.; Taylor, Larry E.; Henrissat, Bernard; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Rancurel, Corinne; Saunders, Elizabeth H.; Longmire, Atkinson G.; Zhang, Haitao; Bayer, Edward A.; Gilbert, Harry J.; Larimer, Frank; Zhulin, Igor B.; Ekborg, Nathan A.; Lamed, Raphael; Richardson, Paul M.; Borovok, Ilya; Hutcheson, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans strain 2-40 (Sde 2-40) is emerging as a vanguard of a recently discovered group of marine and estuarine bacteria that recycles complex polysaccharides. We report its complete genome sequence, analysis of which identifies an unusually large number of enzymes that degrade >10 complex polysaccharides. Not only is this an extraordinary range of catabolic capability, many of the enzymes exhibit unusual architecture including novel combinations of catalytic and substrate-binding modules. We hypothesize that many of these features are adaptations that facilitate depolymerization of complex polysaccharides in the marine environment. This is the first sequenced genome of a marine bacterium that can degrade plant cell walls, an important component of the carbon cycle that is not well-characterized in the marine environment. PMID:18516288

  19. Determination of antioxidant properties of aroma extracts from various beans.

    PubMed

    Lee, K G; Mitchell, A E; Shibamoto, T

    2000-10-01

    Aroma extracts from fresh soybeans, mung beans, kidney beans, and azuki beans were prepared using simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE) under mild conditions (55 degrees C and 95 mmHg). Extracts were examined for antioxidative activities in two different assays. The aroma extracts isolated from all beans inhibited the oxidation of hexanal for nearly one month at a level of 250 microL/mL. Mung bean and soybean extracts inhibited malonaldehyde (MA) formation from cod-liver oil by 86% and 88%, respectively, at the 250 microL/mL level. Azuki and kidney bean extracts inhibited MA formation from cod-liver oil by 76% and 53%, respectively, at the 250 microL/mL level. The antioxidative activities of mung bean and soybean extracts were comparable with that of the natural antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). PMID:11052738

  20. SURFACE PREPARATION OF STEEL SUBSTRATES USING GRIT-BLASTING

    SciTech Connect

    Donna Post Guillen; D. J. Varacalle, Jr.; D. Deason; W. Rhodaberger; E. Sampson

    2005-05-01

    The primary purpose of grit blasting for thermal spray applications is to ensure a strong mechanical bond between the substrate and the coating by the enhanced roughening of the substrate material. This study presents statistically designed experiments that were accomplished to investigate the effect of abrasives on roughness for A36/1020 steel. The experiments were conducted using a Box statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. Three grit blasting parameters and their effect on the resultant substrate roughness were investigated. These include blast media, blast pressure, and working distance. The substrates were characterized for roughness using surface profilometry. These attributes were correlated with the changes in operating parameters. Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) coatings of aluminum and zinc/aluminum were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates. These coatings were then tested for bond strength. Bond strength studies were conducted utilizing a portable adhesion tester following ASTM standard D4541.

  1. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the content of several aldehydes, alcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. PMID:27542492

  2. Geoscience information integration and visualization research of Shandong Province, China based on ArcGIS engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingzhu; Gao, Zhiqiang; Ning, Jicai

    2014-10-01

    To improve the access efficiency of geoscience data, efficient data model and storage solutions should be used. Geoscience data is usually classified by format or coordinate system in existing storage solutions. When data is large, it is not conducive to search the geographic features. In this study, a geographical information integration system of Shandong province, China was developed based on the technology of ArcGIS Engine, .NET, and SQL Server. It uses Geodatabase spatial data model and ArcSDE to organize and store spatial and attribute data and establishes geoscience database of Shangdong. Seven function modules were designed: map browse, database and subject management, layer control, map query, spatial analysis and map symbolization. The system's characteristics of can be browsed and managed by geoscience subjects make the system convenient for geographic researchers and decision-making departments to use the data.

  3. Simulation and assimilation of satellite altimeter data at the oceanic mesoscale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demay, P.; Robinson, A. R.

    1984-01-01

    An improved "objective analysis' technique is used along with an altimeter signal statistical model, an altimeter noise statistical model, an orbital model, and synoptic surface current maps in the POLYMODE-SDE area, to evaluate the performance of various observational strategies in catching the mesoscale variability at mid-latitudes. In particular, simulated repetitive nominal orbits of ERS-1, TOPEX, and SPOT/POSEIDON are examined. Results show the critical importance of existence of a subcycle, scanning in either direction. Moreover, long repeat cycles ( 20 days) and short cross-track distances ( 300 km) seem preferable, since they match mesoscale statistics. Another goal of the study is to prepare and discuss sea-surface height (SSH) assimilation in quasigeostrophic models. Restored SSH maps are shown to meet that purpose, if an efficient extrapolation method or deep in-situ data (floats) are used on the vertical to start and update the model.

  4. Effect of supercritical carbon dioxide decaffeination on volatile components of green teas.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Park, M K; Kim, K H; Kim, Y-S

    2007-09-01

    Volatile components in regular and decaffeinated green teas were isolated by simultaneous steam distillation and solvent extraction (SDE), and then analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 41 compounds, including 8 alcohols, 15 terpene-type compounds, 10 carbonyls, 4 N-containing compounds, and 4 miscellaneous compounds, were found in regular and decaffeinated green teas. Among them, linalool and phenylacetaldehyde were quantitatively dominant in both regular and decaffeinated green teas. By a decaffeination process using supercritical carbon dioxide, most volatile components decreased. The more caffeine was removed, the more volatile components were reduced in green teas. In particular, relatively nonpolar components such as terpene-type compounds gradually decreased according to the decaffeination process. Aroma-active compounds in regular and decaffeinated green teas were also determined and compared by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Most greenish and floral flavor compounds such as hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, and some unknown compounds disappeared or decreased after the decaffeination process. PMID:17995663

  5. A neural network learned information measures for heart motion abnormality detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nambakhsh, M. S.; Punithakumar, Kumaradevan; Ben Ayed, Ismail; Goela, Aashish; Islam, Ali; Peters, Terry; Li, Shuo

    2011-03-01

    In this study, we propose an information theoretic neural network for normal/abnormal left ventricular motion classification which outperforms significantly other recent methods in the literature. The proposed framework consists of a supervised 3-layer artificial neural network (ANN) which uses hyperbolic tangent sigmoid and linear transfer functions for hidden and output layers, respectively. The ANN is fed by information theoretic measures of left ventricular wall motion such as Shannon's differential entropy (SDE), Rényi entropy and Fisher information, which measure global information of subjects distribution. Using 395×20 segmented LV cavities of short-axis magnetic resonance images (MRI) acquired from 48 subjects, the experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms Support Vector Machine (SVM) and thresholding based information theoretic classifiers. It yields a specificity equal to 90%, a sensitivity of 91%, and a remarkable Area Under Curve (AUC) for Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC), equal to 93.2%.

  6. Smart facility application: exploiting space technology for smart city solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termizi, A. A. A.; Ahmad, N.; Omar, M. F.; Wahap, N. A.; Zainal, D.; Ismail, N. M.

    2016-06-01

    Facilities and amenities management is amongst the core functionalities of local government. Considering the vast area that local government has to manage, a smart solution is extremely inevitable to solve issues such as inefficient maintenance of public parks, drainage system and so forth. Therefore, this paper aims to offer a smart city solution which exploits the benefit of space technology. This proposed solution is one of the modules developed in Spatial Smart City Service Delivery Engine (SSC SDE) Project undertaken by Agensi Angkasa Negara (ANGKASA). Various levels of local government have been chosen to understand real issues faced by them. Based on this data, a Smart Facility application has been developed with the aim to enhance the service delivery by the local government hence improving citizens’ satisfaction. Since this project is still in progress, this paper will merely discussing the concept of this application.

  7. Quantum Harmonic Oscillator Subjected to Quantum Vacuum Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorkyan, A. S.; Burdik, C.; Oganesyan, K. B.

    2010-05-01

    Spontaneous transitions between bound states of an atomic system, "Lamb Shift" of energy level, as well as many other phenomena in real nonrelativistic quantum systems are connected with the influence of quantum vacuum fluctuations which are impossible to consider in the limits of standard quantum-mechanical approaches. The joint system "quantum harmonic oscillator (QHO) + environment" is described in terms of complex probabilistic processes (CPP) which satisfies a stochastic differential equation (SDE) of Langevin-Schrödinger (L-Sch) type. On the basis of orthogonal CPP, the method of stochastic density matrix (SDM) is developed. The energy spectrum of QHO and a possibility of infringement of detailed balance of transitions between quantum levels including spontaneous decay of ≪ground state≫ are investigated by the SDM method.

  8. HYBRID SULFUR ELECROLYZER DEVELOPMENT, NHI WORK PACKAGE N-SR07TC0301, FY08 FIRST QUARTER REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, W

    2007-12-20

    Hydrogen has been identified as a leading candidate to replace petroleum as part of the transition to a sustainable energy system, and major efforts are being conducted worldwide to develop the technologies and supporting activities required for this transition. In the United States, the federal research efforts are led by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The U.S. DOE Hydrogen Program is an integrated inter-office program being conducted by the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE), Office of Fossil Energy and Office of Science. The primary objective of the DOE-NE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI) is to develop the nuclear hydrogen production technologies necessary to produce hydrogen at a cost competitive with other alternative transportation fuels. The focus of the NHI is on thermochemical cycles and high temperature electrolysis. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been tasked with the primary responsibility to perform research and development in order to characterize, evaluate and develop the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) thermochemical process. The HyS Process uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to split water and produce hydrogen. During FY05 and FY06, SRNL designed and conducted proof-of-concept testing for a SDE using a low temperature, PEM fuel cell-type design concept. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint, characteristics that are crucial for successful implementation on a commercial scale. During FY07, SRNL extended the range of testing of the SDE to higher temperature and pressure, conducted a 100-hour longevity test, and designed and built a larger, multi-cell stack electrolyzer. The proof of concept of SO2 electrolysis for the HyS Process is a priority research target for the FY 2008 NHI Program. Technical options must be better defined and the challenges better understood. The current status of electrolyzer performance

  9. Development of a forestry government agency enterprise GIS system: a disconnected editing approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jin; Barber, Brad L.

    2008-10-01

    The Texas Forest Service (TFS) has developed a geographic information system (GIS) for use by agency personnel in central Texas for managing oak wilt suppression and other landowner assistance programs. This Enterprise GIS system was designed to support multiple concurrent users accessing shared information resources. The disconnected editing approach was adopted in this system to avoid the overhead of maintaining an active connection between TFS central Texas field offices and headquarters since most field offices are operating with commercially provided Internet service. The GIS system entails maintaining a personal geodatabase on each local field office computer. Spatial data from the field is periodically up-loaded into a central master geodatabase stored in a Microsoft SQL Server at the TFS headquarters in College Station through the ESRI Spatial Database Engine (SDE). This GIS allows users to work off-line when editing data and requires connecting to the central geodatabase only when needed.

  10. Perturbations of linear delay differential equations at the verge of instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingala, N.; Namachchivaya, N. Sri

    2016-06-01

    The characteristic equation for a linear delay differential equation (DDE) has countably infinite roots on the complex plane. This paper considers linear DDEs that are on the verge of instability, i.e., a pair of roots of the characteristic equation lies on the imaginary axis of the complex plane and all other roots have negative real parts. It is shown that when small noise perturbations are present, the probability distribution of the dynamics can be approximated by the probability distribution of a certain one-dimensional stochastic differential equation (SDE) without delay. This is advantageous because equations without delay are easier to simulate and one-dimensional SDEs are analytically tractable. When the perturbations are also linear, it is shown that the stability depends on a specific complex number. The theory is applied to study oscillators with delayed feedback. Some errors in other articles that use multiscale approach are pointed out.

  11. EVALUATION OF PROTON-CONDUCTING MEMBRANES FOR USE IN A SULFUR-DIOXIDE DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Colon-Mercado, H.

    2009-11-11

    The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDE's function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 C in 60 wt. % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 24 hours. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO{sub 2} transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO{sub 2} was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO{sub 2} transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO{sub 2} flux and SO{sub 2} transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO{sub 2} transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density versus a constant cell voltage (1V, 80 C in SO{sub 2} saturated 30 wt% H2SO{sub 4}). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO{sub 2} flux, SO{sub 2} transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

  12. H(2) production through electro-oxidation of SO(2): identifying the fundamental limitations.

    PubMed

    Kriek, Roelof J; Rossmeisl, Jan; Siahrostami, Samira; Björketun, Mårten E

    2014-05-28

    Sulphur dioxide (SO2), a known industrial pollutant and pulmonary irritant, is emitted to the atmosphere in excess of 120 Mt per annum. Great strides have been taken to reduce SO2 emissions, but with the growth of specifically China, and to a lesser extent India, it is on the rise again. The electrolysis of aqueous solutions of dissolved SO2 holds huge environmental potential in that SO2 is converted to sulphuric acid (H2SO4) and at the same time hydrogen gas is produced. A further benefit or incentive is that a sulphur depolarised electrolyser (SDE) operates at an applied potential that is about one volt lower than that of a regular water electrolyser. In taking this technology forward the greatest improvement to be made is in developing a suitable electrocatalyst, which is also the 'lowest hanging fruit' in that very limited research and development has been conducted on the electrocatalyst for this process. In this work, density functional theory is employed to model the electro-oxidation of SO2 on single crystal planes of the 4d and 5d transition metals. Two reaction mechanisms are considered, a HSO3 intermediate pathway and a SO3 intermediate pathway. The binding energies of all intermediates are found to scale with the surface reactivity (measured as the adsorption of OH). Irrespective of the pathway water needs to be activated and reduction of SO2 to elemental sulphur must be avoided. This requirement alone calls for an electrode potential of at least 0.7-0.8 V for all the investigated transition metals and thus challenges the proclaimed goal to operate the SDE at 0.6 V. A high chemical barrier is further found to severely limit the oxidation reaction on reactive metals. A much higher catalytic activity can be obtained on precious metals but at the cost of running the reaction at high overpotentials. PMID:24728561

  13. The Calpain Inhibitor A-705253 Attenuates Alcohol-Seeking and Relapse with Low Side-Effect Profile.

    PubMed

    Vengeliene, Valentina; Moeller, Achim; Meinhardt, Marcus W; Beardsley, Patrick M; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Spanagel, Rainer; Bespalov, Anton

    2016-03-01

    Preclinical studies revealed contribution of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) to a variety of neuropsychiatric diseases including alcoholism, but development of NMDAR antagonists for therapeutic use has been a challenge, in part due to severe side effects. One of the key intracellular events resulting from stimulation of NMDAR is activation of calpains-calcium-dependent cysteine proteases. Here we studied whether inhibition of calpains would produce therapeutic-like effects of NMDAR antagonists but without their NMDAR-mediated side-effect profile. The calpain inhibitor A-705253 (3-10 mg/kg) was tested in a model of cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior in post-dependent Wistar rats and in an alcohol deprivation effect (ADE) model in long-term alcohol drinking Wistar rats, two behavioral models for alcohol-seeking and relapse, respectively. We also tested the effect of A-705253 on the saccharine deprivation effect (SDE) as a selectivity measure. Acute treatment with A-705253 dose-dependently reduced cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior. Repeated administration of A-705253 caused significant reductions of relapse-like excessive alcohol intake during the post-abstinence drinking days, an effect that persisted during two more successive drug-free drinking weeks, which was selective for the ADE as the SDE was unaffected. However, A-705253 did not produce psychostimulant, cognition impairing (delayed-matching-to-position), or psychotomimetic effects (specifically, phencyclidine discriminative stimulus effects). Taken together, these results demonstrate the involvement of calpains in alcohol-seeking and relapse and present a rationale for a novel pharmacological intervention that may reduce craving and relapse with minimal side effects in alcohol-dependent patients. PMID:26216521

  14. Neural network based pattern matching and spike detection tools and services--in the CARMEN neuroinformatics project.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Martyn; Liang, Bojian; Smith, Leslie; Knowles, Alastair; Jackson, Tom; Jessop, Mark; Austin, Jim

    2008-10-01

    In the study of information flow in the nervous system, component processes can be investigated using a range of electrophysiological and imaging techniques. Although data is difficult and expensive to produce, it is rarely shared and collaboratively exploited. The Code Analysis, Repository and Modelling for e-Neuroscience (CARMEN) project addresses this challenge through the provision of a virtual neuroscience laboratory: an infrastructure for sharing data, tools and services. Central to the CARMEN concept are federated CARMEN nodes, which provide: data and metadata storage, new, thirdparty and legacy services, and tools. In this paper, we describe the CARMEN project as well as the node infrastructure and an associated thick client tool for pattern visualisation and searching, the Signal Data Explorer (SDE). We also discuss new spike detection methods, which are central to the services provided by CARMEN. The SDE is a client application which can be used to explore data in the CARMEN repository, providing data visualization, signal processing and a pattern matching capability. It performs extremely fast pattern matching and can be used to search for complex conditions composed of many different patterns across the large datasets that are typical in neuroinformatics. Searches can also be constrained by specifying text based metadata filters. Spike detection services which use wavelet and morphology techniques are discussed, and have been shown to outperform traditional thresholding and template based systems. A number of different spike detection and sorting techniques will be deployed as services within the CARMEN infrastructure, to allow users to benchmark their performance against a wide range of reference datasets. PMID:18674883

  15. Comparative Effectiveness of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Psychosocial Care in the Treatment of TMD-associated Chronic Facial Pain

    PubMed Central

    Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Hammerschlag, Richard; Dworkin, Samuel F; Aickin, Mikel G; Mist, Scott D; Elder, Charles; Harris, Richard E

    2012-01-01

    Summary This dual-site study sought to identify the appropriate role for TCM (acupuncture and herbs) in conjunction with a validated psychosocial self-care intervention (SC) for treating chronic TMD-associated pain. Participants with RDC-TMD-confirmed TMD (n=168) entered a stepped-care protocol that began with a basic TMD class. At weeks 2 and 10, patients receiving SC whose worst facial pain was above predetermined levels were reallocated by minimization to SC or TCM with experienced practitioners. Characteristic facial pain (CFP: mean of worst pain, average pain when having pain, current pain; each VAS 0-10) was the primary outcome. Social activity interference (VAS 0-10) was a secondary outcome. Patients were monitored for safety. TCM provided significantly greater short-term (8-week) relief than SC (CFP reduction difference, −0.60 [SDE 0.26], p=0.020), and greater reduction in interference with social activities (−0.81 [SDE 0.33], p=0.016). In two of five treatment trajectory groups, more than 2/3 of participants demonstrated clinically meaningful responses (> 30% improvement) in pain interference over 16 weeks. This study provides evidence that TMD patients referred for TCM in a community-based model will receive safe treatment that is likely to provide some short-term pain relief and improved quality of life. Similar designs may also apply to evaluations of other kinds of chronic pain. (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00856167) PERSPECTIVE This short-term comparative effectiveness study of chronic facial pain suggests that Traditional Chinese Medicine is safe and frequently efficacious alone or subsequent to standard psychosocial interventions. TCM is widely available throughout North America and may provide clinicians and patients with a reasonable addition or alternative to other forms of therapy. PMID:23059454

  16. Process optimizations to recessed e-SiGe source/drain for performance enhancement in 22 nm all-last high-k/metal-gate pMOSFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Changliang; Wang, Guilei; Hong, Peizhen; Liu, Jinbiao; Yin, Huaxiang; Yin, Haizhou; Ma, Xiaolong; Cui, Hushan; Lu, Yihong; Meng, Lingkuan; Xiang, Jinjuan; Zhong, Huicai; Zhu, Huilong; Xu, Qiuxia; Li, Junfeng; Yan, Jian; Zhao, Chao; Radamson, Henry H.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the technology of recessed embedded SiGe (e-SiGe) source/drain (S/D) module is optimized for the performance enhancement in 22 nm all-last high-k/metal-gate (HK/MG) pMOSFETs. Different Si recess-etch techniques were applied in S/D regions to increase the strain in the channel and subsequently, improve the performance of transistors. A new recess-etch method consists of a two-step etch method is proposed. This process is an initial anisotropic etch for the formation of shallow trench followed by a final isotropic etch. By introducing the definition of the upper edge distance (D) between the recessed S/D region and the channel region, the process advantage of the new approach is clearly presented. It decreases the value of D than those by conventional one-step isotropic or anisotropic etch of Si. Therefore, the series resistance is reduced and the channel strain is increased, which confirmed by the simulation results. The physical reason of D reducing is analyzed in brief. Applying this recess design, the implant conditions for S/D extension (SDE) are also optimized by using a two-step implantation of BF2 in SiGe layers. The overlap space between doping junction and channel region has great effect on the device's performance. The designed implantation profile decreases the overlap space while keeps a shallow junction depth for a controllable short channel effect. The channel resistance as well as the transfer ID-VG curves varying with different process conditions are demonstrated. It shows the drive current of the device with the optimized SDE implant condition and Si recess-etch process is obviously improved. The change trend of on-off current distributions extracted from a series of devices confirmed the conclusions. This study provides a useful guideline for developing high performance strained PMOS SiGe technology.

  17. Construction of the landscape for multi-stable systems: Potential landscape, quasi-potential, A-type integral and beyond.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Peijie; Li, Tiejun

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the famous Waddington's epigenetic landscape metaphor in developmental biology, biophysicists and applied mathematicians made different proposals to construct the landscape for multi-stable complex systems. We aim to summarize and elucidate the relationships among these theories from a mathematical point of view. We systematically investigate and compare three different but closely related realizations in the recent literature: the Wang's potential landscape theory from steady state distribution of stochastic differential equations (SDEs), the Freidlin-Wentzell quasi-potential from the large deviation theory, and the construction through SDE decomposition and A-type integral. We revisit that the quasi-potential is the zero noise limit of the potential landscape, and the potential function in the third proposal coincides with the quasi-potential. We compare the difference between local and global quasi-potential through the viewpoint of exchange of limit order for time and noise amplitude. We argue that local quasi-potentials are responsible for getting transition rates between neighboring stable states, while the global quasi-potential mainly characterizes the residence time of the states as the system reaches stationarity. The difference between these two is prominent when the transitivity property is broken. The most probable transition path by minimizing the Onsager-Machlup or Freidlin-Wentzell action functional is also discussed. As a consequence of the established connections among different proposals, we arrive at the novel result which guarantees the existence of SDE decomposition while denies its uniqueness in general cases. It is, therefore, clarified that the A-type integral is more appropriate to be applied to the decomposed SDEs rather than its primitive form as believed by previous researchers. Our results contribute to a deeper understanding of landscape theories for biological systems. PMID:26957159

  18. A numerical investigation of cosmic ray modulation near the heliopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xi; Zhang, Ming; Toit Strauss, Du; Pogorelov, Nikolai; Feng, Xueshang; Potgieter, Marius

    2016-07-01

    A hybrid transport model is used for studying the modulation of galactic cosmic ray in the global heliosphere. This model incorporates the output data of a comprehensive MagnetoHydroDynamics (MHD) model as numerical input for the Parker's transport equation which is solved using a Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE) approach. We use this approach to study the transport of galactic cosmic rays near and beyond the heliopause (HP). We find that: The simulated radial flux near the HP increases when increasing the ratio of the parallel to the perpendicular diffusion coefficients in the interstellar magnetic field of the outer heliosheath. As the multiplying factor of this ratio reaches 10 ^{10}, the radial flux experiences a sudden upwards jump near the HP, similar to what Voyager 1 had observed in 2012. We simulate the cosmic ray radial flux along different directions in the heliosphere. There is not a well-defined thin layer between the solar wind region and interstellar region along the tail and polar directions of the heliosphere. By analysing the radial flux profile along the direction of Voyager 2, together with its trajectory information, the time when the HP may be crossed by Voyager 2 is predicted. We also simulate the cosmic ray radial flux for different energy values along the direction of Voyager 1. We find that there is indeed a modulation region beyond the HP but only of a modest width of about 10 AU, so that Voyager 1 observing the very local interstellar spectra is justified in numerical modelling. We find that after increasing the ratio of the mentioned diffusion coefficients beyond the HP, more pseudo-particles in our SDE approach, which have been traced from the upwind nose region, exit in the downwind tail region. It is thus possible that they diffuse directly from the tail region to the nose region.

  19. Systematic analysis of the regulatory functions of microRNAs in chicken hepatic lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Ma, Zheng; Jia, Lijuan; Li, Yanmin; Xu, Chunlin; Wang, Taian; Han, Ruili; Jiang, Ruirui; Li, Zhuanjian; Sun, Guirong; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Laying performance is an important economic trait in hens, and this physiological process is largely influenced by the liver function. The livers of hens at 20- and 30-week-old stages were investigated using the next generation sequencing to identify the differences of microRNA expression profiles. Compared with the 20-week-old hens, 67 down- and 13 up-regulated microRNAs were verified to be significant differentially expressed (false discovery rate, FDR ≤ 0.05) (SDE) in the 30-week-old. We also identified 13 down- and 6 up-regulated novel differentially expressed (DE) microRNAs. miR-22-3p and miR-146b-5p, which exhibit critical roles in mammalian lipid metabolism, showed the most abundant expression and the highest fold-change, respectively. A total of 648 potential target genes of the SDE microRNAs were identified through an integrated analysis of microRNAs and the DE genes obtained in previous RNA-sequencing, including FADS1, FADS2, ELOVL6 and ACSL5, which are critical lipid metabolism-related regulators. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that target genes were mainly enriched in lipid-related metabolism processes. This work provides the first study of the expression patterns of hepatic microRNAs between 20- and 30-week old hens. The findings may serve as a fundamental resource for understanding the detailed functions of microRNAs in the molecular regulatory systems of lipid metabolism. PMID:27535581

  20. Simple, Fast and Accurate Implementation of the Diffusion Approximation Algorithm for Stochastic Ion Channels with Multiple States

    PubMed Central

    Orio, Patricio; Soudry, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Background The phenomena that emerge from the interaction of the stochastic opening and closing of ion channels (channel noise) with the non-linear neural dynamics are essential to our understanding of the operation of the nervous system. The effects that channel noise can have on neural dynamics are generally studied using numerical simulations of stochastic models. Algorithms based on discrete Markov Chains (MC) seem to be the most reliable and trustworthy, but even optimized algorithms come with a non-negligible computational cost. Diffusion Approximation (DA) methods use Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE) to approximate the behavior of a number of MCs, considerably speeding up simulation times. However, model comparisons have suggested that DA methods did not lead to the same results as in MC modeling in terms of channel noise statistics and effects on excitability. Recently, it was shown that the difference arose because MCs were modeled with coupled gating particles, while the DA was modeled using uncoupled gating particles. Implementations of DA with coupled particles, in the context of a specific kinetic scheme, yielded similar results to MC. However, it remained unclear how to generalize these implementations to different kinetic schemes, or whether they were faster than MC algorithms. Additionally, a steady state approximation was used for the stochastic terms, which, as we show here, can introduce significant inaccuracies. Main Contributions We derived the SDE explicitly for any given ion channel kinetic scheme. The resulting generic equations were surprisingly simple and interpretable – allowing an easy, transparent and efficient DA implementation, avoiding unnecessary approximations. The algorithm was tested in a voltage clamp simulation and in two different current clamp simulations, yielding the same results as MC modeling. Also, the simulation efficiency of this DA method demonstrated considerable superiority over MC methods, except when

  1. Assessment of dose reconstruction errors in image-guided radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Hualiang; Weiss, Elisabeth; Siebers, Jeffrey V

    2010-01-01

    Dose reconstruction can be used to improve the accuracy of dose evaluation throughout a treatment course. Its working mechanism is based on deformable image registration (DIR). The purpose of this paper is to develop a method to estimate the dose reconstruction error associated with the inaccuracy of DIR algorithms. To reach this goal, we quantified dominant errors in DIR in terms of unbalanced energy (UE), which were compared with the standard displacement error (SDE). Their high similarity, characterized by Pearson correlation coefficient, was verified through nine ‘demons’ registration instances performed within simulated reference frames. Based on the similarity, the dose-warping discrepancy at each voxel was defined as a line integral of the dose gradient within the voxel's neighborhood whose boundary was determined by the voxel's UE value. From this definition, the dose reconstruction error was then calculated at each voxel on nine prostate computed tomography images, obtained from a patient treatment course. The average of the Pearson correlation coefficients between UE and SDE over the simulated registration instances was above 70%. The mean value of the dose reconstruction errors in a target volume was calculated for each of nine treatment fractions. The averaged percentage of these mean values with respect to the prescribed dose on the target volume was 1.68%. These results are consistent with contour-based mean dose error evaluations. This paper has established a relation between a registration error and its induced dose reconstruction discrepancy. It allows an automatic validation method to be developed to estimate the dose accumulation error at each voxel in clinical settings. PMID:18199911

  2. Systematic analysis of the regulatory functions of microRNAs in chicken hepatic lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Ma, Zheng; Jia, Lijuan; Li, Yanmin; Xu, Chunlin; Wang, Taian; Han, Ruili; Jiang, Ruirui; Li, Zhuanjian; Sun, Guirong; Kang, Xiangtao; Liu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Laying performance is an important economic trait in hens, and this physiological process is largely influenced by the liver function. The livers of hens at 20- and 30-week-old stages were investigated using the next generation sequencing to identify the differences of microRNA expression profiles. Compared with the 20-week-old hens, 67 down- and 13 up-regulated microRNAs were verified to be significant differentially expressed (false discovery rate, FDR ≤ 0.05) (SDE) in the 30-week-old. We also identified 13 down- and 6 up-regulated novel differentially expressed (DE) microRNAs. miR-22-3p and miR-146b-5p, which exhibit critical roles in mammalian lipid metabolism, showed the most abundant expression and the highest fold-change, respectively. A total of 648 potential target genes of the SDE microRNAs were identified through an integrated analysis of microRNAs and the DE genes obtained in previous RNA-sequencing, including FADS1, FADS2, ELOVL6 and ACSL5, which are critical lipid metabolism-related regulators. Bioinformatic analyses revealed that target genes were mainly enriched in lipid-related metabolism processes. This work provides the first study of the expression patterns of hepatic microRNAs between 20- and 30-week old hens. The findings may serve as a fundamental resource for understanding the detailed functions of microRNAs in the molecular regulatory systems of lipid metabolism. PMID:27535581

  3. Construction of the landscape for multi-stable systems: Potential landscape, quasi-potential, A-type integral and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Peijie; Li, Tiejun

    2016-03-01

    Motivated by the famous Waddington's epigenetic landscape metaphor in developmental biology, biophysicists and applied mathematicians made different proposals to construct the landscape for multi-stable complex systems. We aim to summarize and elucidate the relationships among these theories from a mathematical point of view. We systematically investigate and compare three different but closely related realizations in the recent literature: the Wang's potential landscape theory from steady state distribution of stochastic differential equations (SDEs), the Freidlin-Wentzell quasi-potential from the large deviation theory, and the construction through SDE decomposition and A-type integral. We revisit that the quasi-potential is the zero noise limit of the potential landscape, and the potential function in the third proposal coincides with the quasi-potential. We compare the difference between local and global quasi-potential through the viewpoint of exchange of limit order for time and noise amplitude. We argue that local quasi-potentials are responsible for getting transition rates between neighboring stable states, while the global quasi-potential mainly characterizes the residence time of the states as the system reaches stationarity. The difference between these two is prominent when the transitivity property is broken. The most probable transition path by minimizing the Onsager-Machlup or Freidlin-Wentzell action functional is also discussed. As a consequence of the established connections among different proposals, we arrive at the novel result which guarantees the existence of SDE decomposition while denies its uniqueness in general cases. It is, therefore, clarified that the A-type integral is more appropriate to be applied to the decomposed SDEs rather than its primitive form as believed by previous researchers. Our results contribute to a deeper understanding of landscape theories for biological systems.

  4. Characterization Testing of H20-SO2 Electrolyzer at Ambient Pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J

    2005-07-29

    This document reports work performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that resulted in a major accomplishment by demonstrating the proof-of-concept of the use of a proton exchange membrane or PEM-type electrochemical cell to produce hydrogen via SO{sub 2}-depolarized water electrolysis. For the first time sulfur dioxide dissolved in liquid sulfuric acid was used to depolarize water electrolysis in a modern PEM cell. The use of such a cell represents a major step in achieving the ultimate goal of an economical hydrogen production process based on the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Cycle. The HyS Process is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by water-splitting. Like all other sulfur-based cycles, HyS utilizes the high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid, that is sent to the acid decomposition portion of the cycle. The focus of this work was to conduct single cell electrolyzer tests in order to prove the concept of SO{sub 2}-depolarization and to determine how the results can be used to evaluate the performance of key components of the HyS Process. A test facility for conducting SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) testing was designed, constructed and commissioned. The maximum cell current is 50 amperes, which is equivalent to a hydrogen production rate of approximately 20 liters per hour. The test facility was designed for operation at room temperature with pressures up to 2 bar. Feed to the anode of the electrolyzer can be water, sulfuric acid of various concentrations, or sulfuric acid containing dissolved sulfur dioxide. Provisions

  5. A clerking tool for the patient record system.

    PubMed

    McDermott, D; Heathfield, H; Kirby, J

    1995-01-01

    1. BACKGROUND. The goal of the PEN&PAD (Elderly Care) project is to develop a patient record system to assist the many different professionals that care for patients in a hospital setting. At the core of the project is the use of structured data which can be reused in a variety of ways--both within the system for further manipulation and display, and externally for auditing and statistical purposes. To accommodate these needs, a compositional method of data entry called Structured Data Entry (SDE) was used in this application. SDE was developed in an earlier project PEN&PAD (GP)(1). Our application utilizes a network representation of the medical semantics that can be queried to obtain what is sensible to "say" about a particular concept. This functionality is contained within a separate application known as the Terminology Server (TeS), which has been developed within the GALEN project (2). The client application (the patient record system) requests information from the TeS which can then be used to produce compositional data entry forms that require the user to choose values for given attributes (e.g., if information pertaining to chest pain were being recorded, the attribute 'location' and a choice of possible values i.e., 'left' 'right' and 'bilateral' might appear on the form). Given the importance of capturing clinical information in a highly structured format, SDE is a valuable tool. However, its long term success depends on a very comprehensive model of the medical terminology corpus. This component is currently being studied by the GALEN team. 2. CURRENT WORK. We are developing a clerking tool to be used to create records for the newly admitted patient. The clinician seeks to identify a patient's problems based on physical examination and information obtained through conversation with the patient. Patients are usually admitted with a presenting complaint and obtaining more information about this complaint is an important part of the clerking process. While

  6. Generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam CT using a patient-specific bladder shape model

    SciTech Connect

    Schoot, A. J. A. J. van de Schooneveldt, G.; Wognum, S.; Stalpers, L. J. A.; Rasch, C. R. N.; Bel, A.; Hoogeman, M. S.; Chai, X.

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop and validate a generic method for automatic bladder segmentation on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), independent of gender and treatment position (prone or supine), using only pretreatment imaging data. Methods: Data of 20 patients, treated for tumors in the pelvic region with the entire bladder visible on CT and CBCT, were divided into four equally sized groups based on gender and treatment position. The full and empty bladder contour, that can be acquired with pretreatment CT imaging, were used to generate a patient-specific bladder shape model. This model was used to guide the segmentation process on CBCT. To obtain the bladder segmentation, the reference bladder contour was deformed iteratively by maximizing the cross-correlation between directional grey value gradients over the reference and CBCT bladder edge. To overcome incorrect segmentations caused by CBCT image artifacts, automatic adaptations were implemented. Moreover, locally incorrect segmentations could be adapted manually. After each adapted segmentation, the bladder shape model was expanded and new shape patterns were calculated for following segmentations. All available CBCTs were used to validate the segmentation algorithm. The bladder segmentations were validated by comparison with the manual delineations and the segmentation performance was quantified using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC), surface distance error (SDE) and SD of contour-to-contour distances. Also, bladder volumes obtained by manual delineations and segmentations were compared using a Bland-Altman error analysis. Results: The mean DSC, mean SDE, and mean SD of contour-to-contour distances between segmentations and manual delineations were 0.87, 0.27 cm and 0.22 cm (female, prone), 0.85, 0.28 cm and 0.22 cm (female, supine), 0.89, 0.21 cm and 0.17 cm (male, supine) and 0.88, 0.23 cm and 0.17 cm (male, prone), respectively. Manual local adaptations improved the segmentation

  7. CLOSE-OUT REPORT FOR HYS ELECTROLYZER COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT WORK AT SAVANNAH RIVER NATIONAL LABORATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Colon-Mercado, H.; Elvington, M.; Hobbs, D.

    2010-01-20

    The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDE's function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 C in 63.5 wt. % H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} for 24 hours. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO{sub 2} transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO{sub 2} was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO{sub 2} transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO{sub 2} flux and SO{sub 2} transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO{sub 2} transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density versus a constant cell voltage (1V, 80 C in SO{sub 2} saturated 30 wt% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO{sub 2} flux, SO{sub 2} transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity. Testing examined the activity for the sulfur dioxide oxidation of platinum base electrocatalyst in 30 wt% sulfuric acid solution. Linear sweep voltammetry showed an increase in

  8. Understanding and Predicting Geomagnetic Dipole Reversals Via Low Dimensional Models and Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morzfeld, M.; Fournier, A.; Hulot, G.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the geophysical relevance of low-dimensional models of the geomagnetic dipole fieldby comparing these models to the signed relative paleomagnetic intensity over the past 2 Myr.The comparison is done via Bayesian statistics, implemented numerically by Monte Carlo (MC) sampling.We consider several MC schemes, as well as two data sets to show the robustness of our approach with respect to its numerical implementation and to the details of how the data are collected.The data we consider are the Sint-2000 [1] and PADM2M [2] data sets.We consider three stochastic differential equation (SDE) models and one deterministic model. Experiments with synthetic data show that it is feasible that a low dimensional modelcan learn the geophysical state from data of only the dipole field,and reveal the limitations of the low-dimensional models.For example, the G12 model [3] (a deterministic model that generates dipole reversals by crisis induced intermittency)can only match either one of the two important time scales we find in the data. The MC sampling approach also allows usto use the models to make predictions of the dipole field.We assess how reliably dipole reversals can be predictedwith our approach by hind-casting five reversals documented over the past 2 Myr. We find that, besides its limitations, G12 can be used to predict reversals reliably,however only with short lead times and over short horizons. The scalar SDE models on the other hand are not useful for prediction of dipole reversals.References Valet, J.P., Maynadier,L and Guyodo, Y., 2005, Geomagnetic field strength and reversal rate over the past 2 Million years, Nature, 435, 802-805. Ziegler, L.B., Constable, C.G., Johnson, C.L. and Tauxe, L., 2011, PADM2M: a penalized maximum likelihood model of the 0-2 Ma paleomagnetic axial dipole moment, Geophysical Journal International, 184, 1069-1089. Gissinger, C., 2012, A new deterministic model for chaotic reversals, European Physical Journal B, 85:137.

  9. HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER DEVELOPMENT, NHI WORK PACKAGE N-SR07TC0301, FY07 FIRST QUARTER REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, W

    2006-12-20

    The proof of concept of SO2 electrolysis for the hybrid sulfur (HyS) process is the second priority research target of the DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative's thermochemical program for FY07. The proof of concept of the liquid-phase option must be demonstrated at the single cell level for an extended run times (>100 hours). The rate of development of HyS will depend on the identification of a promising membrane or an alternative means for controlling sulfur formation. Once successful long-duration operation has been demonstrated, SRNL will develop a multi-cell stack that can be connected to the H2SO4 decomposer being developed by SNL for the S-I ILS for a Hybrid Sulfur Integrated Laboratory-Scale Experiment during FY 2008. During the first quarter of FY07, SRNL continued the component development and membrane development activities with the goal of identifying and characterizing improved electrodes, electrocatalysts, membranes and MEA configurations which could then be tested at larger scale in the SDE test facility. A modified glass cell was fabricated to allow measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) transport across membrane samples at elevated temperatures (up to 70 C). This testing also includes evaluating SO2 transport in different sulfuric acid concentrations (30-70 wt%). A new potentiostat/frequency analyzer was installed for determining ionic conductivity of membranes. This instrument enhances our capabilities to characterize membrane, electrocatalyst and MEA properties and performance. Continuing work from FY06, evaluations were preformed on various commercial and experimental membranes and electrocatalyst materials for the SDE. Several different types of commercially-available membranes were analyzed for sulfur dioxide transport as a function of acid strength including perfluorinated sulfonic acid (PFSA), sulfonated polyetherketone-ketone, and poly-benzimidazole (PBI) membranes. Experimental membranes from the sulfonated diels-alder polyphenylenes (SDAPP) and

  10. A Newly Emerged Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Focus in Northern Israel and Two New Reservoir Hosts of Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Faiman, Roy; Abbasi, Ibrahim; Jaffe, Charles; Motro, Yoav; Nasereddin, Abdelmagid; Schnur, Lionel F.; Torem, Moshe; Pratlong, Francine; Dedet, Jean-Pierre; Warburg, Alon

    2013-01-01

    In 2006/7, 18 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) were reported for the first time from Sde Eliyahu (pop. 650), a village in the Beit She'an valley of Israel. Between 2007–2011, a further 88 CL cases were diagnosed bringing the total to 106 (16.3% of the population of Sde Eliyahu). The majority of cases resided in the south-western part of the village along the perimeter fence. The causative parasite was identified as Leishmania major Yakimoff & Schokhor, 1914 (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae). Phlebotomus papatasi (Scopoli), 1786 (Diptera: Psychodidae) was found to be the most abundant phlebotomine species comprising 97% of the sand flies trapped inside the village, and an average of 7.9% of the females were positive for Leishmania ITS1 DNA. Parasite isolates from CL cases and a sand fly were characterized using several methods and shown to be L. major. During a comprehensive survey of rodents 164 Levant voles Microtus guentheri Danford & Alston, 1880 (Rodentia: Cricetidae) were captured in alfalfa fields bordering the village. Of these 27 (16.5%) tested positive for Leishmania ITS1 DNA and shown to be L. major by reverse line blotting. A very high percentage (58.3% - 21/36) of Tristram's jirds Meriones tristrami Thomas, 1892 (Rodentia: Muridae), found further away from the village also tested positive for ITS1 by PCR. Isolates of L. major were successfully cultured from the ear of a wild jird found positive by ITS1 PCR. Although none of the wild PCR-positive voles exhibited external pathology, laboratory-reared voles that were infected by intradermal L. major inoculation, developed patent lesions and sand flies became infected by feeding on the ears of these laboratory-infected voles. This is the first report implicating M. guentheri and M. tristrami as reservoirs of Leishmania. The widespread co-distribution of M. guentheri and P. papatasi, suggests a significant threat from the spread of CL caused by L. major in the Middle East, central Asia and southern

  11. Effect of γ-irradiation on the volatile compounds of medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Sung-Lye; Hwang, In-Min; Ryu, Keun-Young; Jung, Min-Seok; Seo, Hye-young; Kim, Hee-Yeon; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2009-07-01

    A study was carried out to find the effect of γ-irradiation on contents of volatile compounds from medicinal herb, Paeoniae Radix ( Paenia albiflora Pallas var. trichocarpa Bunge). The volatile compounds of control, 1, 3, 5 and 10 kGy irradiated samples were extracted by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. The major volatile compounds were paeonol, ( E)-carveol, ( E, E)-2,4-octadienal, methyl salicylate, myrtanol and eugenol acetate. Volatile compounds belonging to chemical classes of acids, alcohols, aldehydes, esters, hydrocarbons and miscellaneous were identified in all experimental samples. The types of volatile compounds in irradiated samples were similar to those of non-irradiated sample and the concentrations of these compounds differed between treatments. 1,3-Bis (1,1-dimethylethyl)-benzene was identified by using the selected ion monitoring (GC/MS-SIM) mode. The concentration of this compound increased with the increase of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that it could be used as the base data for the effect of γ-irradiation on medicinal herb.

  12. SAMS Acceleration Measurements on Mir From January to May 1997 (NASA Increment 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    During NASA Increment 4 (January to May 1997), about 5 gigabytes of acceleration data were collected by the Space Acceleration Measurements System (SAMS) onboard the Russian Space Station, Mir. The data were recorded on 28 optical disks which were returned to Earth on STS-84. During this increment, SAMS data were collected in the Priroda module to support the Mir Structural Dynamics Experiment (MiSDE), the Binary Colloidal Alloy Tests (BCAT), Angular Liquid Bridge (ALB), Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM), Diffusion Controlled Apparatus Module (DCAM), Enhanced Dynamic Load Sensors (EDLS), Forced Flow Flame Spreading Test (FFFT), Liquid Metal Diffusion (LMD), Protein Crystal Growth in Dewar (PCG/Dewar), Queen's University Experiments in Liquid Diffusion (QUELD), and Technical Evaluation of MIM (TEM). This report points out some of the salient features of the microgravity environment to which these experiments were exposed. Also documented are mission events of interest such as the docked phase of STS-84 operations, a Progress engine burn, Soyuz vehicle docking and undocking, and Progress vehicle docking. This report presents an overview of the SAMS acceleration measurements recorded by 10 Hz and 100 Hz sensor heads. The analyses included herein complement those presented in previous summary reports prepared by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) group.

  13. Optimal performance of an immersed membrane bioreactor equipped with a draft tube for domestic wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Bick, A; Shandalov, S; Oron, G

    2006-01-01

    One of the options to prevent membrane fouling is to implement air lifting that can improve the cake removal from the membrane surface. This study presents the results of tests that were carried out at the Institutes for Desert Research, Kiryat Sde-Boker, Israel, and focused on the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on fouling in a pilot-scale immersed membrane bioreactor (IMBR) using a hollow fiber membrane module of ZW-10 (Zenon Environmental, Canada) under ambient conditions. In this system, the cross-flow velocities across the membrane surface were induced by one conical and four cylindrical draft-tubes. The relationship between the crossflow velocity and the aeration intensity, the influence of the crossflow on fouling rate under various hydrodynamic conditions were investigated and optimal operating conditions were obtained. Optimal operating conditions were reached during the long-term experiment period (70 days) for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The system was stable without external chemical cleaning. The results showed that the permeate was of high quality, and the removal of COD and BOD was 94.0% and 98.8%, respectively. The crossflow near the membrane surface reveals a major contribution for minimizing membrane fouling, and could offer guidelines for future design of similar systems. PMID:17165458

  14. Development of the updated system of city underground pipelines based on Visual Studio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianxiong; Zhu, Yun; Li, Xiangdong

    2009-10-01

    Our city has owned the integrated pipeline network management system with ArcGIS Engine 9.1 as the bottom development platform and with Oracle9i as basic database for storaging data. In this system, ArcGIS SDE9.1 is applied as the spatial data engine, and the system was a synthetic management software developed with Visual Studio visualization procedures development tools. As the pipeline update function of the system has the phenomenon of slower update and even sometimes the data lost, to ensure the underground pipeline data can real-time be updated conveniently and frequently, and the actuality and integrity of the underground pipeline data, we have increased a new update module in the system developed and researched by ourselves. The module has the powerful data update function, and can realize the function of inputting and outputting and rapid update volume of data. The new developed module adopts Visual Studio visualization procedures development tools, and uses access as the basic database to storage data. We can edit the graphics in AutoCAD software, and realize the database update using link between the graphics and the system. Practice shows that the update module has good compatibility with the original system, reliable and high update efficient of the database.

  15. Effects of gamma irradiation on the yields of volatile extracts of Angelica gigas Nakai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Hye-Young; Kim, Jun-Hyoung; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kwon, Joog-Ho; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2007-11-01

    The study was carried out to determine the effects of gamma irradiation on the volatile flavor components including essential oils, of Angelica gigas Nakai. The volatile organic compounds from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were extracted by a simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) method and identified by GC/MS analysis. A total of 116 compounds were identified and quantified from non- and irradiated A. gigas Nakai. The major volatile compounds were identified 2,4,6-trimethyl heptane, α-pinene, camphene, α-limonene, β-eudesmol, α-murrolene and sphatulenol. Among these compounds, the amount of essential oils in non-irradiated sample were 77.13%, and the irradiated samples at doses of 1, 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy were 84.98%, 83.70%, 83.94%, 82.84% and 82.58%, respectively. Oxygenated terpenes such as β-eudesmol, α-eudesmol, and verbenone were increased after irradiation but did not correlate with the irradiation dose. The yields of active substances such as essential oil were increased after irradiation; however, the yields of essential oils and the irradiation dose were not correlated. Thus, the profile of composition volatiles of A. gigas Nakai did not change with irradiation.

  16. Finite element formulation of fluctuating hydrodynamics for fluids filled with rigid particles using boundary fitted meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Corato, M.; Slot, J. J. M.; Hütter, M.; D'Avino, G.; Maffettone, P. L.; Hulsen, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, we present a finite element implementation of fluctuating hydrodynamics with a moving boundary fitted mesh for treating the suspended particles. The thermal fluctuations are incorporated into the continuum equations using the Landau and Lifshitz approach [1]. The proposed implementation fulfills the fluctuation-dissipation theorem exactly at the discrete level. Since we restrict the equations to the creeping flow case, this takes the form of a relation between the diffusion coefficient matrix and friction matrix both at the particle and nodal level of the finite elements. Brownian motion of arbitrarily shaped particles in complex confinements can be considered within the present formulation. A multi-step time integration scheme is developed to correctly capture the drift term required in the stochastic differential equation (SDE) describing the evolution of the positions of the particles. The proposed approach is validated by simulating the Brownian motion of a sphere between two parallel plates and the motion of a spherical particle in a cylindrical cavity. The time integration algorithm and the fluctuating hydrodynamics implementation are then applied to study the diffusion and the equilibrium probability distribution of a confined circle under an external harmonic potential.

  17. Off-shell {rho}-{omega} mixing through quark loops with a nonperturbative meson vertex and quark mass functions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitra, A.N.; Yang, K.

    1995-06-01

    The momentum dependence of the off-shell {rho}-{omega} mixing amplitude is calculated through a two-quark loop diagram, using nonperturbative meson-quark vertex functions for the {rho} and {omega} mesons, as well as nonperturbative quark propagators. Both these quantities are generated self-consistently through an interlinked Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) cum Schwinger- Dyson equation (SDE) approach with a 3D support for the BSE kernel with two basic constants that are prechecked against a wide cross section of both meson and baryon spectra within a common structural framework for their respective 3D BSE`s. With the precalibration, the on-shell strength works out at {minus}2.434 {delta}({ital m}{sub {ital q}}{sup 2}) in units of the change in ``constituent mass squared,`` which is consistent with the {ital e}{sup +}{ital e}{sup {minus}} to {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup {minus}} data for a {ital u}-{ital d} mass difference of 4 MeV, while the relative off-shell strength (0.99{plus_minus}0.01) lies midway between quark-loop and QCD-SR results. We also calculate the photon-mediated {rho}-{omega} propagator whose off-shell structure has an additional pole at {ital q}{sup 2}=0. The implications of these results vis-a-vis related investigations are discussed.

  18. Fatty acid composition and volatile compounds of caviar from farmed white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    PubMed

    Caprino, Fabio; Moretti, Vittorio Maria; Bellagamba, Federica; Turchini, Giovanni Mario; Busetto, Maria Letizia; Giani, Ivan; Paleari, Maria Antonietta; Pazzaglia, Mario

    2008-06-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize caviar obtained from farmed white sturgeons (Acipenser transmontanus) subjected to different dietary treatments. Twenty caviar samples from fish fed two experimental diets containing different dietary lipid sources have been analysed for chemical composition, fatty acids and flavour volatile compounds. Fatty acid make up of caviar was only minimally influenced by dietary fatty acid composition. Irrespective of dietary treatments, palmitic acid (16:0) and oleic acid (OA, 18:1 n-9) were the most abundant fatty acid followed by docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3) and eicopentaenoic (EPA, 20:5 n-3). Thirty-three volatile compounds were isolated using simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and identified by GC-MS. The largest group of volatiles were represented by aldehydes with 20 compounds, representing the 60% of the total volatiles. n-Alkanals, 2-alkenals and 2,4-alkadienals are largely the main responsible for a wide range of flavours in caviar from farmed white surgeon. PMID:18486649

  19. A pilot study of constructed wetlands using duckweed (Lemna gibba L.) for treatment of domestic primary effluent in Israel.

    PubMed

    Ran, Noemi; Agami, Moshe; Oron, Gideon

    2004-05-01

    Constructed wetlands are well known as highly efficient system to treat wastewater from different sources. This treatment system is cost-effective for reuse in desert areas. A continuous flow, free water surface (FWS) pilot wetland using the duckweed plant Lemna gibba L. was constructed at the Blaustein Institute for Desert Research in Kiryat Sde Boker of the Negev, Israel, and operated on domestic primary effluents. Water quality and system efficiency were observed during the experiment for reuse purposes. Results indicated that, hydraulic residence time averaged 4.26+/-0.61d, average influent flow rate was 0.234+/-0.027m(3)/d and hydraulic load 0.22+/-0.03m/d. Hydraulic efficiency in the system was high and allowed good settling conditions. Suspended solids and organic matter removals were the highest and effluent concentrations were 13.1+/-9.7 and 40.3+/-11.9mg/l for TSS and total BOD(5), respectively. Nitrogen removal was lower (10-20%) but slightly increased with higher nitrogen loads. Therefore, nitrogen content in the plants was high (4.3+/-0.5%/kg dry plant). Phosphorus removal was negligible. High removal for fecal coliform (approximately 95%) and effluent turbidity (> 50%) were also observed. PMID:15142784

  20. Interrelationships Between Aerosol Characteristics and Light Scattering During Late-winter in a Eastern Mediterranean Arid Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, C.; Andreae, M. O.; Meixner, F. X.; Schebeske, G.; Formenti, P.; Maenhaut, W.; Cafmeyer, J.; Ptasinski, J.; Karnieli, A.; Orlovsky, L.

    1999-01-01

    An intensive field campaign involving measurement of various aerosol physical, chemical, and radiative properties was conducted at Sde Boker in the Negev Desert of Israel, from 18 February to 15 March 1997. Nephelometer measurements gave average background scattering coefficient values of about 25 M/m at 550 nm wavelength, but strong dust events caused the value of this parameter to rise up to about 800 M/m Backscattering fractions did not depend on aerosol loading, and generally fell in the range of 0.1 to 0.25, comparable to values reported for marine and Arctic environments. Chemical analysis of the aerosol revealed that, in the coarse size range (2 - 10 micrometer equivalent aerodynamic diameter (EAD)), calcium (Ca) was by far the most abundant element followed by silicon (Si), both of which are indicators for mineral dust. In the fine size fraction (< 2 micrometers EAD), sulfur (S) generally was the dominant element, except during high dust episodes when Ca and Si were again the most abundant. Furthermore, fine black carbon (BC) correlates with S, suggesting that they may have originated from the same sources or source regions. An indication of the short-term effect of aerosol loading on radiative forcing was provided by measurements of global and diffuse solar radiation, which showed that during high turbidity periods (strong dust events) almost all of the solar radiation reaching the area is scattered or absorbed.

  1. Nonequilibrium Statistical Mechanics of Weakly Stochastically Perturbed System of Oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dymov, Andrey

    2016-07-01

    We consider a finite region of a $d$-dimensional lattice, $d\\in\\mathbb{N}$, of weakly coupled harmonic oscillators. The coupling is provided by a nearest-neighbour potential (harmonic or not) of size $\\varepsilon$. Each oscillator weakly interacts by force of order $\\varepsilon$ with its own stochastic Langevin thermostat of arbitrary positive temperature. We investigate limiting as $\\varepsilon\\rightarrow 0$ behaviour of solutions of the system and of the local energy of oscillators on long-time intervals of order $\\varepsilon^{-1}$ and in a stationary regime. We show that it is governed by an effective equation which is a dissipative SDE with nondegenerate diffusion. Next we assume that the interaction potential is of size $\\varepsilon\\lambda$, where $\\lambda$ is another small parameter, independent from $\\varepsilon$. Solutions corresponding to this scaling describe small low temperature oscillations. We prove that in a stationary regime, under the limit $\\varepsilon\\rightarrow 0$, the main order in $\\lambda$ of the averaged Hamiltonian energy flow is proportional to the gradient of temperature. We show that the coefficient of proportionality, which we call the conductivity, admits a representation through stationary space-time correlations of the energy flow. Most of the results and convergences we obtain are uniform with respect to the number of oscillators in the system.

  2. GC-MS-olfactometric characterization of the most aroma-active components in a representative aromatic extract from Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Amanpour, Asghar; Sonmezdag, A Salih; Kelebek, Hasim; Selli, Serkan

    2015-09-01

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of Iranian saffron (Crocus sativus L.) were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry. The saffron aromatic extracts were obtained by four different extraction techniques including solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE), liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), solid phase extraction (SPE), and simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and compared to achieve a representative aromatic extract from saffron. According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by SAFE was the most representative of saffron odour. A total of 28 aroma compounds were identified in saffron. Ketones were quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in saffron, followed by aldehydes and acids. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of saffron. A total of nine aroma-active compounds were detected in the aromatic extract. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma active compounds were safranal (FD = 512), 4-ketoisophorone (FD = 256) and dihydrooxophorone (FD = 128). PMID:25842335

  3. Effect of Grit Blasting on Substrate Roughness and Coating Adhesion

    SciTech Connect

    Dominic Varacalle; Donna Guillen; Doug Deason; William Rhodaberger; Elliott Sampson

    2006-09-01

    Statistically designed experiments were performed to compare the surface roughnesses produced by grit blasting A36/1020 steel with different abrasives. Grit blast media, blast pressure, and working distance were varied using a Box-type statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. The surface textures produced by four metal grits (HG16, HG18, HG25, and HG40) and three conventional grits (copper slag, coal slag, and chilled iron) were compared. Substrate roughness was measured using surface profilometry and correlated with operating parameters. The HG16 grit produced the highest surface roughness of all the grits tested. Aluminum and zinc-aluminum coatings were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates using a Twin-Wire Electric Arc (TWEA) process. Bond strength of the coatings was measured with a portable adhesion tester in accordance with ASTM standard D4541. The coatings on substrates roughened with steel grit exhibit superior bond strength to those on substrates prepared with conventional grit. For aluminum coatings sprayed onto surfaces prepared with the HG16 grit, the bond strength was most influenced by current, spray distance, and spray gun pressure (in that order). The highest bond strength for the zinc-aluminum coatings was attained on surfaces prepared using the metal grits.

  4. A study of Forbush Decreases with a full 3-D cosmic ray modulation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xi; Zhang, Ming; Potgieter, Marius

    2016-07-01

    We have constructed a 3-D numerical model for studying Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the global heliosphere. It incorporates 3-D propagation barriers, with enhanced cooling inside, into a time-dependent Parker type modulation model using a Stochastic Differential Equation (SDE) approach. This numerical model simultaneously takes into account the effect of solar wind convection with associated adiabatic energy changes; gradient, curvature and current sheet drifts; as well as parallel and perpendicular diffusion. This state-of-the-art numerical model enables us to find and study some new 3-D features for FD type events: 1. The cosmic ray intensity at Earth varies depending on the relative location of the Earth to the current sheet, and is reflected also in the amplitude of the FDs. The local modulation conditions, at a given observational point, determine the total amplitude. 2. The radial, latitudinal and longitudinal extent of a diffusion barrier significantly affects the amplitude of a FD. 3. The recovery time of a FD, at a given observational location, is determined by the modulation conditions which the corresponding propagation barrier encounters as it moves outwards in the heliosphere.

  5. SAMS Acceleration Measurements on MIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moskowitz, Milton E.; Hrovat, Kenneth; Finkelstein, Robert; Reckart, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    During NASA Increment 3 (September 1996 to January 1997), about 5 gigabytes of acceleration data were collected by the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) onboard the Russian Space Station, Mir. The data were recorded on 11 optical disks and were returned to Earth on STS-81. During this time, SAMS data were collected in the Priroda module to support the following experiments: the Mir Structural Dynamics Experiment (MiSDE) and Binary Colloidal Alloy Tests (BCAT). This report points out some of the salient features of the microgravity environment to which these experiments were exposed. Also documented are mission events of interest such as the docked phase of STS-81 operations, a Progress engine burn, attitude control thruster operation, and crew exercise. Also included are a description of the Mir module orientations, and the panel notations within the modules. This report presents an overview of the SAMS acceleration measurements recorded by 10 Hz and 100 Hz sensor heads. Variations in the acceleration environment caused by unique activities such as crew exercise and life-support fans are presented. The analyses included herein complement those presented in previous mission summary reports published by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) group.

  6. Effective spatial database support for acquiring spatial information from remote sensing images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Peiquan; Wan, Shouhong; Yue, Lihua

    2009-12-01

    In this paper, a new approach to maintain spatial information acquiring from remote-sensing images is presented, which is based on Object-Relational DBMS. According to this approach, the detected and recognized results of targets are stored and able to be further accessed in an ORDBMS-based spatial database system, and users can access the spatial information using the standard SQL interface. This approach is different from the traditional ArcSDE-based method, because the spatial information management module is totally integrated into the DBMS and becomes one of the core modules in the DBMS. We focus on three issues, namely the general framework for the ORDBMS-based spatial database system, the definitions of the add-in spatial data types and operators, and the process to develop a spatial Datablade on Informix. The results show that the ORDBMS-based spatial database support for image-based target detecting and recognition is easy and practical to be implemented.

  7. Nonrelativistic quantum mechanics with consideration of influence of fundamental environment

    SciTech Connect

    Gevorkyan, A. S.

    2013-08-15

    Spontaneous transitions between bound states of an atomic system, the 'Lamb Shift' of energy levels and many other phenomena in real nonrelativistic quantum systems are connected with the influence of the quantum vacuum fluctuations (fundamental environment (FE)), which are impossible to consider in the framework of standard quantum-mechanical approaches. The joint system quantum system (QS) and FE is described in the framework of the stochastic differential equation (SDE) of Langevin-Schroedinger type and is defined on the extended space Double-Struck-Capital-R {sup 3} Circled-Times {Xi}{sup n}, where Double-Struck-Capital-R {sup 3} and {Xi}{sup n} are the Euclidean and functional spaces, respectively. The method of stochastic density matrix is developed and the von Neumann equation for reduced density matrix of QS with FE is generalized. The entropy of QS entangled with FE is defined and investigated. It is proved that the interaction of QS with the environment leads to emerging structures of various topologies which present new quantum-field properties of QS. It is shown that when the physical system (irrelatively to its being micro ormacro) breaks up into two fragments by means of FE, there arises between these fragments a nonpotential interaction which does not disappear at large distances.

  8. Implicit and explicit schemes for mass consistency preservation in hybrid particle/finite-volume algorithms for turbulent reactive flows

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, Pavel P. Pope, Stephen B.

    2014-01-15

    This work addresses the issue of particle mass consistency in Large Eddy Simulation/Probability Density Function (LES/PDF) methods for turbulent reactive flows. Numerical schemes for the implicit and explicit enforcement of particle mass consistency (PMC) are introduced, and their performance is examined in a representative LES/PDF application, namely the Sandia–Sydney Bluff-Body flame HM1. A new combination of interpolation schemes for velocity and scalar fields is found to better satisfy PMC than multilinear and fourth-order Lagrangian interpolation. A second-order accurate time-stepping scheme for stochastic differential equations (SDE) is found to improve PMC relative to Euler time stepping, which is the first time that a second-order scheme is found to be beneficial, when compared to a first-order scheme, in an LES/PDF application. An explicit corrective velocity scheme for PMC enforcement is introduced, and its parameters optimized to enforce a specified PMC criterion with minimal corrective velocity magnitudes.

  9. Effect of grit-blasting on substrate roughness and coating adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varacalle, Dominic J.; Guillen, Donna Post; Deason, Douglas M.; Rhodaberger, William; Sampson, Elliott

    2006-09-01

    Statistically designed experiments were performed to compare the surface roughness produced by grit blasting A36/1020 steel using different abrasives. Grit blast media, blast pressure, and working distance were varied using a Box-type statistical design of experiment (SDE) approach. The surface textures produced by four metal grits (HG16, HG18, HG25, and HG40) and three conventional grits (copper slag, coal slag, and chilled iron) were compared. Substrate roughness was measured using surface profilometry and correlated with operating parameters. The HG16 grit produced the highest surface roughness of all the grits tested. Aluminum and zinc-aluminum coatings were deposited on the grit-blasted substrates using the twin-wire electric are (TWEA) process. Bond strength of the coatings was measured with a portable adhesion tester in accordance with ASTM standard D 4541. The coatings on substrates roughened with steel grit exhibit superior bond strength to those prepared with conventional grit. For aluminum coatings sprayed onto surfaces prepared with the HG16 grit, the bond strength was most influenced by current, spray distance, and spray gun pressure (in that order). The highest bond strength for the zinc-aluminum coatings was attained on surfaces prepared using the metal grits.

  10. Duck nest success in the prairie pothole region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klett, A.T.; Shaffer, T.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    We estimated nest success of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), gadwall (A. strepera), blue-winged teal (A. discors), northern shoveler (A. clypeata), and northern pintail (A. acuta) for 5 regions in North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota, for 1-3 periods between 1966 and 1984, and for 8 habitat classes. We obtained composite estimates of nest success for regions and periods by weighting each habitat proportional to the number of nest initiations. The distribution of nest initiations was derived from estimates of breeding populations, preferences of species for nesting habitats, and availability of habitats. Nest success rates ranged from <5 to 36% among regions, periods, and species. Rates were lowest in western Minnesota (MNW) and eastern North Dakota (NDE), intermediate in central North Dakota (NDC) and eastern South Dakota (SDE), and highest in central South Dakota (SDC). In regions with comparable data, no consistent trend in nest success was apparent from early to late periods. Gadwalls and blue-winged teal nested more successfully than mallards and pintails; the relative success of shovelers varied regionally. Ducks nesting in idle grassland were the most successful and those nesting in cropland were least successful. Mammalian predation was the major cause of nesting failure (54-85%) in all habitats, but farming operations resulted in 37 and 27% of the nesting failures in cropland and hayland, respectively. Most of the populations studied were not self-sustaining.

  11. Researches of Optimum Leaf Area Index Dynamicmodels for Rape(brassica Napus L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hongxin; Zhang, Chunlei; Li, Guangming; Zhang, Baojun; Zhao, Suolao; Wang, Baoqing; Jin, Zhiqing; Zhu, Dawei; Zhu, Juanjuan; Wei, Xiufang

    The objectives of developing optimum leaf area index dynamic models for rape (OLAIDM) was to develop Rape Cultivation Simulation-Optimization- Decision Making System(Rape-CSODS) , to design its planting , to regulate and control its growth and development, and to fulfill its high yield, good quality, high benefits and standard production eventually. The OLAIDM were developed based on field experiments with 3 cultivars, 6 sowing dates, 2 types of plant pattern and 4 sites from 2002 to 2007 in middle and lower valley of Yangtze river in China and relative data from references of rape researches, employed ideas of R/WCSODS (Rice/Wheat Cultivation Simulation- Optimization-Decision Making System), and in the same time, the OLAIMR and its parameters also were assessed, calibrated and tested. The average absolute deviation(de), correlation coefficients(r) and the standard errors of their absolute deviation(Sde) of between the observed and simulated values for LAI of two cultivars in Wuhan and Nanjing were -0.03~0.1533, 0.9707~0.9997 and0.1332~0.4032, respectively. 1:1 line of them were in Fig. 1 to 4. Multi-factors such as the ramification types, cultivars, and light et al. were taken into account in this study, therefore, the OLAIDM with general adaptability, clear yield aim, mechanism, and dynamic characteristic can simulate optimum LAI dynamic for rape under different sites, cultivars and ramification types, and yielding levels.

  12. Solving Parker's transport equation with stochastic differential equations on GPUs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunzlaff, P.; Strauss, R. D.; Potgieter, M. S.

    2015-07-01

    The numerical solution of transport equations for energetic charged particles in space is generally very costly in terms of time. Besides the use of multi-core CPUs and computer clusters in order to decrease the computation times, high performance calculations on graphics processing units (GPUs) have become available during the last years. In this work we introduce and describe a GPU-accelerated implementation of Parker's equation using Stochastic Differential Equations (SDEs) for the simulation of the transport of energetic charged particles with the CUDA toolkit, which is the focus of this work. We briefly discuss the set of SDEs arising from Parker's transport equation and their application to boundary value problems such as that of the Jovian magnetosphere. We compare the runtimes of the GPU code with a CPU version of the same algorithm. Compared to the CPU implementation (using OpenMP and eight threads) we find a performance increase of about a factor of 10-60, depending on the assumed set of parameters. Furthermore, we benchmark our simulation using the results of an existing SDE implementation of Parker's transport equation.

  13. Effect of γ-irradiation on volatile compounds of dried Welsh onion ( Allium fistulosum L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyawali, Rajendra; Seo, Hye-Young; Lee, Hyun-Ju; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Dong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Kim, Kyong-Su

    2006-02-01

    The volatile compounds of γ-irradiated dried Welsh onion were isolated by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) technique and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) along with their non-irradiated counterparts. A total of 35 volatile compounds were identified in non-irradiated and 1 kGy irradiated samples and 36 volatile compounds were identified in 3, 5, 10 and 20 kGy irradiated samples so far belong to chemical classes of acid, alcohol, aldehyde, ester, furan, ketone and S-containing compound. S-containing compounds were detected as major volatile compounds of all experimental samples. Though the content of several compounds was increased after irradiation, content of major S-containing compounds was found to decreased in the process. Application of high-dose irradiation if required for microbial decontamination of dried Welsh onion is feasible as it enhanced the total concentration of volatile compounds by 31.60% and 24.85% at 10 and 20 kGy, respectively.

  14. Accelerated solvent extraction for GC-based tobacco fingerprinting and its comparison with simultaneous distillation and extraction.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong; Pang, Tao; Guo, Ziming; Li, Yanli; Wang, Xiaolin; Deng, Jianhua; Zhong, Kejun; Lu, Xin; Xu, Guowang

    2010-04-15

    An accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) procedure has been developed as a pretreatment method for chemical fingerprinting of volatile and semi-volatile components in cut tobacco. The ASE extraction conditions including temperature, operation pressure and extraction cycles were optimized to maximize extraction yield. The method was validated with repeatability, recovery and linearity. Compared with simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), ASE provides higher extraction yields, less extraction time, lower solvent consumption and less labor time, and is more suitable for tobacco sample preparation. A typical ASE extract was analyzed by gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). A total of 305 components with signal-to-noise ratio higher than 100 were tentatively identified by NIST05 and Wiley database. Finally, 36 cigarette samples from six cigarette brands were analyzed using the developed chemical fingerprinting method. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis shows good discrimination of different cigarette brands. The results indicate that ASE method can serve as high-throughput sample preparation technique for cigarette chemical fingerprint analysis. PMID:20188977

  15. Application of WebGIS in CATV basic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhao; Liu, Nan; Liu, Renyi; Bao, Weizheng

    2006-10-01

    This paper analyzes the necessity of the application of WebGIS in CATV basic network. There was almost no research in using WebGIS to manage CATV basic network data in China. This paper briefly introduces how to construct an integrated transaction management system of CATV basic network based on WebGIS, and it forms a database of pivotal points, lines and buildings. CATV basic network based on WebGIS has very great superiority to traditional GIS, anybody can visit the system in anyplace by wired or wireless connection. Therefore it can satisfy the managers who want to query information about network, equipment and customers or response on. In this way the routine network and equipment maintenance becomes easily and fleetly. But WebGIS also has bottle-necks such as vector graphic editing. The editing of vector graphic and attribute play important roles in GIS, especially in CATV basic network management, because equipment, cable and fiber-optic change frequently. This paper develops Zhejiang Jiangshan broadcasting and TV station geographic information system on the basis of ArcIMS platform, and making use of the capability of reading and writing spatial data of ArcSDE to solve vector graphic editing problem.

  16. Heavy metal levels of pasture grasses in metropolitan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luilo, G. B.; Othman, O. C.

    2003-05-01

    Urban agriculture is becoming an important lucrative activity in Dar es Salaam City even though the city is subject to traffic and industrial pollution pressures. Poor planning has left only limited spaces, particularly road reserves, for cultivation and foraging animals. While there is increasing road traffic no study bas been conducted determine levels of trace metals in pasture grasses. This study, therefore, reports on the levels of cadmium, manganese, lead and zinc of cynodon grasses in road vicinity in the city. Results show that the trace metal levels (ppm ± SDE) in Cynodon grass species were: Cd (0.24 ± 0.06-2.58 ± 0.15), Mn (41.5 ± 13.6-345.0 ± 124.3), Pb (1.15 ± 0.64-25.53 ± 1.29) and Zn (25.97 ± 3.69-95.36 ± 19.61). The mean levels of lead and zinc varied exponentially with distance off the road up to 15 m distance. Lead and zinc levels correlated with average daily traffic in the roads while cadmium and manganese did not. This suggests that lead and zinc in grasses owe their sources from the passing motor vehicles in agreement with other reported studies. It is recommended that pasture grasses in road vicinities must not be used for foraging dairy cattle and goats for public health reasons.

  17. Effects of Flavor and Texture on the Sensory Perception of Gouda-Type Cheese Varieties during Ripening Using Multivariate Analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Makoto; Iwasawa, Ai; Suzuki-Iwashima, Ai; Iida, Fumiko

    2015-12-01

    The impact of flavor composition, texture, and other factors on desirability of different commercial sources of Gouda-type cheese using multivariate analyses on the basis of sensory and instrumental analyses were investigated. Volatile aroma compounds were measured using headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and steam distillation extraction (SDE)-GC/MS, and fatty acid composition, low-molecular-weight compounds, including amino acids, and organic acids, as well pH, texture, and color were measured to determine their relationship with sensory perception. Orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was performed to discriminate between 2 different ripening periods in 7 sample sets, revealing that ethanol, ethyl acetate, hexanoic acid, and octanoic acid increased with increasing sensory attribute scores for sweetness, fruity, and sulfurous. A partial least squares (PLS) regression model was constructed to predict the desirability of cheese using these parameters. We showed that texture and buttery flavors are important factors affecting the desirability of Gouda-type cheeses for Japanese consumers using these multivariate analyses. PMID:26551333

  18. Numerical simulation of nonlinear dynamical systems driven by commutative noise

    SciTech Connect

    Carbonell, F. Biscay, R.J.; Jimenez, J.C.; Cruz, H. de la

    2007-10-01

    The local linearization (LL) approach has become an effective technique for the numerical integration of ordinary, random and stochastic differential equations. One of the reasons for this success is that the LL method achieves a convenient trade-off between numerical stability and computational cost. Besides, the LL method reproduces well the dynamics of nonlinear equations for which other classical methods fail. However, in the stochastic case, most of the reported works has been focused in Stochastic Differential Equations (SDE) driven by additive noise. This limits the applicability of the LL method since there is a number of interesting dynamics observed in equations with multiplicative noise. On the other hand, recent results show that commutative noise SDEs can be transformed into a random differential equation (RDE) by means of a random diffeomorfism (conjugacy). This paper takes advantages of such conjugacy property and the LL approach for defining a LL scheme for SDEs driven by commutative noise. The performance of the proposed method is illustrated by means of numerical simulations.

  19. Chemical composition, antimicrobial property and microencapsulation of Mustard (Sinapis alba) seed essential oil by complex coacervation.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Su-Qing; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Gui-Ying; Chen, Lan-Ying; Zhao, Feng-Yi

    2014-12-15

    In this study, the essential oil from mustard seed was isolated by simultaneous steam distillation and extraction (SDE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Fourteen components were identified in the mustard seed essential oil with allyl isothiocyanate being the main component (71.06%). The essential oil has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with inhibition zones and MIC values in the range of 9.68-15.57 mm and 128-512 μg/mL respectively. The essential oil was subsequently encapsulated in complex coacervation microcapsules with genipin, a natural water-soluble cross-linker. The optimum parameters for the hardening effectiveness of the genipin-hardened essential oil microcapsules were 8h at 40°C and pH 10.0 with a genipin concentration of 0.075 g/g gelatin. The genipin-hardened microcapsules had a particle size of mainly 5-10 μm and strong chemistry stability which is potential for its application in food preservation. PMID:25038712

  20. ARGONAUTE 1 homeostasis invokes the coordinate action of the microRNA and siRNA pathways.

    PubMed

    Mallory, Allison C; Vaucheret, Hervé

    2009-05-01

    ARGONAUTE 1 (AGO1) slices endogenous messenger RNAs (mRNAs) during both microRNA (miRNA)- and short interfering RNA (siRNA)-guided post-transcriptional silencing. We have previously reported that AGO1 homeostasis is maintained through the repressive action of miR168 on AGO1 mRNA and the stabilizing effect of AGO1 protein on miR168, but siRNA-mediated AGO1 regulation has not been reported. Here, we show that AGO1-derived siRNAs trigger RNA DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 6 (RDR6)-, SUPPRESSOR OF GENE SILENCING 3 (SGS3)- and SILENCING DEFECTIVE 5 (SDE5)-dependent AGO1 silencing, which also requires DICER-LIKE 2 (DCL2) and DCL4. By varying the efficacy of miR168-guided AGO1 mRNA cleavage, we show that siRNA-mediated AGO1 silencing depends on correct miRNA targeting, pointing to coordinated regulatory actions of the miRNA and siRNA pathways during the maintenance of AGO1 homeostasis. Finally, our results reveal that dcl2, dcl3 and dcl4 mutations similarly affect post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) mediated by a sense transgene and PTGS mediated by inverted repeats, validating the branched pathway model proposed previously. PMID:19343050

  1. Structural basis of substrate recognition by a bacterial deubiquitinase important for dynamics of phagosome ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Sheedlo, Michael J.; Qiu, Jiazhang; Tan, Yunhao; Paul, Lake N.; Luo, Zhao-Qing; Das, Chittaranjan

    2015-01-01

    Manipulation of the host’s ubiquitin network is emerging as an important strategy for counteracting and repurposing the posttranslational modification machineries of the host by pathogens. Ubiquitin E3 ligases encoded by infectious agents are well known, as are a variety of viral deubiquitinases (DUBs). Bacterial DUBs have been discovered, but little is known about the structure and mechanism underlying their ubiquitin recognition. In this report, we found that members of the Legionella pneumophila SidE effector family harbor a DUB module important for ubiquitin dynamics on the bacterial phagosome. Structural analysis of this domain alone and in complex with ubiquitin vinyl methyl ester (Ub-VME) reveals unique molecular contacts used in ubiquitin recognition. Instead of relying on the Ile44 patch of ubiquitin, as commonly used in eukaryotic counterparts, the SdeADub module engages Gln40 of ubiquitin. The architecture of the active-site cleft presents an open arrangement with conformational plasticity, permitting deubiquitination of three of the most abundant polyubiquitin chains, with a distinct preference for Lys63 linkages. We have shown that this preference enables efficient removal of Lys63 linkages from the phagosomal surface. Remarkably, the structure reveals by far the most parsimonious use of molecular contacts to achieve deubiquitination, with less than 1,000 Å2 of accessible surface area buried upon complex formation with ubiquitin. This type of molecular recognition appears to enable dual specificity toward ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-like modifier NEDD8. PMID:26598703

  2. Exclusion of phlebotomine sand flies from inhabited areas by means of vertical mesh barriers.

    PubMed

    Faiman, R; Kirstein, O; Freund, M; Guetta, H; Warburg, A

    2011-09-01

    Vector control constitutes an important component of integrated disease control campaigns. Source reduction is not an option for phlebotomine sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis, because larval breeding sites remain either unknown or inaccessible. Thus, all control efforts are directed against the adult sand flies, mostly attempting to limit their contact with humans. We describe experiments using an insecticide-treated vertical barrier to prevent sand flies from reaching inhabited areas of an agricultural settlement. A 400 meter long section of the peripheral fence of Kibbutz Sde Eliyahu, Jordan Valley, Israel was draped with a deltamethrin-impregnated net that is impenetrable to sand flies (polyester net, 450 holes/inch(2)). Sand flies were captured before and after construction of the barrier using CO(2)-baited CDC traps. Sand fly numbers, as monitored around three houses internal to the barrier, exhibited an 84.9% decrease once the barrier was erected (P=0.003). Concurrently, the neighboring control group of three houses, not protected by the barrier, exhibited a 15.9% increase in sand fly numbers (P=0.974). These results corroborate previous findings of field tests conducted on a smaller scale in an arid suburban setting. Campaigns for reducing the burden of sand fly bites and curtailing the transmission of leishmaniasis, should consider integrating vertical fine-mesh nets with other sand fly control measures. PMID:21752415

  3. SAMS Acceleration Measurements on Mir (NASA Increment 4)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    During NASA Increment 4 (January to May 1997), about 5 gigabytes of acceleration data were collected by the Space Acceleration Measurements System (SAMS) onboard the Russian Space Station, Mir. The data were recorded on 28 optical disks which were returned to Earth on STS-84. During this increment, SAMS data were collected in the Priroda module to support the Mir Structural Dynamics Experiment (MiSDE), the Binary Colloidal Alloy Tests (BCAT), Angular Liquid Bridge (ALB), Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM), Diffusion Controlled Apparatus Module (DCAM), Enhanced Dynamic Load Sensors (EDLS), Forced Flow Flame Spreading Test (FFFr), Liquid Metal Diffusion (LMD), Protein Crystal Growth in Dewar (PCG/Dewar), Queen's University Experiments in Liquid Diffusion (QUELD), and Technical Evaluation of MIM (TEM). This report points out some of the salient features of the microgravity environment to which these experiments were exposed. Also documented are mission events of interest such as the docked phase of STS-84 operations, a Progress engine bum, Soyuz vehicle docking and undocking, and Progress vehicle docking. This report presents an overview of the SAMS acceleration measurements recorded by 10 Hz and 100 Hz sensor heads. The analyses included herein complement those presented in previous summary reports prepared by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services (PIMS) group.

  4. Comparative Evaluation of Partial α2 -Adrenoceptor Agonist and Pure α2 -Adrenoceptor Antagonist on the Behavioural Symptoms of Withdrawal after Chronic Alcohol Administration in Mice.

    PubMed

    Arora, Shivani; Vohora, Divya

    2016-08-01

    As an addictive drug, alcohol produces withdrawal symptoms if discontinued abruptly after chronic use. Clonidine (CLN), a partial α2 -adrenergic agonist, and mirtazapine (MRT), an antagonist of α2 -adrenoceptor, both clinically aid alcohol withdrawal. Considering different mechanisms of action of the two drugs, this study was designed to see how far these two mechanistically different drugs differ in their ability to decrease the severity of ethanol withdrawal syndrome. The effect of CLN and MRT on ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety, depression and memory impairment was analysed using EPM, FST and PAR tests, respectively. Animals received distilled water, ethanol and/or either of the drugs (CLN and MRT) in different doses. Relapse to alcohol use was analysed by CPP test. Animals received ethanol as a conditioning drug and distilled water, CLN or MRT as test drug. CLN and MRT both alleviated anxiety in a dose-dependent manner. MRT (4 mg/kg) was more effective than CLN (0.1 mg/kg) in ameliorating the anxiogenic effect of alcohol withdrawal. However, CLN treatment increased depression. It significantly decreased swimming time and increased immobility time, whereas MRT treatment decreased immobility time and increased climbing and swimming time during abstinence. The effect was dose dependent for both drugs. The results of PAR test show that CLN treatment worsens working memory. Significant increase in SDE and TSZ and decrease in SDL were observed in CLN-treated animals. MRT treatment, on the other hand, improved working memory at both doses. Further, both CLN and MRT alleviated craving. A significant decrease in time spent in the ethanol-paired chamber was seen. MRT treatment at both doses showed better effect than CLN in preventing the development of preference in CPP test. These findings indicate a potential therapeutic use and better profile of mirtazapine over clonidine in improving memory, as well as in alleviating depression, anxiety and craving associated

  5. Optimal control of systems governed by differential equations with applications in air traffic management and systems biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffard, Robin L.

    proves to greatly speed up the discovery of the system. We finally show applications of the method to SDE driven systems, through benchmark examples in engineering and finance.

  6. Characteristics of mass concentrations depending on synoptic features during airborne dustfall episodes observed at Cheongwon in Korea in 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hak-Sung; Chung, Yong-Seung

    2010-05-01

    Sandstorms in the desert and loess regions of north China and Mongolia, as well as the associated dustfall episodes on the Korean Peninsula, were monitored in 2005. The ground mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 were analyzed during dustfall episodes at Cheongwon, in central south Korea, based on synoptic features at surface, 850 hPa and 500 hPa levels. A total of seven dustfall episodes lasting eleven days were observed and the mass concentration ratios of PM2.5 and PM10 during dustfall episodes were classified into a severe dustfall episode (SDE) and a moderate dustfall episode (MDE) depending upon two synoptic features. The main synoptic feature was for SDEs, which occurred frequently under a surface anticyclone and cyclone located in the west and east of the Korean Peninsula with large amplitude trough at 500 hPa over the northern Korean Peninsula. The sandstorms at the source headed directly to Korea via a strong N-NW wind without passing through any large cities or industrial areas of east China. The PM10 mass concentration sharply increased during the SDEs; however, the fine aerosol fraction of PM2.5 levels was relatively low with 13.6% of the mass concentration. In a synoptic feature for MDEs, a slow moving cyclone headed to Korea via the industrial areas of northeastern China under a small amplitude trough at a 500 hPa level. A weak anticyclone was also located over China. MDEs showed low mass concentrations of coarse PM10 particles and large fraction of fine PM2.5 particles at 46.3%.

  7. Determination of the 2H/1H and 15N/14N ratios of Alkylpyrazines from coffee beans (Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephoravar. robusta) by isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Richling, Elke; Preston, Christina; Kavvadias, Dominique; Kahle, Kathrin; Heppel, Christopher; Hummel, Silvia; König, Thorsten; Schreier, Peter

    2005-10-01

    The delta15N(AIR) and delta2H(VSMOW) data for several alkylpyrazines formed during the roasting process of coffee are reported. Samples of commercially available roasted (n = 9) as well as self-roasted (n = 8) coffee beans (Coffea arabica L. and Coffea canephora var. robusta) of different origins were investigated. By use of extracts prepared by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE) and subsequently fractionated by liquid chromatography on silica gel, on-line capillary gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry was employed in the combustion (C) and pyrolysis (P) modes (HRGC-C/P-IRMS) to determine the delta15N(AIR) and delta2H(VSMOW) values, respectively. In addition to the constituents of coffee beans, data for commercial synthetic alkylpyrazines and substances declared to be "natural" were determined. The delta15N(AIR) data for coffee alkylpyrazines under study-2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine (1) and 2-ethyl-6-methylpyrazine (2) (measured as sum 1/2), 2-ethyl-3-methylpyrazine (3), 2-methylpyrazine (4), 2,5-dimethylpyrazine (5) and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine (6) (measured as sum 5/6), and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine (7), as well as 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine (8)-varied in the range from +8.3 to -10.2 per thousand, thus revealing their biogeneration from amino acids (delta15N(AIR) ranging from +8 per thousand to -10 per thousand). The delta2H(VSMOW) values were determined in the range from -5 per thousand to -127 per thousand. Owing to the analytical differentiation observed between coffee alkylpyrazines and synthetic/"natural" samples of 3, 4, and 7, authenticity assessment of coffee-flavored products seems to be promising, provided that extended data will be available in the future. In the literature, there were no IRMS data available for the alkylpyrazines (1-8) under study. PMID:16190651

  8. Multiscale modeling of mucosal immune responses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Computational modeling techniques are playing increasingly important roles in advancing a systems-level mechanistic understanding of biological processes. Computer simulations guide and underpin experimental and clinical efforts. This study presents ENteric Immune Simulator (ENISI), a multiscale modeling tool for modeling the mucosal immune responses. ENISI's modeling environment can simulate in silico experiments from molecular signaling pathways to tissue level events such as tissue lesion formation. ENISI's architecture integrates multiple modeling technologies including ABM (agent-based modeling), ODE (ordinary differential equations), SDE (stochastic modeling equations), and PDE (partial differential equations). This paper focuses on the implementation and developmental challenges of ENISI. A multiscale model of mucosal immune responses during colonic inflammation, including CD4+ T cell differentiation and tissue level cell-cell interactions was developed to illustrate the capabilities, power and scope of ENISI MSM. Background Computational techniques are becoming increasingly powerful and modeling tools for biological systems are of greater needs. Biological systems are inherently multiscale, from molecules to tissues and from nano-seconds to a lifespan of several years or decades. ENISI MSM integrates multiple modeling technologies to understand immunological processes from signaling pathways within cells to lesion formation at the tissue level. This paper examines and summarizes the technical details of ENISI, from its initial version to its latest cutting-edge implementation. Implementation Object-oriented programming approach is adopted to develop a suite of tools based on ENISI. Multiple modeling technologies are integrated to visualize tissues, cells as well as proteins; furthermore, performance matching between the scales is addressed. Conclusion We used ENISI MSM for developing predictive multiscale models of the mucosal immune system during gut

  9. Noise-Induced Phase Transitions: Effects of the Noises' Statistics and Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deza, Roberto R.; Wio, Horacio S.; Fuentes, Miguel A.

    2007-05-01

    The local, uncorrelated multiplicative noises driving a second-order, purely noise-induced, ordering phase transition (NIPT) were assumed to be Gaussian and white in the model of [Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3395 (1994)]. The potential scientific and technological interest of this phenomenon calls for a study of the effects of the noises' statistics and spectrum. This task is facilitated if these noises are dynamically generated by means of stochastic differential equations (SDE) driven by white noises. One such case is that of Ornstein-Uhlenbeck noises which are stationary, with Gaussian pdf and a variance reduced by the self-correlation time τ, and whose effect on the NIPT phase diagram has been studied some time ago. Another such case is when the stationary pdf is a (colored) Tsallis' q-Gaussian which, being a fat-tail distribution for q > 1 and a compact-support one for q < 1, allows for a controlled exploration of the effects of the departure from Gaussian statistics. As done before with stochastic resonance and other phenomena, we now exploit this tool to study—within a simple mean-field approximation and with an emphasis on the order parameter and the "susceptibility"—the combined effect on NIPT of the noises' statistics and spectrum. Even for relatively small τ, it is shown that whereas fat-tail noise distributions (q > 1) counteract the effect of self-correlation, compact-support ones (q < 1) enhance it. Also, an interesting effect on the susceptibility is seen in the last case.

  10. A WebGIS system on the base of satellite data processing system for marine application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Fang; Wang, Difeng; Huang, Haiqing; Chen, Jianyu

    2007-10-01

    From 2002 to 2004, a satellite data processing system for marine application had been built up in State Key Laboratory of Satellite Ocean Environment Dynamics (Second Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration). The system received satellite data from TERRA, AQUA, NOAA-12/15/16/17/18, FY-1D and automatically generated Level3 products and Level4 products(products of single orbit and merged multi-orbits products) deriving from Level0 data, which is controlled by an operational control sub-system. Currently, the products created by this system play an important role in the marine environment monitoring, disaster monitoring and researches. Now a distribution platform has been developed on this foundation, namely WebGIS system for querying and browsing of oceanic remote sensing data. This system is based upon large database system-Oracle. We made use of the space database engine of ArcSDE and other middleware to perform database operation in addition. J2EE frame was adopted as development model, and Oracle 9.2 DBMS as database background and server. Simply using standard browsers(such as IE6.0), users can visit and browse the public service information that provided by system, including browsing for oceanic remote sensing data, and enlarge, contract, move, renew, traveling, further data inquiry, attribution search and data download etc. The system is still under test now. Founding of such a system will become an important distribution platform of Chinese satellite oceanic environment products of special topic and category (including Sea surface temperature, Concentration of chlorophyll, and so on), for the exaltation of satellite products' utilization and promoting the data share and the research of the oceanic remote sensing platform.

  11. Effectiveness of primate seed dispersers for an "oversized" fruit, Garcinia benthamii.

    PubMed

    McConkey, Kim R; Brockelman, Warren Y; Saralamba, Chanpen; Nathalang, Anuttara

    2015-10-01

    The largest fruits found in tropical forests may depend on complementary seed dispersal strategies. These fruits are dispersed most effectively by megafauna, but populations can persist where megafauna are absent or erratic visitors. Smaller animals often consume these large fruits, but their capacity to disperse these seeds effectively has rarely been assessed. We evaluated the contributions of gibbons (Hylobates lar) and other frugivores in the seed dispersal of the megafaunal fruit Garcinia benthamii, using the SDE (seed dispersal effectiveness) landscape. Gibbons preferentially consumed G. benthamii fruits and were the main seed disperser that we observed. However, gibbons became satiated when availability was high, with 57% of fruits falling to the ground unhandled. Recruitment of seedlings from gibbon-dispersed seeds was also very low. Elephants consumed G. benthamii fruit, but occurred at low density and were rare visitors to the trees. We suggest that gibbons might complement the seed dispersal role of elephants for G. benthamii, allowing limited recruitment in areas (such as the study site) where elephants occur at low density. Fruit availability varied between years; when availability was low, gibbons reliably consumed most of the crop and dispersed some seeds that established seedlings, albeit at low numbers (2.5 seedlings per crop). When fruit availability was high, the fruit supply overwhelmed the gibbons and other arboreal frugivores, ensuring a large abundance of fruit available to terrestrial seed dispersers. Although gibbons effectively dispersed more seeds at these times (20.7 seedlings per crop), there was the potential for elephants to move many more seeds. Complementary seed dispersal strategies may be important for megafaunal fruit, because they ensure that very large fruits are able to benefit from megafaunal dispersal but also persist where this dispersal becomes erratic. However, our data suggest that smaller seed dispersers might not be

  12. Novel determination of radon-222 velocity in deep subsurface rocks, and the feasibility to using radon as an earthquake precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafrir, Hovav; Benhorin, Yochy; Malik, Uri; Chemo, Chaim

    2016-04-01

    An enhanced radon monitoring system was designed in order to study shallow versus deep subsurface processes affecting the appearance of radon anomalies. The method is based on the assumption that the climatic influence is limited since its energy decreases with the decrease in thickness of the geological cover whereby its effect is reduced to a negligible value at depth. Hence, lowering gamma and alpha detectors into deep boreholes and monitoring their temporal variations relative to a reference couple at shallow depths of 10-40 m eliminates the ambient thermal and pressure-induced contribution from the total radon time series. It allows highlighting the residual portion of the radon signals that might be associated with the geodynamic processes. The primary technological key is the higher sensitivity of the gamma detectors - in comparison to the solid-state alpha detectors, which are also suitable for threading into narrow boreholes in parallel to the narrow gamma detector (Zafrir et al., 2013*). The unique achievements of the novel system that was installed at the Sde Eliezer site close to the Hula Valley western border fault (HWBF) in northern Israel are: a) Determination, for the first time, of the radon movement velocity within rock layers at depths of several tens of meters, namely, 25 m per hour on average; b) Distinguishing between the diurnal periodical effect of the ambient temperature and the semi-diurnal effect of the ambient pressure on the radon temporal spectrum; c) Identification of a radon random pre-seismic anomaly preceding the Nuweiba, M 5.5 earthquake of 27 June 2015 that occurred within Dead Sea Fault Zone. * Zafrir, H., Barbosa, S.M. and Malik, U., 2013. Differentiation between the effect of temperature and pressure on radon within the subsurface geological media, Radiat. Meas., 49, 39-56. doi:10.1016/j.radmeas.2012.11.019.

  13. A synthetic design environment for ship design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chipman, Richard R.

    1995-01-01

    Rapid advances in computer science and information system technology have made possible the creation of synthetic design environments (SDE) which use virtual prototypes to increase the efficiency and agility of the design process. This next generation of computer-based design tools will rely heavily on simulation and advanced visualization techniques to enable integrated product and process teams to concurrently conceptualize, design, and test a product and its fabrication processes. This paper summarizes a successful demonstration of the feasibility of using a simulation based design environment in the shipbuilding industry. As computer science and information science technologies have evolved, there have been many attempts to apply and integrate the new capabilities into systems for the improvement of the process of design. We see the benefits of those efforts in the abundance of highly reliable, technologically complex products and services in the modern marketplace. Furthermore, the computer-based technologies have been so cost effective that the improvements embodied in modern products have been accompanied by lowered costs. Today the state-of-the-art in computerized design has advanced so dramatically that the focus is no longer on merely improving design methodology; rather the goal is to revolutionize the entire process by which complex products are conceived, designed, fabricated, tested, deployed, operated, maintained, refurbished and eventually decommissioned. By concurrently addressing all life-cycle issues, the basic decision making process within an enterprise will be improved dramatically, leading to new levels of quality, innovation, efficiency, and customer responsiveness. By integrating functions and people with an enterprise, such systems will change the fundamental way American industries are organized, creating companies that are more competitive, creative, and productive.

  14. The GEOSS Clearinghouse based on the GeoNetwork opensource

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, K.; Yang, C.; Wu, H.; Huang, Q.

    2010-12-01

    The Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) is established to support the study of the Earth system in a global community. It provides services for social management, quick response, academic research, and education. The purpose of GEOSS is to achieve comprehensive, coordinated and sustained observations of the Earth system, improve monitoring of the state of the Earth, increase understanding of Earth processes, and enhance prediction of the behavior of the Earth system. In 2009, GEO called for a competition for an official GEOSS clearinghouse to be selected as a source to consolidating catalogs for Earth observations. The Joint Center for Intelligent Spatial Computing at George Mason University worked with USGS to submit a solution based on the open-source platform - GeoNetwork. In the spring of 2010, the solution is selected as the product for GEOSS clearinghouse. The GEOSS Clearinghouse is a common search facility for the Intergovernmental Group on Ea rth Observation (GEO). By providing a list of harvesting functions in Business Logic, GEOSS clearinghouse can collect metadata from distributed catalogs including other GeoNetwork native nodes, webDAV/sitemap/WAF, catalog services for the web (CSW)2.0, GEOSS Component and Service Registry (http://geossregistries.info/), OGC Web Services (WCS, WFS, WMS and WPS), OAI Protocol for Metadata Harvesting 2.0, ArcSDE Server and Local File System. Metadata in GEOSS clearinghouse are managed in a database (MySQL, Postgresql, Oracle, or MckoiDB) and an index of the metadata is maintained through Lucene engine. Thus, EO data, services, and related resources can be discovered and accessed. It supports a variety of geospatial standards including CSW and SRU for search, FGDC and ISO metadata, and WMS related OGC standards for data access and visualization, as linked from the metadata.

  15. Establishment and characterization of duck embryo epithelial (DEE) cell line and its use as a new approach toward DHAV-1 propagation and vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxiu; Said, Abdelrahman; Wang, Yan; Fu, Qiang; Xiao, Yueqiang; Lv, Sufang; Shen, Zhiqiang

    2016-02-01

    The primary cell culture was derived from duck embryonic tissue, digested with collagenase type I. The existence of cell colonies with epithelial-like morphology, named duck embryo epithelial (DEE), were purified and optimally maintained at 37°C in M199 medium supplemented with 5% fetal bovine serum. The purified cells were identified as epithelial cell line by detecting Keratin-18 expression using immunofluorescence assay. Our findings demonstrated that DEE cell line can be propagated in culture with (i) a great capacity to adhere, (ii) a great proliferation activity, and (iii) a population doubling time of approximately 18h. Chromosomal features of the DEE cell line were remained constant after the 50th passage. Further characterizations of DEE cell line showed that cell line can normally be grown even after several passages and never converted to tumorigenic cells either in vitro or in vivo study. Susceptibility of DEE cell line was determined for transfection and duck hepatitis A type 1 virus (DHAV-1)-infection. Interestingly, the 50% egg lethal dose (ELD50) of the propagated virus in DEE cell line was higher than ELD50 of the propagated virus in embryonated eggs. Finally, DEE cell line was evaluated to be used as a candidate for DHAV-1 vaccine development. Our results showed that the propagated DHAV-1 vaccine strain SDE in DEE cell line was able to protect ducklings against DHAV-1 challenge. Taken together, our findings suggest that the DEE cell line can serve as a valuable tool for DHAV-1 propagation and vaccine production. PMID:26739426

  16. Preliminary prediction of inflow into the D-holes at the Stripa Mine

    SciTech Connect

    Long, J.C.S.; Karasaki, K.; Davey, A.; Peterson, J.; Landsfeld, M.; Kemeny, J.; Martel, S.

    1990-02-01

    Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is contracted by the US Department of Energy to provide an auxiliary modeling effort for the Stripa Project. Within this effort, we are making calculations of inflow to the Simulated Drift Experiment (SDE), i.e. inflow to six parallel, closely spaced D-holes, using a preliminary set of data collected in five other holes, the N- and W-holes during Stages 1 and 2 of the Site Characterization and Validation (SCV) project. Our approach has been to focus on the fracture zones rather than the general set of ubiquitous fractures. Approximately 90% of all the water flowing in the rock is flowing in fracture zones which are neither uniformly conductive nor are they infinitely extensive. Our approach has been to adopt the fracture zone locations as they have been identified with geophysics. We use geologic sense and the original geophysical data to add one zone where significant water inflow has been observed that can not be explained with the other geophysical zones. This report covers LBL's preliminary prediction of flow into the D-holes. Care should be taken in interpreting the results given in this report. As explained below, the approach that LBL has designed for developing a fracture hydrology model requires cross-hole hydrologic data. Cross-hole tests are planned for Stage 3 but were unavailable in Stage 1. As such, we have inferred from available data what a cross-hole test might show and used this synthetic data to make a preliminary calculation of the inflow into the D-holes. Then using all the Stage 3 data we will calculate flow into the Validation Drift itself. The report mainly demonstrates the use of our methodology and the simulated results should be considered preliminary.

  17. NPOESS Field Terminal Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heckmann, G.; Route, G.

    2009-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Defense (DoD), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation weather and environmental satellite system; the National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). NPOESS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) managed by the DoD. The NPOESS satellites carry a suite of sensors that collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground data processing segment for NPOESS is the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS), developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems. The IDPS processes NPOESS satellite data to provide environmental data products (aka, Environmental Data Records or EDRs) to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. The IDPS will process EDRs beginning with the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) and continuing through the lifetime of the NPOESS system. IDPS also provides the software and requirements for the Field Terminal Segment (FTS). NPOESS provides support to deployed field terminals by providing mission data in the Low Rate and High Rate downlinks (LRD/HRD), mission support data needed to generate EDRs and decryption keys needed to decrypt mission data during Selective data Encryption (SDE). Mission support data consists of globally relevant data, geographically constrained data, and two line element sets. NPOESS provides these mission support data via the Internet accessible Mission Support Data Server and HRD/LRD downlinks. This presentation will illustrate and describe the NPOESS capabilities in support of Field Terminal users. This discussion will include the mission support data available to Field Terminal users, content of the direct broadcast HRD and LRD

  18. Evaluation of proton-conducting membranes for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elvington, Mark C.; Colón-Mercado, Héctor; McCatty, Steve; Stone, Simon G.; Hobbs, David T.

    The chemical stability, sulfur dioxide transport, ionic conductivity, and electrolyzer performance have been measured for several commercially available and experimental proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for use in a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE). The SDEs function is to produce hydrogen by using the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, a sulfur-based electrochemical/thermochemical hybrid cycle. Membrane stability was evaluated using a screening process where each candidate PEM was heated at 80 °C in 60 wt% H 2SO 4 for 24 h. Following acid exposure, chemical stability for each membrane was evaluated by FTIR using the ATR sampling technique. Membrane SO 2 transport was evaluated using a two-chamber permeation cell. SO 2 was introduced into one chamber whereupon SO 2 transported across the membrane into the other chamber and oxidized to H 2SO 4 at an anode positioned immediately adjacent to the membrane. The resulting current was used to determine the SO 2 flux and SO 2 transport. Additionally, membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were prepared from candidate membranes to evaluate ionic conductivity and selectivity (ionic conductivity vs. SO 2 transport) which can serve as a tool for selecting membranes. MEAs were also performance tested in a HyS electrolyzer measuring current density vs. a constant cell voltage (1 V, 80 °C in SO 2 saturated 30 wt% H 2SO 4). Finally, candidate membranes were evaluated considering all measured parameters including SO 2 flux, SO 2 transport, ionic conductivity, HyS electrolyzer performance, and membrane stability. Candidate membranes included both PFSA and non-PFSA polymers and polymer blends of which the non-PFSA polymers, BPVE-6F and PBI, showed the best selectivity.

  19. Determination of nonylphenol isomers in landfill leachate and municipal wastewater using steam distillation extraction coupled with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Caixiang; Eganhouse, Robert P.; Pontolillo, James; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Wang, Yanxin

    2012-01-01

    4-Nonylphenols (4-NPs) are known endocrine disruptors and by-products of the microbial degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylate surfactants. One of the challenges to understanding the toxic effects of nonylphenols is the large number of isomers that may exist in environmental samples. In order to attribute toxic effects to specific compounds, a method is needed for the separation and quantitation of individual nonylphenol isomers. The pre-concentration methods of solvent sublimation, solid-phase extraction or liquid–liquid extraction prior to chromatographic analysis can be problematic because of co-extraction of thousands of compounds typically found in complex matrices such as municipal wastewater or landfill leachate. In the present study, steam distillation extraction (SDE) was found to be an effective pre-concentration method for extraction of 4-NPs from leachate and wastewater, and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled with fast mass spectral data acquisition by time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToFMS) enhanced the resolution and identification of 4-NP isomers. Concentrations of eight 4-NP isomers were determined in leachate from landfill cells of different age and wastewater influent and effluent samples. 4-NP isomers were about 3 times more abundant in leachate from the younger cell than the older one, whereas concentrations in wastewater effluent were either below detection limits or <1% of influent concentrations. 4-NP isomer distribution patterns were found to have been altered following release to the environment. This is believed to reflect isomer-specific degradation and accumulation of 4-NPs in the aquatic environment.

  20. REVIEW: Going beyond the LIBOR model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaheri, Alireza

    2004-06-01

    Having a mostly equity derivatives background, I was concerned that I would find this book too complex. I therefore started reading it with misgiving. However, the first thing Rebonato does is to give a concise yet thorough history of the evolution of interest-rate derivatives. Starting with the famous Black model, one assumes that either the forward rate or the swap rate (fixed rate) is log-normal. Using the forward rate would allow us to deal with the `pull to par' phenomenon: the fact that the price of a bond must be par at its maturity. Note that, as Rebonato points out, some were even ignoring this phenomenon and using the Black - Scholes pricing formula. The justification was that in their cases, the bond maturity was far beyond the option maturity. This model has been, and still is, popular due to its simplicity and the fact that it allows us to price many vanilla instruments (caps and swaptions) exactly. However, as Rebonato keeps telling us, this exact replication is deceiving. Indeed they take place under different probability measures and, therefore, the replications are inconsistent with one another. This means that if you were to price an exotic derivative with multiple call dates or exercise dates, you would not have one internally plausible framework to do so. Then came the short-rate models such as the Vasicek model or the Cox, Ingersoll and Ross (CIR) model. They treated the instantaneous short interest rate as the driving force of the term structure. This short rate therefore followed a stochastic differential equation (SDE) of its own which was mean reverting. However, these models did not guarantee matching of the market. An extension to these models, mainly by Hull and White on the one hand and Jamshidian on the other hand, was the following: make the drift term a time-dependent deterministic function that we would resolve in order to match various vanilla prices. But once again, the same issue raises its ugly head. If we are pricing non

  1. Application of The Stochastic Particle Tracking Model To Evaluate Particle Movement Uncertainty in Extreme Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, C.; Lin, E.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, modeling of suspended sediment particle movement in extreme flows is proposed by stochastic particle tracking modeling approaches. The proposed stochastic model is governed by a stochastic differential equation (SDE) composed of two random processes (a Wiener process and a Poisson process), and a random variable (i.e., flow magnitude) simulated by the extreme value Type I distribution. An extreme flow is defined as a hydrologic flow event (such as a flash flood) or a large flow perturbation with a low probability of occurrence and a high impact on its ambient flow environment. In the proposed particle tracking model, a random term mainly caused by fluid eddy motions is modeled as a Wiener process, while the random occurrences of a sequence of extreme flows can be modeled as a Poisson process. Following previous work by Oh and Tsai (2010)[1] and Tsai et al. (2014)[2], this study is intended to modify the jump term, which models the abrupt changes of particle position in the extreme flow environments. It is proposed that the probabilistic magnitude of extreme events can be simulated by the extreme value type I (EV I) distribution. The ensemble mean and variance of particle trajectory can be obtained from the proposed stochastic models via simulations. Our findings suggest that the ability to consider the probabilistic magnitude of extreme events can provide a more comprehensive and realistic estimate of the uncertainty of particle movement when extreme flow events occur. It is also found that the variance of particle position may be attributed to both the random magnitudes and occurrences of particle jumps in the presence of extreme flow events. It is demonstrated from this study that the proposed model can more explicitly quantify the uncertainty of particle movement by taking into considerations both the random arrival process of extreme flows and the variability of the extreme flow magnitude. [1] Oh, J. S., and Tsai, C.W.(2010). "A stochastic jump

  2. Reverse Phase-ultra Flow Liquid Chromatography-diode Array Detector Quantification of Anticancerous and Antidiabetic Drug Mangiferin from 11 Species of Swertia from India

    PubMed Central

    Kshirsagar, Parthraj R.; Gaikwad, Nikhil B.; Panda, Subhasis; Hegde, Harsha V.; Pai, Sandeep R.

    2016-01-01

    best of our knowledge this is the first report of higher content of mangiferin from Swertia species. Abbreviations used: LOD: Limit of detection, LOQ: Limit of quantification, RP-UFLC-DAD: Reverse phase-ultra flow liquid chromatography-diode array detector, RSD: Relative standard deviation, SAN: Swertia angustifolia, SAP: Swertia angustifolia var. pulchella, SBI: S. bimaculata, SCH: S. chirayita, SCO: S. corymbosa, SDE: S. densifolia, SDI: S. dialatata, SLA: S. lawii, SMI: S. minor; SNE: S. nervosa, and SPA: S. paniculata PMID:27041855

  3. Systematic management of environmental monitoring data for radioactive waste repository

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, C. G.; Park, S. M.; Lim, Y. S.; Lee, H. J.; Park, J. W.; Kim, C. L.

    2003-04-01

    For the safe management of radwaste repository, data of the site and environment have to be collected and managed systematically. Particularly, for the radwaste repository, which has to be institutionally controlled for a long period after closure, data will be collected and maintained through the monitoring programme. To meet this requirement, a new programme called ``Site Information and Total Environmental data management System (SITES)" is being developed. The scope and function of the SITES programme are issued from the first stage of the SITES development. The hardware composed of a server and clients is constructed within those extents. The software system is developed with database and the three-tier server/client system consisted of a server, the middle-ware and PC client. The server is for the DB/GIS managements, and the PC client offers variable GUI in respect of end-user. A middle-ware is for the system management such as transaction. For this system, ArcSDE(ESRI) is used for unifying the spatial/attribute data to the Relative Database Management System. In the server/client system, the function of spatial illustration and analysis is embodied through ArcGIS. The SITES programme is designed with two modules of the Database Management System and the Monitoring and Assessment. The DBMS module is composed of two sub-modules. One is the Site Information Management System, which manages data on site characterization such as topography, geology, hydrogeology, engineering geology, etc. The other is the ENVironmental Information management System, which manages environmental data required for environmental assessment study. To enhance the effectiveness of SIMS and ENVIS, the objects are itemized through analyzing the end-user's demands reflected from domestic regulatory guidelines. The database is constructed based on Entity Relationship Diagram produced from each item. Also using ArcGIS with the spatial characteristics of the data, it enables groundwater and

  4. Spoke cavity power coupler conceptual design work for the HEL-JTO beam exp.

    SciTech Connect

    Rusnak, B

    2007-10-09

    The objective of this report was to create a low-cost, modest-power RF coupler for a SRF spoke cavity beam test of electrons test to be done at LANL. Developing the design for this magnetically-coupled SRF spoke cavity testing coupler was basically straightforward since the cavity coupling port needed to be one of the 1.22-inch ID ports, and the power level was limited by the available RF to less than 400 W TW power. In addition, the coupler would be immersed in bath cryostat filled with liquid helium, and ultimately used in a pulsed mode to accelerate beam, thereby significantly relaxing the thermal loads on the coupler. Combining the above considerations with the level of resources available for this task, emphasis was placed on rapidly developing a robust, reliable design that would use commercially-available components as available to save design, engineering, and fabrication costs. Analysis was also kept to a minimum. As such, the design incorporates the following features: (1) Use of a commercially-available Type-N ceramic feedthrough. For the power and frequency range of the test, with the feedthrough immersed in LHe, it was felt the Type-N feedthrough would provide a robust, low-cost vacuum window solution. (2) The coupler outer conductors would be solid OFE copper that is brazed into two 2.75-inch CFF, with the cavity-sde flange being rotatable to allow minor Qx adjustments by rotating the coupler. The braze joint shown has the copper brazed into a groove in the SST to ensure maximum strength for successive thermal cyclings. The outer wall of the copper between the two flanges serves as the heat sink for depositing coupler heat to the liquid helium. (3) The inner conductor would be solid OFE copper brazed to the outer conductor at the top to ensure maximum thermal conductivity from the outer thermal sink area to the base of the feedthrough. A mass-reducing hole is placed down the center of the inner conductor to decrease thermal mass and weight. (4) This

  5. Rain events in an arid environment — Their distribution and ionic and isotopic composition patterns: Makhtesh Ramon Basin, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nativ, Ronit; Mazor, Emanuel

    1987-01-01

    Forty-six individual rain events and successive fractions of these events were studied with a network of instruments in the arid Makhtesh Ramon Basin, southern Israel, during 1981/1983 Annual rainfall varied from 47 to 107 mm, number of rain events varied from 8 to 20 per year, start of the rainy season varied from September to January, termination of the rainy season varied from March to May and length of the rainy season varied from 4 to 9 months. About 85% of the rain events were recorded at more than one station, indicating an aerial distribution exceeding 20 km. A cliff amount effect was observed — the rain on the cliff (800 m) was 73% more than the rain at the bottom of the Makhtesh (500 m). Dust samples revealed the following soluble ions (in equivalents): Ca 2+ ≫ Mg 2+ > Na + ≫ K + and HCO -3 > Cl - > SO 2-4. The dust also contained CaCl 2. Rain composition of 61 analyzed samples revealed (in equivalents): Ca 2+ > Na + > Mg 2+ ≫ K + and HCO -3 > Cl - > SO 2-4, neutral pH of 7.1-7.6, and presence of CaCl 2. A similar pattern was observed in 54 samples collected during the same period at Sde Boker, 30 km north of the Ramon, thus typifying the Negev Heights. Two distinct sources of dissolved ions were inferred: dust, providing mainly Ca(HCO 3) 2, and cloud-borne sea spray, providing mainly Na +, Mg 2+, Cl - and SO 2-4. A chemical and isotopic effect was observed — the rain of the rainier year contained 34% less dissolved ions and was isotopically lighter in δ 18O by 54% than the rain of the less rainy year. A chemical and isotopic front effect was observed — the first fraction of the individual rain events contained more dissolved ions (32-69%) and was enriched by more δ 18O (31%) than the subsequent rain fractions. The observed rain distribution and chemical isotopic effects are discussed in terms of input sources, evaporation processes and altitude effects. The obtained data define rain and salt inputs into the hydrological systems.

  6. Integrating Numerical Groundwater Modeling Results With Geographic Information Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkowski, M. S.; Robinson, B. A.; Linger, S. P.

    2001-12-01

    Many different types of data are used to create numerical models of flow and transport of groundwater in the vadose zone. Results from water balance studies, infiltration models, hydrologic properties, and digital elevation models (DEMs) are examples of such data. Because input data comes in a variety of formats, for consistency the data need to be assembled in a coherent fashion on a single platform. Through the use of a geographic information system (GIS), all data sources can effectively be integrated on one platform to store, retrieve, query, and display data. In our vadoze zone modeling studies in support of Los Alamos National Laboratory's Environmental Restoration Project, we employ a GIS comprised of a Raid storage device, an Oracle database, ESRI's spatial database engine (SDE), ArcView GIS, and custom GIS tools for three-dimensional (3D) analysis. We store traditional GIS data, such as, contours, historical building footprints, and study area locations, as points, lines, and polygons with attributes. Numerical flow and transport model results from the Finite Element Heat and Mass Transfer Code (FEHM) are stored as points with attributes, such as fluid saturation, or pressure, or contaminant concentration at a given location. We overlay traditional types of GIS data with numerical model results, thereby allowing us to better build conceptual models and perform spatial analyses. We have also developed specialized analysis tools to assist in the data and model analysis process. This approach provides an integrated framework for performing tasks such as comparing the model to data and understanding the relationship of model predictions to existing contaminant source locations and water supply wells. Our process of integrating GIS and numerical modeling results allows us to answer a wide variety of questions about our conceptual model design: - Which set of locations should be identified as contaminant sources based on known historical building operations

  7. The Ice Selective Inlet: a novel technique for exclusive extraction of pristine ice crystals in mixed-phase clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupiszewski, P.; Weingartner, E.; Vochezer, P.; Schnaiter, M.; Bigi, A.; Gysel, M.; Rosati, B.; Toprak, E.; Mertes, S.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-08-01

    proof of concept of the inlet design. In this work we present the setup of the ISI, including the modelling and laboratory characterization of its components, as well as field measurements demonstrating the ISI performance and validating the working principle of the inlet. Finally, measurements of biological aerosol during a Saharan dust event (SDE) are presented, showing a first indication of enrichment of bio-material in sub-2 μm ice residuals.

  8. An electrified dust storm over the Negev desert, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yair, Y.; Price, C. G.; Yaniv, R.; Katz, S.

    2015-12-01

    We report on atmospheric electrical measurements conducted at the Wise Observatory in Mitzpe-Ramon, Israel (30035'N, 34045'E) during a massive dust storm that occurred over the Eastern Mediterranean region on 10-11 February 2015. The event transported Saharan dust from Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula in advance of the warm front of a Cyprus low pressure system. Satellite images show the dust plume covering the Negev desert and Southern Israel and moving north. The concentrations of PM10 particles measured by the air-quality monitoring network of the Israeli Ministry of the Environment in Beer-Sheba reached values > 450 μg m-3 and AOT from the AERONET station in Sde-Boker was 1.5 on the 10th. The gradual intensification of the event reached peak values on February 11th of over 1200 μg m-3 and AOT of 1.8. This was the most severe dust event in a decade. Continuous measurements of the fair weather vertical electric field (Ez) and vertical current density (Jz) were conducted with 1 minute temporal resolution. Meteorological data was also recorded at the site. As the dust was advected over the observation site, we noted very large fluctuations in the electrical parameters. Since the onset of the dust storm, the Ez values changed between +1000 and +8000 V m-1 while the Jz fluctuated between -10 pA m2 and +20 pA m2, both on time-scales of a few minutes. These values are a significant departures from the mean fair-weather values measured at the site, which are -~200 V m-1 and ~2 pA m2. The disturbed episodes lasted for several hours on the 10th and 11th and coincided with local meteorological conditions related to the wind direction, which carried large amounts of dust particles. We interpret the rapid changes as caused by the transport of electrically charged dust. Calculation of the total electrical charge during the dust storm will be presented.

  9. The Use of Geographic Information Technologies in Environmental Decision-Making in the State of Michoacan, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, Silva García José; Gustavo, Cruz Cárdenas; Salvador, Ochoa Estrada; Franciso, Estrada Godoy; Fabian, Villalpando Barragán

    2008-05-01

    One of the most urgent issues facing the human environment, a result of current human evolution is the increase in the production of Urban Solid Waste (USW). The State of Michoacán is no exception; the presence of waste facilities in the area is a very big problem and one with a strong geographical content (Mena et al., 2006). SIGs are one tool for addressing this kind of need. A model which has been commonly used for selecting areas for the final deposit of USW, and which has obtained good results, is so-called multicriterion decision-making. It has been applied in the context of integral USW management, and has generated both a methodology for the determination of safe places for final waste deposit and an Environmental Risk Index (ERI), which fulfills the requirements indicated by the Official Mexican Norm (NOM-083-SEMARNAT-2003). The methodology consists of a quadrant analysis of 25 ha of five factors. A rank was assigned to each of the factors, and this rank was standardized according to a scale from 0 to 10 and subsequently multiplied by a weight (W) which numerically represents the degree of importance and influence of each factor in the environment. Five represented the largest impact, and two represented the smallest impact. The ERI is the sum of the five factors considered and it is represented by means of the following equation: ERI = VVw+UsUsw+FrFrw+ln lnw+Zi Ziw, where ERI is the Environmental Risk Index, V Vw is the aquifer vulnerability, Us Usw represents the use of the soil, Fr Frw refers to the fracturing density, ln lnw represents the domain of the urban and industrial infrastructure, and Zi Ziw refers to flood zones. This was shown to be successful in different regions of Michoacán State, such as the Bajío area, the Paísde la Mariposa Monarca and Tierra Caliente. Another example is its application in the hydrogeologic context, which generated the Aquifer Veda index (a restriction diagram for the opening of new exploitations), and which is

  10. Selection of optimal complexity for ENSO-EMR model by minimum description length principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loskutov, E. M.; Mukhin, D.; Mukhina, A.; Gavrilov, A.; Kondrashov, D. A.; Feigin, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    One of the main problems arising in modeling of data taken from natural system is finding a phase space suitable for construction of the evolution operator model. Since we usually deal with strongly high-dimensional behavior, we are forced to construct a model working in some projection of system phase space corresponding to time scales of interest. Selection of optimal projection is non-trivial problem since there are many ways to reconstruct phase variables from given time series, especially in the case of a spatio-temporal data field. Actually, finding optimal projection is significant part of model selection, because, on the one hand, the transformation of data to some phase variables vector can be considered as a required component of the model. On the other hand, such an optimization of a phase space makes sense only in relation to the parametrization of the model we use, i.e. representation of evolution operator, so we should find an optimal structure of the model together with phase variables vector. In this paper we propose to use principle of minimal description length (Molkov et al., 2009) for selection models of optimal complexity. The proposed method is applied to optimization of Empirical Model Reduction (EMR) of ENSO phenomenon (Kravtsov et al. 2005, Kondrashov et. al., 2005). This model operates within a subset of leading EOFs constructed from spatio-temporal field of SST in Equatorial Pacific, and has a form of multi-level stochastic differential equations (SDE) with polynomial parameterization of the right-hand side. Optimal values for both the number of EOF, the order of polynomial and number of levels are estimated from the Equatorial Pacific SST dataset. References: Ya. Molkov, D. Mukhin, E. Loskutov, G. Fidelin and A. Feigin, Using the minimum description length principle for global reconstruction of dynamic systems from noisy time series, Phys. Rev. E, Vol. 80, P 046207, 2009 Kravtsov S, Kondrashov D, Ghil M, 2005: Multilevel regression

  11. A Web-Based GIS for Reporting Water Usage in the High Plains Underground Water Conservation District

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, M.; Deeds, N.; Winckler, M.

    2012-12-01

    The High Plains Underground Water Conservation District (HPWD) is the largest and oldest of the Texas water conservation districts, and oversees approximately 1.7 million irrigated acres. Recent rule changes have motivated HPWD to develop a more automated system to allow owners and operators to report well locations, meter locations, meter readings, the association between meters and wells, and contiguous acres. INTERA, Inc. has developed a web-based interactive system for HPWD water users to report water usage and for the district to better manage its water resources. The HPWD web management system utilizes state-of-the-art GIS techniques, including cloud-based Amazon EC2 virtual machine, ArcGIS Server, ArcSDE and ArcGIS Viewer for Flex, to support web-based water use management. The system enables users to navigate to their area of interest using a well-established base-map and perform a variety of operations and inquiries against their spatial features. The application currently has six components: user privilege management, property management, water meter registration, area registration, meter-well association and water use report. The system is composed of two main databases: spatial database and non-spatial database. With the help of Adobe Flex application at the front end and ArcGIS Server as the middle-ware, the spatial feature geometry and attributes update will be reflected immediately in the back end. As a result, property owners, along with the HPWD staff, collaborate together to weave the fabric of the spatial database. Interactions between the spatial and non-spatial databases are established by Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) services to record water-use report, user-property associations, owner-area associations, as well as meter-well associations. Mobile capabilities will be enabled in the near future for field workers to collect data and synchronize them to the spatial database. The entire solution is built on a highly scalable cloud

  12. CHARACTERIZATION TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF SINGLE CELL SO2 DEPOLARIZED ELECTROLYZER

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J; Timothy Steeper, T

    2006-09-15

    This document reports work performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that further develops the use of a proton exchange membrane or PEM-type electrochemical cell to produce hydrogen via SO{sub 2}-depolarized water electrolysis. This work was begun at SRNL in 2005. This research is valuable in achieving the ultimate goal of an economical hydrogen production process based on the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Cycle. The HyS Process is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by water-splitting. Like all other sulfur-based cycles, HyS utilizes the high temperature thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the acid decomposition portion of the cycle. The focus of this work was to conduct single cell electrolyzer tests in order to prove the concept of SO{sub 2}-depolarization and to determine how the results can be used to evaluate the performance of key components of the HyS Process. A test facility for conducting SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) testing was designed, constructed and commissioned. The maximum cell current is 50 amperes, which is equivalent to a hydrogen production rate of approximately 20 liters per hour. Feed to the anode of the electrolyzer is sulfuric acid solutions containing dissolved sulfur dioxide. The partial pressure of sulfur dioxide may be varied in the range of 1 to 6 atm (15 to 90 psia). Temperatures may be controlled in the range from ambient to 80 C. Hydrogen generated at the cathode of the cell is collected for the purpose of flow measurement and composition analysis. The test facility proved to be easy to

  13. From dust to varnish: Geochemical constraints on rock varnish formation in the Negev Desert, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, Yonaton; Stein, Mordechai; Enzel, Yehouda

    2014-02-01

    its varnish formation, Mn2+ is oxidized by one of the mechanisms presented by Morgan (2005). Morgan's data pertains to the rate in which Mn2+ is removed from the solution, and not to the rate of precipitation of Mn-oxides; the assumption used here is that the formation rate of Mn oxides is equal or faster than the removal rate of Mn2+, and therefore it is governed by the removal rate of Mn2+ from the solution. The efficiency of dissolution and deposition of Mn in varnish is unknown. Therefore, our calculations are based on full utilization (i.e., all Mn in the dust is transformed into Mn oxides in the varnish). Dust is abundant and its supply does not limit the process: this assumption is probably valid for deserts in general and more so to the central and southern Negev. Oxidation can occur only when moisture is available. The main moisture contributor to the Negev varnish is most likely dew (Goldsmith et al., 2012). To quantify the annual dew amounts, we used Zangvil (1996) data of an average of ˜1400 h/yr, which was measured over a six year period (at Sde Boker located between Divshon I and Nahal Boker in Fig. 1). For the following calculations, we used sites located in the central Negev, where it can be assumed that these sites experienced a similar moister regime as in Sde Boker. Morgan (2005) calculated the half-life for oxidation of Mn2+ in an aqueous environment. As stated above, these conditions prevail during ˜1400 h yr-1. With a Mn concentration in the dust of ˜500 ppm, the maximum amounts of Mn that would accumulate a year is: 35,000, 490, and 36 ppmMn yr-1 via bacterial oxidation, metal oxide catalysts, and homogenous solution oxidation, respectively.To estimate accumulation rates of Mn in the varnish, we calculated the total amount of Mn (MnTOT) in the measured profiles of the varnish by using an integral of the area under the graphs of [Mn]/depth (% atom/μm) (see appendix in Goldsmith, 2011). The MnTOT was divided by 9000 yr (the time interval since

  14. From dust to varnish: Geochemical constraints on rock varnish formation in the Negev Desert, Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, Yonaton; Stein, Mordechai; Enzel, Yehouda

    2014-02-01

    its varnish formation, Mn2+ is oxidized by one of the mechanisms presented by Morgan (2005). Morgan's data pertains to the rate in which Mn2+ is removed from the solution, and not to the rate of precipitation of Mn-oxides; the assumption used here is that the formation rate of Mn oxides is equal or faster than the removal rate of Mn2+, and therefore it is governed by the removal rate of Mn2+ from the solution. The efficiency of dissolution and deposition of Mn in varnish is unknown. Therefore, our calculations are based on full utilization (i.e., all Mn in the dust is transformed into Mn oxides in the varnish). Dust is abundant and its supply does not limit the process: this assumption is probably valid for deserts in general and more so to the central and southern Negev. Oxidation can occur only when moisture is available. The main moisture contributor to the Negev varnish is most likely dew (Goldsmith et al., 2012). To quantify the annual dew amounts, we used Zangvil (1996) data of an average of ˜1400 h/yr, which was measured over a six year period (at Sde Boker located between Divshon I and Nahal Boker in Fig. 1). For the following calculations, we used sites located in the central Negev, where it can be assumed that these sites experienced a similar moister regime as in Sde Boker. Morgan (2005) calculated the half-life for oxidation of Mn2+ in an aqueous environment. As stated above, these conditions prevail during ˜1400 h yr-1. With a Mn concentration in the dust of ˜500 ppm, the maximum amounts of Mn that would accumulate a year is: 35,000, 490, and 36 ppmMn yr-1 via bacterial oxidation, metal oxide catalysts, and homogenous solution oxidation, respectively.To estimate accumulation rates of Mn in the varnish, we calculated the total amount of Mn (MnTOT) in the measured profiles of the varnish by using an integral of the area under the graphs of [Mn]/depth (% atom/μm) (see appendix in Goldsmith, 2011). The MnTOT was divided by 9000 yr (the time interval since

  15. Integrated data management system of Korean marine geological and geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Sang-Ho; Kim, Sung-Dae; Park, Soo-Young; Park, Hyuk-Min; Lee, Jin-Hee

    2013-04-01

    maps, some of the submitted data were excluded from collected data files. Finally we could establish the integrated DB system contains 4,522 seismic data files, 14,189,005 magnetic data, 3,515,831 gravity data, 1,638 surface sediment data and 9,023 core sediment data. Oracle RDBMS was adopted to manage the collected data and Oracle 11g was installed on UNIX system. Considering the data characteristics, DB structure was designed and 38 DB tables were created in the DB system. All data was stored into DB system using Oracle SQL Loader. The geographic information system was introduced to manage spatial information of oceanographic data and provide data effectively using map interface. All collected position data of the marine geological data and geophysical data was converted to Esri shapefile format using UTM coordination system based on WGS 84 datum. ArcGIS desktop software was utilized to import position data from ASCII files, manipulate data and produce shapefile data. To save and manage shapefile data systematically, a GeoDatabse was devloped using the Oracle RDBMS and ArcGIS SDE (Spatial Database Engine). Total 40 DB tables were created in the Oracle 11g and all shapefile data was stored into DB system. We made the linkage between data of the GeoDatabase and data of the Archive DB for comprephensive data and information provision. A GIS application based on ArcGIS Engine was developed to provide geographic information and observed values of oceanogrpahic data. The window of the GIS application consists of map window, image viewer, graph viewer and SEG-Y viewer.

  16. Satellite Altimetry And Radiometry for Inland Hydrology, Coastal Sea-Level And Environmental Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Kuo-Hsin

    Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Meanwhile, the computation of surface level variation at identified water region matches well with nearby in situ gauge data. In second application we use synergistic altimetry and remote sensing data to characterize water bodies’ variation in Poyang Lake, China. The accurate measurement of lake surface variation dominates the potential extent of habitat for certain Oncomelania snails to reside, while this species of snail transmits certain infectious disease (ID) Schistosomiasis. We use Envisat and various MODIS products to obtain former revealed geophysical factors that affect snail’s ecosystem, to simulate favorable residence for the intermediating snail. The simulation of habitat extent matches fairly well with the official estimation reported from China’s health administration during 2002-2007. The third application, with multispectral reflectance data given by the MERIS onboard Envisat, is to demonstrate the potential capability in quantifying the harmful algal bloom (HAB) alongshore Lake Erie, in regard to certain cyanobacteria (i.e. Microcystis) that endanger water qualities. After comparing with the in situ laboratory analysis, a correlation coefficient, standard deviation of error (SDE), and a bias are obtained in between. Finally, we display the lake level variation using Envisat altimetry and MODIS water temperature product, to demonstrate the possibility in modelling the onset timing of toxic cyanobacteria bloom using spaceborne observations.

  17. Atmospheric Electricity Effects of Eastern Mediterranean Dust Storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Shai; Yair, Yoav; Yaniv, Roy; Price, Colin

    2016-04-01

    We present atmospheric electrical measurements conducted at the Wise Observatory (WO) in Mizpe-Ramon (30035'N, 34045'E) and Mt. Hermon (30024'N, 35051'E), Israel, during two massive and unique dust storms that occurred over the Eastern Mediterranean region on February 10-11 and September 08-12, 2015. The first event transported Saharan dust from Egypt and the Sinai Peninsula in advance of a warm front of a Cyprus low pressure system. In the second event, dust particles were transported from the Syrian desert, which dominates the north-east border with Iraq, through flow associated with a shallow Persian trough system. In both events the concentrations of PM10 particles measured by the air-quality monitoring network of the Israeli Ministry of the Environment in Beer-Sheba reached values > 2200 μg m-3. Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) obtained from the AERONET station in Sde-Boker reached values up to 4.0. The gradual intensification of the first event reached peak values on the February 11th > 1200 μg m-3 and an AOT ~ 1.8, while the second dust storm commenced on September 8th with a sharp increase reaching peak values of 2225 μg m-3 and AOT of 4.0. Measurements of the fair weather vertical electric field (Ez) and of the vertical current density (Jz) were conducted continuously with a 1 minute temporal resolution. During the February event, very large fluctuations in the electrical parameters were measured at the WO. The Ez values changed between +1000 and +8000 V m-1 while the Jz fluctuated between -10 and +20 pA m-2 (this is an order of magnitude larger compared to the fair weather current density of ~2 pA m-2. In contrast, during the September event, Ez values registered at WO were between -430 and +10 V m-1 while the Jz fluctuated between -6 and +3 pA m2. For the September event the Hermon site showed Ez and Jz values fluctuating between -460 and +570 V m-1 and -14.5 and +18 pA m-2 respectively. The electric field and current variability, amplitude and the

  18. CLOSEOUT REPORT FOR HYBRID SULFUR PRESSURIZED BUTTON CELL TEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Steeper, T.

    2010-09-15

    This document is the Close-Out Report for design and partial fabrication of the Pressurized Button Cell Test Facility at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This facility was planned to help develop the sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) that is a key component of the Hybrid Sulfur Cycle for generating hydrogen. The purpose of this report is to provide as much information as possible in case the decision is made to resume research. This report satisfies DOE Milestone M3GSR10VH030107.0. The HyS Cycle is a hybrid thermochemical cycle that may be used in conjunction with advanced nuclear reactors or centralized solar receivers to produce hydrogen by watersplitting. The HyS Cycle utilizes the high temperature (>800 C) thermal decomposition of sulfuric acid to produce oxygen and regenerate sulfur dioxide. The unique aspect of HyS is the generation of hydrogen in a water electrolyzer that is operated under conditions where dissolved sulfur dioxide depolarizes the anodic reaction, resulting in substantial voltage reduction. Low cell voltage is essential for both high thermodynamic efficiency and low hydrogen cost. Sulfur dioxide is oxidized at the anode, producing sulfuric acid that is sent to the high temperature acid decomposition portion of the cycle. Sulfur dioxide from the decomposer is cycled back to electrolyzers. The electrolyzer cell uses the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) concept. Anode and cathode are formed by spraying a catalyst, typically platinized carbon, on both sides of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM). SRNL has been testing SDEs for several years including an atmospheric pressure Button Cell electrolyzer (2 cm{sup 2} active area) and an elevated temperature/pressure Single Cell electrolyzer (54.8 cm{sup 2} active area). SRNL tested 37 MEAs in the Single Cell electrolyzer facility from June 2005 until June 2009, when funding was discontinued. An important result of the final months of testing was the development of a method that