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Sample records for helps scientists understand

  1. New Gas Gun Helping Scientists Better Understand Plutonium Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hazi, A

    2005-09-20

    One of the most daunting scientific and engineering challenges today is ensuring the safety and reliability of the nation's nuclear arsenal. To effectively meet that challenge, scientists need better data showing how plutonium, a key component of nuclear warheads, behaves under extreme pressures and temperatures. On July 8, 2003, Lawrence Livermore researchers performed the inaugural experiment of a 30-meter-long, two-stage gas gun designed to obtain those data. The results from a continuing stream of successful experiments on the gas gun are strengthening scientists' ability to ensure that the nation's nuclear stockpile is safe and reliable. The JASPER (Joint Actinide Shock Physics Experimental Research) Facility at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Nevada Test Site (NTS) is home to the two-stage gas gun. In the gun's first test, an unqualified success, Livermore scientists fired a projectile weighing 28.6 grams and traveling about 5.21 kilometers per second when it impacted an extremely small (about 30-gram) plutonium target. This experiment marked the culmination of years of effort in facility construction, gun installation, system integration, design reviews, and federal authorizations required to bring the experimental facility online. Ongoing experiments have drawn enthusiastic praise from throughout DOE, the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), and the scientific community. NNSA Administrator Linton Brooks said, ''Our national laboratories now have at their disposal a valuable asset that enhances our due diligence to certify the nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear weapons testing.''

  2. Helping Young People Engage with Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Maggie; Sykes, Kathy

    2014-01-01

    There can be multiple benefits of scientists engaging with young people, including motivation and inspiration for all involved. But there are risks, particularly if scientists do not consider the interests and needs of young people or listen to what they have to say. We argue that "dialogue" between scientists, young people and teachers…

  3. Helping Students Understand Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weihe, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Despite the central role of risk assessment in analyzing and making decisions about many environmental issues, most people are poorly equipped to understand key concepts about risk or apply them successfully. I present three class activities in which students develop a better appreciation for the magnitude of a one in a million increased risk of…

  4. Helping Kids Understand Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Alzheimer ’s Caregiving Tips Helping Kids Understand Alzheimer’s Disease When a family member has Alzheimer’s disease, it affects everyone in the family, including children and grandchildren. It’s important to talk to ...

  5. Scientists Spot 'Switch' That Helps Sperm Penetrate Egg

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158021.html Scientists Spot 'Switch' That Helps Sperm Penetrate Egg Finding could eventually lead to unisex ... switch" that triggers the sudden tail whip that sperm use to penetrate and fertilize an egg has ...

  6. Helping students make meaning of authentic investigations: findings from a student–teacher–scientist partnership

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Erin

    2013-01-01

    As student–teacher–scientist partnerships become more widespread, there is a need for research to understand the roles assumed by scientists and teachers as they interact with students in general and in inquiry learning environments in particular. Although teacher roles during inquiry learning have been studied, there is a paucity of research about the roles that scientists assume in their interactions with students. Socio-cultural perspectives on learning emphasize social interaction as a means for students to make meaning of scientific ideas. Thus, this naturalistic study of classroom discourse aims to explore the ways scientists and teachers help high school students make meaning during authentic inquiry investigations. Conversational analysis is conducted of video recordings of discussions between students and teachers and students and scientists from two instances of a student–teacher–scientist partnership program. A social semiotic analytic framework is used to interpret the actions of scientists and teachers. The results indicate a range of common and distinct roles for scientists and teachers with respect to the conceptual, social, pedagogical, and epistemological aspects of meaning making. While scientists provided conceptual and epistemological support related to their scientific expertise, such as explaining scientific phenomena or aspects of the nature of science, teachers played a critical role in ensuring students' access to this knowledge. The results have implications for managing the division of labor between scientists and teachers in partnership programs. PMID:23828722

  7. Helping students make meaning of authentic investigations: findings from a student-teacher-scientist partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peker, Deniz; Dolan, Erin

    2012-03-01

    As student-teacher-scientist partnerships become more widespread, there is a need for research to understand the roles assumed by scientists and teachers as they interact with students in general and in inquiry learning environments in particular. Although teacher roles during inquiry learning have been studied, there is a paucity of research about the roles that scientists assume in their interactions with students. Socio-cultural perspectives on learning emphasize social interaction as a means for students to make meaning of scientific ideas. Thus, this naturalistic study of classroom discourse aims to explore the ways scientists and teachers help high school students make meaning during authentic inquiry investigations. Conversational analysis is conducted of video recordings of discussions between students and teachers and students and scientists from two instances of a student-teacher-scientist partnership program. A social semiotic analytic framework is used to interpret the actions of scientists and teachers. The results indicate a range of common and distinct roles for scientists and teachers with respect to the conceptual, social, pedagogical, and epistemological aspects of meaning making. While scientists provided conceptual and epistemological support related to their scientific expertise, such as explaining scientific phenomena or aspects of the nature of science, teachers played a critical role in ensuring students' access to this knowledge. The results have implications for managing the division of labor between scientists and teachers in partnership programs.

  8. Helping students make meaning of authentic investigations: findings from a student-teacher-scientist partnership.

    PubMed

    Peker, Deniz; Dolan, Erin

    2012-03-01

    As student-teacher-scientist partnerships become more widespread, there is a need for research to understand the roles assumed by scientists and teachers as they interact with students in general and in inquiry learning environments in particular. Although teacher roles during inquiry learning have been studied, there is a paucity of research about the roles that scientists assume in their interactions with students. Socio-cultural perspectives on learning emphasize social interaction as a means for students to make meaning of scientific ideas. Thus, this naturalistic study of classroom discourse aims to explore the ways scientists and teachers help high school students make meaning during authentic inquiry investigations. Conversational analysis is conducted of video recordings of discussions between students and teachers and students and scientists from two instances of a student-teacher-scientist partnership program. A social semiotic analytic framework is used to interpret the actions of scientists and teachers. The results indicate a range of common and distinct roles for scientists and teachers with respect to the conceptual, social, pedagogical, and epistemological aspects of meaning making. While scientists provided conceptual and epistemological support related to their scientific expertise, such as explaining scientific phenomena or aspects of the nature of science, teachers played a critical role in ensuring students' access to this knowledge. The results have implications for managing the division of labor between scientists and teachers in partnership programs. PMID:23828722

  9. Helping Scientists Become Effective Partners in Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laursen, Sandra L.; Smith, Lesley K.

    2009-01-01

    How does a scientist find herself standing before a group of lively third-graders? She may be personally motivated-seeking to improve public understanding of scientific issues and the nature of science, or to see her own children receive a good science education-or perhaps she simply enjoys this kind of work [Andrews et al., 2005; Kim and Fortner, 2008]. In addition to internal motivating factors, federal funding agencies have begun to encourage scientists to participate in education and outreach (E/O) related to their research, through NASA program requirements for such activities (see ``Implementing the Office of Space Science Education/Public Outreach Strategy,'' at http://spacescience.nasa.gov/admin/pubs/edu/imp_plan.htm) and the U.S. National Science Foundation's increased emphasis on ``broader impacts'' in merit review of research proposals (see http://www.nsf.gov/pubs/2003/nsf032/bicexamples.pdf). Universities, laboratories, and large collaboratives have responded by developing E/O programs that include interaction between students, teachers, and the public in schools; after-school and summer programs; and work through science centers, planetaria, aquaria, and museums.

  10. An Investigation of Graduate Scientists' Understandings of Evaporation and Boiling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin, Alan; Orlik, Yuri

    2000-01-01

    Uses a video presentation of six situations relating to the evaporation and boiling of liquids and the escape of dissolved gases from solution and investigates graduate scientists' understanding of the concepts of boiling and evaporation. (Author/YDS)

  11. Helping your child understand a cancer diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000844.htm Helping your child understand a cancer diagnosis To use the sharing ... with a child about having cancer. Why Your Child Needs to Know It can be tempting NOT ...

  12. Helping Elementary Teachers Understand Children and Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrymak, Marilyn J.; Smart, Laura S.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a workshop designed to help elementary teachers understand the recent literature on the effects of divorce on children and help the children through the crisis. Indicates that secondary home economics teachers may have to deal with students who have not adjusted to divorce. (JOW)

  13. Scientists and Scientific Thinking: Understanding Scientific Thinking through an Investigation of Scientists Views about Superstitions and Religious Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll, Richard K.; Lay, Mark C.; Taylor, Neil

    2008-01-01

    Scientific literacy is explored in this paper which describes two studies that seek to understand a particular feature of the nature of science; namely scientists' habits of mind. The research investigated scientists' views of scientific evidence and how scientists judge evidence claims. The first study is concerned with scientists' views of what…

  14. A guide to understanding social science research for natural scientists.

    PubMed

    Moon, Katie; Blackman, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    Natural scientists are increasingly interested in social research because they recognize that conservation problems are commonly social problems. Interpreting social research, however, requires at least a basic understanding of the philosophical principles and theoretical assumptions of the discipline, which are embedded in the design of social research. Natural scientists who engage in social science but are unfamiliar with these principles and assumptions can misinterpret their results. We developed a guide to assist natural scientists in understanding the philosophical basis of social science to support the meaningful interpretation of social research outcomes. The 3 fundamental elements of research are ontology, what exists in the human world that researchers can acquire knowledge about; epistemology, how knowledge is created; and philosophical perspective, the philosophical orientation of the researcher that guides her or his action. Many elements of the guide also apply to the natural sciences. Natural scientists can use the guide to assist them in interpreting social science research to determine how the ontological position of the researcher can influence the nature of the research; how the epistemological position can be used to support the legitimacy of different types of knowledge; and how philosophical perspective can shape the researcher's choice of methods and affect interpretation, communication, and application of results. The use of this guide can also support and promote the effective integration of the natural and social sciences to generate more insightful and relevant conservation research outcomes. PMID:24962114

  15. Helping Students Make Meaning of Authentic Investigations: Findings from a Student-Teacher-Scientist Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peker, Deniz; Dolan, Erin

    2012-01-01

    As student-teacher-scientist partnerships become more widespread, there is a need for research to understand the roles assumed by scientists and teachers as they interact with students in general and in inquiry learning environments in particular. Although teacher roles during inquiry learning have been studied, there is a paucity of research…

  16. Helping Clients Uncover Metaphoric Understandings of Bulimia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1998-01-01

    Written responses of three women with bulimia were analyzed for instances of metaphoric understanding of their difficulties with food during 20 to 24 therapy sessions. Results show a gradual deepening of the metaphoric understanding of what the troubled eating represented for each client. Metaphoric understanding included ways of dealing with self…

  17. Helping your child understand a cancer diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Try to keep as normal a schedule as you can. Help your child stay in touch with classmates and friends. Some ways to do this include email, cards, texting, video games, and phone calls. Keep up with any missed ...

  18. Helping Students Construct Understanding about Shadows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    2012-01-01

    The study of shadows is a common elementary science topic that facilitates students' development of understanding about light and associated waves. All elementary students have observed numerous shadows, but need assistance in developing understanding. Previous research studies about shadows were utilized in organizing aspects associated with…

  19. Helping Family and Friends Understand Alzheimer's Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alzheimer’s. You can: • Tell friends and family about Alzheimer’s disease and its effects. • Share articles, websites, and other information about the disease. • Tell them what they can do to help. Let them know you need ... has Alzheimer’s disease, it affects everyone in the family, including children ...

  20. Online Tools Help Get Scientists and Educators on the Same Page

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    deCharon, Annette; Albright, Jennifer; Herren, Christy; Cline, Amy H.; Repa, J. Theodore

    2009-08-01

    As part of its effort to foster substantive dialogue between scientists and educators, the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence-Ocean Systems (COSEE-OS), a center in the COSEE network, has developed an applied concept-mapping process and a related suite of interactive multimedia tools that focus on ocean and climate concepts. The resulting maps illustrate connections among concepts related to ocean and climate science. These tools, developed over the past 3 years, help scientists see and graphically display relationships among the concepts in their field, and help them communicate those concepts clearly and logically to educators and other scientists. COSEE-OS research has indicated that concept mapping benefits scientists by identifying what they do and do not explain well to educators. Evaluation studies conducted by COSEE-OS external evaluator Ted Repa include interviews with scientists and survey responses of the educators who participate in COSEE-OS workshops. By continuously improving its workshop design and suite of interactive communication tools, COSEE-OS strives to increase the levels of collaboration between scientists and educators by fostering peer-to-peer learning environments.

  1. EarthTrek - helping scientists to get citizens involved in real science. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, G.

    2010-12-01

    Citizen science programs are not new and many scientists can report good success at engaging the public in their research. However, many scientists who could really benefit from the collective pool of eager volunteers do not have the time or patience to develop system to track and manage the collective “enthusiasm”. EarthTrek takes on that role and provides scientists with the support for their venture into a citizen science program. EarthTrek manages the people, rewards them for their involvement and provides avenues for scientists to communicate with the participants. Scientists concentrate on developing sounds collection protocols (with EarthTrek’s help if needed) and then provide feedback once the data stars to come in. EarthTrek is about linking people with real research. EarthTrek will work with scientists from every field as long as projects are collecting data for research, are time constrained and the lead scientists agree to a communication schedule for results back to participants. Examples of active science projects include weathering rates on gravestones, invasive plant species and phenology. EarthTrek is a project of the Geological Society of America and partners around the globe. EarthTrekker collecting data for the Gravestone Project

  2. UNDERSTANDING AND HELPING THE RETARDED READER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STRANG, RUTH, ED.

    THE PROCEEDINGS OF A 1962 STATEWIDE ARIZONA CONFERENCE ON READING DEVELOPMENT AND READING DIFFICULTIES INCLUDE 15 PAPERS. ARTICLES ON THE ABLE RETARDED READER ARE "UNDERSTANDING THE ABLE RETARDED READER" BY HELEN M. ROBINSON, AND "CLASSROOM PROCEDURES" BY ROSEMARY YOAKUM. PAPERS ON EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN ARE "IDENTIFICATION OF EMOTIONAL…

  3. Helping Children Understand Routines and Classroom Schedules. What Works Briefs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrosky, M. M.; Jung, E. Y.; Hemmeter, M. L.; Thomas, D.

    Studies have documented that schedules and routines influence children's emotional, cognitive, and social development. Predictable and consistent schedules in preschool classrooms help children feel secure and comfortable. Also, schedules and routines help children understand the expectations of the environment and reduce the frequency of behavior…

  4. Seafloor Eruptions Offer a Teachable Moment to Help SEAS Students Understand Important Geological and Ecological Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Williams, C. S.

    2006-12-01

    In education parlance, a teachable moment is an opportunity that arises when students are engaged and primed to learn, typically in response to some memorable event. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, even natural disasters, if meaningful to the student, often serve to catalyze intense learning. Recent eruptions at the East Pacific Rise offer a potential teachable moment for students and teachers involved with SEAS, a Ridge 2000 education outreach program. SEAS uses a combination of web-facilitated and teacher-directed activities to make the remote deep-sea environment and the process of science relevant and meaningful. SEAS is a web-based, inquiry-oriented education program for middle and high school students. It features the science associated with Ridge 2000 research. Since 2003, SEAS has focused on the integrated study site at the East Pacific Rise (EPR) to help students understand geological and ecological processes at mid-ocean ridges and hydrothermal vents. SEAS students study EPR bathymetry maps, images of lava formations, photomosaics of diffuse flow communities, succession in the Bio-Geo Transect, as well as current research conducted during spring cruises. In the Classroom to Sea Lab, students make direct comparisons between shallow-water mussels and vent mussels (from the EPR) to understand differences in feeding strategies. The recent eruptions and loss of seafloor fauna at this site offer the Ridge 2000 program the opportunity to help students better understand the ephemeral and episodic nature of ridge environments, as well as the realities and processes of science (particularly field science). In January 2007, the SEAS program will again sail with a Ridge 2000 research team, and will work with scientists to report findings through the SEAS website. The eruptions at the EPR covered much of the study site, and scientists' instruments and experiments, in fresh lava. We intend to highlight the recency and effect of the eruptions, using the students

  5. Pathways to understand help-seeking behaviors among Haitians.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Billie; Bernal, Darren; Smith, Lauren; Nicolas, Guerda

    2014-04-01

    The earthquake in Haiti led to an outpouring of outreach from groups of the Haitian international community as well as to residents of the island. Thus, an understanding of the help-seeking behavior patterns of this group is necessary to make meaning of their receptivity of assistance in a time of need. This paper summarizes help-seeking behavior patterns of 150 Haitian immigrants residing in the US. The results indicate that, overall, this sample was more likely to go to their family for assistance, regardless of the nature of the problem. In contrast, they were least likely to go to professionals for help, even when in need of emotional assistance. Given the increased rate of Haitians living outside of Haiti and around the world, a more comprehensive understanding of their mental health needs, coping patterns, and barriers to seeking help from mental health professionals is warranted. PMID:23192378

  6. The Pallid Sturgeon: Scientific Investigations Help Understand Recovery Needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeLonay, Aaron J.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding of the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has increased significantly since the species was listed as endangered over two decades ago. Since 2005, scientists at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Columbia Environmental Research Center (CERC) have been engaged in an interdisciplinary research program in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Missouri River Recovery Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Nebraska Game and Parks Commission, and numerous other State and Federal cooperators to provide managers and policy makers with the knowledge needed to evaluate recovery options. During that time, the USGS has worked collaboratively with river scientists and managers to develop methods, baseline information, and research approaches that are critical contributions to recovery success. The pallid sturgeon is endangered throughout the Missouri River because of insufficient reproduction and survival of early life stages. Primary management actions on the Missouri River designed to increase reproductive success and survival have focused on flow regime, channel morphology, and propagation. The CERC research strategies have, therefore, been designed to examine the linkages among flow regime, re-engineered channel morphology, and reproductive success and survival. Specific research objectives include the following: (1) understanding reproductive physiology of pallid sturgeon and relations to environmental conditions; (2) determining movement, habitat use, and reproductive behavior of pallid sturgeon; and (3) quantifying availability and dynamics of aquatic habitats needed by pallid sturgeon for all life stages.

  7. Asking the Right Questions: Helping Mainstream Students Understand Other Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jefferey H.

    Two common tendencies that lead many mainstream students to misinterpret other cultures are the combative response and the exoticizing response. These misinterpretations, however, can be excellent learning moments for helping students understand the constructed nature of culture and the contextual nature of learning. Transformational multicultural…

  8. Waterlust - An Example of How Online Video Can Help Scientists and Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rynne, P.; Graham, F.; Caster, J.; Adler, J.

    2014-12-01

    Online videos and the social networks used to disseminate them provide scientists, educators, and students an opportunity to reach new audiences on a global scale. The ability to inspire people to think about a given subject that are not otherwise engaged is an important strategy in growing the societal impact of your work. Especially to those working in the field of physical science as it relates to environmental conservation and preservation, targeting new audiences helps avoid "preaching to the choir." Towards this goal, three graduate students at the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science began an online film project in 2011 aimed at motivating the general public to think about their relationship with water and the marine environment. Here we present lessons from our first three years that include: tips for making an engaging video, promoting creativity and self-expression in science, video editing tips 101, getting the most out of your GoPro, and how to get your video seen by more people. For more information about our work, visit www.waterlust.org

  9. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect by Embodiment - Analysing and Using Students' and Scientists' Conceptual Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebert, Kai; Gropengießer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, science education studies have reported that there are very different understandings among students of science regarding the key aspects of climate change. We used the cognitive linguistic framework of experientialism to shed new light on this valuable pool of studies to identify the conceptual resources of understanding climate change. In our study, we interviewed 35 secondary school students on their understanding of the greenhouse effect and analysed the conceptions of climate scientists as drawn from textbooks and research reports. We analysed all data by metaphor analysis and qualitative content analysis to gain insight into students' and scientists' resources for understanding. In our analysis, we found that students and scientists refer to the same schemata to understand the greenhouse effect. We categorised their conceptions into three different principles the conceptions are based on: warming by more input, warming by less output, and warming by a new equilibrium. By interrelating students' and scientists' conceptions, we identified the students' learning demand: First, our students were afforded with experiences regarding the interactions of electromagnetic radiation and CO2. Second, our students reflected about the experience-based schemata they use as source domains for metaphorical understanding of the greenhouse effect. By uncovering the-mostly unconscious-deployed schemata, we gave students access to their source domains. We implemented these teaching guidelines in interventions and evaluated them in teaching experiments to develop evidence-based and theory-guided learning activities on the greenhouse effect.

  10. Understanding the Global Problem of Drug Addiction is a Challenge for IDARS Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Ali, S.F; Onaivi, E.S; Dodd, P.R; Cadet, J.L; Schenk, S; Kuhar, M.J; Koob, G.F

    2011-01-01

    IDARS is an acronym for the International Drug Abuse Research Society. Apart from our scientific and educational purposes, we communicate information to the general and scientific community about substance abuse and addiction science and treatment potential. Members of IDARS are research scientists and clinicians from around the world, with scheduled meetings across the globe. IDARS is developing a vibrant and exciting international mechanism not only for scientific interactions in the domain of addiction between countries but also ultimately as a resource for informing public policy across nations. Nonetheless, a lot more research needs to be done to better understand the neurobiological basis of drug addiction – A challenge for IDARS scientists. PMID:21886551

  11. Professional development by scientists and teachers' understanding of the nature of science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Dwight A.

    The educational literature suggests that the success of professional development is contingent upon both a professional developer's presentation of the curriculum and his/her comprehension of the complex interactions that occur between instructor and the adult learner. While these suggestions appear forthright and logical, very little research has been conducted to demarcate how professional development approaches defined by these notions impact teacher knowledge. This study investigates the effects of scientist-delivered teacher professional development on teachers' understanding of the nature of science. Using a mixed-method comparative case study, my goal was to build theory focusing specifically on two dimensions of professional development: the pedagogical approaches used by the scientist-instructors and their views/treatment of teachers as professionals or as technicians. Seven credit-bearing summer courses from multiple scientific disciplines were studied, and each course shared a number of important features (duration, general format, teacher recruitment and admission, location, number of participants, etc.); consequently, they comprise a unique dataset for comparative research on science teacher professional development. A wide variety of data collection approaches were used, including interviews, questionnaires, a VNOS instrument, and systematic classroom observation by ten trained observers (each course was continuously observed by at least two observers). Analysis shows that teachers were more likely to experience change in their views about the nature of science in courses in which they were treated as professionals, compared to courses in which they were treated as technicians. It also shows that syllabi and participant reports tend to overstate the use of inquiry methods when reviewed in the light of close classroom observation. By recognizing and defining professional development contexts that build teachers' knowledge, this study suggests how

  12. Good Morning from Barrow, Alaska! Helping K-12 students understand the importance of research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, M.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation focuses on how an educator experiences scientific research and how those experiences can help foster K-12 students’ understanding of research being conducted in Barrow, Alaska. According to Zhang and Fulford (1994), real-time electronic field trips help to provide a sense of closeness and relevance. In combination with experts in the field, the electronic experience can help students to better understand the phenomenon being studied, thus strengthening the student’s conceptual knowledge (Zhang & Fulford, 1994). During a seven day research trip to study the arctic sea ice, five rural Virginia teachers and their students participated in Skype sessions with the participating educator and other members of the Radford University research team. The students were able to view the current conditions in Barrow, listen to members of the research team describe what their contributions were to the research, and ask questions about the research and Alaska in general. Collaborations between students and scientist can have long lasting benefits for both educators and students in promoting an understanding of the research process and understanding why our world is changing. By using multimedia venues such as Skype students are able to interact with researchers both visually and verbally, forming the basis for students’ interest in science. A learner’s level of engagement is affected by the use of multimedia, especially the level of cognitive processing. Visual images alone do no promote the development of good problem solving skills. However, the students are able to develop better problem solving skills when both visual images and verbal interactions are used together. As students form higher confidence levels by improving their ability to problem solve, their interest in science also increases. It is possible that this interest could turn into a passion for science, which could result in more students wanting to become scientists or science teachers.

  13. From the Horse's Mouth: Why scientists' views are crucial to nature of science understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, Derek; Wong, Siu Ling

    2014-11-01

    Written in response to criticism of our work by Fouad Abd-El-Khalick, this position paper reaffirms and reinforces our position about the need to broaden and enrich the scope of nature of science (NOS) oriented curricula by exposing students to the voices of practising scientists. While Abd-El-Khalick's motivation for promoting the so-called consensus view of NOS is rooted in issues of assessment (or 'benchmarking', as he calls it), we argue that the major reason for teaching about NOS is its contribution to what Shen calls civic and cultural scientific literacy. We are critical of the consensus view for its philosophical naivety, failure to reflect contemporary scientific practice and potential for confusing students, and we re-state our view that it is important to expose students to a diversity of practice among the sub-disciplines of science. We argue that richer NOS understanding and a more authentic view of scientific practice can be achieved through direct and indirect contact with scientists at the cutting edge of research and development, which we characterise as learning about scientists, learning from scientists and learning with scientists.

  14. When scientists know too much - using citizen science to understand delta morphology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeyta, A.; Baumgardner, S. E.; Im, D.; Nguyen, C.; Paola, C.

    2014-12-01

    Deltas are bodies of land created by the deposition of sediment from a river. The deposits formed by these systems are incredibly diverse and complex in shapes, sizes and form. It is believed that the morphology of these systems is controlled by the relative wave, tidal and fluvial forcings on the system, which control the removal and redistribution of the sediment. As a result, we are often trained to classify deltas this way based on qualitative assessments of subaerial features. While this approach has led to many interesting breakthroughs and discoveries, it has also limited our scope of view on what controls delta morphology. As a result, delta scientists are trained to look at the system from a narrow point of view with initial biases. By knowing too much about the system and with strong ideas of what controls the shape of a deltas, we have to ask ourselves if we are overlooking key features by trying to fit a square peg into a round hole. We are proposing a new and novel approach to understand the morphology of the world's deltas by using citizen science. We have built a delta classification game, which gives participants a random set of images of deltas from satellites, numerical models and experiments. All images are free of location, color, scale and orientation to limit the amount of bias introduced and have participants focus only on features of the morphology, rather than extraneous details. Participants are then asked to group the images however they see fit, with the option to describe why they chose that classification system. By collecting the statistics on which deltas are commonly grouped together, we can then assess what features or details they have in common. The data from this project can help us create a new classification system and shed new light on the controls of delta morphology.

  15. Understanding and Meeting the Needs of Space Scientists in EPO—Survey Results, Responses, and Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grier, J.; Buxner, S.; Schneider, N.

    2015-11-01

    As science literacy is falling in the United States, our world continues to become more complex. Everyone now requires an understanding of science, technology, and the relationship of interconnected systems in order to successfully navigate the complex issues facing us. Scientists are a critical resource, bringing to the table an understanding of the nature of science as a process, as well as up-to-the-minute scientific content. They can function in a wide range of capacities in education and public outreach (EPO) to meet some of the learning challenges of teachers, students, and the general public. Societies that work directly with scientists, such as the American Astronomical Society (AAS) and the Division for Planetary Sciences (DPS) are interested in understanding how their member scientists view the act of reaching out, how they do it, and how the DPS can continue to support them as they engage with a variety of audiences in an EPO capacity. To this end, we (the NASA Science Mission Directorate Planetary Science Forum and DPS leadership) conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with a subsection of DPS members to learn more about their attitudes and needs, and to begin to pinpoint opportunities and strategies for future consideration. Presented here are our preliminary results and the ideas generated for further conversations.

  16. Science to Help Understand and Manage Important Ground-Water Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nickles, James

    2008-01-01

    Throughout California, as pressure on water resources continues to grow, water-supply agencies are looking to the state?s biggest ?reservoir? ? its ground-water basins ? for supply and storage. To better utilize that resource, the Sweetwater Authority and other local partners, including the city of San Diego and Otay Water Districts, are working with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to develop the first comprehensive study of the coastal ground-water resources of southern San Diego County. USGS research is providing the integrated geologic and hydrologic knowledge necessary to help effectively utilize this resource on a coordinated, regional basis. USGS scientists are building a real-time well-monitoring network and gathering information about how the aquifers respond to different pumping and recharge-management strategies. Real-time ground-water levels are recorded every hour and are viewable on a project web site (http://ca.water.usgs.gov/sandiego/index.html). Data from the wells are helping to define the geology and hydrogeology of the area, define ground-water quality, and assess ground-water levels. The wells also are strategi-cally placed and designed to be usable by the local agencies for decades to come to help manage surface-water and ground-water operations. Additionally, the knowledge gained from the USGS study will help local, state, and federal agencies; water purveyors; and USGS scientists to understand the effects of urbanization on the local surface-water, ground-water, and biological resources, and to better critique ideas and opportuni-ties for additional ground-water development in the San Diego area.

  17. What more can plant scientists do to help save the green stuff?

    PubMed

    McNeely, Jeffrey A

    2011-01-01

    The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) was the first such effort under the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and had gone through a 3-year process to reach the level of maturity that enabled it to be approved by consensus by all Governments present at the key session in The Hague in April 2002. It provided a model for subsequent CBD workplans, with targets, and undoubtedly contributed to the 2010 target of reducing the rate of biodiversity loss. In the event, few of the targets were achieved, because of numerous constraints at both policy and implementation levels. Even so, the GSPC stands as an important milestone in the global effort to conserve biodiversity. However, few plant scientists can be satisfied that the essential steps are being taken to ensure the conservation of plants, although, of course, plant scientists are only one part of the complex effort that will be required. This paper offers some suggestions that might be worth consideration, building on the basic principle in politics that a strong constituency is necessary to victory. In other words, although plant scientists play a crucial role, plant conservation is too important to leave in their hands alone; far broader support is required, including from the private sector, agriculture, forestry, trade, economics, tourism and even the military. Although botanical science provides a solid foundation, other branches of science are also important, ranging from anthropology to zoology. The legal profession also has important contributions to make (as well as the ability to hamper progress – for example through using issues such as access and benefit sharing to limit the exchange of genetic materials for even noncommercial use). 2010 was the United Nations Year of Biodiversity, and the GSPC targets reached their due date. It therefore seems timely to add some additional perspectives to the effort to update the GSPC. This paper suggests ways to reach a far broader constituency

  18. Understanding and Facilitating Self-Regulated Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabenick, Stuart A.; Dembo, Myron H.

    2011-01-01

    Help seeking is an important developmental skill, a form of behavioral, or social, self-regulation employed by cognitively, behaviorally, and emotionally engaged learners. Help seeking is unique among learning strategies as it may imply that learners are incapable of task completion or satisfactory performance without assistance, which can be…

  19. Lobster on the Sidewalk: Understanding and Helping Children with Fears.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Roberta I.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the cognitive processes and emotional needs that influence developmental changes related to fears and suggests some techniques which adults may use to help children cope with their fears. (Author/MP)

  20. Helping the International Student Understand the American University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mary

    2011-01-01

    To be successful in navigating the waters of American higher education, international students need to demonstrate proficiency in the English language and an understanding of the educational expectations of American academia. Unlike Americans who apply to a US university, international students must demonstrate that they understand enough English…

  1. Terrorism: Online Resources for Helping Students Understand and Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Tim; Ramirez, Fred

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites that focus on the issue of terrorism. Aims to assist teachers in educating their students and helping them cope with terrorism since the September 11, 2001 attack on the United States. Offers sites on other terrorist attacks on the U.S. (CMK)

  2. Helping Children To Understand the United States Constitution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Minna S.

    Targeted for children aged 5 through 12, this handbook contains some ideas for educational activities, a brief overview of the constitutional development period in U.S. history, and a simplified annotated outline of the Constitution. This material should prove helpful in teaching children the following: (1) the intrinsic values embedded in the…

  3. Understanding Emotions through Games: Helping Trainee Teachers to Make Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavega, Pere; Filella, Gemma; Agullo, Maria Jesus; Soldevila, Anna; March, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to provide guidelines to help professionals make decisions regarding the types of emotions produced by different sporting games classified into four domains of motor action (psychomotor, co-operation, opposition and cooperation/opposition). Method: The sample comprised 284 first-year university students of…

  4. Survey Helps Class to See, Understand Local Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasternack, Steve

    1986-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which students interview various groups of citizens--church leaders, school officials, government and business leaders--in order to give students a broader understanding of the definitions of obscenity and community standards. (HTH)

  5. Understanding barriers to Malaysian women with breast cancer seeking help.

    PubMed

    Norsa'adah, Bachok; Rahmah, Mohd Amin; Rampal, Krishna Gopal; Knight, Aishah

    2012-01-01

    Delay in help-seeking behaviour which is potentially preventable has a major effect on the prognosis and survival of patients with breast cancer. The objective of this study was to explore reasons for delay in seeking help among patients with breast cancer from the East Coast of peninsular Malaysia. A qualitative study using face- to-face in-depth interview was carried out involving 12 breast cancer patients who had been histo-pathologically confirmed and were symptomatic on presentation. Respondents were selected purposely based on their history of delayed consultation, diagnosis or treatment. All were of Malay ethnicity and the age range was 26-67 years. Three were in stage ll, seven in stage lll and two in stage lV. At the time of interview, all except one respondent had accepted treatment. The range of consultation time was 0.2-72.2 months with a median of 1.7 months, diagnosis time was 1.4-95.8 months( median 5.4 months )and treatment time was 0-33.3 months (median 1.2 months). The themes derived from the study were poor knowledge or awareness of breast cancer, fear of cancer consequences, beliefs in complementary alternative medicine, sanction by others, other priorities, denial of disease, attitude of wait and see and health care system weakness. Help-seeking behaviour was influenced by a complex interaction of cognitive, environmental, beliefs, culture and psycho-social factors. Breast cancer awareness and psychological counselling are recommended for all patients with breast symptoms to prevent delay in seeking clinical help. PMID:23098462

  6. Moving beyond the Lone Scientist: Helping 1st-Grade Students Appreciate the Social Context of Scientific Work Using Stories about Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharkawy, Azza

    2009-01-01

    While several studies have documented young children's (K-2) stereotypic views of scientists and scientific work, few have examined students' views of the social nature of scientific work and the strategies effective in broadening these views. The purpose of this study is to examine how stories about scientists influence 1st-grade students' views…

  7. Water challenges of the future; how scientific understanding can help

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, G.

    2012-04-01

    Demands for water resources are diverse and are increasing as human populations grow and become more concentrated in urban areas and as economies develop. Water is essential for many uses including the basic human needs of food and the maintenance of good health, for many industries and the creation of electrical energy and as vital for the sustenance of the natural ecosystems on which all life is dependent. At the same time threats from water - floods, droughts - are increasing with these extreme events becoming more common and more intense in many regions of the world and as more people locate in flood- and drought-prone regions. In general, the challenges for water managers are thus becoming greater; managers not only are having to make increasingly difficult decisions regarding allocation of water resources between competing uses as demand outstrips supply, but they also have to take measures to protect societies from the ravages of extreme events. The intensity of the challenges facing water managers is not uniform throughout the world - many nations in the less developed world experiencing far greater problems than most highly developed nations - but the trend towards greater challenges is clear. Decision-makers, whether at the international, national, provincial or local level benefit from reliable information on water resources. They need information on the availability in quantity and quality of water from a variety of sources - surface waters, aquifers or from artificial sources such as re-cycling of wastewater and desalination techniques. Managers also need reliable predictions on water availability for the various uses to which water is put - such predictions are needed on time scales from weeks to decades to inform decision-making. Predictions are also needed on the probabilities of occurrence of extreme events. Thus hydrological scientists developing predictive models and working within a fast-changing world have much to contribute to the needs of

  8. Using Story to Help Student Understanding of Gas Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebe, Rick; Stinner, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    Students tend to have a poor understanding of the concept of gas pressure. Usually, gas pressure is taught in terms of the various formulaic gas laws. The development of the concept of gas pressure according to the early Greeks did not include the concept of a vacuum. It was not for another 2000 years that Torricelli proposed that a vacuum can…

  9. Empowering Andrea to Help Year 5 Students Construct Fraction Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baturo, Annette R

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a glimpse into the positive effect on student learning as a result of empowering a classroom teacher of 20 years (Andrea) with subject matter knowledge relevant to developing fraction understanding. Having a facility with fractions is essential for life skills in any society, whether metricated or non-metricated, and yet…

  10. Helping Prospective Teachers to Understand Children's Mathematical Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Genevieve L.

    2012-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two video-based interventions, one guided, the other non-guided, on pre-service early childhood education teachers' understanding of students' mathematical thinking. Five web-based lessons on various topics in children's mathematical development were created for this study. Each…

  11. Helping Students Understand Essay Marking Criteria and Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defeyter, Margaret Anne; McPartlin, Pamela Louise

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to look at the effectiveness of combining a variety of teaching and learning methods in an attempt to facilitate students' understanding of assessment criteria. Fifty-three psychology students were asked to complete the mismatch exercise (Norton et al., 2002), and a booklet entitled "Your Assignment results and how to…

  12. Viewing a Poem as Argument: Helping Students Understand Contemporary Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sara

    2008-01-01

    When high school honors students were put off by contemporary poetry, the author engaged them by analyzing the poem as an "argument." Using the Toulmin model to establish a warrant, advance a claim, and locate details to support that claim, students were able, by treating a poem as an argument, to increase their understanding of the poet's…

  13. Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

  14. Helping Secondary School Students Develop a Conceptual Understanding of Refraction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashmann, Scott; Anderson, Charles W.; Boeckman, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Using real-world examples, ray diagrams, and a cognitive apprenticeship cycle, this paper focuses on developing students' conceptual (not mathematical) understanding of refraction. Refraction can be a difficult concept for students to comprehend if they do not have well-designed opportunities to practice explaining situations where reflection and…

  15. Beyond alphabet soup: helping college health professionals understand sexual fluidity.

    PubMed

    Oswalt, Sara B; Evans, Samantha; Drott, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many college students today are no longer using the terms straight, gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgender to self-identify their sexual orientation or gender identity. This commentary explores research related to fluidity of sexual identities, emerging sexual identities used by college students, and how these identities interact with the health and well-being of the student. Additionally, the authors discuss strategies to help college health professionals provide a sensitive environment and clinical experience for students whose sexual identity is fluid. PMID:27043261

  16. Commentary: how can technology help us understand the communication process?

    PubMed

    Keyton, Joann

    2012-08-01

    In this commentary, the author reflects on the articles chosen for the special section on communications analysis. These articles problematize communication and raise an interesting set of questions for both human factors and communication scholars to ponder. In the end, both sets of scholars seek the same goal: How do we better examine communication to improve it? Problematizing communication requires scholars to challenge their fundamental assumptions about the phenomenon as well as to tease out the distinctions of methodological approaches typically used by both human factors and communication scholars. Human factors scholars tend to favor forms of communication in which technology or task roles control who can communicate and how. Communication scholars tend to favor contexts in which information flows more freely with fewer explicit restrictions. Creating opportunities to collaborate in research on the communication process may create the best understanding of technology that can better serve our understanding of communication. PMID:22908680

  17. Can computed crystal energy landscapes help understand pharmaceutical solids?

    PubMed

    Price, Sarah L; Braun, Doris E; Reutzel-Edens, Susan M

    2016-06-01

    Computational crystal structure prediction (CSP) methods can now be applied to the smaller pharmaceutical molecules currently in drug development. We review the recent uses of computed crystal energy landscapes for pharmaceuticals, concentrating on examples where they have been used in collaboration with industrial-style experimental solid form screening. There is a strong complementarity in aiding experiment to find and characterise practically important solid forms and understanding the nature of the solid form landscape. PMID:27067116

  18. The Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum -Helping NASA Missions and Scientists Participate in Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, I.; Vondrak, R.; Meyer, K.; Thieman, J.

    1999-05-01

    The Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) is one of four national centers of space science education and outreach funded by NASA's Office of Space Science (OSS). SECEF acts as a central clearinghouse of information and coordination, facilitating the effective archiving and dissemination of education and public outreach materials from NASA SEC missions and scientists. SECEF also helps coordinate participation of SEC missions at national education conferences, such as the National Science Teachers Association and the Association of Science and Technology Centers. SECEF is working with the other three OSS theme Education Forums (Solar System Exploration, Origins, and Structure and Evolution of the Universe) to develop an on-line resource directory for EPO products for teachers and the general public. SECEF is also leveraging high visibility public events, such as the 1998 Total Solar Eclpise Webcast in partnership with the Exploratorium museum, to highlight SEC research and the people responsible for the science discoveries. Our poster will describe in more detail how SECEF can serve the NASA SEC community in the context of EPO, show a short video of the Eclipse '98 Webcast, and describe how scientists can become involved in the upcoming Eclipse '99 Webcast from the Black Sea and Turkey. This will be the best looking poster at the meeting - don't miss it!

  19. Patient safety: helping medical students understand error in healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Patey, Rona; Flin, Rhona; Cuthbertson, Brian H; MacDonald, Louise; Mearns, Kathryn; Cleland, Jennifer; Williams, David

    2007-01-01

    Objective To change the culture of healthcare organisations and improve patient safety, new professionals need to be taught about adverse events and how to trap and mitigate against errors. A literature review did not reveal any patient safety courses in the core undergraduate medical curriculum. Therefore a new module was designed and piloted. Design A 5‐h evidence‐based module on understanding error in healthcare was designed with a preliminary evaluation using self‐report questionnaires. Setting A UK medical school. Participants 110 final year students. Measurements and main results Participants completed two questionnaires: the first questionnaire was designed to measure students' self‐ratings of knowledge, attitudes and behaviour in relation to patient safety and medical error, and was administered before and approximately 1 year after the module; the second formative questionnaire on the teaching process and how it could be improved was administered after completion of the module. Conclusions Before attending the module, the students reported they had little understanding of patient safety matters. One year later, only knowledge and the perceived personal control over safety had improved. The students rated the teaching process highly and found the module valuable. Longitudinal follow‐up is required to provide more information on the lasting impact of the module. PMID:17693671

  20. Helping Women Understand Treatment Options for Vulvar and Vaginal Atrophy.

    PubMed

    Parks, Diane M; Levine, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA) is a common and progressive medical condition in postmenopausal women. The REVIVE (REal Women's VIews of Treatment Options for Menopausal Vaginal ChangEs) survey assessed knowledge about VVA and its impact in 3,046 postmenopausal U.S. women, and recorded women's attitudes about their interactions with health care providers and about available treatments. REVIVE identified poor disease awareness and understanding among women, failure of health care professionals to evaluate women for VVA signs and symptoms, low treatment rates and concerns about the safety and efficacy of available therapies. Strategies to address these needs include proactive screening, education for women and clinicians about VVA and recommendations for treatment and follow-up. PMID:26264795

  1. Helping secondary school students develop a conceptual understanding of refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmann, Scott; Anderson, Charles W.; Boeckman, Heather

    2016-07-01

    Using real-world examples, ray diagrams, and a cognitive apprenticeship cycle, this paper focuses on developing students’ conceptual (not mathematical) understanding of refraction. Refraction can be a difficult concept for students to comprehend if they do not have well-designed opportunities to practice explaining situations where reflection and refraction occur. The use of ray diagrams can be useful in (a) the teacher modelling a correct explanation to a situation where refraction occurs and (b) for students to create as they practice other examples. This paper includes eight examples of increasing complexity that use a cognitive apprenticeship cycle approach to scaffold student learning. The first examples (rock fish, floating penny) are shown and a solution is modeled using a ray diagram. Three more examples (bent pencil, dropping an item in water, sunrise/sunset) are presented for students to practice, with each becoming more sophisticated. Three assessment exercises are then provided (two dots, three coins, broken tube).

  2. Reading about Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummins, Sunday

    2015-01-01

    Although students do need hands-on experiences to master key skills in science, technology, and engineering, Cummins asserts, K-12 teachers should also help students understand key STEM concepts by reading, writing, and talking about the work of professional scientists and engineers. Cummins lists high-quality texts that help young people…

  3. Medical Scientists

    MedlinePlus

    ... scientists typically have a Ph.D., usually in biology or a related life science. Some medical scientists ... specialize in this field seek to understand the biology of aging and investigate ways to improve the ...

  4. When Young Children Need Help: Understanding and Addressing Emotional, Behavioral, and Developmental Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschland, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    You know what it's like to spend time with youngsters who are particularly puzzling or hard to help. "When Young Children Need Help" helps early childhood educators make sense of what is going on for such children and use that understanding to promote growth and mastery. Written for child care center staff, family child care providers,…

  5. How a professional interest of scientists for music has helped to develop geoethics and cross-cultural differences exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novak, Josef; Ohska, Tokio; Nemec, Vaclav

    2014-05-01

    Let us start with a story of the conservatory in Prague where a Czech student Jan Snitil met a Japanese girl Masako Nakajima. Their marriage helped to initiate a cultural exchange between their countries of birth. Later Jan Snitil as the conductor of the Opera house in Opava with the help of a NPO group under his wife had a considerable success in introducing the Czech opera Dalibor (from Bedrich Smetana; stage director Josef Novak) in Japan and by realizing the first performance of the Japanese opera "Juzuru" (stage director T. Ohska) in Opava. This brought together both respective stage directors. The intensifying interest of T. Ohska for the operas of Smetana inspired J. Novak to arrange in Prague his meeting with Vaclav Nemec well known for his promotion work of the great Czech composer. In his professional career Vaclav Nemec is the internationally known Earth scientist specialized since early 1960's in the field of mathematical geology (later also in tectonics) and since 1991 respected as the "Father of Geoethics". At the meeting Nemec recognized Ohska as a Physics Professor specialized in nuclear physic and attracted him for an active participation in the field of geoethics. Prof. Ohska prepared valuable presentations for the international session on geoethics at Pribram (2011) and especially for the International Geological Congress in Brisbane (2012). At Pribram in the course of a social party Lidmila Nemcova (co-convenor of the meeting) introduced Prof. Ohska to Waclaw Demecki, Chancellor of the Higher School of Management in Legnica (Poland). Demecki has been inviting Ohska for special lectures on science as well as on cultural heritage of Japan. Professor Ohska arranges his visits to Poland through Prague where he can meet with Novak and Nemec to discuss the staging of the last opera of Smetana "Devil's Wall". Nemec in his research had finally deciphered (2012, i.e. 130 years after the first performance) the "mystery" of this opera: the composer put

  6. Writing Like a Scientist: Exploring Elementary Teachers' Understandings and Practices of Writing in Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glen, Nicole J.; Dotger, Sharon

    2013-10-01

    This qualitative study examined the connections between elementary teachers’ conceptions of how scientists use writing and how the teachers used writing during science lessons. Data collected included lesson observations, interviews, handouts to students, and curriculum resources. The findings revealed that teachers in this study thought scientists write for several purposes: the presentation of data, observations, experiences, procedures, and facts. The teachers used writing tasks that mirrored this with their students. The teachers also had a limited definition of creativity in writing, and when they had students write creatively in science it was to add in fictional elements. Implications of this study include providing teachers with better models for how and why scientists write, including these models in more inquiry-based science lessons, and directly relating concepts of nature of science to elementary science writing.

  7. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Rosa, Katemari Diogo

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the…

  8. Scientist-Science Educator Collaborations: Do They Improve Students' Understanding of the Nature of Science?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Dunlop, Catherine; Hodum, Peter

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a research study in which a biologist and his research on Antarctic seabirds became part of an integrated science course for prospective elementary teachers. Students used the scientist's database on seabird chick growth rates for an experimental design investigation while the "regular" classes had a single science educator…

  9. A Method for Understanding Their Method: Discovering Scientific Inquiry through Biographies of Famous Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, Elizabeth; Fairweather, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Mendel and his peas. Goodall and her chimpanzees. Bentley and his snowflakes. Pasteur and his sheep. Not only do these stories intrigue students, but they also demonstrate the trials and tribulations associated with scientific inquiry. Using scientists' biographies piques student interest while providing an added dimension to their understanding…

  10. Writing Like a Scientist: Exploring Elementary Teachers' Understandings and Practices of Writing in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glen, Nicole J.; Dotger, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the connections between elementary teachers' conceptions of how scientists use writing and how the teachers used writing during science lessons. Data collected included lesson observations, interviews, handouts to students, and curriculum resources. The findings revealed that teachers in this study thought…

  11. Uncertainty in geohazard understanding and communicating hazards and risk between scientists and the UK Insurance industry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawley, Russell; Lee, Kathryn; Lark, Murray

    2015-04-01

    At BGS, expert elicitation has been used to evaluate the relative impacts arising from multiple geohazards that can affect UK housing stock. In turn this 'consensus' understanding has been developed into a tool to assist the UK insurance industry underwrite the domestic property market. BGS models six geohazards deemed relevant to UK Housing: Landslides, Shrink-swell (heave), Compressibles, Dissolution (Karst), collapsibles and running sand. The models are widely used and have been developed over 2 decades of research. However, stakeholders such as the insurance industry are not well equipped to managed geohazard models directly and need the information to be categorised in a meaningful way, appropriate to their business models. Creating terminologies to communicate the relative threats for each geohazard has been relatively straightforward, but communicating the impacts of multiple geohazards, or comparing the relative risks of one geohazard against another has proved more difficult. Expert elicitation has been used since 2010 to try and build a consensus model for geohazards and to help BGS communicate its knowledge to stakeholders. Typically, the BGS geohazard models are provided with 5 levels of susceptibility: A (low or absent) ,B, C, D and E (high). Resolving individual models is relatively simple, but the insurance market is extremely dynamic and a need to simplify and convey the possible threats from all geohazards into a single 'rating' of susceptibility has emerged. This poses a problem when trying to convey the geological understanding behind the models. For example, how do you convey the combined (or comparative) susceptibility of a high susceptibility to Dissolution, with a moderate susceptibility to Landslides. This complexity is further hampered when needing to consider that stakeholders resolve spatial distributions via use of frameworks such as 'Postcode' sectors, and that the outputs of most geohazard models are sensitive to scope and scale of

  12. The Ocean 180 Video Challenge: An Innovative Broader Impacts Strategy for Helping Scientists Share Discoveries and Connect with Classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tankersley, R. A.; Watson, M.; Windsor, J. G.; Buckley, M.; Diederick, L.

    2014-12-01

    Scientists conduct exciting, ground-breaking research that addresses many of world's greatest challenges. Yet, far too often, the importance, meaning, and relevance of their discoveries are never shared with persons outside their discipline. Recognizing the need for scientists to communicate more effectively with the public, the Florida Center for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE Florida) saw an opportunity to connect the two through film. In the fall 2013, COSEE Florida launched the Ocean 180 Video Challenge to tap into the competitive spirit of scientists and inspire them to share their latest discoveries with the public. The competition encouraged scientists to submit short, 3-minute video abstracts summarizing the important findings of recent peer-reviewed papers and highlighting the relevance, meaning, and implications of the research to persons outside their discipline. Videos were initially screened and evaluated by a team of science and communication experts and the winners (from a field of ten finalists) were selected by more than 30,000 middle school students from 285 schools in 13 countries. Our presentation will review the outcomes and lessons learned from the 2014 competition and describe how contest videos are being used for professional development/training and educational purposes. We will also describe how video competitions can benefit both scientists and the target audience and be effective outreach strategies for encouraging scientists to share new discoveries and their enthusiasm for science with K-12 students and the public.

  13. Starting on the Write Foot: Helping Parents Understand How Children Learn To Read and Write.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Julia; Liss, Carolee; Sterner, Peggy

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how early childhood teachers can help parents understand the natural and uneven process involved in learning to read and write. Includes descriptions of classroom opportunities to write, the use of artifacts to educate parents, and procedures for the beginning of the school year. Includes suggestions for parents to help their children…

  14. Evaluating Two Approaches to Helping College Students Understand Evolutionary Trees through Diagramming Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Judy; Meir, Eli; Herron, Jon C.; Maruca, Susan; Stal, Derek

    2008-01-01

    To understand evolutionary theory, students must be able to understand and use evolutionary trees and their underlying concepts. Active, hands-on curricula relevant to macroevolution can be challenging to implement across large college-level classes where textbook learning is the norm. We evaluated two approaches to helping students learn…

  15. Eighteen-Month-Old Infants Show False Belief Understanding in an Active Helping Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buttelmann, David; Carpenter, Malinda; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Recently, several studies have claimed that soon after their first birthday infants understand others' false beliefs. However, some have questioned these findings based on criticisms of the looking-time paradigms used. Here we report a new paradigm to test false belief understanding in infants using a more active behavioral response: helping.…

  16. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Katemari Diogo da

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the research is geographically localized, the base-line question is clear and mirrors in the researcher's own intellectual development: "How do Black women physicists describe their experiences towards the construction of a scientific identity and the pursuit of a career in physics?" Grounded on a critical race theory perspective, the study uses storytelling to analyze how these women build their identities as scientists and how they have negotiate their multiple identities within different communities in society. Findings show that social integration is a key element for Black women physicists to enter study groups, which enables access to important resources for academic success in STEM. The study has implications for physics education and policymakers. The study reveals the role of the different communities that these women are part of, and the importance of public policies targeted to increase the participation of underrepresented groups in science, especially through after-school programs and financial support through higher education.

  17. Thinking Like a Scientist: Using Vee-Maps to Understand Process and Concepts in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaggs, Christine M.; Schneider, Rebecca M.

    2012-01-01

    It is considered important for students to participate in scientific practices to develop a deeper understanding of scientific ideas. Supporting students, however, in knowing and understanding the natural world in connection with generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations is not easy. In addition, writing in science can help…

  18. Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tollefson, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Planning to start or expand a K-8 critical language program? Looking for support in doing so? There "may" be help at the federal level for great ideas and strong programs. While there have been various pools of federal dollars available to support world language programs for a number of years, the federal government's interest in assuring strong…

  19. "Ice out": the contribution of citizen scientists to our understanding of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, R. Timothy; Swindles, Graeme T.

    2016-04-01

    Long-term trends in spring 'ice out' dates (1836-2013) for twelve lakes in Maine, New Brunswick and New Hampshire, in eastern North America reveal a remarkable coherency across the region (rs=0.462-0.933, p<0.01). These data have been compiled since the early 19th century, primarily by amateur citizen scientists, for a variety of purposes, including determining fishing seasons, estimating the spring opening of ferry boat routes, community contests, and general curiosity. Ice out dates correlate closely with late-winter/early-spring, March-April (MA), instrumental temperature records from across the region (rs=0.488-0.816, p<0.01). This correlation permits use of ice out dates as a proxy to extend the shorter MA instrumental record (1876-2013). Mean ice out dates trended progressively earlier during the recovery from the Little Ice Age through to the 1940s, and gradually became later again through to the late 1970s, when ice out dates had returned to values more typical of the late nineteenth century. Post-1970's ice out dates resumed trending toward earlier dates, with the twenty-first century being characterized by the earliest ice out dates on record. Spectral and wavelet time series analysis indicate that ice out is influenced by several teleconnections including the Quasi-biennial Oscillation, El Niño-Southern Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation as well as a significant correlation between inland lake records and the Arctic Oscillation. The relative influence of these teleconnections is variable with notable shifts occurring after ~1870, ~1925, and ~1980-2000. The intermittent expression of these cycles in the ice out and MA instrumental record is not only influenced by absolute changes in the intensity of the various teleconnections and other climate drivers, but by phase interference between teleconnections, which periodically damps the various signals.

  20. A Chinese Young Adult Non-Scientist's Epistemologies and Her Understandings of the Concept of Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Barbara M.

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated students' epistemologies while they were taking courses that required an integrated understanding of mathematical and scientific concepts. However, past studies have not investigated students who are not currently enrolled in such classes. Additionally, past studies have primarily focused on individuals who are…

  1. Compassion Fatigue as a Theoretical Framework to Help Understand Burnout among Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Shari; Palladino, John M.; Barnett, Jeffery

    2007-01-01

    Compassion fatigue is a theoretical framework researchers have applied to helping professions other than teaching. The purpose of this report is to propose the use of this theory to better understand the prevalent rates of special education teachers' exit from the profession often labeled as burnout. A qualitative study with six middle school…

  2. Students Meet Wilfred Gordon: Helping Students with Special Needs Understand Their Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby M.

    2006-01-01

    Understanding how memory works is important for success in school, for "all" students. One way for teachers to help students with disabilities learn about memory is to use picture books and then learn strategies. Picture books are useful for students with disabilities because these resources have moved beyond a means to scaffold early literacy…

  3. Helping Preservice Teachers (PSTs) Understand the Realities of Poverty: Innovative Curriculum Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Convertino, Christina; Khourey-Bowers, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an innovative addition to the curriculum to help preservice teachers cultivate an understanding of poverty. Using technology, an interdisciplinary team created two online learning modules entitled Teacher as Learning Facilitator and Teacher as Anthropologist. Preservice teachers valued the newly developed…

  4. A Simple Classroom Teaching Technique to Help Students Understand Michaelis-Menten Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runge, Steven W.; Hill, Brent J. F.; Moran, William M.

    2006-01-01

    A new, simple classroom technique helps cell biology students understand principles of Michaelis-Menten enzyme kinetics. A student mimics the enzyme and the student's hand represents the enzyme's active site. The catalytic event is the transfer of marbles (substrate molecules) by hand from one plastic container to another. As predicted, increases…

  5. Reasoning, Not Recipes: Helping Your Students Develop Statistical Understanding and Enjoy the Experience!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Gai

    2010-01-01

    Statistics is often presented to students as a series of algorithms to be learnt by heart and applied at the appropriate time to get "the correct answer". This approach, while it may in fact produce the right answer, has been shown to be minimally effective at helping students understand the underlying statistical concepts. As Holmes noted,…

  6. The Value of Ellul's Analysis in Understanding Propaganda in the Helping Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2012-01-01

    This article draws on Ellul's analysis of propaganda in understanding propaganda in the helping professions. Key in such an analysis is the interweaving of the psychological and sociological. Contrary to the discourse in mission statements of professional organizations and their codes of ethics calling for informed consent, competence of…

  7. Preparation of Teacher Training Aid to Help Teachers Understand the Processes of Science, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, William C.

    A preliminary draft of a "Teacher Training Aid to Help Teachers Understand the Processes of Science" has been prepared on the basis of a careful analysis of the current practice of science. This manuscript attempts to formulate guidelines for an explanation of communicative processes of scientific inquiry to students without rigorous background…

  8. A Chinese young adult non-scientist's epistemologies and her understandings of the concept of speed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ying; Brizuela, Barbara M.

    2015-08-01

    Past research has investigated students' epistemologies while they were taking courses that required an integrated understanding of mathematical and scientific concepts. However, past studies have not investigated students who are not currently enrolled in such classes. Additionally, past studies have primarily focused on individuals who are native English speakers from Western cultures. In this paper, we aim to investigate whether Hammer and his colleagues' claims concerning learners' epistemologies could be extended to individuals who lack advanced mathematics and science training, have had different cultural and learning experiences, and have grown up speaking and learning in another language. To this end, we interviewed a participant with these characteristics about her understandings of the concept of speed. Our findings show that previous theoretical frameworks can be used to explain the epistemologies of the individual examined in this study. The case suggests that these theories may be relevant regardless of the learner's mathematics and science background, language, educational experience, and cultural background. In the future, more cases should be examined with learners from different academic backgrounds and cultures to further support this finding.

  9. Understanding what's critical in protecting our society: Can satellite observations help? (Invited paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2005-05-01

    There are many vital issues which are impacting our daily lives and will continue to haunt us as long as we live on this planet of ours. These issues range from food supply availability, drought, coastal zone erosion, volcanoes, hurricanes, terrorism, global warming, earthquakes, water resources, air quality, public health, and agriculture production. Such societal needs are directly linked to our geometric population growth, and abundance of automobiles, industrial emissions, industrial waste and extensive fishing of our oceans and elimination of our ecology. The questions which require serious thoughts, research, coordination, and resources to understand, plan and strike a sensible balance in our daily lives and the above issues are tough to deal with. However, with the advent of remote sensing technologies, tremendous progress has been made in applying space-based and airborne data and products in solving real societal problems. Several of these problems, such as coastal zone erosion, air quality, severe weather, water availability and quality, public health, fires, land slides and others are intricately related; and in the long run can have serious consequences if not properly addressed by scientists, regulatory bodies and policy makers. Although it is a much involved and tangled web to unravel, nevertheless we have an excellent start in understanding some of the phenomena and hopefully can mitigate some of the severe effects by advancing our scientific knowledge. This paper briefly discusses the applications of remote sensing data from Terra, Aqua, and other NASA satellites how to deal with such complex problems; it provides an excellent start.

  10. Understanding What's Critical in Protecting Our Society: Can Satellite Observations Help?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib, Shahid

    2005-01-01

    There are many vital issues which are impacting our daily lives and will continue to haunt us as long as we live on this planet of ours. These issues range from food supply availability, drought, coastal zone erosion, volcanoes, hurricanes, terrorism, global warming, earthquakes, water resources, air quality, public health, and agriculture production. Such societal needs are directly linked to our geometric population growth, and abundance of automobiles, industrial emissions, industrial waste and extensive fishing of our oceans and elimination of our ecology. The questions which require serious thoughts, research, coordination, and resources to understand, plan and strike a sensible balance in our daily lives and the above issues are tough to deal with. However, with the advent of remote sensing technologies, tremendous progress has been made in applying space-based and airborne data and products in solving real societal problems. Several of these problems, such as coastal zone erosion, air quality, severe weather, water availability and quality, public health, fires, land slides and others are intricately related; and in the long run can have serious consequences if not properly addressed by scientists, regulatory bodies and policy makers. Although it is a much involved and tangled web to unravel, nevertheless we have an excellent start in understanding some of the phenomena and hopefully can mitigate some of the severe effects by advancing our scientific knowledge. This paper briefly discusses the applications of remote sensing data from Terra, Aqua, and other NASA satellites how to deal with such complex problems; it provides an excellent start.

  11. Playing Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Engaging students in the study of genetics is essential to building a deep understanding of heredity, a core idea in the life sciences (NRC 2012). By integrating into the curriculum the stories of famous scientists who studied genetics (e.g., Mendel, Franklin, Watson, and Crick), teachers remind their students that science is a human endeavor.…

  12. The "Mysteries of Hypnosis:" Helping Us Better Understand Hypnosis and Empathic Involvement Theory (EIT).

    PubMed

    Pekala, Ronald J

    2016-01-01

    Wickramasekera II (2015) has penned a comprehensive and thoughtful review article demonstrating how empathy is intimately involved in the psychology and neurophysiology of hypnosis and the self. Hypnosis is a very "mental" or subjective phenomenon for both the client and the research participant. To better assess the mind of the client/participant during hypnosis, it is my belief that we need to generate more "precise" phenomenological descriptors of the mind during hypnosis and related empathic conditions, as Wickramasekera II (2015) has suggested in his article. Although any phenomenological methodology will have its limits and disadvantages, noetics (as defined in the article below) can help us better understand hypnosis, empathic involvement theory, and the brain/mind/behavior interface. By quantifying the mind in a comprehensive manner, just as the brain is comprehensively quantified via fMRI and qEEG technologies, noetic analysis can help us more precisely assess the mind and relate it to the brain and human behavior and experience. PMID:26675154

  13. The CAULDRON game: Helping decision makers understand extreme weather event attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, P.; Otto, F. E. L.

    2014-12-01

    There is a recognition from academics and stakeholders that climate science has a fundamental role to play in the decision making process, but too frequently there is still uncertainty about what, when, how and why to use it. Stakeholders suggest that it is because the science is presented in an inaccessible manner, while academics suggest it is because the stakeholders do not have the scientific knowledge to understand and apply the science appropriately. What is apparent is that stakeholders need support, and that there is an onus on academia to provide it. This support is even more important with recent developments in climate science, such as extreme weather event attribution. We are already seeing the impacts of extreme weather events around the world causing lost of life and damage to property and infrastructure with current research suggesting that these events could become more frequent and more intense. If this is to be the case then a better understanding of the science will be vital in developing robust adaptation and business planning. The use of games, role playing and simulations to aid learning has long been understood in education but less so as a tool to support stakeholder understanding of climate science. Providing a 'safe' space where participants can actively engage with concepts, ideas and often emotions, can lead to deep understanding that is not possible through more passive mechanisms such as papers and web sites. This paper reports on a game that was developed through a collaboration led by the Red Cross/Red Crescent, University of Oxford and University of Reading to help stakeholders understand the role of weather event attribution in the decision making process. The game has already been played successfully at a number of high profile events including COP 19 and the African Climate Conference. It has also been used with students as part of a postgraduate environmental management course. As well as describing the design principles of the

  14. Purposeful and Targeted Use of Scientists to Support In-Service Teachers' Understandings and Teaching of Scientific Inquiry and Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Efforts have been made to enhance teachers' understanding and teaching of NOS and/or SI by immersing teachers into the field and lab work of scientists through intensive summer institutes. Results have been mixed and the samples have been small. This may be due to several factors: implicit strategies to learn and teach about NOS and/or SI…

  15. The Lives of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traver, Rob

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the value of reading biographical material on scientists to enhance student understanding of scientific developments and the roles of individual scientists. Contains a list of recommended books and suggests techniques for selecting the most appropriate literature. (AIM)

  16. A database prototype has been developed to help understand costs in photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect

    MOORE,LARRY M.

    2000-04-11

    High photovoltaic (PV) system costs hinder market growth. An approach to studying these costs has been developed using a database containing system, component and maintenance information. This data, which is both technical and non-technical in nature, is to be used to identify trends related to costs. A pilot database exists at this time and work is continuing. The results of this work may be used by the data owners to improve their operations with the goal of sharing non-attributable information with the public and industry at large. The published objectives of the DOE PV program are to accelerate the development of PV as a national and global energy option, as well as ensure US technology and global market leadership. The approach to supporting these objectives is to understand what drives costs in PV applications. This paper and poster session describe work-in-progress in the form of a database that will help identify costs in PV systems. In an effort to address DOE's Five-Year PV Milestones, a program was established in the summer of 1999 to study system costs in three PV applications--solar home lighting, water pumping, and grid-tied systems. This work began with a RFQ requesting data from these types of systems. Creating a partnership with industry and other system organizations such as Non-Government Organizations (NGOs) was the approach chosen to maintain a close time to the systems in the field. Nine participants were selected as partners, who provided data on their systems. Two activities are emphasized in this work. For the first, an iterative approach of developing baseline reliability and costs information with the participants was taken. This effort led to identifying typical components in these systems as well as the specific data (metrics) that would be needed in any analysis used to understand total systems costs.

  17. Helping Students Understand Real Capacitors: Measuring Efficiencies in a School Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Paulo Simeao; Sampaio e Sousa, Adriano

    2008-01-01

    A recent reform in the Portuguese secondary school curriculum reintroduced the study of capacitors. Thus we decided to implement some experimental activities on this subject with our undergraduate students in physics education courses. A recent announcement of a new kind of capacitor being developed by a team of scientists at Massachusetts…

  18. What the comprehensive economics of blindness and visual impairment can help us understand.

    PubMed

    Frick, Kevin D

    2012-01-01

    Since the year 2000, the amount written about the economics of blindness and visual impairment has increased substantially. In some cases, the studies listed under this heading are calculations of the costs related to vision impairment and blindness at a national or global level; in other cases the studies examine the cost-effectiveness of strategies to prevent or modify visual impairment or blindness that are intended to be applied as a guide to treatment recommendations and coverage decisions. In each case the references are just examples of many that could be cited. These important studies have helped advocates, policy makers, practitioners, educators, and others interested in eye and vision health to understand the magnitude of the impact that visual impairment and blindness have on the world, regions, nations, and individuals and the tradeoffs that need to be made to limit the impact. However, these studies only begin to tap into the insights that economic logic might offer to those interested in this field. This paper presents multiple case studies that demonstrate that the economics of blindness and visual impairment encompasses much more than simply measures of the burden of the condition. Case studies demonstrating the usefulness of economic insight include analysis of the prevention of conditions that lead to impairment, decisions about refractive error and presbyopia, decisions about disease and injury treatment, decisions about behavior among those with uncorrectable impairment, and decisions about how to regulate the market all have important economic inputs. PMID:22944750

  19. Trihalomethanes formed from natural organic matter isolates: Using isotopic and compositional data to help understand sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bergamaschi, B.A.; Fram, M.S.; Fujii, R.; Aiken, G.R.; Kendall, C.; Silva, S.R.

    2000-01-01

    Over 20 million people drink water from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta despite problematic levels of natural organic matter (NOM) and bromide in Delta water, which can form trihalomethanes (THMs) during the treatment process. It is widely believed that NOM released from Delta peat islands is a substantial contributor to the pool of THM precursors present in Delta waters. Dissolved NOM was isolated from samples collected at five channel sites within the Sacramento-San Joaquin Rivers and Delta, California, USA, and from a peat island agricultural drain. To help understand the sources of THM precursors, samples were analyzed to determine their chemical and isotopic composition, their propensity to form THMs, and the isotopic composition of the THMs. The chemical composition of the isolates was quite variable, as indicated by significant differences in carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectra and carbon-to-nitrogen concentration ratios. The lowest propensity to form THMs per unit of dissolved organic carbon was observed in the peat island agricultural drain isolate, even though it possessed the highest fraction of aromatic material and the highest specific ultraviolet absorbance. Changes in the chemical and isotopic composition of the isolates and the isotopic composition of the THMs suggest that the source of the THMs precursors was different between samples and between isolates. The pattern of variability in compositional and isotopic data for these samples was not consistent with simple mixing of river- and peat-derived organic material.

  20. Understanding Rape Survivors' Decisions Not to Seek Help from Formal Social Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Debra; Greeson, Megan; Campbell, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    Few rape survivors seek help from formal social systems after their assault. The purpose of this study was to examine factors that prevent survivors from seeking help from the legal, medical, and mental health systems and rape crisis centers. In this study, 29 female rape survivors who did not seek any postassault formal help were interviewed…

  1. Understanding the Sea Ice Zone: Scientists and Communities Partnering to Archive, Analyze and Disseminate Local Ice Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, J. A.; Oldenburg, J.; Liu, M.; Pulsifer, P. L.; Kaufman, M.; Eicken, H.; Parsons, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Knowledge of sea ice is critical to the hunting, whaling, and cultural activities of many Indigenous communities in Northern and Western Alaska. Experienced hunters have monitored seasonal changes of the sea ice over many years, giving them a unique expertise in assessing the current state of the sea ice as well as any anomalies in seasonal sea ice conditions. The Seasonal Ice Zone Observing Network (SIZONet), in collaboration with the Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA), has developed an online application for collecting, storing, and analyzing sea ice observations contributed by local experts from coastal Alaskan communities. Here we present the current iteration of the application, outline future plans and discuss how the development process and resulting system have improved our collective understanding of sea ice processes and changes. The SIZONet application design is based on the needs of the research scientists responsible for entering observation data into the database, the needs of local sea ice experts contributing their observations and knowledge, and the information needs of Alaska coastal communities. Entry forms provide a variety of input methods, including menus, check boxes, and free text input. Input options strive to balance flexibility in capturing concepts and details with the need for analytical consistency. Currently, research staff at the University of Alaska Fairbanks use the application to enter observations received via written or electronic communications from local sea ice experts. Observation data include current weather conditions, snow and ice quantity and quality, and wildlife sighted or taken. Future plans call for direct use of the SIZONet interface by local sea ice experts as well as students, both as contributors to the data collection and as users seeking meaning in the data. This functionality is currently available to a limited number of community members as we extend the application to support

  2. Embedding With Scientists Results In Better Understanding Of How Science Is Really Done, More Human Stories, And More Effective Communication About Controversial Topics.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haines-Stiles, G.

    2015-12-01

    Until recently much science communication focused on press conferences and results, "Eureka"-moments issued from podiums. Recent documentaries, however, such as PARTICLE FEVER and THE YEAR OF PLUTO go behind the scenes to show long years of effort, and occasional failures, revealing a more honest—and more engaging—picture of how science is actually done. Audiences respond when researchers show a more human face, and candid moments of stress and exhaustion as well as exhilaration make eventual results more meaningful. This presentation will offer evidence that this approach is also effective on contested topics such as climate change, where long-term relationships between journalists and researchers can help structure communications that avoid distracting controversies. A cameraman spends a full week with ornithologist George Divoky on remote Cooper Island, Alaska: the resulting video podcast informs a stage play in London, and George goes on the road with POLAR-PALOOZA across America and internationally, sharing stories about the birds he studies and the polar bears he has to increasingly avoid, as climate change brings them onshore in search of food. POLAR-PALOOZA also introduced Richard Alley and other Arctic and Antarctic scientists to a team of producers and directors, resulting in a 3-part PBS series and museum outreach that is able to present climate change science in an authoritative and apolitical way. That leads, in turn, to leading researchers including video and more visually-dynamic approaches in communicating their work to the public. An upcoming public television series, THE CROWD & THE CLOUD, will devote one program to insights about climate change gained over decades of interaction between producers and scientists. Many mainstream media outlets have cut back on science coverage and released their dedicated "beat" reporters. However a wealth of new channels offer venues for this approach, and falling prices for high quality cameras and editing

  3. Scientists in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, J.

    2009-12-01

    High school science is often the first time students are presented with the scientific method as a tool to assist discovery. I aim to help students ‘think like a scientist’, through my role as a graduate student NSF GK-12 fellow in the Ocean and Coastal Interdisciplinary Science (OACIS) program, where I am paired with a high school science teacher and their classes for the year. To help students gain a familiarity and understanding of how scientists approach research, I will (1) utilize technology, including youtube, powerpoint, and research modeling applications; (2) bring in experts from the University to demonstrate the diversity of the science community; (3) connect with the classroom research from meetings, journals and reports. The goal is to broaden the scope of how research science is conducted, but also to allow individual students to be involved in projects, from developing a hypothesis to presenting their data. A survey at the beginning of the academic year and a survey before the AGU Fall meeting will be compared to assess the influence of having a research scientist present. Results will include how students view of science and scientists has changed, feedback on how successfully technology has improved students’ comprehension, and ideas for making science approachable for diverse high school learners.

  4. From the Horse's Mouth: Why Scientists' Views Are Crucial to Nature of Science Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodson, Derek; Wong, Siu Ling

    2014-01-01

    Written in response to criticism of our work by Fouad Abd-El-Khalick, this position paper reaffirms and reinforces our position about the need to broaden and enrich the scope of nature of science (NOS) oriented curricula by exposing students to the voices of practising scientists. While Abd-El-Khalick's motivation for promoting the so-called…

  5. Understanding the Challenges of Integrating Scientists and Clinical Teachers in Psychiatry Education: Findings from an Innovative Faculty Development Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martimianakis, Maria Athina; Hodges, Brian D.; Wasylenki, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Medical schools and departments of psychiatry around the world face challenges in integrating science with clinical teaching. This project was designed to identify attitudes toward the integration of science in clinical teaching and address barriers to collaboration between scientists and clinical teachers. Methods: The authors explored…

  6. Understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour: can Maslow's pyramid help?

    PubMed

    van Lenthe, Frank J; Jansen, Tessa; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M

    2015-04-14

    Socio-economic groups differ in their material, living, working and social circumstances, which may result in different priorities about their daily-life needs, including the priority to make healthy food choices. Following Maslow's hierarchy of human needs, we hypothesised that socio-economic inequalities in healthy food choices can be explained by differences in the levels of need fulfilment. Postal survey data collected in 2011 (67·2 % response) from 2903 participants aged 20-75 years in the Dutch GLOBE (Gezondheid en Levens Omstandigheden Bevolking Eindhoven en omstreken) study were analysed. Maslow's hierarchy of human needs (measured with the Basic Need Satisfaction Inventory) was added to age- and sex-adjusted linear regression models that linked education and net household income levels to healthy food choices (measured by a FFQ). Most participants (38·6 %) were in the self-actualisation layer of the pyramid. This proportion was highest among the highest education group (47·6 %). Being in a higher level of the hierarchy was associated with a higher consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as more healthy than unhealthy bread, snack and dairy consumption. Educational inequalities in fruit and vegetable intake (B= -1·79, 95 % CI -2·31, -1·28 in the lowest education group) were most reduced after the hierarchy of needs score was included (B= -1·57, 95 % CI - ·09, -1·05). Inequalities in other healthy food choices hardly changed after the hierarchy of needs score was included. People who are satisfied with higher-level needs make healthier food choices. Studies aimed at understanding socio-economic inequalities in food choice behaviour need to take differences in the priority given to daily-life needs by different socio-economic groups into account, but Maslow's pyramid offers little help. PMID:25784199

  7. Using Digital Libraries Non-Visually: Understanding the Help-Seeking Situations of Blind Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Iris; Babu, Rakesh; Joo, Soohyung; Fuller, Paige

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study explores blind users' unique help-seeking situations in interacting with digital libraries. In particular, help-seeking situations were investigated at both the physical and cognitive levels. Method: Fifteen blind participants performed three search tasks, including known- item search, specific information search, and…

  8. Towards Understanding How to Assess Help-Seeking Behavior across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogan, Amy; Walker, Erin; Baker, Ryan; Rodrigo, Ma. Mercedes T.; Soriano, Jose Carlo; Castro, Maynor Jimenez

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in automatically assessing help seeking, the process of referring to resources outside of oneself to accomplish a task or solve a problem. Research in the United States has shown that specific help-seeking behaviors led to better learning within intelligent tutoring systems. However, intelligent…

  9. Maxims To Help Understand the World: Simple Rules To Guide Learning about Geographic Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birdsall, Stephen S.

    2003-01-01

    Explains a large basic course on world regional geography. Introduces students to 10 maxims about the many factors that help define a place's character. Student reactions to the maxims were found to be largely positive. (Author/SOE)

  10. Analyzing prospective teachers' images of scientists using positive, negative and stereotypical images of scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan; Esprívalo Harrell, Pamela; Wojnowski, David

    2013-04-01

    Background and purpose : This study details the use of a conceptual framework to analyze prospective teachers' images of scientists to reveal their context-specific conceptions of scientists. The conceptual framework consists of context-specific conceptions related to positive, stereotypical and negative images of scientists as detailed in the literature on the images, role and work of scientists. Sample, design and method : One hundred and ninety-six drawings of scientists, generated by prospective teachers, were analyzed using the Draw-A-Scientist-Test Checklist (DAST-C), a binary linear regression and the conceptual framework. Results : The results of the binary linear regression analysis revealed a statistically significant difference for two DAST-C elements: ethnicity differences with regard to drawing a scientist who was Caucasian and gender differences for indications of danger. Analysis using the conceptual framework helped to categorize the same drawings into positive, stereotypical, negative and composite images of a scientist. Conclusions : The conceptual framework revealed that drawings were focused on the physical appearance of the scientist, and to a lesser extent on the equipment, location and science-related practices that provided the context of a scientist's role and work. Implications for teacher educators include the need to understand that there is a need to provide tools, like the conceptual framework used in this study, to help prospective teachers to confront and engage with their multidimensional perspectives of scientists in light of the current trends on perceiving and valuing scientists. In addition, teacher educators need to use the conceptual framework, which yields qualitative perspectives about drawings, together with the DAST-C, which yields quantitative measure for drawings, to help prospective teachers to gain a holistic outlook on their drawings of scientists.

  11. Physical analogs that help to better understand the modern concepts on continental stretching, hyperextension and rupturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalan, Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Three facts helped to establish a revolution in the understanding of how mega-continents stretch, rupture and breakup to form new continents and related passive margins: (1) the penetration of the distal portions of the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate margins by several ODP wells (late 70's/early 80's), with the discovery of hyperextended crust and exhumation of lower crust and mantle between typical continental and oceanic domains, (2) field works in the Alps and in the Pyrenees that re-interpreted sedimentary successions and associated "ophiolites" as remnants of old Tethyan passive margins that recorded structural domains similar to those found in Iberia-Newfoundland, and (3) the acquisition of long and ultra-deep reflection seismic sections that could image for the first time sub-crustal levels (25-40 km) in several passive margins around the world. The interpretation of such sections showed that the concepts developed in the Iberia-Newfoundland margins and in the Alps could be applied to a great extent to most passive margins, especially those surrounding the North and South Atlantic Oceans. The new concepts of (i) decoupled deformation (upper brittle X lower ductile) within the proximal domain of the continental crust, (ii) of coupled deformation (hyperextension) in the distal crust and, (iii) of exhumation of deeper levels in the outer domain, with the consequent change in the physical properties of the rising rocks, defined an end-member in the new classification of passive margins, the magma-poor type (as opposed to volcanic passive margins). These concepts, together with the new reflection seismic views of the entire crustal structure of passive margins, forced the re-interpretation of older refraction and potential field data and the re-drawing of long established models. Passive margins are prime targets for petroleum exploration, thus, the great interest raised by this subject in both the academy and in the industry. Interestingly enough, the deformation

  12. Helping Children Understand Their Communities: Past and Present, Real and Virtual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mahony, Carolyn

    2012-01-01

    Social studies should prepare children to participate in society. Teachers can help children study their local neighborhoods and communities on foot, with maps and books, and on websites. Studying the community can reveal a wealth of issues and ideas that matter to students and their families, while students also learn important things about the…

  13. English Teachers Are from Mars, Students Are from Venus (But YA Books Can Help Interplanetary Understanding).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Chris, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses how alien students and teachers are to each other, especially when it comes to literature. Argues that these differences are at the root of many difficulties faced in helping students become readers and appreciate literature. Offers brief descriptions of 10 new or overlooked young-adult books worth reading. (SR)

  14. Using Biography to Help Young Learners Understand the Causes of Historical Change and Continuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fertig, Gary

    2008-01-01

    When teachers in elementary and middle school classrooms portray history as an immutable sequence of certain facts, dates, and events, young learners tend to view the past, and by extension the future, as something fixed and inevitable. Learning about the past through investigating biographies can help counter this tendency by teaching students to…

  15. It's Elementary in Appalachia: Helping Prospective Teachers and Their Students Understand Sexuality and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Patti Capel

    2003-01-01

    The most blatant discrimination that exists today in schools is that directed toward lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, and intersex students (l/g/b/t/i/q). English and language arts teacher education programs can help foster critical awareness among future teachers of sexuality and gender as well as provide the pedagogical skills and…

  16. Putting Information in Perspective: A Mapping Activity to Help Students Understand the California Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gersmehl, Philip J.

    1997-01-01

    Asserts that, to participate in a modern economy, every region needs at least one "bigjob" (basic income generating-job). Describes a mapping activity that helps students identify bigjobs in state economies. Uses California as an example and reveals that, contrary to popular opinion, real estate is California's bigjob. (MJP)

  17. Managing Middle School Madness: Helping Parents and Teachers Understand the "Wonder Years"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilderman, Glen

    2006-01-01

    For many parents and students, the transition from elementary school to middle school can be difficult. This book is a compilation of advice and information to help parents prepare for the behavioral, social, and academic adjustments that students may encounter. In this book, the author offers practical tips on topics such a setting up rewards for…

  18. Sharing Skills. Hermione Helps--S-P-E-W: Understanding and Creating Acronyms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stover, Lynne Farrell

    2005-01-01

    An acronym, a word formed from the first letters of other words, is often used to name products or organizations. For example, when Hermione Granger, a very clever student at Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry, is enraged over the wizarding world's treatment of house-elves, she creates an organization to help put an end to this injustice.…

  19. The Bottom Line: An Exercise to Help Students Understand How Social Inequality Is Actively Constructed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abelev, Melissa; Vincent, M. Bess; Haney, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    One of the important misconceptions in the American view of poverty is that people are poor because they do not work. This article presents an exercise, the "bottom line," which helps dispel students' misconceptions about the working poor. Through extensive primary-data collection and assembling a budget for low-skilled workers, the exercise: (1)…

  20. Applying Symmetries of Common Objects to Help Students Understand Stereoselectivity for Apparently Symmetric Substrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jittam, Piyachat; Ruenwongsa, Pintip; Panijpan, Bhinyo

    2008-01-01

    We have found it an effective way of teaching symmetry in the context of stereoselectivity, to use common everyday objects with the same point groups as the substrates involved. This has helped students to distinguish between those symmetry elements which allow for stereospecificity and those which preclude it. Two symmetry elements, the simple…

  1. Help! I Can't Understand What My Child Is Saying!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dougherty, Dorothy P.

    2005-01-01

    A child with a speech sound disorder may understand words and phrases and use them to talk. However, if a child's speech sounds different from his peers who are the same age, gender or ethnic group, or if he/she frequently avoids talking because he/she is hard to understand, this child may have a speech sound disorder. In this article, the author…

  2. Scientists: Engage the Public!

    PubMed

    Shugart, Erika C; Racaniello, Vincent R

    2015-01-01

    Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or "Sagan effect" associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist's career. There are a variety of approaches that scientists can take to become active in science communication. PMID:26695633

  3. Learning Disabilities: What Are They? Helping Teachers and Parents Understand the Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cimera, Robert Evert

    2007-01-01

    "Specific Learning Disability" is by far the largest category of conditions served in special education. Unfortunately, few parents (and educators) really understand what learning disabilities are. Many erroneously believe it is a "politically correct" term for "mildly mentally retarded" or "dull normal." Further, while most laypeople have heard…

  4. What the Words Mean: Help for Understanding SBR from the Software & Information Industry Association

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    T.H.E. Journal, 2004

    2004-01-01

    To appreciate the true impact of scientifically based research on education, it may be useful first to understand the meaning of the various terms that the law employs as part of its definition of SBR (Scientifcally Based Research). The This article presents an explication from a Software & Information Industry Association publication titled…

  5. Using Open Educational Resources to Help Students Understand the Sub-Prime Lending Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Evelyn A.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, I describe an assignment designed to give students an intermediate level of understanding of the causes of the crisis using online educational resources widely available on the internet. I implemented the assignment in an undergraduate intermediate accounting course. Feedback from students indicate the assignment enhanced their…

  6. The Role of Community College Financial Aid Counselors in Helping Students Understand and Utilize Financial Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinney, Lyle; Roberts, Toya

    2012-01-01

    Financial aid counselors are a primary source of information that many students rely upon to understand financial aid and how to pay for college. However, little is known about financial aid counselors at America's community colleges and their interactions with the students they serve. Using original survey data, this study examined the role these…

  7. How Photography as Field Notes Helps in Understanding the Building the Education Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughlin, Jill

    2013-01-01

    This paper is the outcome of research conducted between June 2010 and January 2011 as part of understanding the building the education revolution (BER) a major policy initiative of the Australian Federal Government which commenced when Julia Gillard, now PM, was the Federal Minister of Education. The BER policy initiative was part of an economic…

  8. Understanding Why Students Do What They Do: Using Attribution Theory to Help Students Succeed Academically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaier, Scott E.

    2015-01-01

    According to attribution theory, people seek to make sense of their environment through ascribing causality to their behavior and the behavior of others and these attributions impact future behavior (Jones et al., 1972). In essence, people seek to answer and understand why. This fundamental concept associated with attribution theory is important…

  9. Understanding Child Maltreatment: Help and Hope. A Course of Study. (Pilot Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Maxwell C.

    Intended for use in inservice teacher and professional education, as well as with secondary level students, the curriculum guide is designed as part of Project Protection to promote understanding of the individual and societal problems of child maltreatment in terms of prevention. The document contains six units which deal with the following…

  10. Helping Students to Understand the Link between Substance Use and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallow, Alissa; Ward, Kelly

    2009-01-01

    Students studying addictive diseases must come to understand, among other issues, the interplay between intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance abuse. Statistics are important, but case examples elucidate for the students what to "listen" for in their meetings with clients. The purpose of this article is to provide several case examples of…

  11. Understanding empathy: why phenomenology and hermeneutics can help medical education and practice.

    PubMed

    Hooker, Claire

    2015-11-01

    This article offers a critique and reformulation of the concept of empathy as it is currently used in the context of medicine and medical care. My argument is three pronged. First, that the instrumentalised notion of empathy that has been common within medicine erases the term's rich epistemological history as a special form of understanding, even a vehicle of social inquiry, and has instead substituted an account unsustainably structured according to the polarisations of modernity (subject/object, active/passive, knower/known, mind/body, doctor/patient). I suggest that understanding empathy by examining its origins within the phenomenological tradition, as a mode of intersubjective understanding, offers a different and profitable approach. Secondly, I argue that the appropriation of empathy in medicine means that, ironically, empathy can function as a technique of pastoral power, in which virtue, knowledge and authority remain with the doctor (Mayes in Bioeth Inq 6:483-493, doi: 10.1007/s11673-009-9195-9 , 2009). And thirdly, empathy is in danger of being resourced as a substitute for equity and funding within health systems. I conclude however with hope for the productive possibilities for empathy. PMID:25763825

  12. Helping women understand their risk in situations of intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2004-12-01

    Only approximately one-half of the 456 women who were killed or almost killed by a husband, boyfriend, or ex-husband or ex-boyfriend in a recent national study of homicide of women accurately perceived their risk of being killed by their abusive partner. Women are unlikely to overestimate their risk; however, many will underestimate the severity of the situation. From the same study, it was found that relatively few of the victims of actual or attempted intimate partner femicide were seen by domestic violence advocates during the year before they were killed; they were far more likely to be seen in the health care system. Implications are drawn as to innovative ways that women who are abused can be identified and with skilled assessment of the danger in their relationship helped make more informed plans for their safety. PMID:15492060

  13. Using art to help understand the imagery of irritable bowel syndrome and its response to hypnotherapy.

    PubMed

    Carruthers, Helen R; Miller, Vivien; Morris, Julie; Evans, Raymond; Tarrier, Nicholas; Whorwell, Peter J

    2009-04-01

    A medical artist asked 109 patients if they had an image of their IBS pre- and posthypnotherapy, making precise watercolor paintings of any images described. Results were related to treatment outcome, symptoms, anxiety, depression, and absorption (hypnotizability); 49% of patients had an image, and a wide variety were recorded and painted. Imagery was significantly associated with gender (p < .05), anxiety (p < .05), noncolonic symptomatology (p < .05), and absorption (p = .001); 57.8% of responders compared with 35.5% of nonresponders to hypnotherapy had an image of their disease (p < .05) before treatment, and color images were associated with better outcomes (p = .05) than monochrome ones. All images changed in responders, often becoming more nonspecific in nature. Inquiring about IBS imagery helps to identify potential responders and nonresponders to hypnotherapy and may also provide insights into how patients think about their illness. PMID:19234964

  14. Understanding the Greenhouse Effect by Embodiment--Analysing and Using Students' and Scientists' Conceptual Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niebert, Kai; Gropengießer, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, science education studies have reported that there are very different understandings among students of science regarding the key aspects of climate change. We used the cognitive linguistic framework of experientialism to shed new light on this valuable pool of studies to identify the conceptual resources of understanding…

  15. How Electron Spectroscopy with Synchrotron Light Can Help Us Understand High-Tc Superconductivity and Other Complex States of Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Campuzano, Juan Carlos

    2012-03-07

    All the physical, chemical, and mechanical properties of materials are controlled by electrons that occupy the highest energy levels in solids, those near the Fermi energy. Many techniques were developed to study those electrons, leading to the great successes of condensed matter physics. Newer and complex materials, such as the high-temperature superconductors, tend to exhibit very large anisotropies in their physical properties, requiring a more detailed knowledge of the behavior of electrons not only as a function of their energy, but also their momentum. Angle-resolved photoemission can contribute to our understanding by providing a great deal of information on many of the momentum-dependent properties of electrons and their interactions. In this talk, I will present a brief overview of how a long-term and focused collaboration between scientists at Argonne and other institutions has contributed to making angle-resolved photoemissions a most useful tool in the study of complex states of matter.

  16. Requesting help to understand medical information among people living with HIV and poor health literacy.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Seth; Pellowski, Jennifer; Chen, Yiyun

    2013-06-01

    Health literacy is known to influence medication adherence among people living with HIV/AIDS. People who experience difficulty reading health information may benefit from asking others to assist them with reading, interpreting, and understanding medical information. We examined medical chart-abstracted HIV viral load, medication adherence assessed by unannounced pill counts, and adherence improvement strategies among 245 individuals with lower-health literacy who do not request assistance, and 229 who do request assistance with reading and understanding health information. Participants were people living with HIV who were taking antiretroviral therapy and scored below 90% correct on a standardized test of functional health literacy. After controlling for health literacy scores, requesting informational assistance was associated with strategies used to improve adherence; individuals who asked for assistance were significantly more likely to use multiple adherence strategies. However, despite requesting informational assistance and using more adherence strategies, participants who requested informational assistance evidenced poorer treatment adherence and poorer suppression of HIV replication. Requesting assistance was more common among those with the poorest health literacy and therefore greatest challenges to adherence. People living with HIV who have poor health literacy skills may benefit from medication adherence programs and requests for assistance afford opportunities for social interventions. PMID:23701199

  17. Engineering Good: How Engineering Metaphors Help us to Understand the Moral Life and Change Society

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Engineering can learn from ethics, but ethics can also learn from engineering. In this paper, I discuss what engineering metaphors can teach us about practical philosophy. Using metaphors such as calculation, performance, and open source, I articulate two opposing views of morality and politics: one that relies on images related to engineering as science and one that draws on images of engineering practice. I argue that the latter view and its metaphors provide a more adequate way to understand and guide the moral life. Responding to two problems of alienation and taking into account developments such as Fab Lab I then further explore the implications of this view for engineering and society. PMID:19722107

  18. Does mechanistic understanding help in risk assessment--the example of dioxins.

    PubMed

    Tuomisto, Jouko

    2005-09-01

    Risk assessment is based on scientific information, in part on "regulatory toxicology", i.e., studies following protocols accepted by national or international authorities, and in part on fundamental scientific information clarifying the mechanisms of toxicity and giving a better possibility to evaluate also the findings of routine safety studies. Both are needed, and increased biological understanding increases the possibilities of handling the data in a rational way. In addition, risk assessment seems to include some built-in assumptions that are not necessarily scientific at all. This review attempts to highlight the distortions that are possible if we follow certain rules in a blinkered way not taking into consideration all aspects of the risk. The highly controversial risk assessment of dioxins is used to exemplify the difficulties of excessively straightforward risk analysis process. PMID:15996698

  19. Does mechanistic understanding help in risk assessment-the example of dioxins

    SciTech Connect

    Tuomisto, Jouko . E-mail: jouko.tuomisto@ktl.fi

    2005-09-01

    Risk assessment is based on scientific information, in part on 'regulatory toxicology', i.e., studies following protocols accepted by national or international authorities, and in part on fundamental scientific information clarifying the mechanisms of toxicity and giving a better possibility to evaluate also the findings of routine safety studies. Both are needed, and increased biological understanding increases the possibilities of handling the data in a rational way. In addition, risk assessment seems to include some built-in assumptions that are not necessarily scientific at all. This review attempts to highlight the distortions that are possible if we follow certain rules in a blinkered way not taking into consideration all aspects of the risk. The highly controversial risk assessment of dioxins is used to exemplify the difficulties of excessively straightforward risk analysis process.

  20. Agent Based Modelling Helps in Understanding the Rules by Which Fibroblasts Support Keratinocyte Colony Formation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Tao; McMinn, Phil; Holcombe, Mike; Smallwood, Rod; MacNeil, Sheila

    2008-01-01

    Background Autologous keratincoytes are routinely expanded using irradiated mouse fibroblasts and bovine serum for clinical use. With growing concerns about the safety of these xenobiotic materials, it is desirable to culture keratinocytes in media without animal derived products. An improved understanding of epithelial/mesenchymal interactions could assist in this. Methodology/Principal Findings A keratincyte/fibroblast o-culture model was developed by extending an agent-based keratinocyte colony formation model to include the response of keratinocytes to both fibroblasts and serum. The model was validated by comparison of the in virtuo and in vitro multicellular behaviour of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in single and co-culture in Greens medium. To test the robustness of the model, several properties of the fibroblasts were changed to investigate their influence on the multicellular morphogenesis of keratinocyes and fibroblasts. The model was then used to generate hypotheses to explore the interactions of both proliferative and growth arrested fibroblasts with keratinocytes. The key predictions arising from the model which were confirmed by in vitro experiments were that 1) the ratio of fibroblasts to keratinocytes would critically influence keratinocyte colony expansion, 2) this ratio needed to be optimum at the beginning of the co-culture, 3) proliferative fibroblasts would be more effective than irradiated cells in expanding keratinocytes and 4) in the presence of an adequate number of fibroblasts, keratinocyte expansion would be independent of serum. Conclusions A closely associated computational and biological approach is a powerful tool for understanding complex biological systems such as the interactions between keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The key outcome of this study is the finding that the early addition of a critical ratio of proliferative fibroblasts can give rapid keratinocyte expansion without the use of irradiated mouse fibroblasts and bovine

  1. Microsatellite and flow cytometry analysis to help understand the origin of Dioscorea alata polyploids

    PubMed Central

    Nemorin, A.; David, J.; Maledon, E.; Nudol, E.; Dalon, J.; Arnau, G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Dioscorea alata is a polyploid species with a ploidy level ranging from diploid (2n = 2x = 40) to tetraploid (2n = 4x = 80). Ploidy increase is correlated with better agronomic performance. The lack of knowledge about the origin of D. alata spontaneous polyploids (triploids and tetraploids) limits the efficiency of polyploid breeding. The objective of the present study was to use flow cytometry and microsatellite markers to understand the origin of D. alata polyploids. Methods Different progeny generated by intracytotype crosses (2x × 2x) and intercytotype crosses (2x × 4x and 3x × 2x) were analysed in order to understand endosperm incompatibility phenomena and gamete origins via the heterozygosity rate transmitted to progeny. Results This work shows that in a 2x × 2x cross, triploids with viable seeds are obtained only via a phenomenon of diploid female non-gametic reduction. The study of the transmission of heterozygosity made it possible to exclude polyspermy and polyembryony as the mechanisms at the origin of triploids. The fact that no seedlings were obtained by a 3x × 2x cross made it possible to confirm the sterility of triploid females. Flow cytometry analyses carried out on the endosperm of seeds resulting from 2x × 4x crosses revealed endosperm incompatibility phenomena. Conclusions The major conclusion is that the polyploids of D. alata would have appeared through the formation of unreduced gametes. The triploid pool would have been built and diversified through the formation of 2n gametes in diploid females as the result of the non-viability of seeds resulting from the formation of 2n sperm and of the non-viability of intercytotype crosses. The tetraploids would have appeared through bilateral sexual polyploidization via the union of two unreduced gametes due to the sterility of triploids. PMID:23912697

  2. Helping medical students to acquire a deeper understanding of truth-telling

    PubMed Central

    Hurst, Samia A.; Baroffio, Anne; Ummel, Marinette; Burn, Carine Layat

    2015-01-01

    Problem Truth-telling is an important component of respect for patients’ self-determination, but in the context of breaking bad news, it is also a distressing and difficult task. Intervention We investigated the long-term influence of a simulated patient-based teaching intervention, integrating learning objectives in communication skills and ethics into students’ attitudes and concerns regarding truth-telling. We followed two cohorts of medical students from the preclinical third year to their clinical rotations (fifth year). Open-ended responses were analysed to explore medical students’ reported difficulties in breaking bad news. Context This intervention was implemented during the last preclinical year of a problem-based medical curriculum, in collaboration between the doctor–patient communication and ethics programs. Outcome Over time, concerns such as empathy and truthfulness shifted from a personal to a relational focus. Whereas ‘truthfulness’ was a concern for the content of the message, ‘truth-telling’ included concerns on how information was communicated and how realistically it was received. Truth-telling required empathy, adaptation to the patient, and appropriate management of emotions, both for the patient's welfare and for a realistic understanding of the situation. Lessons learned Our study confirms that an intervention confronting students with a realistic situation succeeds in making them more aware of the real issues of truth-telling. Medical students deepened their reflection over time, acquiring a deeper understanding of the relational dimension of values such as truth-telling, and honing their view of empathy. PMID:26563958

  3. From Atmospheric Scientist to Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knuth, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Most of my career has been spent analyzing data from research projects in the atmospheric sciences. I spent twelve years researching boundary layer interactions in the polar regions, which included five field seasons in the Antarctic. During this time, I got both a M.S. and Ph.D. in atmospheric science. I learned most of my data science and programming skills throughout this time as part of my research projects. When I graduated with my Ph.D., I was looking for a new and fresh opportunity to enhance the skills I already had while learning more advanced technical skills. I found a position at the University of Colorado Boulder as a Data Research Specialist with Research Computing, a group that provides cyber infrastructure services, including high-speed networking, large-scale data storage, and supercomputing, to university students and researchers. My position is the perfect merriment between advanced technical skills and "softer" skills, while at the same time understanding exactly what the busy scientist needs to understand about their data. I have had the opportunity to help shape our university's data education system, a development that is still evolving. This presentation will detail my career story, the lessons I have learned, my daily work in my new position, and some of the exciting opportunities that opened up in my new career.

  4. How LIF has helped to understand ion loss at the boundaries of weakly collisional plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hershkowitz, N.; Ko, E.; Wang, X.; Oksuza, L.; Halab, A.; Servern, G.

    2003-10-01

    Recent experiments in weakly collisional multi-dipole plasmas with one and two positive ion species have provided a much better understanding of ion motion in presheaths near the boundaries of such plasmas. Plasma potential was determined with emissive probes, ion density with Langmuir probes and diode laser LIF, ion drift velocity with Mach probes calibrated with LIF, and directly with LIF, and from the phase velocity of ion acoustic waves. LIF provided measurements of the ion velocity distribution functions and showed that ion-neutral charge exchange results in ion "heating" near boundaries. LIF showed that Ar ions in Ar-He plasma exit the plasma at the plasma/sheath boundary with a velocity greater than the Ar ion Bohm velocity. In single species plasma, the same diagnostic shows Ar average ion exit velocity equals the Bohm velocity. ^A Suleyman Demirel University, Physics Dept., Isparta Turkey ^B KACST, Space Research Institute, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia *Work supported by US DOE grant DE-FG02-97ER 54437

  5. Lessons from retrievals: Retrievals help understand the reason for revision of coated hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    de Villiers, Danielle; Hothi, Harry; Khatkar, Harman; Meswania, Jayantilal; Blunn, Gordon; Skinner, John; Hart, Alister

    2015-11-01

    Coatings have been applied to all surfaces of hip implants with the majority performing well in the laboratory, but there are few reports of their performance in humans. The rationale for coating the metal-on-metal bearing surfaces includes a reduction in metal ion release and risk of adverse reaction to metal debris; yet there are no reports of retrieved coated metal-on-metal hip implants despite the concern that they may delaminate. The aim of this study was to better understand the performance of coated hip implants in humans through findings of three coated metal-on-metal hip resurfacings, retrieved after failure for unexplained pain. Analysis of these implants included quantification of the amount and mechanism of coating loss which was correlated with clinical, imaging and blood data. In all cases, there were large areas of complete coating loss in which the metal substrate was exposed and found to be rougher than the coated areas. The coating loss gave rise to third body abrasive wear of the coating and the exposed metal, the latter of which led to high blood levels of cobalt and chromium. Coating of the bearing surfaces of metal-on-metal hip resurfacings, therefore, do not prevent metal ion release when implanted into humans. This is an example of a need for increased retrieval analysis of newly introduced implants and expansion of laboratory testing regulations to better reflect the clinical environment. PMID:26503841

  6. How valence bond theory can help you understand your (bio)chemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Shurki, Avital; Derat, Etienne; Barrozo, Alexandre; Kamerlin, Shina Caroline Lynn

    2015-03-01

    Almost a century has passed since valence bond (VB) theory was originally introduced to explain covalent bonding in the H2 molecule within a quantum mechanical framework. The past century has seen constant improvements in this theory, with no less than two distinct Nobel prizes based on work that is essentially developments in VB theory. Additionally, ongoing advances in both methodology and computational power have greatly expanded the scope of problems that VB theory can address. In this Tutorial Review, we aim to give the reader a solid understanding of the foundations of modern VB theory, using a didactic example of a model SN2 reaction to illustrate its immediate applications. This will be complemented by examples of challenging problems that at present can only be efficiently addressed by VB-based approaches. Finally, the ongoing importance of VB theory is demonstrated. It is concluded that VB will continue to be a major driving force for chemistry in the century to come. PMID:25352378

  7. Helping Resource Managers Understand Hydroclimatic Variability and Forecasts: A Case Study in Research Equity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, H. C.; Pagano, T. C.; Sorooshian, S.; Bales, R.

    2002-12-01

    enable low-end users to increase their understanding of probabilistic forecasts, credibility concepts, and implications for decision making. We also developed an interactive forecast assessment tool accessible over the Internet, to support resource decisions by individuals as well as agencies. The tool provides tutorials for guiding forecast interpretation, including quizzes that allow users to test their forecast interpretation skills. Users can monitor recent and historical observations for selected regions, communicated using terminology consistent with available forecast products. The tool also allows users to evaluate forecast performance for the regions, seasons, forecast lead times, and performance criteria relevant to their specific decision making situations. Using consistent product formats, the evaluation component allows individuals to use results at the level they are capable of understanding, while offering opportunity to shift to more sophisticated criteria. Recognizing that many individuals lack Internet access, the forecast assessment webtool design also includes capabilities for customized report generation so extension agents or other trusted information intermediaries can provide material to decision makers at meetings or site visits.

  8. Can Photo Sensors Help Us Understand the Intrinsic Differences Between Quantum and Classical Statistical Behaviors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    2009-03-01

    We use the following epistemology—understanding and visualizing the invisible processes behind all natural phenomena through iterative reconstruction and/or refinement of current working theories towards their limits, constitute our best approach towards discovering actual realities of nature followed by new break-through theories. We use this epistemology to explore the roots of statistical nature of the real world—classical physics, quantum physics and even our mental constructs. Diversity is a natural and healthy outcome of this statistical nature. First, we use a two-beam superposition experiment as an illustrative example of the quantum world to visualize the root of fluctuations (or randomness) in the photo electron counting statistics. We recognize that the fluctuating weak background fields make the quantum world inherently random but the fluctuations are still statistically bounded, indicating that the fundamental laws of nature are still causal. Theoreticians will be challenged for ever to construct a causal and closed form theory free of statistical randomness out of incomplete information. We show by analyzing the essential steps behind any experiment that gaps in the information gathered about any phenomenon is inevitable. This lack of information also influences our personal epistemologies to have "statistical spread" due to its molecular origin, albeit bounded and constrained by the causally driven atomic and molecular interactions across the board. While there are clear differences in the root and manifestation of classical and quantum statistical behavior, on a fundamental level they originate in our theories due to lack of complete information about everything that is involved in every interaction in our experiments. Statistical nature of our theories is a product of incomplete information and we should take it as an inevitable paradigm.

  9. The case of Carla: Dilemmas of helping all students to understand science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, Lori A.; Anderson, Charles W.; Palincsar, Annemarie S.

    2002-05-01

    This paper tells the story of four sixth-grade students, of mixed race and social class, who worked together in a small group. All four students were intrigued as they experimented with colored solutions of different densities. They all wanted to share ideas about the techniques they had used, the observations they had made, and the patterns they had seen. They all wanted to understand why the colored solutions acted as they did. In spite of these common interests, they often failed to achieve intersubjective communication about the colored solutions or about the process of planning and making a poster to report their findings. We explain these failures using the sociolinguistic concepts of polysemy, privileging, and holding the floor. In particular, Carla (an African American girl) was unable to hold the floor within the group, so her opportunities for science learning were diminished. The four students were not overtly prejudiced in their speech or actions. Yet the expectations they brought with them about how and when people should talk, how work should be done, and what standards of quality they should aspire to led them to reconstruct among themselves some of the most troubling inequities of our society as a whole. This story is about important connections. In particular it is about how the actions of children are connected to the histories of their families, and how the privileging of ideas is connected to that of people, and how the practice of science is connected to that of discrimination. Science education reformers may underestimate the difficulty of separating conceptual conflict about ideas from interpersonal conflict about privilege and status.

  10. Dynamics of the mammalian nucleus: can microscopic movements help us to understand our genes?

    PubMed

    Sleeman, Judith E

    2004-12-15

    scrutiny over the past few years. This has largely been driven by advances in microscopy as well as the advent of in vivo labelling techniques for sub-nuclear structures. It is now possible, using a protein originally isolated from jellyfish, to visualize sub-nuclear structures in living cultured cells. Together with three-dimensional time-lapse microscopy and an ever-expanding range of photo-bleaching techniques, this technology allows us to ask detailed questions about movements of sub-nuclear structures themselves and of the proteins contained within them. It has recently become clear that sub-nuclear structures are capable of moving within the nucleus and of physically interacting with each other. It is also now known that there is a constant flux of molecules into and out of these mobile structures as well as exchange of molecules between them, rather like passengers travelling on the London Underground. The challenge for the future is to relate dynamic events at the microscopic and molecular levels back to the organism as a whole. Only by understanding how the information encoded on genes is accurately expressed at the right time and in the right place can we really take advantage of the knowledge currently available to us. PMID:15539370

  11. Scientists: Engage the Public!

    PubMed Central

    Shugart, Erika C.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scientists must communicate about science with public audiences to promote an understanding of complex issues that we face in our technologically advanced society. Some scientists may be concerned about a social stigma or “Sagan effect” associated with participating in public communication. Recent research in the social sciences indicates that public communication by scientists is not a niche activity but is widely done and can be beneficial to a scientist’s career. There are a variety of approaches that scientists can take to become active in science communication. PMID:26695633

  12. Research goes to School: understanding the content and the procedures of Science through a new dialogue among students, teachers and scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    L'Astorina, Alba; Tomasoni, Irene

    2015-04-01

    The Education system is increasingly interested in a more interactive dialogue with scientists in order to make science taught at school more aware of the models and the ways in which knowledge is produced, revised and discussed within the scientific community. Not always, in fact, the ministerial programs, the media, and the textbooks adopted by schools seem to be able to grasp the content and the procedures of the scientific knowledge as it is today being developed, sometimes spreading the idea of a monolithic and static science, with no reference to revisions, uncertainties, errors and disputes that, on the opposite, characterize the debate about science. On the other side, scientists, that in several surveys define students and teachers as one of the key groups that are most important to communicate with, often do not seem to be aware that scientific knowledge is continuously revised by the school and its protagonists. Science teaching, in all classes, has a highly educational role, as it offers the opportunity to value individual differences, to make students acquire specific tools and methods that enable them understand the world and critically interact with it. In this process of conscious learning, in which teachers play the role of tutors, the student participates actively bringing his tacit knowledge and beliefs. In this context, an educational proposal has recently been developed by the Italian National Research Council (CNR), aimed at starting a new dialogue between Education and Research. It's a way to encourage the technical and scientific culture among young people and a mutual exchange between the two main actors of the scientific production and promotion, considering weaknesses and strengths of the relationship between these two systems. In this proposal, students and teachers follow side by side a group of CNR scientists involved in an ongoing research project based on the use of innovative methodologies of aerospace Earth Observation (EO) for

  13. What Experiences Help Students Become Scientists? A Comparative Study of Research and Other Sources of Personal and Professional Gains for STEM Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiry, Heather; Laursen, Sandra L.; Hunter, Anne-Barrie

    2011-01-01

    In this study of curricular and co-curricular learning in STEM disciplines at four liberal arts colleges, comparative analysis of 62 interviews with graduating seniors demonstrates that out-of-class experiences fostered many intellectual, personal, and professional gains. Undergraduate research, in particular, helped to shape science identities…

  14. Helping Students Understand Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitlock, Roger

    To force students--at the very beginning of the writing process--to be aware of audience and to gain insight into their own writing, in-class writing and sharing exercises can be invaluable. For example, students can present to the class their subject for an upcoming paper, with the class responding on paper to such questions as: (1) What do you…

  15. Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH): Scientific Understanding of Arctic Environmental Change to Help Society Understand and Respond to a Rapidly Changing Arctic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Myers, B.

    2015-12-01

    The Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) is a U.S. program with a mission to provide a foundation of Arctic change science through collaboration with the research community, funding agencies, and other stakeholders. To achieve this mission, SEARCH: Generates and synthesizes research findings and promotes Arctic science and scientific discovery across disciplines and among agencies. Identifies emerging issues in Arctic environmental change. Provides scientific information to Arctic stakeholders, policy-makers, and the public to help them understand and respond to arctic environmental change. Facilitates research activities across local-to-global scales, with an emphasis on addressing needs of decision-makers. Collaborates with national and international science programs integral to SEARCH goals. This poster presentation will present SEARCH activities and plans, highlighting those focused on providing information for decision-makers. http://www.arcus.org/search

  16. How Are Scientists Portrayed in Children's Science Biographies?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagher, Zoubeida R.; Ford, Danielle J.

    The goal of this study is to analyze the images of science and scientists in science biographies written for children. We examined 12 biographies of historic and contemporary scientists written for primary/middle school children in relation to three dimensions: characteristics of scientists, nature and process of scientific knowledge, and social processes of science. Biographies of historic scientists were characterized by a relative absence of description of how scientists arrived at their knowledge especially in books addressing younger readers. Biographies of contemporary scientists showed richer descriptions of experimental science with limited attention to connections between evidence and theory. Findings reinforce the need for teachers to guide students in their critical reading of biographies and provide additional resources to help them construct a richer understanding of the nature of science

  17. Understanding help-seeking amongst university students: the role of group identity, stigma, and exposure to suicide and help-seeking

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Michelle; Muldoon, Orla T.; Msetfi, Rachel M.; Surgenor, Paul W. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite a high prevalence of suicide ideation and mental health issues amongst university students, the stigma of help-seeking remains a barrier to those who are in real need of professional support. Social identity theory states that help received from an ingroup source is more welcome and less threatening to one's identity than that from a source perceived as outgroup. Therefore, we hypothesized that students' stigma toward seeking help from their university mental health service would differ based on the strength of their identification with the university. Method: An online survey including measures of stigma of suicide, group identification, experience with help-seeking and exposure to suicide was administered to Irish university students (N = 493). Results: Group identification was a significant predictor of help-seeking attitudes after controlling for already known predictors. Contrary to our expectations, those who identified more strongly with their university demonstrated a higher stigma of seeking help from their university mental health service. Conclusions: Results are discussed in relation to self-categorization theory and the concept of normative fit. Practical implications for mental health service provision in universities are also addressed, specifically the need for a range of different mental health services both on and off-campus. PMID:26483722

  18. The effects of conducting authentic field-geology research on high school students' understanding of the nature of science, and their views of themselves as research scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millette, Patricia M.

    Authentic field geology research is a inquiry method that encourages students to interact more with their local environment, and by solving genuine puzzles, begin to increase their intuitive understanding of the nature and processes of science. The goal of the current study was to determine if conducting authentic field research and giving high school students the opportunity to present findings to adult audiences outside of the school setting 1) enhances students' understanding of the nature of science, and 2) affects students views of themselves as researchers. To accomplish this, ninth-grade students from a public school in northern New England engaged in a community-initiated glacial geology problem, completed a field research investigation, and presented their findings at several professional conferences. Following the completion of this student-centered field research, I investigated its effects by using a mixed methods approach consisting of qualitative and quantitative data from two sources. These included selected questions from an open-response survey (VNOS-c), and interviews that were conducted with fifteen of the students of different ages and genders. Findings show that conducting original field research seems to have a positive influence on these students' understanding of the NOS as well as the processes of science. Many of the students reported feelings of accomplishment, acceptance of responsibility for the investigation, a sense of their authentic contribution to the body of scientific knowledge in the world, and becoming scientists. This type of authentic field investigation is significant because recent reforms in earth-science education stress the importance of students learning about the nature and processes of scientific knowledge along with science content.

  19. Scientists and Human Rights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makdisi, Yousef

    2012-02-01

    The American Physical Society has a long history of involvement in defense of human rights. The Committee on International Freedom of Scientists was formed in the mid seventies as a subcommittee within the Panel On Public Affairs ``to deal with matters of an international nature that endangers the abilities of scientists to function as scientists'' and by 1980 it was established as an independent committee. In this presentation I will describe some aspects of the early history and the impetus that led to such an advocacy, the methods employed then and how they evolved to the present CIFS responsibility ``for monitoring concerns regarding human rights for scientists throughout the world''. I will also describe the current approach and some sample cases the committee has pursued recently, the interaction with other human rights organizations, and touch upon some venues through which the community can engage to help in this noble cause.

  20. Scientists' Participation in Teacher Professional Development: The Impact on Fourth to Eighth Grade Teachers' Understanding and Implementation of Inquiry Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Judith A.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of a professional development experience involving scientists and fourth to eighth grade teachers of science was explored. Teachers attended a summer program at a research facility where they had various experiences such as job shadowing and interviewing scientists. They also participated in authentic inquiry investigations and planned…

  1. Assessing the Impact of Education and Outreach Activities on Research Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Brian M.; Cramer, Catherine B.; Taylor, Lisa G.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the attitudes of university-level research scientists toward educational and outreach activities that aim to help the general public understand more about their scientific endeavors. Interviews, observations, and survey results from 12 university research scientists, their colleagues, students, and the…

  2. Citizen Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    The Harvard Forest Schoolyard Ecology Program provides teachers and students with the opportunity and materials to participate in regionally focused ecological studies under the guidance of a mentor scientist working on a similar study. The Harvard Forest is part of a national network of ecological research sites known as the Long Term Ecological…

  3. Student Scientist Partnerships and Data Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawless, James G.; Rock, Barrett N.

    1998-03-01

    The Student Scientist Partnership introduces students to hands-on, minds-on science and provides them an opportunity to participate in a program that is real and important, and also introduces the student to the rigor of science through the focus on data quality. The student has the opportunity to experience and learn the Scientific Method, not just memorize it, to stimulate creative thinking, inquiry based learning, and many other key components of the educational objectives. The scientist should provide skill appropriate scientific inquiry tools that the student uses to help them improve the quality of their data and to understand the science concept being addressed. By making the measurements suggested, and establishing the quality of their data, the student begins the journey of understanding scientific research. The scientist not only uses the student-generated data in their on-going research activities, but also provides higher level information products back to the student. Ultimately, it must be clearly remembered that there are two important but quite different objectives for both the student and the scientist. For the student, the primary objective is the generation of the knowledge of science, while, for the research scientist, the primary objective is the generation of scientific knowledge.

  4. Advocating through Argumentation: Supporting Claims with Evidence Helps Students Develop an Understanding of the Impact of Extinction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Jessica; Golden, Barry; Parmly, Jilynn

    2013-01-01

    Through the construction of arguments, students are invited to make sense of the concept of a species and its connection to both extinction and local biomes. Scientific argumentation is the process by which scientists engage in discourse aimed at developing common knowledge about the natural world (Driver et al. 1994). This article describes a 5E…

  5. How Can Studies of Resting-state Functional Connectivity Help Us Understand Psychosis as a Disorder of Brain Development?

    PubMed Central

    Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Baker, Justin T.

    2014-01-01

    Psychosis is increasingly being understood as a neurodevelopmental “dysconnection” syndrome, in which neural connectivity – at both microscopic and macroscopic levels of brain organization – becomes disrupted during late adolescence and early adulthood. Tools to quantify normative brain development and identify individuals at risk are urgently needed to tailor appropriate strategies for prevention and intervention, and could substantially improve clinical outcomes. Resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rsfc-MRI) provides a rich, functional description of the brain’s macroscopic connectivity structure. Over the past several years, rsfc-MRI has evolved to be a powerful tool for studying both normal brain development and abnormalities associated with psychosis. Several recent advances highlight intriguing and potentially significant parallels between these two lines of research. For instance, rsfc-MRI work suggests that psychosis is accompanied by loss of segregation between large-scale brain association networks, a pattern that is normal in early life but typically matures into more segregated systems by young adulthood. Coupled with data sharing across large-scale neuroimaging studies, longitudinal assessments using rsfc-MRI in patients and those at risk will be essential for improving our biological understanding of psychosis and will help inform diagnosis, prognosis, and clinical decision-making. PMID:25464373

  6. Results from a Pilot Study of a Curriculum Unit Designed to Help Middle School Students Understand Chemical Reactions in Living Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann-Abell, Cari F.; Flanagan, Jean C.; Roseman, Jo Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Students often have trouble understanding key biology ideas because they lack an understanding of foundational chemistry ideas. AAAS Project 2061 is collaborating with BSCS in the development a curriculum unit that connects core chemistry and biochemistry ideas in order to help eighth grade students build the conceptual foundation needed for high…

  7. Teaching Scientists to Fish, as Inspired by Jack Dymond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franks, S. E.

    2004-12-01

    It is almost inconceivable that as Jack Dymond's graduate student for eight years, I never mastered the skill of fly-fishing, a pursuit so near and dear to his heart. In fact, Jack did inspire me, not to tie flies and cast, but eventually to teach fellow scientists to fish. The work I'll present - connecting scientists and educators to achieve societal benefit - is profoundly influenced by Jack's dedication to applying scientific understanding and critical thinking to societal issues. With colleagues in the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE), http://www.cosee.net/, I enable scientists to efficiently make meaningful contributions to educational outreach. A key goal of the multi-Center, national COSEE Network is helping scientists build the skills and acquire the resources needed to share their science with diverse audiences. At Scripps, we are piloting an innovative approach to helping scientists meet funding agencies' broader impact requirements. Key elements of the approach include: 1) services to identify educational outreach options that best fit scientists' research and preferences; 2) assistance establishing partnerships with educational outreach providers who have the skills and resources to develop and implement effective programs and exhibits; and 3) nuts and bolts (line and fly) assistance writing proposal text, drafting budgets, and coordinating with institutional business offices to ensure that the proposed educational outreach effort is compelling and sufficiently funded. Where does the fishing lesson come in? We facilitators of scientist-educator partnerships empower scientists to launch enduring collaborations. Once comfortable working with top-notch educational organizations, scientists can tap these resources, project after project, often with little or no additional involvement on our part. Our initial investment in brokering the relationships is richly rewarded. By helping scientists get started, it's as if we are teaching

  8. Nurturing the Child Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Lisa; Basca, Belinda

    2011-01-01

    The natural world fascinates young children. Treasured leaves, shells, stones, and twigs always find their way into the kindergarten classroom. A kindergarten study of collections channels and deepens children's innate impulse to explore and collect. It also lays the foundation for understanding how scientists approach the study of objects in…

  9. Sustainable Scientists

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2008-12-31

    Scientists are front and center in quantifying and solving environmental problems. Yet, as a spate of recent news articles in scientific journals point out, much can be done to enhance sustainability within the scientific enterprise itself, particularly by trimming the energy use associated with research facilities and the equipment therein (i,ii,iii, iv). Sponsors of research unwittingly spend on the order of $10 billion each year on energy in the U.S. alone, and the underlying inefficiencies drain funds from the research enterprise while causing 80 MT CO2-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions (see Box). These are significant sums considering the opportunity costs in terms of the amount of additional research that could be funded and emissions that could be reduced if the underlying energy was used more efficiently. By following commercially proven best practices in facility design and operation, scientists--and the sponsors of science--can cost-effectively halve these costs, while doing their part to put society on alow-carbon diet.

  10. How Can Students Be Scientists and Still Be Themselves: Understanding the Intersectionality of Science Identity and Multiple Social Identities through Graduate Student Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Minh C.

    2011-01-01

    According to a report released in 2005, titled "Rising Above the Gathering Storm," there is a critical priority to develop, recruit, and retain top students, scientists, and engineers to maintain U.S. economic competitiveness in response to rapid globalization. To improve our global competitiveness, the U.S. must retain individuals from…

  11. Set a Structure of Objects with a Help of Grouping to Ten Strategy to Understand the Idea of Unitizing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assiti, Saliza Safta; Zulkardi; Darmawijoyo

    2013-01-01

    The intention of the present study is to know how the pupils can learn to make a group of ten to understand the idea of unitizing. The pupils were given a contextual problem "Counting the Beads" in order to promote their understanding about the idea of unitizing. The process of designing the problem was based on the 5 tenets of…

  12. Use of a Spreadsheet to Help Students Understand the Origin of the Empirical Equation that Allows Estimation of the Extinction Coefficients of Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    A brief history of the development of the empirical equation that is used by prominent, Internet-based programs to estimate (or calculate) the extinction coefficients of proteins is presented. In addition, an overview of a series of related assignments designed to help students understand the origin of the empirical equation is provided. The…

  13. Small Businesses Save Big: A Guide to Help SBA Lenders Understand and Communicate the Value of Energy Efficiency Investments (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Dollars saved through energy efficiency can directly impact your bottom line. Whether you are planning for a major renovation or upgrading individual pieces of building equipment, these improvements can help reduce operating costs, save on utility bills, and boost profits. This fact sheet provides guidelines for SBA lenders to understand the value of financing energy efficiency investments.

  14. Symptoms of Mental Health Problems: Children's and Adolescents' Understandings and Implications for Gender Differences in Help Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Alice; Hunt, Kate; Sweeting, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Amidst concerns that young people's mental health is deteriorating, it is important to explore their understandings of symptoms of mental health problems and beliefs around help seeking. Drawing on focus group data from Scottish school pupils, we demonstrate how they understood symptoms of mental health problems and how their…

  15. Salmonella enterica in the Chicken: How it has Helped Our Understanding of Immunology in a Non-Biomedical Model Species

    PubMed Central

    Wigley, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella infection of the chicken is important both as a source of foodborne human salmonellosis and as a source of disease in the chicken itself. Vaccination and other control strategies require an understanding of the immune response and as such have been important in understanding both mucosal immunity and more generally the response to bacterial infection. In this review, we discuss the contribution the study of avian salmonellosis has made to understanding innate immunity including the function of phagocytic cells, pattern recognition receptors, and defensins. The mucosal response to Salmonella infection and its regulation and the contribution this makes in protection against infection and persistence within the gut and future directions in better understanding the role of TH17 and Tregs in this response. Finally, we discuss the role of the immune system and its modulation in persistent infection and infection of the reproductive tract. We also outline key areas of research required to fully understand the interaction between the chicken immune system and Salmonella and how infection is maintained in the absence of substantive gastrointestinal disease. PMID:25346731

  16. Engaging in Education and Outreach: Guidance for Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorrold, A. L.; Franks, S. E.; McDonnell, J.; Peach, C. L.; Simms, E.

    2006-12-01

    Scientists are regularly asked to communicate about their research through various media to a variety of audiences. Each audience has particular interests and communication practices must be adapted to effectively reach them. Collaboration between scientists and those who specialize in education and outreach enables researchers to more efficiently and successfully plan, propose and implement outreach activities. In partnership with the Centers for Ocean Sciences Education Excellence (COSEE) and The Oceanography Society (TOS), we have developed electronic and print resources to help scientists better understand how to be effective communicators of their science. We will present and demonstrate the new resources as well as discuss opportunities for scientists to contribute to the future development of these materials.

  17. Increasing Professional Self-Understanding: Self-Study Research by Teachers with the Help of Biography, Core Reflection and Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koster, Bob; van den Berg, Bas

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in self-study methods being used by teachers and teacher educators to improve their own practice. The focus of these self-studies seems to be more on acting than on understanding, and here we focus on a group of teachers who explore their professional identities. Teachers participating in a Master's degree study were…

  18. Please Know Me As I Am: A Guide to Helping Children Understand the Child with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleary, Margaret E.

    Presented is a guide for teaching elementary school children to understand classmates and others with special needs which was developed as a result of a project involving 16 classroom teachers and a nurse consultant in developing an exemplary program. Listed are concerns frequently voiced by teachers such as a child asking embarassing questions.…

  19. Using a Self-as-Model Video Combined with Social Stories to Help a Child with Asperger Syndrome Understand Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernad-Ripoll, Susana

    2007-01-01

    Using an AB design with generalization, this study sought to determine the effectiveness of presenting videotaped emotions and Social Stories[TM] to teach a 9-year-old child with Asperger syndrome to recognize and understand emotions in himself and to generalize them to other situations in his home. Data collected in the child's home showed an…

  20. Use of a Laboratory Exercise on Molar Absorptivity to Help Students Understand the Authority of the Primary Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soundararajan, Madhavan; Bailey, Cheryl P.; Markwell, John

    2008-01-01

    To promote understanding of the authority of the primary literature in students taking our biochemistry laboratory courses, a biochemistry laboratory exercise on the determination of an acceptable molar absorptivity value of 2-nitrophenol (2-NP) was developed. This made the laboratory course much more relevant by linking to a thematic thread,…

  1. Molecular monitoring 101: helping your patients with chronic myeloid leukemia to understand the meaning of molecular response.

    PubMed

    Jabbour, Elias J; Quintás-Cardama, Alfonso

    2012-08-01

    For patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), measurement of molecular response (i.e. the level of BCR-ABL1 transcripts) is firmly established as a key element of disease monitoring. Assessment of BCR-ABL1 levels may help to identify early signs of resistance to treatment and enable a timely switch to alternative therapies. Hence, regular and accurate monitoring of BCR-ABL1 transcripts helps to maximize the chance of successful outcomes in CML. Because the incidence of CML is relatively low, many community oncologists encounter only a limited number of cases; measuring and interpreting BCR-ABL1 measurements in a clinically relevant fashion may be challenging. The team at our institution often encounters questions regarding real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assessments of BCR-ABL1 levels, International Scale standardization, the implications of achieving or losing molecular responses and mutation monitoring. The aim of this article is to provide practical advice for effective long-term monitoring of patients with CML by addressing frequently asked questions and common case scenarios using guideline- and evidence-based approaches. PMID:22273251

  2. An Innovative Lab-Based Training Program to Help Patient Groups Understand Their Disease and the Research Process

    PubMed Central

    Mathieu, Marion; Hammond, Constance; Karlin, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Genuine partnership between patient groups and medical experts is important but challenging. Our training program meets this challenge by organizing hands-on, lab-based training sessions for members of patient groups. These sessions allow “trainees” to better understand their disease and the biomedical research process, and strengthen links between patients and local researchers. Over the past decade, we and our partner institutes have received more than 900 French patients, with the participation of over 60 researchers and clinicians. PMID:25668201

  3. The Advantage of Throwing the First Stone: How Understanding the Evolutionary Demands of Homo sapiens Is Helping Us Understand Carpal Motion

    PubMed Central

    Rohde, Rachel S.; Crisco, Joseph J.; Wolfe, Scott W.

    2012-01-01

    Unlike any other diarthrodial joint in the human body, the “wrist joint” is composed of numerous articulations between eight carpal bones, the distal radius, the distal ulna, and five metacarpal bones. The carpal bones articulate with each other as well as with the distal radius, distal ulna, and the metacarpal bases. Multiple theories explaining intercarpal motion have been proposed; however, controversy exists concerning the degree and direction of motion of the individual carpal bones within the two carpal rows during different planes of motion. Recent investigations have suggested that traditional explanations of carpal bone motion may not entirely account for carpal motion in all planes. Better understanding of the complexities of carpal motion through the use of advanced imaging techniques and simultaneous appreciation of human anatomic and functional evolution have led to the hypothesis that the “dart thrower’s motion” of the wrist is uniquely human. Carpal kinematic research and current developments in both orthopaedic surgery and anthropology underscore the importance of the dart thrower’s motion in human functional activities and the clinical implications of these concepts for orthopaedic surgery and rehabilitation. PMID:20044492

  4. Stochastic models of cellular circadian rhythms in plants help to understand the impact of noise on robustness and clock structure.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Maria L; Akman, Ozgur E; van Ooijen, Gerben

    2014-01-01

    Rhythmic behavior is essential for plants; for example, daily (circadian) rhythms control photosynthesis and seasonal rhythms regulate their life cycle. The core of the circadian clock is a genetic network that coordinates the expression of specific clock genes in a circadian rhythm reflecting the 24-h day/night cycle. Circadian clocks exhibit stochastic noise due to the low copy numbers of clock genes and the consequent cell-to-cell variation: this intrinsic noise plays a major role in circadian clocks by inducing more robust oscillatory behavior. Another source of noise is the environment, which causes variation in temperature and light intensity: this extrinsic noise is part of the requirement for the structural complexity of clock networks. Advances in experimental techniques now permit single-cell measurements and the development of single-cell models. Here we present some modeling studies showing the importance of considering both types of noise in understanding how plants adapt to regular and irregular light variations. Stochastic models have proven useful for understanding the effect of regular variations. By contrast, the impact of irregular variations and the interaction of different noise sources are less well studied. PMID:25374576

  5. Astronomer to Data Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Jessica Kirkpatrick received her PhD in Astrophysics from Berkeley in 2012. After an exhaustive job search within academia and beyond, she accepted a job as a data scientist / analyst for the social network Yammer (acquired by Microsoft) and is now the Director of Data Science for Education Company InstaEDU. Now instead of spending her days finding patterns in the large scale structure of galaxies, she finds patterns in the behaviors of people. She'll talk about her transition from astrophysics to tech, compare and contrast the two fields, and give tips about how to land a tech job, and discuss useful tools which helped her with her transition.

  6. Bike Helmets and Black Riders: Experiential Approaches to Helping Students Understand Natural Hazard Assessment and Mitigation Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, S. A.; Kley, J.; Hindle, D.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2014-12-01

    Defending society against natural hazards is a high-stakes game of chance against nature, involving tough decisions. How should a developing nation allocate its budget between building schools for towns without ones or making existing schools earthquake-resistant? Does it make more sense to build levees to protect against floods, or to prevent development in the areas at risk? Would more lives be saved by making hospitals earthquake-resistant, or using the funds for patient care? These topics are challenging because they are far from normal experience, in that they involve rare events and large sums. To help students in natural hazard classes conceptualize them, we pose tough and thought-provoking questions about complex issues involved and explore them together via lectures, videos, field trips, and in-class and homework questions. We discuss analogous examples from the students' experiences, drawing on a new book "Playing Against Nature, Integrating Science and Economics to Mitigate Natural Hazards in an Uncertain World". Asking whether they wear bicycle helmets and why or why not shows the cultural perception of risk. Individual students' responses vary, and the overall results vary dramatically between the US, UK, and Germany. Challenges in hazard assessment in an uncertain world are illustrated by asking German students whether they buy a ticket on public transportation - accepting a known cost - or "ride black" - not paying but risking a heavy fine if caught. We explore the challenge of balancing mitigation costs and benefits via the question "If you were a student in Los Angeles, how much more would you pay in rent each month to live in an earthquake-safe building?" Students learn that interdisciplinary thinking is needed, and that due to both uncertainties and sociocultural factors, no unique or right strategies exist for a particular community, much the less all communities. However, we can seek robust policies that give sensible results given

  7. Model scientists

    PubMed Central

    Staves, Mark

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing trend for the focus of biology to be determined more by administrators who have short-term pecuniary interests in science rather than by individuals who are “doing science” to further the fundamental human desire to understand ourselves, the natural environment, and our place in the world, though questioning. We feel that this ceding of the scope of science from the questioners to the administrators is at variance with the traditions of science, which heretofore have resulted in the remarkable advancements made in the field of biology. In contrast to the plethora of day-to-day conversations on how to fit into the administrators' directives, this essay provides a historical context, particularly though its extensive bibliography, to encourage today's biologists to question authority and question nature. “If it be of importance and of use to us to know the principles of the element we breathe, surely it is not of much less importance nor of much less use to comprehend the principles, and endeavour at the improvement of those laws, by which alone we breathe it in security.”—Jeremy Bentham1 PMID:19513206

  8. Acid Hydrolysis and Molecular Density of Phytoglycogen and Liver Glycogen Helps Understand the Bonding in Glycogen α (Composite) Particles

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Prudence O.; Sullivan, Mitchell A.; Sheehy, Joshua J.; Schulz, Benjamin L.; Warren, Frederick J.; Gilbert, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Phytoglycogen (from certain mutant plants) and animal glycogen are highly branched glucose polymers with similarities in structural features and molecular size range. Both appear to form composite α particles from smaller β particles. The molecular size distribution of liver glycogen is bimodal, with distinct α and β components, while that of phytoglycogen is monomodal. This study aims to enhance our understanding of the nature of the link between liver-glycogen β particles resulting in the formation of large α particles. It examines the time evolution of the size distribution of these molecules during acid hydrolysis, and the size dependence of the molecular density of both glucans. The monomodal distribution of phytoglycogen decreases uniformly in time with hydrolysis, while with glycogen, the large particles degrade significantly more quickly. The size dependence of the molecular density shows qualitatively different shapes for these two types of molecules. The data, combined with a quantitative model for the evolution of the distribution during degradation, suggest that the bonding between β into α particles is different between phytoglycogen and liver glycogen, with the formation of a glycosidic linkage for phytoglycogen and a covalent or strong non-covalent linkage, most probably involving a protein, for glycogen as most likely. This finding is of importance for diabetes, where α-particle structure is impaired. PMID:25799321

  9. Some Psychological Knowledge for Scientists' Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miclea, Mircea

    2008-01-01

    Relying on empirical evidences our paper presents the most salient personality traits, developmental factors and cognitive characteristics of the scientists. We claim that a sound exploration of scientists' mind and patterns of behavior could improve public support for science and enhance scientists' mutual understanding.

  10. UNDERSTANDING THE REASONS FOR THE REFUSAL OF CHOLECYSTECTOMY IN PATIENTS WITH CHOLELITHIASIS: HOW TO HELP THEM IN THEIR DECISION?

    PubMed Central

    PERON, Adilson; SCHLIEMANN, Ana Laura; de ALMEIDA, Fernando Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Background Cholelithiasis is prevalent surgical disease, with approximately 60,000 admissions per year in the Unified Health System in Brazil. Is often asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic and major complications arise from the migration of calculi to low biliary tract. Despite these complications are severe and life threatening, some patients refuse surgical treatment. Aim To understand why individuals with cholelithiasis refuse cholecystectomy before complications inherent to the presence of gallstones in the bile duct and pancreatitis occur. Methods To investigate the universe of the justifications for refusing to submit to surgery it was performed individual interviews according to a predetermined script. In these interviews, was evaluate the knowledge of individuals about cholelithiasis and its complications and the reasons for the refusal of surgical treatment. Were interviewed 20 individuals with cholelithiasis who refused or postponed surgical treatment without a plausible reason. To these interviews, was applied the technique of thematic analysis (Minayo, 2006). Results The majority of respondents had good knowledge of their disease and its possible complications, were well oriented and had surgical indications by their physicians. The refusal for surgery was justified primarily on negative experiences of themselves or family members with surgery, including anesthesia; fear of pain or losing their autonomy during surgery and postoperative period, preferring to take the risk and wait for complications to then solve them compulsorily. Conclusion The reasons for the refusal to surgical resolution of cholelithiasis were diverse, but closely related to personal (or related persons) negative surgical experiences or complex psychological problems that must be adequately addressed by the surgeon and other qualified professionals. PMID:25004289

  11. How the Dynamics of Flare Ribbons Can Help Us Understand the Three-dimensional Structure of Reconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jiong

    2015-04-01

    Magnetic reconnection occurs in magnetized plasmas in space and astrophysical environment and fusion experiments. It rapidly changes magnetic field converting magnetic energy into other forms. Energy release in solar flares is believed to be governed by reconnection taking place in the Sun's outer atmosphere, the corona. However, the corona is not always the easiest place to measure magnetic field and its change. During a flare, we also observe what happens at the boundary between the Sun's corona and interior, the chromosphere, to learn about reconnection process in the corona. Magnetic field in the Sun's outer atmosphere is line-tied at this boundary; energy flux is largely streamlined by magnetic field to where the field is rooted at this boundary, and quickly heats up the chromosphere, in a way similar to how auroras are produced by charged particles reaching the Earth's atmosphere at geomagnetic poles. Therefore, observing the impacted chromosphere during the flare allows us to track how much and how quickly magnetic flux is reconnected. Whereas probes in fusion experiments or spacecrafts in the Earth's magnetosphere usually sample multiple points for direct in-situ measurements, all reconnection events in the Sun's corona resulting in significant atmosphere heating can be mapped at the boundary with imaging observations of the Sun. From this mapping, we seek to reconstruct the geometry and evolution of reconnection, to understand the dual property of reconnection that is both sporadic and organizable in a flare, and to find out how much energy is released by each burst of reconnection. This talk will discuss recent results and challenges in this practice, inspired by observations of ribbons and loops of solar flares obtained from the Solar Dynamic Observatory and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph.

  12. Can small earthquakes help understand lithospheric deformation in slowly deforming regions? A case study from Portugal, western Europe.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Custódio, Susana; Carrilho, Fernando; Gongóra, Eva; Marreiros, Célia; Rio, Inês; Silveira, Graça; Arroucau, Pierre; Dias, Nuno

    2015-04-01

    Portugal lies on the south-westernmost tip of Europe, next to the boundary between Eurasia and Africa. The slow oblique convergence between Iberia and Nubia is accommodated along a broad region of diffuse deformation rather than along a single plate boundary. Individual faults have low loading rates, which results in long time intervals between earthquakes. Mainland Portugal lays on stable continental crust, however it has been repeatedly affected by moderate to high magnitude earthquakes in historical times, including some of the largest earthquakes in stable continental crust on the European historical catalog. The adjacent offshore also presents interesting seismicity, being the source region of the largest European historical earthquake (the 1755 Lisbon earthquake), and with a number of earthquakes occurring on old and cold lithospheric mantle, down to ˜60 km. The seismicity of mainland Portugal and its adjacent offshore has been repeatedly classified as diffuse. In this paper we show that although the plate boundary south of Portugal is diffuse, in that deformation is accommodated along several faults rather than along one long linear plate boundary, the seismicity itself is not diffuse, just grossly mislocated in current catalogs. When carefully re-located, earthquakes collapse into well-defined clusters and alignments. This work presents a contribution to understanding the Portuguese seismo-tectonics by analyzing the location of small earthquakes occurred between 1961 and 2013 in mainland Portugal and adjacent offshore. Earthquakes occurred between 2010 and 2012 were recorded by a dense broadband seismic deployment, and their locations show a significant improvement with respect to previous locations. New maps of seismicity show clustering and alignments, both onshore and offshore, which allow for a new interpretation of the regional seismo-tectonics. We conclude that the study of small earthquakes using dense seismic deployments is one of the few powerful

  13. Linking scientists, decision makers, and organizations to improve understanding of climate-driven changes in coastal storms and their impacts in Western Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, J. H.; Murphy, K.

    2012-12-01

    The coastal zones of Western Alaska are expected to experience a nexus of climate-driven changes in landform processes resulting from the impacts of sea ice loss; sea level change; permafrost thaw; and changes in frequency, intensity, and direction of coastal storms, etc. These climate-driven changes will cascade through the near-shore and coastal physical systems, ecological systems, and human communities, and thus present major sources of uncertainty for a wide variety of the region's decision makers. To effectively and efficiently address some of the information needs of these decision makers, the Western Alaska Landscape Conservation Cooperative created a two-year program of applied science focused on 'Changes in Coastal Storms and their Impacts'. We summarize program components that successfully advanced applied science to address these decision maker information needs. All the components share a common feature of promoting linkages: (i) among resource decision makers, stakeholders and scientists, to identify and address key areas of uncertainty associated with coastal storms and thus align the science activities with decision maker needs for a variety of climate vulnerability assessments; (ii) among researchers, to mutually advance their science efforts; and (iii) among organizations, to efficiently address shared science needs. Resulting applied science benefits include (i) integrative projects using very fine resolution surge modeling to assess impacts of saltwater inundation on migratory waterfowl breeding populations and habitat; (ii) coordinating the selection of historic storms for reanalysis by two surge modeling efforts of differing resolution and domain, thus allowing for cross-model comparisons of performance over their shared spatial domain and future regional-scale application of the higher resolution model; and (iii) collaborative, cross-agency efforts to establish a water level network that meets multiple purposes (from model calibration to

  14. Helping Kids Help

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiss, E. Renee

    2008-01-01

    Educators need to help kids help others so that they can help themselves. Volunteering does not involve competition or grades. This is one area where students don't have to worry about measuring up to the expectations of parents, teachers, and coaches. Students participate in charitable work to add another line to a college transcript or job…

  15. Probing scientists' beliefs: how open-minded are modern scientists?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, Richard K.; Taylor, Neil

    2004-06-01

    Just how open-minded are modern scientists? In this paper we examine this question for the science faculty from New Zealand and UK universities. The Exeter questionnaire used by Preece and Baxter (2000) to examine superstitious beliefs of high school students and preservice science teachers was used as a basis for a series of in-depth interviews of scientists across a variety of disciplines. The interviews sought to understand the basis on which scientists form beliefs and how they judge evidence for various propositions, including those from the Exeter questionnaire and other contentious beliefs introduced during discourse. The scientists are dismissive of traditional superstitions like bad luck associated with black cats and inauspicious numbers such as 13, seeing such beliefs as socially grounded. There is a strong socio-cultural aspect to other beliefs and personal experiences, and strongly held personal beliefs are influential, resulting in the scientists keeping an open mind about contentious beliefs like alien life and the existence of ghosts. Testimony of others including media reports are deemed unreliable unless provided by credible witnesses such as 'educated people' or 'experts', or if they coincide with the scientists' personal beliefs. These scientists see a need for potential theoretical explanations for beliefs and are generally dismissive of empirical evidence without underlying explanations.

  16. Scientists Discover Sugar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-06-01

    The prospects for life in the Universe just got sweeter, with the first discovery of a simple sugar molecule in space. The discovery of the sugar molecule glycolaldehyde in a giant cloud of gas and dust near the center of our own Milky Way Galaxy was made by scientists using the National Science Foundation's 12 Meter Telescope, a radio telescope on Kitt Peak, Arizona. "The discovery of this sugar molecule in a cloud from which new stars are forming means it is increasingly likely that the chemical precursors to life are formed in such clouds long before planets develop around the stars," said Jan M. Hollis of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. Hollis worked with Frank J. Lovas of the University of Illinois and Philip R. Jewell of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, WV, on the observations, made in May. The scientists have submitted their results to the Astrophysical Journal Letters. "This discovery may be an important key to understanding the formation of life on the early Earth," said Jewell. Conditions in interstellar clouds may, in some cases, mimic the conditions on the early Earth, so studying the chemistry of interstellar clouds may help scientists understand how bio-molecules formed early in our planet's history. In addition, some scientists have suggested that Earth could have been "seeded" with complex molecules by passing comets, made of material from the interstellar cloud that condensed to form the Solar System. Glycolaldehyde, an 8-atom molecule composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen, can combine with other molecules to form the more-complex sugars Ribose and Glucose. Ribose is a building block of nucleic acids such as RNA and DNA, which carry the genetic code of living organisms. Glucose is the sugar found in fruits. Glycolaldehyde contains exactly the same atoms, though in a different molecular structure, as methyl formate and acetic acid, both of which were detected previously in interstellar clouds

  17. The scientist's education and a civic conscience.

    PubMed

    Donald, Kelling J; Kovac, Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    A civic science curriculum is advocated. We discuss practical mechanisms for (and highlight the possible benefits of) addressing the relationship between scientific knowledge and civic responsibility coextensively with rigorous scientific content. As a strategy, we suggest an in-course treatment of well known (and relevant) historical and contemporary controversies among scientists over science policy or the use of sciences. The scientific content of the course is used to understand the controversy and to inform the debate while allowing students to see the role of scientists in shaping public perceptions of science and the value of scientific inquiry, discoveries and technology in society. The examples of the activism of Linus Pauling, Alfred Nobel and Joseph Rotblat as scientists and engaged citizens are cited. We discuss the role of science professors in informing the social conscience of students and consider ways in which a treatment of the function of science in society may find, coherently, a meaningful space in a science curriculum at the college level. Strategies for helping students to recognize early the crucial contributions that science can make in informing public policy and global governance are discussed. PMID:23096773

  18. How can hydrological modeling help to understand process dynamics in sparsely gauged tropical regions - case study Mata Âtlantica, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Künne, Annika; Penedo, Santiago; Schuler, Azeneth; Bardy Prado, Rachel; Kralisch, Sven; Flügel, Wolfgang-Albert

    2015-04-01

    To ensure long-term water security for domestic, agricultural and industrial use in the emerging country of Brazil with fast-growing markets and technologies, understanding of catchment hydrology is essential. Yet, hydrological analysis, high resolution temporal and spatial monitoring and reliable meteo-hydrological data are insufficient to fully understand hydrological processes in the region and to predict future trends. Physically based hydrological modeling can help to expose uncertainties of measured data, predict future trends and contribute to physical understanding about the watershed. The Brazilian Atlantic rainforest (Mata Atlântica) is one of the world's biodiversity hotspots. After the Portuguese colonization, its original expansion of 1.5 million km² was reduced to only 7% of the former area. Due to forest fragmentation, overexploitation and soil degradation, pressure on water resources in the region has significantly increased. Climatically, the region possesses distinctive wet and dry periods. While extreme precipitation events in the rainy season cause floods and landslides, dry periods can lead to water shortages, especially in the agricultural and domestic supply sectors. To ensure both, the protection of the remnants of Atlantic rainforest biome as well as water supply, a hydrological understanding of this sparsely gauged region is essential. We will present hydrological models of two meso- to large-scale catchments (Rio Macacu and Rio Dois Rios) within the Mata Âtlantica in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The results show how physically based models can contribute to hydrological system understanding within the region and answer what-if scenarios, supporting regional planners and decision makers in integrated water resources management.

  19. Education: Mutualistic Interactions between Scientists and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, Marty

    1991-01-01

    A project that introduced scientists to students and engaged students in creative scientific activities is described. Students were asked to help scientists identify patterns on the wing of a species of fruit fly. A combined research/education program is recommended. (KR)

  20. Scientist Participation in Education and Public Outreach - Using Web Tools to Communicate the Scientific Process and Engage an Audience in Understanding Planetary Science: Examples with Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petro, N. E.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists often speak to the public about their science and the current state of understanding of their field. While many talks (including those by this author) typically feature static plots, figures, diagrams, and the odd movie/animation/visualization (when technology allows), it is now possible, using the web to guide an audience through the thought process of how a scientist tackles certain questions. The presentation will highlight examples of web tools that effectively illustrate how datasets are used to address questions of lunar science. Why would a scientist use precious time during a talk to interact with data, in real time? Why not just show the results and move on? Through experience it is evident that illustrating how data is analyzed, even in a simple form, engages an audience, and demonstrates the thought process when interacting with data. While it is clear that scientists are unlikely to use such a tool to conduct science, it illustrates how a member of the public can engage with mission data. An example is discussed below. When discussing the geology of the Moon, there is an enormous volume of data that can be used to explain what we know (or think we know) and how we know it. For example, the QuickMap interface (http://www.actgate.com/home/quickmap.htm) enables interaction with a set of data (images, spectral data, topography, radar data) across the entire Moon (http://target.lroc.asu.edu/q3/). This webtool enables a speaker the opportunity (given adequate web connectivity) to talk about features, such as a crater, and show it from multiple perspectives (e.g., plan view, oblique, topographically exaggerated) in a logical flow. The tool enables illustration of topographic profiles, 3-D perspectives, and data overlays. Now, one might ask why doing this demonstration in real time is valuable, over a set of static slides. In some cases static slides are best, and doing any real time demos is unfeasible. However, guiding an engaged audience through

  1. Scientists Take a Close-Up of Key Pain-Sensing Molecule

    MedlinePlus

    ... scaffold of the cage. These path changes help scientists understand approximately where, within the molecule, individual atoms are located and how they are connected with each other. However, the pictures obtained with this method are usually too grainy to see the precise ...

  2. Scientists need political literacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Scientists need to sharpen their political literacy to promote public and congressional awareness of science policy issues. This was the message of a panel of politically savvy scientists at a recent workshop at the American Association for the Advancement of Science's annual meeting in Washington, D.C. Researchers can maximize their lobbying efforts by targeting critical points of the legislative and federal funding cycles, the panel said, and by understanding the differences between the science and policy processes.Drastic modifications to the federal budget process this year will influence how much funding flows to research and development. A new feature for FY 1991-1993 is caps on federal expenditure in three areas: defense, foreign aid, and domestic “discretionary” spending. (Most of the agencies that fund geophysics fall into the domestic category.) Money cannot now be transferred from one of these areas to another, said Michael L. Telson, analyst for the House Budget Committee, and loopholes will be “very tough to find.” What is more, non-defense discretionary spending has dropped over a decade from 24% of the budget to the present 15%. Another new requirement is the “pay-as-you-go” system. Under this, a bill that calls for an increase in “entitlement” or other mandatory spending must offset this by higher taxes or by a cut in other spending.

  3. Science and the Responsibility of Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markov, Moisey A.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the responsibility of scientists to warn mankind about the dangers of the unknown factors of scientific development and the application of science to technical progress. Scientific responsibility for helping reduce politico-military tensions is also put forth. (BR)

  4. Women Scientists in Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Women scientists in training at Marshall Space Flight Center, (top to bottom) Carolyn Griner, Ann Whitaker, and Dr. Mary Johnston, are shown simulating weightlessness while undergoing training in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator. These women were part of a special program dedicated to gaining a better understanding of problems involved in performing experiments in space. The three were engaged in designing and developing experiments for space, such as materials processing for Spacelabs. Dr. Johnston specialized in metallurgical Engineering, Dr. Whitaker in lubrication and surface physics, and Dr. Griner in material science. Dr. Griner went on to become Acting Center Director at Marshall Space Flight Center from January to September 1998. She was the first woman to serve

  5. The Responsibility of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses several kinds of responsibilities scientists have, including moral/ethical responsibilities related to research methodology. Areas addressed include use of science in war, approaches to decision-making, scientists and smoking, importance of education related to social responsibility. (JN)

  6. Building Conceptual Understanding in Young Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Duncan

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of a new pedagogic approach to geology used to create a sequence of investigative activities enabling students to speculate, hypothesize, observe, test, reason, and infer about the characteristics of rocks. The approach is framed by two questions: (1) What are the key characteristics of different rock groups?; and (2) How did the…

  7. WFIRST CGI Adjutant Scientist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasdin, N.

    One of the most exciting developments in exoplanet science is the inclusion of a coronagraph instrument on WFIRST. After more than 20 years of research and development on coronagraphy and wavefront control, the technology is ready for a demonstration in space and to be used for revolutionary science. Good progress has already been made at JPL and partner institutions on the coronagraph technology and instrument design and test. The next five years as we enter Phase A will be critical for raising the TRL of the coronagraph to the needed level for flight and for converging on a design that is robust, low risk, and meets the science requirements. In addition, there is growing excitement over the possibility of rendezvousing an occulter with WFIRST/AFTA as a separate mission; this would both demonstrate that important technology and potentially dramatically enhance the science reach, introducing the possibility of imaging Earth-like planets in the habitable zone of nearby stars. In this proposal I will be applying for the Coronagraph Adjutant Scientist (CAS) position. I bring to the position the background and skills needed to be an effective liaison between the project office, the instrument team, and the Science Investigation Team (SIT). My background in systems engineering before coming to Princeton (I was Chief Systems Engineer for the Gravity Probe-B mission) and my 15 years of working closely with NASA on both coronagraph and occulter technology make me well-suited to the role. I have been a lead coronagraph scientist for the WFIRST mission from the beginning, including as a member of the SDT. Together with JPL and NASA HQ, I helped organize the process for selecting the coronagraphs for the CGI, one of which, the shaped pupil, has been developed in my lab. All of the key algorithms for wavefront control (including EFC and Stroke Minimization) were originally developed by students or post-docs in my lab at Princeton. I am thus in a unique position to work with

  8. Inspiring Future Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat; Lee, Richard E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    In an integrated science/language arts/technology unit called "How Scientists Learn," students researched famous scientists from the past and cutting-edge modern-day scientists. Using biography trade books and the internet, students collected and recorded data on charts, summarized important information, and inferred meaning from text. Then they…

  9. An Earth System Scientist Network for Student and Scientist Partnerships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledley, T. S.

    2001-05-01

    Successful student and scientist partnerships require that there is a mutual benefit from the partnership. This means that the scientist needs to be able to see the advantage of having students work on his/her project, and the students and teachers need to see that the students contribute to the project and develop the skills in inquiry and the content knowledge in the geosciences that are desired. Through the Earth System Scientist Network (ESSN) for Student and Scientist Partnerships project we are working toward developing scientific research projects for the participation of high school students. When these research projects are developed they will be posted on the ESSN web site that will appear in the Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE). In DLESE teachers and students who are interested in participating in a research program will be able to examine the criteria for each project and select the one that matches their needs and situation. In this paper we will report on how the various ESSN research projects are currently being developed to assure that both the scientist and the students benefit from the partnership. The ESSN scientists are working with a team of scientists and educators to 1) completely define the research question that the students will be addressing, 2) determine what role the students will have in the project, 3) identify the data that the students and teachers will work with, 4) map out the scientific protocols that the students will follow, and 5) determine the background and support materials needed to facilitate students successfully participating in the project. Other issues that the team is addressing include 1) identifying the selection criteria for the schools, 2) identifying rewards and recognition for the students and teacher by the scientist, and 3) identifying issues in Earth system science, relevant to the scientists data, that the students and teachers could use as a guide help develop students investigative

  10. Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

    2007-04-01

    Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

  11. The Art and Science of Education and Outreach: What Scientists Should Know

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simms, E. C.; Goehring, L.; Williams, C.

    2006-12-01

    The National Science Foundation Ridge 2000 (R2K) research program has significantly expanded education and outreach (E/O) activities over the past five years, including the employment of dedicated education specialists who help R2K scientists engage meaningfully in E/O. Many scientists gladly enlist the expertise of such program specialists in meeting their E/O needs, considering that the constraints of time, funding, and personal interests often limit the level of their own involvement in these opportunities. This model for communicating science beyond the academic community is often very successful as a result of capitalizing on the strengths of both the scientists and educators. However, the constraints placed on scientists also prevent many of them from developing a deeper appreciation of the art and science of education that must be employed for effective E/O. This presentation will provide scientists and others with insights into the intellectual, philosophical and practical considerations required for the strategic development of opportunities for scientists to 'communicate broadly'. The goal is not to make all scientists educators, but to promote an increased understanding and appreciation for the professional pursuit of science education from the perspective of a national scientific research program. These insights will help scientists to gauge their role and maximize their effectiveness in communicating their science to different audiences. Several R2K E/O initiatives will be featured to show how we effectively engage scientists, identify audiences and meet their needs. We will also discuss intended outcomes and impacts, leveraging partnerships, incorporating educational theory and best practices, responding to the current interests of the education and research communities, and evaluation. We will feature both formal and informal education initiatives that offer a range of opportunities for scientists to engage in E/O, including web-based instructional

  12. Professionals and Emerging Scientists Sharing Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graff, P. V.; Allen, J. S.; Tobola, K.

    2010-01-01

    The Year of the Solar System (YSS) celebration begins in the fall of 2010. As YSS provides a means in which NASA can inspire members of the public about exciting missions to other worlds in our solar system, it is important to remember these missions are about the science being conducted and new discoveries being made. As part of the Year of the Solar System, Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Education, at the NASA Johnson Space Center, will infuse the great YSS celebration within the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program. Expedition Earth and Beyond (EEAB) is an authentic research program for students in grades 5-14 and is a component of ARES Education. Students involved in EEAB have the opportunity to conduct and share their research about Earth and/or planetary comparisons. ARES Education will help celebrate this exciting Year of the Solar System by inviting scientists to share their science. Throughout YSS, each month will highlight a topic related to exploring our solar system. Additionally, special mission events will be highlighted to increase awareness of the exciting missions and exploration milestones. To bring this excitement to classrooms across the nation, the Expedition Earth and Beyond Program and ARES Education will host classroom connection events in which scientists will have an opportunity to share discoveries being made through scientific research that relate to the YSS topic of the month. These interactive presentations will immerse students in some of the realities of exploration and potentially inspire them to conduct their own investigations. Additionally, scientists will share their own story of how they were inspired to pursue a STEM-related career that got them involved in exploration. These career highlights will allow students to understand and relate to the different avenues that scientists have taken to get where they are today. To bring the sharing of science full circle, student groups who conduct research by

  13. Twin Dimples Intrigue Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity is part of the first set of pictures that was returned to Earth after the rover exited 'Eagle Crater.' Scientists are busy analyzing Opportunity's new view of the plains of Meridiani Planum. The plentiful ripples are a clear indication that wind is the primary geologic process currently in effect on the plains. On the left of the image are two depressions--each about a meter (about 3.3 feet) across--that feature bright spots in their centers. One possibility is that the bright material is similar in composition to the rocks in Eagle Crater's outcrop and the surrounding darker material is what's referred to as 'lag deposit,' or erosional remnants that are much harder and more difficult to wear away. These twin dimples might be revealing pieces of a larger outcrop that lies beneath. The depression closest to Opportunity is whimsically referred to as 'Homeplate' and the one behind it as 'First Base.' The rover's panoramic camera is set to take detailed images of the depressions today, on Opportunity's 58th sol. The backshell and parachute that helped protect the rover and deliver it safely to the surface of Mars are also visible near the horizon, in the center of the image. This image was taken by the rover's navigation camera.

  14. Superheroes and supervillains: reconstructing the mad-scientist stereotype in school science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2013-04-01

    Background. Reform recommendations around the world call for an understanding about the nature of science and the work of scientists. However, related research findings provide evidence that students hold stereotypical views of scientists and the nature of their work. Purpose The aim of this case study was to examine the impact of an intervention on 15 elementary school students' views of scientists. Sample An urban, fifth-grade, European elementary school classroom defined the context of this study. Design and method The intervention was an 11-week-long investigation of a local problem concerning water quality. In carrying out this investigation the students collaborated with a young metrology scientist to collect and analyse authentic data that would help them to construct a claim about the quality of the water. The students' initial views of scientists were investigated through a drawing activity, classroom discussions and interviews. Results Analysis of these data indicated that all students but one girl held very stereotypical views on scientists and the nature of their work. Analysis of interviews with each student and classroom discussions after the intervention illustrated that they reconstructed their stereotypical views of scientists and the nature of their work owing to their personal engagement in the investigation and their collaboration with the scientist. Conclusions The findings of this study suggest that more in-depth study into project-based approaches, out-of-school learning and school-scientist partnerships is warranted, for the purpose of determining appropriate pedagogies that support students in developing up-to-date understanding about scientists and the nature of their work.

  15. In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann

    ScienceCinema

    Ron Zuckerman

    2010-01-08

    Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

  16. In Conversation With Materials Scientist Ron Zuckermann

    SciTech Connect

    Ron Zuckerman

    2009-11-18

    Nov. 11, 2009: Host Alice Egan of Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division interviews scientists about their lives and work in language everyone can understand. Her guest Berkeley Lab's Ron Zuckerman, who discusses biological nanostructures and the world of peptoids.

  17. The Social Responsibilities of Scientists and Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus

    2000-01-01

    Points out the important role of scientists in society as educators. Explains problems caused by not understanding the theory of evolution and discusses possible solutions. First published in 1966. (YDS)

  18. Computer networking for scientists.

    PubMed

    Jennings, D M; Landweber, L H; Fuchs, I H; Farber, D J; Adrion, W R

    1986-02-28

    Scientific research has always relied on communication for gathering and providing access to data; for exchanging information; for holding discussions, meetings, and seminars; for collaborating with widely dispersed researchers; and for disseminating results. The pace and complexity of modern research, especially collaborations of researchers in different institutions, has dramatically increased scientists' communications needs. Scientists now need immediate access to data and information, to colleagues and collaborators, and to advanced computing and information services. Furthermore, to be really useful, communication facilities must be integrated with the scientist's normal day-to-day working environment. Scientists depend on computing and communications tools and are handicapped without them. PMID:17740290

  19. Scientists and Middle School Students; Learning and Working Together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haste, T.

    2007-12-01

    Johns Hopkins University's Center for Talented Youth students enrolled in the Dynamic Earth class come from all over the world to study earth systems. Investigating plate action, crustal formation, glaciers, currents, weathering and atmospheric interactions, students develop a strong ability to identify the forces that continually change the landscape and the interconnectedness of the atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere. As part of their regular course work, students work with a variety of cooperating scientists. US Geological Survey staff assists students in examining sand samples and exploring monitoring research on invasive foraminiferas in San Francisco Bay. Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary and Mavericks Surf Ventures staff help students explore the off shore submarine formations of a storm swell at Half Moon Bay that develops into a world-class big wave. Students met a big wave surfer who described the ride and shared surf stories. A wave forecaster helped students use modeling software to create real-time forecasts. In the final project students assist faculty of University of Texas at Austin, Institute of Geophysics using cruise reports, project abstracts, and bathymetry images, in evaluating a series of submarine features in the Ross Sea, Antarctica. Students develop proposals and present their ideas in a seminar format, attended by cooperating scientists. Students have an opportunity to work with current scientists and learn how classroom "stuff" is used. One student commented, "I felt like I could talk with them about what they were doing and actually understand what they were talking about." Another stated, "I didn't know you could learn so much from forams. I always thought paleontology was about dinosaurs." As a result of the class, students understand the relevance of their learning, scientists like working with kids, and educators get excited about science. To evaluate program outcomes, the staff holds regular meetings with

  20. Complementarities of novel and conventional tracer techniques: how can they help us to better understand streamflow generation processes in headwater catchments?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Carreras, N.; Bogaard, T.; Frentress, J.; Foppen, J. W.; Wetzel, C. E.; Ector, L.; Hissler, C.; McDonnell, J. J.; Pfister, L.

    2012-04-01

    Over the past decades geochemical and isotopic tracers have been widely used to obtain insights into internal catchment dynamics and to delineate and constrain hydrological flowpaths. Not only water stable isotopes, but also dissolved silica, major ions and cations can be used to separate hydrographs into different components. Nevertheless, further progress has been stymied by limitations such as unrealistic mixing assumptions, unstable end-member solutions and temporally variable input concentrations. Here, we investigate the potential for innovative tracer techniques to bring new momentum to our understanding of streamflow generation processes in headwater catchments. In recent years, new techniques have indeed emerged, each revealing their own advantages and limitations. Pfister et al. (2009) demonstrated the potential for diatoms (unicellular, eukaryotic algae) to help detect the onset/cession of surface runoff and quantify the geographical sources of surface water. More recently, Foppen et al. (2011) used synthetic DNA to characterize hydrological processes, both in surface waters and in the subsurface. Temperature has also been widely used as a tracer. Distributed temperature sensing with a spatial resolution of 0.5m and temporal resolution of 2min via fibre optic cable have indeed been applied to locate lateral inflow in streams (Westhoff et al., 2011). Also, ground-based thermal imagery has been proven to be a simple, practical tool for mapping saturated area connectivity and dynamics (Pfister et al., 2010). The main objective of this work is to evaluate and discuss the respective complementarities of these techniques by shedding light on both their advantages and limitations. This will be done based on examples from the extensive experimental work performed in the headwater streams of Luxembourg.

  1. Scientist Examines Tornado Vortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this Quick Time movie, a scientist examines what appears to be a tornado vortex (blue) coming out of a thunderstorm. The scientist uses 3D glasses to be able to see in 3 dimensions the different flows going out into the vortex. Earth science and weather studies are an important ongoing function of NASA and its affiliates.

  2. Stories of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascazine, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

  3. Just like Real Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betteley, Pat

    2009-01-01

    How do you inspire students to keep records like scientists? Share the primary research of real scientists and explicitly teach students how to keep records--that's how! Therefore, a group of third-grade students and their teacher studied the work of famous primatologist Jane Goodall and her modern-day counterpart Ian Gilby. After learning about…

  4. Scientists as Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yore, Larry D.; Hand, Brian M.; Prain, Vaughan

    2002-01-01

    Establishes an image of a science writer based on a synthesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines, and contrasts this image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. Assesses scientists' writing habits, beliefs, strategies, and perceptions of…

  5. University Scientists as Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Maurice N. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The formation of business firms by academic scientists is an example of the deteriorating boundary between the academic and business world. The conditions and routes contributing to this phenomenon are explored. This challenge to establish academic and scientific values and norms is resulting in enhanced autonomy for university scientists. (ETS)

  6. Ethics and the scientist.

    PubMed

    Marion, J E

    1991-02-01

    Ethical issues are receiving considerable attention in the scientific community just as in other areas of society. Scientists who have in the past been accorded a select position in society are no longer guaranteed that status just by virtue of their occupation. Science, and scientists, may not yet be subject to the same intense scrutiny as some other professions, but the trend is evident. Scientists do have special obligations due to the nature of their profession, yet incidences of indiscretion are documented. Expectations of scientists in specific areas such as consulting, animal rights, and advocacy are discussed, and some thoughts on the scientist as an administrator are presented. A short summary of actions being taken in the field of ethics is included. PMID:2027833

  7. Barriers, Lessons Learned, and Best Practices in Engaging Scientists in Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S. R.; Sharma, M.; Hsu, B.; Peticolas, L.; Nova, M. A. M.; CoBabe-Ammann, E.

    2012-08-01

    This Astronomical Society of the Pacific conference brought together a group of specialists interested in education and public outreach (EPO) from a wide variety of contexts including NASA centers, non-profits, museums, and universities. Active engagement of scientists in EPO activities results in benefits for both the audience and the scientists. Despite this, education research has shown that many barriers exist that keep scientists from engaging in EPO activities. To counter these barriers, many stakeholders in this community are working to bridge the gap and help scientists make a meaningful contribution to these efforts. There are many documented roles for scientists including giving public talks, classroom visits, large outreach events, radio broadcasts, engaging in curriculum development and teacher workshops. Over the past year, members of the NASA science mission directorate forums have been actively working with their community members to understand the reasons that scientists in our community do and do not participate in EPO activities. This session expanded the discussion to the larger community of stakeholders across science, education, and outreach contexts. It was an open forum for discussion of ideas about barriers and lessons learned regarding engaging scientists in education and public outreach.

  8. Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, A. A. G.; Culp, S.; Trinh, A.

    2010-08-01

    During the International Year of Astronomy, Pacific Science Center is hosting a photography exhibit: Scientists Like Me: Faces of Discovery. The exhibit contains photographs of real, current astronomers and scientists working in astronomy and aerospace-related fields from many races, genders, cultural affiliations and walks of life. The photographs were taken and posters designed by Alyssa Trinh and Sarah Culp, high school interns in Discovery Corps, Pacific Science Center's youth development program. The direct contact between the scientists and the interns helps the intended audience of teachers and families personally connect with scientists. The finished posters from this exhibit are available online (http://pacificsciencecenter.org/scientists) for teachers to use in their classrooms, in addition to being displayed at Pacific Science Center and becoming part of Pacific Science Center's permanent art rotation. The objective of this project was to fill a need for representative photographs of scientists in the world community. It also met two of the goals of International Year of Astronomy: to provide a modern image of science and scientists, and to improve the gender-balanced representation of scientists at all levels and promote greater involvement by all people in scientific and engineering careers. We would like to build on the success of this project and create an annual summer internship, with different interns, focusing on creating posters for different fields of science.

  9. Sky Fest: A Model of Successful Scientist Participation in E/PO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, H.; Shipp, S. S.; Shaner, A. J.; LaConte, K.; Shupla, C. B.

    2014-12-01

    Participation in outreach events is an easy way for scientists to get involved with E/PO and reach many people with minimal time commitment. At the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) in Houston, Texas, the E/PO team holds Sky Fest outreach events several times a year. These events each have a science content theme and include several activities for children and their parents, night sky viewing through telescopes, and scientist presentations. LPI scientists have the opportunity to participate in Sky Fest events either by helping lead an activity or by giving the scientist presentation (a short lecture and/or demonstration). Scientists are involved in at least one preparation meeting before the event. This allows them to ask questions, understand what activity they will be leading, and learn the key points that they should be sharing with the public, as well as techniques for effectively teaching members of the public about the event topic. During the event, each activity is run by one E/PO specialist and one scientist, enabling the scientist to learn about effective E/PO practices from the E/PO specialist and the E/PO specialist to get more science information about the event topic. E/PO specialists working together with scientists at stations provides a more complete, richer experience for event participants. Surveys of event participants have shown that interacting one-on-one with scientists is often one of their favorite parts of the events. Interviews with scientists indicated that they enjoyed Sky Fest because there was very little time involved on their parts outside of the actual event; the activities were created and/or chosen by the E/PO professionals, and setup for the events was completed before they arrived. They also enjoyed presenting their topic to people without a background in science, and who would not have otherwise sought out the information that was presented.

  10. [Strategy and collaboration between medicinal chemists and pharmaceutical scientists for drug delivery systems].

    PubMed

    Mano, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    In order to successfully apply drug delivery systems (DDS) to new chemical entities (NCEs), collaboration between medicinal chemists and formulation scientists is critical for efficient drug discovery. Formulation scientists have to use 'language' that medicinal chemists understand to help promote mutual understanding, and medicinal chemists and formulation scientists have to set up strategies to use suitable DDS technologies at the discovery phase of the programmes to ensure successful transfer into the development phase. In this review, strategies of solubilisation formulation for oral delivery, inhalation delivery, nasal delivery and bioconjugation are all discussed. For example, for oral drug delivery, multiple initiatives can be proposed to improve the process to select an optimal delivery option for an NCE. From a technical perspective, formulation scientists have to explain the scope and limitations of formulations as some DDS technologies might be applicable only to limited chemical spaces. Other limitations could be the administered dose and, cost, time and resources for formulation development and manufacturing. Since DDS selection is best placed as part of lead-optimisation, formulation scientists need to be involved in discovery projects at lead selection and optimisation stages. The key to success in their collaboration is to facilitate communication between these two areas of expertise at both a strategic and scientific level. Also, it would be beneficial for medicinal chemists and formulation scientists to set common goals to improve the process of collaboration and build long term partnerships to improve DDS. PMID:23292022

  11. Digital Storytelling in a Science Curriculum: The Process of Digital Storytelling to Help the Needs of Fourth Grade Students Understand the Concepts of Food Chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, Una-Bellelinda

    In this study I investigate if digital storytelling process will help the needs of the fourth grade students in an elementary school setting learn science concepts, specifically food chains. I focused on three students who varied in social and academic skills/behaviors to investigate their process in working on a digital story. My findings proved that digital storytelling scripts, storyboards, and graphic organizers helped students create a story telling about what happened in their food chain but students couldn't retain the information on food chains to help them in taking their post test. The graphic organizers were able to scaffold and help organize students' thinking. The digital scripts allowed students to comprehend science concepts and explain them to peers.

  12. Engaging Students and Scientists through ROV Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zande, J.

    2004-12-01

    while doing your work. -Recruiting students to your institution. -Heightening your and your institution's visibility within the scientific community -Building a positive image within your own local community. -Networking with other scientists and research and academic institutions as well as professional societies, industry, government, and other organizations such as aquaria. Whether or not you use ROVs to support your work is not important. What is important are the knowledge and skills that you do use to accomplish your research goals. In the case of the competition, ROVs are the vehicle to teach concepts such as physics, oceanography, math, science, and engineering - the same concepts that you understand and apply when doing your science. By sharing your time and expertise, you can help students solidify what they are learning as they design and build their ROVs and make the connection to how it can be applied to other disciplines.

  13. Ask a Climate Scientist

    NASA Video Gallery

    Have a question that's always confounded you about Earth's climate? Wonder why it matters that the climate is changing now if it has changed before? Or how scientists know changes seen in recent de...

  14. Scientists as writers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yore, Larry D.; Hand, Brian M.; Prain, Vaughan

    2002-09-01

    This study attempted to establish an image of a science writer based on a synthesis of writing theory, models, and research literature on academic writing in science and other disciplines and to contrast this image with an actual prototypical image of scientists as writers of science. The synthesis was used to develop a questionnaire to assess scientists' writing habits, beliefs, strategies, and perceptions about print-based language. The questionnaire was administered to 17 scientists from science and applied science departments of a large Midwestern land grant university. Each respondent was interviewed following the completion of the questionnaire with a custom-designed semistructured protocol to elaborate, probe, and extend their written responses. These data were analyzed in a stepwise fashion using the questionnaire responses to establish tentative assertions about the three major foci (type of writing done, criteria of good science writing, writing strategies used) and the interview responses to verify these assertions. Two illustrative cases (a very experienced, male physical scientist and a less experienced, female applied biological scientist) were used to highlight diversity in the sample. Generally, these 17 scientists are driven by the academy's priority of publishing their research results in refereed, peer-reviewed journals. They write their research reports in isolation or as a member of a large research team, target their writing to a few journals that they also read regularly, use writing in their teaching and scholarship to inform and persuade science students and other scientists, but do little border crossing into other discourse communities. The prototypical science writer found in this study did not match the image based on a synthesis of the writing literature in that these scientists perceived writing as knowledge telling not knowledge building, their metacognition of written discourse was tacit, and they used a narrow array of genre

  15. Journal Article: Using Scientists and Real-World Scenarios in Professional Development for Middle School Science Teachers

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Judith A.; Estes, Jeffrey C.

    2007-04-01

    Middle school science teachers were involved in a problem-solving experience presented and guided by research scientists. Data on the teachers’ perspectives about this professional development and any impact it may have had on their teaching practices were collected through interviews, surveys, and classroom observations. The findings show that the professional development experience was positive, although one concern expressed by teachers was their lack of understanding of the scientists’ vocabulary. Using scientists and real-world scenarios was shown to be an effective strategy for encouraging middle school teachers to teach science as a process and help them strengthen their science content understanding.

  16. From Local to EXtreme Environments (FLEXE) Student-Scientist Online Forums: hypothesis-based research examining ways to involve scientists in effective science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goehring, L.; Carlsen, W.; Fisher, C. R.; Kerlin, S.; Trautmann, N.; Petersen, W.

    2011-12-01

    Science education reform since the mid-1990's has called for a "new way of teaching and learning about science that reflects how science itself is done, emphasizing inquiry as a way of achieving knowledge and understanding about the world" (NRC, 1996). Scientists and engineers, experts in inquiry thinking, have been called to help model these practices for students and demonstrate scientific habits of mind. The question, however, is "how best to involve these experts?" given the very real challenges of limited availability of scientists, varying experience with effective pedagogy, widespread geographic distribution of schools, and the sheer number of students involved. Technology offers partial solutions to enable Student-Scientist Interactions (SSI). The FLEXE Project has developed online FLEXE Forums to support efficient, effective SSIs, making use of web-based and database technology to facilitate communication between students and scientists. More importantly, the FLEXE project has approached this question of "how best to do this?" scientifically, combining program evaluation with hypothesis-based research explicitly testing the effects of such SSIs on student learning and attitudes towards science. FLEXE Forums are designed to showcase scientific practices and habits of mind through facilitated interaction between students and scientists. Through these Forums, students "meet" working scientists and learn about their research and the environments in which they work. Scientists provide students with intriguing "real-life" datasets and challenge students to analyze and interpret the data through guiding questions. Students submit their analyses to the Forum, and scientists provide feedback and connect the instructional activity with real-life practice, showcasing their activities in the field. In the FLEXE project, Forums are embedded within inquiry-based instructional units focused on essential learning concepts, and feature the deep-sea environment in contrast

  17. Center for Media Literacy Unveils the CML Medialit Kit[TM]: A Free Educational Framework that Helps Students Challenge and Understand Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Studies, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Five key questions form the basis of the new CML MediaLit Kit, an educational framework and curriculum guide developed by the Center for Media Literacy. Adaptable to all grades, the key questions help children and young people evaluate the thousands of media messages that bombard them daily. More than two years in development and available for…

  18. Science, the Scientists and Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leshner, Alan

    2012-02-01

    Although individual scientists engage in research for diverse reasons, society only supports the enterprise because it benefits humankind. We cannot always predict how that will happen, or whether individual projects will have clear and direct benefits, but in the aggregate, there is widespread agreement that we are all better off because of the quality and diversity of the science that is done. However, what scientists do and how it benefits humankind is often unclear to the general public and can at times be misunderstood or misrepresented. Moreover, even when members of the public do understand what science is being done they do not always like what it is showing and feel relatively free to disregard or distort its findings. This happens most often when findings are either politically inconvenient or encroach upon issues of core human values. The origins of the universe can fit into that latter category. This array of factors contributes to the obligation of scientists to reach out to the public and share the results of their work and its implications. It also requires the scientific community to engage in genuine dialogue with the public and find common ground where possible.

  19. Goddard Visiting Scientist Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Under this Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) contract, USRA was expected to provide short term (from I day up to I year) personnel as required to provide a Visiting Scientists Program to support the Earth Sciences Directorate (Code 900) at the Goddard Space Flight Center. The Contractor was to have a pool, or have access to a pool, of scientific talent, both domestic and international, at all levels (graduate student to senior scientist), that would support the technical requirements of the following laboratories and divisions within Code 900: 1) Global Change Data Center (902); 2) Laboratory for Atmospheres (Code 910); 3) Laboratory for Terrestrial Physics (Code 920); 4) Space Data and Computing Division (Code 930); 5) Laboratory for Hydrospheric Processes (Code 970). The research activities described below for each organization within Code 900 were intended to comprise the general scope of effort covered under the Visiting Scientist Program.

  20. The Trench Throws a Dirt Clod at Scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This picture, obtained by the microscopic imager on NASA's Opportunity rover during sol 24, February 17 PST, shows soil clods exposed in the upper wall of the trench dug by Opportunity's right front wheel on sol 23. The clods were not exposed until the trench was made. The presence of soil clods implies weak bonding between individual soil grains. The chemical agent or mineral that causes the dirt to bind together into a clod, which scientists call the 'bonding agent,' is currently unknown. Moessbauer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometer measurements of this spot, planned for sol 25, might help explain the bonding, which would ultimately help the rover team understand how geological processes vary across the red planet. In any case, the bonds between soil grains here cannot be very strong because the wheel dug down through this layer with little trouble.

  1. Methods & Strategies: Sculpt-a-Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Julie; Rich, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Elementary science experiences help develop students' views of science and scientific interests. As a result, teachers have been charged with the task of inspiring, cultivating, recruiting, and training the scientists needed to create tomorrow's innovations and solve future problems (Business Roundtable 2005). Who will these future…

  2. Join the NASA Science Mission Directorate Scientist Speaker's Bureau!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, H.; Shupla, C. B.; Buxner, S.; Shipp, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Join the new NASA SMD Scientist Speaker's Bureau, an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects (e.g., giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections) with audiences! The Scientist Speaker's Bureau helps educators and institutions connect with NASA scientists who are interested in giving presentations, based upon the topic, logistics, and audience. Aside from name, organization, location, bio, and (optional) photo and website, the information that scientists enter into this database will not be made public; instead, it will be used to help match scientists with the requests being placed. One of the most common ways for scientists to interact with students, adults, and general public audiences is to give presentations about or related to their science. However, most educators do not have a simple way to connect with those planetary scientists, Earth scientists, heliophysicists, and astronomers who are interested and available to speak with their audiences. This system is designed to help meet the need for connecting potential audiences to interested scientists. The information input into the database (availability to travel, willingness to present online or in person, interest in presenting to different age groups and sizes of audience, topics, and more) will be used to help match scientists (you!) with the requests being placed by educators. All NASA-funded Earth and space scientists engaged in active research are invited to fill out the short registration form, including those who are involved in missions, institutes, grants, and those who are using NASA science data in their research, and more. There is particular need for young scientists, such as graduate students and post-doctoral researchers, and women and people of diverse backgrounds. Submit your information at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker.

  3. Scientists Must Not Film but Must Appear on Screen!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerdes, A.; Madlener, S.

    2013-12-01

    Film production in science has affected its subjects in a truly remarkable way. Where scientists were once perceived to be poor communicators with an overwhelming aptitude for numbers and figures, audiences now have access to scientists they can understand and even relate to. Over the years, scientists have grown accustomed to involving and using the media in their research and exposing their science to wider audiences, making them better communicators. This is a huge development, and one that is especially noticeable at MARUM, the Center for Marine Environmental Sciences at the University of Bremen/Germany. Over time, the collaboration between the scientists and public relations staff has taught us all to be better at what we do. A unique characteristic of MARUM TV is that more or less all videos are produced 'in house'; we have established the small yet effective infrastructure necessary do develop, execute, and distribute semi-professional videos to access broader audiences and increase world-wide visibility. MARUM TV relies on our research scientists to operate cameras and capture important moments offshore on expedition, and to cooperate with us as we shoot footage of them and conduct interviews onshore in the lab. In turn, we promote their research and help increase their accessibility. At the forefront of our success is the relatively recent implementation of HD cameras on MARUM's fleet of remotely operated vehicles, which capture stunning video footage of the deep sea. Furthermore, sustained collaborations with national tv stations, online media portals, and large production companies helps inform our process and increases MARUM's visibility. The result is an extensive suite of about 70 short and long format science videos with some of the highest view counts on YouTube compared to other marine institutes. In the session PA011 'Scientists must film!' we intent to address issues regarding roadblocks to bridging science and media: a) Science communication

  4. Lessons Learned at LPI for Scientists in Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupla, C. B.; Kramer, G. Y.; Gross, J.; Shaner, A. J.; Dalton, H.; Grier, J.; Buxner, S.; Shipp, S. S.; Hackler, A. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) has engaged scientists in a variety of education programs, including teacher workshops, family events, public presentations, informal educator trainings, communication workshops, and outreach events. Scientists have helped conduct hands-on activities, participated in group discussions, and given talks, while sharing their own career paths and interests; these activities have provided audiences with a clearer vision of how science is conducted and how they can become engaged in science themselves. We will share the lessons we have learned through these experiences, including the value of collaborations between scientists and educators, the importance of understanding the audience's interests and knowledge, and the insights that audiences gain during unstructured discussion and interactions with scientists. LPI has also worked with the NASA Science Mission Directorate E/PO community to determine ways to enable scientists and engineers to engage in E/PO and STEM learning, including examining the research and programs for becoming involved in the preparation of future teachers (see the Menu of Opportunities at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/pre_service_edu/). We will share key research-based best practices that are recommended for scientists and engineers interested in participating in E/PO activities.

  5. An 'Orca-stra' of Science and Sound: The Reverberations of Northeast Pacific Whales and How We're Helping People Understand Them Though Games, Demos and Listening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelz, M.; Dewey, R. K.; Hoeberechts, M.; Kanes, K.; Ewing, N.

    2015-12-01

    Presented by the Ocean Networks Canada (ONC) Leaning and Engagement team, this demonstration focuses on our strategy for engaging and inspiring the next generation of ocean advocates by introducing them to one of the ocean's most charismatic inhabitants: marine mammals (and don't worry, we don't need any tanks or neoprene suits to do it). Using bioacoustic data, we can bring the essence of the animals with us. ONC, an initiative of the University of Victoria, operates cabled ocean observatories which supply continuous power and Internet connectivity to a broad suite of subsea instruments from the coast to the deep sea. This Internet connectivity permits researchers, students and members of the public to download freely available data onto their computers from anywhere around the globe, in real-time. Our demo focuses on the story of bioacoustics from instrument to animal. When visiting classrooms or hosting booths, we enhance user knowledge and experience by connecting familiar animals with their acoustic data from hydrophones. This includes listening to hydrophone clips collected from the network, analyzing sounds using interactive, real-time software and playing interactive games designed to get participants thinking like a scientist and taking a whale's perspective. For example, participants listen to recordings and guess the sound, identify frequencies and try a working hydrophone. The presentation consists of a suite of activities that meet a broad range of Next Generation Science Standards and includes links to the SoundCloud, https://soundcloud.com/oceannetworkscanada the ONC hydrophone FAQ, http://www.oceannetworks.ca/smart-hydrophone-faq and a classroom ready resource, Shouting Whales http://openschool.bc.ca/shouting_whales/index.html . The included links allow users anywhere to have a similar whale "experience" as the data are classroom ready, accessible and free.

  6. Today's Authors, Tomorrow's Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Diana

    2009-01-01

    Although not all teachers can invite scientists into classrooms on a regular basis, they can invite them into their students' worlds through literature. Here the author shares how she used the nonfiction selection, "Science to the Rescue" (Markle 1994), as an opportunity for students to investigate socially significant problems and empower them to…

  7. Doctoral Scientists in Oceanography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council, Washington, DC. Assembly of Mathematical and Physical Sciences.

    The purpose of this report was to classify and count doctoral scientists in the United States trained in oceanography and/or working in oceanography. Existing data from three sources (National Research Council's "Survey of Earned Doctorates," and "Survey of Doctorate Recipients," and the Ocean Sciences Board's "U.S. Directory of Marine…

  8. Becoming a Spider Scientist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia; Getz, Angela

    2008-01-01

    In this integrated unit, third grade students become spider scientists as they observe spiders in their classroom to debunk some common misconceptions about these intimidating creatures. "Charlotte's Web" is used to capture students' interest. In addition to addressing philosophical topics such as growing-up, death, and friendship; E.B. White's…

  9. Bringing Scientists to Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he brings scientists to life when he visits schools. Having retired from teaching Drama and Theatre Studies in Liverpool for more than thirty years, the author set up his one-man Theatre-in-Education company, Blindseer Productions, and now takes his portrayals of Darwin, Galileo and Einstein to schools…

  10. Women Scientists. American Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veglahn, Nancy, J.

    This book contains the life stories of 11 American female scientists who had outstanding achievements in their branch of science. The lives of the 11 women included in this book cover a combined time period of more than 120 years. This book argues against the belief that mathematics and science are not for girls and gives examples of very…