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Sample records for helping people understand

  1. Understanding "people" people.

    PubMed

    Butler, Timothy; Waldroop, James

    2004-06-01

    Nearly all areas of business--not just sales and human resources--call for interpersonal savvy. Relational know-how comprises a greater variety of aptitudes than many executives think. Some people can "talk a dog off a meat truck," as the saying goes. Others are great at resolving interpersonal conflicts. Some have a knack for translating high-level concepts for the masses. And others thrive when they're managing a team. Since people do their best work when it most closely matches their interests, the authors contend, managers can increase productivity by taking into account employees' relational interests and skills when making personnel choices and project assignments. After analyzing psychological tests of more than 7,000 business professionals, the authors have identified four dimensions of relational work: influence, interpersonal facilitation, relational creativity, and team leadership. This article explains each one and offers practical advice to managers--how to build a well-balanced team, for instance, and how to gauge the relational skills of potential employees during interviews. To determine whether a job candidate excels in, say, relational creativity, ask her to describe her favorite advertising campaign, slogan, or image and tell you why she finds it to be so effective. Understanding these four dimensions will help you get optimal performance from your employees, appropriately reward their work, and assist them in setting career goals. It will also help you make better choices when it comes to your own career development. To get started, try the authors' free online assessment tool, which will measure both your orientation toward relational work in general and your interest level in each of its four dimensions. PMID:15202289

  2. Requesting help to understand medical information among people living with HIV and poor health literacy.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth; Pellowski, Jennifer; Chen, Yiyun

    2013-06-01

    Health literacy is known to influence medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS. People who experience difficulty reading health information may benefit from asking others to assist them with reading, interpreting, and understanding medical information. We examined medical chart-abstracted HIV viral load, medication adherence assessed by unannounced pill counts, and adherence improvement strategies among 245 individuals with lower-health literacy who do not request assistance, and 229 who do request assistance with reading and understanding health information. Participants were people living with HIV who were taking antiretroviral therapy and scored below 90% correct on a standardized test of functional health literacy. After controlling for health literacy scores, requesting informational assistance was associated with strategies used to improve adherence; individuals who asked for assistance were significantly more likely to use multiple adherence strategies. However, despite requesting informational assistance and using more adherence strategies, participants who requested informational assistance evidenced poorer treatment adherence and poorer suppression of HIV replication. Requesting assistance was more common among those with the poorest health literacy and therefore greatest challenges to adherence. People living with HIV who have poor health literacy skills may benefit from medication adherence programs and requests for assistance afford opportunities for social interventions. PMID:23701199

  3. Key Ideas: What Are They and How Can They Help Us Understand How People View Proof?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Manya

    2003-01-01

    Examines the views of proof held by university-level mathematics students and teachers. Develops a framework for characterizing people's views of proof based on a distinction between public and private aspects of proof and the key ideas that link these two domains. (Author/KHR)

  4. Helping Students Understand Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weihe, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Despite the central role of risk assessment in analyzing and making decisions about many environmental issues, most people are poorly equipped to understand key concepts about risk or apply them successfully. I present three class activities in which students develop a better appreciation for the magnitude of a one in a million increased risk of…

  5. Worldwide Discoveries Help People Everywhere

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Worldwide Discoveries Help People Everywhere Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table ... shows examples of discoveries and their impact. Diseases Discoveries The Benefits for All Americans Huntington's Disease Venezuela— ...

  6. Helping Homeless People: Unique Challenges and Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Clemmie, Ed.; Jackson-Jobe, Peggy, Ed.

    This publication is designed to provide a practical guide for gaining a detailed awareness and understanding of homelessness. After a foreword by Jesse Jackson, these chapters are included: (1) Introduction: Assessing the Unique Needs of Homeless People (Clemmie Solomon), which discusses the need for helping professionals to commit to addressing…

  7. Helping Kids Understand Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Alzheimer ’s Caregiving Tips Helping Kids Understand Alzheimer’s Disease When a family member has Alzheimer’s disease, it affects everyone in the family, including children and grandchildren. It’s important to talk to ...

  8. Understanding Our Environment: People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tweed, Ann

    Part of the Understanding Our Environment project that is designed to engage students in investigating specific environmental problems through concrete activities and direct experience, students work individually and in groups to plan a future community in order to gain an understanding of how greatly increased human populations impact resources,…

  9. Helping disabled people--the user's view.

    PubMed Central

    Swain, P

    1993-01-01

    The main needs for most people with physical disabilities are housing and help with daily living. Thus, many of them will find the new emphasis on social aspects of community care particularly relevant. Peter Swain is a disabled man who leads a project in east Devon which ensures that disabled people have a voice in helping to shape the services they need. In this article he explains how the project, Living Options East Devon, works and how the new legislation for community care might affect disabled people. Images p992-a PMID:8490483

  10. Narratives and Understanding Other People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trzebiski, Jerzy

    2005-01-01

    Presenting a story of an ill person, in comparison to a description of illness, as well as activating a narrative approach toward this person increased the probability in subjects of helping behaviour?in this case the promise of donations of bone marrow for leukaemia patients or willingness to spend time on soliciting money for other people's…

  11. People of Samoa: Building Bridges of Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    The purpose of this communication learning aid is to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with people of another culture. This publication discusses some differences encountered in Samoa in such things as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress and basic attitudes. It is designed to prepare the traveller…

  12. People of Philippines: Building Bridges of Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    The purpose of this communication learning aid is to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with people of another culture. This publication discusses some differences encountered in the Philippines in such things as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress and basic attitudes. It is designed to prepare the…

  13. Brain Stimulation May Help People with Anorexia

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Brain Stimulation May Help People With Anorexia Depression treatment cut urge to restrict food, study says To ... after they underwent repetitive transcranial stimulation (rTMS), a treatment approved for depression. "With rTMS we targeted ... an area of the ...

  14. Helping your child understand a cancer diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000844.htm Helping your child understand a cancer diagnosis To use the sharing ... with a child about having cancer. Why Your Child Needs to Know It can be tempting NOT ...

  15. Helping Elementary Teachers Understand Children and Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrymak, Marilyn J.; Smart, Laura S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help elementary teachers understand the recent literature on the effects of divorce on children and help the children through the crisis. Indicates that secondary home economics teachers may have to deal with students who have not adjusted to divorce. (JOW)

  16. Helping People with Alzheimer's Disease Stay Physically Active

    MedlinePlus

    ... Free Stuff Be a Partner Helping People with Alzheimer's Disease Stay Physically Active Regular physical activity has many benefits for people with Alzheimer’s disease. Exercise helps keep muscles, joints, and the ...

  17. Helping Young People Engage with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

  18. Helping people change: the magic of motivation.

    PubMed

    Jameson, Cathy

    2003-01-01

    The consensus of the data and of the interviewed doctors was that the five most profound motivators of people in the workplace today are as follows: (1) Achievement of work well done; (2) Personal pride and satisfaction in being a part of quality treatment and excellent care of patients; (3) Continuing education; (4) Equitable compensation; (5) Respect, responsibility, and appreciation. When asked how important motivation is to the productivity of her practice, Dr. Stelly closes by saying, "Motivation is the most critical factor in productivity. Motivation is the key. If everyone is on the same page and if the doctor and key team members can continue to motivate and encourage others, then the sky is the limit. The key is to keep everyone goal-oriented, unified, and excited about the possibilities. Then you are going to have a team of consistent, long-term employees, you don't have turnover and with that kind of consistency, you are going to have increased productivity." PMID:14619232

  19. People of Hong Kong: Building Bridges of Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    The purpose of this communication learning aid is to help Americans become more effective in understanding and communicating with people of another culture. This publication discusses some differences encountered in Hong Kong in such things as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress and basic attitudes. The first section describes the…

  20. Helping Clients Uncover Metaphoric Understandings of Bulimia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1998-01-01

    Written responses of three women with bulimia were analyzed for instances of metaphoric understanding of their difficulties with food during 20 to 24 therapy sessions. Results show a gradual deepening of the metaphoric understanding of what the troubled eating represented for each client. Metaphoric understanding included ways of dealing with self…

  1. Helping your child understand a cancer diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Try to keep as normal a schedule as you can. Help your child stay in touch with classmates and friends. Some ways to do this include email, cards, texting, video games, and phone calls. Keep up with any missed ...

  2. Helping Students Construct Understanding about Shadows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2012-01-01

    The study of shadows is a common elementary science topic that facilitates students' development of understanding about light and associated waves. All elementary students have observed numerous shadows, but need assistance in developing understanding. Previous research studies about shadows were utilized in organizing aspects associated with…

  3. Helping Family and Friends Understand Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alzheimer’s. You can: • Tell friends and family about Alzheimer’s disease and its effects. • Share articles, websites, and other information about the disease. • Tell them what they can do to help. Let them know you need ... has Alzheimer’s disease, it affects everyone in the family, including children ...

  4. UNDERSTANDING AND HELPING THE RETARDED READER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STRANG, RUTH, ED.

    THE PROCEEDINGS OF A 1962 STATEWIDE ARIZONA CONFERENCE ON READING DEVELOPMENT AND READING DIFFICULTIES INCLUDE 15 PAPERS. ARTICLES ON THE ABLE RETARDED READER ARE "UNDERSTANDING THE ABLE RETARDED READER" BY HELEN M. ROBINSON, AND "CLASSROOM PROCEDURES" BY ROSEMARY YOAKUM. PAPERS ON EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN ARE "IDENTIFICATION OF EMOTIONAL…

  5. Newer Drugs Helping Older People with Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158961.html Newer Drugs Helping Older People With Eye Disease Treatments keeping those with macular degeneration reading and ... of long-term follow-up in studies evaluating disease treatments." Study ... U.S. National Eye Institute. The findings were published recently in the ...

  6. Helping Children Understand Routines and Classroom Schedules. What Works Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrosky, M. M.; Jung, E. Y.; Hemmeter, M. L.; Thomas, D.

    Studies have documented that schedules and routines influence children's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Predictable and consistent schedules in preschool classrooms help children feel secure and comfortable. Also, schedules and routines help children understand the expectations of the environment and reduce the frequency of behavior…

  7. Pathways to understand help-seeking behaviors among Haitians.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Billie; Bernal, Darren; Smith, Lauren; Nicolas, Guerda

    2014-04-01

    The earthquake in Haiti led to an outpouring of outreach from groups of the Haitian international community as well as to residents of the island. Thus, an understanding of the help-seeking behavior patterns of this group is necessary to make meaning of their receptivity of assistance in a time of need. This paper summarizes help-seeking behavior patterns of 150 Haitian immigrants residing in the US. The results indicate that, overall, this sample was more likely to go to their family for assistance, regardless of the nature of the problem. In contrast, they were least likely to go to professionals for help, even when in need of emotional assistance. Given the increased rate of Haitians living outside of Haiti and around the world, a more comprehensive understanding of their mental health needs, coping patterns, and barriers to seeking help from mental health professionals is warranted. PMID:23192378

  8. People of Japan: Building Bridges of Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Japan by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Japan is given, covering the following: history, government, the economy, education,…

  9. Building Bridges of Understanding. People of Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This book attempts to provide cultural information that will enable an American to communicate effectively with people in Thailand. The book discusses differences between American and Thai culture in such areas as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress, and basic attitudes. Background information is given on Thailand and the…

  10. Understanding Educational Leadership: People, Power and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busher, Hugh

    2006-01-01

    This book shows how school leaders at all levels "from the most senior manager to the classroom teacher" can help to build learning communities through collaborating and negotiating with their colleagues, students and students' parents and carers, as well as with external agencies and local communities, to sustain and develop the enjoyment of…

  11. Newer Drugs Helping Older People with Eye Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... People With Eye Disease Treatments keeping those with macular degeneration reading and driving longer, study finds To use ... life for many older people with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a new study indicates. The drugs Avastin ...

  12. Asking the Right Questions: Helping Mainstream Students Understand Other Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jefferey H.

    Two common tendencies that lead many mainstream students to misinterpret other cultures are the combative response and the exoticizing response. These misinterpretations, however, can be excellent learning moments for helping students understand the constructed nature of culture and the contextual nature of learning. Transformational multicultural…

  13. "Helpful People in Touch" Consumer Led Self Help Programs for People with Multiple Disorders, Mental Illness, Drug Addiction, and Alcoholism (MIDAA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciacca, Kathleen

    This paper describes the consumer program, "Helpful People in Touch," a self-help treatment program for people with the multiple disorders of mental illness, drug addiction, and/or alcoholism. First, the terms, "Mentally Ill Chemical Abusers and Addicted" (MICAA) and "Chemical Abusing Mentally Ill" (CAMI) are defined and differentiated, with…

  14. Young Children Selectively Avoid Helping People with Harmful Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaish, Amrisha; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Two studies investigated whether young children are selectively prosocial toward others, based on the others' moral behaviors. In Study 1 (N = 54), 3-year-olds watched 1 adult (the actor) harming or helping another adult. Children subsequently helped the harmful actor less often than a third (previously neutral) adult, but helped the helpful and…

  15. When Do People Lend-a-Helping-Hand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Frank W.; And Others

    This study compared the help-eliciting capacity of 4 helping conditions. Within each condition a male confederate dropped in the path of an oncoming pedestrian either 5 books, 5 coins, a glove (unwittingly), or a book (while the confederate was on crutches). The percentage of subjects helping ranged from 3 to 100, depending on the condition. The…

  16. 'Brain Training' Helps 8 Paralyzed People Regain Some Movement

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the legs of eight people paralyzed by spinal cord injuries, researchers report. The step-by-step training appears ... function that had been lost due to their spinal cord injury. "They were able for the first time in ...

  17. [Helping people is beautiful: an inquiry into the aesthetic consciousness of the helping profession].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shane

    2013-08-01

    This article addresses the helping profession as an art. The author uses an art philosophy perspective to review the phenomenon and meaning of the helping profession as "art" and addresses several questions. These questions include: What category or categories of art best define the helping profession? Can the process and / or results of helping be appreciated as works of art? What is the value of treating the helping profession as an art form? The purpose of this article is to expand knowledge regarding the aesthetic nature of the helping profession. PMID:23922086

  18. Associations between stigma and help-seeking intentions and beliefs: findings from an Australian national survey of young people.

    PubMed

    Yap, Marie Bee Hui; Reavley, Nicola J; Jorm, Anthony Francis

    2013-12-30

    To reduce stigma and improve help seeking by young people for mental illness, we need a better understanding of the associations between various dimensions of stigma and young people's help-seeking intentions and helpfulness beliefs for various sources of help and for different disorders. This study assessed stigmatizing attitudes and help-seeking intentions and helpfulness beliefs via a national telephone survey of 3021 youths aged 15-25. Five stigma scales were used: social distance, personally held weak-not-sick and dangerousness beliefs, and weak-not-sick and dangerousness beliefs perceived in others. Respondents were presented with a vignette of a young person portraying depression, depression with suicidal thoughts, depression with alcohol abuse, post-traumatic stress disorder, social phobia, or psychosis. Beliefs that mental illness is a sign of personal weakness and preference for social distance were associated with less intention to seek professional help and less endorsement of their helpfulness. In contrast, dangerousness/unpredictability beliefs were associated with more intention to seek professional help and more endorsement of their helpfulness. Findings highlight the importance of examining the associations between different dimensions of stigma with different sources of help, specifically for various mental disorders, to better inform future efforts to reduce stigma and increase help seeking in young people. PMID:24011848

  19. People-Oriented Jobs May Help Lower Alzheimer's Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... third study provided results from a 10-year clinical trial involving almost 2,800 people sorted into one of three different brain training groups. One group received memory training, another received reasoning skills training, and the third took training that ...

  20. Helping People Cope with Tragedy and Grief: Information, Resources & Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R., Ed.; Kirkman, Chris J.

    Following the horrific experiences of September 11th, 2001, efforts were undertaken to gather information to provide counselors with the help they need for counseling those in the face of tragedy. With this publication, information about trauma and grief counseling becomes readily available. Guides for responding to tragedies are included from…

  1. Help-Seeking by Young People with Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Michael G.; Sawyer, Alyssa C. P.; La Greca, Annette M.

    2012-01-01

    Depressive disorders commonly occur for the first time during adolescence and often become a recurring source of distress and impairment. Unfortunately, only a small proportion of adolescents with depressive disorders receive help from professional services, and there is evidence that adolescents with higher levels of depressive symptoms may be…

  2. Harnessing nature to help people adapt to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Holly P.; Hole, David G.; Zavaleta, Erika S.

    2012-07-01

    Adapting to climate change is among the biggest challenges humanity faces in the next century. An overwhelming focus of adaptation strategies to reduce climate change-related hazards has been on hard-engineering structures such as sea walls, irrigation infrastructure and dams. Closer attention to a broader spectrum of adaptation options is urgently needed. In particular, ecosystem-based adaptation approaches provide flexible, cost-effective and broadly applicable alternatives for buffering the impacts of climate change, while overcoming many drawbacks of hard infrastructure. As such, they are a critical tool at adaptation planners' disposal for tackling the threats that climate change poses to peoples' lives and livelihoods.

  3. FPA helps 33,000 young people get "sexwise".

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    "Sexwise," an FPA information campaign for teens on sex and relationships, ran March 4-24 in London and Manchester, areas where teenage pregnancy rates are among the highest in England. It was sponsored by the Department of Health in support of "The health of the nation" goal of reducing teenage pregnancies in England by 50% by the year 2000. The average age of first sexual intercourse is 17 years. Although 94% of young people feel their parents should be their primary sources of sex information, they actually receive most of it from their friends and the media. One-eighth of teenage mothers surveyed by FPA and Middlesex University said that they only discussed contraception with their parents after they became pregnant. According to Karin Pappenheim, FPA Head of Publicity, the FPA wants to "enable young people to make informed decisions about whether and when to have sex while giving them the facts they need to avoid unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases." Radio advertisements, which were produced by Laing Henry and featured Terry Christian (presenter for "The Word" on channel 4) and LTB (rappers), publicized the "Sexwise" helpline. Calls were free and confidential. Free copies of the FPA booklet, "Sexuality," were available upon request. Ads also appeared in "Just 17" and "Big," and on posters in Manchester pubs, clubs, and discos. PMID:12319464

  4. Simulations Help School Leaders Hone People Skills: Simulations Help School Leaders Practice "Tough Conversations"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Sarah D.

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on a simulation training program for school leaders at Syracuse University. The project is creating a series of parent, teacher, student, and community-member roles to help principals and teachers learn how to handle tricky conversations. Supported by a three-year grant from the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of…

  5. Do Children Understand That People Selectively Conceal or Express Emotion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayashi, Hajimu; Shiomi, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether children understand that people selectively conceal or express emotion depending upon the context. We prepared two contexts for a verbal display task for 70 first-graders, 80 third-graders, 64 fifth-graders, and 71 adults. In both contexts, protagonists had negative feelings because of the behavior of the other…

  6. Deaf Children's Understanding of Other People's Thought Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the ability of deaf children to predict the behaviours of other people, based on an understanding of their beliefs. An unexpected transfer task and a deceptive box task were used with a group of 55 severely/profoundly deaf children. Results reiterate the findings of other studies that many deaf children are grossly delayed in…

  7. Altruism in the wild: when affiliative motives to help positive people overtake empathic motives to help the distressed.

    PubMed

    Hauser, David J; Preston, Stephanie D; Stansfield, R Brent

    2014-06-01

    Psychological theories of human altruism suggest that helping results from an evolved tendency in caregiving mammals to respond to distress or need with empathy and sympathy. However, theories from biology, economics, and social psychology demonstrate that social animals also evolved to affiliate with and help desirable social partners. These models make different predictions about the affect of those we should prefer to help. Empathic models predict a preference to help sad, distressed targets in need, while social affiliative models predict a preference for happy, positive, successful targets. We compared these predictions in 3 field studies that measured the tendency to help sad, happy, and neutral confederates in a real-world, daily context: holding the door for a stranger in public. People consistently held the door more for happy over sad or neutral targets. To allow empathic motivations to compete more strongly against social affiliative ones, a 4th study examined a more consequential form of aid for hypothetical hospital patients in clear need. These conditions enhanced the preference to help a sad over a happy patient, because sadness made the patient appear sicker and in greater need. However, people still preferred the happy patient when the aid required a direct social interaction, attesting to the strength of social affiliation motives, even for sick patients. Theories of prosocial behavior should place greater emphasis on the role of social affiliation in motivating aid, particularly in everyday interpersonal contexts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24364686

  8. Do Online Mental Health Services Improve Help-Seeking for Young People? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Mangan, Cheryl; Sanci, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Background Young people regularly use online services to seek help and look for information about mental health problems. Yet little is known about the effects that online services have on mental health and whether these services facilitate help-seeking in young people. Objective This systematic review investigates the effectiveness of online services in facilitating mental health help-seeking in young people. Methods Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, literature searches were conducted in PubMed, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane library. Out of 608 publications identified, 18 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria of investigating online mental health services and help-seeking in young people aged 14-25 years. Results Two qualitative, 12 cross-sectional, one quasi-experimental, and three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were reviewed. There was no change in help-seeking behavior found in the RCTs, while the quasi-experimental study found a slight but significant increase in help-seeking. The cross-sectional studies reported that online services facilitated seeking help from a professional source for an average of 35% of users. The majority of the studies included small sample sizes and a high proportion of young women. Help-seeking was often a secondary outcome, with only 22% (4/18) of studies using adequate measures of help-seeking. The majority of studies identified in this review were of low quality and likely to be biased. Across all studies, young people regularly used and were generally satisfied with online mental health resources. Facilitators and barriers to help-seeking were also identified. Conclusions Few studies examine the effects of online services on mental health help-seeking. Further research is needed to determine whether online mental health services effectively facilitate help-seeking for young people. PMID:24594922

  9. Understanding and Facilitating Self-Regulated Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabenick, Stuart A.; Dembo, Myron H.

    2011-01-01

    Help seeking is an important developmental skill, a form of behavioral, or social, self-regulation employed by cognitively, behaviorally, and emotionally engaged learners. Help seeking is unique among learning strategies as it may imply that learners are incapable of task completion or satisfactory performance without assistance, which can be…

  10. Lobster on the Sidewalk: Understanding and Helping Children with Fears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Roberta I.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the cognitive processes and emotional needs that influence developmental changes related to fears and suggests some techniques which adults may use to help children cope with their fears. (Author/MP)

  11. Non-professional-help-seeking among young people with depression: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Adolescents and young adults often suffer from depression, but tend to avoid seeking professional help. The aim of this study was to explore the reasons for non-professional-help-seeking in a sample of young adults resident in Catalonia with depressive symptoms through a qualitative study. In addition, the subjects were invited to offer their recommendations for making mental health care services more accessible. Methods We recruited 105 young persons (17–21 years of age) who had participated in a national survey on adolescents. The sample was divided into thirds, with 37 who had a previous diagnosis of depression, 33 who had self-perceived emotional distress, and 35 controls. The participants were interviewed in depth about their reasons for avoiding professional mental health care services, and the interview results were analyzed using both qualitative and cultural domain techniques and corroborated through comparison with the results of three focus groups. Results Participants’ reasons for avoidance varied both by gender and according to prior experience with health services. Male study participants and female controls mainly understood depressive symptoms as normal and therefore not requiring treatment. Female participants with self-perceived distress were more likely to cite problems of access to treatment and fear of speaking to an unknown person about their problems. Females with a diagnosis expressed lack of trust in the benefits of treatment and fear of the social consequences of help-seeking. In their recommendations for best practices, the study participants suggested educational initiatives, as well as changes in the organization of mental health care services. Conclusions A better understanding of the views of young people and a greater effort to involve them as active participants is important for facilitating help-seeking in this age group, and for adapting mental health care services to adolescent users and their social context. PMID

  12. Helping the International Student Understand the American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mary

    2011-01-01

    To be successful in navigating the waters of American higher education, international students need to demonstrate proficiency in the English language and an understanding of the educational expectations of American academia. Unlike Americans who apply to a US university, international students must demonstrate that they understand enough English…

  13. Terrorism: Online Resources for Helping Students Understand and Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tim; Ramirez, Fred

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on the issue of terrorism. Aims to assist teachers in educating their students and helping them cope with terrorism since the September 11, 2001 attack on the United States. Offers sites on other terrorist attacks on the U.S. (CMK)

  14. Understanding Emotions through Games: Helping Trainee Teachers to Make Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavega, Pere; Filella, Gemma; Agullo, Maria Jesus; Soldevila, Anna; March, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to provide guidelines to help professionals make decisions regarding the types of emotions produced by different sporting games classified into four domains of motor action (psychomotor, co-operation, opposition and cooperation/opposition). Method: The sample comprised 284 first-year university students of…

  15. Helping Children To Understand the United States Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Minna S.

    Targeted for children aged 5 through 12, this handbook contains some ideas for educational activities, a brief overview of the constitutional development period in U.S. history, and a simplified annotated outline of the Constitution. This material should prove helpful in teaching children the following: (1) the intrinsic values embedded in the…

  16. Survey Helps Class to See, Understand Local Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasternack, Steve

    1986-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which students interview various groups of citizens--church leaders, school officials, government and business leaders--in order to give students a broader understanding of the definitions of obscenity and community standards. (HTH)

  17. Understanding barriers to Malaysian women with breast cancer seeking help.

    PubMed

    Norsa'adah, Bachok; Rahmah, Mohd Amin; Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Knight, Aishah

    2012-01-01

    Delay in help-seeking behaviour which is potentially preventable has a major effect on the prognosis and survival of patients with breast cancer. The objective of this study was to explore reasons for delay in seeking help among patients with breast cancer from the East Coast of peninsular Malaysia. A qualitative study using face- to-face in-depth interview was carried out involving 12 breast cancer patients who had been histo-pathologically confirmed and were symptomatic on presentation. Respondents were selected purposely based on their history of delayed consultation, diagnosis or treatment. All were of Malay ethnicity and the age range was 26-67 years. Three were in stage ll, seven in stage lll and two in stage lV. At the time of interview, all except one respondent had accepted treatment. The range of consultation time was 0.2-72.2 months with a median of 1.7 months, diagnosis time was 1.4-95.8 months( median 5.4 months )and treatment time was 0-33.3 months (median 1.2 months). The themes derived from the study were poor knowledge or awareness of breast cancer, fear of cancer consequences, beliefs in complementary alternative medicine, sanction by others, other priorities, denial of disease, attitude of wait and see and health care system weakness. Help-seeking behaviour was influenced by a complex interaction of cognitive, environmental, beliefs, culture and psycho-social factors. Breast cancer awareness and psychological counselling are recommended for all patients with breast symptoms to prevent delay in seeking clinical help. PMID:23098462

  18. Helping Students Understand Essay Marking Criteria and Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defeyter, Margaret Anne; McPartlin, Pamela Louise

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to look at the effectiveness of combining a variety of teaching and learning methods in an attempt to facilitate students' understanding of assessment criteria. Fifty-three psychology students were asked to complete the mismatch exercise (Norton et al., 2002), and a booklet entitled "Your Assignment results and how to…

  19. Viewing a Poem as Argument: Helping Students Understand Contemporary Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sara

    2008-01-01

    When high school honors students were put off by contemporary poetry, the author engaged them by analyzing the poem as an "argument." Using the Toulmin model to establish a warrant, advance a claim, and locate details to support that claim, students were able, by treating a poem as an argument, to increase their understanding of the poet's…

  20. Using Story to Help Student Understanding of Gas Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Rick; Stinner, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Students tend to have a poor understanding of the concept of gas pressure. Usually, gas pressure is taught in terms of the various formulaic gas laws. The development of the concept of gas pressure according to the early Greeks did not include the concept of a vacuum. It was not for another 2000 years that Torricelli proposed that a vacuum can…

  1. Empowering Andrea to Help Year 5 Students Construct Fraction Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baturo, Annette R

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a glimpse into the positive effect on student learning as a result of empowering a classroom teacher of 20 years (Andrea) with subject matter knowledge relevant to developing fraction understanding. Having a facility with fractions is essential for life skills in any society, whether metricated or non-metricated, and yet…

  2. Helping Prospective Teachers to Understand Children's Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Genevieve L.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two video-based interventions, one guided, the other non-guided, on pre-service early childhood education teachers' understanding of students' mathematical thinking. Five web-based lessons on various topics in children's mathematical development were created for this study. Each…

  3. Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

  4. Helping Secondary School Students Develop a Conceptual Understanding of Refraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmann, Scott; Anderson, Charles W.; Boeckman, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Using real-world examples, ray diagrams, and a cognitive apprenticeship cycle, this paper focuses on developing students' conceptual (not mathematical) understanding of refraction. Refraction can be a difficult concept for students to comprehend if they do not have well-designed opportunities to practice explaining situations where reflection and…

  5. Beyond alphabet soup: helping college health professionals understand sexual fluidity.

    PubMed

    Oswalt, Sara B; Evans, Samantha; Drott, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many college students today are no longer using the terms straight, gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender to self-identify their sexual orientation or gender identity. This commentary explores research related to fluidity of sexual identities, emerging sexual identities used by college students, and how these identities interact with the health and well-being of the student. Additionally, the authors discuss strategies to help college health professionals provide a sensitive environment and clinical experience for students whose sexual identity is fluid. PMID:27043261

  6. Commentary: how can technology help us understand the communication process?

    PubMed

    Keyton, Joann

    2012-08-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on the articles chosen for the special section on communications analysis. These articles problematize communication and raise an interesting set of questions for both human factors and communication scholars to ponder. In the end, both sets of scholars seek the same goal: How do we better examine communication to improve it? Problematizing communication requires scholars to challenge their fundamental assumptions about the phenomenon as well as to tease out the distinctions of methodological approaches typically used by both human factors and communication scholars. Human factors scholars tend to favor forms of communication in which technology or task roles control who can communicate and how. Communication scholars tend to favor contexts in which information flows more freely with fewer explicit restrictions. Creating opportunities to collaborate in research on the communication process may create the best understanding of technology that can better serve our understanding of communication. PMID:22908680

  7. Can computed crystal energy landscapes help understand pharmaceutical solids?

    PubMed

    Price, Sarah L; Braun, Doris E; Reutzel-Edens, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    Computational crystal structure prediction (CSP) methods can now be applied to the smaller pharmaceutical molecules currently in drug development. We review the recent uses of computed crystal energy landscapes for pharmaceuticals, concentrating on examples where they have been used in collaboration with industrial-style experimental solid form screening. There is a strong complementarity in aiding experiment to find and characterise practically important solid forms and understanding the nature of the solid form landscape. PMID:27067116

  8. Patient safety: helping medical students understand error in healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Patey, Rona; Flin, Rhona; Cuthbertson, Brian H; MacDonald, Louise; Mearns, Kathryn; Cleland, Jennifer; Williams, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective To change the culture of healthcare organisations and improve patient safety, new professionals need to be taught about adverse events and how to trap and mitigate against errors. A literature review did not reveal any patient safety courses in the core undergraduate medical curriculum. Therefore a new module was designed and piloted. Design A 5‐h evidence‐based module on understanding error in healthcare was designed with a preliminary evaluation using self‐report questionnaires. Setting A UK medical school. Participants 110 final year students. Measurements and main results Participants completed two questionnaires: the first questionnaire was designed to measure students' self‐ratings of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in relation to patient safety and medical error, and was administered before and approximately 1 year after the module; the second formative questionnaire on the teaching process and how it could be improved was administered after completion of the module. Conclusions Before attending the module, the students reported they had little understanding of patient safety matters. One year later, only knowledge and the perceived personal control over safety had improved. The students rated the teaching process highly and found the module valuable. Longitudinal follow‐up is required to provide more information on the lasting impact of the module. PMID:17693671

  9. The Pallid Sturgeon: Scientific Investigations Help Understand Recovery Needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has increased significantly since the species was listed as endangered over two decades ago. Since 2005, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC) have been engaged in an interdisciplinary research program in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Missouri River Recovery Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, and numerous other State and Federal cooperators to provide managers and policy makers with the knowledge needed to evaluate recovery options. During that time, the USGS has worked collaboratively with river scientists and managers to develop methods, baseline information, and research approaches that are critical contributions to recovery success. The pallid sturgeon is endangered throughout the Missouri River because of insufficient reproduction and survival of early life stages. Primary management actions on the Missouri River designed to increase reproductive success and survival have focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. The CERC research strategies have, therefore, been designed to examine the linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and reproductive success and survival. Specific research objectives include the following: (1) understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; (2) determining movement, habitat use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; and (3) quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages.

  10. Water challenges of the future; how scientific understanding can help

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, G.

    2012-04-01

    Demands for water resources are diverse and are increasing as human populations grow and become more concentrated in urban areas and as economies develop. Water is essential for many uses including the basic human needs of food and the maintenance of good health, for many industries and the creation of electrical energy and as vital for the sustenance of the natural ecosystems on which all life is dependent. At the same time threats from water - floods, droughts - are increasing with these extreme events becoming more common and more intense in many regions of the world and as more people locate in flood- and drought-prone regions. In general, the challenges for water managers are thus becoming greater; managers not only are having to make increasingly difficult decisions regarding allocation of water resources between competing uses as demand outstrips supply, but they also have to take measures to protect societies from the ravages of extreme events. The intensity of the challenges facing water managers is not uniform throughout the world - many nations in the less developed world experiencing far greater problems than most highly developed nations - but the trend towards greater challenges is clear. Decision-makers, whether at the international, national, provincial or local level benefit from reliable information on water resources. They need information on the availability in quantity and quality of water from a variety of sources - surface waters, aquifers or from artificial sources such as re-cycling of wastewater and desalination techniques. Managers also need reliable predictions on water availability for the various uses to which water is put - such predictions are needed on time scales from weeks to decades to inform decision-making. Predictions are also needed on the probabilities of occurrence of extreme events. Thus hydrological scientists developing predictive models and working within a fast-changing world have much to contribute to the needs of

  11. Helping secondary school students develop a conceptual understanding of refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmann, Scott; Anderson, Charles W.; Boeckman, Heather

    2016-07-01

    Using real-world examples, ray diagrams, and a cognitive apprenticeship cycle, this paper focuses on developing students’ conceptual (not mathematical) understanding of refraction. Refraction can be a difficult concept for students to comprehend if they do not have well-designed opportunities to practice explaining situations where reflection and refraction occur. The use of ray diagrams can be useful in (a) the teacher modelling a correct explanation to a situation where refraction occurs and (b) for students to create as they practice other examples. This paper includes eight examples of increasing complexity that use a cognitive apprenticeship cycle approach to scaffold student learning. The first examples (rock fish, floating penny) are shown and a solution is modeled using a ray diagram. Three more examples (bent pencil, dropping an item in water, sunrise/sunset) are presented for students to practice, with each becoming more sophisticated. Three assessment exercises are then provided (two dots, three coins, broken tube).

  12. Helping Women Understand Treatment Options for Vulvar and Vaginal Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Parks, Diane M; Levine, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) is a common and progressive medical condition in postmenopausal women. The REVIVE (REal Women's VIews of Treatment Options for Menopausal Vaginal ChangEs) survey assessed knowledge about VVA and its impact in 3,046 postmenopausal U.S. women, and recorded women's attitudes about their interactions with health care providers and about available treatments. REVIVE identified poor disease awareness and understanding among women, failure of health care professionals to evaluate women for VVA signs and symptoms, low treatment rates and concerns about the safety and efficacy of available therapies. Strategies to address these needs include proactive screening, education for women and clinicians about VVA and recommendations for treatment and follow-up. PMID:26264795

  13. Booze, Bars, and Bystander Behavior: People Who Consumed Alcohol Help Faster in the Presence of Others

    PubMed Central

    van Bommel, Marco; van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Elffers, Henk; Van Lange, Paul A. M.

    2016-01-01

    People help each other less often and less quickly when bystanders are present. In this paper, we propose that alcohol consumption could attenuate or reverse this so-called bystander effect. Alcohol impairs people cognitively and perceptually, leading them to think less about the presence of others and behave less inhibited. Moreover, alcohol makes people more prone to see the benefits of helping and not the costs. To provide an initial test of these lines of reasoning, we invited visitors of bars in Amsterdam to join our study at a secluded spot at the bar. We manipulated bystander presence, and at the end of the study, we measured alcohol consumption. When participants took their seats, the experimenter dropped some items. We measured how many items were picked up and how quickly participants engaged in helping. Results revealed that alcohol did not influence the bystander effect in terms of the amount of help given. But importantly, it did influence the bystander effect in terms of response times: people who consumed alcohol actually came to aid faster in the presence of others. PMID:26903929

  14. Young People and the Learning Partnerships Program: Shifting Negative Attitudes to Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Helen; Coffey, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses research which explored the impact of the Learning Partnerships program on young people's attitudes to help-seeking. The Learning Partnerships program brings classes of high school students into universities to teach pre-service teachers and doctors how to communicate effectively with adolescents about sensitive issues such…

  15. Developing iPad-Based Physics Simulations That Can Help People Learn Newtonian Physics Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study are: (1) to develop iPad-based computer simulations called iSimPhysics that can help people learn Newtonian physics concepts; and (2) to assess its educational benefits and pedagogical usefulness. To facilitate learning, iSimPhysics visualizes abstract physics concepts, and allows for conducting a series of computer…

  16. Towards a better understanding of people's responses to renewable energy technologies: Insights from Social Representations Theory.

    PubMed

    Batel, Susana; Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    In the past few years, social research has been examining what contributes to the attitude-behaviour gap in people's responses to large-scale renewable energy technologies. The NIMBY explanation for the gap has long dominated that area of research, but has also been criticised. Alternative proposals to NIMBY were advanced, but it is still evident that some of those maintain presuppositions of NIMBY and that this area of research needs more integration, namely at a theoretical level. In this paper we argue that to overcome those aspects it is relevant, first, to situate the promotion of renewable energy production as a social change process in today's societies, and, second, to therefore consider the socio-psychological aspects involved in people's responses to social change. We discuss specifically how the Theory of Social Representations may help us with that and contribute to a better understanding of people's responses to renewable energy technologies. PMID:24448027

  17. Trust, Autonomy and Relationships: The Help-Seeking Preferences of Young People in Secondary Level Schools in London (UK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavey, Gerard; Rothi, Despina; Paul, Rini

    2011-01-01

    Help-seeking among young people is complicated, often determined vicariously by the ability of adults, family or professionals, to recognize, and respond to, their difficulties. We know very little about the complex concerns of teenage young people and how they impact on help-seeking preferences. We aimed to ascertain the help-seeking preferences…

  18. When Young Children Need Help: Understanding and Addressing Emotional, Behavioral, and Developmental Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    You know what it's like to spend time with youngsters who are particularly puzzling or hard to help. "When Young Children Need Help" helps early childhood educators make sense of what is going on for such children and use that understanding to promote growth and mastery. Written for child care center staff, family child care providers,…

  19. Understanding Why Students Do What They Do: Using Attribution Theory to Help Students Succeed Academically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaier, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    According to attribution theory, people seek to make sense of their environment through ascribing causality to their behavior and the behavior of others and these attributions impact future behavior (Jones et al., 1972). In essence, people seek to answer and understand why. This fundamental concept associated with attribution theory is important…

  20. Understandings of death and dying for people of Chinese origin.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chiung-yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-02-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period, Chinese people have integrated these philosophies and religions to form the basis of their culture and traditions. Although they agree that death is a natural part of the life span, a unique belief about death and dying has emerged among the Chinese from this integration. From this, the people find a significant definition of death and dying. PMID:19143109

  1. SoundView: an auditory guidance system based on environment understanding for the visually impaired people.

    PubMed

    Nie, Min; Ren, Jie; Li, Zhengjun; Niu, Jinhai; Qiu, Yihong; Zhu, Yisheng; Tong, Shanbao

    2009-01-01

    Without visual information, the blind people live in various hardships with shopping, reading, finding objects and etc. Therefore, we developed a portable auditory guide system, called SoundView, for visually impaired people. This prototype system consists of a mini-CCD camera, a digital signal processing unit and an earphone, working with built-in customizable auditory coding algorithms. Employing environment understanding techniques, SoundView processes the images from a camera and detects objects tagged with barcodes. The recognized objects in the environment are then encoded into stereo speech signals for the blind though an earphone. The user would be able to recognize the type, motion state and location of the interested objects with the help of SoundView. Compared with other visual assistant techniques, SoundView is object-oriented and has the advantages of cheap cost, smaller size, light weight, low power consumption and easy customization. PMID:19965094

  2. Understandings of Death and Dying for People of Chinese Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Chiung-Yin; O'Connor, Margaret; Lee, Susan

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the primary beliefs about ancestor worship, Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism and traditional Chinese medicine that have influenced Chinese people for thousands of years, particularly in relation to death and dying. These cultures and traditions remain important for Chinese people wherever they live. Over a long period,…

  3. Helping People with HIV/AIDS Return to Work: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Martin, David J.; Chernoff, Robert A.; Buitron, Michael; Comulada, W. Scott; Liang, Li-Jung; Wong, F. Lennie

    2013-01-01

    Objective New treatments introduced in the mid 1990s led many people with HIV/AIDS who previously had been disabled by their disease to contemplate workforce reentry; many remain unemployed, and little is known concerning interventions that might help them return to work. We report the results of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) of an intervention designed to help people with HIV/AIDS reenter the workforce. Design We tested a mixed (group – individual) modality intervention that incorporated elements of Motivational Interviewing (Miller & Rollnick, 2002), skills building from Dialectical Behavior Therapy (Linehan, 1993), and job-related skills (Price & Vinokur, 1995). A total of 174 individuals participated in either the intervention or in standard of care and were followed for 24 months. Results Compared to individuals referred for standard of care, participants in the intervention engaged in more workforce-reentry activities over time and, once employed, were more likely to remain employed. Dose-response analyses revealed that among intervention participants, participants who attended more than one individual session engaged in more workforce-reentry activities than did individual who attended one or fewer individual sessions, whereas frequency of group session participation did not effect a difference between participants who attended more than six group sessions and participants who attended six or fewer group sessions. Conclusion Theoretically-based workforce-reentry assistance programs can assist disabled people with HIV/AIDS in their return-to-work efforts. PMID:23148715

  4. Help-Seeking in People with Exceptional Experiences: Results from a General Population Sample

    PubMed Central

    Landolt, Karin; Wittwer, Amrei; Wyss, Thomas; Unterassner, Lui; Fach, Wolfgang; Krummenacher, Peter; Brugger, Peter; Haker, Helene; Kawohl, Wolfram; Schubiger, Pius August; Folkers, Gerd; Rössler, Wulf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exceptional experiences (EE) are experiences that deviate from ordinary experiences, for example precognition, supernatural appearances, or déjà vues. In spite of the high frequency of EE in the general population, little is known about their effect on mental health and about the way people cope with EE. This study aimed to assess the quality and quantity of EE in persons from the Swiss general population, to identify the predictors of their help-seeking, and to determine how many of them approach the mental health system. Methods: An on-line survey was used to evaluate a quota sample of 1580 persons representing the Swiss general population with respect to gender, age, and level of education. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to integrate help-seeking, self-reported mental disorder, and other variables in a statistical model designed to identify predictors of help-seeking in persons with EE. Results: Almost all participants (91%) experienced at least one EE. Generally, help-seeking was more frequent when the EE were of negative valence. Help-seeking because of EE was less frequent in persons without a self-reported mental disorder (8.6%) than in persons with a disorder (35.1%) (OR = 5.7). Even when frequency and attributes of EE were controlled for, people without a disorder sought four times less often help because of EE than expected. Persons with a self-reported diagnosis of mental disorder preferred seeing a mental health professional. Multinomial regression revealed a preference for healers in women with less education, who described themselves as believing and also having had more impressive EE. Conclusion: Persons with EE who do not indicate a mental disorder less often sought help because of EE than persons who indicated a mental disorder. We attribute this imbalance to a high inhibition threshold to seek professional help. Moreover, especially less educated women did not approach the mental health care system as often as other

  5. Who profits from visual aids: overcoming challenges in people's understanding of risks [corrected].

    PubMed

    Garcia-Retamero, Rocio; Galesic, Mirta

    2010-04-01

    Many people have difficulties grasping numerical concepts that are prerequisites for understanding treatment risk reduction. Visual aids have been proposed as a promising method for enhancing comprehension. In a survey of probabilistic, nationally representative samples in two different countries (United States and Germany), we compared the effectiveness of adding different types of visual aids (icon arrays and bar graphs representing either affected individuals only or the entire population at risk) to the numerical information in either an absolute or a relative risk reduction format. We also analyzed whether people's numeracy and graphical literacy skills affected the efficacy of the visual aids. Our results showed large improvements in accuracy both when icon arrays and when bar graphs were added to numerical information. Highest increases were achieved when the visual aids depicted the entire population at risk. Importantly, visual aids were most useful for the participants who had low numeracy but relatively high graphical literacy skills. Building on previous research showing that problems with understanding numerical information often do not reside in people's minds, but in the representation of the problem, our results show that visual aids help to modify incorrect expectations about treatment risk reduction. Our results have important implications for medical practice. PMID:20116159

  6. Trihalomethanes formed from natural organic matter isolates: Using isotopic and compositional data to help understand sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Fram, M.S.; Fujii, R.; Aiken, G.R.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    Over 20 million people drink water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta despite problematic levels of natural organic matter (NOM) and bromide in Delta water, which can form trihalomethanes (THMs) during the treatment process. It is widely believed that NOM released from Delta peat islands is a substantial contributor to the pool of THM precursors present in Delta waters. Dissolved NOM was isolated from samples collected at five channel sites within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and Delta, California, USA, and from a peat island agricultural drain. To help understand the sources of THM precursors, samples were analyzed to determine their chemical and isotopic composition, their propensity to form THMs, and the isotopic composition of the THMs. The chemical composition of the isolates was quite variable, as indicated by significant differences in carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and carbon-to-nitrogen concentration ratios. The lowest propensity to form THMs per unit of dissolved organic carbon was observed in the peat island agricultural drain isolate, even though it possessed the highest fraction of aromatic material and the highest specific ultraviolet absorbance. Changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of the isolates and the isotopic composition of the THMs suggest that the source of the THMs precursors was different between samples and between isolates. The pattern of variability in compositional and isotopic data for these samples was not consistent with simple mixing of river- and peat-derived organic material.

  7. The Bottom Line: An Exercise to Help Students Understand How Social Inequality Is Actively Constructed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelev, Melissa; Vincent, M. Bess; Haney, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    One of the important misconceptions in the American view of poverty is that people are poor because they do not work. This article presents an exercise, the "bottom line," which helps dispel students' misconceptions about the working poor. Through extensive primary-data collection and assembling a budget for low-skilled workers, the exercise: (1)…

  8. Starting on the Write Foot: Helping Parents Understand How Children Learn To Read and Write.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Julia; Liss, Carolee; Sterner, Peggy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how early childhood teachers can help parents understand the natural and uneven process involved in learning to read and write. Includes descriptions of classroom opportunities to write, the use of artifacts to educate parents, and procedures for the beginning of the school year. Includes suggestions for parents to help their children…

  9. DOUBLE TROUBLE IN RECOVERY: SELF-HELP FOR PEOPLE WITH DUAL DIAGNOSES

    PubMed Central

    VOGEL, HOWARD S.; KNIGHT, EDWARD; LAUDET, ALEXANDRE B.; MAGURA, STEPHEN

    2007-01-01

    Self-help is gaining increased acceptance among treatment professionals as the advent of managed care warrants the use of cost-effective modalities. Traditional “one disease-one recovery” self-help groups cannot serve adequately the needs of the dually diagnosed. This article discusses Double Trouble in Recovery (DTR), a 12-step self-help group designed to meet the special needs of those diagnosed with both a psychiatric disability and a chemical addiction, DTR differs from traditional self-help groups by offering people a safe forum to discuss their psychiatric disabilities, medication, and substance abuse. Preliminary data collected at four DTR sites in NYC indicate that DTR members have a long history of psychiatric disabilities and of substance abuse, and extensive experience with treatment programs in both areas. They are actively working on their recovery, as evidenced by their fairly intensive attendance at DTR. Recent substance use is limited, suggesting that participation in DTR (in conjunction with format treatment when needed) is having a positive effect. Most members require medication to control their psychiatric disabilities, and that alone may make attendance at “conventional” 12-step groups uncomfortable. Ratings of statements comparing DTR to other 12-step meetings suggest that DTR is a setting where members can feel comfortable and safe discussing their dual recovery needs. PMID:17710222

  10. Understanding and Creating Accessible Touch Screen Interactions for Blind People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Shaun K.

    2011-01-01

    Using touch screens presents a number of usability and accessibility challenges for blind people. Most touch screen-based user interfaces are optimized for visual interaction, and are therefore difficult or impossible to use without vision. This dissertation presents an approach to redesigning gesture-based user interfaces to enable blind people…

  11. Espana: Building Bridges of Understanding with the People of Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Spain by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Spain is given, which covers the following: geography, weather, history, ethnic roots, regional…

  12. Eighteen-Month-Old Infants Show False Belief Understanding in an Active Helping Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttelmann, David; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Recently, several studies have claimed that soon after their first birthday infants understand others' false beliefs. However, some have questioned these findings based on criticisms of the looking-time paradigms used. Here we report a new paradigm to test false belief understanding in infants using a more active behavioral response: helping.…

  13. Evaluating Two Approaches to Helping College Students Understand Evolutionary Trees through Diagramming Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Judy; Meir, Eli; Herron, Jon C.; Maruca, Susan; Stal, Derek

    2008-01-01

    To understand evolutionary theory, students must be able to understand and use evolutionary trees and their underlying concepts. Active, hands-on curricula relevant to macroevolution can be challenging to implement across large college-level classes where textbook learning is the norm. We evaluated two approaches to helping students learn…

  14. Kindergarten Children's Understanding of and Attitudes Toward People with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyson, Lily L.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the nature of kindergarten children's understanding about and attitudes toward disabilities. Interviews with 77 Canadian children enrolled in inclusive classrooms showed that kindergarten children (a) conceptualize disabilities chiefly according to physical appearances and (b) possess a fairly accurate understanding of some…

  15. Understanding How Alzheimer's Disease Changes People: Challenges and Coping Strategies

    MedlinePlus

    ... for helping," even if the results aren't perfect You also can: Ask questions that require a yes or no answer. For example, you could say, "Are you tired?" instead of "How do you feel?" Limit the number of choices. For example, you could say, "Would ...

  16. Investigating young people's experiences of successful or helpful psychological interventions for tic disorders: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Heather; Fox, John Re; Hedderly, Tammy; Murphy, Tara; Trayner, Penny

    2016-08-01

    There is emerging evidence for talking therapies in the treatment of tic disorders. This study explored experiences of young people who self-identified as having had a successful or helpful talking therapy, in order to understand the phenomenology, value and meaning of outcomes. The experiences of seven participants aged 10-17 years were described in semi-structured interviews and analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Themes included the challenging battle with tics and process of re-defining self-identity, making sense of and managing experiences, the value of control, and spectrum of positive change. The results highlighted valued outcomes that could be incorporated into clinical practice and future evaluation. PMID:25649427

  17. Understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour: can Maslow's pyramid help?

    PubMed

    van Lenthe, Frank J; Jansen, Tessa; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2015-04-14

    Socio-economic groups differ in their material, living, working and social circumstances, which may result in different priorities about their daily-life needs, including the priority to make healthy food choices. Following Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, we hypothesised that socio-economic inequalities in healthy food choices can be explained by differences in the levels of need fulfilment. Postal survey data collected in 2011 (67·2 % response) from 2903 participants aged 20-75 years in the Dutch GLOBE (Gezondheid en Levens Omstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken) study were analysed. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs (measured with the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory) was added to age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models that linked education and net household income levels to healthy food choices (measured by a FFQ). Most participants (38·6 %) were in the self-actualisation layer of the pyramid. This proportion was highest among the highest education group (47·6 %). Being in a higher level of the hierarchy was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as more healthy than unhealthy bread, snack and dairy consumption. Educational inequalities in fruit and vegetable intake (B= -1·79, 95 % CI -2·31, -1·28 in the lowest education group) were most reduced after the hierarchy of needs score was included (B= -1·57, 95 % CI - ·09, -1·05). Inequalities in other healthy food choices hardly changed after the hierarchy of needs score was included. People who are satisfied with higher-level needs make healthier food choices. Studies aimed at understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour need to take differences in the priority given to daily-life needs by different socio-economic groups into account, but Maslow's pyramid offers little help. PMID:25784199

  18. NIDCD: Celebrating 25 Years of Research Helping People with Communication Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Celebrating 25 Years of Research Helping People with Communication Disorders Past Issues / Fall 2013 Table of Contents ... Dl, Director, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD) Photo courtesy of NIDCD On October ...

  19. NIDCD: Celebrating 25 Years of Research Helping People with Communication Disorders | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language, Voice, Balance NIDCD: Celebrating 25 Years of Research Helping People with Communication Disorders Past Issues / Fall ... and established the core mission areas of the research we support on hearing, balance, taste, smell, and ...

  20. Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Planning to start or expand a K-8 critical language program? Looking for support in doing so? There "may" be help at the federal level for great ideas and strong programs. While there have been various pools of federal dollars available to support world language programs for a number of years, the federal government's interest in assuring strong…

  1. Understanding and addressing religion among people with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Pargament, Kenneth I; Lomax, James W

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in the domain of psychiatry and religion that highlight the double-edged capacity of religion to enhance or damage health and well-being, particularly among psychiatric patients. A large body of research challenges stereotyped views of religion as merely a defense or passive way of coping, and indicates that many people look to religion as a vital resource which serves a variety of adaptive functions, such as self-regulation, attachment, emotional comfort, meaning, and spirituality. There is, however, a darker side to religious life. Researchers and theorists have identified and begun to study problematic aspects of religiousness, including religiously-based violence and religious struggles within oneself, with others, and with the divine. Religious problems can be understood as a by-product of psychiatric illness (secondary), a source of psychiatric illness (primary), or both (complex). This growing body of knowledge underscores the need to attend more fully to the potentially constructive and destructive roles of religion in psychiatric diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. In fact, initial evaluative studies of the impact of spiritually integrated treatments among a range of psychiatric populations have shown promising results. The article concludes with a set of recommendations to advance future research and practice, including the need for additional psychiatric studies of people from diverse cultures and religious traditions. PMID:23471791

  2. "The Power to Squash People": Understanding Girls' Relational Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Dawn H.; Kelly, Deirdre M.; Pomerantz, Shauna

    2007-01-01

    While researchers and concerned adults alike draw attention to relational aggression among girls, how this aggression is associated with girls' agency remains a matter of debate. This paper explores relational aggression among girls designated by their peers as "popular" in order to understand how social power constructs girls' agency as…

  3. Understanding of Epilepsy by Children and Young People with Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ann; Parsons, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    There is a striking dearth of studies focusing sensitively and in depth on the mainstream educational experiences of children with epilepsy, as viewed by those children themselves. The one-year project (2006-7) reported here addresses that gap. Children's perceptions about mainstream teachers' understanding of epilepsy and school-based needs are…

  4. Symptoms of Mental Health Problems: Children's and Adolescents' Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their…

  5. HELPing older people with very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HELP-COPD): mixed-method feasibility pilot randomised controlled trial of a novel intervention

    PubMed Central

    Buckingham, Susan; Kendall, Marilyn; Ferguson, Susie; MacNee, William; Sheikh, Aziz; White, Patrick; Worth, Allison; Boyd, Kirsty; Murray, Scott A; Pinnock, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    Background: Extending palliative care to those with advanced non-malignant disease is advocated, but the implications in specific conditions are poorly understood. AIMs: We piloted a novel nurse-led intervention, HELPing older people with very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HELP-COPD), undertaken 4 weeks after discharge from hospital, which sought to identify and address the holistic care needs of people with severe COPD. Methods: This 6-month mixed-method feasibility pilot trial randomised (ratio 3:1) patients to HELP-COPD or usual care. We assessed the feasibility of using validated questionnaires as outcome measures and analysed the needs/actions recorded in the HELP-COPD records. Semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of patients, carers and professionals explored the perceptions of HELP-COPD. Verbatim transcriptions and field notes were analysed using Normalisation Process Theory as a framework. Results: We randomised 32 patients (24 to HELP-COPD); 19 completed the study (death=3, ill-health=4, declined=6). The HELP-COPD record noted a mean of 1.6 actions/assessment, mostly provision of information or self-help actions: only five referrals were made. Most patients were positive about HELP-COPD, discussing their concerns and coping strategies in all domains, but the questionnaires were burdensome for some patients. Adaptation to their slowly progressive disability and a strong preference to rely on family support was reflected in limited acceptance of formal services. Professionals perceived HELP-COPD as addressing an important aspect of care, although timing overlapped with discharge planning. Conclusions: The HELP-COPD intervention was well received by patients and the concept resonated with professionals, although delivery post discharge overlapped with existing services. Integration of brief holistic care assessments in the routine primary care management of COPD may be more appropriate. PMID:26028347

  6. When self-help is no help: traditional cognitive skills training does not prevent depressive symptoms in people who ruminate.

    PubMed

    Haeffel, Gerald J

    2010-02-01

    A randomized trial was conducted to test the efficacy of three self-directed prevention intervention workbooks for depression. Cognitively at-risk college freshmen were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: traditional cognitive, non-traditional cognitive, and academic skills. Consistent with hypotheses, participants who were high in rumination and experienced stress exhibited significantly greater levels of depressive symptoms after completing the traditional cognitive skills workbook than after completing the other two workbooks. This pattern of results held post-intervention and 4 months later. These findings indicate that rumination may hinder ones ability to identify and dispute negative thoughts (at least without the help of a trained professional). The results underscore the importance of identifying individual difference variables that moderate intervention efficacy. They also raise concerns about the potential benefits of self-help books, an industry that generates billions of dollars each year. PMID:19875102

  7. Helping Preservice Teachers (PSTs) Understand the Realities of Poverty: Innovative Curriculum Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Convertino, Christina; Khourey-Bowers, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an innovative addition to the curriculum to help preservice teachers cultivate an understanding of poverty. Using technology, an interdisciplinary team created two online learning modules entitled Teacher as Learning Facilitator and Teacher as Anthropologist. Preservice teachers valued the newly developed…

  8. A Simple Classroom Teaching Technique to Help Students Understand Michaelis-Menten Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Steven W.; Hill, Brent J. F.; Moran, William M.

    2006-01-01

    A new, simple classroom technique helps cell biology students understand principles of Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. A student mimics the enzyme and the student's hand represents the enzyme's active site. The catalytic event is the transfer of marbles (substrate molecules) by hand from one plastic container to another. As predicted, increases…

  9. The Value of Ellul's Analysis in Understanding Propaganda in the Helping Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on Ellul's analysis of propaganda in understanding propaganda in the helping professions. Key in such an analysis is the interweaving of the psychological and sociological. Contrary to the discourse in mission statements of professional organizations and their codes of ethics calling for informed consent, competence of…

  10. Preparation of Teacher Training Aid to Help Teachers Understand the Processes of Science, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, William C.

    A preliminary draft of a "Teacher Training Aid to Help Teachers Understand the Processes of Science" has been prepared on the basis of a careful analysis of the current practice of science. This manuscript attempts to formulate guidelines for an explanation of communicative processes of scientific inquiry to students without rigorous background…

  11. Compassion Fatigue as a Theoretical Framework to Help Understand Burnout among Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Shari; Palladino, John M.; Barnett, Jeffery

    2007-01-01

    Compassion fatigue is a theoretical framework researchers have applied to helping professions other than teaching. The purpose of this report is to propose the use of this theory to better understand the prevalent rates of special education teachers' exit from the profession often labeled as burnout. A qualitative study with six middle school…

  12. Students Meet Wilfred Gordon: Helping Students with Special Needs Understand Their Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby M.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding how memory works is important for success in school, for "all" students. One way for teachers to help students with disabilities learn about memory is to use picture books and then learn strategies. Picture books are useful for students with disabilities because these resources have moved beyond a means to scaffold early literacy…

  13. Reasoning, Not Recipes: Helping Your Students Develop Statistical Understanding and Enjoy the Experience!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Gai

    2010-01-01

    Statistics is often presented to students as a series of algorithms to be learnt by heart and applied at the appropriate time to get "the correct answer". This approach, while it may in fact produce the right answer, has been shown to be minimally effective at helping students understand the underlying statistical concepts. As Holmes noted,…

  14. Help Seeking and Access to Primary Care for People from “Hard-to-Reach” Groups with Common Mental Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, K.; Edwards, S.; Funnel, E.; Fisher, L.; Gask, L.; Dowrick, C.; Chew Graham, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background. In the UK, most people with mental health problems are managed in primary care. However, many individuals in need of help are not able to access care, either because it is not available, or because the individual's interaction with care-givers deters or diverts help-seeking. Aims. To understand the experience of seeking care for distress from the perspective of potential patients from “hard-to-reach” groups. Methods. A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, analysed using a thematic framework. Results. Access to primary care is problematic in four main areas: how distress is conceptualised by individuals, the decision to seek help, barriers to help-seeking, and navigating and negotiating services. Conclusion. There are complex reasons why people from “hard-to-reach” groups may not conceptualise their distress as a biomedical problem. In addition, there are particular barriers to accessing primary care when distress is recognised by the person and help-seeking is attempted. We suggest how primary care could be more accessible to people from “hard-to-reach” groups including the need to offer a flexible, non-biomedical response to distress. PMID:22312546

  15. Understanding factors influencing vulnerable older people keeping warm and well in winter: a qualitative study using social marketing techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lusambili, Adelaide; Homer, Catherine; Abbott, Joanne; Cooke, Joanne Mary; Stocks, Amanda Jayne; McDaid, Kathleen Anne

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To understand the influences and decisions of vulnerable older people in relation to keeping warm in winter. Design A qualitative study incorporating in-depth, semi-structured individual and group interviews, framework analysis and social marketing segmentation techniques. Setting Rotherham, South Yorkshire, UK. Participants 50 older people (>55) and 25 health and social care staff underwent individual interview. The older people also had household temperature measurements. 24 older people and 19 health and social care staff participated in one of the six group interviews. Results Multiple complex factors emerged to explain whether vulnerable older people were able to keep warm. These influences combined in various ways that meant older people were not able to or preferred not to access help or change home heating behaviour. Factors influencing behaviours and decisions relating to use of heating, spending money, accessing cheaper tariffs, accessing benefits or asking for help fell into three main categories. These were situational and contextual factors, attitudes and values, and barriers. Barriers included poor knowledge and awareness, technology, disjointed systems and the invisibility of fuel and fuel payment. Findings formed the basis of a social marketing segmentation model used to develop six pen portraits that illustrated how factors that conspire against older people being able to keep warm. Conclusions The findings illustrate how and why vulnerable older people may be at risk of a cold home. The pen portraits provide an accessible vehicle and reflective tool to raise the capacity of the NHS in responding to their needs in line with the Cold Weather Plan. PMID:22798252

  16. Understanding the impact of visual arts interventions for people living with dementia: a realist review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arts-based activities are being increasingly suggested as a valuable activity for people living with dementia in terms of countering the negative aspects of their condition. The potential for such programmes to improve a broad range of psychosocial outcomes is suggested in some studies. However, there is largely an absence of rigorous methodology to demonstrate the benefits, and research results are mixed. Practice variability in terms of the content, contexts and implementation of such interventions raises challenges in terms of identifying an optimal arts programme model that could be adopted by other service providers. Understanding how interventions may have the best chance at broad implementation success and uptake is limited. Methods/Design A realist review will be undertaken. This aims to understand how visual arts interventions influence outcomes in people living with dementia. The review will explore how the context, that is the circumstances which enable or constrain, affect outcomes through the activation of mechanisms. An early scoping search and a stakeholder survey formulated the preliminary programme theory. A systematic literature search across a broad range of disciplines (arts, humanities, social sciences, health) will be undertaken to identify journal articles and grey literature. Data will be extracted in relation to the programme theory, contextual factors, mechanisms and outcomes and their configurations, background information about the study design and participant characteristics, detail about the quantity (‘dose’) of an intervention, theoretical perspectives proposed by the authors of the paper and further theorising by the reviewer. Thematic connections/patterns will be sought across the extracted data, identifying patterns amongst contextual factors, the mechanisms they trigger and the associated outcomes. Discussion Along with stakeholder engagement and validation, this review will help inform the development of an optimal

  17. Good Morning from Barrow, Alaska! Helping K-12 students understand the importance of research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, M.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation focuses on how an educator experiences scientific research and how those experiences can help foster K-12 students’ understanding of research being conducted in Barrow, Alaska. According to Zhang and Fulford (1994), real-time electronic field trips help to provide a sense of closeness and relevance. In combination with experts in the field, the electronic experience can help students to better understand the phenomenon being studied, thus strengthening the student’s conceptual knowledge (Zhang & Fulford, 1994). During a seven day research trip to study the arctic sea ice, five rural Virginia teachers and their students participated in Skype sessions with the participating educator and other members of the Radford University research team. The students were able to view the current conditions in Barrow, listen to members of the research team describe what their contributions were to the research, and ask questions about the research and Alaska in general. Collaborations between students and scientist can have long lasting benefits for both educators and students in promoting an understanding of the research process and understanding why our world is changing. By using multimedia venues such as Skype students are able to interact with researchers both visually and verbally, forming the basis for students’ interest in science. A learner’s level of engagement is affected by the use of multimedia, especially the level of cognitive processing. Visual images alone do no promote the development of good problem solving skills. However, the students are able to develop better problem solving skills when both visual images and verbal interactions are used together. As students form higher confidence levels by improving their ability to problem solve, their interest in science also increases. It is possible that this interest could turn into a passion for science, which could result in more students wanting to become scientists or science teachers.

  18. Help-Seeking for Suicidal Thoughts and Self-Harm in Young People: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michelmore, Lisa; Hindley, Peter

    2012-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence to suggest that only a minority of young people experiencing suicidal thoughts or self-harm present to any health services. This is of concern given that young people with suicidal thoughts or self-harm often require treatment for mental illness as well as to reduce their risk of completed suicide. We reviewed…

  19. Seafloor Eruptions Offer a Teachable Moment to Help SEAS Students Understand Important Geological and Ecological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Williams, C. S.

    2006-12-01

    In education parlance, a teachable moment is an opportunity that arises when students are engaged and primed to learn, typically in response to some memorable event. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, even natural disasters, if meaningful to the student, often serve to catalyze intense learning. Recent eruptions at the East Pacific Rise offer a potential teachable moment for students and teachers involved with SEAS, a Ridge 2000 education outreach program. SEAS uses a combination of web-facilitated and teacher-directed activities to make the remote deep-sea environment and the process of science relevant and meaningful. SEAS is a web-based, inquiry-oriented education program for middle and high school students. It features the science associated with Ridge 2000 research. Since 2003, SEAS has focused on the integrated study site at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) to help students understand geological and ecological processes at mid-ocean ridges and hydrothermal vents. SEAS students study EPR bathymetry maps, images of lava formations, photomosaics of diffuse flow communities, succession in the Bio-Geo Transect, as well as current research conducted during spring cruises. In the Classroom to Sea Lab, students make direct comparisons between shallow-water mussels and vent mussels (from the EPR) to understand differences in feeding strategies. The recent eruptions and loss of seafloor fauna at this site offer the Ridge 2000 program the opportunity to help students better understand the ephemeral and episodic nature of ridge environments, as well as the realities and processes of science (particularly field science). In January 2007, the SEAS program will again sail with a Ridge 2000 research team, and will work with scientists to report findings through the SEAS website. The eruptions at the EPR covered much of the study site, and scientists' instruments and experiments, in fresh lava. We intend to highlight the recency and effect of the eruptions, using the students

  20. Reliability and Validity of the SAINT: A Guided Self-Help Tool for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, Eddie; Chester, Rebecca; Tsakanikos, Elias; McCarthy, Jane; Craig, Tom; Bouras, Nick

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the main psychometric properties of the Self Assessment and Intervention (SAINT), a unique and recently developed Guided Self-Help tool for people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Fifty-four adults with ID identified with symptoms of anxiety and/or depression completed the study. They were between 18 and 77 years old…

  1. "These People Just Keep Trying to Help Me"--Supporting Students to Succeed in College and Career Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs For the Future, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Community college students today face multiple barriers--personal, financial, and academic--to achieving their postsecondary goals. In order to help more people juggle the myriad facets of daily life that make it difficult to stay in school and complete credentials, colleges need to deliver a broad range of support services in a coordinated…

  2. The poorest first: WHO's activities to help the people in greatest need.

    PubMed

    Jancloes, M

    1998-01-01

    Through its Division of Intensified Cooperation with Countries and Peoples in Greatest Need, WHO is giving special attention to the relationship between poverty and ill-health. The work of the Division is outlined in the present article. PMID:9652219

  3. Understanding inequalities in access to health care services for aboriginal people: a call for nursing action.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Brenda L; Carmargo Plazas, Maria Del Pilar; Salas, Anna Santos; Bourque Bearskin, R Lisa; Hungler, Krista

    2014-01-01

    We present findings from an Access Research Initiative to reduce health disparities and promote equitable access with Aboriginal peoples in Canada. We employed Indigenous, interpretive, and participatory research methodologies in partnership with Aboriginal people. Participants reported stories of bullying, fear, intimidation, and lack of cultural understanding. This research reveals the urgent need to enhance the delivery of culturally appropriate practices in emergency. As nurses, if we wish to affect equity of access, then attention is required to structural injustices that act as barriers to access such as addressing the stigma, stereotyping, and discrimination experienced by Aboriginal people in this study. PMID:25102218

  4. Social media, help or hindrance: what role does social media play in young people's mental health?

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Alfie

    2014-11-01

    Social media is a huge force in the lives of young people with wide ranging effects on their development; given the importance of adolescence in the genesis of mental illness, social media is a factor in the mental health of young people. Despite the role that social media obviously plays in the development of mental illness, little research has been done into the impact that social media has on in the mental illness of young people. In general, what research there is points towards social media having a large impact on young people in both positive and negative ways. In particular, certain studies show a greater incidence and severity of bullying online compared to offline which may contribute to the development of depression. This contrasts with the positive impact that social media seems to have for young people in minority groups (ethnic minorities and those with chronic disease or disability) by allowing them to connect with others who live similar lives despite geographical separation. This acts as a positive influence in these people's lives though a direct link to mental illness was not shown. Overall, several important issues are raised: firstly, the lack of research that has been conducted in the area; secondly, the gulf that exists between the generation of younger, 'digital native' generations and the older generations who are not as engaged with social media; and finally, the huge potential that exists for the use of social media as a protective influence for adolescents. With proper engagement, policy makers and health professionals could use social media to connect with young people on issues like mental health. PMID:25413562

  5. Math Is Like a Scary Movie? Helping Young People Overcome Math Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulkin, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Afterschool teachers who tutor students or provide homework help have a unique opportunity to help students overcome the social or emotional barriers that so often block learning. They can embrace a creative and investigative approach to math learning. Margaret Kulkin's interest in being a math attitude "myth-buster" led her to apply to…

  6. Smoke Screeners: An Educational Program To Help Young People Decode Smoking in the Movies. Moderator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This educational program, which includes a moderator's guide and a videotape, is designed to help educators teach media literacy skills regarding smoking to students in middle and early high school. The moderator's guide helps teachers conduct an engaging discussion and provide followup educational activities around the Smoke Screeners program…

  7. Science to Help Understand and Manage Important Ground-Water Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    Throughout California, as pressure on water resources continues to grow, water-supply agencies are looking to the state?s biggest ?reservoir? ? its ground-water basins ? for supply and storage. To better utilize that resource, the Sweetwater Authority and other local partners, including the city of San Diego and Otay Water Districts, are working with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop the first comprehensive study of the coastal ground-water resources of southern San Diego County. USGS research is providing the integrated geologic and hydrologic knowledge necessary to help effectively utilize this resource on a coordinated, regional basis. USGS scientists are building a real-time well-monitoring network and gathering information about how the aquifers respond to different pumping and recharge-management strategies. Real-time ground-water levels are recorded every hour and are viewable on a project web site (http://ca.water.usgs.gov/sandiego/index.html). Data from the wells are helping to define the geology and hydrogeology of the area, define ground-water quality, and assess ground-water levels. The wells also are strategi-cally placed and designed to be usable by the local agencies for decades to come to help manage surface-water and ground-water operations. Additionally, the knowledge gained from the USGS study will help local, state, and federal agencies; water purveyors; and USGS scientists to understand the effects of urbanization on the local surface-water, ground-water, and biological resources, and to better critique ideas and opportuni-ties for additional ground-water development in the San Diego area.

  8. First aid strategies that are helpful to young people developing a mental disorder: beliefs of health professionals compared to young people and parents

    PubMed Central

    Jorm, Anthony F; Morgan, Amy J; Wright, Annemarie

    2008-01-01

    Background Little is known about the best ways for a member of the public to respond when someone in their social network develops a mental disorder. Controlled trials are not feasible in this area, so expert consensus may be the best guide. Methods To assess expert views, postal surveys were carried out with Australian GPs, psychiatrists and psychologists listed on professional registers and with mental health nurses who were members of a professional college. These professionals were asked to rate the helpfulness of 10 potential first aid strategies for young people with one of four disorders: depression, depression with alcohol misuse, social phobia and psychosis. Data were obtained from 470 GPs, 591 psychiatrists, 736 psychologists and 522 mental health nurses, with respective response rates of 24%, 35%, 40% and 32%. Data on public views were available from an earlier telephone survey of 3746 Australian youth aged 12–25 years and 2005 of their parents, which included questions about the same strategies. Results A clear majority across the four professions believed in the helpfulness of listening to the person, suggesting professional help-seeking, making an appointment for the person to see a GP and asking about suicidal feelings. There was also a clear majority believing in the harmfulness of ignoring the person, suggesting use of alcohol to cope, and talking to them firmly. Compared to health professionals, young people and their parents were less likely to believe that asking about suicidal feelings would be helpful and more likely to believe it would be harmful. They were also less likely to believe that talking to the person firmly would be harmful. Conclusion Several first aid strategies can be recommended to the public based on agreement of clinicians about their likely helpfulness. In particular, there needs to be greater public awareness of the helpfulness of asking a young person with a mental health problem about suicidal feelings. PMID:18538033

  9. The Handicapped in Literature. A Curriculum to Foster Understanding of People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Univ. of New York, NY. Hunter Coll.

    The first of three volumes presenting a curriculum designed to help nonhandicapped students understand students with disabilities focuses on the use of literature to foster that understanding in junior and senior high. The first section examines literature in high school, and presents lessons (theme, objectives, and discussion guides) for five…

  10. Adolescent Peer Counselling: Enhancing the Natural Conversational Helping Skills of Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldard, Kathryn; Patton, Wendy

    2007-01-01

    During the developmental stage of adolescence young people face many stressful challenges (Dacey & Kenny, 1997). Some adolescents manage these challenges adaptively but others do not and are therefore at the risk of adopting maladaptive responses to stress (Frydenberg & Lewis, 2002; Patton & Noller, 1990). Because adolescents are…

  11. Ageing, Leisure, and Social Connectedness: How could Leisure Help Reduce Social Isolation of Older People?

    PubMed

    Toepoel, Vera

    2013-08-01

    This study investigates the relation between leisure activities and the social status of the elderly based on a heterogeneous sample of the Dutch population. Close relationships are also analyzed to identify which people could serve as successful stimulators of leisure participation. The social profile confirms that older people have fewer social contacts and often feel lonely. This study shows that leisure activities explain a significant part of older people's social connectedness. Voluntary work, cultural activities, holiday, sports, reading books, hobbies and shopping are found to be successful predictors for social connectedness of older people. Watching TV, listening to the radio, and spending time behind the computer (passive activities) were not associated with social connectedness. Friends correlate positively to participation in leisure activities. Partners play a role in participation in cultural activities and sports; parents play a role in participation in voluntary work and holidays; siblings play a role in voluntary work and sports; and children play a role in cultural activities, reading books, and shopping. Local communities can use these close relationships and develop special programs to increase social connectedness and hence improve quality of life for older adults. PMID:23874058

  12. Assessing the skills of home care workers in helping older people take their prescribed medications.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Elizabeth E J

    2015-08-01

    The Southern Health and Social Care Trust in Northern Ireland applied a modified version of the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) to assess the skills of home care workers in assisting older people taking prescribed medications. In Northern Ireland, home care workers are care workers employed by health and social care trusts or private agencies. The application of the model has developed the skills of this staff group, improved the relationship between the commissioner and provider, significantly reduced the time spent by community nurses in individual training and assessment, and enhanced the patient experience for those taking medication. Overall, the application of this model has provided assurances to the Trust board, the executive director of nursing, and operational directors that home care workers are competent in assisting older people in this high-risk activity. PMID:26252238

  13. Using Digital Stories to Understand the Lives of Alaska Native Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Lisa; Eglinton, Kristen; Gubrium, Aline

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how young Alaska Native (Inupiaq) people are creatively responding to the tensions of growing up in a world markedly different from that of their parents and grandparents, the pilot study examined youth-produced digital stories as representations of their everyday lives, values, and identities. Two hundred and seventy-one…

  14. Who Flies, Who Cries? Children's Understanding of People from Television and Real Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernie, David

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a broad sense, children's understanding of various types of people in two social domains: television and real life. Specifically, the study was designed to solicit information about (1) the physical and psychological abilities and vulnerabilities children would attribute to television characters and…

  15. A narrative framework for understanding experiences of people with severe mental illnesses.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Helen

    2008-04-01

    This article discusses the value of a narrative approach to understand the experiences of people with severe mental illnesses and the systems around them, and the importance of narrative in the patient-practitioner relationship. These are important concepts in the shift to recovery-oriented systems. People lead storied lives which provide coherence and meaning, but that story has the potential to be change. Both consumers and practitioners have stories, and it is the shared decision-making between them that can lead to recovery. Narratives can be illness narratives, initiated by an illness and the search for meaning in it, or counterstories which are inherently political. The article identifies a Framework for Understanding Stories as a means for listening to and understanding stories at multiple levels. It can be useful for nurses to understand complexity and multilevel aspects of an individual's experience. Although people tell their own individual stories, they compose them by adapting narrative types, which a culture makes available. Programs tells a story and provide an important context for both consumers and practitioners. Dominant societal narratives provide an overall context which can be empowering or disempowering for programs, consumers and practitioners. Thus, as the recovery paradigm has become more prominent, people with mental illnesses have increasingly talked and written about recovery. PMID:18346562

  16. The case of Carla: Dilemmas of helping all students to understand science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, Lori A.; Anderson, Charles W.; Palincsar, Annemarie S.

    2002-05-01

    This paper tells the story of four sixth-grade students, of mixed race and social class, who worked together in a small group. All four students were intrigued as they experimented with colored solutions of different densities. They all wanted to share ideas about the techniques they had used, the observations they had made, and the patterns they had seen. They all wanted to understand why the colored solutions acted as they did. In spite of these common interests, they often failed to achieve intersubjective communication about the colored solutions or about the process of planning and making a poster to report their findings. We explain these failures using the sociolinguistic concepts of polysemy, privileging, and holding the floor. In particular, Carla (an African American girl) was unable to hold the floor within the group, so her opportunities for science learning were diminished. The four students were not overtly prejudiced in their speech or actions. Yet the expectations they brought with them about how and when people should talk, how work should be done, and what standards of quality they should aspire to led them to reconstruct among themselves some of the most troubling inequities of our society as a whole. This story is about important connections. In particular it is about how the actions of children are connected to the histories of their families, and how the privileging of ideas is connected to that of people, and how the practice of science is connected to that of discrimination. Science education reformers may underestimate the difficulty of separating conceptual conflict about ideas from interpersonal conflict about privilege and status.

  17. The "Mysteries of Hypnosis:" Helping Us Better Understand Hypnosis and Empathic Involvement Theory (EIT).

    PubMed

    Pekala, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    Wickramasekera II (2015) has penned a comprehensive and thoughtful review article demonstrating how empathy is intimately involved in the psychology and neurophysiology of hypnosis and the self. Hypnosis is a very "mental" or subjective phenomenon for both the client and the research participant. To better assess the mind of the client/participant during hypnosis, it is my belief that we need to generate more "precise" phenomenological descriptors of the mind during hypnosis and related empathic conditions, as Wickramasekera II (2015) has suggested in his article. Although any phenomenological methodology will have its limits and disadvantages, noetics (as defined in the article below) can help us better understand hypnosis, empathic involvement theory, and the brain/mind/behavior interface. By quantifying the mind in a comprehensive manner, just as the brain is comprehensively quantified via fMRI and qEEG technologies, noetic analysis can help us more precisely assess the mind and relate it to the brain and human behavior and experience. PMID:26675154

  18. When I Whisper, Nobody Listens: Helping Young People Write about Difficult Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This book offers guidance on how teachers can help their students write about sensitive topics or provide pragmatic suggestions for developing the skill and sensitivity necessary to venture into such difficult terrain. The book addresses students' need to articulate their thoughts and feelings about violence, anger, drug use, peer pressure, and…

  19. Modifying patterns of movement in people with low back pain -does it help? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Physiotherapy for people with low back pain frequently includes assessment and modification of lumbo-pelvic movement. Interventions commonly aim to restore normal movement and thereby reduce pain and improve activity limitation. The objective of this systematic review was to investigate: (i) the effect of movement-based interventions on movement patterns (muscle activation, lumbo-pelvic kinematics or postural patterns) of people with low back pain (LBP), and (ii) the relationship between changes in movement patterns and subsequent changes in pain and activity limitation. Methods MEDLINE, Cochrane Central, EMBASE, AMI, CINAHL, Scopus, AMED, ISI Web of Science were searched from inception until January 2012. Randomised controlled trials or controlled clinical trials of people with LBP were eligible for inclusion. The intervention must have been designed to influence (i) muscle activity patterns, (ii) lumbo-pelvic kinematic patterns or (iii) postural patterns, and included measurement of such deficits before and after treatment, to allow determination of the success of the intervention on the lumbo-pelvic movement. Twelve trials (25% of retrieved studies) met the inclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently identified, assessed and extracted data. The PEDro scale was used to assess method quality. Intervention effects were described using standardised differences between group means and 95% confidence intervals. Results The included trials showed inconsistent, mostly small to moderate intervention effects on targeted movement patterns. There was considerable heterogeneity in trial design, intervention type and outcome measures. A relationship between changes to movement patterns and improvements in pain or activity limitation was observed in one of six studies on muscle activation patterns, one of four studies that examined the flexion relaxation response pattern and in two of three studies that assessed lumbo-pelvic kinematics or postural

  20. The CAULDRON game: Helping decision makers understand extreme weather event attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, P.; Otto, F. E. L.

    2014-12-01

    There is a recognition from academics and stakeholders that climate science has a fundamental role to play in the decision making process, but too frequently there is still uncertainty about what, when, how and why to use it. Stakeholders suggest that it is because the science is presented in an inaccessible manner, while academics suggest it is because the stakeholders do not have the scientific knowledge to understand and apply the science appropriately. What is apparent is that stakeholders need support, and that there is an onus on academia to provide it. This support is even more important with recent developments in climate science, such as extreme weather event attribution. We are already seeing the impacts of extreme weather events around the world causing lost of life and damage to property and infrastructure with current research suggesting that these events could become more frequent and more intense. If this is to be the case then a better understanding of the science will be vital in developing robust adaptation and business planning. The use of games, role playing and simulations to aid learning has long been understood in education but less so as a tool to support stakeholder understanding of climate science. Providing a 'safe' space where participants can actively engage with concepts, ideas and often emotions, can lead to deep understanding that is not possible through more passive mechanisms such as papers and web sites. This paper reports on a game that was developed through a collaboration led by the Red Cross/Red Crescent, University of Oxford and University of Reading to help stakeholders understand the role of weather event attribution in the decision making process. The game has already been played successfully at a number of high profile events including COP 19 and the African Climate Conference. It has also been used with students as part of a postgraduate environmental management course. As well as describing the design principles of the

  1. Forming a new clinical team for frail older people: can a group development model help?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Elizabeth Susan; Pollard, Lorraine; Conroy, Simon; Clague-Baker, Nicola

    2014-03-01

    Integrated services which utilise the expertise of team members along care pathways are evolving. Changes in service structure and subsequent team working arrangements can be a challenge for practitioners expected to redefine how they work with one another. These services are particularly important for the care of frail older people. This exploratory study of one newly forming team presents the views of staff involved in establishing an interprofessional healthcare advisory team for older people within an acute hospital admissions unit. Staff experiences of forming a new service are aligned to a model of team development. The findings are presented as themes relating to the stages of team development and identify the challenges of setting up an integrated service alongside existing services. In particular, team process issues relating to the clarity of goals, role clarification, leadership, team culture and identity. Managers must allow time to ensure new services evolve before setting up evaluation studies for efficiency and effectiveness which might prove against the potential for interprofessional teamworking. PMID:24199595

  2. "Some People Don't Deserve Help": Service Learning in Serbia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull, Laura J.

    2009-01-01

    In post-conflict, emerging democracies, service learning has great potential to promote intercultural understanding if projects encourage students to see each other as individuals rather than as members of marginalized groups. This paper evaluates a service learning project in a Serbian secondary school and suggests ways in which service learning…

  3. A database prototype has been developed to help understand costs in photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    MOORE,LARRY M.

    2000-04-11

    High photovoltaic (PV) system costs hinder market growth. An approach to studying these costs has been developed using a database containing system, component and maintenance information. This data, which is both technical and non-technical in nature, is to be used to identify trends related to costs. A pilot database exists at this time and work is continuing. The results of this work may be used by the data owners to improve their operations with the goal of sharing non-attributable information with the public and industry at large. The published objectives of the DOE PV program are to accelerate the development of PV as a national and global energy option, as well as ensure US technology and global market leadership. The approach to supporting these objectives is to understand what drives costs in PV applications. This paper and poster session describe work-in-progress in the form of a database that will help identify costs in PV systems. In an effort to address DOE's Five-Year PV Milestones, a program was established in the summer of 1999 to study system costs in three PV applications--solar home lighting, water pumping, and grid-tied systems. This work began with a RFQ requesting data from these types of systems. Creating a partnership with industry and other system organizations such as Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) was the approach chosen to maintain a close time to the systems in the field. Nine participants were selected as partners, who provided data on their systems. Two activities are emphasized in this work. For the first, an iterative approach of developing baseline reliability and costs information with the participants was taken. This effort led to identifying typical components in these systems as well as the specific data (metrics) that would be needed in any analysis used to understand total systems costs.

  4. What the comprehensive economics of blindness and visual impairment can help us understand.

    PubMed

    Frick, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    Since the year 2000, the amount written about the economics of blindness and visual impairment has increased substantially. In some cases, the studies listed under this heading are calculations of the costs related to vision impairment and blindness at a national or global level; in other cases the studies examine the cost-effectiveness of strategies to prevent or modify visual impairment or blindness that are intended to be applied as a guide to treatment recommendations and coverage decisions. In each case the references are just examples of many that could be cited. These important studies have helped advocates, policy makers, practitioners, educators, and others interested in eye and vision health to understand the magnitude of the impact that visual impairment and blindness have on the world, regions, nations, and individuals and the tradeoffs that need to be made to limit the impact. However, these studies only begin to tap into the insights that economic logic might offer to those interested in this field. This paper presents multiple case studies that demonstrate that the economics of blindness and visual impairment encompasses much more than simply measures of the burden of the condition. Case studies demonstrating the usefulness of economic insight include analysis of the prevention of conditions that lead to impairment, decisions about refractive error and presbyopia, decisions about disease and injury treatment, decisions about behavior among those with uncorrectable impairment, and decisions about how to regulate the market all have important economic inputs. PMID:22944750

  5. Alaska Native people's perceptions, understandings, and expectations for research involving biological specimens

    PubMed Central

    Hiratsuka, Vanessa Y.; Brown, Jennifer K.; Hoeft, Theresa J.; Dillard, Denise A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Members of racially and ethnically diverse groups have been persistently underrepresented in biomedical research in general, possibly due to mistrust with the medical and research community. This article describes the perceptions, understandings, and expectations of Alaska Native people about research involving the collection and storage of biological specimens. Study design Stratified focus groups. Methods Twenty-nine focus groups with Alaska Native people (n = 178) were held in 14 locations using a semi-structured moderator guide. ATLAS.ti was used for thematic analysis through iterative readings and coding. Alaska Native peoples’ perceptions, understandings, and expectations of researcher beneficence, informed consent processes, and provision of research findings were elicited. Results and conclusions Alaska Native people desired extensive disclosure of information beyond that typically provided in consent and results dissemination processes. Information germane to the motivation and intent of researchers and specifics of specimen storage and destruction were specifically requested. A clear and extensive process of informed consent and continued improvements in sharing results may enhance the transparency of research intent, conduct, and use of obtained results among Alaska Native people. Meeting expectations may improve relationships between researchers and the Alaska Native population which could result in increased research participation. Our findings offer a guide for researchers and communities when planning and implementing research with biological specimens. PMID:22663942

  6. Toward an Understanding of People Management Issues in SMEs: a South-Eastern European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szamosi, Leslie T.; Duxbury, Linda; Higgins, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on developing an understanding, and benchmarking, human resource management HRM issues in small and medium enterprises SMEs in South-Eastern Europe. The importance of SMEs in helping transition-based economies develop is critical, but at the same time the research indicates that the movement toward westernized business…

  7. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  8. Evaluation of a Motivation and Psycho-Educational Guided Self-Help Intervention for People with Eating Disorders (MOPED).

    PubMed

    Brewin, Nicola; Wales, Jackie; Cashmore, Rebecca; Plateau, Carolyn R; Dean, Brett; Cousins, Tara; Arcelus, Jon

    2016-05-01

    High dropout rates and poor levels of engagement are well documented for patients with eating disorders. Utilising motivational techniques and providing psycho-education have been suggested as ways to reduce treatment disengagement. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a newly developed motivational and psycho-educational (MOPED) guided self-help intervention for people with eating disorders on engagement and retention in therapy. Patients who received MOPED pre-treatment (n = 79) were compared with a diagnosis-matched group of patients receiving treatment as usual (TAU; n = 79). The study found that patients receiving MOPED had a higher engagement rate than those within the TAU group. Specifically, patients in the anorexic spectrum were found to present with both higher rates of engagement and completion of therapy when issued with MOPED in comparison with TAU. Self-help packages using motivational style could be a valuable and cost-effective intervention for patients with eating disorders. PMID:26778092

  9. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  10. Helping Teachers Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kise, Jane; Russell, Beth; Shumate, Carol

    2008-01-01

    Personality type theory describes normal differences in how people are energized, take in information, make decisions, and approach work and life--all key elements in how people teach and learn. Understanding one another's personality type preferences helps teachers share their instructional strategies and classroom information. Type theory…

  11. Using Digital Libraries Non-Visually: Understanding the Help-Seeking Situations of Blind Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Iris; Babu, Rakesh; Joo, Soohyung; Fuller, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores blind users' unique help-seeking situations in interacting with digital libraries. In particular, help-seeking situations were investigated at both the physical and cognitive levels. Method: Fifteen blind participants performed three search tasks, including known- item search, specific information search, and…

  12. Towards Understanding How to Assess Help-Seeking Behavior across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogan, Amy; Walker, Erin; Baker, Ryan; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Soriano, Jose Carlo; Castro, Maynor Jimenez

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in automatically assessing help seeking, the process of referring to resources outside of oneself to accomplish a task or solve a problem. Research in the United States has shown that specific help-seeking behaviors led to better learning within intelligent tutoring systems. However, intelligent…

  13. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  14. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  15. Maxims To Help Understand the World: Simple Rules To Guide Learning about Geographic Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Stephen S.

    2003-01-01

    Explains a large basic course on world regional geography. Introduces students to 10 maxims about the many factors that help define a place's character. Student reactions to the maxims were found to be largely positive. (Author/SOE)

  16. Helping People Have Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Sharyn

    The book, written for intermediate grade students, describes leisure time occupations in a format that can be used for independent study or as a supplement to classroom instruction. The specific careers described and illustrated are grouped into seven general categories: food service, conservation, lodging, outdoors, entertainment and sports,…

  17. Physical analogs that help to better understand the modern concepts on continental stretching, hyperextension and rupturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalan, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Three facts helped to establish a revolution in the understanding of how mega-continents stretch, rupture and breakup to form new continents and related passive margins: (1) the penetration of the distal portions of the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins by several ODP wells (late 70's/early 80's), with the discovery of hyperextended crust and exhumation of lower crust and mantle between typical continental and oceanic domains, (2) field works in the Alps and in the Pyrenees that re-interpreted sedimentary successions and associated "ophiolites" as remnants of old Tethyan passive margins that recorded structural domains similar to those found in Iberia-Newfoundland, and (3) the acquisition of long and ultra-deep reflection seismic sections that could image for the first time sub-crustal levels (25-40 km) in several passive margins around the world. The interpretation of such sections showed that the concepts developed in the Iberia-Newfoundland margins and in the Alps could be applied to a great extent to most passive margins, especially those surrounding the North and South Atlantic Oceans. The new concepts of (i) decoupled deformation (upper brittle X lower ductile) within the proximal domain of the continental crust, (ii) of coupled deformation (hyperextension) in the distal crust and, (iii) of exhumation of deeper levels in the outer domain, with the consequent change in the physical properties of the rising rocks, defined an end-member in the new classification of passive margins, the magma-poor type (as opposed to volcanic passive margins). These concepts, together with the new reflection seismic views of the entire crustal structure of passive margins, forced the re-interpretation of older refraction and potential field data and the re-drawing of long established models. Passive margins are prime targets for petroleum exploration, thus, the great interest raised by this subject in both the academy and in the industry. Interestingly enough, the deformation

  18. A renaissance in residential behavior analysis? A historical perspective and a better way to help people with challenging behavior

    PubMed Central

    Holburn, Steve

    1997-01-01

    After a slow start, the popularity of applied behavior analysis for people with severe behavior problems peaked in the 1970s and was then battered down by the effects of methodological behaviorism, the aversives controversy, overregulation, and the inherent limitations of congregate living. Despite the ethical, technical, and conceptual advancements in behavior analysis, many people with challenging behavior live in futile environments in which the behavior analyst can only tinker. A radically behavioristic approach has become available that has the power to change these conditions, to restore the reciprocity necessary for new learning, and to bring residential behavior analysts more in contact with the contingencies of helping and teaching. The approach is consistent with alternatives that behaviorists have suggested for years to improve the image and effectiveness of applied behavior analysis, although it will take the behaviorist far from the usual patterns of practice. Finally, the approach promotes its own survival by promoting access to interlocking organizational contingencies, but its antithetical nature presents many conceptual and practical challenges to agency adoption. PMID:22478282

  19. Some behavioral aspects of energy descent: how a biophysical psychology might help people transition through the lean times ahead

    PubMed Central

    De Young, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    We may soon face biophysical limits to perpetual growth. Energy supplies may tighten and then begin a long slow descent while defensive expenditures rise to address problems caused by past resource consumption. The outcome may be significant changes in daily routines at the individual and community level. It is difficult to know when this scenario might begin to unfold but it clearly would constitute a new behavioral context, one that the behavioral sciences least attends to. Even if one posits a less dramatic scenario, people may still need to make many urgent and perhaps unsettling transitions. And while a robust response would be needed, it is not at all clear what should be the details of that response. Since it is likely that no single response will fix things everywhere, for all people or for all time, it would be useful to conduct many social experiments. Indeed, a culture of small experiments should be fostered which, at the individual and small group level, can be described as behavioral entrepreneurship. This may have begun, hidden in plain sight, but more social experiments are needed. To be of help, it may be useful to both package behavioral insights in a way that is practitioner-oriented and grounded in biophysical trends and to propose a few key questions that need attention. This paper begins the process of developing a biophysical psychology, incomplete as it is at this early stage. PMID:25404926

  20. Some behavioral aspects of energy descent: how a biophysical psychology might help people transition through the lean times ahead.

    PubMed

    De Young, Raymond

    2014-01-01

    We may soon face biophysical limits to perpetual growth. Energy supplies may tighten and then begin a long slow descent while defensive expenditures rise to address problems caused by past resource consumption. The outcome may be significant changes in daily routines at the individual and community level. It is difficult to know when this scenario might begin to unfold but it clearly would constitute a new behavioral context, one that the behavioral sciences least attends to. Even if one posits a less dramatic scenario, people may still need to make many urgent and perhaps unsettling transitions. And while a robust response would be needed, it is not at all clear what should be the details of that response. Since it is likely that no single response will fix things everywhere, for all people or for all time, it would be useful to conduct many social experiments. Indeed, a culture of small experiments should be fostered which, at the individual and small group level, can be described as behavioral entrepreneurship. This may have begun, hidden in plain sight, but more social experiments are needed. To be of help, it may be useful to both package behavioral insights in a way that is practitioner-oriented and grounded in biophysical trends and to propose a few key questions that need attention. This paper begins the process of developing a biophysical psychology, incomplete as it is at this early stage. PMID:25404926

  1. How do people of South Asian origin understand and experience depression? A protocol for a systematic review of qualitative literature

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Roisin; Trivedi, Daksha; Sharma, Shivani

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Individuals from Black and Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) groups are less likely to receive a diagnosis and to engage with treatment for depression. This review aims to draw on international literature to summarise what is known about how people specifically of South Asian origin, migrants and non-migrants, understand and experience depressive symptoms. The resulting evidence base will further inform practices aimed at encouraging help-seeking behaviour and treatment uptake. Methods and analysis A systematic review and thematic synthesis of qualitative literature conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Using predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, electronic searches will be conducted across 16 databases. Study quality will be assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP). Data will be extracted independently by 2 reviewers. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval is not required. A comprehensive evidence base of how people from South Asian backgrounds conceptualise and experience depression will better inform the design and delivery of mental health initiatives and advance directions for future research. Findings will be published in a peer-reviewed journal, and disseminated through existing networks for professionals, researchers, patients and the public. Trial registration number CRD42015026120. PMID:27577586

  2. Understanding state variation in health insurance dynamics can help tailor enrollment strategies for ACA expansion.

    PubMed

    Graves, John A; Swartz, Katherine

    2013-10-01

    The number and types of people who become eligible for and enroll in the Affordable Care Act's (ACA's) health insurance expansions will depend in part on the factors that cause people to become uninsured for different lengths of time. We used a small-area estimation approach to estimate differences across states in percentages of adults losing health insurance and in lengths of their uninsured spells. We found that nearly 50 percent of the nonelderly adult population in Florida, Nevada, New Mexico, and Texas--but only 18 percent in Massachusetts and 22 percent in Vermont--experienced an uninsured spell between 2009 and 2012. Compared to people who lost private coverage, those with public insurance were more likely to experience an uninsured spell, but their spells of uninsurance were shorter. We categorized states based on estimated incidence of uninsured spells and the spells' duration. States should tailor their enrollment outreach and retention efforts for the ACA's coverage expansions to address their own mix of types of coverage lost and durations of uninsured spells. PMID:24067304

  3. Sharing Skills. Hermione Helps--S-P-E-W: Understanding and Creating Acronyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lynne Farrell

    2005-01-01

    An acronym, a word formed from the first letters of other words, is often used to name products or organizations. For example, when Hermione Granger, a very clever student at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, is enraged over the wizarding world's treatment of house-elves, she creates an organization to help put an end to this injustice.…

  4. It's Elementary in Appalachia: Helping Prospective Teachers and Their Students Understand Sexuality and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Patti Capel

    2003-01-01

    The most blatant discrimination that exists today in schools is that directed toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and intersex students (l/g/b/t/i/q). English and language arts teacher education programs can help foster critical awareness among future teachers of sexuality and gender as well as provide the pedagogical skills and…

  5. Putting Information in Perspective: A Mapping Activity to Help Students Understand the California Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersmehl, Philip J.

    1997-01-01

    Asserts that, to participate in a modern economy, every region needs at least one "bigjob" (basic income generating-job). Describes a mapping activity that helps students identify bigjobs in state economies. Uses California as an example and reveals that, contrary to popular opinion, real estate is California's bigjob. (MJP)

  6. Applying Symmetries of Common Objects to Help Students Understand Stereoselectivity for Apparently Symmetric Substrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jittam, Piyachat; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2008-01-01

    We have found it an effective way of teaching symmetry in the context of stereoselectivity, to use common everyday objects with the same point groups as the substrates involved. This has helped students to distinguish between those symmetry elements which allow for stereospecificity and those which preclude it. Two symmetry elements, the simple…

  7. English Teachers Are from Mars, Students Are from Venus (But YA Books Can Help Interplanetary Understanding).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Chris, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how alien students and teachers are to each other, especially when it comes to literature. Argues that these differences are at the root of many difficulties faced in helping students become readers and appreciate literature. Offers brief descriptions of 10 new or overlooked young-adult books worth reading. (SR)

  8. Using Biography to Help Young Learners Understand the Causes of Historical Change and Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertig, Gary

    2008-01-01

    When teachers in elementary and middle school classrooms portray history as an immutable sequence of certain facts, dates, and events, young learners tend to view the past, and by extension the future, as something fixed and inevitable. Learning about the past through investigating biographies can help counter this tendency by teaching students to…

  9. Helping Children Understand Their Communities: Past and Present, Real and Virtual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Social studies should prepare children to participate in society. Teachers can help children study their local neighborhoods and communities on foot, with maps and books, and on websites. Studying the community can reveal a wealth of issues and ideas that matter to students and their families, while students also learn important things about the…

  10. Managing Middle School Madness: Helping Parents and Teachers Understand the "Wonder Years"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilderman, Glen

    2006-01-01

    For many parents and students, the transition from elementary school to middle school can be difficult. This book is a compilation of advice and information to help parents prepare for the behavioral, social, and academic adjustments that students may encounter. In this book, the author offers practical tips on topics such a setting up rewards for…

  11. Help! I Can't Understand What My Child Is Saying!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Dorothy P.

    2005-01-01

    A child with a speech sound disorder may understand words and phrases and use them to talk. However, if a child's speech sounds different from his peers who are the same age, gender or ethnic group, or if he/she frequently avoids talking because he/she is hard to understand, this child may have a speech sound disorder. In this article, the author…

  12. Effects of a Cognitive Behavioral Self-Help Program on Emotional Problems for People with Acquired Hearing Loss: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnefski, Nadia; Kraaij, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether a cognitive-behavioral self-help program was effective in improving depressed mood and anxiety in people with acquired deafness. Participants were 45 persons with acquired deafness, randomly allocated to the Cognitive-Behavioral Self-help (CBS) group or the Waiting List Control (WLC) group. Depression…

  13. The Role of Community College Financial Aid Counselors in Helping Students Understand and Utilize Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Roberts, Toya

    2012-01-01

    Financial aid counselors are a primary source of information that many students rely upon to understand financial aid and how to pay for college. However, little is known about financial aid counselors at America's community colleges and their interactions with the students they serve. Using original survey data, this study examined the role these…

  14. How Photography as Field Notes Helps in Understanding the Building the Education Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughlin, Jill

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the outcome of research conducted between June 2010 and January 2011 as part of understanding the building the education revolution (BER) a major policy initiative of the Australian Federal Government which commenced when Julia Gillard, now PM, was the Federal Minister of Education. The BER policy initiative was part of an economic…

  15. What the Words Mean: Help for Understanding SBR from the Software & Information Industry Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To appreciate the true impact of scientifically based research on education, it may be useful first to understand the meaning of the various terms that the law employs as part of its definition of SBR (Scientifcally Based Research). The This article presents an explication from a Software & Information Industry Association publication titled…

  16. Using Open Educational Resources to Help Students Understand the Sub-Prime Lending Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Evelyn A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I describe an assignment designed to give students an intermediate level of understanding of the causes of the crisis using online educational resources widely available on the internet. I implemented the assignment in an undergraduate intermediate accounting course. Feedback from students indicate the assignment enhanced their…

  17. Learning Disabilities: What Are They? Helping Teachers and Parents Understand the Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimera, Robert Evert

    2007-01-01

    "Specific Learning Disability" is by far the largest category of conditions served in special education. Unfortunately, few parents (and educators) really understand what learning disabilities are. Many erroneously believe it is a "politically correct" term for "mildly mentally retarded" or "dull normal." Further, while most laypeople have heard…

  18. Helping Students to Understand the Link between Substance Use and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Alissa; Ward, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Students studying addictive diseases must come to understand, among other issues, the interplay between intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance abuse. Statistics are important, but case examples elucidate for the students what to "listen" for in their meetings with clients. The purpose of this article is to provide several case examples of…

  19. Understanding Child Maltreatment: Help and Hope. A Course of Study. (Pilot Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Maxwell C.

    Intended for use in inservice teacher and professional education, as well as with secondary level students, the curriculum guide is designed as part of Project Protection to promote understanding of the individual and societal problems of child maltreatment in terms of prevention. The document contains six units which deal with the following…

  20. Can people with multiple sclerosis actually understand what they read in the Internet age?

    PubMed

    Moccia, Marcello; Carotenuto, Antonio; Massarelli, Marco; Lanzillo, Roberta; Brescia Morra, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    People with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently report difficulties in finding personally relevant information on the Internet. With this in mind, the Google top-ten patient-oriented results were analysed for their overall level of readability. The most commonly visited websites required an average grade level of 11.74 ± 1.54, and an average number of years of formal education of 12.78 ± 1.82, to be easily understood. The average Flesch Reading Ease readability index is 45.26 ± 7.35, a difficult-to-read score. The high educational level required to easily understand most websites worsens health inequalities, not allowing a full participation in health information and decision making. PMID:26526382

  1. Understanding sociocultural and psychological factors affecting transgender people of color in San Francisco.

    PubMed

    Bith-Melander, Pollie; Sheoran, Bhupendra; Sheth, Lina; Bermudez, Carlos; Drone, Jennifer; Wood, Woo; Schroeder, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic qualitative study explored the needs of transgender people of color, including biological transitioning issues, gender and group membership identity formation, HIV, and other health issues. The sample consisted of transgender youth and adults of color in San Francisco (N = 43). Data were collected from in-depth interviews with 20 youth and adults and focus groups with 23 individuals. The study focused on perspectives of racial and ethnic minorities from Asian/Pacific Islander, African American, and Latino backgrounds. The medical decision-making perspective was used to gain a deeper understanding of sociocultural and psychological factors affecting transgender individuals of color in San Francisco. The major themes that emerged were gender identity, group membership, transitioning and related issues, sex work, alcohol and drug use, mental health and health care, sense of community, HIV, resources, and other support. Key clinical considerations that health providers can use to improve care of transgender individuals of color are included. PMID:20416495

  2. Understanding empathy: why phenomenology and hermeneutics can help medical education and practice.

    PubMed

    Hooker, Claire

    2015-11-01

    This article offers a critique and reformulation of the concept of empathy as it is currently used in the context of medicine and medical care. My argument is three pronged. First, that the instrumentalised notion of empathy that has been common within medicine erases the term's rich epistemological history as a special form of understanding, even a vehicle of social inquiry, and has instead substituted an account unsustainably structured according to the polarisations of modernity (subject/object, active/passive, knower/known, mind/body, doctor/patient). I suggest that understanding empathy by examining its origins within the phenomenological tradition, as a mode of intersubjective understanding, offers a different and profitable approach. Secondly, I argue that the appropriation of empathy in medicine means that, ironically, empathy can function as a technique of pastoral power, in which virtue, knowledge and authority remain with the doctor (Mayes in Bioeth Inq 6:483-493, doi: 10.1007/s11673-009-9195-9 , 2009). And thirdly, empathy is in danger of being resourced as a substitute for equity and funding within health systems. I conclude however with hope for the productive possibilities for empathy. PMID:25763825

  3. Helping women understand their risk in situations of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2004-12-01

    Only approximately one-half of the 456 women who were killed or almost killed by a husband, boyfriend, or ex-husband or ex-boyfriend in a recent national study of homicide of women accurately perceived their risk of being killed by their abusive partner. Women are unlikely to overestimate their risk; however, many will underestimate the severity of the situation. From the same study, it was found that relatively few of the victims of actual or attempted intimate partner femicide were seen by domestic violence advocates during the year before they were killed; they were far more likely to be seen in the health care system. Implications are drawn as to innovative ways that women who are abused can be identified and with skilled assessment of the danger in their relationship helped make more informed plans for their safety. PMID:15492060

  4. Using art to help understand the imagery of irritable bowel syndrome and its response to hypnotherapy.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Helen R; Miller, Vivien; Morris, Julie; Evans, Raymond; Tarrier, Nicholas; Whorwell, Peter J

    2009-04-01

    A medical artist asked 109 patients if they had an image of their IBS pre- and posthypnotherapy, making precise watercolor paintings of any images described. Results were related to treatment outcome, symptoms, anxiety, depression, and absorption (hypnotizability); 49% of patients had an image, and a wide variety were recorded and painted. Imagery was significantly associated with gender (p < .05), anxiety (p < .05), noncolonic symptomatology (p < .05), and absorption (p = .001); 57.8% of responders compared with 35.5% of nonresponders to hypnotherapy had an image of their disease (p < .05) before treatment, and color images were associated with better outcomes (p = .05) than monochrome ones. All images changed in responders, often becoming more nonspecific in nature. Inquiring about IBS imagery helps to identify potential responders and nonresponders to hypnotherapy and may also provide insights into how patients think about their illness. PMID:19234964

  5. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    where we are. We want to understand how a ball of gas led to the people of the Earth. Do you think it is possible that life was delivered to Earth on an impacting meteorite? No, I think that's unnecessarily complicated. Water and organics etc can come from space—they still are hitting the Earth—but the Earth has a lot of carbon and stuff. We know that life can have arisen on Earth and there is no evidence that there are any bacteria in meteorites. And is there life on other planets? There is no reason that logically it can't happen. It is possible that life could have arisen on Mars just as it did on Earth. I'm quite prepared to admit that life may have arisen elsewhere, but within the solar system there is no indication of any higher lifeforms. What do you expect in the future from meteorite research? What's exciting is that you never know what is going to turn up. In January 2000 a new meteorite fell in Canada at Tagish Lake. It's very primitive, rich in carbon, very different from anything we have seen before. Tomorrow another new type might arrive. My great interest is Martian meteorites so I am preparing for the Beagle mission. We are also looking at how solar grains link astrophysics with meteorites. What resources would you recommend for a teacher hoping to inspire their students with planetary science and astronomy? In addition to visiting the NHM I'd suggest they look at some of the Hubble images and consider what they are looking at. There are also the asteroid pictures from Near and the PPARC meteorite teaching package. PPARC also have meteorites which can be loaned. I have just finished designing a poster with PCET. More information The award-winning Natural History Museum website is at www.nhm.ac.uk Search for Life by Monica Grady is published by the NHM (ISBN 0 565 09157 3) at £9.95. A chart entitled Meteorites (shown below) designed by Monica Grady is available from Pictorial Charts Educational Trust www.pcet.co.uk priced £7.75.

  6. Understanding What's Critical in Protecting Our Society: Can Satellite Observations Help?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2005-01-01

    There are many vital issues which are impacting our daily lives and will continue to haunt us as long as we live on this planet of ours. These issues range from food supply availability, drought, coastal zone erosion, volcanoes, hurricanes, terrorism, global warming, earthquakes, water resources, air quality, public health, and agriculture production. Such societal needs are directly linked to our geometric population growth, and abundance of automobiles, industrial emissions, industrial waste and extensive fishing of our oceans and elimination of our ecology. The questions which require serious thoughts, research, coordination, and resources to understand, plan and strike a sensible balance in our daily lives and the above issues are tough to deal with. However, with the advent of remote sensing technologies, tremendous progress has been made in applying space-based and airborne data and products in solving real societal problems. Several of these problems, such as coastal zone erosion, air quality, severe weather, water availability and quality, public health, fires, land slides and others are intricately related; and in the long run can have serious consequences if not properly addressed by scientists, regulatory bodies and policy makers. Although it is a much involved and tangled web to unravel, nevertheless we have an excellent start in understanding some of the phenomena and hopefully can mitigate some of the severe effects by advancing our scientific knowledge. This paper briefly discusses the applications of remote sensing data from Terra, Aqua, and other NASA satellites how to deal with such complex problems; it provides an excellent start.

  7. Understanding what's critical in protecting our society: Can satellite observations help? (Invited paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2005-05-01

    There are many vital issues which are impacting our daily lives and will continue to haunt us as long as we live on this planet of ours. These issues range from food supply availability, drought, coastal zone erosion, volcanoes, hurricanes, terrorism, global warming, earthquakes, water resources, air quality, public health, and agriculture production. Such societal needs are directly linked to our geometric population growth, and abundance of automobiles, industrial emissions, industrial waste and extensive fishing of our oceans and elimination of our ecology. The questions which require serious thoughts, research, coordination, and resources to understand, plan and strike a sensible balance in our daily lives and the above issues are tough to deal with. However, with the advent of remote sensing technologies, tremendous progress has been made in applying space-based and airborne data and products in solving real societal problems. Several of these problems, such as coastal zone erosion, air quality, severe weather, water availability and quality, public health, fires, land slides and others are intricately related; and in the long run can have serious consequences if not properly addressed by scientists, regulatory bodies and policy makers. Although it is a much involved and tangled web to unravel, nevertheless we have an excellent start in understanding some of the phenomena and hopefully can mitigate some of the severe effects by advancing our scientific knowledge. This paper briefly discusses the applications of remote sensing data from Terra, Aqua, and other NASA satellites how to deal with such complex problems; it provides an excellent start.

  8. Does mechanistic understanding help in risk assessment-the example of dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Tuomisto, Jouko . E-mail: jouko.tuomisto@ktl.fi

    2005-09-01

    Risk assessment is based on scientific information, in part on 'regulatory toxicology', i.e., studies following protocols accepted by national or international authorities, and in part on fundamental scientific information clarifying the mechanisms of toxicity and giving a better possibility to evaluate also the findings of routine safety studies. Both are needed, and increased biological understanding increases the possibilities of handling the data in a rational way. In addition, risk assessment seems to include some built-in assumptions that are not necessarily scientific at all. This review attempts to highlight the distortions that are possible if we follow certain rules in a blinkered way not taking into consideration all aspects of the risk. The highly controversial risk assessment of dioxins is used to exemplify the difficulties of excessively straightforward risk analysis process.

  9. Engineering Good: How Engineering Metaphors Help us to Understand the Moral Life and Change Society

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Engineering can learn from ethics, but ethics can also learn from engineering. In this paper, I discuss what engineering metaphors can teach us about practical philosophy. Using metaphors such as calculation, performance, and open source, I articulate two opposing views of morality and politics: one that relies on images related to engineering as science and one that draws on images of engineering practice. I argue that the latter view and its metaphors provide a more adequate way to understand and guide the moral life. Responding to two problems of alienation and taking into account developments such as Fab Lab I then further explore the implications of this view for engineering and society. PMID:19722107

  10. Does mechanistic understanding help in risk assessment--the example of dioxins.

    PubMed

    Tuomisto, Jouko

    2005-09-01

    Risk assessment is based on scientific information, in part on "regulatory toxicology", i.e., studies following protocols accepted by national or international authorities, and in part on fundamental scientific information clarifying the mechanisms of toxicity and giving a better possibility to evaluate also the findings of routine safety studies. Both are needed, and increased biological understanding increases the possibilities of handling the data in a rational way. In addition, risk assessment seems to include some built-in assumptions that are not necessarily scientific at all. This review attempts to highlight the distortions that are possible if we follow certain rules in a blinkered way not taking into consideration all aspects of the risk. The highly controversial risk assessment of dioxins is used to exemplify the difficulties of excessively straightforward risk analysis process. PMID:15996698

  11. Agent Based Modelling Helps in Understanding the Rules by Which Fibroblasts Support Keratinocyte Colony Formation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; McMinn, Phil; Holcombe, Mike; Smallwood, Rod; MacNeil, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Background Autologous keratincoytes are routinely expanded using irradiated mouse fibroblasts and bovine serum for clinical use. With growing concerns about the safety of these xenobiotic materials, it is desirable to culture keratinocytes in media without animal derived products. An improved understanding of epithelial/mesenchymal interactions could assist in this. Methodology/Principal Findings A keratincyte/fibroblast o-culture model was developed by extending an agent-based keratinocyte colony formation model to include the response of keratinocytes to both fibroblasts and serum. The model was validated by comparison of the in virtuo and in vitro multicellular behaviour of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in single and co-culture in Greens medium. To test the robustness of the model, several properties of the fibroblasts were changed to investigate their influence on the multicellular morphogenesis of keratinocyes and fibroblasts. The model was then used to generate hypotheses to explore the interactions of both proliferative and growth arrested fibroblasts with keratinocytes. The key predictions arising from the model which were confirmed by in vitro experiments were that 1) the ratio of fibroblasts to keratinocytes would critically influence keratinocyte colony expansion, 2) this ratio needed to be optimum at the beginning of the co-culture, 3) proliferative fibroblasts would be more effective than irradiated cells in expanding keratinocytes and 4) in the presence of an adequate number of fibroblasts, keratinocyte expansion would be independent of serum. Conclusions A closely associated computational and biological approach is a powerful tool for understanding complex biological systems such as the interactions between keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The key outcome of this study is the finding that the early addition of a critical ratio of proliferative fibroblasts can give rapid keratinocyte expansion without the use of irradiated mouse fibroblasts and bovine

  12. Microsatellite and flow cytometry analysis to help understand the origin of Dioscorea alata polyploids

    PubMed Central

    Nemorin, A.; David, J.; Maledon, E.; Nudol, E.; Dalon, J.; Arnau, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with a ploidy level ranging from diploid (2n = 2x = 40) to tetraploid (2n = 4x = 80). Ploidy increase is correlated with better agronomic performance. The lack of knowledge about the origin of D. alata spontaneous polyploids (triploids and tetraploids) limits the efficiency of polyploid breeding. The objective of the present study was to use flow cytometry and microsatellite markers to understand the origin of D. alata polyploids. Methods Different progeny generated by intracytotype crosses (2x × 2x) and intercytotype crosses (2x × 4x and 3x × 2x) were analysed in order to understand endosperm incompatibility phenomena and gamete origins via the heterozygosity rate transmitted to progeny. Results This work shows that in a 2x × 2x cross, triploids with viable seeds are obtained only via a phenomenon of diploid female non-gametic reduction. The study of the transmission of heterozygosity made it possible to exclude polyspermy and polyembryony as the mechanisms at the origin of triploids. The fact that no seedlings were obtained by a 3x × 2x cross made it possible to confirm the sterility of triploid females. Flow cytometry analyses carried out on the endosperm of seeds resulting from 2x × 4x crosses revealed endosperm incompatibility phenomena. Conclusions The major conclusion is that the polyploids of D. alata would have appeared through the formation of unreduced gametes. The triploid pool would have been built and diversified through the formation of 2n gametes in diploid females as the result of the non-viability of seeds resulting from the formation of 2n sperm and of the non-viability of intercytotype crosses. The tetraploids would have appeared through bilateral sexual polyploidization via the union of two unreduced gametes due to the sterility of triploids. PMID:23912697

  13. Helping medical students to acquire a deeper understanding of truth-telling

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Samia A.; Baroffio, Anne; Ummel, Marinette; Burn, Carine Layat

    2015-01-01

    Problem Truth-telling is an important component of respect for patients’ self-determination, but in the context of breaking bad news, it is also a distressing and difficult task. Intervention We investigated the long-term influence of a simulated patient-based teaching intervention, integrating learning objectives in communication skills and ethics into students’ attitudes and concerns regarding truth-telling. We followed two cohorts of medical students from the preclinical third year to their clinical rotations (fifth year). Open-ended responses were analysed to explore medical students’ reported difficulties in breaking bad news. Context This intervention was implemented during the last preclinical year of a problem-based medical curriculum, in collaboration between the doctor–patient communication and ethics programs. Outcome Over time, concerns such as empathy and truthfulness shifted from a personal to a relational focus. Whereas ‘truthfulness’ was a concern for the content of the message, ‘truth-telling’ included concerns on how information was communicated and how realistically it was received. Truth-telling required empathy, adaptation to the patient, and appropriate management of emotions, both for the patient's welfare and for a realistic understanding of the situation. Lessons learned Our study confirms that an intervention confronting students with a realistic situation succeeds in making them more aware of the real issues of truth-telling. Medical students deepened their reflection over time, acquiring a deeper understanding of the relational dimension of values such as truth-telling, and honing their view of empathy. PMID:26563958

  14. How LIF has helped to understand ion loss at the boundaries of weakly collisional plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Ko, E.; Wang, X.; Oksuza, L.; Halab, A.; Servern, G.

    2003-10-01

    Recent experiments in weakly collisional multi-dipole plasmas with one and two positive ion species have provided a much better understanding of ion motion in presheaths near the boundaries of such plasmas. Plasma potential was determined with emissive probes, ion density with Langmuir probes and diode laser LIF, ion drift velocity with Mach probes calibrated with LIF, and directly with LIF, and from the phase velocity of ion acoustic waves. LIF provided measurements of the ion velocity distribution functions and showed that ion-neutral charge exchange results in ion "heating" near boundaries. LIF showed that Ar ions in Ar-He plasma exit the plasma at the plasma/sheath boundary with a velocity greater than the Ar ion Bohm velocity. In single species plasma, the same diagnostic shows Ar average ion exit velocity equals the Bohm velocity. ^A Suleyman Demirel University, Physics Dept., Isparta Turkey ^B KACST, Space Research Institute, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia *Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER 54437

  15. Lessons from retrievals: Retrievals help understand the reason for revision of coated hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Danielle; Hothi, Harry; Khatkar, Harman; Meswania, Jayantilal; Blunn, Gordon; Skinner, John; Hart, Alister

    2015-11-01

    Coatings have been applied to all surfaces of hip implants with the majority performing well in the laboratory, but there are few reports of their performance in humans. The rationale for coating the metal-on-metal bearing surfaces includes a reduction in metal ion release and risk of adverse reaction to metal debris; yet there are no reports of retrieved coated metal-on-metal hip implants despite the concern that they may delaminate. The aim of this study was to better understand the performance of coated hip implants in humans through findings of three coated metal-on-metal hip resurfacings, retrieved after failure for unexplained pain. Analysis of these implants included quantification of the amount and mechanism of coating loss which was correlated with clinical, imaging and blood data. In all cases, there were large areas of complete coating loss in which the metal substrate was exposed and found to be rougher than the coated areas. The coating loss gave rise to third body abrasive wear of the coating and the exposed metal, the latter of which led to high blood levels of cobalt and chromium. Coating of the bearing surfaces of metal-on-metal hip resurfacings, therefore, do not prevent metal ion release when implanted into humans. This is an example of a need for increased retrieval analysis of newly introduced implants and expansion of laboratory testing regulations to better reflect the clinical environment. PMID:26503841

  16. How valence bond theory can help you understand your (bio)chemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Shurki, Avital; Derat, Etienne; Barrozo, Alexandre; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2015-03-01

    Almost a century has passed since valence bond (VB) theory was originally introduced to explain covalent bonding in the H2 molecule within a quantum mechanical framework. The past century has seen constant improvements in this theory, with no less than two distinct Nobel prizes based on work that is essentially developments in VB theory. Additionally, ongoing advances in both methodology and computational power have greatly expanded the scope of problems that VB theory can address. In this Tutorial Review, we aim to give the reader a solid understanding of the foundations of modern VB theory, using a didactic example of a model SN2 reaction to illustrate its immediate applications. This will be complemented by examples of challenging problems that at present can only be efficiently addressed by VB-based approaches. Finally, the ongoing importance of VB theory is demonstrated. It is concluded that VB will continue to be a major driving force for chemistry in the century to come. PMID:25352378

  17. Helping Resource Managers Understand Hydroclimatic Variability and Forecasts: A Case Study in Research Equity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, H. C.; Pagano, T. C.; Sorooshian, S.; Bales, R.

    2002-12-01

    enable low-end users to increase their understanding of probabilistic forecasts, credibility concepts, and implications for decision making. We also developed an interactive forecast assessment tool accessible over the Internet, to support resource decisions by individuals as well as agencies. The tool provides tutorials for guiding forecast interpretation, including quizzes that allow users to test their forecast interpretation skills. Users can monitor recent and historical observations for selected regions, communicated using terminology consistent with available forecast products. The tool also allows users to evaluate forecast performance for the regions, seasons, forecast lead times, and performance criteria relevant to their specific decision making situations. Using consistent product formats, the evaluation component allows individuals to use results at the level they are capable of understanding, while offering opportunity to shift to more sophisticated criteria. Recognizing that many individuals lack Internet access, the forecast assessment webtool design also includes capabilities for customized report generation so extension agents or other trusted information intermediaries can provide material to decision makers at meetings or site visits.

  18. Can Photo Sensors Help Us Understand the Intrinsic Differences Between Quantum and Classical Statistical Behaviors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    2009-03-01

    We use the following epistemology—understanding and visualizing the invisible processes behind all natural phenomena through iterative reconstruction and/or refinement of current working theories towards their limits, constitute our best approach towards discovering actual realities of nature followed by new break-through theories. We use this epistemology to explore the roots of statistical nature of the real world—classical physics, quantum physics and even our mental constructs. Diversity is a natural and healthy outcome of this statistical nature. First, we use a two-beam superposition experiment as an illustrative example of the quantum world to visualize the root of fluctuations (or randomness) in the photo electron counting statistics. We recognize that the fluctuating weak background fields make the quantum world inherently random but the fluctuations are still statistically bounded, indicating that the fundamental laws of nature are still causal. Theoreticians will be challenged for ever to construct a causal and closed form theory free of statistical randomness out of incomplete information. We show by analyzing the essential steps behind any experiment that gaps in the information gathered about any phenomenon is inevitable. This lack of information also influences our personal epistemologies to have "statistical spread" due to its molecular origin, albeit bounded and constrained by the causally driven atomic and molecular interactions across the board. While there are clear differences in the root and manifestation of classical and quantum statistical behavior, on a fundamental level they originate in our theories due to lack of complete information about everything that is involved in every interaction in our experiments. Statistical nature of our theories is a product of incomplete information and we should take it as an inevitable paradigm.

  19. Understanding Distress in People with Severe Communication Difficulties: Developing and Assessing the Disability Distress Assessment Tool (DisDAT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regnard, C.; Reynolds, Joanna; Watson, Bill; Matthews, Dorothy; Gibson, Lynn; Clarke, Charlotte

    2007-01-01

    Background: Meaningful communication with people with profound communication difficulties depends on the ability of carers to recognize and translate many different verbal cues. Carers appear to be intuitively skilled at identifying distress cues, but have little confidence in their observations. To help in this process, a number of pain tools…

  20. Dynamics of the mammalian nucleus: can microscopic movements help us to understand our genes?

    PubMed

    Sleeman, Judith E

    2004-12-15

    scrutiny over the past few years. This has largely been driven by advances in microscopy as well as the advent of in vivo labelling techniques for sub-nuclear structures. It is now possible, using a protein originally isolated from jellyfish, to visualize sub-nuclear structures in living cultured cells. Together with three-dimensional time-lapse microscopy and an ever-expanding range of photo-bleaching techniques, this technology allows us to ask detailed questions about movements of sub-nuclear structures themselves and of the proteins contained within them. It has recently become clear that sub-nuclear structures are capable of moving within the nucleus and of physically interacting with each other. It is also now known that there is a constant flux of molecules into and out of these mobile structures as well as exchange of molecules between them, rather like passengers travelling on the London Underground. The challenge for the future is to relate dynamic events at the microscopic and molecular levels back to the organism as a whole. Only by understanding how the information encoded on genes is accurately expressed at the right time and in the right place can we really take advantage of the knowledge currently available to us. PMID:15539370

  1. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    Exploring Mercury PhD student Mark Bentley explains how and why he got involved Mark Bentley is studying for a PhD in planetary science. He is helping to design and build instruments for a forthcoming ESA mission to explore the surface of Mercury. Mark Bentley Space has excited and inspired me for as long as I can remember; my earliest memory of this is being allowed to stay up 'really late' to watch the Space Shuttle Columbia land in 1981, at the age of five. Science in general has always interested me. Although I probably didn't recognize it as such at the time, my fascination with collecting all sorts of equipment (or as my parents called it, 'junk') and finding out what made them tick was an early demonstration of this. At school it seemed natural to take science subjects (Physics, Chemistry and Maths A-levels) and then to consider University though physics was not my first thought. I was all set for the respectable career of computer science, not realizing that my space interests could lead anywhere, until I flicked through the first prospectus I received. By luck it was from Leicester University, and while computer science was offered it also had something called 'Physics with Space Science and Technology'. The rest, as they say, is history... After graduating I spent the following two years working for a UK company developing satellite simulators. But then I started thinking about doing a PhD attracted by the flexibility of directing my own research. I knew that I wanted something that involved space science and the element of discovery, but also something that looked at the engineering and technology of a space mission. The timing was fortuitous shortly after I committed myself to a PhD, the European Space Agency announced the selection of BepiColombo, a mission to Mercury, as one of its 'Cornerstone' (large scale) missions. Here was a mission big on science (no spacecraft has ever orbited Mercury, let alone landed on it) and technology as well! So that

  2. "If you don't believe it, it won't help you": use of bush medicine in treating cancer among Aboriginal people in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Little is known about the use of bush medicine and traditional healing among Aboriginal Australians for their treatment of cancer and the meanings attached to it. A qualitative study that explored Aboriginal Australians' perspectives and experiences of cancer and cancer services in Western Australia provided an opportunity to analyse the contemporary meanings attached and use of bush medicine by Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia Methods Data collection occurred in Perth, both rural and remote areas and included individual in-depth interviews, observations and field notes. Of the thirty-seven interviews with Aboriginal cancer patients, family members of people who died from cancer and some Aboriginal health care providers, 11 participants whose responses included substantial mention on the issue of bush medicine and traditional healing were selected for the analysis for this paper. Results The study findings have shown that as part of their healing some Aboriginal Australians use traditional medicine for treating their cancer. Such healing processes and medicines were preferred by some because it helped reconnect them with their heritage, land, culture and the spirits of their ancestors, bringing peace of mind during their illness. Spiritual beliefs and holistic health approaches and practices play an important role in the treatment choices for some patients. Conclusions Service providers need to acknowledge and understand the existence of Aboriginal knowledge (epistemology) and accept that traditional healing can be an important addition to an Aboriginal person's healing complementing Western medical treatment regimes. Allowing and supporting traditional approaches to treatment reflects a commitment by modern medical services to adopting an Aboriginal-friendly approach that is not only culturally appropriate but assists with the cultural security of the service. PMID:20569478

  3. Does therapeutic writing help people with long-term conditions? Systematic review, realist synthesis and economic considerations.

    PubMed Central

    Nyssen, Olga P; Taylor, Stephanie Jc; Wong, Geoff; Steed, Elizabeth; Bourke, Liam; Lord, Joanne; Ross, Carol A; Hayman, Sheila; Field, Victoria; Higgins, Ailish; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Meads, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Writing therapy to improve physical or mental health can take many forms. The most researched model of therapeutic writing (TW) is unfacilitated, individual expressive writing (written emotional disclosure). Facilitated writing activities are less widely researched. DATA SOURCES Databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Linguistics and Language Behaviour Abstracts, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, were searched from inception to March 2013 (updated January 2015). REVIEW METHODS Four TW practitioners provided expert advice. Study procedures were conducted by one reviewer and checked by a second. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised comparative studies were included. Quality was appraised using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool. Unfacilitated and facilitated TW studies were analysed separately under International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision chapter headings. Meta-analyses were performed where possible using RevMan version 5.2.6 (RevMan 2012, The Cochrane Collaboration, The Nordic Cochrane Centre, Copenhagen, Denmark). Costs were estimated from a UK NHS perspective and three cost-consequence case studies were prepared. Realist synthesis followed Realist and Meta-narrative Evidence Synthesis: Evolving Standards guidelines. OBJECTIVES To review the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of TW for people with long-term conditions (LTCs) compared with no writing, or other controls, reporting any relevant clinical outcomes. To conduct a realist synthesis to understand how TW might work, and for whom. RESULTS From 14,658 unique citations, 284 full-text papers were reviewed and 64 studies (59 RCTs) were included in the final effectiveness reviews. Five studies examined facilitated TW; these were extremely heterogeneous with unclear or high risk of bias but suggested that facilitated TW interventions may be beneficial in individual LTCs. Unfacilitated

  4. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-07-01

    Exploring Mercury PhD student Mark Bentley explains how and why he got involved Mark Bentley is studying for a PhD in planetary science. He is helping to design and build instruments for a forthcoming ESA mission to explore the surface of Mercury. Mark Bentley Space has excited and inspired me for as long as I can remember; my earliest memory of this is being allowed to stay up 'really late' to watch the Space Shuttle Columbia land in 1981, at the age of five. Science in general has always interested me. Although I probably didn't recognize it as such at the time, my fascination with collecting all sorts of equipment (or as my parents called it, 'junk') and finding out what made them tick was an early demonstration of this. At school it seemed natural to take science subjects (Physics, Chemistry and Maths A-levels) and then to consider University though physics was not my first thought. I was all set for the respectable career of computer science, not realizing that my space interests could lead anywhere, until I flicked through the first prospectus I received. By luck it was from Leicester University, and while computer science was offered it also had something called 'Physics with Space Science and Technology'. The rest, as they say, is history... After graduating I spent the following two years working for a UK company developing satellite simulators. But then I started thinking about doing a PhD attracted by the flexibility of directing my own research. I knew that I wanted something that involved space science and the element of discovery, but also something that looked at the engineering and technology of a space mission. The timing was fortuitous shortly after I committed myself to a PhD, the European Space Agency announced the selection of BepiColombo, a mission to Mercury, as one of its 'Cornerstone' (large scale) missions. Here was a mission big on science (no spacecraft has ever orbited Mercury, let alone landed on it) and technology as well! So that

  5. Helping Students Understand Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Roger

    To force students--at the very beginning of the writing process--to be aware of audience and to gain insight into their own writing, in-class writing and sharing exercises can be invaluable. For example, students can present to the class their subject for an upcoming paper, with the class responding on paper to such questions as: (1) What do you…

  6. Perceptions: Understanding and Responding to What People Think about Service-Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg Foundation, Battle Creek, MI.

    Most people see a tactical barrier to implementing service learning (SL), which is how to create the infrastructure that makes SL possible without placing undue burden on schools, people, and teachers. Teachers must be shown how SL can be seamlessly incorporated into their teaching. The media are not especially concerned with SL, but coverage is…

  7. Understanding and Facilitating Career Development of People of Appalachian Culture: An Integrated Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Mei; Russ, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The literature on career development for people of Appalachian culture is sparse. This article reviews cultural values of Appalachians and proposes an innovative career intervention model to best serve people of this culture. The model integrates the concepts of the social cognitive career development approach (R. W. Lent, S. D. Brown, & G.…

  8. Understanding people who smoke and how they change: a foundation for smoking cessation in primary care, part 2.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David; Hoffman, Arthur; Añel, Donna

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this 2-part article is to develop an understanding of people who smoke and how they change as a foundation for the delivery of smoking cessation interventions in primary care. Central to our approach is the transtheoretical model of change (TMC). The TMC is an evidence-based model of behavior change that has been developed and tested during the past 2 decades by Prochaska and his colleagues in the context of smoking cessation. We use a review of the literature, in-depth interviews of people who successfully quit smoking, and our experience applying the TMC in the context of primary care and a smoking cessation clinic to explore the clinical work of smoking cessation. This is part 2 of the article "Understanding People Who Smoke and How They Change: A Foundation for Smoking Cessation in Primary Care." Part 1 describes the theoretical information known about smoking cessation: why smoking is a powerful behavior, the scientific background of the TMC, and the building-block constructs of the TMC. The first section of part 2 is a review of the Public Health Service clinical practice guideline, Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence, published in 2000. The second chapter of part 2 is a discussion of clinical assessments and strategies for working with smokers grounded in the Public Health Service practice guideline, our understanding of people who smoke, and the TMC. Woven throughout are transcripts of interviews with 4 people in which they describe their experiences smoking and their pathways to cessation. PMID:12420002

  9. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    ASE: Attend, Socialize, Enjoy Bob Kibble reflects on the enriching effects of the annual meeting Bob Kibble is a teacher trainer at the University of Edinburgh, Scotland. I remember my first ASE meeting in Reading. Perhaps in 1978 or thereabouts. I had been teaching for a few years and thought I'd check out this local convention of science teachers. It was indeed a revelation that so many people had so much to say about teaching science. There was talk about N and F levels and the 'I level grill'. Someone had ordered something called a BBC machine (later revealed to me as the latest in hi-tech teaching). I remember it well. But it was a lonely affair for a recent recruit. People seemed to know each other and there was much friendly exchanging. However, nobody knew me and I knew nobody else. The professional revelations were accompanied by a personal isolation. A strange set of memories indeed for a new recruit, unskilled and clumsy in the social arena. Bob practising for the ASE singalong session this year. This year I went to the ASE Centenary meeting in Guildford, my sixteenth ASE annual meeting. Things have changed since the early days. Thursday started with a formal Cathedral service in celebration of 100 years of the ASE. I sat next to a lady from Oxford and behind my good friend Dave from Croydon. Things snowballed from there. I went to a workshop on the water cycle and was brought face to face with my own misconceptions about the life story of a water molecule. Got a freebie coloured bracelet as well. Thanks Margaret. A chap from Bournemouth gave me loads of ideas about how best to set up a shared lesson observation scheme as well as how to run a professional development workshop. Thanks Stuart. At a third session I joined Brenda from Cambridge and we spent an enjoyable hour discovering ways to approach the teaching of light and in particular Ibn al Haytham's revelations courtesy of a chap from Kingston. That afternoon I was invited to present a talk to

  10. Safety and danger in downtown Vancouver: understandings of place among young people entrenched in an urban drug scene.

    PubMed

    Fast, Danya; Shoveller, Jean; Shannon, Kate; Kerr, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We undertook this qualitative study to examine young people's understandings of the physical and social landscape of the downtown drug scene in Vancouver, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with 38 young people ranging from 16 to 26 years of age. Using the concept of symbolic violence, we describe how one downtown neighborhood in particular powerfully symbolizes 'risk' among local youth, and how the idea of this neighborhood (and what happens when young people go there) informs experiences of marginalization in society's hierarchies. We also discuss the complex role played by social networks in transcending the geographical and conceptual boundaries between distinct downtown drug-using neighborhoods. Finally, we emphasize that young people's spatial tactics within this downtown landscape - the everyday movements they employ in order to maximize their safety - must be understood in the context of everyday violence and profound social suffering. PMID:19733496

  11. Safety and Danger in Downtown Vancouver: Understandings of Place among Young People Entrenched in an Urban Drug Scene

    PubMed Central

    Fast, Danya; Shoveller, Jean; Shannon, Kate; Kerr, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We undertook this qualitative study to examine young people's understandings of the physical and social landscape of the downtown drug scene in Vancouver, Canada. In-depth interviews were conducted with 38 young people ranging from 16 to 26 years of age. Using the concept of symbolic violence, we describe how one downtown neighborhood in particular powerfully symbolizes ‘risk’ among local youth, and how the idea of this neighborhood (and what happens when young people go there) informs experiences of marginalization in society's hierarchies. We also discuss the complex role played by social networks in transcending the geographical and conceptual boundaries between distinct downtown drug-using neighborhoods. Finally, we emphasize that young people's spatial tactics within this downtown landscape – the everyday movements they employ in order to maximize their safety – must be understood in the context of everyday violence and profound social suffering. PMID:19733496

  12. Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH): Scientific Understanding of Arctic Environmental Change to Help Society Understand and Respond to a Rapidly Changing Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Myers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a U.S. program with a mission to provide a foundation of Arctic change science through collaboration with the research community, funding agencies, and other stakeholders. To achieve this mission, SEARCH: Generates and synthesizes research findings and promotes Arctic science and scientific discovery across disciplines and among agencies. Identifies emerging issues in Arctic environmental change. Provides scientific information to Arctic stakeholders, policy-makers, and the public to help them understand and respond to arctic environmental change. Facilitates research activities across local-to-global scales, with an emphasis on addressing needs of decision-makers. Collaborates with national and international science programs integral to SEARCH goals. This poster presentation will present SEARCH activities and plans, highlighting those focused on providing information for decision-makers. http://www.arcus.org/search

  13. What makes people read an online review? The relative effects of posting time and helpfulness on review readership.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung

    2013-07-01

    This study explores the factors that make online customers select which reviews to read among the various ones on the Web. While most of literature on online consumer reviews has conveniently assumed that more helpful reviews would be read by more customers, no empirical study has tested whether the helpfulness assessment actually increases readership. Hence, this study explores various factors affecting consumer review readership and proposes that although helpfulness assessment promotes the readership of a review, the most dominant factor contributing to readership is the time of posting. A review posted late loses a significant chance of being read by consumers even if it is assessed as helpful by other readers. The hypotheses are tested using the data collected from Amazon.com , and the result of the study advises practitioners to display reviews in a manner that lessens the impact of posting time while enhancing the helpfulness voting systems. PMID:23742150

  14. Understanding help-seeking amongst university students: the role of group identity, stigma, and exposure to suicide and help-seeking

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Michelle; Muldoon, Orla T.; Msetfi, Rachel M.; Surgenor, Paul W. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a high prevalence of suicide ideation and mental health issues amongst university students, the stigma of help-seeking remains a barrier to those who are in real need of professional support. Social identity theory states that help received from an ingroup source is more welcome and less threatening to one's identity than that from a source perceived as outgroup. Therefore, we hypothesized that students' stigma toward seeking help from their university mental health service would differ based on the strength of their identification with the university. Method: An online survey including measures of stigma of suicide, group identification, experience with help-seeking and exposure to suicide was administered to Irish university students (N = 493). Results: Group identification was a significant predictor of help-seeking attitudes after controlling for already known predictors. Contrary to our expectations, those who identified more strongly with their university demonstrated a higher stigma of seeking help from their university mental health service. Conclusions: Results are discussed in relation to self-categorization theory and the concept of normative fit. Practical implications for mental health service provision in universities are also addressed, specifically the need for a range of different mental health services both on and off-campus. PMID:26483722

  15. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  16. The Search for Extension: 7 Steps to Help People Find Research-Based Information on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Paul; Rader, Heidi B.; Hino, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    For Extension's unbiased, research-based content to be found by people searching the Internet, it needs to be organized in a way conducive to the ranking criteria of a search engine. With proper web design and search engine optimization techniques, Extension's content can be found, recognized, and properly indexed by search engines and…

  17. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    classroom competence (in the early 1970s most such courses still had written examinations). I thought it was fantastic. We spent three days a week from October to May in one school. I had one regular third-year class every week and the rest of my teaching timetable varied from term to term. It was like being a 0.3/0.4 member of staff and for that one third-year class I had to do parents' evenings, reports etc. The teachers were paid to act as tutors for the preparation of schemes of work, lessons and tutorial work and they assessed my teaching. Teachers, tutors and trainees attended seminars together. My first teaching job was at Holland Park School in London, at a time when it was famous, perhaps even infamous! It was a real baptism of fire - over 2000 pupils, tens of different first languages, a real mix of class and ethnicity, and newly introduced mixed ability teaching for the first three years. We worked very hard writing schemes of work and developing worksheets and audiovisual materials but, on reflection, I am not sure that we were that effective in developing the science curriculum. I remember using Nuffield Combined Science with the first two years and that was in danger of becoming death by a thousand worksheets. After three years I went to teach in a small private school in Madrid for a year. I was the physics department and my title of Head of Physics meant I was in charge of myself. This was highly formative as a teacher - I had nobody to ask if I didn't understand some physics. As the school was poorly equipped I learned to make apparatus and be very resourceful. There was no pupils' practical work in school science in Spain at that time and I spent a lot of time in hardware stores and medical suppliers! After Spain all of my teaching career was in 11-18 mixed comprehensives, in Cheshire and then Peterborough, and I rose to the dizzy heights of Head of Science. By the time I left the school in Peterborough in 1986 we had established the curriculum framework

  18. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-03-01

    classroom competence (in the early 1970s most such courses still had written examinations). I thought it was fantastic. We spent three days a week from October to May in one school. I had one regular third-year class every week and the rest of my teaching timetable varied from term to term. It was like being a 0.3/0.4 member of staff and for that one third-year class I had to do parents' evenings, reports etc. The teachers were paid to act as tutors for the preparation of schemes of work, lessons and tutorial work and they assessed my teaching. Teachers, tutors and trainees attended seminars together. My first teaching job was at Holland Park School in London, at a time when it was famous, perhaps even infamous! It was a real baptism of fire - over 2000 pupils, tens of different first languages, a real mix of class and ethnicity, and newly introduced mixed ability teaching for the first three years. We worked very hard writing schemes of work and developing worksheets and audiovisual materials but, on reflection, I am not sure that we were that effective in developing the science curriculum. I remember using Nuffield Combined Science with the first two years and that was in danger of becoming death by a thousand worksheets. After three years I went to teach in a small private school in Madrid for a year. I was the physics department and my title of Head of Physics meant I was in charge of myself. This was highly formative as a teacher - I had nobody to ask if I didn't understand some physics. As the school was poorly equipped I learned to make apparatus and be very resourceful. There was no pupils' practical work in school science in Spain at that time and I spent a lot of time in hardware stores and medical suppliers! After Spain all of my teaching career was in 11-18 mixed comprehensives, in Cheshire and then Peterborough, and I rose to the dizzy heights of Head of Science. By the time I left the school in Peterborough in 1986 we had established the curriculum framework

  19. Understanding Tuberculosis: Perspectives and Experiences of the People of Sabah, East Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Malaysia is a country with the intermediate burden of tuberculosis (TB). TB is still a public-health problem in Sabah, one of the two states in East Malaysia. In 2007, the state of Sabah contributed slightly more than 3,000 of 16,129 new and relapse cases reported in the country. It has a notification rate of two and a half times that of the country's. Very few studies on TB have been conducted in Sabah, and there is little documentation on the perceptions of TB patients and the community about TB, healthcare-seeking behaviour, and impact of TB on the people of Sabah. A qualitative study was conducted in 2006 in seven districts in Sabah to assess the knowledge and perceptions of TB patients and the community about TB, also to know the experiences of healthcare services, and to examine the impact of TB on patients and families. Purposive sampling identified 27 TB patients and 20 relatives and community members who were interviewed using a set of questions on knowledge, perceptions about TB, healthcare-seeking behaviour, and impact of TB. A further 11 health staff attended informal discussions and feedback sessions. Most interviews were taped and later translated. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Ninety-six percent of the respondents did not know the cause of TB. Some thought that TB occurred due to a ‘tear’ in the body or due to hard work or inflammation while others thought that it occurred due to eating contaminated food or due to sharing utensils or breathing space with TB patients. Although the germ theory was not well-known, 98% of the respondents believed that TB was infectious. Some patients did not perceive the symptoms they had as those of TB. The prevailing practice among the respondents was to seek modern medicine for cure. Other forms of treatment, such as traditional medicine, were sought if modern medicine failed to cure the disease. TB was still a stigmatizing disease, and the expression of this was in both perceived and enacted

  20. Understanding tuberculosis: perspectives and experiences of the people of Sabah, East Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rundi, Christina

    2010-04-01

    Malaysia is a country with the intermediate burden of tuberculosis (TB). TB is still a public-health problem in Sabah, one of the two states in East Malaysia. In 2007, the state of Sabah contributed slightly more than 3,000 of 16,129 new and relapse cases reported in the country. It has a notification rate of two and a half times that of the country's. Very few studies on TB have been conducted in Sabah, and there is little documentation on the perceptions of TB patients and the community about TB, healthcare-seeking behaviour, and impact of TB on the people of Sabah. A qualitative study was conducted in 2006 in seven districts in Sabah to assess the knowledge and perceptions of TB patients and the community about TB, also to know the experiences of healthcare services, and to examine the impact of TB on patients and families. Purposive sampling identified 27 TB patients and 20 relatives and community members who were interviewed using a set of questions on knowledge, perceptions about TB, healthcare-seeking behaviour, and impact of TB. A further 11 health staff attended informal discussions and feedback sessions. Most interviews were taped and later translated. Data were analyzed using thematic content analysis. Ninety-six percent of the respondents did not know the cause of TB. Some thought that TB occurred due to a 'tear' in the body or due to hard work or inflammation while others thought that it occurred due to eating contaminated food or due to sharing utensils or breathing space with TB patients. Although the germ theory was not well-known, 98% of the respondents believed that TB was infectious. Some patients did not perceive the symptoms they had as those of TB. The prevailing practice among the respondents was to seek modem medicine for cure. Other forms of treatment, such as traditional medicine, were sought if modem medicine failed to cure the disease. TB was still a stigmatizing disease, and the expression of this was in both perceived and enacted ways

  1. Socioemotional Understanding and Frequent Aggression in People with Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahoda, Andrew; Pert, Carol; Trower, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Aggression in a proportion of people with intellectual disabilities is often assumed to be due to social-cognitive deficits. We reported on two studies in which we compared the emotion recognition and perspective-taking abilities of 43 frequently aggressive individuals and 46 nonaggressive peers. No difference was found between the groups' ability…

  2. Ambiguities around Sexuality: An Approach to Understanding Harassment and Bullying of Young People in British Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trotter, Joy

    2009-01-01

    This article is based on a small study undertaken in 2001, which examined the experiences of and responses to sexual harassment and bullying adopted by different professionals (teachers, education social workers, youth workers and a school nurse) and by young people (12 to 25-year-olds). It draws together some of the literature relating to young…

  3. Understanding the Online Information-Seeking Behaviours of Young People: The Role of Networks of Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eynon, R.; Malmberg, L.-E.

    2012-01-01

    Information seeking is one of the most popular online activities for young people and can provide an additional information channel, which may enhance learning. In this study, we propose and test a model that adds to the existing literature by examining the ways in which parents, schools, and friends (what we call networks of support) effect young…

  4. Understanding Suicidal Behaviour in Young People Referred to Specialist CAMHS: A Qualitative Psychoanalytic Clinical Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jan; Hurst, Margaret; Marques, Ana; Millar, David; Moya, Sue; Pover, Lesley; Stewart, Sue

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative psychoanalytic clinical research project using a post-Kleinian contemporary approach was undertaken by a team of seven qualified and experienced child psychotherapists working in community Tier 3 Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS). A number of referred young people who deliberately harmed themselves or attempted…

  5. Understanding How Young People Do Activism: Youth Strategies on Sexual Health in Ecuador and Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Anna-Britt; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin; San Sebastian, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    While social movement research employs "tactical repertoire" to emphasize protest tactics directed at the state, literature on youth activism globally indicates that young people do politics outside the realm of formal political spheres. Youth activism on body politics in Latin America offers evidence that enhances conceptual tools…

  6. Asperger through the looking glass: an exploratory study of self-understanding in people with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Paul; Skirrow, Paul; Hare, Dougal Julian

    2012-05-01

    Hobson (Autism and the development of mind. Lawrence Erlbaum, Hove, UK 1993) has proposed that the cognitive and linguistic disabilities that characterise autism result from abnormalities in inter-subjective engagement during infancy, which in turn results in impaired reflective self-awareness. The aim of the present study was to test Hobson's hypothesis by examining self-understanding in Asperger's syndrome (AS) using Damon and Hart's (Self-understanding in childhood and adolescence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988) model of self-concept. Ten participants with Asperger's syndrome were compared with ten non AS controls using the Self-understanding Interview (Damon and Hart in Self-understanding in Childhood and Adolescence. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1988). The study found that the Asperger's group demonstrated impairment in the "self-as-object" and "self-as-subject" domains of the Self-understanding Interview, which supported Hobson's concept of an impaired capacity for self-awareness and self-reflection in people with ASD. The results are discussed with reference to previous research regarding the development of self-understanding in people with ASD. PMID:21647793

  7. Strengthening the School's Backbone: Staff Developers Can Help the Go-To People Become More Effective Teacher Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    Teacher leadership is an idea whose time has come. True teacher leadership is exercised spontaneously and may be demonstrated by any teacher in the school. Allowing teachers leadership responsibility can transform a school. School leaders, including staff developers, can help support the development of teacher leaders by practicing the ideas…

  8. Support for Family Carers of Children and Young People with Developmental Disabilities and Challenging Behaviour: What Stops It Being Helpful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodehouse, G.; McGill, P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Many family carers find the support they receive in respect of their child's challenging behaviour unhelpful. This study sought to identify carer perceptions of the ways in which support is unhelpful and how it could be more helpful. Methods: Thirteen mothers, caring for a child with intellectual disability and challenging behaviour,…

  9. Understanding people who smoke and how they change: a foundation for smoking cessation in primary care, part 1.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, David; Hoffman, Arthur; Añel, Donna

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to develop an understanding of people who smoke and how they change as a foundation for the delivery of smoking cessation interventions in primary care. Central to our approach is the transtheoretical model of change (TMC). The TMC is an evidence-based model of behavior change that has been developed and tested during the past 2 decades by Prochaska and his colleagues in the context of smoking cessation. We use a review of the literature, in-depth interviews of people who successfully quit smoking, and our experience applying the TMC in the context of primary care and a smoking cessation clinic to explore the clinical work of smoking cessation. This article on smoking cessation will be presented in 2 issues. Part 1 describes the theoretical information known about smoking cessation: why smoking is a powerful behavior, the scientific background of the TMC, and the building-block constructs of the TMC. The first section of part 2 is a review of the Public Health Service clinical practice guideline, Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence, published in 2000. The second section of part 2 is a discussion of clinical assessments and strategies for working with smokers, which is grounded in the Public Health Service practice guideline, our understanding of people who smoke, and the TMC. Woven throughout are transcripts of interviews with 4 people in which they describe their smoking experiences and their pathways to cessation. PMID:12373257

  10. Measuring Young People's Understanding of Civics and Citizenship in a Cross-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Wolfram; Fraillon, Julian; Ainley, John

    2013-01-01

    The development of knowledge and understanding is widely reported as a key aim of civic and citizenship education and as an important aspect of being equipped for active citizenship. Measuring knowledge and understanding of this domain has grown as a focus of educational research both as an outcome in its own right and to underpin the systematic…

  11. Understanding factors influencing substance use in people with recent onset psychosis: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lobbana, Fiona; Barrowclough, Christine; Jeffery, Sophie; Bucci, Sandra; Taylor, Katherine; Mallinson, Sara; Fitzsimmons, Mike; Marshall, Max

    2010-04-01

    This qualitative study identifies factors influencing the use of substances in young people with recent onset psychosis. A purposive sample of 19 people aged between 16 and 35 years from an Early Intervention Service in the English National Health Service (NHS) was interviewed using a semi-structured guide. All had experienced a psychotic episode and were within 3 years of first contact with the service. All were either currently misusing substances or had been doing so in the 6 months prior to first contact with the service. All participants were/had been regular cannabis users and for 13(68%) cannabis was the primary drug of use. Thematic analysis identified four key themes in participants accounts of factors influencing their substance abuse: influence of perceived drug norms on behaviour; attributions for initial and ongoing drug-taking behaviour; changes in life goals affecting drug use; beliefs about the links between mental health and drug use. These findings have clear implications for interventions at a number of levels to support young people using substances in early psychosis including public health messages, education and psychological therapies. PMID:20137846

  12. Many People, Many Ways: Understanding Cultures around the World. Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Chris, Comp.; Grinde, Linda, Comp.

    This book helps students and teachers explore the concept of culture and to appreciate the diversity of cultures of the world. The nine cultures in the book represent a variety of races and environments. Each chapter offers ideas for activities for student to explore elements of culture and common human experiences. The chapters are divided into…

  13. Center for Media Literacy Unveils the CML Medialit Kit[TM]: A Free Educational Framework that Helps Students Challenge and Understand Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Studies, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Five key questions form the basis of the new CML MediaLit Kit, an educational framework and curriculum guide developed by the Center for Media Literacy. Adaptable to all grades, the key questions help children and young people evaluate the thousands of media messages that bombard them daily. More than two years in development and available for…

  14. How Can Studies of Resting-state Functional Connectivity Help Us Understand Psychosis as a Disorder of Brain Development?

    PubMed Central

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Baker, Justin T.

    2014-01-01

    Psychosis is increasingly being understood as a neurodevelopmental “dysconnection” syndrome, in which neural connectivity – at both microscopic and macroscopic levels of brain organization – becomes disrupted during late adolescence and early adulthood. Tools to quantify normative brain development and identify individuals at risk are urgently needed to tailor appropriate strategies for prevention and intervention, and could substantially improve clinical outcomes. Resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rsfc-MRI) provides a rich, functional description of the brain’s macroscopic connectivity structure. Over the past several years, rsfc-MRI has evolved to be a powerful tool for studying both normal brain development and abnormalities associated with psychosis. Several recent advances highlight intriguing and potentially significant parallels between these two lines of research. For instance, rsfc-MRI work suggests that psychosis is accompanied by loss of segregation between large-scale brain association networks, a pattern that is normal in early life but typically matures into more segregated systems by young adulthood. Coupled with data sharing across large-scale neuroimaging studies, longitudinal assessments using rsfc-MRI in patients and those at risk will be essential for improving our biological understanding of psychosis and will help inform diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical decision-making. PMID:25464373

  15. Yup'ik Understandings of the Environment: "The World is Changing Following Its People."

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fienup-Riordan, Ann

    2012-05-01

    My talk describes a decade of work with Yup'ik elders sponsored by the Calista Elders Council, the primary heritage organization in southwest Alaska. Our goal was to document the qanruyutet (instructions) that continue to guide Yup'ik interactions with ella--translated variously as weather, world, universe, and awareness. Elders addressed a range of topics, including weather, land, lakes and rivers, ocean, snow, ice, survival, environmental change, and of course stars. Many elders suffer over the fact that contemporary young people lack knowledge of ella. They actively support the documentation and sharing of traditional knowledge, which all view as possessing continued value in the world today.

  16. Rethinking how we understand individual healthcare needs for people living with long-term conditions: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Joanne; Cooper, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that we need to 'Think Differently' about how we organise care for people with long-term conditions. Current approaches prioritise reducing population disease burden, meaning health need is defined predominantly in terms of disease status, or even risk of disease. However, the result is care which overburdens some individuals. The World Health Organisation has described the need to view health as a 'resource for living' and not an end in itself. This study considers whether this view of health offers an alternative view of healthcare need in people living with long-term conditions. We know that chronic disease can be disruptive for some people; but not all. Our research question asked: Why do people experience long-term conditions differently, and what are the implications for understanding healthcare need? Our phenomenographic study involved qualitative interviews with 24 people living with at least one of the three conditions (diabetes, depression and chronic pain) and explored resources for and demands on daily living. Interviews all took place during 2012 and 2013. A narrative form analysis identified three patterns of illness experience (Gliding Swan, Stormy Seas and Stuck Adrift). Narrative content analysis revealed four factors explaining the variation: personalising care, existence of meaningful anchors, partnership and excess demands. We thus propose three new categories of healthcare need described by a consideration of health as a resource for living: Resilient, Vulnerable and Disconnected. We discuss how the emerging findings may offer scope to develop new needs assessment and patient-reported outcome measure tools. And so, offer a different way of thinking about the organisation for care for people with long-term conditions. PMID:25470421

  17. Trajectories of Suicidal Ideation in People Seeking Web-Based Help for Suicidality: Secondary Analysis of a Dutch Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Spijker, Bregje; Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Nordentoft, Merete; Kerkhof, Ad JFM

    2016-01-01

    Background Suicidal ideation (SI) is a common mental health problem. Variability in intensity of SI over time has been linked to suicidal behavior, yet little is known about the temporal course of SI. Objective The primary aim was to identify prototypical trajectories of SI in the general population and, secondarily, to examine whether receiving Web-based self-help for SI, psychiatric symptoms, or sociodemographics predicted membership in the identified SI trajectories. Methods We enrolled 236 people, from the general Dutch population seeking Web-based help for SI, in a randomized controlled trial comparing a Web-based self-help for SI group with a control group. We assessed participants at inclusion and at 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation was applied at all assessments and was included in latent growth mixture modeling analysis to empirically identify trajectories. Results We identified 4 SI trajectories. The high stable trajectory represented 51.7% (122/236) of participants and was characterized by constant high level of SI. The high decreasing trajectory (50/236, 21.2%) consisted of people with a high baseline SI score followed by a gradual decrease to a very low score. The third trajectory, high increasing (12/236, 5.1%), also had high initial SI score, followed by an increase to the highest level of SI at 6 weeks. The fourth trajectory, low stable (52/236, 22.0%) had a constant low level of SI. Previous attempted suicide and having received Web-based self-help for SI predicted membership in the high decreasing trajectory. Conclusions Many adults experience high persisting levels of SI, though results encouragingly indicate that receiving Web-based self-help for SI increased membership in a decreasing trajectory of SI. PMID:27363482

  18. Does a meditation protocol supported by a mobile application help people reduce stress? Suggestions from a controlled pragmatic trial.

    PubMed

    Carissoli, Claudia; Villani, Daniela; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a 3 week mindfulness inspired protocol, delivered by an Android application for smartphones, in reducing stress in the adult population. By using a controlled pragmatic trial, a self-help intervention group of meditators was compared with a typical control group listening to relaxing music and a waiting list group. The final sample included 56 Italian workers as participants, block randomized to the three conditions. The self-reported level of perceived stress was assessed at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Participants were also instructed to track their heart rate before and after each session. The results did not show any significant differences between groups, but both self-help intervention groups demonstrated an improvement in coping with stress. Nevertheless, meditators and music listeners reported a significant decrease in average heartbeats per minute after each session. Furthermore, both groups perceived a moderate but significant change in stress reduction perceptions, even if with some peculiarities. Limitations and opportunities related to the meditation protocol supported by the mobile application to reduce stress are discussed. PMID:25584730

  19. Extracting and understanding the relationship between components of the capacity in elderly people in terms of electrical device comprehension.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kanji; Yamaoka, Toshiki

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to extract components of the capacity which elderly people have in comprehending electrical devices and determine its relationship with the components. Initially, we proposed a hypothesis through examining previous studies. The hypothesis states that the capacity which elderly people have mainly consists of four components, i.e., motivation, working memory, logical thinking and experience with personal computers (PC) or mobile phones. Then, some tests were conducted to examine the hypothesis. In this research, elderly people were interviewed about their impressions and experience with electrical devices. Moreover, three tests were conducted including, card sorting, tasks using digital video cameras and a test to measure working memory. As analysis methods, the Quantification 1 was used to see which component was important. In addition, Boolean algebra was conducted to simplify the components and understand some relationships. As a result, a relationship with the components in electrical devices was revealed. Furthermore, the use of Boolean algebra and the Quantification 1 suggested that the experience with PCs or mobile phones was the most important component for elderly people. PMID:22416465

  20. Older (but not younger) preschoolers understand that knowledge differs between people and across time.

    PubMed

    Caza, Julian S; Atance, Cristina M; Bernstein, Daniel M

    2016-09-01

    We examined 3- to 5-year-olds' understanding of general knowledge (e.g., knowing that clocks tell time) by investigating whether (1) they recognize that their own general knowledge has changed over time (i.e., they knew less as babies than they know now), and (2) such intraindividual knowledge differences are easier/harder to understand than interindividual differences (i.e., Do preschoolers understand that a baby knows less than they do?). Forty-eight 3- to 5-year-olds answered questions about their current general knowledge ('self-now'), the general knowledge of a 6-month-old ('baby-now'), and their own general knowledge at 6 months ('self-past'). All age groups were significantly above chance on the self-now questions, but only 5-year-olds were significantly above chance on the self-past and baby-now questions. Moreover, children's performance on the baby-now and self-past questions did not differ. Our findings suggest that younger preschoolers do not fully appreciate that their past knowledge differs from their current knowledge, and that others may have less knowledge than they do. We situate these findings within the research on knowledge understanding, more specifically, and cognitive development, more broadly. PMID:26763135

  1. Foundational Issues in Educating Young People for Understanding and Appreciation of the Religions in Their Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engebretson, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    This is a conceptual paper considering some of the foundational issues that a teacher needs to have at least considered (if not resolved) when he or she sets out to encourage students to understand and appreciate the variety of religions in their communities. The first issue is that of what to call the enterprise; the second relates to assumed…

  2. Promoting self-help activities for people living with HIV / AIDS in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le Truong Giang; Nguyen Huu Luyen; Le Thuy Lan Thao; Narimani, P

    1999-01-01

    The rising epidemic of HIV/AIDS in Ho Chi Minh City presents new challenges for sexually transmitted disease/HIV prevention in Vietnam. Most HIV/AIDS cases are found south of the country and this puts a burden on the Ho Chi Minh City AIDS Committee. Building on experiences from other countries, the AIDS Committee successfully implemented measures such as needle-exchange programs, condom distribution, peer education, and outreach activities. It also established a meeting place, the Cafe Hy Vong, for female sex workers and intravenous drug users. From the beginning, the Committee regarded meeting the special needs of people living with HIV/AIDS (PHA) as important prevention activities, and encouraged PHA to discuss their concerns with the committee. The PHA formed the Friend-to-Friend group in October 1995, where the Ho Chi Minh AIDS Committee gave its full support. The group organizes meetings and social gatherings where they can share their feelings and experiences, as well as get information and counseling. PMID:12349769

  3. Results from a Pilot Study of a Curriculum Unit Designed to Help Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions in Living Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Flanagan, Jean C.; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Students often have trouble understanding key biology ideas because they lack an understanding of foundational chemistry ideas. AAAS Project 2061 is collaborating with BSCS in the development a curriculum unit that connects core chemistry and biochemistry ideas in order to help eighth grade students build the conceptual foundation needed for high…

  4. Using ClipCard to help solve the problem of finding people's scientific content in an application-centric world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearns, T.

    2014-12-01

    Innovations in multibeam technologies, mapping and visualization software, and computer graphics processing are helping geophysicists and oceanographers create more accurate high-resolution bathymetric products. Collaborative software and cloud-based storage has made accessing and sharing this information from anywhere and any device easier. Even with all these tools and enhancements, researchers still spend too much time searching for scientific content, data, equipment specs, notes from collaborators. Less time is spent doing actual research because data and information are spread through various applications and repositories. This presentation describes how the ClipCard app can be used to reduce time spent finding information from disparate sources by connecting to various data sources and programs and returning an easy to consume lightweight abstract of your information delivered in a consumer application visual experience. We will describe how ClipCard teamed up with NOAA's Office for Ocean Exploration to test the feasibility of deploying ClipCard as a way to present their expedition data including multibeam, side-scan, dive tracks, video footage and in-situ observations to users.

  5. How does a decision aid help people decide whether to disclose a mental health problem to employers? Qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Lassman, F; Henderson, R Claire; Dockery, L; Clement, S; Murray, J; Bonnington, O; Farrelly, S; Thornicroft, G

    2015-06-01

    Background Decisions about whether to disclose mental health problems to employers are complex, with potential personal, employment and legal implications. Decision aids are evidence based tools, designed to help individuals make specific choices between treatment options. We previously developed a decision aid-Conceal Or ReveAL (CORAL)-to assist service users with decisions about disclosure to employers. As part of a mixed methods exploratory RCT, which demonstrated that the CORAL decision aid was effective in reducing decisional conflict, we aimed to explore its mechanism of action and to optimise the intervention for a future full scale trial. Methods In depth interviews were conducted with individuals receiving vocational support from a mental health trust and participating in the intervention arm of the pilot trial. Thematic analysis was conducted to identify the main themes relating to participants' perceptions of the CORAL decision aid. Results Thirteen participants were interviewed and five main themes were identified: sense of self and values; sense of control; anticipation of disclosure; experience of disclosure; and mechanism of action of the decision aid. Conclusions Data from our 13 participants suggest that the CORAL decision aid acts on several dimensions of decisional conflict: clarifying the pros and cons of different choices; increasing knowledge; structuring the decision making process; and clarifying needs and values. The current study indicated that it would be most effective when delivered by a professional well versed in employment and mental health matters such as a vocational adviser. The need for employers and policymakers to reduce the negative impact of disclosure is also highlighted. PMID:25427673

  6. Medicines management support to older people: understanding the context of systems failure

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Stephen; Martin, Graham; Rai, Gurcharan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Changing demographics and pressures on the healthcare system mean that more older people with complex medical problems need to be supported in primary and community care settings. The challenge of managing medicines effectively in frail elderly patients is considerable. Our research investigates what can go wrong and why, and seeks insight into the context that might set the scene for system failure. Setting North London; a district general hospital and surrounding health authorities. Participants 7 patients who had been admitted to hospital and 16 informants involved in their care. Design Patients with preventable medication-related admissions were identified in an occurrence screening study. An accident investigation approach was used to create case studies from accounts of staff involved in each patient's care prior to their admission. Structured analysis of case studies according to the accident investigation approach was complemented by a separate analysis of interviews using open coding with constant comparison to identify and illustrate higher-level contextual themes. Outcomes The study sheds light on care management problems, their causes and the context in which care management problems and their causes have occurred. Results Care management problems were rooted in issues with decision-making, information support and communications among staff members and between staff, patients and carers. Poor judgement, slips and deviations from best practice were attributed to task overload and complexity. Within general practice, at the interface with community services and with hospitals, we identified disruption to traditional intraprofessional and interprofessional roles, assumptions, channels and media of communication which together created conditions that might compromise patient safety. Conclusions New ways of working driven by the ethos of productivity are disrupting traditional intraprofessional and interprofessional roles, assumptions, channels

  7. Understanding Space Weather influence on earthquake triggering to shield people living in seismic regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachikyan, Galina; Inchin, Alexander; Kim, Alexander; Khassanov, Eldar

    2016-07-01

    There is an idea at present that space weather can influence not only the technological infrastructure and people's health, but seismic activity as well. Space weather impact on the Earth results from magnetic reconnection between the Sun's and Earth's magnetic fields. The effectiveness of reconnection depends on sign and magnitude of Z-components in solar wind magnetic field and earth's magnetic field as measured in the geocentric solar magnetosphere (GSM) coordinate system. The more negative value of Zgsm in the solar wind magnetic field, and the more positive value of Zgsm in the geomagnetic field, the more solar wind energy penetrates into the earth's environment due to reconnection. It was found recently by Khachikyan et al. [2012, http://www.scirp.org/journal/ijg] that maximal possible earthquake magnitude in a particular seismic region (seismic potential - Mmax) may be determined, in first approximation, on the base of maximal geomagnetic Zgsm value in this region, namely: Mmax = (5.22 +- 0.17) + (0.78 +- 0.06) x [abs (Zgsm)]. In this report we present statistical results on association between variations in space weather and global seismic activity, and demonstrate that a great Sumatra earthquake (M=9.1, on December 26, 2004, at 00:58:53 GMT) indeed occurred in region where the geomagnetic Zgsm components are largest at the globe. In the time of earthquake occurrence, geomagnetic Zgsm value in the epicenter (3.30N, 95.980E) was equal to ~37147 nT. A range of possible maximal magnitude, as estimated from above relation, could be of 8.8 - 9.2. The recorded magnitude M=9.1 is within this range.

  8. Acceptability of Online Self-Help to People With Depression: Users’ Views of MoodGYM Versus Informational Websites

    PubMed Central

    Sarrami Foroushani, Pooria; Grime, Paul; Thornicroft, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the factors that influence acceptability of and adherence to online psychological interventions. Evidence is needed to guide further development of promising programs. Objective Our goal was to investigate users’ views of two online approaches to self-help for depression: computerized cognitive behavior therapy (cCBT) and informational websites, in a workplace context. Computerized CBT offers an inexpensive and accessible alternative to face-to-face therapy, and employers have an interest in reducing the working time lost to depression or stress. Yet little is known about how employees, who have actual experience of using online approaches, judge the intervention as a process. Methods The qualitative data reported here were collected within an online randomized controlled trial whose participants had diagnosable depression. The experimental intervention was a 5-week cCBT program called MoodGYM, and the control condition was five informational websites about mental health. Data were collected via online questionnaires. There was no evidence of the superiority of either in terms of treatment outcomes. In parallel, using brief rating scales and open-ended questions designed for this purpose, we examined the relative acceptability of each approach over time, including perceptions of cCBT compared to seeing a health care professional. Results At least 60% of participants held online therapy to be at least as acceptable as seeing a professional about mental health issues, and they were more likely to retain this opinion over time if they used the interactive program, MoodGYM, rather than informational websites alone. Barriers to cCBT use fell into four categories: intrinsic, intrapersonal problems; extrinsic technical problems; generic issues mostly pertaining to perceptions of cCBT; and specific issues about the intervention or control condition. These indicate strategies for improving engagement. Conclusions As first-aid for mild to

  9. Using Participatory Risk Mapping (PRM) to Identify and Understand People's Perceptions of Crop Loss to Animals in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Amanda D.; Hill, Catherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Considering how people perceive risks to their livelihoods from local wildlife is central to (i) understanding the impact of crop damage by animals on local people and (ii) recognising how this influences their interactions with, and attitudes towards, wildlife. Participatory risk mapping (PRM) is a simple, analytical tool that can be used to identify and classify risk within communities. Here we use it to explore local people's perceptions of crop damage by wildlife and the animal species involved. Interviews (n = 93, n = 76) and seven focus groups were conducted in four villages around Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda during 2004 and 2005. Farms (N = 129) were simultaneously monitored for crop loss. Farmers identified damage by wildlife as the most significant risk to their crops; risk maps highlighted its anomalous status compared to other anticipated challenges to agricultural production. PRM was further used to explore farmers' perceptions of animal species causing crop damage and the results of this analysis compared with measured crop losses. Baboons (Papio anubis) were considered the most problematic species locally but measurements of loss indicate this perceived severity was disproportionately high. In contrast goats (Capra hircus) were considered only a moderate risk, yet risk of damage by this species was significant. Surprisingly, for wild pigs (Potamochoerus sp), perceptions of severity were not as high as damage incurred might have predicted, although perceived incidence was greater than recorded frequency of damage events. PRM can assist researchers and practitioners to identify and explore perceptions of the risk of crop damage by wildlife. As this study highlights, simply quantifying crop loss does not determine issues that are important to local people nor the complex relationships between perceived risk factors. Furthermore, as PRM is easily transferable it may contribute to the identification and development of standardised approaches

  10. ‘This isn't what mine looked like’: a qualitative study of symptom appraisal and help seeking in people recently diagnosed with melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Fiona M; Birt, Linda; Cavers, Debbie; Scott, Suzanne; Emery, Jon; Burrows, Nigel; Cavanagh, Gina; MacKie, Rona; Weller, David; Campbell, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore symptom appraisal and help-seeking decisions among patients recently diagnosed with melanomas, and to compare experiences of people with ‘thinner’ (<1 mm) and ‘thicker’ (>2 mm) melanomas, as thickness at diagnosis is an important prognostic feature. Methods In-depth interviews with patients within 10 weeks of melanoma diagnosis explored the factors impacting on their pathways to diagnosis. Framework analysis, underpinned by the Model of Pathways to Treatment, was used to explore the data with particular focus on patients’ beliefs and experiences, disease factors, and healthcare professional (HCP) influences. Results 63 patients were interviewed (29–93 years, 31 women, 30 thicker melanomas). All described their skin changes using rich lay vocabulary. Many included unassuming features such as ‘just a little spot’ as well as common features of changes in size, colour and shape. There appeared to be subtly different patterns of symptoms: descriptions of vertical growth, bleeding, oozing and itch were features of thicker melanomas irrespective of pathological type. Appraisal was influenced by explanations such as normal life changes, prior beliefs and whether skin changes matched known melanoma descriptions. Most decisions to seek help were triggered by common factors such as advice from family and friends. 11 patients reported previous reassurance about their skin changes by a HCP, with little guidance on monitoring change or when it would be appropriate to re-consult. Conclusions Patients diagnosed with both thinner and thicker melanomas often did not initially recognise or interpret their skin changes as warning signs or prompts to seek timely medical attention. The findings provide guidance for melanoma awareness campaigns on more appropriate images, helpful descriptive language and the need to stress the often apparently innocuous nature of potentially serious skin changes. The importance of appropriate advice

  11. People can understand descriptions of motion without activating visual motion brain regions

    PubMed Central

    Dravida, Swethasri; Saxe, Rebecca; Bedny, Marina

    2013-01-01

    What is the relationship between our perceptual and linguistic neural representations of the same event? We approached this question by asking whether visual perception of motion and understanding linguistic depictions of motion rely on the same neural architecture. The same group of participants took part in two language tasks and one visual task. In task 1, participants made semantic similarity judgments with high motion (e.g., “to bounce”) and low motion (e.g., “to look”) words. In task 2, participants made plausibility judgments for passages describing movement (“A centaur hurled a spear … ”) or cognitive events (“A gentleman loved cheese …”). Task 3 was a visual motion localizer in which participants viewed animations of point-light walkers, randomly moving dots, and stationary dots changing in luminance. Based on the visual motion localizer we identified classic visual motion areas of the temporal (MT/MST and STS) and parietal cortex (inferior and superior parietal lobules). We find that these visual cortical areas are largely distinct from neural responses to linguistic depictions of motion. Motion words did not activate any part of the visual motion system. Motion passages produced a small response in the right superior parietal lobule, but none of the temporal motion regions. These results suggest that (1) as compared to words, rich language stimuli such as passages are more likely to evoke mental imagery and more likely to affect perceptual circuits and (2) effects of language on the visual system are more likely in secondary perceptual areas as compared to early sensory areas. We conclude that language and visual perception constitute distinct but interacting systems. PMID:24009592

  12. Sense Things in the Big Deep Water Bring the Big Deep Water to Computers so People can understand the Deep Water all the Time without getting wet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelz, M.; Heesemann, M.; Scherwath, M.; Owens, D.; Hoeberechts, M.; Moran, K.

    2015-12-01

    Senses help us learn stuff about the world. We put sense things in, over, and under the water to help people understand water, ice, rocks, life and changes over time out there in the big water. Sense things are like our eyes and ears. We can use them to look up and down, right and left all of the time. We can also use them on top of or near the water to see wind and waves. As the water gets deep, we can use our sense things to see many a layer of different water that make up the big water. On the big water we watch ice grow and then go away again. We think our sense things will help us know if this is different from normal, because it could be bad for people soon if it is not normal. Our sense things let us hear big water animals talking low (but sometimes high). We can also see animals that live at the bottom of the big water and we take lots of pictures of them. Lots of the animals we see are soft and small or hard and small, but sometimes the really big ones are seen too. We also use our sense things on the bottom and sometimes feel the ground shaking. Sometimes, we get little pockets of bad smelling air going up, too. In other areas of the bottom, we feel hot hot water coming out of the rock making new rocks and we watch some animals even make houses and food out of the hot hot water that turns to rock as it cools. To take care of the sense things we use and control water cars and smaller water cars that can dive deep in the water away from the bigger water car. We like to put new things in the water and take things out of the water that need to be fixed at least once a year. Sense things are very cool because you can use the sense things with your computer too. We share everything for free on our computers, which your computer talks to and gets pictures and sounds for you. Sharing the facts from the sense things is the best part about having the sense things because we can get many new ideas about understanding the big water from anyone with a computer!

  13. Set a Structure of Objects with a Help of Grouping to Ten Strategy to Understand the Idea of Unitizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiti, Saliza Safta; Zulkardi; Darmawijoyo

    2013-01-01

    The intention of the present study is to know how the pupils can learn to make a group of ten to understand the idea of unitizing. The pupils were given a contextual problem "Counting the Beads" in order to promote their understanding about the idea of unitizing. The process of designing the problem was based on the 5 tenets of…

  14. Worldwide Discoveries Help People Everywhere

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancers (e.g., cervical cancer and papilloma virus). Malaria China—A traditional medicine made from wormwood, Artemisia ... found to be highly effective for treatment of malaria. More than 1 million Africans, mostly children under ...

  15. Use of a Spreadsheet to Help Students Understand the Origin of the Empirical Equation that Allows Estimation of the Extinction Coefficients of Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    A brief history of the development of the empirical equation that is used by prominent, Internet-based programs to estimate (or calculate) the extinction coefficients of proteins is presented. In addition, an overview of a series of related assignments designed to help students understand the origin of the empirical equation is provided. The…

  16. Small Businesses Save Big: A Guide to Help SBA Lenders Understand and Communicate the Value of Energy Efficiency Investments (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides guidelines for SBA lenders to understand the value of financing energy efficiency investments.

  17. Salmonella enterica in the Chicken: How it has Helped Our Understanding of Immunology in a Non-Biomedical Model Species

    PubMed Central

    Wigley, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella infection of the chicken is important both as a source of foodborne human salmonellosis and as a source of disease in the chicken itself. Vaccination and other control strategies require an understanding of the immune response and as such have been important in understanding both mucosal immunity and more generally the response to bacterial infection. In this review, we discuss the contribution the study of avian salmonellosis has made to understanding innate immunity including the function of phagocytic cells, pattern recognition receptors, and defensins. The mucosal response to Salmonella infection and its regulation and the contribution this makes in protection against infection and persistence within the gut and future directions in better understanding the role of TH17 and Tregs in this response. Finally, we discuss the role of the immune system and its modulation in persistent infection and infection of the reproductive tract. We also outline key areas of research required to fully understand the interaction between the chicken immune system and Salmonella and how infection is maintained in the absence of substantive gastrointestinal disease. PMID:25346731

  18. Please Know Me As I Am: A Guide to Helping Children Understand the Child with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Margaret E.

    Presented is a guide for teaching elementary school children to understand classmates and others with special needs which was developed as a result of a project involving 16 classroom teachers and a nurse consultant in developing an exemplary program. Listed are concerns frequently voiced by teachers such as a child asking embarassing questions.…

  19. Using a Self-as-Model Video Combined with Social Stories to Help a Child with Asperger Syndrome Understand Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernad-Ripoll, Susana

    2007-01-01

    Using an AB design with generalization, this study sought to determine the effectiveness of presenting videotaped emotions and Social Stories[TM] to teach a 9-year-old child with Asperger syndrome to recognize and understand emotions in himself and to generalize them to other situations in his home. Data collected in the child's home showed an…

  20. Increasing Professional Self-Understanding: Self-Study Research by Teachers with the Help of Biography, Core Reflection and Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Bob; van den Berg, Bas

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in self-study methods being used by teachers and teacher educators to improve their own practice. The focus of these self-studies seems to be more on acting than on understanding, and here we focus on a group of teachers who explore their professional identities. Teachers participating in a Master's degree study were…

  1. Use of a Laboratory Exercise on Molar Absorptivity to Help Students Understand the Authority of the Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soundararajan, Madhavan; Bailey, Cheryl P.; Markwell, John

    2008-01-01

    To promote understanding of the authority of the primary literature in students taking our biochemistry laboratory courses, a biochemistry laboratory exercise on the determination of an acceptable molar absorptivity value of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) was developed. This made the laboratory course much more relevant by linking to a thematic thread,…

  2. Molecular monitoring 101: helping your patients with chronic myeloid leukemia to understand the meaning of molecular response.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Elias J; Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso

    2012-08-01

    For patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), measurement of molecular response (i.e. the level of BCR-ABL1 transcripts) is firmly established as a key element of disease monitoring. Assessment of BCR-ABL1 levels may help to identify early signs of resistance to treatment and enable a timely switch to alternative therapies. Hence, regular and accurate monitoring of BCR-ABL1 transcripts helps to maximize the chance of successful outcomes in CML. Because the incidence of CML is relatively low, many community oncologists encounter only a limited number of cases; measuring and interpreting BCR-ABL1 measurements in a clinically relevant fashion may be challenging. The team at our institution often encounters questions regarding real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assessments of BCR-ABL1 levels, International Scale standardization, the implications of achieving or losing molecular responses and mutation monitoring. The aim of this article is to provide practical advice for effective long-term monitoring of patients with CML by addressing frequently asked questions and common case scenarios using guideline- and evidence-based approaches. PMID:22273251

  3. An Innovative Lab-Based Training Program to Help Patient Groups Understand Their Disease and the Research Process

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Marion; Hammond, Constance; Karlin, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Genuine partnership between patient groups and medical experts is important but challenging. Our training program meets this challenge by organizing hands-on, lab-based training sessions for members of patient groups. These sessions allow “trainees” to better understand their disease and the biomedical research process, and strengthen links between patients and local researchers. Over the past decade, we and our partner institutes have received more than 900 French patients, with the participation of over 60 researchers and clinicians. PMID:25668201

  4. The Advantage of Throwing the First Stone: How Understanding the Evolutionary Demands of Homo sapiens Is Helping Us Understand Carpal Motion

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Rachel S.; Crisco, Joseph J.; Wolfe, Scott W.

    2012-01-01

    Unlike any other diarthrodial joint in the human body, the “wrist joint” is composed of numerous articulations between eight carpal bones, the distal radius, the distal ulna, and five metacarpal bones. The carpal bones articulate with each other as well as with the distal radius, distal ulna, and the metacarpal bases. Multiple theories explaining intercarpal motion have been proposed; however, controversy exists concerning the degree and direction of motion of the individual carpal bones within the two carpal rows during different planes of motion. Recent investigations have suggested that traditional explanations of carpal bone motion may not entirely account for carpal motion in all planes. Better understanding of the complexities of carpal motion through the use of advanced imaging techniques and simultaneous appreciation of human anatomic and functional evolution have led to the hypothesis that the “dart thrower’s motion” of the wrist is uniquely human. Carpal kinematic research and current developments in both orthopaedic surgery and anthropology underscore the importance of the dart thrower’s motion in human functional activities and the clinical implications of these concepts for orthopaedic surgery and rehabilitation. PMID:20044492

  5. "I Feel Pain"--Audit of Communication Skills and Understanding of Pain and Health Needs with People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beacroft, Monica; Dodd, Karen

    2011-01-01

    An audit was conducted across Surrey to investigate pain recognition and management with people with learning disabilities. This section of the audit looked at what people with learning disabilities understood and experienced when they had pain compared to good practice from the literature. The results show that people with learning disabilities…

  6. Stochastic models of cellular circadian rhythms in plants help to understand the impact of noise on robustness and clock structure.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Maria L; Akman, Ozgur E; van Ooijen, Gerben

    2014-01-01

    Rhythmic behavior is essential for plants; for example, daily (circadian) rhythms control photosynthesis and seasonal rhythms regulate their life cycle. The core of the circadian clock is a genetic network that coordinates the expression of specific clock genes in a circadian rhythm reflecting the 24-h day/night cycle. Circadian clocks exhibit stochastic noise due to the low copy numbers of clock genes and the consequent cell-to-cell variation: this intrinsic noise plays a major role in circadian clocks by inducing more robust oscillatory behavior. Another source of noise is the environment, which causes variation in temperature and light intensity: this extrinsic noise is part of the requirement for the structural complexity of clock networks. Advances in experimental techniques now permit single-cell measurements and the development of single-cell models. Here we present some modeling studies showing the importance of considering both types of noise in understanding how plants adapt to regular and irregular light variations. Stochastic models have proven useful for understanding the effect of regular variations. By contrast, the impact of irregular variations and the interaction of different noise sources are less well studied. PMID:25374576

  7. How Electron Spectroscopy with Synchrotron Light Can Help Us Understand High-Tc Superconductivity and Other Complex States of Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Campuzano, Juan Carlos

    2012-03-07

    All the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of materials are controlled by electrons that occupy the highest energy levels in solids, those near the Fermi energy. Many techniques were developed to study those electrons, leading to the great successes of condensed matter physics. Newer and complex materials, such as the high-temperature superconductors, tend to exhibit very large anisotropies in their physical properties, requiring a more detailed knowledge of the behavior of electrons not only as a function of their energy, but also their momentum. Angle-resolved photoemission can contribute to our understanding by providing a great deal of information on many of the momentum-dependent properties of electrons and their interactions. In this talk, I will present a brief overview of how a long-term and focused collaboration between scientists at Argonne and other institutions has contributed to making angle-resolved photoemissions a most useful tool in the study of complex states of matter.

  8. Bike Helmets and Black Riders: Experiential Approaches to Helping Students Understand Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? These topics are challenging because they are far from normal experience, in that they involve rare events and large sums. To help students in natural hazard classes conceptualize them, we pose tough and thought-provoking questions about complex issues involved and explore them together via lectures, videos, field trips, and in-class and homework questions. We discuss analogous examples from the students' experiences, drawing on a new book "Playing Against Nature, Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World". Asking whether they wear bicycle helmets and why or why not shows the cultural perception of risk. Individual students' responses vary, and the overall results vary dramatically between the US, UK, and Germany. Challenges in hazard assessment in an uncertain world are illustrated by asking German students whether they buy a ticket on public transportation - accepting a known cost - or "ride black" - not paying but risking a heavy fine if caught. We explore the challenge of balancing mitigation costs and benefits via the question "If you were a student in Los Angeles, how much more would you pay in rent each month to live in an earthquake-safe building?" Students learn that interdisciplinary thinking is needed, and that due to both uncertainties and sociocultural factors, no unique or right strategies exist for a particular community, much the less all communities. However, we can seek robust policies that give sensible results given

  9. The International Oryza Map Alignment Project: development of a genus-wide comparative genomics platform to help solve the 9 billion-people question.

    PubMed

    Jacquemin, Julie; Bhatia, Dharminder; Singh, Kuldeep; Wing, Rod A

    2013-05-01

    The wild relatives of rice contain a virtually untapped reservoir of traits that can be used help drive the 21st century green revolution aimed at solving world food security issues by 2050. To better understand and exploit the 23 species of the Oryza genus the rice research community is developing foundational resources composed of: 1) reference genomes and transcriptomes for all 23 species; 2) advanced mapping populations for functional and breeding studies; and 3) in situ conservation sites for ecological, evolutionary and population genomics. To this end, 16 genome sequencing projects are currently underway, and all completed assemblies have been annotated; and several advanced mapping populations have been developed, and more will be generated, mapped, and phenotyped, to uncover useful alleles. As wild Oryza populations are threatened by human activity and climate change, we also discuss the urgent need for sustainable in situ conservation of the genus. PMID:23518283

  10. Will You Be My Friend? Understanding Friendships in People with Williams Syndrome and People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Mixed-Method Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krata, Jill

    2010-01-01

    It has been established in the literature, that individuals with intellectual disabilities often experience difficulties in social adjustment (Matson & Fee, 1991; Mulick, Hanson, & Dura, 1991) and experience high rates of peer rejection (Merrel, Merz, Johnson, & Ring, 1992). Furthermore, studies reveal that people with intellectual disabilities…

  11. Acid Hydrolysis and Molecular Density of Phytoglycogen and Liver Glycogen Helps Understand the Bonding in Glycogen α (Composite) Particles

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Prudence O.; Sullivan, Mitchell A.; Sheehy, Joshua J.; Schulz, Benjamin L.; Warren, Frederick J.; Gilbert, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoglycogen (from certain mutant plants) and animal glycogen are highly branched glucose polymers with similarities in structural features and molecular size range. Both appear to form composite α particles from smaller β particles. The molecular size distribution of liver glycogen is bimodal, with distinct α and β components, while that of phytoglycogen is monomodal. This study aims to enhance our understanding of the nature of the link between liver-glycogen β particles resulting in the formation of large α particles. It examines the time evolution of the size distribution of these molecules during acid hydrolysis, and the size dependence of the molecular density of both glucans. The monomodal distribution of phytoglycogen decreases uniformly in time with hydrolysis, while with glycogen, the large particles degrade significantly more quickly. The size dependence of the molecular density shows qualitatively different shapes for these two types of molecules. The data, combined with a quantitative model for the evolution of the distribution during degradation, suggest that the bonding between β into α particles is different between phytoglycogen and liver glycogen, with the formation of a glycosidic linkage for phytoglycogen and a covalent or strong non-covalent linkage, most probably involving a protein, for glycogen as most likely. This finding is of importance for diabetes, where α-particle structure is impaired. PMID:25799321

  12. Telling Our Story: A Narrative Therapy Approach to Helping Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender People with a Learning Disability Identify and Strengthen Positive Self-identity Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elderton, Anna; Clarke, Sally; Jones, Chris; Stacey, James

    2014-01-01

    Historically, and to a somewhat lesser extent presently, people with learning disabilities have had little or no voice in the stories other people (particularly professionals) tell about them and their lives. Four psychology workshops, based on a narrative therapy approach, were run for a group of people with learning disabilities who identify as…

  13. UNDERSTANDING THE REASONS FOR THE REFUSAL OF CHOLECYSTECTOMY IN PATIENTS WITH CHOLELITHIASIS: HOW TO HELP THEM IN THEIR DECISION?

    PubMed Central

    PERON, Adilson; SCHLIEMANN, Ana Laura; de ALMEIDA, Fernando Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholelithiasis is prevalent surgical disease, with approximately 60,000 admissions per year in the Unified Health System in Brazil. Is often asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic and major complications arise from the migration of calculi to low biliary tract. Despite these complications are severe and life threatening, some patients refuse surgical treatment. Aim To understand why individuals with cholelithiasis refuse cholecystectomy before complications inherent to the presence of gallstones in the bile duct and pancreatitis occur. Methods To investigate the universe of the justifications for refusing to submit to surgery it was performed individual interviews according to a predetermined script. In these interviews, was evaluate the knowledge of individuals about cholelithiasis and its complications and the reasons for the refusal of surgical treatment. Were interviewed 20 individuals with cholelithiasis who refused or postponed surgical treatment without a plausible reason. To these interviews, was applied the technique of thematic analysis (Minayo, 2006). Results The majority of respondents had good knowledge of their disease and its possible complications, were well oriented and had surgical indications by their physicians. The refusal for surgery was justified primarily on negative experiences of themselves or family members with surgery, including anesthesia; fear of pain or losing their autonomy during surgery and postoperative period, preferring to take the risk and wait for complications to then solve them compulsorily. Conclusion The reasons for the refusal to surgical resolution of cholelithiasis were diverse, but closely related to personal (or related persons) negative surgical experiences or complex psychological problems that must be adequately addressed by the surgeon and other qualified professionals. PMID:25004289

  14. How the Dynamics of Flare Ribbons Can Help Us Understand the Three-dimensional Structure of Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jiong

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection occurs in magnetized plasmas in space and astrophysical environment and fusion experiments. It rapidly changes magnetic field converting magnetic energy into other forms. Energy release in solar flares is believed to be governed by reconnection taking place in the Sun's outer atmosphere, the corona. However, the corona is not always the easiest place to measure magnetic field and its change. During a flare, we also observe what happens at the boundary between the Sun's corona and interior, the chromosphere, to learn about reconnection process in the corona. Magnetic field in the Sun's outer atmosphere is line-tied at this boundary; energy flux is largely streamlined by magnetic field to where the field is rooted at this boundary, and quickly heats up the chromosphere, in a way similar to how auroras are produced by charged particles reaching the Earth's atmosphere at geomagnetic poles. Therefore, observing the impacted chromosphere during the flare allows us to track how much and how quickly magnetic flux is reconnected. Whereas probes in fusion experiments or spacecrafts in the Earth's magnetosphere usually sample multiple points for direct in-situ measurements, all reconnection events in the Sun's corona resulting in significant atmosphere heating can be mapped at the boundary with imaging observations of the Sun. From this mapping, we seek to reconstruct the geometry and evolution of reconnection, to understand the dual property of reconnection that is both sporadic and organizable in a flare, and to find out how much energy is released by each burst of reconnection. This talk will discuss recent results and challenges in this practice, inspired by observations of ribbons and loops of solar flares obtained from the Solar Dynamic Observatory and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph.

  15. Can small earthquakes help understand lithospheric deformation in slowly deforming regions? A case study from Portugal, western Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Susana; Carrilho, Fernando; Gongóra, Eva; Marreiros, Célia; Rio, Inês; Silveira, Graça; Arroucau, Pierre; Dias, Nuno

    2015-04-01

    Portugal lies on the south-westernmost tip of Europe, next to the boundary between Eurasia and Africa. The slow oblique convergence between Iberia and Nubia is accommodated along a broad region of diffuse deformation rather than along a single plate boundary. Individual faults have low loading rates, which results in long time intervals between earthquakes. Mainland Portugal lays on stable continental crust, however it has been repeatedly affected by moderate to high magnitude earthquakes in historical times, including some of the largest earthquakes in stable continental crust on the European historical catalog. The adjacent offshore also presents interesting seismicity, being the source region of the largest European historical earthquake (the 1755 Lisbon earthquake), and with a number of earthquakes occurring on old and cold lithospheric mantle, down to ˜60 km. The seismicity of mainland Portugal and its adjacent offshore has been repeatedly classified as diffuse. In this paper we show that although the plate boundary south of Portugal is diffuse, in that deformation is accommodated along several faults rather than along one long linear plate boundary, the seismicity itself is not diffuse, just grossly mislocated in current catalogs. When carefully re-located, earthquakes collapse into well-defined clusters and alignments. This work presents a contribution to understanding the Portuguese seismo-tectonics by analyzing the location of small earthquakes occurred between 1961 and 2013 in mainland Portugal and adjacent offshore. Earthquakes occurred between 2010 and 2012 were recorded by a dense broadband seismic deployment, and their locations show a significant improvement with respect to previous locations. New maps of seismicity show clustering and alignments, both onshore and offshore, which allow for a new interpretation of the regional seismo-tectonics. We conclude that the study of small earthquakes using dense seismic deployments is one of the few powerful

  16. Helping Kids Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiss, E. Renee

    2008-01-01

    Educators need to help kids help others so that they can help themselves. Volunteering does not involve competition or grades. This is one area where students don't have to worry about measuring up to the expectations of parents, teachers, and coaches. Students participate in charitable work to add another line to a college transcript or job…

  17. "Like a Distant Cousin": Bi-Cultural Negotiation as Key Perspective in Understanding the Evolving Relationship of Future Reform Rabbis with Israel and the Jewish People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muszkat-Barkan, Michal; Grant, Lisa D.

    2015-01-01

    This research explores the impact of a year studying in Israel on Hebrew Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion (HUC-JIR) rabbinical students' emotional connection toward and knowledge about the State of Israel and the Jewish People. We want to better understand the students' beliefs, ideas, and behaviors that emerge from their experience…

  18. Perfecting and Understanding Roles in Education. Proceedings of the Annual National Conference of People United for Rural Education (6th, Des Moines, Iowa, February 3-4, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    People United for Rural Education, Alden, IA.

    Proceedings of the 1983 People United for Rural Education conference are developed around the theme of "Perfecting and Understanding Roles in Education." Following the introductory materials are 12 papers which were presented at the meeting. Major addresses and authors include: "A Federal Perspective for Excellence in Rural Education," Lawrence…

  19. Sexual Understanding, Sources of Information and Social Networks; the Reports of Young People with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Non-Disabled Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahoda, A.; Pownall, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexual development plays a vital part in young people's emotional adjustment. Method: This study compared the sexual understanding of 30 adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) and 30 non-disabled adolescents, along with their reports of where they obtained sexual information, and the nature of their social networks…

  20. Risk-Taking, Harm and Help-Seeking: Reported by Young People in Treatment at a Youth Alcohol and Drug Counselling Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Cassandra; Kelly, John

    2012-01-01

    Regarded as a normative component of development, risk-taking by young people is a well-researched subject, and some risk-taking behaviours, such as substance use, are particularly well covered because of their potential to adversely affect health and wellbeing. What has remained unclear is the extent of young people's risk-taking while engaged in…

  1. Polar Bears or People?: How Framing Can Provide a Useful Analytic Tool to Understand & Improve Climate Change Communication in Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Not only will young adults bear the brunt of climate change's effects, they are also the ones who will be required to take action - to mitigate and to adapt. The Next Generation Science Standards include climate change, ensuring the topic will be covered in U.S. science classrooms in the near future. Additionally, school is a primary source of information about climate change for young adults. The larger question, though, is how can the teaching of climate change be done in such a way as to ascribe agency - a willingness to act - to students? Framing - as both a theory and an analytic method - has been used to understand how language in the media can affect the audience's intention to act. Frames function as a two-way filter, affecting both the message sent and the message received. This study adapted both the theory and the analytic methods of framing, applying them to teachers in the classroom to answer the research question: How do teachers frame climate change in the classroom? To answer this question, twenty-five lessons from seven teachers were analyzed using semiotic discourse analysis methods. It was found that the teachers' frames overlapped to form two distinct discourses: a Science Discourse and a Social Discourse. The Science Discourse, which was dominant, can be summarized as: Climate change is a current scientific problem that will have profound global effects on the Earth's physical systems. The Social Discourse, used much less often, can be summarized as: Climate change is a future social issue because it will have negative impacts at the local level on people. While it may not be surprising that the Science Discourse was most often heard in these science classrooms, it is possibly problematic if it were the only discourse used. The research literature on framing indicates that the frames found in the Science Discourse - global scale, scientific statistics and facts, and impact on the Earth's systems - are not likely to inspire action-taking. This

  2. “Employment and arthritis: making it work” a randomized controlled trial evaluating an online program to help people with inflammatory arthritis maintain employment (study protocol)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arthritis and musculoskeletal conditions are the leading cause of long-term work disability (WD), an outcome with a major impact on quality of life and a high cost to society. The importance of decreased at-work productivity has also recently been recognized. Despite the importance of these problems, few interventions have been developed to reduce the impact of arthritis on employment. We have developed a novel intervention called “Making It Work”, a program to help people with inflammatory arthritis (IA) deal with employment issues, prevent WD and improve at-work productivity. After favorable results in a proof-of-concept study, we converted the program to a web-based format for broader dissemination and improved accessibility. The objectives of this study are: 1) to evaluate in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) the effectiveness of the program at preventing work cessation and improving at-work productivity; 2) to perform a cost-utility analysis of the intervention. Methods/Design 526 participants with IA will be recruited from British Columbia, Alberta, and Ontario in Canada. The intervention consists of a) 5 online group sessions; b) 5 web-based e-learning modules; c) consultations with an occupational therapist for an ergonomic work assessment and a vocational rehabilitation counselor. Questionnaires will be administered online at baseline and every 6 months to collect information about demographics, disease measures, costs, work-related risk factors for WD, quality of life, and work outcomes. Primary outcomes include at-work productivity and time to work cessation of > 6 months for any reason. Secondary outcomes include temporary work cessation, number of days missed from work per year, reduction in hours worked per week, quality adjusted life year for the cost utility analysis, and changes from baseline in employment risk factors. Analysis of Variance will evaluate the intervention’s effect on at-work productivity, and multivariable

  3. A People's History for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Bill

    2008-01-01

    "A People's History for the Classroom" helps teachers introduce students to a more accurate, complex, and engaging understanding of U.S. history than is found in traditional textbooks and curricula. It includes a new introductory essay by veteran teacher Bill Bigelow on teaching strategies that align with Howard Zinn's "A People's History of the…

  4. How can hydrological modeling help to understand process dynamics in sparsely gauged tropical regions - case study Mata Âtlantica, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Künne, Annika; Penedo, Santiago; Schuler, Azeneth; Bardy Prado, Rachel; Kralisch, Sven; Flügel, Wolfgang-Albert

    2015-04-01

    To ensure long-term water security for domestic, agricultural and industrial use in the emerging country of Brazil with fast-growing markets and technologies, understanding of catchment hydrology is essential. Yet, hydrological analysis, high resolution temporal and spatial monitoring and reliable meteo-hydrological data are insufficient to fully understand hydrological processes in the region and to predict future trends. Physically based hydrological modeling can help to expose uncertainties of measured data, predict future trends and contribute to physical understanding about the watershed. The Brazilian Atlantic rainforest (Mata Atlântica) is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. After the Portuguese colonization, its original expansion of 1.5 million km² was reduced to only 7% of the former area. Due to forest fragmentation, overexploitation and soil degradation, pressure on water resources in the region has significantly increased. Climatically, the region possesses distinctive wet and dry periods. While extreme precipitation events in the rainy season cause floods and landslides, dry periods can lead to water shortages, especially in the agricultural and domestic supply sectors. To ensure both, the protection of the remnants of Atlantic rainforest biome as well as water supply, a hydrological understanding of this sparsely gauged region is essential. We will present hydrological models of two meso- to large-scale catchments (Rio Macacu and Rio Dois Rios) within the Mata Âtlantica in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The results show how physically based models can contribute to hydrological system understanding within the region and answer what-if scenarios, supporting regional planners and decision makers in integrated water resources management.

  5. Sexual Understanding and Development of Young People with Intellectual Disabilities: Mothers' Perspectives of Within-Family Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pownall, Jaycee D.; Jahoda, Andrew; Hastings, Richard; Kerr, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The sexual development of young people with intellectual disabilities is a marker of their transition to adulthood and affects their sense of well being and identity. Cognitive impairments and a socially marginalized position increase dependence on their families to assist with sexual matters. In this study, the authors adopted a novel…

  6. Identifying Colonial Discourses in Inupiat Young People's Narratives as a Way to Understand the No Future of Inupiat Youth Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wexler, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Alaska Native youth suffer disproportionately from suicide. Some researchers explain this by pointing to social disintegration brought on by rapid social change, but few make the connection to an ongoing colonialism explicit. This paper articulates some of the ways that colonial discourses affect Inupiat young people's self-conceptions, perceived…

  7. Don't Call Them Dropouts: Understanding the Experiences of Young People Who Leave High School before Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hynes, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    "Don't Call Them Dropouts" adds to the large and growing body of research about why some young people fail to complete high school on the traditional four-year timeline. While a high school diploma is only a starting line for adult success, it has become increasingly clear that it is crucial for taking the next steps in college and…

  8. Understanding the Middle East.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Evelyn C.

    This nine-week unit on the Middle East for sixth graders was developed as part of a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. A major objective is to help students understand and appreciate sacred times and sacred places within this cultural setting. They learn how beliefs and practices cause the people to…

  9. A qualitative study on primary health care professionals’ perceptions of mental health, suicidal problems and help-seeking among young people in Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mental health problems among young peoples are a growing public health issue around the world. In low- income countries health systems are characterized by lack of facilities, human resources and primary health care is rarely an integrated part of overall health care services. This study aims at exploring how primary health care professionals in Nicaragua perceive young people’s mental health problems, suicidal problems and help–seeking behaviour. Methods Twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses and doctors working in primary health care services in León, Nicaragua. A qualitative research design was applied. Data was analysed using thematic analysis approach. Results This study revealed that doctors and nurses were reluctant to deal with young people presenting with suicidal problems at the primary health care. This was more likely to stem from feelings of incompetence rather than from negative attitudes. Other barriers in providing appropriate care to young people with mental health problems were identified such as lack of time, lack of privacy, lack of human resources, lack of trained professionals and difficulties in communicating with young people. The primary health care (PHC) professionals suggested different solutions to improve care for young people with suicidal problems. Conclusion PHC doctors and nurses in Nicaragua felt that providing skilled mental health services to young people was a priority for them but they also identified a number of barriers to be able to do so. They discussed ways to improve young people’s willingness to share sensitive issues with them and suggested ways to make PHC more appreciated by young people. PMID:24989871

  10. Adolescents' Beliefs about Sources of Help for ADHD and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swords, Lorraine; Hennessy, Eilis; Heary, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The peer group begins to become a source of support during late childhood and adolescence making it important to understand what type of help young people might suggest to a friend with an emotional or behavioral problem. Three groups of young people participated in the study with average ages of 12 (N = 107), 14 (N = 153) and 16 years (N = 133).…

  11. Understanding Concerns About Treatment-as-Prevention Among People with HIV who are not Using Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Newman, C E; de Wit, J; Persson, A; Holt, M; Slavin, S; Kidd, M R; Post, J J; Wright, E; Mao, L

    2015-05-01

    The use of antiretroviral therapy to prevent HIV transmission is now advocated in many settings, yet little research has documented the views of people with HIV. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in Australia between 2012 and 2014 with 27 HIV-positive people not using treatment at the time of interview. Thematic analysis of views on treatment-as-prevention found that while many participants recognised potential prevention benefits, only a minority was in support of initiating treatment solely to achieve those benefits. A range of uncertain or critical views were expressed regarding who would benefit, risk reduction, and changing treatment norms. Participants resisted responsibility narratives that implied treatment should be used for the public good, in favour of making considered decisions about their preferred approach to managing HIV. Engaging communities in dialogue and debate regarding the risks and benefits of treatment will be critical if this new prevention strategy is to engender public trust. PMID:25432878

  12. "You've Got to Teach People that Racism Is Wrong and Then They Won't Be Racist": Curricular Representations and Young People&'s Understandings of "Race" and Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    This paper critically examines the discursive (mis) representation of "race" and racism in the formal curriculum. Combining qualitative data derived from interviews with 35 young people who were enrolled in a Dublin-based, ethnically diverse secondary school, with a critical discursive analysis of 20 textbooks, the paper explores parallels between…

  13. Productivity, People, and Public Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, prepared by the United States Chamber of Commerce, is intended to help create a better public understanding of how productivity affects this country and to suggest how people can change public policy in favor of a revitalized America. The booklet is organized in five sections. The first section defines productivity and introduces the…

  14. An Adaptive Dynamic Pointing Assistance Program to Help People with Multiple Disabilities Improve Their Computer Pointing Efficiency with Hand Swing through a Standard Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Shih, Ching-Tien; Wu, Hsiao-Ling

    2010-01-01

    The latest research adopted software technology to redesign the mouse driver, and turned a mouse into a useful pointing assistive device for people with multiple disabilities who cannot easily or possibly use a standard mouse, to improve their pointing performance through a new operation method, Extended Dynamic Pointing Assistive Program (EDPAP),…

  15. Understanding Effects of Flexible Spending Accounts on People with Disabilities: The Case of a Consumer-Directed Care Program.

    PubMed

    Lombe, Margaret; Inoue, Megumi; Mahoney, Kevin; Chu, Yoosun; Putnam, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    This study set out to explore the saving behavior, barriers, and facilitators along with effects of participating in a consumer-directed care program among people with disabilities in the state of West Virginia (N = 29). Results suggest that respondents were able to save money through the program to enable them to purchase goods and services they needed to enhance their welfare and quality of life. Generally, items saved for fell into 3 broad categories: household equipment, individual functioning, and home modification. Facilitators and barriers to saving were also indicated and so were the benefits of program participation. Program and policy implications are presented. PMID:26623566

  16. New understanding of adolescent brain development: relevance to transitional healthcare for young people with long term conditions.

    PubMed

    Colver, Allan; Longwell, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    Whether or not adolescence should be treated as a special period, there is now no doubt that the brain changes much during adolescence. From an evolutionary perspective, the idea of an under developed brain which is not fit for purpose until adulthood is illogical. Rather, the adolescent brain is likely to support the challenges specific to that period of life. New imaging techniques show striking changes in white and grey matter between 11 and 25 years of age, with increased connectivity between brain regions, and increased dopaminergic activity in the pre-frontal cortices, striatum and limbic system and the pathways linking them. The brain is dynamic, with some areas developing faster and becoming more dominant until other areas catch up. Plausible mechanisms link these changes to cognitive and behavioural features of adolescence. The changing brain may lead to abrupt behavioural change with attendant risks, but such a brain is flexible and can respond quickly and imaginatively. Society allows adolescent exuberance and creativity to be bounded and explored in relative safety. In healthcare settings these changes are especially relevant to young people with long term conditions as they move to young adult life; such young people need to learn to manage their health conditions with the support of their healthcare providers. PMID:23986559

  17. Helping Older People To Live Independently. Annual Report to the Governor and the Illinois General Assembly on Public Act 81-202, Fiscal Year 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Dept. on Aging, Springfield.

    This document describes Illinois' Community Care Program (CCP), a program which provides chore housekeeping, homemaker, and adult day care services to older persons who cannot perform some tasks basic of everyday life without assistance, in order to help them live independently. Case management, information and referral, and nursing home…

  18. From Flavr Savr Tomatoes to Stem Cell Therapy: Young People's Understandings of Gene Technology, 15 Years on

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Jenny

    2012-08-01

    This paper explores knowledge and understanding of basic genetics and gene technologies in school students who have been taught to a `science for all' National Curriculum and compares 482 students in 1995 (gene technology was a new and rapidly developing area of science with potential to impact on everyday life; the first cohort of students had been taught to the National Curriculum for Science) with 154 students in 2011 (genomics had replaced gene technology as a rapidly developing area of science with potential to impact on everyday life; science as a core subject within the National Curriculum was well established). These studies used the same questions, with the same age group (14-16) across the same (full) ability range; in addition the 2011 sample were asked about stem cells, stem cell technology and epigenetics. Students in 2011 showed: better knowledge of basic genetics but continuing difficulty in developing coherent explanatory frameworks; a good understanding of the nature of stem cells but no understanding of the process by which such cells become specialised; better understanding of different genetic technologies but also a wider range of misunderstandings and confusions (both between different genetic technologies and with other biological processes); continuing difficulty in evaluating potential veracity of short `news' items but greater awareness of ethical issues and the range of factors (including knowledge of genetics) which could be drawn on when justifying a view or coming to a decision. Implications for a `science for all' curriculum are considered.

  19. Developing Understandings of Race: Preservice Teachers' Counter-Narrative (Re)Constructions of People of Color in Young Adult Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study reveals the ways in which reading and reflecting on two counter-narrative young adult novels fostered opportunities for preservice English teachers to think more acutely about their understandings of race within and beyond the text. Participants expressed feelings of empathy with and connection to characters whose cultural…

  20. An 'Orca-stra' of Science and Sound: The Reverberations of Northeast Pacific Whales and How We're Helping People Understand Them Though Games, Demos and Listening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelz, M.; Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Kanes, K.; Ewing, N.

    2015-12-01

    Presented by the Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) Leaning and Engagement team, this demonstration focuses on our strategy for engaging and inspiring the next generation of ocean advocates by introducing them to one of the ocean's most charismatic inhabitants: marine mammals (and don't worry, we don't need any tanks or neoprene suits to do it). Using bioacoustic data, we can bring the essence of the animals with us. ONC, an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea. This Internet connectivity permits researchers, students and members of the public to download freely available data onto their computers from anywhere around the globe, in real-time. Our demo focuses on the story of bioacoustics from instrument to animal. When visiting classrooms or hosting booths, we enhance user knowledge and experience by connecting familiar animals with their acoustic data from hydrophones. This includes listening to hydrophone clips collected from the network, analyzing sounds using interactive, real-time software and playing interactive games designed to get participants thinking like a scientist and taking a whale's perspective. For example, participants listen to recordings and guess the sound, identify frequencies and try a working hydrophone. The presentation consists of a suite of activities that meet a broad range of Next Generation Science Standards and includes links to the SoundCloud, https://soundcloud.com/oceannetworkscanada the ONC hydrophone FAQ, http://www.oceannetworks.ca/smart-hydrophone-faq and a classroom ready resource, Shouting Whales http://openschool.bc.ca/shouting_whales/index.html . The included links allow users anywhere to have a similar whale "experience" as the data are classroom ready, accessible and free.

  1. Understanding the social context of fatal road traffic collisions among young people: a qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroners’ records

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Deaths and injuries on the road remain a major cause of premature death among young people across the world. Routinely collected data usually focuses on the mechanism of road traffic collisions and basic demographic data of those involved. This study aimed to supplement these routine sources with a thematic analysis of narrative text contained in coroners’ records, to explore the wider social context in which collisions occur. Methods Thematic analysis of narrative text from Coroners’ records, retrieved from thirty-four fatalities among young people (16–24 year olds) occurring as a result of thirty road traffic collisions in a rural county in the south of England over the period 2005–2010. Results Six key themes emerged: social driving, driving experience, interest in motor vehicles, driving behaviour, perception of driving ability, and emotional distress. Social driving (defined as a group of related behaviours including: driving as a social event in itself (i.e. without a pre-specified destination); driving to or from a social event; driving with accompanying passengers; driving late at night; driving where alcohol or drugs were a feature of the journey) was identified as a common feature across cases. Conclusions Analysis of the wider social context in which road traffic collisions occur in young people can provide important information for understanding why collisions happen and developing targeted interventions to prevent them. It can complement routinely collected data, which often focuses on events immediately preceding a collision. Qualitative analysis of narrative text in coroner’s records may provide a way of providing this type of information. These findings provide additional support for the case for Graduated Driver Licensing programmes to reduce collisions involving young people, and also suggest that road safety interventions need to take a more community development approach, recognising the importance of social context and

  2. Using meta-ethnography to understand the emotional impact of caring for people with increasing cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Grose, Jane; Frost, Julia; Richardson, Janet; Skirton, Heather

    2013-03-01

    The majority of people with degenerative neurological conditions are cared for within their own families. Cognitive impairment can be a significant and increasing symptom of these conditions. In this article we report how a team of experienced researchers carried out a meta-ethnography of qualitative research articles focusing on the impact of caring for a loved one with cognitive impairment. We followed the seven-step process outlined by Noblit and Hare. Synthesized findings from 31 papers suggest emotional impact is complex and uncertain and varies from day to day. The benefit of using meta-ethnography is that the results represent a larger sample size and a reinterpretation of multiple studies can hold greater application for practice. The results of this study offer an opportunity for nurses to be aware of both the positive and negative sides of caring and being cared for. This knowledge can be used to discuss with patients and carers how best to prepare for decreasing cognition and still maintain a worthwhile quality of life. PMID:23305557

  3. How nurses understand and care for older people with delirium in the acute hospital: a Critical Discourse Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schofield, Irene; Tolson, Debbie; Fleming, Valerie

    2012-06-01

    Delirium is a common presentation of deteriorating health in older people. It is potentially deleterious in terms of patient experience and clinical outcomes. Much of what is known about delirium is through positivist research, which forms the evidence base for disease-based classification systems and clinical guidelines. There is little systematic study of nurses' day-to-day practice of nursing patients with delirium. The aim was to uncover the kinds of knowledge that informs nurses' care and to explicate the basis of that knowledge. Critical Discourse Analysis is underpinned by the premise that powerful interests within society mediate how social practices are constructed. Links were made between the grammatical and lexical features of nurses' language about care in interviews and naturalistic settings, and the healthcare context. Care focused on the continuous surveillance of patients with delirium by nurses themselves or vicariously through other patients, and containment. Nurses influenced by major discourses of risk reduction and safety, constructed patients with delirium as risk objects. The philosophy of person-centred and dignified care advocated in nursing literature and government policy is an emerging discourse, though little evident in the data. The current dominant discourses on safety must give space to discourses of dignity and compassion. PMID:22530864

  4. "Done more for me in a fortnight than anybody done in all me life." How welfare rights advice can help people with cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the UK many people with cancer and their carers do not have easy access to the welfare benefits to which they are entitled adding further strain to the process of dealing with cancer. It is estimated that nine out of ten cancer patients' households experience loss of income as a direct result of cancer, which, due to its socio-economic patterning disproportionately affects those most likely to be financially disadvantaged. In the UK proactive welfare rights advice services accessed via health care settings significantly increase benefit entitlement among people with health problems and this paper reports on a qualitative study examining the impact of a welfare rights advice service specifically designed for people affected by cancer and their carers in County Durham, North East England (UK). Methods Twenty two men and women with cancer or caring for someone with cancer who were recipients of welfare rights advice aged between 35 and 83 were recruited from a variety of health care and community settings. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken and analysed using the Framework method. Results Most of the participants experienced financial strain following their cancer diagnosis. Participants accessed the welfare rights service in a variety of ways, but mainly through referral by other professionals. The additional income generated by successful benefit claims was used in a number of ways and included offsetting additional costs associated with cancer and lessening the impact of loss of earnings. Overall, receiving welfare rights advice eased feelings of stress over financial issues at a time when participants were concerned about dealing with the impact of cancer. Lack of knowledge about benefit entitlements was the main barrier to accessing benefits, and this outweighed attitudinal factors such as stigma and concerns about benefit fraud. Conclusions Financial strain resulting from a cancer diagnosis is compounded in the UK by lack of easy access to

  5. Does the granting of legal privileges as an indigenous people help to reduce health disparities? Evidence from New Zealand and Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Phua, Kai-Lit

    2009-11-01

    Both the Maori of New Zealand and the Orang Asli of Malaysia are indigenous peoples who have been subjected to prejudice, discrimination and displacement in its various forms by other ethnic groups in their respective countries. However, owing to changes in the socio-political climate, they have been granted rights (including legal privileges) in more recent times. Data pertaining to the health and socio-economic status of the Maori and the Orang Asli are analysed to see if the granting of legal privileges has made any difference for the two communities. One conclusion is that legal privileges (and the granting of special status) do not appear to work well in terms of reducing health and socio-economic gaps. PMID:20443525

  6. Complementarities of novel and conventional tracer techniques: how can they help us to better understand streamflow generation processes in headwater catchments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Carreras, N.; Bogaard, T.; Frentress, J.; Foppen, J. W.; Wetzel, C. E.; Ector, L.; Hissler, C.; McDonnell, J. J.; Pfister, L.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past decades geochemical and isotopic tracers have been widely used to obtain insights into internal catchment dynamics and to delineate and constrain hydrological flowpaths. Not only water stable isotopes, but also dissolved silica, major ions and cations can be used to separate hydrographs into different components. Nevertheless, further progress has been stymied by limitations such as unrealistic mixing assumptions, unstable end-member solutions and temporally variable input concentrations. Here, we investigate the potential for innovative tracer techniques to bring new momentum to our understanding of streamflow generation processes in headwater catchments. In recent years, new techniques have indeed emerged, each revealing their own advantages and limitations. Pfister et al. (2009) demonstrated the potential for diatoms (unicellular, eukaryotic algae) to help detect the onset/cession of surface runoff and quantify the geographical sources of surface water. More recently, Foppen et al. (2011) used synthetic DNA to characterize hydrological processes, both in surface waters and in the subsurface. Temperature has also been widely used as a tracer. Distributed temperature sensing with a spatial resolution of 0.5m and temporal resolution of 2min via fibre optic cable have indeed been applied to locate lateral inflow in streams (Westhoff et al., 2011). Also, ground-based thermal imagery has been proven to be a simple, practical tool for mapping saturated area connectivity and dynamics (Pfister et al., 2010). The main objective of this work is to evaluate and discuss the respective complementarities of these techniques by shedding light on both their advantages and limitations. This will be done based on examples from the extensive experimental work performed in the headwater streams of Luxembourg.

  7. Exploration of the beliefs and experiences of Aboriginal people with cancer in Western Australia: a methodology to acknowledge cultural difference and build understanding

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Aboriginal Australians experience poorer outcomes, and are 2.5 times more likely to die from cancer than non-Aboriginal people, even after adjustment for stage of diagnosis, cancer treatment and comorbidities. They are also less likely to present early as a result of symptoms and to access treatment. Psycho-social factors affect Aboriginal people's willingness and ability to participate in cancer-related screening and treatment services, but little exploration of this has occurred within Australia to date. The current research adopted a phenomenological qualitative approach to understand and explore the lived experiences of Aboriginal Australians with cancer and their beliefs and understanding around this disease in Western Australia (WA). This paper details considerations in the design and process of conducting the research. Methods/Design The National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) guidelines for ethical conduct of Aboriginal research were followed. Researchers acknowledged the past negative experiences of Aboriginal people with research and were keen to build trust and relationships prior to conducting research with them. Thirty in-depth interviews with Aboriginal people affected by cancer and twenty with health service providers were carried out in urban, rural and remote areas of WA. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded independently by two researchers. NVivo7 software was used to assist data management and analysis. Participants' narratives were divided into broad categories to allow identification of key themes and discussed by the research team. Discussion and conclusion Key issues specific to Aboriginal research include the need for the research process to be relationship-based, respectful, culturally appropriate and inclusive of Aboriginal people. Researchers are accountable to both participants and the wider community for reporting their findings and for research translation so that the research outcomes

  8. Automated air-void system characterization of hardened concrete: Helping computers to count air-voids like people count air-voids---Methods for flatbed scanner calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Karl

    Since the discovery in the late 1930s that air entrainment can improve the durability of concrete, it has been important for people to know the quantity, spacial distribution, and size distribution of the air-voids in their concrete mixes in order to ensure a durable final product. The task of air-void system characterization has fallen on the microscopist, who, according to a standard test method laid forth by the American Society of Testing and Materials, must meticulously count or measure about a thousand air-voids per sample as exposed on a cut and polished cross-section of concrete. The equipment used to perform this task has traditionally included a stereomicroscope, a mechanical stage, and a tally counter. Over the past 30 years, with the availability of computers and digital imaging, automated methods have been introduced to perform the same task, but using the same basic equipment. The method described here replaces the microscope and mechanical stage with an ordinary flatbed desktop scanner, and replaces the microscopist and tally counter with a personal computer; two pieces of equipment much more readily available than a microscope with a mechanical stage, and certainly easier to find than a person willing to sit for extended periods of time counting air-voids. Most laboratories that perform air-void system characterization typically have cabinets full of prepared samples with corresponding results from manual operators. Proponents of automated methods often take advantage of this fact by analyzing the same samples and comparing the results. A similar iterative approach is described here where scanned images collected from a significant number of samples are analyzed, the results compared to those of the manual operator, and the settings optimized to best approximate the results of the manual operator. The results of this calibration procedure are compared to an alternative calibration procedure based on the more rigorous digital image accuracy

  9. Touching the Lived Body in Patients with Medically Unexplained Symptoms. How an Integration of Hands-on Bodywork and Body Awareness in Psychotherapy may Help People with Alexithymia

    PubMed Central

    Calsius, Joeri; De Bie, Jozef; Hertogen, Raf; Meesen, Raf

    2016-01-01

    Medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are a considerable presenting problem in general practice. Alexithymia and difficulties with mental elaboration of bodily arousal are hypothesized as a key mechanism in MUS. In turn, this inability influences the embodied being and participating of these patients in the world, which is coined as ‘the lived body’ and underlies what is mostly referred to as body awareness (BA). The present article explores a more innovative hypothesis how hands-on bodywork can influence BA and serve as a rationale for a body integrated psychotherapeutic approach of MUS. Research not only shows that BA is a bottom-up ‘bodily’ affair but is anchored in a interoceptive-insular pathway (IIP) which in turn is deeply connected with autonomic and emotional brain areas as well as verbal and non-verbal memory. Moreover, it is emphasized how skin and myofascial tissues should be seen as an interoceptive generator, if approached in the proper manual way. This article offers supportive evidence explaining why a ‘haptic’ touch activates this IIP, restores the myofascial armored body, helps patients rebalancing their window of tolerance and facilitates BA by contacting their bodily inner-world. From a trans-disciplinary angle this article reflects on how the integration of bodywork with non-directive verbal guidance can be deeply healing and resourcing for the lived body experience in MUS. In particular for alexithymic patients this approach can be of significance regarding their representational failure of bodily arousal. PMID:26973560

  10. Designing an intervention to help people with colorectal adenomas reduce their intake of red and processed meat and increase their levels of physical activity: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Most cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) arise from adenomatous polyps and malignant potential is greatest in high risk adenomas. There is convincing observational evidence that red and processed meat increase the risk of CRC and that higher levels of physical activity reduce the risk. However, no definitive randomised trial has demonstrated the benefit of behaviour change on reducing polyp recurrence and no consistent advice is currently offered to minimise patient risk. This qualitative study aimed to assess patients’ preferences for dietary and physical activity interventions and ensure their appropriate and acceptable delivery to inform a feasibility trial. Methods Patients aged 60–74 included in the National Health Service Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NHSBCSP) were selected from a patient tracking database. After a positive faecal occult blood test (FOBt), all had been diagnosed with an intermediate or high risk adenoma (I/HRA) at colonoscopy between April 2008 and April 2010. Interested patients and their partners were invited to attend a focus group or interview in July 2010. A topic guide, informed by the objectives of the study, was used. A thematic analysis was conducted in which transcripts were examined to ensure that all occurrences of each theme had been accounted for and compared. Results Two main themes emerged from the focus groups: a) experiences of having polyps and b) changing behaviour. Participants had not associated polyp removal with colorectal cancer and most did not remember being given any information or advice relating to this at the time. Heterogeneity of existing diet and physical activity levels was noted. There was a lack of readiness to change behaviour in many people in the target population. Conclusions This study has confirmed and amplified recently published factors involved in developing interventions to change dietary and physical activity behaviour in this population. The need to tailor the intervention to

  11. Digital Storytelling in a Science Curriculum: The Process of Digital Storytelling to Help the Needs of Fourth Grade Students Understand the Concepts of Food Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Una-Bellelinda

    In this study I investigate if digital storytelling process will help the needs of the fourth grade students in an elementary school setting learn science concepts, specifically food chains. I focused on three students who varied in social and academic skills/behaviors to investigate their process in working on a digital story. My findings proved that digital storytelling scripts, storyboards, and graphic organizers helped students create a story telling about what happened in their food chain but students couldn't retain the information on food chains to help them in taking their post test. The graphic organizers were able to scaffold and help organize students' thinking. The digital scripts allowed students to comprehend science concepts and explain them to peers.

  12. Understanding the effects of different HIV transmission models in individual-based microsimulation of HIV epidemic dynamics in people who inject drugs.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, J F G; Escudero, D J; Weinreb, C; Flanigan, T; Galea, S; Friedman, S R; Marshall, B D L

    2016-06-01

    We investigated how different models of HIV transmission, and assumptions regarding the distribution of unprotected sex and syringe-sharing events ('risk acts'), affect quantitative understanding of HIV transmission process in people who inject drugs (PWID). The individual-based model simulated HIV transmission in a dynamic sexual and injecting network representing New York City. We constructed four HIV transmission models: model 1, constant probabilities; model 2, random number of sexual and parenteral acts; model 3, viral load individual assigned; and model 4, two groups of partnerships (low and high risk). Overall, models with less heterogeneity were more sensitive to changes in numbers risk acts, producing HIV incidence up to four times higher than that empirically observed. Although all models overestimated HIV incidence, micro-simulations with greater heterogeneity in the HIV transmission modelling process produced more robust results and better reproduced empirical epidemic dynamics. PMID:26753627

  13. Physical Activity Helps Seniors Stay Mobile

    MedlinePlus

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Physical Activity Helps Seniors Stay Mobile A carefully structured, moderate physical activity program helped vulnerable older people maintain their mobility. ...

  14. Perception and Understanding of the Elderly: A High School Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spisak, Loretta Joan

    1978-01-01

    Describes a five-week course developed at Marie Curie High School in Chicago to help teenagers understand older people and the aging process. Consultants, guest speakers, movies, and some community projects and experiences were included. (MF)

  15. Understanding Anxiety Disorders: When Panic, Fear, and Worries Overwhelm

    MedlinePlus

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Understanding Anxiety Disorders When Panic, Fear, and Worries Overwhelm Many ... or help us focus. But for people with anxiety disorders, they can be overwhelming. Anxiety disorders affect ...

  16. Increasing stimulus duration can normalize late-positive event related potentials in people with schizophrenia: Possible implications for understanding cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Wexler, Bruce E; Ikezawa, Satoru; Corbera, Silvia

    2014-09-01

    This study determined whether increasing stimulus duration for patients with schizophrenia normalized late Event Related Potentials (ERPs) associated with modulation of response to emotion-evoking stimuli. These ERPs are decreased in patients versus healthy controls when both view stimuli of the same duration. Subjects viewed pictures of hands and judged whether the events depicted were painful or non-painful. Pictures were presented to patients for 500 or 800 ms and to healthy controls for 200 or 500 ms. Participants were 19 adult outpatients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and 18 healthy controls, as assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview. ERPs to neutral stimuli during a 350-900 ms window following stimulus onset were subtracted from ERPs during this same response window to pain stimuli. The area under this difference wave reflected the degree of pain-related positivity and was the dependent measure for analysis. Patient late-positive ERP responses following 500 and 800 ms stimuli were highly similar to responses in healthy controls following 200 and 500 ms stimuli respectively. Patients and controls differed significantly when responses to 500 ms stimuli were compared. People with schizophrenia are known to process information more slowly than healthy people. Our results indicate that slowed early processing of sensory input may limit engagement of higher cognitive and regulatory processes in patients with schizophrenia. This may be one reason that self-regulation is compromised in patients, and may help explain why measures of slowed information processing account for so much variance in other cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. PMID:25096541

  17. [The psychological suffering of elderly people].

    PubMed

    Hazif-Thomas, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    The psychological suffering of elderly people consists of several components. It arises from contact with the reality which the elderly invariably face in their lives: bereavements, necessary changes after the loss of a loved one, alteration of the quality of life. The caregiver must therefore understand this suffering in order for a quality help relationship to be established. PMID:23785854

  18. A Stress-Management Guide for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youngs, Bettie B.

    This document presents a comprehensive guide to help young people understand and cope with stress, pressure, and anxiety. Adolescent readers are introduced to the concept of stress, the ways that stress can affect them, and the skills and techniques needed to help them learn effective ways to reduce and manage stress. The guide begins by defining…

  19. "It's about Helping People Learn to Fly"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Melaneia Warwick has never found it difficult to empathise with her adult students. She knows first-hand how untidy and unpredictable an adult's learning journey can be. She also knows how difficult it can be to take the first step, and how rewarding the experience can be if the teacher manages to create an atmosphere that is both supportive and…

  20. ALCOR: Appalachian People Helping Each Other.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Jack E., Jr.; Cox, L. James

    1978-01-01

    Describes a student service-learning program in the Cumberland Mountains in southeastern Kentucky called Appalachian Leadership and Community Outreach (ALCOR). ALCOR provides various community services in 20 counties with six mountain colleges and private and public organizations. Several ALCOR colleges give academic credit for the ALCOR learning.…

  1. Understanding the independent influence of duty and achievement striving when predicting the relationship between conscientiousness and organizational cultural profiles and helping behaviors.

    PubMed

    Moon, Henry; Livne, Ephrat; Marinova, Sophia

    2013-01-01

    The theory that 2 facets of the factor conscientiousness, duty and achievement striving, are related to self- or other-centered motives, is supported in 2 studies. In Study 1 (N = 204 undergraduates), the self-centered facet of achievement striving was found to be the most important predictor of attraction toward organizational cultures that were outcome-based, aggressive, and emphasized rewards. Achievement strivers were less attracted to supportive and decisive organizations. In Study 2 (N = 189 part-time MBA students) the other-centered facet of duty was found to be predictive of helping behaviors. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. PMID:23171231

  2. Small Numbers, Large Returns: College Students Helping Community Members Prepare Income Tax Returns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulsart, Robyn W.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the Volunteer Income Tax Assistance program, an IRS-sponsored initiative designed to help those who cannot afford professional tax assistance, people with disabilities, people uncomfortable speaking and understanding English, the elderly, and others with special needs. The author discusses its implementation at a small…

  3. Street Smarts: Activities That Help Teenagers Take Care of Themselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael

    Because growing up has become the art of survival for many young people, a professionally conducted course in street smarts can help them identify problems, understand consequences, and make good decisions. The information and activities contained in this text can teach students how to take care of themselves when confronted with challenges. It…

  4. Gaining a better understanding of the support function of oncology nurse navigators from their own perspective and that of people living with cancer: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Johanne; Fillion, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Individuals living with cancer have a wide range of needs throughout the disease trajectory. To better meet them, the Quebec Cancer Control Program (PQLC) implemented the oncology nurse navigator role. While this practitioner has already been integrated into the majority of oncology teams, the role still lacks precision when it comes to its functions within care teams. The support function that deals indiscriminately with "the full spectrum of care and services" consolidated under the larger constructs of adaptation and rehabilitation provided to the individual with cancer and their loved ones requires professional skills and organizational resources, which would improve with clarifying. The goal of this study is to better understand the oncology nurse navigator (ONN) support function, first from the perspective of individuals living with cancer and, second, from the perspective of ONNs themselves. The first objective, detailed in this first part of two, is to explore, from the perspective of people living with cancer, the nature of their needs and support provided by the ONN along the disease trajectory. In all, five individuals living with cancer and provided with an ONN were recruited. The participants expressed support needs at all levels regarding the ONN particularly in the emotional (56%) and informational areas. Moreover results suggest that symptom management (physical area) and all-around coordination (care interventions, appointments, exams, practitioners) in the practical area are paramount throughout the care trajectory. PMID:21462876

  5. Helping Parents Say No.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duel, Debra K.

    1988-01-01

    Provides some activities that are designed to help students understand some of the reasons why parents sometimes refuse to let their children have pets. Includes mathematics and writing lessons, a student checklist, and a set of tips for parents. (TW)

  6. What's the word for…? Is there a word for…? How understanding Mi'kmaw language can help support Mi'kmaw learners in mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunney Borden, Lisa

    2013-03-01

    As part of a larger project focused on decolonising mathematics education for Aboriginal students in Atlantic Canada, this article reports on the role of the Mi'kmaw language in mathematics teaching. By exploring how mathematical concepts are talked about (or not talked about) in the Mi'kmaw language, teachers and researchers can gain insight into how Mi'kmaw children think about mathematical concepts. It is argued that much can be learned by asking questions such as "What's the word for…?" or "Is there a word for…?" Numerous examples of such conversations are presented. It is argued that particular complexities arise when words such as "flat" and "middle" are taken-for-granted as shared, but in fact do not have common use in the Mi'kmaw language. By understanding these complexities and being aware of the potential challenges for Mi'kmaw learners, teachers can better meet the needs of these students. It is argued that understanding Aboriginal languages can provide valuable insight to support Aboriginal learners in mathematics.

  7. Gaining a better understanding of the support function of oncology nurse navigators from their own perspective and that of people living with cancer: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Johanne; Fillion, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Individuals living with cancer have a wide range of needs throughout the disease trajectory. To better meet them, the PQLC [French acronym of the Quebec Cancer Control Program] implemented the oncology nurse navigator (ONN) role. A first article presented the nature of the needs of individuals living with cancer and of the support provided by ONNs. This second article aims at gaining a better understanding of the ONN support function from the ONNs' own perspective and to complete an exploratory description of their support interventions for individuals living with cancer and their loved ones throughout the care trajectory. The sample includes ten ONNs. They reported doing support interventions for all the various types of needs, especially in the informational (44%) and practical areas such as coordinating appointments for exams, practitioners and various services (35%). The results also suggest that a needs assessment is a prerequisite to intervention. Lastly, all participants underscored the importance of the helping relation and trusting relationship to clarify their support function. These results are consistent with the findings of several recent articles on the psychosocial role of oncology nurses. PMID:21661624

  8. Sensitivity and Awareness: A Guide for Developing Understanding among Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPhee, Norma H.; Favazza, Paddy C.; Lewis, Eleanore Grater

    This guide is designed specifically as a resource for classroom teachers, librarians, or consultants who are concerned with helping children develop an understanding and an ease with people who are different, especially people with disabilities. The book includes materials to be used in sensitivity and awareness discussion sessions based on 12…

  9. Helping Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenfeld, Esther

    2005-01-01

    For people who are living in North America, the destruction caused by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita has shown them both the humbling power of natural forces and the fragility of man-made structures. The devastation to the Gulf Coast of the United States has left destruction and damage to schools and colleges and the displacement of 372,000 K-12…

  10. "When You Come to It You Feel like a Dork Asking a Guy to Put a Condom on": Is Sex Education Addressing Young People's Understandings of Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Gillian; Fitzgerald, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, school-based sex education has provided information-based programmes, with the assumption that young people make rational decisions with regard to the use of condoms. However, these programmes fail to take into account contextual issues and developing subjectivities. This paper presents the talk of 42 young people from a New Zealand…

  11. Listening to "The Thick Bunch": (Mis)Understanding and (Mis)Representation of Young People in Jobs without Training in the South West of England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawy, Robert; Quinn, Jocey; Diment, Kim

    2009-01-01

    Young people in jobs without training are ubiquitous but invisible, working in shops, cafes, and other low-waged, low-status occupations. Commonly elided with young people who are not in education, employment or training, they are positioned as the "thick bunch" with empty and meaningless working lives. The main purpose of the research was to…

  12. Toward systematic reviews to understand the determinants of wait time management success to help decision-makers and managers better manage wait times

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    related to implementation were studied more than those related to sustainability. However, this finding was useful in developing a tool to help managers at the local level monitor the implementation of WTMS and highlighted the need for more research on specific factors for sustainability and to assess the unintended consequences of introducing WTMS in healthcare organizations. PMID:23742217

  13. Helping students understand planet categories using "sensing" personification: Jupiter as want-to-be star, Earth as want-to-be Jupiter, etc.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabor-Morris, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Students often, in learning about the classification of planets, consider the planets to be in strict categories (such as gas giants and terrestrial planets) and assume that these categories are drastically different in nature. This is not the case. Small objects such as asteroids have a weak gravitational pull such that they cannot hold an atmosphere, while terrestrial planets are capable of holding a gaseous (often transparent) atmosphere according to their larger mass. However, asteroids and terrestrial planets are very similar in composition (though not necessarily in homogeneity due to varying presence of collisional heating during formation). Meanwhile, gas giant planets (also often referred to as Jovian planets) such as Jupiter have been theorized to contain super-sized rocky terrestrial-like planets interior to their dense cloud covering. Hence, due then to their similar natures, the categorization of the terrestrial and gas giant planets is made not due to fundamental differences in the nature of the planets, a concept often ill-understood by students. Examining this further, the gas giants are planets whose masses, and hence gravitational ability to condense their gases, especially those close to their core, is less than those of stars wherein thermonuclear fusion initiates. This implies that stars also have terrestrial cores (albeit likely extremely densely packed), but the gaseous environments of hydrogen are dense enough to start and sustain this process of thermonuclear fusion. It is proposed here that seeing planets as fundamentally related to each other in composition though differing in size allows students to better understand the variety of planet types AND describing these as want-to-be (or wanna-be) in terms of ranking and according to a “sensing” personification that eschews anthropomorphism, animism, or teleology [see A. E. Tabor-Morris, “Thinking in terms of sensors: personification of self as an object in physics problem solving

  14. Understanding and interpreting nutrition information on food labels.

    PubMed

    Deville-Almond, Jane; Halliwell, Kate

    Health promotion is integral to the nurse's role. Increasing numbers of people in the UK are overweight or obese and are at increased risk of health problems such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and certain cancers. Therefore, it is essential to encourage people to make healthier lifestyle choices. This article focuses on the role of food labelling in helping people to select appropriate and healthy foods, and to understand how their food choices might affect their overall nutrition and health. Healthcare professionals can help patients to understand the information provided on food labels and how to interpret this to ensure their nutritional needs are being met. PMID:24641060

  15. To Help Substance Abusers, We Must First Help Ourselves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Leadership, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Administrator recounts experience growing up in alcoholic home, hoping to inspire other school professionals helping young people with substance abuse problems. Although helping others seems natural for adult children of alcoholics, certain unconsciously held attitudes and behaviors can impede school prevention and recovery programs. Organizations…

  16. Help Us to Help Ourselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Local authorities have a strong tradition of supporting communities to help themselves, and this is nowhere better illustrated than in the learning they commission and deliver through the Adult Safeguarded Learning budget. The budget was set up to protect at least a minimum of provision for adult liberal education, family learning and learning for…

  17. Helping Children Help Themselves. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Agriculture, Edmonton.

    Youth leaders and parents can use this activity oriented publication to help children six to twelve years of age become more independent by acquiring daily living skills. The publication consists of five units, each of which contains an introduction, learning activities, and lists of resource materials. Age-ability levels are suggested for…

  18. Reading Guidelines--Helping Students Understand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Diane P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Reports on the effective use of hierarchcial and nonhierarchical reading guides with John Steinbeck's "Grapes of Wrath." Indicates reading guides improve comprehension, provide transferable skills, and create positive feelings about learning. (NH)

  19. Leafminers help us understand leaf hydraulic design.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Andrea; Raimondo, Fabio; Lo Gullo, Maria A; Salleo, Sebastiano

    2010-07-01

    Leaf hydraulics of Aesculus hippocastanum L. were measured over the growing season and during extensive leaf mining by the larvae of an invasive moth (Cameraria ohridella Deschka et Dimic) that specifically destroy the palisade tissue. Leaves showed seasonal changes in hydraulic resistance (R(lamina)) which were related to ontogeny. After leaf expansion was complete, the hydraulic resistance of leaves and the partitioning of resistances between vascular and extra-vascular compartments remained unchanged despite extensive disruption of the palisade by leafminers (up to 50%). This finding suggests that water flow from the petiole to the evaporation sites might not directly involve the palisade cells. The analysis of the temperature dependence of R(lamina) in terms of Q(10) revealed that at least one transmembrane step was involved in water transport outside the leaf vasculature. Anatomical analysis suggested that this symplastic step may be located at the bundle sheath where the apoplast is interrupted by hydrophobic thickening of cell walls. Our findings offer some support to the view of a compartmentalization of leaves into well-organized water pools so that the transpiration stream would involve veins, bundle sheath and spongy parenchyma, while the palisade tissue would be largely by-passed with the possible advantage of protecting cells from short-term fluctuations in water status. PMID:20199625

  20. Helping the Community To Understand Playground Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somers, Ron

    Playground safety in Australia has evolved from being an issue for parents, teachers, city engineers, and other generalists to an issue for specialists. This paper takes the position that the general community must become involved in playground planning, renovation, and maintenance. After presenting statistics on playground settings and playground…

  1. Children and Stress: Understanding and Helping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford, Beverly Hardcastle, Ed.; Yamamoto, Kaoru, Ed.

    Based on the view that children have special needs that must be recognized and attended to by the adults who care for them, this book explores the stressful experiences faced by children on a daily basis and presents advice and techniques for protecting children during those challenging experiences. Part 1 of the book focuses on children's…

  2. Helping Students Understand Formal Chemical Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Charles R.; Herron, J. Dudley

    1980-01-01

    Investigated outcomes of the use of the learning cycle, which divides instruction into the Piagetian phases of exploration, invention, and discovery in general college chemistry laboratory experiments. Differences between concrete and formal operational students were explored in students' ability to master chemistry material varying in cognitive…

  3. HandiVIH—A population-based survey to understand the vulnerability of people with disabilities to HIV and other sexual and reproductive health problems in Cameroon: protocol and methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    De Beaudrap, Pierre; Pasquier, Estelle; Tchoumkeu, Alice; Touko, Adonis; Essomba, Frida; Brus, Aude; Desgrées du Loû, Annabel; Aderemi, Toyin Janet; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Eide, Arne Henning; Mont, Daniel; Mac-Seing, Muriel; Beninguisse, Gervais

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In resource-limited countries, people with disabilities seem to be particularly vulnerable to HIV infection due to barriers to accessing information and services, frequent exposure to sexual violence and social exclusion. However, they have often been left behind in the HIV response, probably because of the lack of reliable epidemiological data measuring this vulnerability. Multiple challenges in conducting good quality epidemiological surveys on people with disabilities require innovative methods to better understand the link between disability and HIV. This paper describes how the design and methods of the HandiVIH study were adapted to document the vulnerability of people with disabilities to HIV, and to compare their situation with that of people without disabilities. Methods and analysis The HandiVIH project aims to combine quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative component is a cross-sectional survey with a control group conducted in Yaoundé (Cameroon). A two-phase random sampling is used (1) to screen people with disabilities from the general population using the Washington Group questionnaire and, (2) to create a matched control group. An HIV test is proposed to each study participant. Additionally, a questionnaire including a life-event interview is used to collect data on respondents’ life-course history of social isolation, employment, sexual partnership, HIV risk factors and fertility. Before the cross-sectional survey, a qualitative exploratory study was implemented to identify challenges in conducting the survey and possible solutions. Information on people with disabilities begging in the streets and members of disabled people's organisations is collected separately. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the two ethical committees. Special attention has been paid on how to adapt the consenting process to persons with intellectual disabilities. The methodological considerations discussed in this paper may

  4. Building Bridges: A Peace Corps Classroom Guide to Cross-Cultural Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Office of World Wise Schools.

    Understanding the concept of culture helps people live with others of different backgrounds within the classroom, the local community, and the worldwide scale of political, social, and economic interaction. The lessons presented in this book help students begin to more fully understand their own culture and how it has shaped them; to understand…

  5. Six People to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Robyn R.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching is a difficult and time-consuming job, but the rewards teachers receive from their students are unquestionably worth it. The good news is that in every school, there are people that they work with who can help to make their daily life much easier--but they are not always the people that they would think to ask for help. New teachers often…

  6. Limitations of Focussing on Homophobic, Biphobic and Transphobic "Bullying" to Understand and Address LGBT Young People's Experiences within and beyond School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Formby, Eleanor

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents new empirical data that highlight how a focus on "bullying" is too limited and narrow when thinking about homophobia, biphobia and transphobia that young people may experience. The paper draws on two recent studies with young lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans participants, which each identified issues and experiences…

  7. Mood and helping.

    PubMed

    Harris, M B; Smith, R J

    1975-11-01

    In order to test (a) whether helping someone puts the helper in a better mood and (b) whether people in a good mood are more likely than controls to help with a task maintaining their positive mood but no more likely to help with a task leading to a negative mood, 80 female undergraduates participated in a study in which they (a) had an interaction with a confederate (C) designed to put them in a good or neutral mood, (b) rated their mood, (c) rated some neutral pictures, and (d) were requested to rate some potentially elating or depressing pictures. Ss who were induced to help C or who were given candy by her rated themselves as feeling nicer than these having a more neutral interaction. Neither their interaction with C, the type of pictures they were ased to rate, nor their self-reported mood, with the exception of happiness, was significantly associated with number of pictures rated or time spent helping. Those rating the depressing pictures became more depressed than those rating the cheerful pictures. It was suggested that the lack of significant findings might be due either to the fact that the effect of a good mood on helping declines over time or to the fact that rating pictures was so enjoyable that it was not considered altruistic. PMID:1206614

  8. Revealing myths about people, energy and buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Diamond, R.; Moezzi, M.

    2000-05-01

    In this essay we take a closer look at some energy myths, focusing on the ways energy professionals and the public alike, talk, write and teach about how energy affects the way in which we design, operate, retrofit and inhabit buildings. What myths about people, energy and buildings are current today? Who tells these myths and why do we believe them? How do myths affect our behavior? Myths are a way of understanding the world we live in. They may represent incomplete understanding, or be based on premises that are scientifically not valid, but they help us understand and explain how the world works, and we shape our behavior accordingly.

  9. The Effectiveness of Talking Mats[R] with People with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Joan; Cameron, Lois

    2008-01-01

    People with intellectual disability have significant difficulties in ensuring their voice is heard. Talking Mats is a low tech communication resource which helps understanding and supports expression. This study examined the effectiveness of the resource for people with intellectual disability. A mixed method quantitative and qualitative study…

  10. College Students Helping America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dote, Lillian; Cramer, Kevin; Dietz, Nathan; Grimm, Robert, Jr.

    2006-01-01

    To identify key trends in college student volunteering and to understand their implications for growing volunteering among college students, the Corporation has produced a new report, titled "College Students Helping America," the most comprehensive national report ever conducted on college student volunteering in the United States. The report…

  11. Helping, Manipulation, and Magic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Louise A.; Edinburg, Golda M.

    1978-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that an understanding of the primitive origins of the helping process in myth, magic, and ritual may prevent social workers from engaging in practices that negate their clients' ability to work out their own solutions to problems. (Author)

  12. Helping Those in Need: Human Service Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffat, Colleen Teixeira

    2011-01-01

    Many people experience hardship and need help. This help is provided by a network of agencies and organizations, both public and private. Staffed by human service workers, this network, and the kinds of help it offers, is as varied as the clients it serves. Human service workers help clients become more self-sufficient. The first section of this…

  13. Helping individuals to help themselves.

    PubMed

    Costain, Lyndel; Croker, Helen

    2005-02-01

    Obesity is a serious and increasing health issue. Approximately two-thirds of adults in the UK are now overweight or obese. Recent public health reports firmly reinforce the importance of engaging individuals to look after their health, including their weight. They also spell out the need for individuals to be supported more actively, on many levels, to enable this 'engagement'. Meanwhile, national surveys indicate that approximately two-thirds of adults are concerned about weight control, with one-third actively trying to lose weight. This finding is hardly surprising considering current weight statistics, plus the plethora of popular diets on offer. Weight-loss methods include diet clubs, diet books, exercise, meal replacements, advice from healthcare professionals and following a self-styled diet. Obesity is a multi-factorial problem, and losing weight and, in particular, maintaining weight loss is difficult and often elusive. It is argued that the modern obesogenic or 'toxic' environment has essentially taken body-weight control from an instinctive 'survival' process to one that needs sustained cognitive and skill-based control. The evidence suggests that health professionals can help individuals achieve longer-term weight control by supporting them in making sustainable lifestyle changes using a range of behavioural techniques. These techniques include: assessing readiness to change; self-monitoring; realistic goal setting; dietary change; increased physical activity; stimulus control; cognitive restructuring; relapse management; establishing ongoing support. Consistently working in a client-centred way is also being increasingly advocated and incorporated into practice to help motivate and encourage, rather than hinder, the individual's progress. PMID:15877927

  14. Helping carers to cope.

    PubMed

    Moss, V

    1998-01-01

    The care of sick and dying persons with AIDS is often provided in the home by family, partners, and friends. This article outlines simple guidelines for such caregivers. Nursing techniques are suggested for common problems such as changing dirty bedclothes with a person in the bed, making a sick person comfortable, eating or swallowing difficulties, pressure sores, mouth care and oral thrush, and loss of memory or personality changes. Health workers can help caregivers to plan how they will manage and share their responsibilities, keep simple medication records, and look after their own health and needs as well as refer them to support groups. Bereavement counseling gives people an opportunity to talk about the events leading up to a death and the death itself, reassure caregivers that any feelings of depression and anger are normal, and enable people to accept the reality of their loss and look to the future. PMID:12294383

  15. Wearable Monitor Helps Spot 'Masked' High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Wearable Monitor Helps Spot 'Masked' High Blood Pressure Black people with undetected problem twice as likely ... MONDAY, May 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Constant blood pressure monitoring could help doctors spot black people with " ...

  16. Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2003

    2003-01-01

    This 200-page activity guide for educators of students in grades six through university level raises the awareness and understanding of water quality issues and their relationship to personal, public and environmental health. "Healthy Water Healthy People Water Quality Educators Guide" will help educators address science standards through 25…

  17. Dine College Students Research Diabetes for Their People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambler, Marjane

    1999-01-01

    Summarizes Dine College's (New Mexico) leading role in researching diabetes and other Navajo health problems, and its employment of students to help conduct research. States that because of an intimate understanding of their people, students can research topics that outside researchers would not or could not choose. (VWC)

  18. Understanding Medicare Prescription Drug Coverage

    MedlinePlus

    ... I get help? State Health Insurance Assistance Programs (SHIP) are a good place to get help. Call ... 4227) to get the number for your local SHIP. Local community groups can also help people pick ...

  19. Watching television in later life: a deeper understanding of TV viewing in the homes of old people and in geriatric care contexts.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Britt

    2010-06-01

    A secret among staff at nursing homes is that they are often ambivalent about old residents spending more time in watching TV as it is a common cultural perception that it makes the viewer passive. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of reflecting on the TV viewing habits that old people bring with them when they move into geriatric care. The findings are based on a study involving qualitative interviews and observations in two nursing home settings - urban and rural - of 20 persons between 82 and 100 years of age. The results confirm that TV viewing is far from a passive activity. Instead, it contributes to structuring daily life, to satisfying old peoples' needs for reflection and contemplation and to remain socially integrated. As such, TV viewing makes a significant contribution to their capacity to cope with disengagement in old age and can be used as a way of promoting communication and well-being in geriatric care. PMID:20030771

  20. The Small Breathing Amplitude at the Upper Lobes Favors the Attraction of Polymorphonuclear Neutrophils to Mycobacterium tuberculosis Lesions and Helps to Understand the Evolution toward Active Disease in An Individual-Based Model

    PubMed Central

    Cardona, Pere-Joan; Prats, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) can induce two kinds of lesions, namely proliferative and exudative. The former are based on the presence of macrophages with controlled induction of intragranulomatous necrosis, and are even able to stop its physical progression, thus avoiding the induction of active tuberculosis (TB). In contrast, the most significant characteristic of exudative lesions is their massive infiltration with polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), which favor enlargement of the lesions and extracellular growth of the bacilli. We have built an individual-based model (IBM) (known as “TBPATCH”) using the NetLogo interface to better understand the progression from Mtb infection to TB. We have tested four main factors previously identified as being able to favor the infiltration of Mtb-infected lesions with PMNs, namely the tolerability of infected macrophages to the bacillary load; the capacity to modulate the Th17 response; the breathing amplitude (BAM) (large or small in the lower and upper lobes respectively), which influences bacillary drainage at the alveoli; and the encapsulation of Mtb-infected lesions by the interlobular septae that structure the pulmonary parenchyma into secondary lobes. Overall, although all the factors analyzed play some role, the small BAM is the major factor determining whether Mtb-infected lesions become exudative, and thus induce TB, thereby helping to understand why this usually takes place in the upper lobes. This information will be very useful for the design of future prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against TB. PMID:27065951

  1. ["Just its Meaning is Hard to Understand … Because of the Words" --A Qualitative Study on the Suitability of Health-Related Information for Socially Disadvantaged People].

    PubMed

    Leistner, U; Kretzschmann, C; Heil, A M; Menkouo, C; Grande, G

    2015-11-01

    Due to a higher prevalence estimates of risk factors, it is assumed that socially disadvantaged persons have a considerable need for health-related information and prevention. Yet this target group is hardly ever reached. There is a need to examine whether available health-related information is appropriate for the needs of socially disadvantaged people. On behalf of the Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) a qualitative study was conducted to evaluate published health-related information by socially disadvantaged people. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 28 persons with low income, low occupational status and a very low education level. 7 different types of health information (4 texts and 1 film, quiz and flyer each) were evaluated regarding their suitability. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed according to protocol, and qualitatively analysed in view of the central questions. Respondents evaluate the film format most positively, because of the vividness of the contents. In text-based information, a clear structure of the text and the use of case examples are particularly advantageous. All respondents accept the credibility of the given information. Problems occur regarding the comprehensibility and sentence structures with complex information. Numerous technical terms and foreign words remain misunderstood, even though explanations are given in the text. Compact contents and the description of several alternative therapy options are experienced as overstraining. Furthermore, the recognition of hazard potentials is hindered by misinterpretation of percentages or negated descriptions of frequencies. Some respondents doubt that they would read text-based health information voluntarily in their everyday life, especially when texts are lengthy. The respondents wish clear guidance, which relieves them of an active informed decision-making. They prefer advice they can apply in their everyday life and to recognise their

  2. "Too much moving...there's always a reason": Understanding urban Aboriginal peoples' experiences of mobility and its impact on holistic health.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Marcie; Wilson, Kathi

    2015-07-01

    Urban Indigenous peoples face a disproportionate burden of ill health compared to non-Indigenous populations, and experience more frequent geographic mobility. However, most of what is known about Indigenous health is limited to rural, northern, or in the case of Canada, reserve-based populations. Little is known about the complexities of urban Indigenous health, and the differential impacts of residential mobility and urban migration remain poorly understood. Drawing upon interviews with Aboriginal movers and service providers in Winnipeg, Canada, we apply a critical population health lens, informed by holistic health, to examine these impacts. The results demonstrate mobility is an intergenerational phenomenon, influenced by colonial practices. While migration can contribute to positive health experiences, residential mobility, which is largely involuntary, and linked to stressors such as neighborhood safety, results in negative health effects. PMID:26057895

  3. The disclosure processes model: Understanding disclosure decision-making and post-disclosure outcomes among people living with a concealable stigmatized identity

    PubMed Central

    Chaudoir, Stephenie R.; Fisher, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Disclosure is a critical aspect of the experience of people who live with concealable stigmatized identities. This article presents the Disclosure Processes Model (DPM)— a framework that examines when and why interpersonal disclosure may be beneficial. The DPM suggests that antecedent goals representing approach and avoidance motivational systems moderate the effect of disclosure on numerous individual, dyadic, and social contextual outcomes and that these effects are mediated by three distinct processes: (1) alleviation of inhibition, (2) social support, and (3) changes in social information. Ultimately, the DPM provides a framework that advances disclosure theory and identifies strategies that can assist disclosers in maximizing the likelihood that disclosure will benefit well-being. PMID:20192562

  4. From Flavr Savr Tomatoes to STEM Cell Therapy: Young People's Understandings of Gene Technology, 15 Years On

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores knowledge and understanding of basic genetics and gene technologies in school students who have been taught to a "science for all" National Curriculum and compares 482 students in 1995 (gene technology was a new and rapidly developing area of science with potential to impact on everyday life; the first cohort of…

  5. Motivated mind perception: treating pets as people and people as animals.

    PubMed

    Epley, Nicholas; Schroeder, Juliana; Waytz, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Human beings have a sophisticated ability to reason about the minds of others, often referred to as using one's theory of mind or mentalizing. Just like any other cognitive ability, people engage in reasoning about other minds when it seems useful for achieving particular goals, but this ability remains disengaged otherwise. We suggest that understanding the factors that engage our ability to reason about the minds of others helps to explain anthropomorphism: cases in which people attribute minds to a wide range of nonhuman agents, including animals, mechanical and technological objects, and supernatural entities such as God. We suggest that engagement is guided by two basic motivations: (1) the motivation to explain and predict others' actions, and (2) the motivation to connect socially with others. When present, these motivational forces can lead people to attribute minds to almost any agent. When absent, the likelihood of attributing a mind to others, even other human beings, decreases. We suggest that understanding the factors that engage our theory of mind can help to explain the inverse process of dehumanization, and also why people might be indifferent to other people even when connecting to them would improve their momentary wellbeing. PMID:23947281

  6. The EQUIP Program. Teaching Youth To Think and Act Responsibly through a Peer-Helping Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbs, John C.; And Others

    EQUIP is a new and effective program that motivates and equips them with social skills young people with antisocial behavior problems need to help themselves and one another. This book provides all the material needed for understanding and implementing the EQUIP program. The first chapter develops the rationale for EQUIP, introduces its basic…

  7. Scientizing and Cooking: Helping Middle-School Learners Develop Scientific Dispositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clegg, Tamara; Kolodner, Janet

    2014-01-01

    We aim to understand how to help young people recognize the value of science in their lives and take initiative to see the world in scientific ways. Our approach has been to design "life-relevant" science-learning programs that engage middle-school learners in science through pursuit of personally meaningful goals. In this paper, we…

  8. Some people are "More Lexical" than others.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Mako; Samuel, Arthur G; Arai, Takayuki

    2016-06-01

    People can understand speech under poor conditions, even when successive pieces of the waveform are flipped in time. Using a new method to measure perception of such stimuli, we show that words with sounds based on rapid spectral changes (stop consonants) are much more impaired by reversing speech segments than words with fewer such sounds, and that words are much more resistant to disruption than pseudowords. We then demonstrate that this lexical advantage is more characteristic of some people than others. Participants listened to speech that was degraded in two very different ways, and we measured each person's reliance on lexical support for each task. Listeners who relied on the lexicon for help in perceiving one kind of degraded speech also relied on the lexicon when dealing with a quite different kind of degraded speech. Thus, people differ in their relative reliance on the speech signal versus their pre-existing knowledge. PMID:26986746

  9. Technology to Help Struggling Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver-Pacuilla, Heidi; Fleischman, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Many technology features that were originally developed to help people with specific sensory impairments are now widely in use. Research is beginning to show the benefits of giving all students access to these capabilities. As such, educators should not hesitate to integrate technology features into instruction for students who struggle with…

  10. Self-Help Books: Some Ethical Questions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becvar, Raphael J.

    1978-01-01

    Self-help books may be a useful resource to counselors in their work with counselees. They may contribute, however, to the development of psychological problems or prevent people from seeking help when needed. The utopia promised by self-help books may be a pathology in its own right. (Author)

  11. Understanding Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Charles P.

    1986-01-01

    Bibliotherapy can help children prepare for and understand the death of a loved one. An annotated bibliography lists references with age level information on attitudes toward death and deaths of a father, friend, grandparent, mother, pet, and sibling. (Author/CL)

  12. Understanding Prejudice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, David

    1967-01-01

    To help students understand prejudice, teachers in Verona, New York, planned a unit which incorporated the use of fiction, television, and film. Students were asked to select and read books in the general area of prejudice. A sample reading list of works under the headings of Negro, Jew, Italian, and Irish was provided. After writing extensive…

  13. Understanding Instructions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milburn, Val

    This guide is intended to help adult basic education (ABE) teachers teach their students to understand instructions in their daily lives. The 25 learning activities included all develop students' skills in the area of following directions by using basic situations drawn from everyday life. The following activities are included: sequencing pictures…

  14. Perceptions of disaster preparedness among older people in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Myoungran; Lee, Mijung; Tullmann, Dorothy

    2016-03-01

    Older people are a major vulnerable population. During disasters, given their physical frailty, lower social status, loss of medications and medical care, the vulnerability of older people increases. The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of older people in Korea on various aspects of disaster preparedness to better understand their special needs and to facilitate appropriate disaster planning. The study was qualitative and used focus group interviews with 12 older people in one major city and one rural area of South Korea. Four themes were identified by the analysis of the interviews: defenceless state, reality of accepting limitations, strong will to live, importance of disaster preparedness governmental efforts for the older people. Findings indicated that preparation of shelters and transportation was critical to help older people survive in times of disasters and suggested that there should be active involvement of the government in terms of disaster planning, managing and preparing older people for disasters. In addition, healthy older people can be assets to disaster relief efforts by providing practical and emotional support for the most fragile older people. Older people can also provide knowledge of their special needs to the government to improve their disaster response policy. PMID:26179452

  15. [What is a "needs-oriented welfare service" in a care home for aged people? Apply psychology to understand and intervene].

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Momoko

    2006-01-01

    In Japan there is a serious problem that we will have to face and handle, which is the super aging of society around 2010. According to the Universal Model of the WHO, ICF (International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health) addresses, aging is one of such disabilities (underline). Since we all become old, we have to consider the impact of this new concept and deal with it in this aging society. Therefore it is important to clarify what a quality welfare service is. I believe the quality of welfare service is based on the understanding of human needs. In other words, a high quality of welfare services will match needs of both providers and recipients. At this point, I define two services, offered and required. I collected, classified and analyzed the data from this institution using technological methods. Summarizing the data, I created three tables. Then I examined them with Maslow s need-hierarchy-theory. I got another figure of possibility talphafor improvement. As the result of my study it should be designed to fulfill the desire and/or needs of who continue rehabilitation process to achieve their ultimate goal of independence and self-realization. PMID:16521803

  16. Public understanding of drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Herxheimer, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Knowing some basic principles about medicines would help patients to understand drug therapy and to help and encourage them to use it well. These principles relate to the categories and names of drugs, their different uses, how they reach the site of action (absorption, distribution, fate), how they produce their effects, both beneficial and harmful, the time courses of drug actions, how the pattern and intensity of the effects of a drug depend on dose and timing, drug interactions, how drug effects are demonstrated and investigated and sources of information and their trustworthiness. These basic principles are an essential part of health literacy and understanding them would enable individuals to comprehend better the information that they are likely to receive about medicines that they will take. Different populations need different types of education. For schoolchildren, the principles could fit into biology and domestic science teaching, starting in the later years of primary school or early in secondary school. A teaching package would also be needed for their teachers. For adults, web-based learning seems the most practical option. Web-based programmes could be supported by the NHS and professional bodies and through public libraries and local community health services. Specific groups for targeting could include young mothers and carers of chronically ill people. For retired people, one could envisage special programmes, perhaps in collaboration with the University of the Third Age. Conversations between patients and professionals would then become more effective and help shared decision making. PMID:22360596

  17. Moving On: Young People and Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Kathryn; Chamberlain, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To help explain why some young people move from recreational drug use to substance abuse, twelve in-depth interviews were conducted with young people who had experienced problematic substance use. The data were supplemented by statistical data on 111 young people. The researchers found a variety of "structural" factors that help explain young…

  18. 1970 Project Understanding: A Community Education Project on Human Survival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Milwaukee.

    The purposes of Project Understanding were to help participants to: obtain accurate information of human survival issues relating to people, poverty, pollution, and politics; think through the implications of these issues and examine their opinions about them; change their own opinions, attitudes, and behavior; and take effective citizen action.…

  19. Help! Libraries and the Hard of Hearing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1982

    This transcript contains the text of three speeches on the problems of people with hearing impairments and the provision of library services to the hard of hearing. Howard Edward (Rocky) Stone, founder of Self-Help-For-Hearing-Impaired-People, Inc., describes his difficulties as a hearing impaired person, the growing number of Americans with…

  20. People and Environment: Understanding Global Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Discusses impacts of global resources and environment, focusing on food, fisheries, forests, energy, water, and air. Includes graphs, charts, maps, and tables of the current environmental situation; they are suitable for classroom use. Also includes suggested guidelines for implementing a global studies program and an annotated list of resource…

  1. Healthy People 2010: Understanding and Improving Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health and Human Services, Washington, DC.

    This publication presents 10-year health objectives for the nation, reflecting the scientific advances that have occurred in the past 20 years in preventive medicine, disease surveillance, vaccine and therapeutic development, and information technology. It incorporates information from a broad cross-section of scientific experts. The publication…

  2. Effective Communication with Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanahan, Patrick; Elliott, David

    2009-01-01

    The Australian Government established the Office for Youth (the Office) in September 2008 in an effort to engage with the young people of Australia. The Office will work with other government agencies to help young people reach their full potential; make effective transitions to adulthood as they continue to learn, start work, make decisions that…

  3. Make the connection: dealing with the differences in people.

    PubMed

    Riesz, N J

    2000-01-01

    Positive attitudes like trust, cooperation, understanding and acceptance help us to cope with people who can be demanding and frustrating. Learn why we all find some people more problematic to deal with. Learn how to connect with and develop mutual respect for everyone. Acquire methods to cope with others when we find their behavior difficult to deal with. Interpersonal communication can be complicated, both personally and professionally. Avoid many communication pitfalls and obstacles by learning the various behavioral patterns people can exhibit. Understanding yourself and others is like having a road map showing you the way to improved interpersonal communication and personal success. Learn to better understand yourself, sharpen your relationship skills and learn what you can do to increase your effectiveness as a manager. Gain self-awareness and improve your ability to think, feel and act with self-confidence. No matter where we go, some people will present challenges to us. Learn to change your attitude from one of dealing with difficult people to one of coping with the differences in people. PMID:11793533

  4. Interpersonal Sources of Conflict in Young People with and without Mild to Moderate Intellectual Disabilities at Transition from Adolescence to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larkin, P.; Jahoda, A.; MacMahon, K.; Pert, C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Interpersonal conflict is a source of stress and contributes to poor mental health in people with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities. Understanding the contexts in which conflict typically occurs can better equip services to help people with such difficulties. However, existing studies into the contexts of conflict have…

  5. Wearable Monitor Helps Spot 'Masked' High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158860.html Wearable Monitor Helps Spot 'Masked' High Blood Pressure Black people with undetected problem twice as likely ... doctors spot black people with "masked," or undetected, high blood pressure, a new study suggests. "Masked" high blood pressure ...

  6. Parental Influence on Young People's Career Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Luther B.; Call, Vaughn R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Describes theory and research on parental influence on young people's career development and highlights an important implication of this relationship for career counseling. The authors discuss a seminar that helps parents help their children choose careers. (CT)

  7. Impacts of volcanic gases on climate, the environment, and people

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, Kenneth A.; Doukas, Michael P.; Kessler, Richard; Gerlach, Terrence M.

    1997-01-01

    Gases from volcanoes give rise to numerous impacts on climate, the environment, and people. U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) scientists are inventorying gas emissions at many of the almost 70 active volcanoes in the United States. This effort helps build a better understanding of the dynamic processes at work on the Earth's surface and is contributing important new information on how volcanic emissions affect global change.

  8. Evaluation of an Organisational Intervention to Promote Integrated Working between Health Services and Care Homes in the Delivery of End-of-Life Care for People with Dementia: Understanding the Change Process Using a Social Identity Approach.

    PubMed

    Amador, Sarah; Goodman, Claire; Mathie, Elspeth; Nicholson, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, approximately a third of people with dementia live in long-term care facilities for adults, the majority of whom are in the last years of life. Working arrangements between health services and care homes in England are largely ad hoc and often inequitable, yet quality end-of-life care for people with dementia in these settings requires a partnership approach to care that builds on existing practice. This paper reports on the qualitative component of a mixed method study aimed at evaluating an organisational intervention shaped by Appreciative Inquiry to promote integrated working between visiting health care practitioners (i.e. General Practitioners and District Nurses) and care home staff. The evaluation uses a social identity approach to elucidate the mechanisms of action that underlie the intervention, and understand how organisational change can be achieved. We uncovered evidence of both (i) identity mobilisation and (ii) context change, defined in theory as mechanisms to overcome divisions in healthcare. Specifically, the intervention supported integrated working across health and social care settings by (i) the development of a common group identity built on shared views and goals, but also recognition of knowledge and expertise specific to each service group which served common goals in the delivery of end-of-life care, and (ii) development of context specific practice innovations and the introduction of existing end-of-life care tools and frameworks, which could consequently be implemented as part of a meaningful bottom-up rather than top-down process. Interventions structured around a Social Identity Approach can be used to gauge the congruence of values and goals between service groups without which efforts to achieve greater integration between different health services may prove ineffectual. The strength of the approach is its ability to accommodate the diversity of service groups involved in a given area of care, by valuing their

  9. Going Online: Helping Technical Communicators Help Translators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flint, Patricia; Lord van Slyke, Melanie; Starke-Meyerring, Doreen; Thompson, Aimee

    1999-01-01

    Explains why technical communicators should help translators. Offers tips for creating "translation-friendly" documentation. Describes the research and design process used by the authors to create an online tutorial that provides technical communicators at a medical technology company the information they need to help them write and design…

  10. Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson's

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parkinson's HelpLine Learn More Science News Salivary Gland Biopsy Shows Promise to Helping to Diagnose Parkinson’s - Mar ... team performed a procedure called a needle core biopsy of the submandibular glands in 15 people who ...

  11. Meditation May Help Ease Chronic Low Back Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157895.html Meditation May Help Ease Chronic Low Back Pain Study found it ... critical, he said. According to Cherkin, MBSR can help people acknowledge how they are feeling -- physically and ...

  12. Haitians: A People on the Move. Haitian Cultural Heritage Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Marie Jose; Damas, Christine; Dejoie, Menes; Duval, Joubert; Duval, Micheline; Fouche, Marie; Marcellus, Marie Jose; Paul, Cauvin

    This cultural heritage resource guide has been prepared as a tool for teachers to help them understand the cultural heritage of their Haitian students, their families, and their communities in order to serve them better. Although Haiti became an independent country in 1804, the struggle of its people for justice and freedom has never ended. Many…

  13. Health-Related Quality of Life in People with Severe Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilari, Katerina; Byng, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQL) measures are increasingly used to help us understand the impact of disease or disability on a person's life and to measure the effectiveness of interventions. A small number of studies have looked at perceived HRQL in people with mild or moderate aphasia. They report that reduced HRQL is associated…

  14. The Corporate Connection: Effective Company Research Is Just Like People Research--On a Larger Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kourofsky, Carolyn E.

    1992-01-01

    To cultivate companies for fund raising, the college development officer should focus on appropriate people, understand giving trends, follow mergers and acquisitions, and note corporate differences in giving patterns. Annual reports can reveal company self-image, help identify individuals, and illuminate the company's fiscal situation. However,…

  15. Editorial Commentary: Helping Those Who Seek the Company of "Lord Stanley": Hockey Players and Hip Injuries Highlight the Current State and Future Challenges in Understanding, Treating, and Preventing Nonarthritic Hip Disease.

    PubMed

    Christoforetti, John

    2016-09-01

    The state of the art in caring for athletic hip injuries requires comprehensive understanding of dynamic sport-specific biomechanical demands, accurate musculoskeletal diagnosis, and a mindset towards matching hip structure with functional demand at all levels of play. The sport of hockey presents a unique opportunity to review these fundamentals of modern management and illuminates the way towards future understanding of the cause of common nonarthritic hip conditions. PMID:27594336

  16. Understanding Health News

    MedlinePlus

    ... U V W X Y Z Know the Science: The Facts About Health News Stories Understanding Health ... only on animals without explaining that such basic science may have little immediate significance to people. For ...

  17. Helping Students Design an Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guertin, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Most students embrace the incorporation of diverse disciplines into their educational plan when advisers and faculty members help them understand the added value of these courses in achieving their unique goals and how adding breadth can enhance their education and preparation. Individual advising is key to students gaining this perspective on…

  18. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  19. Helping Students Analyze Business Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devet, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    Notes that student writers gain greater insight into the importance of audience by analyzing business documents. Discusses how business writing teachers can help students understand the rhetorical refinements of writing to an audience. Presents an assignment designed to lead writers systematically through an analysis of two advertisements. (SG)

  20. Helping Children Develop Cognitive Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkerson, Deanna

    Designed to help family home care providers understand children's cognitive developmental stages, this manual provides practical suggestions for developing and evaluating children's cognitive skills. The manual is divided into four sections focusing respectively on infants, toddlers, preschool children, and school-aged children. Each section…

  1. A Class Museum of the 2012 Election: "Government OF the People, BY the People, and FOR the People"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philpott, Sarah Lewis; Turner, Thomas N.

    2012-01-01

    The 2012 elections are the perfect opportunity to help students make sense of and visualize their role in the democratic society. In this article, the authors examine the benefits of building a class museum centered on the theme: "Government of the People, for the People, and by the People." They provide steps and examples to show how to build a…

  2. The People Make the Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Benjamin

    1987-01-01

    Presents a framework for understanding the etiology of organizational behavior, based on theory and research from interactional psychology, vocational psychology, industrial/organizational psychology, and organizational theory. Proposes that organizations are functions of the kinds of people they contain and that the people there are functions of…

  3. Crucial Dimensions of Human Altruism. Affective vs. Conceptual Factors Leading to Helping or Reinforcing Others

    PubMed Central

    Szuster, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify factors leading to favorable attitudes toward other people from different social categories. The parts of article reflect diverse levels of altruism regulation from primary affective responses to the environment, through social norms, to abstract moral concepts related to good and evil. The latter allow understanding of the perspective of other people (including those belonging to out-groups), acceptance of their values and engagement not only in helping behavior but also in supporting the development of others. PMID:27148127

  4. Crucial Dimensions of Human Altruism. Affective vs. Conceptual Factors Leading to Helping or Reinforcing Others.

    PubMed

    Szuster, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify factors leading to favorable attitudes toward other people from different social categories. The parts of article reflect diverse levels of altruism regulation from primary affective responses to the environment, through social norms, to abstract moral concepts related to good and evil. The latter allow understanding of the perspective of other people (including those belonging to out-groups), acceptance of their values and engagement not only in helping behavior but also in supporting the development of others. PMID:27148127

  5. Helping older adults to live better with hearing and vision losses.

    PubMed

    Bagley, M

    1998-01-01

    Because vision and hearing impairments increase in prevalence as age increases, professionals who work with older adults in community settings often encounter people with a wide range of difficulties with their vision and/or hearing. These problems can range from locating financial support to purchasing glasses or hearing aids to obtaining in-home training and devices that will make it possible for the individual with a sensory disability to continue living independently. Meeting the needs of these people requires that professionals be able to recognize sensory losses, accommodate for them, and help older adults to understand and cope with them. PMID:10703381

  6. A CASE in Point--Art Helps Colleges Reach People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community and Junior College Journal, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Highlights the award-winning publicity and public relations efforts of the College of DuPage (IL); La Guardia Community College (NY); St. Louis Community College (MO); San Diego Community College District (CA); Johnson County Community College (KS); Mohawk Valley Community College (NY); and Tarrant County Junior College (TX). (DMM)

  7. Helping Disabled People: The Potentials of Biometric Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ann, Ong Chin; Theng, Lau Bee

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate an idea of producing an assistive and augmentative communication (AAC) tool that uses natural human computer interfacing to accommodate the disabilities of children with cerebral palsy (CP) and assist them in their daily communication. Design/methodology/approach: The authors developed a…

  8. Helping People Make Better Long-Term-Care Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Robert L.; Boston, Krista; Chilvers, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe an innovative online system to support long-term-care decision making. Design and Methods: The Long-Term Care Choices tool is a web-based system that uses expert opinion and structures decision making. Results: The system has been well accepted, and most users find it easy to use. Implications:…

  9. Mindfulness May Be Helpful for People with Ulcerative Colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... supported by NCCAM, was reported in the journal Digestion . Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease ... flare-up in patients with inactive ulcerative colitis . Digestion. 2014;89:142–155. Additional Resources Meditation Information ...

  10. Socially Indigenous Help: The Community Cares for Itself.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Ronald; Young, Richard D.

    Recently, interest has increased in self-help groups, lay referral networks, social support networks, natural helpers, and others which may be placed under a single conceptual umbrella--socially indigenous help--because they all deal with the issue of how people use other people, social groups, and lay institutions to alleviate problems in living,…

  11. Understanding the Role of an International Convention on the Human Rights of People with Disabilities: An Analysis of the Legal, Social, and Practical Implications for Policy Makers and Disability and Human Rights Advocates in the United States. White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Janet E.

    This White Paper by the National Council on Disability urges the support and participation of American policymakers and organizations representing people with disabilities in the drafting of an international human rights treaty specifically addressing the rights of people with disabilities. Following an executive summary and an introductory…

  12. Competitive helping in online giving.

    PubMed

    Raihani, Nichola J; Smith, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    Unconditional generosity in humans is a puzzle. One possibility is that individuals benefit from being seen as generous if there is competition for access to partners and if generosity is a costly-and therefore reliable-signal of partner quality [1-3]. The "competitive helping" hypothesis predicts that people will compete to be the most generous, particularly in the presence of attractive potential partners [1]. However, this key prediction has not been directly tested. Using data from online fundraising pages, we demonstrate competitive helping in the real world. Donations to fundraising pages are public and made sequentially. Donors can therefore respond to the behavior of previous donors, creating a potential generosity tournament. Our test of the competitive helping hypothesis focuses on the response to large, visible donations. We show that male donors show significantly stronger responses (by donating more) when they are donating to an attractive female fundraiser and responding to a large donation made by another male donor. The responses for this condition are around four times greater than when males give to less-attractive female (or male) fundraisers or when they respond to a large donation made by a female donor. Unlike males, females do not compete in donations when giving to attractive male fundraisers. These data suggest that males use competitive helping displays in the presence of attractive females and suggest a role for sexual selection in explaining unconditional generosity. PMID:25891407

  13. Help! It's Hair Loss!

    MedlinePlus

    ... Homework? Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Help! It's Hair Loss! KidsHealth > For Kids > Help! It's Hair Loss! Print A A A Text Size ... part above the skin, is dead. (That's why it doesn't hurt to get a haircut!) This ...

  14. When Teachers Need Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenner, Marilyn; Rothberg, Robert

    1994-01-01

    To help struggling teachers, principals have recourse to the Institute for Professional Development, a program operated by the University of Central Florida. Functioning as a help-line for at-risk teachers, the program offers teaching tips and conducts informal evaluations of teachers seeking help. Teachers gain skills and confidence, and the…

  15. Advice on healthy eating for older people.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Karen

    As part of its Food and Health Action Plan, the Department of Health is working with the food industry, and with other stakeholders, to establish a coherent national plan to help people in England improve their diets. Maintaining a healthy diet is important for all age groups, but healthy older people have particular needs. Karen Fisher describes the specific nutritional issues affecting healthy older people and suggests advice that nurses can offer people during opportunistic consultations in primary care. PMID:16350521

  16. Older People and HIV

    MedlinePlus

    ... Many older people believe that HIV only affects younger people Most older people get little training in ... diseases among older people, as they do for younger people. Physicians may not diagnose HIV infection in ...

  17. Children’s early helping in action: Piagetian developmental theory and early prosocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Stuart I.

    2014-01-01

    After a brief overview of recent research on early helping, outlining some central problems, and issues, this paper examines children’s early helping through the lens of Piagetian moral and developmental theory, drawing on Piaget’s “Moral Judgment of the Child” (Piaget, 1932/1997), “Play, Dreams, and Imitation in Childhood” (Piaget, 1945/1951), and the “Grasp of Consciousness” (Piaget, 1976). Piaget refers to a level of moral development in action that precedes heteronomous and autonomous moral reasoning. This action level allows children to begin to interact with people and objects. In his later work, Piaget explores the gradual construction of understanding from this activity level. Taken together, these elements of Piagetian theory provide a promising conceptual framework for understanding the development of early helping. PMID:25101027

  18. Understanding Space, Understanding Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fouberg, Erin Hogan

    2002-01-01

    In this time of geopolitical uncertainty, one question that arises repeatedly is how will citizenship be affected by changes in sovereignty? This paper uses the concepts of spaces of dependence and spaces of engagement to understand both formal and substantive citizenship on American Indian reservations in the United States. By studying the…

  19. Understanding Readers' Differing Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucer, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the characteristics of reader understandings that vary from those stated in the text. Eighty-seven fourth graders orally read complex academic literary and scientific texts, followed by probed retellings. Retold ideas not directly supported by, or reflective of, the texts were identified. These differing understandings…

  20. Asking for help online: Lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans youth, self-harm and articulating the 'failed' self.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Elizabeth

    2015-11-01

    International evidence suggests that young people are less likely to seek help for mental health problems in comparison with adults. This study focused on lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans young people who are a population group with an elevated risk of suicide and self-harm, and little is known about their help-seeking behaviour. Utilising qualitative virtual methods, lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans youth web-based discussions about seeking help for suicidal feelings and self-harming were investigated. Findings from a thematic analysis indicate that these young people wanted assistance but found it difficult to (1) ask for help, (2) articulate emotional distress and (3) 'tell' their selves as 'failed'. This analysis suggests that key to understanding these problems are emotions such as shame which arise from negotiating norms connected to heterosexuality, adolescence and rationality. I argue that these norms act to regulate what emotions it is possible to feel, what emotions it is possible to articulate and what type of young lives that can be told. The future development of health and social care interventions which aim to reduce lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans youth suicide and self-harm need to work with a nuanced understanding of the emotional life of young people if they are to be effective. PMID:25413341

  1. Our Response to the Attack on America: What Can It Teach Children about Understanding and Revenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garbarino, James

    2002-01-01

    What are the lessons young people will learn from how adults in their lives deal with terrorist strikes on the United States? What lessons will be learned about justice compassion, and revenge? This article discusses the responsibilities adults have in helping children cope with and understand the recent terrorist attacks. (Author)

  2. Help With Schizophrenia

    MedlinePlus

    ... trouble with thinking and concentration, and lack of motivation. However, when these symptoms are treated, most people ... Learning Center APA Annual Meeting Psychiatric News PsychiatryOnline Workplace Mental Health Terms of Use Copyright Contact © 2016 ...

  3. Help for the Caregiver

    MedlinePlus

    ... Communicator The family caregiver has many roles besides giving the patient hands-on care. Most people think ... caregiver becomes an advocate for the patient by giving this information to the health care team. Although ...

  4. Understanding Vector Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curjel, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are activities that help students understand the idea of a vector field. Included are definitions, flow lines, tangential and normal components along curves, flux and work, field conservation, and differential equations. (KR)

  5. Understanding your hospital bill

    MedlinePlus

    ... getting the help you need, consider hiring a medical-billing advocate. Advocates charge an hourly fee or a ... American Hospital Association. Hospital Billing and Collection ... 15, 2015. Family Doctor.org. Understanding your Medical Bills. ...

  6. Defining and Measuring Vulnerability in Young People.

    PubMed

    Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Shah, Dheeraj; Chaturvedi, Sanjay; Gupta, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and youth, together addressed as "young people", form the future building blocks of any society. They being most energetic and dynamic, tend to get involved in high-risk behaviors making themselves susceptible to criminal offences, accidents, physical injuries, emotional trauma, and medical problems - some of them extremely serious like transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The concept of vulnerability is applicable to all the people who are more exposed to risks than their peers like the young people. In order to deal with social evils like criminal offences, domestic violence, sexual abuse, HIV, etc. we need to define vulnerability and understand the factors that influence it. This review also attempts to summarize the indicators of vulnerability and the data currently available to estimate its burden in India. Measuring the magnitude of vulnerability by means of certain indicators/variables might help us in devising tools to assess this poorly defined entity. This may also evolve a conceptual framework on which targeted remedial interventions can be devised and implemented. PMID:26170545

  7. Asking for Help: A Relational Perspective on Help Seeking in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Rijt, Janine; Van den Bossche, Piet; van de Wiel, Margje W. J.; De Maeyer, Sven; Gijselaers, Wim H.; Segers, Mien S. R.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the complexity of today's organizations, help seeking behavior is considered as an important step to problem solving and learning in organizations. Yet, help seeking has received less attention in organizational literature. To increase the potential impact of help seeking on learning, it is essential to understand which…

  8. (Self-) Discovery Service: Helping Students Help Themselves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Debonis, Rocco; O'Donnell, Edward; Thomes, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    EBSCO Discovery Service (EDS) has been heavily used by UMUC students since its implementation in fall 2011, but experience has shown that it is not always the most appropriate source for satisfying students' information needs and that they often need assistance in understanding how the tool works and how to use it effectively. UMUC librarians have…

  9. Tracing the Trends and Transitions in Young People's Citizenship Practices: What Are the Implications for Researching Citizenship and Citizenship Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Avril; Benton, Tom; Kerr, David

    2011-01-01

    Background: Youth participation (or lack thereof) has been a subject of continued concern over the past 20 years. This decline has prompted huge interest in understanding how young people practice citizenship and in identifying measures that can help increase participation and interest. Purpose: The aim of this article is to examine how young…

  10. Changing Attitudes toward Seeking Professional Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    Despite the increasing acceptance of the value of psychotherapy, there are still those who think people should solve their own problems. A study was conducted to investigate the attitudes of college students toward seeking professional help before and after taking a course in abnormal psychology to determine whether exposure to the purposes and…

  11. Helping Our Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polk, Sophie

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Ikaiyurluki Mikelnguut (Helping Our Children) project in the Yukon Kuskokwim Delta of Alaska where trained natural helpers are helping Yup'ik Eskimo villagers to cope with crisis situations--notably teenage suicide and drug and alcohol abuse. (Author/BB)

  12. Handi Helps, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handi Helps, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The eight issues of Handi Helps presented in this document focus on specific issues of concern to the disabled, parents, and those working with the disabled. The two-page handi help fact sheets focus on the following topics: child abuse, leukemia, arthritis, Tourette Syndrome, hemophilia, the puppet program "Meet the New Kids on the Block" and dog…

  13. The Help Desk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Regina; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The first of three articles describes the results of a survey that examined characteristics and responsibilities of help-desk personnel at major database and online services. The second provides guidelines to using such customer services, and the third lists help-desk numbers for online databases and systems. (CLB)

  14. Handi Helps, 1985

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handi Helps, 1985

    1985-01-01

    The six issues of Handi Helps presented here focus on specific issues of concern to the disabled, parents, and those working with the disabled. The two-page handi help fact sheets focus on the following topics: child sexual abuse prevention, asthma, scoliosis, the role of the occupational therapist, kidnapping, and muscular dystrophy. Each handi…

  15. Listing people.

    PubMed

    Delbourgo, James

    2012-12-01

    Historians and commentators have long discussed tensions between specialist and lay expertise in the making of scientific knowledge. Such accounts have often described quarrels over the distribution of expertise in nineteenth-century "popular" and imperial sciences. The "crowdsourcing" of science on a global scale, however, arguably began in the early modern era. This essay examines the lists of specimen suppliers, the artifacts of a worldwide collecting campaign, published by the London apothecary James Petiver at the turn of the eighteenth century. Listing suppliers helped Petiver advertise his status as a global specimen broker in the Republic of Letters. However, publicly listing his sources drew criticism over the social character of his collecting project, while lists became synonymous with the debasement of learning in polemics over natural history. PMID:23488241

  16. Students' Help Seeking during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nye, Susan B.

    2008-01-01

    Seeking help with academic tasks has been regarded as an important strategy to enhance student learning (Newman, 1994; Ryan, Gheen, & Midgley, 1998; Zimmerman & Martinez-Pons, 1986). Seeking help is conceptualized as student-initiated efforts to secure task information or solicit advice when a deficiency in their understanding of the content…

  17. Infants Understand Others' Needs.

    PubMed

    Köster, Moritz; Ohmer, Xenia; Nguyen, Thanh Dung; Kärtner, Joscha

    2016-04-01

    Infants begin to help other individuals in the second year of life. However, it is still unclear whether early helping behavior is based on an understanding of other individuals' needs and is thus motivated prosocially. In the present eye-tracking study, 9- to 18-month-old infants (N= 71) saw a character in need of help, unable to reach its goal because of an obstacle, and a second character that was able to achieve a goal on its own. When a third individual (a helper) initiated an action, the infants expected the helper to help the character in need (as indicated during the anticipatory-looking and violation-of-expectation phases). Their prosocial understanding did not differ between age groups and was not related to their helping behavior (measured in two behavioral tasks). Thus, infants understand other individuals' needs even before they start to help others themselves. This indicates that early helping may indeed be motivated prosocially and raises the question of which other competences underlie the ontogeny of helping behavior. PMID:26902106

  18. Grandparents Can Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Elizabeth

    1976-01-01

    Although grandparents may have difficulty in accepting their handicapped grandchild due to such factors as the notion of "bad blood," they can be helpful to parents by drawing from their experience to give new perspectives to complex problems. (SB)

  19. Help With Bipolar Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... a Psychiatrist Patients & Families All Topics Help With Bipolar Disorders Curated and updated for the community by APA Topic Information Bipolar disorders are brain disorders that cause changes in a ...

  20. The Power of Helping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Pioneers

    1999-01-01

    The Pioneers, a group of students in a residential treatment program at Woodland Hills in Duluth, Minnesota, describe how they are changing their lives and community through peer helping and volunteer service. (Author)

  1. Hooked on Helping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhurst, James; McCord, Joan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, teens presenting at a symposium on peer-helping programs describe how caring for others fosters personal growth and builds positive group cultures. Their individual thoughts and opinions are expressed.

  2. Help Teens Manage Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Help Teens Manage Diabetes Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of ... diabetes management. Its aim is to improve diabetic teens' coping and communication skills, healthy behaviors, and conflict ...

  3. Helping Friends and Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... take them up on it! When the adjustment process gets stuck back to top There are times ... are some ways to help move the adjustment process along: Speak honestly and frankly about your feelings . ...

  4. Helping You Age Well

    MedlinePlus

    ... a year. Lungs: Regular aerobic exercise keeps lung capacity up. Smoking leads to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ... muscle pain, and tendonitis become more common. Stretching, heat, exercise, calcium, and surgery can help. Trauma: Sprains, ...

  5. How Do People Cope with Muscular Dystrophy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... challenges of the disorder, including 1 : Making the environment accessible. This may include adding ramps, widening doorways, ... electric scooters can help people move within their environments independently. Maintaining a healthy weight. Reaching and maintaining ...

  6. Help for the Summer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greifner, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Throngs of people cover the concrete walkways of Dorney Park, an amusement park about an hour north of Philadelphia. Employees under the age of 18 make up about 40 percent of the park's summer workforce, and, park officials say, are even more crucial to its operations later in the season, when college-student employees go back to school and…

  7. Volunteers Help Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Isolde Chapin

    A discussion of ways in which both adult and young Americans are volunteering to aid in the positive development of young people is presented in this booklet. The wide variety of programs that are designed to use volunteers and the need for additional volunteers are described. These programs are discussed under the following topic headings: School…

  8. Does Taking Photographs Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Since many people tend to use photographs as memory anchors, this author decided she wanted to know whether the process of capturing and manipulating an image taken during a learning activity would act as a memory anchor for children's visual, auditory and kinaesthetic memories linked to their cognitive learning at the time. In plain English,…

  9. Help Wanted: Drivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoober, Scott

    1999-01-01

    A booming economy and low unemployment make it harder than ever before to lure and retain good school-bus drivers. Lack of money for good wages has prompted some innovative recruitment and retention tactics. Chicago has turned to the rolls of people going off welfare as a source of bus-driver candidates. The Trans Group, headquartered in Chestnut…

  10. "You Can Help People": Adolescents' Views on Engaging Young People in Longitudinal Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Spring C. Cooper; Rawsthorne, Margot; Paxton, Karen; Hawke, Catherine; Skinner, S. Rachel; Steinbeck, Katharine

    2012-01-01

    We sought to discover adolescents' thoughts about participation in longitudinal research and identify recruitment and retention strategies that were meaningful to them. We conducted seven focus groups with 10-15-year-olds in two large rural centers in New South Wales, Australia, and all focus groups were digitally recorded, transcribed, and…

  11. Who Seeks Help Online for Self-Injury?

    PubMed

    Frost, Mareka; Casey, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify differences between young people who seek help online for self-injury and those who self-injure but do not seek help online, in order to improve online services for young people at high risk of suicide. Young people reporting a history of self-injury (N = 679) were identified as part of larger study (N = 1,463) exploring help-seeking. One third of young people with a history of self-injury reported online help-seeking for self-injury. Online help-seekers were significantly more distressed, suicidal, and had a greater degree of self-injury compared to those who did not seek help online. The Internet provides an important form of support to the most at risk young people in this population, and may be a proximal step to face-to-face help-seeking. Further research is required to investigate the forms of support currently accessed by young people online, and their effectiveness. PMID:25706352

  12. Hydrologic Network Fault Trees Help Understand Patterns of Water Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teklitz, A.; Shuster, W.; Yeghiazarian, L.

    2014-12-01

    Surface waters are used for recreation, food supply, habitat, drinking water supply, and a variety of other ecological services that can be interrupted by water contamination. The stochastic nature of environmental systems makes the evaluation of reliability of these services necessary; however this is a major challenge due to system complexity and tool availability. We address this issue through adoption of fault-tree risk diagrams that have been used in Civil Engineering to conceptualize, analyze, and visualize complex and interconnected system behavior. A fault tree risk diagram is able to represent the connective geometry of the system, and to identify its possible failure modes. Environmental systems, like their engineered counterparts, are complex, interconnected, and have multiple system failure modes which include unsafe levels of contaminants in surface water. We have developed a Monte-Carlo procedure to obtain a fault tree risk diagram of the stream river network, and to perform system reliability evaluation. This study aims to allow for a more holistic watershed management by incorporating risk concepts with the geometric connectivity of a stream network. It aims to answer questions like "what are the areas in a watershed that increase the likelihood of overall water contamination?", "what is the spatial and temporal distribution of probability of exceeding contaminant standards in the entire watershed?", "which combination of individual sources will increase this probability?", and "which areas of the watershed would be most sensitive to implementation of management measures".

  13. Using a Framework to Help Understand School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nash, Scotland

    2012-01-01

    The purpose for this study was to use the "KSH analytic framework" as a tool to provide insight into the organizational change process that, when considered, might result in lasting and significant school change. In this qualitative multi-case study of two urban comprehensive high schools, the researcher not only described the initiation and…

  14. Simple Experiments to Help Students Understand Magnetic Phenomena

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Kerry; Jackson, David P.

    2007-01-01

    The principles of magnetism are a common topic in most introductory physics courses, yet curricular materials exploring the behavior of permanent magnets and magnetic materials are surprisingly rare in the literature. We reviewed the literature to see how magnetism is typically covered in introductory textbooks and curricula. We found that while…

  15. Helping Federal Policymakers Understand and Support Data Literacy. Federal Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    Current federal and state policies focus on improved results for students through quality teaching. Strategies in school improvement plans, data-driven teacher evaluation, assessments and rigorous standards, competency-based learning, and innovative digital platforms make teacher data use essential. While state and federal policies are asking…

  16. Understanding Vocalization Might Help to Assess Stressful Conditions in Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Alexandra Ferreira da Silva; Nääs, Irenilza de Alencar; Oliveira, Stanley R. M.; Violaro, Fabio; de Almeida, Andréia C. M.; Neves, Diego Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary This research aimed to analyze the possibility of assessing piglets’ welfare using the records of their vocalization. The trial was done in a pig commercial farm, and we recorded the vocal signals from piglets in several stressful exposure situations. Data mining techniques were applied to the processed signals in order to obtain a stress classification using the recorded data. We found that, using the piglets’ vocalization, it was possible to identify the most frequent stressful conditions at the farrowing phase, namely: pain, cold and hunger. Abstract Assessing pigs’ welfare is one of the most challenging subjects in intensive pig farming. Animal vocalization analysis is a noninvasive procedure and may be used as a tool for assessing animal welfare status. The objective of this research was to identify stress conditions in piglets reared in farrowing pens through their vocalization. Vocal signals were collected from 40 animals under the following situations: normal (baseline), feeling cold, in pain, and feeling hunger. A unidirectional microphone positioned about 15 cm from the animals’ mouth was used for recording the acoustic signals. The microphone was connected to a digital recorder, where the signals were digitized at the 44,100 Hz frequency. The collected sounds were edited and analyzed. The J48 decision tree algorithm available at the Weka® data mining software was used for stress classification. It was possible to categorize diverse conditions from the piglets’ vocalization during the farrowing phase (pain, cold and hunger), with an accuracy rate of 81.12%. Results indicated that vocalization might be an effective welfare indicator, and it could be applied for assessing distress from pain, cold and hunger in farrowing piglets. PMID:26479541

  17. Overcoming Fear: Helping Decision Makers Understand Risk in Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haras, Kathy

    2010-01-01

    The long history of outdoor education does little to alleviate the fears of many parents, teachers, principals and superintendents who believe that outdoor education is too risky. These decision makers often lack both the knowledge to make informed decisions and the time and resources to investigate their assumptions. Pair these circumstances with…

  18. The Cupcake Factory: Helping Elementary Students Understand Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeargan, Howard; Hatcher, Barbara

    1985-01-01

    Described is a project in which third graders create their own corporation--a cupcake factory--and learn first-hand about economic principles and the decisions that businesses must make in the market economy. The cupcake factory is one example of how enterprising educators can make economics comprehensible and captivating. (RM)

  19. New Gas Gun Helping Scientists Better Understand Plutonium Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    One of the most daunting scientific and engineering challenges today is ensuring the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear arsenal. To effectively meet that challenge, scientists need better data showing how plutonium, a key component of nuclear warheads, behaves under extreme pressures and temperatures. On July 8, 2003, Lawrence Livermore researchers performed the inaugural experiment of a 30-meter-long, two-stage gas gun designed to obtain those data. The results from a continuing stream of successful experiments on the gas gun are strengthening scientists' ability to ensure that the nation's nuclear stockpile is safe and reliable. The JASPER (Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research) Facility at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Nevada Test Site (NTS) is home to the two-stage gas gun. In the gun's first test, an unqualified success, Livermore scientists fired a projectile weighing 28.6 grams and traveling about 5.21 kilometers per second when it impacted an extremely small (about 30-gram) plutonium target. This experiment marked the culmination of years of effort in facility construction, gun installation, system integration, design reviews, and federal authorizations required to bring the experimental facility online. Ongoing experiments have drawn enthusiastic praise from throughout DOE, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and the scientific community. NNSA Administrator Linton Brooks said, ''Our national laboratories now have at their disposal a valuable asset that enhances our due diligence to certify the nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear weapons testing.''

  20. Helping Students Understand American Influence in Canada: A Scavenger Hunt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kokott, Bridget; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explains a scavenger hunt to collect items (newspaper clippings, pictures, records, etc.) that represent the influence of the United States on Canadian Culture. The teacher prepares scavenger hunt stations which include items that students have collected. An assessment on items follows the hunt. (KC)

  1. Helping Students Understand Challenging Topics in Science through Ontology Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slotta, James D.; Chi, Michelene T. H.

    2006-01-01

    Chi (2005) proposed that students experience difficulty in learning about physics concepts such as light, heat, or electric current because they attribute to these concepts an inappropriate ontological status of material substances rather than the more veridical status of emergent processes. Conceptual change could thus be facilitated by training…

  2. Beyond Alphabet Soup: Helping College Health Professionals Understand Sexual Fluidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswalt, Sara B.; Evans, Samantha; Drott, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many college students today are no longer using the terms straight, gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender to self-identify their sexual orientation or gender identity. This commentary explores research related to fluidity of sexual identities, emerging sexual identities used by college students, and how these identities interact with the health…

  3. "Argument!" Helping Students Understand What Essay Writing Is About

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingate, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    Argumentation is a key requirement of the essay, which is the most common genre that students have to write. However, how argumentation is realised in disciplinary writing is often poorly understood by academic tutors, and therefore not adequately taught to students. This paper presents research into undergraduate students' concepts of argument…

  4. Using Gaming To Help Nursing Students Understand Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Barbara L.; Yankou, Dawn

    2003-01-01

    An ethics game involves nursing students in defending actions in ethics-based scenarios. Benefits include increased confidence, ability to see multiple perspectives, values clarification, and exposure to decision-making models, professional responsibilities, ethical principles, social expectations, and legal requirements. Difficulties include…

  5. Asset Building for and by Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Sondra G.

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the four preceding articles on youth and saving, identifies policy and program implications, and suggests directions for future scholarship. It is clear that saving is difficult for many people and throughout the life course. Efforts to help young people accumulate assets might encourage saving by parents, encourage saving…

  6. Hearing Aids May Help Keep Seniors' Minds Sharp

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158532.html Hearing Aids May Help Keep Seniors' Minds Sharp Ability to ... people with hearing loss. "We know that hearing aids can keep older adults with hearing loss more ...

  7. Hearing Aids May Help Keep Seniors' Minds Sharp

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158532.html Hearing Aids May Help Keep Seniors' Minds Sharp Ability to ... people with hearing loss. "We know that hearing aids can keep older adults with hearing loss more ...

  8. How to Help a Loved One Cope with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language URL Español How to Help a Loved One Cope with Diabetes Page Content When people have ... learn more about managing diabetes. Ask your loved one about coping with diabetes and how you can ...

  9. Could Inducing Brief, Mild 'Fever' Help Ease Depression?

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Could Inducing Brief, Mild 'Fever' Help Ease Depression? Small study suggests heating the body might alter ... brain region is less active in people with depression, the researchers explained. "Our hope is to find ...

  10. How to Help a Loved One Cope with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... How to Help a Loved One Cope with Diabetes Page Content When people have the support of ... from the Health Information Resource Center. Learn about diabetes. There is a lot to learn about how ...

  11. Turning points and protective processes in the lives of people with chronic disabilities.

    PubMed

    King, Gillian; Cathers, Tamzin; Brown, Elizabeth; Specht, Jacqueline A; Willoughby, Colleen; Polgar, Janice Miller; MacKinnon, Elizabeth; Smith, Linda K; Havens, Lisa

    2003-02-01

    In this qualitative study, the authors examined the nature of resilience in people with chronic disabilities. Fifteen people with disabilities identified the factors that helped or hindered them at major turning points, and the triggers and resolutions to these turning points. Turning points were emotionally compelling experiences and realizations that involved meaning acquired through the routes of belonging, doing, or understanding the self or the world. The major protective factors were social support, traits such as perseverance and determination, and spiritual beliefs. Three new protective processes were identified: replacing a loss with a gain (transcending), recognizing new things about oneself (self-understanding), and making decisions about relinquishing something in life (accommodating). These protective factors, processes, and ways in which people with disabilities draw sense and meaning in life have important implications for service delivery. PMID:12643028

  12. "Peoples's Education" in the People's Republic of China.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Zhixin

    1989-01-01

    "People's education" in China is rooted in the mass education movement lasting from the 1920s to the 1940s. This article summarizes the Chinese educational system from 1949 to present-day reform efforts. Traditional spoon-feeding and rote learning must yield to a system encouraging sef-understanding and independent, innovative, and critical…

  13. Information for People Treated with Human Growth Hormone (Comprehensive Report)

    MedlinePlus

    ... I help with the follow-up study? How did Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) occur in people treated ... help to clarify individual level of risk. [ Top ] Did the hormone I took cause CJD? We have ...

  14. Phosphorus: Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    MedlinePlus

    Phosphorus Tips for People with Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) National Kidney Disease Education Program What Is Phosphorus? Phosphorus is a mineral that helps keep your bones healthy. It also helps ...

  15. Conceptualizing Moon Phases: Helping Students Learn How to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Jerrid; Wilcox, Jesse

    2009-01-01

    Helping students understand how to learn is an important goal for all subjects and levels of education. While this goal is highly regarded, promoting it is extremely difficult. Many times, we as teachers are consumed with how to better help our students understand the content and forget to draw their attention to how they came to understand a…

  16. Help for Stressed Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Denise Clarke; Simon, Richard

    2005-01-01

    The authors argue that increased focus and pressure for high academic achievement, particularly among more highly-motivated and successful students, may have serious negative consequences. They present a number of strategies designed to help reduce both causes and consequences associated with academic stress and improve students' mental and…

  17. Stretching: Does It Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vardiman, Phillip; Carrand, David; Gallagher, Philip M.

    2010-01-01

    Stretching prior to activity is universally accepted as an important way to improve performance and help prevent injury. Likewise, limited flexibility has been shown to decrease functional ability and predispose a person to injuries. Although this is commonly accepted, appropriate stretching for children and adolescents involved with sports and…

  18. With a Little Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Describes a volunteer tutoring program coordinated by associates of the Exxon Corporation to help middle and high school students with math and science homework. Enumerates the successes of the tutoring program and highlights other outreach activities of the company in Baton Rouge. Stresses that the future of high-technology companies depends on…

  19. Helping Your Children Discover.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroepfer, Dorothy; Yeaton, Charles

    Children discover many things about themselves, about the world around them, and about words and language, before they go to school. This booklet was prepared to guide parents in helping their children make such discoveries in preparation for the demands of learning in school. Activities are suggested for developing children's self-confidence,…

  20. Helpful Juvenile Detention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roush, David W.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a comprehensive, research-based rationale for rejecting "get-tough," punitive approaches to juvenile detention and implementing "helpful programs" in detention settings instead. Offers a review of the information that explains why and how juvenile detention should be a first step in the treatment of young offenders, rather than simply a…

  1. Helping Adults to Spell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorhouse, Catherine

    This book presents a range of strategies for adult literacy tutors and offers a wealth of practical advice on teaching spelling within the context of writing. Chapters 1-3 offer basic information on talking with the student about spelling, finding out how the student spells and helping the student to see himself/herself as a "good" speller, and…

  2. HELP: Students Teach Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Timothy P.

    1969-01-01

    Examines HELP, a tutorial program in Jersey City, New Jersey, which utilizes high school students as reading teachers for disadvantaged grade school students. The student teachers had only average academic ability and limited training, but results suggested that both students and teachers gained significantly from the experience. (RW)

  3. Ayudele! [Help Him!].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Maria Gutierrez, Comp.; Almance, Sofia, Comp.

    Written in Spanish and English, the booklet briefly discusses what parents can do to help their child learn at school. The booklet briefly notes the importance of getting enough sleep; eating breakfast; praising the child; developing the five senses; visiting the doctor; having a home and garden; talking, listening, and reading to the child;…

  4. Help Teens Manage Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Training (CST) as a part of routine diabetes management. Its aim is to improve diabetic teens' coping and communication skills, healthy behaviors, and conflict resolution. The CST training helps diabetic teens to make good decisions when it comes to managing food choices, making ...

  5. What Helps Us Learn?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article presents comments of high school students at the Howard Gardner School in Alexandria, Virginia, who were asked, What should teachers know about students to help them learn? Twelve high school students from the Howard Gardner School in Alexandria, Virginia, describe how their best teachers get to know them and thus were more able to…

  6. Self-Help Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Robert H.

    1973-01-01

    The author believes that there is a distinct need for professionals to become competent in providing materials for self-help lay efforts. Colleges and universities must provide for the facilitation of personal growth through self administered procedures by either a clinical approach (in counseling centers) or a didactic one (in classes as, for…

  7. Helping Families Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Carol R.

    The paper presents observations of families having adult members with learning disabilities and describes a residential program to facilitate the transition to independent living of lower functioning learning disabled young adults. The program, called Independence Center, involves placing participants in apartments with roommates and helping them…

  8. HELPING EDUCATIONALLY DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOORE, JAMES W.

    PROJECT ABLE, IN ITS EFFORT TO AID DISADVANTAGED CHILDREN, WORKED WITH INTERMEDIATE GRADE CHILDREN OF LOW SOCIOECONOMIC BACKGROUND. THE PERSONNEL INVOLVED WERE CLASSROOM TEACHERS, GUIDANCE COUNSELORS, SCHOOL PSYCHOLOGISTS, AND READING TEACHERS. THE CHILDREN WERE HELPED THROUGH SUCH WAYS AS COUNSELING, REMEDIAL READING, ENRICHMENT ACTIVITIES, FIELD…

  9. Helping Language Grow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Reid

    2002-01-01

    With early diagnosis and intervention, students with language delays can succeed. This paper presents warning signs and recommends seeking expert help, explaining that supporting such children involves such things as reading to them, using simple but grammatically correct sentences, and following their lead. A sidebar notes areas that may be…

  10. A Helping Hand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Jason M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how designing a hand washing-friendly environment can help to reduce the spread of germs in school restrooms. Use of electronic faucets, surface risk management, traffic flow, and user- friendly hand washing systems that are convenient and maximally hygienic are examined. (GR)

  11. Helping Students Succeed: Communities Confront the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flono, Fannie

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the Kettering Foundation launched a nationwide, two-year research project to learn what people in communities across the nation think about the achievement gap--and what roles they see for themselves in helping young people succeed academically. The community forums, which drew more than 3,200 participants nationwide, spotlighted elements…

  12. ‘Trying to do a jigsaw without the picture on the box’: understanding the challenges of care integration in the context of single assessment for older people in England

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Rob; Baines, Susan; Cornford, James; Martin, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Demographic ageing is one of the major challenges for governments in developed countries because older people are the main users of health and social care services. More joined-up, partnership approaches supported by information and communications technologies (ICTs) have become key to managing these demands. This article discusses recent developments towards integrated care in the context of one of the arenas in which integration is being attempted, the Single Assessment Process (SAP) to support the care for older people in England. It draws upon accounts of local SAP implementations in order to assess and reflect upon some of the successes and limitations of service integration enabled by ICTs. Description of care practice At the Department of Health in England, policy and strategy are directed at the integration of services through a ‘whole systems’ approach, with services that are interdependent upon one another and organised around the person that uses them. The Single Assessment Processes (SAP) is an instance of inter-organisational and cross-sectoral sharing of information intended to improve communication and coordination amongst professions and agencies and so support more integrated care. The aim of SAP is to ensure that older people receive appropriate, effective and timely responses to their health and social care needs and that professionals do not duplicate each others efforts. This article examines examples from two programmes of work within the context of SAP in England: one with the direction coming from local government social services, the other where the momentum is coming from the National Health Service (NHS). Conclusion and discussion Both examples show that the policy and practice of ICT-supported integration continues to represent a significant challenge. Although the notion of integrated care underpinned by ICT-enabled information sharing is persuasive, it has limitations in practice. The notion of an ‘open systems

  13. Spousal support as experienced by people with multiple sclerosis: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Ghafari, Somayeh; Khoshknab, Masoud Fallahi; Norouzi, Kian; Mohamadi, Eisa

    2014-10-01

    About 30% of people with multiple sclerosis require some form of supportive assistance at home, and 80% of that assistance is usually provided by spouses or partners. So, the explanation and understanding of patients' experiences of support received from their spouses enable spouses and healthcare professionals to reform their actions toward positive support. This study aimed to explore the experiences of people with multiple sclerosis regarding support from their spouses. A qualitative content analysis method was used to conduct this study. The study participants were 25 patients with multiple sclerosis who were chosen through purposeful sampling from multiple sclerosis associations of Isfahan and Tehran (Iran). Data were collected through nonstructured interviews from September 2011 to August 2012. Four themes and nine subthemes emerged through data analysis. The main themes were play a supportive role, establish a friendly and comfortable relationship, help patient to fight the disease, and help to maintain and to improve patients' functional ability. The results could help in improving the quality of spouses' support in people with multiple sclerosis. Moreover, it could aid in determining the educational needs of patients as supported persons and spouses as supporters. The results could lead to increased knowledge of healthcare experts about the issue of how Iranian people with multiple sclerosis are being supported by their wives/husbands. Furthermore, it would help them to design caring models to promote successful supporting strategies for patients. PMID:25188687

  14. People Types & Tiger Stripes. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Gordon D.

    This book presents one method for identifying mind-sets, learning styles, and motivation patterns, and using the patterns in planning instruction and other helping processes, with the objective of helping people find and use their strengths to ameliorate weaknesses. The approach presented is based on Carl Jung's ideas about psychological types, as…

  15. Can Viral Videos Help Beaver Restore Streams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, J. M.; Pollock, M. M.; Lewallen, G.; Jordan, C.; Woodruff, K.

    2015-12-01

    Have you watched YouTube lately? Did you notice the plethora of cute animal videos? Researchers, including members of our Beaver Restoration Research team, have been studying the restoration potential of beaver for decades, yet in the past few years, beaver have gained broad acclaim and some much deserved credit for restoration of aquatic systems in North America. Is it because people can now see these charismatic critters in action from the comfort of their laptops? While the newly released Beaver Restoration Guidebook attempts to answer many questions, sadly, this is not one of them. We do, however, address the use of beaver (Castor canadensis) in stream, wetland, and floodplain restoration and discuss the many positive effects of beaver on fluvial ecosystems. Our team, composed of researchers from NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service, and Portland State University, has developed a scientifically rigorous, yet accessible, practitioner's guide that provides a synthesis of the best available science for using beaver to improve ecosystem functions. Divided into two broad sections -- Beaver Ecology and Beaver Restoration and Management -- the guidebook focuses on the many ways in which beaver improve habitat, primarily through the construction of dams that impound water and retain sediment. In Beaver Ecology, we open with a discussion of the general effects that beaver dams have on physical and biological processes, and we close with "Frequently Asked Questions" and "Myth Busters". In Restoration and Management, we discuss common emerging restoration techniques and methods for mitigating unwanted beaver effects, followed by case studies from pioneering practitioners who have used many of these beaver restoration techniques in the field. The lessons they have learned will help guide future restoration efforts. We have also included a comprehensive beaver ecology library of over 1400 references from scientific journals

  16. Defining and Measuring Vulnerability in Young People

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Shilpa Khanna; Shah, Dheeraj; Chaturvedi, Sanjay; Gupta, Piyush

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents and youth, together addressed as “young people”, form the future building blocks of any society. They being most energetic and dynamic, tend to get involved in high-risk behaviors making themselves susceptible to criminal offences, accidents, physical injuries, emotional trauma, and medical problems — some of them extremely serious like transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The concept of vulnerability is applicable to all the people who are more exposed to risks than their peers like the young people. In order to deal with social evils like criminal offences, domestic violence, sexual abuse, HIV, etc. we need to define vulnerability and understand the factors that influence it. This review also attempts to summarize the indicators of vulnerability and the data currently available to estimate its burden in India. Measuring the magnitude of vulnerability by means of certain indicators/variables might help us in devising tools to assess this poorly defined entity. This may also evolve a conceptual framework on which targeted remedial interventions can be devised and implemented. PMID:26170545

  17. Investing in karma: when wanting promotes helping.

    PubMed

    Converse, Benjamin A; Risen, Jane L; Carter, Travis J

    2012-08-01

    People often face outcomes of important events that are beyond their personal control, such as when they wait for an acceptance letter, job offer, or medical test results. We suggest that when wanting and uncertainty are high and personal control is lacking, people may be more likely to help others, as if they can encourage fate's favor by doing good deeds proactively. Four experiments support this karmic-investment hypothesis. When people want an outcome over which they have little control, their donations of time and money increase (experiments 1 and 2), but their participation in other rewarding activities does not (experiment 1b). In addition, at a job fair, job seekers who feel the process is outside (vs. within) their control make more generous pledges to charities (experiment 3). Finally, karmic investments increase optimism about a desired outcome (experiment 4). We conclude by discussing the role of personal control and magical beliefs in this phenomenon. PMID:22760884

  18. Measuring Help-Seeking Intentions: Properties of the General Help Seeking Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Coralie J.; Deane, Frank P.; Ciarrochi, Joseph; Rickwood, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Understanding help seeking intentions and behaviour is fundamental to the identification of factors that can be modified to increase engagement in counselling. Despite considerable research on these variables, integrating prior research has been impeded by a lack of consistent and psychometrically sound help-seeking measures. The General…

  19. Strategies for Developing Treatment Programs for People with Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Mental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Increasingly, people receiving public-supported health care are seeking help for and/or presenting with both substance abuse and mental disorders. People with these co-occurring disorders often require help from many different care systems. Consequently, no single system of care is adequately prepared to help people with both mental and substance…

  20. Here, There, and Everywhere: The United States Board on Books for Young People Cites 40 International Books for Its 2011 Honor List

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poe, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Literary journeys expand readers' intellectual and emotional worlds, helping them gain understanding of global situations and insight into the human condition. The "here" they know becomes broader through outstanding international literature. When choosing books for the 2011 United States Board on Books for Young People (USBBY) Outstanding…