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Sample records for hematopoietic myeloid precursors

  1. Tfe3 expression is closely associated to macrophage terminal differentiation of human hematopoietic myeloid precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Zanocco-Marani, Tommaso; Vignudelli, Tatiana; Gemelli, Claudia; Pirondi, Sara; Testa, Anna; Montanari, Monica; Parenti, Sandra; Tenedini, Elena; Grande, Alexis; Ferrari, Sergio . E-mail: sergio@unimo.it

    2006-12-10

    The MItf-Tfe family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors encodes four family members: MItf, Tfe3, TfeB and TfeC. In vitro, each protein of the family binds DNA in a homo- or heterodimeric form with other family members. Tfe3 is involved in chromosomal translocations recurrent in different tumors and it has been demonstrated, by in vivo studies, that it plays, redundantly with MItf, an important role in the process of osteoclast formation, in particular during the transition from mono-nucleated to multi-nucleated osteoclasts. Since mono-nucleated osteoclasts derive from macrophages we investigated whether Tfe3 might play a role upstream during hematopoietic differentiation. Here we show that Tfe3 is able to induce mono-macrophagic differentiation of U937 cells, in association with a decrease of cell proliferation and an increase of apoptosis. We also show that Tfe3 does not act physiologically during commitment of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), since it is not able to direct HSCs toward a specific lineage as observed by clonogenic assay, but is a strong actor of terminal differentiation since it allows human primary myeloblasts' maturation toward the macrophage lineage.

  2. CD34(+) Liver Cancer Stem Cells Were Formed by Fusion of Hepatobiliary Stem/Progenitor Cells with Hematopoietic Precursor-Derived Myeloid Intermediates.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Changjun; Zhang, Yanling; Park, Su Cheol; Eun, Jong Ryeol; Nguyen, Ngoc Tue; Tschudy-Seney, Benjamin; Jung, Yong Jin; Theise, Neil D; Zern, Mark A; Duan, Yuyou

    2015-11-01

    A large number of cancer stem cells (CSCs) were identified and characterized; however, the origins and formation of CSCs remain elusive. In this study, we examined the origination of the newly identified CD34(+) liver CSC (LCSC). We found that CD34(+) LCSC coexpressed liver stem cell and myelomonocytic cell markers, showing a mixed phenotype, a combination of hepatobiliary stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and myelomonocytic cells. Moreover, human xenografts produced by CD34(+) LCSCs and the parental cells, which CD34(+) LCSC was isolated from, coexpressed liver cancer and myelomonocytic markers, also demonstrating mixed phenotypes. The xenografts and the parental cells secreted albumin demonstrating their hepatocyte origin and also expressed cytokines [interleukin (IL)-1b, IL-6, IL-12A, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and CSF1] and chemokines (IL-8, CCL2, and CCL5). Expression of these cytokines and chemokines responded to the stimuli [interferon-γ (INF-γ), IL-4, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]. Furthermore, human xenografts and the parental cells phagocytized Escherichia coli. CD34(+) LCSC coexpressed CD45, demonstrating that its origin appears to be from a hematopoietic precursor. The percentage of cells positive for OV6, CD34, and CD31, presenting the markers of HSPC, hematopoietic, and myelomonocytic cells, increased under treatment of CD34(+) LCSC with a drug. Cytogenetic analysis showed that CD34(+) LCSC contained a greater number of chromosomes. HBV DNA integrations and mutations in CD34(+) LCSC and the parental cells were identical to those in the literature or the database. Thus, these results demonstrated that CD34(+) LCSCs were formed by fusion of HSPC with CD34(+) hematopoietic precursor-derived myeloid intermediates; it appears that this is the first report that human CSCs have been formed by the fusion. Therefore, it represents a significant step toward better understanding of the formation of human CSC and the diverse origins of liver cancers. PMID:26192559

  3. Human hematopoietic precursors in long-term culture: single CD34+ cells that lack detectable T cell, B cell, and myeloid cell antigens produce multiple colony-forming cells when cultured with marrow stromal cells.

    PubMed

    Andrews, R G; Singer, J W; Bernstein, I D

    1990-07-01

    CD34+ human marrow cells not expressing T cell-, B cell-, and myeloid cell-associated antigens (TBM-) were cloned by two-color cell sorting into culture wells containing irradiated marrow stromal cells. After 4 wk of culture, 3.7 +/- 2.1% of these cells generated colony-forming cells (CFC), with each of these cells generating 6.3 +/- 5.3 CFC. This was not due to the 0.5 +/- 0.5% CFC present in the purified CD34+ TBM- cells, as less than 1% of CFC persist in these cultures. This is the first demonstration that single immature precursor cells in human long-term cultures generate multiple CFC progeny. The immature nature of these clonable CD34+ TBM- precursors suggests their candidate status as human hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:1694222

  4. Circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are myeloid-biased in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wen-Chao; Sun, Hong-Wei; Chen, Hai-Tian; Liang, Jing; Yu, Xing-Juan; Wu, Chong; Wang, Zilian; Zheng, Limin

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is associated with a profound perturbation in myelopoiesis that results in the accumulation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) to promote disease progression. Recent studies in mice suggest that tumor-derived factors could regulate the differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in the bone marrow and subsequently contribute to dysregulation of hematopoiesis. However, the nature and role of HPSCs in patients with cancer remain unknown. Here we show, in detailed studies of the peripheral blood from 133 untreated patients with seven different types of tumors, that the composition of circulating HSPCs was significantly altered in patients with solid tumors. The frequencies of circulating granulocytemonocyte progenitors (GMPs) were increased four to seven fold in all types of tumors examined, and the circulating hematopoietic precursors exhibited myeloid bias with a skew toward granulocytic differentiation in patients with solid tumors. These myeloid precursors are selectively enriched in tumor tissues, and the high levels of circulating GMPs were positively correlated with disease progression. By using cord blood-derived CD34+ cells, we developed an in vitro short-term culture model to effectively induce the rapid generation of MDSCs. We found that, among the factors produced by various tumors, GM-CSF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and IL-6 could not only promote the myeloid-biased differentiation, but also induce the differentiation of myeloid precursors into functional MDSCs. These findings suggest that the altered circulating HSPCs may serve as an important link between dysregulated bone marrow hematopoiesis and accumulated MDSCs in patients with cancer. PMID:24591638

  5. Hematopoietic Differentiation Is Required for Initiation of Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ye, Min; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Henry; Koche, Richard; Staber, Philipp B; Cusan, Monica; Levantini, Elena; Welner, Robert S; Bach, Christian S; Zhang, Junyan; Krivtsov, Andrei V; Armstrong, Scott A; Tenen, Daniel G

    2015-11-01

    Mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-associated oncogenes often arise in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and promote acquisition of leukemia stem cell (LSC) phenotypes. However, as LSCs often share features of lineage-restricted progenitors, the relative contribution of differentiation status to LSC transformation is unclear. Using murine MLL-AF9 and MOZ-TIF2 AML models, we show that myeloid differentiation to granulocyte macrophage progenitors (GMPs) is critical for LSC generation. Disrupting GMP formation by deleting the lineage-restricted transcription factor C/EBPa blocked normal granulocyte formation and prevented initiation of AML. However, restoring myeloid differentiation in C/EBPa mutants with inflammatory cytokines reestablished AML transformation capacity. Genomic analyses of GMPs, including gene expression and H3K79me2 profiling in conjunction with ATAC-seq, revealed a permissive genomic environment for activation of a minimal transcription program shared by GMPs and LSCs. Together, these findings show that myeloid differentiation is a prerequisite for LSC formation and AML development, providing insights for therapeutic development. PMID:26412561

  6. Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Outcomes in Monosomal Karyotype Myeloid Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Pasquini, Marcelo C; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Medeiros, Bruno C; Armand, Philippe; Hu, Zhen-Huan; Nishihori, Taiga; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; Akpek, Görgün; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Cairo, Mitchell S; Cerny, Jan; Copelan, Edward A; Deol, Abhinav; Freytes, César O; Gale, Robert Peter; Ganguly, Siddhartha; George, Biju; Gupta, Vikas; Hale, Gregory A; Kamble, Rammurti T; Klumpp, Thomas R; Lazarus, Hillard M; Luger, Selina M; Liesveld, Jane L; Litzow, Mark R; Marks, David I; Martino, Rodrigo; Norkin, Maxim; Olsson, Richard F; Oran, Betul; Pawarode, Attaphol; Pulsipher, Michael A; Ramanathan, Muthalagu; Reshef, Ran; Saad, Ayman A; Saber, Wael; Savani, Bipin N; Schouten, Harry C; Ringdén, Olle; Tallman, Martin S; Uy, Geoffrey L; Wood, William A; Wirk, Baldeep; Pérez, Waleska S; Batiwalla, Minoo; Weisdorf, Daniel J

    2016-02-01

    The presence of monosomal karyotype (MK+) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is associated with dismal outcomes. We evaluated the impact of MK+ in AML (MK+AML, n = 240) and in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (MK+MDS, n = 221) on hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes compared with other cytogenetically defined groups (AML, n = 3360; MDS, n = 1373) as reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research from 1998 to 2011. MK+ AML was associated with higher disease relapse (hazard ratio, 1.98; P < .01), similar transplantation-related mortality (TRM) (hazard ratio, 1.01; P = .90), and worse survival (hazard ratio, 1.67; P < .01) compared with those outcomes for other cytogenetically defined AML. Among patients with MDS, MK+ MDS was associated with higher disease relapse (hazard ratio, 2.39; P < .01), higher TRM (hazard ratio, 1.80; P < .01), and worse survival (HR, 2.02; P < .01). Subset analyses comparing chromosome 7 abnormalities (del7/7q) with or without MK+ demonstrated higher mortality for MK+ disease in for both AML (hazard ratio, 1.72; P < .01) and MDS (hazard ratio, 1.79; P < .01). The strong negative impact of MK+ in myeloid malignancies was observed in all age groups and using either myeloablative or reduced-intensity conditioning regimens. Alternative approaches to mitigate disease relapse in this population are needed. PMID:26327629

  7. Myeloid/natural killer cell precursor acute leukemia with tetraploidy.

    PubMed

    Dinol, Gna?; Palandz, Skr; Nalaci, Meliha; Uur, Ali; Bykaydin, Banu

    2005-12-01

    Myeloid/natural killer (NK) cell precursor acute leukemia is characterized by coexpression of myeloid and natural killer cell antigens and an aggressive clinical course. Here we report a case of myeloid/NK precursor acute leukemia in a 37-year-old woman. Clinical presentation was correlated with leukemic blast morphology, immunophenotype, and cytogenetic analysis. The patient had noted fever, weakness, purpura, peripheral lymphadenopathy, and moderate hepatosplenomegaly. Peripheral blood smears and bone marrow aspirate smears at presentation revealed blastic cells, which were generally L2 shaped, with variation in cell size, round to moderately irregular nuclei and prominent nucleoli, pale cytoplasm, and a lack of azurophilic granules. Immunophenotypic analysis of the blasts displayed coexpression of myeloid and natural killer cell antigens with relatively immature phenotype: CD7+, CD33+, CD34+, CD56+, CD57+, CD16-, MPO-. Cytogenetic analysis of marrow cells showed 62% of cells with a normal female karyotype; in the remaining 38%, tetraploid changes were detected, where the chromosome number was 92, with no preferential losses or gains of chromosomes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis revealed the same abnormality. The patient did not respond to chemotherapy (cytosine arabinoside and idarubicin) and died of a septic complication on the 34th day after admission. To our knowledge, this is the first description of tetraploidy in myeloid/NK cell precursor acute leukemia. PMID:16337859

  8. CXCR4 and mobilization of hematopoietic precursors.

    PubMed

    Rettig, Michael P; Ramirez, Pablo; Nervi, Bruno; DiPersio, John F

    2009-01-01

    The binding of the chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 12 (CXCL12 or stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha [SDF-1alpha]) constitutively produced by bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblasts, to the CXC receptor (CXCR) 4, a transmembrane chemokine receptor expressed on hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), has emerged as a key signal for HSPC trafficking to and from the bone marrow. Disruption of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling causes leukocytosis, with the release of HSPCs, neutrophils, and lymphocytes into the peripheral blood. Although mobilized peripheral blood has become the preferred source of stem cells for both autologous and allogeneic transplantation, the optimum strategy for obtaining mobilized products from donors is the subject of ongoing study. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and plerixafor (AMD3100) are two agents used clinically to induce HSPC mobilization by disruption of the CXCL12/CXCR4 interaction. This chapter describes current procedures used to phenotypically and functionally characterize murine and human HSPCs mobilized by G-CSF or plerixafor. PMID:19446720

  9. Myeloid skewing in murine autoimmune arthritis occurs in hematopoietic stem and primitive progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Oduro, Kwadwo A; Liu, Fang; Tan, Qing; Kim, Chan-Kyu; Lubman, Olga; Fremont, Daved; Mills, Jason C; Choi, Kyunghee

    2012-09-13

    Skewing toward myeloid cell production is often observed in chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Herein, we determined whether persistent myeloid activation and proinflammatory output occurring in pathologic conditions is at the level of hematopoietic stem and primitive progenitor cells (HSPPCs). By using a mouse arthritis model, we found that even though HSPPCs in arthritis still retained the capacity to differentiate into different lineages, they acquired enhanced in vitro and in vivo propensity in a disease-dependent manner to generate myeloid cells, the key perpetrators of tissue damage in arthritis. This myeloid skewing was cell intrinsic, as arthritic HSPPCs up-regulate myeloid-specific transcripts including S100a8. Exogenous S100a8 promoted myeloid cell output from wild-type HSPPCs, suggesting mechanistic involvement of this gene in the myeloid priming that occurs in arthritic HSPPCs. Therefore, our results indicate that in arthritic mice, HSPPCs adopt a pathologic state that favors disease persistence. PMID:22855602

  10. Genetic manipulation of AML1-ETOinduced expansion of hematopoietic precursors in a Drosophila model

    PubMed Central

    Sinenko, Sergey A.; Hung, Tony; Moroz, Tatiana; Tran, Quynh-Minh; Sidhu, Sohrab; Cheney, Matthew D.; Speck, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    Among mutations in human Runx1/AML1 transcription factors, the t(8;21)(q22;q22) genomic translocation that creates an AML1-ETO fusion protein is implicated in etiology of the acute myeloid leukemia. To identify genes and components associated with this oncogene we used Drosophila as a genetic model. Expression of AML1-ETO caused an expansion of hematopoietic precursors in Drosophila, which expressed high levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mutations in functional domains of the fusion protein suppress the proliferative phenotype. In a genetic screen, we found that inactivation of EcRB1 or activation of Foxo and superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2) suppress the AML1-ETOinduced phenotype by reducing ROS expression in the precursor cells. Our studies indicate that ROS is a signaling factor promoting maintenance of normal as well as the aberrant myeloid precursors and suggests the importance of antioxidant enzymes and their regulators as targets for further study in the context of leukemia. PMID:20688956

  11. Inflammatory arthritis increases mouse osteoclast precursors with myeloid suppressor function.

    PubMed

    Charles, Julia F; Hsu, Lih-Yun; Niemi, Erene C; Weiss, Arthur; Aliprantis, Antonios O; Nakamura, Mary C

    2012-12-01

    Increased osteoclastic bone resorption leads to periarticular erosions and systemic osteoporosis in RA patients. Although a great deal is known about how osteoclasts differentiate from precursors and resorb bone, the identity of an osteoclast precursor (OCP) population in vivo and its regulatory role in RA remains elusive. Here, we report the identification of a CD11b(-/lo)Ly6C(hi) BM population with OCP activity in vitro and in vivo. These cells, which can be distinguished from previously characterized precursors in the myeloid lineage, display features of both M1 and M2 monocytes and expand in inflammatory arthritis models. Surprisingly, in one mouse model of RA (adoptive transfer of SKG arthritis), cotransfer of OCP with SKG CD4+ T cells diminished inflammatory arthritis. Similar to monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs), OCPs suppressed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro through the production of NO. This study identifies a BM myeloid precursor population with osteoclastic and T cell-suppressive activity that is expanded in inflammatory arthritis. Therapeutic strategies that prevent the development of OCPs into mature bone-resorbing cells could simultaneously prevent bone resorption and generate an antiinflammatory milieu in the RA joint. PMID:23114597

  12. Transcriptome-wide Profiling and Posttranscriptional Analysis of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cell Differentiation toward Myeloid Commitment

    PubMed Central

    Klimmeck, Daniel; Cabezas-Wallscheid, Nina; Reyes, Alejandro; vonPaleske, Lisa; Renders, Simon; Hansson, Jenny; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Huber, Wolfgang; Trumpp, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Summary Hematopoietic stem cells possess lifelong self-renewal activity and generate multipotent progenitors that differentiate into lineage-committed and subsequently mature cells. We present a comparative transcriptome analysis of exvivo isolated mouse multipotent hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (LinnegSCA-1+c-KIT+) and myeloid committed precursors (LinnegSCA-1negc-KIT+). Our data display dynamic transcriptional networks and identify a stem/progenitor gene expression pattern that is characterized by cell adhesion and immune response components including kallikrein-related proteases. We identify 498 expressed lncRNAs, which are potential regulators of multipotency or lineage commitment. By integrating these transcriptome with our recently reported proteome data, we found evidence for posttranscriptional regulation of processes including metabolism and response to oxidative stress. Finally, our study identifies a high number of genes with transcript isoform regulation upon lineage commitment. This in-depth molecular analysis outlines the enormous complexity of expressed coding and noncoding RNAs and posttranscriptional regulation during the early differentiation steps of hematopoietic stem cells toward the myeloid lineage. PMID:25418729

  13. Vav promotes differentiation of human tumoral myeloid precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Bertagnolo, Valeria; Brugnoli, Federica; Mischiati, Carlo; Sereni, Alessia; Bavelloni, Alberto; Carini, Cinzia; Capitani, Silvano . E-mail: cps@unife.it

    2005-05-15

    Vav is one of the genetic markers that correlate with the differentiation of hematopoietic cells. In T and B cells, it appears crucial for both development and functions, while, in non-lymphoid hematopoietic cells, Vav seems not involved in cell maturation, but rather in the response of mature cells to agonist-dependent proliferation and phagocytosis. We have previously demonstrated that the amount and the tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav are up-regulated in both whole cells and nuclei of tumoral promyelocytes induced to granulocytic maturation by ATRA and that tyrosine-phosphorylated Vav does not display any ATRA-induced GEF activity but contributes to the regulation of PI 3-K activity. In this study, we report that Vav accumulates in nuclei of ATRA-treated APL-derived cells and that the down-modulation of Vav prevents differentiation of tumoral promyelocytes, indicating that it is a key molecule in ATRA-dependent myeloid maturation. On the other hand, the overexpression of Vav induces an increased expression of surface markers of granulocytic differentiation without affecting the maturation-related changes of the nuclear morphology. Consistent with an effect of Vav on the transcriptional machinery, array profiling shows that the inhibition of the Syk-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav reduces the number of ATRA-induced genes. Our data support the unprecedented notion that Vav plays crucial functions in the maturation process of myeloid cells, and suggest that Vav can be regarded as a potential target for the therapeutic treatment of myeloproliferative disorders.

  14. Characterization of the Murine Myeloid Precursor Cell Line MuMac-E8

    PubMed Central

    Fricke, Stephan; Riemschneider, Sina; Kohlschmidt, Janine; Hilger, Nadja; Fueldner, Christiane; Knauer, Jens; Sack, Ulrich; Emmrich, Frank; Lehmann, Jrg

    2014-01-01

    Starting point for the present work was the assumption that the cell line MuMac-E8 represents a murine cell population with stem cell properties. Preliminary studies already pointed to the expression of stem-cell associated markers and a self-regenerative potential of the cells. The cell line MuMac-E8 should be examined for their differential stage within stem cell hierarchy. MuMac-E8 cells were derived from a chimeric mouse model of arthritis. It could be shown that MuMac-E8 cells express mRNA of some genes associated with pluripotent stem cells (Nanog, Nucleostemin), of genes for hematopoietic markers (EPCR, Sca-1, CD11b, CD45), for the mesenchymal marker CD105 and of genes for the neural markers Pax-6 and Ezrin. In methylcellulose and May-Grnwald-Giemsa staining, hematopoietic colonies were obtained but the hematopoietic system of lethally irradiated mice could not be rescued. Osteogenic differentiation was not detectable. Thus, it became evident that MuMac-E8 represents not a stem cell line. However, MuMac-E8 cells expressed several myeloid surface markers (i.e. CD11b, F4/80, CD14, CD64), showed phagocytosis and is capable of producing nitric oxide. Thus, this cell line seems to be arrested an advanced stage of myeloid differentiation. Adherence data measured by impedance-based real-time cell analysis together with cell morphology data suggested that MuMac-E8 represents a new macrophage precursor cell line exhibiting weak adherence. This cell line is suitable as an in-vitro model for testing of macrophage functions. Moreover, it might be also useful for differentiation or reprogramming studies. PMID:25546418

  15. Systematic analysis of hematopoietic gene expression profiles for prognostic prediction in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Varn, Frederick S; Andrews, Erik H; Cheng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematopoietic disorder initiated by the leukemogenic transformation of myeloid cells into leukemia stem cells (LSCs). Preexisting gene expression programs in LSCs can be used to assess their transcriptional similarity to hematopoietic cell types. While this relationship has previously been examined on a small scale, an analysis that systematically investigates this relationship throughout the hematopoietic hierarchy has yet to be implemented. We developed an integrative approach to assess the similarity between AML patient tumor profiles and a collection of 232 murine hematopoietic gene expression profiles compiled by the Immunological Genome Project. The resulting lineage similarity scores (LSS) were correlated with patient survival to assess the relationship between hematopoietic similarity and patient prognosis. This analysis demonstrated that patient tumor similarity to immature hematopoietic cell types correlated with poor survival. As a proof of concept, we highlighted one cell type identified by our analysis, the short-term reconstituting stem cell, whose LSSs were significantly correlated with patient prognosis across multiple datasets, and showed distinct patterns in patients stratified by traditional clinical variables. Finally, we validated our use of murine profiles by demonstrating similar results when applying our method to human profiles. PMID:26598031

  16. Systematic analysis of hematopoietic gene expression profiles for prognostic prediction in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Varn, Frederick S.; Andrews, Erik H.; Cheng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematopoietic disorder initiated by the leukemogenic transformation of myeloid cells into leukemia stem cells (LSCs). Preexisting gene expression programs in LSCs can be used to assess their transcriptional similarity to hematopoietic cell types. While this relationship has previously been examined on a small scale, an analysis that systematically investigates this relationship throughout the hematopoietic hierarchy has yet to be implemented. We developed an integrative approach to assess the similarity between AML patient tumor profiles and a collection of 232 murine hematopoietic gene expression profiles compiled by the Immunological Genome Project. The resulting lineage similarity scores (LSS) were correlated with patient survival to assess the relationship between hematopoietic similarity and patient prognosis. This analysis demonstrated that patient tumor similarity to immature hematopoietic cell types correlated with poor survival. As a proof of concept, we highlighted one cell type identified by our analysis, the short-term reconstituting stem cell, whose LSSs were significantly correlated with patient prognosis across multiple datasets, and showed distinct patterns in patients stratified by traditional clinical variables. Finally, we validated our use of murine profiles by demonstrating similar results when applying our method to human profiles. PMID:26598031

  17. Successful hematopoietic cell transplantation in a patient with X-linked agammaglobulinemia and acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Abu-Arja, Rolla F; Chernin, Leah R; Abusin, Ghada; Auletta, Jeffery; Cabral, Linda; Egler, Rachel; Ochs, Hans D; Torgerson, Troy R; Lopez-Guisa, Jesus; Hostoffer, Robert W; Tcheurekdjian, Haig; Cooke, Kenneth R

    2015-09-01

    X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by marked reduction in all classes of serum immunoglobulins and the near absence of mature CD19(+) B-cells. Although malignancy has been observed in patients with XLA, we present the first reported case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a patient with XLA. We also demonstrate the complete correction of the XLA phenotype following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for treatment of the patient's leukemia. PMID:25900577

  18. Erythro-Myeloid Progenitors: definitive hematopoiesis in the conceptus prior to the emergence of hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Frame, Jenna M.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Palis, James

    2013-01-01

    Erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMP) serve as a major source of hematopoiesis in the developing conceptus prior to the formation of a permanent blood system. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge regarding the emergence, fate, and potential of this hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-independent wave of hematopoietic progenitors, focusing on the murine embryo as a model system. A better understanding of the temporal and spatial control of hematopoietic emergence in the embryo will ultimately improve our ability to derive hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells from embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells to serve therapeutic purposes. PMID:24095199

  19. Hematopoietic Reprogramming In Vitro Informs In Vivo Identification of Hemogenic Precursors to Definitive Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Carlos-Filipe; Chang, Betty; Gomes, Andreia; Bernitz, Jeffrey; Papatsenko, Dmitri; Niu, Xiaohong; Swiers, Gemma; Azzoni, Emanuele; de Bruijn, Marella F T R; Schaniel, Christoph; Lemischka, Ihor R; Moore, Kateri A

    2016-03-01

    Definitive hematopoiesis emerges via an endothelial-to-hematopoietic transition in the embryo and placenta; however, the precursor cells to hemogenic endothelium are not defined phenotypically. We previously demonstrated that the induction of hematopoietic progenitors from fibroblasts progresses through hemogenic precursors that are Prom1(+)Sca1(+)CD34(+)CD45(-) (PS34CD45(-)). Guided by these studies, we analyzed mouse placentas and identified a population with this phenotype. These cells express endothelial markers, are heterogeneous for early hematopoietic markers, and localize to the vascular labyrinth. Remarkably, global gene expression profiles of PS34CD45(-) cells correlate with reprogrammed precursors and establish a hemogenic precursor cell molecular signature. PS34CD45(-) cells are also present in intra-embryonic hemogenic sites. After stromal co-culture, PS34CD45(-) cells give rise to all blood lineages and engraft primary and secondary immunodeficient mice. In summary, we show that reprogramming reveals a phenotype for in vivo precursors to hemogenic endothelium, establishing that direct in vitro conversion informs developmental processes in vivo. PMID:26954547

  20. Strategies to Reduce Relapse after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Mawad, Raya; Lionberger, Jack M.; Pagel, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is expected to increase in conjunction with our ageing population. Although it is proving to be a heterogeneous disease process, the only treatment with proven survival benefit for poor risk AML remains allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. Although this is presumed to be a curative strategy, many patients relapse after transplant, prompting us to examine various ways that we can improve outcomes. These efforts involve every step of AML diagnostics and therapy, including the intricate processes of conditioning, graft manipulation and immunomodulation. The hope is that improvement in these steps will ultimately improve survival and decrease relapse rates for AML patients after transplant. PMID:23456518

  1. Clonal evolution of preleukemic hematopoietic stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Stephen M; Kokkaliaris, Konstantinos D; Milsom, Michael D; Levine, Ross L; Majeti, Ravindra

    2015-12-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive blood cancer that results from an abnormal expansion of uncontrollably proliferating myeloid progenitors that have lost the capacity to differentiate. AML encompasses many genetically distinct subtypes that predominantly develop de novo. However, AML can also arise from premalignant myeloid conditions, such as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), or develop as the result of exposure to genotoxic agents used to treat unrelated malignancies. Although numerous distinct cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities associated with AML were discovered prior to the turn of the millennium, recent advances in whole genome sequencing and global genomic approaches have resulted in an explosion of newly identified molecular abnormalities. However, even with these advances, our understanding of how these mutations contribute to the etiology, pathogenesis, and therapeutic responses of AML remains largely unknown. Recently the International Society for Experimental Hematology (ISEH) hosted a webinar entitled "Clonal Evolution of Pre-Leukemic Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) in AML" in which two AML mavens, Ross Levine, MD, and Ravindra Majeti, MD, PhD, discussed some of their recent, groundbreaking studies that have shed light on how many of these newly identified mutations contribute to leukemogenesis and therapy resistance in AML. Here, we provide a brief overview of this webinar and discuss the basic scientific and clinical implications of the data presented. PMID:26455528

  2. Generation of hematopoietic progenitor cell lines with myeloid and lymphoid potential

    PubMed Central

    Redecke, Vanessa; Wu, Ruiqiong; Zhou, Jingran; Finkelstein, David; Chaturvedi, Vandana; High, Anthony A.; Hcker, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of immune cell differentiation and function is limited by shortcomings of suitable and scalable experimental systems. Here we show that an estrogenregulated form of HOXB8 that is retrovirally delivered into mouse bone marrow cells can be used along with FLT3 ligand to conditionally immortalize early hematopoietic progenitor cells (Hoxb8FL). Hoxb8FL cells have lost selfrenewal capacity and megakaryocyte/ erythroid lineage potential, but sustain myeloid and lymphoid potential. Hoxb8FL cells differentiate in vitro and in vivo into different myeloid and lymphoid cell types, including macrophages, granulocytes, dendritic cells and B and Tlymphocytes, which are phenotypically and functionally indistinguishable from their primary counterparts. Quantitative in vitro cell lineage potential assays implicate that myeloid and Bcell potential of Hoxb8FL cells is comparable to primary lymphoidprimed multipotent progenitors, while Tcell potential is comparatively reduced. Given the simplicity and unlimited proliferative capacity of Hoxb8FL cells, this system provides unique opportunities to investigate cell differentiation and immune cell functions. PMID:23749299

  3. (Lymph)angiogenic influences on hematopoietic cells in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ji Yoon; Kim, Hee-Je

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the effect of (lymph)angiogenic cytokines on hematopoietic cells involved in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Like angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis occurs in pathophysiological conditions but not in healthy adults. AML is closely associated with the vasculature system, and the interplay between lymphangiogenic cytokines maintains leukemic blast survival in the bone marrow (BM). Once AML is induced, proangiogenic cytokines function as angiogenic or lymphangiogenic factors and affect hematopoietic cells, including BM-derived immune cells. Simultaneously, the representative cytokines, VEGFs and their receptors are expressed on AML blasts in vascular and osteoblast niches in both the BM and the peripheral circulation. After exposure to (lymph)angiogenic cytokines in leukemogenesis and infiltration, immune cell phenotypes and functions are affected. These dynamic behaviors in the BM reflect the clinical features of AML. In this review, we note the importance of lymphangiogenic factors and their receptors in hematopoietic cells in AML. Understanding the functional characterization of (lymph)angiogenic factors in the BM niche in AML will also be helpful in interrupting the engraftment of leukemic stem cells and for enhancing immune cell function by modulating the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25412683

  4. Functional Niche Competition Between Normal Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells and Myeloid Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Glait-Santar, Chen; Desmond, Ronan; Feng, Xingmin; Bat, Taha; Chen, Jichun; Heuston, Elisabeth; Mizukawa, Benjamin; Mulloy, James C; Bodine, David M; Larochelle, Andre; Dunbar, Cynthia E

    2015-12-01

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in a specialized niche that regulates their proliferative capacity and their fate. There is increasing evidence for similar roles of marrow niches on controlling the behavior of leukemic cells; however, whether normal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and leukemic cells reside in or functionally compete for the same marrow niche is unclear. We used the mixed lineage leukemia-AF9 (MLL-AF9) murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a competitive repopulation model to investigate whether normal HSPC and leukemic cells functionally compete for the same marrow niches. Irradiated recipient mice were transplanted with fixed numbers of MLL-AF9 cells mixed with increasing doses of normal syngeneic whole bone marrow (WBM) or with purified HSPC (LSK). Survival was significantly increased and leukemic progression was delayed proportional to increasing doses of normal WBM or normal LSK cells in multiple independent experiments, with all doses of WBM or LSK cells studied above the threshold for rapid and complete hematopoietic reconstitution in the absence of leukemia. Confocal microscopy demonstrated nests of either leukemic cells or normal hematopoietic cells but not both in the marrow adjacent to endosteum. Early following transplantation, leukemic cells from animals receiving lower LSK doses were cycling more actively than in those receiving higher doses. These results suggest that normal HSPC and AML cells compete for the same functional niche. Manipulation of the niche could impact on response to antileukemic therapies, and the numbers of normal HSPC could impact on leukemia outcome, informing approaches to cell dose in the context of stem cell transplantation. Stem Cells 2015;33:3635-3642. PMID:26388434

  5. Impact of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant in patients with myeloid neoplasms carrying spliceosomal mutations.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Betty Ky; Visconte, Valeria; Jia, Xuefei; Tabarroki, Ali; Makishima, Hideki; Hasrouni, Edy; Abounader, Donna; Kalaycio, Matt; Sekeres, Mikkael A; Sobecks, Ronald; Duong Liu, Hien; Bolwell, Brian; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P; Copelan, Edward; Tiu, Ramon V

    2016-06-01

    Molecular predictors of outcome are increasingly important in determining optimal therapy for myeloid neoplasms. Mutations in the spliceosomal genes (U2AF1 and SRSF2) predict for poor outcomes in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and related diseases. We investigated the effect of hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) on the negative prognostic impact of U2AF1 and SRSF2 mutations. In total, 122 patients with MDS (30%), acute myeloid leukemia (51%), myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) (11%), and MDS/MPN (8%) receiving a HCT from 2003 to 2012 were evaluated for mutations in U2AF1 and SRSF2 by direct sequencing. Median time of follow up was 24 months (range 0.46-110). SRSF2 mutations were detected in 11 (10%) patients and U2AF1 in 3 (3%) patients. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between mutated and wild-type (WT) patients. Patients carrying SRSF2 and U2AF1 mutations had similar overall survival (P = 0.84), relapse mortality (P = 0.50), and non-relapse mortality (P = 0.72) compared to WT patients. However, taking into account disease status and cytogenetics in a subset of AML patients, SRSF2 and U2AF1 mutations were associated with worse survival (HR 3.71, P = 0.035). Am. J. Hematol. 91:406-409, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26799334

  6. Hematopoietic cell crisis: An early stage of evolving myeloid leukemia following radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, T.M.

    1990-01-01

    Under select radiological conditions, chronic radiation exposure elicits a high incidence of myeloproliferative disease, principally myeloid leukemia (ML), in beagles. Previously we demonstrated that for full ML expression, a four-stage preclinical sequence is required, namely (1) suppression, (2) recovery, (3) accommodation, and (4) preleukemic transition. Within this pathological sequence, a critical early event has been identified as the acquisition of radioresistance by hematopoietic progenitors that serves to mediate a newfound regenerative hematopoietic capacity. As such, this event sets the stage'' for preleukemic progression by initiating progression from preclinical phase 1 to 2. Due to the nature of target cell suppression, the induction of crisis, and the outgrowth of progenitors with altered phenotypes, this preleukemic event resembles the immortalization'' step of the in vitro transformation sequence following induction with either physical and chemical carcinogens. The radiological, temporal, and biological dictates governing this event have been extensively evaluated and will be discussed in light of their role in the induction and progression of chronic radiation leukemia. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Acute myeloid leukemia is associated with retroviral gene transfer to hematopoietic progenitor cells in a rhesus macaque

    PubMed Central

    Seggewiss, Ruth; Pittaluga, Stefania; Adler, Rima L.; Guenaga, F. Javier; Ferguson, Cole; Pilz, Ingo H.; Ryu, Byoung; Sorrentino, Brian P.; Young, W. Scott; Donahue, Robert E.; von Kalle, Christof; Nienhuis, Arthur W.; Dunbar, Cynthia E.

    2006-01-01

    We report, for the first time, a replication-defective retroviral vectorassociated neoplasia in a nonhuman primate. Five years after transplantation with CD34+ cells transduced with a retroviral vector expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and a drug-resistant variant of the dihydrofolate reductase gene (L22Y), a rhesus macaque developed a fatal myeloid sarcoma, a type of acute myeloid leukemia. Tumor cells contained 2 clonal vector insertions. One insertion was found in BCL2-A1, an antiapoptotic gene. This event suggests that currently available retroviral vectors may have long-term side effects, particularly in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. PMID:16439674

  8. Acute myeloid leukemia is associated with retroviral gene transfer to hematopoietic progenitor cells in a rhesus macaque.

    PubMed

    Seggewiss, Ruth; Pittaluga, Stefania; Adler, Rima L; Guenaga, F Javier; Ferguson, Cole; Pilz, Ingo H; Ryu, Byoung; Sorrentino, Brian P; Young, W Scott; Donahue, Robert E; von Kalle, Christof; Nienhuis, Arthur W; Dunbar, Cynthia E

    2006-05-15

    We report, for the first time, a replication-defective retroviral vector-associated neoplasia in a nonhuman primate. Five years after transplantation with CD34+ cells transduced with a retroviral vector expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) and a drug-resistant variant of the dihydrofolate reductase gene (L22Y), a rhesus macaque developed a fatal myeloid sarcoma, a type of acute myeloid leukemia. Tumor cells contained 2 clonal vector insertions. One insertion was found in BCL2-A1, an antiapoptotic gene. This event suggests that currently available retroviral vectors may have long-term side effects, particularly in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. PMID:16439674

  9. VEGF signaling on hematopoietic precursors restricts B-lymphoid commitment in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Rita; Igreja, Ctia; Clode, Nuno; Henriques, Alexandra; Appleton, Cludia; Zhu, Zhenping; Wu, Yan; Dias, Srgio

    2008-10-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signals on vascular and hematopoietic cells via its receptors, VEGFR-2 (KDR) and VEGFR-1 (FLT-1). Elevated levels of VEGF, such as during tumor growth or inflammation, have been suggested to suppress hematopoiesis; most studies refer to KDR as the main receptor involved in this inhibitory effect. In the present study, having detected expression of FLT-1 in B-lymphoid precursors, we exploited the possibility that VEGF signaling via FLT-1 might affect early B-cell commitment. Using a well-established in vitro B-cell differentiation assay, we demonstrate that FLT-1 blockade promotes B-cell commitment and subsequent differentiation, while KDR blockade has no effect on B-cell commitment. In agreement, in vivo transplantation of human (CD34+) or murine (Sca1+l/Lin-) FLT-1-negative hematopoietic precursors into irradiated severe combined immune-deficient mice restored the bone marrow lymphoid compartment, while transplanting the FLT-1-positive counterpart failed to repopulate the lymphoid compartment, and unexpectedly resulted in early death of the irradiated recipients due to hematopoietic suppression. Taken together, we suggest that VEGF signaling via FLT-1 on hematopoietic precursors may restrict lymphopoiesis. PMID:18620797

  10. Temozolomide-mediated DNA methylation in human myeloid precursor cells:differential involvement of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haiyan; Cai, Shanbao; Ernstberger, Aaron; Bailey, Barbara J.; Wang, Michael Z.; Cai, Wenjing; Goebel, W. Scott; Czader, Magdalena B.; Crean, Colin; Suvannasankhah, Attaya; Shokolenkoc, Inna; Wilson, Glenn L.; Baluyut, Arthur R.; Mayo, Lindsey D.; Pollok, Karen E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose An understanding of how hematopoietic cells respond to therapy that causes myelosuppression will help develop approaches to prevent this potentially life-threatening toxicity. The goal of this study was to determine how human myeloid precursor cells (MP) respond to temozolomide (TMZ)-induced DNA damage. Experimental Design We developed an ex vivo primary human MP cells model system to investigate the involvement of cell-death pathways using a known myelosuppressive regimen of O6-benzylguanine (6BG) and TMZ. Results Exposure to 6BG/TMZ led to increases in p53, p21, ?-H2AX, and mitochondrial DNA damage. Increases in mitochondrial membrane depolarization correlated with increased caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities following 6BG/TMZ treatment. These events correlated with decreases in activated AKT, downregulation of the DNA repair protein O6methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), and increased cell death. During MP cell expansion, FAS/CD95/APO1(FAS) expression increased over time and was present on ~100% of the cells following exposure to 6BG/TMZ. While c-flipshort, an endogenous inhibitor of FAS-mediated signaling, was decreased in 6BG/TMZ-treated versus control, 6BG-, or TMZ alone-treated cells, there were no changes in caspase-8 activity. Additionally, there were no changes in the extent of cell death in MP cells exposed to 6BG/TMZ in the presence of neutralizing or agonistic anti-FAS antibodies, indicating that FAS-mediated signaling was not operative. Conclusions In human MP cells, 6BG/TMZ-initiated apoptosis occurred by intrinsic, mitochondrial-mediated and not extrinsic, FAS-mediated apoptosis. Human MP cells represent a clinically relevant model system for gaining insight into how hematopoietic cells respond to chemotherapeutics and offer an approach for selecting effective chemotherapeutic regimens with limited hematopoietic toxicity. PMID:23536437

  11. PRIMITIVE ADULT HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS CAN FUNCTION AS OSTEOBLAST PRECURSORS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoblasts are continually recruited from stem cell pools to maintain bone. Although their immediate precursor is a plastic-adherent mesenchymal stem cell able to generate tissues other than bone, increasing evidence suggests the existence of a more primitive cell that can differentiate to both hem...

  12. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant for acute myeloid leukemia: Current state in 2013 and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Kanate, Abraham S; Pasquini, Marcelo C; Hari, Parameswaran N; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) represents a heterogeneous group of high-grade myeloid neoplasms of the elderly with variable outcomes. Though remission-induction is an important first step in the management of AML, additional treatment strategies are essential to ensure long-term disease-free survival. Recent pivotal advances in understanding the genetics and molecular biology of AML have allowed for a risk-adapted approach in its management based on relapse-risk. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) represents an effective therapeutic strategy in AML providing the possibility of cure with potent graft-versus-leukemia reactions, with a demonstrable survival advantage in younger patients with intermediate- or poor-risk cytogenetics. Herein we review the published data regarding the role of allo-HCT in adults with AML. We searched MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE/Ovid. In addition, we searched reference lists of relevant articles, conference proceedings and ongoing trial databases. We discuss the role of allo-HCT in AML patients stratified by cytogenetic- and molecular-risk in first complete remission, as well as allo-HCT as an option in relapsed/refractory AML. Besides the conventional sibling and unrelated donor allografts, we review the available data and recent advances for alternative donor sources such as haploidentical grafts and umbilical cord blood. We also discuss conditioning regimens, including reduced intensity conditioning which has broadened the applicability of allo-HCT. Finally we explore recent advances and future possibilities and directions of allo-HCT in AML. Practical therapeutic recommendations have been made where possible based on available data and expert opinion. PMID:24772235

  13. Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in lymphoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Akhtari, Mojtaba; Bhatt, Vijaya Raj; Tandra, Pavan Kumar; Krishnamurthy, Jairam; Horstman, Heidi; Dreessen, Amy; Chen, Pei Xian; Armitage, James O

    2013-01-01

    Lymphoma patients treated with autologous transplantation (ASCT) live an increasingly long life with the recent advancement in therapeutic modalities. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN), which is one of the leading causes of non-relapse mortality. Several observational studies have linked the development of t-MN after ASCT with the intensity and frequency of chemotherapy, particularly alkylating agents, use of total body irradiation (TBI), and peripheral blood progenitor cells. In addition, role of genetic factors is increasingly being identified. It is postulated that the use of chemotherapy prior to ASCT results in DNA damage of progenitor cells, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered gene expression related to DNA repair, metabolism as well as hematopoietic regulation. Cytogenetic studies have shown the presence of abnormalities in the peripheral blood progenitor cells prior to ASCT. It is, therefore, likely that the reinfusion of peripheral blood progenitor cells, proliferative stress on infused progenitor cells during hematopoietic regeneration and associated telomere shortening ultimately result in clonal hematopoiesis and blastic transformation. Cytopenias, myelodysplasia, or cytogenetic abnormalities are common and can be transient after ASCT; therefore, only when present together, they do confirm the diagnosis of t-MN. Attempts to reduce the occurrence of t-MN should be directed toward minimizing the exposure to the identified risk factors. Although the median survival is few months to less than a year, studies have shown the promising role of allogeneic transplantation in select young t-MN patients without high-risk cytogenetics. In this review we will explain the recent findings in the field of t-MN in lymphoma patients that have implications for identifying the molecular and genetic mechanisms of leukemogenesis and discuss potential strategies to reduce the risk of t-MN in this patient population. PMID:24025414

  14. Hematopoietic cell transplantation in chronic myeloid leukemia in the age of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Copelan, Edward A; Grunwald, Michael R; Ghosh, Nilanjan; Plesca, Dragos; Trivedi, Jigar; Avalos, Belinda R

    2015-03-01

    The development and widespread use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has relegated the use of hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), in most countries, to chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients who fail or are intolerant to TKIs. Its long-term cost effectiveness compared to TKIs, however, has maintained its use as front-line treatment in some areas. Advances in HCT, including the development of intravenous busulfan and plasma assays permitting dose adjustment, have improved results of HCT in CML. Improved supportive care has lowered the incidence of non-relapse mortality and improved survival. The availability of reduced-intensity preparative regimens, molecular typing of unrelated donors, and the use of cord blood and haploidentical donors has expanded the application of HCT to nearly any patient with an appropriate indication. From 2006 to 2010, approximately one thousand HCTs were performed annually in patients with CML. Better understanding of recent advances will improve the appropriate use and results of HCT in patients with CML. PMID:25828525

  15. CD34-expressing human thymocyte precursors proliferate in response to interleukin-7 but have lost myeloid differentiation potential.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, C; Ktorza, S; Sarun, S; Blanc, C; De Jong, R; Debre, P

    1993-12-15

    CD34 is a marker for pluripotent stem cells also present on lineage-committed hematopoietic progenitors from bone marrow and a subpopulation of immature thymocytes. To characterize these early immature thymocytes, we have studied 24 pediatric thymus samples for CD34/7 expression. Three subpopulations could be defined from these T-cell receptor (TcR-) immature thymocytes: CD34+7++ (12.0 +/- 5.8), CD34-7++ (12.6 +/- 8.6), and CD34-7+ (71.5 +/- 17.0%). CD7++ represents upregulation of this antigen and is expressed by cells of a blast-like morphology. Three-color flow cytometric analysis of these three subsets suggests the following ordered differentiation sequence: CD34+7++1-4-8-45RA+-->CD34+7++1+ 4+8-45RA+/- -->CD34-7++1+4+8-+45RO+-->CD34-7+1++4+8+45RO+. Early immature thymocyte cell division is essential in the thymus to generate a large number of precursors before the initiation of the selection process. We observed that both CD2 as well CD28 activation pathways were inefficient to serve as costimulant with phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate or interleukin-2 (IL-2) to induce the proliferation of the three CD34/7 subsets isolated by cell sorting. However, whereas IL-1, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor were ineffective, IL-7 was a potent cytokine, alone or in synergy with stem cell factor (SCF) to induce immature thymocyte proliferation. The proliferation induced by IL-7 or IL-7 + SCF is restricted to the CD34+ cells and, after 4 or 8 days of culture with IL-7, some CD34+7++ acquire the expression of CD4 and/or CD8, but remain CD3/TcR-. We also tested the myeloid differentiation capacity of these CD34 immature thymocytes. Using two different approaches, myeloid colony formation in methylcellulose and limiting dilution analysis in the presence of myeloid growth factors, we were unable to detect myeloid differentiation capacity from CD34+ early thymocytes, whereas CD34+7+ from bone marrow contained about 10% of the clonogenic cells present in the CD34+7- fraction. Together, these data support the concept that thymic CD34+7++ represents the earliest thymic subset of fully committed T-lineage cells, capable of proliferating specifically to IL-7. PMID:7505122

  16. Impaired differentiation and apoptosis of hematopoietic precursors in a mouse model of myelodysplastic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Chul Won; Chung, Yang Jo; Slape, Christopher; Aplan, Peter D.

    2008-01-01

    Expression of a NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) fusion gene, initially identified in a patient with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), leads to a highly penetrant MDS in mice that recapitulates all of the key features of the human disease. Expansion of undifferentiated lineage negative (linneg) hematopoietic precursors that express NHD13 was markedly inhibited (30-fold) in vitro. Decreased expansion was accompanied by decreased production of terminally differentiated cells, indicating impaired differentiation of NHD13 precursors. Rather than differentiate, the majority (80%) of NHD13 linneg precursors underwent apoptotic cell death when induced to differentiate. These findings demonstrate that NHD13 linneg cells provide a tractable in vitro system for studies of MDS. PMID:18603548

  17. Donor lymphocyte infusion for the treatment of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a retrospective analysis by the Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Working Group of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Takami, Akiyoshi; Yano, Shingo; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Morishima, Yasuo; Fukuda, Takahiro; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Tanaka, Junji; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Kanamori, Heiwa

    2014-11-01

    Because the efficacy of donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains uncertain, especially in the Asian population, a nationwide registry study was retrospectively performed by the Adult AML Working Group of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation to identify the factors affecting the patient survival after DLI. Among 143 adult AML patients who received DLI for the treatment of first hematological relapse after HSCT, the overall survival rates at 1 year, 2 years, and 5 years were 32% 4%, 17% 3%, and 7% 3%, respectively. Complete remission (CR) at the time of DLI, which was obtained in 8% of the patients, was the strongest predictive factor for survival after DLI. Therefore, long-term survival after DLI was achieved almost exclusively in patients who successfully achieved a CR before DLI, indicating the limited efficacy of DLI in a minority of patients. PMID:25034960

  18. Testicular myeloid sarcoma: case report

    PubMed Central

    Zago, Luzia Beatriz Ribeiro; Ladeia, Antnio Alexandre Lisba; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; de Oliveira, Leonardo Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid sarcomas are extramedullary solid tumors composed of immature granulocytic precursor cells. In association with acute myeloid leukemia and other myeloproliferative disorders, they may arise concurrently with compromised bone marrow related to acute myeloid leukemia, as a relapsed presentation, or occur as the first manifestation. The testicles are considered to be an uncommon site for myeloid sarcomas. No therapeutic strategy has been defined as best but may include chemotherapy, radiotherapy and/or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This study reports the evolution of a patient with testicular myeloid sarcoma as the first manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia. The patient initially refused medical treatment and died five months after the clinical condition started. PMID:23580888

  19. Nonmyeloablative Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gyurkocza, Boglarka; Storb, Rainer; Storer, Barry E.; Chauncey, Thomas R.; Lange, Thoralf; Shizuru, Judith A.; Langston, Amelia A.; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Bredeson, Christopher N.; Maziarz, Richard T.; Bruno, Benedetto; Petersen, Finn B.; Maris, Michael B.; Agura, Edward; Yeager, Andrew; Bethge, Wolfgang; Sahebi, Firoozeh; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Maloney, David G.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after high-dose conditioning regimens imposes prohibitively high risks of morbidity and mortality for patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are older or have comorbid conditions. Here, we examined outcomes after nonmyeloablative allogeneic HCT in such patients. Patients and Methods Two hundred seventy-four patients (median age, 60 years) with de novo or secondary AML underwent allogeneic HCT from related (n = 118) or unrelated donors (n = 156) after conditioning with 2 Gy of total-body irradiation (TBI) with or without fludarabine. A calcineurin inhibitor and mycophenolate mofetil were used for postgrafting immunosuppression. Results With a median follow-up of 38 months in surviving patients, the estimated overall survival at 5 years was 33%. The estimated 5-year relapse/progression and nonrelapse mortality rates were 42% and 26%, respectively. The cumulative incidences of grades 2, 3, and 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 38%, 9%, and 5%, respectively. The cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD at 5 years was 44%. Patients in first and second complete remission had better survival rates than patients with more advanced disease (37% and 34% v 18%, respectively). Patients with HLA-matched related or unrelated donors had similar survivals. Unfavorable cytogenetic risk status was associated with increased relapse and subsequent mortality. Chronic GVHD was associated with lower relapse risk. Conclusion Allogeneic HCT from related or unrelated donors after conditioning with low-dose TBI and fludarabine, relying almost exclusively on graft-versus-leukemia effects, can result in long-term remissions in older or medically infirm patients with AML. PMID:20439626

  20. Functional Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Subsets Recover Rapidly after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Guan, Qingdong; Blankstein, Anna R; Anjos, Karla; Synova, Oleksandra; Tulloch, Marie; Giftakis, Angeline; Yang, Bin; Lambert, Pascal; Peng, Zhikang; Cuvelier, Geoff D E; Wall, Donna A

    2015-07-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are regulatory cell populations that have the ability to suppress effector T cell responses and promote the development of regulatory T cells (Tregs). They are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid progenitors that include monocytic and granulocytic subsets. We postulated that given the rapid expansion of myeloid cells post-transplant, these members of the innate immune system may be important contributors to the early immune environment post-transplant. To evaluate the kinetics of recovery and function of MDSCs after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), 26 patients undergoing allogeneic HSCT were studied at 6 time points in the first 3 months after HSCT. Both MDSC subsets recovered between 2 and 4 weeks, well before the recovery of T and B lymphocytes. MDSC subset recovery positively correlated with T, B, and/or double-negative T cell numbers after HSCT. MDSCs isolated from patients post-transplant were functional in that they suppressed third-party CD4(+) T cell proliferation and Th1 differentiation and promoted Treg development. In conclusion, functional MDSC are present early after HSCT and likely contribute to the regulatory cell population post-transplant. PMID:25963921

  1. Adoptive precursor cell therapy to enhance immune reconstitution after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in mouse and man

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Amanda M.; Zakrzewski, Johannes L.; Goldberg, Gabrielle L.; Ghosh, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a curative therapy for hematological malignancies. T cell deficiency following transplantation is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. In this review, we discuss adoptive transfer of committed precursor cells to enhance T cell reconstitution and improve overall prognosis after transplantation. PMID:19015856

  2. The hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index is a predictor of early death and survival in adult acute myeloid leukemia patients.

    PubMed

    Savic, Aleksandar; Kvrgic, Vanja; Rajic, Nebojsa; Urosevic, Ivana; Kovacevic, Dragan; Percic, Ivanka; Popovic, Stevan

    2012-04-01

    The hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index (HCT-CI) is predictive of early death and survival in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic role of the HCT-CI for early death and survival in adult AML patients. In the single-center retrospective study, we analyzed the outcome of 233 adult AML patients. The results indicated that the HCT-CI score is an independent predictor of early death in entire cohort of adult patients with AML. In subgroup analysis, HCT-CI is an independent predictor for early death in elderly patients but not in patients younger than 60 years. A high HCT-CI score predicts shorter survival in adult patients with AML. PMID:22192632

  3. Retrovirus-Mediated Expression of E2A-PBX1 Blocks Lymphoid Fate but Permits Retention of Myeloid Potential in Early Hematopoietic Progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Woodcroft, Mark W.; Nanan, Kyster; Thompson, Patrick; Tyryshkin, Kathrin; Smith, Steven P.; Slany, Robert K.; LeBrun, David P.

    2015-01-01

    The oncogenic transcription factor E2A-PBX1 is expressed consequent to chromosomal translocation 1;19 and is an important oncogenic driver in cases of pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Elucidating the mechanism by which E2A-PBX1 induces lymphoid leukemia would be expedited by the availability of a tractable experimental model in which enforced expression of E2A-PBX1 in hematopoietic progenitors induces pre-B-cell ALL. However, hematopoietic reconstitution of irradiated mice with bone marrow infected with E2A-PBX1-expressing retroviruses consistently gives rise to myeloid, not lymphoid, leukemia. Here, we elucidate the hematopoietic consequences of forced E2A-PBX1 expression in primary murine hematopoietic progenitors. We show that introducing E2A-PBX1 into multipotent progenitors permits the retention of myeloid potential but imposes a dense barrier to lymphoid development prior to the common lymphoid progenitor stage, thus helping to explain the eventual development of myeloid, and not lymphoid, leukemia in transplanted mice. Our findings also indicate that E2A-PBX1 enforces the aberrant, persistent expression of some genes that would normally have been down-regulated in the subsequent course of hematopoietic maturation. We show that enforced expression of one such gene, Hoxa9, a proto-oncogene associated with myeloid leukemia, partially reproduces the phenotype produced by E2A-PBX1 itself. Existing evidence suggests that the 1;19 translocation event takes place in committed B-lymphoid progenitors. However, we find that retrovirus-enforced expression of E2A-PBX1 in committed pro-B-cells results in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Our findings indicate that the neoplastic phenotype induced by E2A-PBX1 is determined by the developmental stage of the cell into which the oncoprotein is introduced. PMID:26098938

  4. Stem cell biology is population biology: differentiation of hematopoietic multipotent progenitors to common lymphoid and myeloid progenitors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) system is a demand control system, with the demand coming from the organism, since the products of the common myeloid and lymphoid progenitor (CMP, CLP respectively) cells are essential for activity and defense against disease. We show how ideas from population biology (combining population dynamics and evolutionary considerations) can illuminate the feedback control of the HSC system by the fully differentiated products, which has recently been verified experimentally. We develop models for the penultimate differentiation of HSC Multipotent Progenitors (MPPs) into CLP and CMP and introduce two concepts from population biology into stem cell biology. The first concept is the Multipotent Progenitor Commitment Response (MPCR) which is the probability that a multipotent progenitor cell follows a CLP route rather than a CMP route. The second concept is the link between the MPCR and a measure of Darwinian fitness associated with organismal performance and the levels of differentiated lymphoid and myeloid cells. We show that many MPCRs are consistent with homeostasis, but that they will lead to different dynamics of cells and signals following a wound or injury and thus have different consequences for Darwinian fitness. We show how coupling considerations of life history to dynamics of the HSC system and its products allows one to compute the selective pressures on cellular processes. We discuss ways that this framework can be used and extended. PMID:23327512

  5. Impact of genomic risk factors on outcome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Anne M.; Pearce, Kim F.; Norden, Jean; OBrien, Stephen G.; Holler, Ernst; Bickebller, Heike; Balavarca, Yesilda; Rocha, Vanderson; Kolb, Hans-Jochem; Hromadnikova, Ilona; Sedlacek, Petr; Niederwieser, Dietger; Brand, Ronald; Ruutu, Tapani; Apperley, Jane; Szydlo, Richard; Goulmy, Els; Siegert, Wolfgang; de Witte, Theo; Gratwohl, Alois

    2010-01-01

    Background Non-HLA gene polymorphisms have been shown to influence outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Results were derived from heterogeneous, small populations and their value remains a matter of debate. Design and Methods In this study, we assessed the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes for interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN), interleukin 4 (IL4), interleukin 6 (IL6), interleukin 10 (IL10), interferon (IFNG), tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and the cell surface receptors tumor necrosis factor receptor II (TNFRSFIB), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) in a homogeneous cohort of 228 HLA identical sibling transplants for chronic myeloid leukemia. Three good predictors of overall survival, identified via statistical methods including Cox regression analysis, were investigated for their effects on transplant-related mortality and relapse. Predictive power was assessed after integration into the established European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) risk score. Results Absence of patient TNFRSFIB 196R, absence of donor IL10 ATA/ACC and presence of donor IL1RN allele 2 genotypes were associated with increased transplantation-related mortality and decreased survival. Application of prediction error and concordance index statistics gave evidence that integration improved the EBMT risk score. Conclusions Non-HLA genotypes were associated with survival after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. When three genetic polymorphisms were added into the EBMT risk model they improved the goodness of fit. Non-HLA genotyping could, therefore, be used to improve donor selection algorithms and risk assessment prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:20305143

  6. Daunorubicin, cytarabine, and cladribine regimen plus radiotherapy and donor lymphocyte infusion for extramedullary relapse of acute myeloid leukemia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Marco; Caocci, Giovanni; Vacca, Adriana; Piras, Eugenia; Orrù, Federica; La Nasa, Giorgio

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma is a rare tumor consisting of myeloid blasts that involve anatomic sites outside the bone marrow. Fatal prognosis is inevitable in patients with extramedullary relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and no standard treatments are available yet. We report the first case of extramedullary relapse after HSCT treated with a combination of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and cladribine (DAC) regimen plus radiotherapy and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI). This treatment induced a new and durable remission in our patient. The favorable toxicity profile and the reduced cost make this combination worthy of further investigations. PMID:24066245

  7. Busulfan and melphalan as conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Nadjanara Dorna; Dulley, Frederico Luiz; Saboya, Rosaura; Amigo Filho, Jos Ulysses; Coracin, Fabio Luiz; Chamone, Dalton de Alencar Fischer

    2011-01-01

    Background Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with HLA-identical donors has been established for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia patients for over 30 years with a cure rate of 50% to 60%. Objectives To analyze the overall survival of patients and identify factors that influence the outcomes of this type of transplant in patients in 1st complete remission who received a busulfan and melphalan combination as conditioning regimen. Methods Twenty-five consecutive patients with acute myeloid leukemia were enrolled between 2003 and 2008. The median age was 34 years old (Range: 16 - 57 years). All patients received cyclosporine and methotrexate for prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. Median neutrophil engraftment time was 16 days (Range: 7 - 22 days) and 17 days (Range: 7 - 46 days) for platelets. Sinusoidal obstructive syndrome was observed in three patients, seven had grade II acute graft-versus-host disease and one extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease. Results The overall survival by the Kaplan-Meier method was 48% after 36 months with a plateau at 36 months after transplantation. Intensive consolidation with high-dose arabinoside resulted in an improved survival (p-value = 0.0001), as did grade II acute graft-versus-host disease (p-value = 0.0377) and mild chronic graft-versus-host disease (p-value < 0.0001). Thirteen patients died, five due to infection within 100 days of transplant, two due to hemorrhages, one to infection and graftversus-host disease and three relapses followed by renal failure (one) and infection (two). The cause of death could not be determined for two patients. Conclusion The busulfan and melphalan conditioning regimen is as good as other conditioning regimens providing an excellent survival rate. PMID:23049292

  8. Unresponsiveness of primitive chronic myeloid leukemia cells to macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha, an inhibitor of primitive normal hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed Central

    Eaves, C J; Cashman, J D; Wolpe, S D; Eaves, A C

    1993-01-01

    Most primitive hematopoietic cells appear to be normally quiescent in vivo, whereas their leukemic counterparts in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) are maintained in a state of rapid turnover. This difference is also seen in the long-term culture system, where control of primitive hematopoietic progenitor proliferation is mediated by interactions of these cells with marrow-derived mesenchymal cells of the fibroblast lineage. We now show that exogenous addition of macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) to normal long-term cultures can reversibly and specifically block the activation of "primitive" (high proliferative potential), but not "mature" (lower proliferative potential), progenitors in the adherent layer of these cultures. Moreover, addition of MIP-1 beta after primitive-progenitor activation can prevent the subsequent return of these cells to a quiescent state a few days later as shown previously in similar experiments using antibodies to transforming growth factor beta. This suggests that the level of MIP-1 alpha (or a related MIP-1 alpha agonist) produced in LTCs, like the level of transforming growth factor beta, may be necessary, but is not on its own sufficient, to mediate the inhibitory activity of the regulatory cells in the adherent layer. Addition of MIP-1 alpha to similar long-term cultures containing normal marrow adherent layers but supporting exclusively neoplastic (CML) hematopoiesis did not block the cycling of primitive neoplastic progenitors. A defect in the responsiveness of CML cells to MIP-1 alpha (or a similarly acting chemokine) would explain their deregulated proliferative behavior in this model and, by extrapolation to the in vivo setting, suggests a molecular mechanism whereby the leukemic clone may become amplified at the stem-cell level. In addition, these findings suggest approaches to the therapy of CML, using inhibitors such as MIP-1 alpha for the protection of primitive normal cells. PMID:8265663

  9. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia: Similar outcomes regardless of donor type

    PubMed Central

    Warlick, Erica D.; de Latour, Regis Peffault; Shanley, Ryan; Robin, Marie; Bejanyan, Nelli; Xhaard, Alienor; Brunstein, Claudio; de Fontbrune, Flore Sicre; Ustun, Celalettin; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Socie, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The use of alternative donor transplants is increasing as the transplant eligible population ages and sibling donors are less available. We evaluated the impact of donor source on transplant outcomes for adults with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing myeloablative or reduced intensity conditioning transplant. Between January 2000 and December 2010, 414 consecutive adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia in remission received myeloablative or reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic transplant from either a matched related donor (n=187), unrelated donor (n=76), or umbilical cord blood donor (n=151) at the University of Minnesota or Hpital St. Louis in Paris. We noted similar 6 year overall survival across donor types: matched related donor 47% (95% CI, 3954%), umbilical cord blood 36% (95% CI, 2844%), matched unrelated donor 54% (95% CI, 4066%), mismatched unrelated donor 51% (95% CI, 2870%) (p=0.11). Survival differed based on conditioning intensity and age with 6 year survival of 57% (95% CI 4765%), 39% (95% CI, 2849%), 23% (95% CI, 647%), 47% (95% CI, 3657%) and 28% (95% CI, 1741%) for myeloablative age 1839, myeloablative age 40+, or reduced intensity conditioning ages 1839, 4056, and 5774 respectively (p< 0.01). Relapse was increased with reduced intensity conditioning and lowest in younger patients receiving myeloablative conditioning (HR 1.0 versus 2.5 or above for all RIC age cohorts), p<0.01. Transplant related mortality was similar across donor types. In summary, our data support the use of alternative donors as a graft source with MA or RIC for patients with acute myeloid leukemia when a sibling donor is unavailable. PMID:25452032

  10. Blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia exhibiting immunophenotypic features of a myeloid/natural killer cell precursor.

    TOXLINE Toxicology Bibliographic Information

    Murase T; Suzuki R; Tashiro K; Morishima Y; Nakamura S

    1999-02-01

    We report a patient with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1)-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) which transformed into blast crisis bearing the immunophenotypic features similar to those of the myeloid/natural killer (NK) cell precursor leukemia we proposed previously. Using a CD45 blast gating method, the myeloperoxidase-negative blasts were positive for CD7, CD13, CD33, CD34, CD56, and HLA-DR, but no other lymphoid antigens. Southern blot analysis showed germ line T cell receptor beta and delta genes and immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes. Although NK cell blastic transformation with Ph1 positive CML has been reported in a single patient, this is, to our knowledge, the first report of CML blast crisis of myeloid/NK cell precursor origin.

  11. Blast crisis of chronic myelogenous leukemia exhibiting immunophenotypic features of a myeloid/natural killer cell precursor.

    PubMed

    Murase, T; Suzuki, R; Tashiro, K; Morishima, Y; Nakamura, S

    1999-02-01

    We report a patient with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph1)-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) which transformed into blast crisis bearing the immunophenotypic features similar to those of the myeloid/natural killer (NK) cell precursor leukemia we proposed previously. Using a CD45 blast gating method, the myeloperoxidase-negative blasts were positive for CD7, CD13, CD33, CD34, CD56, and HLA-DR, but no other lymphoid antigens. Southern blot analysis showed germ line T cell receptor beta and delta genes and immunoglobulin heavy and light chain genes. Although NK cell blastic transformation with Ph1 positive CML has been reported in a single patient, this is, to our knowledge, the first report of CML blast crisis of myeloid/NK cell precursor origin. PMID:10071456

  12. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant overcomes poor prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes.

    PubMed

    Ikegawa, Shuntaro; Doki, Noriko; Kurosawa, Shuhei; Yamaguchi, Tsukasa; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Harada, Kaito; Yamamoto, Keita; Hino, Yutaro; Shingai, Naoki; Senoo, Yasushi; Watanabe, Ken; Igarashi, Aiko; Najima, Yuho; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Kakihana, Kazuhiko; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Ohashi, Kazuteru

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that acute myeloid leukemia with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC) exhibits a worse clinical outcome than AML not otherwise specified (AML-NOS). However, transplant outcomes of patients with AML-MRC have not been reported compared to patients with AML-NOS. We analyzed transplant outcomes among 147 patients with AML-MRC or AML-NOS who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) in a single institution. There were no significant differences in the 2-year overall survival (OS), cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), and non-relapse mortality (NRM) between the two groups (2-year OS: 48% vs. 59%; 2-year CIR: 37% vs. 35%; 2-year NRM: 19% vs. 13%). Subgroup analysis adjusting for age and disease status demonstrated the same results between the two groups. Furthermore, multivariate analysis showed that AML-MRC was not an independent prognostic factor for poor prognosis in the setting of allo-HSCT (p = 0.7). These results suggest that allo-HSCT may overcome the poor prognosis of AML-MRC. PMID:26084204

  13. Molecular biological characteristics of the recruitment of hematopoietic stem cells from bone marrow niche in chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Biao; Zhang, Jianbo; Chen, Jiao; Li, Chenglong; Wang, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) can be contextualized as a disease of unregulated self-renewal of stem cells which exist in a quiescent state and are instructed to differentiate and mobilize to circulation under pathologic circumstances leading to tumor invasion and metastasis. Here we found that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), induced by TGF-?1, upregulated s-KitL and s-ICAM-1, permitting the transfer of c-kit+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from the quiescent to proliferative niche in CML. Further study showed that this MMP-9 production was raised by CML specific BCR/ABL+ oncogene mediated TGF-?1. Besides, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt/nuclear factor (NF)-?B signaling pathway was evidenced to govern this stem cell recruitment in CML pathogenesis. Overall, our observations defined a novel critical role for TGF-?1 induced PI3K/Akt/NF-?B signaling pathway in the recruitment of the malignant cells in CML by releasing s-KitL and s-ICAM-1 and this was through a distinct PI3K/Akt/NF-?B signaling pathway. PMID:26722450

  14. Recruitment of myeloid but not endothelial precursor cells facilitates tumor regrowth after local irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kozin, Sergey V; Kamoun, Walid S; Huang, Yuhui; Dawson, Michelle R; Jain, Rakesh K; Duda, Dan G

    2010-07-15

    Tumor neovascularization and growth might be promoted by the recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDC), which include endothelial precursor cells and "vascular modulatory" myelomonocytic (CD11b+) cells. BMDCs may also drive tumor regrowth after certain chemotherapeutic and vascular disruption treatments. In this study, we evaluated the role of BMDC recruitment in breast and lung carcinoma xenograft models after local irradiation (LI). We depleted the bone marrow by including whole-body irradiation (WBI) of 6 Gy as part of a total tumor dose of 21 Gy, and compared the growth delay with the one achieved after LI of 21 Gy. In both models, the inclusion of WBI induced longer tumor growth delays. Moreover, WBI increased lung tumor control probability by LI. Exogenous delivery of BMDCs from radiation-nave donors partially abrogated the WBI effect. Myeloid BMDCs, primarily macrophages, rapidly accumulated in tumors after LI. Intratumoral expression of stromal-derived factor 1alpha (SDF-1alpha), a chemokine that promotes tissue retention of BMDCs, was noted 2 days after LI. Conversely, treatment with an inhibitor of SDF-1alpha receptor CXCR4 (AMD3100) with LI significantly delayed tumor regrowth. However, when administered starting from 5 days post-LI, AMD3100 treatment was ineffective. Lastly, with restorative bone marrow transplantation of Tie2-GFP-labeled BMDC population, we observed an increased number of monocytes but not endothelial precursor cells in tumors that recurred following LI. Our results suggest that an increase in intratumoral SDF-1alpha triggered by LI recruits myelomonocytes/macrophages which promotes tumor regrowth. PMID:20631066

  15. The hematopoietic transcription factor PU.1 regulates RANK gene expression in myeloid progenitors

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Oh Hyung; Lee, Chong-Kil; Lee, Young Ik; Paik, Sang-Gi; Lee, Hyun-Jun . E-mail: hjlee7@kribb.re.kr

    2005-09-23

    Osteoclasts are bone resorbing cells of hematopoietic origin. The hematopoietic transcription factor PU.1 is critical for osteoclastogenesis; however, the molecular mechanisms of PU.1-regulated osteoclastogenesis have not been explored. Here, we present evidence that the receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B (RANK) gene that has been shown to be crucial for osteoclastogenesis is a transcriptional target of PU.1. The PU.1 {sup -/-} progenitor cells failed to express the RANK gene and reconstitution of PU.1 in these cells induced RANK expression. Treatment of the PU.1 reconstituted cells with M-CSF and RANKL further augmented the RANK gene expression. To explore the regulatory mechanism of the RANK gene expression by PU.1, we have cloned the human RANK promoter. Transient transfection assays have revealed that the 2.2-kb RANK promoter was functional in a monocyte line RAW264.7, whereas co-transfection of PU.1 transactivated the RANK promoter in HeLa cells. Taken together, these results suggest that PU.1 regulates the RANK gene transcription and this may represent one of the key roles of PU.1 in osteoclast differentiation.

  16. Reduced-intensity conditioning for unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as treatment for myeloid malignancies in patients older than 55 years.

    PubMed

    Wong, Raymond; Giralt, Sergio A; Martin, Thomas; Couriel, Daniel R; Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios; Hosing, Chitra; Andersson, Borje S; Cano, Pedro; Shahjahan, Munir; Ippoliti, Cindy; Estey, Elihu H; McMannis, John; Gajewski, James L; Champlin, Richard E; de Lima, Marcos

    2003-10-15

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from unrelated donors is an effective treatment for myeloid malignancies, but its use is usually restricted to young patients without comorbidities. The development of reduced-intensity preparative regimens has allowed the extension of this form of treatment to older and medically infirm patients. We assessed the outcomes of patients older than 54 years who received unrelated donor transplants for the treatment of myeloid malignancies in our institution. There were 29 patients (median age, 59 years) with advanced acute myeloid leukemia (n = 13), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 7), and chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 9) included. With a median follow-up of 27 months, the probability of overall and event-free survival, and nonrelapse mortality at one year were 44%, 37%, and 55%, respectively. Grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurred in 41% of patients and chronic GVHD developed in 63% of patients surviving more than 100 days. Of the 11 survivors, 9 were interviewed and reported good quality of life after transplantation using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant Scale (FACT-BMT) questionnaire, with high scores in all dimensions. Unrelated donor transplantation is a treatment option for older patients with myeloid malignancies. The results in this cohort of patients are comparable with those reported in younger patients with similarly advanced disease. PMID:12842990

  17. Response of newly established mouse myeloid leukemic cell lines to MC3T3-G2/PA6 preadipocytes and hematopoietic factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kodama, H.; Iizuka, M.; Tomiyama, T.; Yoshida, K.; Seki, M.; Suda, T.; Nishikawa, S. )

    1991-01-01

    Some mouse myeloid leukemias induced by X-irradiation and serially transplanted into syngenic mice do not proliferate in vitro even in the presence of hematopoietic factors. To examine whether such leukemic cells can proliferate in response to stromal cells, we cocultured them with MC3T3-G2/PA6 (PA6) preadipocytes, cells that can support the growth of hematopoietic stem cells. All leukemias developed into in vitro cell lines, showing a dependence on contact with the PA6 cells. Two cell lines responded to none of the known hematopoietic factors including interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, GM-CSF, G-CSF, M-CSF, and Epo. These results demonstrate that the mechanism of the action of PA6 cells is different from that of any of the known hematopoietic factors, and that, because these two leukemic cell lines retained the ability to grow in vivo, responsiveness to the known hematopoietic factors is not essential for the leukemic cell growth in vivo. Furthermore, all leukemic cell lines could respond also to the preadipocytes fixed with formalin, paraformaldehyde, or glutaraldehyde, suggesting that some molecule(s) associated with the surface of PA6 cells or with extracellular matrix secreted by the preadipocytes is responsible for the leukemic cell growth.

  18. Promotion of Expansion and Differentiation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells by Interleukin-27 into Myeloid Progenitors to Control Infection in Emergency Myelopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Mizoguchi, Izuru; Chiba, Yukino; Hisada, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Fumie; Yoshida, Hiroki; Nakae, Susumu; Tsuchida, Akihiko; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Ema, Hideo; Mizuguchi, Junichiro; Yoshimoto, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    Emergency myelopoiesis is inflammation-induced hematopoiesis to replenish myeloid cells in the periphery, which is critical to control the infection with pathogens. Previously, pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-α and IFN-γ were demonstrated to play a critical role in the expansion of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid progenitors, leading to production of mature myeloid cells, although their inhibitory effects on hematopoiesis were also reported. Therefore, the molecular mechanism of emergency myelopoiesis during infection remains incompletely understood. Here, we clarify that one of the interleukin (IL)-6/IL-12 family cytokines, IL-27, plays an important role in the emergency myelopoiesis. Among various types of hematopoietic cells in bone marrow, IL-27 predominantly and continuously promoted the expansion of only Lineage−Sca-1+c-Kit+ (LSK) cells, especially long-term repopulating HSCs and myeloid-restricted progenitor cells with long-term repopulating activity, and the differentiation into myeloid progenitors in synergy with stem cell factor. These progenitors expressed myeloid transcription factors such as Spi1, Gfi1, and Cebpa/b through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 and 3, and had enhanced potential to differentiate into migratory dendritic cells (DCs), neutrophils, and mast cells, and less so into macrophages, and basophils, but not into plasmacytoid DCs, conventional DCs, T cells, and B cells. Among various cytokines, IL-27 in synergy with the stem cell factor had the strongest ability to augment the expansion of LSK cells and their differentiation into myeloid progenitors retaining the LSK phenotype over a long period of time. The experiments using mice deficient for one of IL-27 receptor subunits, WSX-1, and IFN-γ revealed that the blood stage of malaria infection enhanced IL-27 expression through IFN-γ production, and the IL-27 then promoted the expansion of LSK cells, differentiating and mobilizing them into spleen, resulting in enhanced production of neutrophils to control the infection. Thus, IL-27 is one of the limited unique cytokines directly acting on HSCs to promote differentiation into myeloid progenitors during emergency myelopoiesis. PMID:26991425

  19. Correlated miR-mRNA Expression Signatures of Mouse Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Subsets Predict Stemness and Myeloid Interaction Networks

    PubMed Central

    Heiser, Diane; Tan, Yee Sun; Kaplan, Ian; Godsey, Brian; Morisot, Sebastien; Cheng, Wen-Chih; Small, Donald; Civin, Curt I.

    2014-01-01

    Several individual miRNAs (miRs) have been implicated as potent regulators of important processes during normal and malignant hematopoiesis. In addition, many miRs have been shown to fine-tune intricate molecular networks, in concert with other regulatory elements. In order to study hematopoietic networks as a whole, we first created a map of global miR expression during early murine hematopoiesis. Next, we determined the copy number per cell for each miR in each of the examined stem and progenitor cell types. As data is emerging indicating that miRs function robustly mainly when they are expressed above a certain threshold (?100 copies per cell), our database provides a resource for determining which miRs are expressed at a potentially functional level in each cell type. Finally, we combine our miR expression map with matched mRNA expression data and external prediction algorithms, using a Bayesian modeling approach to create a global landscape of predicted miR-mRNA interactions within each of these hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell subsets. This approach implicates several interaction networks comprising a stemness signature in the most primitive hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) populations, as well as myeloid patterns associated with two branches of myeloid development. PMID:24747944

  20. Efficacy of myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in adult patients with MLL-ELL-positive acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Muto, Tomoya; Takeuchi, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Sugita, Yasumasa; Tsukamoto, Shokichi; Sakai, Shio; Takeda, Yusuke; Mimura, Naoya; Ohwada, Chikako; Sakaida, Emiko; Aotsuka, Nobuyuki; Iseki, Tohru; Nakaseko, Chiaki

    2015-07-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with mixed lineage leukemia-eleven-nineteen lysine-rich leukemia (MLL-ELL) is a rare subtype of MLL-rearranged AML. The outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for patients with this disease remains unknown. In the present study, we retrospectively investigated the efficacy of allo-HSCT in eight adult MLL-ELL-positive AML patients. Although all eight patients achieved first complete remission (CR1), three (37.5 %) patients experienced relapse after induction therapy. Five (62.5 %) patients underwent allo-HSCT during CR1, whereas two (25.0 %) underwent allo-HSCT during disease relapse, and one (12.5 %) during CR2. All three patients who received allo-HSCT beyond CR1 died due to AML progression after allo-HSCT. Of the five patients who received allo-HSCT during CR1, three (60.0 %) remained alive at study conclusion. The overall survival rate at five years was 50.0 %. Intriguingly, clonally expanded non-leukemic cells expressing MLL-ELL during consolidation therapy were found to be eradicated after allo-HSCT during the monitoring of minimal residual disease in one patient; this indicates that allo-HSCT is efficacious for eliminating pre-leukemic cells resistant to chemotherapy. In conclusion, allo-HSCT soon after CR1 represents a promising therapeutic option for adult AML patients with MLL-ELL, although the outcome of allo-HSCT for patients beyond CR1 was dismal. PMID:25758097

  1. Caffeine affects the biological responses of human hematopoietic cells of myeloid lineage via downregulation of the mTOR pathway and xanthine oxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Abooali, Maryam; Yasinska, Inna M.; Casely-Hayford, Maxwell A.; Berger, Steffen M.; Fasler-Kan, Elizaveta; Sumbayev, Vadim V.

    2015-01-01

    Correction of human myeloid cell function is crucial for the prevention of inflammatory and allergic reactions as well as leukaemia progression. Caffeine, a naturally occurring food component, is known to display anti-inflammatory effects which have previously been ascribed largely to its inhibitory actions on phosphodiesterase. However, more recent studies suggest an additional role in affecting the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a master regulator of myeloid cell translational pathways, although detailed molecular events underlying its mode of action have not been elucidated. Here, we report the cellular uptake of caffeine, without metabolisation, by healthy and malignant hematopoietic myeloid cells including monocytes, basophils and primary acute myeloid leukaemia mononuclear blasts. Unmodified caffeine downregulated mTOR signalling, which affected glycolysis and the release of pro-inflammatory/pro-angiogenic cytokines as well as other inflammatory mediators. In monocytes, the effects of caffeine were potentiated by its ability to inhibit xanthine oxidase, an enzyme which plays a central role in human purine catabolism by generating uric acid. In basophils, caffeine also increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels which further enhanced its inhibitory action on mTOR. These results demonstrate an important mode of pharmacological action of caffeine with potentially wide-ranging therapeutic impact for treating non-infectious disorders of the human immune system, where it could be applied directly to inflammatory cells. PMID:26384306

  2. Consequences of irradiation on bone and marrow phenotypes, and its relation to disruption of hematopoietic precursors

    PubMed Central

    Green, Danielle E.; Rubin, Clinton T.

    2014-01-01

    The rising levels of radiation exposure, specifically for medical treatments and accidental exposures, have added great concern for the long term risks of bone fractures. Both the bone marrow and bone architecture are devastated following radiation exposure. Even sub-lethal doses cause a deficit to the bone marrow microenvironment, including a decline in hematopoietic cells, and this deficit occurs in a dose dependent fashion. Certain cell phenotypes though are more susceptible to radiation damage, with mesenchymal stem cells being more resilient than the hematopoietic stem cells. The decline in total bone marrow hematopoietic cells is accompanied with elevated adipocytes into the marrow cavity, thereby inhibiting hematopoiesis and recovery of the bone marrow microenvironment. Poor bone marrow is also associated with a decline in bone architectural quality. Therefore, the ability to maintain the bone marrow microenvironment would hinder much of the trabecular bone loss caused by radiation exposure, ultimately decreasing some comorbidities in patients exposed to radiation. PMID:24607941

  3. Epigenetic changes during hematopoietic cell granulocytic differentiation comparative analysis of primary CD34+ cells, KG1 myeloid cells and mature neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Epigenetic regulation is known to affect gene expression, and recent research shows that aberrant DNA methylation patterning and histone modifications may play a role in leukemogenesis. In order to highlight the co-operation of epigenetic mechanisms acting during the latter process it is important to clarify their potential as biomarkers of granulocytic differentiation. Results In this study we investigated epigenetic alterations in human hematopoietic cells at a distinct differentiation stages: primary hematopoietic CD34+ cells, KG1 myeloid leukemic cells, whose development is stopped at early stage of differentiation, and mature neutrophils. We focused on the epigenetic status of cell cycle regulating (p15, p16) and differentiation related (E-cadherin and RAR?) genes. We found that the methylation level in promoter regions of some of these genes was considerably higher in KG1 cells and lower in CD34+ cells and human neutrophils. As examined and evaluated by computer-assisted methods, histone H3 and H4 modifications, i.e. H3K4Me3, H3K9Ac, H3K9Ac/S10Ph and H4 hyperAc, were similar in CD34+ cells and human mature neutrophils. By contrast, in the KG1 cells, histone H3 and H4 modifications were quite high and increased after induction of granulocytic differentiation with the HDAC inhibitor phenyl butyrate. Conclusions We found the methylation status of the examined gene promoters and histone modifications to be characteristically associated with the hematopoietic cell progenitor state, induced to differentiate myeloid KG1 cells and normal blood neutrophils. This could be achieved through epigenetic regulation of E-cadherin, p15, p16 and RAR? genes expression caused by DNA methylation/demethylation, core and linker histones distribution in stem hematopoietic cells, induced to differentiation KG1 cells and mature human neutrophils, as well as the histone modifications H3K4Me3, H3K9Ac, H3K9Ac/S10Ph and H4 hyperAc in relation to hematopoietic cell differentiation to granulocyte. These findings also suggest them as potentially important biomarkers of hematopoietic cell granulocytic differentiation and could be valuable for leukemia induced differentiation therapy. PMID:24443786

  4. Assessment of PET/CT in multifocal myeloid sarcomas with loss of TET2: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yu; Tao, Yongguang; Fu, Chunyan; Jia, Jiantao; Liu, Shuang; Xiao, Desheng

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma is a rare solid tumor consisting of leukemic myeloblasts and/or myeloid precursors occurring outside the blood or bone marrow. The unique site with myeloid sarcoma has been reported, the multiple sites of myeloid sarcoma have rarely been cited in the medical literature. Here we report that the unusual clinical presentation and management of myeloid sarcoma in multiple sites with PET-CT, highlighting the utility of PET-CT was useful in detecting and monitoring myeloid sarcoma. We also found that loss of TET2 and gain of 5 hmC in the case of myeloid sarcoma, indicating the mechanism for myeloid sarcoma is totally different with other hematopoietic malignancies. PMID:26722587

  5. Hematopoietic Colony Formation from Human Growth Factor-Dependent TF1 Cells and Human Cord Blood Myeloid Progenitor Cells Depends on SHP2 Phosphatase Function

    PubMed Central

    Etienne-Julan, Maryse; Gotoh, Akihiko; Braun, Stephen E.; Lu, Li; Cooper, Scott; Feng, Gen-Sheng; Li, Xing Jun

    2013-01-01

    The protein tyrosine phosphatase, SHP2, is widely expressed; however, previous studies demonstrated that hematopoietic cell development more stringently requires Shp2 expression compared to other tissues. Furthermore, somatic gain-of-function SHP2 mutants are commonly found in human myeloid leukemias. Given that pharmacologic inhibitors to SHP2 phosphatase activity are currently in development as putative antileukemic agents, we conducted a series of experiments examining the necessity of SHP2 phosphatase activity for human hematopoiesis. Anti-sense oligonucleotides to human SHP2 coding sequences reduced human cord blood- and human cell line, TF1-derived colony formation. Expression of truncated SHP2 bearing its Src homology 2 (SH2) domains, but lacking the phosphatase domain similarly reduced human cord blood- and TF1-derived colony formation. Mechanistically, expression of truncated SHP2 reduced the interaction between endogenous, full-length SHP2 with the adapter protein, Grb2. To verify the role of SHP2 phosphatase function in human hematopoietic cell development, human cord blood CD34+ cells were transduced with a leukemia-associated phosphatase gain-of-function SHP2 mutant or with a phosphatase dead SHP2 mutant, which indicated that increased phosphatase function enhanced, while decreased SHP2 phosphatase function reduced, human cord blood-derived colonies. Collectively, these findings indicate that SHP2 phosphatase function regulates human hematopoietic cell development and imply that the phosphatase component of SHP2 may serve as a pharmacologic target in human leukemias bearing increased SHP2 phosphatase activity. PMID:23082805

  6. Myeloid Zinc Finger 1 (MZF-1) Regulates Expression of the CCN2/CTGF and CCN3/NOV Genes in the Hematopoietic Compartment.

    PubMed

    Piszczatowski, Richard T; Rafferty, Brian J; Rozado, Andre; Parziale, James V; Lents, Nathan H

    2015-11-01

    Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CCN2/CTGF) and Nephroblastoma Overexpressed (CCN3/NOV) execute key functions within the hematopoietic compartment. Both are abundant in the bone marrow stroma, which is a niche for hematopoiesis and supports marrow function. Roles for 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (calcitriol) and all-trans retinoic acid in the bone marrow have also been elucidated. Interestingly, some of the annotated roles of these vitamins overlap with established functions of CCN2 and CCN3. Yet, no factor has been identified that unifies these observations. In this study, we report the regulation of the CTGF and NOV genes by Myeloid Zinc Finger-1 (MZF-1), a hematopoietic transcription factor. We show the interaction of MZF-1 with the CTGF and NOV promoters in several cell types. Up-regulation of MZF-1 via calcitriol and vitamin A induces expression of CTGF and NOV, implicating a role for these vitamins in the functions of these two genes. Lastly, knockdown of MZF1 reduces levels of CTGF and NOV. Collectively, our results argue that MZF-1 regulates the CTGF and NOV genes in the hematopoietic compartment, and may be involved in their respective functions in the stroma. PMID:25899830

  7. A novel role of hematopoietic CCL5 in promoting triple-negative mammary tumor progression by regulating generation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Lv, Dandan; Kim, Ha-Jeong; Kurt, Robert A; Bu, Wen; Li, Yi; Ma, Xiaojing

    2013-01-01

    CCL5 is a member of the CC chemokine family expressed in a wide array of immune and non-immune cells in response to stress signals. CCL5 expression correlates with advanced human breast cancer. However, its functional significance and mode of action have not been established. Here, we show that CCL5-deficient mice are resistant to highly aggressive, triple-negative mammary tumor growth. Hematopoietic CCL5 is dominant in this phenotype. The absence of hematopoietic CCL5 causes aberrant generation of CD11b+/Gr-1+, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the bone marrow in response to tumor growth by accumulating Ly6Chi and Ly6G+ MDSCs with impaired capacity to suppress cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells. These properties of CCL5 are observed in both orthotopic and spontaneous mammary tumors. Antibody-mediated systemic blockade of CCL5 inhibits tumor progression and enhances the efficacy of therapeutic vaccination against non-immunogenic tumors. CCL5 also helps maintain the immunosuppressive capacity of human MDSCs. Our study uncovers a novel, chemokine-independent activity of the hematopoietically derived CCL5 that promotes mammary tumor progression via generating MDSCs in the bone marrow in cooperation with tumor-derived colony-stimulating factors. The study sheds considerable light on the interplay between the hematopoietic compartment and tumor niche. Because of the apparent dispensable nature of this molecule in normal physiology, CCL5 may represent an excellent therapeutic target in immunotherapy for breast cancer as well as a broad range of solid tumors that have significant amounts of MDSC infiltration. PMID:23266888

  8. Loss of IKK? but Not NF-?B p65 Skews Differentiation towards Myeloid over Erythroid Commitment and Increases Myeloid Progenitor Self-Renewal and Functional Long-Term Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Li; Baldwin, Albert S.; Friedman, Alan D.; Paz-Priel, Ido

    2015-01-01

    NF-?B is an important regulator of both differentiation and function of lineage-committed hematopoietic cells. Targeted deletion of I?B kinase (IKK) ? results in altered cytokine signaling and marked neutrophilia. To investigate the role of IKK? in regulation of hematopoiesis, we employed Mx1-Cre mediated IKK? conditional knockout mice. As previously reported, deletion of IKK? in hematopoietic cells results in neutrophilia, and we now also noted decreased monocytes and modest anemia. Granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs) accumulated markedly in bone marrow of IKK? deleted mice whereas the proportion and number of megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors (MEP) decreased. Accordingly, we found a significantly reduced frequency of proerythroblasts and basophilic and polychromatic erythroblasts, and IKK?-deficient bone marrow cells yielded a significantly decreased number of BFU-E compared to wild type. These changes are associated with elevated expression of C/EBP?, Gfi1, and PU.1 and diminished Gata1, Klf1, and SCL/Tal1 in IKK? deficient Lineage-Sca1+c-Kit+ (LSK) cells. In contrast, no effect on erythropoiesis or expression of lineage-related transcription factors was found in marrow lacking NF-?B p65. Bone marrow from IKK? knockout mice has elevated numbers of phenotypic long and short term hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). A similar increase was observed when IKK? was deleted after marrow transplantation into a wild type host, indicating cell autonomous expansion. Myeloid progenitors from IKK?- but not p65-deleted mice demonstrate increased serial replating in colony-forming assays, indicating increased cell autonomous self-renewal capacity. In addition, in a competitive repopulation assay deletion of IKK? resulted in a stable advantage of bone marrow derived from IKK? knockout mice. In summary, loss of IKK? resulted in significant effects on hematopoiesis not seen upon NF-?B p65 deletion. These include increased myeloid and reduced erythroid transcription factors, skewing differentiation towards myeloid over erythroid differentiation, increased progenitor self-renewal, and increased number of functional long term HSCs. These data inform ongoing efforts to develop IKK inhibitors for clinical use. PMID:26102347

  9. In Vivo Deletion of the Cebpa +37 kb Enhancer Markedly Reduces Cebpa mRNA in Myeloid Progenitors but Not in Non-Hematopoietic Tissues to Impair Granulopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hong; Cooper, Stacy; Friedman, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    The murine Cebpa gene contains a +37 kb, evolutionarily conserved 440 bp enhancer that directs high-level expression to myeloid progenitors in transgenic mice. The enhancer is bound and activated by Runx1, Scl, GATA2, C/EBPα, c-Myb, Pu.1, and additional Ets factors in myeloid cells. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated replacement of the wild-type enhancer with a variant mutant in its seven Ets sites leads to 20-fold reduction of Cebpa mRNA in the 32Dcl3 myeloid cell line. To determine the effect of deleting the enhancer in vivo, we now characterize C57BL/6 mice in which loxP sites flank a 688 bp DNA segment containing the enhancer. CMV-Cre mediated germline deletion resulted in diminution of the expected number of viable Enh(f/f);CMV-Cre offspring, with 28-fold reduction in marrow Cebpa mRNA but normal levels in liver, lung, adipose, intestine, muscle, and kidney. Cre-transduction of lineage-negative marrow cells in vitro reduced Cebpa mRNA 12-fold, with impairment of granulocytic maturation, morphologic blast accumulation, and IL-3 dependent myeloid colony replating for >12 generations. Exposure of Enh(f/f);Mx1-Cre mice to pIpC led to 14-fold reduction of Cebpa mRNA in GMP or CMP, 30-fold reduction in LSK, and <2-fold reduction in the LSK/SLAM subset. FACS analysis of marrow from these mice revealed 10-fold reduced neutrophils, 3-fold decreased GMP, and 3-fold increased LSK cells. Progenitor cell cycle progression was mildly impaired. Granulocyte and B lymphoid colony forming units were reduced while monocytic and erythroid colonies were increased, with reduced Pu.1 and Gfi1 and increased Egr1 and Klf4 in GMP. Finally, competitive transplantation indicated preservation of functional long-term hematopoietic stem cells upon enhancer deletion and confirmed marrow-intrinsic impairment of granulopoiesis and B cell generation with LSK and monocyte lineage expansion. These findings demonstrate a critical role for the +37 kb Cebpa enhancer for hematopoietic-specific Cebpa expression, with enhancer deletion leading to impaired myelopoiesis and potentially preleukemic progenitor expansion. PMID:26937964

  10. In Vivo Deletion of the Cebpa +37 kb Enhancer Markedly Reduces Cebpa mRNA in Myeloid Progenitors but Not in Non-Hematopoietic Tissues to Impair Granulopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hong; Cooper, Stacy; Friedman, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    The murine Cebpa gene contains a +37 kb, evolutionarily conserved 440 bp enhancer that directs high-level expression to myeloid progenitors in transgenic mice. The enhancer is bound and activated by Runx1, Scl, GATA2, C/EBPα, c-Myb, Pu.1, and additional Ets factors in myeloid cells. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated replacement of the wild-type enhancer with a variant mutant in its seven Ets sites leads to 20-fold reduction of Cebpa mRNA in the 32Dcl3 myeloid cell line. To determine the effect of deleting the enhancer in vivo, we now characterize C57BL/6 mice in which loxP sites flank a 688 bp DNA segment containing the enhancer. CMV-Cre mediated germline deletion resulted in diminution of the expected number of viable Enh(f/f);CMV-Cre offspring, with 28-fold reduction in marrow Cebpa mRNA but normal levels in liver, lung, adipose, intestine, muscle, and kidney. Cre-transduction of lineage-negative marrow cells in vitro reduced Cebpa mRNA 12-fold, with impairment of granulocytic maturation, morphologic blast accumulation, and IL-3 dependent myeloid colony replating for >12 generations. Exposure of Enh(f/f);Mx1-Cre mice to pIpC led to 14-fold reduction of Cebpa mRNA in GMP or CMP, 30-fold reduction in LSK, and <2-fold reduction in the LSK/SLAM subset. FACS analysis of marrow from these mice revealed 10-fold reduced neutrophils, 3-fold decreased GMP, and 3-fold increased LSK cells. Progenitor cell cycle progression was mildly impaired. Granulocyte and B lymphoid colony forming units were reduced while monocytic and erythroid colonies were increased, with reduced Pu.1 and Gfi1 and increased Egr1 and Klf4 in GMP. Finally, competitive transplantation indicated preservation of functional long-term hematopoietic stem cells upon enhancer deletion and confirmed marrow-intrinsic impairment of granulopoiesis and B cell generation with LSK and monocyte lineage expansion. These findings demonstrate a critical role for the +37 kb Cebpa enhancer for hematopoietic-specific Cebpa expression, with enhancer deletion leading to impaired myelopoiesis and potentially preleukemic progenitor expansion. PMID:26937964

  11. [Successful Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Following Azacitidine Treatment in an Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patient with t(3;3)(q21;q26.2) Translocation and Marked Thrombocythemia].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Masahiro; Kuroda, Hiroyuki; Shimoyama, Saori; Usami, Makoto; Yamada, Michiko; Fujii, Shigeyuki; Maeda, Masahiro; Fujita, Miri; Kanari, Yusuke; Sato, Masanori; Jomen, Wataru; Iyama, Satoshi; Kato, Junji

    2015-08-01

    A 39-year-old man visited our department complaining of general malaise and appetite loss. He presented with anemia and marked thrombocythemia; his plasma transforming growth factor (TGF)-b concentration was markedly increased and his thrombopoietin (TPO)concentration was decreased. Since the patient's disease had progressed to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with an increase in the peripheral blast count, he was diagnosed with AML along with t(3;3) (q21;q26.2) through a bone marrow aspiration sample. Remission induction therapy was performed using idarubicin/cytarabine. The patient achieved complete remission. His platelet count returned to the normal range, plasma TGF-b concentration decreased, and serum TPO concentration increased. The patient was treated with azacitidine as post-remission therapy for bone marrow transplantation, following which he underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. PMID:26321721

  12. In vitro activation of the rhesus macaque myeloid alpha-defensin precursor proRMAD-4 by neutrophil serine proteinases.

    PubMed

    Kamdar, Karishma; Maemoto, Atsuo; Qu, Xiaoqing; Young, Steven K; Ouellette, Andr J

    2008-11-21

    Alpha-defensins are mammalian antimicrobial peptides expressed mainly by cells of myeloid lineage or small intestinal Paneth cells. The peptides are converted from inactive 8.5-kDa precursors to membrane-disruptive forms by post-translational proteolytic events. Because rhesus myeloid pro-alpha-defensin-4 (proRMAD-4((20-94))) lacks bactericidal peptide activity in vitro, we tested whether neutrophil azurophil granule serine proteinases, human neutrophil elastase (NE), cathepsin G (CG), and proteinase-3 (P3) have in vitro convertase activity. Only NE cleaved proRMAD-4((20-94)) at the native RMAD-4 N terminus to produce fully processed, bactericidal RMAD-4((62-94)). The final CG cleavage product was RMAD-4((55-94)), and P3 produced both RMAD-4((55-94)) and RMAD-4(57-94). Nevertheless, NE, CG, and P3 digests of proRMAD4 and purified RMAD-4((62-94)), RMAD-4((55-94)), and RMAD-4(57-94) peptides had equivalent in vitro bactericidal activities. Bactericidal peptide activity assays of proRMAD-4((20-94)) variants containing complete charge-neutralizing D/E to N/Q or D/E to A substitutions showed that (DE/NQ)-proRMAD-4((20-94)) and (DE/A)-proRMAD-4((20-94)) were as active as mature RMAD-4((62-94)). Therefore, proregion Asp and Glu side chains inhibit the RMAD-4 component of full-length proRMAD-4((20-94)), perhaps by a combination of charge-neutralizing and hydrogen-bonding interactions. Although native RMAD-4((62-94)) resists NE, CG, and P3 proteolysis completely, RMAD-4((62-94)) variants with disulfide pairing disruptions or lacking disulfide bonds were degraded extensively, evidence that the disulfide array protects the alpha-defensin moiety from degradation by the myeloid converting enzymes. These in vitro analyses support the conclusion that rhesus macaque myeloid pro-alpha-defensins are converted to active forms by serine proteinases that co-localize in azurophil granules. PMID:18775986

  13. Characteristics of myeloid differentiation and maturation pathway derived from human hematopoietic stem cells exposed to different linear energy transfer radiation types.

    PubMed

    Monzen, Satoru; Yoshino, Hironori; Kasai-Eguchi, Kiyomi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) to ionizing radiation causes a marked suppression of mature functional blood cell production in a linear energy transfer (LET)- and/or dose-dependent manner. However, little information about LET effects on the proliferation and differentiation of HSPCs has been reported. With the aim of characterizing the effects of different types of LET radiations on human myeloid hematopoiesis, in vitro hematopoiesis in Human CD34(+) cells exposed to carbon-ion beams or X-rays was compared. Highly purified CD34(+) cells exposed to each form of radiation were plated onto semi-solid culture for a myeloid progenitor assay. The surviving fractions of total myeloid progenitors, colony-forming cells (CFC), exposed to carbon-ion beams were significantly lower than of those exposed to X-rays, indicating that CFCs are more sensitive to carbon-ion beams (D(0) = 0.65) than to X-rays (D(0) = 1.07). Similar sensitivities were observed in granulocyte-macrophage and erythroid progenitors, respectively. However, the sensitivities of mixed-type progenitors to both radiation types were similar. In liquid culture for 14 days, no significant difference in total numbers of mononuclear cells was observed between non-irradiated control culture and cells exposed to 0.5 Gy X-rays, whereas 0.5 Gy carbon-ion beams suppressed cell proliferation to 4.9% of the control, a level similar to that for cells exposed to 1.5 Gy X-rays. Cell surface antigens associated with terminal maturation, such as CD13, CD14, and CD15, on harvest from the culture of X-ray-exposed cells were almost the same as those from the non-irradiated control culture. X-rays increased the CD235a(+) erythroid-related fraction, whereas carbon-ion beams increased the CD34(+)CD38(-) primitive cell fraction and the CD13(+)CD14(+/-)CD15(-) fraction. These results suggest that carbon-ion beams inflict severe damage on the clonal growth of myeloid HSPCs, although the intensity of cell surface antigen expression by mature myeloid cells derived from HSPCs exposed to each type of radiation was similar to that by controls. PMID:23555027

  14. Long-term outcomes of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-combined conditioning in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from HLA-identical family donors for myeloid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Konuma, Takaaki; Kato, Seiko; Ishii, Hiroto; Oiwa-Monna, Maki; Asano, Shigetaka; Tojo, Arinobu; Takahashi, Satoshi

    2015-06-01

    Dormant leukemia cells, which might escape the cytotoxic effect of conditioning before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), could be induced to enter the cell cycle by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and become more susceptible to the cell-cycle-specific agent cytarabine arabinoside (Ara-C). Based on this effect, we have utilized G-CSF-combined high-dose Ara-C in myeloablative conditioning for allogeneic bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from HLA-identical family donors since 1988. We report on the long-term outcomes of allogeneic HSCT using a conditioning regimen of 12Gy total body irradiation and G-CSF-combined high-dose Ara-C in 89 adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myelogenous leukemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome. With a median follow-up of 135 months, the probability of overall survival and cumulative incidence of relapse at 5 years were 67.8% and 19.4%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, disease status at HSCT was associated with survival and relapse. These data demonstrate that G-CSF-combined myeloablative conditioning could be safely and effectively used for patients with myeloid malignancies. PMID:25888304

  15. Clinical course of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia in the blast crisis phase treated by acute myeloid leukemia-oriented chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Satoshi; Sakata, Naoki; Muramatsu, Hideki; Sakaguchi, Hirotoshi; Wang, Xinan; Xu, Yinyan; Kojima, Seiji; Yamaguchi, Toshihiro; Higa, Takeshi; Takemura, Tsukasa

    2014-11-01

    Juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) is a mixed myeloproliferative and myelodysplastic disorder that occurs in early childhood. The clinical course of JMML is highly variable. A third of patients follow a relatively indolent course, although approximately 15% cases are thought to develop acute myeloid leukemia, referred to as blast crisis. The etiology and clinical characteristics of blast crisis remain unclear. We document the case of a 27-month-old boy who presented with hepatosplenomegaly, skin rash, and lymphadenopathy. An initial diagnosis of acute erythroid leukemia was made according to the French-American-British classification. Following estimation of hypersensitivity to GM-CSF and genetic analysis of PTPN11, he was diagnosed with JMML in the blast crisis phase. Although he had several poor prognostic factors, including monosomy 7 and high HbF percentage, he achieved partial remission after treatment with acute myeloid leukemia-oriented chemotherapy followed by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. He has been in complete remission for over 6 years. PMID:25047104

  16. Reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for adult acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission - a review from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT.

    PubMed

    Sengsayadeth, Salyka; Savani, Bipin N; Blaise, Didier; Malard, Florent; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad

    2015-07-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia is the most common indication for an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. The introduction of reduced intensity conditioning has expanded the recipient pool for transplantation, which has importantly made transplant an option for the more commonly affected older age groups. Reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation is currently the standard of care for patients with intermediate or high-risk acute myeloid leukemia and is now most often employed in older patients and those with medical comorbidities. Despite being curative for a significant proportion of patients, post-transplant relapse remains a challenge in the reduced intensity conditioning setting. Herein we discuss the studies that demonstrate the feasibility of reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic transplants, compare the outcomes of reduced intensity conditioning versus chemotherapy and conventional myeloablative conditioning regimens, describe the optimal donor and stem cell source, and consider the impact of post-remission consolidation, comorbidities, center experience, and more intensive (reduced toxicity conditioning) regimens on outcomes. Additionally, we discuss the need for further prospective studies to optimize transplant outcomes. PMID:26130513

  17. Reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for adult acute myeloid leukemia in complete remission - a review from the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT

    PubMed Central

    Sengsayadeth, Salyka; Savani, Bipin N.; Blaise, Didier; Malard, Florent; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia is the most common indication for an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. The introduction of reduced intensity conditioning has expanded the recipient pool for transplantation, which has importantly made transplant an option for the more commonly affected older age groups. Reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic transplantation is currently the standard of care for patients with intermediate or high-risk acute myeloid leukemia and is now most often employed in older patients and those with medical comorbidities. Despite being curative for a significant proportion of patients, post-transplant relapse remains a challenge in the reduced intensity conditioning setting. Herein we discuss the studies that demonstrate the feasibility of reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic transplants, compare the outcomes of reduced intensity conditioning versus chemotherapy and conventional myeloablative conditioning regimens, describe the optimal donor and stem cell source, and consider the impact of post-remission consolidation, comorbidities, center experience, and more intensive (reduced toxicity conditioning) regimens on outcomes. Additionally, we discuss the need for further prospective studies to optimize transplant outcomes. PMID:26130513

  18. Prior exposure to imatinib does not impact outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia patients: a single-center experience in china

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Kefeng; Liu, Qifa; Sun, Jing; Jiang, Qianli; Ye, Yanyan; Huang, Hao; Meng, Fanyi; Zhou, Yongjun; Yang, Mo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a retrospective single-center study of 106 patients to investigate the impact of prior exposure to imatinib before allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) on outcome of HSCT for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in china. Methods: Patients were divided into imatinib and non-imatinib group according to whether receiving imatinib therapy before transplantation or not. Hematopoietic engraftment, prognosis, congestive heart failure (CHF), hepatic veno-occlusive disease (HVOD), graft versus host disease (GVHD), hemorrhagic cystitis and infections were compared between the two groups in early stage of transplantation (within 100 days after transplantation). Results: Compared to non-imatinib group, imatinib group neither had a significantly longer engraftment time nor higher incidence of HVOD, GVHD, hemorrhagic cystitis and infections (P > 0.05). However, imatinib group tended to have a statistically higher incidence of CHF (29.6% vs 8.6%, P = 0.037) and a higher 0.5-year transplant-related mortality (TRM) (27.8% vs 5.9%, P = 0.001). The estimated 10-year relapse-free survival (RFS) and 10-year overall survival (OS) were not statistically significant between the two groups (79.6% vs 62.4% P = 0.432, 68.9% vs 55.5% P = 0.086, respectively). Conclusion: Thus, prior exposure to imatinib before transplantation does not influence the hematopoietic engraftment and incidence of early transplant-related complications. While, imatinib therapy pre-HSCT probably increases the risk of CHF and TRM in early stage of post-HSCT, and this effect can be enhanced in older age patients. However, Imatinib therapy doesnt impact RFS and OS on a long view. PMID:25932195

  19. Ezh2 Controls an Early Hematopoietic Program and Growth and Survival Signaling in Early T Cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Danis, Etienne; Yamauchi, Taylor; Echanique, Kristen; Zhang, Xi; Haladyna, Jessica N; Riedel, Simone S; Zhu, Nan; Xie, Huafeng; Orkin, Stuart H; Armstrong, Scott A; Bernt, Kathrin M; Neff, Tobias

    2016-03-01

    Early Tcell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL) is an aggressive subtype of ALL distinguished by stem-cell-associated and myeloid transcriptional programs. Inactivating alterations of Polycomb repressive complex 2 components are frequent in human ETP-ALL, but their functional role is largely undefined. We have studied the involvement of Ezh2 in a murine model of NRASQ61K-driven leukemia that recapitulates phenotypic and transcriptional features of ETP-ALL. Homozygous inactivation of Ezh2 cooperated with oncogenic NRASQ61K to accelerate leukemia onset. Inactivation of Ezh2 accentuated expression of genes highly expressed in human ETP-ALL and in normal murine early thymic progenitors. Moreover, we found that Ezh2 contributes tothesilencing of stem-cell- and early-progenitor-cell-associated genes. Loss of Ezh2 also resulted inincreased activation of STAT3 by tyrosine 705 phosphorylation. Our data mechanistically link Ezh2 inactivation to stem-cell-associated transcriptional programs and increased growth/survival signaling, features that convey an adverse prognosis in patients. PMID:26904942

  20. Evaluation of hematopoietic cells and myeloid/erythroid ratio in the bone marrow of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus).

    PubMed

    Tadjalli, Mina; Nazifi, Saeed; Haghjoo, Rahil

    2013-01-01

    In order to study the normal hematopoiesis, cellular components and myeloid/erythroid (M/E) ratio in the bone marrow of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), bone marrow samples were collected from the proximal tibiotarsus bone of 16 clinically healthy adult pheasant. The bone marrow smears were stained using the Giemsa stain. The results indicated that the development and formation of blood cells in the bone marrow of pheasant were similar to other birds, whereas the morphology of the cells was similar to chickens, ducks, quail, and black-head gull. The mean M/E ratio was 1.24, the mean erythroid percentage was 42.24, the mean myeloid percentage was 52.62, and the mean percentage of all other cells percentage was 5.38. There was no significant difference in any of the cellular composition between male and female. PMID:25653783

  1. Long-term outcomes in patients with high-risk myeloid malignancies following matched related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation with myeloablative conditioning of BU, etoposide and CY.

    PubMed

    Naik, S; Wong, R; Arai, S; Brown, J; Laport, G; Lowsky, R; Miklos, D; Shizuru, J; Blume, K; Negrin, R; Johnston, L

    2011-02-01

    Patients with high-risk or advanced myeloid malignancies have limited effective treatment options. These include high-dose therapy followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We report a single-institution, long-term follow-up of 96 patients, median age 50 (range, 20-60) years, who received HLA-matched related HCT between 1992 and 2007. All patients were treated with a uniform preparatory regimen intended to enhance the widely used regimen of BU and CY that included: BU 16.0?mg/kg (days -8 to -5), etoposide 60?mg/kg (day -4), CY 60?mg/kg (day -2) with GVHD prophylaxis of CsA or FK506 and prednisone. Disease status at transplantation was high-risk AML (n=41), CML in second chronic phase or blast crisis (n=8), myelofibrosis and myeloproliferative disorders (n=8), and myelodysplasia (n=39). Thirty-six percent (n=35) of patients received BM whereas 64% (n=61) received G-CSF-mobilized PBPC. With a median follow-up of 5.6 years (range, 1.6-14.6 years) actuarial 5-year OS was 32% (95% CI 22-42) and 5-year EFS was 31% (95% CI 21-41). Relapse rate was 24% (95% CI 15-33) at 2 and 5 years. Nonrelapse mortality was 29% (95% CI 20-38) at day 100 and 38% (95% CI 29-47) at 1 year. Cumulative incidence of acute (grade II-IV) and extensive chronic GVHD was 27% (95% CI 18-36) and 29% (95% CI 18-40), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in OS (31 vs 32%, P=0.89) or relapse rates (17 vs 28%, P=0.22) for recipients of BM vs PBPC, respectively. These results confirm that patients with high-risk or advanced myeloid malignancies can achieve long-term survival following myeloablative allogeneic HCT with aggressive conditioning. PMID:20498648

  2. Long-term outcomes in patients with high-risk myeloid malignancies following matched related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation with myeloablative conditioning of BU, etoposide and CY

    PubMed Central

    Naik, S; Wong, R; Arai, S; Brown, J; Laport, G; Lowsky, R; Miklos, D; Shizuru, J; Blume, K; Negrin, R; Johnston, L

    2015-01-01

    Patients with high-risk or advanced myeloid malignancies have limited effective treatment options. These include high-dose therapy followed by allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We report a single-institution, long-term follow-up of 96 patients, median age 50 (range, 2060) years, who received HLA-matched related HCT between 1992 and 2007. All patients were treated with a uniform preparatory regimen intended to enhance the widely used regimen of BU and CY that included: BU 16.0 mg/kg (days ?8 to ?5), etoposide 60 mg/kg (day ?4), CY 60 mg/kg (day ?2) with GVHD prophylaxis of CsA or FK506 and prednisone. Disease status at transplantation was high-risk AML (n = 41), CML in second chronic phase or blast crisis (n = 8), myelofibrosis and myeloproliferative disorders (n = 8), and myelodysplasia (n = 39). Thirty-six percent (n = 35) of patients received BM whereas 64% (n = 61) received G-CSF-mobilized PBPC. With a median follow-up of 5.6 years (range, 1.614.6 years) actuarial 5-year OS was 32% (95% CI 2242) and 5-year EFS was 31% (95% CI 2141). Relapse rate was 24% (95% CI 1533) at 2 and 5 years. Nonrelapse mortality was 29% (95% CI 2038) at day 100 and 38% (95% CI 2947) at 1 year. Cumulative incidence of acute (grade IIIV) and extensive chronic GVHD was 27% (95% CI 1836) and 29% (95% CI 1840), respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in OS (31 vs 32%, P = 0.89) or relapse rates (17 vs 28%, P = 0.22) for recipients of BM vs PBPC, respectively. These results confirm that patients with high-risk or advanced myeloid malignancies can achieve long-term survival following myeloablative allogeneic HCT with aggressive conditioning. PMID:20498648

  3. 131Ianti-CD45 antibody plus busulfan and cyclophosphamide before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in first remission

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, John M.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Eary, Janet F.; Rajendran, Joseph; Fisher, Darrell R.; Gooley, Ted; Ruffner, Katherine; Nemecek, Eneida; Sickle, Eileen; Durack, Larry; Carreras, Jeanette; Horowitz, Mary M.; Press, Oliver W.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Martin, Paul J.; Bernstein, Irwin D.; Matthews, Dana C.

    2006-01-01

    In an attempt to improve outcomes for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), we conducted a phase 1/2 study in which targeted irradiation delivered by 131Ianti-CD45 antibody was combined with targeted busulfan (BU; area-under-curve, 600-900 ng/mL) and cyclophosphamide (CY; 120 mg/kg). Fifty-two (88%) of 59 patients receiving a trace 131I-labeled dose of 0.5 mg/kg anti-CD45 murine antibody had higher estimated absorbed radiation in bone marrow and spleen than in any other organ. Forty-six patients were treated with 102 to 298 mCi (3774-11 026 MBq) 131I, delivering an estimated 5.3 to 19 (mean, 11.3) Gy to marrow, 17-72 (mean, 29.7) Gy to spleen, and 3.5 Gy (n = 4) to 5.25 Gy (n = 42) to the liver. The estimated 3-year nonrelapse mortality and disease-free survival (DFS) were 21% and 61%, respectively. These results were compared with those from 509 similar International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry patients who underwent transplantation using BU/CY alone. After adjusting for differences in age and cytogenetics risk, the hazard of mortality among all antibody-treated patients was 0.65 times that of the Registry patients (95% CI 0.39-1.08; P = .09). The addition of targeted hematopoietic irradiation to conventional BU/CY is feasible and well tolerated, and phase 2 results are sufficiently encouraging to warrant further study. PMID:16254140

  4. Identification of early myeloid progenitors as immunosuppressive cells

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Shiming; Qin, Baoxiong; He, Huan; Zhan, Jinxi; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Xinming; Yang, Liu; Qu, Chunfeng; Zhou, Zuping

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), precursors of mature immune cells, may play a direct role in immunosurveillance. Early myeloid progenitors are the major components of HSPCs and they often undergo extensive expansion in stress as a result of myeloid-biased hematopoiesis. Yet, the precise function of early myeloid progenitors remains unclear. Here we show that during tumor progression, mouse granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (GMPs) but not common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) are markedly expanded within the bone marrow and blood of mice. Interestingly, both GMPs and CMPs freshly isolated from either tumor-bearing or naïve animals are capable of inhibiting polyclonal stimuli- and alloantigen-induced T cell proliferation, with tumor host-derived cells having elevated activities. Strikingly, these early myeloid progenitor cells even display much stronger suppressive capacity than the classical myeloid-derived suppressive cells. Analysis of GMPs indicates that they express iNOS and can secrete high levels of NO. Further studies unusing iNOS specific inhibitors reveal that the immunosuppression of GMPs is, to a large extent, NO-dependent. GMPs can also efficiently induce regulatory T cell development. These studies demonstrate that early myeloid progenitors can act as immunosuppressive cells. This finding provides novel insights into the functional diversity and plasticity of early myeloid progenitor cells. PMID:26979287

  5. Identification of early myeloid progenitors as immunosuppressive cells.

    PubMed

    Pu, Shiming; Qin, Baoxiong; He, Huan; Zhan, Jinxi; Wu, Qiong; Zhang, Xinming; Yang, Liu; Qu, Chunfeng; Zhou, Zuping

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), precursors of mature immune cells, may play a direct role in immunosurveillance. Early myeloid progenitors are the major components of HSPCs and they often undergo extensive expansion in stress as a result of myeloid-biased hematopoiesis. Yet, the precise function of early myeloid progenitors remains unclear. Here we show that during tumor progression, mouse granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (GMPs) but not common myeloid progenitors (CMPs) are markedly expanded within the bone marrow and blood of mice. Interestingly, both GMPs and CMPs freshly isolated from either tumor-bearing or naïve animals are capable of inhibiting polyclonal stimuli- and alloantigen-induced T cell proliferation, with tumor host-derived cells having elevated activities. Strikingly, these early myeloid progenitor cells even display much stronger suppressive capacity than the classical myeloid-derived suppressive cells. Analysis of GMPs indicates that they express iNOS and can secrete high levels of NO. Further studies unusing iNOS specific inhibitors reveal that the immunosuppression of GMPs is, to a large extent, NO-dependent. GMPs can also efficiently induce regulatory T cell development. These studies demonstrate that early myeloid progenitors can act as immunosuppressive cells. This finding provides novel insights into the functional diversity and plasticity of early myeloid progenitor cells. PMID:26979287

  6. Manganese superoxide dismutase depletion in murine hematopoietic stem cells perturbs iron homeostasis, globin switching, and epigenetic control in erythrocyte precursor cells

    PubMed Central

    Case, Adam J.; Madsen, Joshua M.; Motto, David G.; Meyerholz, David K.; Domann, Frederick E.

    2012-01-01

    Heme synthesis partially occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, thus there is a high probability that enzymes and intermediates important in the production of heme will be exposed to metabolic byproducts including reactive oxygen species. In addition, the need for ferrous iron for heme production, Fe-S coordination, and other processes occurring in the mitochondrial matrix suggests that aberrant fluxes of reactive oxygen species in this compartment might perturb normal iron homeostasis. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Sod2) is an anti-oxidant enzyme that governs steady-state levels of the superoxide in the mitochondrial matrix. Using hematopoietic stem cell-specific conditional Sod2 knock-out mice we observed increased superoxide concentrations in red cell progeny which caused significant pathologies including impaired erythrocytes and decreased ferrochelatase activity. Animals lacking Sod2 expression in erythroid precursors also displayed extramedullary hematopoiesis and systemic iron redistribution. Additionally, the increase in superoxide flux in erythroid precursors caused abnormal gene regulation of hematopoietic transcription factors, globins, and iron-response genes. Moreover, the erythroid precursors also displayed evidence of global changes of histone post-translational modifications, a likely cause of at least some of the aberrant gene expression noted. From a therapeutic translational perspective, mitochondrially-targeted superoxide-scavenging anti-oxidants partially rescued the observed phenotype. Taken together, our findings illuminate the superoxide sensitivity of normal iron homeostasis in erythrocyte precursors and suggest a probable link between mitochondrial redox metabolism and epigenetic control of nuclear gene regulation during mammalian erythropoiesis. PMID:23219873

  7. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia: t(8;21) and inv(16) represent different clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Miyamura, Koichi; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Kasai, Masaharu; Maruta, Atsuo; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Satoshi; Koda, Kyuhei; Yago, Kazuhiro; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Yoshida, Takashi; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Kodera, Yoshihisa

    2009-02-26

    We analyzed 338 adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;21) and inv(16) undergoing stem cell transplantation (SCT) who were registered in the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation database. At 3 years, overall survival (OS) of patients with t(8;21) and inv(16) was 50% and 72%, respectively (P= .002). Although no difference was observed when restricted to allogeneic SCT in first complete remission (CR; 84% and 74%), OS of patients with t(8;21) and inv(16) undergoing allogeneic SCT in second or third CR (45% and 86% at 3 years; P= .008) was different. OS was not different between patients in first CR who received allogeneic SCT and those who received autologous SCT for both t(8;21) AML (84% vs 77%; P= .49) and inv(16) AML (74% vs 59%; P= .86). Patients with inv(16) not in CR did better after allogeneic SCT than those with t(8;21) (70% and 18%; P= .03). Patients with t(8;21) and inv(16) should be managed differently as to the application of SCT. SCT in first CR is not necessarily recommended for inv(16). For t(8;21) patients in first CR, a prospective trial is needed to clarify the significance of autologous SCT and allogeneic SCT over chemotherapy. PMID:19126873

  8. Reduced-intensity conditioning with fludarabine and busulfan for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in elderly or infirm patients with advanced myeloid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Schneidawind, Dominik; Federmann, Birgit; Buechele, Corina; Helwig, Andrea; Schmohl, Jrg; Vogel, Wichard; Faul, Christoph; Kanz, Lothar; Bethge, Wolfgang A

    2016-01-01

    We report a retrospective single-center analysis of 112 consecutive patients that underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) with fludarabine (FLU) and busulfan (BU) for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and myeloproliferative syndrome (MPS) from 2005 to 2014. Three-year event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 46 and 58%, respectively. Patients ?60years of age showed a similar outcome compared to younger patients (3-year OS 55 vs. 61%, p?=?0.96; 3-year EFS 46 vs. 46%, p?=?0.82). Cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality (NRM) at 3years adjusted for relapse as competing risk was 25% for patients aged <60years and 15% for older patients (p?=?0.15). Infusions of higher CD34(+) blood stem cell doses were associated with a significantly better outcome in the elderly subgroup (3-year OS 82 vs. 39%, p?=?0.007). Moreover, complete donor chimerism at day +100 was associated with a significantly improved survival (3-year OS 69 vs. 23%, p?=?0.003). In conclusion, our data suggest that RIC with FLU/BU enables long-term disease-free survival even in an elderly patient population. Age has no negative impact on the outcome of allogeneic HCT, and decision for transplant should be based on disease risk and performance status rather than age alone. PMID:26411736

  9. Hematopoietic cell transplantation specific comorbidity index as an outcome predictor for patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first remission: combined FHCRC and MDACC experiences.

    PubMed

    Sorror, Mohamed L; Giralt, Sergio; Sandmaier, Brenda M; De Lima, Marcos; Shahjahan, Munir; Maloney, David G; Deeg, H Joachim; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Storer, Barry; Storb, Rainer

    2007-12-15

    A new hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) was effective in predicting outcomes among patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent HCT at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC). Here, we compared the performance of the HCT-CI to 2 other indices and then tested its capacity to predict outcomes among 2 cohorts of patients diagnosed with a single disease entity, acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission, who underwent transplantation at either FHCRC or M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC). FHCRC patients less frequently had unfavorable cytogenetics (15% versus 36%) and HCT-CI scores of 3 or more (21% versus 58%) compared with MDACC patients. We found that the HCT-CI had higher sensitivity and outcome predictability compared with the other indices among both cohorts. HCT-CI scores of 0, 1 to 2, and 3 or more predicted comparable nonrelapse mortality (NRM) among FHCRC and MDACC patients. In multivariate models, HCT-CI scores were associated with the highest hazard ratios (HRS) for NRM and survival among each cohort. The 2-year survival rates among FHCRC and MDACC patients were 71% versus 56%, respectively. After adjustment for risk factors, including HCT-CI scores, no difference in survival was detected (HR: 0.98, P = .94). The HCT-CI is a sensitive and informative tool for comparing trial results at different institutions. Inclusion of comorbidity data in HCT trials provides valuable, independent information. PMID:17873123

  10. Hematopoietic cell transplantationspecific comorbidity index as an outcome predictor for patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first remission: combined FHCRC and MDACC experiences

    PubMed Central

    Giralt, Sergio; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; De Lima, Marcos; Shahjahan, Munir; Maloney, David G.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Storer, Barry; Storb, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    A new hematopoietic cell transplantationspecific comorbidity index (HCT-CI) was effective in predicting outcomes among patients with hematologic malignancies who underwent HCT at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC). Here, we compared the performance of the HCT-CI to 2 other indices and then tested its capacity to predict outcomes among 2 cohorts of patients diagnosed with a single disease entity, acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission, who underwent transplantation at either FHCRC or M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC). FHCRC patients less frequently had unfavorable cytogenetics (15% versus 36%) and HCT-CI scores of 3 or more (21% versus 58%) compared with MDACC patients. We found that the HCT-CI had higher sensitivity and outcome predictability compared with the other indices among both cohorts. HCT-CI scores of 0, 1 to 2, and 3 or more predicted comparable nonrelapse mortality (NRM) among FHCRC and MDACC patients. In multivariate models, HCT-CI scores were associated with the highest hazard ratios (HRS) for NRM and survival among each cohort. The 2-year survival rates among FHCRC and MDACC patients were 71% versus 56%, respectively. After adjustment for risk factors, including HCT-CI scores, no difference in survival was detected (HR: 0.98, P = .94). The HCT-CI is a sensitive and informative tool for comparing trial results at different institutions. Inclusion of comorbidity data in HCT trials provides valuable, independent information. PMID:17873123

  11. In vitro differentiation of murine hematopoietic progenitor cells toward the myeloid lineage occurs in response to Staphylococcus aureus and yeast species.

    PubMed

    Maneu, Victoria; Estévez, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Sara; Gozalbo, Daniel; Gil, María Luisa; Megías, Javier

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the effect of inactivated microbial stimuli (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Saccharomyces boulardii, and Staphylococcus aureus) on the in vitro differentiation of lineage negative (Lin(-)) hematopoietic progenitor mouse cells. Purified Lin(-) progenitors were co-cultured for 7 days with the stimuli, and cell differentiation was determined by flow cytometry analysis. All the stimuli assayed caused differentiation toward the myeloid lineage. S. boulardii and particularly C. glabrata were the stimuli that induced in a minor extent differentiation of Lin(-) cells, as the major population of differentiated cells corresponded to monocytes, whereas C. albicans and S. aureus induced differentiation beyond monocytes: to monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages, respectively. Interestingly, signaling through TLR2 by its pure ligand Pam3CSK4 directed differentiation of Lin(-) cells almost exclusively to macrophages. These data support the notion that hematopoiesis can be modulated in response to microbial stimuli in a pathogen-dependent manner, being determined by the pathogen-associated molecular patterns and the pattern-recognition receptors involved, in order to generate the populations of mature cells required to deal with the pathogen. PMID:24650426

  12. Hematopoietic stem cell emergence in the human embryo and fetus.

    PubMed

    Peault, Bruno; Tavian, Manuela

    2003-05-01

    Two waves of hematopoietic stem cell generation take place in the first month of human gestation. The first one has long been known to occur in the yolk sac; only recently was another one identified that results in the development, from the 27th day, of clusters of hematopoietic cells on the ventral endothelium of the aorta and vitelline artery. This latter, intra-embryonic phase of blood cell progenitor production is undoubtedly local since its presumptive territory of occurrence, the para-aortic splanchnopleura, is endowed with blood-forming potential in vitro from, at least, day 19 of development. The first multipotent, lympho-myeloid stem cells emerge within that intra-embryonic territory, whereas the yolk sac only produces myeloid precursor cells devoid of lymphoid potential. The forerunners of the hematopoietic stem cells born to intra-embryonic arteries appear to migrate from the splanchnopleura as KDR(+) angio-hematopoietic cells that colonize the ventral wall of the aorta to give rise to hematogenous endothelium. All these results indicate that stem cells for human definitive hematopoiesis emerge within the embryo, in the walls of truncal arteries, from splanchnopleural ancestors and through a vascular endothelial intermediate stage. Less expectedly, blood-forming endothelial cells were also encoutered in the embryonic and fetal liver and in the fetal and, even, adult bone marrow, suggesting that a filiation between vascular and hematopoietic cells may persist during the whole life. PMID:12799291

  13. Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant for Acute Myeloid Leukemia: No Impact of Pre-transplant Extramedullary Disease on Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Sagun D.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Wang, Hai-Lin; Akpek, Görgün; Copelan, Edward A.; Freytes, César; Gale, Robert Peter; Hamadani, Mehdi; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Marks, David I.; Nishihori, Taiga; Olsson, Richard F.; Reshef, Ran; Ritchie, David S.; Saber, Wael; Savani, Bipin N.; Seber, Adriana; Shea, Thomas C.; Tallman, Martin S.; Wirk, Baldeep; Bunjes, Donald W.; Devine, Steven M.; de Lima, Marcos; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Uy, Geoffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of extramedullary disease (EMD) in AML on the outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) is unknown. Using data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) we compared the outcomes of patients who had EMD of AML at any time prior to transplant to a cohort of AML patients without EMD. We reviewed data AML from 9,797 patients including 814 with EMD from 310 reporting centers and 44 different countries who underwent alloHCT between and 1995–2010. The primary outcome was overall survival (OS) after alloHCT. Secondary outcomes included leukemia-free survival (LFS), relapse rate, and treatment-related mortality (TRM). In a multivariate analysis, the presence of EMD did not affect either OS (HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.91–1.09), LFS (0.98, 0.89–1.09), TRM (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.80–1.16, p=0.23) or relapse (RR =1.03, 95% CI, 0.92–1.16; p=0.62). Furthermore, the outcome of patients with EMD was not influenced by the location, timing of EMD, or intensity of conditioning regimen. The presence of EMD in AML does not affect transplant outcomes and should not be viewed as an independent adverse prognostic feature. PMID:25915806

  14. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor antagonist StemRegenin 1 promotes human plasmacytoid and myeloid dendritic cell development from CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Thordardottir, Soley; Hangalapura, Basav N; Hutten, Tim; Cossu, Marta; Spanholtz, Jan; Schaap, Nicolaas; Radstake, Timothy R D J; van der Voort, Robbert; Dolstra, Harry

    2014-05-01

    The superiority of dendritic cells (DCs) as antigen-presenting cells has been exploited in numerous clinical trials, where generally monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs) are injected to induce immunity in patients with cancer or infectious diseases. Despite promising expansion of antigen-specific T cells, the clinical responses following vaccination have been limited, indicating that further improvements of DC vaccine potency are necessary. Pre-clinical studies suggest that vaccination with combination of primary DC subsets, such as myeloid and plasmacytoid blood DCs (mDCs and pDCs, respectively), may result in stronger clinical responses. However, it is a challenge to obtain high enough numbers of primary DCs for immunotherapy, since their frequency in blood is very low. We therefore explored the possibility to generate them from hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Here, we show that by inhibiting the aryl hydrocarbon receptor with its antagonist StemRegenin 1 (SR1), clinical-scale numbers of functional BDCA2(+)BDCA4(+) pDCs, BDCA1(+) mDCs, and BDCA3(+)DNGR1(+) mDCs can be efficiently generated from human CD34(+) HPCs. The ex vivo-generated DCs were phenotypically and functionally comparable to peripheral blood DCs. They secreted high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-?, interleukin (IL)-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and upregulated co-stimulatory molecules and maturation markers following stimulation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. Further, they induced potent allogeneic T-cell responses and activated antigen-experienced T cells. These findings demonstrate that SR1 can be exploited to generate high numbers of functional pDCs and mDCs from CD34(+) HPCs, providing an alternative option to Mo-DCs for immunotherapy of patients with cancer or infections. PMID:24325394

  15. Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Is an Effective Salvage Therapy for Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Presenting with Advanced Disease or Failing Treatment with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nair, Anish P; Barnett, Michael J; Broady, Raewyn C; Hogge, Donna E; Song, Kevin W; Toze, Cynthia L; Nantel, Stephen H; Power, Maryse M; Sutherland, Heather J; Nevill, Thomas J; Abou Mourad, Yasser; Narayanan, Sujaatha; Gerrie, Alina S; Forrest, Donna L

    2015-08-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the only known curative therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML); however, it is rarely utilized given the excellent long-term results with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment. The purpose of this study is to examine HSCT outcomes for patients with CML who failed TKI therapy or presented in advanced phase and to identify predictors of survival, relapse, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Fifty-one patients with CML underwent HSCT for advanced disease at diagnosis (n = 15), TKI resistance as defined by the European LeukemiaNet guidelines (n = 30), TKI intolerance (n = 2), or physician preference (n = 4). At a median follow-up of 71.9 months, the 8-year overall survival (OS), event-free survival (EFS), relapse, and NRM were 68%, 46%, 41%, and 23%, respectively. In univariate analysis, predictors of OS included first chronic phase (CP1) disease status at HSCT (P = .0005), European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation score 1 to 4 (P = .04), and complete molecular response (CMR) to HSCT (P < .0001). Donor (female) to patient (male) gender combination (P = .02) and CMR to HSCT (P < .0001) predicted lower relapse. In multivariate analysis, CMR to HSCT remained an independent predictor of OS (odds ratio [OR], 43), EFS (OR, 56) and relapse (OR, 29). This report indicates that the outlook is excellent for those patients who remain in CP1 at the time of HSCT and achieve a CMR after HSCT. However, only approximately 50% of those in advanced phase at HSCT are long-term survivors. This highlights the ongoing need to try to identify patients earlier, before disease progression, who are destined to fail this treatment to optimize transplantation outcomes. PMID:25865648

  16. Monocytic and promyelocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells may contribute to G-CSF-induced immune tolerance in haplo-identical allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lv, Meng; Zhao, Xiao-Su; Hu, Yue; Chang, Ying-Jun; Zhao, Xiang-Yu; Kong, Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Hui; Xu, Lan-Ping; Liu, Kai-Yan; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) on monocytic (M), promyelocytic (P), and granulocytic (G) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) both in bone marrow and peripheral blood of 20 healthy donors and the association of MDSCs subgroups with acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD/cGvHD) in 62 patients who underwent haplo-identical allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Patients who received a higher absolute counts of M-MDSCs or P-MDSCs exhibited lower incidence of grade II-IV aGvHD (P = 0.001; P = 0.031) and extensive cGvHD (P = 0.011; P = 0.021). In the multivariate analysis, absolute counts of MDSCs in allografts emerged as independent factors that reduced the occurrence of grade II-IV aGvHD (M-MDSCs: HR = 0.087, 95% CI = 0.020-0.381, P = 0.001; P-MDSCs: HR = 0.357, 95% CI = 0.139-0.922, P = 0.033) and extensive cGvHD (M-MDSCs: HR = 0.196, 95% CI = 0.043-0.894, P = 0.035; P-MDSCs: HR = 0.257, 95% CI = 0.070-0.942, P = 0.04). Delayed M-MDSC reconstitution was associated with aGvHD onset. The 3-year cumulative incidence of transplant related mortality and relapse, 3-year probability of disease-free survival, and overall survival did not differ significantly between these subgroups. Our results suggested that G-CSF-induced immune tolerance may be mediated by M/P-MDSCs in allo-HSCT. PMID:25303038

  17. Impact of Cranial Irradiation Added to Intrathecal Conditioning in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Central Nervous System Involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Mayadev, Jyoti S.; Douglas, James G.; Storer, Barry E.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Storb, Rainer

    2011-05-01

    Purpose: Neither the prognostic importance nor the appropriate management of central nervous system (CNS) involvement is known for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We examined the impact of a CNS irradiation boost to standard intrathecal chemotherapy (ITC). Methods and Materials: From 1995 to 2005, a total of 648 adult AML patients received a myeloablative HCT: 577 patients were CNS negative (CNS-), and 71 were CNS positive (CNS+). Of the 71 CNS+ patients, 52 received intrathecal chemotherapy alone (CNS+ITC), and 19 received ITC plus an irradiation boost (CNS+RT). Results: The CNS-, CNS+ITC, and CNS+RT patients had 1- and 5-year relapse-free survivals (RFS) of 43% and 35%, 15% and 6%, and 37% and 32%, respectively. CNS+ITC patients had a statistically significant worse RFS compared with CNS- patients (hazard ratio [HR], 2.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-3.6; p < 0.0001). CNS+RT patients had improved relapse free survival over that of CNS+ITC patients (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8; p = 0.01). The 1- and 5-year overall survivals (OS) of patients with CNS-, CNS+ITC, and CNS+RT, were 50% and 38%, 21% and 6%, and 53% and 42%, respectively. The survival of CNS+RT were significantly better than CNS+ITC patients (p = 0.004). After adjusting for known risk factors, CNS+RT patients had a trend toward lower relapse rates and reduced nonrelapse mortality. Conclusions: CNS+ AML is associated with a poor prognosis. The role of a cranial irradiation boost to intrathecal chemotherapy appears to mitigate the risk of CNS disease, and needs to be further investigated to define optimal treatment strategies.

  18. Prognostic implication of gene mutations on overall survival in the adult acute myeloid leukemia patients receiving or not receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations.

    PubMed

    Chou, Sheng-Chieh; Tang, Jih-Luh; Hou, Hsin-An; Chou, Wen-Chien; Hu, Fu-Chang; Chen, Chien-Yuan; Yao, Ming; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Huang, Shang-Yi; Tsay, Woei; Chen, Yao-Chang; Tien, Hwei-Fang

    2014-11-01

    Several gene mutations have been shown to provide clinical implications in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the prognostic impact of gene mutations in the context of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains unclear. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical implications of 8 gene mutations in 325 adult AML patients; 100 of them received allo-HSCT and 225 did not. The genetic alterations analyzed included NPM1, FLT3-ITD, FLT3-TKD, CEBPA, RUNX1, RAS, MLL-PTD, and WT1. In patients who did not receive allo-HSCT, older age, higher WBC count, higher lactate dehydrogenase level, unfavorable karyotype, and RUNX1 mutation were significantly associated with poor overall survival (OS), while CEBPA double mutation (CEBPA(double-mut)) and NPM1(mut)/FLT3-ITD(neg) were associated with good outcome. However, in patients who received allo-HSCT, only refractory disease status at the time of HSCT and unfavorable karyotype were independent poor prognostic factors. Surprisingly, RUNX1 mutation was an independent good prognostic factor for OS in multivariate analysis. The prognostic impact of FLT3-ITD or NPM1(mut)/FLT3-ITD(neg) was lost in this group of patients receiving allo-HSCT, while CEBPA(double-mut) showed a trend to be a good prognostic factor. In conclusion, allo-HSCT can ameliorate the unfavorable influence of some poor-risk gene mutations in AML patients. Unexpectedly, the RUNX1 mutation showed a favorable prognostic impact in the context of allo-HSCT. These results need to be confirmed by further studies with more AML patients. PMID:25260824

  19. The Impact of Cranial Irradiation Added to the Intrathecal Conditioning in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Central Nervous System Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Mayadev, Jyoti S.; Douglas, James G.; Storer, Barry E.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Storb, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Neither the prognostic importance nor the appropriate management of central nervous system (CNS) involvement are known for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We examined the impact of a CNS irradiation boost to standard intrathecal chemotherapy (ITC). Methods and Materials From 1995 to 2005, 648 adult AML patients received a myeloablative HCT: 577 patients were CNS negative (CNS?), and 71 were CNS positive (CNS+). Of the 71 CNS+ patients, 52 received intrathecal chemotherapy alone (CNS+ITC), and 19 received ITC plus an irradiation boost (CNS+RT). Results The CNS?, CNS+ITC, and CNS+RT, patients had 1 and 5 year relapse-free survivals (RFS) of 43% and 35%, 15% and 6%, 37% and 32%, respectively. CNS+ITC patients had a statistically significant worse RFS compared to CNS? patients, HR=2.65 (95% CI, 2.0-3.6), p<0.0001. CNS+RT patients had improved relapse free survival than CNS+ITC patients, HR=0.45 (95% CI, 0.2-0.8), p=0.01. The 1 and 5 year overall survivals (OS) of patients with CNS?, CNS+ITC, and CNS+RT, were 50% and 38%, 21% and 6%, and 53% and 42%, respectively. The survival of CNS+RT were significantly better than CNS+ITC patients, p=0.004. After adjusting for known risk factors, CNS+RT patients had a trend toward lower relapse rates and reduced non-relapse mortality. Conclusion CNS+ AML is associated with a poor prognosis. The role of a cranial irradiation boost to intrathecal chemotherapy appears to mitigate the risk of CNS disease, and needs to be further investigated to define optimal treatment strategies. PMID:20584584

  20. Impact of age on outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Jun; Kanamori, Heiwa; Tanaka, Masatsugu; Yamasaki, Satoshi; Fukuda, Takahiro; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Iwato, Koji; Ohashi, Kazuteru; Okumura, Hirokazu; Onizuka, Makoto; Maesako, Yoshitomo; Teshima, Takanori; Kobayashi, Naoki; Morishima, Yasuo; Hirokawa, Makoto; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Yano, Shingo; Takami, Akiyoshi

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly reported that increasing age is a significant risk factor for worse outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) among patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, more recent studies reported conflicting results regarding the association between age and outcomes in elderly patients. Therefore, we conducted a large-scale, nationwide retrospective study to examine the impact of age on outcomes of allo-HSCT with reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) for AML patients who were older than 50 years. Of the 757 patients, 89 patients (11.8%) were 50-54, 249 patients (32.9%) were 55-59, 301 patients (39.8%) were 60-64 and 118 patients (15.6%) were ≥65 years old. The 3-year overall survival (OS) (47.8, 45.2, 37.9, and 36.6% for patients aged 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, and ≥65 years, respectively, P = 0.24) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (24.0, 22.8, 29.2, and 27.6% for patients aged 50-54, 55-59, 60-64, and ≥65 years, respectively, P = 0.49) were not significantly different among the four age groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that increased age had no significant effect on OS or NRM after adjusting for covariates. These results suggested that advanced patient age is not a contraindication for RIC allo-HSCT in elderly AML patients. Am. J. Hematol. 91:302-307, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26663096

  1. Epigenetics in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Plass, Christoph; Oakes, Christopher; Blum, William; Marcucci, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a disease characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of clonal neoplastic hematopoietic precursor cells. This leads to the disruption of normal hematopoiesis and bone marrow failure. Major breakthroughs in the past have contributed to our understanding of the genetic failures and the changed biology in AML cells that underlie the initiation and progression of the disease. It is now recognized that not only genetic but also epigenetic alterations are similarly important in this process. Since these alterations do not change the DNA sequences and are pharmacologically reversible, they have been regarded as optimal targets for what is now known as epigenetic therapy. In this review, we will discuss our current understanding of normal epigenetic processes, outline our knowledge of epigenetic alterations in AML, and discuss how this information is being used to improve current therapy of this disease. PMID:18692688

  2. Monosomal karyotype as an adverse prognostic factor in patients with acute myeloid leukemia treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in first complete remission: a retrospective survey on behalf of the ALWP of the EBMT.

    PubMed

    Brands-Nijenhuis, Angelique V M; Labopin, Myriam; Schouten, Harry C; Volin, Liisa; Socié, Gérard; Cornelissen, Jan J; Huynh, Anne; Ljungman, Per; Malard, Florent; Esteve, Jordi; Nagler, Arnon; Mohty, Mohamad

    2016-02-01

    Despite the overall benefit from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation observed in patients with poor cytogenetic risk acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission, the precise effect of this procedure for different poor-risk subtypes has not been fully analyzed. This retrospective analysis was performed to investigate whether allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation performed in first complete remission in patients with monosomal karyotype can overcome the adverse prognosis associated with these patients. Of the 4635 patients included in the study, 189 (4%) harbored a monosomal karyotype. The presence of a monosomal karyotype was associated with a worse outcome, with an inferior leukemia-free survival and overall survival (5-year leukemia-free survival and overall survival: 24±3% and 26±3% vs. 53±1% and 57±1% in monosomal-karyotype and non-monosomal-karyotype, respectively; P<0.0001) and higher relapse risk after transplantation (cumulative incidence of relapse at 5 years: 56±4% in monosomal-karyotype vs. 28±1% in non-monosomal-karyotype; P<0.0001). The adverse negative impact of monosomal karyotype cytogenetics was confirmed in the entire cohort in a multivariate analysis [Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.88, 95% Confidence Interval (CI):1.29-2.73, P=0.001 for relapse incidence; HR:1.71, 95%CI:1.27-2.32, P<0.0001 for leukemia-free survival; HR:1.81, 95%CI:1.32-2.48, P=0.0002 for overall survival], and was independent of the presence of other poor-risk cytogenetic subtypes. In summary, monosomal karyotype arises as a strong negative prognostic feature in acute myeloid leukemia also in patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first complete remission, stressing the need to develop additional pre- and post-transplantation strategies aimed at improving overall results. Nonetheless, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in early phase is currently the best therapy for this very poor-risk acute myeloid leukemia subtype. PMID:26589909

  3. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation could improve survival of cytogenetically normal adult acute myeloid leukemia patients with DNMT3A mutations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yang; Sun, Yanjun; Shen, Hongjie; Ding, Lin; Yang, Zhen; Qiu, Huiying; Sun, Aining; Chen, Suning; Wu, Depei

    2015-11-01

    DNMT3A mutations are frequent in cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (cn-AML) patients and associated with poor survival. The role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in DNMT3A(mut) cn-AML patients remains unclear. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the prognostic impact of DNMT3A mutations and explored the role of allo-HSCT in 308 cn-AML patients who received consolidation of intensive chemotherapy or allo-HSCT in our center from March 2005 to May 2014. In the whole cohort, 63 patients (20.5%) were identified with DNMT3A exon 23 mutations and R882H was the most frequent variant. DNMT3A(mut) patients had shorter overall survival (3-year OS: 31.9% vs. 52.0%, P?=?0.009) and disease-free survival (3-year DFS: 21.8% vs. 40.1%, P?=?0.004) compared with DNMT3A(wt) patients. Based on FLT3/NPM1/CEBPA mutations, 308 cn-AML patients were divided into favorable/intermediate group (n?=?262) and unfavorable group (n?=?46). There were no significant differences in 3-year OS and 3-year DFS between DNMT3A(mut) and DNMT3A(wt) patients in both favorable/intermediate and unfavorable groups. Additionally, in multivariate analysis, DNMT3A mutation remained an independent adverse prognostic factor for the survival. In the DNMT3A(mut) cohort, 23 complete remission (CR) patients received allo-HSCT consolidation and 32 CR patients received chemotherapy consolidation, dramatic differences were observed in 3-year OS (51.7% vs. 28.9%, P?=?0.048) and 3-year DFS (41.6% vs. 14.9%, P?=?0.024) between allo-HSCT group and chemotherapy group. Collectively, DNMT3A mutation is a poor prognostic factor for cn-AML patients and allo-HSCT could improve survival of cn-AML patients with DNMT3A mutations. PMID:26223865

  4. Survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia relapsing after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: a center for international blood and marrow transplant research study.

    PubMed

    Bejanyan, Nelli; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Logan, Brent R; Wang, Hai-Lin; Devine, Steven M; de Lima, Marcos; Bunjes, Donald W; Zhang, Mei-Jie

    2015-03-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) remains a major therapeutic challenge. We studied outcomes of 1788 AML patients relapsing after alloHCT (1990 to 2010) during first or second complete remission (CR) to identify factors associated with longer postrelapse survival. Median time to post-HCT relapse was 7 months (range, 1 to 177). At relapse, 1231 patients (69%) received intensive therapy, including chemotherapy alone (n = 660), donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) chemotherapy (n = 202), or second alloHCT chemotherapy DLI (n = 369), with subsequent CR rates of 29%. Median follow-up after relapse was 39 months (range, <1 to 193). Survival for all patients was 23% at 1 year after relapse; however, 3-year overall survival correlated with time from HCT to relapse (4% for relapse during the 1- to 6-month period, 12% during the 6-month to 2-year period, 26% during the 2- to 3-year period, and 38% for ?3 years). In multivariable analysis, lower mortality was significantly associated with longer time from alloHCT to relapse (relative risk, .55 for 6 months to 2 years; relative risk, .39 for 2 to 3 years; and relative risk, .28 for ?3 years; P < .0001) and a first HCT using reduced-intensity conditioning (relative risk, .77; 95% confidence interval [CI], .66 to .88; P = .0002). In contrast, inferior survival was associated with age >40 years (relative risk, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.64; P < .0001), active graft-versus-host disease at relapse (relative risk, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.39; P < .0001), adverse cytogenetics (relative risk, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.71; P = .0062), mismatched unrelated donor (relative risk, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.13; P = .0008), and use of cord blood for first HCT (relative risk, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.42; P = .0078). AML relapse after alloHCT predicted poor survival; however, patients who relapsed ?6 months after their initial alloHCT had better survival and may benefit from intensive therapy, such as second alloHCT DLI. PMID:25460355

  5. Efficacy of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Intermediate-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia Adult Patients in First Complete Remission: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Honghu; Dou, Liping; Liu, Daihong; Fu, Lin; Ma, Cong; Ma, Xuebin; Yao, Yushi; Zhou, Lei; Wang, Qian; Wang, Lijun; Zhao, Yu; Jing, Yu; Wang, Lili; Li, Yonghui; Yu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and consolidation chemotherapy have been used to treat intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients in first complete remission (CR1). However, it is still unclear which treatments are most effective for these patients. The aim of our study was to analyze the relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) benefit of allogeneic HSCT (alloHSCT) for intermediate-risk AML patients in CR1. A meta-analysis of prospective trials comparing alloHSCT to non-alloHSCT (autologous HSCT [autoHSCT] and/or chemotherapy) was undertaken. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library though October 2014, using keywords and relative MeSH or Emtree terms, allogeneic; acut* and leukem*/aml/leukaem*/leucem*/leucaem*; and nonlympho* or myelo*. A total of 7053 articles were accessed. The primary outcomes were RFS and OS, while the secondary outcomes were treatment-related mortality (TRM) and relapse rate (RR). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for each outcome. The primary outcomes were RFS and OS, while the secondary outcomes were TRM and RR. We included 9 prospective controlled studies including 1950 adult patients. Patients with intermediate-risk AML in CR1 who received either alloHSCT or non-alloHSCT were considered eligible. AlloHSCT was found to be associated with significantly better RFS, OS, and RR than non-alloHSCT (HR, 0.684 [95% CI: 0.48, 0.95]; HR, 0.76 [95% CI: 0.61, 0.95]; and HR, 0.58 [95% CI: 0.45, 0.75], respectively). TRM was significantly higher following alloHSCT than non-alloHSCT (HR, 3.09 [95% CI: 1.38, 6.92]). However, subgroup analysis showed no OS benefit for alloHSCT over autoHSCT (HR, 0.99 [95% CI: 0.70, 1.39]). In conclusion, alloHSCT is associated with more favorable RFS, OS, and RR benefits (but not TRM outcomes) than non-alloHSCT generally, but does not have an OS advantage over autoHSCT specifically, in patients with intermediate-risk AML in CR1. PMID:26197471

  6. NUP98 gene fusions and hematopoietic malignancies: common themes and new biologic insights.

    PubMed

    Gough, Sheryl M; Slape, Christopher I; Aplan, Peter D

    2011-12-01

    Structural chromosomal rearrangements of the Nucleoporin 98 gene (NUP98), primarily balanced translocations and inversions, are associated with a wide array of hematopoietic malignancies. NUP98 is known to be fused to at least 28 different partner genes in patients with hematopoietic malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia in blast crisis, myelodysplastic syndrome, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and bilineage/biphenotypic leukemia. NUP98 gene fusions typically encode a fusion protein that retains the amino terminus of NUP98; in this context, it is important to note that several recent studies have demonstrated that the amino-terminal portion of NUP98 exhibits transcription activation potential. Approximately half of the NUP98 fusion partners encode homeodomain proteins, and at least 5 NUP98 fusions involve known histone-modifying genes. Several of the NUP98 fusions, including NUP98-homeobox (HOX)A9, NUP98-HOXD13, and NUP98-JARID1A, have been used to generate animal models of both lymphoid and myeloid malignancy; these models typically up-regulate HOXA cluster genes, including HOXA5, HOXA7, HOXA9, and HOXA10. In addition, several of the NUP98 fusion proteins have been shown to inhibit differentiation of hematopoietic precursors and to increase self-renewal of hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells, providing a potential mechanism for malignant transformation. PMID:21948299

  7. NUP98 gene fusions and hematopoietic malignancies: common themes and new biologic insights

    PubMed Central

    Gough, Sheryl M.; Slape, Christopher I.

    2011-01-01

    Structural chromosomal rearrangements of the Nucleoporin 98 gene (NUP98), primarily balanced translocations and inversions, are associated with a wide array of hematopoietic malignancies. NUP98 is known to be fused to at least 28 different partner genes in patients with hematopoietic malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia in blast crisis, myelodysplastic syndrome, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and bilineage/biphenotypic leukemia. NUP98 gene fusions typically encode a fusion protein that retains the amino terminus of NUP98; in this context, it is important to note that several recent studies have demonstrated that the amino-terminal portion of NUP98 exhibits transcription activation potential. Approximately half of the NUP98 fusion partners encode homeodomain proteins, and at least 5 NUP98 fusions involve known histone-modifying genes. Several of the NUP98 fusions, including NUP98-homeobox (HOX)A9, NUP98-HOXD13, and NUP98-JARID1A, have been used to generate animal models of both lymphoid and myeloid malignancy; these models typically up-regulate HOXA cluster genes, including HOXA5, HOXA7, HOXA9, and HOXA10. In addition, several of the NUP98 fusion proteins have been shown to inhibit differentiation of hematopoietic precursors and to increase self-renewal of hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells, providing a potential mechanism for malignant transformation. PMID:21948299

  8. Differential sensitivity of T lymphocytes and hematopoietic precursor cells to photochemotherapy with 8-methoxypsoralen and ultraviolet A light.

    PubMed

    Mabed, Mohamed; Coffe, Christian; Racadot, Evelyne; Angonin, Regis; Pavey, Jean-Jaques; Tiberghien, Pierre; Herve, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    The combination of 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and long wave ultraviolet radiation (UV-A) has immunomodulatory effects and might abolish both graft-vs-host and host-vs-graft reactions after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In the present study, we have confirmed the sensitivity of T lymphocytes to 8-MOP treatment plus UV-A exposure as evidenced by the abrogation of the alloreactivity in mixed lymphocyte cultures as well as the inhibition of the response to phytohemagglutinin A. However, the clonogenic capacity of the bone marrow hematopoietic progenitors was inhibited with UV-A doses lower than the doses needed to inhibit T-lymphocytes alloreactivity. Moreover, long-term bone marrow cultures showed that 8-MOP plus UV-A treatment had detrimental effects on the more immature bone marrow stem cells. These data were confirmed when murine bone marrow graft was treated with 8-MOP, exposed to UV-A, then transplanted into semiallogeneic recipient mice. The treated cells could not maintain their clonogenic capacity in vivo resulting in death of all animals. Taken together, these data show that ex vivo 8-MOP plus UV-A treatment of the marrow graft cannot be used to prevent post-bone marrow transplantation alloreactivity. PMID:16208471

  9. Cytokine-dependent long-term culture of highly enriched precursors of hematopoietic progenitor cells from human bone marrow.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, J; Srour, E F; van Besien, K; Briddell, R A; Hoffman, R

    1990-01-01

    Human marrow cells positive for the CD34 antigen but not expressing HLA-DR, CD15, or CD71 antigens were isolated. In a liquid culture system supplemented with 48-hourly additions of recombinant interleukins IL-1 alpha, IL-3, IL-6, or granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), these cells were capable of sustaining in vitro hematopoiesis for up to eight weeks. The establishment of an adherent cell layer was never observed. Cultures containing no exogenous cytokine produced clonogenic cells for only 1 wk. IL-1 alpha and IL-6 were alone able to support hematopoiesis for 2 or 3 wk. Cells maintained with GM-CSF proliferated and contained assayable colony-forming cells for 3 or 4 wk, while maximal cellular expansion and generation of assayable progenitor cells occurred in the presence of IL-3 for 4-5 wk. When IL-3 was combined with IL-1 alpha or IL-6, hematopoiesis was sustained for 8 wks. Basophil numbers were markedly increased in the presence of IL-3. These studies indicate that marrow subpopulations can sustain hematopoiesis in vitro in the presence of repeated additions of cytokines. We conclude that a major function of marrow adherent cells in long-term cultures is that of providing cytokines which promote the proliferation and differentiation of primitive hematopoietic cells. PMID:1697607

  10. CBFB-MYH11/RUNX1 together with a compendium of hematopoietic regulators, chromatin modifiers and basal transcription factors occupies self-renewal genes in inv(16) acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mandoli, A; Singh, A A; Jansen, P W T C; Wierenga, A T J; Riahi, H; Franci, G; Prange, K; Saeed, S; Vellenga, E; Vermeulen, M; Stunnenberg, H G; Martens, J H A

    2014-04-01

    Different mechanisms for CBF?-MYH11 function in acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16) have been proposed such as tethering of RUNX1 outside the nucleus, interference with transcription factor complex assembly and recruitment of histone deacetylases, all resulting in transcriptional repression of RUNX1 target genes. Here, through genome-wide CBF?-MYH11-binding site analysis and quantitative interaction proteomics, we found that CBF?-MYH11 localizes to RUNX1 occupied promoters, where it interacts with TAL1, FLI1 and TBP-associated factors (TAFs) in the context of the hematopoietic transcription factors ERG, GATA2 and PU.1/SPI1 and the coregulators EP300 and HDAC1. Transcriptional analysis revealed that upon fusion protein knockdown, a small subset of the CBF?-MYH11 target genes show increased expression, confirming a role in transcriptional repression. However, the majority of CBF?-MYH11 target genes, including genes implicated in hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal such as ID1, LMO1 and JAG1, are actively transcribed and repressed upon fusion protein knockdown. Together these results suggest an essential role for CBF?-MYH11 in regulating the expression of genes involved in maintaining a stem cell phenotype. PMID:24002588

  11. Homeostatic action of adenosine A3 and A1 receptor agonists on proliferation of hematopoietic precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Michal; Pospísil, Milan; Znojil, Vladimír; Holá, Jirina; Streitová, Denisa; Vacek, Antonín

    2008-07-01

    Two adenosine receptor agonists, N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) and N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), which selectively activate adenosine A3 and A1 receptors, respectively, were tested for their ability to influence proliferation of granulocytic and erythroid cells in femoral bone marrow of mice using morphological criteria. Agonists were given intraperitoneally to mice in repeated isomolar doses of 200 nmol/kg. Three variants of experiments were performed to investigate the action of the agonists under normal resting state of mice and in phases of cell depletion and subsequent regeneration after treatment with the cytotoxic drug 5-fluorouracil. In the case of granulopoiesis, IB-MECA 1) increased by a moderate but significant level proliferation of cells under normal resting state; 2) strongly increased proliferation of cells in the cell depletion phase; but 3) did not influence cell proliferation in the regeneration phase. CPA did not influence cell proliferation under normal resting state and in the cell depletion phase, but strongly suppressed the overshooting cell proliferation in the regeneration phase. The stimulatory effect of IB-MECA on cell proliferation of erythroid cells was observed only when this agonist was administered during the cell depletion phase. CPA did not modulate erythroid proliferation in any of the functional states investigated, probably due to the lower demand for cell production as compared with granulopoiesis. The results indicate opposite effects of the two adenosine receptor agonists on proliferation of hematopoietic cells and suggest the plasticity and homeostatic role of the adenosine receptor expression. PMID:18445770

  12. Clonal analysis of hematopoietic progenitor cells in the zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Stachura, David L.; Svoboda, Ondrej; Lau, Ryan P.; Balla, Keir M.; Zon, Leonard I.; Bartunek, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Identification of hematopoietic progenitor cells in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been hindered by a lack of functional assays to gauge proliferative potential and differentiation capacity. To investigate the nature of myeloerythroid progenitor cells, we developed clonal methylcellulose assays by using recombinant zebrafish erythropoietin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. From adult whole kidney marrow, erythropoietin was required to support erythroid colony formation, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was required to support the formation of colonies containing neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. Myeloid and erythroid colonies showed distinct morphologies and were easily visualized and scored by their expression of lineage-specific fluorescent transgenes. Analysis of the gene-expression profiles after isolation of colonies marked by gata1:DsRed or mpx:eGFP transgenes confirmed our morphological erythroid and myeloid lineage designations, respectively. The majority of progenitor activity was contained within the precursor light scatter fraction, and more immature precursors were present within the lymphoid fraction. Finally, we performed kinetic analyses of progenitor activity after sublethal irradiation and demonstrated that recovery to preirradiation levels occurred by 14 days after irradiation. Together, these experiments provide the first report of clonal hematopoietic progenitor assays in the zebrafish and establish the number, characteristics, and kinetics of myeloerythroid progenitors during both steady-state and stress hematopoiesis. PMID:21415264

  13. Gradual Rarefaction of Hematopoietic Precursors and Atrophy in a Depleted microRNA 29a, b and c Environment

    PubMed Central

    Kauffman, Lauren; Balatti, Veronica; Cascione, Luciano; Fadda, Paolo; Racke, Frederick; Santhanam, Ramasamy; Costinean, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background The self-renewing ability of HSCs is fundamental for the maintenance of a pool of bone marrow precursors throughout the life of an individual. The genetic mechanisms underlying such a complex process are still poorly understood. Results and Significance Here, we show that constitutive in vivo deletion of miR29ab1 leads to reduced number of HSCs and that miR29ab1 deficient bone marrow cannot repopulate the bone marrow of irradiated mice. An Affymetrix analysis of the miR29ab1 knockout mice identifies key proteins that could be responsible for this phenotype, as DNMT3a and b. Moreover, our findings reveal that whereas miR29b2c knockout mice do not exhibit any spontaneous abnormality, the double knock out miR29ab1b2c has marked generalized atrophy, raising the possibility that the two bi-cistrons might cooperate in order to maintain the stem cell number in general, not only limited to the bone marrow. PMID:26147501

  14. Mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells into the peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Damon, Lloyd E; Damon, Lauren E

    2009-12-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells can be mobilized out of the bone marrow into the blood for the reconstitution of hematopoiesis following high-dose therapy. Methods to improve mobilization efficiency and yields are rapidly emerging. Traditional methods include chemotherapy with or without myeloid growth factors. Plerixafor, a novel agent that disrupts the CXCR4-CXCL12 bond, the primary hematopoietic stem cell anchor in the bone marrow, has recently been US FDA-approved for mobilizing hematopoietic stem cells in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and multiple myeloma. Plerixafor and myeloid growth factors as single agents appear safe to use in family or volunteer hematopoietic stem cells donors. Plerixafor mobilizes leukemic stem cells and is not approved for use in patients with acute leukemia. Patients failing to mobilize adequate hematopoietic stem cells with myeloid growth factors can often be successfully mobilized with chemotherapy plus myeloid growth factors or with plerixafor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. PMID:21082960

  15. Acute myeloid leukemia: therapeutic impact of epigenetic drugs.

    PubMed

    Altucci, Lucia; Clarke, Nicole; Nebbioso, Angela; Scognamiglio, Annamaria; Gronemeyer, Hinrich

    2005-09-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is not a single disease but a group of malignancies in which the clonal expansion of various types of hematopoietic precursor cells in the bone marrow leads to perturbation of the delicate balance between self-renewal and differentiation that is characteristic of normal hematopoiesis. An increasing number of genetic aberrations, such as chromosomal translocations that alter the function of transcription regulatory factors, has been identified as the cause of AML and shown to act by deregulating gene programming at both the genetic and epigenetic level. While the genetic aberrations occurring in acute myeloid leukemia are fairly well understood, we have only recently become aware of the epigenetic deregulation associated with leukemia, in particular with myeloid leukemias. The deposition of epigenetic "marks" on chromatin - post-translational modifications of nucleosomal proteins and methylation of particular DNA sequences - is accomplished by enzymes, which are often embedded in multi-subunit "machineries" that have acquired aberrant functionalities during leukemogenesis. These enzymes are targets for so-called "epi-drugs". Indeed, recent results indicate that epi-drugs may constitute an entirely novel type of anti-cancer drugs with unanticipated potential. Proof-of-principle comes from studies with histone deacetylase inhibitors, promising novel anti-cancer drugs. In this review we focus on the epigenetic mechanisms associated with acute myeloid leukemogenesis and discuss the therapeutic potential of epigenetic modulators such as histone deacetylase and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors. PMID:15964234

  16. Early administration of donor lymphocyte infusions upon molecular relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia: a study by the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the EBMT.

    PubMed

    Chalandon, Yves; Passweg, Jakob R; Guglielmi, Cesare; Iacobelli, Simona; Apperley, Jane; Schaap, Nicolaas P M; Finke, Jrgen; Robin, Marie; Fedele, Roberta; Bron, Dominique; Yakoub-Agha, Ibrahim; van Biezen, Anja; de Witte, Theo; Krger, Nicolaus; Olavarria, Eduardo

    2014-09-01

    Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia relapsing after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may be treated by tyrosine kinase inhibitors and/or by donor lymphocyte infusions. The best strategies and timing of administration of lymphocytes are unclear. We analyzed 155 patients who relapsed after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with disease detectable only by molecular methods and who subsequently received lymphocytes. Transplants were performed in first chronic phase (n=125) or in advanced disease (n=29) from identical siblings (n=84) or unrelated donors (n=71) between 1986 and 2003. They received lymphocytes either during molecular relapse (n=85) or upon progression to more advanced disease (1993 to 2004). The median interval from relapse to lymphocyte infusion was 210 (0-1673) days. The median follow up after it was 46 (3-135) months. Overall survival was 764% at five years after lymphocyte infusions (898% with sibling donors and 6313% with unrelated donors (P=0.003)). Survival was 6914% when lymphocytes were given within six months of the detection of molecular relapse and 8110% (P=0.061) when given later; 8111% if given at molecular relapse versus 7112% (P=0.26) with more advanced disease. In multivariate analysis survival was worse if the donor was unrelated (HR 2.54 (95% CI: 1.15-5.53), P=0.021) and better with lymphocyte infusions beyond six months from molecular relapse (HR 0.4 (95%CI: 0.19-0.84), P=0.018). These data confirm the remarkable efficacy of lymphocyte infusions for this disease. There appears to be no advantage from administering it early upon detection of molecular relapse in patients who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia. PMID:24997146

  17. Outcomes of Patients with Myeloid Malignancies Treated with Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation from Matched Unrelated Donors Compared with One Human Leukocyte Antigen Mismatched Related Donors Using HLA Typing at 10 Loci

    PubMed Central

    Ciurea, Stefan O.; Saliba, Rima M.; Rondon, Gabriela; Patah, Poliana A.; Aung, Fleur; Cano, Pedro; Andersson, Borje S.; Kebriaei, Partow; Popat, Uday; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Champlin, Richard E.; de Lima, Marcos

    2014-01-01

    Most candidates for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) lack a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donor. Some patients may have a related donor with whom they are mismatched at 1 antigen/allele. It is not known whether such a match is preferable to a matched unrelated donor (MUD). We evaluated the outcomes (survival, relapse, nonrelapse mortality [NRM]) of all 28 patients with a single HLA antigen/allele mismatch identified through high-resolution HLA typing at HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1, and all 318 patients with myeloid malignancies who received transplants from a 10/10 MUD treated during the same period of time at a single institution. Overall, outcomes for patients treated from a 1-antigen/allele mismatch related donor were significantly worse than from a MUD, primarily because of increased NRM. Overall survival (OS) rates at 3 years for 1-antigen/allele mismatched related donor and MUD transplant recipients were 19% and 45% (P =.007), and NRM rates were 40% and 26% (P =.05), respectively. Patients with class I mismatches appeared to have poorer OS than did patients with class II mismatches. A higher incidence of graft rejection was identified in the mismatched related donor group (P =.02). These results indicate that transplant outcomes are better with a MUD than with a 1 antigen/allele-mismatched related donor. PMID:20969970

  18. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after conditioning with I-131-anti-CD45 antibody plus fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation for elderly patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

    SciTech Connect

    Pagel, John M.; Gooley, T. A.; Rajendran, Joseph G.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Wilson, Wendy A.; Sandmaier, B. M.; Matthews, D. C.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Gopal, Ajay K.; Martin, P. J.; Storb, R.; Press, Oliver W.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.

    2009-12-24

    We conducted a study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of I-131-anti-CD45 antibody (Ab; BC8) that can be combined with a standard reduced-intensity conditioning regimen before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Fifty-eight patients older than 50 years with advanced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were treated with (131)I-BC8 Ab and fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation. Eighty-six percent of patients had AML or MDS with greater than 5% marrow blasts at the time of transplantation. Treatment produced a complete remission in all patients, and all had 100% donor-derived CD3(+) and CD33(+) cells in the blood by day 28 after the transplantation. The MTD of I-131-BC8 Ab delivered to liver was estimated to be 24 Gy. Seven patients (12%) died of nonrelapse causes by day 100. The estimated probability of recurrent malignancy at 1 year is 40%, and the 1-year survival estimate is 41%. These results show that CD45-targeted radiotherapy can be safely combined with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen to yield encouraging overall survival for older, high-risk patients with AML or MDS. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00008177.

  19. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after conditioning with 131I-anti-CD45 antibody plus fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation for elderly patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pagel, John M; Gooley, Theodore A; Rajendran, Joseph; Fisher, Darrell R; Wilson, Wendy A; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Matthews, Dana C; Deeg, H Joachim; Gopal, Ajay K; Martin, Paul J; Storb, Rainer F; Press, Oliver W; Appelbaum, Frederick R

    2009-12-24

    We conducted a study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of (131)I-anti-CD45 antibody (Ab; BC8) that can be combined with a standard reduced-intensity conditioning regimen before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Fifty-eight patients older than 50 years with advanced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were treated with (131)I-BC8 Ab and fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation. Eighty-six percent of patients had AML or MDS with greater than 5% marrow blasts at the time of transplantation. Treatment produced a complete remission in all patients, and all had 100% donor-derived CD3(+) and CD33(+) cells in the blood by day 28 after the transplantation. The MTD of (131)I-BC8 Ab delivered to liver was estimated to be 24 Gy. Seven patients (12%) died of nonrelapse causes by day 100. The estimated probability of recurrent malignancy at 1 year is 40%, and the 1-year survival estimate is 41%. These results show that CD45-targeted radiotherapy can be safely combined with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen to yield encouraging overall survival for older, high-risk patients with AML or MDS. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00008177. PMID:19786617

  20. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after conditioning with 131Ianti-CD45 antibody plus fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation for elderly patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gooley, Theodore A.; Rajendran, Joseph; Fisher, Darrell R.; Wilson, Wendy A.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Matthews, Dana C.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Gopal, Ajay K.; Martin, Paul J.; Storb, Rainer F.; Press, Oliver W.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 131Ianti-CD45 antibody (Ab; BC8) that can be combined with a standard reduced-intensity conditioning regimen before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Fifty-eight patients older than 50 years with advanced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were treated with 131I-BC8 Ab and fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation. Eighty-six percent of patients had AML or MDS with greater than 5% marrow blasts at the time of transplantation. Treatment produced a complete remission in all patients, and all had 100% donor-derived CD3+ and CD33+ cells in the blood by day 28 after the transplantation. The MTD of 131I-BC8 Ab delivered to liver was estimated to be 24 Gy. Seven patients (12%) died of nonrelapse causes by day 100. The estimated probability of recurrent malignancy at 1 year is 40%, and the 1-year survival estimate is 41%. These results show that CD45-targeted radiotherapy can be safely combined with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen to yield encouraging overall survival for older, high-risk patients with AML or MDS. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00008177. PMID:19786617

  1. Assessing the efficacy of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation (allo-HSCT) by analyzing survival end points in defined groups of acute myeloid leukemia patients: a retrospective, multicenter Polish Adult Leukemia Group study.

    PubMed

    Grosicki, Sebastian; Holowiecki, Jerzy; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz; Skotnicki, Aleksander; Hellmann, Andrzej; Kyrcz-Krzemien, Slawomira; Dmoszynska, Anna; Su?ek, Kazimierz; Kloczko, Janusz; Jedrzejczak, Wieslaw W; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Zdziarska, Barbara; Wierzbowska, Agnieszka; Pluta, Agnieszka; Komarnicki, Mieczyslaw; Giebel, Sebastian

    2015-10-01

    The importance of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) for survival outcomes in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) currently remains unclear. The study aimed to compare measures of clinical treatment for patients with AML in CR1 (the first complete remission) with or without being subjected to allo-HSCT. These consisted of leukemia-free survival (LFS), overall survival (OS), cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), and non-relapse mortality disease (NRM). Subjects were 622 patients, median age of 44, forming part of the prospective, randomized, and multicenter clinical Polish Adult Leukemia Group trials during 1999-2008. The Mantel-Byar approach was used to assess allo-HSCT on survival endpoints, accounting for a changing transplant status. Undergoing allo-HSCT significantly improved the LFS and OS for the entire group of patients with AML in CR1, along with the DAC induction subgroup and for the group with unfavorable cytogenetics aged 41-60. The CIR demonstrated that allo-HSCT reduced the risk of relapse for patients with AML in CR1 and those with an unfavorable cytogenetic risk. In addition, the NRM analysis showed that allo-HSCT significantly reduced the risk of death unrelated to relapse for the entire group of AML patients in CR1 and aged 41-60. The allo-HSCT treatment particularly benefitted survival for the AML in CR1 group having an unfavorable cytogenetic prognosis. PMID:26149802

  2. Transcription factor profiling in individual hematopoietic progenitors by digital RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Luigi; Bryder, David; Weissman, Irving L.; Quake, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    We report here a systematic, quantitative population analysis of transcription factor expression within developmental progenitors, made possible by a microfluidic chip-based “digital RT-PCR” assay that can count template molecules in cDNA samples prepared from single cells. In a survey encompassing five classes of early hematopoietic precursor, we found markedly heterogeneous expression of the transcription factor PU.1 in hematopoietic stem cells and divergent patterns of PU.1 expression within flk2− and flk2+ common myeloid progenitors. The survey also revealed significant differences in the level of the housekeeping transcript GAPDH across the surveyed populations, which demonstrates caveats of normalizing expression data to endogenous controls and underscores the need to put gene measurement on an absolute, copy-per-cell basis. PMID:17098862

  3. Outcome of Second Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation after Relapse of Myeloid Malignancies following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Retrospective Cohort on Behalf of the Grupo Español de Trasplante Hematopoyetico.

    PubMed

    Orti, Guillermo; Sanz, Jaime; Bermudez, Arancha; Caballero, Dolores; Martinez, Carmen; Sierra, Jorge; Cabrera Marin, José R; Espigado, Ildefonso; Solano, Carlos; Ferrà, Christelle; García-Noblejas, Ana; Jimenez, Santiago; Sampol, Antonia; Yañez, Lucrecia; García-Gutiérrez, Valentin; Pascual, Maria Jesus; Jurado, Manuel; Moraleda, José M; Valcarcel, David; Sanz, Miguel A; Carreras, Enric; Duarte, Rafael F

    2016-03-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) represents the most effective immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myeloid malignancies. However, disease relapse remains the most common cause of treatment failure. By performing a second allo-HCT, durable remission can be achieved in some patients. However, a second allo-HCT is of no benefit for the majority of patients, so this approach requires further understanding. We present a retrospective cohort of 116 patients diagnosed with AML, myelodysplastic syndromes, and myeloproliferative disorders who consecutively underwent a second allo-HCT for disease relapse. The median age was 38 years (range, 4 to 69 years). Sixty-three patients were alive at last follow-up. The median follow-up of the whole cohort was 193 days (range, 2 to 6724 days) and the median follow-up of survivors was 1628 days (range, 52 to 5518 days). Overall survival (OS) at 5 years was 32% (SE ± 4.7%). Multivariate analysis identified active disease status (P < .001) and second allo-HCT < 430 days (the median of the time to second transplantation) after the first transplantation (P < .001) as factors for poor prognosis, whereas the use of an HLA-identical sibling donor for the second allo-HCT was identified as a good prognostic factor (P < .05) for OS. The use of myeloablative conditioning (P = .01), active disease (P = .02), and a donor other than an HLA-identical sibling (others versus HLA-identical siblings) (P = .009) were factors statistically significant for nonrelapse mortality in multivariate analysis. Time to second transplantation was statistically significant (P = .001) in the relapse multivariate analysis, whereas multivariate analysis identified active disease status (P < .001) and time to second transplantation (P < .001) as poor prognosis factors for disease-free survival. This study confirms active disease and early relapse as dismal prognostic factors for a second allo-HCT. Using a different donor at second allo-HCT did not appear to change outcome, but using an HLA-identical sibling donor for a second transplantation appears to be associated with better survival. Further studies are warranted. PMID:26631751

  4. Linkage between dendritic- and T-cell commitments in human circulating hematopoietic progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Nakachi, Kei; Young, Lauren F.; Moore, Malcolm A.; van den Brink, Marcel R.M.; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between commitments of dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells in human hematopoietic stem cells are not well-understood. In this study, we enumerate and characterize conventional-DC (cDC) and plasmacytoid-DC (pDC) precursors in association with T-cell and thymus-derived types of NK-cell precursors among CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) circulating in human peripheral blood (PB). By limiting-dilution analyses using co-culture with stroma cells expressing Notch1 ligand, the precursor frequencies (PFs) of DCs in HPCs were found to significantly correlate with T-cell PFs, but not with NK-cell PFs, among healthy donors. Clonal analyses showed that the majority of T/NK-dual and T-single lineage precursors - but only a minority of NK-single lineage precursors - were associated with the generation of DC progenies. All clones producing both DC and T-cell progenies were found with monocyte and/or granulocyte progenies, suggesting DC differentiation via myeloid DC pathways. Analyses of PB HPC subpopulations revealed that the lineage split between DC and T/NK-cell progenitor occurs at the stage prior to bifurcation into T- and NK-cell lineages. The findings suggest a strong linkage between DC and T-cell commitments, which may be imprinted in circulating lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors or in more upstream HPCs. PMID:24835400

  5. Primitive lymphohematopoietic precursor cell lines generated in culture from day 7 early-mid-primitive streak stage mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Palacios, R; Imhof, B A

    1996-12-16

    During mouse development, the first lymphohematopoietic precursor cells and myeloid or erythroid cell lineage-determined cells can be detected in the yolk sac at days 8-8.5 of gestation. The characteristics of the cells that give rise to these yolk sac primitive lymphohematopoietic cells and the molecular events controlling this process remain poorly defined. We show here that cell suspensions from day 7 early-mid-primitive streak stage embryo proper generated early immature PgP-1+ Joro 177+ Lin- hematopoietic cells and some Mac-1+ myeloid and TER 119+ erythroid cells after co-culture with the yolk sac-derived stromal cell line YS6 without addition of exogenous cytokines. Purified Lin- hematopoietic cells generated in these cultures did not express genes known to be transcribed at early stages of lymphoid, myeloid or erythroid cell differentiation and were able to give rise to T and B lymphocytes, myeloid cells and erythroid cells after appropriate further induction in vitro. Several cell lines were established in culture with a mixture of four cytokines from the PgP-1+ Joro 177+ Lin- cell population. The cell lines shared phenotypic and genotypic characteristics with the PgP-1+ Joro 177+ Lin- cell population generated in culture from day 7 embryo proper and they were able to reconstitute the lymphohematopoietic system of irradiated mice. Taken together these results support a model of lymphohematopoiesis in which cells from day 7 early-mid-primitive streak mouse embryo proper migrate and colonize the visceral yolk sac. There they generate primitive lymphohematopoietic precursor cells and the first erythroid and myeloid hematopoietic cells under the influence of yolk sac stromal cells like the YS6 cells described here. PMID:9003763

  6. Effective and selective inhibition of chronic myeloid leukemia primitive hematopoietic progenitors by the dual Src/Abl kinase inhibitor SKI-606.

    PubMed

    Konig, Heiko; Holyoake, Tessa L; Bhatia, Ravi

    2008-02-15

    Imatinib mesylate (imatinib) is highly effective in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) but is less effective in eliminating CML stem cells. We investigated whether SKI-606, a potent Bcr-Abl and Src kinase inhibitor without anti-PDGF or c-Kit activity, could effectively target primitive CML progenitors. CML and normal progenitors were cultured with SKI-606 or imatinib. SKI-606 effectively inhibited Bcr-Abl kinase activity in CML CD34(+) cells and inhibited Src phosphorylation more potently than imatinib. However, SKI-606 and imatinib resulted in similar suppression of CML primitive and committed progenitor proliferation and growth in CFC and LTC-IC assays. Exposure to either agent alone or in combination resulted in only modest increase in apoptosis. Evaluation of downstream signaling pathways indicated that Akt and STAT5 activity was not changed, but a delayed increase in MAPK activity was seen at high concentrations of SKI-606. SKI-606 inhibited normal progenitor proliferation to a lesser extent than imatinib. SKI-606 effectively inhibits Bcr-Abl and Src kinase activity and inhibits CML progenitor growth with relatively little effect on normal progenitors. However, SKI-606 does not demonstrate increased ability to eliminate primitive CML progenitors by apoptosis compared with imatinib, emphasizing the need for additional strategies besides Bcr-Abl kinase inhibition for curative therapy of CML. PMID:18056843

  7. Targeting interleukin-2 to the bone marrow stroma for therapy of acute myeloid leukemia relapsing after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schliemann, Christoph; Gutbrodt, Katrin L; Kerkhoff, Andrea; Pohlen, Michele; Wiebe, Stefanie; Silling, Gerda; Angenendt, Linus; Kessler, Torsten; Mesters, Rolf M; Giovannoni, Leonardo; Schfers, Michael; Altvater, Bianca; Rossig, Claudia; Grnewald, Inga; Wardelmann, Eva; Khler, Gabriele; Neri, Dario; Stelljes, Matthias; Berdel, Wolfgang E

    2015-05-01

    The antibody-based delivery of IL2 to extracellular targets expressed in the easily accessible tumor-associated vasculature has shown potent antileukemic activity in xenograft and immunocompetent murine models of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), especially in combination with cytarabine. Here, we report our experience with 4 patients with relapsed AML after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), who were treated with the immunocytokine F16-IL2, in combination with low-dose cytarabine. One patient with disseminated extramedullary AML lesions achieved a complete metabolic response identified by PET/CT, which lasted 3 months. Two of 3 patients with bone marrow relapse achieved a blast reduction with transient molecular negativity. One of the 2 patients enjoyed a short complete remission before AML relapse occurred 2 months after the first infusion of F16-IL2. In line with a site-directed delivery of the cytokine, F16-IL2 led to an extensive infiltration of immune effector cells in the bone marrow. Grade 2 fevers were the only nonhematologic side effects in 2 patients. Grade 3 cytokine-release syndrome developed in the other 2 patients but was manageable in both cases with glucocorticoids. The concept of specifically targeting IL2 to the leukemia-associated stroma deserves further evaluation in clinical trials, especially in patients who relapse after allo-HSCT. PMID:25672398

  8. Highly Elevated Serum Hepcidin in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia prior to and after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Does This Protect from Excessive Parenchymal Iron Loading?

    PubMed Central

    Eisfeld, Ann-Kathrin; Westerman, Mark; Krahl, Rainer; Leiblein, Sabine; Liebert, Uwe Gerd; Hehme, Marianne; Teupser, Daniel; Niederwieser, Dietger; Al-Ali, Haifa Kathrin

    2011-01-01

    Hepcidin is upregulated by inflammation and iron. Inherited (HFE genotype) and treatment-related factors (blood units (BU), Iron overload) affecting hepcidin (measured by C-ELISA) were studied in 42 consecutive patients with AML prior to and after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Results. Elevated serum ferritin pre- and post-HCT was present in all patients. Median hepcidin pre- and post-HCT of 358 and 398?ng/mL, respectively, were elevated compared to controls (median 52?ng/mL) (P < .0001). Liver and renal function, prior chemotherapies, and conditioning had no impact on hepcidin. Despite higher total BU after HCT compared to pretransplantation (P < .0005), pre- and posttransplant ferritin and hepcidin were similar. BU influenced ferritin (P = .001) and hepcidin (P = .001). No correlation of pre- or posttransplant hepcidin with pretransplant ferritin was found. HFE genotype did not influence hepcidin. Conclusions. Hepcidin is elevated in AML patients pre- and post-HCT due to transfusional iron-loading suggesting that hepcidin synthesis remains intact despite chemotherapy and HCT. PMID:21687645

  9. Comparison of reduced-intensity and myeloablative conditioning regimens for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdul Wahid, S Fadilah; Ismail, Nor-Azimah; Mohd-Idris, Mohd-Razif; Jamaluddin, Fariza Wan; Tumian, NorRafeah; Sze-Wei, Ernie Yap; Muhammad, Norasiah; Nai, Ming Lai

    2014-11-01

    Currently, the indications to perform reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (RIC-HCT) are based on data derived mainly from large registry and single-centre retrospective studies. Thus, at the present time, there is limited direct evidence supporting the current practice in selecting patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) for RIC versus myeloablative conditioning (MAC) transplants. To determine the relationship between dose intensity of conditioning regimen and survival outcomes after allografting in AML/ALL patients, we performed a meta-analysis of 23 clinical trials reported between 1990 and 2013 involving 15,258 adult patients that compare survival outcomes after RIC-HCT versus MAC-HCT. RIC-HCT resulted in comparable <2-year and 2-6 year overall survival (OS) rates post-transplantation even though the RIC-HCT recipients were older and had more active disease than MAC-HCT recipients. The 2-6 year progression-free survival (PFS), nonrelapse mortality, acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and chronic GvHD rates were reduced after RIC-HCT, but relapse rate was increased. Similar outcomes were observed regardless of disease type and status at transplantation. Odds ratio for all outcomes remained comparable with or without performing separate analyses for the year of HCT and for retrospective versus prospective studies. Among RIC-HCT recipients, survival rates were superior if patients were in CR at transplantation. Significant inter-study heterogeneity for aGvHD data and publication bias for PFS data were observed. This meta-analysis showed no OS benefit of MAC-HCT over RIC-HCT across the entire cohort of patients suggesting that RIC-HCT could be an effective therapeutic option for AML/ALL patients who are ineligible for MAC-HCT and CR status is preferred before RIC-HCT. PMID:25072307

  10. A retrospective comparison of autologous and unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation in myelodysplastic syndrome and secondary acute myeloid leukemia: a report on behalf of the Chronic Leukemia Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT).

    PubMed

    Al-Ali, H K; Brand, R; van Biezen, A; Finke, J; Boogaerts, M; Fauser, A A; Egeler, M; Cahn, J-Y; Arnold, R; Biersack, H; Niederwieser, D; de Witte, T

    2007-09-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an effective treatment for myelodysplasia (MDS) and secondary acute myeloid leukemia (sAML). In this study, outcome of 593 patients with MDS/sAML after autologous and allogeneic HCT from a matched unrelated donor (MUD) were compared. A total of 167 (28%) patients received HCT from MUD without prior chemotherapy (MUD-U). The rest received HCT in first complete remission (CR1) (Autologous (Auto-CR1), n=290 (49%), HCT from MUD (MUD-CR1), n=136 (23%)). Survival at 3 years was best in MUD-CR1 (50%) compared to Auto-CR1 (41%) and MUD-U (40%) (P=0.01). Similarly, disease-free survival was 44% for MUD-CR1 compared to Auto-CR1 (28%) and MUD-U (34%) (P=0.03). Treatment-related mortality was 17% in Auto-CR1 compared to MUD-CR1 (38%) and MUD-U (49%) (P<0.001). Relapse for Auto-CR1 was 62% compared to 24 and 30% for MUD-CR1 and MUD-U, respectively (P<0.001). Outcome was best for patients with low tumor burden transplanted 6-12 months after diagnosis. Factors influencing outcome at 3 years were mainly significant in the first 6 months. Only, relapse after autologous HCT remained constant over time. Outcomes after allogeneic HCT in patients of 20-40 and >40 years were similar. Autologous and Allogeneic HCT from MUD offer the possibility of long-term survival to patients with MDS/sAML. PMID:17611571

  11. Phase II Trial of Reduced-Intensity Busulfan/Clofarabine Conditioning with Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Myelodysplastic Syndromes, and Acute Lymphoid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    El-Jawahri, Areej; Li, Shuli; Ballen, Karen K; Cutler, Corey; Dey, Bimalangshu R; Driscoll, Jessica; Hunnewell, Chrisa; Ho, Vincent T; McAfee, Steven L; Poliquin, Cathleen; Saylor, Meredith; Soiffer, Robert J; Spitzer, Thomas R; Alyea, Edwin; Chen, Yi-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Clofarabine has potent antileukemia activity and its inclusion in reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for acute leukemia could potentially improve outcomes. We conducted a phase II study of busulfan (.8 mg/kg i.v. twice daily on days-5,-4,-3, and-2) with clofarabine (40 mg/m(2) i.v. daily on days-5,-4,-3, and-2) conditioning before allogeneic 8/8 HLA-matched related or unrelated HSCT. The primary endpoint was donor neutrophil engraftment by day+40. Secondary endpoints included nonrelapse mortality (NRM), acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Thirty-four patients (acute myeloid leukemia [AML], n= 25; myelodysplastic syndromes, n= 5; and acute lymphoid leukemia, n= 4) were enrolled. Day 40+ engraftment with donor chimerism was achieved in 33 of 34 patients with 1 patient dying before count recovery. Day 100 and 1-year NRM were 5.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 17.4) and 24% (95% CI, 11 to 39), respectively. The 2-year relapse rate was 26% (95% CI, 13 to 42). Cumulative incidences of acute and chronic GVHD were 21% and 44%, respectively. The 2-year PFS was 50% (95% CI, 32 to 65) and OS was 56% (95% CI, 38 to 71). For patients with AML in first complete remission, 2-year PFS and OS were both 82% (95% CI, 55 to 94). RIC with busulfan and clofarabine leads to successful engraftment with acceptable rates of NRM and GVHD. PMID:26260679

  12. Phase II Study of Haploidentical Natural Killer Cell Infusion for Treatment of Relapsed or Persistent Myeloid Malignancies Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, Brian C; Le Luduec, Jean-Benoit; Forlenza, Christopher; Jakubowski, Ann A; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Young, James W; Hsu, Katharine C

    2016-04-01

    We conducted a phase 2 study to determine the efficacy of HLA-haploidentical related donor natural killer (NK) cells after cyclophosphamide-based lymphodepletion in patients with relapsed or progressive acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Eight patients (2 with MDS and 6 with AML) were treated with cyclophosphamide 50 mg/kg on day -3 and day -2 before infusion of NK cells isolated from a haploidentical related donor. One patient also received fludarabine 25 mg/m(2)/day for 4 days. Six doses of 1 million units of interleukin-2 (IL-2) were administered on alternating days beginning on day -1. The median number of NK cells infused was 10.6 × 10(6)/kg (range, 4.3 to 22.4 × 10(6)/kg), and the median number of CD3 cells infused was 2.1 × 10(3)/kg (range, 1.9 to 40 × 10(3)/kg). NK infusions were well tolerated, with a median time to neutrophil recovery of 19 days (range, 7 days to not achieved) and no incidence of graft-versus-host disease after NK infusion. One patient with AML and 1 patient with MDS achieved a complete response, but relapsed at 1.7 and 1.8 months, respectively. One patient with MDS experienced resolution of dysplastic features but persistence of clonal karyotype abnormalities; this patient was stable at 65 months after NK cell therapy. The median duration of survival was 12.9 months (range, 0.8 to 65.3 months). Chimerism analysis of CD3(-)/CD56(+) peripheral blood cells did not detect any circulating haploidentical NK cells after infusion. NK phenotyping was performed in 7 patients during and after IL-2 infusion. We found a slight trend toward greater expression of KIR2DL2/2DL3/2DS2 (5% versus 28%; P = .03) at 14 days in patients who survived longer than 6 months from NK cell infusion (n = 4) compared with those who died within 6 months of NK cell therapy (n = 3). In summary, our data support the safety of haploidentical NK cell infusion after allogeneic HCT. PMID:26772158

  13. Control of hematopoietic cell growth regulators during mouse fetal development.

    PubMed Central

    Azoulay, M; Webb, C G; Sachs, L

    1987-01-01

    Gene expression for the four different growth-regulatory proteins for cells of the myeloid hematopoietic cell lineages was analyzed in mouse fetal and extraembryonic tissues at various stages of development. The macrophage growth inducer MGI-1M (colony-stimulating factor 1) was the only myeloid hematopoietic growth regulator detected as both mRNA and bioactive protein during fetal development. This regulator was produced predominantly in extraembryonic tissues, and the production of hematopoietic growth regulators in embryogenesis was regulated by transcriptional and posttranscriptional controls. Images PMID:3499568

  14. Diet-induced obesity promotes myelopoiesis in hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Kanakadurga; DelProposto, Jennifer; Lee Morris, David; Zamarron, Brian; Mergian, Taleen; Maley, Nidhi; Cho, Kae Won; Geletka, Lynn; Subbaiah, Perla; Muir, Lindsey; Martinez-Santibanez, Gabriel; Nien-Kai Lumeng, Carey

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an activated macrophage phenotype in multiple tissues that contributes to tissue inflammation and metabolic disease. To evaluate the mechanisms by which obesity potentiates myeloid activation, we evaluated the hypothesis that obesity activates myeloid cell production from bone marrow progenitors to potentiate inflammatory responses in metabolic tissues. High fat diet-induced obesity generated both quantitative increases in myeloid progenitors as well as a potentiation of inflammation in macrophages derived from these progenitors. Invivo, hematopoietic stem cells from obese mice demonstrated the sustained capacity to preferentially generate inflammatory CD11c+ adipose tissue macrophages after serial bone marrow transplantation. We identified that hematopoietic MyD88 was important for the accumulation of CD11c+ adipose tissue macrophage accumulation by regulating the generation of myeloid progenitors from HSCs. These findings demonstrate that obesity and metabolic signals potentiate leukocyte production and that dietary priming of hematopoietic progenitors contributes to adipose tissue inflammation. PMID:25161889

  15. Comparison of Outcomes for Pediatric Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission and Undergoing Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation With Myeloablative Conditioning Regimens Based on Either Intravenous Busulfan or Total Body Irradiation: A Report From the Japanese Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Hiroyuki; Kato, Motohiro; Kudo, Kazuko; Taga, Takashi; Tomizawa, Daisuke; Miyamura, Takako; Goto, Hiroaki; Inagaki, Jiro; Koh, Katsuyoshi; Terui, Kiminori; Ogawa, Atsushi; Kawano, Yoshifumi; Inoue, Masami; Sawada, Akihisa; Kato, Koji; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Yamashita, Takuya; Adachi, Souichi

    2015-12-01

    Pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) mainly receive myeloablative conditioning regimens based on busulfan (BU) or total body irradiation (TBI) before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT); however, the optimal conditioning regimen remains unclear. To identify which of these regimens is better for pediatric patients, we performed a retrospective analysis of nationwide registration data collected in Japan between 2006 and 2011 to assess the outcomes of patients receiving these regimens before a first allo-HCT. Myeloablative conditioning regimens based on i.v. BU (i.v. BU-MAC) (n=69) or TBI (TBI-MAC) (n=151) were compared in pediatric AML patients in first or second complete remission (CR1/CR2). The incidences of sinusoid obstruction syndrome, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease, and early nonrelapse mortality (NRM) before day 100 were similar for both conditioning groups; however, the incidence of bacterial infection during the acute period was higher in the TBI-MAC group (P=.008). Both groups showed a similar incidence of NRM, and there was no significant difference in the incidence of relapse between the groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed no significant differences in the 2-year relapse-free survival rates for the i.v. BU-MAC and TBI-MAC groups in the CR1/CR2 setting (71% versus 67%, P=.36; hazard ratio, .73; 95% CI, .43 to 1.24, respectively). TBI-MAC was no better than i.v. BU-MAC for pediatric AML patients in remission. Although this retrospective registry-based analysis has several limitations, i.v. BU-MAC warrants further evaluation in a prospective trial. PMID:26271192

  16. DNMT3A R882 Mutation with FLT3-ITD Positivity Is an Extremely Poor Prognostic Factor in Patients with Normal-Karyotype Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jae-Sook; Kim, Hyeoung-Joon; Kim, Yeo-Kyeoung; Lee, Seun-Shin; Jung, Sung-Hoon; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Lee, Je-Jung; Kim, Nan Young; Choi, Seung Hyun; Jung, Chul Won; Jang, Jun-Ho; Kim, Hee Je; Moon, Joon Ho; Sohn, Sang Kyun; Won, Jong-Ho; Kim, Sung-Hyun; Kim, Dennis Dong Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic relevance of epigenetic modifying genes (DNMT3A, TET2, and IDH1/2) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been investigated extensively. However, the prognostic implications of these mutations after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have not been evaluated comprehensively in patients with normal-karyotype (NK)-AML. A total of 115 patients who received allogeneic HCT for NK-AML were retrospectively evaluated for the FLT3-ITD, NPM1, CEBPA, DNMT3A, TET2, IDH1/2, WT1, NRAS, ASXL2, FAT1, DNAH11, and GATA2 mutations in diagnostic samples and analyzed for long-term outcomes after allogeneic HCT. The prevalence rates for the mutations were as follows: FLT3-ITD positivity (FLT3-ITD(pos)) (32.2%), NPM1 mutation (43.5%), CEBPA mutation (double) (24.6%), DNMT3A mutation (DNMT3A(mut)) (31.3%), DNMT3A R882(mut) (18.3%), TET2 mutation (8.7%), and IDH1/2 mutation (16.5%). The 5-year overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates were 57.3% and 58.1%, respectively. A multivariate analysis revealed that FLT3-ITD(pos) (hazard ratio, [HR], 2.23; P=.006) and DNMT3A R882(mut) (HR, 2.74; P=.002) were unfavorable prognostic factors for OS. In addition, both mutations were significant risk factors for EFS and relapse. People with DNMT3A R882(mut) accompanied by FLT3-ITD(pos) had worse OS and EFS, and higher relapse rates than those with the other mutations, which were confirmed in a propensity score 1:2 matching analysis. These results suggest that DNMT3A R882(mut), particularly when accompanied by FLT3-ITD(pos), is a significant prognostic factor for inferior transplantation survival outcome by increasing relapse risk, even after allogeneic HCT. PMID:26234722

  17. NUP98/11p15 translocations affect CD34+ cells in myeloid and T lymphoid leukemias.

    PubMed

    Crescenzi, Barbara; Nofrini, Valeria; Barba, Gianluca; Matteucci, Caterina; Di Giacomo, Danika; Gorello, Paolo; Beverloo, Berna; Vitale, Antonella; Wlodarska, Iwona; Vandenberghe, Peter; La Starza, Roberta; Mecucci, Cristina

    2015-07-01

    We assessed lineage involvement by NUP98 translocations in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL). Single cell analysis by FICTION (Fluorescence Immunophenotype and Interphase Cytogenetics as a Tool for Investigation of Neoplasms) showed that, despite diverse partners, i.e. NSD1, DDX10, RAP1GDS1, and LNP1, NUP98 translocations always affected a CD34+/CD133+ hematopoietic precursor. Interestingly the abnormal clone included myelomonocytes, erythroid cells, B- and T- lymphocytes in MDS/AML and only CD7+/CD3+ cells in T-ALL. The NUP98-RAP1GDS1 affected different hematopoietic lineages in AML and T-ALL. Additional specific genomic events, were identified, namely FLT3 and CEBPA mutations in MDS/AML, and NOTCH1 mutations and MYB duplication in T-ALL. PMID:26004809

  18. Coordinate regulation of HOX genes in human hematopoietic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Magli, M.C.; Barba, P.; Celetti, A.; De Vita, G.; Cillo, C.; Boncinelli, E. )

    1991-07-15

    Hematopoiesis is a continuous process in which precursor cells proliferate and differentiate throughout life. However, the molecular mechanisms that govern this process are not clearly defined. Homeobox-containing genes, encoding DNA-binding homeodomains. are a network of genes highly conserved throughout evolution. They are organized in clusters expressed in the developing embryo with a positional hierarchy. The authors have analyzed expression of the four human HOX loci in erythroleukemic, promyelocytic, and monocytic cell lines to investigate whether the physical organization of human HOX genes reflects a regulatory hierarchy involved in the differentiation process of hematopoietic cells. The results demonstrate that cells representing various stages of hematopoietic differentiation display differential patterns of HOX gene expression and that HOX genes are coordinately switched on or off in blocks that may include entire loci. The entire HOX4 locus is silent in all lines analyzed and almost all the HOX2 genes are active in erythroleukemic cells and turned off in myeloid-restricted cells. The observations provide information about the regulation of HOX genes and suggest that the coordinate regulation of these genes may play an important role in lineage determination during early steps of hematopoiesis.

  19. Knockdown of Hspa9, a del(5q31.2) gene, results in a decrease in hematopoietic progenitors in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tim H-P; Kambal, Amal; Krysiak, Kilannin; Walshauser, Mark A; Raju, Gagan; Tibbitts, Justin F; Walter, Matthew J

    2011-02-01

    Heterozygous deletions spanning chromosome 5q31.2 occur frequently in the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and are highly associated with progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) when p53 is mutated. Mutagenesis screens in zebrafish and mice identified Hspa9 as a del(5q31.2) candidate gene that may contribute to MDS and AML pathogenesis, respectively. To test whether HSPA9 haploinsufficiency recapitulates the features of ineffective hematopoiesis observed in MDS, we knocked down the expression of HSPA9 in primary human hematopoietic cells and in a murine bone marrow-transplantation model using lentivirally mediated gene silencing. Knockdown of HSPA9 in human cells significantly delayed the maturation of erythroid precursors, but not myeloid or megakaryocytic precursors, and suppressed cell growth by 6-fold secondary to an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in the cycling of cells compared with control cells. Erythroid precursors, B lymphocytes, and the bone marrow progenitors c-kit(+)/lineage(-)/Sca-1(+) (KLS) and megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitor (MEP) were significantly reduced in a murine Hspa9-knockdown model. These abnormalities suggest that cooperating gene mutations are necessary for del(5q31.2) MDS cells to gain clonal dominance in the bone marrow. Our results demonstrate that Hspa9 haploinsufficiency alters the hematopoietic progenitor pool in mice and contributes to abnormal hematopoiesis. PMID:21123823

  20. Knockdown of Hspa9, a del(5q31.2) gene, results in a decrease in hematopoietic progenitors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tim H.-P.; Kambal, Amal; Krysiak, Kilannin; Walshauser, Mark A.; Raju, Gagan; Tibbitts, Justin F.

    2011-01-01

    Heterozygous deletions spanning chromosome 5q31.2 occur frequently in the myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and are highly associated with progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) when p53 is mutated. Mutagenesis screens in zebrafish and mice identified Hspa9 as a del(5q31.2) candidate gene that may contribute to MDS and AML pathogenesis, respectively. To test whether HSPA9 haploinsufficiency recapitulates the features of ineffective hematopoiesis observed in MDS, we knocked down the expression of HSPA9 in primary human hematopoietic cells and in a murine bone marrowtransplantation model using lentivirally mediated gene silencing. Knockdown of HSPA9 in human cells significantly delayed the maturation of erythroid precursors, but not myeloid or megakaryocytic precursors, and suppressed cell growth by 6-fold secondary to an increase in apoptosis and a decrease in the cycling of cells compared with control cells. Erythroid precursors, B lymphocytes, and the bone marrow progenitors c-kit+/lineage?/Sca-1+ (KLS) and megakaryocyte/erythrocyte progenitor (MEP) were significantly reduced in a murine Hspa9-knockdown model. These abnormalities suggest that cooperating gene mutations are necessary for del(5q31.2) MDS cells to gain clonal dominance in the bone marrow. Our results demonstrate that Hspa9 haploinsufficiency alters the hematopoietic progenitor pool in mice and contributes to abnormal hematopoiesis. PMID:21123823

  1. Lead and catechol hematotoxicity in vitro using human and murine hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Van Den Heuvel, R L; Leppens, H; Schoeters, G E

    1999-04-01

    In vitro cloning assays for hematopoietic myeloid and erythroid precursor cells have been used as screening systems to investigate the hematotoxic potential of environmental chemicals in humans and mice. Granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (CFU-GM) from human umbilical cord blood and from mouse bone marrow (Balb/c and B6C3F1) were cultured in the presence of lead and the benzene metabolite catechol. Erythroid precursors (BFU-E) from human umbilical cord blood were cultured in the presence of lead. The in vitro exposure of the human and murine cells resulted in a dose-dependent depression of the colony numbers. The concentration effect relationship was studied. Results showed that: (1) Based on calculated IC50 values, human progenitors are more sensitive to lead and catechol than are murine progenitors. The dose that caused a 50% decrease in colony formation after catechol exposure was 6 times higher for murine cells (IC50 = 24 micromol/L) than for human cord blood cells (IC50 = 4 micromol/L). Lead was 10-15 times more toxic to human hematopoietic cells (IC50 = 61 micromol/L) than to murine bone marrow cells from both mice strains tested (Balb/c, IC50 = 1060 micromol/L; B6C3F1, IC50 = 536 micromol/L). (2) A lineage specificity was observed after exposure to lead. Human erythroid progenitors (hBFU-E) (IC50 = 3.31 micromol/L) were found to be 20 times more sensitive to the inhibitory effect of lead than were myeloid precursors (hCFU-GM) (IC50 = 63.58 micromol/L). (3) Individual differences in the susceptibility to the harmful effect of lead were seen among cord blood samples. (4) Toxicity of lead to progenitor cells occurred at environmentally relevant concentrations. PMID:10408357

  2. Parvovirus infection suppresses long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Jos C; Guenechea, Guillermo; Gallego, Jess M; Almendral, Jos M; Bueren, Juan A

    2003-08-01

    The functional disturbance of self-renewing and multipotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in viral diseases is poorly understood. In this report, we have assessed the susceptibility of mouse HSCs to strain i of the autonomous parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMi) in vitro and during persistent infection of an immunodeficient host. Purified 5FU(r) Lin(-) Sca-1(+) primitive hematopoietic precursors were permissive for MVMi genome replication and the expression of viral gene products. The lymphoid and myeloid repopulating capacity of bone marrow (BM) cells was significantly impaired after in vitro infection, although the degree of functional effect proportionally decreased with the posttransplantation time. This indicated that MVMi targets the heterogeneous compartment of repopulating cells with differential affinity and suggests that the virus may persist in some primitive HSCs in the quiescent stage, killing those eventually recruited for proliferative activity. Immunodeficient SCID mice oronasally infected with MVMi were cured of the characteristic virus-induced lethal leukopenia by transplantation of immunocompetent BM grafts. However, two double-stranded viral DNA species, probably uncommon replicative intermediates, remained in the marrow of every transplanted mouse months after infectious virus clearance. Genetic analysis of the rescued mice showed that the infection ensured a stable engraftment of donor hematopoiesis by markedly depleting the pool of endogenous HSCs. The MVMi-induced suppression of HSC functions illustrates the accessibility of this compartment to infection during a natural viral hematological disease. These results may provide clues to understanding delayed hematopoietic syndromes associated with persistent viral infections and to prospective gene delivery to HSCs in vivo. PMID:12857918

  3. C-Myb(+) erythro-myeloid progenitor-derived fetal monocytes give rise to adult tissue-resident macrophages.

    PubMed

    Hoeffel, Guillaume; Chen, Jinmiao; Lavin, Yonit; Low, Donovan; Almeida, Francisca F; See, Peter; Beaudin, Anna E; Lum, Josephine; Low, Ivy; Forsberg, E Camilla; Poidinger, Michael; Zolezzi, Francesca; Larbi, Anis; Ng, Lai Guan; Chan, Jerry K Y; Greter, Melanie; Becher, Burkhard; Samokhvalov, Igor M; Merad, Miriam; Ginhoux, Florent

    2015-04-21

    Although classified as hematopoietic cells, tissue-resident macrophages (MFs) arise from embryonic precursors that seed the tissues prior to birth to generate a self-renewing population, which is maintained independently of adult hematopoiesis. Here we reveal the identity of these embryonic precursors using an in utero MF-depletion strategy and fate-mapping of yolk sac (YS) and fetal liver (FL) hematopoiesis. We show that YS MFs are the main precursors of microglia, while most other MFs derive from fetal monocytes (MOs). Both YS MFs and fetal MOs arise from erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) generated in the YS. In the YS, EMPs gave rise to MFs without monocytic intermediates, while EMP seeding the FL upon the establishment of blood circulation acquired c-Myb expression and gave rise to fetal MOs that then seeded embryonic tissues and differentiated into MFs. Thus, adult tissue-resident MFs established from hematopoietic stem cell-independent embryonic precursors arise from two distinct developmental programs. PMID:25902481

  4. MicroRNA-223 dose levels fine tune proliferation and differentiation in human cord blood progenitors and acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gentner, Bernhard; Pochert, Nicole; Rouhi, Arefeh; Boccalatte, Francesco; Plati, Tiziana; Berg, Tobias; Sun, Su Ming; Mah, Sarah M; Mirkovic-Hösle, Milijana; Ruschmann, Jens; Muranyi, Andrew; Leierseder, Simon; Argiropoulos, Bob; Starczynowski, Daniel T; Karsan, Aly; Heuser, Michael; Hogge, Donna; Camargo, Fernando D; Engelhardt, Stefan; Döhner, Hartmut; Buske, Christian; Jongen-Lavrencic, Mojca; Naldini, Luigi; Humphries, R Keith; Kuchenbauer, Florian

    2015-10-01

    A precise understanding of the role of miR-223 in human hematopoiesis and in the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is still lacking. By measuring miR-223 expression in blasts from 115 AML patients, we found significantly higher miR-223 levels in patients with favorable prognosis, whereas patients with low miR-223 expression levels were associated with worse outcome. Furthermore, miR-223 was hierarchically expressed in AML subpopulations, with lower expression in leukemic stem cell-containing fractions. Genetic depletion of miR-223 decreased the leukemia initiating cell (LIC) frequency in a myelomonocytic AML mouse model, but it was not mandatory for rapid-onset AML. To relate these observations to physiologic myeloid differentiation, we knocked down or ectopically expressed miR-223 in cord-blood CD34⁺ cells using lentiviral vectors. Although miR-223 knockdown delayed myeloerythroid precursor differentiation in vitro, it increased myeloid progenitors in vivo following serial xenotransplantation. Ectopic miR-223 expression increased erythropoiesis, T lymphopoiesis, and early B lymphopoiesis in vivo. These findings broaden the role of miR-223 as a regulator of the expansion/differentiation equilibrium in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells where its impact is dose- and differentiation-stage-dependent. This also explains the complex yet minor role of miR-223 in AML, a heterogeneous disease with variable degree of myeloid differentiation. PMID:26163797

  5. Mice lacking c-fos have normal hematopoietic stem cells but exhibit altered B-cell differentiation due to an impaired bone marrow environment.

    PubMed Central

    Okada, S; Wang, Z Q; Grigoriadis, A E; Wagner, E F; von Rden, T

    1994-01-01

    Mice lacking c-fos develop severe osteopetrosis with deficiencies in bone remodeling and exhibit extramedullary hematopoiesis, thymic atrophy, and altered B-cell development. In this study, we have used these mice to characterize in detail the developmental potential of hematopoietic stem cells lacking c-fos and to analyze how the lymphoid differentiation is altered. In c-fos -/- mice, B-cell numbers are reduced in the spleen, lymph nodes, and the peripheral blood as a result of a marked reduction (> 90%) in the number of clonogenic B-cell precursors. In contrast, the number and lineage distribution of myeloid progenitor cells are not affected. The thymic defects observed in a large number of these mice correlate with their health status, suggesting that this may be an indirect effect of the c-fos mutation. In vitro differentiation and bone marrow reconstitution experiments demonstrated that hematopoietic stem cells lacking c-fos can give rise to all mature myeloid as well as lymphoid cells, suggesting that the observed B lymphopenia in the mutant mice is due to an altered environment. Transplantation of wild-type bone marrow cells into newborn mutant mice resulted in the establishment of a bone marrow space and subsequent correction of the B-cell defect. These results demonstrate that hematopoietic stem cells lacking Fos have full developmental potential and that the observed defect in B-cell development is most likely due to the impaired bone marrow environment as a consequence of osteopetrosis. Images PMID:8264605

  6. Adenosine A(1), A(2a), A(2b), and A(3) receptors in hematopoiesis. 1. Expression of receptor mRNA in four mouse hematopoietic precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Streitová, D; Sefc, L; Savvulidi, F; Pospísil, M; Holá, J; Hofer, M

    2010-01-01

    Four mouse bone marrow or thymus cell populations, namely granulopoietic/monocytopoietic, erythropoietic, B-lymphopoietic, and T-lymphopoietic precursor cells have been assayed by RT-PCR technique for the presence and relative amounts of adenosine A(1), A(2a), A(2b), and A(3) receptor mRNA. It has been found that (i) all four populations studied express all four adenosine receptor subtypes, (ii) the A(1), receptor is the least expressed in all populations studied, (iii) the A(3) receptor is markedly expressed in the populations of granulopoietic/monocytopoietic and erythropoietic cells, (iv) the A(2a) receptor is markedly expressed in the populations of B-lymphopoietic and T-lymphopoietic cells, and v) the A(2b) receptor does not predominate in any of the precursor cells studied. Our data offer a new possibility for the assessment of the readiness of these cells to respond, by receptor-mediated mechanisms, to adenosine or its analogs present in the tissues as a result of endogenous processes and/or following their administration. PMID:19249907

  7. Ontogeny of Myeloid Cells

    PubMed Central

    De Kleer, Ismé; Willems, Fabienne; Lambrecht, Bart; Goriely, Stanislas

    2014-01-01

    Granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells (DCs) represent a subgroup of leukocytes, collectively called myeloid cells. During the embryonic development of mammalians, myelopoiesis occurs in a stepwise fashion that begins in the yolk sac and ends up in the bone marrow (BM). During this process, these early monocyte progenitors colonize various organs such as the brain, liver, skin, and lungs and differentiate into resident macrophages that will self-maintain throughout life. DCs are constantly replenished from BM precursors but can also arise from monocytes in inflammatory conditions. In this review, we summarize the different types of myeloid cells and discuss new insights into their early origin and development in mice and humans from fetal to adult life. We specifically focus on the function of monocytes, macrophages, and DCs at these different developmental stages and on the intrinsic and environmental influences that may drive these adaptations. PMID:25232355

  8. Hhex is Required at Multiple Stages of Adult Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Goodings, Charnise; Smith, Elizabeth; Mathias, Elizabeth; Elliott, Natalina; Cleveland, Susan M.; Tripathi, Rati M.; Layer, Justin H.; Chen, Xi; Guo, Yan; Shyr, Yu; Hamid, Rizwan; Du, Yang; Davé, Utpal P.

    2015-01-01

    Hhex encodes a homeodomain transcription factor that is widely expressed in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell populations. Its enforced expression induces T-cell leukemia and we have implicated it as an important oncogene in early T-cell precursor leukemias where it is immediately downstream of an LMO2-associated protein complex. Conventional Hhex knockouts cause embryonic lethality precluding analysis of adult hematopoiesis. Thus, we induced highly efficient conditional knockout (cKO) using vav-Cre transgenic mice. Hhex cKO mice were viable and born at normal litter sizes. At steady state, we observed a defect in B-cell development that we localized to the earliest B-cell precursor, the pro-B-cell stage. Most remarkably, bone marrow transplantation using Hhex cKO donor cells revealed a more profound defect in all hematopoietic lineages. In contrast, sublethal irradiation resulted in normal myeloid cell repopulation of the bone marrow but markedly impaired repopulation of T- and B-cell compartments. We noted that Hhex cKO stem and progenitor cell populations were skewed in their distribution and showed enhanced proliferation compared to WT cells. Our results implicate Hhex in the maintenance of LT-HSCs and in lineage allocation from multipotent progenitors especially in stress hematopoiesis. PMID:25968920

  9. Heterochromatic gene repression of the retinoic acid pathway in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Fazi, Francesco; Zardo, Giuseppe; Gelmetti, Vania; Travaglini, Lorena; Ciolfi, Alberto; Di Croce, Luciano; Rosa, Alessandro; Bozzoni, Irene; Grignani, Francesco; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Nervi, Clara

    2007-05-15

    Alteration of lineage-specific transcriptional programs for hematopoiesis causes differentiation block and promotes leukemia development. Here, we show that AML1/ETO, the most common translocation fusion product in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), counteracts the activity of retinoic acid (RA), a transcriptional regulator of myelopoiesis. AML1/ETO participates in a protein complex with the RA receptor alpha (RARalpha) at RA regulatory regions on RARbeta2, which is a key RA target gene mediating RA activity/resistance in cells. At these sites, AML1/ETO recruits histone deacetylase, DNA methyltransferase, and DNA-methyl-CpG binding activities that promote a repressed chromatin conformation. The link among AML1/ETO, heterochromatic RARbeta2 repression, RA resistance, and myeloid differentiation block is indicated by the ability of either siRNA-AML1/ETO or the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-azacytidine to revert these epigenetic alterations and to restore RA differentiation response in AML1/ETO blasts. Finally, RARbeta2 is commonly silenced by hypermethylation in primary AML blasts but not in normal hematopoietic precursors, thus suggesting a role for the epigenetic repression of the RA signaling pathway in myeloid leukemogenesis. PMID:17244680

  10. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M2) with translocation (8;21) (q22;q22) and abnormal eosinophilic precursors in the bone marrow--a case report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Oneal; Aggarwal, Roopak; Prasad, Rajni

    2012-02-01

    The translocation (8;21)(q22;q22) is frequently associated with M2 subtype of AML. The authors herein present a case of AML-M2 in a nine-year-old boy without hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy or any bleeding diathesis. Bone marrow examination revealed high number of eosinophilic precursors (60%) among the total nucleated bone marrow cells. Cytogenetic study with G- banding method showed 46, XY, t (8;21)(q22;q22). The morphological abnormalities in eosinophils observed in AML suggested that eosinophils may be a part of leukemic process. PMID:21630067

  11. Differentiation and Characterization of Myeloid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Dipti; Shah, Hetavi Parag; Malu, Krishnakumar; Berliner, Nancy; Gaines, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Recent molecular studies of myeloid differentiation have utilized several in vitro models of myelopoiesis, generated from either ex vivo differentiated bone marrow progenitors or induced immortalized myeloid cell lines. Ex vivo differentiation begins with an enriched population of bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells generated by lineage depletion and/or positive selection for CD34+ antigen (human) or Sca-1+ (mouse) cells, which are then expanded and subsequently induced in vitro in a process that recapitulates normal myeloid development. Myeloid cell lines include two human leukemic cell lines, NB-4 and HL-60, which have been demonstrated to undergo retinoic acidinduced myeloid development, however, both cell lines exhibit defects in the upregulation of late-expressed neutrophil-specific genes. Multiple murine factordependent cell models of myelopoiesis are also available that express the full range of neutrophil maturation markers, including: 32Dcl3 cells, which undergo G-CSF-induced myeloid maturation, EML/EPRO cells, which develop into mature neutrophils in response to cytokines and retinoic acid, and ER-Hoxb8 cells, which undergo myeloid maturation upon removal of estradial in the maintenance medium. In this unit, the induction of myeloid maturation in each of these model systems is described, including their differentiation to either neutrophils or macrophages, if applicable. Commonly used techniques to test for myeloid characteristics of developing cells are also described, including flow cytometry and real time RT-PCR. Together, these assays provide a solid foundation for in vitro investigations of myeloid development with either human or mouse models. PMID:24510620

  12. Quantitative expansion of ES cell-derived myeloid progenitors capable of differentiating into macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Odegaard, Justin I.; Vats, Divya; Zhang, Lina; Ricardo-Gonzalez, Roberto; Smith, Kristi L.; Sykes, David B.; Kamps, Mark P.; Chawla, Ajay

    2007-01-01

    Macrophages participate in physiologic and pathologic processes through elaboration of distinct activation programs. Studies with macrophage cell systems have revealed much concerning the importance of this pleiotropic cell; however, these studies are inherently limited by three factors: heterogeneity of the target cell population, poor capacity to elaborate various activation programs, and lack of a genetically tractable model system for loss- and gain-of-function studies. Although definitive, hematopoietic lineages can be isolated from embryonic stem (ES) cells, these isolation procedures are inefficient and time-consuming and require elaborate cell-sorting protocols. We, therefore, examined whether myeloid precursors, capable of differentiating into macrophages, could be conditionally expanded in vitro. Here, we report methods for selective isolation and immortalization of ES cell-derived myeloid precursors by estrogen-regulated HoxA9 protein. Using this new macrophage differentiation system, an unlimited number of custom-designed macrophages with defined functional characteristics can be generated from any targeted ES cell. In combination with knockout or small interfering RNA knockdown technologies, this macrophage differentiation system provides a powerful tool for high throughput analysis of regulatory mechanisms controlling macrophage activation in health and disease. PMID:17158607

  13. Early ontogenic origin of the hematopoietic stem cell lineage

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yosuke; Hayashi, Misato; Kubota, Yasushi; Nagai, Hiroki; Sheng, Guojun; Nishikawa, Shin-Ichi; Samokhvalov, Igor M.

    2012-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the adult hematopoietic system has multiple developmental origins, but the ontogenic relationship between nascent hematopoietic populations under this scheme is poorly understood. In an alternative theory, the earliest definitive blood precursors arise from a single anatomical location, which constitutes the cellular source for subsequent hematopoietic populations. To deconvolute hematopoietic ontogeny, we designed an embryo-rescue system in which the key hematopoietic factor Runx1 is reactivated in Runx1-null conceptuses at specific developmental stages. Using complementary in vivo and ex vivo approaches, we provide evidence that definitive hematopoiesis and adult-type hematopoietic stem cells originate predominantly in the nascent extraembryonic mesoderm. Our data also suggest that other anatomical sites that have been proposed to be sources of the definitive hematopoietic hierarchy are unlikely to play a substantial role in de novo blood generation. PMID:22392989

  14. Fludarabine Phosphate, Busulfan, and Anti-Thymocyte Globulin Followed By Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant, Tacrolimus, and Methotrexate in Treating Patients With Myeloid Malignancies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-03

    Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

  15. Inhibition of B Lymphopoiesis by Adipocytes and IL-1-Producing Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Domenick E; Knight, Katherine L

    2015-09-15

    B lymphopoiesis declines with age, and this decline correlates with increased adipose tissue in the bone marrow (BM). Also, adipocyte-derived factors are known to inhibit B lymphopoiesis. Using cocultures of mouse BM cells with OP9 stromal cells, we found that adipocyte-conditioned medium induces the generation of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) myeloid cells, which inhibit B cell development in vitro. Adipocyte-conditioned medium-induced CD11b(+)Gr1(+) cells express Arg1 (arginase) and Nos2 (inducible NO synthase) and suppress CD4(+) T cell proliferation, indicating that these cells are myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Blocking arginase and inducible NO synthase did not restore B lymphopoiesis, indicating that inhibition is not mediated by these molecules. Transwell and conditioned-medium experiments showed that MDSCs inhibit B lymphopoiesis via soluble factors, and by cytokine array we identified IL-1 as an important factor. Addition of anti-IL-1 Abs restored B lymphopoiesis in BM cultures containing MDSCs, showing that MDSC inhibition of B lymphopoiesis is mediated by IL-1. By treating hematopoietic precursors with IL-1, we found that multipotent progenitors are targets of IL-1. This study uncovers a novel function for MDSCs to inhibit B lymphopoiesis through IL-1. We suggest that inflammaging contributes to a decline of B lymphopoiesis in aged individuals, and furthermore, that MDSCs and IL-1 provide therapeutic targets for restoration of B lymphopoiesis in aged and obese individuals. PMID:26268654

  16. Microglia Versus Myeloid Cell Nomenclature during Brain Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Greter, Melanie; Lelios, Iva; Croxford, Andrew Lewis

    2015-01-01

    As immune sentinels of the central nervous system (CNS), microglia not only respond rapidly to pathological conditions but also contribute to homeostasis in the healthy brain. In contrast to other populations of the myeloid lineage, adult microglia derive from primitive myeloid precursors that arise in the yolk sac early during embryonic development, after which they self-maintain locally and independently of blood-borne myeloid precursors. Under neuro-inflammatory conditions such as experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, circulating monocytes invade the CNS parenchyma where they further differentiate into macrophages or inflammatory dendritic cells. Often it is difficult to delineate resident microglia from infiltrating myeloid cells using currently known markers. Here, we will discuss the current means to reliably distinguish between these populations, and which recent advances have helped to make clear definitions between phenotypically similar, yet functionally diverse myeloid cell types. PMID:26074918

  17. Myeloid Cell Nuclear Differentiation Antigen (MNDA) Expression Distinguishes Extramedullary Presentations of Myeloid Leukemia From Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Ryan C; Kim, Jinah; Natkunam, Yasodha; Sundram, Uma; Freud, Aharon G; Gammon, Bryan; Cascio, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Myeloid neoplasms constitute one of the most common malignancies in adults. In most cases these proliferations initially manifest in the blood and marrow; however, extramedullary involvement may precede blood or marrow involvement in a subset of cases, making a definitive diagnosis challenging by morphologic and immunohistochemical assessment alone. Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare, aggressive entity that frequently presents in extramedullary sites and can show morphologic and immunophenotypic overlap with myeloid neoplasms. Given that BPDCN and myeloid neoplasms may both initially present in extramedullary sites and that novel targeted therapies may be developed that exploit the unique molecular signature of BPDCN, new immunophenotypic markers that can reliably separate myeloid neoplasms from BPDCN are desirable. We evaluated the utility of myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) expression in a series of extramedullary myeloid leukemias (EMLs) and BPDCN. Forty biopsies containing EML and 19 biopsies containing BPDCN were studied by MNDA immunohistochemistry. The majority of myeloid neoplasms showed nuclear expression of MNDA (65%). In contrast, all cases of BPDCN lacked MNDA expression. These findings show that MNDA is expressed in the majority of EMLs and support the inclusion of MNDA immunohistochemistry in the diagnostic evaluation of blastic hematopoietic infiltrates, particularly when the differential diagnosis is between myeloid leukemia and BPDCN. PMID:26796502

  18. Immunotherapy for myeloid leukemias: current status and future directions

    PubMed Central

    el-Shami, K; Smith, BD

    2011-01-01

    Myeloid leukemias, although a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic stem cell neoplasms, are arguably among the most suited for active specific immunotherapy. Nevertheless, clinical development of myeloid leukemia vaccine lagged behind similar approaches in other solid and hematological malignancies. The recent identification of apparently specific leukemia antigens and advances in understanding the fundamentals of tumor immunology have helped initiate a number of early phase clinical studies evaluating the safety and clinical efficacy of this approach. Here we review the recently identified and characterized putative leukemia antigens, the main vaccination strategies employed by most investigators and the results of clinical studies of immunotherapy of myeloid leukemias. Although these studies are early and often difficult to interpret, they offer evidence that effective immunity to leukemia could be induced following vaccination, and that clinical benefit can sometimes be observed, thus setting the stage for future development of this strategy and in the combinatorial approaches to treatment of myeloid leukemias that incorporate immunotherapy. PMID:18563174

  19. Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Combined with (188)Rhenium Radioimmunotherapy before Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Elderly Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia: The Role of In Vivo T Cell Depletion.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Sebastian; Strumpf, Annette; Schetelig, Johannes; Wunderlich, Gerd; Ehninger, Gerhard; Kotzerke, Jörg; Bornhäuser, Martin

    2015-10-01

    The combination of reduced-intensity conditioning, (188)rhenium anti-CD66 radioimmunotherapy, and in vivo T cell depletion was successfully applied in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Within a prospective phase II protocol, we investigated whether a dose reduction of alemtuzumab (from 75 mg to 50 mg MabCampath) would improve leukemia-free survival by reducing the incidence of relapse. Fifty-eight patients (median age, 67 years; range, 54 to 76) received radioimmunotherapy followed by fludarabine 150 mg/m(2) and busulfan 8 mg/kg combined with either 75 mg (n = 26) or 50 mg (n = 32) alemtuzumab. Although we observed a trend towards a shorter duration of neutropenia in the 50 mg group (median, 19 versus 21 days; P = .07), the time from transplantation to neutrophil and platelet engraftment as well as the overall incidence of engraftment did not differ. The incidence of severe acute graft-versus-host disease tended to be higher after the lower alemtuzumab dose (17% versus 4%; P = .15). No significant differences in the cumulative incidences of relapse (38% versus 35%; P = .81) or nonrelapse mortality (46% versus 27%; P = .31) were observed. Accordingly, disease-free and overall survival were not significantly different between groups. Although the feasibility of radioimmunotherapy plus reduced-intensity conditioning could be demonstrated in elderly patients, the dose reduction of alemtuzumab had no positive impact on overall outcome. PMID:26001695

  20. Donor Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Profile Bx1 Imparts a Negative Effect and Centromeric B-Specific Gene Motifs Render a Positive Effect on Standard-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia/Myelodysplastic Syndrome Patient Survival after Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xiaojing; Wang, Miao; Zhou, Huifen; Zhang, Huanhuan; Wu, Xiaojin; Yuan, Xiaoni; Li, Yang; Wu, Depei; He, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Donor killer immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) group B profiles (Bx) and homozygous of centromeric motif B (Cen-B/B) are the most preferable KIR gene content motifs for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). The risk of transplant from Bx1 donors and the benefit of the presence of Cen-B (regardless of number) were observed for standard-risk acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (AML/MDS) patients in this 4-year retrospective study. A total of 210 Chinese patients who underwent unrelated donor HSCT were investigated. Donor KIR profile Bx was associated with significantly improved overall survival (OS; P=.026) and relapse-free survival (RFS; P=.021) and reduced nonrelapse mortality (NRM; P=.017) in AML/MDS patients. A significantly lower survival rate was observed for transplants from Bx1 donors compared with Bx2, Bx3, and Bx4 donors for patients in first complete remission (n=82; OS: P=.024; RFS: P=.021). Transplant from donors with Cen-B resulted in improved OS (HR=.256; 95% CI, .084 to .774; P=.016) and RFS (HR=.252; 95% CI, .084 to .758; P=.014) in AML/MDS patients at standard risk. However, this particular effect did not increase with a higher number of Cen-B motifs (cB/B versus cA/B; OS: P=.755; RFS: P=.768). No effect was observed on high-risk AML/MDS, acute lymphoblastic leukemia/non-Hodgkin lymphoma, andchronic myelogenous leukemia patients. Avoiding the selection of HSCT donors of KIR profile Bx1 is strongly advisable for standard-risk AML/MDS patients. The presence of the Cen-B motif rather than its number was more important in donor selection for the Chinese population. PMID:26371372

  1. The Transcription Factor ARID3a Is Important for In Vitro Differentiation of Human Hematopoietic Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Ratliff, Michelle L; Mishra, Meenu; Frank, Mark B; Guthridge, Joel M; Webb, Carol F

    2016-01-15

    We recently reported that the transcription factor ARID3a is expressed in a subset of human hematopoietic progenitor stem cells in both healthy individuals and in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Numbers of ARID3a(+) lupus hematopoietic stem progenitor cells were associated with increased production of autoreactive Abs when those cells were introduced into humanized mouse models. Although ARID3a/Bright knockout mice died in utero, they exhibited decreased numbers of hematopoietic stem cells and erythrocytes, indicating that ARID3a is functionally important for hematopoiesis in mice. To explore the requirement for ARID3a for normal human hematopoiesis, hematopoietic stem cell progenitors from human cord blood were subjected to both inhibition and overexpression of ARID3a in vitro. Inhibition of ARID3a resulted in decreased B lineage cell production accompanied by increases in cells with myeloid lineage markers. Overexpression of ARID3a inhibited both myeloid and erythroid differentiation. Additionally, inhibition of ARID3a in hematopoietic stem cells resulted in altered expression of transcription factors associated with hematopoietic lineage decisions. These results suggest that appropriate regulation of ARID3a is critical for normal development of both myeloid and B lineage pathways. PMID:26685208

  2. Chromatin dynamics during differentiation of myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Schnheit, Jrg; Leutz, Achim; Rosenbauer, Frank

    2015-02-13

    Cellular commitment to differentiation requires a tightly synchronized, spatial-temporal interaction of regulatory proteins with the basic DNA and chromatin. A complex network of mechanisms involving induction of lineage instructive transcription factors, installation or removal of histone modifications and changes in the DNA methylation pattern locally orchestrate the three-dimensional chromatin structure and determine cell fate. Maturation of myeloid lineages from hematopoietic stem cells has emerged as a powerful model to study those principles of chromatin mechanisms in cellular differentiation and lineage fate selection. This review summarizes recent knowledge and puts forward novel ideas on how dynamics in the epigenetic landscape of myeloid cells shape the development, immune activation and leukemic transformation outcome. PMID:25172539

  3. Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seed, T. M.

    The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). In our laboratory we have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3-26.3 cGy d^-1). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific (three major responding subgroups identified) and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup 1), the failure to augment basic repair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments (particularly marked within erythroid compartments) that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccommodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3) appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high-tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity. The kinetics of these repair-mediated, regenerative hematopoietic responses within the major subgroups are under study and should provide useful insights into the nature of hematopoietic accommodation (or its failure) under greatly extended periods of chronic, low-daily-dose ionizing radiation exposure.

  4. Hematopoietic growth factors: current knowledge, future prospects.

    PubMed

    Demetri, G D

    1992-01-01

    The introduction of hematopoietic growth factors into clinical medicine represents one of the more exciting developments in oncology in the past several years. The identification, gene cloning, and large-scale production of hematopoietic growth factors represent important examples of the practical benefits that may accrue from application of the sophisticated technology derived from recombinant DNA research. Research, both at the bench and by the bedside, has proceeded at an extraordinarily rapid pace in this field over the past five years, leading to an abundance of new information, novel promising agents, and important clinical controversies related to the biology and appropriate clinical applications of hematopoietic growth factors. With these agents, for the first time in history, the production of human blood cells can be systematically manipulated in vivo in an effort to optimize physiology beyond the endogenous host response. Additionally, investigators utilizing purified hematopoietic growth factors as reagents may provide crucial insights into the mechanisms of blood cell production in health and in various disease states. This review aims to summarize the current state of knowledge regarding the control of blood cell production by specific factors and to put these data in the context of clinical medicine. The emphasis will be on factors that primarily influence myeloid (rather than lymphoid) cell growth, differentiation, and activation, and the clinical focus will be on applications in oncologic therapeutics and in the treatment of primary hematologic disorders. By reviewing what we know and what has already been done, we may be better able to define the important questions that remain and to formulate the means to answer our current uncertainties about the activities and clinical uses of hematopoietic growth factors. PMID:1382921

  5. FHL2 regulates hematopoietic stem cell functions under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Hou, Y; Wang, X; Li, L; Fan, R; Chen, J; Zhu, T; Li, W; Jiang, Y; Mittal, N; Wu, W; Peace, D; Qian, Z

    2015-03-01

    FHL2, a member of the four and one half LIM domain protein family, is a critical transcriptional modulator. Here, we identify FHL2 as a critical regulator of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that is essential for maintaining HSC self-renewal under regenerative stress. We find that Fhl2 loss has limited effects on hematopoiesis under homeostatic conditions. In contrast, Fhl2-null chimeric mice reconstituted with Fhl2-null bone marrow cells developed abnormal hematopoiesis with significantly reduced numbers of HSCs, hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs), red blood cells and platelets as well as hemoglobin levels. In addition, HSCs displayed a significantly reduced self-renewal capacity and were skewed toward myeloid lineage differentiation. We find that Fhl2 loss reduces both HSC quiescence and survival in response to regenerative stress, probably as a consequence of Fhl2-loss-mediated downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitors, including p21(Cip) and p27(Kip1). Interestingly, FHL2 is regulated under the control of a tissue-specific promoter in hematopoietic cells and it is downregulated by DNA hypermethylation in the leukemia cell line and primary leukemia cells. Furthermore, we find that downregulation of FHL2 frequently occurs in myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia patients, raising a possibility that FHL2 downregulation has a role in the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies. PMID:25179730

  6. Proinflammatory signaling regulates hematopoietic stem cell emergence

    PubMed Central

    Espn-Palazn, Raquel; Stachura, David L.; Campbell, Clyde A.; Garca-Moreno, Diana; Cid, Natasha Del; Kim, Albert D.; Candel, Sergio; Meseguer, Jos; Mulero, Victoriano; Traver, David

    2014-01-01

    Summary Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) underlie the production of blood and immune cells for the lifetime of an organism. In vertebrate embryos, HSCs arise from the unique transdifferentiation of hemogenic endothelium comprising the floor of the dorsal aorta during a brief developmental window. To date, this process has not been replicated in vitro from pluripotent precursors, partly because the full complement of required signaling inputs remains to be determined. Here, we show that TNFR2 via TNF? activates the Notch and NF-?B signaling pathways to establish HSC fate, indicating a requirement for inflammatory signaling in HSC generation. We determine that primitive neutrophils are the major source of TNF?, assigning a role for transient innate immune cells in establishing the HSC program. These results demonstrate that proinflammatory signaling, in the absence of infection, is utilized by the developing embryo to generate the lineal precursors of the adult hematopoietic system. PMID:25416946

  7. MicroRNA-486-5p is an erythroid oncomiR of the myeloid leukemias of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shaham, Lital; Vendramini, Elena; Ge, Yubin; Goren, Yaron; Birger, Yehudit; Tijssen, Marloes R; McNulty, Maureen; Geron, Ifat; Schwartzman, Omer; Goldberg, Liat; Chou, Stella T; Pitman, Holly; Weiss, Mitchell J; Michaeli, Shulamit; Sredni, Benjamin; Göttgens, Berthold; Crispino, John D; Taub, Jeffrey W; Izraeli, Shai

    2015-02-19

    Children with Down syndrome (DS) are at increased risk for acute myeloid leukemias (ML-DS) characterized by mixed megakaryocytic and erythroid phenotype and by acquired mutations in the GATA1 gene resulting in a short GATA1s isoform. The chromosome 21 microRNA (miR)-125b cluster has been previously shown to cooperate with GATA1s in transformation of fetal hematopoietic progenitors. In this study, we report that the expression of miR-486-5p is increased in ML-DS compared with non-DS acute megakaryocytic leukemias (AMKLs). miR-486-5p is regulated by GATA1 and GATA1s that bind to the promoter of its host gene ANK1. miR-486-5p is highly expressed in mouse erythroid precursors and knockdown (KD) in ML-DS cells reduced their erythroid phenotype. Ectopic expression and KD of miR-486-5p in primary fetal liver hematopoietic progenitors demonstrated that miR-486-5p cooperates with Gata1s to enhance their self renewal. Consistent with its activation of AKT, overexpression and KD experiments showed its importance for growth and survival of human leukemic cells. Thus, miR-486-5p cooperates with GATA1s in supporting the growth and survival, and the aberrant erythroid phenotype of the megakaryocytic leukemias of DS. PMID:25533034

  8. Lentiviral-mediated RNAi inhibition of Sbds in murine hematopoietic progenitors impairs their hematopoietic potential

    PubMed Central

    Rawls, Amy S.; Gregory, Alyssa D.; Woloszynek, Jill R.; Liu, Fulu

    2007-01-01

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, multilineage hematopoietic dysfunction, and metaphyseal chondrodysplasia. Bone marrow dysfunction is present in nearly all patients with SDS, with neutropenia being the most common abnormality. The majority of patients with SDS have mutations in the Shwachman Bodian Diamond syndrome (SBDS) gene. We have developed a strategy to examine the consequences of lentiviral-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) of Sbds on hematopoiesis. Here, we report that both Sbds RNA and protein expression can be efficiently inhibited in primary murine hematopoietic cells using lentiviral-mediated RNAi. Inhibition of Sbds results in a defect in granulocytic differentiation in vitro and impairs myeloid progenitor generation in vivo. In addition, short-term hematopoietic engraftment was impaired, which is due in part to reduced homing of hematopoietic progenitors to the bone marrow. Finally, we show that inhibition of Sbds is associated with a decrease in circulating B lymphocytes, despite evidence of normal B lymphopoiesis. These data provide the first evidence that loss of Sbds is sufficient to induce abnormalities in hematopoiesis. PMID:17638857

  9. ?-Hemoglobin-stabilizing Protein: An Effective Marker for Erythroid Precursors in Bone Marrow Biopsy Specimens.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hongbo; Pinkus, Jack L; Pinkus, Geraldine S

    2016-01-01

    Accurate analysis of the erythroid lineage is essential in evaluating bone marrow biopsies and can be particularly challenging in settings of dyserythropoiesis. ?-Hemoglobin-stabilizing protein (AHSP) is an erythroid-specific chaperone protein and represents a potential specific marker for erythroid elements. This study defines the immunohistochemical profile of AHSP, as compared with an established erythroid marker CD71, in 101 bone marrow biopsies including normal marrows and cases of acute pure erythroid leukemia, acute erythroid/myeloid leukemia, other types of acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myelogenous leukemia, other types of myeloproliferative neoplasm, chronic myelomonocytic leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, plasma cell neoplasm, and metastatic carcinoma. In acute pure erythroid leukemia, blasts in 7 of 11 cases showed similar reactivity for CD71 and AHSP, whereas less extensive reactivity was observed for AHSP as compared with CD71 in the remaining 4 cases. In normal marrows and other various disorders, reactivity for AHSP was similar to CD71 and was restricted to the erythroid lineage. Mature erythrocytes were negative for AHSP as were myeloblasts, lymphoblasts, nonerythroid hematopoietic marrow elements, plasma cells, and carcinoma cells. AHSP is an effective marker for detection of normal or abnormal erythroid precursors in bone marrow biopsies and is a useful addition to an immunohistochemical panel for assessment of neoplastic cells of possible erythroid derivation. PMID:25611244

  10. KIT mutation in mast cells and other bone marrow hematopoietic cell lineages in systemic mast cell disorders: a prospective study of the Spanish Network on Mastocytosis (REMA) in a series of 113 patients.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Montero, Andres C; Jara-Acevedo, Maria; Teodosio, Cristina; Sanchez, Maria Luz; Nunez, Rosa; Prados, Aranzazu; Aldanondo, Isabel; Sanchez, Laura; Dominguez, Mercedes; Botana, Luis M; Sanchez-Jimenez, Francisca; Sotlar, Karl; Almeida, Julia; Escribano, Luis; Orfao, Alberto

    2006-10-01

    Despite the relevance of the c-kit/stem cell factor (SCF) signaling pathway in mast cell (MC) diseases, the exact frequency of KIT mutations in different compartments of bone marrow (BM) hematopoietic cells of individuals with systemic mastocytosis (SM), and its different diagnostic categories, remains unknown. In this study, we prospectively analyzed the presence of KIT mutations in fluorescence-activated cell-sorting (FACS)- purified populations of BM MCs (n = 113) and other BM cell compartments (n = 67) from adults with SM. Our results show the presence of D816V KIT mutation in virtually all adults (93%) with indolent and aggressive forms of SM, except well-differentiated SM (29%), while other KIT mutations were rarely (< 3%) detected. In around one-third of patients with mutated MCs, the KIT mutation was also detected in CD34+ hematopoietic cells and eosinophils, and, to a lesser extent, in monocytic, neutrophil-lineage BM precursor cells and lymphocytes. Most patient with poor-prognosis SM (81%) carried the KIT mutation in 2 or more BM myeloid cell populations, while this was detected in a smaller proportion (27%) of indolent cases. These results would support the notion that KIT mutation is a hallmark of adult SM where it targets a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell, and may contribute to explaining previously observed discrepancies in the literature. PMID:16741248

  11. [Recent Advances of Research on CEBPA Mutation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia].

    PubMed

    Yu, Wen-Qing; Sun, Jing-Nan; Tan, Ye-Hui; Cui, Jiu-Wei; Li, Wei

    2015-12-01

    CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha gene (CEBPA) is an important transcription factor in maintenance of differentiation of granulocyte series of hematopoietic system. It plays a key role in regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. CEBPA mutation easily occurs in M1 and M2 type of acute myeloid leukemia, about 5%-14% in adult acute myeloid leukemia and 7.9% in children with acute myeloid leukemia. At present, domestic CEBPA mutation research is far less than abroad. This review focuses on the structual characteristics and detection method of CEBPA, CEBPA clinical features, the effect of CEBPA mutation on the prognosis of patients and the choice of treatment. PMID:26708912

  12. The molecular basis of myeloid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    KITAMURA, Toshio; INOUE, Daichi; OKOCHI-WATANABE, Naoko; KATO, Naoko; KOMENO, Yukiko; LU, Yang; ENOMOTO, Yutaka; DOKI, Noriko; UCHIDA, Tomoyuki; KAGIYAMA, Yuki; TOGAMI, Katsuhiro; KAWABATA, Kimihito C.; NAGASE, Reina; HORIKAWA, Sayuri; HAYASHI, Yasutaka; SAIKA, Makoto; FUKUYAMA, Tomofusa; IZAWA, Kumi; OKI, Toshihiko; NAKAHARA, Fumio; KITAURA, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid malignancies consist of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). The latter two diseases have preleukemic features and frequently evolve to AML. As with solid tumors, multiple mutations are required for leukemogenesis. A decade ago, these gene alterations were subdivided into two categories: class I mutations stimulating cell growth or inhibiting apoptosis; and class II mutations that hamper differentiation of hematopoietic cells. In mouse models, class I mutations such as the Bcr-Abl fusion kinase induce MPN by themselves and some class II mutations such as Runx1 mutations induce MDS. Combinations of class I and class II mutations induce AML in a variety of mouse models. Thus, it was postulated that hematopoietic cells whose differentiation is blocked by class II mutations would autonomously proliferate with class I mutations leading to the development of leukemia. Recent progress in high-speed sequencing has enabled efficient identification of novel mutations in a variety of molecules including epigenetic factors, splicing factors, signaling molecules and proteins in the cohesin complex; most of these are not categorized as either class I or class II mutations. The functional consequences of these mutations are now being extensively investigated. In this article, we will review the molecular basis of hematological malignancies, focusing on mouse models and the interfaces between these models and clinical findings, and revisit the classical class I/II hypothesis. PMID:25504228

  13. Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase gamma, Ptp gamma, regulates hematopoietic differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sorio, C; Melotti, P; D'Arcangelo, D; Mendrola, J; Calabretta, B; Croce, C M; Huebner, K

    1997-07-01

    Murine embryonic stem (ES) cells have been a useful model system for the study of various aspects of hematopoietic differentiation. Because we had observed a sharp peak of expression of the receptor tyrosine phosphatase gamma (Ptp gamma) gene between 14 and 18 days of ES-derived embryoid body differentiation, we investigated the effect of perturbation of expression of the Ptp gamma gene on ES cell differentiation, first by analyzing the effect of Ptp gamma overexpression. The murine full-length Ptp gamma cDNA in an expression vector was transfected into ES-D3 cells and stably transfected clones were isolated. Ptp gamma was expressed as an approximately 230-kD cell surface protein, and differentiating ES clones that overexpressed Ptp gamma gave rise to a normal number of hematopoietic colonies, approximately 1 CFU per 100 cells. There was, however, a significant increase of expression of early hematopoietic markers in colonies from Ptp gamma overexpressing ES cells. To confirm that the pertubation of hematopoietic differentiation was a result of Ptp gamma overexpression, we isolated ES stem cell clones expressing Ptp gamma antisense constructs and assayed embryoid bodies for the presence of hematopoietic precursors. We observed a complete absence of methylcellulose colonies, indicating absence of hematopoietic lineages. Results of these experiments point to an essential role for Ptp gamma in hematopoietic differentiation. PMID:9207437

  14. Genome-wide promoter DNA methylation dynamics of human hematopoietic progenitor cells during differentiation and aging.

    PubMed

    Bocker, Michael T; Hellwig, Isabelle; Breiling, Achim; Eckstein, Volker; Ho, Anthony D; Lyko, Frank

    2011-05-12

    DNA methylation plays an important role in the self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells and in the commitment to the lymphoid or myeloid lineages. Using purified CD34? hematopoietic progenitor cells and differentiated myeloid cell populations from the same human samples, we obtained detailed methylation profiles at distinct stages of hematopoiesis. We identified a defined set of differentiation-related genes that are methylated in CD34? hematopoietic progenitor cells but show pronounced DNA hypomethylation in monocytes and in granulocytes. In addition, by comparing hematopoietic progenitor cells from umbilical cord blood to hematopoietic progenitor cells from peripheral blood of adult donors we were also able to analyze age-related methylation changes in CD34? cells. Interestingly, the methylation changes observed in older progenitor cells showed a bimodal pattern with hypomethylation of differentiation-associated genes and de novo methylation events resembling epigenetic mutations. Our results thus provide detailed insight into the methylation dynamics during differentiation and suggest that epigenetic changes contribute to hematopoietic progenitor cell aging. PMID:21427290

  15. ESAM is a novel human hematopoietic stem cell marker associated with a subset of human leukemias.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Tomohiko; Yokota, Takafumi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Ichii, Michiko; Sudo, Takao; Satoh, Yusuke; Doi, Yukiko; Ueda, Tomoaki; Tanimura, Akira; Hamanaka, Yuri; Ezoe, Sachiko; Shibayama, Hirohiko; Oritani, Kenji; Kanakura, Yuzuru

    2016-04-01

    Reliable markers are essential to increase our understanding of the biological features of human hematopoietic stem cells and to facilitate the application of hematopoietic stem cells in the field of transplantation and regenerative medicine. We previously identified endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule (ESAM) as a novel functional marker of hematopoietic stem cells in mice. Here, we found that ESAM can also be used to purify human hematopoietic stem cells from all the currently available sources (adult bone marrow, mobilized peripheral blood, and cord blood). Multipotent colony-forming units and long-term hematopoietic-reconstituting cells in immunodeficient mice were found exclusively in the ESAM(High) fraction of CD34(+)CD38(-) cells. The CD34(+)CD38(-) fraction of cord blood and collagenase-treated bone marrow contained cells exhibiting extremely high expression of ESAM; these cells are likely to be related to the endothelial lineage. Leukemia cell lines of erythroid and megakaryocyte origin, but not those of myeloid or lymphoid descent, were ESAM positive. However, high ESAM expression was observed in some primary acute myeloid leukemia cells. Furthermore, KG-1a myeloid leukemia cells switched from ESAM negative to ESAM positive with repeated leukemia reconstitution in vivo. Thus, ESAM is a useful marker for studying both human hematopoietic stem cells and leukemia cells. PMID:26774386

  16. Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Seed, T.M.

    1994-12-01

    The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). We have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3{minus}26.3 cGy d{sup {minus}1}). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup (1), the failure to augment basic m-pair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments particularly marked within erythroid compartments. that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccomodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3 appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high- tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity.

  17. Underground Adaptation to a Hostile Environment: Acute Myeloid Leukemia vs. Natural Killer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dulphy, Nicolas; Chrétien, Anne-Sophie; Khaznadar, Zena; Fauriat, Cyril; Nanbakhsh, Arash; Caignard, Anne; Chouaib, Salem; Olive, Daniel; Toubert, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous group of malignancies which incidence increases with age. The disease affects the differentiation of hematopoietic stem or precursor cells in the bone marrow and can be related to abnormal cytogenetic and/or specific mutational patterns. AML blasts can be sensitive to natural killer (NK) cell antitumor response. However, NK cells are frequently defective in AML patients leading to tumor escape. NK cell defects affect not only the expression of the activating NK receptors, including the natural cytotoxicity receptors, the NK group 2, member D, and the DNAX accessory molecule-1, but also cytotoxicity and IFN-γ release. Such perturbations in NK cell physiology could be related to the adaptation of the AML to the immune pressure and more generally to patient’s clinical features. Various mechanisms are potentially involved in the inhibition of NK-cell functions in AML, including defects in the normal lymphopoiesis, reduced expression of activating receptors through cell-to-cell contacts, and production of immunosuppressive soluble agents by leukemic blasts. Therefore, the continuous cross-talk between AML and NK cells participates to the leukemia immune escape and eventually to patient’s relapse. Methods to restore or stimulate NK cells seem to be attractive strategies to treat patients once the complete remission is achieved. Moreover, our capacity in stimulating the NK cell functions could lead to the development of preemptive strategies to eliminate leukemia-initiating cells before the emergence of the disease in elderly individuals presenting preleukemic mutations in hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:27014273

  18. [Chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells: cross-talk with the niche].

    PubMed

    Chomel, Jean-Claude; Aggoune, Djamel; Sorel, Nathalie; Turhan, Ali G

    2014-04-01

    The physiological hematopoietic niche located in bone marrow is a pluricellular structure whose components are now well identified. Within this microenvironment, hematopoietic stem cells are in direct contact with mesenchymal stromal cells, osteoblasts and sinusoidal endothelial cells. These close relationships drive specialized cellular functions (proliferation/quiescence, differentiation/self-renewal) ensuring an efficient hematopoiesis. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a major model of leukemic hematopoiesis. The BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase, constitutively activated in CML, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of the disease. An intensive cross-talk between CML progenitors and the components of the hematopoietic niche has recently been demonstrated. Consequently, the occurrence of the so-called leukemic niche promotes both the proliferation of myeloid cells and the maintenance of quiescent leukemic stem cells. This bone marrow niche could also protect CML stem cells from tyrosine kinase inhibitors and probably contribute to their resistance towards targeted therapies. PMID:24801043

  19. IGK with conserved IGKV/IGKJ repertoire is expressed in acute myeloid leukemia and promotes leukemic cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoping; He, Zhiqiao; Hu, Fanlei; Chen, Lei; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E.

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that immunoglobulin heavy chain genes were expressed in myeloblasts and mature myeloid cells. In this study, we further demonstrated that rearranged Ig κ light chain was also frequently expressed in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines (6/6), primary myeloblasts from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (17/18), and mature monocytes (11/12) and neutrophils (3/12) from patients with non-hematopoietic neoplasms, but not or only rarely expressed in mature neutrophils (0/8) or monocytes (1/8) from healthy individuals. Interestingly, myeloblasts and mature monocytes/neutrophils shared several restricted IGKV and IGKJ gene usages but with different expression frequency. Surprisingly, almost all of the acute myeloid leukemia-derived IGKV showed somatic hypermutation; in contrast, mature myeloid cells-derived IGKV rarely had somatic hypermutation. More importantly, although IGK expression appeared not to affect cell proliferation, reduced IGK expression led to a decrease in cell migration in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines HL-60 and NB4, whereas increased IGK expression promoted their motility. In summary, IGK is expressed in myeloblasts and mature myeloid cells from patients with non-hematopoietic neoplasms, and is involved in cell migration. These results suggest that myeloid cells-derived IgK may have a role in leukemogenesis and may serve as a novel tumor marker for monitoring minimal residual disease and developing target therapy. PMID:26429876

  20. Myeloid lineage skewing due to exacerbated NF-κB signaling facilitates osteopenia in Scurfy mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, T H-P; Swarnkar, G; Mbalaviele, G; Abu-Amer, Y

    2015-01-01

    Immune surveillance through Foxp3+ regulatory T cells plays a crucial role in bone homeostasis. Scurfy, the mouse model of autoimmune IPEX syndrome, bears a loss-of-function mutation in Foxp3 that leads to multi-organ inflammation. Herein, we report that scurfy mice exhibit severe bone loss mediated by accelerated osteoclastogenesis. Mechanistically, Foxp3 deficiency results in the upregulation of NF-κB in T helper cells through the loss of repressive Foxp3/NEMO interaction, thereby unleashing NF-κB-mediated over-production of pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines. Flow cytometry analysis shows marked increase in lin-Sca-1+c-kit+ hematopoietic stem cells (LSK HSCs) and granulocyte/macrophage progenitors (GMPs) in bone marrow of scurfy mice with corresponding exacerbated osteoclastogenic potential, implying that osteoclast progenitors are affected at a very primitive stage in this disorder. Scurfy LSK HSCs exhibit greater sensitivity to M-CSF and contain abundant PU.1+ Sf LSK HSCs compared with WT. Accordingly, genetic or pharmacological inhibition of M-CSF or mTOR signaling, but not IL-17 signaling, attenuates osteoclastogenesis and osteopenia in scurfy. Thus, our study suggests that Foxp3 deficiency leads to osteopenia owing to dysregulated NF-κB activity and subsequent cytokine-mediated hyper-proliferation of myeloid precursors, and positions the NF-κB pathway as a potential target for therapeutic intervention for this disorder. PMID:25880090

  1. Immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jurcic, Joseph G

    2005-09-01

    Immunotherapeutic strategies have become part of standard cancer treatment. Chimeric and humanized antibodies have demonstrated activity against a variety of tumors. Although the humanized anti-CD33 antibody HuM195 has only modest activity against overt acute myeloid leukemia (AML), it can eliminate minimal residual disease in acute promyelocytic leukemia. High-dose radioimmunotherapy with b-particle-emitting isotopes targeting CD33, CD45, and CD66 can potentially allow intensification of antileukemic therapy before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Conversely, a-particle immunotherapy with isotopes such as bismuth-213 or actinium-225 offers the possibility of selective tumor cell kill while sparing surrounding normal tissues. Targeted chemotherapy with the anti-CD33- calicheamicin construct gemtuzumab ozogamicin has produced remissions in relapsed AML and appears promising when used in combination with standard chemotherapy for newly diagnosed AML. T-cell recognition of peptide antigens presented on the cell surface in combination with major histocompatibility complex antigen provides another potentially promising approach for the treatment of AML. PMID:16091194

  2. Functions of TET Proteins in Hematopoietic Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jae-A; An, Jungeun; Ko, Myunggon

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a well-characterized epigenetic modification that plays central roles in mammalian development, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation and silencing of retrotransposon elements. Aberrant DNA methylation pattern is a characteristic feature of cancers and associated with abnormal expression of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes or repair genes. Ten-eleven-translocation (TET) proteins are recently characterized dioxygenases that catalyze progressive oxidation of 5-methylcytosine to produce 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and further oxidized derivatives. These oxidized methylcytosines not only potentiate DNA demethylation but also behave as independent epigenetic modifications per se. The expression or activity of TET proteins and DNA hydroxymethylation are highly dysregulated in a wide range of cancers including hematologic and non-hematologic malignancies, and accumulating evidence points TET proteins as a novel tumor suppressor in cancers. Here we review DNA demethylation-dependent and -independent functions of TET proteins. We also describe diverse TET loss-of-function mutations that are recurrently found in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies and their potential roles in hematopoietic transformation. We discuss consequences of the deficiency of individual Tet genes and potential compensation between different Tet members in mice. Possible mechanisms underlying facilitated oncogenic transformation of TET-deficient hematopoietic cells are also described. Lastly, we address non-mutational mechanisms that lead to suppression or inactivation of TET proteins in cancers. Strategies to restore normal 5mC oxidation status in cancers by targeting TET proteins may provide new avenues to expedite the development of promising anti-cancer agents. PMID:26552488

  3. Functions of TET Proteins in Hematopoietic Transformation.

    PubMed

    Han, Jae-A; An, Jungeun; Ko, Myunggon

    2015-11-30

    DNA methylation is a well-characterized epigenetic modification that plays central roles in mammalian development, genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation and silencing of retrotransposon elements. Aberrant DNA methylation pattern is a characteristic feature of cancers and associated with abnormal expression of oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes or repair genes. Ten-eleven-translocation (TET) proteins are recently characterized dioxygenases that catalyze progressive oxidation of 5-methylcytosine to produce 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and further oxidized derivatives. These oxidized methylcytosines not only potentiate DNA demethylation but also behave as independent epigenetic modifications per se. The expression or activity of TET proteins and DNA hydroxymethylation are highly dysregulated in a wide range of cancers including hematologic and non-hematologic malignancies, and accumulating evidence points TET proteins as a novel tumor suppressor in cancers. Here we review DNA demethylation-dependent and -independent functions of TET proteins. We also describe diverse TET loss-of-function mutations that are recurrently found in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies and their potential roles in hematopoietic transformation. We discuss consequences of the deficiency of individual Tet genes and potential compensation between different Tet members in mice. Possible mechanisms underlying facilitated oncogenic transformation of TET-deficient hematopoietic cells are also described. Lastly, we address non-mutational mechanisms that lead to suppression or inactivation of TET proteins in cancers. Strategies to restore normal 5mC oxidation status in cancers by targeting TET proteins may provide new avenues to expedite the development of promising anti-cancer agents. PMID:26552488

  4. FIFTY YEARS OF MELPHALAN USE IN HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Bayraktar, Ulas D.; Bashir, Qaiser; Qazilbash, Muzaffar; Champlin, Richard E.; Ciurea, Stefan O.

    2015-01-01

    Melphalan remains the most widely used agent in preparative regimens for hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. From its initial discovery more than 50 years ago, it has been gradually incorporated in the conditioning regimens for both autologous and allogeneic transplantation due to its myeloablative properties and broad antitumor effects as a DNA alkylating agent. Melphalan remains the mainstay conditioning for multiple myeloma and lymphomas; and has been used successfully in preparative regimens of a variety of other hematological and non-hematological malignancies. The addition of newer agents to conditioning like bortezomib or lenalidomide for myeloma, or clofarabine for myeloid malignancies, may improve antitumor effects for transplantation, while in combination with alemtuzumab may represent a backbone for future cellular therapy due to reliable engraftment and low toxicity profile. This review summarizes the development and the current use of this remarkable drug in hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. PMID:22922522

  5. Changes in the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a model for diffusion of medical technology

    PubMed Central

    Gratwohl, Alois; Schwendener, Alvin; Baldomero, Helen; Gratwohl, Michael; Apperley, Jane; Niederwieser, Dietger; Frauendorfer, Karl

    2010-01-01

    Background Innovations in hematology spread rapidly. Factors affecting the speed of introduction, international diffusion, and durability of use of innovations are, however, poorly understood. Design and Methods We used data on 251,106 hematopoietic stem cell transplants from 591 teams in 36 European countries to analyze the increase and decrease in such transplants for breast cancer and chronic myeloid leukemia and the replacement of bone marrow by peripheral blood as the source of stem cells as processes of diffusion. Regression analyses were used to measure the quantitative impact of defined macro- and microeconomic factors, to look for significant associations (t-test), and to describe the coefficient of determination or explanatory content (R2). Results Gross national income per capita, World Bank category, team density, team distribution, team size, team experience and, team innovator status were all significantly associated with some or all of the changes. The analyses revealed different patterns of associations and a wide range of explanatory content. Macro- and micro-economic factors were sufficient to explain the increase of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants in general (R2 = 78.41%) and for chronic myeloid leukemia in particular (R2 = 79.39%). They were insufficient to explain the changes in stem cell source (R2 =26.79% autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplants; R2 = 9.67% allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants) or the decreases in hematopoietic stem cell transplants (R2 =10.22% breast cancer; R2=33.17% chronic myeloid leukemia). Conclusions The diffusion of hematopoietic stem cell transplants is more complex than previously thought. Availability of resources, evidence, external regulations and, expectations were identified as key determinants. These data might serve as a model for diffusion of medical technology in general. PMID:20378578

  6. [Endothelial origin for hematopoietic stem cells: a visual proof].

    PubMed

    Boisset, Jean-Charles; Robin, Catherine

    2011-10-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are the source of all blood cell types produced during the entire life of an organism. They appear during embryonic development, where they will transit through different successive hematopoietic organs, before to finally colonize the bone marrow. Nowadays, the precise origin of HSC remains a matter of controversy. Different HSC precursor candidates, located in different anatomical sites, have been proposed. Here, we summarize and discuss the different theories in light of the recent articles, especially those using in vivo confocal microscopy technology. PMID:22027425

  7. Pathogenic microRNA’s in myeloid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Khalaj, Mona; Tavakkoli, Montreh; Stranahan, Alec W.; Park, Christopher Y.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have significantly improved our understanding of the role microRNAs (miRNAs) play in regulating normal hematopoiesis. miRNAs are critical for maintaining hematopoietic stem cell function and the development of mature progeny. Thus, perhaps it is not surprising that miRNAs serve as oncogenes and tumor suppressors in hematologic malignancies arising from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, such as the myeloid disorders. A number of studies have extensively documented the widespread dysregulation of miRNA expression in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), inspiring numerous explorations of the functional role of miRNAs in myeloid leukemogenesis. While these investigations have confirmed that a large number of miRNAs exhibit altered expression in AML, only a small fraction has been confirmed as functional mediators of AML development or maintenance. Herein, we summarize the miRNAs for which strong experimental evidence supports their functional roles in AML pathogenesis. We also discuss the implications of these studies on the development of miRNA-directed therapies in AML. PMID:25477897

  8. Toll-like receptor signaling in hematopoietic homeostasis and the pathogenesis of hematologic diseases.

    PubMed

    Cannova, Joseph; Breslin S J, Peter; Zhang, Jiwang

    2015-09-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which are found in innate immune cells, are essential mediators of rapid inflammatory responses and appropriate T-cell activation in response to infection and tissue damage. Accumulating evidence suggests that TLR signaling is involved in normal hematopoiesis and specific hematologic pathologies. Particular TLRs and their downstream signaling mediators are expressed not only in terminally differentiated innate immune cells but also in early hematopoietic progenitors. Sterile activation of TLR signaling is required to generate early embryonic hematopoietic progenitor cells. In adult animals, TLR signaling directly or indirectly promotes differentiation of myeloid cells at the expense of that of lymphoid cells and the self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells during infection and tissue damage. Activating mutations of the MyD88 gene, which codes for a key adaptor involved in TLR signaling, are commonly detected in B-cell lymphomas and other B-cell hematopathologies. Dysregulated TLR signaling contributes to the pathogenesis of many hematopoietic disorders, including bone marrow failure, myelodysplastic syndrome, and acute myeloid leukemia. Complete elucidation of the molecular mechanisms by which TLR signaling mediates the regulation of both normal and pathogenic hematopoiesis will prove valuable to the development of targeted therapies and strategies for improved treatment of hematopoietic disorders. PMID:26297301

  9. Cellular complexity of the bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell niche.

    PubMed

    Calvi, Laura M; Link, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    The skeleton serves as the principal site for hematopoiesis in adult terrestrial vertebrates. The function of the hematopoietic system is to maintain homeostatic levels of all circulating blood cells, including myeloid cells, lymphoid cells, red blood cells, and platelets. This action requires the daily production of more than 500billion blood cells. The vast majority of these cells are synthesized in the bone marrow, where they arise from a limited number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are multipotent and capable of extensive self-renewal. These attributes of HSCs are best demonstrated by marrow transplantation, where even a single HSC can repopulate the entire hematopoietic system. HSCs are therefore adult stem cells capable of multilineage repopulation, poised between cell fate choices which include quiescence, self-renewal, differentiation, and apoptosis. While HSC fate choices are in part determined by multiple stochastic fluctuations of cell autonomous processes, according to the niche hypothesis, signals from the microenvironment are also likely to determine stem cell fate. While it had long been postulated that signals within the bone marrow could provide regulation of hematopoietic cells, it is only in the past decade that advances in flow cytometry and genetic models have allowed for a deeper understanding of the microenvironmental regulation of HSCs. In this review, we will highlight the cellular regulatory components of the HSC niche. PMID:24101231

  10. Cellular complexity of the bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell niche

    PubMed Central

    Calvi, Laura M.; Link, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    The skeleton serves as the principal site for hematopoiesis in adult terrestrial vertebrates. The function of the hematopoietic system is to maintain homeostatic levels of all circulating blood cells, including myeloid cells, lymphoid cells, red blood cells, and platelets. This action requires the daily production of more than 500 billion blood cells every day. The vast majority of these cells are synthesized in the bone marrow, where they arise from a limited number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that are multipotent and capable of extensive self-renewal. These attributes of HSCs are best demonstrated by marrow transplantation, where even a single HSC can repopulate the entire hematopoietic system. HSCs are therefore adult stem cells capable of multilineage repopulation, poised between cell fate choices, which include quiescence, self-renewal, differentiation and apoptosis. While HSC fate choices are in part determined by multiple stochastic fluctuations of cell autonomous processes, according to the niche hypothesis, signals from the microenvironment are also likely to determine stem cell fate. While it had long been postulated that signals within the bone marrow could provide regulation of hematopoietic cells, it is only in the past decade that advances in flow cytometry and genetic models have allowed for a deeper understanding of microenvironmental regulation of HSCs. In this review, we will highlight the cellular regulatory components of the HSC niche. PMID:24101231

  11. Canonical Wnt Signaling Promotes Early Hematopoietic Progenitor Formation and Erythroid Specification during Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Tarafdar, Anuradha; Dobbin, Edwina; Corrigan, Pamela; Freeburn, Robin; Wheadon, Helen

    2013-01-01

    The generation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during development is a complex process linked to morphogenic signals. Understanding this process is important for regenerative medicine applications that require in vitro production of HSC. In this study we investigated the effects of canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling during early embryonic differentiation and hematopoietic specification using an embryonic stem cell system. Our data clearly demonstrates that following early differentiation induction, canonical Wnt signaling induces a strong mesodermal program whilst maintaining a degree of stemness potential. This involved a complex interplay between ?-catenin/TCF/LEF/Brachyury/Nanog. ?-catenin mediated up-regulation of TCF/LEF resulted in enhanced brachyury levels, which in-turn lead to Nanog up-regulation. During differentiation, active canonical Wnt signaling also up-regulated key transcription factors and cell specific markers essential for hematopoietic specification, in particular genes involved in establishing primitive erythropoiesis. This led to a significant increase in primitive erythroid colony formation. ?-catenin signaling also augmented early hematopoietic and multipotent progenitor (MPP) formation. Following culture in a MPP specific cytokine cocktail, activation of ?-catenin suppressed differentiation of the early hematopoietic progenitor population, with cells displaying a higher replating capacity and a propensity to form megakaryocytic erythroid progenitors. This bias towards erythroid lineage commitment was also observed when hematopoietic progenitors were directed to undergo myeloid colony formation. Overall this study underscores the importance of canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling in mesodermal specification, primitive erythropoiesis and early hematopietic progenitor formation during hematopoietic induction. PMID:24324557

  12. Apoptosis: role in myeloid cell development

    PubMed Central

    Sarvothaman, Shilpa; Undi, Ram Babu; Pasupuleti, Satya Ratan; Gutti, Usha

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoiesis is the process that generates blood cells in an organism from the pluripotent stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells are characterized by their ability to undergo self-renewal and differentiation. The self-renewing ability ensures that these pluripotent cells are not depleted from the bone marrow niche. A proper balance between cell death and cell survival is necessary to maintain a homeostatic condition, hence, apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is an essential step in hematopoiesis. Recent studies, however, have introduced a new aspect to this process, citing the significance of the apoptosis mediator, caspase, in cell development and differentiation. Extensive research has been carried out to study the possible role of caspases and other apoptosis related factors in the developmental processes. This review focuses on the various apoptotic factors involved in the development and differentiation of myeloid lineage cells: erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, and macrophages. PMID:26157776

  13. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hard for blood to do its work. In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), there are too many granulocytes, a type of white blood cell. Most people with CML have a gene mutation (change) called the Philadelphia ...

  14. Myeloid Sarcoma of the Bladder in the Setting of Refractory Anemia with Excess Blasts-2 (RAEB-2).

    PubMed

    Grantham, John T; Howell, David M; Bacaj, Patrick J; Coad, James E; Vos, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma is an extramedullary tumor consisting of immature hematopoietic cells of granulocytic or monocytic differentiation. While rare, it can be seen in a variety of clinical settings and is most commonly associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). We present a rare case of myeloid sarcoma occurring in the bladder of a 56 year old male. Myeloid sarcoma may be difficult to recognize due to its rarity and clinical and morphologic similarity to many other conditions; however, swift diagnosis is necessary as it is considered equivalent to AML. Prognostic indicators for myeloid sarcoma have not been well established, but survival may be improved by undergoing chemotherapy designed to treat AML. PMID:26665895

  15. LPS-stimulated human bone marrow stroma cells support myeloid cell development and progenitor cell maintenance.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Patrick; Boettcher, Steffen; Takizawa, Hitoshi; Manz, Markus G; Brmmendorf, Tim H

    2016-01-01

    The nonhematopoietic bone marrow (BM) microenvironment provides a functional niche for hematopoietic cell maintenance, recruitment, and differentiation. It consists of multiple cell types including vasculature, bone, adipose tissue, and fibroblast-like bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC), which can be summarized under the generic term niche cells. BMSC express Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and are capable to respond to TLR-agonists by changing their cytokine expression pattern in order to more efficiently support hematopoiesis. Here, we show that in addition to enhanced myeloid colony formation from human CD34+ cells, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation retains overall higher numbers of CD34+ cells in co-culture assays using BMSC, with eightfold more CD34+ cells that underwent up to three divisions as compared to non-stimulated assays. When subjected to cytokine-supplemented myeloid colony-forming unit (CFU) assays or transplanted into newborn RAG2(-/-) ?c (-/-) mice, CD34(+) cells from LPS-stimulated BMSC cultures give rise to the full spectrum of myeloid colonies and T and B cells, respectively, thus supporting maintenance of myeloid and lymphoid primed hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) under inflammatory conditions. Collectively, we suggest that BMSC enhance hematopoiesis during inflammatory conditions to support the replenishment of innate immune effector cells and to prevent the exhaustion of the hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) pool. PMID:26555286

  16. Distinct sources of hematopoietic progenitors emerge before HSCs and provide functional blood cells in the mammalian embryo

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Kathleen E.; Frame, Jenna M.; Fegan, Katherine H.; Bowen, James R.; Conway, Simon J.; Catherman, Seana C.; Kingsley, Paul D.; Koniski, Anne D.; Palis, James

    2015-01-01

    Summary Hematopoietic potential arises in mammalian embryos before adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). At E9.5, we show the first murine definitive erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) have an immunophenotype distinct from primitive hematopoietic progenitors, maturing megakaryocytes and macrophages, and rare B cell potential. EMPs emerge in the yolk sac with erythroid and broad myeloid, but not lymphoid, potential. EMPs migrate to the fetal liver and rapidly differentiate including production of circulating neutrophils by E11.5. While the surface markers, transcription factors and lineage potential associated with EMPs overlap with those found in adult definitive hematopoiesis, they are present in unique combinations or proportions that result in a specialized definitive embryonic progenitor. Further, we find that ES cell -derived hematopoiesis recapitulates early yolk sac hematopoiesis, including primitive, EMP and rare B cell potential. EMPs do not have long term potential when transplanted in immunocompromised adults, but can provide transient adult-like RBC reconstitution. PMID:26095363

  17. Hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Trigg, Michael E

    2004-04-01

    The hematopoietic system of the young child acquires, through time, the ability to cope with exposure to a number of environmental toxins and infectious agents. Occasionally, severe aplastic anemia occurs secondary to exposure to some of these toxins or infectious agents. The occurrence of severe aplastic anemia provides an opportunity to study the maturation of the hematopoietic system because often the immune system is partially intact. Hematopoietic stem cell transplants permit the study of the complete reconstitution of the hematopoietic and immunologic system. Stem cell transplants are often used to treat severe aplastic anemia or, alternatively, may be part of the treatment for an underlying malignant disease or a genetic disease. Sources of stem cells and the age of the recipient and donor have an impact on the success of the stem cell transplant. A stem cell transplantation provides a window of opportunity to study and observe the normal maturation of the immune system and the sensitivity. Very clearly, children recover from severe aplastic anemia and stem cell transplantations more readily with fewer problems and complications than adults. The environmental risks that a child who received a stem cell transplantation faces are related primarily to the deficiencies of the hematopoietic system and immune system during the recovery phase. Therefore, diminished resistance to infectious agents, primarily viruses and other opportunistic organisms, are the primary risk that children who are recovering from these transplantations face. There are few data on the susceptibility of these children to the toxic effects of other environmental toxicants during the recovery period, which may take years before complete recovery. PMID:15060199

  18. [Exogenous VEGF promotes hematopoietic stem cell mobilization].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao-Jian; Li, Yi; You, Yong; Li, Qing; Zeng, Chen; Zhong, Zhao-Dong; Zou, Ping

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the effect of exogenous VEGF on hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and immune system. The C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into the normal control group, VEGF short-term group (5 d) and VEGF long-term group (27 d). Mice in the experimental group were injected ip with VEGF (100 ng/d); mice in control group were injected ip with PBS. The white blood cell (WBC) count and the ratio of lymphocyte in the peripheral blood at different time point were assayed by hemacytometer. The percentage of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), lymphocyte subgroup, regulatory T cell (Treg), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) in the peripheral blood and spleen of different groups were detected by flow cytometry. The morphological changes of spleen and spleen index of mice in the control and long-term group were observed by microscopy. The results showed that the absolute number of WBC in the peripheral blood of mice significantly increased after injection of VEGF, and the peak value was at day 3. The percentage of Lin(-)Sca-1(+)CD117(+) cells in the peripheral blood and spleen of the long-term group were significantly higher than that in the normal control group (P < 0.05). The spleen of the mice in VEGF long-term group was larger than that of the control group, the spleen index also increased (P < 0.05), and remarkable extramedullary hematopoietic signs were found in the HE stained sections. There was no significant change in the total ratio of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood after injection, but the percentage of CD3(+) cells and the CD3(+)/B220(+) ratio in the long-term group deceased; the percentages of Treg and Gr-1(+)CD11b(+) MDSC in the experimental groups increased (P < 0.05), which more significantly increased in the long-term group than that in the short-term group (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the exogenous VEGF promotes hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, and at same time up-regulates the many kinds of suppressive immune cell levels which leads to changes of immuno-function. PMID:24598669

  19. Gene expression profiling to define the cell intrinsic role of the SKI proto-oncogene in hematopoiesis and myeloid neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Chalk, Alistair M; Liddicoat, Brian J J; Walkley, Carl R; Singbrant, Sofie

    2014-12-01

    The proto-oncogene SKI is highly expressed in human myeloid leukemia and also in murine hematopoietic stem cells. However, its operative relevance in these cells remains elusive. We have over-expressed SKI to define its intrinsic role in hematopoiesis and myeloid neoplasms, which resulted in a robust competitive advantage upon transplantation, a complete dominance of the stem and progenitor compartments, and a marked enhancement of myeloid differentiation at the expense of other lineages. Accordingly, enforced expression of SKI induced gene signatures associated with hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid differentiation. Here we provide detailed experimental methods and analysis for the gene expression profiling described in our recently published study of Singbrant et al. (2014) in Haematologica. Our data sets (available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/query/acc.cgi?acc=GSE39457) provide a resource for exploring the underlying molecular mechanisms of the involvement of the proto-oncogene SKI in hematopoietic stem cell function and development of myeloid neoplasms. PMID:26484093

  20. Leukomogenic factors downregulate heparanase expression in acute myeloid leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eshel, Rinat; Ben-Zaken, Olga; Vainas, Oded; Nadir, Yona; Minucci, Saverio; Polliack, Aaron; Naparstek, Ella; Vlodavsky, Israel; Katz, Ben-Zion; E-mail: bkatz@tasmc.healt.gov.il

    2005-10-07

    Heparanase is a heparan sulfate-degrading endoglycosidase expressed by mature monocytes and myeloid cells, but not by immature hematopoietic progenitors. Heparanase gene expression is upregulated during differentiation of immature myeloid cells. PML-RAR{alpha} and PLZF-RAR{alpha} fusion gene products associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia abrogate myeloid differentiation and heparanase expression. AML-Eto, a translocation product associated with AML FAB M2, also downregulates heparanase gene expression. The common mechanism that underlines the activity of these three fusion gene products involves the recruitment of histone deacetylase complexes to specific locations within the DNA. We found that retinoic acid that dissociates PML-RAR{alpha} from the DNA, and which is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia patients, restores heparanase expression to normal levels in an acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line. The retinoic acid effects were also observed in primary acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and in a retinoic acid-treated acute promyelocytic leukemia patient. Histone deacetylase inhibitor reverses the downregulation of heparanase expression induced by the AML-Eto fusion gene product in M2 type AML. In summary, we have characterized a link between leukomogenic factors and the downregulation of heparanase in myeloid leukemic cells.

  1. Neutrophil biology and the next generation of myeloid growth factors.

    PubMed

    Dale, David C

    2009-01-01

    Neutrophils are the body's critical phagocytic cells for defense against bacterial and fungal infections; bone marrow must produce approximately 10 x 10(9) neutrophils/kg/d to maintain normal blood neutrophil counts. Production of neutrophils depends on myeloid growth factors, particularly granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). After the original phase of development, researchers modified these growth factors to increase their size and delay renal clearance, increase their biologic potency, and create unique molecules for business purposes. Pegylated G-CSF is a successful product of these efforts. Researchers have also tried to identify small molecules to serve as oral agents that mimic the parent molecules, but these programs have been less successful. In 2006, the European Medicines Agency established guidelines for the introduction of new biologic medicinal products claimed to be similar to reference products that had previously been granted marketing authorization in the European community, called bio-similars. Globally, new and copied versions of G-CSF and other myeloid growth factors are now appearing. Some properties of the myeloid growth factors are similar to other agents, offering opportunities for the development of alternative drugs and treatments. For example, recent research shows that hematopoietic progenitor cells can be mobilized with a chemokine receptor antagonist, chemotherapy, G-CSF, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. Advances in neutrophil biology coupled with better understanding and development of myeloid growth factors offer great promise for improving the care of patients with cancer and many other disorders. PMID:19176209

  2. Functional inhibition of mesenchymal stromal cells in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Geyh, S; Rodrguez-Paredes, M; Jger, P; Khandanpour, C; Cadeddu, R-P; Gutekunst, J; Wilk, C M; Fenk, R; Zilkens, C; Hermsen, D; Germing, U; Kobbe, G; Lyko, F; Haas, R; Schroeder, T

    2016-03-01

    Hematopoietic insufficiency is the hallmark of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and predisposes patients to life-threatening complications such as bleeding and infections. Addressing the contribution of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) to AML-induced hematopoietic failure we show that MSC from AML patients (n=64) exhibit significant growth deficiency and impaired osteogenic differentiation capacity. This was molecularly reflected by a specific methylation signature affecting pathways involved in cell differentiation, proliferation and skeletal development. In addition, we found distinct alterations of hematopoiesis-regulating factors such as Kit-ligand and Jagged1 accompanied by a significantly diminished ability to support CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-ICs) assays. This deficient osteogenic differentiation and insufficient stromal support was reversible and correlated with disease status as indicated by Osteocalcin serum levels and LTC-IC frequencies returning to normal values at remission. In line with this, cultivation of healthy MSC in conditioned medium from four AML cell lines resulted in decreased proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Taken together, AML-derived MSC are molecularly and functionally altered and contribute to hematopoietic insufficiency. Inverse correlation with disease status and adoption of an AML-like phenotype after exposure to leukemic conditions suggests an instructive role of leukemic cells on bone marrow microenvironment. PMID:26601782

  3. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hatzimichael, Eleftheria; Tuthill, Mark

    2010-01-01

    More than 25,000 hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCTs) are performed each year for the treatment of lymphoma, leukemia, immune-deficiency illnesses, congenital metabolic defects, hemoglobinopathies, and myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative syndromes. Before transplantation, patients receive intensive myeloablative chemoradiotherapy followed by stem cell “rescue.” Autologous HSCT is performed using the patient’s own hematopoietic stem cells, which are harvested before transplantation and reinfused after myeloablation. Allogeneic HSCT uses human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched stem cells derived from a donor. Survival after allogeneic transplantation depends on donor–recipient matching, the graft-versus-host response, and the development of a graft versus leukemia effect. This article reviews the biology of stem cells, clinical efficacy of HSCT, transplantation procedures, and potential complications. PMID:24198516

  4. Hematopoietic stem cell development requires transient Wnt/?-catenin activity

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Herguido, Cristina; Guiu, Jordi; D'Altri, Teresa; Ingls-Esteve, Julia; Dzierzak, Elaine; Espinosa, Lluis

    2012-01-01

    Understanding how hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are generated and the signals that control this process is a crucial issue for regenerative medicine applications that require in vitro production of HSC. HSCs emerge during embryonic life from an endothelial-like cell population that resides in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region. We show here that ?-catenin is nuclear and active in few endothelial nonhematopoietic cells closely associated with the emerging hematopoietic clusters of the embryonic aorta during mouse development. Importantly, Wnt/?-catenin activity is transiently required in the AGM to generate long-term HSCs and to produce hematopoietic cells in vitro from AGM endothelial precursors. Genetic deletion of ?-catenin from the embryonic endothelium stage (using VE-cadherinCre recombinase), but not from embryonic hematopoietic cells (using Vav1-Cre), precludes progression of mutant cells toward the hematopoietic lineage; however, these mutant cells still contribute to the adult endothelium. Together, those findings indicate that Wnt/?-catenin activity is needed for the emergence but not the maintenance of HSCs in mouse embryos. PMID:22802352

  5. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia transformed to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the MPN Subcommittee of the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Lussana, Federico; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Finazzi, Maria Chiara; van Biezen, Anja; Scholten, Marijke; Oldani, Elena; Carobbio, Alessandra; Iacobelli, Simona; Finke, Jurgen; Nagler, Arnon; Volin, Liisa; Lamy, Thierry; Arnold, Renate; Mohty, Mohamad; Michallet, Mauricette; de Witte, Theo; Olavarria, Eduardo; Kröger, Nicolaus

    2014-01-01

    The clinical course of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia is potentially associated with long-term severe complications, such as evolution to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is currently the only potentially curative treatment for advanced polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia. We analyzed 250 consecutive patients with an initial diagnosis of polycythemia vera (n=120) or essential thrombocythemia (n=130), who underwent transplantation due to progression to myelofibrosis (n=193) or acute myeloid leukemia (n=57) and who were reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry between 1994 and 2010. Their median age was 56 years (range, 22–75) and in 52% of cases the interval between diagnosis and transplantation was 10 years or more. With a median follow-up from transplantation of 13 months, the 3-year overall survival rate and relapse incidence were 55% and 32%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the main parameters that negatively affected post-transplantation outcomes were older age (>55 years), a diagnosis at transplant of acute myeloid leukemia and the use of an unrelated donor. The overall 3-year cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality was 28%, but was significantly higher in older patients than in younger ones (>55 years, 35% versus 20%, P=0.032), in those transplanted from an unrelated donor rather than a related donor (34% versus 18%, P=0.034) and in patients with a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia compared to myelofibrosis (29% versus 27%, P=0.045). This large retrospective study confirms that transplantation is potentially curative for patients with end-stage polycythemia vera/essential thrombocythemia progressing to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia. Relapse and non-relapse mortality remain unsolved problems for which innovative treatment approaches need to be assessed. PMID:24389309

  6. Pre-malignant lymphoid cells arise from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kikushige, Yoshikane; Miyamoto, Toshihiro

    2015-11-01

    Human malignancies progress through a multistep process that includes the development of critical somatic mutations over the clinical course. Recent novel findings have indicated that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which have the potential to self-renew and differentiate into multilineage hematopoietic cells, are an important cellular target for the accumulation of critical somatic mutations in hematological malignancies and play a central role in myeloid malignancy development. In contrast to myeloid malignancies, mature lymphoid malignancies, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), are thought to originate directly from differentiated mature lymphocytes; however, recent compelling data have shown that primitive HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells contribute to the pathogenesis of mature lymphoid malignancies. Several representative mutations of hematological malignancies have been identified within the HSCs of CLL and lymphoma patients, indicating that the self-renewing long-lived fraction of HSCs can serve as a reservoir for the development of oncogenic events. Novel mice models have been established as human mature lymphoma models, in which specific oncogenic events target the HSCs and immature progenitor cells. These data collectively suggest that HSCs can be the cellular target involved in the accumulation of oncogenic events in the pathogenesis of mature lymphoid and myeloid malignancies. PMID:25644149

  7. Chronic myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Apperley, Jane F

    2015-04-11

    In less than 10 years, the prognosis of chronic myeloid leukaemia has changed from that of a fatal disease to a disorder amenable simply to lifelong oral medication and compatible with a normal lifespan. This change has been made possible by a deep understanding of the molecular pathogenesis and a determination to develop targeted and selective drugs. This Seminar summarises the presentation, pathophysiology, diagnosis and monitoring technology, treatment options, side-effects, and outcomes of chronic myeloid leukaemia, and discusses the possibility of cure-ie, stable undetectable or low level disease in the absence of medication. Chronic myeloid leukaemia continues to instruct us in the mechanisms of leukaemogenesis and provides hope not only for similar developments in management of other malignancies, but also for the remarkable speed with which these can move from bench to bedside. PMID:25484026

  8. Immature MEF2C-dysregulated T-cell leukemia patients have an early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia gene signature and typically have non-rearranged T-cell receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zuurbier, Linda; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Mullighan, Charles G.; Cant-Barrett, Kirsten; Gevaert, A. Olivier; de Rooi, Johan; Li, Yunlei; Smits, Willem K.; Buijs-Gladdines, Jessica G.C.A.M.; Sonneveld, Edwin; Look, A. Thomas; Horstmann, Martin; Pieters, Rob; Meijerink, Jules P.P.

    2014-01-01

    Three distinct immature T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia entities have been described including cases that express an early T-cell precursor immunophenotype or expression profile, immature MEF2C-dysregulated T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cluster cases based on gene expression analysis (immature cluster) and cases that retain non-rearranged TRG@ loci. Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases exclusively overlap with immature cluster samples based on the expression of early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia signature genes, indicating that both are featuring a single disease entity. Patients lacking TRG@ rearrangements represent only 40% of immature cluster cases, but no further evidence was found to suggest that cases with absence of bi-allelic TRG@ deletions reflect a distinct and even more immature disease entity. Immature cluster/early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases are strongly enriched for genes expressed in hematopoietic stem cells as well as genes expressed in normal early thymocyte progenitor or double negative-2A T-cell subsets. Identification of early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases solely by defined immunophenotypic criteria strongly underestimates the number of cases that have a corresponding gene signature. However, early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia samples correlate best with a CD1 negative, CD4 and CD8 double negative immunophenotype with expression of CD34 and/or myeloid markers CD13 or CD33. Unlike various other studies, immature cluster/early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients treated on the COALL-97 protocol did not have an overall inferior outcome, and demonstrated equal sensitivity levels to most conventional therapeutic drugs compared to other pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. PMID:23975177

  9. Antagonism between MCL-1 and PUMA governs stem/progenitor cell survival during hematopoietic recovery from stress.

    PubMed

    Delbridge, Alex R D; Opferman, Joseph T; Grabow, Stephanie; Strasser, Andreas

    2015-05-21

    Understanding the critical factors that govern recovery of the hematopoietic system from stress, such as during anticancer therapy and bone marrow transplantation, is of clinical significance. We investigated the importance of the prosurvival proteins myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1) and B-cell lymphoma-extra large (BCL-XL) in stem/progenitor cell survival and fitness during hematopoietic recovery from stress. Loss of a single Mcl-1 allele, which reduced MCL-1 protein levels, severely compromised hematopoietic recovery from myeloablative challenge and following bone marrow transplantation, whereas BCL-XL was dispensable in both contexts. We identified inhibition of proapoptotic p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) as the key role of MCL-1 in both settings, with Mcl-1(+/-);Puma(-/-) mice completely protected from the deleterious effects of loss of 1 Mcl-1 allele. These results reveal the molecular mechanisms that govern cell survival during hematopoietic recovery from stress. PMID:25847014

  10. Systemic mastocytosis associated with acute myeloid leukemia: case report and implications for disease pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Escribano, Luis; Garca-Montero, Andrés; Núñez-López, Rosa; López-Jiménez, Javier; Almeida, Julia; Prados, Aranzazu; Orfao, Alberto

    2004-07-01

    Mastocytosis may be associated with clonal nonmast cell lineage hematologic diseases, including myelodysplastic syndromes, myeloproliferative disorders, and acute myeloid leukemia. Here we present a patient with the simultaneous diagnosis of mastocytosis and an acute myeloid leukemia, M2 subtype in the French-American-British classification, with t(8;21) carrying a population of immature mast cell precursors, and discuss this presentation in the context of a potential pathogenetic cellular link between this leukemia and mastocytosis. PMID:15241340

  11. Redefining Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Myeloid Dysplasia and Identifying B | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Redefining Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Myeloid Dysplasia and Identifying Biomarkers for Early Detection and Risk Assessment. This application addresses Program Announcement PA-09-197: Biomarkers for Early Detection of Hematopoietic Malignancies (R01). The overall aim of this project is to identify novel biomarkers that may be used to diagnose and treat patients with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH). LCH occurs with similar frequency as other rare malignancies including Hodgkin's lymphoma and AML.

  12. Redefining Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Myeloid Dysplasia and Identifying B | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Redefining Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis as a Myeloid Dysplasia and Identifying Biomarkers for Early Detection and Risk Assessment. This application addresses Program Announcement PA-09-197: Biomarkers for Early Detection of Hematopoietic Malignancies (R01). The overall aim of this project is to identify novel biomarkers that may be used to diagnose and treat patients with Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH). LCH occurs with similar frequency as other rare malignancies including Hodgkin's lymphoma and AML. |

  13. Isolation and characterization of hematopoietic stem cells in teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Isao; Katakura, Fumihiko; Moritomo, Tadaaki

    2016-05-01

    Despite 400 million years of evolutionary divergence, hematopoiesis is highly conserved between mammals and teleost fish. All types of mature blood cells including the erythroid, myeloid, and lymphoid lineages show a high degree of similarity to their mammalian counterparts at the morphological and molecular level. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are cells that are capable of self-renewal and differentiating into all hematopoietic lineages over the lifetime of an organism. The study of HSCs has been facilitated through bone marrow transplantation experiments developed in the mouse model. In the last decade, the zebrafish and clonal ginbuna carp (Carassius auratus langsdorfii) have emerged as new models for the study of HSCs. This review highlights the recent progress and future prospects of studying HSCs in teleost fish. Transplantation assays using these teleost models have demonstrated the presence of HSCs in the kidney, which is the major hematopoietic organ in teleost fish. Moreover, it is possible to purify HSCs from the kidney utilizing fluorescent dyes or transgenic animals. These teleost models will provide novel insights into the universal mechanisms of HSC maintenance, homeostasis, and differentiation among vertebrates. PMID:26801099

  14. Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Cancer.gov

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow. An acute leukemia can become worse quickly if it is not treated and can result in death within months. AML is the most common type of acute leukemia in American adults and the average age of a patient with AML is 67.

  15. The normal flora may contribute to the quantitative preponderance of myeloid cells under physiological conditions.

    PubMed

    Liang, Shi; LiHua, Hu

    2011-01-01

    Under physiological conditions, the innate immune cells derived from myeloid lineage absolutely outnumber the lymphoid cells. At present, two theories are attributed to the maintenance of haemopoiesis: the asymmetric cell division and the bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment or "niche". However, the former only explains the self-renewal of haemopoietic stem cell (HSC) and the start of haemopoietic differentiation but fails to address the inducers of cell fate decisions; the latter has to admit that the hematopoietic cytokines, despite their significance in the maintenance of haemopoiesis, have no specific effect on lineage commitment. Given these flaws, the advantageous mechanism of myeloid haemopoiesis has not yet been uncovered in the current theories. The discoveries that bacterial components (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and intestinal decontamination affect the mobilization of HSC trigger the interest in normal flora, which together with their components may have an effect on haemopoiesis. In the experiments in dogs and mice, researchers documented that the generation of myeloid cells has undergone changes in the bone marrow and periphery when antibiotics are used to regulate the normal intestinal flora and the concentration of its components. However, the same changes are not involved in lymphoid cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that in human body normal flora and its components are a driving force to maintain myeloid haemopoiesis under physiological conditions. To account for the selectiveness in haemopoiesis, these facts should be taken into consideration, such as HSC and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) functionally expressed pattern recognition receptors (PRR), and both of them can self-migrate or be recruited by normal flora or its components into periphery. Dynamically monitoring the myeloid haemopoiesis may provide an important complementary program that precludes the abuse of antibiotics, which prevents diseases triggered by the imbalance of normal flora. Meanwhile, the regulation of normal flora and the use of purified microecological modulator may serve as valuable auxiliary treatments to mobilize HSC prior to the HSC transplantation as well as to promote hematopoietic recovery after transplantation or chemotherapy in the blood diseases. PMID:20889261

  16. Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    HAWLEY, ROBERT G.; RAMEZANI, ALI; HAWLEY, TERESA S.

    2008-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the capacity to self-renew and the potential to differentiate into all of the mature blood cell types. The ability to prospectively identify and isolate HSCs has been the subject of extensive investigation since the first transplantation studies implying their existence almost 50 years ago. Despite significant advances in enrichment protocols, the continuous in vitro propagation of human HSCs has not yet been achieved. This chapter describes current procedures used to phenotypically and functionally characterize candidate human HSCs and initial efforts to derive permanent human HSC lines. PMID:17141055

  17. Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy for Myeloid Leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Schürch, Christian M.; Riether, Carsten; Ochsenbein, Adrian F.

    2013-01-01

    Acute and chronic myeloid leukemia (AML, CML) are hematologic malignancies arising from oncogene-transformed hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells known as leukemia stem cells (LSCs). LSCs are selectively resistant to various forms of therapy including irradiation or cytotoxic drugs. The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has dramatically improved disease outcome in patients with CML. For AML, however, prognosis is still quite dismal. Standard treatments have been established more than 20 years ago with only limited advances ever since. Durable remission is achieved in less than 30% of patients. Minimal residual disease (MRD), reflected by the persistence of LSCs below the detection limit by conventional methods, causes a high rate of disease relapses. Therefore, the ultimate goal in the treatment of myeloid leukemia must be the eradication of LSCs. Active immunotherapy, aiming at the generation of leukemia-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), may represent a powerful approach to target LSCs in the MRD situation. To fully activate CTLs, leukemia antigens have to be successfully captured, processed, and presented by mature dendritic cells (DCs). Myeloid progenitors are a prominent source of DCs under homeostatic conditions, and it is now well established that LSCs and leukemic blasts can give rise to “malignant” DCs. These leukemia-derived DCs can express leukemia antigens and may either induce anti-leukemic T cell responses or favor tolerance to the leukemia, depending on co-stimulatory or -inhibitory molecules and cytokines. This review will concentrate on the role of DCs in myeloid leukemia immunotherapy with a special focus on their generation, application, and function and how they could be improved in order to generate highly effective and specific anti-leukemic CTL responses. In addition, we discuss how DC-based immunotherapy may be successfully integrated into current treatment strategies to promote remission and potentially cure myeloid leukemias. PMID:24427158

  18. Large-Scale Hematopoietic Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Provides Granulocytes or Macrophages for Cell Replacement Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Lachmann, Nico; Ackermann, Mania; Frenzel, Eileen; Liebhaber, Steffi; Brennig, Sebastian; Happle, Christine; Hoffmann, Dirk; Klimenkova, Olga; Lttge, Doreen; Buchegger, Theresa; Khnel, MarkPhilipp; Schambach, Axel; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Figueiredo, Constanca; Hansen, Gesine; Skokowa, Julia; Moritz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Summary Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is capable of supporting the proliferation of a broad range of hematopoietic cell types, whereas granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and macrophage CSF (M-CSF) represent critical cytokines in myeloid differentiation. When this was investigated in a pluripotent-stem-cell-based hematopoietic differentiation model, IL-3/G-CSF or IL-3/M-CSF exposure resulted in the continuous generation of myeloid cells from an intermediate myeloid-cell-forming complex containing CD34+ clonogenic progenitor cells for more than 2months. Whereas IL-3/G-CSF directed differentiation toward CD45+CD11b+CD15+CD16+CD66b+ granulocytic cells of various differentiation stages up to a segmented morphology displaying the capacity of cytokine-directed migration, respiratory burst response, and neutrophil-extracellular-trap formation, exposure to IL-3/M-CSF resulted in CD45+CD11b+CD14+CD163+CD68+ monocyte/macrophage-type cells capable of phagocytosis and cytokine secretion. Hence, we show here that myeloid specification of human pluripotent stem cells by IL-3/G-CSF or IL-3/M-CSF allows for prolonged and large-scale production of myeloid cells, and thus is suited for cell-fate and disease-modeling studies as well as gene- and cell-therapy applications. PMID:25680479

  19. Discovery of survival factor for primitive chronic myeloid leukemia cells using induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Suknuntha, Kran; Ishii, Yuki; Tao, Lihong; Hu, Kejin; McIntosh, Brian E; Yang, David; Swanson, Scott; Stewart, Ron; Wang, Jean Y J; Thomson, James; Slukvin, Igor

    2015-11-01

    A definitive cure for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) requires identifying novel therapeutic targets to eradicate leukemia stem cells (LSCs). However, the rarity of LSCs within the primitive hematopoietic cell compartment remains a major limiting factor for their study in humans. Here we show that primitive hematopoietic cells with typical LSC features, including adhesion defect, increased long-term survival and proliferation, and innate resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib, can be generated de novo from reprogrammed primary CML cells. Using CML iPSC-derived primitive leukemia cells, we discovered olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) as a novel factor that contributes to survival and growth of somatic lin(-)CD34(+) cells from bone marrow of patients with CML in chronic phase, but not primitive hematopoietic cells from normal bone marrow. Overall, this study shows the feasibility and advantages of using reprogramming technology to develop strategies for targeting primitive leukemia cells. PMID:26561938

  20. Mcl1 haploinsufficiency protects mice from Myc-induced acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Zhifu; Luo, Hui; Payton, Jacqueline E.; Cain, Jennifer; Ley, Timothy J.; Opferman, Joseph T.; Tomasson, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Antiapoptotic BCL2 family members have been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), but the functional significance and relative importance of individual proteins (e.g., BCL2, BCL-XL, and myeloid cell leukemia 1 [MCL1]) remain poorly understood. Here, we examined the expression of BCL2, BCL-XL, and MCL1 in primary human hematopoietic subsets and leukemic blasts from AML patients and found that MCL1 transcripts were consistently expressed at high levels in all samples tested. Consistent with this, Mcl1 protein was also highly expressed in myeloid leukemic blasts in a mouse Myc-induced model of AML. We used this model to test the hypothesis that Mcl1 facilitates AML development by allowing myeloid progenitor cells to evade Myc-induced cell death. Indeed, activation of Myc for 7 days in vivo substantially increased myeloid lineage cell numbers, whereas hematopoietic stem, progenitor, and B-lineage cells were depleted. Furthermore, Mcl1 haploinsufficiency abrogated AML development. In addition, deletion of a single allele of Mcl1 from fully transformed AML cells substantially prolonged the survival of transplanted mice. Conversely, the rapid lethality of disease was restored by coexpression of Bcl2 and Myc in Mcl1-haploinsufficient cells. Together, these data demonstrate a critical and dose-dependent role for Mcl1 in AML pathogenesis in mice and suggest that MCL1 may be a promising therapeutic target in patients with de novo AML. PMID:20484815

  1. IL12B expression is sustained by a heterogenous population of myeloid lineages during tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Reeme, Allison E.; Miller, Halli E.; Robinson, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Summary IL12B is required for resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, promoting the initiation and maintenance of Mtb-specific effector responses. While this makes the IL12-pathway an attractive target for experimental tuberculosis (TB) therapies, data regarding what lineages express IL12B after infection is established are limited. This is not obvious in the lung, an organ in which both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic lineages produce IL12p40 upon pathogen encounter. Here, we use radiation bone marrow chimeras and Yet40 reporter mice to determine what lineages produce IL12p40 during experimental TB. We observed that hematopoietic IL12p40-production was sufficient to control Mtb, with no contribution by non-hematopoietic lineages. Furthermore, rather than being produced by a single subset, IL12p40 was produced by cells that were heterogenous in their size, granularity, autofluorescence and expression of CD11c, CD11b and CD8α. While depending on the timepoint and tissue examined, the surface phenotype of IL12p40-producers most closely resembled macrophages based on previous surveys of lung myeloid lineages. Importantly, depletion of CDllchi cells during infection had no affect on lung IL12p40-concentrations. Collectively, our data demonstrate that IL12p40 production is sustained by a heterogenous population of myeloid lineages during experimental TB, and that redundant mechanisms of IL12p40-production exist when CD11chi lineages are absent. PMID:23491716

  2. Hematopoietic stimulation by porphyrin photosensitizers (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Julia G.; Hunt, David W. C.; Mitchell, David W.; Jamieson, Catriona H. M.

    1992-06-01

    The effects of the photosensitizers, PhotofrinTM and benozoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) on a variety of hematopoietic cell functions have been studied, both in the presence and absence of light activation. A marked increase in hematopoiesis was observed in the bone marrow and spleens of DBA/2 mice administered high dose Photofrin but not BPD. This was manifested in an increased relative spleen weight, nucleated spleen cell number and circulating white blood cell concentration 7 days following Photofrin injection. We have shown that BPD and light doses just below phototoxic ranges stimulate the growth of human colony forming committed myeloid progenitors as well as pluripotent stem cells grown in long term marrow culture. Studies on the effect of BPD on the function of T lymphocytes in the absence of light has also demonstrated a stimulatory effect. The dose range in which this is observed is considerably broader than that observed with light activation. The mechanisms involved in this stimulatory effect have been studied and are discussed.

  3. Common marmoset CD117+ hematopoietic cells possess multipotency.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Shin; Nunomura, Satoshi; Mori, Shuya; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Itoh, Toshio; Takabayashi, Shuji; Okada, Yoshinori; Yahata, Takashi; Shiina, Takashi; Katoh, Hideki; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tani, Kenzaburo; Ando, Kiyoshi; Yagita, Hideo; Habu, Sonoko; Sasaki, Erika; Kametani, Yoshie

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of the hematopoiesis of non-human primates is important to clarify the evolution of primate-specific hematopoiesis and immune regulation. However, the engraftment and development of the primate hematopoietic system are well-documented only in humans and are not clear in non-human primates. Callithrix jacchus (common marmoset, CM) is a New World monkey with a high rate of pregnancy and small size that lives in closed colonies. As stem cell factor (SCF) is an essential molecule for hematopoietic stem cell development in mice and humans, we focused on CD117, the SCF receptor, and examined whether CD117-expressing cells possess the hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell characteristics of newborn marmoset-derived hematopoietic cells that can develop into T cells and B cells. When CD117(+) cell fractions of the bone marrow were transplanted into immunodeficient NOD (non-obese diabetic)/Shi-scid, common ?c-null (NOG) mice, these cells engrafted efficiently in the bone marrow and spleens of the NOG mice. The CD117(+) cells developed into myeloid lineage cells, CD20(+) B cells and CD3(+) T cells, which could express CM cytokines in vivo. The development of B cells did not precede that of T cells. The development of CD8(+) T cells was dominant in NOG mice. The engraftment was comparable for both CD117(+)CD34(+) cells and CD117(+)CD34(-) cells. These results suggest that the CD117(+) cell fraction can differentiate into all three cell lineages, and the development of marmoset immunity in the xenogeneic environment follows diverse developmental pathways compared with human immunity. PMID:25977306

  4. Recombinant factor VIII expression in hematopoietic cells following lentiviral transduction.

    PubMed

    Tiede, A; Eder, M; von Depka, M; Battmer, K; Luther, S; Kiem, H-P; Ganser, A; Scherr, M

    2003-10-01

    Autologous transplantation of gene-modified hematopoietic stem cells may provide a therapeutic strategy for several monogeneic disorders. In previous studies, retroviral gene transfer of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) into FVIII(-/-) mouse bone marrow (BM) cells did not result in detectable plasma FVIII levels. However, specific immune tolerance was achieved against neo-antigenic FVIII. Here, we used lentiviral vectors to study the ability of various hematopoietic cell types to synthesize and secrete recombinant FVIII. Several myeloid, monocytic and megakaryocytic cell lines (K-562, TF-1, Monomac-1, Mutz-3, Meg-01) expressed FVIII at 2-12 mU/10(4) cells. In contrast, two lymphatic cell lines, BV-173 and Molt-4, were less-efficiently transduced and did not express detectable FVIII. Similarly, peripheral blood-derived primary monocytes were transduced efficiently and expressed up to 20 mU/10(4) cells, whereas primary lymphocytes did not express FVIII. Although human and canine CD34(+) cells were transduced efficiently, the cells expressed very low levels of FVIII (up to 0.8 mU/10(4) cells). Following xenotransplantation of transduced CD34(+) into NOD/SCID mice, ELISA failed to detect FVIII in the plasma of engrafted mice. However, NOD/SCID repopulating cell (SRC)-derived human monocytes isolated from BM of these mice secreted functional recombinant FVIII after culture ex vivo. Again, SRC-derived human lymphocytes did not secrete FVIII. Therefore, certain hematopoietic cell types are able to synthesize and secrete functional recombinant FVIII. Our results show for the first time that transplantation of transduced CD34(+) progenitors may give rise to differentiated hematopoietic cells secreting a nonhematopoietic recombinant protein. PMID:14502221

  5. TIM-family molecules in embryonic hematopoiesis: fetal liver TIM-4(lo) cells have myeloid potential.

    PubMed

    Syrjnen, Riikka; Petrov, Petar; Glumoff, Virpi; Fang, Shentong; Salven, Petri; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Vainio, Olli; Uchida, Tatsuya

    2014-03-01

    Trans-membrane (or T cell) immunoglobulin and mucin (TIM) molecules are known regulators of immune response whose function in hematopoiesis is unknown. Earlier, we found that tim-1 and tim-4 are expressed by CD45(+) cells in the para-aortic region of chicken embryo. Because the para-aortic region is a known site for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) differentiation and expansion, we hypothesize that TIM molecules have a role in hematopoiesis. To study this role further, we analyzed TIM expression more precisely in chicken para-aortic region and mouse fetal liver hematopoietic cells. Additionally, we examined the hematopoietic potential of TIM-4(+) mouse fetal liver cells with a colony-forming assay. tim-1 gene expression was detected in chicken and mouse embryos in the aorta-gonads-mesonephros-region at the time of HSC emergence, whereas tim-3 mRNA was widely expressed in different tissues. tim-4 expression was restricted to fetal liver CD45(+)F4/80(+) cells. Moreover, two TIM-4(+) populations were distinguished: F4/80(hi)TIM-4(hi) and F4/80(lo)TIM-4(lo). F4/80(hi)TIM-4(hi) cells had no hematopoietic potential and were morphologically similar to mature macrophages, suggesting that they are yolk sac-derived macrophages. Instead, many of the F4/80(lo)TIM-4(lo) cells were c-kit(+) and Sca-1(+) and had primitive morphology and multilineage colony-forming ability. In addition, F4/80(lo)TIM-4(lo) cells included a considerable population expressing ER-MP12, a known marker for macrophage colony-forming cells and other myeloid progenitors. We conclude that TIM molecules are expressed in embryonic hematopoietic tissues in chicken and mouse and that in fetal liver, TIM-4 is expressed by myeloid progenitor cells. PMID:24316337

  6. Identification of Reprogrammed Myeloid Cell Transcriptomes in NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ravi; Fischer, Kari R.; Choi, Hyejin; El Rayes, Tina; Ryu, Seongho; Nasar, Abu; Spinelli, Cathy F.; Andrews, Weston; Elemento, Olivier; Nolan, Daniel; Stiles, Brendon; Rafii, Shahin; Narula, Navneet; Davuluri, Ramana; Altorki, Nasser K.; Mittal, Vivek

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide, with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) as the most prevalent form. Despite advances in treatment options including minimally invasive surgery, CT-guided radiation, novel chemotherapeutic regimens, and targeted therapeutics, prognosis remains dismal. Therefore, further molecular analysis of NSCLC is necessary to identify novel molecular targets that impact prognosis and the design of new-targeted therapies. In recent years, tumor activated/reprogrammed stromal cells that promote carcinogenesis have emerged as potential therapeutic targets. However, the contribution of stromal cells to NSCLC is poorly understood. Here, we show increased numbers of bone marrow (BM)-derived hematopoietic cells in the tumor parenchyma of NSCLC patients compared with matched adjacent non-neoplastic lung tissue. By sorting specific cellular fractions from lung cancer patients, we compared the transcriptomes of intratumoral myeloid compartments within the tumor bed with their counterparts within adjacent non-neoplastic tissue from NSCLC patients. The RNA sequencing of specific myeloid compartments (immature monocytic myeloid cells and polymorphonuclear neutrophils) identified differentially regulated genes and mRNA isoforms, which were inconspicuous in whole tumor analysis. Genes encoding secreted factors, including osteopontin (OPN), chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 (CCL7) and thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) were identified, which enhanced tumorigenic properties of lung cancer cells indicative of their potential as targets for therapy. This study demonstrates that analysis of homogeneous stromal populations isolated directly from fresh clinical specimens can detect important stromal genes of therapeutic value. PMID:26046767

  7. C/EBP? and DEK coordinately regulate myeloid differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Koleva, Rositsa I.; Ficarro, Scott B.; Radomska, Hanna S.; Carrasco-Alfonso, Marlene J.; Alberta, John A.; Webber, James T.; Luckey, C. John; Marcucci, Guido; Tenen, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor C/EBP? is a critical mediator of myeloid differentiation and is often functionally impaired in acute myeloid leukemia. Recent studies have suggested that oncogenic FLT3 activity disrupts wild-type C/EBP? function via phosphorylation on serine 21 (S21). Despite the apparent role of pS21 as a negative regulator of C/EBP? transcription activity, the mechanism by which phosphorylation tips the balance between transcriptionally competent and inhibited forms remains unresolved. In the present study, we used immuno-affinity purification combined with quantitative mass spectrometry to delineate the proteins associated with C/EBP? on chromatin. We identified DEK, a protein with genetic links to leukemia, as a member of the C/EBP? complexes, and demonstrate that this association is disrupted by S21 phosphorylation. We confirmed that DEK is recruited specifically to chromatin with C/EBP? to enhance GCSFR3 promoter activation. In addition, we demonstrated that genetic depletion of DEK reduces the ability of C/EBP? to drive the expression of granulocytic target genes in vitro and disrupts G-CSFmediated granulocytic differentiation of fresh human BM-derived CD34+ cells. Our data suggest that C/EBP? and DEK coordinately activate myeloid gene expression and that S21 phosphorylation on wild-type C/EBP? mediates protein interactions that regulate the differentiation capacity of hematopoietic progenitors. PMID:22474248

  8. Primary Myeloid Sarcoma Masquerading as an Obstructing Duodenal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Preeti; Murthy, Vijayashree; Su, Mu; Woel, Rosemonde; Grossman, I. Robert; Chamberlain, Ronald S.

    2012-01-01

    Myeloid Sarcoma (MS), a rare extra hematopoietic carcinoma composed of blast cells, is located primarily in extramedullary sites such as skin, soft tissue, lymph nodes, and bone. MS usually presents in the setting of coexisting acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myeloproliferative disorders. Gastrointestinal involvement (GI) is extremely rare from nonspecific abdominal symptoms to obstruction. Eight cases of myeloid sarcoma involving the duodenum including the current case have been reported, overall mean age being 40 years (range 1771) and M?:?F ratio 7?:?1. The prognosis of patients with de novo MS cases has been reported to be better than those who have a coexisting leukemia. MS is a rare extramedullary tumor, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a soft tissue mass involving the duodenum, especially if there is a coexisting hematological disorder. De novo cases often progress to AML, and current therapy involves Daunorubicin- and Cytarabine-based chemotherapy. The wide cytogenetic and molecular heterogeneity of MS implies a potential role for more targeted MS therapies, which may offer a curative strategy. PMID:23243527

  9. Non-Hematopoietic and Hematopoietic SIRP? Signaling Differently Regulates Murine B Cell Maturation in Bone Marrow and Spleen

    PubMed Central

    Kolan, Shrikant Shantilal; Lejon, Kristina; Koskinen Holm, Cecilia; Sulniute, Rima; Lundberg, Pernilla; Matozaki, Takashi; Oldenborg, Per-Arne

    2015-01-01

    B lymphocyte development occurs in the bone marrow, while final differentiation and maturation can occur in both the bone marrow and the spleen. Here we provide evidence that signal regulatory protein ? (SIRP?), an Ig-superfamily ITIM-receptor expressed by myeloid but not by lymphoid cells, is involved in regulating B cell maturation. Lack of SIRP? signaling in adult SIRP?-mutant mice resulted in a reduced maturation of B cells in the bone marrow, evident by reduced numbers of semi-mature IgD+IgMhi follicular type-II (F-II) and mature IgD+IgMlo follicular type-I (F-I) B cells, as well as reduced blood B cell numbers. In addition, lack of SIRP? signaling also impaired follicular B cell maturation in the spleen. Maturing BM or splenic B cells of SIRP?-mutant mice were found to express higher levels of the pro-apoptotic protein BIM and apoptosis was increased among these B cells. Bone marrow reconstitution experiments revealed that the B cell maturation defect in bone marrow and blood was due to lack of SIRP? signaling in non-hematopoietic cells, while hematopoietic SIRP? signaling was important for follicular B cell maturation in the spleen. Adding on to our previous findings of a stromal cell defect in SIRP?-mutant mice was the finding that gene expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) was significantly lower in cultured bone marrow stromal cells of SIRP? mutant mice. These data suggest a novel and opposite contribution of SIRP? signaling within non-hematopoietic and hematopoietic cells, respectively, to maintain B cell maturation and to prevent apoptosis in the bone marrow and spleen of adult mice. PMID:26222253

  10. Autophagy limits proliferation and glycolytic metabolism in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Alexander S; Riffelmacher, Thomas; Stranks, Amanda; Williams, Owen; De Boer, Jasper; Cain, Kelvin; MacFarlane, Marion; McGouran, Joanna; Kessler, Benedikt; Khandwala, Shivani; Chowdhury, Onima; Puleston, Daniel; Phadwal, Kanchan; Mortensen, Monika; Ferguson, David; Soilleux, Elizabeth; Woll, Petter; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W.; Simon, Anna Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Decreased autophagy contributes to malignancies, however it is unclear how autophagy impacts on tumour growth. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an ideal model to address this as (i) patient samples are easily accessible, (ii) the hematopoietic stem and progenitor population (HSPC) where transformation occurs is well characterized, and (iii) loss of the key autophagy gene Atg7 in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) leads to a lethal pre-leukemic phenotype in mice. Here we demonstrate that loss of Atg5 results in an identical HSPC phenotype as loss of Atg7, confirming a general role for autophagy in HSPC regulation. Compared to more committed/mature hematopoietic cells, healthy human and mouse HSCs displayed enhanced basal autophagic flux, limiting mitochondrial damage and reactive oxygen species in this long-lived population. Taken together, with our previous findings these data are compatible with autophagy limiting leukemic transformation. In line with this, autophagy gene losses are found within chromosomal regions that are commonly deleted in human AML. Moreover, human AML blasts showed reduced expression of autophagy genes, and displayed decreased autophagic flux with accumulation of unhealthy mitochondria indicating that deficient autophagy may be beneficial to human AML. Crucially, heterozygous loss of autophagy in an MLL-ENL model of AML led to increased proliferation in vitro, a glycolytic shift, and more aggressive leukemias in vivo. With autophagy gene losses also identified in multiple other malignancies, these findings point to low autophagy providing a general advantage for tumour growth. PMID:26568842

  11. Hematopoietic activity in putative mouse primordial germ cell populations.

    PubMed

    Scaldaferri, Maria Lucia; Klinger, Francesca Gioia; Farini, Donatella; Di Carlo, Anna; Carsetti, Rita; Giorda, Ezio; De Felici, Massimo

    2015-05-01

    In the present paper, starting from the observation of heterogeneous expression of the GOF-18?PE-GFP Pou5f1 (Oct3/4) transgene in putative mouse PGC populations settled in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region, we identified various OCT3/4 positive populations showing distinct expression of PGC markers (BLIMP-1, AP, TG-1, STELLA) and co-expressing several proteins (CD-34, CD-41, FLK-1) and genes (Brachyury, Hox-B4, Scl/Tal-1 and Gata-2) of hematopoietic precursors. Moreover, we found that Oct3/4-GFP(weak) CD-34(weak/high) cells possess robust hematopoietic colony forming activity (CFU) in vitro. These data indicate that the cell population usually considered PGCs moving toward the gonadal ridges encompasses a subset of cells co-expressing several germ cell and hematopoietic markers and possessing hematopoietic activity. These results are discussed within of the current model of germline segregation. PMID:25684074

  12. In utero depletion of fetal hematopoietic stem cells improves engraftment after neonatal transplantation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Derderian, S. Christopher; Togarrati, P. Priya; King, Charmin; Moradi, Patriss W.; Reynaud, Damien; Czechowicz, Agnieszka; Weissman, Irving L.

    2014-01-01

    Although in utero hematopoietic cell transplantation is a promising strategy to treat congenital hematopoietic disorders, levels of engraftment have not been therapeutic for diseases in which donor cells have no survival advantage. We used an antibody against the murine c-Kit receptor (ACK2) to deplete fetal host hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and increase space within the hematopoietic niche for donor cell engraftment. Fetal mice were injected with ACK2 on embryonic days 13.5 to 14.5 and surviving pups were transplanted with congenic hematopoietic cells on day of life 1. Low-dose ACK2 treatment effectively depleted HSCs within the bone marrow with minimal toxicity and the antibody was cleared from the serum before the neonatal transplantation. Chimerism levels were significantly higher in treated pups than in controls; both myeloid and lymphoid cell chimerism increased because of higher engraftment of HSCs in the bone marrow. To test the strategy of repeated HSC depletion and transplantation, some mice were treated with ACK2 postnatally, but the increase in engraftment was lower than that seen with prenatal treatment. We demonstrate a successful fetal conditioning strategy associated with minimal toxicity. Such strategies could be used to achieve clinically relevant levels of engraftment to treat congenital stem cell disorders. PMID:24879814

  13. LAPTM5: A novel lysosomal-associated multispanning membrane protein preferentially expressed in hematopoietic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Adra, C.N.; Zhu, Shaochun; Ko, Jone-Long

    1996-07-15

    While a large body of knowledge about cell membrane proteins exists, much less is known about the repertoire and function of integral membrane proteins of intracellular organelles. In looking for novel classes of genes that are functionally important to hematopoietic cells, we have cloned the cDNA for a gene preferentially expressed in adult hematopoietic tissues. During embryonic development the gene is expressed in both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic tissues. In cell lines the gene is expressed specifically in hematopoietic lineages, whereas in normal adult tissues the mRNA is preferentially detected at high levels in lymphoid and myeloid tissues. The predicted protein is a pentaspanner with no homology to known genes and conserved across evolution. Immunocytological and cell fractionation studies with a specific antibody revealed a protein localizing in lysosomes. The gene, provisionally named LAPTM5, maps to chromosome 1p34. The expression pattern of the gene together with preliminary evidence that the protein interacts with ubiquitin indicates that the protein may have a special functional role during embryogenesis and in adult hematopoietic cells. 53 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Dual mechanisms by which miR-125b represses IRF4 to induce myeloid and B-cell leukemias.

    PubMed

    So, Alex Yick-Lun; Sookram, Reeshelle; Chaudhuri, Aadel A; Minisandram, Aarathi; Cheng, David; Xie, Catherine; Lim, Ee Lyn; Flores, Yvette Garcia; Jiang, Shuai; Kim, Jocelyn Tammy; Keown, Christopher; Ramakrishnan, Parameswaran; Baltimore, David

    2014-08-28

    The oncomir microRNA-125b (miR-125b) is upregulated in a variety of human neoplastic blood disorders and constitutive upregulation of miR-125b in mice can promote myeloid and B-cell leukemia. We found that miR-125b promotes myeloid and B-cell neoplasm by inducing tumorigenesis in hematopoietic progenitor cells. Our study demonstrates that miR-125b induces myeloid leukemia by enhancing myeloid progenitor output from stem cells as well as inducing immortality, self-renewal, and tumorigenesis in myeloid progenitors. Through functional and genetic analyses, we demonstrated that miR-125b induces myeloid and B-cell leukemia by inhibiting interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) but through distinct mechanisms; it induces myeloid leukemia through repressing IRF4 at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level without altering the genomic DNA and induces B-cell leukemia via genetic deletion of the gene encoding IRF4. PMID:25006123

  15. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in chronic graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: case report.

    PubMed

    Lorenzoni, Paulo Jos; Scola, Rosana Herminia; Carsten, Ana Lucila Moreira; Trentin, Ana Paula; Teive, Hlio A G; Pasquini, Ricardo; Werneck, Lineu C

    2007-09-01

    The chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an unusual but important complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) rarely reported to date. We describe a 17-year-old woman with a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia due to Fanconi's anemia who was submitted to allogeneic HSCT and developed CIDP as part of graft-versus-host disease. Investigation showed high cerebrospinal fluid protein; electrophysiological studies revealed sensory-motor demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy; muscle and nerve biopsy were compatible with CIDP. PMID:17876419

  16. In Vivo Inhibition of c-MYC in Myeloid Cells Impairs Tumor-Associated Macrophage Maturation and Pro-Tumoral Activities

    PubMed Central

    Pello, Oscar M.; De Juan, Alba; Lolo, Fidel; Andrés-Manzano, María Jesús; Serrano, Manuel; Van Ginderachter, Jo A.; Andrés, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Although tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are involved in tumor growth and metastasis, the mechanisms controlling their pro-tumoral activities remain largely unknown. The transcription factor c-MYC has been recently shown to regulate in vitro human macrophage polarization and be expressed in macrophages infiltrating human tumors. In this study, we exploited the predominant expression of LysM in myeloid cells to generate c-Mycfl/fl LysMcre/+ mice, which lack c-Myc in macrophages, to investigate the role of macrophage c-MYC expression in cancer. Under steady-state conditions, immune system parameters in c-Mycfl/fl LysMcre/+ mice appeared normal, including the abundance of different subsets of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, precursors and circulating cells, macrophage density, and immune organ structure. In a model of melanoma, however, TAMs lacking c-Myc displayed a delay in maturation and showed an attenuation of pro-tumoral functions (e.g., reduced expression of VEGF, MMP9, and HIF1α) that was associated with impaired tissue remodeling and angiogenesis and limited tumor growth in c-Mycfl/fl LysMcre/+ mice. Macrophage c-Myc deletion also diminished fibrosarcoma growth. These data identify c-Myc as a positive regulator of the pro-tumoral program of TAMs and suggest c-Myc inactivation as an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:23028984

  17. In vivo inhibition of c-MYC in myeloid cells impairs tumor-associated macrophage maturation and pro-tumoral activities.

    PubMed

    Pello, Oscar M; Chvre, Raphael; Laoui, Damya; De Juan, Alba; Lolo, Fidel; Andrs-Manzano, Mara Jess; Serrano, Manuel; Van Ginderachter, Jo A; Andrs, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Although tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are involved in tumor growth and metastasis, the mechanisms controlling their pro-tumoral activities remain largely unknown. The transcription factor c-MYC has been recently shown to regulate in vitro human macrophage polarization and be expressed in macrophages infiltrating human tumors. In this study, we exploited the predominant expression of LysM in myeloid cells to generate c-Myc(fl/fl) LysM(cre/+) mice, which lack c-Myc in macrophages, to investigate the role of macrophage c-MYC expression in cancer. Under steady-state conditions, immune system parameters in c-Myc(fl/fl) LysM(cre/+) mice appeared normal, including the abundance of different subsets of bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells, precursors and circulating cells, macrophage density, and immune organ structure. In a model of melanoma, however, TAMs lacking c-Myc displayed a delay in maturation and showed an attenuation of pro-tumoral functions (e.g., reduced expression of VEGF, MMP9, and HIF1?) that was associated with impaired tissue remodeling and angiogenesis and limited tumor growth in c-Myc(fl/fl) LysM(cre/+) mice. Macrophage c-Myc deletion also diminished fibrosarcoma growth. These data identify c-Myc as a positive regulator of the pro-tumoral program of TAMs and suggest c-Myc inactivation as an attractive target for anti-cancer therapy. PMID:23028984

  18. Dnmt3a loss predisposes murine hematopoietic stem cells to malignant transformation

    PubMed Central

    Mayle, Allison; Yang, Liubin; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Zhou, Ting; Chang, Edmund; Curry, Choladda V.; Challen, Grant A.; Li, Wei; Wheeler, David; Rebel, Vivienne I.

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) is mutated in hematologic malignancies affecting myeloid, mixed, and lymphoid lineages, and these mutations are associated with poor prognosis. Past studies in mice revealed Dnmt3a-knockout (KO) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) had increased self-renewal, but no leukemia was observed. Here, all lethally irradiated mice transplanted with Dnmt3a-deleted HSCs died within 1 year. Animals were diagnosed with a spectrum of malignancies similar to those seen in patients with DNMT3A mutations, including myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myeloid leukemia, primary myelofibrosis, and T- and B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. In some cases, acquired malignancies exhibited secondary mutations similar to those identified in patients. Loss of Dnmt3a led to disturbed methylation patterns that were distinct in lymphoid and myeloid disease, suggesting lineage-specific methylation aberrations promoted by Dnmt3a loss. Global hypomethylation was observed in all of the malignancies, but lymphoid malignancies also exhibited hypermethylation, particularly at promoter regions. This mouse model underscores the important role of Dnmt3a in normal hematopoietic development and demonstrates that Dnmt3a loss of function confers a preleukemic phenotype on murine HSCs. This model may serve as a tool to study DNMT3A mutation-associated malignancies and for developing targeted strategies for eliminating preleukemic cells for prevention and treatment of hematologic malignancies in the future. PMID:25416277

  19. Dnmt3a loss predisposes murine hematopoietic stem cells to malignant transformation.

    PubMed

    Mayle, Allison; Yang, Liubin; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Zhou, Ting; Chang, Edmund; Curry, Choladda V; Challen, Grant A; Li, Wei; Wheeler, David; Rebel, Vivienne I; Goodell, Margaret A

    2015-01-22

    DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) is mutated in hematologic malignancies affecting myeloid, mixed, and lymphoid lineages, and these mutations are associated with poor prognosis. Past studies in mice revealed Dnmt3a-knockout (KO)hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) had increased self-renewal, but no leukemia was observed. Here, all lethally irradiated mice transplanted with Dnmt3a-deleted HSCs died within 1 year. Animals were diagnosed with a spectrum of malignancies similar to those seen in patients with DNMT3A mutations, including myelodysplastic syndrome, acute myeloid leukemia, primary myelofibrosis, and T- and B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. In some cases, acquired malignancies exhibited secondary mutations similar to those identified in patients. Loss of Dnmt3a led to disturbed methylation patterns that were distinct in lymphoid and myeloid disease, suggesting lineage-specific methylation aberrations promoted by Dnmt3a loss. Global hypomethylation was observed in all of the malignancies, but lymphoid malignancies also exhibited hypermethylation, particularly at promoter regions. This mouse model underscores the important role of Dnmt3a in normal hematopoietic development and demonstrates that Dnmt3a loss of function confers a preleukemic phenotype on murine HSCs. This model may serve as a tool to study DNMT3A mutation associated malignancies and for developing targeted strategies for eliminating preleukemic cells for prevention and treatment of hematologic malignancies in the future. PMID:25416277

  20. Major remodelling of the murine stem cell kinome following differentiation in the hematopoietic compartment

    PubMed Central

    Hazen, Amy L.; Diks, Sander H.; Wahle, Joseph A.; Fuhler, Gwenny M.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Kerr, William G.

    2011-01-01

    The changes in signal transduction associated with the acquisition of specific cell fates remain poorly understood. We performed massive parallel assessment of kinase signatures of the radiations of the hematopoietic system, including long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSC), short-term repopulating HSC (ST-HSC), immature natural killer (iNK) cells, NK cells, B cells, T cells and myeloid cells. The LT-HSC kinome is characterised by non-canonical Wnt, Ca2+ and classical protein kinase C (PKC)-driven signalling, which is lost upon the transition to ST-HSC, whose kinome signature prominently features receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activation of the Ras/MAPK signalling cassette. Further differentiation to iNK maintains signalling through this cassette but simultaneously leads to activation of a PI3K/PKB/Rac signalling, which becomes the dominant trait in the kinase signature following full differentiation towards NK cells. Differentiation along the myeloid and B cell lineages is accompanied by hyperactivation of both the Ras/MAPK and PI3K/PKB/Rac signalling cassette. T cells, however, deactivate signalling and only display residual G protein-coupled pathways. Thus, differentiation along the hematopoietic lineage is associated with major remodelling of cellular kinase signature. PMID:21648952

  1. Kruppel-like factor 7 overexpression suppresses hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell function

    PubMed Central

    Schuettpelz, Laura G.; Gopalan, Priya K.; Giuste, Felipe O.; Romine, Molly P.; van Os, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    Increased expression of Kruppel-like factor 7 (KLF7) is an independent predictor of poor outcome in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. The contribution of KLF7 to hematopoiesis has not been previously described. Herein, we characterized the effect on murine hematopoiesis of the loss of KLF7 and enforced expression of KLF7. Long-term multilineage engraftment of Klf7?/? cells was comparable with control cells, and self-renewal, as assessed by serial transplantation, was not affected. Enforced expression of KLF7 results in a marked suppression of myeloid progenitor cell growth and a loss of short- and long-term repopulating activity. Interestingly, enforced expression of KLF7, although resulting in multilineage growth suppression that extended to hematopoietic stem cells and common lymphoid progenitors, spared T cells and enhanced the survival of early thymocytes. RNA expression profiling of KLF7-overexpressing hematopoietic progenitors identified several potential target genes mediating these effects. Notably, the known KLF7 target Cdkn1a (p21Cip1/Waf1) was not induced by KLF7, and loss of CDKN1A does not rescue the repopulating defect. These results suggest that KLF7 is not required for normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor function, but increased expression, as seen in a subset of lymphoid leukemia, inhibits myeloid cell proliferation and promotes early thymocyte survival. PMID:22936656

  2. Reticular dysgenesis-associated AK2 protects hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell development from oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Rissone, Alberto; Weinacht, Katja Gabriele; la Marca, Giancarlo; Bishop, Kevin; Giocaliere, Elisa; Jagadeesh, Jayashree; Felgentreff, Kerstin; Dobbs, Kerry; Al-Herz, Waleed; Jones, Marypat; Chandrasekharappa, Settara; Kirby, Martha; Wincovitch, Stephen; Simon, Karen Lyn; Itan, Yuval; DeVine, Alex; Schlaeger, Thorsten; Schambach, Axel; Sood, Raman; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Candotti, Fabio

    2015-07-27

    Adenylate kinases (AKs) are phosphotransferases that regulate the cellular adenine nucleotide composition and play a critical role in the energy homeostasis of all tissues. The AK2 isoenzyme is expressed in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and is mutated in reticular dysgenesis (RD), a rare form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in humans. RD is characterized by a maturation arrest in the myeloid and lymphoid lineages, leading to early onset, recurrent, and overwhelming infections. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of RD, we studied the effects of AK2 deficiency using the zebrafish model and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from fibroblasts of an RD patient. In zebrafish, Ak2 deficiency affected hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) development with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. AK2-deficient iPSCs recapitulated the characteristic myeloid maturation arrest at the promyelocyte stage and demonstrated an increased AMP/ADP ratio, indicative of an energy-depleted adenine nucleotide profile. Antioxidant treatment rescued the hematopoietic phenotypes in vivo in ak2 mutant zebrafish and restored differentiation of AK2-deficient iPSCs into mature granulocytes. Our results link hematopoietic cell fate in AK2 deficiency to cellular energy depletion and increased oxidative stress. This points to the potential use of antioxidants as a supportive therapeutic modality for patients with RD. PMID:26150473

  3. Comparative long-term effects of interferon ? and hydroxyurea on human hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    King, Katherine Y; Matatall, Katie A; Shen, Ching-Chieh; Goodell, Margaret A; Swierczek, Sabina I; Prchal, Josef T

    2015-10-01

    Interferon ? (IFN?) is used clinically to restore polyclonal hematopoiesis in patients with the myeloproliferative neoplasms polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia and to improve chemosensitivity in chronic myeloid leukemia patients. However, the mechanisms by which IFN? affects disease-initiating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) remain poorly understood. Although IFN? has been found to transiently impair quiescence of murine hematopoietic stem cells, its effects on human HSPCs have not been studied invivo. Here, we compared bone marrow serially obtained from patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms before and during pegylated IFN? treatment against marrow serially obtained from patients on hydroxyurea. The percentage of HSPCs actively undergoing cell cycle was increased after pegylated IFN? treatment in a majority of patients compared with hydroxyurea-treated controls, suggesting that IFN? promotes cell division. Furthermore, transcriptional profiling revealed that cell cycle-associated genes were induced, whereas genes involved in HSPC quiescence were repressed during IFN? treatment. Compared with hydroxyurea-treated controls, pegylated IFN?-treated patients had similar numbers of HSPCs, but increased numbers of hematopoietic progenitors as determined by colony formation assay, indicating an increase in myeloid proliferation/differentiation. These effects occurred regardless of JAK2 mutational status. Together, these data provide the first invivo evidence that pegylated IFN? promotes cell division and differentiation of humanHSPCs. PMID:26072330

  4. Reticular dysgenesis–associated AK2 protects hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell development from oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Rissone, Alberto; Weinacht, Katja Gabriele; la Marca, Giancarlo; Bishop, Kevin; Giocaliere, Elisa; Jagadeesh, Jayashree; Felgentreff, Kerstin; Dobbs, Kerry; Al-Herz, Waleed; Jones, Marypat; Chandrasekharappa, Settara; Kirby, Martha; Wincovitch, Stephen; Simon, Karen Lyn; Itan, Yuval; DeVine, Alex; Schlaeger, Thorsten; Schambach, Axel; Sood, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Adenylate kinases (AKs) are phosphotransferases that regulate the cellular adenine nucleotide composition and play a critical role in the energy homeostasis of all tissues. The AK2 isoenzyme is expressed in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and is mutated in reticular dysgenesis (RD), a rare form of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in humans. RD is characterized by a maturation arrest in the myeloid and lymphoid lineages, leading to early onset, recurrent, and overwhelming infections. To gain insight into the pathophysiology of RD, we studied the effects of AK2 deficiency using the zebrafish model and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) derived from fibroblasts of an RD patient. In zebrafish, Ak2 deficiency affected hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) development with increased oxidative stress and apoptosis. AK2-deficient iPSCs recapitulated the characteristic myeloid maturation arrest at the promyelocyte stage and demonstrated an increased AMP/ADP ratio, indicative of an energy-depleted adenine nucleotide profile. Antioxidant treatment rescued the hematopoietic phenotypes in vivo in ak2 mutant zebrafish and restored differentiation of AK2-deficient iPSCs into mature granulocytes. Our results link hematopoietic cell fate in AK2 deficiency to cellular energy depletion and increased oxidative stress. This points to the potential use of antioxidants as a supportive therapeutic modality for patients with RD. PMID:26150473

  5. Misfolded N-CoR is Linked to the Ectopic Reactivation of CD34/Flt3-Based Stem-Cell Phenotype in Promyelocytic and Monocytic Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Nin, Dawn Sijin; Li, Feng; Visvanathan, Sridevi; Khan, Matiullah

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear receptor co-repressor (N-CoR) is the key component of generic co-repressor complex essential for the transcriptional control of genes involved in cellular hemostasis. We have recently reported that N-CoR actively represses Flt3, a key factor of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) self-renewal and growth, and that de-repression of Flt3 by the misfolded N-CoR plays an important role in the pathogenesis of promyelocytic and monocytic acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The leukemic cells derived from the promyelocytic and monocytic AML are distinctly characterized by the ectopic reactivation of stem cell phenotypes in relatively committed myeloid compartment. However, the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon is not known. Here, we report that N-CoR function is essential for the commitment of primitive hematopoietic cells to the cells of myeloid lineage and that loss of N-CoR function due to misfolding is linked to the ectopic reactivation of generic stem cell phenotypes in promyelocytic and monocytic AML. Analysis of N-CoR and Flt3 transcripts in mouse hematopoietic cells revealed a positive correlation between N-CoR level and the commitment of myeloid cells and an inverse correlation between N-CoR and Flt3 levels in primitive as well as committed myeloid cells. Enforced N-CoR expression in mouse HSCs inhibited their growth and self-renewal potentials and promoted maturation toward cells of myeloid lineage, suggesting a role of N-CoR in the commitment of cells of myeloid lineage. In contrast to AML cells with natively folded N-CoR, primary and secondary promyelocytic and monocytic AML cells harboring the misfolded N-CoR were highly positive for Flt3 and myeloid antigen-based HSC marker CD34. Genetic and therapeutic restoration of N-CoR conformation significantly down-regulated the CD34 levels in monocytic AML cells, suggesting an important role of N-CoR in the suppression of CD34-based HSC phenotypes. These findings collectively suggest that N-CoR is crucial for the commitment of primitive hematopoietic cells to cells of myeloid lineage and that misfolded N-CoR may contribute to transformation of committed myeloid cells through the ectopic reactivation of Flt3/CD34-based stem cell phenotypes in promyelocytic and monocytic AML. Moreover, these findings provide novel mechanistic insights into the formation of leukemic stem cells in subsets of AML and identify the misfolded N-CoR as a subtype-specific biomarker of AML. PMID:26500885

  6. Alternative Donor Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Bejanyan, Nelli; Haddad, Housam; Brunstein, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a potentially curative therapy for adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but its use for consolidation therapy after first remission with induction chemotherapy used to be limited to younger patients and those with suitable donors. The median age of AML diagnosis is in the late 60s. With the introduction of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC), many older adults are now eligible to receive allo-HCT, including those who are medically less fit to receive myeloablative conditioning. Furthermore, AML patients commonly have no human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical or medically suitable sibling donor available to proceed with allo-HCT. Technical advances in donor matching, suppression of alloreactivity, and supportive care have made it possible to use alternative donors, such as unrelated umbilical cord blood (UCB) and partially HLA-matched related (haploidentical) donors. Outcomes after alternative donor allo-HCT are now approaching the outcomes observed for conventional allo-HCT with matched related and unrelated donors. Thus, with both UCB and haploidentical donors available, lack of donor should rarely be a limiting factor in offering an allo-HCT to adults with AML. PMID:26239557

  7. Stem Cell Biomarkers in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yun; Forrest, Donna; Smith, Clayton; Eaves, Allen; Eaves, Connie

    2008-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal multi-step myeloproliferative disease that is initially produced and ultimately sustained by a rare subpopulation of BCR-ABL+ cells with multi-lineage stem cell properties. These BCR-ABL+ CML stem cells are phenotypically similar to normal hematopoietic stem cells which are also maintained throughout the course of the disease at varying levels in different patients. Defining the unique properties of the leukemic stem cells that produce the chronic phase of CML has therefore had to rely heavily on access to samples from rare patients in which the stem cell compartment is dominated by leukemic elements. Here we review past and ongoing approaches using such samples to identify biologically and clinically relevant biomarkers of BCR-ABL+ stem cells that explain their unusual biology and that may help to design, or at least predict, improved treatment responses in CML patients. These studies are of particular interest in light of recent evidence that chronic phase CML stem cells are not only innately resistant to imatinib mesylate and other drugs that target the BCR-ABL oncoprotein, but are also genetically unstable. PMID:18525114

  8. [Hematopoietic functions in hypokinesia].

    PubMed

    Shvets, V N; Portugalov, V V

    1976-09-01

    Materials on the state of hemopoietic organs and peripheral blood of mice and rats kept under hypokinetic conditions for from 1 to 60 days are presented. The changes occurring in the lymphoid tissue (involution of thymo-lymphatic apparatus, lymphopenia and neutrophilosis) have been shown to result from the state of stress. In the bone marrow of animals there occurs activation of erythropoiesis (erythroblasts-polychromatophilic normoblasts) at early (up to 15 days) term of hypokinesia, followed by its inhibition on the 60th day of the experiment. The study of kinetics of the amount of hemopoietic stem cells in the spleen and bone marrow of the femur of mice kept under hypokinesia for 1-45 days suggests the amount of stem cells in the spleen to decrease exponentially while in the bone marrow it changes undulatorily with the maximum on the 1st-3d and 30th-45th days of hypokinesia. Shifts in the number of the stem cell population are accompanied by changes in the direction of their differentiation. The stem cells of the bone marrow manifest higher potencies to form colonies of the erythroid type as compared with the stem cells of intact animals. Possible mechanisms underlying the inhibition of lymph-and erythropoiesis and changes of the stem cell differentiation from the myeloid way to the erythroid way under conditions of hypokinesia are discussed. PMID:791200

  9. Transduction of feline hematopoietic cells by oncoretroviral vectors pseudotyped with the subgroup A feline leukemia virus (FeLV-A).

    PubMed

    Josephson, N C; Sabo, K M; Abkowitz, J L

    2000-07-01

    The domestic cat is an outbred species with many identified analogues of human genetic diseases. Therefore, it has the potential to serve as a large animal model for evaluating the feasibility of hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. This study compared gene transfer rates into feline hematopoietic progenitors by oncoretroviral vectors pseudotyped with the subgroup A feline leukemia virus (FeLV-A), the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV), and the murine amphotropic virus. Gene transfer rates were superior with the FeLV-A pseudotypes, which were then tested for their ability to transduce a cat hematopoietic repopulating cell. At more than 1 year posttransplantation, persistent marking was seen in both lymphoid and myeloid lineages of a myeloablated domestic cat that had received autologous marrow cells transduced with an FeLV-A pseudotyped vector. PMID:10899828

  10. Progress toward curing HIV infection with hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Petz, Lawrence D; Burnett, John C; Li, Haitang; Li, Shirley; Tonai, Richard; Bakalinskaya, Milena; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Armitage, Sue; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Regan, Donna M; Clark, Pamela; Querol, Sergio; Gutman, Jonathan A; Spellman, Stephen R; Gragert, Loren; Rossi, John J

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 infection afflicts more than 35 million people worldwide, according to 2014 estimates from the World Health Organization. For those individuals who have access to antiretroviral therapy, these drugs can effectively suppress, but not cure, HIV-1 infection. Indeed, the only documented case for an HIV/AIDS cure was a patient with HIV-1 and acute myeloid leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from a graft that carried the HIV-resistant CCR5-?32/?32 mutation. Other attempts to establish a cure for HIV/AIDS using HCT in patients with HIV-1 and malignancy have yielded mixed results, as encouraging evidence for virus eradication in a few cases has been offset by poor clinical outcomes due to the underlying cancer or other complications. Such clinical strategies have relied on HIV-resistant hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that harbor the natural CCR5-?32/?32 mutation or that have been genetically modified for HIV-resistance. Nevertheless, HCT with HIV-resistant cord blood remains a promising option, particularly with inventories of CCR5-?32/?32 units or with genetically modified, human leukocyte antigen-matched cord blood. PMID:26251620

  11. Colony forming cell assays for human hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Wognum, Bert; Yuan, Ning; Lai, Becky; Miller, Cindy L

    2013-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) present in small numbers in adult bone marrow (BM), peripheral blood (PB) and umbilical cord blood (CB) produce a heterogeneous pool of progenitors that can be detected in vitro using colony forming cell (CFC) assays. Hematopoietic progenitor cells proliferate and differentiate to produce colonies of maturing cells when cultured in a semisolid methylcellulose-based medium that is supplemented with suitable growth factors and other supplements. The colonies are then classified and enumerated in situ by light microscopy or an automated imaging instrument. CFC assays are important tools in basic hematology research but are also used by clinical cell processing laboratories to measure the progenitor cell content of BM, CB and mobilized PB (MPB) preparations used for cell transplantation. Standard CFC assays for human progenitor cells require a culture period of at least 14 days to enable optimal outgrowth and differentiation of the maximum number of CFCs in a cell preparation. In this chapter protocols are described for the detection and enumeration of myeloid multipotential progenitors and committed progenitors of the erythroid, monocyte, and granulocyte lineages in samples from human PB, MPB, BM, and CB. In addition protocols are described for a modified version of the CFC-assay that allows accurate enumeration of total CFC numbers in CB or MPB after a culture period of only 7 days, but without distinction of colony types. PMID:23179838

  12. Progress toward curing HIV infection with hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Petz, Lawrence D; Burnett, John C; Li, Haitang; Li, Shirley; Tonai, Richard; Bakalinskaya, Milena; Shpall, Elizabeth J; Armitage, Sue; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Regan, Donna M; Clark, Pamela; Querol, Sergio; Gutman, Jonathan A; Spellman, Stephen R; Gragert, Loren; Rossi, John J

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1 infection afflicts more than 35 million people worldwide, according to 2014 estimates from the World Health Organization. For those individuals who have access to antiretroviral therapy, these drugs can effectively suppress, but not cure, HIV-1 infection. Indeed, the only documented case for an HIV/AIDS cure was a patient with HIV-1 and acute myeloid leukemia who received allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from a graft that carried the HIV-resistant CCR5-?32/?32 mutation. Other attempts to establish a cure for HIV/AIDS using HCT in patients with HIV-1 and malignancy have yielded mixed results, as encouraging evidence for virus eradication in a few cases has been offset by poor clinical outcomes due to the underlying cancer or other complications. Such clinical strategies have relied on HIV-resistant hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells that harbor the natural CCR5-?32/?32 mutation or that have been genetically modified for HIV-resistance. Nevertheless, HCT with HIV-resistant cord blood remains a promising option, particularly with inventories of CCR5-?32/?32 units or with genetically modified, human leukocyte antigen-matched cord blood. PMID:26251620

  13. Hematopoietic Neoplasias in Horses: Myeloproliferative and Lymphoproliferative Disorders

    PubMed Central

    MUOZ, Ana; RIBER, Cristina; TRIGO, Pablo; CASTEJN, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Leukemia, i.e., the neoplasia of one or more cell lines of the bone marrow, although less common than in other species, it is also reported in horses. Leukemia can be classified according to the affected cells (myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders), evolution of clinical signs (acute or chronic) and the presence or lack of abnormal cells in peripheral blood (leukemic, subleukemic and aleukemic leukemia). The main myeloproliferative disorders in horses are malignant histiocytosis and myeloid leukemia, the latter being classified as monocytic and myelomonocytic, granulocytic, primary erythrocytosis or polycythemia vera and megakaryocytic leukemia. The most common lymphoproliferative disorders in horses are lymphoid leukemia, plasma cell or multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasia in horses and usually involves lymphoid organs, without leukemia, although bone marrow may be affected after metastasis. Lymphoma could be classified according to the organs involved and four main clinical categories have been established: generalized-multicentric, alimentary-gastrointestinal, mediastinal-thymic-thoracic and cutaneous. The clinical signs, hematological and clinical pathological findings, results of bone marrow aspirates, involvement of other organs, prognosis and treatment, if applicable, are presented for each type of neoplasia. This paper aims to provide a guide for equine practitioners when approaching to clinical cases with suspicion of hematopoietic neoplasia. PMID:24833969

  14. Nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for GATA2 deficiency.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Jennifer; Cuellar-Rodriguez, Jennifer; Gea-Banacloche, Juan; Zerbe, Christa; Calvo, Katherine; Hughes, Thomas; Hakim, Fran; Cole, Kristen; Parta, Mark; Freeman, Alexandra; Holland, Steven M; Hickstein, Dennis D

    2014-12-01

    We treated 14 patients with GATA2 deficiency using a nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation regimen. Four patients received peripheral blood stem cells from matched related donors (MRD), 4 patients received peripheral blood stem cells from matched unrelated donors (URD), 4 patients received hematopoietic stem cells from umbilical cord blood donors (UCB), and 2 patients received bone marrow cells from haploidentical related donors. MRD and URD recipients received conditioning with 3days of fludarabine and 200cGy total body irradiation (TBI). Haploidentical related donor recipients and UCB recipients received cyclophosphamide and 2 additional days of fludarabine along with 200 cGY TBI. MRD, URD, and UCB recipients received tacrolimus and sirolimus for post-transplantation immunosuppression, whereas haploidentical recipients received high-dose cyclophosphamide followed by tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Eight patients are alive with reconstitution of the severely deficient monocyte, Bcell, and natural killer cell populations and reversal of the clinical phenotype at a median follow-up of 3.5years. Two patients (1 URD recipient and 1 UCB recipient) rejected the donor graft and 1 MRD recipient relapsed with myelodysplastic syndrome after transplantation. We are currently using a high-dose conditioning regimen with busulfan and fludarabine in patients with GATA2 deficiency to achieve more consistent engraftment and eradication of the malignant myeloid clones. PMID:25111582

  15. Inflammatory signaling regulates embryonic hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell production

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Esain, Virginie; Teng, Li; Xu, Jian; Kwan, Wanda; Frost, Isaura M.; Yzaguirre, Amanda D.; Cai, Xiongwei; Cortes, Mauricio; Maijenburg, Marijke W.; Tober, Joanna; Dzierzak, Elaine; Orkin, Stuart H.; Tan, Kai; Speck, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying signaling pathways that regulate hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) formation in the embryo will guide efforts to produce and expand HSPCs ex vivo. Here we show that sterile tonic inflammatory signaling regulates embryonic HSPC formation. Expression profiling of progenitors with lymphoid potential and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from aorta/gonad/mesonephros (AGM) regions of midgestation mouse embryos revealed a robust innate immune/inflammatory signature. Mouse embryos lacking interferon γ (IFN-γ) or IFN-α signaling and zebrafish morphants lacking IFN-γ and IFN-ϕ activity had significantly fewer AGM HSPCs. Conversely, knockdown of IFN regulatory factor 2 (IRF2), a negative regulator of IFN signaling, increased expression of IFN target genes and HSPC production in zebrafish. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) combined with sequencing (ChIP-seq) and expression analyses demonstrated that IRF2-occupied genes identified in human fetal liver CD34+ HSPCs are actively transcribed in human and mouse HSPCs. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the primitive myeloid population contributes to the local inflammatory response to impact the scale of HSPC production in the AGM region. Thus, sterile inflammatory signaling is an evolutionarily conserved pathway regulating the production of HSPCs during embryonic development. PMID:25395663

  16. Cutting Edge: Hematopoietic Stem Cell Expansion and Common Lymphoid Progenitor Depletion Require Hematopoietic-Derived, Cell-Autonomous TLR4 in a Model of Chronic Endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailing; Wang, Yujuan; Ding, Ying; Baez, Ineavely; Payne, Kimberly J; Borghesi, Lisa

    2015-09-15

    Hematopoietic stem and progenitors cells (HSPCs) are activated through TLR4 in vitro. However, it remains unclear whether in vivo TLR4 sensing by HSPCs occurs directly or via other cell intermediates. In this study, we examined the cellular mechanisms underlying murine hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) expansion and common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) depletion in a model of chronic low-dose LPS. Using adoptive-transfer approaches, we show that HSC and CLP sensitivity to chronic LPS depends on hematopoietic-derived, cell subset-autonomous TLR4. Like murine progenitors, human HSPCs are activated by TLR4 in vitro. Using humanized mice, a preclinical model relevant to human physiology, we show that persistent endotoxin increases the frequency of Ki-67(+) HSCs and severely depletes CLPs and B precursors. Together, our findings show that murine HSPCs directly respond to endotoxin in vivo and that persistent LPS, a feature of several diseases of global health significance, impairs human lymphopoiesis. PMID:26276875

  17. Cellular Reprogramming Allows Generation of Autologous Hematopoietic Progenitors From AML Patients That Are Devoid of Patient-Specific Genomic Aberrations

    PubMed Central

    Salci, Kyle R; Lee, Jong-Hee; Laronde, Sarah; Dingwall, Steve; Kushwah, Rahul; Fiebig-Comyn, Aline; Leber, Brian; Foley, Ronan; Dal Cin, Arianna; Bhatia, Mickie

    2015-01-01

    Current treatments that use hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients substantially reduce the risk of relapse, but are limited by the availability of immune compatible healthy HPCs. Although cellular reprogramming has the potential to provide a novel autologous source of HPCs for transplantation, the applicability of this technology toward the derivation of healthy autologous hematopoietic cells devoid of patient-specific leukemic aberrations from AML patients must first be evaluated. Here, we report the generation of human AML patient-specific hematopoietic progenitors that are capable of normal in vitro differentiation to myeloid lineages and are devoid of leukemia-associated aberration found in matched patient bone marrow. Skin fibroblasts were obtained from AML patients whose leukemic cells possessed a distinct, leukemia-associated aberration, and used to create AML patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Through hematopoietic differentiation of AML patient iPSCs, coupled with cytogenetic interrogation, we reveal that AML patient-specific HPCs possess normal progenitor capacity and are devoid of leukemia-associated mutations. Importantly, in rare patient skin samples that give rise to mosaic fibroblast cultures that continue to carry leukemia-associated mutations; healthy hematopoietic progenitors can also be generated via reprogramming selection. Our findings provide the proof of principle that cellular reprogramming can be applied on a personalized basis to generate healthy HPCs from AML patients, and should further motivate advances toward creating transplantable hematopoietic stem cells for autologous AML therapy. Stem Cells 2013;33:18391849 PMID:25764124

  18. Increased mitochondrial apoptotic priming of human regulatory T cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Murase, Kazuyuki; Kim, Haesook T.; Bascug, O.R. Gregory; Kawano, Yutaka; Ryan, Jeremy; Matsuoka, Ken-ichi; Davids, Matthew S.; Koreth, John; Ho, Vincent T.; Cutler, Corey; Armand, Philippe; Alyea, Edwin P.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Antin, Joseph H.; Soiffer, Robert J.; Letai, Anthony; Ritz, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    CD4 regulatory T cells play a critical role in establishment of immune tolerance and prevention of graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The recovery and maintenance of regulatory T cells is dependent on homeostatic factors including the generation of nave regulatory T cells from hematopoietic precursor cells, the proliferation and expansion of mature regulatory T cells, and the survival of regulatory T cells in vivo. In this study, quantitation of mitochondrial apoptotic priming was used to compare susceptibility of regulatory T cells, conventional CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells to intrinsic pathway apoptosis in 57 patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and 25 healthy donors. In healthy donors, regulatory T cells are more susceptible to mitochondrial priming than conventional T cells. Mitochondrial priming is increased after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in all T-cell subsets and particularly in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease. Regulatory T cells express high levels of CD95 and are also more susceptible than conventional T cells to apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway. However, CD95 expression and extrinsic pathway apoptosis is not increased after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Decreased expression of BCL2 and increased expression of BIM, a mitochondrial cell death activator protein, in regulatory T cells contributes to increased mitochondrial priming in this T-cell subset but additional factors likely contribute to increased mitochondrial priming following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. PMID:24859877

  19. Hypoxia and HIFs in regulating the development of the hematopoietic system

    PubMed Central

    Imanirad, Parisa; Dzierzak, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Many physiologic processes during the early stages of mammalian ontogeny, particularly placental and vascular development, take place in the low oxygen environment of the uterus. Organogenesis is affected by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) transcription factors that are sensors of hypoxia. In response to hypoxia, HIFs activate downstream target genes – growth and metabolism factors. During hematopoietic system ontogeny, blood cells and hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells are respectively generated from mesodermal precursors, hemangioblasts, and from a specialized subset of endothelial cells that are hemogenic. Since HIFs are known to play a central role in vascular development, and hematopoietic system development occurs in parallel to that of the vascular system, several studies have examined the role of HIFs in hematopoietic development. The response to hypoxia has been examined in early and mid-gestation mouse embryos through genetic deletion of HIF subunits. We review here the data showing that hematopoietic tissues of the embryo are hypoxic and express HIFs and HIF downstream targets, and that HIFs regulate the development and function of hematopoietic progenitor/stem cells. PMID:24103835

  20. Telomere loss in Philadelphia-negative hematopoiesis after successful treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia: evidence for premature aging of the myeloid compartment.

    PubMed

    Lobetti-Bodoni, Chiara; Ferrero, Dario; Genuardi, Elisa; Passera, Roberto; Bernocco, Elisa; Sia, Daniela; Grignani, Giovanni; Crisà, Elena; Monitillo, Luigia; Rocci, Alberto; Drandi, Daniela; Giai, Valentina; Zanni, Manuela; Boi, Michela; Isaia, Gianluca; Barbero, Daniela; Lunghi, Monia; Abruzzese, Elisabetta; Radaelli, Franca; Pini, Massimo; Pregno, Patrizia; Carlo-Stella, Carmelo; Gaidano, Gianluca; Boccadoro, Mario; Ladetto, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Telomere shortening, a well-known marker of aging and cellular stress, occurs under several conditions in the hematopoietic compartment, including aplastic anemia and following iatrogenic noxae. We decided to verify whether pathological telomere erosion also arises in restored Philadelphia-negative (Ph-negative) hematopoiesis following successful treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Eighty-one CML patients in complete cytogenetic remission were compared to 76 age-matched healthy subjects. Myeloid cells of CML patients had shorter telomeres than controls (6521 bp vs 7233 bp, p<0.001). This difference was specific for the myeloid compartment, since it was not observed in lymphoid cells (6774 bp vs 6909 bp, p=0.620). Acquired Ph-negative cytogenetic abnormalities (p=0.010), lack of complete molecular remission (p=0.016) and age (p=0.013) were independent predictors of telomere shortening. Telomere dynamics were assessed over a median follow-up period of 22 months. We documented accelerated non-physiological ongoing telomere shortening in 17/59 CML patients (28%). Patients experiencing grade 2-4 hematological toxicity, during CML remission possessed significantly shorter telomeres compared to those lacking toxicity (p=0.005 for any toxicity, p=0.007 for anemia). CML patients suffer from significant and often ongoing telomere stress resulting in premature and selective aging of the myeloid compartment which might have long-term consequences on function and integrity of Ph-negative hematopoiesis. PMID:22687638

  1. On the origin of hematopoietic stem cells: progress and controversy.

    PubMed

    Boisset, Jean-Charles; Robin, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) are responsible for the production and replenishment of all blood cell types during the entire life of an organism. Generated during embryonic development, HSCs transit through different anatomical niches where they will expand before colonizing in the bone marrow, where they will reside during adult life. Although the existence of HSCs has been known for more than fifty years and despite extensive research performed in different animal models, there is still uncertainty with respect to the precise origins of HSCs. We review the current knowledge on embryonic hematopoiesis and highlight the remaining questions regarding the anatomical and cellular identities of HSC precursors. PMID:22099016

  2. Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Ji, Zhiying; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Guo, Weihong; Liu, Songwang; Reiss, Boris; Laura Beane, Freeman; Ge, Yichen; Hubbard, Alan E.; Hua, Ming; Blair, Aaron; Galvan, Noe; Ruan, Xiaolin; Alter, Blanche P.; Xin, Kerry X.; Li, Senhua; Moore, Lee E.; Kim, Sungkyoon; Xie, Yuxuan; Hayes, Richard B.; Azuma, Mariko; Hauptmann, Michael; Xiong, Jun; Stewart, Patricia; Li, Laiyu; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Huang, Hanlin; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Smith, Martyn T.; Lan, Qing

    2010-01-01

    There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing and other industries. Epidemiological studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure is associated with an increased risk of leukemia. However, the biological plausibility of these findings has been questioned because limited information is available on formaldehydes ability to disrupt hematopoietic function. Our objective was to determine if formaldehyde exposure disrupts hematopoietic function and produces leukemia-related chromosome changes in exposed humans. We examined the ability of formaldehyde to disrupt hematopoiesis in a study of 94 workers in China (43 exposed to formaldehyde and 51 frequency-matched controls) by measuring complete blood counts and peripheral stem/progenitor cell colony formation. Further, myeloid progenitor cells, the target for leukemogenesis, were cultured from the workers to quantify the level of leukemia-specific chromosome changes, including monosomy 7 and trisomy 8, in metaphase spreads of these cells. Among exposed workers, peripheral blood cell counts were significantly lowered in a manner consistent with toxic effects on the bone marrow and leukemia-specific chromosome changes were significantly elevated in myeloid blood progenitor cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde exposure can have an adverse impact on the hematopoietic system and that leukemia induction by formaldehyde is biologically plausible, which heightens concerns about its leukemogenic potential from occupational and environmental exposures. PMID:20056626

  3. Identifying States along the Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation Hierarchy with Single Cell Specificity via Raman Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ilin, Yelena; Choi, Ji Sun; Harley, Brendan A C; Kraft, Mary L

    2015-11-17

    A major challenge for expanding specific types of hematopoietic cells ex vivo for the treatment of blood cell pathologies is identifying the combinations of cellular and matrix cues that direct hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) to self-renew or differentiate into cell populations ex vivo. Microscale screening platforms enable minimizing the number of rare HSCs required to screen the effects of numerous cues on HSC fate decisions. These platforms create a strong demand for label-free methods that accurately identify the fate decisions of individual hematopoietic cells at specific locations on the platform. We demonstrate the capacity to identify discrete cells along the HSC differentiation hierarchy via multivariate analysis of Raman spectra. Notably, cell state identification is accurate for individual cells and independent of the biophysical properties of the functionalized polyacrylamide gels upon which these cells are cultured. We report partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) models of single cell Raman spectra enable identifying four dissimilar hematopoietic cell populations across the HSC lineage specification. Successful discrimination was obtained for a population enriched for long-term repopulating HSCs (LT-HSCs) versus their more differentiated progeny, including closely related short-term repopulating HSCs (ST-HSCs) and fully differentiated lymphoid (B cells) and myeloid (granulocytes) cells. The lineage-specific differentiation states of cells from these four subpopulations were accurately identified independent of the stiffness of the underlying biomaterial substrate, indicating subtle spectral variations that discriminated these populations were not masked by features from the culture substrate. This approach enables identifying the lineage-specific differentiation stages of hematopoietic cells on biomaterial substrates of differing composition and may facilitate correlating hematopoietic cell fate decisions with the extrinsic cues that elicited them. PMID:26496164

  4. Transcriptional Heterogeneity and Lineage Commitment in Myeloid Progenitors.

    PubMed

    Paul, Franziska; Arkin, Ya'ara; Giladi, Amir; Jaitin, Diego Adhemar; Kenigsberg, Ephraim; Keren-Shaul, Hadas; Winter, Deborah; Lara-Astiaso, David; Gury, Meital; Weiner, Assaf; David, Eyal; Cohen, Nadav; Lauridsen, Felicia Kathrine Bratt; Haas, Simon; Schlitzer, Andreas; Mildner, Alexander; Ginhoux, Florent; Jung, Steffen; Trumpp, Andreas; Porse, Bo Torben; Tanay, Amos; Amit, Ido

    2015-12-17

    Within the bone marrow, stem cells differentiate and give rise to diverse blood cell types and functions. Currently, hematopoietic progenitors are defined using surface markers combined with functional assays that are not directly linked with invivo differentiation potential or gene regulatory mechanisms. Here, wecomprehensively map myeloid progenitor subpopulations by transcriptional sorting of single cells from the bone marrow. We describe multiple progenitor subgroups, showing unexpected transcriptional priming toward seven differentiation fates but no progenitors with a mixed state. Transcriptional differentiation is correlated with combinations of known and previously undefined transcription factors, suggesting that the process is tightly regulated. Histone maps and knockout assays are consistent with early transcriptional priming, while traditional transplantation experiments suggest that invivo priming may still allow for plasticity given strong perturbations. These data establish a reference model and general framework for studying hematopoiesis at single-cell resolution. PMID:26627738

  5. What Is Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Next Topic Normal bone marrow and blood What is chronic myeloid leukemia? Cancer starts when cells in ... treatment is the same as for adults. What is leukemia? Leukemia is a cancer that starts in ...

  6. What Is Acute Myeloid Leukemia?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... will talk about acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Normal bone marrow and blood cells To understand the different types ... into the bloodstream, and spread to other organs. Bone marrow Bone marrow is the soft, spongy, inner part ...

  7. [Chronic myeloid leukemia].

    PubMed

    Usui, Noriko

    2014-06-01

    More than 10 years have passed since imatinib as a first developed BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) introduced in treatment of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). In globally, there are tremendous numbers of patients on imatinib therapy. Based upon randomized trials comparing second generation TKIs such as dasatinib and nilotinib versus imatinib, both TKIs produce faster and deeper response than imatinib and they can be selected as first-line therapy for newly diagnosed chronic phase of CML (CP-CML) as imatinib. Bosutinib is a potent for imatinib resistant/intolerant CP-CML and can be used as second or third-line therapy. Ponatinib is the only clinically available TKI that has activity against the T315 mutation that is resistant to all other TKIs. Currently, a choice among these potent TKIs should take into consideration the drug side effect profiles and the patient's comorbidities. PMID:25016806

  8. Primary parietal myeloid sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Sivaraju, Laxminadh; Mohan, Dilip; Ghosal, Nandita; Nandeesh, Bevinahalli N.; Hegde, Alangar S.

    2015-01-01

    Intracranial occurrence of myeloid sarcoma without any evidence of systemic hematological disorder is uncommon. We report the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented with features of raised intracranial pressure and paraparesis of short duration. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a 6 cm bilateral middle 1/3rd para sagittal contrast enhancing extra-axial mass with mass effect. The tumor was subtotally excised. Histology and immunohistochemistry proved to be a myelosarcoma. Further evaluation done with peripheral blood smear and bone marrow biopsy ruled out the possibility of leukemia or myeloproliferative disorder. She was referred for chemotherapy and clinically showed improvement after 6 months of follow-up. Authors report a case of intracranial myelosarcoma which closely resembled meningioma both radiologically and in intraoperative morphological appearance. Authors discuss in detail the radiological and histological features of myelosarcoma along with differential diagnoses and treatment options.

  9. CD86 is expressed on murine hematopoietic stem cells and denotes lymphopoietic potential

    PubMed Central

    Shimazu, Tomoyuki; Iida, Ryuji; Zhang, Qingzhao; Welner, Robert S.; Medina, Kay L.; Alberola-lla, Jos

    2012-01-01

    A unique subset of CD86? HSCs was previously discovered in mice that were old or chronically stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Functionally defective HSCs were also present in those animals, and we now show that CD86? CD150+ CD48? HSCs from normal adult mice are particularly poor at restoring the adaptive immune system. Levels of the marker are high on all progenitors with lymphopoietic potential, and progressive loss helps to establish relations between progenitors corresponding to myeloid and erythroid lineages. CD86 represents an important tool for subdividing HSCs in several circumstances, identifying those unlikely to generate a full spectrum of hematopoietic cells. PMID:22371880

  10. Bacterial Pneumonia-induced Persistent Remission of Severe Immune Thrombocytopenia after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Onizuka, Makoto; Matsushita, Hiromichi; Machida, Shinichiro; Toyosaki, Masako; Amaki, Jun; Aoyama, Yasuyuki; Miyamoto, Mitsuki; Ando, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A 53-year-old woman with chronic myeloid leukemia received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. After neutrophil engraftment, her platelet count exceeded 100,000/?L at day 64. While she was receiving corticosteroid treatment for chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD), her platelets suddenly dropped to 6,000/?L at day 210 and she was diagnosed with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). Corticosteroids, intravenous high-dose gamma globulin (IVIg) and a splenectomy failed to increase her platelet count. She developed bacterial pneumonia at day 599 and antibiotic therapy was initiated. Soon after, her platelet count continuously increased. Her GVHD and ITP are now in remission without any ongoing treatment. PMID:26781020

  11. Does Teno Torque Virus Induce Autoimmunity After Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation? A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Maximova, Natalia; Pizzol, Antonio; Ferrara, Giovanna; Maestro, Alessandra; Tamaro, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    Teno Torque virus, member of the family of Anelloviridae, has been associated with many autoimmune diseases such as idiopathic hepatitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and multiple sclerosis. Its viral load tends to be higher in the bone marrow and in tissues with high turnover rate. We report here a case of an 11-month-old infant affected by acute myeloid leukemia who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and after 6 months had autoimmune hepatitis and atopic dermatitis. Extremely high-cytokine IP-10 and eotaxin levels were found in her sera, and serological tests and RT-PCR for viruses showed positive results exclusively for Teno Torque virus. PMID:24942030

  12. Flotillins Are Involved in the Polarization of Primitive and Mature Hematopoietic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Lawrence; Beckmann, Julia; Magenau, Astrid; Boneberg, Eva-Maria; Gaus, Katharina; Viola, Antonella; Giebel, Bernd; Illges, Harald

    2009-01-01

    Background Migration of mature and immature leukocytes in response to chemokines is not only essential during inflammation and host defense, but also during development of the hematopoietic system. Many molecules implicated in migratory polarity show uniform cellular distribution under non-activated conditions, but acquire a polarized localization upon exposure to migratory cues. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we present evidence that raft-associated endocytic proteins (flotillins) are pre-assembled in lymphoid, myeloid and primitive hematopoietic cells and accumulate in the uropod during migration. Furthermore, flotillins display a polarized distribution during immunological synapse formation. Employing the membrane lipid-order sensitive probe Laurdan, we show that flotillin accumulation in the immunological synapse is concomittant with membrane ordering in these regions. Conclusions Together with the observation that flotillin polarization does not occur in other polarized cell types such as polarized epithelial cells, our results suggest a specific role for flotillins in hematopoietic cell polarization. Based on our results, we propose that in hematopoietic cells, flotillins provide intrinsic cues that govern segregation of certain microdomain-associated molecules during immune cell polarization. PMID:20027317

  13. In vitro generation of hematopoietic stem cells from an embryonic stem cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, R; Golunski, E; Samaridis, J

    1995-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are unique in that they give rise both to new stem cells (self-renewal) and to all blood cell types. The cellular and molecular events responsible for the formation of HSC remain unknown mainly because no system exists to study it. Embryonic stem (ES) cells were induced to differentiate by coculture with the stromal cell line RP010 and the combination of interleukin (IL) 3, IL-6, and F (cell-free supernatants from cultures of the FLS4.1 fetal liver stromal cell line). Cell cytometry analysis of the mononuclear cells produced in the cultures was consistent with the presence of PgP-1+ Lin- early hematopoietic (B-220- Mac-1- JORO 75- TER 119-) cells and of fewer B-220+ IgM- B-cell progenitors and JORO 75+ T-lymphocyte progenitors. The cell-sorter-purified PgP-1+ Lin- cells produced by induced ES cells could repopulate the lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid lineages of irradiated mice. The ES-derived PgP-1+ Lin- cells must possess extensive self-renewal potential, as they were able to produce hematopoietic repopulation of secondary mice recipients. Indeed, marrow cells from irradiated mice reconstituted (15-18 weeks before) with PgP-1+ Lin- cell-sorter-purified cells generated by induced ES cells repopulated the lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid lineages of secondary mouse recipients assessed 16-20 weeks after their transfer into irradiated secondary mice. The results show that the culture conditions described here support differentiation of ES cells into hematopoietic cells with functional properties of HSC. It should now be possible to unravel the molecular events leading to the formation of HSC. Images Fig. 3 PMID:7638225

  14. Decitabine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-02-25

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  15. PXD101 in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-10-08

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  16. Decitabine and Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-11-06

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  17. A 54-Year-Old Woman with Donor Cell Origin of Multiple Myeloma after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for the Treatment of CML

    PubMed Central

    Maestas, Erika; Jain, Shikha; Stiff, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia is a myeloproliferative disorder that may be treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). While posttransplantation relapse of disease resulting from a failure to eradicate the patient's original leukemia could occur, patients may also rarely develop a secondary malignancy or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) of donor origin termed donor cell leukemia (DCL). Cases of donor-derived acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or MDS after HSCT or solid tumor transplantation have been published. However, very few cases of donor-derived multiple myeloma (MM) exist. We describe a patient who developed a donor-derived MM following allogeneic HSCT from a sibling donor. PMID:26989529

  18. Myeloid sarcoma presenting as a colon polyp and harbinger of chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Robert; Ettel, Mark; Cho, Margaret; Chan, Alexander; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Neto, Antonio G

    2016-03-15

    Myeloid sarcoma, also known as granulocytic sarcoma or chloroma is an unusual accumulation of malignant myeloid precursor cells in an extramedullary site, which disrupts the normal architecture of the involved tissue. It is known to occur more commonly in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and less commonly in those with myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloproliferative neoplasm, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia. The most common sites of involvement include bone, skin and lymph nodes. However, rare cases have been reported in the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, or breast. Most commonly, a neoplastic extramedullary proliferation of myeloid precursors in a patient would have systemic involvement of a myeloid neoplasm, including in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. Infrequently, extramedullary disease may be the only site of involvement. It may also occur as a localized antecedent to more generalized disease or as a site of recurrence. Herein, we present the first case in the English literature of a patient presenting with an isolated site of myeloid sarcoma arising in the form of a colonic polyp which, after subsequent bone marrow biopsy, was found to be a harbinger of chronic myelogenous leukemia. PMID:26989468

  19. Myeloid sarcoma presenting as a colon polyp and harbinger of chronic myelogenous leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Robert; Ettel, Mark; Cho, Margaret; Chan, Alexander; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Neto, Antonio G

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid sarcoma, also known as granulocytic sarcoma or chloroma is an unusual accumulation of malignant myeloid precursor cells in an extramedullary site, which disrupts the normal architecture of the involved tissue. It is known to occur more commonly in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and less commonly in those with myelodysplastic syndrome and myeloproliferative neoplasm, such as chronic myelogenous leukemia. The most common sites of involvement include bone, skin and lymph nodes. However, rare cases have been reported in the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary tract, or breast. Most commonly, a neoplastic extramedullary proliferation of myeloid precursors in a patient would have systemic involvement of a myeloid neoplasm, including in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. Infrequently, extramedullary disease may be the only site of involvement. It may also occur as a localized antecedent to more generalized disease or as a site of recurrence. Herein, we present the first case in the English literature of a patient presenting with an isolated site of myeloid sarcoma arising in the form of a colonic polyp which, after subsequent bone marrow biopsy, was found to be a harbinger of chronic myelogenous leukemia. PMID:26989468

  20. Vosaroxin and Infusional Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-14

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Myeloid Sarcoma; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Therapy-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Therapy-Related Myelodysplastic Syndrome

  1. Effects of Stem Cell Factor on Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Alpha Accumulation in Human Acute Myeloid Leukaemia and LAD2 Mast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Oniku, Abraham E.; Sumbayev, Vadim V.

    2011-01-01

    Stem cell factor (SCF) is a hematopoietic growth factor that exerts its activity by signalling through the tyrosine kinase receptor known as Kit or CD117. SCF-Kit signalling is crucial for the survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of myeloid lineage. Furthermore, since myeloid leukaemia cells express the Kit receptor, SCF may play an important role in myeloid leukaemia progression too. However, the mechanisms of this pathophysiological effect remain unclear. Recent evidence shows that SCF triggers accumulation of the inducible alpha subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in hematopoietic cellsa transcription complex that plays a pivotal role in cellular adaptation to low oxygen availability. However, it is unknown how SCF impacts on HIF-1? accumulation in human myeloid leukaemia and mast cells. Here we show that SCF induces HIF-1? accumulation in THP-1 human myeloid leukaemia cells but not in LAD2 mast cells. We demonstrated that LAD2 cells have a more robust glutathione (GSH)-dependent antioxidative system compared to THP-1 cells and are therefore protected against the actions of ROS generated in an SCF-dependent manner. BSO-induced GSH depletion led to a significant decrease in HIF-1? prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) activity in THP-1 cells and to near attenuation of it in LAD2 cells. In THP-1 cells, SCF-induced HIF-1? accumulation is controlled via ERK, PI3 kinase/PKC-?/mTOR-dependent and to a certain extent by redox-dependent mechanisms. These results demonstrate for the first time an important cross-talk of signalling pathways associated with HIF-1 activationan important stage of the myeloid leukaemia cell life cycle. PMID:21799876

  2. Acute myeloid leukemia in children: Current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Taga, Takashi; Tomizawa, Daisuke; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Adachi, Souichi

    2016-02-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) accounts for 25% of pediatric leukemia and affects approximately 180 patients annually in Japan. The treatment outcome for pediatric AML has improved through advances in chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), supportive care, and optimal risk stratification. Currently, clinical pediatric AML studies are conducted separately according to the AML subtypes: de novo AML, acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), and myeloid leukemia with Down syndrome (ML-DS). Children with de novo AML are treated mainly with anthracyclines and cytarabine, in some cases with HSCT, and the overall survival (OS) rate now approaches 70%. Children with APL are treated with an all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-combined regimen with an 80-90% OS. Children with ML-DS are treated with a less intensive regimen compared with non-DS patients, and the OS is approximately 80%. HSCT in first remission is restricted to children with high-risk de novo AML only. To further improve outcomes, it will be necessary to combine more accurate risk stratification strategies using molecular genetic analysis with assessment of minimum residual disease, and the introduction of new drugs in international collaborative clinical trials. PMID:26645706

  3. Mitochondrial dependency in progression of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Basak, Nandini Pal; Banerjee, Subrata

    2015-03-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a clonal hematopoietic malignant disorder which arises due to dysregulated differentiation, uncontrolled growth and inhibition of apoptosis leading to the accumulation of immature myeloid progenitor in the bone marrow. The heterogeneity of the disease at the molecular and cytogenetic level has led to the identification of several alteration of biological and clinical significance. One of the alterations which have gained attention in recent times is the altered energy and metabolic dependency of cancer originally proposed by Warburg. Mitochondria are important cell organelles regulating cellular energetic level, metabolism and apoptosis which in turn can affect cell proliferation and differentiation, the major manifestations of diseases like AML. In recent times the importance of mitochondrial generated ATP and mitochondrial localized metabolic pathways has been shown to play important role in the progression of AML. These studies have also demonstrated the clinical significance of mitochondrial targets for its effectiveness in combating relapsed or refractory AML. Here we review the importance of the mitochondrial dependency for the progression of AML and the emergence of the mitochondrial molecular targets which holds therapeutic importance. PMID:25640960

  4. Stem Cell Modeling of Core Binding Factor Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Mosna, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Even though clonally originated from a single cell, acute leukemia loses its homogeneity soon and presents at clinical diagnosis as a hierarchy of cells endowed with different functions, of which only a minority possesses the ability to recapitulate the disease. Due to their analogy to hematopoietic stem cells, these cells have been named “leukemia stem cells,” and are thought to be chiefly responsible for disease relapse and ultimate survival after chemotherapy. Core Binding Factor (CBF) Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is cytogenetically characterized by either the t(8;21) or the inv(16)/t(16;16) chromosomal abnormalities, which, although being pathognomonic, are not sufficient per se to induce overt leukemia but rather determine a preclinical phase of disease when preleukemic subclones compete until the acquisition of clonal dominance by one of them. In this review we summarize the concepts regarding the application of the “leukemia stem cell” theory to the development of CBF AML; we will analyze the studies investigating the leukemogenetic role of t(8;21) and inv(16)/t(16;16), the proposed theories of its clonal evolution, and the role played by the hematopoietic niches in preserving the disease. Finally, we will discuss the clinical implications of stem cell modeling of CBF AML for the therapy of the disease. PMID:26880987

  5. [Bone marrow microenvironment in chronic myeloid leukemia: implications for disease physiopathology and response to treatment].

    PubMed

    Aristizábal, José Alejandro; Chandia, Mauricio; Del Cañizo, María Consuelo; Sánchez-Guijo, Fermín

    2014-05-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a myeloproliferative neoplasm related to the presence of the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene, linked to t (9;22) (q34;q11). It is originated from an abnormal hematopoietic stem cell, which is characterized as its normal counterparts by long-term self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation. Both leukemic and quiescent normal hematopoietic stem cells preferentially reside in the osteoblastic niche. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are located near them, playing a critical role in their regulation. Currently, with tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy, long term clinical responses are achieved in most CML cases. However, late treatment failures may be observed related to the persistence of leukemic stem cells. The interactions between the leukemic stem cell and the microenvironment may be responsible in part for these events. We review the interactions between the leukemic stem cell and BM stroma and its potential clinical and therapeutic implications. PMID:25427017

  6. To Transplant or Not to Transplant for Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia: An Ever-Evolving Decision

    PubMed Central

    Gerds, Aaron T.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, a group of experts charged by the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation critically reviewed the available literature and summarized the indications for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation versus chemotherapy in adults with acute myeloid leukemia. Much of the resulting position statement was based on studies conducted nearly 2 decades ago, and may not accurately represent current treatment. As a result of advances in both therapeutic regimens and supportive care, a number of recent studies have demonstrated clear and consistent improvements in the outcomes of patients receiving chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. In addition, prognostic accuracy has improved with the identification of mutations not detected by traditional cytogenetics. With these advancements in prognostic accuracy and treatment, it is now appropriate to revisit the indications for transplantation versus chemotherapy. PMID:23187771

  7. To transplant or not to transplant for adult acute myeloid leukemia: an ever-evolving decision.

    PubMed

    Gerds, Aaron T; Appelbaum, Frederick R

    2012-10-01

    In 2007, a group of experts charged by the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation critically reviewed the available literature and summarized the indications for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation versus chemotherapy in adults with acute myeloid leukemia. Much of the resulting position statement was based on studies conducted nearly 2 decades ago, and may not accurately represent current treatment. As a result of advances in both therapeutic regimens and supportive care, a number of recent studies have demonstrated clear and consistent improvements in the outcomes of patients receiving chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. In addition, prognostic accuracy has improved with the identification of mutations not detected by traditional cytogenetics. With these advancements in prognostic accuracy and treatment, it is now appropriate to revisit the indications for transplantation versus chemotherapy. PMID:23187771

  8. Treating Chronic Myeloid Leukemia by Phase

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ask your doctor about chronic myeloid leukemia? Treating chronic myeloid leukemia by phase Treatment options for people with chronic ... targeted agents, and biologic therapies are important options. CML with the T315I mutation As was mentioned in ...

  9. Adult neurogenesis in the decapod crustacean brain: A hematopoietic connection?

    PubMed Central

    Beltz, Barbara S.; Zhang, Yi; Benton, Jeanne L.; Sandeman, David C.

    2011-01-01

    New neurons are produced and integrated into circuits in the adult brains of many organisms, including crustaceans. In some crustacean species, the 1st- generation neuronal precursors reside in a niche exhibiting characteristics analogous to mammalian neurogenic niches. However, unlike mammalian niches where several generations of neuronal precursors coexist, the lineage of precursor cells in crayfish is spatially separated allowing the influence of environmental and endogenous regulators on specific generations in the neuronal precursor lineage to be defined. Experiments also demonstrate that the 1st-generation neuronal precursors in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii are not self-renewing. A source external to the neurogenic niche must therefore provide cells that replenish the 1st-generation precursor pool, because although these cells divide and produce a continuous efflux of 2nd-generation cells from the niche, the population of 1st-generation niche precursors is not diminished with growth and aging. In vitro studies show that cells extracted from the hemolymph, but not other tissues, are attracted to and incorporated into the neurogenic niche, a phenomenon that appears to involve serotonergic mechanisms. We propose that in crayfish, the hematopoietic system may be a source of cells that replenish the niche cell pool. These and other studies reviewed here establish decapod crustaceans as model systems in which the processes underlying adult neurogenesis, such as stem cell origins and transformation, can be readily explored. Studies in diverse species where adult neurogenesis occurs will result in a broader understanding of fundamental mechanisms and how evolutionary processes may have shaped the vertebrate/mammalian condition. PMID:21929622

  10. Hematopoietic Origin of Murine Lung Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Lindsay T.; Mehrotra, Meenal; LaRue, Amanda C.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple origins, including the bone marrow, have been suggested to contribute to fibroblast populations in the lung. Using bone marrow reconstitution strategies, the present study tested the hypothesis that the bone marrow hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) gives rise to lung tissue fibroblasts in vivo. Data demonstrate that the nonadherent bone marrow fraction is enriched for CD45+ HSC-derived cells and was able to reconstitute hematopoiesis in lethally irradiated animals. Analysis of peripheral blood and lung tissues from engrafted mice demonstrated the ability of this population to give rise to CD45+/Discoidin-Domain Receptor-2+ (DDR2) circulating fibroblast precursors (CFPs) in blood and fibroblast populations in lung. An HSC origin for lung fibroblasts was confirmed using a novel clonal cell transplantation method in which the bone marrow is reconstituted by a clonal population derived from a single HSC. Together, these findings provide evidence for an HSC contribution to lung fibroblasts and demonstrate a circulating intermediate through the CD45+/DDR2+ HSC-derived CFP. PMID:26185498

  11. BMP signaling balances murine myeloid potential through SMAD-independent p38MAPK and NOTCH pathways

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Brandoch D.

    2014-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates early hematopoietic development, proceeding from mesoderm patterning through the progressive commitment and differentiation of progenitor cells. The BMP pathway signals largely through receptor-mediated activation of Mothers Against Decapentaplegic homolog (SMAD) proteins, although alternate pathways are modulated through various components of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Using a conditional, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-based knockdown system in the context of differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we demonstrated previously that Smad1 promotes hemangioblast specification, but then subsequently restricts primitive progenitor potential. Here we show that co-knockdown of Smad5 restores normal progenitor potential of Smad1-depleted cells, suggesting opposing functions for Smad1 and Smad5. This balance was confirmed by cotargeting Smad1/5 with a specific chemical antagonist, LDN193189 (LDN). However, we discovered that LDN treatment after hemangioblast commitment enhanced primitive myeloid potential. Moreover, inhibition with LDN (but not SMAD depletion) increased expression of Delta-like ligands Dll1 and Dll3 and NOTCH activity; abrogation of NOTCH activity restored LDN-enhanced myeloid potential back to normal, corresponding with expression levels of the myeloid master regulator, C/EBPα. LDN but not SMAD activity was also associated with activation of the p38MAPK pathway, and blocking this pathway was sufficient to enhance myelopoiesis. Therefore, NOTCH and p38MAPK pathways balance primitive myeloid progenitor output downstream of the BMP pathway. PMID:24894772

  12. Use of molecular markers to determine postremission treatment in acute myeloid leukemia with normal cytogenetics.

    PubMed

    Copelan, Edward A; Grunwald, Michael R; Druhan, Lawrence J; Avalos, Belinda R

    2015-12-01

    Most patients with acute myeloid leukemia can be induced into complete remission, but postremission treatment is required for cure. The choice of postremission therapy in a majority of nonelderly patients, between intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, is largely determined by the results of conventional cytogenetic analysis. In 45% of patients with a normal karyotype, the presence or absence of specific molecular mutations should be used to determine the prognosis and postremission treatment. In addition, the identification of mutations may indicate a role for targeted intervention, including following transplantation. PMID:26459077

  13. Germline duplication of ATG2B and GSKIP predisposes to familial myeloid malignancies.

    PubMed

    Saliba, Joseph; Saint-Martin, Ccile; Di Stefano, Antonio; Lenglet, Galle; Marty, Caroline; Keren, Boris; Pasquier, Florence; Valle, Vronique Della; Secardin, Lise; Leroy, Gwendoline; Mahfoudhi, Emna; Grosjean, Sarah; Droin, Nathalie; Diop, M'boyba; Dessen, Philippe; Charrier, Sabine; Palazzo, Alberta; Merlevede, Jane; Meniane, Jean-Cme; Delaunay-Darivon, Christine; Fuseau, Pascal; Isnard, Franoise; Casadevall, Nicole; Solary, Eric; Debili, Najet; Bernard, Olivier A; Raslova, Hana; Najman, Albert; Vainchenker, William; Bellann-Chantelot, Christine; Plo, Isabelle

    2015-10-01

    No major predisposition gene for familial myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) has been identified. Here we demonstrate that the autosomal dominant transmission of a 700-kb duplication in four genetically related families predisposes to myeloid malignancies, including MPN, frequently progressing to leukemia. Using induced pluripotent stem cells and primary cells, we demonstrate that overexpression of ATG2B and GSKIP enhances hematopoietic progenitor differentiation, including of megakaryocytes, by increasing progenitor sensitivity to thrombopoietin (TPO). ATG2B and GSKIP cooperate with acquired JAK2, MPL and CALR mutations during MPN development. Thus, the germline duplication may change the fitness of cells harboring signaling pathway mutations and increases the probability of disease development. PMID:26280900

  14. Targeting Myeloid Cells to the Brain Using Non-Myeloablative Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Bttcher, Chotima; Fernndez-Klett, Francisco; Gladow, Nadine; Rolfes, Simone; Priller, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) are able to colonize the central nervous system (CNS) at sites of damage. This ability makes BMDCs an ideal cellular vehicle for transferring therapeutic genes/molecules to the CNS. However, conditioning is required for bone marrow-derived myeloid cells to engraft in the brain, which so far has been achieved by total body irradiation (TBI) and by chemotherapy (e.g. busulfan treatment). Unfortunately, both regimens massively disturb the hosts hematopoietic compartment. Here, we established a conditioning protocol to target myeloid cells to sites of brain damage in mice using non-myeloablative focal head irradiation (HI). This treatment was associated with comparatively low inflammatory responses in the CNS despite cranial radiation doses which are identical to TBI, as revealed by gene expression analysis of cytokines/chemokines such as CCL2, CXCL10, TNF-? and CCL5. HI prior to bone marrow transplantation resulted in much lower levels of blood chimerism defined as the percentage of donor-derived cells in peripheral blood (< 5%) compared with TBI (> 95%) or busulfan treatment (>50%). Nevertheless, HI effectively recruited myeloid cells to the area of motoneuron degeneration in the brainstem within 7 days after facial nerve axotomy. In contrast, no donor-derived cells were detected in the lesioned facial nucleus of busulfan-treated animals up to 2 weeks after transplantation. Our findings suggest that myeloid cells can be targeted to sites of brain damage even in the presence of very low levels of peripheral blood chimerism. We established a novel non-myeloablative conditioning protocol with minimal disturbance of the hosts hematopoietic system for targeting BMDCs specifically to areas of pathology in the brain. PMID:24244666

  15. Making a Hematopoietic Stem Cell.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Michael G; Pereira, Carlos-Filipe; Lemischka, Ihor R; Moore, Kateri A

    2016-03-01

    Previous attempts to either generate or expand hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in vitro have involved either ex vivo expansion of pre-existing patient or donor HSCs or de novo generation from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), comprising both embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). iPSCs alleviated ESC ethical issues but attempts to generate functional mature hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) have been largely unsuccessful. New efforts focus on directly reprogramming somatic cells into definitive HSCs and HSPCs. To meet clinical needs and to advance drug discovery and stem cell therapy, alternative approaches are necessary. In this review, we synthesize the strategies used and the key findings made in recent years by those trying to make an HSC. PMID:26526106

  16. Making a Hematopoietic Stem Cell

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Michael G.; Pereira, Carlos-Filipe; Lemischka, Ihor R.; Moore, Kateri A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous attempts to either generate or expand hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in vitro have involved either ex vivo expansion of pre-existing patient or donor HSCs or de novo generation from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs), comprising both embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). iPSCs alleviated ESC ethical issues but attempts to generate functional mature hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) have been largely unsuccessful. New efforts focus on directly reprogramming somatic cells into definitive HSCs and HSPCs. To meet clinical needs and to advance drug discovery and stem cell therapy, alternative approaches are necessary. In this review, we synthesize the strategies used and the key findings made in recent years by those trying to make an HSC. PMID:26526106

  17. Phosphatase of regenerating liver in hematopoietic stem cells and hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Michihiro; Chen, Sisi; Gao, Rui; Bai, Yunpeng; Zhang, Zhong-Yin; Liu, Yan

    2014-01-01

    The phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs), consisting PRL1, PRL2 and PRL3, are dual-specificity protein phosphatases that have been implicated as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in several solid tumors. However, their roles in hematological malignancies are largely unknown. Recent findings demonstrate that PRL2 is important for hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and proliferation. In addition, both PRL2 and PRL3 are highly expressed in some hematological malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), multiple myeloma (MM) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Moreover, PRL deficiency impairs the proliferation and survival of leukemia cells through regulating oncogenic signaling pathways. While PRLs are potential novel therapeutic targets in hematological malignancies, their exact biological function and cellular substrates remain unclear. This review will discuss how PRLs regulate hematopoietic stem cell behavior, what signaling pathways are regulated by PRLs, and how to target PRLs in hematological malignancies. An improved understanding of how PRLs function and how they are regulated may facilitate the development of PRL inhibitors that are effective in cancer treatment. PMID:25486470

  18. IFN-? causes aplastic anemia by altering hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell composition and disrupting lineage differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Karwan, Megan; Saleh, Bahara; Hodge, Deborah L.; Chan, Tim; Boelte, Kimberly C.; Keller, Jonathan R.; Young, Howard A.

    2014-01-01

    Aplastic anemia (AA) is characterized by hypocellular marrow and peripheral pancytopenia. Because interferon gamma (IFN-?) can be detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of AA patients, it has been hypothesized that autoreactive T lymphocytes may be involved in destroying the hematopoietic stem cells. We have observed AA-like symptoms in our IFN-? adenylate-uridylaterich element (ARE)deleted (del) mice, which constitutively express a low level of IFN-? under normal physiologic conditions. Because no T-cell autoimmunity was observed, we hypothesized that IFN-? may be directly involved in the pathophysiology of AA. In these mice, we did not detect infiltration of T cells in bone marrow (BM), and the existing T cells seemed to be hyporesponsive. We observed inhibition in myeloid progenitor differentiation despite an increase in serum levels of cytokines involved in hematopoietic differentiation and maturation. Furthermore, there was a disruption in erythropoiesis and B-cell differentiation. The same phenomena were also observed in wild-type recipients of IFN-? ARE-del BM. The data suggest that AA occurs when IFN-? inhibits the generation of myeloid progenitors and prevents lineage differentiation, as opposed to infiltration of activated T cells. These results may be useful in improving treatment as well as maintaining a disease-free status. PMID:25342713

  19. Activation of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells Promotes Immunosuppression Within the Pre-metastatic Niche.

    PubMed

    Giles, Amber Jin; Reid, Caitlin Marie; Evans, Justin DeWayne; Murgai, Meera; Vicioso, Yorleny; Highfill, Steven Lorenz; Kasai, Miki; Vahdat, Linda; Mackall, Crystal Lee; Lyden, David; Wexler, Leonard; Kaplan, Rosandra Natasha

    2016-03-15

    Metastatic tumors have been shown to establish microenvironments in distant tissues that are permissive to disseminated tumor cells. Hematopoietic cells contribute to this microenvironment, yet the precise initiating events responsible for establishing the pre-metastatic niche remain unclear. Here, we tracked the developmental fate of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) in tumor-bearing mice. We show that a distant primary tumor drives the expansion of HSPCs within the bone marrow and their mobilization to the bloodstream. Treatment of purified HSPCs cultured ex vivo with tumor-conditioned media induced their proliferation as well as their differentiation into immunosuppressive myeloid cells. We furthered tracked purified HSPCs in vivo and found they differentiated into myeloid-derived suppressor cells in early metastatic sites of tumor-bearing mice. The number of CD11b(+)Ly6g(+) cells in metastatic sites was significantly increased by HSPC mobilization and decreased if tumor-mediated mobilization was inhibited. Moreover, pharmacologic mobilization of HSPCs increased metastasis, whereas depletion of Gr1(+) cells abrogated the metastasis-promoting effects of HSPC mobilization. Finally, we detected elevated levels of HSPCs in the circulation of newly diagnosed cancer patients, which correlated with increased risk for metastatic progression. Taken together, our results highlight bone marrow activation as one of the earliest steps of the metastatic process and identify circulating HSPCs as potential clinical indicators of metastatic niche formation. Cancer Res; 76(6); 1335-47. ©2015 AACR. PMID:26719537

  20. Impaired functionality and homing of Fancg-deficient hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Barroca, Vilma; Mouthon, Marc Andr; Lewandowski, Daniel; Brunet de la Grange, Philippe; Gauthier, Laurent Robert; Pflumio, Franoise; Boussin, Franois Dominique; Arwert, Fre; Riou, Lydia; Allemand, Isabelle; Romeo, Paul Henri; Fouchet, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Fanconi anemia (FA) is a human rare genetic disorder characterized by congenital defects, bone marrow (BM) failure and predisposition to leukemia. The progressive aplastic anemia suggests a defect in the ability of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) to sustain hematopoieis. We have examined the role of the nuclear FA core complex gene Fancg in the functionality of HSC. In Fancg-/- mice, we observed a decay of long-term HSC and multipotent progenitors that account for the reduction in the LSK compartment containing primitive hematopoietic cells. Fancg-/- lymphoid and myeloid progenitor cells were also affected, and myeloid progenitors show compromised in vitro functionality. HSC from Fancg-/- mice failed to engraft and to reconstitute at short and long term the hematopoiesis in a competitive transplantation assay. Fancg-/- LSK cells showed a loss of quiescence, an impaired migration in vitro in response to the chemokine CXCL12 and a defective homing to the BM after transplantation. Finally, the expression of several key genes involved in self-renewal, quiescence and migration of HSC was dysregulated in Fancg-deficient LSK subset. Collectively, our data reveal that Fancg should play a role in the regulation of physiological functions of HSC. PMID:21968513

  1. Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-23

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  2. Distinct Sources of Hematopoietic Progenitors Emerge before HSCs and Provide Functional Blood Cells in the Mammalian Embryo.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Kathleen E; Frame, Jenna M; Fegan, Katherine H; Bowen, James R; Conway, Simon J; Catherman, Seana C; Kingsley, Paul D; Koniski, Anne D; Palis, James

    2015-06-30

    Hematopoietic potential arises in mammalian embryos before adult-repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). At embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5), we show the first murine definitive erythro-myeloid progenitors (EMPs) have an immunophenotype distinct from primitive hematopoietic progenitors, maturing megakaryocytes and macrophages, and rare B cell potential. EMPs emerge in the yolk sac with erythroid and broad myeloid, but not lymphoid, potential. EMPs migrate to the fetal liver and rapidly differentiate, including production of circulating neutrophils by E11.5. Although the surface markers, transcription factors, and lineage potential associated with EMPs overlap with those found in adult definitive hematopoiesis, they are present in unique combinations or proportions that result in a specialized definitive embryonic progenitor. Furthermore, we find that embryonic stem cell (ESC)-derived hematopoiesis recapitulates early yolk sac hematopoiesis, including primitive, EMP, and rare B cell potential. EMPs do not have long-term potential when transplanted in immunocompromised adults, but they can provide transient adult-like RBC reconstitution. PMID:26095363

  3. Elevated Mcl-1 perturbs lymphopoiesis, promotes transformation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, and enhances drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Kirsteen J; Bath, Mary L; Turner, Marian L; Vandenberg, Cassandra J; Bouillet, Philippe; Metcalf, Donald; Scott, Clare L; Cory, Suzanne

    2010-10-28

    Diverse human cancers with poor prognosis, including many lymphoid and myeloid malignancies, exhibit high levels of Mcl-1. To explore the impact of Mcl-1 overexpression on the hematopoietic compartment, we have generated vavP-Mcl-1 transgenic mice. Their lymphoid and myeloid cells displayed increased resistance to a variety of cytotoxic agents. Myelopoiesis was relatively normal, but lymphopoiesis was clearly perturbed, with excess mature B and T cells accumulating. Rather than the follicular lymphomas typical of vavP-BCL-2 mice, aging vavP-Mcl-1 mice were primarily susceptible to lymphomas having the phenotype of a stem/progenitor cell (11 of 30 tumors) or pre-B cell (12 of 30 tumors). Mcl-1 overexpression dramatically accelerated Myc-driven lymphomagenesis. Most vavP-Mcl-1/ E?-Myc mice died around birth, and transplantation of blood from bitransgenic E18 embryos into unirradiated mice resulted in stem/progenitor cell tumors. Furthermore, lethally irradiated mice transplanted with E13 fetal liver cells from Mcl-1/Myc bitransgenic mice uniformly died of stem/progenitor cell tumors. When treated in vivo with cyclophosphamide, tumors coexpressing Mcl-1 and Myc transgenes were significantly more resistant than conventional E?-Myc lymphomas. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Mcl-1 overexpression renders hematopoietic cells refractory to many cytotoxic insults, perturbs lymphopoiesis and promotes malignant transformation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. PMID:20631380

  4. Characterizing the human hematopoietic CDome

    PubMed Central

    Barnkob, Mike Stein; Simon, Christian; Olsen, Lars Rnn

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we performed extensive semi-automated data collection from the primary and secondary literature in an effort to characterize the expression of all membrane proteins within the CD scheme on hematopoietic cells. Utilizing over 6000 data points across 305 CD molecules on 206 cell types, we seek to give a preliminary characterization of the human hematopoietic CDome. We encountered severe gaps in the knowledge of CD protein expression, mostly resulting from incomplete and unstructured data generation, which we argue inhibit both basic research as well as therapies seeking to target membrane proteins. We detail these shortcomings and propose strategies to overcome these issues. Analyzing the available data, we explore the functional characteristics of the CD molecules both individually and across the groups of hematopoietic cells on which they are expressed. We compare protein and mRNA data for a subset of CD molecules, and explore cell functions in the context of CD protein expression. We find that the presence and function of CD molecules serve as good indicators for the overall function of the cells that express them, suggesting that increasing our knowledge about the cellular CDome may serve to stratify cells on a more functional level. PMID:25309582

  5. [The hematopoietic stem cell niche].

    PubMed

    Kunisaki, Yuya

    2015-10-01

    Somatic stem cells self-renew to maintain tissue homeostasis for the lifetime of organisms through tightly controlled proliferation and differentiation. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are essentially required for hematopoietic homeostasis. Therefore, they not only ensure lifelong replenishment of all blood lineages, but also maintain a constant pool. Cell cycle quiescence is a critical feature contributing to stem cell maintenance. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of bone marrow (BM) microenvironments that regulate HSC functions (HSC niches). In the HSC field, there has been considerable interest and debate regarding whether or not quiescence and proliferation of HSCs is regulated by distinct niches. Previous reports suggest that quiescent HSCs reside near osteoblasts in the BM whereas actively cycling HSCs are found near sinusoids. However, this popular concept has not been supported by rigorous analyses. To gain more insight into the spatial localization of HSCs, we have developed a whole-mount staining technique that allows precise measurements of 3D distances of HSCs from structures and allows computational simulation to define the significance of these interactions. This novel approach has allowed us to uncover two distinct types of vessels associated with quiescent and proliferating HSCs and to underscore the importance of arteriolar vessels for stem cell quiescence. We will discuss the crosstalk between the two hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells with a review of the recent literature. PMID:26458426

  6. CUX1 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 7 frequently inactivated in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Christopher D.; Wang, Xiaoyue; Bartom, Elizabeth T.; Karmakar, Subhradip; Bandlamudi, Chaitanya; Yu, Shan; Ko, Jinkyung; Sandall, Barry P.; Stricker, Thomas; Anastasi, John; Grossman, Robert L.; Cunningham, John M.; Le Beau, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    Loss of chromosome 7 and del(7q) [?7/del(7q)] are recurring cytogenetic abnormalities in hematologic malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia and therapy-related myeloid neoplasms, and associated with an adverse prognosis. Despite intensive effort by many laboratories, the putative myeloid tumor suppressor(s) on chromosome 7 has not yet been identified. We performed transcriptome sequencing and SNP array analysis on de novo and therapy-related myeloid neoplasms, half with ?7/del(7q). We identified a 2.17-Mb commonly deleted segment on chromosome band 7q22.1 containing CUX1, a gene encoding a homeodomain-containing transcription factor. In 1 case, CUX1 was disrupted by a translocation, resulting in a loss-of-function RNA fusion transcript. CUX1 was the most significantly differentially expressed gene within the commonly deleted segment and was expressed at haploinsufficient levels in ?7/del(7q) leukemias. Haploinsufficiency of the highly conserved ortholog, cut, led to hemocyte overgrowth and tumor formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Similarly, haploinsufficiency of CUX1 gave human hematopoietic cells a significant engraftment advantage on transplantation into immunodeficient mice. Within the RNA-sequencing data, we identified a CUX1-associated cell cycle transcriptional gene signature, suggesting that CUX1 exerts tumor suppressor activity by regulating proliferative genes. These data identify CUX1 as a conserved, haploinsufficient tumor suppressor frequently deleted in myeloid neoplasms. PMID:23212519

  7. Molecular Pathways: Myeloid Complicity in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stromnes, Ingunn M.; Greenberg, Philip D.; Hingorani, Sunil R.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer-induced inflammation results in accumulation of myeloid cells. It has become increasingly evident that tumor-dependent factors condition myeloid cells toward an immunosuppressive and pro-tumorigenic phenotype. These myeloid cells include progenitors and progeny of monocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. Myeloid cells are not simply bystanders in malignancy or barometers of disease burden. Reflecting their dynamic and plastic nature, myeloid cells manifesta continuum of cellular differentiation and are intimately involved at all stages of neoplastic progression. They can promote tumorigenesis through both immune-dependent and independent mechanisms and can dictate response to therapies. A greater understanding of the inherent plasticity and relationships among myeloid subsets is needed to inform therapeutic targeting. New clinical trials are being designed to modulate the activities of myeloid cells in cancer, which may be essential to maximize the efficacy of both conventional cytotoxic and immune-based therapies for solid tumors. PMID:25047706

  8. The Role of PTEN in Myeloid Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Panuzzo, Cristina; Crivellaro, Sabrina; Carrà, Giovanna; Torti, Davide; Guerrasio, Angelo; Saglio, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    PTEN deletion in the mouse and in the zebrafish highlights the essential role of this tumor suppressor in the development of myeloid malignancies, in particular acute myeloid leukemia and myeloproliferative disorders. In humans, extensive genetic sequences of myeloid malignancies did not reveal recurrent PTEN mutations and deletions. However, PTEN was shown to be functionally inactivated in several acute myeloid leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia samples, through both post-trasductional modifications, changes in protein levels and cellular compartmentalization. Notably, non genomic inactivation of PTEN in myeloid malignancies could represent a challenging therapeutic opportunity for these diseases. Targeting those mechanisms that affect PTEN function could indeed promote PTEN reactivation with consequent cancer selective apoptosis induction. In this review we will describe the role of PTEN in the development of myeloid malignancies. PMID:26734127

  9. Deficiency of the ribosome biogenesis gene Sbds in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells causes neutropenia in mice by attenuating lineage progression in myelocytes.

    PubMed

    Zambetti, Noemi A; Bindels, Eric M J; Van Strien, Paulina M H; Valkhof, Marijke G; Adisty, Maria N; Hoogenboezem, Remco M; Sanders, Mathijs A; Rommens, Johanna M; Touw, Ivo P; Raaijmakers, Marc H G P

    2015-10-01

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is a congenital bone marrow failure disorder characterized by debilitating neutropenia. The disease is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the SBDS gene, implicated in ribosome biogenesis, but the cellular and molecular events driving cell specific phenotypes in ribosomopathies remain poorly defined. Here, we established what is to our knowledge the first mammalian model of neutropenia in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome through targeted downregulation of Sbds in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells expressing the myeloid transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (Cebpa). Sbds deficiency in the myeloid lineage specifically affected myelocytes and their downstream progeny while, unexpectedly, it was well tolerated by rapidly cycling hematopoietic progenitor cells. Molecular insights provided by massive parallel sequencing supported cellular observations of impaired cell cycle exit and formation of secondary granules associated with the defect of myeloid lineage progression in myelocytes. Mechanistically, Sbds deficiency activated the p53 tumor suppressor pathway and induced apoptosis in these cells. Collectively, the data reveal a previously unanticipated, selective dependency of myelocytes and downstream progeny, but not rapidly cycling progenitors, on this ubiquitous ribosome biogenesis protein, thus providing a cellular basis for the understanding of myeloid lineage biased defects in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. PMID:26185170

  10. Deficiency of the ribosome biogenesis gene Sbds in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells causes neutropenia in mice by attenuating lineage progression in myelocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zambetti, Noemi A.; Bindels, Eric M. J.; Van Strien, Paulina M. H.; Valkhof, Marijke G.; Adisty, Maria N.; Hoogenboezem, Remco M.; Sanders, Mathijs A.; Rommens, Johanna M.; Touw, Ivo P.; Raaijmakers, Marc H. G. P.

    2015-01-01

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome is a congenital bone marrow failure disorder characterized by debilitating neutropenia. The disease is associated with loss-of-function mutations in the SBDS gene, implicated in ribosome biogenesis, but the cellular and molecular events driving cell specific phenotypes in ribosomopathies remain poorly defined. Here, we established what is to our knowledge the first mammalian model of neutropenia in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome through targeted downregulation of Sbds in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells expressing the myeloid transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein ? (Cebpa). Sbds deficiency in the myeloid lineage specifically affected myelocytes and their downstream progeny while, unexpectedly, it was well tolerated by rapidly cycling hematopoietic progenitor cells. Molecular insights provided by massive parallel sequencing supported cellular observations of impaired cell cycle exit and formation of secondary granules associated with the defect of myeloid lineage progression in myelocytes. Mechanistically, Sbds deficiency activated the p53 tumor suppressor pathway and induced apoptosis in these cells. Collectively, the data reveal a previously unanticipated, selective dependency of myelocytes and downstream progeny, but not rapidly cycling progenitors, on this ubiquitous ribosome biogenesis protein, thus providing a cellular basis for the understanding of myeloid lineage biased defects in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome. PMID:26185170

  11. Ethanol exhibits specificity in its effects on differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Zhou, Huijuan; Chervenak, Robert; Moscatello, Kim M.; Brunson, Lee Ellen; Chervenak, Deborah C.; Wolcott, R. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Ethanol is a known teratogen but the mechanisms by which this simple compound affects fetal development remain unresolved. The goal of the current study was to determine the mechanism by which ethanol affects lymphoid differentiation using an in vitro model of ethanol exposure. Primitive hematopoietic oligoclonal neonatal progenitor cells (ONP), with the phenotype Lin−HSAloCD43loSca-1−c-Kit+ that are present in neonatal but not adult bone marrow were sorted from the bone marrow of 2-week-old C57BL/6J mice and cultured under conditions that favor either B cell or myeloid cell differentiation with or without addition of ethanol. The overall growth of the ONP cells was not significantly affected by inclusion of up to 100mM ethanol in the culture medium. However, the differentiation of the progenitor cells along the B-cell pathway was significantly impaired by ethanol in a dose dependent manner. Exposure of ONP cells to 100mM ethanol resulted in greater than 95% inhibition of B cell differentiation. Conversely, ethanol concentrations up to and including 100mM had no significant effect on differentiation along the myeloid pathway. The effect of ethanol on transcription factor expression was consistent with the effects on differentiation. ONP cells grown in 100mM ethanol failed to up-regulate Pax5 and EBF, transcriptional regulators that are necessary for B cell development. However, ethanol had no significant effect on the up-regulation of PU.1, a transcription factor that, when expressed in high concentration, favors myeloid cell development. Taken together, these results suggest that ethanol has specificity in its effects on differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors. PMID:18834972

  12. Angiotensin II Regulation of Proliferation, Differentiation, and Engraftment of Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungbum; Zingler, Michael; Harrison, Jeffrey K; Scott, Edward W; Cogle, Christopher R; Luo, Defang; Raizada, Mohan K

    2016-03-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that differentiation and mobilization of hematopoietic cell are critical in the development and establishment of hypertension and hypertension-linked vascular pathophysiology. This, coupled with the intimate involvement of the hyperactive renin-angiotensin system in hypertension, led us to investigate the hypothesis that chronic angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion affects hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) regulation at the level of the bone marrow. Ang II infusion resulted in increases in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (83%) and long-term HSC (207%) in the bone marrow. Interestingly, increases of HSCs and long-term HSCs were more pronounced in the spleen (228% and 1117%, respectively). Furthermore, we observed higher expression of C-C chemokine receptor type 2 in these HSCs, indicating there was increased myeloid differentiation in Ang II-infused mice. This was associated with accumulation of C-C chemokine receptor type 2(+) proinflammatory monocytes in the spleen. In contrast, decreased engraftment efficiency of GFP(+) HSC was observed after Ang II infusion. Time-lapse in vivo imaging and in vitro Ang II pretreatment demonstrated that Ang II induces untimely proliferation and differentiation of the donor HSC resulting in diminished HSC engraftment and bone marrow reconstitution. We conclude that (1) chronic Ang II infusion regulates HSC proliferation, mediated by angiotensin receptor type 1a, (2) Ang II accelerates HSC to myeloid differentiation resulting in accumulation of C-C chemokine receptor type 2(+) HSCs and inflammatory monocytes in the spleen, and (3) Ang II impairs homing and reconstitution potentials of the donor HSCs. These observations highlight the important regulatory roles of Ang II on HSC proliferation, differentiation, and engraftment. PMID:26781279

  13. Minor histocompatibility antigen H-Y is expressed on human hematopoietic progenitor cells.

    PubMed Central

    Voogt, P J; Goulmy, E; Fibbe, W E; Veenhof, W F; Brand, A; Falkenburg, J H

    1988-01-01

    Polymorphic minor transplantation antigens probably play an important role in immune mediated graft rejections of bone marrow transplants. Mapping of these antigens on hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) is important since these antigenic determinants may serve as target structures in the rejection process, and it ultimately opens the possibility to match for these antigens. Using a cell-mediated cytotoxicity assay with H-Y-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes as effector cells, a dose-dependent growth inhibition up to 100% of myeloid (CFU-GM), erythroid (BFU-E) and multipotential (CFU-GEMM) HPC of male donors was obtained, indicating expression of the H-Y antigen on these progenitor cells. In contrast, inhibition of relatively mature erythroid and myeloid progenitor cells was only 40-50%, indicating that the recognition of the H-Y antigen diminished during maturation of erythroid and myeloid HPC. Our results show that the H-Y antigen can be recognized on HPC as a target for cytotoxic T cell responses. This may be important in graft rejection of male donor bone marrow grafts by female recipients. PMID:3262125

  14. Hematopoietic lineage skewing and intestinal epithelia degeneration in aged mice with telomerase RNA component deletion.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jichun; Bryant, Mark A; Dent, James J; Sun, Yu; Desierto, Marie J; Young, Neal S

    2015-12-01

    A deletion of a telomerase RNA component (Terc(-/-)) in C57BL/6 (B6) mice resulted in hematopoietic lineage skewing with increased neutrophils and CD11b(+) myeloid cells and decreased red blood cells and CD45R(+) B lymphocytes when animals reach ages older than 12months. There was no decline in bone marrow (BM) c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+)Lin(-) (KSL) cells in old Terc(-/-) mice, and the lineage skewing phenomenon was not transferred when BM cells from old Terc(-/-) donors were transplanted into young B6 recipients. Necropsy and histological examinations found minimal to no change in the lung, spleen and liver but detected severe epithelia degeneration, ulceration and infection in small and large intestines, leading to enteritis, typhlitis and colitis in old Terc(-/-) mice. In a mouse model of dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced typhlitis and colitis, development of intestinal pathology was associated with increases in neutrophils and CD11b(+) myeloid cells and a decrease in CD45R(+) B cells, similar to those observed in old Terc(-/-) mice. Treatment of 11-13month old Terc(-/-) mice with antibiotic trimethoprim-sulfa water reduced neutrophils and myeloid cells and increased B lymphocytes in the blood, indicating that mitigation of intestinal infection and inflammation could alleviate hematological abnormalities in old Terc(-/-) animals. PMID:26523501

  15. Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in the developing world: experience from a center in Western India.

    PubMed

    Shah, Chirag A; Karanwal, Arun; Desai, Maharshi; Pandya, Munjal; Shah, Ravish; Shah, Rutvij

    2015-01-01

    We describe our experience of first 50 consecutive hematopoietic stem-cell transplants (HSCT) done between 2007 and 2012 at the Apollo Hospital, Gandhinagar, 35 autologous HSCT and 15 allogeneic HSCT. Indications for autologous transplant were multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and acute myeloid leukemia, and indications for allogeneic transplants were thalassemia major, aplastic anaemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and acute lymphoblastic and myeloid leukaemia. The median age of autologous and allogeneic patient's cohort was 50 years and 21 years, respectively. Median follow-up period for all patients was 39 months. Major early complications were infections, mucositis, acute graft versus host disease, and venoocclusive disease. All of our allogeneic and autologous transplant patients survived during the first month of transplant. Transplant related mortality (TRM) was 20% (N = 3) in our allogeneic and 3% (N = 1) in autologous patients. Causes of these deaths were disease relapse, sepsis, hemorrhagic complications, and GVHD. 46% of our autologous and 47% of our allogeneic patients are in complete remission phase after a median follow-up of 39 months. 34% of our autologous patients and 13% of our allogeneic patients had disease relapse. Overall survival rate in our autologous and allogeneic patients is 65.7% and 57.1%, respectively. Our results are comparable to many national and international published reports. PMID:25722722

  16. Hematopoietic Stem-Cell Transplantation in the Developing World: Experience from a Center in Western India

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Chirag A.; Karanwal, Arun; Desai, Maharshi; Pandya, Munjal; Shah, Ravish; Shah, Rutvij

    2015-01-01

    We describe our experience of first 50 consecutive hematopoietic stem-cell transplants (HSCT) done between 2007 and 2012 at the Apollo Hospital, Gandhinagar, 35 autologous HSCT and 15 allogeneic HSCT. Indications for autologous transplant were multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, and acute myeloid leukemia, and indications for allogeneic transplants were thalassemia major, aplastic anaemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and acute lymphoblastic and myeloid leukaemia. The median age of autologous and allogeneic patient's cohort was 50 years and 21 years, respectively. Median follow-up period for all patients was 39 months. Major early complications were infections, mucositis, acute graft versus host disease, and venoocclusive disease. All of our allogeneic and autologous transplant patients survived during the first month of transplant. Transplant related mortality (TRM) was 20% (N = 3) in our allogeneic and 3% (N = 1) in autologous patients. Causes of these deaths were disease relapse, sepsis, hemorrhagic complications, and GVHD. 46% of our autologous and 47% of our allogeneic patients are in complete remission phase after a median follow-up of 39 months. 34% of our autologous patients and 13% of our allogeneic patients had disease relapse. Overall survival rate in our autologous and allogeneic patients is 65.7% and 57.1%, respectively. Our results are comparable to many national and international published reports. PMID:25722722

  17. Cohesin loss alters adult hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis, leading to myeloproliferative neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Mullenders, Jasper; Aranda-Orgilles, Beatriz; Lhoumaud, Priscillia; Keller, Matthew; Pae, Juhee; Wang, Kun; Kayembe, Clarisse; Rocha, Pedro P; Raviram, Ramya; Gong, Yixiao; Premsrirut, Prem K; Tsirigos, Aristotelis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A; Cimmino, Luisa; Hoehn, Daniela; Aifantis, Iannis

    2015-10-19

    The cohesin complex (consisting of Rad21, Smc1a, Smc3, and Stag2 proteins) is critically important for proper sister chromatid separation during mitosis. Mutations in the cohesin complex were recently identified in a variety of human malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To address the potential tumor-suppressive function of cohesin in vivo, we generated a series of shRNA mouse models in which endogenous cohesin can be silenced inducibly. Notably, silencing of cohesin complex members did not have a deleterious effect on cell viability. Furthermore, knockdown of cohesin led to gain of replating capacity of mouse hematopoietic progenitor cells. However, cohesin silencing in vivo rapidly altered stem cells homeostasis and myelopoiesis. Likewise, we found widespread changes in chromatin accessibility and expression of genes involved in myelomonocytic maturation and differentiation. Finally, aged cohesin knockdown mice developed a clinical picture closely resembling myeloproliferative disorders/neoplasms (MPNs), including varying degrees of extramedullary hematopoiesis (myeloid metaplasia) and splenomegaly. Our results represent the first successful demonstration of a tumor suppressor function for the cohesin complex, while also confirming that cohesin mutations occur as an early event in leukemogenesis, facilitating the potential development of a myeloid malignancy. PMID:26438359

  18. Relapse risk in patients with malignant diseases given allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after nonmyeloablative conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Kahl, Christoph; Storer, Barry E.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Mielcarek, Marco; Maris, Michael B.; Blume, Karl G.; Niederwieser, Dietger; Chauncey, Thomas R.; Forman, Stephen J.; Agura, Edward; Leis, Jose F.; Bruno, Benedetto; Langston, Amelia; Pulsipher, Michael A.; McSweeney, Peter A.; Wade, James C.; Epner, Elliot; Bo Petersen, Finn; Bethge, Wolfgang A.; Maloney, David G.

    2007-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) after nonmyeloablative conditioning for hematologic malignancies depends on graft-versus-tumor effects for eradication of cancer. Here, we estimated relapse risks according to disease characteristics. Between 1997 and 2006, 834 consecutive patients (median age, 55 years; range, 5-74 years) received related (n = 498) or unrelated (n = 336) HCT after 2 Gy total body irradiation alone (n = 171) or combined with fludarabine (90 mg/m2; n = 663). Relapse rates per patient year (PY) at risk, corrected for follow-up and competing nonrelapse mortality, were calculated for 29 different diseases and stages. The overall relapse rate per PY was 0.36. Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and multiple myeloma (MM) in remission (CR), low-grade or mantle cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (CR + partial remission [PR]), and high-grade NHL-CR had the lowest rates (0.00-0.24; low risk). In contrast, patients with advanced myeloid and lymphoid malignancies had rates of more than 0.52 (high risk). Patients with lymphoproliferative diseases not in CR (except Hodgkin lymphoma and high-grade NHL) and myeloid malignancies in CR had rates of 0.26-0.37 (standard risk). In conclusion, patients with low-grade lymphoproliferative disorders experienced the lowest relapse rates, whereas patients with advanced myeloid and lymphoid malignancies had high relapse rates after nonmyeloablative HCT. The latter might benefit from cytoreductive treatment before HCT. PMID:17595333

  19. Stromal SPARC contributes to the detrimental fibrotic changes associated with myeloproliferation whereas its deficiency favors myeloid cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Tripodo, Claudio; Sangaletti, Sabina; Guarnotta, Carla; Piccaluga, Pier P; Cacciatore, Matilde; Giuliano, Michela; Franco, Giovanni; Chiodoni, Claudia; Sciandra, Marika; Miotti, Silvia; Calvaruso, Giuseppe; Car, Alessandra; Florena, Ada M; Scotlandi, Katia; Orazi, Attilio; Pileri, Stefano A; Colombo, Mario P

    2012-10-25

    In myeloid malignancies, the neoplastic clone outgrows normal hematopoietic cells toward BM failure. This event is also sustained by detrimental stromal changes, such as BM fibrosis and osteosclerosis, whose occurrence is harbinger of a dismal prognosis. We show that the matricellular protein SPARC contributes to the BM stromal response to myeloproliferation. The degree of SPARC expression in BM stromal elements, including CD146(+) mesenchymal stromal cells, correlates with the degree of stromal changes, and the severity of BM failure characterizing the prototypical myeloproliferative neoplasm primary myelofibrosis. Using Sparc(-/-) mice and BM chimeras, we demonstrate that SPARC contributes to the development of significant stromal fibrosis in a model of thrombopoietin-induced myelofibrosis. We found that SPARC deficiency in the radioresistant BM stroma compartment impairs myelofibrosis but, at the same time, associates with an enhanced reactive myeloproliferative response to thrombopoietin. The link betwen SPARC stromal deficiency and enhanced myeloid cell expansion under a myeloproliferative spur is also supported by the myeloproliferative phenotype resulting from the transplantation of defective Apc(min) mutant hematopoietic cells into Sparc(-/-) but not WT recipient BM stroma. Our results highlight a complex influence of SPARC over the stromal and hematopoietic BM response in myeloproliferative conditions. PMID:22955913

  20. Transduction of human NOD/SCID-repopulating cells with both lymphoid and myeloid potential by foamy virus vectors

    PubMed Central

    Josephson, Neil C.; Vassilopoulos, George; Trobridge, Grant D.; Priestley, Greg V.; Wood, Brent L.; Papayannopoulou, Thalia; Russell, David W.

    2002-01-01

    The efficiency of gene transfer into human hematopoietic stem cells by oncoretroviral vectors is too low for effective gene therapy of most hematologic diseases. Retroviral vectors based on the nonpathogenic foamy viruses (FV) are an alternative gene-transfer system. In this study, human umbilical cord blood CD34+ cells were transduced with FV vectors by a single 10-h exposure to vector stocks and then injected into sublethally irradiated nonobese diabetic-severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. At 5–7 weeks after transplantation, high transgene expression rates were observed in engrafted human hematopoietic cells, including over 60% of clonogenic progenitors. Significant transgene silencing did not occur. We developed an approach for expanding human cell populations derived from transplanted mice to show that multiple SCID repopulating cells (SRCs) had been transduced, including some that were capable of both lymphoid and myeloid differentiation. These findings demonstrate for the first time that human pluripotent (lympho-myeloid) hematopoietic stem cells repopulate NOD/SCID mice and can be efficiently transduced by FV vectors. PMID:12060773

  1. Prognostic factors and outcomes of adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia after first relapse

    PubMed Central

    Kurosawa, Saiko; Yamaguchi, Takuhiro; Miyawaki, Shuichi; Uchida, Naoyuki; Sakura, Toru; Kanamori, Heiwa; Usuki, Kensuke; Yamashita, Takuya; Okoshi, Yasushi; Shibayama, Hirohiko; Nakamae, Hirohisa; Mawatari, Momoko; Hatanaka, Kazuo; Sunami, Kazutaka; Shimoyama, Manabu; Fujishima, Naohito; Maeda, Yoshinobu; Miura, Ikuo; Takaue, Yoichi; Fukuda, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients with acute myeloid leukemia who are treated with conventional chemotherapy still have a substantial risk of relapse; the prognostic factors and optimal treatments after relapse have not been fully established. We, therefore, retrospectively analyzed data from patients with acute myeloid leukemia who had achieved first complete remission to assess their prognosis after first relapse. Design and Methods Clinical data were collected from 70 institutions across the country on adult patients who were diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia and who had achieved a first complete remission after one or two courses of induction chemotherapy. Results Among the 1,535 patients who were treated with chemotherapy alone, 1,015 relapsed. Half of them subsequently achieved a second complete remission. The overall survival was 30% at 3 years after relapse. Multivariate analysis showed that achievement of second complete remission, salvage allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, and a relapse-free interval of 1 year or longer were independent prognostic factors. The outcome after allogeneic transplantation in second complete remission was comparable to that after transplantation in first complete remission. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia and cytogenetic risk factors other than inv(16) or t(8;21) had a significantly worse outcome when they did not undergo salvage transplantation even when they achieved second complete remission. Conclusions We found that both the achievement of second complete remission and the application of salvage transplantation were crucial for improving the prognosis of patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first relapse. Our results indicate that the optimal treatment strategy after first relapse may differ according to the cytogenetic risk. PMID:20634493

  2. Aberrant Myeloid Differentiation Contributes to the Development of Osteoporosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Steven D; Yang, Feng-Chun

    2016-02-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), also known as von Recklinghausen disease, is a common autosomal dominant genetic disorder affecting approximately 1 in 3000 individuals worldwide. NF1 results from heritable or spontaneous mutations of the NF1 tumor suppressor gene. NF1 encodes the protein neurofibromin, which functions to negatively regulate Ras-activity. Approximately 50 % of NF1 patients develop osteopenia or osteoporosis, resulting in significantly increased rates of long-bone fracture and morbidity. While defective osteoblast bone anabolism has been implicated as a central factor in the pathogenesis of NF1 associated skeletal deficits, recent data suggest that NF1 (Nf1) haploinsufficiency within the hematopoietic compartment, particularly in osteoclasts and myeloid progenitors, plays a pivotal role in engendering NF1 osseous manifestations. In this chapter, we review the latest data from clinical studies and murine models delineating a critical role for hematopoietic compartment, myeloid progenitors of NF1 (Nf1) haploinsufficient and their progeny-osteoclasts, in the pathogenesis of NF1 associated osteopenia/osteoporosis and discuss putative targets for future therapeutics. PMID:26932441

  3. The role of Lin28b in myeloid and mast cell differentiation and mast cell malignancy.

    PubMed

    Wang, L D; Rao, T N; Rowe, R G; Nguyen, P T; Sullivan, J L; Pearson, D S; Doulatov, S; Wu, L; Lindsley, R C; Zhu, H; DeAngelo, D J; Daley, G Q; Wagers, A J

    2015-06-01

    Mast cells (MCs) are critical components of the innate immune system and important for host defense, allergy, autoimmunity, tissue regeneration and tumor progression. Dysregulated MC development leads to systemic mastocytosis (SM), a clinically variable but often devastating family of hematologic disorders. Here we report that induced expression of Lin28, a heterochronic gene and pluripotency factor implicated in driving a fetal hematopoietic program, caused MC accumulation in adult mice in target organs such as the skin and peritoneal cavity. In vitro assays revealed a skewing of myeloid commitment in LIN28B-expressing hematopoietic progenitors, with increased levels of LIN28B in common myeloid and basophil-MC progenitors altering gene expression patterns to favor cell fate choices that enhanced MC specification. In addition, LIN28B-induced MCs appeared phenotypically and functionally immature, and in vitro assays suggested a slowing of MC terminal differentiation in the context of LIN28B upregulation. Finally, interrogation of human MC leukemia samples revealed upregulation of LIN28B in abnormal MCs from patients with SM. This work identifies Lin28 as a novel regulator of innate immune function and a new protein of interest in MC disease. PMID:25655194

  4. The role of Lin28b in myeloid and mast cell differentiation and mast cell malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Leo D.; Rao, Tata Nageswara; Rowe, R. Grant; Nguyen, Phi T.; Sullivan, Jessica L.; Pearson, Daniel S.; Doulatov, Sergei; Wu, Linwei; Lindsley, R. Coleman; Zhu, Hao; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Daley, George Q.; Wagers, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    Mast cells are critical components of the innate immune system and important for host defense, allergy, autoimmunity, tissue regeneration, and tumor progression. Dysregulated mast cell development leads to systemic mastocytosis, a clinically variable but often devastating family of hematologic disorders. Here we report that induced expression of Lin28, a heterochronic gene and pluripotency factor implicated in driving a fetal hematopoietic program, caused mast cell accumulation in adult mice in target organs such as the skin and peritoneal cavity. In vitro assays revealed a skewing of myeloid commitment in LIN28B-expressing hematopoietic progenitors, with increased levels of LIN28B in common myeloid and basophil-mast cell progenitors altering gene expression patterns to favor cell fate choices that enhanced mast cell specification. In addition, LIN28B-induced mast cells appeared phenotypically and functionally immature, and in vitro assays suggested a slowing of mast cell terminal differentiation in the context of LIN28B upregulation. Finally, interrogation of human mast cell leukemia samples revealed upregulation of LIN28B in abnormal mast cells from patients with systemic mastocytosis (SM). This work identifies Lin28 as a novel regulator of innate immune function and a new protein of interest in mast cell disease. PMID:25655194

  5. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Cultures and Assays

    PubMed Central

    Frisch, Benjamin J.; Calvi, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The adult hematopoietic system is repopulated in its entirety from a rare cell type known as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that reside in the marrow space throughout the skeletal system. Here we describe the isolation and identification of HSCs both phenotypically and functionally. PMID:24482184

  6. Hematopoietic stem cell cultures and assays.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Benjamin J; Calvi, Laura M

    2014-01-01

    The adult hematopoietic system is repopulated in its entirety from a rare cell type known as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that reside in the marrow space throughout the skeletal system. Here we describe the isolation and identification of HSCs both phenotypically and functionally. PMID:24482184

  7. Transcriptional fine-tuning of microRNA-223 levels directs lineage choice of human hematopoietic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Vian, L; Di Carlo, M; Pelosi, E; Fazi, F; Santoro, S; Cerio, A M; Boe, A; Rotilio, V; Billi, M; Racanicchi, S; Testa, U; Grignani, F; Nervi, C

    2014-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and death during development and postnatal life. The expression level of mature miRNAs results from complex molecular mechanisms, including the transcriptional regulation of their genes. MiR-223 is a hematopoietic-specific miRNA participating in regulatory signaling networks involving lineage-specific transcription factors (TFs). However, the transcriptional mechanisms governing its expression levels and its functional role in lineage fate decision of human hematopoietic progenitors (HPCs) have not yet been clarified. We found that in CD34(+)HPCs undergoing unilineage differentiation/maturation, miR-223 is upregulated more than 10-fold during granulopoiesis, 3-fold during monocytopoiesis and maintained at low levels during erythropoiesis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter luciferase assays showed that the lineage-specific expression level of mature miR-223 is controlled by the coordinated binding of TFs to their DNA-responsive elements located in 'distal' and 'proximal' regulatory regions of the miR-223 gene, differentially regulating the transcription of two primary transcripts (pri-miRs). All this drives myeloid progenitor maturation into specific lineages. Accordingly, modulation of miR-223 activity in CD34(+)HPCs and myeloid cell lines significantly affects their differentiation/maturation into erythroid, granulocytic and monocytic/macrophagic lineages. MiR-223 overexpression increases granulopoiesis and impairs erythroid and monocytic/macrophagic differentiation. Its knockdown, meanwhile, impairs granulopoiesis and facilitates erythropoiesis and monocytic/macrophagic differentiation. Overall, our data reveal that transcriptional pathways acting on the differential regulation of two pri-miR transcripts results in the fine-tuning of a single mature miRNA expression level, which dictates the lineage fate decision of hematopoietic myeloid progenitors. PMID:24141720

  8. Transcriptional fine-tuning of microRNA-223 levels directs lineage choice of human hematopoietic progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Vian, L; Di Carlo, M; Pelosi, E; Fazi, F; Santoro, S; Cerio, A M; Boe, A; Rotilio, V; Billi, M; Racanicchi, S; Testa, U; Grignani, F; Nervi, C

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate cell proliferation, differentiation and death during development and postnatal life. The expression level of mature miRNAs results from complex molecular mechanisms, including the transcriptional regulation of their genes. MiR-223 is a hematopoietic-specific miRNA participating in regulatory signaling networks involving lineage-specific transcription factors (TFs). However, the transcriptional mechanisms governing its expression levels and its functional role in lineage fate decision of human hematopoietic progenitors (HPCs) have not yet been clarified. We found that in CD34+HPCs undergoing unilineage differentiation/maturation, miR-223 is upregulated more than 10-fold during granulopoiesis, 3-fold during monocytopoiesis and maintained at low levels during erythropoiesis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and promoter luciferase assays showed that the lineage-specific expression level of mature miR-223 is controlled by the coordinated binding of TFs to their DNA-responsive elements located in distal' and proximal' regulatory regions of the miR-223 gene, differentially regulating the transcription of two primary transcripts (pri-miRs). All this drives myeloid progenitor maturation into specific lineages. Accordingly, modulation of miR-223 activity in CD34+HPCs and myeloid cell lines significantly affects their differentiation/maturation into erythroid, granulocytic and monocytic/macrophagic lineages. MiR-223 overexpression increases granulopoiesis and impairs erythroid and monocytic/macrophagic differentiation. Its knockdown, meanwhile, impairs granulopoiesis and facilitates erythropoiesis and monocytic/macrophagic differentiation. Overall, our data reveal that transcriptional pathways acting on the differential regulation of two pri-miR transcripts results in the fine-tuning of a single mature miRNA expression level, which dictates the lineage fate decision of hematopoietic myeloid progenitors. PMID:24141720

  9. Plasticity of hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Makio; LaRue, Amanda C; Mehrotra, Meenal

    2015-01-01

    Almost two decades ago, a number of cell culture and preclinical transplantation studies suggested the striking concept of the tissue-reconstituting ability of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). While this heralded an exciting time of radically new therapies for disorders of many organs and tissues, the concept was soon mired by controversy and remained dormant. This chapter provides a brief review of evidence for HSC plasticity including our findings based on single HSC transplantation in mouse. These studies strongly support the concept that HSCs are pluripotent and may be the source for the majority, if not all, of the cell types in our body. PMID:26590762

  10. Histocompatibility and Hematopoietic Transplantation in the Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Jill L. O.; Zon, Leonard I.

    2012-01-01

    The zebrafish has proven to be an excellent model for human disease, particularly hematopoietic diseases, since these fish make similar types of blood cells as humans and other mammals. The genetic program that regulates the development and differentiation of hematopoietic cells is highly conserved. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the source of all the blood cells needed by an organism during its lifetime. Identifying an HSC requires a functional assay, namely, a transplantation assay consisting of multilineage engraftment of a recipient and subsequent serial transplant recipients. In the past decade, several types of hematopoietic transplant assays have been developed in the zebrafish. An understanding of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in the zebrafish has lagged behind transplantation experiments, limiting the ability to perform unbiased competitive transplantation assays. This paper summarizes the different hematopoietic transplantation experiments performed in the zebrafish, both with and without immunologic matching, and discusses future directions for this powerful experimental model of human blood diseases. PMID:22778744

  11. Aging-like Phenotype and Defective Lineage Specification in SIRT1-Deleted Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rimmelé, Pauline; Bigarella, Carolina L.; Liang, Raymond; Izac, Brigitte; Dieguez-Gonzalez, Rebeca; Barbet, Gaetan; Donovan, Michael; Brugnara, Carlo; Blander, Julie M.; Sinclair, David A.; Ghaffari, Saghi

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aging hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) exhibit defective lineage specification that is thought to be central to increased incidence of myeloid malignancies and compromised immune competence in the elderly. Mechanisms underlying these age-related defects remain largely unknown. We show that the deacetylase Sirtuin (SIRT)1 is required for homeostatic HSC maintenance. Differentiation of young SIRT1-deleted HSCs is skewed toward myeloid lineage associated with a significant decline in the lymphoid compartment, anemia, and altered expression of associated genes. Combined with HSC accumulation of damaged DNA and expression patterns of age-linked molecules, these have striking overlaps with aged HSCs. We further show that SIRT1 controls HSC homeostasis via the longevity transcription factor FOXO3. These findings suggest that SIRT1 is essential for HSC homeostasis and lineage specification. They also indicate that SIRT1 might contribute to delaying HSC aging. PMID:25068121

  12. Prolonged Fasting reduces IGF-1/PKA to promote hematopoietic stem cell-based regeneration and reverse immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chia-Wei; Adams, Gregor B.; Perin, Laura; Wei, Min; Zhou, Xiaoying; Lam, Ben S.; Da Sacco, Stefano; Mirisola, Mario; Quinn, David I.; Dorff, Tanya B.; Kopchick, John J.; Longo, Valter D.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Immune system defects are at the center of aging and a range of diseases. Here we show that prolonged fasting reduces circulating IGF-1 levels and PKA activity in various cell populations, leading to signal transduction changes in long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSC) and niche cells that promote stress resistance, self-renewal and lineage-balanced regeneration. Multiple cycles of fasting abated the immunosuppression and mortality caused by chemotherapy, and reversed age-dependent myeloid-bias in mice, in agreement with preliminary data on the protection of lymphocytes from chemotoxicity in fasting patients. The pro-regenerative effects of fasting on stem cells were recapitulated by deficiencies in either IGF-1 or PKA and blunted by exogenous IGF-1. These findings link the reduced levels of IGF-1 caused by fasting, to PKA signaling and establish their crucial role in regulating hematopoietic stem cell protection, self-renewal and regeneration. PMID:24905167

  13. Knockdown of Hnrnpa0, a del(5q) gene, alters myeloid cell fate in murine cells through regulation of AU-rich transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Young, David J.; Stoddart, Angela; Nakitandwe, Joy; Chen, Shann-Ching; Qian, Zhijian; Downing, James R.; Le Beau, Michelle M.

    2014-01-01

    The control of mRNA stability plays a central role in orchestrating gene-regulatory networks in hematopoietic cell growth, differentiation and tumorigenesis. HNRNPA0, which encodes an RNA-binding protein shown to regulate transcript stability via binding to the AU-rich elements of mRNAs, is located within the commonly deleted segment of 5q31.2 in myeloid neoplasms with a del(5q), and is expressed at haploinsufficient levels in these patients. We show that HNRNPA0 is normally highly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and exhibits dynamic changes in expression during the course of differentiation. To model HNRNPA0 haploinsufficiency, we used RNAi interference in primary murine cells and an experimental cell system, and found that reduced Hnrnpa0 expression leads to a shift from monocytic towards granulocytic differentiation. Microarray-based global expression profiling revealed that Hnrnpa0 knockdown disproportionally impacts AU-rich containing transcripts and alters expression of myeloid specification genes. In therapy-related myeloid neoplasms with a del(5q), AU-rich containing mRNAs are enriched in transcripts that encode proteins associated with increased growth and proliferation. Our findings implicate haploinsufficiency of HNRNPA0 as one of the key initiating mutations in the pathogenesis of myeloid neoplasms with a del(5q), and suggest that therapies that target AU-rich elements warrant consideration in efforts to develop new mechanism-based treatment strategies. PMID:24532040

  14. Identification of hematopoietic-specific regulatory elements from the CD45 gene and use for lentiviral tracking of transplanted cells.

    PubMed

    Duong, Khanh L; Das, Satyabrata; Yu, Shuyang; Barr, Jennifer Y; Jena, Snehalata; Kim, Eunmi; Zavazava, Nicolas; Colgan, John D; Xue, Hai-Hui; Levasseur, Dana N

    2014-09-01

    The development of a hematopoietic reporter is crucial for determining the fate of lineages derived from cell-based therapies. A marking system will enable safer embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cell-based derivation of blood lineages and facilitate the development of efficient cellular reprogramming strategies based on direct fibroblast conversion. Here we report that the protein tyrosine phosphatase CD45 is an ideal candidate gene on which to base a hematopoietic reporter. CD45 regulatory elements were discovered by analyzing transcription factor chromatin occupancy (ChIP-seq) and promoter nuclease sensitivity (DNase-seq) to identify minimally sufficient sequences required for expression. After cloning the CD45 regulatory elements into an attenuated lentiviral backbone, we found that two transcriptional initiation regions were essential for high-level expression. Expressing CD45 promoters containing these regions and tethered to green fluorescent protein (GFP) in a primary B-cell differentiation assay and a transplantation model resulted in high levels of GFP in lymphoid, myeloid, and nucleated erythroid cells in mouse and human blood cell lineages. Moreover, GFP levels remained high 5 months after secondary transplantation, indicating persistence of the reporter. No CD45-driven GFP expression is observed after fibroblast or embryonic stem cell transduction. The GFP reporter is seen only after embryonic stem cells differentiate into hematopoietic cell progenitors and lineages, suggesting that this hematopoietic reporter system could be useful in validating potential autologous blood cell therapies. PMID:24852660

  15. Olive leaf components apigenin 7-glucoside and luteolin 7-glucoside direct human hematopoietic stem cell differentiation towards erythroid lineage.

    PubMed

    Samet, Imen; Villareal, Myra O; Motojima, Hideko; Han, Junkyu; Sayadi, Sami; Isoda, Hiroko

    2015-06-01

    The generation of blood cellular components from hematopoietic stem cells is important for the therapy of a broad spectrum of hematological disorders. In recent years, several lines of evidence suggested that certain nutrients, vitamins and flavonoids may have important roles in controlling the stem cell fate decision by maintaining their self-renewal or stimulating the lineage-specific differentiation. In this study, main olive leaf phytochemicals oleuropein (Olp), apigenin 7-glucoside (Api7G) and luteolin 7-glucoside (Lut7G) were investigated for their potential effects on hematopoietic stem cell differentiation using both phenotypic and molecular analysis. Oleuropein and the combination of the three compounds enhanced the differentiation of CD34+ cells into myelomonocytic cells and lymphocytes progenitors and inhibited the commitment to megakaryocytic and erythroid lineages. Treatment with Lut7G stimulated both the erythroid and the myeloid differentiation, while treatment with Api7G specifically induced the differentiation of CD34+ cells towards the erythroid lineage and inhibited the myeloid differentiation. Erythroid differentiation induced by Api7G and Lut7G treatments was confirmed by the increase in hemoglobin genes expressions (α-hemoglobin, β-hemoglobin and γ-hemoglobin) and erythroid transcription factor GATA1 expression. As revealed by microarray analysis, the mechanisms underlying the erythroid differentiation-inducing effect of Api7G on hematopoietic stem cells involves the activation of JAK/STAT signaling pathway. These findings prove the differentiation-inducing effects of olive leaf compounds on hematopoietic stem cells and highlight their potential use in the ex vivo generation of blood cells. PMID:26299581

  16. FOXF1 inhibits hematopoietic lineage commitment during early mesoderm specification.

    PubMed

    Fleury, Maud; Eliades, Alexia; Carlsson, Peter; Lacaud, Georges; Kouskoff, Valerie

    2015-10-01

    The molecular mechanisms orchestrating early mesoderm specification are still poorly understood. In particular, how alternate cell fate decisions are regulated in nascent mesoderm remains mostly unknown. In the present study, we investigated both in vitro in differentiating embryonic stem cells, and in vivo in gastrulating embryos, the lineage specification of early mesodermal precursors expressing or not the Forkhead transcription factor FOXF1. Our data revealed that FOXF1-expressing mesoderm is derived from FLK1(+) progenitors and that in vitro this transcription factor is expressed in smooth muscle and transiently in endothelial lineages, but not in hematopoietic cells. In gastrulating embryos, FOXF1 marks most extra-embryonic mesoderm derivatives including the chorion, the allantois, the amnion and a subset of endothelial cells. Similarly to the in vitro situation, FOXF1 expression is excluded from the blood islands and blood cells. Further analysis revealed an inverse correlation between hematopoietic potential and FOXF1 expression in vivo with increased commitment toward primitive erythropoiesis in Foxf1-deficient embryos, whereas FOXF1-enforced expression in vitro was shown to repress hematopoiesis. Altogether, our data establish that during gastrulation, FOXF1 marks all posterior primitive streak extra-embryonic mesoderm derivatives with the remarkable exception of the blood lineage. Our study further suggests that this transcription factor is implicated in actively restraining the specification of mesodermal progenitors to hematopoiesis. PMID:26293303

  17. Inherited BCL10 deficiency impairs hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic immunity

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Juan Manuel; Martinez-Barricarte, Rubén; García-Gómez, Sonia; Mazariegos, Marina S.; Itan, Yuval; Boisson, Bertrand; ρlvarez, Rita; Jiménez-Reinoso, Anaïs; del Pino, Lucia; Rodríguez-Pena, Rebeca; Ferreira, Antonio; Hernández-Jiménez, Enrique; Toledano, Victor; Cubillos-Zapata, Carolina; Díaz-Almirón, Mariana; López-Collazo, Eduardo; Unzueta-Roch, José L.; Sánchez-Ramón, Silvia; Regueiro, Jose R.; López-Granados, Eduardo; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Pérez de Diego, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrimers composed of B cell CLL/lymphoma 10 (BCL10), mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation protein 1 (MALT1), and caspase recruitment domain–containing (CARD) family adaptors play a role in NF-κB activation and have been shown to be involved in both the innate and the adaptive arms of immunity in murine models. Moreover, individuals with inherited defects of MALT1, CARD9, and CARD11 present with immunological and clinical phenotypes. Here, we characterized a case of autosomal-recessive, complete BCL10 deficiency in a child with a broad immunodeficiency, including defects of both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic immunity. The patient died at 3 years of age and was homozygous for a loss-of-expression, loss-of-function BCL10 mutation. The effect of BCL10 deficiency was dependent on the signaling pathway, and, for some pathways, the cell type affected. Despite the noted similarities to BCL10 deficiency in mice, including a deficient adaptive immune response, human BCL10 deficiency in this patient resulted in a number of specific features within cell populations. Treatment of the patient’s myeloid cells with a variety of pathogen-associated molecular pattern molecules (PAMPs) elicited a normal response; however, NF-κB–mediated fibroblast functions were dramatically impaired. The results of this study indicate that inherited BCL10 deficiency should be considered in patients with combined immunodeficiency with B cell, T cell, and fibroblast defects. PMID:25365219

  18. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Au, W Y; Ma, S K; Lie, A K W; Liang, R; Cheng, T; Kwong, Y L

    2002-03-01

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is an X-linked hemolytic enzymopathy affecting 3% of Southern Chinese males. Among 275 adult allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (SCT), five cases (1.8%) each of donors and recipients were G6PD deficient. Among 107 autologous SCT, four patients (3.7%) were G6PD deficient. All subjects were male, except for two female patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The incidence of G6PD deficiency in female CML patients was significantly higher than the background female incidence (P = 0.004), but comparable with that in the males (P = 0.664). There was no significant hemolysis or delay in red cell engraftment, and all but one patient converted to donor G6PD screening status. One female patient achieved partial correction of her G6PD status and relapsed at 10 months. We suggest that G6PD deficiency should be tested for in all marrow donors and recipients in susceptible populations. From our data, there is a suggestion of increased clinical incidence of G6PD deficiency in female patients with multi-lineage clonal marrow disorders. PMID:11919729

  19. BCR-ABL1-Associated Reduction of Beta Catenin Antagonist Chibby1 in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Aluigi, Michela; Luatti, Simona; Castagnetti, Fausto; Testoni, Nicoletta; Soverini, Simona; Santucci, Maria Alessandra; Martinelli, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Beta Catenin signaling is critical for the self-renewal of leukemic stem cells in chronic myeloid leukemia. It is driven by multiple events, enhancing beta catenin stability and promoting its transcriptional co-activating function. We investigated the impact of BCR-ABL1 on Chibby1, a beta catenin antagonist involved in cell differentiation and transformation. Relative proximity of the Chibby1 encoding gene (C22orf2) on chromosome 22q12 to the BCR breakpoint (22q11) lets assume its involvement in beta catenin activation in chronic myeloid leukemia as a consequence of deletions of distal BCR sequences encompassing one C22orf2 allele. Forty patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase were analyzed for C22orf2 relocation and Chibby1 expression. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses established that the entire C22orf2 follows BCR regardless of chromosomes involved in the translocation. In differentiated hematopoietic progenitors (bone marrow mononuclear cell fractions) of 30/40 patients, the expression of Chibby1 protein was reduced below 50% of the reference value (peripheral blood mononuclear cell fractions of healthy persons). In such cell context, Chibby1 protein reduction is not dependent on C22orf2 transcriptional downmodulation; however, it is strictly dependent upon BCR-ABL1 expression because it was not observed at the moment of major molecular response under tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Moreover, it was not correlated with the disease prognosis or response to therapy. Most importantly, a remarkable Chibby1 reduction was apparent in a putative BCR-ABL1+ leukemic stem cell compartment identified by a CD34+ phenotype compared to more differentiated hematopoietic progenitors. In CD34+ cells, Chibby1 reduction arises from transcriptional events and is driven by C22orf2 promoter hypermethylation. These results advance low Chibby1 expression associated with BCR-ABL1 as a component of beta catenin signaling in leukemic stem cells. PMID:24339928

  20. Chemopreventive Effects of Dietary Eicosapentaenoic Acid Supplementation in Experimental Myeloid Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Finch, Emily R; Kudva, Avinash K; Quickel, Michael D; Goodfield, Laura L; Kennett, Mary J; Whelan, Jay; Paulson, Robert F; Prabhu, K Sandeep

    2015-10-01

    Current therapies for treatment of myeloid leukemia do not eliminate leukemia stem cells (LSC), leading to disease relapse. In this study, we supplemented mice with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5), a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid, at pharmacologic levels, to examine whether the endogenous metabolite, cyclopentenone prostaglandin delta-12 PGJ3 (Δ(12)-PGJ3), was effective in targeting LSCs in experimental leukemia. EPA supplementation for 8 weeks resulted in enhanced endogenous production of Δ(12)-PGJ3 that was blocked by indomethacin, a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor. Using a murine model of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) induced by bone marrow transplantation of BCR-ABL-expressing hematopoietic stem cells, mice supplemented with EPA showed a decrease in the LSC population, and reduced splenomegaly and leukocytosis, when compared with mice on an oleic acid diet. Supplementation of CML mice carrying the T315I mutation (in BCR-ABL) with EPA resulted in a similar effect. Indomethacin blocked the EPA effect and increased the severity of BCR-ABL-induced CML and decreased apoptosis. Δ(12)-PGJ3 rescued indomethacin-treated BCR-ABL mice and decreased LSCs. Inhibition of hematopoietic-prostaglandin D synthase (H-PGDS) by HQL-79 in EPA-supplemented CML mice also blocked the effect of EPA. In addition, EPA supplementation was effective in a murine model of acute myeloid leukemia. EPA-supplemented mice exhibited a decrease in leukemia burden and a decrease in the LSC colony-forming unit (LSC-CFU). The decrease in LSCs was confirmed through serial transplantation assays in all disease models. The results support a chemopreventive role for EPA in myeloid leukemia, which is dependent on the ability to efficiently convert EPA to endogenous COX-derived prostanoids, including Δ(12)-PGJ3. PMID:26290393

  1. The histone H2A deubiquitinase Usp16 regulates hematopoiesis and hematopoietic stem cell function.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yue; Jones, Amanda E; Yang, Wei; Liu, Shanrun; Dai, Qian; Liu, Yudong; Swindle, C Scott; Zhou, Dewang; Zhang, Zhuo; Ryan, Thomas M; Townes, Tim M; Klug, Christopher A; Chen, Dongquan; Wang, Hengbin

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms play important regulatory roles in hematopoiesis and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function. Subunits of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), the major histone H2A ubiquitin ligase, are critical for both normal and pathological hematopoiesis; however, it is unclear which of the several counteracting H2A deubiquitinases functions along with PRC1 to control H2A ubiquitination (ubH2A) level and regulates hematopoiesis in vivo. Here we investigated the function of Usp16 in mouse hematopoiesis. Conditional deletion of Usp16 in bone marrow resulted in a significant increase of global ubH2A level and lethality. Usp16 deletion did not change HSC number but was associated with a dramatic reduction of mature and progenitor cell populations, revealing a role in governing HSC lineage commitment. ChIP- and RNA-sequencing studies in HSC and progenitor cells revealed that Usp16 bound to many important hematopoietic regulators and that Usp16 deletion altered the expression of genes in transcription/chromosome organization, immune response, hematopoietic/lymphoid organ development, and myeloid/leukocyte differentiation. The altered gene expression was partly rescued by knockdown of PRC1 subunits, suggesting that Usp16 and PRC1 counterbalance each other to regulate cellular ubH2A level and gene expression in the hematopoietic system. We further discovered that knocking down Cdkn1a (p21cip1), a Usp16 target and regulated gene, rescued the altered cell cycle profile and differentiation defect of Usp16-deleted HSCs. Collectively, these studies identified Usp16 as one of the histone H2A deubiquitinases, which coordinates with the H2A ubiquitin ligase PRC1 to regulate hematopoiesis, and revealed cell cycle regulation by Usp16 as key for HSC differentiation. PMID:26699484

  2. Hematopoietic stem cell origin of BRAFV600E mutations in hairy cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephen S; Kim, Eunhee; Park, Jae H; Chung, Young Rock; Lito, Piro; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Hu, Wenhuo; Beguelin, Wendy; Monette, Sebastien; Duy, Cihangir; Rampal, Raajit; Telis, Leon; Patel, Minal; Kim, Min Kyung; Huberman, Kety; Bouvier, Nancy; Berger, Michael F; Melnick, Ari M; Rosen, Neal; Tallman, Martin S; Park, Christopher Y; Abdel-Wahab, Omar

    2014-05-28

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by somatic BRAFV600E mutations. The malignant cell in HCL has immunophenotypic features of a mature B cell, but no normal counterpart along the continuum of developing B lymphocytes has been delineated as the cell of origin. We find that the BRAFV600E mutation is present in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in HCL patients, and that these patients exhibit marked alterations in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) frequencies. Quantitative sequencing analysis revealed a mean BRAFV600E-mutant allele frequency of 4.97% in HSCs from HCL patients. Moreover, transplantation of BRAFV600E-mutant HSCs from an HCL patient into immunodeficient mice resulted in stable engraftment of BRAFV600E-mutant human hematopoietic cells, revealing the functional self-renewal capacity of HCL HSCs. Consistent with the human genetic data, expression of BRafV600E in murine HSPCs resulted in a lethal hematopoietic disorder characterized by splenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, increased circulating soluble CD25, and increased clonogenic capacity of B lineage cells-all classic features of human HCL. In contrast, restricting expression of BRafV600E to the mature B cell compartment did not result in disease. Treatment of HCL patients with vemurafenib, an inhibitor of mutated BRAF, resulted in normalization of HSPC frequencies and increased myeloid and erythroid output from HSPCs. These findings link the pathogenesis of HCL to somatic mutations that arise in HSPCs and further suggest that chronic lymphoid malignancies may be initiated by aberrant HSCs. PMID:24871132

  3. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Origin of BRAFV600E Mutations in Hairy Cell Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Young Rock; Lito, Piro; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Hu, Wenhuo; Beguelin, Wendy; Monette, Sebastien; Duy, Cihangir; Rampal, Raajit; Telis, Leon; Patel, Minal; Kim, Min Kyung; Huberman, Kety; Bouvier, Nancy; Berger, Michael F.; Melnick, Ari M.; Rosen, Neal; Tallman, Martin S.

    2014-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by somatic BRAFV600E mutations. The malignant cell in HCL has immunophenotypic features of a mature B cell, but no normal counterpart along the continuum of developing B lymphocytes has been delineated as the cell of origin. We find that the BRAFV600E mutation is present in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in HCL patients, and that these patients exhibit marked alterations in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) frequencies. Quantitative sequencing analysis revealed a mean BRAFV600E-mutant allele frequency of 4.97% in HSCs from HCL patients. Moreover, transplantation of BRAFV600E-mutant HSCs from an HCL patient into immunodeficient mice resulted in stable engraftment of BRAFV600E-mutant human hematopoietic cells, revealing the functional self-renewal capacity of HCL HSCs. Consistent with the human genetic data, expression of BRafV600E in murine HSPCs resulted in a lethal hematopoietic disorder characterized by splenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, increased circulating soluble CD25, and increased clonogenic capacity of B lineage cellsall classic features of human HCL. In contrast, restricting expression of BRafV600E to the mature B cell compartment did not result in disease. Treatment of HCL patients with vemurafenib, an inhibitor of mutated BRAF, resulted in normalization of HSPC frequencies and increased myeloid and erythroid output from HSPCs. These findings link the pathogenesis of HCL to somatic mutations that arise in HSPCs and further suggest that chronic lymphoid malignancies may be initiated by aberrant HSCs. PMID:24871132

  4. Nutritional status of patients submitted to transplantation of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, rika Elias; Guerra, Daiane Cristina; Baluz, Ktia; de Resende Furtado, Wander; da Silva Bouzas, Luis Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to describe and compare the nutritional status of adult patients submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at two different time points (admission and discharge). Methods A retrospective, descriptive and quantitative study was performed based on clinical, laboratory and nutritional data obtained from medical records of adult patients of both genders submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a bone marrow transplantation reference center in Rio de Janeiro in the period from 2010 to 2013. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software (version 22.0). Results Sixty-four patients were evaluated. The mean age was 42.13.2 years and the most prevalent disease was acute myeloid leukemia (39%). There was a high prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms including nausea (100%), vomiting (97%) and mucositis (93%). Between admission and discharge there was a significant decrease in the median weight (?2.5kg; 71.5 vs. 68.75kg; p-value<0.001), body mass index (?0.9kg/m2; 24.8 vs. 24.4kg/m2; p-value<0.001), and serum albumin levels (?0.2g/dL; 3.7 vs. 3.6g/dL; p-value=0.024). The survival time after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation correlated negatively with C-reactive protein at discharge (CC=?0.72; p-value<0.001) and positively with serum albumin levels (CC=0.56; p-value=0.004) and with high total protein level at discharge (CC=0.53; p-value=0.006). Conclusion Our results suggest that patients submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have compromised nutritional status during the hospital stay for transplantation. PMID:25453651

  5. Targeted alpha-particle immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jurcic, Joseph G; Rosenblat, Todd L

    2014-01-01

    Because alpha-particles have a shorter range and a higher linear energy transfer (LET) compared with beta-particles, targeted alpha-particle immunotherapy offers the potential for more efficient tumor cell killing while sparing surrounding normal cells. To date, clinical studies of alpha-particle immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have focused on the myeloid cell surface antigen CD33 as a target using the humanized monoclonal antibody lintuzumab. An initial phase I study demonstrated the safety, feasibility, and antileukemic effects of bismuth-213 ((213)Bi)-labeled lintuzumab. In a subsequent study, (213)Bi-lintuzumab produced remissions in some patients with AML after partial cytoreduction with cytarabine, suggesting the utility of targeted alpha-particle therapy for small-volume disease. The widespread use of (213)Bi, however, is limited by its short half-life. Therefore, a second-generation construct containing actinium-225 ((225)Ac), a radiometal that generates four alpha-particle emissions, was developed. A phase I trial demonstrated that (225)Ac-lintuzumab is safe at doses of 3 ?Ci/kg or less and has antileukemic activity across all dose levels studied. Fractionated-dose (225)Ac-lintuzumab in combination with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) is now under investigation for the management of older patients with untreated AML in a multicenter trial. Preclinical studies using (213)Bi- and astatine-211 ((211)At)-labeled anti-CD45 antibodies have shown that alpha-particle immunotherapy may be useful as part conditioning before hematopoietic cell transplantation. The use of novel pretargeting strategies may further improve target-to-normal organ dose ratios. PMID:24857092

  6. 3q26/EVI1 rearrangements in myeloid hemopathies: a cytogenetic review.

    PubMed

    De Braekeleer, Marc; Le Bris, Marie-Jose; De Braekeleer, Etienne; Basinko, Audrey; Morel, Frdric; Douet-Guilbert, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The EVI1 gene, located in chromosomal band 3q26, is a transcription factor that has stem cell-specific expression pattern and is essential for the regulation of self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells. It is now recognized as one of the dominant oncogenes associated with myeloid leukemia. EVI1 overexpression is associated with minimal to no response to chemotherapy and poor clinical outcome. Several chromosomal rearrangements involving band 3q26 are known to induce EVI1 overexpression. They are mainly found in acute myeloid leukemia and blastic phase of Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia, more rarely in myelodysplastic syndromes. They include inv(3)(q21q26), t(3;3)(q21;q26), t(3;21)(q26;q22), t(3;12)(q26;p13) and t(2;3)(p15-23;q26). However, many other chromosomal rearrangements involving 3q26/EVI1 have been identified. The precise molecular event has not been elucidated in the majority of these chromosomal abnormalities and most gene partners remain unknown. PMID:26043219

  7. HDAC1 and Klf4 interplay critically regulates human myeloid leukemia cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Y; Chen, J; Lu, C; Han, J; Wang, G; Song, C; Zhu, S; Wang, C; Li, G; Kang, J; Wang, J

    2014-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is recognized as a complex disease of hematopoietic stem cell disorders, but its pathogenesis mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment remain unclear. General histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been used in blood cancers including AML, but the lack of gene specificity greatly limits their anti-cancer effects and clinical applications. Here, we found that HDAC1 expression was negatively correlated with that of Krppel-like factor 4 (Klf4) and that AML patients with lower HDAC1 level had better prognosis. Further, knockdown of HDAC1 in leukemia cells K562, HL-60, and U937 significantly increased Klf4 expression and inhibited cell cycle progression and cell proliferation, similar results were found for HDAC inhibitors (VPA and mocetinostat). Moreover, overexpression or knockdown of Klf4 could markedly block the effects of HDAC1 overexpression or knockdown on leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Mechanistic analyses demonstrated that HDAC1 and Klf4 competitively bound to the promoter region of Klf4 and oppositely regulated Klf4 expression in myeloid leukemia. We identified HDAC1 as a potential specific target for repressing cell proliferation and inducing cell cycle arrest through interplay and modulation of Klf4 expression, suggests that HDAC1 and Klf4 are potential new molecular markers and targets for clinical diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of myeloid leukemia. PMID:25341045

  8. miR-125b, a Target of CDX2, Regulates Cell Differentiation through Repression of the Core Binding Factor in Hematopoietic Malignancies*

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kang-Yu; Zhang, Xing-Ju; Feng, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Hua; Zeng, Cheng-Wu; Han, Bo-Wei; Zhou, Ai-Dong; Qu, Liang-Hu; Xu, Ling; Chen, Yue-Qin

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNA-125b (miR-125b), a small noncoding RNA molecule, has been found to be deregulated and functions as an oncogene in many cancers including hematopoietic malignancies. However, the mechanisms accounting for miR-125b dysregulation remain to be elucidated. The present study aims to identify the factors that might contribute to up-regulation of miR-125b in human hematopoietic malignancies and its downstream targets for lineage-specific differentiation. We at first reported that CDX2, a homeobox transcription factor, binds to promoter regions of the miR-125b gene and activates transcriptional regulation of miR-125b in malignant myeloid cells. We further revealed that increasing levels of CDX2 in malignant myeloid cells activate miR-125b expression, which in turn inhibits core binding factor ? (CBF?) translation, thereby counteracting myeloid cell differentiation, at least for granulocytic lineage, and promoting leukemogenesis. Interestingly, we found that this novel pathway including CDX2, miR-125b, and CBF? was mediated by undergoing all-trans-retinoic acid induction. Once differentiation ensues with all-trans-retinoic acid treatment, CDX2 activity decreases, leading to a reduction in miR-125b transcription and up-regulation of CBF? in myeloid cells and in patients. The study provides a new mechanism that contributes to hematopoietic malignancies, which could involve deregulation of miR-125b and its up- and downstream factors. As altered expression of miRNAs has been reported in a wide range of malignancies, delineating the underlying molecular mechanisms of aberrant miRNA expression and characterizing the upstream and downstream factors will help to understand important steps in the pathogenesis of these afflictions. PMID:21903586

  9. Cryopreserved Ex Vivo-Expanded Allogeneic Myeloid Progenitor Cell Product Protects Neutropenic Mice From a Lethal Fungal Infection.

    PubMed

    Domen, Jos; Christensen, Julie L; Gille, Daphne; Smith-Berdan, Stephanie; Fong, Timothy; Brown, Janice M Y; Sedello, Anna K

    2016-01-01

    Severe neutropenia induced by chemotherapy or conditioning for hematopoietic cell transplantation often results in morbidity and mortality due to infection by opportunistic pathogens. A system has been developed to generate ex vivo-expanded mouse myeloid progenitor cells (mMPCs) that produce functional neutrophils in vivo upon transplantation in a pathogen challenge model. It has previously been demonstrated that transplantation of large numbers of freshly isolated myeloid progenitors from a single donor provides survival benefit in radiation-induced neutropenic mice. In the present work, an ex vivo-expanded and cryopreserved mMPC product generated from an allogeneic donor pool retains protective activity in vivo in a lethal fungal infection model. Infusion of the allogeneic pooled mMPC product is effective in preventing death from invasive Aspergillus fumigatus in neutropenic animals, and protection is dose dependent. Cell progeny from the mMPC product is detected in the bone marrow, spleen, blood, and liver by flow cytometry 1 week postinfusion but is no longer evident in most animals 4 weeks posttransplant. In this model, the ex vivo-generated pooled allogeneic mMPC product (i) expands and differentiates in vivo; (ii) is functional and prevents death from invasive fungal infection; and (iii) does not permanently engraft or cause allosensitization. These data suggest that an analogous ex vivo-expanded human myeloid progenitor cell product may be an effective off-the-shelf bridging therapy for the infectious complications that develop during hematopoietic recovery following hematopoietic cell transplantation or intensive chemotherapy. PMID:25812169

  10. Age and stage dependency of estrogen receptor expression by lymphocyte precursors

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Hideya; Kouro, Taku; Yokota, Takafumi; Comp, Phillip C.; Kincade, Paul W.

    2001-01-01

    Sex steroids negatively regulate B lymphopoiesis in adult mice. Paradoxically, lymphocytes arise during fetal life, when estrogen levels are high and maternal lymphopoiesis is suppressed. Here we demonstrate that embryonic B lymphopoiesis was unaffected by estrogen, but sensitive to glucocorticoids. Both fetal and adult precursors contained glucocorticoid receptor transcripts, but only adult precursors expressed estrogen receptor ? and ? together with the androgen receptor. Fetal hematopoietic cells did not efficiently acquire functional estrogen receptors after transplantation to irradiated adult mice. Sex steroid receptors were also expressed in a stage- and developmental age-dependent fashion in human precursors. A developmental switch in responsiveness of hematopoietic cells to sex steroids may be essential for formation of the immune system. PMID:11752459

  11. Clostridium difficile infection in Chilean patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Pilcante, Javier; Rojas, Patricio; Ernst, Daniel; Sarmiento, Mauricio; Ocqueteau, Mauricio; Bertin, Pablo; García, Maria; Rodriguez, Maria; Jara, Veronica; Ajenjo, Maria; Ramirez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Patients submitted to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have an increased risk of Clostridium difficile infection and multiple risk factors have been identified. Published reports have indicated an incidence from 9% to 30% of transplant patients however to date there is no information about infection in these patients in Chile. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed of patients who developed C. difficile infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantations from 2000 to 2013. Statistical analysis used the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Results Two hundred and fifty patients were studied (mean age: 39 years; range: 17–69), with 147 (59%) receiving allogeneic transplants and 103 (41%) receiving autologous transplants. One hundred and ninety-two (77%) patients had diarrhea, with 25 (10%) cases of C. difficile infection being confirmed. Twenty infected patients had undergone allogeneic transplants, of which ten had acute lymphoblastic leukemia, three had acute myeloid leukemia and seven had other diseases (myelodysplastic syndrome, chronic myeloid leukemia, severe aplastic anemia). In the autologous transplant group, five patients had C. difficile infection; two had multiple myeloma, one had amyloidosis, one had acute myeloid leukemia and one had germinal carcinoma. The overall incidence of C. difficile infection was 4% within the first week, 6.4% in the first month and 10% in one year, with no difference in overall survival between infected and non-infected groups (72.0% vs. 67.6%, respectively; p-value = 0.56). Patients infected after allogeneic transplants had a slower time to neutrophil engraftment compared to non-infected patients (17.5 vs. 14.9 days, respectively; p-value = 0.008). In the autologous transplant group there was no significant difference in the neutrophil engraftment time between infected and non-infected patients (12.5 days vs. 11.8 days, respectively; p-value = 0.71). In the allogeneic transplant group, the median time to acute graft-versus-host disease was similar between the two groups (p-value = 0.08), as was the incidence of grades 1–4 acute graft-versus-host disease (40% vs. 48%; p-value >0.05). Conclusion The incidence of C. difficile infection after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation was low, with a significant number of cases occurring shortly after transplantation. Allogeneic transplants had a three-time higher risk of infection compared to autologous transplants, but this was not associated with increased mortality, decreased overall survival or higher risk of acute graft-versus-host disease. PMID:26670401

  12. Myeloid Leukemias and Virally Induced Lymphomas in Miniature Inbred Swine: Development of a Large Animal Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Duran-Struuck, Raimon; Matar, Abraham J.; Huang, Christene A.

    2015-01-01

    The lack of a large animal transplantable tumor model has limited the study of novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of liquid cancers. Swine as a species provide a natural option based on their similarities with humans and their already extensive use in biomedical research. Specifically, the Massachusetts General Hospital miniature swine herd retains unique genetic characteristics that facilitate the study of hematopoietic cell and solid organ transplantation. Spontaneously arising liquid cancers in these swine, specifically myeloid leukemias and B cell lymphomas, closely resemble human malignancies. The ability to establish aggressive tumor cell lines in vitro from these naturally occurring malignancies makes a transplantable tumor model a close reality. Here, we discuss our experience with myeloid and lymphoid tumors in major histocompatibility characterized miniature swine and future approaches regarding the development of a large animal transplantable tumor model. PMID:26635868

  13. Endothelium and NOTCH specify and amplify aorta-gonad-mesonephros–derived hematopoietic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Hadland, Brandon K.; Varnum-Finney, Barbara; Poulos, Michael G.; Moon, Randall T.; Butler, Jason M.; Rafii, Shahin; Bernstein, Irwin D.

    2015-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) first emerge during embryonic development within vessels such as the dorsal aorta of the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region, suggesting that signals from the vascular microenvironment are critical for HSC development. Here, we demonstrated that AGM-derived endothelial cells (ECs) engineered to constitutively express AKT (AGM AKT-ECs) can provide an in vitro niche that recapitulates embryonic HSC specification and amplification. Specifically, nonengrafting embryonic precursors, including the VE-cadherin–expressing population that lacks hematopoietic surface markers, cocultured with AGM AKT-ECs specified into long-term, adult-engrafting HSCs, establishing that a vascular niche is sufficient to induce the endothelial-to-HSC transition in vitro. Subsequent to hematopoietic induction, coculture with AGM AKT-ECs also substantially increased the numbers of HSCs derived from VE-cadherin+CD45+ AGM hematopoietic cells, consistent with a role in supporting further HSC maturation and self-renewal. We also identified conditions that included NOTCH activation with an immobilized NOTCH ligand that were sufficient to amplify AGM-derived HSCs following their specification in the absence of AGM AKT-ECs. Together, these studies begin to define the critical niche components and resident signals required for HSC induction and self-renewal ex vivo, and thus provide insight for development of defined in vitro systems targeted toward HSC generation for therapeutic applications. PMID:25866967

  14. Endothelium and NOTCH specify and amplify aorta-gonad-mesonephros-derived hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Hadland, Brandon K; Varnum-Finney, Barbara; Poulos, Michael G; Moon, Randall T; Butler, Jason M; Rafii, Shahin; Bernstein, Irwin D

    2015-05-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) first emerge during embryonic development within vessels such as the dorsal aorta of the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region, suggesting that signals from the vascular microenvironment are critical for HSC development. Here, we demonstrated that AGM-derived endothelial cells (ECs) engineered to constitutively express AKT (AGM AKT-ECs) can provide an in vitro niche that recapitulates embryonic HSC specification and amplification. Specifically, nonengrafting embryonic precursors, including the VE-cadherin-expressing population that lacks hematopoietic surface markers, cocultured with AGM AKT-ECs specified into long-term, adult-engrafting HSCs, establishing that a vascular niche is sufficient to induce the endothelial-to-HSC transition in vitro. Subsequent to hematopoietic induction, coculture with AGM AKT-ECs also substantially increased the numbers of HSCs derived from VE-cadherin⁺CD45⁺ AGM hematopoietic cells, consistent with a role in supporting further HSC maturation and self-renewal. We also identified conditions that included NOTCH activation with an immobilized NOTCH ligand that were sufficient to amplify AGM-derived HSCs following their specification in the absence of AGM AKT-ECs. Together, these studies begin to define the critical niche components and resident signals required for HSC induction and self-renewal ex vivo, and thus provide insight for development of defined in vitro systems targeted toward HSC generation for therapeutic applications. PMID:25866967

  15. Inhibition of Grb2 expression demonstrates an important role in BCR-ABL-mediated MAPK activation and transformation of primary human hematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Hardik; Li, Liang; Chu, Su; Rossi, John; Yee, Jiing-Kuan; Bhatia, Ravi

    2010-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) results from expression of the BCR/ABL oncogene in a primitive hematopoietic cell. However BCR/ABL-activated signaling mechanisms are dependent on the cellular context in which it is expressed, and mechanisms underlying primitive human hematopoietic cell transformation by BCR-ABL are not well understood. Our previous studies have shown that BCR/ABL-Y177 plays an essential role in Ras activation and human hematopoietic progenitor transformation in CML. The adapter protein growth factor receptor binding protein-2 (Grb2) can bind phosphorylated BCR/ABL-Y177, induce Grb2-SoS complex formation, and activate Ras signaling. We investigated the role of Grb2 in CML progenitor transformation by co-transducing human CD34+ cells with lentivirus vectors expressing shRNA to Grb2 and retrovirus vectors expressing BCR/ABL. We show that Grb2 knockdown significantly inhibits proliferation and survival of BCR-ABL-expressing CD34+ cells, but not control CD34+ cells. Grb2 knockdown reduced MAPK activity in BCR-Abl-expressing hematopoietic cells. We conclude that inhibition of Grb2 expression demonstrates an important role in BCR-ABL mediated MAPK activation and transformation of primary human hematopoietic cells. These results support further investigation of downstream effectors of Grb2-mediated signals and targeting of Grb2 interactions in the treatment of CML. PMID:21072043

  16. Chemokine polyreactivity of IL7R?+CSF-1R+ lympho-myeloid progenitors in the developing fetal liver

    PubMed Central

    Kajikhina, Katja; Melchers, Fritz; Tsuneto, Motokazu

    2015-01-01

    In murine ontogeny, fetal liver is the major hemato- and B-lymphopoietic site until birth. Hematopoiesis develops in largely non-hematopoietic niches, which provide contacts, chemokines and cytokines that induce migration, residence, proliferation and differentiation of progenitors. Within early multipotent progenitors an IL7R?+CSF-1R+ subset expressed a mixture of lymphoid- and myeloid-specific genes and differentiated to lymphoid and myeloid lineages in vitro. By contrast, IL7R?+ cells were lymphoid-committed, and CSF-1R+ cells were erythro-myeloid-restricted. To respond to a multitude of chemokines single biphenotypic cells expressed CXCR4 and as many as five other chemokine receptors. The monopotent IL7R?+ and CSF-1R+progenitors all expressed CXCR4, and mutually exclusive, more restricted sets of the analysed five chemokine receptors. This study proposes that chemokine polyreactive, cytokine-bipotent and monopotent progenitors transmigrate through LYVE-1high endothelium, attracted by selected chemokines, and reach the IL7- and CSF-1-producing ALCAMhigh mesenchymal niche, attracted by other sets of chemokines, to differentiate to B-lymphoid respectively myeloid cells. PMID:26235516

  17. Generation of axolotl hematopoietic chimeras

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, David; Scott, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    Wound repair is an extremely complex process that requires precise coordination between various cell types including immune cells. Unfortunately, in mammals this usually results in scar formation instead of restoration of the original fully functional tissue, otherwise known as regeneration. Various animal models like frogs and salamanders are currently being studied to determine the intracellular and intercellular pathways, controlled by gene expression, that elicit cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration of cells during regenerative healing. Now, the necessary genetic tools to map regenerative pathways are becoming available for the axolotl salamander, thus allowing comparative studies between scarring and regeneration. Here, we describe in detail three methods to produce axolotl hematopoietic cell-tagged chimeras for the study of hematopoiesis and regeneration. PMID:26366424

  18. Radioimmunotherapy for hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jurcic, Joseph G

    2013-04-01

    Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) represents an attractive strategy to deliver radiation selectively to tumor and other target organs while minimizing toxicity to normal tissues. RIT with ?-particle-emitting isotopes targeting CD33, CD45 and CD66 can potentially allow intensification of conditioning before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in leukemia. Similarly, RIT directed against CD20 has shown promise in the setting of autologous and allogeneic HCT for B-cell lymphomas. ?-particle immunotherapy with isotopes such as bismuth-213, actinium-225 and astatinine-211 offers the possibility of more selective and efficient killing of target cells while sparing the surrounding normal cells. Pretargeting strategies may further improve target:normal organ dose ratios. While RIT has demonstrated significant antitumor activity, ultimately, randomized studies will be required to determine if conditioning regimens that include this therapeutic modality can improve patient outcomes after HCT. PMID:23557421

  19. Hematopoietic progenitors express neural genes.

    PubMed

    Goolsby, James; Marty, Marie C; Heletz, Dafna; Chiappelli, Joshua; Tashko, Gerti; Yarnell, Deborah; Fishman, Paul S; Dhib-Jalbut, Suhayl; Bever, Christopher T; Pessac, Bernard; Trisler, David

    2003-12-01

    Bone marrow, or cells selected from bone marrow, were reported recently to give rise to cells with a neural phenotype after in vitro treatment with neural-inducing factors or after delivery into the brain. However, we showed previously that untreated bone marrow cells express products of the neural myelin basic protein gene, and we demonstrate here that a subset of ex vivo bone marrow cells expresses the neurogenic transcription factor Pax-6 as well as neuronal genes encoding neurofilament H, NeuN (neuronal nuclear protein), HuC/HuD (Hu-antigen C/Hu-antigen D), and GAD65 (glutamic acid decarboxylase 65), as well as the oligodendroglial gene encoding CNPase (2',3' cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphohydrolase). In contrast, astroglial glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was not detected. These cells also were CD34+, a marker of hematopoietic stem cells. Cultures of these highly proliferative CD34+ cells, derived from adult mouse bone marrow, uniformly displayed a phenotype comparable with that of hematopoietic progenitor cells (CD45+, CD34+, Sca-1+, AA4.1+, cKit+, GATA-2+, and LMO-2+). The neuronal and oligodendroglial genes expressed in ex vivo bone marrow also were expressed in all cultured CD34+ cells, and GFAP was not observed. After CD34+ cell transplantation into adult brain, neuronal or oligodendroglial markers segregated into distinct nonoverlapping cell populations, whereas astroglial GFAP appeared, in the absence of other neural markers, in a separate set of implanted cells. Thus, neuronal and oligodendroglial gene products are present in a subset of bone marrow cells, and the expression of these genes can be regulated in brain. The fact that these CD34+ cells also express transcription factors (Rex-1 and Oct-4) that are found in early development elicits the hypothesis that they may be pluripotent embryonic-like stem cells. PMID:14634211

  20. Polyimide Precursor Solid Residuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Echigo, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Kaneshiro, Hisayasu (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A polyimide precursor solid residuum is an admixture of an aromatic dianhydride or derivative thereof and an aromatic diamine or derivative thereof plus a complexing agent, which is complexed with the admixture by hydrogen bonding. The polyimide precursor solid residuum is effectively employed in the preparation of polyimide foam and the fabrication of polyimide foam structures.

  1. Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells: Fuel the Fire

    PubMed Central

    Achyut, B. R.; Arbab, Ali S.

    2015-01-01

    Low oxygen tension, hypoxia, is a characteristic of many tumors and associated with the poor prognosis. Hypoxia invites bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) from bone marrow to the site of tumor. These recruited CXCR4+ BMDCs provide favorable environment for the tumor growth by acquiring pro-angiogenic phenotype such as CD45+VEGFR2+ Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPC), or CD45+Tie2+ myeloid cells. CD11b+CD13+ myeloid population of the BMDCs modulate tumor progression. These myeloid populations retain immunosuppressive characteristics, for example, myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and regulates immune- suppression by inhibiting cytotoxic T cell function. In addition, MDSCs were observed at the premetastatic niche of the distant organs in other tumors. Protumorigenic and prometastatic role of the myeloid cells provides a basis for therapeutic targeting of immunosuppression and thus inhibiting tumor development and metastasis.

  2. Acute myeloid leukemia stem cells and CD33-targeted immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Estey, Elihu H.; Bernstein, Irwin D.

    2012-01-01

    Although the identification of cancer stem cells as therapeutic targets is now actively being pursued in many human malignancies, the leukemic stem cells in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are a paradigm of such a strategy. Heterogeneity of these cells was suggested by clonal analyses indicating the existence of both leukemias resulting from transformed multipotent CD33? stem cells as well others arising from, or predominantly involving, committed CD33+ myeloid precursors. The latter leukemias, which may be associated with an intrinsically better prognosis, offer a particularly attractive target for stem cell-directed therapies. Targeting the CD33 differentiation antigen with gemtuzumab ozogamicin was the first attempt of such an approach. Emerging clinical data indicate that gemtuzumab ozogamicin is efficacious not only for acute promyelocytic leukemia but, in combination with conventional chemotherapy, also for other favorable- and intermediate-risk AMLs, providing the first proof-of-principle evidence for the validity of this strategy. Herein, we review studies on the nature of stem cells in AML, discuss clinical data on the effectiveness of CD33-directed therapy, and consider the mechanistic basis for success and failure in various AML subsets. PMID:22286199

  3. Myeloid Dendritic Cells are Potential Players in Human Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bossù, Paola; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Ciaramella, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s diseases (AD) and Parkinson’s diseases (PD) are devastating neurodegenerative disturbances, wherein neuroinflammation is a chronic pathogenic process with high therapeutic potential. Major mediators of AD/PD neuroimmune processes are resident immune cells, but immune cells derived from periphery may also participate and to some extent modify neuroinflammation. Specifically, blood borne myeloid cells emerge as crucial components of AD/PD progression and susceptibility. Among these, dendritic cells (DCs) are key immune orchestrators and players of brain immune surveillance; we candidate them as potential mediators of both AD and PD and as relevant cell model for unraveling myeloid cell role in neurodegeneration. Hence, we recapitulate and discuss emerging data suggesting that blood-derived DCs play a role in experimental and human neurodegenerative diseases. In humans, in particular, DCs are modified by in vitro culture with neurodegeneration-associated pathogenic factors and dysregulated in AD patients, while the levels of DC precursors are decreased in AD and PD patients’ blood, possibly as an index of their recruitment to the brain. Overall, we emphasize the need to explore the impact of DCs on neurodegeneration to uncover peripheral immune mechanisms of pathogenic importance, recognize potential biomarkers, and improve therapeutic approaches for neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26734003

  4. Dasatinib, Cytarabine, and Idarubicin in Treating Patients With High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-10-08

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  5. Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Isolated Trisomy 19 Associated with Diffuse Myelofibrosis and Osteosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Stelling, Adam; Jonas, Brian A; Rashidi, Hooman H; Abedi, Mehrdad; Chen, Mingyi

    2015-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF), per WHO criteria, is a clonal myeloproliferative neoplasm that usually presents with a proliferation of granulocytic and megakaryocytic lineages with an associated fibrous deposition and extramedullary hematopoiesis. The bone marrow histologic findings of this disorder are typically characterized by the presence of myeloid metaplasia with an associated reactive fibrosis, angiogenesis, and osteosclerosis. However, marked myelofibrosis is not solely confined to PMF and may also be associated with other conditions including but not limited to acute megakaryoblastic leukemias (FAB AML-M7). Here, we describe a rare case of a non-megakaryoblastic acute myeloid leukemia with marked myelofibrosis with osteosclerosis and an isolated trisomy 19. A 19-year-old male presented with severe bone pain of one week duration with a complete blood cell count and peripheral smear showing a mild anemia and occasional circulating blasts. A follow up computed tomography (CT) scan showed diffuse osteosclerosis with no evidence of hepatosplenomegaly or lymphadenopathy. Subsequently, the bone marrow biopsy showed markedly sclerotic bony trabeculae and a hypercellular marrow with marked fibrosis and intervening sheets of immature myeloid cells consistent with myeloblasts with monocytic differentiation. Importantly, these myeloblasts were negative for megakaryocytic markers (CD61 and vWF), erythroid markers (hemoglobin and E-cadherin), and lymphoid markers (CD3, CD19, and TdT). Metaphase cytogenetics showed an isolated triosomy 19 with no JAK2 V617F mutation. The patient was treated with induction chemotherapy followed by allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation which subsequently resulted in a rapid resolution of bone marrow fibrosis, suggesting graft-anti-fibrosis effect. This is a rare case of a non-megakaryoblastic acute myeloid leukemia with myelofibrosis and osteosclerosis with trisomy 19 that may provide insights into the prognosis and therapeutic options of future cases. PMID:26694466

  6. Frequent genomic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome with normal karyotype

    PubMed Central

    Akagi, Tadayuki; Ogawa, Seishi; Dugas, Martin; Kawamata, Norihiko; Yamamoto, Go; Nannya, Yasuhito; Sanada, Masashi; Miller, Carl W.; Yung, Amanda; Schnittger, Susanne; Haferlach, Torsten; Haferlach, Claudia; Koeffler, H. Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Background Acute myeloid leukemia is a clonal hematopoietic malignant disease; about 45–50% of cases do not have detectable chromosomal abnormalities. Here, we identified hidden genomic alterations and novel disease-related regions in normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome samples. Design and Methods Thirty-eight normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome samples were analyzed with high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism microarray using a new algorithm: allele-specific copy-number analysis using anonymous references (AsCNAR). Expression of mRNA in these samples was determined by mRNA microarray analysis. Results Eighteen samples (49%) showed either one or more genomic abnormalities including duplication, deletion and copy-number neutral loss of heterozygosity. Importantly, 12 patients (32%) had copy-number neutral loss of heterozygosity, causing duplication of either mutant FLT3 (2 cases), JAK2 (1 case) or AML1/RUNX1 (1 case); and each had loss of the normal allele. Nine patients (24%) had small copy-number changes (< 10 Mb) including deletions of NF1, ETV6/TEL, CDKN2A and CDKN2B. Interestingly, mRNA microarray analysis showed a relationship between chromosomal changes and mRNA expression levels: loss or gain of chromosomes led, respectively, to either a decrease or increase of mRNA expression of genes in the region. Conclusions This study suggests that at least one half of cases of normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia/myelodysplastic syndrome have readily identifiable genomic abnormalities, as found by our analysis; the high frequency of copy-number neutral loss of heterozygosity is especially notable. PMID:19144660

  7. Myeloperoxidase-Dependent Oxidation of Etoposide in Human Myeloid Progenitor CD34+ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Vlasova, Irina I.; Feng, Wei-Hong; Goff, Julie P.; Giorgianni, Angela; Do, Duc; Gollin, Susanne M.; Lewis, Dale W.; Kagan, Valerian E.

    2011-01-01

    Etoposide is a widely used anticancer drug successfully used for the treatment of many types of cancer in children and adults. Its use, however, is associated with an increased risk of development of secondary acute myelogenous leukemia involving the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene (11q23) translocations. Previous studies demonstrated that the phenoxyl radical of etoposide can be produced by action of myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme found in developing myeloid progenitor cells, the likely origin for myeloid leukemias. We hypothesized, therefore, that one-electron oxidation of etoposide by MPO to its phenoxyl radical is important for converting this anticancer drug to genotoxic and carcinogenic species in human CD34+ myeloid progenitor cells. In the present study, using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we provide conclusive evidence for MPO-dependent formation of etoposide phenoxyl radicals in growth factor-mobilized CD34+ cells isolated from human umbilical cord blood and demonstrate that MPO-induced oxidation of etoposide is amplified in the presence of phenol. Formation of etoposide radicals resulted in the oxidation of endogenous thiols, thus providing evidence for etoposide-mediated MPO-catalyzed redox cycling that may play a role in enhanced etoposide genotoxicity. In separate studies, etoposide-induced DNA damage and MLL gene rearrangements were demonstrated to be dependent in part on MPO activity in CD34+ cells. Together, our results are consistent with the idea that MPO-dependent oxidation of etoposide in human hematopoietic CD34+ cells makes these cells especially prone to the induction of etoposide-related acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:21097707

  8. Acute Myeloid Leukemia with Isolated Trisomy 19 Associated with Diffuse Myelofibrosis and Osteosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Stelling, Adam; Jonas, Brian A.; Rashidi, Hooman H.; Abedi, Mehrdad; Chen, Mingyi

    2015-01-01

    Primary myelofibrosis (PMF), per WHO criteria, is a clonal myeloproliferative neoplasm that usually presents with a proliferation of granulocytic and megakaryocytic lineages with an associated fibrous deposition and extramedullary hematopoiesis. The bone marrow histologic findings of this disorder are typically characterized by the presence of myeloid metaplasia with an associated reactive fibrosis, angiogenesis, and osteosclerosis. However, marked myelofibrosis is not solely confined to PMF and may also be associated with other conditions including but not limited to acute megakaryoblastic leukemias (FAB AML-M7). Here, we describe a rare case of a non-megakaryoblastic acute myeloid leukemia with marked myelofibrosis with osteosclerosis and an isolated trisomy 19. A 19-year-old male presented with severe bone pain of one week duration with a complete blood cell count and peripheral smear showing a mild anemia and occasional circulating blasts. A follow up computed tomography (CT) scan showed diffuse osteosclerosis with no evidence of hepatosplenomegaly or lymphadenopathy. Subsequently, the bone marrow biopsy showed markedly sclerotic bony trabeculae and a hypercellular marrow with marked fibrosis and intervening sheets of immature myeloid cells consistent with myeloblasts with monocytic differentiation. Importantly, these myeloblasts were negative for megakaryocytic markers (CD61 and vWF), erythroid markers (hemoglobin and E-cadherin), and lymphoid markers (CD3, CD19, and TdT). Metaphase cytogenetics showed an isolated triosomy 19 with no JAK2 V617F mutation. The patient was treated with induction chemotherapy followed by allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation which subsequently resulted in a rapid resolution of bone marrow fibrosis, suggesting graft-anti-fibrosis effect. This is a rare case of a non-megakaryoblastic acute myeloid leukemia with myelofibrosis and osteosclerosis with trisomy 19 that may provide insights into the prognosis and therapeutic options of future cases. PMID:26694466

  9. Leukemic Stem Cell Frequency: A Strong Biomarker for Clinical Outcome in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Terwijn, Monique; Zeijlemaker, Wendelien; Kelder, Angle; Rutten, Arjo P.; Snel, Alexander N.; Scholten, Willemijn J.; Pabst, Thomas; Verhoef, Gregor; Lwenberg, Bob; Zweegman, Sonja; Ossenkoppele, Gert J.; Schuurhuis, Gerrit J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Treatment failure in acute myeloid leukemia is probably caused by the presence of leukemia initiating cells, also referred to as leukemic stem cells, at diagnosis and their persistence after therapy. Specific identification of leukemia stem cells and their discrimination from normal hematopoietic stem cells would greatly contribute to risk stratification and could predict possible relapses. Results For identification of leukemic stem cells, we developed flow cytometric methods using leukemic stem cell associated markers and newly-defined (light scatter) aberrancies. The nature of the putative leukemic stem cells and normal hematopoietic stem cells, present in the same patient's bone marrow, was demonstrated in eight patients by the presence or absence of molecular aberrancies and/or leukemic engraftment in NOD-SCID IL-2R?-/- mice. At diagnosis (n?=?88), the frequency of the thus defined neoplastic part of CD34+CD38- putative stem cell compartment had a strong prognostic impact, while the neoplastic parts of the CD34+CD38+ and CD34- putative stem cell compartments had no prognostic impact at all. After different courses of therapy, higher percentages of neoplastic CD34+CD38- cells in complete remission strongly correlated with shorter patient survival (n?=?91). Moreover, combining neoplastic CD34+CD38- frequencies with frequencies of minimal residual disease cells (n?=?91), which reflect the total neoplastic burden, revealed four patient groups with different survival. Conclusion and Perspective Discrimination between putative leukemia stem cells and normal hematopoietic stem cells in this large-scale study allowed to demonstrate the clinical importance of putative CD34+CD38- leukemia stem cells in AML. Moreover, it offers new opportunities for the development of therapies directed against leukemia stem cells, that would spare normal hematopoietic stem cells, and, moreover, enables in vivo and ex vivo screening for potential efficacy and toxicity of new therapies. PMID:25244440

  10. A human ESC model for MLL-AF4 leukemic fusion gene reveals an impaired early hematopoietic-endothelial specification

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Clara; Montes, Rosa; Melen, Gustavo J; Ramos-Mejia, Vernica; Real, Pedro J; Aylln, Vernica; Sanchez, Laura; Ligero, Gertrudis; Gutierrez-Aranda, Ivn; Fernndez, Agustn F; Fraga, Mario F; Moreno-Gimeno, Inmaculada; Burks, Deborah; del Carmen Plaza-Calonge, Mara; Rodrguez-Manzaneque, Juan C; Menendez, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    The MLL-AF4 fusion gene is a hallmark genomic aberration in high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia in infants. Although it is well established that MLL-AF4 arises prenatally during human development, its effects on hematopoietic development in utero remain unexplored. We have created a human-specific cellular system to study early hemato-endothelial development in MLL-AF4-expressing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). Functional studies, clonal analysis and gene expression profiling reveal that expression of MLL-AF4 in hESCs has a phenotypic, functional and gene expression impact. MLL-AF4 acts as a global transcriptional activator and a positive regulator of homeobox gene expression in hESCs. Functionally, MLL-AF4 enhances the specification of hemogenic precursors from hESCs but strongly impairs further hematopoietic commitment in favor of an endothelial cell fate. MLL-AF4 hESCs are transcriptionally primed to differentiate towards hemogenic precursors prone to endothelial maturation, as reflected by the marked upregulation of master genes associated to vascular-endothelial functions and early hematopoiesis. Furthermore, we report that MLL-AF4 expression is not sufficient to transform hESC-derived hematopoietic cells. This work illustrates how hESCs may provide unique insights into human development and further our understanding of how leukemic fusion genes, known to arise prenatally, regulate human embryonic hematopoietic specification. PMID:22212479

  11. Sex differences in the incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Jankovic, Gradimir M; Tiu, Ramon V; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Jackson, Robert C; Hlatky, Lynn R; Gale, Robert Peter; Sachs, Rainer K

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), which is caused by BCR/ABL chimeric oncogene formation in a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), increases with age and exposure to ionizing radiation. CML is a comparatively well-characterized neoplasm, important for its own sake and useful for insights into other neoplasms. Here, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) CML data are analyzed after considering possible misclassification of chronic myelo-monocytic leukemia as CML. For people older than 25 years, plots of male and female CML log incidences versus age at diagnosis are approximately parallel straight lines with males either above or to the left of females. This is consistent with males having a higher risk of developing CML or a shorter latency from initiation to diagnosis of CML. These distinct mechanisms cannot be distinguished using SEER data alone. Therefore, CML risks among male and female Japanese A-bomb survivors are also analyzed. The present analyses suggest that sex differences in CML incidence more likely result from differences in risk than in latency. The simplest but not the sole interpretation of this is that males have more target cells at risk to develop CML. Comprehensive mathematical models of CML could lead to a better understanding of the role of HSCs in CML and other preleukemias that can progress to acute leukemia. PMID:24337217

  12. An update of current treatments for adult acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dombret, Hervé; Gardin, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) biology and its genetic landscape should ultimately lead to more subset-specific AML therapies, ideally tailored to each patient's disease. Although a growing number of distinct AML subsets have been increasingly characterized, patient management has remained disappointingly uniform. If one excludes acute promyelocytic leukemia, current AML management still relies largely on intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), at least in younger patients who can tolerate such intensive treatments. Nevertheless, progress has been made, notably in terms of standard drug dose intensification and safer allogeneic HSCT procedures, allowing a larger proportion of patients to achieve durable remission. In addition, improved identification of patients at relatively low risk of relapse should limit their undue exposure to the risks of HSCT in first remission. The role of new effective agents, such as purine analogs or gemtuzumab ozogamicin, is still under investigation, whereas promising new targeted agents are under clinical development. In contrast, minimal advances have been made for patients unable to tolerate intensive treatment, mostly representing older patients. The availability of hypomethylating agents likely represents an encouraging first step for this latter population, and it is hoped will allow for more efficient combinations with novel agents. PMID:26660429

  13. Antigen-specific immunotherapies for acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Sarah A; Walter, Roland B

    2015-12-01

    Antigen-specific immunotherapies have emerged as important components of curative treatment algorithms for many cancers. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), success has been less obvious. Nonetheless, among the few drugs shown to improve survival in recent randomized trials is the CD33 antibody-drug conjugate gemtuzumab ozogamicin. Significant antileukemic activity is also well documented for radioimmunoconjugates targeting CD33, CD45, or CD66. These therapeutics can intensify conditioning before hematopoietic cell transplantation, but their effect on patient outcomes needs clarification. Emerging data now suggest clinical antileukemic activity of several novel antibodies and perhaps some adoptive T-cell immunotherapies and vaccines. In parallel, numerous other agents targeting a wider variety of antigens are currently being explored. However, the antigenic heterogeneity characteristic of AML is a considerable limitation for all these therapeutics, and many important questions related to the ideal target antigen(s), disease situation in which to use these therapies, most suitable patient populations, exact treatment modalities, and details of supportive care needs remain open. Addressing such questions in upcoming studies will be required to ensure that antigen-directed therapies become an effective tool in AML, a disease for which outcomes with standard "3 + 7"-based chemotherapy have remained unsatisfactory in many patients. PMID:26637776

  14. Hsp90 Inhibitors for the Treatment of Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Khajapeer, Kalubai Vari; Baskaran, Rajasekaran

    2015-01-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematological malignancy that arises due to reciprocal translocation of 3′ sequences from c-Abelson (ABL) protooncogene of chromosome 9 with 5′ sequence of truncated break point cluster region (BCR) on chromosome 22. BCR-ABL is a functional oncoprotein p210 that exhibits constitutively activated tyrosine kinase causing genomic alteration of hematopoietic stem cells. BCR-ABL specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) successfully block CML progression. However, drug resistance owing to BCR-ABL mutations and overexpression is still an issue. Heat-shock proteins (Hsps) function as molecular chaperones facilitating proper folding of nascent polypeptides. Their increased expression under stressful conditions protects cells by stabilizing unfolded or misfolded peptides. Hsp90 is the major mammalian protein and is required by BCR-ABL for stabilization and maturation. Hsp90 inhibitors destabilize the binding of BCR-ABL protein thus leading to the formation of heteroprotein complex that is eventually degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Results of many novel Hsp90 inhibitors that have entered into various clinical trials are encouraging. The present review targets the current development in the CML treatment by availing Hsp90 specific inhibitors. PMID:26770832

  15. An update of current treatments for adult acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Gardin, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Recent advances in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) biology and its genetic landscape should ultimately lead to more subset-specific AML therapies, ideally tailored to each patient's disease. Although a growing number of distinct AML subsets have been increasingly characterized, patient management has remained disappointingly uniform. If one excludes acute promyelocytic leukemia, current AML management still relies largely on intensive chemotherapy and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), at least in younger patients who can tolerate such intensive treatments. Nevertheless, progress has been made, notably in terms of standard drug dose intensification and safer allogeneic HSCT procedures, allowing a larger proportion of patients to achieve durable remission. In addition, improved identification of patients at relatively low risk of relapse should limit their undue exposure to the risks of HSCT in first remission. The role of new effective agents, such as purine analogs or gemtuzumab ozogamicin, is still under investigation, whereas promising new targeted agents are under clinical development. In contrast, minimal advances have been made for patients unable to tolerate intensive treatment, mostly representing older patients. The availability of hypomethylating agents likely represents an encouraging first step for this latter population, and it is hoped will allow for more efficient combinations with novel agents. PMID:26660429

  16. Insights into cell ontogeny, age, and acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, Shahzya S; Morison, Jessica K; Gibson, Brenda E S; Keeshan, Karen

    2015-09-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogenous disease of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and progenitor cells (HSPCs). The pathogenesis of AML involves cytogenetic abnormalities, genetic mutations, and epigenetic anomalies. Although it is widely accepted that the cellular biology, gene expression, and epigenetic landscape of normal HSCs change with age, little is known about the interplay between the age at which the cell becomes leukemic and the resultant leukemia. Despite its rarity, childhood AML is a leading cause of childhood cancer mortality. Treatment is in general extrapolated from adult AML on the assumption that adult AML and pediatric AML are similar biological entities. However, distinct biological processes and epigenetic modifications in pediatric and adult AML may mean that response to novel therapies in children may differ from that in adults with AML. A better understanding of the key pathways involved in transformation and how these differ between childhood and adult AML is an important step in identifying effective treatment. This review highlights both the commonalities and differences between pediatric and adult AML disease biology with respect to age. PMID:26051919

  17. Sex differences in the incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Jankovic, Gradimir M.; Tiu, Ramon V.; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Jackson, Robert C.; Hlatky, Lynn R.; Gale, Robert Peter; Sachs, Rainer K.

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), which is caused by BCR/ABL chimeric oncogene formation in a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), increases with age and exposure to ionizing radiation. CML is a comparatively well-characterized neoplasm, important for its own sake and useful for insights into other neoplasms. Here, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) CML data are analyzed after considering possible misclassification of chronic myelo-monocytic leukemia as CML. For people older than 25 years, plots of male and female CML log incidences versus age at diagnosis are approximately parallel straight lines with males either above or to the left of females. This is consistent with males having a higher risk of developing CML or a shorter latency from initiation to diagnosis of CML. These distinct mechanisms cannot be distinguished using SEER data alone. Therefore, CML risks among male and female Japanese A-bomb survivors are also analyzed. The present analyses suggest that sex differences in CML incidence more likely result from differences in risk than in latency. The simplest but not the sole interpretation of this is that males have more target cells at risk to develop CML. Comprehensive mathematical models of CML could lead to a better understanding of the role of HSCs in CML and other preleukemias that can progress to acute leukemia. PMID:24337217

  18. A retrospective cohort study of cause-specific mortality and incidence of hematopoietic malignancies in Chinese benzene-exposed workers.

    PubMed

    Linet, Martha S; Yin, Song-Nian; Gilbert, Ethel S; Dores, Graa M; Hayes, Richard B; Vermeulen, Roel; Tian, Hao-Yuan; Lan, Qing; Portengen, Lutzen; Ji, Bu-Tian; Li, Gui-Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel

    2015-11-01

    Benzene exposure has been causally linked with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but inconsistently associated with other hematopoietic, lymphoproliferative and related disorders (HLD) or solid tumors in humans. Many neoplasms have been described in experimental animals exposed to benzene. We used Poisson regression to estimate adjusted relative risks (RR) and the likelihood ratio statistic to derive confidence intervals for cause-specific mortality and HLD incidence in 73,789 benzene-exposed compared with 34,504 unexposed workers in a retrospective cohort study in 12 cities in China. Follow-up and outcome assessment was based on factory, medical and other records. Benzene-exposed workers experienced increased risks for all-cause mortality (RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2) due to excesses of all neoplasms (RR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.4), respiratory diseases (RR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 2.3) and diseases of blood forming organs (RR = ?, 95% CI = 3.4, ?). Lung cancer mortality was significantly elevated (RR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2, 1.9) with similar RRs for males and females, based on three-fold more cases than in our previous follow-up. Significantly elevated incidence of all myeloid disorders reflected excesses of myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2, 6.6) and chronic myeloid leukemia (RR = 2.5, 95% CI = 0.8, 11), and increases of all lymphoid disorders included excesses of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (RR = 3.9, 95%CI = 1.5, 13) and all lymphoid leukemia (RR = 5.4, 95%CI = 1.0, 99). The 28-year follow-up of Chinese benzene-exposed workers demonstrated increased risks of a broad range of myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms, lung cancer, and respiratory diseases and suggested possible associations with other malignant and non-malignant disorders. PMID:25944549

  19. Replication stress caused by low MCM expression limits fetal erythropoiesis and hematopoietic stem cell functionality

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Silvia; Díaz, Marcos; Flach, Johanna; Rodriguez-Acebes, Sara; López-Contreras, Andrés J.; Martínez, Dolores; Cañamero, Marta; Fernández-Capetillo, Oscar; Isern, Joan; Passegué, Emmanuelle; Méndez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Replicative stress during embryonic development influences ageing and predisposition to disease in adults. A protective mechanism against replicative stress is provided by the licensing of thousands of origins in G1 that are not necessarily activated in the subsequent S-phase. These ‘dormant' origins provide a backup in the presence of stalled forks and may confer flexibility to the replication program in specific cell types during differentiation, a role that has remained unexplored. Here we show, using a mouse strain with hypomorphic expression of the origin licensing factor mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM)3 that limiting origin licensing in vivo affects the functionality of hematopoietic stem cells and the differentiation of rapidly-dividing erythrocyte precursors. Mcm3-deficient erythroblasts display aberrant DNA replication patterns and fail to complete maturation, causing lethal anemia. Our results indicate that hematopoietic progenitors are particularly sensitive to replication stress, and full origin licensing ensures their correct differentiation and functionality. PMID:26456157

  20. Progressive maturation toward hematopoietic stem cells in the mouse embryo aorta

    PubMed Central

    Boisset, Jean-Charles; Clapes, Thomas; Klaus, Anna; Papazian, Natalie; Onderwater, Jos; Mommaas-Kienhuis, Mieke; Cupedo, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Clusters of cells attached to the endothelium of the main embryonic arteries were first observed a century ago. Present in most vertebrate species, such clusters, or intraaortic hematopoietic clusters (IAHCs), derive from specialized hemogenic endothelial cells and contain the first few hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) generated during embryonic development. However, some discrepancies remained concerning the spatio-temporal appearance and the numbers of IAHCs and HSCs. Therefore, the exact cell composition and function of IAHCs remain unclear to date. We show here that IAHCs contain pre-HSCs (or HSC precursors) that can mature into HSCs in vivo (as shown by the successful long-term multilineage reconstitution of primary neonates and secondary adult recipients). Such IAHC pre-HSCs could contribute to the HSC pool increase observed at midgestation. The novel insights in pre-HSC to HSC transition represent an important step toward generating transplantable HSCs in vitro that are needed for autologous HSC transplantation therapies. PMID:25301706

  1. Replication stress caused by low MCM expression limits fetal erythropoiesis and hematopoietic stem cell functionality.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Silvia; Daz, Marcos; Flach, Johanna; Rodriguez-Acebes, Sara; Lpez-Contreras, Andrs J; Martnez, Dolores; Caamero, Marta; Fernndez-Capetillo, Oscar; Isern, Joan; Passegu, Emmanuelle; Mndez, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Replicative stress during embryonic development influences ageing and predisposition to disease in adults. A protective mechanism against replicative stress is provided by the licensing of thousands of origins in G1 that are not necessarily activated in the subsequent S-phase. These 'dormant' origins provide a backup in the presence of stalled forks and may confer flexibility to the replication program in specific cell types during differentiation, a role that has remained unexplored. Here we show, using a mouse strain with hypomorphic expression of the origin licensing factor mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM)3 that limiting origin licensing in vivo affects the functionality of hematopoietic stem cells and the differentiation of rapidly-dividing erythrocyte precursors. Mcm3-deficient erythroblasts display aberrant DNA replication patterns and fail to complete maturation, causing lethal anemia. Our results indicate that hematopoietic progenitors are particularly sensitive to replication stress, and full origin licensing ensures their correct differentiation and functionality. PMID:26456157

  2. A specific need for CRKL in p210BCR-ABL-induced transformation of mouse hematopoietic progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ji-Heui; Wood, Lisa J.; Agarwal, Anupriya; OHare, Thomas; Elsea, Collin R.; Griswold, Ian J.; Deininger, Michael W.N.; Imamoto, Akira; Druker, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    CRKL (CRK-Like) is an adapter protein predominantly phosphorylated in cells that express the tyrosine kinase p210BCR-ABL, the fusion product of a (9;22) chromosomal translocation causative for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). It has been unclear, however, whether CRKL plays a functional role in p210BCR-ABL transformation. Here we show that CRKL is required for p210BCR-ABL to support IL-3-independent growth of myeloid progenitor cells and long-term outgrowth of B-lymphoid cells from fetal liver-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells. Furthermore, a synthetic phosphotyrosyl peptide that binds to the CRKL SH2 domain with high affinity blocks association of endogenous CRKL with the p210BCR-ABL complex and reduces c-MYC levels in K562 human leukemic cells as well as mouse hematopoietic cells transformed by p210BCR-ABL or the imatinib-resistant mutant T315I. These results indicate that the function of CRKL as an adapter protein is essential for p210BCR-ABL-induced transformation. PMID:20807813

  3. Serum concentrations of nitrite and malondialdehyde as markers of oxidative stress in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Petrola, Maria Juracy; de Castro, Alana Joselina Montenegro; Pitombeira, Maria Helena da Silva; Barbosa, Maritza Cavalcante; Quixad, Acy Telles de Souza; Duarte, Fernando Barroso; Gonalves, Romelia Pinheiro

    2012-01-01

    Background: Chronic myeloid leukemia is a neoplasm characterized by clonal expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells resulting from the (9:22)(q34,11) translocation. The tyrosine kinase abl fusion protein,the initial leukemogenic event in chronic myeloid leukemia, is constitutively activated thus inducing the production of reactive oxygen species. Of particular relevance is the fact that an increase in reactive oxygen species can facilitate genomic instability and may contribute to disease progression. Objetive: To evaluate oxidative stress by determining the levels of malondialdehyde and nitrite in chronic myeloid leukemia patients under treatment with 1st and 2nd generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors monitored at a referral hospital in Fortaleza, Cear. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed of 64 male and female adults. Patients were stratified according to treatment. The levels of malondialdehyde and nitrite were determined by spectrophotometry. Statistical differences between groups were observed using the Student t-test and Fisher's exact test. The results are expressed as mean standard error of mean. The significance level was set for a p-value < 0.05 in all analyses. Results: The results show significantly higher mean concentrations of nitrite and malondialdehyde in chronic myeloid leukemia patients using second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors compared to patients on imatinib. Conclusion: It follows that chronic myeloid leukemia patients present higher oxidative activity and that the increases in oxidative damage markers can indicate resistance to 1st generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:23125543

  4. Leukemic marrow infiltration reveals a novel role for Egr3 as a potent inhibitor of normal hematopoietic stem cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hui; Hao, Sha; Liu, Yanfeng; Pang, Yakun; Ma, Shihui; Dong, Fang; Xu, Jing; Zheng, Guoguang; Li, Shaoguang; Yuan, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    Cytopenias resulting from the impaired generation of normal blood cells from hematopoietic precursors are important contributors to morbidity and mortality in patients with leukemia. However, the process by which normal hematopoietic cells are overtaken by emerging leukemia cells and how different subsets of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) are distinctly influenced during leukemic cell infiltration is poorly understood. To investigate these important questions, we used a robust nonirradiated mouse model of human MLL-AF9 leukemia to examine the suppression of HSCs and HPCs during leukemia cell expansion in vivo. Among all the hematopoietic subsets, long-term repopulating HSCs were the least reduced, whereas megakaryocytic-erythroid progenitors were the most significantly suppressed. Notably, nearly all of the HSCs were forced into a noncycling state in leukemic marrow at late stages, but their reconstitution potential appeared to be intact upon transplantation into nonleukemic hosts. Gene expression profiling and further functional validation revealed that Egr3 was a strong limiting factor for the proliferative potential of HSCs. Therefore, this study provides not only a molecular basis for the more tightened quiescence of HSCs in leukemia, but also a novel approach for defining functional regulators of HSCs in disease. PMID:26186938

  5. Hematopoietic microenvironment. Origin, lineage, and transplantability of the stromal cells in long-term bone marrow cultures from chimeric mice

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, S.; Fleischman, R.A.

    1988-04-01

    Studies of bone marrow transplant patients have suggested that the stromal cells of the in vitro hematopoietic microenvironment are transplantable into conditioned recipients. Moreover, in patients with myeloproliferative disorders, all of the stromal cells, which include presumptive endothelial cells, appear to be derived from hematopoietic precursors. To confirm these findings, we have constructed two chimeric mouse models: (a) traditional radiation chimeras, and (b) fetal chimeras, produced by placental injection of bone marrow into genetically anemic Wx/Wv fetuses, a technique that essentially precludes engraftment of nonhematopoietic cells. Using two-color indirect immunofluorescence, the stromal cells in long-term bone marrow culture derived from these chimeras were analyzed for donor or host origin by strain-specific H-2 antigens, and for cell lineage by a variety of other specific markers. 75-95% of the stromal cells were shown to be hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, based upon donor origin, phagocytosis, and expression of specific hematopoietic surface antigens. The remaining 5-25% of the stromal cells were exclusively host in origin. Apart from occasional fat cells, these cells uniformly expressed collagen type IV, laminin, and a surface antigen associated with endothelial cells. Since these endothelial-like cells are not transplantable into radiation or fetal chimeras, they are not derived from hematopoietic stem cells. The contrast between our findings and human studies suggests either unexpected species differences in the origin of stromal lineages or limitations in the previous methodology used to detect nonhematopoietic stromal cells.

  6. An overview of chronic myeloid leukemia and its animal models.

    PubMed

    Ma, WeiXu; Ma, Ning; Chen, XiaoHui; Zhang, YiYue; Zhang, WenQing

    2015-12-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a form of leukemia characterized by the presence of clonal bone marrow stem cells with the proliferation of mature granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and their precursors. CML is a type of myeloproliferative disease associated with a characteristic chromosomal translocation called the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome or t (9;22) translocation (BCR-ABL). CML is now usually treated with targeted drugs called tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). The mechanism and natural history of CML is still unclear. Here, we summarize the present CML animal disease models and compare them with each other. Meanwhile, we propose that it is a very wise choice to establish zebrafish (Danio rerio) CML model mimics clinical CML. This model could be used to learn more about the mechanism of CML, and to aid in the development of new drugs to treat CML. PMID:26582013

  7. Immunoglobulin gene expression in umbilical cord blood-derived CD34(+) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jingfang; Xia, Miaoran; Wang, Pingzhang; Wang, Chong; Geng, Zihan; Cameron Yin, C; Zhang, Chi; Qiu, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, immunoglobulin (Ig) expression was reported in a variety of non-B lineage cells, including myeloid cells. We assessed whether hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSC/HPCs) can express Ig. With Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) microarray database analysis, we found that IGHM was expressed with the highest frequency and level in umbilical cord blood CD34(+) HSC/HPCs, followed by IGK@, IGHE, IGHD, IGHG1, and IGHA1, while IGL@ was nearly not expressed. Ig expression was further confirmed by molecular experiments and immunofluorescence. Moreover, HSC/HPCs-derived Ig displayed restricted/biased usages and VHDJH rearrangement patterns. These results suggest that Igs, especially IgM, may have a role in CD34(+) HSC/HPCs function. PMID:26364572

  8. Wnt signaling induces transcription, spatial proximity, and translocation of fusion gene partners in human hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Ugarte, Giorgia D; Vargas, Macarena F; Medina, Matías A; León, Pablo; Necuñir, David; Elorza, Alvaro A; Gutiérrez, Soraya E; Moon, Randall T; Loyola, Alejandra; De Ferrari, Giancarlo V

    2015-10-01

    Chromosomal translocations are frequently associated with a wide variety of cancers, particularly hematologic malignancies. A recurrent chromosomal abnormality in acute myeloid leukemia is the reciprocal translocation t(8;21) that fuses RUNX1 and ETO genes. We report here that Wnt/β-catenin signaling increases the expression of ETO and RUNX1 genes in human hematopoietic progenitors. We found that β-catenin is rapidly recruited into RNA polymerase II transcription factories (RNAPII-Ser5) and that ETO and RUNX1 genes are brought into close spatial proximity upon Wnt3a induction. Notably, long-term treatment of cells with Wnt3a induces the generation a frequent RUNX1-ETO translocation event. Thus, Wnt/β-catenin signaling induces transcription and translocation of RUNX1 and ETO fusion gene partners, opening a novel window to understand the onset/development of leukemia. PMID:26333776

  9. Tipifarnib in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-03-19

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  10. Delineation of Natural Killer Cell Differentiation from Myeloid Progenitors in Human

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qingfeng; Ye, Weijian; Jian Tan, Wei; Mei Yong, Kylie Su; Liu, Min; Qi Tan, Shu; Loh, Eva; TE Chang, Kenneth; Chye Tan, Thiam; Preiser, Peter R.; Chen, Jianzhu

    2015-01-01

    Understanding of natural killer (NK) cell development in human is incomplete partly because of limited access to appropriate human tissues. We have developed a cytokine-enhanced humanized mouse model with greatly improved reconstitution and function of human NK cells. Here we report the presence of a cell population in the bone marrow of the cytokine-treated humanized mice that express both NK cell marker CD56 and myeloid markers such as CD36 and CD33. The CD56+CD33+CD36+ cells are also found in human cord blood, fetal and adult bone marrow. Although the CD56+CD33+CD36+ cells do not express the common NK cell functional receptors and exhibit little cytotoxic and cytokine-producing activities, they readily differentiate into mature NK cells by acquiring expression of NK cell receptors and losing expression of the myeloid markers. Further studies show that CD33+CD36+ myeloid NK precursors are derived from granulo-myelomonocytic progenitors. These results delineate the pathway of human NK cell differentiation from myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow and suggest the utility of humanized mice for studying human hematopoiesis. PMID:26456148

  11. Technical Advance: Transcription factor, promoter, and enhancer utilization in human myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Anagha; Pooley, Christopher; Freeman, Tom C.; Lennartsson, Andreas; Babina, Magda; Schmidl, Christian; Geijtenbeek, Teunis; Michoel, Tom; Severin, Jessica; Itoh, Masayoshi; Lassmann, Timo; Kawaji, Hideya; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Carninci, Piero; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Rehli, Michael; Hume, David A.

    2015-01-01

    The generation of myeloid cells from their progenitors is regulated at the level of transcription by combinatorial control of key transcription factors influencing cell-fate choice. To unravel the global dynamics of this process at the transcript level, we generated transcription profiles for 91 human cell types of myeloid origin by use of CAGE profiling. The CAGE sequencing of these samples has allowed us to investigate diverse aspects of transcription control during myelopoiesis, such as identification of novel transcription factors, miRNAs, and noncoding RNAs specific to the myeloid lineage. We further reconstructed a transcription regulatory network by clustering coexpressed transcripts and associating them with enriched cis-regulatory motifs. With the use of the bidirectional expression as a proxy for enhancers, we predicted over 2000 novel enhancers, including an enhancer 38 kb downstream of IRF8 and an intronic enhancer in the KIT gene locus. Finally, we highlighted relevance of these data to dissect transcription dynamics during progressive maturation of granulocyte precursors. A multifaceted analysis of the myeloid transcriptome is made available (www.myeloidome.roslin.ed.ac.uk). This high-quality dataset provides a powerful resource to study transcriptional regulation during myelopoiesis and to infer the likely functions of unannotated genes in human innate immunity. PMID:25717144

  12. mTOR masters monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in mice with allografts or tumors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Hao; Li, Yang; Shao, Lijuan; Wang, Ruoyu; Lu, Jun; Yang, Zhongzhou; Wang, Junjie; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    CD11b(+) Gr1(+) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play critical roles in controlling the processes of tumors, infections, autoimmunity and graft rejection. Immunosuppressive drug rapamycin (RPM), targeting on the key cellular metabolism molecule mTOR, is currently used in clinics to treat patients with allo-grafts, autoimmune diseases and tumors. However, the effect of RPM on MDSCs has not been studied. RPM significantly decreases the cell number and the immunosuppressive ability on T cells of CD11b(+) Ly6C(high) monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs) in both allo-grafts-transplanted and tumor-bearing mice respectively. Mice with a myeloid-specific deletion of mTOR have poor M-MDSCs after grafting with allo-skin tissue or a tumor. Grafting of allo-skin or tumors significantly activates glycolysis pathways in myeloid precursor cells in bone marrow, which is inhibited by RPM or mTOR deletion. 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), an inhibitor of the glycolytic pathway, inhibits M-MDSC differentiation from precursors, while enhancing glycolysis by metformin significantly rescues the RPM-caused deficiency of M-MDSCs. Therefore, we offer evidence supporting that mTOR is an intrinsic factor essential for the differentiation and immunosuppressive function of M-MDSCs and that these metabolism-relevant medicines may impact MDSCs-mediated immunosuppression or immune tolerance induction, which is of considerable clinical importance in treating graft rejection, autoimmune diseases and cancers. PMID:26833095

  13. mTOR masters monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells in mice with allografts or tumors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tingting; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Hao; Li, yang; Shao, Lijuan; Wang, Ruoyu; Lu, Jun; Yang, Zhongzhou; Wang, Junjie; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    CD11b+ Gr1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play critical roles in controlling the processes of tumors, infections, autoimmunity and graft rejection. Immunosuppressive drug rapamycin (RPM), targeting on the key cellular metabolism molecule mTOR, is currently used in clinics to treat patients with allo-grafts, autoimmune diseases and tumors. However, the effect of RPM on MDSCs has not been studied. RPM significantly decreases the cell number and the immunosuppressive ability on T cells of CD11b+ Ly6Chigh monocytic MDSCs (M-MDSCs) in both allo-grafts-transplanted and tumor-bearing mice respectively. Mice with a myeloid-specific deletion of mTOR have poor M-MDSCs after grafting with allo-skin tissue or a tumor. Grafting of allo-skin or tumors significantly activates glycolysis pathways in myeloid precursor cells in bone marrow, which is inhibited by RPM or mTOR deletion. 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG), an inhibitor of the glycolytic pathway, inhibits M-MDSC differentiation from precursors, while enhancing glycolysis by metformin significantly rescues the RPM-caused deficiency of M-MDSCs. Therefore, we offer evidence supporting that mTOR is an intrinsic factor essential for the differentiation and immunosuppressive function of M-MDSCs and that these metabolism-relevant medicines may impact MDSCs-mediated immunosuppression or immune tolerance induction, which is of considerable clinical importance in treating graft rejection, autoimmune diseases and cancers. PMID:26833095

  14. Molecular pathways: myeloid complicity in cancer.

    PubMed

    Stromnes, Ingunn M; Greenberg, Philip D; Hingorani, Sunil R

    2014-10-15

    Cancer-induced inflammation results in accumulation of myeloid cells. These myeloid cells include progenitors and progeny of monocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. It has become increasingly evident that tumor-dependent factors can condition myeloid cells toward an immunosuppressive and protumorigenic phenotype. Thus, myeloid cells are not simply bystanders in malignancy or barometers of disease burden. Reflecting their dynamic and plastic nature, myeloid cells manifest a continuum of cellular differentiation and are intimately involved at all stages of neoplastic progression. They can promote tumorigenesis through both immune-dependent and -independent mechanisms and can dictate response to therapies. A greater understanding of the inherent plasticity and relationships among myeloid subsets is needed to inform therapeutic targeting. New clinical trials are being designed to modulate the activities of myeloid cells in cancer, which may be essential to maximize the efficacy of both conventional cytotoxic and immune-based therapies for solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5157-70. 2014 AACR. PMID:25047706

  15. Earthquakes: hydrogeochemical precursors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ingebritsen, Steven E.; Manga, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

  16. Homoharringtonine and omacetaxine for myeloid hematological malignancies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Homoharringtonine (HHT), a plant alkaloid with antitumor properties originally identified nearly 40 years ago, has a unique mechanism of action by preventing the initial elongation step of protein synthesis. HHT has been used widely in China for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Omacetaxine, a semisynthetic form of HHT, with excellent bioavailability by the subcutaneous route, has recently been approved by FDA of the United States for the treatment of CML refractory to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This review summarized preclinical and clinical development of HHT and omacetaxine for myeloid hematological malignancies. PMID:24387717

  17. Nitric oxide-induced murine hematopoietic stem cell fate involves multiple signaling proteins, gene expression, and redox modulation.

    PubMed

    Nogueira-Pedro, Amanda; Dias, Carolina C; Regina, Helena; Segreto, C; Addios, Priscilla C; Lungato, Lisandro; D'Almeida, Vania; Barros, Carlos C; Higa, Elisa M S; Buri, Marcus V; Ferreira, Alice T; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian

    2014-11-01

    There are a growing number of reports showing the influence of redox modulation in cellular signaling. Although the regulation of hematopoiesis by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) has been described, their direct participation in the differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remains unclear. In this work, the direct role of nitric oxide (NO()), a RNS, in the modulation of hematopoiesis was investigated using two sources of NO() , one produced by endothelial cells stimulated with carbachol in vitro and another using the NO()-donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP) in vivo. Two main NO() effects were observed: proliferation of HSCs-especially of the short-term HSCs-and its commitment and terminal differentiation to the myeloid lineage. NO()-induced proliferation was characterized by the increase in the number of cycling HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells positive to BrdU and Ki-67, upregulation of Notch-1, Cx43, PECAM-1, CaR, ERK1/2, Akt, p38, PKC, and c-Myc. NO()-induced HSCs differentiation was characterized by the increase in granulocytic-macrophage progenitors, granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units, mature myeloid cells, upregulation of PU.1, and C/EBP? genes concomitantly to the downregulation of GATA-3 and Ikz-3 genes, activation of Stat5 and downregulation of the other analyzed proteins mentioned above. Also, redox status modulation differed between proliferation and differentiation responses, which is likely associated with the transition of the proliferative to differentiation status. Our findings provide evidence of the role of NO() in inducing HSCs proliferation and myeloid differentiation involving multiple signaling. PMID:24964894

  18. Are hematopoietic stem cells involved in hepatocarcinogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Antonino, Matteo; Del Prete, Valentina; Neve, Viviana; Scavo, Maria Principia; Barone, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The liver has three cell lineages able to proliferate after a hepatic injury: the mature hepatocyte, the ductular bipolar progenitor cell termed oval cell and the putative periductular stem cell. Hepatocytes can only produce other hepatocytes whereas ductular progenitor cells are considerate bipolar since they can give rise to biliary cells or hepatocytes. Periductular stem cells are rare in the liver, have a very long proliferation potential and may be multipotent, being this aspect still under investigation. They originate in the bone marrow since their progeny express genetic markers of donor hematopoietic cells after bone marrow transplantation. Since the liver is the hematopoietic organ of the fetus, it is possible that hematopoietic stem cells may reside in the liver of the adult. This assumption is proved by the finding that oval cells express hematopoietic markers like CD34, CD45, CD 109, Thy-1, c-kit, and others, which are also expressed by bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells (BMSCs). Few and discordant studies have evaluated the role of BMSC in hepatocarcinogenesis so far and further studies in vitro and in vivo are warranted in order to definitively clarify such an issue. PMID:25202697

  19. Targeted disruption of the PU.1 gene results in multiple hematopoietic abnormalities.

    PubMed Central

    McKercher, S R; Torbett, B E; Anderson, K L; Henkel, G W; Vestal, D J; Baribault, H; Klemsz, M; Feeney, A J; Wu, G E; Paige, C J; Maki, R A

    1996-01-01

    PU.1 is a member of the ets family of transcription factors and is expressed exclusively in cells of the hematopoietic lineage. Mice homozygous for a disruption in the PU.1 DNA binding domain are born alive but die of severe septicemia within 48 h. The analysis of these neonates revealed a lack of mature macrophages, neutrophils, B cells and T cells, although erythrocytes and megakaryocytes were present. The absence of lymphoid commitment and development in null mice was not absolute, since mice maintained on antibiotics began to develop normal appearing T cells 3-5 days after birth. In contrast, mature B cells remained undetectable in these older mice. Within the myeloid lineage, despite a lack of macrophages in the older antibiotic-treated animals, a few cells with the characteristics of neutrophils began to appear by day 3. While the PU.1 protein appears not to be essential for myeloid and lymphoid lineage commitment, it is absolutely required for the normal differentiation of B cells and macrophages. Images PMID:8896458

  20. Hematopoietic cell kinase (HCK) as a therapeutic target in immune and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Poh, Ashleigh R; O'Donoghue, Robert J J; Ernst, Matthias

    2015-06-30

    The hematopoietic cell kinase (HCK) is a member of the SRC family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases (SFKs), and is expressed in cells of the myeloid and B-lymphocyte cell lineages. Excessive HCK activation is associated with several types of leukemia and enhances cell proliferation and survival by physical association with oncogenic fusion proteins, and with functional interactions with receptor tyrosine kinases. Elevated HCK activity is also observed in many solid malignancies, including breast and colon cancer, and correlates with decreased patient survival rates. HCK enhances the secretion of growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines from myeloid cells, and promotes macrophage polarization towards a wound healing and tumor-promoting alternatively activated phenotype. Within tumor associated macrophages, HCK stimulates the formation of podosomes that facilitate extracellular matrix degradation, which enhance immune and epithelial cell invasion. By virtue of functional cooperation between HCK and bona fide oncogenic tyrosine kinases, excessive HCK activation can also reduce drug efficacy and contribute to chemo-resistance, while genetic ablation of HCK results in minimal physiological consequences in healthy mice. Given its known crystal structure, HCK therefore provides an attractive therapeutic target to both, directly inhibit the growth of cancer cells, and indirectly curb the source of tumor-promoting changes in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26087188

  1. The Oncogenic TLS-ERG Fusion Protein Exerts Different Effects in Hematopoietic Cells and Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Junhui; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Blackburn, Michael L.; Hu, Hsien-Ming; Zielinska-Kwiatkowska, Anna; Mei, Qi; Roth, Gerald J.; Chansky, Howard A.; Yang, Liu

    2005-01-01

    The oncogenic TLS-ERG fusion protein is found in human myeloid leukemia and Ewing's sarcoma as a result of specific chromosomal translocation. To unveil the potential mechanism(s) underlying cellular transformation, we have investigated the effects of TLS-ERG on both gene transcription and RNA splicing. Here we show that the TLS protein forms complexes with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and the serine-arginine family of splicing factors in vivo. Deletion analysis of TLS-ERG in both mouse L-G myeloid progenitor cells and NIH 3T3 fibroblasts revealed that the RNA Pol II-interacting domain of TLS-ERG resides within the first 173 amino acids. While TLS-ERG repressed expression of the luciferase reporter gene driven by glycoprotein IX promoter in L-G cells but not in NIH 3T3 cells, the fusion protein was able to affect splicing of the E1A reporter in NIH 3T3 cells but not in L-G cells. To identify potential target genes of TLS-ERG, the fusion protein and its mutants were stably expressed in both L-G and NIH 3T3 cells through retroviral transduction. Microarray analysis of RNA samples from these cells showed that TLS-ERG activates two different sets of genes sharing little similarity in the two cell lines. Taken together, these results suggest that the oncogenic TLS-ERG fusion protein transforms hematopoietic cells and fibroblasts via different pathways. PMID:15988032

  2. Hematopoietic cell kinase (HCK) as a therapeutic target in immune and cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Ashleigh R.; O'Donoghue, Robert J.J.; Ernst, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The hematopoietic cell kinase (HCK) is a member of the SRC family of cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases (SFKs), and is expressed in cells of the myeloid and B-lymphocyte cell lineages. Excessive HCK activation is associated with several types of leukemia and enhances cell proliferation and survival by physical association with oncogenic fusion proteins, and with functional interactions with receptor tyrosine kinases. Elevated HCK activity is also observed in many solid malignancies, including breast and colon cancer, and correlates with decreased patient survival rates. HCK enhances the secretion of growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines from myeloid cells, and promotes macrophage polarization towards a wound healing and tumor-promoting alternatively activated phenotype. Within tumor associated macrophages, HCK stimulates the formation of podosomes that facilitate extracellular matrix degradation, which enhance immune and epithelial cell invasion. By virtue of functional cooperation between HCK and bona fide oncogenic tyrosine kinases, excessive HCK activation can also reduce drug efficacy and contribute to chemo-resistance, while genetic ablation of HCK results in minimal physiological consequences in healthy mice. Given its known crystal structure, HCK therefore provides an attractive therapeutic target to both, directly inhibit the growth of cancer cells, and indirectly curb the source of tumor-promoting changes in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:26087188

  3. Mitochondria defects are involved in lead-acetate-induced adult hematopoietic stem cell decline.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Jia, Dao-Yong; Cai, Shi-Zhong; Li, Cheng-Peng; Zhang, Meng-Si; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Yan, Chong-Huai; Wang, Ya-Ping

    2015-05-19

    Occupational high-grade lead exposure has been reduced in recent decades as a result of increased regulation. However, environmental lead exposure remains widespread, and is associated with severe toxicity implicated in human diseases. We performed oral intragastric administration of various dose lead acetate to adult Sprague Dawley rats to define the role of lead exposure in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) function, and to clarify its underlying mechanism. Lead acetate-exposed rats exhibited developmental abnormalities in myeloid and lymphoid lineages, and a significant decline in immune functions. It also showed HSCs functional decline associated with senescent phenotype with low grade lead acetate exposure or apoptotic phenotype with relative higher grade dose exposure. Mechanistic exploration showed a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the lead acetate-exposed CD90(+)CD45(-) compartment, which correlated with functional defects in cellular mitochondria. Furthermore, in vivo treatment with the antioxidant vitamin C led to reversion of the CD90(+)CD45(-) compartment functional decline. These results indicate that lead acetate perturbs the hematopoietic balance of adult HSCs, associated with cellular mitochondria defects, increased intracellular ROS generation. PMID:25800560

  4. Incomplete Splicing, Cell Division Defects and Hematopoietic Blockage in dhx8 Mutant Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    English, Milton A.; Lei, Lin; Blake, Trevor; Wincovitch, Stephen M.; Sood, Raman; Azuma, Mizuki; Hickstein, Dennis; Liu, P. Paul

    2012-01-01

    Vertebrate hematopoiesis is a complex developmental process that is controlled by genes in diverse pathways. To identify novel genes involved in early hematopoiesis, we conducted an ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) mutagenesis screen in zebrafish. The mummy (mmy) line was investigated because of its multiple hematopoietic defects. Homozygous mmy embryos lacked circulating blood cells types and were dead by 30 hours post-fertilization (hpf). The mmy mutants did not express myeloid markers and had significantly decreased expression of progenitor and erythroid markers in primitive hematopoiesis. Through positional cloning, we identified a truncation mutation in dhx8 in the mmy fish. dhx8 is the zebrafish ortholog of the yeast splicing factor prp22, which is a DEAH-box RNA helicase. Mmy mutants had splicing defects in many genes, including several hematopoietic genes. Mmy embryos also showed cell division defects as characterized by disorganized mitotic spindles and formation of multiple spindle poles in mitotic cells. These cell division defects were confirmed by DHX8 knockdown in HeLa cells. Together, our results confirm that dhx8 is involved in mRNA splicing and suggest that it is also important for cell division during mitosis. This is the first vertebrate model for dhx8, whose function is essential for primitive hematopoiesis in developing embryos. PMID:22411201

  5. Absence of WASp Enhances Hematopoietic and Megakaryocytic Differentiation in a Human Embryonic Stem Cell Model.

    PubMed

    Toscano, Miguel G; Muoz, Pilar; Snchez-Gilabert, Almudena; Cobo, Marin; Benabdellah, Karim; Anderson, Per; Ramos-Meja, Vernica; Real, Pedro J; Neth, Olaf; Molinos-Quintana, Agueda; Gregory, Philip D; Holmes, Michael C; Martin, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    The Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked primary immunodeficiency caused by mutations in the WAS gene and characterized by severe thrombocytopenia. Although the role of WASp in terminally differentiated lymphocytes and myeloid cells is well characterized, its role in early hematopoietic differentiation and in platelets (Plts) biology is poorly understood. In the present manuscript, we have used zinc finger nucleases targeted to the WAS locus for the development of two isogenic WAS knockout (WASKO) human embryonic stem cell lines (hESCs). Upon hematopoietic differentiation, hESCs-WASKO generated increased ratios of CD34(+)CD45(+) progenitors with altered responses to stem cell factor compared to hESCs-WT. When differentiated toward the megakaryocytic linage, hESCs-WASKO produced increased numbers of CD34(+)CD41(+) progenitors, megakaryocytes (MKs), and Plts. hESCs-WASKO-derived MKs and Plts showed altered phenotype as well as defective responses to agonist, mimicking WAS patients MKs and Plts defects. Interestingly, the defects were more evident in WASp-deficient MKs than in WASp-deficient Plts. Importantly, ectopic WAS expression using lentiviral vectors restored normal Plts development and MKs responses. These data validate the AND-1_WASKO cell lines as a human cellular model for basic research and for preclinical studies for WAS. PMID:26502776

  6. Pediatric donor cell leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in AML patient from related donor.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Pimentel-Gutiérrez, Helia J; Gallegos-Castorena, Sergio; Paniagua-Padilla, Jenny A; Ortega-de-la-Torre, Citlalli; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Silva-Cruz, Rocio; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; Zepeda-Moreno, Abraham; González-Ramella, Oscar; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a male patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initially diagnosed as M5 and with karyotype 46,XY. After induction therapy, he underwent a HLA-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and six years later he relapsed as AML M1 with an abnormal karyotype //47,XX,+10[2]/47,XX,+11[3]/48,XX,+10,+11[2]/46,XX[13]. Based on this, we tested the possibility of donor cell origin by FISH and molecular STR analysis. We found no evidence of Y chromosome presence by FISH and STR analysis consistent with the success of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from the female donor. FISH studies confirmed trisomies and no evidence of MLL translocation either p53 or ATM deletion. Additionally 28 fusion common leukemia transcripts were evaluated by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and were not rearranged. STR analysis showed a complete donor chimerism. Thus, donor cell leukemia (DCL) was concluded, being essential the use of cytological and molecular approaches. Pediatric DCL is uncommon, our patient seems to be the sixth case and additionally it presented a late donor cell leukemia appearance. Different extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms have been considered to explain this uncommon finding as well as the implications to the patient. PMID:25674158

  7. Comparative Analysis of the Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells from Placenta, Cord Blood, and Fetal Liver, Based on Their Immunophenotype

    PubMed Central

    Kuchma, Maria D.; Kyryk, Vitaliy M.; Svitina, Hanna M.; Shablii, Yulia M.; Lukash, Lubov L.; Lobyntseva, Galina S.; Shablii, Volodymyr A.

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the characteristics of human hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) with the CD34+CD45lowSSClow phenotype from full-term placental tissue (FTPT) as compared to cord blood (CB) and fetal liver (FL) cells. We demonstrated the presence of cell subpopulations at various stages of the differentiation with such immunophenotypes as CD34+/lowCD45low/?, CD34++CD45low/?, CD34+++CD45low/?, CD34+/lowCD45hi, and CD34++CD45hi in both first trimester placental tissue (FiTPT) and FTPT which implies their higher phenotypic heterogeneity compared to CB. HPCs of the FTPT origin expressed the CD90 antigen at a higher level compared to its expression by the CB HPCs and the CD133 antigen expression being at the same level in both cases. The HPCs compartment of FTPT versus CB contained higher number of myeloid and erythroid committed cells but lower number of myeloid and lymphoid ones compared to FL HPCs. HPCs of the FTPT and CB origin possess similar potentials for the multilineage differentiation in vitro and similar ratios of myeloid and erythroid progenitors among the committed cells. This observation suggests that the active hematopoiesis occurs in the FTPT. We obtained viable HPCs from cryopreserved placental tissue fragments allowing us to develop procedures for banking and testing of placenta-derived HPCs for clinical use. PMID:26347038

  8. A diffusible signal derived from hematopoietic cells supports the survival and proliferation of regenerative cells during zebrafish fin fold regeneration.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tomoya; Nakajima, Teruhiro; Ishida, Takashi; Kudo, Akira; Kawakami, Atsushi

    2015-03-01

    Multicellular organisms maintain body integrity by constantly regenerating tissues throughout their lives; however, the overall mechanism for regulating regeneration remains an open question. Studies of limb and fin regeneration in teleost fish and urodeles have shown the involvement of a number of locally activated signals at the wounded site during regeneration. Here, we demonstrate that a diffusible signal from a distance also play an essential role for regeneration. Among a number of zebrafish mutants, we found that the zebrafish cloche (clo) and tal1 mutants, which lack most hematopoietic tissues, displayed a unique regeneration defect accompanying apoptosis in primed regenerative tissue. Our analyses of the mutants showed that the cells in the primed regenerative tissue are susceptible to apoptosis, but their survival is normally supported by the presence of hematopoietic tissues, mainly the myeloid cells. We further showed that a diffusible factor in the wild-type body fluid mediates this signal. Thus, our study revealed a novel mechanism that the hematopoietic tissues regulate tissue regeneration through a diffusible signal. PMID:25533245

  9. Green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin-O-gallate induces cell death by acid sphingomyelinase activation in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yuhui; Kumazoe, Motofumi; Bae, Jaehoon; Yamada, Shuhei; Takai, Mika; Hidaka, Shiori; Yamashita, Shuya; Kim, Yoonhee; Won, Yeongseon; Murata, Motoki; Tsukamoto, Shuntaro; Tachibana, Hirofumi

    2015-09-01

    An epidemiological study showed that green tea consumption is associated with a reduced risk of hematopoietic malignancy. The major green tea polyphenol epigallocatechin?3-O-gallate (EGCG) is reported to have anticancer effects. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a major hematopoietic malignancy characterized by expansion of myeloid cells. In the present study, we showed EGCG-induced acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) activation and lipid raft clustering in CML cells. The ASM inhibitor desipramine significantly reduced EGCG-induced cell death. Protein kinaseC? is a well?known kinase that plays an important role in ASM activation. We observed EGCG-induced phosphorylation of protein kinaseC? at Ser664. Importantly, EGCG-induced ASM activation was significantly reduced by pretreatment of CML cells with the soluble guanylate cyclase inhibitor NS2028, suggesting that EGCG induced ASM activation through the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent pathway. Indeed, pharmacological inhibition of a cGMP-negative regulator enhanced the anti-CML effect of EGCG. These results indicate that EGCG-induced cell death via the cGMP/ASM pathway in CML cells. PMID:26135316

  10. Knockdown of SALL4 Protein Enhances All-trans Retinoic Acid-induced Cellular Differentiation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Liu, Liang; Leung, Lai-Han; Cooney, Austin J; Chen, Changyi; Rosengart, Todd K; Ma, Yupo; Yang, Jianchang

    2015-04-24

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) is a differentiation agent that revolutionized the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, it has not been useful for other types of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here we explored the effect of SALL4, a stem cell factor, on ATRA-induced AML differentiation in both ATRA-sensitive and ATRA-resistant AML cells. Aberrant SALL4 expression has been found in nearly all human AML cases, whereas, in normal bone marrow and peripheral blood cells, its expression is only restricted to hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. We reason that, in AMLs, SALL4 activation may prevent cell differentiation and/or protect self-renewal that is seen in normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Indeed, our studies show that ATRA-mediated myeloid differentiation can be largely blocked by exogenous expression of SALL4, whereas ATRA plus SALL4 knockdown causes significantly increased AML differentiation and cell death. Mechanistic studies indicate that SALL4 directly associates with retinoic acid receptor ? and modulates ATRA target gene expression. SALL4 is shown to recruit lysine-specific histone demethylase 1 (LSD1) to target genes and alter the histone methylation status. Furthermore, coinhibition of LSD1 and SALL4 plus ATRA treatment exhibited the strongest anti-AML effect. These findings suggest that SALL4 plays an unfavorable role in ATRA-based regimes, highlighting an important aspect of leukemia therapy. PMID:25737450

  11. Unipotent Megakaryopoietic Pathway Bridging Hematopoietic Stem Cells and Mature Megakaryocytes.

    PubMed

    Nishikii, Hidekazu; Kanazawa, Yosuke; Umemoto, Terumasa; Goltsev, Yury; Matsuzaki, Yu; Matsushita, Kenji; Yamato, Masayuki; Nolan, Garry P; Negrin, Robert; Chiba, Shigeru

    2015-07-01

    Recent identification of platelet/megakaryocyte-biased hematopoietic stem/repopulating cells requires revision of the intermediate pathway for megakaryopoiesis. Here, we show a unipotent megakaryopoietic pathway bypassing the bipotent megakaryocyte/erythroid progenitors (biEMPs). Cells purified from mouse bone marrow by CD42b (GPIb?) marking were demonstrated to be unipotent megakaryocytic progenitors (MKPs) by culture and transplantation. A subpopulation of freshly isolated CD41(+) cells in the lineage Sca1(+) cKit(+) (LSK) fraction (subCD41(+) LSK) differentiated only into MKP and mature megakaryocytes in culture. Although CD41(+) LSK cells as a whole were capable of differentiating into all myeloid and lymphoid cells in vivo, they produced unipotent MKP, mature megakaryocytes, and platelets in vitro and in vivo much more efficiently than Flt3(+) CD41(-) LSK cells, especially at the early phase after transplantation. In single cell polymerase chain reaction and thrombopoietin (TPO) signaling analyses, the MKP and a fraction of CD41(+) LSK, but not the biEMP, showed the similarities in mRNA expression profile and visible TPO-mediated phosphorylation. On increased demand of platelet production after 5-FU treatment, a part of CD41(+) LSK population expressed CD42b on the surface, and 90% of them showed unipotent megakaryopoietic capacity in single cell culture and predominantly produced platelets in vivo at the early phase after transplantation. These results suggest that the CD41(+) CD42b(+) LSK are straightforward progenies of megakaryocytes/platelet-biased stem/repopulating cells, but not progenies of biEMP. Consequently, we show a unipotent/highly biased megakaryopoietic pathway interconnecting stem/repopulating cells and mature megakaryocytes, the one that may play physiologic roles especially in emergency megakaryopoiesis. PMID:25753067

  12. Hypoxia and Metabolic Properties of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The effect of redox signaling on hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function is not clearly understood. Recent Advances: A growing body of evidence suggests that adult HSCs reside in the hypoxic bone marrow microenvironment or niche during homeostasis. It was recently shown that primitive HSCs in the bone marrow prefer to utilize anaerobic glycolysis to meet their energy demands and have lower rates of oxygen consumption and lower ATP levels. Hypoxia-inducible factor-? (Hif-1?) is a master regulator of cellular metabolism. With hundreds of downstream target genes and crosstalk with other signaling pathways, it regulates various aspects of metabolism from the oxidative stress response to glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration. Hif-1? is highly expressed in HSCs, where it regulates their function and metabolic phenotype. However, the regulation of Hif-1? in HSCs is not entirely understood. The homeobox transcription factor myeloid ecotropic viral integration site 1 (Meis1) is expressed in the most primitive HSCs populations, and it is required for primitive hematopoiesis. Recent reports suggest that Meis1 is required for normal adult HSC function by regulating the metabolism and redox state of HSCs transcriptionally through Hif-1? and Hif-2?. Critical Issues: Given the profound effect of redox status on HSC function, it is critical to fully characterize the intrinsic, and microenvironment-related mechanisms of metabolic and redox regulation in HSCs. Future Directions: Future studies will be needed to elucidate the link between HSC metabolism and HSC fates, including quiescence, self-renewal, differentiation, apoptosis, and migration. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 18911901. PMID:23621582

  13. Vitamin D level after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    PubMed

    Sproat, Lisa; Bolwell, Brian; Rybicki, Lisa; Dean, Robert; Sobecks, Ronald; Pohlman, Brad; Andresen, Steven; Sweetenham, John; Copelan, Edward; Kalaycio, Matt

    2011-07-01

    Vitamin D (VD) deficiency can cause osteomalacia, bone pain, muscle weakness, fatigue, and increased risk of fracture, and may precipitate or exacerbate osteopenia and osteoporosis. Patients receiving treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may have limited exposure to sunlight and often experience gastrointestinal side effects that may decrease their ability to maintain an adequate VDlevel. We hypothesized that patients with AML and ALL would have a low VD level after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), and that these patients would have a high incidence of osteoporosis/osteopenia. We therefore studied the incidence of low VD level and low bone mineral density after HCT. Of 289 patients with AML or ALL undergoing HCT between January 1, 2000, and January 31, 2009, at the Cleveland Clinic, 58 (20.1%) patients had VD testing after HCT. Of these, 52 (89.7%) patients had a low VD level, and 6 (10.3%) had a normal level. Most patients with VD testing had graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and were taking corticosteroids (94.8% and 98.3%, respectively). Of the 49 patients with VD testing who also had bone mineral density testing, 65% had abnormal (low bone density) results. Only 21% of patients with VD testing were taking VD supplements prior to testing, and 65% had an elevated parathyroid hormone level. We found that most patients did not have VD testing after HCT, but those that did were very likely to have a low level and have low bone mineral density. Those with a low VD level were likely to have received corticosteroids, have GVHD, and have an elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) level. Given the potential morbidity of low VD level, VD deficiency should be considered after HCT. Prospective study of VD level and its impact on morbidity and mortality after HCT is warranted. PMID:21193053

  14. [Transfection efficiency of adenoviral vector AD5/F35 to malignant hematopoietic cells of different origins].

    PubMed

    Wabg, Kai; Peng, Jian-Qinag; Yuan, Zhen-Hua; Wu, Xiao-Bin

    2006-06-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the transfection efficiency of adenoviral vector AD5/F35 to hematopoietic malignant cells lines of various origins and AD5/F35 cytotoxicity. The hematologic malignant cell lines of various origins were transfected by AD5/F35-EGFP at different multiple of infection (MOI) and AD5-EGFP was used as control; the proportion of fluorescence positive cells was detected by flow cytometry; the killing effect of virus on infective target cells was assayed by MTT and observed by fluorescence microscopy. The results showed that the transfection efficiency of AD5/F35 vector to cell line of myeloid origin was > 99% at MOI = 30, the transfective efficiency of AD5 vector was 26.4% at MOI = 1,000; the transfection efficiency of AD5/F35 vector and AD5 vector to cell line of B cell origin were 11.7% and 5.7%, respectively, at MOI = 1,000. AD5/F35 and AD5 vectors could not effectively transfect cells of T cell origin, no fluorescence positive cells were detected at MOI = 1,000; no significant killing effect of AD5/F35 vector on infective target cells was observed at MOI = 1,000. It is concluded that AD5/F35 vector infection has definite selectivity to hematologic malignant cells of various origin, the infection ability of AD5/F35 vector to cells of myeloid origin is stronger than that to cells of B cell origin, the cytotoxicity of AD5/F35 vector to infective target cells is small. The AD5/F35 vector is preferable to AD5 vector in respect of infection ability and offers good prospects of application in gene therapy for myeloid leukemia cells as target cells. PMID:16800935

  15. Loss of sex chromosomes in the hematopoietic disorders: Questions, concerns and data interpretation

    SciTech Connect

    Slovak, M.L.

    1994-09-01

    The significance of sex chromosome aberrations in the hematopoietic disorders has not yet been defined. Interpretive problems stem from (1) the loss of a sex chromosome associated with aging, (2) sex chromosome loss as the sole aberration in leukemia is rare, (3) random -(X or Y) is observed frequently in bone marrow samples, and (4) constitutional sex chromosome anomalies must be ruled out in cancer and follow-up may not be possible. The COH database identified 41 patients (pts) with sex chromosome loss. Loss of a sex chromosome was common in myeloid disorders (21/41). In t(8;21) leukemia (n=10), -(X or Y) was a common secondary karyotypic change. Additionally, -Y was associated with clonal evolution in 2 Ph + CML pts. In 2 elderly pts with myeloid disorders, -(X or Y) was observed in complex karyotypes with dmins; however, in the lymphoproliferative disorders -(X or Y) was noted in elderly pts without apparent pathogenetic significance. Three pts had constitutional sex chromosome aberrations: CML in 45,X; ALL in 47, XXY; and RAEB-IT in mos45,X/46,XX. In the mos45,X/46,XX pt, the leukemic clone was associated with the 45,X line without other karyotypic changes. Non-clonal aberrations were observed in 11 cases; in 3 cases these non-clonal losses were observed in serial samples. In a sex-mismatched BMT case, -(X or Y) in 4 cells was one of the first pathogenetic signs of leukemia relapse. These data suggest (1) interpretation of sex chromosome loss in leukemia must be made with caution and after a baseline sample, (2) non-clonal aberrations should be recorded, and (3) -(X or Y) appears to have pathogenetic significance in the myeloid disorders. Multi-institutional studies are needed to define (1) the incidence of leukemia in pts with constitutional sex chromosome anomalies and (2) the incidence and significance of sex chromosome aberrations as the primary (sole) cytogenetic aberration in leukemia.

  16. Vascular niche promotes hematopoietic multipotent progenitor formation from pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Gori, Jennifer L; Butler, Jason M; Chan, Yan-Yi; Chandrasekaran, Devikha; Poulos, Michael G; Ginsberg, Michael; Nolan, Daniel J; Elemento, Olivier; Wood, Brent L; Adair, Jennifer E; Rafii, Shahin; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2015-03-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represent an alternative hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) source for treating hematopoietic disease. The limited engraftment of human PSC-derived (hPSC-derived) multipotent progenitor cells (MPP) has hampered the clinical application of these cells and suggests that MPP require additional cues for definitive hematopoiesis. We hypothesized that the presence of a vascular niche that produces Notch ligands jagged-1 (JAG1) and delta-like ligand-4 (DLL4) drives definitive hematopoiesis. We differentiated hes2 human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and Macaca nemestrina-induced PSC (iPSC) line-7 with cytokines in the presence or absence of endothelial cells (ECs) that express JAG1 and DLL4. Cells cocultured with ECs generated substantially more CD34+CD45+ hematopoietic progenitors compared with cells cocultured without ECs or with ECs lacking JAG1 or DLL4. EC-induced cells exhibited Notch activation and expressed HSC-specific Notch targets RUNX1 and GATA2. EC-induced PSC-MPP engrafted at a markedly higher level in NOD/SCID/IL-2 receptor γ chain-null (NSG) mice compared with cytokine-induced cells, and low-dose chemotherapy-based selection further increased engraftment. Long-term engraftment and the myeloid-to-lymphoid ratio achieved with vascular niche induction were similar to levels achieved for cord blood-derived MPP and up to 20-fold higher than those achieved with hPSC-derived MPP engraftment. Our findings indicate that endothelial Notch ligands promote PSC-definitive hematopoiesis and production of long-term engrafting CD34+ cells, suggesting these ligands are critical for HSC emergence. PMID:25664855

  17. Vascular niche promotes hematopoietic multipotent progenitor formation from pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Jennifer L.; Butler, Jason M.; Chan, Yan-Yi; Chandrasekaran, Devikha; Poulos, Michael G.; Ginsberg, Michael; Nolan, Daniel J.; Elemento, Olivier; Wood, Brent L.; Adair, Jennifer E.; Rafii, Shahin; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) represent an alternative hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) source for treating hematopoietic disease. The limited engraftment of human PSC–derived (hPSC-derived) multipotent progenitor cells (MPP) has hampered the clinical application of these cells and suggests that MPP require additional cues for definitive hematopoiesis. We hypothesized that the presence of a vascular niche that produces Notch ligands jagged-1 (JAG1) and delta-like ligand-4 (DLL4) drives definitive hematopoiesis. We differentiated hes2 human embryonic stem cells (hESC) and Macaca nemestrina–induced PSC (iPSC) line-7 with cytokines in the presence or absence of endothelial cells (ECs) that express JAG1 and DLL4. Cells cocultured with ECs generated substantially more CD34+CD45+ hematopoietic progenitors compared with cells cocultured without ECs or with ECs lacking JAG1 or DLL4. EC-induced cells exhibited Notch activation and expressed HSC-specific Notch targets RUNX1 and GATA2. EC-induced PSC-MPP engrafted at a markedly higher level in NOD/SCID/IL-2 receptor γ chain–null (NSG) mice compared with cytokine-induced cells, and low-dose chemotherapy-based selection further increased engraftment. Long-term engraftment and the myeloid-to-lymphoid ratio achieved with vascular niche induction were similar to levels achieved for cord blood–derived MPP and up to 20-fold higher than those achieved with hPSC-derived MPP engraftment. Our findings indicate that endothelial Notch ligands promote PSC-definitive hematopoiesis and production of long-term engrafting CD34+ cells, suggesting these ligands are critical for HSC emergence. PMID:25664855

  18. C/EBPδ Deficiency Sensitizes Mice to Ionizing Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic and Intestinal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jianhui; Wang, Wenze; Pathak, Rupak; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Junru; Hendrickson, Howard; Boerma, Marjan; Sterneck, Esta; Zhou, Daohong; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the radiation response is critical for developing interventions to mitigate radiation-induced injury to normal tissues. Exposure to radiation leads to increased oxidative stress, DNA-damage, genomic instability and inflammation. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (Cebpd; C/EBPδ is implicated in regulation of these same processes, but its role in radiation response is not known. We investigated the role of C/EBPδ in radiation-induced hematopoietic and intestinal injury using a Cebpd knockout mouse model. Cebpd−/− mice showed increased lethality at 7.4 and 8.5 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI), compared to Cebpd+/+ mice. Two weeks after a 6 Gy dose of TBI, Cebpd−/− mice showed decreased recovery of white blood cells, neutrophils, platelets, myeloid cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells, decreased colony-forming ability of bone marrow progenitor cells, and increased apoptosis of hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells compared to Cebpd+/+ controls. Cebpd−/− mice exhibited a significant dose-dependent decrease in intestinal crypt survival and in plasma citrulline levels compared to Cebpd+/+ mice after exposure to radiation. This was accompanied by significantly decreased expression of γ-H2AX in Cebpd−/− intestinal crypts and villi at 1 h post-TBI, increased mitotic index at 24 h post-TBI, and increase in apoptosis in intestinal crypts and stromal cells of Cebpd−/− compared to Cebpd+/+ mice at 4 h post-irradiation. This study uncovers a novel biological function for C/EBPδ in promoting the response to radiation-induced DNA-damage and in protecting hematopoietic and intestinal tissues from radiation-induced injury. PMID:24747529

  19. 5-Fluoro-2'-Deoxycytidine and Tetrahydrouridine in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndromes

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-03

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  20. Epigenetic Regulation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ghoshal (Gupta), Sampa; Baumann, Heinz; Wetzler, Meir

    2009-01-01

    We have demonstrated that constitutive signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 activity, observed in approximately 50% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, is associated with adverse treatment outcome. Constitutive STAT3 activation may result from the expression of oncogenic protein tyrosine kinases or from autocrine stimulation by hematopoietic growth factors. These causes are generally neither necessary nor sufficient for leukemogenesis; additional transforming events or growth stimulatory processes are needed. Here we review the literature addressing epigenetic regulation as a mechanism controlling STAT3 signaling in AML. A better understanding of mechanisms of dysregulation of STAT signaling pathways may serve as a basis for designing novel therapeutic strategies that target these pathways in leukemia cells. PMID:18192010

  1. Diagnosis and Therapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in the Era of Molecular Risk Stratification.

    PubMed

    Komanduri, Krishna V; Levine, Ross L

    2016-01-14

    The diagnosis and risk stratification of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) primarily rely on morphologic analysis and assessment of karyotype by chromosome banding analysis. For decades, standard AML induction therapy has utilized the combination of anthracyclines and cytarabine. Despite the use of postremission therapy, less than half of patients with AML will be cured of their disease. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation combines cytoreductive chemotherapy with adoptive immunotherapy and may cure patients who fail chemotherapy alone. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing have yielded important insights into the molecular landscape of AML with normal karyotype. Integrated prognostic models incorporating somatic mutation analyses may outperform prediction based on conventional clinical and cytogenetic factors alone. We review the evolution of risk profiling of AML from the cytogenetic to molecular era and describe the implications for AML diagnosis and postremission therapy. PMID:26473413

  2. Practical issues surrounding the explosion of tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the management of chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mathisen, Michael S; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Cortes, Jorge; Jabbour, Elias J

    2014-09-01

    The advent of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has drastically changed the treatment outcome of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Imatinib was the first TKI approved, and has been considered the standard of care for more than a decade. Second generation compounds, namely dasatinib and nilotinib, are highly effective in newly diagnosed patients as well as those who fail imatinib. Bosutinib and ponatinib have also become available as second line options. With five agents from which to choose, selecting a TKI has become a challenge. Multiple tests are now available to determine a patient's disease status, making the ideal monitoring strategy unclear. The gold standard for response to TKI therapy remains the achievement of complete cytogenetic response. This review will discuss the practical aspects of selecting a TKI and monitoring a patient once on therapy, including when to consider a treatment change. Other relevant issues, including cost, compliance, role of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation, and discontinuation of TKIs will also be covered. PMID:24984571

  3. Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation in Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome with Malignant Myeloid Transformation. A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Young; Chae, Min Byoung; Kwack, Yee Gyung; Lee, Moon Hee; Kim, Inho; Kim, Young Soo; Kim, Chul Soo

    2002-01-01

    Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS) is a rare genetic disorder of unknown pathogenesis involving exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and hematological and skeletal abnormalities. About 25% of patients develop hematopoietic malignancies. We report on a case of acute myeloid leukemia (M2) in a 21-year-old woman affected by SDS. She was treated with conventional chemotherapy (idarubicin plus cytarabine) and reached complete remission of leukemia. After induction chemotherapy, she underwent allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The BMT preparative regimen consisted of total body irradiation (TBI) followed by cyclophosphamide. Cyclosporin A and short term methotrexate were used for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis. After a follow-up of 12 months, she is alive leukemia free off any immunosuppressive agent. Although experience in this field is scarce, we speculate that bone marrow failure in SDS is an indication for BMT which is the only curative treatment option. PMID:12298432

  4. Transplant to treatment-free remission: the evolving view of 'cure' in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yong, Agnes S M; Brissot, Eolia; Rubinstein, Sam; Savani, Bipin N; Mohty, Mohamad

    2015-12-01

    Before the introduction of the BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) imatinib, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was the leading indication for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), and allogeneic HSCT remains the only treatment recognized as curative for CML. The success of imatinib and other TKIs (e.g., nilotinib, dasatinib) has made allogeneic HSCT a later-line therapy that is reserved only for advanced-phase, high-risk, or TKI-resistant patients with CML. Accumulating evidence from clinical trials investigating treatment-free remission suggests that TKIs may also provide an operational cure for some patients with CML. Herein, we discuss the concept of cure in CML and the current roles of both HSCT and TKIs in the treatment of CML. PMID:26364871

  5. Understanding human NK cell differentiation: clues for improving the haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Montaldo, Elisa; Vacca, Paola; Moretta, Lorenzo; Mingari, Maria Cristina

    2013-01-01

    The study of in vitro and in vivo NK cell differentiation from hematopoietic precursors revealed the existence of discrete stages of development. These stages are characterized by the progressive acquisition of markers and receptors that play a crucial role in NK cell function. The knowledge acquired has revealed particularly relevant for improving the HSCT to cure high-risk leukemias in the haplo-HSCT setting, in which NK cells play a central role in the clearance of leukemic cells and in the positive clinical outcome. PMID:24076313

  6. Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-30

    Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  7. Recognizing familial myeloid leukemia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Nickels, Eric M.; Soodalter, Jesse; Churpek, Jane E.

    2013-01-01

    Germline testing for familial cases of myeloid leukemia in adults is becoming more common with the recognition of multiple genetic syndromes predisposing people to bone marrow disease. Currently, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments approved testing exists for several myeloid leukemia predisposition syndromes: familial platelet disorder with propensity to acute myeloid leukemia (FPD/AML), caused by mutations in RUNX1; familial AML with mutated CEBPA; familial myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemia with mutated GATA2; and the inherited bone marrow failure syndromes, including dyskeratosis congenita, a disease of abnormal telomere maintenance. With the recognition of additional families with a genetic component to their leukemia, new predisposition alleles will likely be identified. We highlight how to recognize and manage these cases as well as outline the characteristics of the major known syndromes. We look forward to future research increasing our understanding of the scope of inherited myeloid leukemia syndromes. PMID:23926458

  8. Myeloid cells in cancer-related inflammation.

    PubMed

    Caronni, Nicoletta; Savino, Benedetta; Bonecchi, Raffaella

    2015-02-01

    Myeloid cells are key elements of the cancer-related inflammation with the potential to support not only tumor growth but also invasion and metastasis. Tumor-derived factors affect myeloid cell differentiation inducing a phenotype that supports tumor growth, inducing immunosuppression, angiogenesis and tissue remodeling. Soluble mediators, produced at primary tumor site, can also act in a remote mode inducing the release from bone marrow of myeloid cells that have immunosuppressive activities in tumor-draining lymphoid organs and can predispose to colonization when migrate to metastatic organs. We will here review current knowledge on the contribution of tumor-derived signals that affect polarized activation of myeloid cells, their bone marrow release and recruitment to metastatic sites with a particular focus on the role of chemokines. PMID:25454487

  9. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) (For Parents)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... With Bullies Pregnant? What to Expect Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Cancer & Tumors > Acute ... Causes Signs and Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Coping About Leukemia Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects ...

  10. Engineering humanized mice for improved hematopoietic reconstitution

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Adam C; Chen, Qingfeng; Chen, Jianzhu

    2012-01-01

    Humanized mice are immunodeficient animals engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to various lineages of human blood cells throughout the life of the mouse. This article reviews recent advances in the generation of humanized mice, focusing on practical considerations. We discuss features of different immunodeficient recipient mouse strains, sources of human hematopoietic stem cells, advances in expansion and genetic modification of hematopoietic stem cells, and techniques to modulate the cytokine environment of recipient mice, in order to enhance reconstitution of specific human blood lineage cells. We highlight the opportunities created by new technologies and discuss practical considerations on how to make best use of the widening array of basic models for specific research applications. PMID:22425741

  11. [Renal complications after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    PubMed

    Abboud, Imad; Pillebout, vangeline; Nochy, Dominique

    2014-06-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is a widely used therapeutic modality for many, mainly malignant, diseases. Toxicities of this procedure include acute and chronic renal dysfunction. Acute renal failure, generally reversible is due to acute tubular necrosis (tumor lysis syndrome, marrow-infusion toxicity, sepsis, nephrotoxins), hepatic veno-occlusive disease or acute graft-versus-host disease. Chronic renal failure is often multifactorial, caused by conditioning-associated endothelial cell toxicity (bone marrow transplant nephropathy) and calcineurin inhibitors toxicity. Renal pathologic findings are somewhat similar to thrombotic microangiopathy, with sometimes systemic disease. Rare cases of nephrotic syndrome have been described after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mainly membranous nephropathy, associated with graft-versus-host disease. Therapeutic options for renal dysfunction after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are limited but kidney transplantation is possible in case of end-stage renal disease. PMID:24816577

  12. Histone Lysine-specific Demethylase 1 (LSD1) Protein Is Involved in Sal-like Protein 4 (SALL4)-mediated Transcriptional Repression in Hematopoietic Stem Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Souto, Joseph; Liao, Wenbin; Jiang, Yongping; Li, Yangqiu; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Huang, Suming; Rosengart, Todd; Yang, Vincent W.; Schuster, Michael; Ma, Yupo; Yang, Jianchang

    2013-01-01

    The stem cell protein SALL4 plays a critical role in hematopoiesis by regulating the cell fate. In primitive hematopoietic precursors, it activates or represses important genes via recruitment of various epigenetic factors such as DNA methyltransferases, and histone deacylases. Here, we demonstrate that LSD1, a histone lysine demethylase, also participates in the trans-repressive effects of SALL4. Based on luciferase assays, the amine oxidase domain of LSD1 is important in suppressing SALL4-mediated reporter transcription. In freshly isolated adult mouse bone marrows, both SALL4 and LSD1 proteins are preferentially expressed in undifferentiated progenitor cells and co-localize in the nuclei. Further sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed that these two factors share the same binding sites at the promoter regions of important hematopoietic regulatory genes including EBF1, GATA1, and TNF. In addition, studies from both gain- and loss-of-function models revealed that SALL4 dynamically controls the binding levels of LSD1, which is accompanied by a reversely changed histone 3 dimethylated lysine 4 at the same promoter regions. Finally, shRNA-mediated knockdown of LSD1 in hematopoietic precursor cells resulted in altered SALL4 downstream gene expression and increased cellular activity. Thus, our data revealed that histone demethylase LSD1 may negatively regulate SALL4-mediated transcription, and the dynamic regulation of SALL4-associated epigenetic factors cooperatively modulates early hematopoietic precursor proliferation. PMID:24163373

  13. Histone lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) protein is involved in Sal-like protein 4 (SALL4)-mediated transcriptional repression in hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Souto, Joseph; Liao, Wenbin; Jiang, Yongping; Li, Yangqiu; Nishinakamura, Ryuichi; Huang, Suming; Rosengart, Todd; Yang, Vincent W; Schuster, Michael; Ma, Yupo; Yang, Jianchang

    2013-11-29

    The stem cell protein SALL4 plays a critical role in hematopoiesis by regulating the cell fate. In primitive hematopoietic precursors, it activates or represses important genes via recruitment of various epigenetic factors such as DNA methyltransferases, and histone deacylases. Here, we demonstrate that LSD1, a histone lysine demethylase, also participates in the trans-repressive effects of SALL4. Based on luciferase assays, the amine oxidase domain of LSD1 is important in suppressing SALL4-mediated reporter transcription. In freshly isolated adult mouse bone marrows, both SALL4 and LSD1 proteins are preferentially expressed in undifferentiated progenitor cells and co-localize in the nuclei. Further sequential chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed that these two factors share the same binding sites at the promoter regions of important hematopoietic regulatory genes including EBF1, GATA1, and TNF. In addition, studies from both gain- and loss-of-function models revealed that SALL4 dynamically controls the binding levels of LSD1, which is accompanied by a reversely changed histone 3 dimethylated lysine 4 at the same promoter regions. Finally, shRNA-mediated knockdown of LSD1 in hematopoietic precursor cells resulted in altered SALL4 downstream gene expression and increased cellular activity. Thus, our data revealed that histone demethylase LSD1 may negatively regulate SALL4-mediated transcription, and the dynamic regulation of SALL4-associated epigenetic factors cooperatively modulates early hematopoietic precursor proliferation. PMID:24163373

  14. Genetic profile of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Mecucci, Cristina; Rosati, Roberto; Starza, Roberta La

    2002-03-01

    Understanding genomic events and the cascade of their effects in cell function is crucial for identifying distinct subsets of acute myeloid leukemia and developing new therapeutic strategies. Conventional cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization investigations and molecular studies have provided much information over the past few years. This review will focus on major genomic mechanisms in acute myeloid luekemia and on the genes implicated in the pathogenesis of specific subtypes. PMID:12060481

  15. VEGFR2+PDGFRbeta+ circulating precursor cells participate in capillary restoration after hyperoxia acute lung injury (HALI).

    PubMed

    Jones, Rosemary; Capen, Diane E; Jacobson, Margaretha; Cohen, Kenneth S; Scadden, David T; Duda, Dan G

    2009-09-01

    The in vivo morphology and phenotype of circulating cells that spontaneously contribute to new vessel formation in adults remain unclear. Here, we use high-resolution imaging and flow cytometry to characterize the morphology and phenotype of a distinct population of circulating mononuclear cells contributing to spontaneous new vessel formation after hyperoxia acute lung injury (HALI). We identify a subpopulation of myeloid (CD11b/Mac1(+)) haematopoietic cells co-expressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRbeta). Moreover, we show that these CD11b(+)VEGFR2(+)PDGFRbeta(+) circulating precursor cells (CPCs) contribute structurally to the luminal surface of capillaries re-forming 2 weeks post-HALI. This indicates that these myeloid CPCs may function, at least transiently, as putative vascular precursors, and has important implications for capillary growth and repair in injury and in pathologies of the lung and other organs. PMID:19426150

  16. Decitabine and Midostaurin in Treating Older Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-09-14

    Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  17. Selinexor and Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-15

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  18. Early myeloid cell-specific expression of the human cathepsin G gene in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Grisolano, J L; Sclar, G M; Ley, T J

    1994-09-13

    The human cathepsin G (CG) gene is expressed only in promyelocytes and encodes a neutral serine protease that is packaged in the azurophil (primary) granules of myeloid cells. To define the cis-acting DNA elements that are responsible for promyelocyte-specific "targeting," we injected a 6-kb transgene containing the entire human CG gene, including coding sequences contained in a 2.7-kb region, approximately 2.5 kb of 5' flanking sequence, and approximately 0.8 kb of 3' flanking sequence. Seven of seven "transient transgenic" murine embryos revealed human CG expression in the fetal livers at embryonic day 15. Stable transgenic founder lines were created with the same 6-kb fragment; four of five founder lines expressed human CG in the bone marrow. The level of human CG expression was relatively low per gene copy when compared with the endogenous murine CG gene, and expression was integration-site dependent; however, the level of gene expression correlated roughly with gene copy number. The human CG transgene and the endogenous murine CG gene were coordinately expressed in the bone marrow and the spleen. Immunohistochemical analysis of transgenic bone marrow revealed that the human CG protein was expressed exclusively in myeloid cells. Expression of human CG protein was highest in myeloid precursors and declined in mature myeloid cells. These data suggest that the human CG gene was appropriately targeted and developmentally regulated, demonstrating that the cis-acting DNA sequences required for the early myeloid cell-specific expression of human CG are present in this small genomic fragment. PMID:8090757

  19. In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation for hemoglobinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Derderian, S. Christopher; Jeanty, Cerine; Walters, Mark C.; Vichinsky, Elliott; MacKenzie, Tippi C.

    2014-01-01

    In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation (IUHCTx) is a promising strategy to circumvent the challenges of postnatal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. The goal of IUHCTx is to introduce donor cells into a nave host prior to immune maturation, thereby inducing donorspecific tolerance. Thus, this technique has the potential of avoiding host myeloablative conditioning with cytotoxic agents. Over the past two decades, several attempts at IUHCTx have been made to cure numerous underlying congenital anomalies with limited success. In this review, we will briefly review the history of IUHCTx and give a perspective on alpha thalassemia major, one target disease for its clinical application. PMID:25628564

  20. In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation for hemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Derderian, S Christopher; Jeanty, Cerine; Walters, Mark C; Vichinsky, Elliott; MacKenzie, Tippi C

    2014-01-01

    In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation (IUHCTx) is a promising strategy to circumvent the challenges of postnatal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. The goal of IUHCTx is to introduce donor cells into a nave host prior to immune maturation, thereby inducing donor-specific tolerance. Thus, this technique has the potential of avoiding host myeloablative conditioning with cytotoxic agents. Over the past two decades, several attempts at IUHCTx have been made to cure numerous underlying congenital anomalies with limited success. In this review, we will briefly review the history of IUHCTx and give a perspective on alpha thalassemia major, one target disease for its clinical application. PMID:25628564

  1. Canine hematopoietic tumors: diagnosis, treatment and complications

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1986-02-01

    Canine hematopoietic tumors constitute a group of neoplasms that are frequently encountered in veterinary practice. Although common, they are also a diagnostically confusing group of tumors due to continued revision of their definition and classification. The confusion that arises from these changes presents the clinician with a perpetual challenge of diagnosis and therapy. Therapy of canine hematopoietic tumors has traditionally evolved from treatment of human patients with similar diseases, and in turn, these neoplasms have served as models for evaluating newer therapies for possible application in human patients. Methods of treatment have included chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hyperthermia. 9 tabs.

  2. Precursors to Pancreatic Cancer+

    PubMed Central

    Hruban, Ralph H.; Maitra, Anirban; Kern, Scott E.; Goggins, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is believed to arise from morphologically distinct non-invasive precursor lesions. These precursors include the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, the mucinous cystic neoplasm, and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are grossly visible mucin-producing epithelial neoplasms that arise in the main pancreatic duct or one of its branches. The cysts of mucinous cystic neoplasms do not communicate with the major pancreatic ducts and these neoplasms are characterized by a distinct ovarian-type stroma. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia is a microscopic lesion. This review focuses on the clinical significance of these three remarkable precursor lesions with emphasis on their clinical manifestations, detection, and treatment. PMID:17996793

  3. Oblimersen, Cytarabine, and Daunorubicin in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-03

    Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  4. Decitabine, Cytarabine, and Daunorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-03-11

    Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  5. Cutaneous myeloid sarcoma: natural history and biology of an uncommon manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hurley, M Yadira; Ghahramani, Grant K; Frisch, Stephanie; Armbrecht, Eric S; Lind, Anne C; Nguyen, Tudung T; Hassan, Anjum; Kreisel, Friederike H; Frater, John L

    2013-05-01

    We conducted a retrospective study of patients with cutaneous myeloid sarcoma, from 2 tertiary care institutions. Eighty-three patients presented, with a mean age of 52 years. Diagnosis of myeloid sarcoma in the skin was difficult due to the low frequency of myeloperoxidase and/or CD34+ cases (56% and 19% of tested cases, respectively). Seventy-one of the 83 patients (86%) had ??1 bone marrow biopsy. Twenty-eight (39%) had acute myeloid leukemia with monocytic differentiation. Twenty-three had other de novo acute myeloid leukemia subtypes. Thirteen patients had other myeloid neoplasms, of which 4 ultimately progressed to an acute myeloid leukemia. Seven had no bone marrow malignancy. Ninety-eight percent of the patients received chemotherapy, and approximately 89% died of causes related to their disease. Cutaneous myeloid sarcoma in most cases represents an aggressive manifestation of acute myeloid leukemia. Diagnosis can be challenging due to lack of myeloblast-associated antigen expression in many cases, and difficulty in distinguishing monocyte-lineage blasts from neoplastic and non-neoplastic mature monocytes. PMID:23165700

  6. Cytogenetic and molecular delineation of the smallest commonly deleted region of chromosome 5 in malignant myeloid diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Le Beau, M M; Espinosa, R; Neuman, W L; Stock, W; Roulston, D; Larson, R A; Keinanen, M; Westbrook, C A

    1993-01-01

    Loss of a whole chromosome 5 or a deletion of its long arm (5q) is a recurring abnormality in malignant myeloid neoplasms. To determine the location of genes on 5q that may be involved in leukemogenesis, we examined the deleted chromosome 5 homologs in a series of 135 patients with malignant myeloid diseases. By comparing the breakpoints, we identified a small segment of 5q, consisting of band 5q31, that was deleted in each patient. This segment has been termed the critical region. Distal 5q contains a number of genes encoding growth factors, hormone receptors, and proteins involved in signal transduction or transcriptional regulation. These include several genes that are good candidates for a tumor-suppressor gene, as well as the genes encoding five hematopoietic growth factors (CSF2, IL3, IL4, IL5, and IL9). By using fluorescence in situ hybridization, we have refined the localization of these genes to 5q31.1 and have determined the order of these genes and of other markers within 5q31. By hybridizing probes to metaphase cells with overlapping deletions involving 5q31, we have narrowed the critical region to a small segment of 5q31 containing the EGR1 gene. The five hematopoietic growth factor genes and seven other genes are excluded from this region. The EGR1 gene was not deleted in nine other patients with acute myeloid leukemia who did not have abnormalities of chromosome 5. By physical mapping, the minimum size of the critical region was estimated to be 2.8 megabases. This cytogenetic map of 5q31, together with the molecular characterization of the critical region, will facilitate the identification of a putative tumor-suppressor gene in this band. PMID:8516290

  7. Cooperativity of RUNX1 and CSF3R mutations in severe congenital neutropenia: a unique pathway in myeloid leukemogenesis.

    PubMed

    Skokowa, Julia; Steinemann, Doris; Katsman-Kuipers, Jenny E; Zeidler, Cornelia; Klimenkova, Olga; Klimiankou, Maksim; Unalan, Murat; Kandabarau, Siarhei; Makaryan, Vahagn; Beekman, Renee; Behrens, Kira; Stocking, Carol; Obenauer, Julia; Schnittger, Susanne; Kohlmann, Alexander; Valkhof, Marijke G; Hoogenboezem, Remco; Ghring, Gudrun; Reinhardt, Dirk; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Stanulla, Martin; Vandenberghe, Peter; Donadieu, Jean; Zwaan, C Michel; Touw, Ivo P; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Dale, David C; Welte, Karl

    2014-04-01

    Severe congenital neutropenia (CN) is a preleukemic bone marrow failure syndrome with a 20% risk of evolving into leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Patterns of acquisition of leukemia-associated mutations were investigated using next-generation deep-sequencing in 31 CN patients who developed leukemia or MDS. Twenty (64.5%) of the 31 patients had mutations in RUNX1. A majority of patients with RUNX1 mutations (80.5%) also had acquired CSF3R mutations. In contrast to their high frequency in CN patients who developed leukemia or MDS, RUNX1 mutations were found in only 9 of 307 (2.9%) patients with de novo pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. A sequential analysis at stages prior to overt leukemia revealed RUNX1 mutations to be late events in leukemic transformation. Single-cell analyses in 2 patients showed that RUNX1 and CSF3R mutations were present in the same malignant clone. Functional studies demonstrated elevated granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-induced proliferation with diminished myeloid differentiation of hematopoietic CD34(+) cells coexpressing mutated forms of RUNX1 and CSF3R. The high frequency of cooperating RUNX1 and CSF3R mutations in CN patients suggests a novel molecular pathway of leukemogenesis: mutations in the hematopoietic cytokine receptor (G-CSFR) in combination with the second mutations in the downstream hematopoietic transcription fator (RUNX1). The detection of both RUNX1 and CSF3R mutations could be used as a marker for identifying CN patients with a high risk of progressing to leukemia or MDS. PMID:24523240

  8. Epigenetic therapy restores normal hematopoiesis in a zebrafish model of NUP98-HOXA9-induced myeloid disease.

    PubMed

    Deveau, A P; Forrester, A M; Coombs, A J; Wagner, G S; Grabher, C; Chute, I C; Léger, D; Mingay, M; Alexe, G; Rajan, V; Liwski, R; Hirst, M; Steigmaier, K; Lewis, S M; Look, A T; Berman, J N

    2015-10-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) occurs when multiple genetic aberrations alter white blood cell development, leading to hyperproliferation and arrest of cell differentiation. Pertinent animal models link in vitro studies with the use of new agents in clinical trials. We generated a transgenic zebrafish expressing human NUP98-HOXA9 (NHA9), a fusion oncogene found in high-risk AML. Embryos developed a preleukemic state with anemia and myeloid cell expansion, and adult fish developed a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). We leveraged this model to show that NHA9 increases the number of hematopoietic stem cells, and that oncogenic function of NHA9 depends on downstream activation of meis1, the PTGS/COX pathway and genome hypermethylation through the DNA methyltransferase, dnmt1. We restored normal hematopoiesis in NHA9 embryos with knockdown of meis1 or dnmt1, as well as pharmacologic treatment with DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors or cyclo-oxygenase (COX) inhibitors. DNMT inhibitors reduced genome methylation to near normal levels. Strikingly, we discovered synergy when we combined sub-monotherapeutic doses of a histone deacetylase inhibitor plus either a DNMT inhibitor or COX inhibitor to block the effects of NHA9 on zebrafish blood development. Our work proposes novel drug targets in NHA9-induced myeloid disease, and suggests rational therapies by combining minimal doses of known bioactive compounds. PMID:26017032

  9. Overexpression of sPRDM16 coupled with loss of p53 induces myeloid leukemias in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shing, Danielle C.; Trubia, Maurizio; Marchesi, Francesco; Radaelli, Enrico; Belloni, Elena; Tapinassi, Cinzia; Scanziani, Eugenio; Mecucci, Cristina; Crescenzi, Barbara; Lahortiga, Idoya; Odero, Maria D.; Zardo, Giuseppe; Gruszka, Alicja; Minucci, Saverio; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    Transgenic expression of the abnormal products of acute myeloid leukemiaassociated (AML-associated) primary chromosomal translocations in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells initiates leukemogenesis in mice, yet additional mutations are needed for leukemia development. We report here aberrant expression of PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16) in AML cells with either translocations of 1p36 or normal karyotype. These carried, respectively, relatively high prevalence of mutations in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene and in the nucleophosmin (NPM) gene, which regulates p53. Two protein isoforms are expressed from PRDM16, which differ in the presence or absence of the PR domain. Overexpression of the short isoform, sPRDM16, in mouse bone marrow induced AML with full penetrance, but only in the absence of p53. The mouse leukemias were characterized by multilineage cellular abnormalities and megakaryocyte dysplasia, a common feature of human AMLs with 1p36 translocations or NPM mutations. Overexpression of sPRDM16 increased the pool of HSCs in vivo, and in vitro blocked myeloid differentiation and prolonged progenitor life span. Loss of p53 augmented the effects of sPRDM16 on stem cell number and induced immortalization of progenitors. Thus, overexpression of sPRDM16 induces abnormal growth of stem cells and progenitors and cooperates with disruption of the p53 pathway in the induction of myeloid leukemia. PMID:18037989

  10. Hmga2 is a direct target gene of RUNX1 and regulates expansion of myeloid progenitors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Kentson; Muselman, Alexander; Du, Randal; Harada, Yuka; Scholl, Amanda G.; Yan, Ming; Matsuura, Shinobu; Weng, Stephanie; Harada, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    RUNX1 is a master transcription factor in hematopoiesis and mediates the specification and homeostasis of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Disruptions in RUNX1 are well known to lead to hematologic disease. In this study, we sought to identify and characterize RUNX1 target genes in HSPCs by performing RUNX1 chromatin immunoprecipitation with high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) using a murine HSPC line and complementing this data with our previously described gene expression profiling of primary wild-type and RUNX1-deficient HSPCs (Lineage/cKit+/Sca1+). From this analysis, we identified and confirmed that Hmga2, a known oncogene, as a direct target of RUNX1. Hmga2 was strongly upregulated in RUNX1-deficient HSPCs, and the promoter of Hmga2 was responsive in a cell-type dependent manner upon coexpression of RUNX1. Conditional Runx1 knockout mice exhibit expansion of their HSPCs and myeloid progenitors as hallmark phenotypes. To further validate and establish that Hmga2 plays a role in inducing HSPC expansion, we generated mouse models of HMGA2 and RUNX1 deficiency. Although mice lacking both factors continued to display higher frequencies of HSPCs, the expansion of myeloid progenitors was effectively rescued. The data presented here establish Hmga2 as a transcriptional target of RUNX1 and a critical regulator of myeloid progenitor expansion. PMID:25150295

  11. Differentiation and growth modulation of myeloid leukemia cells by the protein kinase C activating agent bryostatin-1.

    PubMed

    Steube, K G; Drexler, H G

    1993-01-01

    Bryostatin-1 (Bryo), a macrocyclic lactone of the sea water bryozoan Bugula neritina, is a potent activator of protein kinase C and was found to exhibit antineoplastic activity in several systems. We studied the effect of Bryo on differentiation and growth modulation of human myeloid leukemia cell lines and freshly explanted blood cells from patients with myeloid leukemia. Alterations at the molecular level and phenotypic changes triggered by Bryo were similar, but not identical, to those induced by phorbol esters. Bryo was able to inhibit cellular proliferation as evidenced by [3H]-thymidine uptake and induced morphological changes associated with monocytic differentiation. In studies using continuous cell lines, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone was unable to prevent the Bryo-induced growth inhibition or the induced phenotypic changes. However, in fresh myeloid blood cells dexamethasone attenuated these Bryo-triggered effects. Our own data taken together with reports from the literature reviewed here suggest the following conclusions: (i) Bryo, while lacking tumor promoting activity, is able to induce differentiation in maturation arrested leukemia cells; (ii) it exhibits selective antiproliferative properties in normal or malignant hematopoietic cells and supports growth of multipotent stem cells. These features might qualify Bryostatin-1 as a potential candidate for promising research and possibly for future clinical applications. PMID:8477194

  12. NPM1-mutated acute myeloid leukemia of monocytic or myeloid origin exhibit distinct immunophenotypes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Rong; Zhu, Hong-Hu; Ruan, Guo-Rui; Qin, Ya-Zhen; Shi, Hong-Xia; Lai, Yue-Yun; Chang, Yan; Wang, Ya-Zhe; Lu, Dan; Hao, Le; Li, Jin-Lan; Li, Ling-Di; Jiang, Bin; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2013-07-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia with mutated nucleophosmin (NPM1m+AML) is a heterogeneous entity. We investigated whether NPM1m+AML with monocytic or myeloid differentiation have distinct immunophenotype. The study included 160 NPM1m+AMLpatients and 178 AML patients without NPM1 mutation and recurrent cytogenetic abnormality (NPM1wt-AML). We analyzed the immunophenotype by flow cytometry. NPM1 mutation was detected by PCR. Compared with NPM1wt-AML patients, NPM1m+AML patients showed higher positive rates of CD33 and CD9 and lower positive rates of CD34, HLA-DR, CD7, CD15 and CD117 (all P<0.05). HLA-DR, CD64, CD14, CD11b, CD15, CD4, CD9 and CD10 were higher (P<0.001) and CD117 was lower (P<0.01) in monocytic NPM1m+AML compared with myeloid NPM1m+AML. Similar rates of lymphoid antigen (CD19, CD2, and CD7) and myeloid antigen (CD13, CD33) positivity were detected in monocytic and myeloid NPM1m+AML. Compared with NPM1wt-AML, CD34 expression was lower both in myeloid and monocytic NPM1m+AML subgroups, although HLA-DR was lower in NPM1m+AML compared with NPM1wt-AML only in myeloid subgroup. Comparisons of NPM1m+AML and NPM1wt-AML showed no differences in monocyte-associated markers such as CD14 and CD11b in myeloid and monocytic subgroup. Myeloid NPM1m+AML correlated with the female gender (P=0.001), lower WBC counts (P=0.04) and higher WT1 transcripts (P=0.006) compared with monocytic NPM1m+AML.These results suggested monocytic and myeloid-derived NPM1m+AML exhibit distinct immunophenotypes. PMID:23601747

  13. The role of TLR8 signaling in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Moreton, Stephen A; Chakrabarti, Amit; Agarwal, Mukesh K; Sun, Kevin; Gupta, Kalpana; Wald, David N

    2014-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive disease with a poor 5-year survival of 21% that is characterized by a differentiation arrest of immature myeloid cells. For a rare subtype of AML (acute promyeloctyic leukemia, 5-10% of cases) all-trans retinoic acid therapy removes the differentiation block, yielding over a 90% cure rate. However, this treatment is not effective for the other 90-95% of AML patients, suggesting new differentiation strategies are needed. Interestingly, differentiation is induced in normal hematopoietic cells through Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation and TLRs are expressed on AML cells. We present evidence that the TLR8 activation promotes AML differentiation and growth inhibition in a TLR8/MyD88/p38 dependent manner. We also show that that TLR7/TLR8 agonist, R848, considerably impairs the growth of human AML cells in immunodeficient mice. Our data suggests TLR8 activation has direct anti-leukemic effects independent of its immunomodulating properties that are currently under investigation for cancer therapy. Taken together, our results suggest that treatment with TLR8 agonists may be a promising new therapeutic strategy for AML. PMID:25283842

  14. Impact of MLL5 expression on decitabine efficacy and DNA methylation in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Haiyang; Damm, Frederik; Yap, Damian; Schwarzer, Adrian; Chaturvedi, Anuhar; Jyotsana, Nidhi; Lbbert, Michael; Bullinger, Lars; Dhner, Konstanze; Geffers, Robert; Aparicio, Samuel; Humphries, R. Keith; Ganser, Arnold; Heuser, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Hypomethylating agents are widely used in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and unfit patients with acute myeloid leukemia. However, it is not well understood why only some patients respond to hypomethylating agents. We found previously that the effect of decitabine on hematopoietic stem cell viability differed between Mll5 wild-type and null cells. We, therefore, investigated the role of MLL5 expression levels on outcome of acute myeloid leukemia patients who were treated with decitabine. MLL5 above the median expression level predicted longer overall survival independent of DNMT3A mutation status in bivariate analysis (median overall survival for high vs. low MLL5 expression 292 vs. 167 days; P=0.026). In patients who received three or more courses decitabine, high MLL5 expression and wild-type DNMT3A independently predicted improved overall survival (median overall survival for high vs. low MLL5 expression 468 vs. 243 days; P=0.012). In transformed murine cells, loss of Mll5 was associated with resistance to low-dose decitabine, less global DNA methylation in promoter regions, and reduced DNA demethylation upon decitabine treatment. Together, these data support our clinical observation of improved outcome in decitabine-treated patients who express MLL5 at high levels, and suggest a mechanistic role of MLL5 in the regulation of DNA methylation. PMID:24895338

  15. Acute myeloid leukemia requires Hhex to enable PRC2-mediated epigenetic repression of Cdkn2a.

    PubMed

    Shields, Benjamin J; Jackson, Jacob T; Metcalf, Donald; Shi, Wei; Huang, Qiutong; Garnham, Alexandra L; Glaser, Stefan P; Beck, Dominik; Pimanda, John E; Bogue, Clifford W; Smyth, Gordon K; Alexander, Warren S; McCormack, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Unlike clustered HOX genes, the role of nonclustered homeobox gene family members in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis has not been extensively studied. Here we found that the hematopoietically expressed homeobox gene Hhex is overexpressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is essential for the initiation and propagation of MLL-ENL-induced AML but dispensable for normal myelopoiesis, indicating a specific requirement for Hhex for leukemic growth. Loss of Hhex leads to expression of the Cdkn2a-encoded tumor suppressors p16(INK4a) and p19(ARF), which are required for growth arrest and myeloid differentiation following Hhex deletion. Mechanistically, we show that Hhex binds to the Cdkn2a locus and directly interacts with the Polycomb-repressive complex 2 (PRC2) to enable H3K27me3-mediated epigenetic repression. Thus, Hhex is a potential therapeutic target that is specifically required for AML stem cells to repress tumor suppressor pathways and enable continued self-renewal. PMID:26728554

  16. DNA Methylation Profiles and Their Relationship with Cytogenetic Status in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Sara; Suela, Javier; Valencia, Ana; Fernndez, Agustn; Wunderlich, Mark; Agirre, Xabier; Prsper, Felipe; Martn-Subero, Jos Ignacio; Maiques, Alba; Acquadro, Francesco; Rodriguez Perales, Sandra; Calasanz, Mara Jos; Roman-Gmez, Jose; Siebert, Reiner; Mulloy, James C.; Cervera, Jos; Sanz, Miguel Angel; Esteller, Manel; Cigudosa, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Aberrant promoter DNA methylation has been shown to play a role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) pathophysiology. However, further studies to discuss the prognostic value and the relationship of the epigenetic signatures with defined genomic rearrangements in acute myeloid leukemia are required. Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out high-throughput methylation profiling on 116 de novo AML cases and we validated the significant biomarkers in an independent cohort of 244 AML cases. Methylation signatures were associated with the presence of a specific cytogenetic status. In normal karyotype cases, aberrant methylation of the promoter of DBC1 was validated as a predictor of the disease-free and overall survival. Furthermore, DBC1 expression was significantly silenced in the aberrantly methylated samples. Patients with chromosome rearrangements showed distinct methylation signatures. To establish the role of fusion proteins in the epigenetic profiles, 20 additional samples of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) transduced with common fusion genes were studied and compared with patient samples carrying the same rearrangements. The presence of MLL rearrangements in HSPC induced the methylation profile observed in the MLL-positive primary samples. In contrast, fusion genes such as AML1/ETO or CBFB/MYH11 failed to reproduce the epigenetic signature observed in the patients. Conclusions/Significance Our study provides a comprehensive epigenetic profiling of AML, identifies new clinical markers for cases with a normal karyotype, and reveals relevant biological information related to the role of fusion proteins on the methylation signature. PMID:20808941

  17. Targeting acute myeloid leukemia with a small molecule inhibitor of the Myb/p300 interaction.

    PubMed

    Uttarkar, Sagar; Dass, Emilie; Coulibaly, Anna; Steinmann, Simone; Jakobs, Anke; Schomburg, Caroline; Trentmann, Amke; Jose, Joachim; Schlenke, Peter; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Schmidt, Thomas J; Mller-Tidow, Carsten; Frampton, Jon; Klempnauer, Karl-Heinz

    2016-03-01

    The transcription factor Myb plays a key role in the hematopoietic system and has been implicated in the development of leukemia and other human cancers. Inhibition of Myb is therefore emerging as a potential therapeutic strategy for these diseases. However, because of a lack of suitable inhibitors, the feasibility of therapeutic approaches based on Myb inhibition has not been explored. We have identified the triterpenoid Celastrol as a potent low-molecular-weight inhibitor of the interaction of Myb with its cooperation partner p300. We demonstrate that Celastrol suppresses the proliferative potential of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells while not affecting normal hematopoietic progenitor cells. Furthermore, Celastrol prolongs the survival of mice in a model of an aggressive AML. Overall, our work demonstrates the therapeutic potential of a small molecule inhibitor of the Myb/p300 interaction for the treatment of AML and provides a starting point for the further development of Myb-inhibitory compounds for the treatment of leukemia and, possibly, other tumors driven by deregulated Myb. PMID:26631113

  18. Drosophila Rabex-5 restricts Notch activity in hematopoietic cells and maintains hematopoietic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Reimels, Theresa A; Pfleger, Cathie M

    2015-12-15

    Hematopoietic homeostasis requires the maintenance of a reservoir of undifferentiated blood cell progenitors and the ability to replace or expand differentiated blood cell lineages when necessary. Multiple signaling pathways function in these processes, but how their spatiotemporal control is established and their activity is coordinated in the context of the entire hematopoietic network are still poorly understood. We report here that loss of the gene Rabex-5 in Drosophila causes several hematopoietic abnormalities, including blood cell (hemocyte) overproliferation, increased size of the hematopoietic organ (the lymph gland), lamellocyte differentiation and melanotic mass formation. Hemocyte-specific Rabex-5 knockdown was sufficient to increase hemocyte populations, increase lymph gland size and induce melanotic masses. Rabex-5 negatively regulates Ras, and we show that Ras activity is responsible for specific Rabex-5 hematopoietic phenotypes. Surprisingly, Ras-independent Notch protein accumulation and transcriptional activity in the lymph gland underlie multiple distinct hematopoietic phenotypes of Rabex-5 loss. Thus, Rabex-5 plays an important role in Drosophila hematopoiesis and might serve as an axis coordinating Ras and Notch signaling in the lymph gland. PMID:26567216

  19. Drosophila Rabex-5 restricts Notch activity in hematopoietic cells and maintains hematopoietic homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Reimels, Theresa A.; Pfleger, Cathie M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hematopoietic homeostasis requires the maintenance of a reservoir of undifferentiated blood cell progenitors and the ability to replace or expand differentiated blood cell lineages when necessary. Multiple signaling pathways function in these processes, but how their spatiotemporal control is established and their activity is coordinated in the context of the entire hematopoietic network are still poorly understood. We report here that loss of the gene Rabex-5 in Drosophila causes several hematopoietic abnormalities, including blood cell (hemocyte) overproliferation, increased size of the hematopoietic organ (the lymph gland), lamellocyte differentiation and melanotic mass formation. Hemocyte-specific Rabex-5 knockdown was sufficient to increase hemocyte populations, increase lymph gland size and induce melanotic masses. Rabex-5 negatively regulates Ras, and we show that Ras activity is responsible for specific Rabex-5 hematopoietic phenotypes. Surprisingly, Ras-independent Notch protein accumulation and transcriptional activity in the lymph gland underlie multiple distinct hematopoietic phenotypes of Rabex-5 loss. Thus, Rabex-5 plays an important role in Drosophila hematopoiesis and might serve as an axis coordinating Ras and Notch signaling in the lymph gland. PMID:26567216

  20. Cloning and characterization of Hepp, a novel gene expressed preferentially in hematopoietic progenitors and mature blood cells.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, J M; Jing, X; Spassov, D S; Nachtman, R G; Jurecic, R

    2001-01-01

    Through differential screening of mouse hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and progenitor-subtracted cDNA libraries we have identified a progenitor cell-specific transcript that represents a novel gene, named Hepp (hematopoietic progenitor protein). The mouse Hepp gene encodes a protein of 237 amino acids with no detectable known functional domains or motifs. Lack of invertebrate orthologs and a high degree of evolutionary conservation of the peptide sequence in vertebrate species (zebrafish, mouse, human) suggest that the Hepp gene could have conserved although as yet unknown function in vertebrates. Mouse Hepp shows a restricted expression pattern in adult tissues and is transcribed at a very low level in heart, lung, spleen, and thymus and at a higher level in muscle. During embryonic hematopoiesis Hepp is not expressed in mouse fetal liver HSC (Sca-1(+)c-kit(+)AA4.1(+)Lin(-) cells), but is abundantly transcribed in the population of hematopoietic progenitors (AA4.1(-) cells). Similarly, during adult hematopoiesis Hepp is not transcribed in the highly enriched population of bone marrow HSC (Rh-123(low)Sca-1(+)c-kit(+)Lin(-) cells), but its expression is upregulated as a greater heterogeneous population of bone marrow HSC (Lin(-)Sca-1(+) cells) differentiates into progenitors (Lin(-)Sca-1(-) cells) and more mature lymphoid and myeloid cell types. A restricted pattern of expression in adult tissues and preferential expression in both fetal and adult hematopoietic progenitors and mature blood cells suggest that Hepp could be involved in molecular regulation of HSC and progenitor cell lineage commitment and differentiation. PMID:11482882

  1. Contrasting Roles for C/EBPα and Notch in Irradiation-Induced Multipotent Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Defects

    PubMed Central

    Fleenor, Courtney Jo; Rozhok, Andrii Ivan; Zaberezhnyy, Vadym; Mathew, Divij; Kim, Jihye; Tan, Aik-Choon; Bernstein, Irwin David; DeGregori, James

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is associated with reduced hematopoietic function and increased risk of hematopoietic malignancies, although the mechanisms behind these relationships remain poorly understood. Both effects of IR have been commonly attributed to the direct induction of DNA mutations, but evidence supporting these hypotheses is largely lacking. Here we demonstrate that IR causes long-term, somatically heritable, cell-intrinsic reductions in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cell (mHPC) self-renewal that are mediated by C/EBPα and reversed by Notch. mHPC from previously irradiated (>9 weeks prior), homeostatically restored mice exhibit gene expression profiles consistent with their precocious differentiation phenotype, including decreased expression of HSC-specific genes and increased expression of myeloid program genes (including C/EBPα). These gene expression changes are reversed by ligand-mediated activation of Notch. Loss of C/EBPα expression is selected for within previously irradiated HSC and mHPC pools, and is associated with reversal of IR-dependent precocious differentiation and restoration of self-renewal. Remarkably, restoration of mHPC self-renewal by ligand-mediated activation of Notch prevents selection for C/EBPα loss of function in previously irradiated mHPC pools. We propose that environmental insults prompt HSC to initiate a program limiting their self-renewal, leading to loss of the damaged HSC from the pool while allowing this HSC to temporarily contribute to differentiated cell pools. This “programmed mediocrity” is advantageous for the sporadic genotoxic insults animals have evolved to deal with, but becomes tumor promoting when the entire HSC compartment is damaged, such as during total body irradiation, by increasing selective pressure for adaptive oncogenic mutations. PMID:25546133

  2. CYTOMEGALOVIRUS PNEUMONIA IN HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL RECIPIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Travi, Giovanna; Pergam, Steven A

    2013-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a frequently encountered infection following hematopoietic cell transplantation, and tissue invasive pneumonia is a dreaded complication of the virus in this population. In this review of CMV pneumonia, we address epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics, current therapy and strategies to prevent the development of CMV disease. We also review emerging treatment and prevention options for this challenging disease. PMID:23753231

  3. Chronic variable stress activates hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Heidt, Timo; Sager, Hendrik B; Courties, Gabriel; Dutta, Partha; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Zaltsman, Alex; von Zur Muhlen, Constantin; Bode, Christoph; Fricchione, Gregory L; Denninger, John; Lin, Charles P; Vinegoni, Claudio; Libby, Peter; Swirski, Filip K; Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for many diseases, including atherosclerosis. Although incompletely understood, interaction between the psyche and the immune system provides one potential mechanism linking stress and disease inception and progression. Known cross-talk between the brain and immune system includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which centrally drives glucocorticoid production in the adrenal cortex, and the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis, which controls stress-induced catecholamine release in support of the fight-or-flight reflex. It remains unknown, however, whether chronic stress changes hematopoietic stem cell activity. Here we show that stress increases proliferation of these most primitive hematopoietic progenitors, giving rise to higher levels of disease-promoting inflammatory leukocytes. We found that chronic stress induced monocytosis and neutrophilia in humans. While investigating the source of leukocytosis in mice, we discovered that stress activates upstream hematopoietic stem cells. Under conditions of chronic variable stress in mice, sympathetic nerve fibers released surplus noradrenaline, which signaled bone marrow niche cells to decrease CXCL12 levels through the ?3-adrenergic receptor. Consequently, hematopoietic stem cell proliferation was elevated, leading to an increased output of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes. When atherosclerosis-prone Apoe(-/-) mice were subjected to chronic stress, accelerated hematopoiesis promoted plaque features associated with vulnerable lesions that cause myocardial infarction and stroke in humans. PMID:24952646

  4. OXIDANT-PRECURSOR RELATIONSHIPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    New methods of ambient air analysis were used to define more clearly the relationships between oxidants and their precursors. Non-methane hydrocarbons, NOx, O2, and oxidants were measured at the same time and location (Riverside, California). The ambient air data presented in thi...

  5. Untangling ENSO Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegion, K.; Alexander, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    There are several proposed precursors to the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) that may provide the ability to predict ENSO as much as one year in advance. Some of these precursors are associated with stochastic forcing from extratropical atmospheric variability. Two examples are the seasonal footprinting mechanism (SFM) and the Pacific meridional mode (PMM). Both of these ENSO precursors are thought to be forced by the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO), a north-south sea level pressure dipole in the north Pacific. Additionally, both the PMM and SFM are thought to impact the tropics through wind evaporation SST feedbacks and have a correlation with ENSO up to one year in advance. These two precursors are discussed interchangeably throughout the literature and various indices used to define them co-mingle them. As a result, whether they are independent of each other or are part of the same process has not been investigated. The research presented is focused on untangling the relationship between the PMM, SFM, NPO, and ENSO using observational datasets and model simulations. Observational results demonstrate that these two mechanisms are different, are forced by different atmospheric circulations, and result in different manifestations of ENSO. Modeling results highlight the extent to which climate models can simulate these relationships and their impact on the simulation of ENSO.

  6. t(6;9)(p22;q34)/DEK-NUP214-rearranged pediatric myeloid leukemia: an international study of 62 patients.

    PubMed

    Sandahl, Julie Damgaard; Coenen, Eva A; Forestier, Erik; Harbott, Jochen; Johansson, Bertil; Kerndrup, Gitte; Adachi, Souichi; Auvrignon, Anne; Beverloo, H Berna; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Chilton, Lucy; Fornerod, Maarten; de Haas, Valrie; Harrison, Christine J; Inaba, Hiroto; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Liang, Der-Cherng; Locatelli, Franco; Masetti, Riccardo; Perot, Christine; Raimondi, Susana C; Reinhardt, Katarina; Tomizawa, Daisuke; von Neuhoff, Nils; Zecca, Marco; Zwaan, C Michel; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Hasle, Henrik

    2014-05-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia with t(6;9)(p22;q34) is listed as a distinct entity in the 2008 World Health Organization classification, but little is known about the clinical implications of t(6;9)-positive myeloid leukemia in children. This international multicenter study presents the clinical and genetic characteristics of 62 pediatric patients with t(6;9)/DEK-NUP214-rearranged myeloid leukemia; 54 diagnosed as having acute myeloid leukemia, representing <1% of all childhood acute myeloid leukemia, and eight as having myelodysplastic syndrome. The t(6;9)/DEK-NUP214 was associated with relatively late onset (median age 10.4 years), male predominance (sex ratio 1.7), French-American-British M2 classification (54%), myelodysplasia (100%), and FLT3-ITD (42%). Outcome was substantially better than previously reported with a 5-year event-free survival of 32%, 5-year overall survival of 53%, and a 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse of 57%. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first complete remission improved the 5-year event-free survival compared with chemotherapy alone (68% versus 18%; P<0.01) but not the overall survival (68% versus 54%; P=0.48). The presence of FLT3-ITD had a non-significant negative effect on 5-year overall survival compared with non-mutated cases (22% versus 62%; P=0.13). Gene expression profiling showed a unique signature characterized by significantly higher expression of EYA3, SESN1, PRDM2/RIZ, and HIST2H4 genes. In conclusion, t(6;9)/DEK-NUP214 represents a unique subtype of acute myeloid leukemia with a high risk of relapse, high frequency of FLT3-ITD, and a specific gene expression signature. PMID:24441146

  7. t(6;9)(p22;q34)/DEK-NUP214-rearranged pediatric myeloid leukemia: an international study of 62 patients

    PubMed Central

    Sandahl, Julie Damgaard; Coenen, Eva A.; Forestier, Erik; Harbott, Jochen; Johansson, Bertil; Kerndrup, Gitte; Adachi, Souichi; Auvrignon, Anne; Beverloo, H. Berna; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Chilton, Lucy; Fornerod, Maarten; de Haas, Valrie; Harrison, Christine J.; Inaba, Hiroto; Kaspers, Gertjan J.L.; Liang, Der-Cherng; Locatelli, Franco; Masetti, Riccardo; Perot, Christine; Raimondi, Susana C.; Reinhardt, Katarina; Tomizawa, Daisuke; von Neuhoff, Nils; Zecca, Marco; Zwaan, C. Michel; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Hasle, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia with t(6;9)(p22;q34) is listed as a distinct entity in the 2008 World Health Organization classification, but little is known about the clinical implications of t(6;9)-positive myeloid leukemia in children. This international multicenter study presents the clinical and genetic characteristics of 62 pediatric patients with t(6;9)/DEK-NUP214-rearranged myeloid leukemia; 54 diagnosed as having acute myeloid leukemia, representing <1% of all childhood acute myeloid leukemia, and eight as having myelodysplastic syndrome. The t(6;9)/DEK-NUP214 was associated with relatively late onset (median age 10.4 years), male predominance (sex ratio 1.7), French-American-British M2 classification (54%), myelodysplasia (100%), and FLT3-ITD (42%). Outcome was substantially better than previously reported with a 5-year event-free survival of 32%, 5-year overall survival of 53%, and a 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse of 57%. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first complete remission improved the 5-year event-free survival compared with chemotherapy alone (68% versus 18%; P<0.01) but not the overall survival (68% versus 54%; P=0.48). The presence of FLT3-ITD had a non-significant negative effect on 5-year overall survival compared with non-mutated cases (22% versus 62%; P=0.13). Gene expression profiling showed a unique signature characterized by significantly higher expression of EYA3, SESN1, PRDM2/RIZ, and HIST2H4 genes. In conclusion, t(6;9)/DEK-NUP214 represents a unique subtype of acute myeloid leukemia with a high risk of relapse, high frequency of FLT3-ITD, and a specific gene expression signature. PMID:24441146

  8. A New Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells (TREM) Family Member, TLT-6, is Involved in Activation and Proliferation of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Won, Kyung-Jong; Park, Sung-Won; Lee, Seunghoon; Kong, Il-Keun; Chae, Jung-Il; Kim, Bokyung; Lee, Eun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    The triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) family, which is abundantly expressed in myeloid lineage cells, plays a pivotal role in innate and adaptive immune response. In this study, we aimed to identify a novel receptor expressed on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) by using in silico bioinformatics and to characterize the identified receptor. We thus found the TREM-like transcript (TLT)-6, a new member of TREM family. TLT-6 has a single immunoglobulin domain in the extracellular region and a long cytoplasmic region containing 2 immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-like domains. TLT-6 transcript was expressed in HSCs, monocytes and macrophages. TLT-6 protein was up-regulated on the surface of bone marrow-derived and peritoneal macrophages by lipopolysaccharide stimulation. TLT-6 exerted anti-proliferative effects in macrophages. Our results demonstrate that TLT-6 may regulate the activation and proliferation of macrophages. PMID:26557807

  9. Extramedullary blast crisis as initial presentation in chronic myeloid leukemia with the e1a2 BCR-ABL1 transcript: A case report

    PubMed Central

    AI, DI; LIU, WEI; LU, GARY; PATEL, KEYUR PRAVINCHANDRA; CHEN, ZI

    2015-01-01

    A 23-year-old woman presented with enlarged right inguinal lymph nodes. The pathological examination of the nodes revealed infiltration by myeloid sarcoma. A bone marrow smear and biopsy revealed cytogenetic abnormalities, with 46,XX,t(9;22) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was diagnosed. The e1a2 BCR-ABL1 fusion transcript was detected. The patient received imatinib-based combined chemotherapy, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, donor lymphocyte infusions and dasatinib treatment. The patient achieved complete response and has remained leukemia-free for >48 months. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of CML with the e1a2 BCR-ABL1 transcript, with extramedullary blast crisis as the initial presentation. The aim of the present study was to discuss this special case with reference to the literature. PMID:26807241

  10. Role of calcium-dependent protein kinases in chronic myeloid leukemia: combined effects of PKC and BCR-ABL signaling on cellular alterations during leukemia development

    PubMed Central

    Mencalha, André L; Corrêa, Stephany; Abdelhay, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (PKCs) function in a myriad of cellular processes, including cell-cycle regulation, proliferation, hematopoietic stem cell differentiation, apoptosis, and malignant transformation. PKC inhibitors, when targeted to these pathways, have demonstrated efficacy against several types of solid tumors as well as leukemia. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) represents 20% of all adult leukemia. The aberrant Philadelphia chromosome has been reported as the main cause of CML development in hematopoietic stem cells, due to the formation of the BCR-ABL oncogene. PKCs and BCR-ABL coordinate several signaling pathways that are crucial to cellular malignant transformation. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that pharmacological approaches using PKC inhibitors may be effective in the treatment of CML. This mini review summarizes articles from the National Center for Biotechnology Information website that have