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1

Tfe3 expression is closely associated to macrophage terminal differentiation of human hematopoietic myeloid precursors  

SciTech Connect

The MItf-Tfe family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors encodes four family members: MItf, Tfe3, TfeB and TfeC. In vitro, each protein of the family binds DNA in a homo- or heterodimeric form with other family members. Tfe3 is involved in chromosomal translocations recurrent in different tumors and it has been demonstrated, by in vivo studies, that it plays, redundantly with MItf, an important role in the process of osteoclast formation, in particular during the transition from mono-nucleated to multi-nucleated osteoclasts. Since mono-nucleated osteoclasts derive from macrophages we investigated whether Tfe3 might play a role upstream during hematopoietic differentiation. Here we show that Tfe3 is able to induce mono-macrophagic differentiation of U937 cells, in association with a decrease of cell proliferation and an increase of apoptosis. We also show that Tfe3 does not act physiologically during commitment of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), since it is not able to direct HSCs toward a specific lineage as observed by clonogenic assay, but is a strong actor of terminal differentiation since it allows human primary myeloblasts' maturation toward the macrophage lineage.

Zanocco-Marani, Tommaso [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy); Vignudelli, Tatiana [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy); Gemelli, Claudia [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy); Pirondi, Sara [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy); Testa, Anna [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy); Montanari, Monica [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy); Parenti, Sandra [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy); Tenedini, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy); Grande, Alexis [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy); Ferrari, Sergio [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy)]. E-mail: sergio@unimo.it

2006-12-10

2

The Hematopoietic Differentiation and Production of Mature Myeloid Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Here we describe a protocol for hematopoietic differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and generation of mature myeloid cells from hPSCs through expansion and differentiation of hPSC-derived lin-CD34+CD43+CD45+ multipotent progenitors. The protocol is comprised of three major steps: (i) induction of hematopoietic differentiation by coculture of hPSCs with OP9 bone marrow stromal cells, (ii) short-term expansion of multipotent myeloid progenitors with a high dose of GM-CSF, and (iii) directed differentiation of myeloid progenitors into neutrophils, eosinophils, dendritic cells (DCs), Langerhans cells (LCs), macrophages, and osteoclasts. The generation of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors from hPSCs requires 9 days of culture, and an additional 2 days are needed to expand myeloid progenitors. Differentiation of myeloid progenitors into mature myeloid cells requires an additional 5–19 days of culture with cytokines, depending on the cell type. PMID:21372811

Choi, Kyung-Dal; Vodyanik, Maxim; Slukvin, Igor I.

2011-01-01

3

Hematopoietic reconstitution by multipotent adult progenitor cells: precursors to long-term hematopoietic stem cells  

PubMed Central

For decades, in vitro expansion of transplantable hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) has been an elusive goal. Here, we demonstrate that multipotent adult progenitor cells (MAPCs), isolated from green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic mice and expanded in vitro for >40–80 population doublings, are capable of multilineage hematopoietic engraftment of immunodeficient mice. Among MAPC-derived GFP+CD45.2+ cells in the bone marrow of engrafted mice, HSCs were present that could radioprotect and reconstitute multilineage hematopoiesis in secondary and tertiary recipients, as well as myeloid and lymphoid hematopoietic progenitor subsets and functional GFP+ MAPC-derived lymphocytes that were functional. Although hematopoietic contribution by MAPCs was comparable to control KTLS HSCs, approximately 103-fold more MAPCs were required for efficient engraftment. Because GFP+ host-derived CD45.1+ cells were not observed, fusion is not likely to account for the generation of HSCs by MAPCs. PMID:17227908

Serafini, Marta; Dylla, Scott J.; Oki, Masayuki; Heremans, Yves; Tolar, Jakub; Jiang, Yuehua; Buckley, Shannon M.; Pelacho, Beatriz; Burns, Terry C.; Frommer, Sarah; Rossi, Derrick J.; Bryder, David; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela; O'Shaughnessy, Matthew J.; Nelson-Holte, Molly; Fine, Gabriel C.; Weissman, Irving L.; Blazar, Bruce R.; Verfaillie, Catherine M.

2007-01-01

4

Inflammatory arthritis increases mouse osteoclast precursors with myeloid suppressor function  

PubMed Central

Increased osteoclastic bone resorption leads to periarticular erosions and systemic osteoporosis in RA patients. Although a great deal is known about how osteoclasts differentiate from precursors and resorb bone, the identity of an osteoclast precursor (OCP) population in vivo and its regulatory role in RA remains elusive. Here, we report the identification of a CD11b–/loLy6Chi BM population with OCP activity in vitro and in vivo. These cells, which can be distinguished from previously characterized precursors in the myeloid lineage, display features of both M1 and M2 monocytes and expand in inflammatory arthritis models. Surprisingly, in one mouse model of RA (adoptive transfer of SKG arthritis), cotransfer of OCP with SKG CD4+ T cells diminished inflammatory arthritis. Similar to monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs), OCPs suppressed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro through the production of NO. This study identifies a BM myeloid precursor population with osteoclastic and T cell–suppressive activity that is expanded in inflammatory arthritis. Therapeutic strategies that prevent the development of OCPs into mature bone-resorbing cells could simultaneously prevent bone resorption and generate an antiinflammatory milieu in the RA joint. PMID:23114597

Charles, Julia F.; Hsu, Lih-Yun; Niemi, Erene C.; Weiss, Arthur; Aliprantis, Antonios O.; Nakamura, Mary C.

2012-01-01

5

Vav promotes differentiation of human tumoral myeloid precursors  

SciTech Connect

Vav is one of the genetic markers that correlate with the differentiation of hematopoietic cells. In T and B cells, it appears crucial for both development and functions, while, in non-lymphoid hematopoietic cells, Vav seems not involved in cell maturation, but rather in the response of mature cells to agonist-dependent proliferation and phagocytosis. We have previously demonstrated that the amount and the tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav are up-regulated in both whole cells and nuclei of tumoral promyelocytes induced to granulocytic maturation by ATRA and that tyrosine-phosphorylated Vav does not display any ATRA-induced GEF activity but contributes to the regulation of PI 3-K activity. In this study, we report that Vav accumulates in nuclei of ATRA-treated APL-derived cells and that the down-modulation of Vav prevents differentiation of tumoral promyelocytes, indicating that it is a key molecule in ATRA-dependent myeloid maturation. On the other hand, the overexpression of Vav induces an increased expression of surface markers of granulocytic differentiation without affecting the maturation-related changes of the nuclear morphology. Consistent with an effect of Vav on the transcriptional machinery, array profiling shows that the inhibition of the Syk-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav reduces the number of ATRA-induced genes. Our data support the unprecedented notion that Vav plays crucial functions in the maturation process of myeloid cells, and suggest that Vav can be regarded as a potential target for the therapeutic treatment of myeloproliferative disorders.

Bertagnolo, Valeria [Signal Transduction Unit-Laboratory of Cell Biology, Section of Human Anatomy, Department of Morphology and Embryology, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara, 66, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Brugnoli, Federica [Signal Transduction Unit-Laboratory of Cell Biology, Section of Human Anatomy, Department of Morphology and Embryology, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara, 66, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Mischiati, Carlo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ferrara (Italy); Sereni, Alessia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ferrara (Italy); Bavelloni, Alberto [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Electron Microscopy, IOR, Bologna (Italy); Carini, Cinzia [Signal Transduction Unit-Laboratory of Cell Biology, Section of Human Anatomy, Department of Morphology and Embryology, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara, 66, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Capitani, Silvano [Signal Transduction Unit-Laboratory of Cell Biology, Section of Human Anatomy, Department of Morphology and Embryology, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara, 66, 44100 Ferrara (Italy) and MIUR ICSI, Interdisciplinary Center for the Study of Inflammation, University of Ferrara (Italy)]. E-mail: cps@unife.it

2005-05-15

6

Characterization of the Murine Myeloid Precursor Cell Line MuMac-E8  

PubMed Central

Starting point for the present work was the assumption that the cell line MuMac-E8 represents a murine cell population with stem cell properties. Preliminary studies already pointed to the expression of stem-cell associated markers and a self-regenerative potential of the cells. The cell line MuMac-E8 should be examined for their differential stage within stem cell hierarchy. MuMac-E8 cells were derived from a chimeric mouse model of arthritis. It could be shown that MuMac-E8 cells express mRNA of some genes associated with pluripotent stem cells (Nanog, Nucleostemin), of genes for hematopoietic markers (EPCR, Sca-1, CD11b, CD45), for the mesenchymal marker CD105 and of genes for the neural markers Pax-6 and Ezrin. In methylcellulose and May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining, hematopoietic colonies were obtained but the hematopoietic system of lethally irradiated mice could not be rescued. Osteogenic differentiation was not detectable. Thus, it became evident that MuMac-E8 represents not a stem cell line. However, MuMac-E8 cells expressed several myeloid surface markers (i.e. CD11b, F4/80, CD14, CD64), showed phagocytosis and is capable of producing nitric oxide. Thus, this cell line seems to be arrested an advanced stage of myeloid differentiation. Adherence data measured by impedance-based real-time cell analysis together with cell morphology data suggested that MuMac-E8 represents a new macrophage precursor cell line exhibiting weak adherence. This cell line is suitable as an in-vitro model for testing of macrophage functions. Moreover, it might be also useful for differentiation or reprogramming studies. PMID:25546418

Fricke, Stephan; Riemschneider, Sina; Kohlschmidt, Janine; Hilger, Nadja; Fueldner, Christiane; Knauer, Jens; Sack, Ulrich; Emmrich, Frank; Lehmann, Jörg

2014-01-01

7

Hematopoietic myeloid cell differentiation diminishes nucleotide excision repair.  

PubMed

Myeloid cell differentiation is the process by which stem cells develop into mature monocytes or granulocytes. This process is achieved by the sequential activation of variety of genes. Disruption of this process can result in immunodeficiency, bone marrow failure syndrome, or leukemia. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by the t(15;17) translocation and can be treated by a combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracycline. This treatment can induce leukemic cell differentiation, leading to extremely high remission rates. XAB2, a molecule involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER), is downregulated during granulocyte differentiation and shows reduced expression in NB4 APL-derived cells in vitro. Differentiation of APL by ATRA treatment reduced XAB2 expression levels in vivo. These observations suggest that cellular differentiation is associated with reduced NER activity and provides new insights into combined differentiation induction. NB4 cells were more susceptible than the immature myeloid leukemic cell lines, Kasumi-3 and Kasumi-1, to the DNA interstrand crosslinking agent cisplatin. PMID:25027282

Aoki, Yuki; Sato, Ayako; Mizutani, Shuki; Takagi, Masatoshi

2014-09-01

8

The AML1/ETO target gene LAT2 interferes with differentiation of normal hematopoietic precursor cells  

PubMed Central

The adaptor protein linker activator of T-cells 2 (LAT2) is a known AML1/ETO target gene whose function during normal hematopoiesis is unknown. We addressed the role of LAT2 during erythroid and myeloid differentiation of normal human CD34+ hematopoietic cells. LAT2 is expressed at low levels in CD34+ cells and upregulated during cytokine-induced myeloid and erythroid differentiation. Forced LAT2 expression leads to a delay of erythroid and myeloid differentiation keeping CD34+ cells in a more immature state, whereas LAT2 knockdown accelerates differentiation. It is tempting to speculate that by affecting the differentiation capacity of normal hematopoietic progenitors, LAT2 may contribute to the pathogenesis of AML. PMID:24456692

Essig, Aitomi; Duque-Afonso, Jesus; Schwemmers, Sven; Pahl, Heike L.; Lübbert, Michael

2014-01-01

9

The AML1/ETO target gene LAT2 interferes with differentiation of normal hematopoietic precursor cells.  

PubMed

The adaptor protein linker activator of T-cells 2 (LAT2) is a known AML1/ETO target gene whose function during normal hematopoiesis is unknown. We addressed the role of LAT2 during erythroid and myeloid differentiation of normal human CD34+ hematopoietic cells. LAT2 is expressed at low levels in CD34+ cells and upregulated during cytokine-induced myeloid and erythroid differentiation. Forced LAT2 expression leads to a delay of erythroid and myeloid differentiation keeping CD34+ cells in a more immature state, whereas LAT2 knockdown accelerates differentiation. It is tempting to speculate that by affecting the differentiation capacity of normal hematopoietic progenitors, LAT2 may contribute to the pathogenesis of AML. PMID:24456692

Essig, Aitomi; Duque-Afonso, Jesus; Schwemmers, Sven; Pahl, Heike L; Lübbert, Michael

2014-03-01

10

Neoplastic meningitis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia scheduled for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

We analyzed the frequency of neoplastic meningitis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at our institution. Between 1996 and 2009, cerebrospinal fluid samples of 204 adult patients were examined during pre-transplant work-up for cell counts and, if abnormal, morphologically. We found blasts in cerebrospinal fluid samples of 17 patients with either persistent (n=9) or newly diagnosed (n=8) neoplastic meningitis. All patients proceeded to transplant. The proportion of patients with central nervous system involvement was significantly higher in patients with refractory disease at the time of transplantation compared with patients responding to prior systemic therapy (19% vs. 4.6%; P=0.003). Since most of the patients with central nervous system involvement were asymptomatic, cerebrospinal fluid evaluation should be considered at least in patients with refractory acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:20663946

Bommer, Martin; von Harsdorf, Stephanie; Döhner, Hartmut; Bunjes, Donald; Ringhoffer, Mark

2010-11-01

11

Neoplastic meningitis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia scheduled for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

We analyzed the frequency of neoplastic meningitis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at our institution. Between 1996 and 2009, cerebrospinal fluid samples of 204 adult patients were examined during pre-transplant work-up for cell counts and, if abnormal, morphologically. We found blasts in cerebrospinal fluid samples of 17 patients with either persistent (n=9) or newly diagnosed (n=8) neoplastic meningitis. All patients proceeded to transplant. The proportion of patients with central nervous system involvement was significantly higher in patients with refractory disease at the time of transplantation compared with patients responding to prior systemic therapy (19% vs. 4.6%; P=0.003). Since most of the patients with central nervous system involvement were asymptomatic, cerebrospinal fluid evaluation should be considered at least in patients with refractory acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:20663946

Bommer, Martin; von Harsdorf, Stephanie; Döhner, Hartmut; Bunjes, Donald; Ringhoffer, Mark

2010-01-01

12

Secondary Philadelphia chromosome and erythrophagocytosis in a relapsed acute myeloid leukemia after hematopoietic cell transplantation.  

PubMed

The acquisition of the Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) as a secondary change during the course of hematopoietic malignancies is rare and is associated with poor prognosis. Few cases of secondary Ph have been reported after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). A secondary Ph at relapse is of clinical importance because it provides a therapeutic target for tyrosine kinase inhibitors along with or in replacement of chemotherapy. We describe a case of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after HCT that developed a BCR-ABL1 translocation along with erythrophagocytosis by blasts as a secondary change at the time of relapse. The progression of this patient's myeloid neoplasm from myelodysplastic syndrome to AML to relapsed AML after HCT was accompanied by a stepwise cytogenetic evolution: A deletion 20q abnormality subsequently acquired a deletion 7q and, finally, at relapse after HCT, a secondary Ph was gained. The relationship between the secondary Ph and the erythrophagocytosis by blasts is not clear. We review the possible pathogenesis and cytogenetic associations of erythrophagocytosis by blasts, a rare feature in acute leukemias. PMID:25074248

Kelemen, Katalin; Galani, Komal; Conley, Christopher R; Greipp, Patricia T

2014-06-01

13

Generation of hematopoietic progenitor cell lines with myeloid and lymphoid potential  

PubMed Central

Investigation of immune cell differentiation and function is limited by shortcomings of suitable and scalable experimental systems. Here we show that an estrogen–regulated form of HOXB8 that is retrovirally delivered into mouse bone marrow cells can be used along with FLT3 ligand to conditionally immortalize early hematopoietic progenitor cells (Hoxb8–FL). Hoxb8–FL cells have lost self–renewal capacity and megakaryocyte/ erythroid lineage potential, but sustain myeloid and lymphoid potential. Hoxb8–FL cells differentiate in vitro and in vivo into different myeloid and lymphoid cell types, including macrophages, granulocytes, dendritic cells and B– and T–lymphocytes, which are phenotypically and functionally indistinguishable from their primary counterparts. Quantitative in vitro cell lineage potential assays implicate that myeloid and B–cell potential of Hoxb8–FL cells is comparable to primary lymphoid–primed multipotent progenitors, while T–cell potential is comparatively reduced. Given the simplicity and unlimited proliferative capacity of Hoxb8–FL cells, this system provides unique opportunities to investigate cell differentiation and immune cell functions. PMID:23749299

Redecke, Vanessa; Wu, Ruiqiong; Zhou, Jingran; Finkelstein, David; Chaturvedi, Vandana; High, Anthony A.; Häcker, Hans

2013-01-01

14

The ecology in the hematopoietic stem cell niche determines the clinical outcome in chronic myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a blood disease that disrupts normal function of the hematopoietic system. Despite the great progress made in terms of molecular therapies for CML, there remain large gaps in our understanding. By comparing mathematical models that describe CML progression and etiology we sought to identify those models that provide the best description of disease dynamics and their underlying mechanisms. Data for two clinical outcomes--disease remission or relapse--are considered, and we investigate these using Bayesian inference techniques throughout. We find that it is not possible to choose between the models based on fits to the data alone; however, by studying model predictions we can discard models that fail to take niche effects into account. More detailed analysis of the remaining models reveals mechanistic differences: for one model, leukemia stem cell dynamics determine the disease outcome; and for the other model disease progression is determined at the stage of progenitor cells, in particular by differences in progenitor death rates. This analysis also reveals distinct transient dynamics that will be experimentally accessible, but are currently at the limits of what is possible to measure. To resolve these differences we need to be able to probe the hematopoietic stem cell niche directly. Our analysis highlights the importance of further mapping of the bone marrow hematopoietic niche microenvironment as the "ecological" interactions between cells in this niche appear to be intricately linked to disease outcome. PMID:24567385

MacLean, Adam L; Filippi, Sarah; Stumpf, Michael P H

2014-03-11

15

(Lymph)angiogenic influences on hematopoietic cells in acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the effect of (lymph)angiogenic cytokines on hematopoietic cells involved in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Like angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis occurs in pathophysiological conditions but not in healthy adults. AML is closely associated with the vasculature system, and the interplay between lymphangiogenic cytokines maintains leukemic blast survival in the bone marrow (BM). Once AML is induced, proangiogenic cytokines function as angiogenic or lymphangiogenic factors and affect hematopoietic cells, including BM-derived immune cells. Simultaneously, the representative cytokines, VEGFs and their receptors are expressed on AML blasts in vascular and osteoblast niches in both the BM and the peripheral circulation. After exposure to (lymph)angiogenic cytokines in leukemogenesis and infiltration, immune cell phenotypes and functions are affected. These dynamic behaviors in the BM reflect the clinical features of AML. In this review, we note the importance of lymphangiogenic factors and their receptors in hematopoietic cells in AML. Understanding the functional characterization of (lymph)angiogenic factors in the BM niche in AML will also be helpful in interrupting the engraftment of leukemic stem cells and for enhancing immune cell function by modulating the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25412683

Lee, Ji Yoon; Kim, Hee-Je

2014-01-01

16

(Lymph)angiogenic influences on hematopoietic cells in acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the effect of (lymph)angiogenic cytokines on hematopoietic cells involved in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Like angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis occurs in pathophysiological conditions but not in healthy adults. AML is closely associated with the vasculature system, and the interplay between lymphangiogenic cytokines maintains leukemic blast survival in the bone marrow (BM). Once AML is induced, proangiogenic cytokines function as angiogenic or lymphangiogenic factors and affect hematopoietic cells, including BM-derived immune cells. Simultaneously, the representative cytokines, VEGFs and their receptors are expressed on AML blasts in vascular and osteoblast niches in both the BM and the peripheral circulation. After exposure to (lymph)angiogenic cytokines in leukemogenesis and infiltration, immune cell phenotypes and functions are affected. These dynamic behaviors in the BM reflect the clinical features of AML. In this review, we note the importance of lymphangiogenic factors and their receptors in hematopoietic cells in AML. Understanding the functional characterization of (lymph)angiogenic factors in the BM niche in AML will also be helpful in interrupting the engraftment of leukemic stem cells and for enhancing immune cell function by modulating the tumor microenvironment. PMID:25412683

Lee, Ji Yoon; Kim, Hee-Je

2014-01-01

17

Clonal evolution of pre-leukemic hematopoietic stem cells precedes human acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Massively parallel DNA sequencing has uncovered recurrent mutations in many human cancers. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cancer genome/exome resequencing has identified numerous recurrently mutated genes with an average of 5 mutations in each case of de novo AML. In order for these multiple mutations to accumulate in a single lineage of cells, they are serially acquired in clones of self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), termed pre-leukemic HSC. Isolation and characterization of pre-leukemic HSC have shown that their mutations are enriched in genes involved in regulating DNA methylation, chromatin modifications, and the cohesin complex. On the other hand, genes involved in regulating activated signaling are generally absent. Pre-leukemic HSC have been found to persist in clinical remission and may ultimately give rise to relapsed disease through the acquisition of novel mutations. Thus, pre-leukemic HSC may constitute a key cellular reservoir that must be eradicated for long-term cures. PMID:25455271

Majeti, Ravindra

18

Echinomycin protects mice against relapsed acute myeloid leukemia without adverse effect on hematopoietic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) often relapses following chemotherapy-induced remission and is generally chemo-resistant. Given the potential role for cancer stem cells in relapse, targeting of the leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) in AML may provide improved outcome following remission induction. However, due to overlap in their self-renewal program with normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), therapeutic targeting of the LIC may have an adverse effect on long-term hematopoietic recovery. Here we used a mouse model of relapsed AML to explore whether the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1? inhibitor echinomycin can be used to treat relapsed AML without affecting host HSCs. We show that echinomycin cured 40% to 60% of mice transplanted with relapsed AML. Bone marrow cells from the cured mice displayed normal composition of HSCs and their progenitors and were as competent as those isolated from nonleukemic mice in competitive repopulation assays. Importantly, in mice with complete remission, echinomycin appeared to completely eliminate LICs because no leukemia could be propagated in vivo following serial transplantation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that in a mouse model of relapsed AML, low-dose echinomycin selectively targets LICs and spares normal hematopoiesis. PMID:24994068

Wang, Yin; Liu, Yan; Tang, Fei; Bernot, Kelsie M.; Schore, Reuven; Marcucci, Guido

2014-01-01

19

Hematopoietic cell crisis: An early stage of evolving myeloid leukemia following radiation exposure  

SciTech Connect

Under select radiological conditions, chronic radiation exposure elicits a high incidence of myeloproliferative disease, principally myeloid leukemia (ML), in beagles. Previously we demonstrated that for full ML expression, a four-stage preclinical sequence is required, namely (1) suppression, (2) recovery, (3) accommodation, and (4) preleukemic transition. Within this pathological sequence, a critical early event has been identified as the acquisition of radioresistance by hematopoietic progenitors that serves to mediate a newfound regenerative hematopoietic capacity. As such, this event sets the stage'' for preleukemic progression by initiating progression from preclinical phase 1 to 2. Due to the nature of target cell suppression, the induction of crisis, and the outgrowth of progenitors with altered phenotypes, this preleukemic event resembles the immortalization'' step of the in vitro transformation sequence following induction with either physical and chemical carcinogens. The radiological, temporal, and biological dictates governing this event have been extensively evaluated and will be discussed in light of their role in the induction and progression of chronic radiation leukemia. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

Seed, T.M.

1990-01-01

20

HoxB4 Confers Definitive Lymphoid-Myeloid Engraftment Potential on Embryonic Stem Cell and Yolk Sac Hematopoietic Progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which primitive embryonic blood progenitors contribute to definitive lymphoid-myeloid hematopoiesis in the adult remains uncertain. In an effort to characterize factors that distinguish the definitive adult hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and primitive progenitors derived from yolk sac or embryonic stem (ES) cells, we examined the effect of ectopic expression of HoxB4, a homeotic selector gene implicated in

Michael Kyba; Rita C. R. Perlingeiro; George Q. Daley

2002-01-01

21

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant for acute myeloid leukemia: Current state in 2013 and future directions.  

PubMed

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) represents a heterogeneous group of high-grade myeloid neoplasms of the elderly with variable outcomes. Though remission-induction is an important first step in the management of AML, additional treatment strategies are essential to ensure long-term disease-free survival. Recent pivotal advances in understanding the genetics and molecular biology of AML have allowed for a risk-adapted approach in its management based on relapse-risk. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) represents an effective therapeutic strategy in AML providing the possibility of cure with potent graft-versus-leukemia reactions, with a demonstrable survival advantage in younger patients with intermediate- or poor-risk cytogenetics. Herein we review the published data regarding the role of allo-HCT in adults with AML. We searched MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE/Ovid. In addition, we searched reference lists of relevant articles, conference proceedings and ongoing trial databases. We discuss the role of allo-HCT in AML patients stratified by cytogenetic- and molecular-risk in first complete remission, as well as allo-HCT as an option in relapsed/refractory AML. Besides the conventional sibling and unrelated donor allografts, we review the available data and recent advances for alternative donor sources such as haploidentical grafts and umbilical cord blood. We also discuss conditioning regimens, including reduced intensity conditioning which has broadened the applicability of allo-HCT. Finally we explore recent advances and future possibilities and directions of allo-HCT in AML. Practical therapeutic recommendations have been made where possible based on available data and expert opinion. PMID:24772235

Kanate, Abraham S; Pasquini, Marcelo C; Hari, Parameswaran N; Hamadani, Mehdi

2014-04-26

22

Patterns of hematopoietic lineage involvement in children with neurofibromatosis type 1 and malignant myeloid disorders.  

PubMed

Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are at increased risk of developing malignant myeloid disorders, particularly juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia/juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JCML/JMML). We investigated bone marrows from 11 such patients (8 boys and 3 girls) and detected allelic losses at the NF1 locus in 4 of them and probable losses in 2 others. To determine which hematopoietic cell lineages were derived from the abnormal clones, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed cell lines and CD34+ cells were analyzed from 3 children with JCML with allelic losses in unfractionated marrow. CD34 cells from these 3 patients lacked the normal NF1 allele, whereas EBV cell lines retained it. Erythroblasts plucked from the burst-forming unit-erythroid colonies of one of these children lacked the normal NF1 allele. We also studied a 10-month-old boy with NF1 who developed an unusual myeloproliferative syndrome. His bone marrow and EBV cell line both showed loss of the normal NF1 allele. In our series and in the literature, male sex and maternal transmission of NF1 were associated with the highest risk of myeloid leukemia. These data (1) provide strong genetic evidence that NF1 functions as a tumor-suppressor in early myelopoiesis, (2) confirm the clonal nature of JCML/JMML, (3) suggest that the elevation in fetal hemoglobin seen in JCML/JMML is a result of primary involvement of erythroid progenitors in the malignant clone, (4) show consistent loss of NF1 in the CD34 cells of affected children and show that the malignant clone may also give rise to pre-B cells in some cases, and (5) implicate epigenetic factors in the development of leukemia in children with NF1. PMID:8943868

Miles, D K; Freedman, M H; Stephens, K; Pallavicini, M; Sievers, E L; Weaver, M; Grunberger, T; Thompson, P; Shannon, K M

1996-12-01

23

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant for acute myeloid leukemia: Current state in 2013 and future directions  

PubMed Central

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) represents a heterogeneous group of high-grade myeloid neoplasms of the elderly with variable outcomes. Though remission-induction is an important first step in the management of AML, additional treatment strategies are essential to ensure long-term disease-free survival. Recent pivotal advances in understanding the genetics and molecular biology of AML have allowed for a risk-adapted approach in its management based on relapse-risk. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) represents an effective therapeutic strategy in AML providing the possibility of cure with potent graft-versus-leukemia reactions, with a demonstrable survival advantage in younger patients with intermediate- or poor-risk cytogenetics. Herein we review the published data regarding the role of allo-HCT in adults with AML. We searched MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE/Ovid. In addition, we searched reference lists of relevant articles, conference proceedings and ongoing trial databases. We discuss the role of allo-HCT in AML patients stratified by cytogenetic- and molecular-risk in first complete remission, as well as allo-HCT as an option in relapsed/refractory AML. Besides the conventional sibling and unrelated donor allografts, we review the available data and recent advances for alternative donor sources such as haploidentical grafts and umbilical cord blood. We also discuss conditioning regimens, including reduced intensity conditioning which has broadened the applicability of allo-HCT. Finally we explore recent advances and future possibilities and directions of allo-HCT in AML. Practical therapeutic recommendations have been made where possible based on available data and expert opinion. PMID:24772235

Kanate, Abraham S; Pasquini, Marcelo C; Hari, Parameswaran N; Hamadani, Mehdi

2014-01-01

24

Therapy-related myeloid neoplasms after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in lymphoma patients  

PubMed Central

Lymphoma patients treated with autologous transplantation (ASCT) live an increasingly long life with the recent advancement in therapeutic modalities. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MN), which is one of the leading causes of non-relapse mortality. Several observational studies have linked the development of t-MN after ASCT with the intensity and frequency of chemotherapy, particularly alkylating agents, use of total body irradiation (TBI), and peripheral blood progenitor cells. In addition, role of genetic factors is increasingly being identified. It is postulated that the use of chemotherapy prior to ASCT results in DNA damage of progenitor cells, mitochondrial dysfunction, and altered gene expression related to DNA repair, metabolism as well as hematopoietic regulation. Cytogenetic studies have shown the presence of abnormalities in the peripheral blood progenitor cells prior to ASCT. It is, therefore, likely that the reinfusion of peripheral blood progenitor cells, proliferative stress on infused progenitor cells during hematopoietic regeneration and associated telomere shortening ultimately result in clonal hematopoiesis and blastic transformation. Cytopenias, myelodysplasia, or cytogenetic abnormalities are common and can be transient after ASCT; therefore, only when present together, they do confirm the diagnosis of t-MN. Attempts to reduce the occurrence of t-MN should be directed toward minimizing the exposure to the identified risk factors. Although the median survival is few months to less than a year, studies have shown the promising role of allogeneic transplantation in select young t-MN patients without high-risk cytogenetics. In this review we will explain the recent findings in the field of t-MN in lymphoma patients that have implications for identifying the molecular and genetic mechanisms of leukemogenesis and discuss potential strategies to reduce the risk of t-MN in this patient population. PMID:24025414

Akhtari, Mojtaba; Bhatt, Vijaya Raj; Tandra, Pavan Kumar; Krishnamurthy, Jairam; Horstman, Heidi; Dreessen, Amy; Chen, Pei Xian; Armitage, James O

2013-01-01

25

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia when a matched related donor is not available.  

PubMed

Although for many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from a matched related donor provides the best, and sometimes the sole chance for cure, only about 30% of individuals have HLA-matched family members. Fortunately, recent advances on a number of fronts have expanded the acceptable donor pool. With the use of high-resolution typing, HCT outcomes using unrelated donors matched at HLA-A, -B, -C and -DRB1 give results very similar to those expected with matched related donors. A single mismatch, as determined either by low- or high-resolution testing, results in modestly worse outcomes, with mismatches at B or C better tolerated than mismatches at A or DRB1. Initial results of umbilical cord blood transplantation for adults showed a clear association of cell dose and outcome, limiting the procedure to a minority of adults where cord bloods with at least 2.5 or 3x10(7) total nucleated cells/kg could be found. More recently, the use of double cord transplants has shown considerable promise, lowering the risk of graft rejection and possibly the risk of relapse as well. Haploidentical transplantation using T-cell-replete marrow and post-transplant high-dose cyclophosphamide, or T-cell-depleted peripheral blood and marrow containing high doses of CD34+ cells is under investigation. Together, these various approaches are broadening the transplant options for patients with AML. PMID:19074118

Appelbaum, Frederick R

2008-01-01

26

Risk Assessment before Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Older Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) most commonly affects patients older than 60 years. Outcomes of treatment of older AML patients have been poor. The advent of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens made allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) an available treatment option with curative intent for older AML patients. Because older patients are often excluded from clinical trials, little is known about the stratification of their risks before allogeneic HCT. While recent studies of RIC and allogeneic HCT have shown little impact of age on outcomes, other variables such as the recipient health status and the AML disease status and chromosomal aberrations have proven to be of prognostic significance. Here, we review recent studies of allogeneic HCT for older patients with AML with detailed evaluation of risk factors for relapse as well as non-relapse mortality. We have integrated the currently available information on transplant risks into a five-category risk-benefit system that could aid in the decision-making in this patient population. PMID:24083472

Sorror, Mohamed L.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.

2013-01-01

27

Central nervous system involvement in acute myeloid leukemia patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Knowledge regarding the rate of central nervous system (CNS) involvement and risk factors for its development in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are limited. In this study we retrospectively evaluated CNS involvement in 327 patients who underwent myeloablative HCT at our institute in which all patients have cerebrospinal fluid examined by morphology or flow cytometry before HCT. Twenty-two patients (7%) had CNS AML involvement at pre-HCT evaluation. Covariates associated with such involvement were higher WBC at diagnosis, prior CNS or other extramedullary disease, and evidence of systemic disease at pre-HCT evaluation. History of prior CNS disease and disease status at pre-HCT evaluation allowed stratification of patients into 3 risk groups: 35% (20 patients), 16% (51 patients), and 3% (256 patients) rates of pre-HCT CNS involvement. Treatment of pre-HCT CNS disease was uniformly successful regardless of whether cranial irradiation therapy was used. Perhaps as a result, presence of CNS pre-HCT had no independent influence on post-HCT outcome, which was primarily influenced by status of systemic disease at time of HCT. PMID:25545726

Bar, Merav; Tong, Weigang; Othus, Megan; Loeb, Keith R; Estey, Elihu H

2015-03-01

28

Acute myeloid leukemia does not deplete normal hematopoietic stem cells but induces cytopenias by impeding their differentiation.  

PubMed

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induces bone marrow (BM) failure in patients, predisposing them to life-threatening infections and bleeding. The mechanism by which AML mediates this complication is unknown but one widely accepted explanation is that AML depletes the BM of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) through displacement. We sought to investigate how AML affects hematopoiesis by quantifying residual normal hematopoietic subpopulations in the BM of immunodeficient mice transplanted with human AML cells with a range of genetic lesions. The numbers of normal mouse HSCs were preserved whereas normal progenitors and other downstream hematopoietic cells were reduced following transplantation of primary AMLs, findings consistent with a differentiation block at the HSC-progenitor transition, rather than displacement. Once removed from the leukemic environment, residual normal hematopoietic cells differentiated normally and outcompeted steady-state hematopoietic cells, indicating that this effect is reversible. We confirmed the clinical significance of this by ex vivo analysis of normal hematopoietic subpopulations from BM of 16 patients with AML. This analysis demonstrated that the numbers of normal CD34(+)CD38(-) stem-progenitor cells were similar in the BM of AML patients and controls, whereas normal CD34(+)CD38(+) progenitors were reduced. Residual normal CD34(+) cells from patients with AML were enriched in long-term culture, initiating cells and repopulating cells compared with controls. In conclusion the data do not support the idea that BM failure in AML is due to HSC depletion. Rather, AML inhibits production of downstream hematopoietic cells by impeding differentiation at the HSC-progenitor transition. PMID:23901108

Miraki-Moud, Farideh; Anjos-Afonso, Fernando; Hodby, Katharine A; Griessinger, Emmanuel; Rosignoli, Guglielmo; Lillington, Debra; Jia, Li; Davies, Jeff K; Cavenagh, Jamie; Smith, Matthew; Oakervee, Heather; Agrawal, Samir; Gribben, John G; Bonnet, Dominique; Taussig, David C

2013-08-13

29

Outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia patients with central nervous system involvement.  

PubMed

Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is rare and associated with poor outcomes. Therefore, CNS involvement in AML is an indicator for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). However, the impact of CNS involvement in AML on the outcome of allo-HSCT remains unclear. We performed a large-scale nationwide retrospective analysis to elucidate the outcomes of allo-HSCT on AML with CNS involvement (CNS+AML). Clinical data were collected from a registry database of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. CNS involvement was defined as the infiltration of leukemia cells into the CNS or myeloid sarcoma in the CNS identified at any time from diagnosis to transplantation. One hundred fifty-seven patients with CNS+AML underwent allo-HSCT between 2006 and 2011. The estimated overall survival, cumulative incidence of relapse and nonrelapse mortality at 2 years for CNS+AML (51.2%, 30.2%, and 14.5%, respectively) were comparable with those for AML without CNS involvement (48.6%, 27.4%, and 22.0%, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analyses indicated that the development of chronic graft-versus-host disease, disease status, and cytogenetic risk category were independent prognostic factors for overall survival for CNS+AML. These results suggest that allo-HSCT may improve outcomes in patients with CNS+AML. PMID:25196856

Aoki, Jun; Ishiyama, Ken; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Fukuda, Takahiro; Ohashi, Kazuteru; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Kanamori, Heiwa; Eto, Tetsuya; Iwato, Koji; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Morishima, Yasuo; Nagamura, Tokiko; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Takami, Akiyoshi

2014-12-01

30

Transcriptional dysregulation during myeloid transformation in AML  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paradigm on leukemogenesis indicates that leukemias are propagated by leukemic stem cells. The genomic events and pathways involved in the transformation of hematopoietic precursors into leukemic stem cells are increasingly understood. This concept is based on genomic mutations or functional dysregulation of transcription factors in malignant cells of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Loss of the CCAAT\\/enhancer

T Pabst; B U Mueller

2007-01-01

31

The Role of Cytotoxic Therapy with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in the Therapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Children: An Evidence-Based Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical research examining the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in children is presented and critically evaluated in this systematic evidence-based review. Specific criteria were used for searching the published literature and for grading the quality and strength of the evidence and the strength of the treatment recommendations. Treatment recommendations based

Denise M. Oliansky; J. Douglas Rizzo; Peter D. Aplan; Robert J. Arceci; Louis Leone; Yaddanapudi Ravindranath; Jean E. Sanders; Franklin O. Smith; Fiona Wilmot; Philip L. McCarthy; Theresa Hahn

2007-01-01

32

Reduced-intensity conditioning for unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as treatment for myeloid malignancies in patients older than 55 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from unrelated donors is an effective treat- ment for myeloid malignancies, but its use is usually restricted to young pa- tients without comorbidities. The develop- ment of reduced-intensity preparative regimens has allowed the extension of this form of treatment to older and medi- cally infirm patients. We assessed the outcomes of patients older than 54 years

Raymond Wong; Sergio A. Giralt; Thomas Martin; Daniel R. Couriel; Athanasios Anagnostopoulos; Chitra Hosing; Borje S. Andersson; Pedro Cano; Munir Shahjahan; Cindy Ippoliti; Elihu H. Estey; John McMannis; James L. Gajewski; Richard E. Champlin; Marcos de Lima

2003-01-01

33

Daunorubicin, Cytarabine, and Cladribine Regimen Plus Radiotherapy and Donor Lymphocyte Infusion for Extramedullary Relapse of Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Myeloid sarcoma is a rare tumor consisting of myeloid blasts that involve anatomic sites outside the bone marrow. Fatal prognosis is inevitable in patients with extramedullary relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and no standard treatments are available yet. We report the first case of extramedullary relapse after HSCT treated with a combination of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and cladribine (DAC) regimen plus radiotherapy and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI). This treatment induced a new and durable remission in our patient. The favorable toxicity profile and the reduced cost make this combination worthy of further investigations. PMID:24066245

Sanna, Marco; Caocci, Giovanni; Vacca, Adriana; Piras, Eugenia; Orrù, Federica; La Nasa, Giorgio

2013-01-01

34

Daunorubicin, cytarabine, and cladribine regimen plus radiotherapy and donor lymphocyte infusion for extramedullary relapse of acute myeloid leukemia after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Myeloid sarcoma is a rare tumor consisting of myeloid blasts that involve anatomic sites outside the bone marrow. Fatal prognosis is inevitable in patients with extramedullary relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and no standard treatments are available yet. We report the first case of extramedullary relapse after HSCT treated with a combination of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and cladribine (DAC) regimen plus radiotherapy and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI). This treatment induced a new and durable remission in our patient. The favorable toxicity profile and the reduced cost make this combination worthy of further investigations. PMID:24066245

Sanna, Marco; Caocci, Giovanni; Vacca, Adriana; Piras, Eugenia; Orrù, Federica; La Nasa, Giorgio

2013-01-01

35

Molecular analysis of hematopoietic colonies derived from chronic myeloid leukemia patients: interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization compared with RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we compared interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH) with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the molecular analysis of hematopoietic colonies derived from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Molecular analysis of individual colonies is often performed to monitor purging efficacy in CML. We harvested individual colony-forming unit granulocyte–macrophage (CFU-GM) colonies. One half was analyzed with

SFT Thijsen; GJ Schuurhuis; JW van Oostveen; AP Theijsmeijer; MMAC Langenhuijsen; GJ Ossenkoppele

1997-01-01

36

Survival after cord blood transplantation from unrelated donor as a second hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for recurrent pediatric acute myeloid leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japan Cord Blood Bank Network (JCBBN) reports the treatment of 22 children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who received\\u000a umbilical cord blood transplantation from unrelated donors (CBT) as their second hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).\\u000a Provided by the JCBBN, between February 1997 and September 2006, 22 patients had CBT as a second HSCT. In the initial HSCT,\\u000a eight received

M. Oda; K. Isoyama; E. Ito; M. Inoue; M. Tsuchida; H. Kigasawa; K. Kato; S. Kato

2009-01-01

37

MCP1 Directs Trafficking of Hematopoietic Stem Cell-Derived Fibroblast Precursors in Solid Tumor  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies have demonstrated that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are a novel source of carcinoma-associated fibroblasts. However, the mechanisms regulating recruitment and homing of HSC-derived carcinoma-associated fibroblasts or their precursors to the tumor microenvironment are unknown. Herein, we demonstrate using a single cell transplantation model that circulating fibroblast precursors (CFPs) are of HSC origin. This population increased with tumor burden in vivo and functional in vitro studies showed that CFPs preferentially migrated and differentiated into fibroblasts in response to tumor, suggesting that HSC-derived CFPs serve as an intermediate between the bone marrow and tumor. Based on this chemotactic ability and our demonstration of a monocyte lineage origin for CFPs, we investigated the role of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP1) in mediating CFP recruitment/homing. Blocking tumor-produced MCP1 inhibited in vitro migration of CFPs in response to multiple tumor types, indicating broad biological significance for this CFP/chemokine interaction. In vivo, CCR2-expressing CFPs increased in circulation during the period of active tumor growth and stromal development. Inhibition of MCP1 during tumor development resulted in decreased tumor volume in tumor-bearing mice. Together these findings confirm an HSC origin for CFPs, demonstrate a role for MCP1 in regulating their contribution to the tumor microenvironment, and suggest a potential therapeutic target for limiting tumor growth. PMID:20167869

Abangan, Romeo S.; Williams, Christopher R.; Mehrotra, Meenal; Duncan, James D.; LaRue, Amanda C.

2010-01-01

38

Heterogeneity of clonal expansion and maturation-linked mutation acquisition in hematopoietic progenitors in human acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Recent technological advances led to an appreciation of the genetic complexity of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but underlying progenitor cells remain poorly understood because their rarity precludes direct study. We developed a co-culture method integrating hypoxia, aryl hydrocarbon receptor inhibition and micro-environmental support via human endothelial cells to isolate these cells. X-chromosome inactivation studies of the least mature precursors derived following prolonged culture of CD34(+)/CD33(-) cells revealed polyclonal growth in highly curable AMLs, suggesting that mutations necessary for clonal expansion were acquired in more mature progenitors. Consistently, in core-binding factor (CBF) leukemias with known complementing mutations, immature precursors derived following prolonged culture of CD34(+)/CD33(-) cells harbored neither mutation or the CBF mutation alone, whereas more mature precursors often carried both mutations. These results were in contrast to those with leukemias with poor prognosis that showed clonal dominance in the least mature precursors. These data indicate heterogeneity among progenitors in human AML that may have prognostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:24721792

Walter, R B; Laszlo, G S; Lionberger, J M; Pollard, J A; Harrington, K H; Gudgeon, C J; Othus, M; Rafii, S; Meshinchi, S; Appelbaum, F R; Bernstein, I D

2014-10-01

39

Toll-Like Receptor 4/Stem Cell Antigen 1 Signaling Promotes Hematopoietic Precursor Cell Commitment to Granulocyte Development during the Granulopoietic Response to Escherichia coli Bacteremia  

PubMed Central

In response to severe bacterial infection, bone marrow hematopoietic activity shifts toward promoting granulopoiesis. The underlying cell signaling mechanisms remain obscure. To study the role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) signaling in this process, bacteremia was induced in mice by intravenous injection of Escherichia coli. A subgroup of animals also received intravenous 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU). In a separate set of experiments, bone marrow lineage-negative (lin?) stem cell growth factor receptor-positive (c-kit+) Sca-1? cells containing primarily common myeloid progenitors were cultured in vitro without or with E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In genotypic background control mice, bacteremia significantly upregulated Sca-1 expression by lin? c-kit+ cells, as reflected by a marked increase in BrdU-negative lin? c-kit+ Sca-1+ cells in the bone marrow. In mice with the TLR4 gene deletion, this bacteremia-evoked Sca-1 response was blocked. In vitro, LPS induced a dose-dependent increase in Sca-1 expression by cultured marrow lin? c-kit+ Sca-1? cells. LPS-induced upregulation of Sca-1 expression was regulated at the transcriptional level. Inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK) activity with the specific inhibitor SP600125 suppressed LPS-induced upregulation of Sca-1 expression by marrow lin? c-kit+ Sca-1? cells. Engagement of Sca-1 with anti-Sca-1 antibodies enhanced the expression of Sfpi1 spleen focus-forming virus (SFFV) proviral integration 1 (PU.1) in marrow lin? c-kit+ Sca-1? cells cultured with LPS. Sca-1 null mice failed to maintain the marrow pool of granulopoietic cells following bacteremia. These results demonstrate that TLR4/Sca-1 signaling plays an important role in the regulation of hematopoietic precursor cell programming and their enhancement of granulocyte lineage commitment in response to E. coli bacteremia. PMID:23545304

Shi, Xin; Siggins, Robert W.; Stanford, William L.; Melvan, John N.; Basson, Marc D.

2013-01-01

40

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia: similar outcomes regardless of donor type.  

PubMed

The use of alternative donor transplants is increasing as the transplantation-eligible population ages and sibling donors are less available. We evaluated the impact of donor source on transplantation outcomes for adults with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing myeloablative (MA) or reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) transplantation. Between January 2000 and December 2010, 414 consecutive adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia in remission received MA or RIC allogeneic transplantation from either a matched related donor (n = 187), unrelated donor (n = 76), or umbilical cord blood donor (n = 151) at the University of Minnesota or Hôpital St. Louis in Paris. We noted similar 6-year overall survival across donor types: matched related donor, 47% (95% confidence interval [CI], 39% to 54%); umbilical cord blood, 36% (95% CI, 28% to 44%); matched unrelated donor, 54% (95% CI, 40% to 66%); and mismatched unrelated donor, 51% (95% CI, 28% to 70%) (P < .11). Survival differed based on conditioning intensity and age, with 6-year survival of 57% (95% CI, 47% to 65%), 39% (95% CI, 28% to 49%), 23% (95% CI, 6% to 47%), 47% (95% CI, 36% to 57%), and 28% (95% CI, 17% to 41%) for MA age 18 to 39, MA age 40+, or RIC ages 18 to 39, 40 to 56, and 57 to 74, respectively (P < .01). Relapse was increased with RIC and lowest in younger patients receiving MA conditioning (hazard ratio, 1.0 versus 2.5 or above for all RIC age cohorts), P < .01. Transplantation-related mortality was similar across donor types. In summary, our data support the use of alternative donors as a graft source with MA or RIC for patients with acute myeloid leukemia when a sibling donor is unavailable. PMID:25452032

Warlick, Erica D; Peffault de Latour, Regis; Shanley, Ryan; Robin, Marie; Bejanyan, Nelli; Xhaard, Alienor; Brunstein, Claudio; Sicre de Fontbrune, Flore; Ustun, Celalettin; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Socie, Gerard

2015-02-01

41

Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in First Remission Abrogates Poor Outcomes Associated with High-Risk Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Despite remission rates of approximately 85% for children diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), greater than 40% will die from relapsed disease. Patients with poor-risk molecular/cytogenetics and/or inadequate response to upfront therapy are typically considered high-risk (HR) and historically have poor outcomes with chemotherapy alone. We investigated whether allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) with best available donor in first remission (CR1) would abrogate the poor outcomes associated with HR AML in chemotherapy treated children and young adults. We reviewed the outcomes of 50 consecutive children and young adults (ages 0–30 years) with AML who received a myeloablative allo-HCT between 2001 and 2010. Thirty-six patients (72%) were HR, defined as having FLT3-ITD mutations, 11q23 MLL rearrangements, chromosome 5 or 7 abnormalities, induction failure and/or having persistent disease. The majority of patients received cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation conditioning and graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was cyclosporine based. Transplant outcomes for HR patients were compared to standard-risk patients with no significant differences observed in overall survival (72% vs. 78%, p=0.72), leukemia-free survival (69% vs. 79%, p=0.62), relapse (11% vs. 7%, p=0.71) or TRM (17% vs. 14%, p=0.89). Children and young adults with HR-AML have comparable outcomes to standard-risk patients following allo-HCT in CR1. PMID:23567175

Burke, Michael J.; Wagner, John E.; Cao, Qing; Ustun, Celalettin; Verneris, Michael R.

2013-01-01

42

Acute Alcohol Intoxication Impairs the Hematopoietic Precursor Cell Response to Pneumococcal Pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol abuse is associated with an increased incidence and severity of pneumonia. In both the general population and in individuals consuming excess alcohol, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent lung infection pathogen. Alcoholic patients with pneumonia frequently present with granulocytopenia, which is predictive of increased mortality. The mechanisms underlying this impaired granulopoietic response to pneumococcal pneumonia have yet to be elucidated. Methods Acute alcohol intoxication was induced in mice 30 minutes before intrapulmonary infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Bone marrow and blood samples were collected. Bone marrow cells were also isolated from naïve mice and treated in vitro with plasma from mice infected with S.pneumoniae. Results Alcohol intoxication impaired the pneumococcal-induced increase in granulocyte recruitment into the alveolar space, decreased bacterial clearance from the lung, and increased mortality. Pneumococcal pneumonia significantly increased bone marrow lineage?c-Kit+Sca-1+ (LKS) cell number and colony forming unit – granulocytes and monocyte (CFU-GM) activity of these cells. Both enhanced proliferation of LKS cells and re-expression of Sca-1 surface protein on downstream progenitor cells bearing lineage?c-Kit+Sca-1? surface markers accounted for the expansion of marrow LSK cells during pneumonia. Alcohol intoxication impaired these two mechanisms of LKS cell population expansion and was associated with a relative granulocytopenia during pneumococcal lung infection. Conclusions Alcohol inhibits the hematopoietic precursor cell response to pneumonia which may serve as a mechanism underlying the granulocytopenia and impaired host defense in alcohol abusers with bacterial pneumonia. PMID:20659065

Raasch, Caroline E.; Zhang, Ping; Siggins, Robert W.; LaMotte, Lynn R.; Nelson, Steve; Bagby, Gregory J.

2013-01-01

43

Elevated Nuclear Factor Erythroid-2 Levels Promote Epo-Independent Erythroid Maturation and Recapitulate the Hematopoietic Stem Cell and Common Myeloid Progenitor Expansion Observed in Polycythemia Vera Patients  

PubMed Central

The molecular etiology of polycythemia vera (PV) remains incompletely understood. Patients harbor increased numbers of hematopoietic stem cells and display Epo-independent erythroid maturation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying Epo hypersensitivity and stem cell expansion is unclear. We have previously shown that the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-2 (NF-E2) is overexpressed in the majority of PV patients. Here we demonstrated that elevation of NF-E2 expression in healthy CD34+ cells to levels observed in PV caused Epo-independent erythroid maturation and expansion of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and common myeloid progenitor (CMP) cell numbers. Silencing NF-E2 in PV patients reverted both aberrancies, demonstrating for the first time that NF-E2 overexpression is both required and sufficient for Epo independence and HSC/CMP expansion in PV. PMID:23341442

Bogeska, Ruzhica

2013-01-01

44

Elevated nuclear factor erythroid-2 levels promote epo-independent erythroid maturation and recapitulate the hematopoietic stem cell and common myeloid progenitor expansion observed in polycythemia vera patients.  

PubMed

The molecular etiology of polycythemia vera (PV) remains incompletely understood. Patients harbor increased numbers of hematopoietic stem cells and display Epo-independent erythroid maturation. However, the molecular mechanism underlying Epo hypersensitivity and stem cell expansion is unclear. We have previously shown that the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid-2 (NF-E2) is overexpressed in the majority of PV patients. Here we demonstrated that elevation of NF-E2 expression in healthy CD34(+) cells to levels observed in PV caused Epo-independent erythroid maturation and expansion of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and common myeloid progenitor (CMP) cell numbers. Silencing NF-E2 in PV patients reverted both aberrancies, demonstrating for the first time that NF-E2 overexpression is both required and sufficient for Epo independence and HSC/CMP expansion in PV. PMID:23341442

Bogeska, Ruzhica; Pahl, Heike L

2013-02-01

45

The hematopoietic stem cell in chronic phase CML is characterized by a transcriptional profile resembling normal myeloid progenitor cells and reflecting loss of quiescence.  

PubMed

We found that composition of cell subsets within the CD34+ cell population is markedly altered in chronic phase (CP) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Specifically, proportions and absolute cell counts of common myeloid progenitors (CMP) and megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors (MEP) are significantly greater in comparison to normal bone marrow whereas absolute numbers of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are equal. To understand the basis for this, we performed gene expression profiling (Affymetrix HU-133A 2.0) of the distinct CD34+ cell subsets from six patients with CP CML and five healthy donors. Euclidean distance analysis revealed a remarkable transcriptional similarity between the CML patients' HSC and normal progenitors, especially CMP. CP CML HSC were transcriptionally more similar to their progeny than normal HSC to theirs, suggesting a more mature phenotype. Hence, the greatest differences between CP CML patients and normal donors were apparent in HSC including downregulation of genes encoding adhesion molecules, transcription factors, regulators of stem-cell fate and inhibitors of cell proliferation in CP CML. Impaired adhesive and migratory capacities were functionally corroborated by fibronectin detachment analysis and transwell assays, respectively. Based on our findings we propose a loss of quiescence of the CML HSC on detachment from the niche leading to expansion of myeloid progenitors. PMID:19158832

Bruns, I; Czibere, A; Fischer, J C; Roels, F; Cadeddu, R-P; Buest, S; Bruennert, D; Huenerlituerkoglu, A N; Stoecklein, N H; Singh, R; Zerbini, L F; Jäger, M; Kobbe, G; Gattermann, N; Kronenwett, R; Brors, B; Haas, R

2009-05-01

46

A novel role of hematopoietic CCL5 in promoting triple-negative mammary tumor progression by regulating generation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells  

PubMed Central

CCL5 is a member of the CC chemokine family expressed in a wide array of immune and non-immune cells in response to stress signals. CCL5 expression correlates with advanced human breast cancer. However, its functional significance and mode of action have not been established. Here, we show that CCL5-deficient mice are resistant to highly aggressive, triple-negative mammary tumor growth. Hematopoietic CCL5 is dominant in this phenotype. The absence of hematopoietic CCL5 causes aberrant generation of CD11b+/Gr-1+, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the bone marrow in response to tumor growth by accumulating Ly6Chi and Ly6G+ MDSCs with impaired capacity to suppress cytotoxicity of CD8+ T cells. These properties of CCL5 are observed in both orthotopic and spontaneous mammary tumors. Antibody-mediated systemic blockade of CCL5 inhibits tumor progression and enhances the efficacy of therapeutic vaccination against non-immunogenic tumors. CCL5 also helps maintain the immunosuppressive capacity of human MDSCs. Our study uncovers a novel, chemokine-independent activity of the hematopoietically derived CCL5 that promotes mammary tumor progression via generating MDSCs in the bone marrow in cooperation with tumor-derived colony-stimulating factors. The study sheds considerable light on the interplay between the hematopoietic compartment and tumor niche. Because of the apparent dispensable nature of this molecule in normal physiology, CCL5 may represent an excellent therapeutic target in immunotherapy for breast cancer as well as a broad range of solid tumors that have significant amounts of MDSC infiltration. PMID:23266888

Zhang, Yan; Lv, Dandan; Kim, Ha-Jeong; Kurt, Robert A; Bu, Wen; Li, Yi; Ma, Xiaojing

2013-01-01

47

The earliest intrathymic precursors of CD8?+ thymic dendritic cells correspond to myeloid-type double-negative 1c cells  

PubMed Central

The dendritic cells (DCs) present in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs are generated from progenitors with myeloid-restricted potential. However, in the thymus a major subset of DCs expressing CD8? and langerin (CD207) appears to stand apart from all other DCs in that it is thought to derive from progenitors with lymphoid potential. Using mice expressing a fluorescent reporter and a diphtheria toxin receptor under the control of the cd207 gene, we demonstrated that CD207+CD8?+ thymic DCs do not share a common origin with T cells but originate from intrathymic precursors that express markers that are normally present on all (CD11c+ and MHCII molecules) or on some (CD207, CD135, CD8?, CX3CR1) DC subsets. Those intrathymic myeloid-type precursors correspond to CD44+CD25? double-negative 1c (DN1c) cells and are continuously renewed from bone marrow-derived canonical DC precursors. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the earliest intrathymic precursors of CD8?+ thymic DCs correspond to myeloid-type DN1c cells and support the view that under physiological conditions myeloid-restricted progenitors generate the whole constellation of DCs present in the body including the thymus. PMID:21630253

Luche, Hervé; Ardouin, Laurence; Teo, Pearline; See, Peter; Henri, Sandrine; Merad, Miriam; Ginhoux, Florent; Malissen, Bernard

2014-01-01

48

MicroRNA-150 Expression Induces Myeloid Differentiation of Human Acute Leukemia Cells and Normal Hematopoietic Progenitors  

PubMed Central

In acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and blast crisis (BC) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) normal differentiation is impaired. Differentiation of immature stem/progenitor cells is critical for normal blood cell function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are small non-coding RNAs that interfere with gene expression by degrading messenger RNAs (mRNAs) or blocking protein translation. Aberrant miRNA expression is a feature of leukemia and miRNAs also play a significant role in normal hematopoiesis and differentiation. We have identified miRNAs differentially expressed in AML and BC CML and identified a new role for miR-150 in myeloid differentiation. Expression of miR-150 is low or absent in BC CML and AML patient samples and cell lines. We have found that expression of miR-150 in AML cell lines, CD34+ progenitor cells from healthy individuals, and primary BC CML and AML patient samples at levels similar to miR-150 expression in normal bone marrow promotes myeloid differentiation of these cells. MYB is a direct target of miR-150, and we have identified that the observed phenotype is partially mediated by MYB. In AML cell lines, differentiation of miR-150 expressing cells occurs independently of retinoic acid receptor ? (RARA) signaling. High-throughput gene expression profiling (GEP) studies of the AML cell lines HL60, PL21, and THP-1 suggest that activation of CEPBA, CEBPE, and cytokines associated with myeloid differentiation in miR-150 expressing cells as compared to control cells contributes to myeloid differentiation. These data suggest that miR-150 promotes myeloid differentiation, a previously uncharacterized role for this miRNA, and that absent or low miR-150 expression contributes to blocked myeloid differentiation in acute leukemia cells. PMID:24086639

Morris, Valerie A.; Zhang, Ailin; Yang, Taimei; Stirewalt, Derek L.; Ramamurthy, Ranjani; Meshinchi, Soheil; Oehler, Vivian G.

2013-01-01

49

The Cebpa +37-kb enhancer directs transgene expression to myeloid progenitors and to long-term hematopoietic stem cells.  

PubMed

C/EBP? is expressed preferentially in myeloid compared with lymphoid or erythroid cells and directs myeloid lineage specification. C/EBP? is also expressed at lower levels in HSCs and in several nonhematopoietic tissues. The Cebpa gene has a conserved, 450-bp segment at +37 kb that harbors enhancer-specific epigenetic marks and is activate in a myeloid cell line. Herein, we characterize transgenic C57BL/6 mice, in which the Cebpa enhancer and 845-bp promoter regulate a hCD4 reporter. FACS analysis, in vitro colony assays, and in vivo competitive and secondary transplantation revealed that myeloid but not MEPs or lymphoid progenitors and also functional LT-HSCs are found almost exclusively in the Cebpa-hCD4(+) compared with hCD4(-) marrow population. hCD4(+) CMP yielded predominantly myeloid, whereas hCD4(-) CMP generated mainly Meg/E colonies. Providing insight into control of CMP maturation, Cebpa and Pu.1 RNAs were preferentially expressed in hCD4(+) CMP, Scl, Gata2, Gata1, Klf1, Ets1, and Fli1 predominated in hCD4(-) CMP, and Runx1, Myb, HoxA9, and Erg levels were similar in both. Cebpa-hCD4 transgene expression was lacking in multiple nonhematopoietic tissues. In summary, the +37-kb Cebpa enhancer and promoter are sufficient for marrow myeloid progenitor and LT-HSC-specific expression. PMID:24868087

Guo, Hong; Ma, Ou; Friedman, Alan D

2014-09-01

50

Characteristics of Myeloid Differentiation and Maturation Pathway Derived from Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells Exposed to Different Linear Energy Transfer Radiation Types  

PubMed Central

Exposure of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) to ionizing radiation causes a marked suppression of mature functional blood cell production in a linear energy transfer (LET)- and/or dose-dependent manner. However, little information about LET effects on the proliferation and differentiation of HSPCs has been reported. With the aim of characterizing the effects of different types of LET radiations on human myeloid hematopoiesis, in vitro hematopoiesis in Human CD34+ cells exposed to carbon-ion beams or X-rays was compared. Highly purified CD34+ cells exposed to each form of radiation were plated onto semi-solid culture for a myeloid progenitor assay. The surviving fractions of total myeloid progenitors, colony-forming cells (CFC), exposed to carbon-ion beams were significantly lower than of those exposed to X-rays, indicating that CFCs are more sensitive to carbon-ion beams (D0?=?0.65) than to X-rays (D0?=?1.07). Similar sensitivities were observed in granulocyte-macrophage and erythroid progenitors, respectively. However, the sensitivities of mixed-type progenitors to both radiation types were similar. In liquid culture for 14 days, no significant difference in total numbers of mononuclear cells was observed between non-irradiated control culture and cells exposed to 0.5 Gy X-rays, whereas 0.5 Gy carbon-ion beams suppressed cell proliferation to 4.9% of the control, a level similar to that for cells exposed to 1.5 Gy X-rays. Cell surface antigens associated with terminal maturation, such as CD13, CD14, and CD15, on harvest from the culture of X-ray-exposed cells were almost the same as those from the non-irradiated control culture. X-rays increased the CD235a+ erythroid-related fraction, whereas carbon-ion beams increased the CD34+CD38? primitive cell fraction and the CD13+CD14+/?CD15? fraction. These results suggest that carbon-ion beams inflict severe damage on the clonal growth of myeloid HSPCs, although the intensity of cell surface antigen expression by mature myeloid cells derived from HSPCs exposed to each type of radiation was similar to that by controls. PMID:23555027

Monzen, Satoru; Yoshino, Hironori; Kasai-Eguchi, Kiyomi; Kashiwakura, Ikuo

2013-01-01

51

Evaluation of hematopoietic cells and myeloid/erythroid ratio in the bone marrow of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)  

PubMed Central

In order to study the normal hematopoiesis, cellular components and myeloid/erythroid (M/E) ratio in the bone marrow of the pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), bone marrow samples were collected from the proximal tibiotarsus bone of 16 clinically healthy adult pheasant. The bone marrow smears were stained using the Giemsa stain. The results indicated that the development and formation of blood cells in the bone marrow of pheasant were similar to other birds, whereas the morphology of the cells was similar to chickens, ducks, quail, and black-head gull. The mean M/E ratio was 1.24, the mean erythroid percentage was 42.24, the mean myeloid percentage was 52.62, and the mean percentage of all other cells percentage was 5.38. There was no significant difference in any of the cellular composition between male and female.

Tadjalli, Mina; Nazifi, Saeed; Haghjoo, Rahil

2013-01-01

52

A cytogenetic model predicts relapse risk and survival in patients with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in morphologic complete remission.  

PubMed

Up to 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and abnormal cytogenetics have persistent cytogenetic abnormalities (pCytAbnl) at morphologic complete remission (mCR). We hypothesized that the prognostic significance of pCytAbnl in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in mCR varies with cytogenetic risk group. We analyzed the data on 118 patients with AML and abnormal cytogenetics who underwent HSCT in mCR, and developed a risk stratification model based on pCytAbnl and cytogenetic risk group. The model distinguished three groups of patients (P<0.01) with distinct outcomes: the group with pCytAbnl and unfavorable risk cytogenetics (n=25) had the shortest median time to relapse (TTR; 5 months), relapse-free survival (RFS; 3 months), and overall survival (OS; 7 months). The group with favorable/intermediate risk cytogenetics and without pCytAbnl (n=43) had the longest median TTR (not reached), RFS (57 months), and OS (57 months). The group with pCytAbnl and favorable/intermediate risk cytogenetics, or, without pCytAbnl but with unfavorable risk cytogenetics (n=50) experienced intermediate TTR (18 months), RFS (9 months), and OS (18 months). In conclusion, a cytogenetic risk model identifies patients with AML in mCR with distinct rates of relapse and survival following HSCT. PMID:25481050

Rashidi, Armin; Cashen, Amanda F

2015-01-01

53

Outcome of high-risk acute myeloid leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: negative impact of abnl(17p) and -5/5q-.  

PubMed

The European LeukemiaNet classification combines a heterogeneous group of aberrations as adverse-risk abnormalities. Our goal was to investigate the outcomes associated with distinct high-risk chromosomal abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We performed a retrospective cohort analysis in patients with high-risk AML who received first, HLA-compatible, allogeneic HSCT between January 2005 and December 2008. Data from 236 patients with a median age of 55 years were included. Because complex karyotype (CK), -5/5q-, and abnl(17p) are overlapping categories, a hierarchical classification system based on the presence or absence of abnl(17p) and -5/5q- was developed. Patients with abnl(17p) had a 2-year event-free survival (EFS) of 11% (95% confidence interval [CI], 0%-25%), patients with -5/5q- but no abnl(17p) a 2-year EFS of 29% (95% CI, 14%-44%), and patients with adverse-risk AML but neither of the 2 marker lesions a 2-year EFS of 49% (95% CI, 39%-59%). Notably, complex and monosomal karyotypes lost their prognostic value when these marker lesions were excluded. In conclusion, hierarchical classification of adverse-risk karyotypes by 2 marker lesions, abnl(17p) and -5/5q-, is effective in prognostication of the outcome of allogeneic HSCT in AML. PMID:22855604

Middeke, Jan M; Beelen, Dietrich; Stadler, Michael; Göhring, Gudrun; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Baurmann, Herrad; Bug, Gesine; Bellos, Frauke; Mohr, Brigitte; Buchholz, Stefanie; Schwerdtfeger, Rainer; Martin, Hans; Hegenbart, Ute; Ehninger, Gerhard; Bornhäuser, Martin; Schetelig, Johannes

2012-09-20

54

Manganese superoxide dismutase depletion in murine hematopoietic stem cells perturbs iron homeostasis, globin switching, and epigenetic control in erythrocyte precursor cells.  

PubMed

Heme synthesis partially occurs in the mitochondrial matrix; thus there is a high probability that enzymes and intermediates important in the production of heme will be exposed to metabolic by-products including reactive oxygen species. In addition, the need for ferrous iron for heme production, Fe/S coordination, and other processes occurring in the mitochondrial matrix suggests that aberrant fluxes of reactive oxygen species in this compartment might perturb normal iron homeostasis. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Sod2) is an antioxidant enzyme that governs steady-state levels of the superoxide in the mitochondrial matrix. Using hematopoietic stem cell-specific conditional Sod2 knockout mice we observed increased superoxide concentrations in red cell progeny, which caused significant pathologies including impaired erythrocytes and decreased ferrochelatase activity. Animals lacking Sod2 expression in erythroid precursors also displayed extramedullary hematopoiesis and systemic iron redistribution. Additionally, the increase in superoxide flux in erythroid precursors caused abnormal gene regulation of hematopoietic transcription factors, globins, and iron-response genes. Moreover, the erythroid precursors also displayed evidence of global changes in histone posttranslational modifications, a likely cause of at least some of the aberrant gene expression noted. From a therapeutic translational perspective, mitochondrially targeted superoxide-scavenging antioxidants partially rescued the observed phenotype. Taken together, our findings illuminate the superoxide sensitivity of normal iron homeostasis in erythrocyte precursors and suggest a probable link between mitochondrial redox metabolism and epigenetic control of nuclear gene regulation during mammalian erythropoiesis. PMID:23219873

Case, Adam J; Madsen, Joshua M; Motto, David G; Meyerholz, David K; Domann, Frederick E

2013-03-01

55

Manganese superoxide dismutase depletion in murine hematopoietic stem cells perturbs iron homeostasis, globin switching, and epigenetic control in erythrocyte precursor cells  

PubMed Central

Heme synthesis partially occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, thus there is a high probability that enzymes and intermediates important in the production of heme will be exposed to metabolic byproducts including reactive oxygen species. In addition, the need for ferrous iron for heme production, Fe-S coordination, and other processes occurring in the mitochondrial matrix suggests that aberrant fluxes of reactive oxygen species in this compartment might perturb normal iron homeostasis. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Sod2) is an anti-oxidant enzyme that governs steady-state levels of the superoxide in the mitochondrial matrix. Using hematopoietic stem cell-specific conditional Sod2 knock-out mice we observed increased superoxide concentrations in red cell progeny which caused significant pathologies including impaired erythrocytes and decreased ferrochelatase activity. Animals lacking Sod2 expression in erythroid precursors also displayed extramedullary hematopoiesis and systemic iron redistribution. Additionally, the increase in superoxide flux in erythroid precursors caused abnormal gene regulation of hematopoietic transcription factors, globins, and iron-response genes. Moreover, the erythroid precursors also displayed evidence of global changes of histone post-translational modifications, a likely cause of at least some of the aberrant gene expression noted. From a therapeutic translational perspective, mitochondrially-targeted superoxide-scavenging anti-oxidants partially rescued the observed phenotype. Taken together, our findings illuminate the superoxide sensitivity of normal iron homeostasis in erythrocyte precursors and suggest a probable link between mitochondrial redox metabolism and epigenetic control of nuclear gene regulation during mammalian erythropoiesis. PMID:23219873

Case, Adam J.; Madsen, Joshua M.; Motto, David G.; Meyerholz, David K.; Domann, Frederick E.

2012-01-01

56

Overexpression of Snai3 suppresses lymphoid- and enhances myeloid-cell differentiation  

PubMed Central

The altered expression of transcription factors in hematopoietic stem cells and their subsequent lineages can alter the development of lymphoid and myeloid lineages. The role of the transcriptional repressor Snai3 protein in the derivation of cells of the hematopoietic system was investigated. Snai3 is expressed in terminal T-cell and myeloid lineages, therefore, we chose to determine if expressing Snai3 in the early stages of hematopoietic development would influence cell-lineage determination. Expression of Snai3 by retroviral transduction of hematopoietic stem cells using bone marrow chimera studies demonstrated a block in lymphoid-cell development and enhanced expansion of myeloid-lineage cells. Analysis of Snai3-expressing hematopoietic precursor cells showed normal numbers of immature cells, but a block in the development of cells committed to lymphoid lineages. These data indicate that the overexpression of Snai3 does alter bone marrow cell development and that the identification of genes whose expression is altered by the presence of Snai3 would aid in our understanding of these developmental pathways. PMID:22531927

Dahlem, Timothy; Cho, Scott; Spangrude, Gerald J.; Weis, Janis J.; Weis, John H.

2012-01-01

57

Reduced-intensity and myeloablative conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome: a meta-analysis and systematic review  

PubMed Central

Background: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the clinical outcomes and toxicity of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and myeloablative conditioning (MAC) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Evidence acquisition: A comprehensive PubMed and Embase search was performed using the following keywords: “reduced-intensity”, “myeloablative”, “AML”, and “MDS”. The primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS), and the secondary endpoints were relapse incidence (RI), non-relapse mortality (NRM), grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), and chronic GVHD (cGVHD). Results: Eight studies (2 prospective and 6 retrospective) involving 6464 patients who received RIC (n = 1571) or MAC (n = 4893) alloHSCT were included in the analysis. Median age and the number of patients with low hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index scores and who received ex vivo or in vivo T cell depletion were higher in the RIC arm than in the MAC arm. Significant heterogeneity was not found among the studies for any of the endpoints except for grade II-IV aGVHD. OS (odds ratio [OR], 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-1.08; p = 0.47) and EFS (OR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.77-1.00; p = 0.05) were similar in the RIC and MAC arms, whereas RI (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.24-1.59; p < 0.00001) was higher in the RIC arm than in the MAC arm. The incidence of grade II-IV aGVHD (OR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.36-0.96; p = 0.03) was lower in the RIC arm than in the MAC arm; however, NRM (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.87-1.13; p = 0.85), total cGVHD (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.88-1.38; p = 0.38), and extensive cGVHD (OR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.75-1.37; p = 0.95) were not significantly different between the two arms. Conclusion: RIC alloHSCT may be an effective treatment strategy for AML/MDS patients who are not suitable candidates for MAC alloHSCT. However, heterogeneity in baseline patient characteristics and treatment protocols may have influenced the outcomes of RIC alloHSCT in our analysis. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:25550955

Zeng, Wen; Huang, Lifang; Meng, Fankai; Liu, Zeming; Zhou, Jianfeng; Sun, Hanying

2014-01-01

58

Impact of Cranial Irradiation Added to Intrathecal Conditioning in Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Central Nervous System Involvement  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Neither the prognostic importance nor the appropriate management of central nervous system (CNS) involvement is known for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We examined the impact of a CNS irradiation boost to standard intrathecal chemotherapy (ITC). Methods and Materials: From 1995 to 2005, a total of 648 adult AML patients received a myeloablative HCT: 577 patients were CNS negative (CNS-), and 71 were CNS positive (CNS+). Of the 71 CNS+ patients, 52 received intrathecal chemotherapy alone (CNS+ITC), and 19 received ITC plus an irradiation boost (CNS+RT). Results: The CNS-, CNS+ITC, and CNS+RT patients had 1- and 5-year relapse-free survivals (RFS) of 43% and 35%, 15% and 6%, and 37% and 32%, respectively. CNS+ITC patients had a statistically significant worse RFS compared with CNS- patients (hazard ratio [HR], 2.65; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-3.6; p < 0.0001). CNS+RT patients had improved relapse free survival over that of CNS+ITC patients (HR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.2-0.8; p = 0.01). The 1- and 5-year overall survivals (OS) of patients with CNS-, CNS+ITC, and CNS+RT, were 50% and 38%, 21% and 6%, and 53% and 42%, respectively. The survival of CNS+RT were significantly better than CNS+ITC patients (p = 0.004). After adjusting for known risk factors, CNS+RT patients had a trend toward lower relapse rates and reduced nonrelapse mortality. Conclusions: CNS+ AML is associated with a poor prognosis. The role of a cranial irradiation boost to intrathecal chemotherapy appears to mitigate the risk of CNS disease, and needs to be further investigated to define optimal treatment strategies.

Mayadev, Jyoti S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology University of California-Davis Medical Center, Davis, CA (United States); Douglas, James G., E-mail: drjay@u.washington.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Department of Neurological Surgery, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Storer, Barry E. [University of Washington School of Public Health, Seattle, WA (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Storb, Rainer [Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States); Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

2011-05-01

59

Wilms' tumor gene 1 transcript levels in leukapheresis of peripheral blood hematopoietic cells predict relapse risk in patients autografted for acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is a curative option alternative to allogeneic transplantation for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Relapse after ASCT can be due to contamination with leukemic blasts of autologous peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) collected by leukapheresis (LK). Identification and quantification of a minimal residual disease (MRD) marker in PBSCs could be relevant in determining the relapse risk after ASCT. High levels of the WT1 gene transcript in bone marrow of AML patients after treatment completion predict disease relapse. We evaluated WT1 transcript levels in autologous PBSC from LK used for ASCT in 30 consecutive AML patients in complete remission (CR) and established a correlation with clinical outcome. At diagnosis, all patients had WT1 overexpression. All patients were in morphological and genetic CR at the time of PBSC collection and before ASCT. Real-time quantitative PCR of WT1 was performed in samples of each LK, using TaqMan technology on RNA from mononucleated cells. The median WT1 transcript level in the PBSC graft (WT1-LK) of patients who relapsed was significantly higher than of those who did not relapse after transplantation (P <.0001). We defined a cut-off level of 80 WT1-LK copies/ABL 10e4 copies to discriminate between positive and negative PBSC grafts. The cut-off level was strongly associated with disease recurrence, DFS and OS. Our study represents the largest series of patients evaluating WT1 as a marker of MRD in PBSC LK products using a completely standardized real-time WT1-reverse transcriptase-PCR based assay. These data, if confirmed by prospective study, will help to determine an individual patient's adapted postremission allocation strategy. PMID:24954546

Messina, Carlo; Candoni, Anna; Carrabba, Matteo G; Tresoldi, Cristina; Sala, Elisa; Tassara, Michela; Crippa, Alessandra; Peccatori, Jacopo; Assanelli, Andrea; Gattillo, Salvatore; Bellio, Laura; Fanin, Renato; Ciceri, Fabio; Bernardi, Massimo

2014-10-01

60

Prognostic implication of gene mutations on overall survival in the adult acute myeloid leukemia patients receiving or not receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantations.  

PubMed

Several gene mutations have been shown to provide clinical implications in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, the prognostic impact of gene mutations in the context of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) remains unclear. We retrospectively evaluated the clinical implications of 8 gene mutations in 325 adult AML patients; 100 of them received allo-HSCT and 225 did not. The genetic alterations analyzed included NPM1, FLT3-ITD, FLT3-TKD, CEBPA, RUNX1, RAS, MLL-PTD, and WT1. In patients who did not receive allo-HSCT, older age, higher WBC count, higher lactate dehydrogenase level, unfavorable karyotype, and RUNX1 mutation were significantly associated with poor overall survival (OS), while CEBPA double mutation (CEBPA(double-mut)) and NPM1(mut)/FLT3-ITD(neg) were associated with good outcome. However, in patients who received allo-HSCT, only refractory disease status at the time of HSCT and unfavorable karyotype were independent poor prognostic factors. Surprisingly, RUNX1 mutation was an independent good prognostic factor for OS in multivariate analysis. The prognostic impact of FLT3-ITD or NPM1(mut)/FLT3-ITD(neg) was lost in this group of patients receiving allo-HSCT, while CEBPA(double-mut) showed a trend to be a good prognostic factor. In conclusion, allo-HSCT can ameliorate the unfavorable influence of some poor-risk gene mutations in AML patients. Unexpectedly, the RUNX1 mutation showed a favorable prognostic impact in the context of allo-HSCT. These results need to be confirmed by further studies with more AML patients. PMID:25260824

Chou, Sheng-Chieh; Tang, Jih-Luh; Hou, Hsin-An; Chou, Wen-Chien; Hu, Fu-Chang; Chen, Chien-Yuan; Yao, Ming; Ko, Bor-Sheng; Huang, Shang-Yi; Tsay, Woei; Chen, Yao-Chang; Tien, Hwei-Fang

2014-11-01

61

Genetics Home Reference: Familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA  

MedlinePLUS

... anemia ; autosomal ; autosomal dominant ; blood clotting ; bone marrow ; cancer ; cell ; clotting ; DNA ; enhancer ; familial ; fever ; gene ; hematopoietic ; infection ; inheritance ; inherited ; leukemia ; mutation ; myeloid ; ...

62

Survival of patients with acute myeloid leukemia relapsing after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation: a center for international blood and marrow transplant research study.  

PubMed

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) relapse after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) remains a major therapeutic challenge. We studied outcomes of 1788 AML patients relapsing after alloHCT (1990 to 2010) during first or second complete remission (CR) to identify factors associated with longer postrelapse survival. Median time to post-HCT relapse was 7 months (range, 1 to 177). At relapse, 1231 patients (69%) received intensive therapy, including chemotherapy alone (n = 660), donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI) ± chemotherapy (n = 202), or second alloHCT ± chemotherapy ± DLI (n = 369), with subsequent CR rates of 29%. Median follow-up after relapse was 39 months (range, <1 to 193). Survival for all patients was 23% at 1 year after relapse; however, 3-year overall survival correlated with time from HCT to relapse (4% for relapse during the 1- to 6-month period, 12% during the 6-month to 2-year period, 26% during the 2- to 3-year period, and 38% for ?3 years). In multivariable analysis, lower mortality was significantly associated with longer time from alloHCT to relapse (relative risk, .55 for 6 months to 2 years; relative risk, .39 for 2 to 3 years; and relative risk, .28 for ?3 years; P < .0001) and a first HCT using reduced-intensity conditioning (relative risk, .77; 95% confidence interval [CI], .66 to .88; P = .0002). In contrast, inferior survival was associated with age >40 years (relative risk, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.64; P < .0001), active graft-versus-host disease at relapse (relative risk, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.39; P < .0001), adverse cytogenetics (relative risk, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.09 to 1.71; P = .0062), mismatched unrelated donor (relative risk, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.22 to 2.13; P = .0008), and use of cord blood for first HCT (relative risk, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.42; P = .0078). AML relapse after alloHCT predicted poor survival; however, patients who relapsed ?6 months after their initial alloHCT had better survival and may benefit from intensive therapy, such as second alloHCT ± DLI. PMID:25460355

Bejanyan, Nelli; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Logan, Brent R; Wang, Hai-Lin; Devine, Steven M; de Lima, Marcos; Bunjes, Donald W; Zhang, Mei-Jie

2015-03-01

63

Sinister Symbiosis: Pathological hematopoietic-stromal interactions in CML  

PubMed Central

Summary The impact of myeloid malignancies on the non-hematopoietic components of the bone marrow remains poorly understood. In this issue, Schepers et al. describe how malignant myeloid cells alter the endosteal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche, resulting in the expansion of osteoblastic lineage cells (OBC) that preferentially support malignant HSCs. PMID:24012363

Mullally, Ann; Ebert, Benjamin L.

2013-01-01

64

The allometry of chronic myeloid leukemia Jorge M. Pacheco a  

E-print Network

The allometry of chronic myeloid leukemia Jorge M. Pacheco a , Arne Traulsen b , David Dingli c Available online 10 April 2009 Keywords: Chronic myeloid leukemia Hematopoiesis Modeling Allometry a b s t r a c t Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is an acquired neoplastic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) disorder

Traulsen, Arne

65

The HIF-1 transcription complex is essential for translational control of myeloid hematopoietic cell function by maintaining mTOR phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Mammalian myeloid cells are crucial effectors of host innate immune defense. Normal and pathological responses of these cells require adaptation to signaling stress through the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) transcription complex. Adapted cells activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), via S2448 phosphorylation, which induces de novo translation of vital signaling proteins. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this signaling dogma remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that inactivation of HIF-1, by silencing its inducible alpha subunit, significantly decreases mTOR S2448 phosphorylation caused by ligand-dependent activation of human myeloid leukemia cells. This shows that HIF-1 is essential for the activation of mTOR and serves at a crucial juncture of myeloid cell function in both in vitro and in vivo systems. PMID:23872956

Yasinska, Inna M; Gibbs, Bernhard F; Lall, Gurprit S; Sumbayev, Vadim V

2014-02-01

66

Ectopic TAL-1/SCL expression in phenotypically normal or leukemic myeloid precursors: proliferative and antiapoptotic effects coupled with a differentiation blockade.  

PubMed Central

The TAL-1 gene specifies a basic helix-loop-helix domain (bHLH) transcription factor, which heterodimerizes with E2A gene family proteins. tal-1 protein is abnormally expressed in the majority of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs). tal-1 is expressed and plays a significant role in normal erythropoietic differentiation and maturation, while its expression in early myeloid differentiation is abruptly shut off at the level of late progenitors/early differentiated precursors (G. L. Condorelli, L. Vitelli, M. Valtieri, I. Marta, E. Montesoro, V. Lulli, R. Baer, and C. Peschle, Blood 86:164-175, 1995). We show that in late myeloid progenitors (the phenotypically normal murine 32D cell line) and early leukemic precursors (the human HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cell line) ectopic tal-1 expression induces (i) a proliferative effect under suboptimal culture conditions (i.e., low growth factor and serum concentrations respectively), via an antiapoptotic effect in 32D cells or increased DNA synthesis in HL-60 cells, and (ii) a total or marked inhibitory effect on differentiation, respectively, on granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-induced granulopoiesis in 32D cells or retinoic acid- and vitamin D3-induced granulo- and monocytopoiesis in HL-60 cells. Furthermore, experiments with 32D temperature-sensitive p53 cells indicate that aberrant tal-1 expression at the permissive temperature does not exert a proliferative effect but causes p53-mediated apoptosis, i.e., the tal-1 proliferative effect depends on the integrity of the cell cycle checkpoints of the host cell, as observed for c-myc and other oncogenes. tal-1 mutant experiments indicate that ectopic tal-1 effects are mediated by both the DNA-binding and the heterodimerization domains, while the N-terminally truncated tal-1 variant (M3) expressed in T-ALL malignant cells mimics the effects of the wild-type protein. Altogether, our results (i) indicate proliferative and antidifferentiative effects of ectopic tal-1 expression, (ii) shed light on the underlying mechanisms (i.e., requirement for the integrity of the tal-1 bHLH domain and cell cycle checkpoints in the host cell, particularly p53), and (iii) provide new experimental models to further investigate these mechanisms. PMID:9111367

Condorelli, G L; Tocci, A; Botta, R; Facchiano, F; Testa, U; Vitelli, L; Valtieri, M; Croce, C M; Peschle, C

1997-01-01

67

[Effect of hydroxyurea on the number of hematopoietic stem cells, stromal cell precursors and cell precursors of thymus lymphoid tissue in the bone marrow of mice during aging].  

PubMed

The concentration of hemopoietic stem cells (colony-forming cells in the spleen - CFC-S) decreases in the bone marrow of CBA mice during ageing, whereas the concentration of precursors for stromal fibroblasts (colony-forming cells for fibroblasts-CFC-F) increases. The total numbers of nucleated cells, CFC-S and CFC-F in the bone marrow of old mice essentially increase. Hydroxyurea, administered in vivo, does not effect the concentration of CFC-S, but it increases CFC-F concentration in the bone marrow of mice. Hydroxyurea produces just the same suppressive effect on the numbers of nucleated cells, CFC-S and CFC-F in the mice of different ages, and stimulates the capacity of bone marrow donors to repopulate the thymus of the irradiated young recipients. PMID:6485091

Sidorenko, A V; Andrianova, L F

1984-07-01

68

Direct Binding of Arsenic Trioxide to AMPK and Generation of Inhibitory Effects on Acute Myeloid Leukemia Precursors.  

PubMed

Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) exhibits potent antineoplastic effects and is used extensively in clinical oncology for the treatment of a subset of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Although As2O3 is known to regulate activation of several signaling cascades, the key events, accounting for its antileukemic properties, remain to be defined. We provide evidence that arsenic can directly bind to cysteine 299 in AMPK? and inhibit its activity. This inhibition of AMPK by arsenic is required in part for its cytotoxic effects on primitive leukemic progenitors from patients with AML, while concomitant treatment with an AMPK activator antagonizes in vivo the arsenic-induced antileukemic effects in a xenograft AML mouse model. A consequence of AMPK inhibition is activation of the mTOR pathway as a negative regulatory feedback loop. However, when AMPK expression is lost, arsenic-dependent activation of the kinase RSK downstream of MAPK activity compensates the generation of regulatory feedback signals through phosphorylation of downstream mTOR targets. Thus, therapeutic regimens with As2O3 will need to include inhibitors of both the mTOR and RSK pathways in combination to prevent engagement of negative feedback loops and maximize antineoplastic responses. Mol Cancer Ther; 14(1); 202-12. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25344585

Beauchamp, Elspeth M; Kosciuczuk, Ewa M; Serrano, Ruth; Nanavati, Dhaval; Swindell, Elden P; Viollet, Benoit; O'Halloran, Thomas V; Altman, Jessica K; Platanias, Leonidas C

2015-01-01

69

Baccatin III, a precursor for the semisynthesis of paclitaxel, inhibits the accumulation and suppressive activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in tumor-bearing mice.  

PubMed

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) mediate tumor-associated immune suppression in both cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals. Reduction or elimination of MDSCs reduces the rate of tumor progression and improves cancer therapies that employ mechanisms of immunity. Here we show that baccatin III, which is the precursor for the semisynthesis of paclitaxel, exerts anti-tumor immunomodulatory activity in very low doses (0.05-0.5mg/kg), although it is regarded as an inactive derivative of paclitaxel. Oral administration of baccatin III significantly reduced the growth of tumors induced by engrafting BALB/c mice with either 4 T1 mammary carcinoma or CT26 colon cancer cells. Baccatin III (0.5mg/kg) did not exert anti-tumor activity in athymic nude mice. Baccatin III decreased the accumulation of MDSCs in the spleens of the tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, MDSCs isolated from baccatin III-treated mice, compared with those isolated from vehicle-treated mice, had a significantly reduced suppressive effect on T cells treated with the anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies. Moreover, these cells produced significantly reduced amounts of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. These results suggest that baccatin III reduced tumor progression by inhibiting the accumulation and suppressive function of MDSCs. PMID:24957690

Lee, Young-Hee; Lee, Young-Ran; Park, Chan-Su; Im, Sun-A; Song, Sukgil; Hong, Jin Tae; Whang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Kyungjae; Lee, Chong-Kil

2014-08-01

70

Interleukin-1 beta enhances human multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell proliferative potential and their ability to maintain hematopoietic precursor cells.  

PubMed

Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MMSCs) have been demonstrated to produce mature stromal cells and maintain hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). It was previously demonstrated that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) stimulates the growth of the stromal microenvironment in vivo. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of IL-1 beta treatment of human MMSCs on their proliferative potential, gene expression, immunomodulating properties, and their ability to support HPCs in vitro. Human bone marrow-derived MMSCs were cultivated in standard conditions or with IL-1 beta. The cumulative cell production was assessed for five passages. After withdrawal of IL-1 beta, MMSC clonal efficiency was investigated, and the maintenance of HPCs on top of MMSCs layers was estimated using cobblestone area forming cell (CAFC) and long-term culture initiating cell (LTC-IC) assays. The effect of untreated MMSCs or MMSCs pretreated with IL-1 beta on lymphocyte proliferation was studied by CFSE staining. The relative expression level of various genes by MMSCs was analyzed using RT-qPCR. The administration of IL-1 beta elevated MMSCs clonal efficiency and total cell production but did not affect lymphocyte proliferation. MMSCs pretreatment with IL-1 beta enhanced their ability to maintain HPCs, as detected by CAFC assay, and it altered the expression levels of genes participating in HPC regulation by stromal cells, e.g., adhesion molecules (ICAM1) and growth factors (SDF1). This study revealed the ability of IL-1 beta to stimulate MMSCs proliferation and enhance their potential to maintain HPCs. MMSCs are considered a stromal niche component in vitro. The combined in vitro and previous in vivo data suggest that IL-1 beta is a systemic regulator of the stromal microenvironment. PMID:25461405

Bigildeev, Alexey E; Zezina, Ekaterina A; Shipounova, Irina N; Drize, Nina J

2015-02-01

71

Alcohol Impairs the Myeloid Proliferative Response to Bacteremia in Mice via Inhibiting the Stem Cell Antigen-1 - Extracellular-Regulated Kinase Pathway1  

PubMed Central

Enhancement of stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) expression by myeloid precursors promotes the granulopoietic response to bacterial infection. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway activation strongly enhances proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells. Here, we investigated the role of Sca-1 in promoting ERK-dependent myeloid lineage proliferation and the effects of alcohol on this process. Thirty minutes after intraperitoneal injection of alcohol, mice received intravenous challenge with 5 × 107 E.coli for 8 or 24 h. A subset of mice received intravenous BrdU injection 20 h post challenge. Bacteremia increased Sca-1 expression, ERK activation, and proliferation of myeloid and granulopoietic precursors. Alcohol administration suppressed this response and impaired granulocyte production. Sca-1 expression positively correlated with ERK activation and cell cycling, but negatively correlated with myeloperoxidase content in granulopoietic precursors. Alcohol intoxication suppressed ERK activation in granulopoietic precursors and proliferation of these cells during bacteremia. Granulopoietic precursors in Sca-1?/? mice failed to activate ERK signaling and could not increase CFU-GM activity following bacteremia. These data indicate that Sca-1 expression promotes ERK-dependent myeloid cell proliferation during bacteremia. Suppression of this response could represent an underlying mechanism for developing myelosuppression in alcohol abusing hosts with severe bacterial infection. PMID:22238460

Melvan, John Nicholas; Siggins, Robert W.; Stanford, William L.; Porretta, Connie; Nelson, Steve; Bagby, Gregory J.; Zhang, Ping

2011-01-01

72

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after conditioning with 131I–anti-CD45 antibody plus fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation for elderly patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome  

PubMed Central

We conducted a study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 131I–anti-CD45 antibody (Ab; BC8) that can be combined with a standard reduced-intensity conditioning regimen before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Fifty-eight patients older than 50 years with advanced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were treated with 131I-BC8 Ab and fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation. Eighty-six percent of patients had AML or MDS with greater than 5% marrow blasts at the time of transplantation. Treatment produced a complete remission in all patients, and all had 100% donor-derived CD3+ and CD33+ cells in the blood by day 28 after the transplantation. The MTD of 131I-BC8 Ab delivered to liver was estimated to be 24 Gy. Seven patients (12%) died of nonrelapse causes by day 100. The estimated probability of recurrent malignancy at 1 year is 40%, and the 1-year survival estimate is 41%. These results show that CD45-targeted radiotherapy can be safely combined with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen to yield encouraging overall survival for older, high-risk patients with AML or MDS. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00008177. PMID:19786617

Gooley, Theodore A.; Rajendran, Joseph; Fisher, Darrell R.; Wilson, Wendy A.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Matthews, Dana C.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Gopal, Ajay K.; Martin, Paul J.; Storb, Rainer F.; Press, Oliver W.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.

2009-01-01

73

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation after conditioning with I-131-anti-CD45 antibody plus fludarabine and low-dose total body irradiation for elderly patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome.  

SciTech Connect

We conducted a study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of I-131-anti-CD45 antibody (Ab; BC8) that can be combined with a standard reduced-intensity conditioning regimen before allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Fifty-eight patients older than 50 years with advanced acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) were treated with (131)I-BC8 Ab and fludarabine plus 2 Gy total body irradiation. Eighty-six percent of patients had AML or MDS with greater than 5% marrow blasts at the time of transplantation. Treatment produced a complete remission in all patients, and all had 100% donor-derived CD3(+) and CD33(+) cells in the blood by day 28 after the transplantation. The MTD of I-131-BC8 Ab delivered to liver was estimated to be 24 Gy. Seven patients (12%) died of nonrelapse causes by day 100. The estimated probability of recurrent malignancy at 1 year is 40%, and the 1-year survival estimate is 41%. These results show that CD45-targeted radiotherapy can be safely combined with a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen to yield encouraging overall survival for older, high-risk patients with AML or MDS. This study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00008177.

Pagel, John M.; Gooley, T. A.; Rajendran, Joseph G.; Fisher, Darrell R.; Wilson, Wendy A.; Sandmaier, B. M.; Matthews, D. C.; Deeg, H. Joachim; Gopal, Ajay K.; Martin, P. J.; Storb, R.; Press, Oliver W.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.

2009-12-24

74

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo SCT) for chronic myeloid leukemia in the imatinib era: evaluation of its impact within a subgroup of the randomized German CML Study IV.  

PubMed

The role of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in chronic myeloid leukemia is being reevaluated. Whereas drug treatment has been shown to be superior in first-line treatment, data on allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo SCT) as second-line therapy after imatinib failure are scarce. Using an interim safety analysis of the randomized German CML Study IV designed to optimize imatinib therapy by combination, dose escalation, and transplantation, we here report on 84 patients who underwent consecutive transplantation according to predefined criteria (low European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation [EBMT] score, imatinib failure, and advanced disease). Three-year survival after transplantation of 56 patients in chronic phase was 91% (median follow-up: 30 months). Transplantation-related mortality was 8%. In a matched pair comparison of patients who received a transplant and those who did not, survival was not different. Three-year survival after transplantation of 28 patients in advanced phase was 59%. Eighty-eight percent of patients who received a transplant achieved complete molecular remissions. We conclude that allo SCT could become the preferred second-line option after imatinib failure for suitable patients with a donor. The study is registered at the National Institutes of Health, http://clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00055874. PMID:19965667

Saussele, Susanne; Lauseker, Michael; Gratwohl, Alois; Beelen, Dietrich W; Bunjes, Donald; Schwerdtfeger, Rainer; Kolb, Hans-Jochem; Ho, Anthony D; Falge, Christiane; Holler, Ernst; Schlimok, Günter; Zander, Axel R; Arnold, Renate; Kanz, Lothar; Dengler, Robert; Haferlach, Claudia; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Pfirrmann, Markus; Müller, Martin C; Schnittger, Susanne; Leitner, Armin; Pletsch, Nadine; Hochhaus, Andreas; Hasford, Joerg; Hehlmann, Rüdiger

2010-03-11

75

[Classification of myeloid leukemias].  

PubMed

Myeloid leukemia in this series corresponds to the myeloid neoplasms of the 4th WHO classification of pathology and genetics of tumor of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissue. The myeloid neoplasms are composed of six categories, which are 1) myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), a new category of 2) myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and abnormalities of PDGFRA, PDGFRB or FGFR1, 3) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/MPN, 4) MDS, 5) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and related precursor neoplasms, and 6) acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage. In MPNs without chronic myelogenous leukemia, the genetic marker of JAK2 V617F is added to the diagnostic criteria for polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis. MDS has the new subtype of refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia composed of refractory anemia, refractory neutropenia and refractory thrombocytopenia. AML with t(9; 11) (p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL, AML with t(6;9) (p23; q34); DEK-NUP214, AML with inv(3) (q21q26.2) or t(3; 3) (q21 ; q26.2); RPN1-EVI1 and AML (megakaryoblastic) with t(1; 22) (p13; q13); RBM15-MKL1 are added to the subtype of AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities, and AML with gene mutations of NPM1 and CEBPA are also added as provisional entities of it. The myeloid neoplasms of the 4th WHO classification are comprehensive and seem to be dynamic by incorporating the results of leukemia researches. PMID:19860179

Kuriyama, Kazutaka

2009-10-01

76

Outcome of children with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia given autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in the aieop AML-2002/01 study.  

PubMed

We analyzed the outcome of 243 children with high-risk (HR) AML in first CR1 enrolled in the AIEOP-2002/01 protocol, who were given either allogeneic (ALLO; n=141) or autologous (AUTO; n=102) hematopoietic SCT (HSCT), depending on the availability of a HLA-compatible sibling. Infants, patients with AML-M7, or complex karyotype or those with FLT3-ITD, were eligible to be transplanted also from alternative donors. All patients received a myeloablative regimen combining BU, Cyclophosphamide and Melphalan; AUTO-HSCT patients received BM cells in most cases, while in children given ALLO-HSCT stem cell source was BM in 96, peripheral blood in 19 and cord blood in 26. With a median follow-up of 57 months (range 12-130), the probability of disease-free survival (DFS) was 73% and 63% in patients given either ALLO- or AUTO-HSCT, respectively (P=NS). Although the cumulative incidence (CI) of relapse was lower in ALLO- than in AUTO-HSCT recipients (17% vs 28%, respectively; P=0.043), the CI of TRM was 7% in both groups. Patients transplanted with unrelated donor cord blood had a remarkable 92.3% 8-year DFS probability. Altogether, these data confirm that HSCT is a suitable option for preventing leukemia recurrence in HR children with CR1 AML. PMID:25387094

Locatelli, F; Masetti, R; Rondelli, R; Zecca, M; Fagioli, F; Rovelli, A; Messina, C; Lanino, E; Bertaina, A; Favre, C; Giorgiani, G; Ripaldi, M; Ziino, O; Palumbo, G; Pillon, M; Pession, A; Rutella, S; Prete, A

2015-02-01

77

Myeloid cells stimulate their progenitors in an emergency.  

PubMed

The nature and functions of cells creating hematopoietic niches during inflammation remain incompletely understood. In this issue of Immunity, Kwak et al. (2015) reveal that myeloid cell-produced reactive oxygen species stimulate proliferation of myeloid progenitors establishing an additional mechanism to regulate hematopoiesis. PMID:25607454

Sugiyama, Tatsuki; Nagasawa, Takashi

2015-01-20

78

Diet-induced obesity promotes myelopoiesis in hematopoietic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Obesity is associated with an activated macrophage phenotype in multiple tissues that contributes to tissue inflammation and metabolic disease. To evaluate the mechanisms by which obesity potentiates myeloid activation, we evaluated the hypothesis that obesity activates myeloid cell production from bone marrow progenitors to potentiate inflammatory responses in metabolic tissues. High fat diet-induced obesity generated both quantitative increases in myeloid progenitors as well as a potentiation of inflammation in macrophages derived from these progenitors. In vivo, hematopoietic stem cells from obese mice demonstrated the sustained capacity to preferentially generate inflammatory CD11c+ adipose tissue macrophages after serial bone marrow transplantation. We identified that hematopoietic MyD88 was important for the accumulation of CD11c+ adipose tissue macrophage accumulation by regulating the generation of myeloid progenitors from HSCs. These findings demonstrate that obesity and metabolic signals potentiate leukocyte production and that dietary priming of hematopoietic progenitors contributes to adipose tissue inflammation. PMID:25161889

Singer, Kanakadurga; DelProposto, Jennifer; Lee Morris, David; Zamarron, Brian; Mergian, Taleen; Maley, Nidhi; Cho, Kae Won; Geletka, Lynn; Subbaiah, Perla; Muir, Lindsey; Martinez-Santibanez, Gabriel; Nien-Kai Lumeng, Carey

2014-01-01

79

Erythropoiesis in Murine Myeloid Leukaemia  

PubMed Central

Erythropoiesis during the development of myeloid leukaemia in mice was studied, using assay of radio-iron incorporation in blood, exorepopulation and autorepopulation techniques. These tests indicated a certain tendency of decreasing erythropoiesis during the leukaemic process due to declining numbers of the normal erthropoietic cell precursors. PMID:4920217

Tanaka, T.

1970-01-01

80

Mobilisation of Hematopoietic CD34+ Precursor Cells in Patients with Acute Stroke Is Safe - Results of an Open-Labeled Non Randomized Phase I/II Trial  

PubMed Central

Background Regenerative strategies in the treatment of acute stroke may have great potential. Hematopoietic growth factors mobilize hematopoietic stem cells and may convey neuroprotective effects. We examined the safety, potential functional and structural changes, and CD34+ cell–mobilization characteristics of G-CSF treatment in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Methods and Results Three cohorts of patients (8, 6, and 6 patients per cohort) were treated subcutaneously with 2.5, 5, or 10 µg/kg body weight rhG-CSF for 5 consecutive days within 12 hrs of onset of acute stroke. Standard treatment included IV thrombolysis. Safety monitoring consisted of obtaining standardized clinical assessment scores, monitoring of CD34+ stem cells, blood chemistry, serial neuroradiology, and neuropsychology. Voxel-guided morphometry (VGM) enabled an assessment of changes in the patients' structural parenchyma. 20 patients (mean age 55 yrs) were enrolled in this study, 5 of whom received routine thrombolytic therapy with r-tPA. G-CSF treatment was discontinued in 4 patients because of unrelated adverse events. Mobilization of CD34+ cells was observed with no concomitant changes in blood chemistry, except for an increase in the leukocyte count up to 75,500/µl. Neuroradiological and neuropsychological follow-up studies did not disclose any specific G-CSF toxicity. VGM findings indicated substantial atrophy of related hemispheres, a substantial increase in the CSF space, and a localized increase in parenchyma within the ischemic area in 2 patients. Conclusions We demonstrate a good safety profile for daily administration of G-CSF when begun within 12 hours after onset of ischemic stroke and, in part in combination with routine IV thrombolysis. Additional analyses using VGM and a battery of neuropsychological tests indicated a positive functional and potentially structural effect of G-CSF treatment in some of our patients. Trial Registration German Clinical Trial Register DRKS 00000723 PMID:21887230

Kraemer, Mathias; Schormann, Thorsten; Schlachetzki, Felix; Schuierer, Gerhard; Luerding, Ralph; Hennemann, Burkhard; Orso, Evelyn; Dabringhaus, Andreas; Winkler, Jürgen; Bogdahn, Ulrich

2011-01-01

81

Rosiglitazone promotes the differentiation of Langerhans cells and inhibits that of other dendritic cell types from CD133 positive hematopoietic precursors.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells and their precursors express PPAR-gamma, whose stimulation has inhibitory effects on the maturation and function of dendritic cells in vivo. Dendritic cells can differentiate in vitro from CD133+ progenitors; the influence of PPAR-gamma stimulation on this process is unknown. We have addressed the effect of PPAR-gamma agonist rosiglitazone, at a concentration as used in clinics, on the differentiation of dendritic cells from human CD133+ progenitors. Cells were harvested from cord blood by density gradient and immunomagnetic separation, and cultured for 18 days with fetal calf serum, cytokines and 1 ?mol/L rosiglitazone. Analyses included flow cytometry, electron microscopy and mixed lymphocyte reaction. As expected, control cells generated without rosiglitazone were dendritic, expressed MHC-II, CD80, CD83 and CD86 and stimulated mixed reaction potently. A minority of cells expressed the Langerhans cell marker CD207/langerin, but none contained Birbeck granules. With rosiglitazone much fewer cells were generated; they were all dendritic, expressed differentiation and maturation-related antigens in higher percentage and were better stimulators of lymphocytes than those generated without the drug. The vast majority of cells expressed CD207/langerin and many contained Birbeck granules, i.e. were full-fledged Langerhans cells. We conclude that stimulation of PPAR-gamma, while negatively affecting the number of generated cells, promotes the maturation of human cord blood CD133 positive precursors into efficient, immunostimulating dendritic cells with a Langerhans cell phenotype. PMID:23881602

Bonetti, Maria Ida; Bacci, Stefano; Santosuosso, Michela; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Aldinucci, Alessandra; Ballerini, Clara; Guasti, Daniele; Calosi, Laura; Bosi, Alberto; Romagnoli, Paolo

2014-03-01

82

Retinoic Acid regulates hematopoietic development from human pluripotent stem cells.  

PubMed

The functions of retinoic acid (RA), a potent morphogen with crucial roles in embryogenesis including developmental hematopoiesis, have not been thoroughly investigated in the human setting. Using an in vitro model of human hematopoietic development, we evaluated the effects of RA signaling on the development of blood and on generated hematopoietic progenitors. Decreased RA signaling increases the generation of cells with a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-like phenotype, capable of differentiation into myeloid and lymphoid lineages, through two separate mechanisms: by increasing the commitment of pluripotent stem cells toward the hematopoietic lineage during the developmental process and by decreasing the differentiation of generated blood progenitors. Our results demonstrate that controlled low-level RA signaling is a requirement in human blood development, and we propose a new interpretation of RA as a regulatory factor, where appropriate control of RA signaling enables increased generation of hematopoietic progenitor cells from pluripotent stem cells in vitro. PMID:25680478

Rönn, Roger E; Guibentif, Carolina; Moraghebi, Roksana; Chaves, Patricia; Saxena, Shobhit; Garcia, Bradley; Woods, Niels-Bjarne

2015-02-10

83

Retinoic Acid Regulates Hematopoietic Development from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary The functions of retinoic acid (RA), a potent morphogen with crucial roles in embryogenesis including developmental hematopoiesis, have not been thoroughly investigated in the human setting. Using an in vitro model of human hematopoietic development, we evaluated the effects of RA signaling on the development of blood and on generated hematopoietic progenitors. Decreased RA signaling increases the generation of cells with a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-like phenotype, capable of differentiation into myeloid and lymphoid lineages, through two separate mechanisms: by increasing the commitment of pluripotent stem cells toward the hematopoietic lineage during the developmental process and by decreasing the differentiation of generated blood progenitors. Our results demonstrate that controlled low-level RA signaling is a requirement in human blood development, and we propose a new interpretation of RA as a regulatory factor, where appropriate control of RA signaling enables increased generation of hematopoietic progenitor cells from pluripotent stem cells in vitro.

Rönn, Roger E.; Guibentif, Carolina; Moraghebi, Roksana; Chaves, Patricia; Saxena, Shobhit; Garcia, Bradley; Woods, Niels-Bjarne

2015-01-01

84

Control of myeloid differentiation and survival by Stats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematopoiesis involves a complex array of growth factors that regulate the survival and proliferation of immature progenitors, influence differentiation commitment, and modulate end-stage cell functions. This mini-review is focused on the role of Stat activation in the development of myeloid cells in response to hematopoietic cytokines. Much of the evidence implicating Stats in these cellular processes comes from studies of

Thomas E Smithgall; Scott D Briggs; Steven Schreiner; Edwina C Lerner; Haiyun Cheng; Matthew B Wilson

2000-01-01

85

Fludarabine Phosphate, Busulfan, and Anti-Thymocyte Globulin Followed By Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant, Tacrolimus, and Methotrexate in Treating Patients With Myeloid Malignancies  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

2014-11-10

86

Fetal liver generates low CD4 hematopoietic cells in murine stromal cultures.  

PubMed

We have demonstrated that 0.2% to 11% of cells from the fetal liver (FL) reacted specifically with high concentrations of anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (MoAb). CD4+ cells from FL were similar in surface phenotype and fluorescence characteristics to the CD4+ population found previously in adult bone marrow (BM). FL and BM cells were seeded in cultures that allow differentiation to primitive precursors. FL cells released many low CD4+ and low Thy+ cells in the supernatant, while BM cells seeded under the same conditions did not. We studied the nonadherent cells harvested from 10-day FL cultures (greater than 90% low CD4+). In methylcellulose, they were able to produce more colonies that appear to be characteristic of earlier stages in the hierarchy of hematopoietic precursors (especially erythroid bursts and colonies composed of both myeloid and erythroid elements) in comparison with CD4- cells from 10-day BM cultures. CD4+ cells harvested from FL cultures initiated secondary cultures containing both a stromal layer and large hematopoietic colonies when replated under conditions similar to those of primary cultures. Furthermore, a limited number of CD4+ cells from 10-day FL cultures were able to repopulate lethally irradiated mice. Although we cannot formally exclude the possibility that the low CD4 cells produced in FL cultures were derived exclusively from the proliferation of the few CD4 cells found in fresh FL, the dynamic analysis of the development of these cells in culture favors the generation of this important population from a CD4- subset of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We speculate that FL contains a prevalent population of very primitive cells not expressing the CD4 antigen, tentatively called "pre-low CD4 precursors." These primitive cells can differentiate into low CD4+ cells that share many characteristics with pluripotent HSCs of the adult type. These data indicate the possibility of using hematopoietic progenitors obtained by the expansion/differentiation of fetal stem cells in culture for transplantation purposes. PMID:7888669

Tocci, A; Rezzoug, F; Wahbi, K; Touraine, J L

1995-03-15

87

Translocation (8;21) acute myeloid leukemia presenting as severe aplastic anemia  

PubMed Central

We report a case of t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia presenting as severe aplastic anemia. While initial bone marrow biopsy lacked any cytogenetic abnormalities in 20 analyzed metaphases, repeat bone marrow biopsy eight days later demonstrated this translocation. Initial cytogenetic analysis of 20 metaphases was therefore insufficient to make the diagnosis of hypocellular acute myeloid leukemia. We discuss that further complementary molecular tests, such as CGH, would likely provide a more robust diagnosis of hematopoietic diseases. PMID:25003026

Purev, Enkhtsetseg; Dumitriu, Bogdan; Hourigan, Christopher S.; Young, Neal S.; Townsley, Danielle M.

2014-01-01

88

Generation, selection and preclinical characterization of an Fc-optimized FLT3 antibody for the treatment of myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

The therapeutic efficacy of humanized or chimeric second-generation antitumor antibodies is clearly established, but often limited. In recent years, defined modifications of the glycosylation pattern or the amino-acid sequence of the human immunoglobulin G1 Fc part have resulted in the development of third-generation antibodies with improved capability to recruit Fc receptor-bearing effector cells. The first antibodies of this kind, currently evaluated in early clinical trials, are directed against lymphoma-associated antigens. Fc-engineered antibodies targeting myeloid leukemia are not yet available. We here report on the generation and preclinical characterization of an Fc-optimized antibody directed to the FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), an antigen expressed on the leukemic blasts of all investigated patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This antibody, termed 4G8SDIEM, mediated markedly enhanced cellular cytotoxicity against FLT3-expressing cell lines as well as blasts of AML patients. FLT3 expression levels on AML cells varied between 300 and 4600 molecules/cell and, in most cases, were substantially higher than those detected on normal hematopoietic precursor cells and dendritic cells (approximately 300 molecules/cell). Antibody-mediated cytotoxicity against these normal cells was not detectable. 4G8SDIEM has been produced in pharmaceutical quality in a university-owned production unit and is currently used for the treatment of leukemia patients. PMID:22289926

Hofmann, M; Große-Hovest, L; Nübling, T; Py?, E; Bamberg, M L; Aulwurm, S; Bühring, H-J; Schwartz, K; Haen, S P; Schilbach, K; Rammensee, H-G; Salih, H R; Jung, G

2012-06-01

89

A new matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor SI27 induces apoptosis in several human myeloid leukemia cell lines and enhances sensitivity to TNF alpha-induced apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

MMP inhibitors are used clinically for the stabilization of tumor growth, thus prolonging survival in cancer patients. However, their role in the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a new MMP inhibitor, SI-27, in hematopoietic malignancies. SI-27 alone induces apoptosis in several human myeloid leukemia cell lines such as U937, NB4,

Y Nakamura; K Sato; N Wakimoto; F Kimura; A Okuyama; K Motoyoshi

2001-01-01

90

Maxillo-ethmoidal chloroma in acute myeloid leukaemia: Case report  

PubMed Central

Summary Chloroma, also called Granulocytic Sarcoma or Myeloid Sarcoma, is a rare malignant extra-medullary neoplasm of myeloid precursor cells. It is usually associated with myeloproliferative disorders but its appearance may precede the onset of leukaemia. Chloroma may be found in several extracranial sites. Involvement of the head and neck region is uncommon. Differential diagnosis is often difficult and includes acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, large cell NHL, lymphoblastic lymphoma and Ewing’s sarcoma. The case is presented of a maxillo-ethmoidal chloroma occurring in a case of poor prognosis acute myeloid leukaemia, emphasizing the clinical and cyto-histological features and problems concerning differential diagnosis. PMID:16450777

Ferri, E; Minotto, C; Ianniello, F; Cavaleri, S; Armato, E; Capuzzo, P

2005-01-01

91

Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation.  

PubMed

The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). In our laboratory we have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3-26.3 cGy d-1). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific (three major responding subgroups identified) and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup 1), the failure to augment basic repair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments (particularly marked within erythroid compartments) that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccomodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3) appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high- tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity. The kinetics of these repair-mediated, regenerative hematopoietic responses within the major subgroups are under study and should provide useful insights into the nature of hematopoietic accommodation (or its failure) under greatly extended periods of chronic, low-daily-dose ionizing radiation exposure. PMID:11538990

Seed, T M

1996-01-01

92

Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). In our laboratory we have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3-26.3 cGy d^-1). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific (three major responding subgroups identified) and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup 1), the failure to augment basic repair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments (particularly marked within erythroid compartments) that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccommodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3) appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high-tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity. The kinetics of these repair-mediated, regenerative hematopoietic responses within the major subgroups are under study and should provide useful insights into the nature of hematopoietic accommodation (or its failure) under greatly extended periods of chronic, low-daily-dose ionizing radiation exposure.

Seed, T. M.

93

Differentiation Therapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a predominant acute leukemia among adults, characterized by accumulation of malignantly transformed immature myeloid precursors. A very attractive way to treat myeloid leukemia, which is now called ‘differentiation therapy’, was proposed as in vitro studies have shown that a variety of agents stimulate differentiation of the cell lines isolated from leukemic patients. One of the differentiation-inducing agents, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), which can induce granulocytic differentiation in myeloid leukemic cell lines, has been introduced into clinics to treat patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in which a PML-RARA fusion protein is generated by a t(15;17)(q22;q12) chromosomal translocation. Because differentiation therapy using ATRA has significantly improved prognosis for patients with APL, many efforts have been made to find alternative differentiating agents. Since 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D) is capable of inducing in vitro monocyte/macrophage differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells, clinical trials have been performed to estimate its potential to treat patients with AML or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Unfortunately therapeutic concentrations of 1,25D can induce potentially fatal systemic hypercalcemia, thus limiting clinical utility of that compound. Attempts to overcome this problem have focused on the synthesis of 1,25D analogs (VDAs) which retain differentiation inducing potential, but lack its hypercalcemic effects. This review aims to discuss current problems and potential solutions in differentiation therapy of AML. PMID:24212816

Gocek, Elzbieta; Marcinkowska, Ewa

2011-01-01

94

Mapping of MN1 sequences necessary for myeloid transformation.  

PubMed

The MN1 oncogene is deregulated in human acute myeloid leukemia and its overexpression induces proliferation and represses myeloid differentiation of primitive human and mouse hematopoietic cells, leading to myeloid leukemia in mouse models. To delineate the sequences within MN1 necessary for MN1-induced leukemia, we tested the transforming capacity of in-frame deletion mutants, using retroviral transduction of mouse bone marrow. We found that integrity of the regions between amino acids 12 to 458 and 1119 to 1273 are required for MN1's in vivo transforming activity, generating myeloid leukemia with some mutants also producing T-cell lympho-leukemia and megakaryocytic leukemia. Although both full length MN1 and a mutant that lacks the residues between 12-228 (?12-228 mutant) repressed myeloid differentiation and increased myeloproliferative activity in vitro, the mutant lost its transforming activity in vivo. Both MN1 and ?12-228 increased the frequency of common myeloid progentiors (CMP) in vitro and microarray comparisons of purified MN1-CMP and ?12-228-CMP cells showed many differentially expressed genes including Hoxa9, Meis1, Myb, Runx2, Cebpa, Cebpb and Cebpd. This collection of immediate MN1-responsive candidate genes distinguishes the leukemic activity from the in vitro myeloproliferative capacity of this oncoprotein. PMID:23626719

Kandilci, Ayten; Surtel, Jacqueline; Janke, Laura; Neale, Geoffrey; Terranova, Sabrina; Grosveld, Gerard C

2013-01-01

95

CCR1 Plays a Critical Role in Modulating Pain through Hematopoietic and Non-Hematopoietic Cells  

PubMed Central

Inflammation is associated with immune cells infiltrating into the inflammatory site and pain. CC chemokine receptor 1 (CCR1) mediates trafficking of leukocytes to sites of inflammation. However, the contribution of CCR1 to pain is incompletely understood. Here we report an unexpected discovery that CCR1-mediated trafficking of neutrophils and CCR1 activity on non-hematopoietic cells both modulate pain. Using a genetic approach (CCR1?/? animals) and pharmacological inhibition of CCR1 with selective inhibitors, we show significant reductions in pain responses using the acetic acid-induced writhing and complete Freund's adjuvant-induced mechanical hyperalgesia models. Reductions in writhing correlated with reduced trafficking of myeloid cells into the peritoneal cavity. We show that CCR1 is highly expressed on circulating neutrophils and their depletion decreases acetic acid-induced writhing. However, administration of neutrophils into the peritoneal cavity did not enhance acetic acid-induced writhing in wild-type (WT) or CCR1?/? mice. Additionally, selective knockout of CCR1 in either the hematopoietic or non-hematopoietic compartments also reduced writhing. Together these data suggest that CCR1 functions to significantly modulate pain by controlling neutrophil trafficking to the inflammatory site and having an unexpected role on non-hematopoietic cells. As inflammatory diseases are often accompanied with infiltrating immune cells at the inflammatory site and pain, CCR1 antagonism may provide a dual benefit by restricting leukocyte trafficking and reducing pain. PMID:25170619

Lewis, Nuruddeen D.; Muthukumarana, Akalushi; Fogal, Steven E.; Corradini, Laura; Stefanopoulos, Dimitria E.; Adusumalli, Prathima; Pelletier, Josephine; Panzenbeck, Mark; Berg, Karen; Canfield, Melissa; Cook, Brian N.; Razavi, Hossein; Kuzmich, Daniel; Anderson, Shawn; Allard, Devan; Harrison, Paul; Grimaldi, Christine; Souza, Donald; Harcken, Christian; Fryer, Ryan M.; Modis, Louise K.; Brown, Maryanne L.

2014-01-01

96

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The purpose of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is to replace diseased, damaged, or absent hematopoietic stem\\u000a cells (HSCs) with healthy HSCs. In general, allogeneic transplants are used when the hematopoietic stem cells are diseased\\u000a (e.g., leukemia), damaged (e.g., sickle cell disease), or absent (e.g., severe immunodeficiency disease). Autologous transplants\\u000a are used to provide stem cell rescue after higher doses

Robbie Norville; Deborah Tomlinson

97

The Nuclear Orphan Receptor TR4 Promotes Proliferation of Myeloid Progenitor Cells1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear receptors represent key regulators in cell proliferation, differentiation, and development. Here we demonstrate that the nuclear orphan receptor TR4 is highly expressed in hematopoietic cells and tissues and have analyzed the impact of TR4 in this cell compartment. We show that TR4, when ectopically expressed in bone marrow cells via retrovirus vector, promotes proliferation of myeloid progenitor cells. Cells

Nicolas P. Koritschoner; Jaime Madruga; Signe Knespel; Gitta Blendinger; Birgit Anzinger; Albrecht Otto; Martin Zenke

2001-01-01

98

Overexpression of primary microRNA 221/222 in acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Background Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematopoietic malignancy with a dismal outcome in the majority of cases. A detailed understanding of the genetic alterations and gene expression changes that contribute to its pathogenesis is important to improve prognostication, disease monitoring, and therapy. In this context, leukemia-associated misexpression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been studied, but no coherent picture has emerged yet, thus warranting further investigations. Methods The expression of 636 human miRNAs was compared between samples from 52 patients with AML and 13 healthy individuals by highly specific locked nucleic acid (LNA) based microarray technology. The levels of individual mature miRNAs and of primary miRNAs (pri-miRs) were determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase (qRT) PCR. Transfections and infections of human cell lines were performed using standard procedures. Results 64 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between AML and controls. Further studies on the clustered miRNAs 221 and 222, already known to act as oncogenes in other tumor types, revealed a deficiency of human myeloid cell lines to process vector derived precursor transcripts. Moreover, endogenous pri-miR-221/222 was overexpressed to a substantially higher extent than its mature products in most primary AML samples, indicating that its transcription was enhanced, but processing was rate limiting, in these cells. Comparison of samples from the times of diagnosis, remission, and relapse of AML demonstrated that pri-miR-221/222 levels faithfully reflected the stage of disease. Conclusions Expression of some miRNAs is strongly regulated at the posttranscriptional level in AML. Pri-miR-221/222 represents a novel molecular marker and putative oncogene in this disease. PMID:23895238

2013-01-01

99

Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

What is acute myeloid leukemia (AML)? The second most common type of acute leukemia in adults, AML is a cancer of the blood and bone ... American Cancer Society). Type the keywords acute myeloid leukemia into the search box. What kinds of questions ...

100

[The drosophila hematopoietic niche].  

PubMed

Stem cells are required for both tissue renewal and repair in response to injury. The maintenance and function of stem cells is controlled by their specific cellular microenvironment called "niche". Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) that give rise to all blood cell types have been extensively studied in mammals. Genetic and molecular analyses performed in mice identified several signaling pathways involved in the cellular communications between HSC and their niche. However, hematopoietic niche plasticity remains poorly understood. The discovery of a Drosophila hematopoietic niche, called PSC, established a new model to decipher the niche function in vivo. Size control of the PSC is essential to maintain hematopoietic tissue homeostasis and a molecular cascade controlling the PSC cell number has been characterized. Novel parallels between Drosophila and mammalian hematopoietic niches open new perspectives for studies of HSC biology in human. PMID:24472463

Morin-Poulard, Ismaël; Louradour, Isabelle; Vanzo, Nathalie; Crozatier, Michèle

2014-01-01

101

Epigenetic control of dendritic cell development and fate determination of common myeloid progenitor by Mysm1.  

PubMed

The mechanisms controlling the development of dendritic cells (DCs) remain incompletely understood. Using an Mysm1 knockout (Mysm1(-/-)) mouse model, we identified the histone H2A deubiquitinase Mysm1, as a critical regulator in DC differentiation. Mysm1(-/-) mice showed a global reduction of DCs in lymphoid organs, whereas development of granulocytes and macrophages were not severely affected. Hematopoietic progenitors and DC precursors were significantly decreased in Mysm1(-/-) mice and defective in Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3(Flt3) ligand-induced, but not in granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-induced DC differentiation in vitro. Molecular studies demonstrated that the developmental defect of DCs from common myeloid progenitor (CMP) in Mysm1(-/-) mice is associated with decreased Flt3 expression and that Mysm1 derepresses transcription of the Flt3 gene by directing histone modifications at the Flt3 promoter region. Two molecular mechanisms were found to be responsible for the selective role of Mysm1 in lineage determination of DCs from CMPs: the selective expression of Mysm1 in a subset of CMPs and the different requirement of Mysm1 for PU.1 recruitment to the Flt3 locus vs GM-CSF-? and macrophage-colony-stimulating factor receptor loci. In conclusion, this study reveals an essential role of Mysm1 in epigenetic regulation of Flt3 transcription and DC development, and it provides a novel mechanism for lineage determination from CMP. PMID:25217698

Won, Haejung; Nandakumar, Vijayalakshmi; Yates, Peter; Sanchez, Suzi; Jones, Lindsey; Huang, Xue F; Chen, Si-Yi

2014-10-23

102

Immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Immunotherapeutic strategies have become part of standard cancer treatment. Chimeric and humanized antibodies have demonstrated activity against a variety of tumors. Although the humanized anti-CD33 antibody HuM195 has only modest activity against overt acute myeloid leukemia (AML), it can eliminate minimal residual disease in acute promyelocytic leukemia. High-dose radioimmunotherapy with b-particle-emitting isotopes targeting CD33, CD45, and CD66 can potentially allow intensification of antileukemic therapy before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Conversely, a-particle immunotherapy with isotopes such as bismuth-213 or actinium-225 offers the possibility of selective tumor cell kill while sparing surrounding normal tissues. Targeted chemotherapy with the anti-CD33- calicheamicin construct gemtuzumab ozogamicin has produced remissions in relapsed AML and appears promising when used in combination with standard chemotherapy for newly diagnosed AML. T-cell recognition of peptide antigens presented on the cell surface in combination with major histocompatibility complex antigen provides another potentially promising approach for the treatment of AML. PMID:16091194

Jurcic, Joseph G

2005-09-01

103

Epo and other hematopoietic factors  

PubMed Central

The growth factors erythropoietin and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor have hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic functions. Both are used clinically in their recombinant forms. Both also have interesting tissue-protective effects in other organs, which are unrelated to their hematopoietic functions. They have clinical hematopoietic uses in neonatal populations and in experimental non-hematopoietic research, and clinical potential as neuroprotective or tissue-protective agents. PMID:17321813

Juul, Sandra; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula

2007-01-01

104

BRAF-V600E expression in precursor versus differentiated dendritic cells defines clinically distinct LCH risk groups  

PubMed Central

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal disorder with elusive etiology, characterized by the accumulation of CD207+ dendritic cells (DCs) in inflammatory lesions. Recurrent BRAF-V600E mutations have been reported in LCH. In this study, lesions from 100 patients were genotyped, and 64% carried the BRAF-V600E mutation within infiltrating CD207+ DCs. BRAF-V600E expression in tissue DCs did not define specific clinical risk groups but was associated with increased risk of recurrence. Strikingly, we found that patients with active, high-risk LCH also carried BRAF-V600E in circulating CD11c+ and CD14+ fractions and in bone marrow (BM) CD34+ hematopoietic cell progenitors, whereas the mutation was restricted to lesional CD207+ DC in low-risk LCH patients. Importantly, BRAF-V600E expression in DCs was sufficient to drive LCH-like disease in mice. Consistent with our findings in humans, expression of BRAF-V600E in BM DC progenitors recapitulated many features of the human high-risk LCH, whereas BRAF-V600E expression in differentiated DCs more closely resembled low-risk LCH. We therefore propose classification of LCH as a myeloid neoplasia and hypothesize that high-risk LCH arises from somatic mutation of a hematopoietic progenitor, whereas low-risk disease arises from somatic mutation of tissue-restricted precursor DCs. PMID:24638167

Berres, Marie-Luise; Lim, Karen Phaik Har; Peters, Tricia; Price, Jeremy; Takizawa, Hitoshi; Salmon, Hélène; Idoyaga, Juliana; Ruzo, Albert; Lupo, Philip J.; Hicks, M. John; Shih, Albert; Simko, Stephen J.; Abhyankar, Harshal; Chakraborty, Rikhia; Leboeuf, Marylene; Beltrão, Monique; Lira, Sérgio A.; Heym, Kenneth M.; Clausen, Björn E.; Bigley, Venetia; Collin, Matthew; Manz, Markus G.; McClain, Kenneth

2014-01-01

105

Acute myeloid leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is cancer that starts inside bone marrow. This is the soft tissue in the center of bones that helps form all blood cells. The cancer grows from cells that would normally turn into ...

106

Advances in treating acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) arises within the bone marrow from a malignant hematopoietic progenitor cell. Though AML is still often fatal, cure rates overall continue to improve incrementally yet steadily, primarily for two reasons: first, insights into the pathogenesis of AML over the last several decades have led to the development of a relatively sophisticated classification scheme that allows more nuanced risk stratification to guide treatment choices; second, improvements in stem cell transplantation have allowed many more patients to take advantage of this highly effective therapeutic technique. Improvements in overall survival for patients with AML are expected to continue rising because of the anticipated introduction of targeted therapies into this treatment platform. PMID:25374674

Showel, Margaret M.

2014-01-01

107

Hematopoietic Stem Cells Contribute to Lymphatic  

E-print Network

Background: Although the lymphatic system arises as an extension of venous vessels in the embryo, little is known about the role of circulating progenitors in the maintenance or development of lymphatic endothelium. Here, we investigated whether hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have the potential to give rise to lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC). Methodology/Principal Findings: Following the transfer of marked HSCs into irradiated recipients, donor-derived LEC that co-express the lymphatic endothelial markers Lyve-1 and VEGFR-3 were identified in several tissues. HSC-derived LEC persisted for more than 12 months and contributed to,3–4 % of lymphatic vessels. Donor-derived LECs were not detected in mice transplanted with common myeloid progenitors and granulocyte/macrophage progenitors, suggesting that myeloid lineage commitment is not a requisite step in HSC contribution to lymphatic endothelium. Analysis of parabiotic mice revealed direct evidence for the existence of functional, circulating lymphatic progenitors in the absence of acute injury. Furthermore, the transplantation of HSCs into Apc Min/+ mice resulted in the incorporation of donor-derived LEC into the lymphatic vessels of spontaneously arising intestinal tumors. Conclusions/Significance: Our results indicate that HSCs can contribute to normal and tumor associated lymphatic endothelium. These findings suggest that the modification of HSCs may be a novel approach for targeting tumor metastasis

Shuguang Jiang; Alexis S. Bailey; Devorah C. Goldman; John R. Swain; Melissa H. Wong; Philip R. Streeter; William H. Fleming

2008-01-01

108

In vivo evidence for an instructive role of fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) ligand in hematopoietic development.  

PubMed

Cytokines are essential regulators of hematopoiesis, acting in an instructive or permissive way. Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (FLT3L) is an important cytokine for the development of several hematopoietic populations. Its receptor (FLT3) is expressed on both myeloid and lymphoid progenitors and deletion of either the receptor or its ligand leads to defective developmental potential of hematopoietic progenitors. In vivo administration of FLT3L promotes expansion of progenitors with combined myeloid and lymphoid potential. To investigate further the role of this cytokine in hematopoietic development, we generated transgenic mice expressing high levels of human FLT3L. These transgenic mice displayed a dramatic expansion of dendritic and myeloid cells, leading to splenomegaly and blood leukocytosis. Bone marrow myeloid and lymphoid progenitors were significantly increased in numbers but retained their developmental potential. Furthermore, the transgenic mice developed anemia together with a reduction in platelet numbers. FLT3L was shown to rapidly reduce the earliest erythroid progenitors when injected into wild-type mice, indicating a direct negative role of the cytokine on erythropoiesis. We conclude that FLT3L acts on multipotent progenitors in an instructive way, inducing their development into myeloid/lymphoid lineages while suppressing their megakaryocyte/erythrocyte potential. PMID:24463214

Tsapogas, Panagiotis; Swee, Lee Kim; Nusser, Anja; Nuber, Natko; Kreuzaler, Matthias; Capoferri, Giuseppina; Rolink, Hannie; Ceredig, Rhodri; Rolink, Antonius

2014-04-01

109

Tif1? regulates the TGF-?1 receptor and promotes physiological aging of hematopoietic stem cells  

PubMed Central

The hematopoietic system declines with age. Myeloid-biased differentiation and increased incidence of myeloid malignancies feature aging of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but the mechanisms involved remain uncertain. Here, we report that 4-mo-old mice deleted for transcription intermediary factor 1? (Tif1?) in HSCs developed an accelerated aging phenotype. To reinforce this result, we also show that Tif1? is down-regulated in HSCs during aging in 20-mo-old wild-type mice. We established that Tif1? controls TGF-?1 receptor (Tgfbr1) turnover. Compared with young HSCs, Tif1??/? and old HSCs are more sensitive to TGF-? signaling. Importantly, we identified two populations of HSCs specifically discriminated by Tgfbr1 expression level and provided evidence of the capture of myeloid-biased (Tgfbr1hi) and myeloid-lymphoid-balanced (Tgfbr1lo) HSCs. In conclusion, our data provide a new paradigm for Tif1? in regulating the balance between lymphoid- and myeloid-derived HSCs through TGF-? signaling, leading to HSC aging. PMID:25002492

Quéré, Ronan; Saint-Paul, Laetitia; Carmignac, Virginie; Martin, Romain Z.; Chrétien, Marie-Lorraine; Largeot, Anne; Hammann, Arlette; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Bastie, Jean-Noël; Delva, Laurent

2014-01-01

110

Hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cell mechanisms in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of disorders characterized by variable cytopenias and ineffective hematopoiesis. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid progenitors in MDS have not been extensively characterized. We transplanted purified human HSCs from MDS samples into immunodeficient mice and show that HSCs are the disease-initiating cells in MDS. We identify a recurrent loss of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs) in the bone marrow of low risk MDS patients that can distinguish low risk MDS from clinical mimics, thus providing a simple diagnostic tool. The loss of GMPs is likely due to increased apoptosis and increased phagocytosis, the latter due to the up-regulation of cell surface calreticulin, a prophagocytic marker. Blocking calreticulin on low risk MDS myeloid progenitors rescues them from phagocytosis in vitro. However, in the high-risk refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) stages of MDS, the GMP population is increased in frequency compared with normal, and myeloid progenitors evade phagocytosis due to up-regulation of CD47, an antiphagocytic marker. Blocking CD47 leads to the selective phagocytosis of this population. We propose that MDS HSCs compete with normal HSCs in the patients by increasing their frequency at the expense of normal hematopoiesis, that the loss of MDS myeloid progenitors by programmed cell death and programmed cell removal are, in part, responsible for the cytopenias, and that up-regulation of the "don't eat me" signal CD47 on MDS myeloid progenitors is an important transition step leading from low risk MDS to high risk MDS and, possibly, to acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:23388639

Pang, Wendy W; Pluvinage, John V; Price, Elizabeth A; Sridhar, Kunju; Arber, Daniel A; Greenberg, Peter L; Schrier, Stanley L; Park, Christopher Y; Weissman, Irving L

2013-02-19

111

Hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cell mechanisms in myelodysplastic syndromes  

PubMed Central

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of disorders characterized by variable cytopenias and ineffective hematopoiesis. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid progenitors in MDS have not been extensively characterized. We transplanted purified human HSCs from MDS samples into immunodeficient mice and show that HSCs are the disease-initiating cells in MDS. We identify a recurrent loss of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs) in the bone marrow of low risk MDS patients that can distinguish low risk MDS from clinical mimics, thus providing a simple diagnostic tool. The loss of GMPs is likely due to increased apoptosis and increased phagocytosis, the latter due to the up-regulation of cell surface calreticulin, a prophagocytic marker. Blocking calreticulin on low risk MDS myeloid progenitors rescues them from phagocytosis in vitro. However, in the high-risk refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) stages of MDS, the GMP population is increased in frequency compared with normal, and myeloid progenitors evade phagocytosis due to up-regulation of CD47, an antiphagocytic marker. Blocking CD47 leads to the selective phagocytosis of this population. We propose that MDS HSCs compete with normal HSCs in the patients by increasing their frequency at the expense of normal hematopoiesis, that the loss of MDS myeloid progenitors by programmed cell death and programmed cell removal are, in part, responsible for the cytopenias, and that up-regulation of the “don’t eat me” signal CD47 on MDS myeloid progenitors is an important transition step leading from low risk MDS to high risk MDS and, possibly, to acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:23388639

Pang, Wendy W.; Pluvinage, John V.; Price, Elizabeth A.; Sridhar, Kunju; Arber, Daniel A.; Greenberg, Peter L.; Schrier, Stanley L.; Park, Christopher Y.; Weissman, Irving L.

2013-01-01

112

Changes in the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a model for diffusion of medical technology  

PubMed Central

Background Innovations in hematology spread rapidly. Factors affecting the speed of introduction, international diffusion, and durability of use of innovations are, however, poorly understood. Design and Methods We used data on 251,106 hematopoietic stem cell transplants from 591 teams in 36 European countries to analyze the increase and decrease in such transplants for breast cancer and chronic myeloid leukemia and the replacement of bone marrow by peripheral blood as the source of stem cells as processes of diffusion. Regression analyses were used to measure the quantitative impact of defined macro- and microeconomic factors, to look for significant associations (t-test), and to describe the coefficient of determination or explanatory content (R2). Results Gross national income per capita, World Bank category, team density, team distribution, team size, team experience and, team innovator status were all significantly associated with some or all of the changes. The analyses revealed different patterns of associations and a wide range of explanatory content. Macro- and micro-economic factors were sufficient to explain the increase of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants in general (R2 = 78.41%) and for chronic myeloid leukemia in particular (R2 = 79.39%). They were insufficient to explain the changes in stem cell source (R2 =26.79% autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplants; R2 = 9.67% allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants) or the decreases in hematopoietic stem cell transplants (R2 =10.22% breast cancer; R2=33.17% chronic myeloid leukemia). Conclusions The diffusion of hematopoietic stem cell transplants is more complex than previously thought. Availability of resources, evidence, external regulations and, expectations were identified as key determinants. These data might serve as a model for diffusion of medical technology in general. PMID:20378578

Gratwohl, Alois; Schwendener, Alvin; Baldomero, Helen; Gratwohl, Michael; Apperley, Jane; Niederwieser, Dietger; Frauendorfer, Karl

2010-01-01

113

Myeloid regulatory cells in tumor spreading and metastasis.  

PubMed

Development of metastasis is determined by both the accretion of essential changes in cancerous cells and by their communications with different stromal elements in the tumor microenvironment. Specifically, inflammatory response and emergence of immune regulatory cells, such and myeloid regulatory cells (macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, myeloid-derived suppressor cells) and lymphoid regulatory cells (regulatory T, B and NK cells) to the tumor site have been reported to support tumor growth in addition to spreading and metastasis. Every phase of tumor progression, from its initiation through metastatic expansion, is endorsed by interaction between malignant and immune cells mediated by a number of growth factors, cytokines, proteases and other molecules that modify the tumor microenvironment. Invasion and metastasis depend on intratumoral vascularization, alterations of the basement membrane and degradation of the extracellular matrix for tumor cell spreading, invasion and extravasation into the blood and lymphatic vessels. The consequent dissemination of cancerous cells to distant tissues and organs necessitates a trafficking through the vasculature, which is promoted by further interactions with cells of the immune system, including myeloid regulatory cells. Moreover, the formation of the pre-metastatic niche and specific metastasis organ tropism is also regulated and controlled by bone marrow-derived hematopoietic immune progenitor cells, immature myeloid cells and certain cytokines, chemokines and growth factors derived from tumor and immune cells, which amend the local microenvironment of the organ or tissue to promote adhesion and survival of circulating cancerous cells. Although the potential role for myeloid regulatory cells in tumor spreading and development of pre-metastatic niche has been suggested, the concept still requires further supportive experimental and clinical data, as well as data related to specific factors and mechanisms responsible for myeloid regulatory cell functioning at malignant sites. PMID:25178934

Keskinov, Anton A; Shurin, Michael R

2015-02-01

114

Ectopic bone formation in severely combat-injured orthopedic patients -- a hematopoietic niche.  

PubMed

Combat-related heterotopic ossification (HO) has emerged as a common and problematic complication of modern wartime extremity injuries, contributing to substantial patient morbidity and loss of function. We have previously reported that HO-forming patients exhibit a more pronounced systemic and local inflammatory response very early in the wound healing process. Moreover, traumatized muscle-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells from these patients have a skewed differentiation potential toward bone. Here, we demonstrate that HO lesions excised from this patient population contain highly vascularized, mature, cancellous bone containing adipogenic marrow. Histologic analysis showed immature hematopoietic cells located within distinct foci in perivascular regions. The adipogenic marrow often contained low numbers of functional erythroid (BFU-E), myeloid (CFU-GM, CFU-M) and multilineage (CFU-GEMM) colony-forming hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Conversely, tissue from control muscle and non-HO traumatic wound granulation tissue showed no evidence of hematopoietic progenitor cell activity. In summary, our findings suggest that ectopic bone can provide an appropriate hematopoietic microenvironment for supporting the proliferation and differentiation of HPCs. This reactive and vibrant cell population may help maintain normal hematopoietic function, particularly in those with major extremity amputations who have sustained both massive blood loss, prompting systemic marrow stimulation, as well as loss of available native active marrow space. These findings begin to characterize the functional biology of ectopic bone and elucidate the interactions between HPC and non-hematopoietic cell types within the ectopic intramedullary hematopoietic microenvironmental niche identified. PMID:23727270

Davis, Thomas A; Lazdun, Yelena; Potter, Benjamin K; Forsberg, Jonathan A

2013-09-01

115

STAT5 in hematopoietic stem cell biology and transplantation  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) regulates normal lympho-myeloid development through activation downstream of early-acting cytokines, their receptors, and Janus kinases (JAKs). Despite a general understanding of the role of STAT5 in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) proliferation, survival, and self-renewal, the transcriptional targets and mechanisms of gene regulation that control multi-lineage engraftment following transplantation for the most part remain to be understood. In this review, we focus on the role of STAT5 in HSC transplantation and recent developments toward identifying the relevant downstream target genes and their role as part of a pleiotropic STAT5 mediated signaling response. PMID:24498540

Wang, Zhengqi; Bunting, Kevin D

2013-01-01

116

Leukomogenic factors downregulate heparanase expression in acute myeloid leukemia cells  

SciTech Connect

Heparanase is a heparan sulfate-degrading endoglycosidase expressed by mature monocytes and myeloid cells, but not by immature hematopoietic progenitors. Heparanase gene expression is upregulated during differentiation of immature myeloid cells. PML-RAR{alpha} and PLZF-RAR{alpha} fusion gene products associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia abrogate myeloid differentiation and heparanase expression. AML-Eto, a translocation product associated with AML FAB M2, also downregulates heparanase gene expression. The common mechanism that underlines the activity of these three fusion gene products involves the recruitment of histone deacetylase complexes to specific locations within the DNA. We found that retinoic acid that dissociates PML-RAR{alpha} from the DNA, and which is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia patients, restores heparanase expression to normal levels in an acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line. The retinoic acid effects were also observed in primary acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and in a retinoic acid-treated acute promyelocytic leukemia patient. Histone deacetylase inhibitor reverses the downregulation of heparanase expression induced by the AML-Eto fusion gene product in M2 type AML. In summary, we have characterized a link between leukomogenic factors and the downregulation of heparanase in myeloid leukemic cells.

Eshel, Rinat [Hematology Institute, Sourasky Medical Center, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Ben-Zaken, Olga [Department of Oncology, Hadassah-Hebrew University hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Vainas, Oded [The Hematology Institute, Sourasky Medical Center, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Nadir, Yona [Department of Hematology, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel); Minucci, Saverio [European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Polliack, Aaron [Department of Hematology, Hadassah-Hebrew University hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Naparstek, Ella [Hematology Institute, Sourasky Medical Center, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Vlodavsky, Israel [Cancer and Vascular Biology Research Center, Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Haifa (Israel); Katz, Ben-Zion [Hematology Institute, Sourasky Medical Center, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); E-mail: bkatz@tasmc.healt.gov.il

2005-10-07

117

Expression profile of CREB knockdown in myeloid leukemia cells  

PubMed Central

Background The cAMP Response Element Binding Protein, CREB, is a transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival in several model systems, including neuronal and hematopoietic cells. We demonstrated that CREB is overexpressed in acute myeloid and leukemia cells compared to normal hematopoietic stem cells. CREB knockdown inhibits leukemic cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo, but does not affect long-term hematopoietic reconstitution. Methods To understand downstream pathways regulating CREB, we performed expression profiling with RNA from the K562 myeloid leukemia cell line transduced with CREB shRNA. Results By combining our expression data from CREB knockdown cells with prior ChIP data on CREB binding we were able to identify a list of putative CREB regulated genes. We performed extensive analyses on the top genes in this list as high confidence CREB targets. We found that this list is enriched for genes involved in cancer, and unexpectedly, highly enriched for histone genes. Furthermore, histone genes regulated by CREB were more likely to be specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineages. Decreased expression of specific histone genes was validated in K562, TF-1, and primary AML cells transduced with CREB shRNA. Conclusion We have identified a high confidence list of CREB targets in K562 cells. These genes allow us to begin to understand the mechanisms by which CREB contributes to acute leukemia. We speculate that regulation of histone genes may play an important role by possibly altering the regulation of DNA replication during the cell cycle. PMID:18801183

Pellegrini, Matteo; Cheng, Jerry C; Voutila, Jon; Judelson, Dejah; Taylor, Julie; Nelson, Stanley F; Sakamoto, Kathleen M

2008-01-01

118

Human embryonic stem cell-derived hematopoietic cells maintain core epigenetic machinery of the polycomb group/Trithorax Group complexes distinctly from functional adult hematopoietic stem cells.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have a number of potential utilities, including the modeling of hematological disorders in vitro, whereas the use for cell replacement therapies has proved to be a loftier goal. This is due to the failure of differentiated hematopoietic cells, derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), to functionally recapitulate the in vivo properties of bona fide adult hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). To better understand the limitations of differentiation programming at the molecular level, we have utilized differential gene expression analysis of highly purified cells that are enriched for hematopoietic repopulating activity across embryonic, fetal, and adult human samples, including in vivo explants of human HSPCs 8-weeks post-transplantation. We reveal that hESC-derived hematopoietic progenitor cells (eHPCs) fail to express critical transcription factors which are known to govern self-renewal and myeloid/lymphoid development and instead retain the expression of Polycomb Group (PcG) and Trithorax Group (TrxG) factors which are more prevalent in embryonic cell types that include EZH1 and ASH1L, respectively. These molecular profiles indicate that the differential expression of the core epigenetic machinery comprising PcGs/TrxGs in eHPCs may serve as previously unexplored molecular targets that direct hematopoietic differentiation of PSCs toward functional HSPCs in humans. PMID:22800282

Schnerch, Angelique; Lee, Jung Bok; Graham, Monica; Guezguez, Borhane; Bhatia, Mickie

2013-01-01

119

Negative Cross-Talk between Hematopoietic Regulators: GATA Proteins Repress PU.1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The process through which multipotential hematopoietic cells commit to distinct lineages involves the induction of specific transcription factors. PU.1 (also known as Spi-1) and GATA-1 are transcription factors essential for the development of myeloid and erythroid lineages, respectively. Overexpression of PU.1 and GATA-1 can block differentiation in lineages in which they normally are down-regulated, indicating that not only positive but

Pu Zhang; Gerhard Behre; Jing Pan; Atsushi Iwama; Nawarat Wara-Aswapati; Hanna S. Radomska; Philip E. Auron; Daniel G. Tenen; Zijie Sun

1999-01-01

120

The Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger Protein Affects Myeloid Cell Growth, Differentiation, and Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF) gene, which is disrupted in therapy-resistant, t(11;17)(q23;q21)- associated acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), is expressed in immature hematopoietic cells and is down- regulated during differentiation. To determine the role of PLZF in myeloid development, we engineered expression of PLZF in murine 32Dcl3 cells. Expression of PLZF had a dramatic growth-suppressive effect accompanied by accumulation of

RITA SHAKNOVICH; PATRICIA L. YEYATI; SARAH IVINS; ARI MELNICK; CHERYL LEMPERT; SAMUEL WAXMAN; ARTHUR ZELENT; JONATHAN D. LICHT

1998-01-01

121

NDRG1\\/2 expression is inhibited in primary acute myeloid leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of N-myc downregulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is associated with growth arrest and differentiation of tumor cells. In hematopoietic cells, NDRG1 was identified in a screen for differentiation-related genes in human myelomonocytic leukemic U937 cells. In the present study, we found significantly higher NDRG1 mRNA levels in granulocytes of healthy donors than in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Another

Mario P. Tschan; Deborah Shan; Judith Laedrach; Marianne Eyholzer; Elisabeth Oppliger Leibundgut; Gabriela M. Baerlocher; Andreas Tobler; Deborah Stroka; Martin F. Fey

2010-01-01

122

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia transformed to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the MPN Subcommittee of the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation  

PubMed Central

The clinical course of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia is potentially associated with long-term severe complications, such as evolution to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is currently the only potentially curative treatment for advanced polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia. We analyzed 250 consecutive patients with an initial diagnosis of polycythemia vera (n=120) or essential thrombocythemia (n=130), who underwent transplantation due to progression to myelofibrosis (n=193) or acute myeloid leukemia (n=57) and who were reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry between 1994 and 2010. Their median age was 56 years (range, 22–75) and in 52% of cases the interval between diagnosis and transplantation was 10 years or more. With a median follow-up from transplantation of 13 months, the 3-year overall survival rate and relapse incidence were 55% and 32%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the main parameters that negatively affected post-transplantation outcomes were older age (>55 years), a diagnosis at transplant of acute myeloid leukemia and the use of an unrelated donor. The overall 3-year cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality was 28%, but was significantly higher in older patients than in younger ones (>55 years, 35% versus 20%, P=0.032), in those transplanted from an unrelated donor rather than a related donor (34% versus 18%, P=0.034) and in patients with a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia compared to myelofibrosis (29% versus 27%, P=0.045). This large retrospective study confirms that transplantation is potentially curative for patients with end-stage polycythemia vera/essential thrombocythemia progressing to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia. Relapse and non-relapse mortality remain unsolved problems for which innovative treatment approaches need to be assessed. PMID:24389309

Lussana, Federico; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Finazzi, Maria Chiara; van Biezen, Anja; Scholten, Marijke; Oldani, Elena; Carobbio, Alessandra; Iacobelli, Simona; Finke, Jurgen; Nagler, Arnon; Volin, Liisa; Lamy, Thierry; Arnold, Renate; Mohty, Mohamad; Michallet, Mauricette; de Witte, Theo; Olavarria, Eduardo; Kröger, Nicolaus

2014-01-01

123

Regular Article MYELOID NEOPLASIA  

E-print Network

and engraftment of BCR-ABL11 leukemic stem cells in the bone marrow niche Daniela S. Krause,1,2 Katherine-selectin in the recipient bone marrow endothelium significantly reduced engraftment by BCR-ABL1­expressing stem cells in most patients. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) trans- plantation remains the only proven

von Andrian, Ulrich H.

124

Tumor promoters enhance myeloid and erythroid colony formation by normal mouse hemopoietic cells.  

PubMed Central

The diterpene tumor promoters enhance the proliferation in culture of myeloid and erythroid precursor cells from normal mouse hemopoietic tissues. The effect is observed only with those diterpenes that are tumor promoters, including 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA); diterpenes that are inactive as tumor promoters are ineffective as stimulators of colony formation. Tumor promoters act synergistically with suboptimal concentrations of conditioned medium used as a source of colony-stimulating factor (CSF) to increase both the number and size of myeloid colonies. Formation of myeloid colonies is stimulated by tumor promoters even without addition of CSF. Both pure and mixed granulocyte/macrophage colonies develop; high concentrations (> 100 micrograms/ml) of TPA are more favorable for macrophage colony formation. In erythropoietin-stimulated cultures, tumor promoters enhance the development of relatively early and intermediate of erythroid precursors, whereas later erythroid precursors are unaffected. PMID:6968905

Fibach, E; Marks, P A; Rifkind, R A

1980-01-01

125

Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy for myeloid leukemias.  

PubMed

Acute and chronic myeloid leukemia (AML, CML) are hematologic malignancies arising from oncogene-transformed hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells known as leukemia stem cells (LSCs). LSCs are selectively resistant to various forms of therapy including irradiation or cytotoxic drugs. The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has dramatically improved disease outcome in patients with CML. For AML, however, prognosis is still quite dismal. Standard treatments have been established more than 20?years ago with only limited advances ever since. Durable remission is achieved in less than 30% of patients. Minimal residual disease (MRD), reflected by the persistence of LSCs below the detection limit by conventional methods, causes a high rate of disease relapses. Therefore, the ultimate goal in the treatment of myeloid leukemia must be the eradication of LSCs. Active immunotherapy, aiming at the generation of leukemia-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), may represent a powerful approach to target LSCs in the MRD situation. To fully activate CTLs, leukemia antigens have to be successfully captured, processed, and presented by mature dendritic cells (DCs). Myeloid progenitors are a prominent source of DCs under homeostatic conditions, and it is now well established that LSCs and leukemic blasts can give rise to "malignant" DCs. These leukemia-derived DCs can express leukemia antigens and may either induce anti-leukemic T cell responses or favor tolerance to the leukemia, depending on co-stimulatory or -inhibitory molecules and cytokines. This review will concentrate on the role of DCs in myeloid leukemia immunotherapy with a special focus on their generation, application, and function and how they could be improved in order to generate highly effective and specific anti-leukemic CTL responses. In addition, we discuss how DC-based immunotherapy may be successfully integrated into current treatment strategies to promote remission and potentially cure myeloid leukemias. PMID:24427158

Schürch, Christian M; Riether, Carsten; Ochsenbein, Adrian F

2013-01-01

126

Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy for Myeloid Leukemias  

PubMed Central

Acute and chronic myeloid leukemia (AML, CML) are hematologic malignancies arising from oncogene-transformed hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells known as leukemia stem cells (LSCs). LSCs are selectively resistant to various forms of therapy including irradiation or cytotoxic drugs. The introduction of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has dramatically improved disease outcome in patients with CML. For AML, however, prognosis is still quite dismal. Standard treatments have been established more than 20?years ago with only limited advances ever since. Durable remission is achieved in less than 30% of patients. Minimal residual disease (MRD), reflected by the persistence of LSCs below the detection limit by conventional methods, causes a high rate of disease relapses. Therefore, the ultimate goal in the treatment of myeloid leukemia must be the eradication of LSCs. Active immunotherapy, aiming at the generation of leukemia-specific cytotoxic T cells (CTLs), may represent a powerful approach to target LSCs in the MRD situation. To fully activate CTLs, leukemia antigens have to be successfully captured, processed, and presented by mature dendritic cells (DCs). Myeloid progenitors are a prominent source of DCs under homeostatic conditions, and it is now well established that LSCs and leukemic blasts can give rise to “malignant” DCs. These leukemia-derived DCs can express leukemia antigens and may either induce anti-leukemic T cell responses or favor tolerance to the leukemia, depending on co-stimulatory or -inhibitory molecules and cytokines. This review will concentrate on the role of DCs in myeloid leukemia immunotherapy with a special focus on their generation, application, and function and how they could be improved in order to generate highly effective and specific anti-leukemic CTL responses. In addition, we discuss how DC-based immunotherapy may be successfully integrated into current treatment strategies to promote remission and potentially cure myeloid leukemias. PMID:24427158

Schürch, Christian M.; Riether, Carsten; Ochsenbein, Adrian F.

2013-01-01

127

Spleens of myelofibrosis patients contain malignant hematopoietic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Cancer stem cell behavior is thought to be largely determined by intrinsic properties and by regulatory signals provided by the microenvironment. Myelofibrosis (MF) is characterized by hematopoiesis occurring not only in the marrow but also in extramedullary sites such as the spleen. In order to study the effects of these different microenvironments on primitive malignant hematopoietic cells, we phenotypically and functionally characterized splenic and peripheral blood (PB) MF CD34+ cells from patients with MF. MF spleens contained greater numbers of malignant primitive HPCs than PB. Transplantation of PB MF CD34+ cells into immunodeficient (NOD/SCID/IL2R?null) mice resulted in a limited degree of donor cell chimerism and a differentiation program skewed toward myeloid lineages. By contrast, transplanted splenic MF CD34+ cells achieved a higher level of chimerism and generated both myeloid and lymphoid cells that contained molecular or cytogenetic abnormalities indicating their malignant nature. Only splenic MF CD34+ cells were able to sustain hematopoiesis for prolonged periods (9 months) and were able to engraft secondary recipients. These data document the existence of MF stem cells (MF-SCs) that reside in the spleens of MF patients and demonstrate that these MF-SCs retain a differentiation program identical to that of normal hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:23023702

Wang, Xiaoli; Prakash, Sonam; Lu, Min; Tripodi, Joseph; Ye, Fei; Najfeld, Vesna; Li, Yan; Schwartz, Myron; Weinberg, Rona; Roda, Paul; Orazi, Attilio; Hoffman, Ronald

2012-01-01

128

Hematopoietic stem cell development requires transient Wnt/?-catenin activity  

PubMed Central

Understanding how hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are generated and the signals that control this process is a crucial issue for regenerative medicine applications that require in vitro production of HSC. HSCs emerge during embryonic life from an endothelial-like cell population that resides in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region. We show here that ?-catenin is nuclear and active in few endothelial nonhematopoietic cells closely associated with the emerging hematopoietic clusters of the embryonic aorta during mouse development. Importantly, Wnt/?-catenin activity is transiently required in the AGM to generate long-term HSCs and to produce hematopoietic cells in vitro from AGM endothelial precursors. Genetic deletion of ?-catenin from the embryonic endothelium stage (using VE-cadherin–Cre recombinase), but not from embryonic hematopoietic cells (using Vav1-Cre), precludes progression of mutant cells toward the hematopoietic lineage; however, these mutant cells still contribute to the adult endothelium. Together, those findings indicate that Wnt/?-catenin activity is needed for the emergence but not the maintenance of HSCs in mouse embryos. PMID:22802352

Ruiz-Herguido, Cristina; Guiu, Jordi; D'Altri, Teresa; Inglés-Esteve, Julia; Dzierzak, Elaine; Espinosa, Lluis

2012-01-01

129

Zebrafish model for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation not requiring preconditioning  

PubMed Central

Recent work on vertebrate hematopoiesis has uncovered the presence of deeply rooted similarities between fish and mammals at molecular and cellular levels. Although small animal models such as zebrafish are ideally suited for genetic and chemical screens, the study of cellular aspects of hematopoietic development in lower vertebrates is severely hampered by the complex nature of their histocompatibility-determining genes. Hence, even when hosts are sublethally irradiated before hematopoietic cell transplantation, stable and long-term reconstitution by allogeneic stem cells often fails. Here, we describe the unexpected observation that transplantation and maintenance of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells in zebrafish homozygous for the c-mybt25127 allele, carrying a missense mutation (Ile181Asn) in the DNA binding domain can be achieved without prior conditioning. Using this model, we examined several critical parameters of zebrafish hematopoiesis in a near-physiological setting. Limiting dilution analysis suggests that the kidney marrow of adult zebrafish harbors about 10 transplantable hematopoietic stem cells; this tissue also contains thymus-settling precursors that colonize the thymic rudiment within days after transplantation and initiate robust T-cell development. We also demonstrate that c-myb mutants can be stably reconstituted with hematopoietic cells carrying specific genetic defects in lymphocyte development, exemplifying one of the many potential uses of this model in experimental hematology. PMID:23431192

Hess, Isabell; Iwanami, Norimasa; Schorpp, Michael; Boehm, Thomas

2013-01-01

130

Negative cross-talk between hematopoietic regulators: GATA proteins repress PU.1  

PubMed Central

The process through which multipotential hematopoietic cells commit to distinct lineages involves the induction of specific transcription factors. PU.1 (also known as Spi-1) and GATA-1 are transcription factors essential for the development of myeloid and erythroid lineages, respectively. Overexpression of PU.1 and GATA-1 can block differentiation in lineages in which they normally are down-regulated, indicating that not only positive but negative regulation of these factors plays a role in normal hematopoietic lineage development. Here we demonstrate that a region of the PU.1 Ets domain (the winged helix–turn–helix wing) interacts with the conserved carboxyl-terminal zinc finger of GATA-1 and GATA-2 and that GATA proteins inhibit PU.1 transactivation of critical myeloid target genes. We demonstrate further that GATA inhibits binding of PU.1 to c-Jun, a critical coactivator of PU.1 transactivation of myeloid promoters. Finally, PU.1 protein can inhibit both GATA-1 and GATA-2 transactivation function. Our results suggest that interactions between PU.1 and GATA proteins play a critical role in the decision of stem cells to commit to erythroid vs. myeloid lineages. PMID:10411939

Zhang, Pu; Behre, Gerhard; Pan, Jing; Iwama, Atsushi; Wara-aswapati, Nawarat; Radomska, Hanna S.; Auron, Philip E.; Tenen, Daniel G.; Sun, Zijie

1999-01-01

131

Gene mutations, epigenetic dysregulation, and personalized therapy in myeloid neoplasia: are we there yet?  

PubMed

Myeloid neoplasms are characterized by acquired somatic mutations and epigenetic alterations in genes that are crucial for hematopoietic differentiation and cellular proliferation and survival pathways. The heterogeneity and genetic complexity of these disorders is daunting, but the improvement in our knowledge of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying myeloid transformation, coupled with the increasing availability of agents that target these pathways, offers unique opportunities for improved therapy. This review will focus on common mutations that are of therapeutic or prognostic importance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and the classic Philadelphia chromosome-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (Ph(-) MPNs), in the context of discussing the potential for risk-adapted and targeted therapeutic approaches for these diseases. PMID:21421110

Odenike, Olatoyosi; Thirman, Michael J; Artz, Andrew S; Godley, Lucy A; Larson, Richard A; Stock, Wendy

2011-04-01

132

Long-term hematopoietic stem cell damage in a murine model of the hematopoietic syndrome of the acute radiation syndrome.  

PubMed

Residual bone marrow damage (RBMD) persists for years following exposure to radiation and is believed to be due to decreased self-renewal potential of radiation-damaged hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). Current literature has examined primarily sublethal doses of radiation and time points within a few months of exposure. In this study, the authors examined RBMD in mice surviving lethal doses of total body ionizing irradiation (TBI) in a murine model of the Hematopoietic Syndrome of the Acute Radiation Syndrome (H-ARS). Survivors were analyzed at various time points up to 19 mo post-TBI for hematopoietic function. The competitive bone marrow (BM) repopulating potential of 150 purified c-Kit+ Sca-1+ lineage- CD150+ cells (KSLCD150+) remained severely deficient throughout the study compared to KSLCD150+ cells from non-TBI age-matched controls. The minimal engraftment from these TBI HSCs is predominantly myeloid, with minimal production of lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo. All classes of blood cells as well as BM cellularity were significantly decreased in TBI mice, especially at later time points as mice aged. Primitive BM hematopoietic cells (KSLCD150+) displayed significantly increased cell cycling in TBI mice at all time points, which may be a physiological attempt to maintain HSC numbers in the post-irradiation state. Taken together, these data suggest that the increased cycling among primitive hematopoietic cells in survivors of lethal radiation may contribute to long-term HSC exhaustion and subsequent RBMD, exacerbated by the added insult of aging at later time points. PMID:22929468

Chua, Hui Lin; Plett, P Artur; Sampson, Carol H; Joshi, Mandar; Tabbey, Rebeka; Katz, Barry P; MacVittie, Thomas J; Orschell, Christie M

2012-10-01

133

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

More than 25,000 hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCTs) are performed each year for the treatment of lymphoma, leukemia, immune-deficiency illnesses, congenital metabolic defects, hemoglobinopathies, and myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative syndromes. Before transplantation, patients receive intensive myeloablative chemoradiotherapy followed by stem cell “rescue.” Autologous HSCT is performed using the patient’s own hematopoietic stem cells, which are harvested before transplantation and reinfused after myeloablation. Allogeneic HSCT uses human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched stem cells derived from a donor. Survival after allogeneic transplantation depends on donor–recipient matching, the graft-versus-host response, and the development of a graft versus leukemia effect. This article reviews the biology of stem cells, clinical efficacy of HSCT, transplantation procedures, and potential complications. PMID:24198516

Hatzimichael, Eleftheria; Tuthill, Mark

2010-01-01

134

Outcomes of reduced-intensity transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia: an analysis of prognostic factors from the Chronic Leukemia Working Party of the EBMT  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study reports outcomes of alloge- neic hematopoietic stem cell transplanta- tion with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) in 186 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). The median age was 50 years, and 64% were infirst chronic phase (CP1), CP2 13%, accelerated phase 17%, and blast crises 6%. The median EBMT trans-

Charles Crawley; Richard Szydlo; Marc Lalancette; Andrea Bacigalupo; Andrzej Lange; Mats Brune; Gunnar Juliusson; Arnon Nagler; Alois Gratwohl; Jakob Passweg; Mieczysøaw Komarnicki; Antonin Vitek; Jiri Mayer; Axel Zander; Jorge Sierra; Alessandro Rambaldi

2005-01-01

135

Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells from chronic myeloid leukemia t(9;22) patients are devoid of Philadelphia chromosome and support cord blood stem cell expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of hematopoietic stem cells. It is characterized at cytogenetic level by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome and at the molecular level by the BCR\\/ABL gene rearrangement. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are also pluripotent stem cells that can differentiate into several mesenchymal tissues. To date, no study has been performed

Saengsuree Jootar; Nida Pornprasertsud; Sawang Petvises; Busaba Rerkamnuaychoke; Sinee Disthabanchong; Samart Pakakasama; Artit Ungkanont; Suradej Hongeng

2006-01-01

136

Primary Myeloid Sarcoma Masquerading as an Obstructing Duodenal Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Myeloid Sarcoma (MS), a rare extra hematopoietic carcinoma composed of blast cells, is located primarily in extramedullary sites such as skin, soft tissue, lymph nodes, and bone. MS usually presents in the setting of coexisting acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myeloproliferative disorders. Gastrointestinal involvement (GI) is extremely rare from nonspecific abdominal symptoms to obstruction. Eight cases of myeloid sarcoma involving the duodenum including the current case have been reported, overall mean age being 40 years (range 17–71) and M?:?F ratio 7?:?1. The prognosis of patients with de novo MS cases has been reported to be better than those who have a coexisting leukemia. MS is a rare extramedullary tumor, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a soft tissue mass involving the duodenum, especially if there is a coexisting hematological disorder. De novo cases often progress to AML, and current therapy involves Daunorubicin- and Cytarabine-based chemotherapy. The wide cytogenetic and molecular heterogeneity of MS implies a potential role for more targeted MS therapies, which may offer a curative strategy. PMID:23243527

Narayan, Preeti; Murthy, Vijayashree; Su, Mu; Woel, Rosemonde; Grossman, I. Robert; Chamberlain, Ronald S.

2012-01-01

137

Large-Scale Hematopoietic Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Provides Granulocytes or Macrophages for Cell Replacement Therapies  

PubMed Central

Summary Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is capable of supporting the proliferation of a broad range of hematopoietic cell types, whereas granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and macrophage CSF (M-CSF) represent critical cytokines in myeloid differentiation. When this was investigated in a pluripotent-stem-cell-based hematopoietic differentiation model, IL-3/G-CSF or IL-3/M-CSF exposure resulted in the continuous generation of myeloid cells from an intermediate myeloid-cell-forming complex containing CD34+ clonogenic progenitor cells for more than 2 months. Whereas IL-3/G-CSF directed differentiation toward CD45+CD11b+CD15+CD16+CD66b+ granulocytic cells of various differentiation stages up to a segmented morphology displaying the capacity of cytokine-directed migration, respiratory burst response, and neutrophil-extracellular-trap formation, exposure to IL-3/M-CSF resulted in CD45+CD11b+CD14+CD163+CD68+ monocyte/macrophage-type cells capable of phagocytosis and cytokine secretion. Hence, we show here that myeloid specification of human pluripotent stem cells by IL-3/G-CSF or IL-3/M-CSF allows for prolonged and large-scale production of myeloid cells, and thus is suited for cell-fate and disease-modeling studies as well as gene- and cell-therapy applications.

Lachmann, Nico; Ackermann, Mania; Frenzel, Eileen; Liebhaber, Steffi; Brennig, Sebastian; Happle, Christine; Hoffmann, Dirk; Klimenkova, Olga; Lüttge, Doreen; Buchegger, Theresa; Kühnel, Mark Philipp; Schambach, Axel; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Figueiredo, Constanca; Hansen, Gesine; Skokowa, Julia; Moritz, Thomas

2015-01-01

138

Large-scale hematopoietic differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells provides granulocytes or macrophages for cell replacement therapies.  

PubMed

Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is capable of supporting the proliferation of a broad range of hematopoietic cell types, whereas granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and macrophage CSF (M-CSF) represent critical cytokines in myeloid differentiation. When this was investigated in a pluripotent-stem-cell-based hematopoietic differentiation model, IL-3/G-CSF or IL-3/M-CSF exposure resulted in the continuous generation of myeloid cells from an intermediate myeloid-cell-forming complex containing CD34(+) clonogenic progenitor cells for more than 2 months. Whereas IL-3/G-CSF directed differentiation toward CD45(+)CD11b(+)CD15(+)CD16(+)CD66b(+) granulocytic cells of various differentiation stages up to a segmented morphology displaying the capacity of cytokine-directed migration, respiratory burst response, and neutrophil-extracellular-trap formation, exposure to IL-3/M-CSF resulted in CD45(+)CD11b(+)CD14(+)CD163(+)CD68(+) monocyte/macrophage-type cells capable of phagocytosis and cytokine secretion. Hence, we show here that myeloid specification of human pluripotent stem cells by IL-3/G-CSF or IL-3/M-CSF allows for prolonged and large-scale production of myeloid cells, and thus is suited for cell-fate and disease-modeling studies as well as gene- and cell-therapy applications. PMID:25680479

Lachmann, Nico; Ackermann, Mania; Frenzel, Eileen; Liebhaber, Steffi; Brennig, Sebastian; Happle, Christine; Hoffmann, Dirk; Klimenkova, Olga; Lüttge, Doreen; Buchegger, Theresa; Kühnel, Mark Philipp; Schambach, Axel; Janciauskiene, Sabina; Figueiredo, Constanca; Hansen, Gesine; Skokowa, Julia; Moritz, Thomas

2015-02-10

139

Post-remission therapy for acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Induction followed by post-remission therapy including intensive chemotherapy with high-dose cytarabine, autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is recognized as the main road towards cure in acute myeloid leukemia. In recent years, also a renaissance of maintenance therapy after completion of intensive consolidation has been observed with the introduction of kinase inhibitors and demethylating agents in clinical trials. Greater insight into the genetic background of the disease fostered the extension of disease classification and pretreatment risk-categorization by gene mutations. In addition, the pre-treatment risk-defining parameters have been supplemented by markers evaluated at distinct time points during treatment and follow up. In this context, minimal residual disease assessment is increasingly used to dynamically fine tune treatment recommendations. Currently, the gold standard to counterbalance a higher risk of relapse by treatment strategies based on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with grafts from matched related or unrelated donors is still valuable, whereas autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation showed promising results especially in patients categorized as low-risk. Nonetheless, more targeted approaches including kinase inhibitors and demethylating agents in combination with or sequentially before or after intensive chemotherapy are currently in clinical evaluation and may lead to more genotype- instead of purely risk-adapted treatment strategies. PMID:25420282

Schlenk, Richard F.

2014-01-01

140

Early therapy-related myeloid sarcoma and deletion of 9q22.32 to q31.1.  

PubMed

Survival following childhood neuroblastoma is improving with low rates of secondary myeloid neoplasms. We describe a 13-month-old male with intermediate risk neuroblastoma who developed an isolated scalp therapy-related myeloid sarcoma (t-MS). Developmental delays and two distinct malignancies prompted constitutional evaluation. Chromosomal microarray identified a 7.3 Mb deletion of 9q22.32 to 9q31.1. He remains in remission 11 months following hematopoietic cell transplant. Unusual presentations of rare diseases necessitate a multidisciplinary approach and adaptation of standardized protocols to accommodate increased risks imposed by genetic variants. PMID:24668947

Brickler, Molly M; Basel, Donald G; Gheorghe, Gabriela; Margolis, David M; Kelly, Michael E; Ehrhardt, Matthew J

2014-09-01

141

Cancer precursors.  

PubMed

A significant proportion of cutaneous malignancies arise from well-defined precursor lesions that have often been present for many years. This provides an opportunity to reduce rates of skin cancer by recognition and treatment of these lesions. Precursors of keratinocytic malignancy, such as actinic keratoses and Bowen's disease, are extremely common in the older, white population and will frequently be encountered by generalist physicians in the context of examinations for noncutaneous conditions. Less common conditions, such as erythroplasia of Queyrat and nevus sebaceous, are associated with a higher risk of malignant change, and their recognition is therefore imperative. The management of the various precursors of melanoma remains controversial, as the exact risk of malignant transformation of many of these lesions is still unclear. PMID:9669604

Fitzgerald, D A

1998-06-01

142

Reactive oxygen species produced in mitochondria are involved in age-dependent changes of hematopoietic and mesenchymal progenitor cells in mice. A study with the novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifelong treatment of mice with the effective mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 [10-(6?-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium] does not affect hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and more differentiated hematopoietic progenitors but significantly decelerates age-dependent changes in peripheral blood. During the first 13 months, SkQ1 (0.9 or 28.8nmol\\/kgday) prevents age-dependent myeloid shift (increase in the proportion of granulocytes and decrease in the proportion of lymphocytes). During the

I. N. Shipounova; D. A. Svinareva; T. V. Petrova; K. G. Lyamzaev; B. V. Chernyak; N. I. Drize; V. P. Skulachev

2010-01-01

143

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without  

E-print Network

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without irradiation Claudia Waskow1,2, Vikas Madan2, Susanne Bartels2,4, Ce´line Costa2, Rosel Blasig3 & Hans-Reimer Rodewald2 Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC. These obstacles prevent in vivo analysis of histoincompatible mutant stem cells and of HSC functions in non

Cai, Long

144

Nf1 regulates hematopoietic progenitor cell growth and ras signaling in response to multiple cytokines.  

PubMed

Neurofibromin, the protein encoded by the NF1 tumor-suppressor gene, negatively regulates the output of p21(ras) (Ras) proteins by accelerating the hydrolysis of active Ras-guanosine triphosphate to inactive Ras-guanosine diphosphate. Children with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are predisposed to juvenile chronic myelogenous leukemia (JCML) and other malignant myeloid disorders, and heterozygous Nf1 knockout mice spontaneously develop a myeloid disorder that resembles JCML. Both human and murine leukemias show loss of the normal allele. JCML cells and Nf1-/- hematopoietic cells isolated from fetal livers selectively form abnormally high numbers of colonies derived from granulocyte-macrophage progenitors in cultures supplemented with low concentrations of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Taken together, these data suggest that neurofibromin is required to downregulate Ras activation in myeloid cells exposed to GM-CSF. We have investigated the growth and proliferation of purified populations of hematopoietic progenitor cells isolated from Nf1 knockout mice in response to the cytokines interleukin (IL)-3 and stem cell factor (SCF), as well as to GM-CSF. We found abnormal proliferation of both immature and lineage-restricted progenitor populations, and we observed increased synergy between SCF and either IL-3 or GM-CSF in Nf1-/- progenitors. Nf1-/- fetal livers also showed an absolute increase in the numbers of immature progenitors. We further demonstrate constitutive activation of the Ras-Raf-MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinase signaling pathway in primary c-kit+ Nf1-/- progenitors and hyperactivation of MAP kinase after growth factor stimulation. The results of these experiments in primary hematopoietic cells implicate Nf1 as playing a central role in regulating the proliferation and survival of primitive and lineage-restricted myeloid progenitors in response to multiple cytokines by modulating Ras output. PMID:9607929

Zhang, Y Y; Vik, T A; Ryder, J W; Srour, E F; Jacks, T; Shannon, K; Clapp, D W

1998-06-01

145

Childhood and adolescent lymphoid and myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Remarkable progress has been made in the past decade in the treatment and in the understanding of the biology of childhood lymphoid and myeloid leukemias. With contemporary improved risk assessment, chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and supportive care, approximately 80% of children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 50% of those with myeloid neoplasm can be cured to date. Current emphasis is placed not only on increased cure rate but also on improved quality of life. In Section I, Dr. Ching-Hon Pui describes certain clinical and biologic features that still have prognostic and therapeutic relevance in the context of contemporary treatment programs. He emphasizes that treatment failure in some patients is not due to intrinsic drug resistance of leukemic cells but is rather caused by suboptimal drug dosing due to host compliance, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenetics. Hence, measurement of minimal residual disease, which accounts for both the genetic (primary and secondary) features of leukemic lymphoblasts and pharmacogenomic variables of the host, is the most reliable prognostic indicator. Finally, he contends that with optimal risk-directed systemic and intrathecal therapy, cranial irradiation may be omitted in all patients, regardless of the presenting features. In Section II, Dr. Martin Schrappe performs detailed analyses of the prognostic impact of presenting age, leukocyte count, sex, immunophenotype, genetic abnormality, early treatment response, and in vitro drug sensitivity/resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, based on the large database of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster consortium. He also succinctly summarizes the important treatment components resulting in the improved outcome of children and young adolescents with this disease. He describes the treatment approach that led to the improved outcome of adolescent patients, a finding that may be applied to young adults in the second and third decade of life. Finally, he believes that treatment reduction under well-controlled clinical trials is feasible in a subgroup of patients with excellent early treatment response as evidenced by minimal residual disease measurement during induction and consolidation therapy. In Section III, Dr. Raul Ribeiro describes distinct morphologic and genetic subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia. The finding of essentially identical gene expression profiling by DNA microarray in certain specific genetic subtypes of childhood and adult acute myeloid leukemia suggests a shared leukemogenesis. He then describes the principles of treatment as well as the efficacy and toxicity of various forms of postremission therapy, emphasizing the need of tailoring therapy to both the disease and the age of the patient. Early results suggest that minimal residual disease measurement can also improve the risk assessment in acute myeloid leukemia, and that cranial irradiation can be omitted even in those with central-nervous-system leukemia at diagnosis. In Section IV, Dr. Charlotte Niemeyer describes a new classification of myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative diseases in childhood, which has greatly facilitated the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. The recent discovery of somatic mutations in PTPN11 has improved the understanding of the pathobiology and the diagnosis of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Together with the findings of mutations in RAS and NF1 in the other patients, she suggests that pathological activation of RAS-dependent pathways plays a central role in the leukemogenesis of this disease. She then describes the various treatment approaches for both juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes in the US and Europe, emphasizing the differences between childhood and adult cases for the latter group of diseases. She also raises some controversial issues regarding treatment that will require well-controlled international clinical trials to address. PMID:15561680

Pui, Ching-Hon; Schrappe, Martin; Ribeiro, Raul C; Niemeyer, Charlotte M

2004-01-01

146

Hes repressors are essential regulators of hematopoietic stem cell development downstream of Notch signaling  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have identified Notch as a key regulator of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) development, but the underlying downstream mechanisms remain unknown. The Notch target Hes1 is widely expressed in the aortic endothelium and hematopoietic clusters, though Hes1-deficient mice show no overt hematopoietic abnormalities. We now demonstrate that Hes is required for the development of HSC in the mouse embryo, a function previously undetected as the result of functional compensation by de novo expression of Hes5 in the aorta/gonad/mesonephros (AGM) region of Hes1 mutants. Analysis of embryos deficient for Hes1 and Hes5 reveals an intact arterial program with overproduction of nonfunctional hematopoietic precursors and total absence of HSC activity. These alterations were associated with increased expression of the hematopoietic regulators Runx1, c-myb, and the previously identified Notch target Gata2. By analyzing the Gata2 locus, we have identified functional RBPJ-binding sites, which mutation results in loss of Gata2 reporter expression in transgenic embryos, and functional Hes-binding sites, which mutation leads to specific Gata2 up-regulation in the hematopoietic precursors. Together, our findings show that Notch activation in the AGM triggers Gata2 and Hes1 transcription, and next HES-1 protein represses Gata2, creating an incoherent feed-forward loop required to restrict Gata2 expression in the emerging HSCs. PMID:23267012

Guiu, Jordi; Shimizu, Ritsuko; D’Altri, Teresa; Fraser, Stuart T.; Hatakeyama, Jun; Bresnick, Emery H.; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Dzierzak, Elaine; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Espinosa, Lluis

2013-01-01

147

Invasive breast cancer reprograms early myeloid differentiation in the bone marrow to generate immunosuppressive neutrophils.  

PubMed

Expansion of myeloid cells associated with solid tumor development is a key contributor to neoplastic progression. Despite their clinical relevance, the mechanisms controlling myeloid cell production and activity in cancer remains poorly understood. Using a multistage mouse model of breast cancer, we show that production of atypical T cell-suppressive neutrophils occurs during early tumor progression, at the onset of malignant conversion, and that these cells preferentially accumulate in peripheral tissues but not in the primary tumor. Production of these cells results from activation of a myeloid differentiation program in bone marrow (BM) by a novel mechanism in which tumor-derived granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) directs expansion and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells to skew hematopoiesis toward the myeloid lineage. Chronic skewing of myeloid production occurred in parallel to a decrease in erythropoiesis in BM in mice with progressive disease. Significantly, we reveal that prolonged G-CSF stimulation is both necessary and sufficient for the distinguishing characteristics of tumor-induced immunosuppressive neutrophils. These results demonstrate that prolonged G-CSF may be responsible for both the development and activity of immunosuppressive neutrophils in cancer. PMID:25624500

Casbon, Amy-Jo; Reynaud, Damien; Park, Chanhyuk; Khuc, Emily; Gan, Dennis D; Schepers, Koen; Passegué, Emmanuelle; Werb, Zena

2015-02-10

148

Effects of Notch signaling on regulation of myeloid cell differentiation in cancer  

PubMed Central

Functionally altered myeloid cells play an important role in immune suppression in cancer, in angiogenesis, and in tumor cells’ invasion and metastases. Here, we report that inhibition of Notch signaling in hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and dendritic cells (DC) is directly involved in abnormal myeloid cell differentiation in cancer. Inhibition of Notch signaling was caused by the disruption of the interaction between Notch receptor and transcriptional repressor CSL, which is normally required for efficient transcription of target genes. This disruption was the result of serine phosphorylation of Notch. We demonstrated that increased activity of caseine kinase 2 (CK2) observed in HPC and in MDSC could be responsible for the phosphorylation of Notch and down-regulation of Notch signaling. Inhibition of CK2 by siRNA or by pharmacological inhibitor restored Notch signaling in myeloid cells and substantially improved their differentiation, both in vitro and in vivo. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism regulation of Notch signaling in cancer. This may suggest a new perspective for pharmacological regulation of differentiation of myeloid cells in cancer. PMID:24220241

Cheng, Pingyan; Kumar, Vinit; Liu, Hao; Youn, Je-In; Fishman, Mayer; Sherman, Simon; Gabrilovich, Dmitry

2013-01-01

149

Myeloid derived suppressor cells  

PubMed Central

The goal of achieving measurable response with cancer immunotherapy requires counteracting the immunosuppressive characteristics of tumors. One of the mechanisms that tumors utilize to escape immunosurveillance is the activation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Upon activation by tumor-derived signals, MDSCs inhibit the ability of the host to mount an anti-tumor immune response via their capacity to suppress both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Despite their relatively recent discovery and characterization, anti-MDSC agents have been identified, which may improve immunotherapy efficacy. PMID:23734336

Waldron, Todd J.; Quatromoni, Jon G.; Karakasheva, Tatiana A.; Singhal, Sunil; Rustgi, Anil K.

2013-01-01

150

In utero depletion of fetal hematopoietic stem cells improves engraftment after neonatal transplantation in mice.  

PubMed

Although in utero hematopoietic cell transplantation is a promising strategy to treat congenital hematopoietic disorders, levels of engraftment have not been therapeutic for diseases in which donor cells have no survival advantage. We used an antibody against the murine c-Kit receptor (ACK2) to deplete fetal host hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and increase space within the hematopoietic niche for donor cell engraftment. Fetal mice were injected with ACK2 on embryonic days 13.5 to 14.5 and surviving pups were transplanted with congenic hematopoietic cells on day of life 1. Low-dose ACK2 treatment effectively depleted HSCs within the bone marrow with minimal toxicity and the antibody was cleared from the serum before the neonatal transplantation. Chimerism levels were significantly higher in treated pups than in controls; both myeloid and lymphoid cell chimerism increased because of higher engraftment of HSCs in the bone marrow. To test the strategy of repeated HSC depletion and transplantation, some mice were treated with ACK2 postnatally, but the increase in engraftment was lower than that seen with prenatal treatment. We demonstrate a successful fetal conditioning strategy associated with minimal toxicity. Such strategies could be used to achieve clinically relevant levels of engraftment to treat congenital stem cell disorders. PMID:24879814

Derderian, S Christopher; Togarrati, P Priya; King, Charmin; Moradi, Patriss W; Reynaud, Damien; Czechowicz, Agnieszka; Weissman, Irving L; MacKenzie, Tippi C

2014-08-01

151

Hematopoietic stem cell donation.  

PubMed

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is now an important treatment for numerous diseases. Donation of hematopoietic stem cells, either through bone marrow (BM) harvesting or peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection, is a well-established and generally accepted procedure. The BM is aspirated from the posterior iliac crest under spinal or general anesthesia, and common side effects include fatigue and local pain. PBSC collection requires 4-6 days of G-CSF injections and leukapheresis 1-2 times. Common side effects of these procedures include bone pain, fatigue, and headache. The side effects of BM and PBSC collections are mostly transient and well tolerated. Severe adverse events are uncommon in healthy donors. At present, there is no definitive evidence to show that the stem cell donation increases the risk of marrow failure or cancer development. Nevertheless, all donors must be carefully evaluated and fully informed before donation. Donors must be able to provide informed consent without being coerced or pressured. Donors and graft products must be examined for potential agents to avoid transmitting infections and other diseases that may jeopardize donor's health during stem cell collection or recipient's well being after transplantation. Understanding the potential physical and psychological complications of stem cell donation and factors that may increase risks is very important to ensure that transplantation physicians maintain positive attitude in conducting this benevolent practice. PMID:23420184

Chen, Shu-Huey; Wang, Tso-Fu; Yang, Kuo-Liang

2013-04-01

152

Forced expression of the Wilms tumor 1 (WT1) gene inhibits proliferation of human hematopoietic CD34+ progenitor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Wilms tumor gene (WT1) encodes a zinc-finger containing transcription factor present in primitive hematopoietic progenitor cells. WT1 is also highly expressed in most cases of acute myeloid leukemia. Moreover, WT1 can interfere with induced differentiation of leukemic cell lines. These data suggest a function of WT1 in the maintenance of a primitive phenotype and a role in leukemogenesis by

H Svedberg; J Richter; U Gullberg

2001-01-01

153

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in chronic graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: case report.  

PubMed

The chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an unusual but important complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) rarely reported to date. We describe a 17-year-old woman with a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia due to Fanconi's anemia who was submitted to allogeneic HSCT and developed CIDP as part of graft-versus-host disease. Investigation showed high cerebrospinal fluid protein; electrophysiological studies revealed sensory-motor demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy; muscle and nerve biopsy were compatible with CIDP. PMID:17876419

Lorenzoni, Paulo José; Scola, Rosana Herminia; Carsten, Ana Lucila Moreira; Trentin, Ana Paula; Teive, Hélio A G; Pasquini, Ricardo; Werneck, Lineu C

2007-09-01

154

Activating mutation in the tyrosine kinase JAK2 in polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis (MMM) are clonal disorders arising from hematopoietic progenitors. An internet-based protocol was used to collect clinical information and biological specimens from patients with these diseases. High-throughput DNA resequencing identified a recurrent somatic missense mutation JAK2V617F in granulocyte DNA samples of 121 of 164 PV patients, of which 41

Ross L. Levine; Martha Wadleigh; Jan Cools; Benjamin L. Ebert; Gerlinde Wernig; Brian J. P. Huntly; Titus J. Boggon; Iwona Wlodarska; Jennifer J. Clark; Sandra Moore; Jennifer Adelsperger; Sumin Koo; Jeffrey C. Lee; Stacey Gabriel; Thomas Mercher; Alan D’Andrea; Stefan Fröhling; Konstanze Döhner; Peter Marynen; Peter Vandenberghe; Ruben A. Mesa; Ayalew Tefferi; James D. Griffin; Michael J. Eck; William R. Sellers; Matthew Meyerson; Todd R. Golub; Stephanie J. Lee; D. Gary Gilliland

2005-01-01

155

HoxA10 Regulates Transcription of the Gene Encoding Transforming Growth Factor ?2 (TGF?2) in Myeloid Cells*  

PubMed Central

HoxA10 is a homeodomain transcription factor that is maximally expressed in myeloid progenitor cells. HoxA10 is overexpressed in a poor prognosis subset of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and in vivo overexpression of HoxA10 in murine bone marrow induces myeloid leukemia. HoxA10 contributes to myeloid progenitor expansion and differentiation block, but few target genes have been identified that explain the influence of HoxA10 on these processes. The current study identifies the gene encoding transforming growth factor ?2 (TGF?2) as a HoxA10 target gene. We found that HoxA10 activated TGF?2 transcription by interacting with tandem cis elements in the promoter. We also determined that HoxA10 overexpression in myeloid progenitor cells increased Tgf?2 production by the cells. Tgf?2 stimulates proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Therefore, these studies identified autocrine stimulation of myeloid progenitors by Tgf?2 as one mechanism by which HoxA10 expands this population. Because HoxA proteins had not been previously known to influence expression of pro-proliferative cytokines, this has implications for understanding molecular mechanisms involved in progenitor expansion and the pathobiology of AML. PMID:21087928

Shah, Chirag A.; Wang, Hao; Bei, Ling; Platanias, Leonidas C.; Eklund, Elizabeth A.

2011-01-01

156

TC1(C8orf4) Regulates Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells and Hematopoiesis  

PubMed Central

Hematopoiesis is a complex process requiring multiple regulators for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) and differentiation to multi-lineage blood cells. TC1(C8orf4) is implicated in cancers, hematological malignancies and inflammatory activation. Here, we report that Tc1 regulates hematopoiesis in mice. Myeloid and lymphoid cells are increased markedly in peripheral blood of Tc1–deleted mice compared to wild type controls. Red blood cells are small-sized but increased in number. The bone marrow of Tc1?/? mice is normocellular histologically. However, Lin?Sca-1+c-Kit+ (LSK) cells are expanded in Tc1?/? mice compared to wild type controls. The expanded population mostly consists of CD150?CD48+ cells, suggesting the expansion of lineage-restricted hematopoietic progenitor cells. Colony forming units (CFU) are increased in Tc1?/? mice bone marrow cells compared to controls. In wild type mice bone marrow, Tc1 is expressed in a limited population of HSPC but not in differentiated cells. Major myeloid transcriptional regulators such as Pu.1 and Cebp? are not up-regulated in Tc1?/? mice bone marrow. Our findings indicate that TC1 is a novel hematopoietic regulator. The mechanisms of TC1-dependent HSPC regulation and lineage determination are unknown. PMID:24937306

Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Jungtae; Park, Surim; Song, Kyuyoung; Lee, Inchul

2014-01-01

157

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) in Adults (Beyond the Basics)  

MedlinePLUS

... genetics of chronic myeloid leukemia Overview of the myeloproliferative neoplasms Overview of the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia ... genetics of chronic myeloid leukemia Overview of the myeloproliferative neoplasms Overview of the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia ...

158

PXD101 in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-10-08

159

Decitabine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-02-25

160

Self-renewal related signaling in myeloid leukemia stem cells  

PubMed Central

A key characteristic of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) is the ability to self-renew. Several genes and signaling pathways control the fine balance between self-renewal and differentiation in HSC and potentially also in leukemic stem cells. Besides pathways such as Wnt signaling, Hedgehog signaling and Notch signaling, transcription factors (FoxOs) and cell fate determinants may also play a role in stem cells. While some of these pathways seem to be dispensable for maintenance of adult HSC, there may be a distinct requirement in leukemia stem cells for leukemic self-renewal. Here we will focus on self-renewal related signaling in myeloid leukemia stem cells and its therapeutic relevance. PMID:21800073

Mar, Brenton G.; Armstrong, Scott A.

2012-01-01

161

TNF-alpha-dependent loss of IKKbeta-deficient myeloid progenitors triggers a cytokine loop culminating in granulocytosis.  

PubMed

Loss of I?B kinase (IKK) ?-dependent NF-?B signaling in hematopoietic cells is associated with increased granulopoiesis. Here we identify a regulatory cytokine loop that causes neutrophilia in Ikk?-deficient mice. TNF-?-dependent apoptosis of myeloid progenitor cells leads to the release of IL-1?, which promotes Th17 polarization of peripheral CD4(+) T cells. Although the elevation of IL-17 and the consecutive induction of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor compensate for the loss of myeloid progenitor cells, the facilitated induction of Th17 cells renders Ikk?-deficient animals more susceptible to the development of experimental autoimmune encephalitis. These results unravel so far unanticipated direct and indirect functions for IKK? in myeloid progenitor survival and maintenance of innate and Th17 immunity and raise concerns about long-term IKK? inhibition in IL-17-mediated diseases. PMID:21464320

Mankan, Arun K; Canli, Ozge; Schwitalla, Sarah; Ziegler, Paul; Tschopp, Jurg; Korn, Thomas; Greten, Florian R

2011-04-19

162

[Precursors of acute leukemia: myelodysplastic syndromes and myeloproliferative neoplasms].  

PubMed

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) represent neoplastic proliferations of hematopoietic stem cells, which may progress to loss of differentiation and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Transitions between MDSs and MPNs as well as combinations between both disorders occur and MPNs may acquire dysplastic features combined with cytopenia. Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms show dysplastic and myeloproliferative properties and have in common genetic aberrations at the stem cell level (TET2, ASXL 1, CBL, IDH 1, IDH 2, EZH2, p53, Runx1), which may be found in one cell or may affect different hematopoietic stem cells, expanding in parallel. Progress to AML follows a linear clonal evolution only in a subset of cases. Alternatively AML derives from secondary clones, devoid of any marker mutation or originates from a common aberrant progenitor cell which shares other but not the JAK2 ( V617F ) mutation. PMID:22033685

Kreipe, H H

2011-11-01

163

Nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for GATA2 deficiency.  

PubMed

We treated 14 patients with GATA2 deficiency using a nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation regimen. Four patients received peripheral blood stem cells from matched related donors (MRD), 4 patients received peripheral blood stem cells from matched unrelated donors (URD), 4 patients received hematopoietic stem cells from umbilical cord blood donors (UCB), and 2 patients received bone marrow cells from haploidentical related donors. MRD and URD recipients received conditioning with 3 days of fludarabine and 200 cGy total body irradiation (TBI). Haploidentical related donor recipients and UCB recipients received cyclophosphamide and 2 additional days of fludarabine along with 200 cGY TBI. MRD, URD, and UCB recipients received tacrolimus and sirolimus for post-transplantation immunosuppression, whereas haploidentical recipients received high-dose cyclophosphamide followed by tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Eight patients are alive with reconstitution of the severely deficient monocyte, B cell, and natural killer cell populations and reversal of the clinical phenotype at a median follow-up of 3.5 years. Two patients (1 URD recipient and 1 UCB recipient) rejected the donor graft and 1 MRD recipient relapsed with myelodysplastic syndrome after transplantation. We are currently using a high-dose conditioning regimen with busulfan and fludarabine in patients with GATA2 deficiency to achieve more consistent engraftment and eradication of the malignant myeloid clones. PMID:25111582

Grossman, Jennifer; Cuellar-Rodriguez, Jennifer; Gea-Banacloche, Juan; Zerbe, Christa; Calvo, Katherine; Hughes, Thomas; Hakim, Fran; Cole, Kristen; Parta, Mark; Freeman, Alexandra; Holland, Steven M; Hickstein, Dennis D

2014-12-01

164

Systems biological analyses reveal the HCV-specific regulation of hematopoietic development.  

PubMed

Chronic liver disease is characterized by the liver enrichment of myeloid DCs. To assess the role of disease on myelopoiesis, we utilized a systems biology approach to study development in liver-resident cells expressing stem cell marker CD34. In patients with end-stage liver disease, liver CD34+ cells were comprised by two subsets, designated CD34+CD146+ and CD34+CD146-, and hematopoietic function was restricted to CD34+CD146- cells. Liver CD34 frequencies were reduced during nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) compared to alcohol liver disease (ALD), and this reduction correlated with viral load in the HCV cohort. To better understand the relationship between liver CD34+CD146+ and CD34+CD146- subsets and any effects of disease on CD34 development, we used gene expression profiling and computational modeling to compare each subset during ALD and HCV. For CD34+CD146+ cells, increased expression of endothelial cell genes including von Willebrand factor, VE-cadherin and eNOS were observed when compared to CD34+CD146- cells, and minimal effects of ALD and HCV diseases on gene expression were observed. Importantly for CD34+CD146- cells, chronic HCV was associated with a distinct 'imprint' of programs related to cell cycle, DNA repair, chemotaxis, development, and activation, with an emphasis on myeloid and B lymphocyte lineages. This HCV signature was further translated in side-by-side analyses, where HCV CD34+CD146- cells demonstrated superior hematopoietic growth, colony formation, and diversification compared to ALD and NASH when cultured identically. Disease-associated effects on hematopoiesis were also evident by phenotypic alterations in the expression of CD14, HLA-DR and CD16 by myeloid progeny cells. Conclusion: Etiology drives progenitor fate within diseased tissues. The liver may be a useful source of hematopoietic cells for therapy, or as therapeutic targets. (Hepatology 2014;). PMID:25331524

Velazquez, Victoria M; Uebelhoer, Luke S; Thapa, Manoj; Ibegbu, Chris; Courtney, Cynthia; Bosinger, Steven E; Magliocca, Joseph F; Adams, Andrew B; Kirk, Allan D; Knechtle, Stuart J; Kalman, Daniel; Suthar, Mehul; Grakoui, Arash

2014-10-21

165

Differential regulation of myeloid leukemias by the bone marrow microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Like their normal hematopoietic stem cell counterparts, leukemia stem cells (LSC) in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are presumed to reside in specific niches in the bone marrow microenvironment (BMM)1, and may be the cause of relapse following chemotherapy.2 Targeting the niche is a novel strategy to eliminate persistent and drug-resistant LSC. CD443,4 and IL-65 have been implicated previously in the LSC niche. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 is released during bone remodeling6 and plays a role in maintenance of CML LSCs7, but a role for TGF-?1 from the BMM has not been defined. Here, we show that alteration of the BMM by osteoblastic cell-specific activation of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor8,9 attenuates BCR-ABL1-induced CML-like myeloproliferative neoplasia (MPN)10 but enhances MLL-AF9-induced AML11 in mouse transplantation models, possibly through opposing effects of increased TGF-?1 on the respective LSC. PTH treatment caused a 15-fold decrease in LSCs in wildtype mice with CML-like MPN, and reduced engraftment of immune deficient mice with primary human CML cells. These results demonstrate that LSC niches in chronic and acute myeloid leukemias are distinct, and suggest that modulation of the BMM by PTH may be a feasible strategy to reduce LSC, a prerequisite for the cure of CML. PMID:24162813

Krause, Daniela S.; Fulzele, Keertik; Catic, Andre; Sun, Chia Chi; Dombkowski, David; Hurley, Michael P.; Lezeau, Sanon; Attar, Eyal; Wu, Joy Y.; Lin, Herbert Y.; Divieti-Pajevic, Paola; Hasserjian, Robert P.; Schipani, Ernestina; Van Etten, Richard A.; Scadden, David T.

2013-01-01

166

Emerging immunotherapies in older adults with acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review We summarize recent advances for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in older patients, with a focus on immunotherapeutics. Although the recently updated US SEER data still show that the majority of older AML patients do not receive any therapy, this reality is slowly changing. Advances in our understanding of the biology of AML and in the field of immunology are facilitating the development of alternative therapeutic options for patients, affording more and novel opportunities for potentially curative treatment. Recent findings Data from multiple cooperative groups show that older patients benefit from the incorporation of gemtuzumab ozogamicin, an anti-CD33 mAb toxin, into induction regimens. The first prospective study for Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in older AML patients was reported at ASH 2012; the approach was feasible and improved Disease-Free Survival over conventional chemotherapy. Proof-of-concept trials targeting specific antigens such as WT1 or novel unique leukemia-associated antigens are currently underway, as well as other trials using chimeric antigen receptor T cells or (Natural Killer NK/effector cells in nontransplantation settings. Summary Wider application of immunotherapies such as allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with RIC have altered the landscape and offer potential for cure of an increasing number of older AML patients. PMID:23334192

Vasu, Sumithira; Blum, William

2014-01-01

167

Essential role for telomerase in chronic myeloid leukemia induced by BCR-ABL in mice  

PubMed Central

The telomerase protein is constitutively activated in malignant cells from many patients with cancer, including the chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but whether telomerase is essential for the pathogenesis of this disease is not known. Here, we used telomerase deficient mice to determine the requirement for telomerase in CML induced by BCR-ABL in mouse models of CML. Loss of one telomerase allele or complete deletion of telomerase prevented the development of leukemia induced by BCR-ABL. However, BCR-ABL was expressed and active in telomerase heterozygous and null leukemic hematopoietic stem cells. These results demonstrate that telomerase is essential for oncogene-induced reprogramming of hematopoietic stem cells in CML development and validate telomerase and the genes it regulates as targets for therapy in CML. PMID:22408137

Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Barajas-Diego, Marcos; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; González-Herrero, Inés; Flores, Teresa; Sánchez-García, Isidro

2012-01-01

168

BMP signaling balances murine myeloid potential through SMAD-independent p38MAPK and NOTCH pathways.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates early hematopoietic development, proceeding from mesoderm patterning through the progressive commitment and differentiation of progenitor cells. The BMP pathway signals largely through receptor-mediated activation of Mothers Against Decapentaplegic homolog (SMAD) proteins, although alternate pathways are modulated through various components of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Using a conditional, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-based knockdown system in the context of differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we demonstrated previously that Smad1 promotes hemangioblast specification, but then subsequently restricts primitive progenitor potential. Here we show that co-knockdown of Smad5 restores normal progenitor potential of Smad1-depleted cells, suggesting opposing functions for Smad1 and Smad5. This balance was confirmed by cotargeting Smad1/5 with a specific chemical antagonist, LDN193189 (LDN). However, we discovered that LDN treatment after hemangioblast commitment enhanced primitive myeloid potential. Moreover, inhibition with LDN (but not SMAD depletion) increased expression of Delta-like ligands Dll1 and Dll3 and NOTCH activity; abrogation of NOTCH activity restored LDN-enhanced myeloid potential back to normal, corresponding with expression levels of the myeloid master regulator, C/EBP?. LDN but not SMAD activity was also associated with activation of the p38MAPK pathway, and blocking this pathway was sufficient to enhance myelopoiesis. Therefore, NOTCH and p38MAPK pathways balance primitive myeloid progenitor output downstream of the BMP pathway. PMID:24894772

Cook, Brandoch D; Evans, Todd

2014-07-17

169

Guideline for primary antifungal prophylaxis for pediatric patients with cancer or hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.  

PubMed

This guideline provides clinicians with evidence-based recommendations on the use of antifungal prophylaxis in children with cancer and undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Recommendations are divided into: (1) allogeneic HSCT (2) autologous HSCT (3) acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome and (4) patients with malignancy and neutropenia for >7 days. A systematic review was conducted and evidence summaries compiled. The quality of evidence and strength of each recommendation was determined using GRADE. Implementation of these recommendations will require adaptation to local context. The contribution of this guideline in the prevention of invasive fungal infections requires prospective evaluation. PMID:24424789

Science, Michelle; Robinson, Paula D; MacDonald, Tamara; Rassekh, Shahrad Rod; Dupuis, L Lee; Sung, Lillian

2014-03-01

170

Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-09-23

171

BAALC and ERG expression levels are associated with outcome and distinct gene and microRNA expression profiles in older patients with de novo cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study  

PubMed Central

BAALC and ERG expression levels are prognostic markers in younger (< 60 years) cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) adults; their prognostic impact in older (? 60 years) patients requires further investigation. We evaluated pretreatment expression of BAALC and ERG in 158 de novo patients treated on cytarabine/daunorubicin-based protocols. The patients were also characterized for other established molecular prognosticators. Low BAALC and ERG expression levels were associated with better outcome in univariable and multivariable analyses. Expression levels of both BAALC and ERG were the only factors significantly associated with overall survival upon multivariable analysis. To gain biological insights, we derived gene expression signatures associated with BAALC and ERG expression in older CN-AML patients. Furthermore, we derived the first microRNA expression signatures associated with the expression of these 2 genes. In low BAALC expressers, genes associated with undifferentiated hematopoietic precursors and unfavorable outcome predictors were down-regulated, whereas HOX genes and HOX-gene–embedded microRNAs were up-regulated. Low ERG expressers presented with down-regulation of genes involved in the DNA-methylation machinery, and up-regulation of miR-148a, which targets DNMT3B. We conclude that in older CN-AML patients, low BAALC and ERG expression associates with better outcome and distinct gene and microRNA expression signatures that could aid in identifying new targets and novel therapeutic strategies for older patients. PMID:20841507

Schwind, Sebastian; Maharry, Kati; Radmacher, Michael D.; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Holland, Kelsi B.; Margeson, Dean; Becker, Heiko; Whitman, Susan P.; Wu, Yue-Zhong; Metzeler, Klaus H.; Powell, Bayard L.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Carter, Thomas H.; Moore, Joseph O.; Baer, Maria R.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Larson, Richard A.

2010-01-01

172

High thrombopoietin production by hematopoietic cells induces a fatal myeloproliferative syndrome in mice.  

PubMed

To evaluate the effects of long-term, high-dose exposure to thrombopoietin (TPO), lethally irradiated mice were grafted with bone marrow cells infected with a retrovirus carrying the murine TPO cDNA. Mice were studied for 10 months after transplantation. In plasma, TPO levels were highly elevated (10(4) U/mL) throughout the course of the study. All mice developed a lethal myeloproliferative disorder evolving in two successive phases. During the first phase (7-9 weeks posttransplant), platelet and white blood cell (WBC) counts rose four- and ten-fold, respectively, whereas hematocrits decreased slightly to 29% +/- 3%. The WBC were mainly mature granulocytes, but myeloid precursor cells were invariably observed as well as giant platelets with an irregular granule distribution. The striking features were a massive hyperplasia of megakaryocytes and granulocytes in the spleen and bone marrow and a hypoplasia of erythroblasts in bone marrow. Total numbers of megakaryocyte colony-forming cell, burst-forming unit-erythroid, and granulocyte macrophage colony-forming cells were increased but colony-forming unit-erythroid numbers decreased. From 10 weeks posttransplant and thereafter, WBC, platelets, and red blood cell numbers declined dramatically. The absolute numbers of progenitor cells were very low in the spleen and bone marrow, but sharply increased in the blood and peritoneal cavity. Extramedullary hematopoiesis was observed in several organs. Histologic sections of the spleen and bones revealed severe fibrosis and osteosclerosis. The mean survival time was 7 months posttransplant and mice died with severe pancytopenia. Notably, two mice died between 3 and 4 months posttransplant with a leukemic transformation. This disorder was transplantable into secondary recipients who developed an attenuated form of the disease similar to the one previously described (Yan et al, Blood 86:4025, 1995). Taken together, our data show that high and persistent TPO production by transduced hematopoietic cells in mice results in a fatal myeloproliferative disorder that has a number of features in common with human idiopathic myelofibrosis. PMID:9373248

Villeval, J L; Cohen-Solal, K; Tulliez, M; Giraudier, S; Guichard, J; Burstein, S A; Cramer, E M; Vainchenker, W; Wendling, F

1997-12-01

173

A fast and simple approach for the simultaneous detection of hematopoietic chimerism, NPM1, and FLT3-ITD mutations after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic chimerism can be used as a tool for patient management after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). An increase in the proportion of recipient cells after transplantation is strongly associated with relapse in chronic myeloid leukemia. However, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) the significance of increasing mixed chimerism (MC) as a predictive marker for relapse is less clear. Several mutations frequently found in AML have been employed for minimal residual disease detection and relapse prediction. Therefore, a combined analysis of hematopoietic chimerism and of the molecular aberrations found in AML could be used to improve MC characterization. We developed a multiplex PCR for use in the simultaneous detection of hematopoietic chimerism and mutations in nucleophosmin (NPM1) and fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD). A total of 303 samples from 20 AML patients were analyzed after HSCT. The microsatellite markers used for hematopoietic chimerism detection were D1S80, D7S1517, D4S2366, THO1, and SE33. A total of 149 samples from 18 patients showed MC with a mean detection time of 9.7 months. From the 18 patients with MC, in 6 of the patients, no FLT3-ITD or NPM1 mutation was found at any time point tested, and these patients remained in complete hematological remission. In 12 patients with MC, FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutations were found, and these patients showed signs of hematological relapse. Our combined analysis of NPM1/FLT3-ITD mutations and hematopoietic chimerism improved the characterization of patients with MC after HSCT. The present approach may be further expanded by combining additional mutations found in AML with hematopoietic chimerism detection. PMID:23907410

Waterhouse, Miguel; Bertz, Hartmut; Finke, Juergen

2014-02-01

174

Myeloid metaplasia of the breast  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors report a case of myeloid metaplasia of the breast presenting as a tumor mass with homolateral axillary lymphadenopathy. The lesion was clinically misinterpreted as a breast cancer and developed in an elderly woman 8 years after the diagnosis of primary myelofibrosis was made. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies confirmed the haematopoietic nature of the proliferating cells. The differential diagnosis

Giuseppe Martinelli; Donatella Santini; Floriano Bazzocchi; Stefano Pileri; Silvia Casanova

1983-01-01

175

Oncogene iASPP enhances self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells and facilitates their resistance to chemotherapy and irradiation.  

PubMed

iASPP is a member of the apoptosis-stimulating proteins of p53 (ASPP) family and negatively regulates the apoptotic function of p53. In a hematopoietic system, overexpression of iASPP results in blockage of apoptosis, which may play a role in regulating hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) numbers. To address this, we first analyzed the expression of iASPP in patients with acute leukemia (AL) and found it was highly expressed in patients with AL. We further established a transgenic mouse model in which human iASPP was specifically expressed in hematopoietic cells. Overexpression of iASPP led to an increase in the proportion of long-term HSCs, short-term HSCs, multipotent progenitors, and common myeloid progenitor. HSCs from iASPP transgenic mice had an advantage in long-term reconstitution potential. In addition, the hematopoietic cells from iASPP transgenic mice exhibited a significantly lower level of p53 dependent apoptosis. After irradiation damage, hematopoietic cells of iASPP transgenic mice had a higher level of ?-H2AX expression, which lasted for a longer time. These results provide the first evidence that the iASPP can increase HSC populations and reconstitution capacity. Interestingly, in response to cell damage stimuli, hematopoietic cells can be protected against apoptosis by iASPP; meanwhile these apoptosis-resistant cells would have more mutation accumulation, which might be the potential risk for malignant transformation.-Jia, Y., Peng, L., Rao, Q., Xing, H., Huai, L., Yu, P., Chen, Y., Wang, C., Wang, M., Mi, Y., Wang, J. Oncogene iASPP enhances self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells and facilitates their resistance to chemotherapy and irradiation. PMID:24668753

Jia, Yujiao; Peng, Leiwen; Rao, Qing; Xing, Haiyan; Huai, Lei; Yu, Pei; Chen, Yirui; Wang, Cuicui; Wang, Min; Mi, Yingchang; Wang, Jianxiang

2014-07-01

176

Primary Vaginal Myeloid Sarcoma: A Rare Case Report and Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Myeloid sarcoma (chloroma, granulocytic sarcoma, or extramedullary myeloid tumour) is an extramedullary mass forming neoplasm composed of myeloid precursor cells. It is usually associated with myeloproliferative disorders but very rarely may precede the onset of leukemia. Here, we are presenting a rare case of primary vaginal myeloid sarcoma in a geriatric female patient without initial presentation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A 68-year-old female patient with ECOG Performance Score of 1 presented with pervaginal bleeding for 20 days. On colposcopic examination, she was found to have mass in the anterior fornix of vagina. A punch biopsy specimen revealed chloromatous infiltration of the vagina. LCA (leukocyte common antigen), MPO (myeloperoxidase), and c-kit were strongly positive on IHC (immunohistochemistry). The patient's routine blood investigations were normal including peripheral smear, lactose dehydrogenase, uric acid, 2D echocardiography, conventional cytogenetics, bone marrow aspiration, and biopsy. The patient was given 4 cycles of decitabine (Decitex, manufactured by Sun Pharmaceutical Industries Limited, India), 20?mg/m2 for 5 days at an interval of 28 days. There was a partial response to decitabine according to RECIST criteria. As decitabine therapy was well tolerated, we are continuing in the same way until disease progression without any complications. The patient is undergoing regular follow-up at our centre.

Modi, Gaurang; Panchal, Harsha; Patel, Apurva; Anand, Asha; Parikh, Sonia; Jain, Pritam; Revannasiddaiah, Swaroop; Sarkar, Malay

2015-01-01

177

Regulation of macrophage and dendritic cell responses by their lineage precursors  

PubMed Central

Tissue macrophages and dendritic cells derive from hematopoietic stem cells, which exist in the bone marrow and generate intermediate precursor populations with increasingly restricted lineage potentials. There exists several precursors committed to the macrophage and dendritic cell lineages; these cells exhibit distinct tropism and function and respond differentially in pathophysiologic conditions. In this review, we consider experimental contexts in which macrophage and dendritic cell responses in tissue are not only dictated by the local environment, but also by the quantity and quality of newly recruited lineage precursor cells. Consequently, we discuss whether therapeutic control of macrophage and dendritic cell responses in tissue may be achieved through manipulation of their lineage precursors. PMID:22433183

Cortez-Retamozo, Virna; Etzrodt, Martin; Pittet, Mikael J.

2012-01-01

178

GATA Motifs Regulate Early Hematopoietic Lineage-Specific Expression of the Gata2 Gene  

PubMed Central

Transcription factor GATA-2 is essential for definitive hematopoiesis, which developmentally emerges from the para-aortic splanchnopleura (P-Sp). The expression of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter placed under the control of a 3.1-kbp Gata2 gene regulatory domain 5? to the distal first exon (IS) mirrored that of the endogenous Gata2 gene within the P-Sp and yolk sac (YS) blood islands of embryonic day (E) 9.5 murine embryos. The P-Sp- and YS-derived GFP+ fraction of flow-sorted cells dissociated from E9.5 transgenic embryos contained far more CD34+/c-Kit+ cells than the GFP? fraction did. When cultured in vitro, the P-Sp GFP+ cells generated both immature hematopoietic and endothelial cell clusters. Detailed transgenic mouse reporter expression analyses demonstrate that five GATA motifs within the 3.1-kbp Gata2 early hematopoietic regulatory domain (G2-EHRD) were essential for GFP expression within the dorsal aortic wall, where hemangioblasts, the earliest precursors possessing both hematopoietic and vascular developmental potential, are thought to reside. These results thus show that the Gata2 gene IS promoter is regulated by a GATA factor(s) and selectively marks putative hematopoietic/endothelial precursor cells within the P-Sp. PMID:16055713

Kobayashi-Osaki, Maki; Ohneda, Osamu; Suzuki, Norio; Minegishi, Naoko; Yokomizo, Tomomasa; Takahashi, Satoru; Lim, Kim-Chew; Engel, James Douglas; Yamamoto, Masayuki

2005-01-01

179

Assessment of Benzene-Induced Hematotoxicity Using a Human-Like Hematopoietic Lineage in NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2R?null Mice  

PubMed Central

Despite recent advancements, it is still difficult to evaluate in vivo responses to toxicants in humans. Development of a system that can mimic the in vivo responses of human cells will enable more accurate health risk assessments. A surrogate human hematopoietic lineage can be established in NOD/Shi-scid/IL-2R?null (NOG) mice by transplanting human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (Hu-NOG mice). Here, we first evaluated the toxic response of human-like hematopoietic lineage in NOG mice to a representative toxic agent, benzene. Flow cytometric analysis showed that benzene caused a significant decrease in the number of human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in the bone marrow and the number of human leukocytes in the peripheral blood and hematopoietic organs. Next, we established chimeric mice by transplanting C57BL/6 mouse-derived bone marrow cells into NOG mice (Mo-NOG mice). A comparison of the degree of benzene-induced hematotoxicity in donor-derived hematopoietic lineage cells within Mo-NOG mice indicated that the toxic response of Hu-NOG mice reflected interspecies differences in susceptibilities to benzene. Responses to the toxic effects of benzene were greater in lymphoid cells than in myeloid cells in Mo-NOG and Hu-NOG mice. These findings suggested that Hu-NOG mice may be a powerful in vivo tool for assessing hematotoxicity in humans, while accounting for interspecies differences. PMID:23226520

Takahashi, Masayuki; Tsujimura, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Tomoko; Hosokawa, Masahito; Otsuka, Kensuke; Matsunaga, Tadashi; Nakasono, Satoshi

2012-01-01

180

Knockdown of Hnrnpa0, a del(5q) gene, alters myeloid cell fate in murine cells through regulation of AU-rich transcripts  

PubMed Central

The control of mRNA stability plays a central role in orchestrating gene-regulatory networks in hematopoietic cell growth, differentiation and tumorigenesis. HNRNPA0, which encodes an RNA-binding protein shown to regulate transcript stability via binding to the AU-rich elements of mRNAs, is located within the commonly deleted segment of 5q31.2 in myeloid neoplasms with a del(5q), and is expressed at haploinsufficient levels in these patients. We show that HNRNPA0 is normally highly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and exhibits dynamic changes in expression during the course of differentiation. To model HNRNPA0 haploinsufficiency, we used RNAi interference in primary murine cells and an experimental cell system, and found that reduced Hnrnpa0 expression leads to a shift from monocytic towards granulocytic differentiation. Microarray-based global expression profiling revealed that Hnrnpa0 knockdown disproportionally impacts AU-rich containing transcripts and alters expression of myeloid specification genes. In therapy-related myeloid neoplasms with a del(5q), AU-rich containing mRNAs are enriched in transcripts that encode proteins associated with increased growth and proliferation. Our findings implicate haploinsufficiency of HNRNPA0 as one of the key initiating mutations in the pathogenesis of myeloid neoplasms with a del(5q), and suggest that therapies that target AU-rich elements warrant consideration in efforts to develop new mechanism-based treatment strategies. PMID:24532040

Young, David J.; Stoddart, Angela; Nakitandwe, Joy; Chen, Shann-Ching; Qian, Zhijian; Downing, James R.; Le Beau, Michelle M.

2014-01-01

181

CXCR4 Expression, CXCR4 Activation, and Wild Type NPM1 Are Independently Associated with Unfavorable Prognosis in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is activated by phosphorylation and is essential for migration of hematopoietic precursors to bone marrow. CXCR4 overexpression predicts unfavorable prognosis in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Nucleophosmin (NPM1) mutation is the most frequent genetic abnormality in AML patients and predicts a favorable prognosis. In vitro studies have suggested that mutant NPM decreases CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis by downregulating CXCR4, thereby linking the NPM and CXCR4 pathways. PATIENTS AND METHODS In a group of 117 untreated adults with AML we used immunohistochemistry to assess bone marrow specimens for CXCR4 and phosphorylated (p) CXCR4 (pCXCR4) expression. All cases were also analyzed for NPM1 mutations using PCR-based methods. RESULTS CXCR4 expression was detected in 75 (64%) and pCXCR4 expression was detected in 31 (26%) patients. NPM1 mutations were detected in 63 (54%) patients. NPM1 mutations did not correlate with CXCR4 (p = 0.212) or pCXCR4 (p = 0.355) expression. The median 5-year overall survival was 27% (95% CI: 19-36%), with a median follow-up of 8 months (95%CI: 6-15). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, reduced overall and progression-free survival rates were associated with a history of antecedent hematological disorder, failure to achieve complete remission, thrombocytopenia, unfavorable cytogenetics, CXCR4 expression, and wild type NPM1. pCXCR4 expression was independently associated with shorter progression-free survival. CONCLUSION There is no correlation between NPM1 mutations and CXCR4 or phosphorylated CXCR4 expression suggesting that the CXCR4 and NPM pathways act independently in adult AML. PMID:24035716

Konoplev, Sergej; Lin, Pei; Yin, C. Cameron; Lin, E.; González, Graciela M. Nogueras; Kantarjian, Hagop M.; Andreeff, Michael; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Konopleva, Marina

2014-01-01

182

Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Inferences-from In Vivo Assays  

E-print Network

Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Inferences-from In Vivo Assays CONNIEEAVES,CINDYMILLER,JOHANNE CASHMAN Columbia, Canada Key Words.Hematopoietic stem cells Transplantation Cord blood. Expansion Growthfactors murine hematopoietic stem cells to be quantitated. Measurements of murine CRU have shown

Zandstra, Peter W.

183

The Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 (TET2) gene in hematopoiesis and hematopoietic diseases.  

PubMed

Ten-Eleven Translocation-2 (TET2) inactivation through loss-of-function mutation, deletion and IDH1/2 (Isocitrate Dehydrogenase 1 and 2) gene mutation is a common event in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies. TET2 gene mutations similar to those observed in myeloid and lymphoid malignancies also accumulate with age in otherwise healthy subjects with clonal hematopoiesis. TET2 is one of the three proteins of the TET (Ten-Eleven Translocation) family, which are evolutionarily conserved dioxygenases that catalyze the conversion of 5-methyl-cytosine (5-mC) to 5-hydroxymethyl-cytosine (5-hmC) and promote DNA demethylation. TET dioxygenases require 2-oxoglutarate, oxygen and Fe(II) for their activity, which is enhanced in the presence of ascorbic acid. TET2 is the most expressed TET gene in the hematopoietic tissue, especially in hematopoietic stem cells. In addition to their hydroxylase activity, TET proteins recruit the O-linked ?-D-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) transferase (OGT) enzyme to chromatin, which promotes post-transcriptional modifications of histones and facilitates gene expression. The TET2 level is regulated by interaction with IDAX, originating from TET2 gene fission during evolution, and by the microRNA miR-22. TET2 has pleiotropic roles during hematopoiesis, including stem-cell self-renewal, lineage commitment and terminal differentiation of monocytes. Analysis of Tet2 knockout mice, which are viable and fertile, demonstrated that Tet2 functions as a tumor suppressor whose haploinsufficiency initiates myeloid and lymphoid transformations. This review summarizes the recently identified TET2 physiological and pathological functions and discusses how this knowledge influences our therapeutic approaches in hematological malignancies and possibly other tumor types. PMID:24220273

Solary, E; Bernard, O A; Tefferi, A; Fuks, F; Vainchenker, W

2014-03-01

184

BCR-ABL1-Associated Reduction of Beta Catenin Antagonist Chibby1 in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Beta Catenin signaling is critical for the self-renewal of leukemic stem cells in chronic myeloid leukemia. It is driven by multiple events, enhancing beta catenin stability and promoting its transcriptional co-activating function. We investigated the impact of BCR-ABL1 on Chibby1, a beta catenin antagonist involved in cell differentiation and transformation. Relative proximity of the Chibby1 encoding gene (C22orf2) on chromosome 22q12 to the BCR breakpoint (22q11) lets assume its involvement in beta catenin activation in chronic myeloid leukemia as a consequence of deletions of distal BCR sequences encompassing one C22orf2 allele. Forty patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase were analyzed for C22orf2 relocation and Chibby1 expression. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses established that the entire C22orf2 follows BCR regardless of chromosomes involved in the translocation. In differentiated hematopoietic progenitors (bone marrow mononuclear cell fractions) of 30/40 patients, the expression of Chibby1 protein was reduced below 50% of the reference value (peripheral blood mononuclear cell fractions of healthy persons). In such cell context, Chibby1 protein reduction is not dependent on C22orf2 transcriptional downmodulation; however, it is strictly dependent upon BCR-ABL1 expression because it was not observed at the moment of major molecular response under tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Moreover, it was not correlated with the disease prognosis or response to therapy. Most importantly, a remarkable Chibby1 reduction was apparent in a putative BCR-ABL1+ leukemic stem cell compartment identified by a CD34+ phenotype compared to more differentiated hematopoietic progenitors. In CD34+ cells, Chibby1 reduction arises from transcriptional events and is driven by C22orf2 promoter hypermethylation. These results advance low Chibby1 expression associated with BCR-ABL1 as a component of beta catenin signaling in leukemic stem cells. PMID:24339928

Aluigi, Michela; Luatti, Simona; Castagnetti, Fausto; Testoni, Nicoletta; Soverini, Simona; Santucci, Maria Alessandra; Martinelli, Giovanni

2013-01-01

185

Characterizing the human hematopoietic CDome  

PubMed Central

In this study, we performed extensive semi-automated data collection from the primary and secondary literature in an effort to characterize the expression of all membrane proteins within the CD scheme on hematopoietic cells. Utilizing over 6000 data points across 305 CD molecules on 206 cell types, we seek to give a preliminary characterization of the “human hematopoietic CDome.” We encountered severe gaps in the knowledge of CD protein expression, mostly resulting from incomplete and unstructured data generation, which we argue inhibit both basic research as well as therapies seeking to target membrane proteins. We detail these shortcomings and propose strategies to overcome these issues. Analyzing the available data, we explore the functional characteristics of the CD molecules both individually and across the groups of hematopoietic cells on which they are expressed. We compare protein and mRNA data for a subset of CD molecules, and explore cell functions in the context of CD protein expression. We find that the presence and function of CD molecules serve as good indicators for the overall function of the cells that express them, suggesting that increasing our knowledge about the cellular CDome may serve to stratify cells on a more functional level. PMID:25309582

Barnkob, Mike Stein; Simon, Christian; Olsen, Lars Rønn

2014-01-01

186

Osteoprogenitors and the hematopoietic microenvironment.  

PubMed

The identification of skeletal progenitor cells in the human bone marrow (so-called mesenchymal stem cells) by anatomy and phenotype (CD146-expressing, adventitial reticular cells) has coincided with the recognition that the ability to transfer the hematopoietic microenvironment is an inherent property of skeletal progenitor cells. Inasmuch as these cells generate osteoblasts, associate with sinusoids (the assembly of which they dynamically direct), and coincide with, and self-renew into, stromal reticular cells, these cells are pivotal organizers of the hematopoietic microenvironment. Their nature as osteogenic cells and sinusoidal location reconcile the dual view of endosteal surfaces and sinusoidal walls as the hematopoietic stem cell "niches", and highlight the dynamic nature of a niche/microenvironment essentially maintained by cells with properties of progenitors/stem cells for skeletal tissues. This view brings the long recognized, and somewhat mysterious, interaction between bone and bone marrow into a new perspective, where two stem cells interact with each other at the same niche. PMID:21396591

Bianco, Paolo; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Riminucci, Mara

2011-03-01

187

Functions of flt3 in zebrafish hematopoiesis and its relevance to human acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is expressed in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) but its role during embryogenesis is unclear. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), internal tandem duplication (ITD) of FLT3 at the juxtamembrane (JMD) and tyrosine kinase (TKD) domains (FLT3-ITD+) occurs in 30% of patients and is associated with inferior clinical prognosis. TKD mutations (FLT3-TKD+) occur in 5% of cases. We made use of zebrafish to examine the role of flt3 in developmental hematopoiesis and model human FLT3-ITD+ and FLT3-TKD+ AML. Zebrafish flt3 JMD and TKD were remarkably similar to their mammalian orthologs. Morpholino knockdown significantly reduced the expression of l-plastin (pan-leukocyte), csf1r, and mpeg1 (macrophage) as well as that of c-myb (definitive HSPCs), lck, and rag1 (T-lymphocyte). Expressing human FLT3-ITD in zebrafish embryos resulted in expansion and clustering of myeloid cells (pu.1+, mpo+, and cebp?+) which were ameliorated by AC220 and associated with stat5, erk1/2, and akt phosphorylation. Human FLT3-TKD (D835Y) induced significant, albeit modest, myeloid expansion resistant to AC220. This study provides novel insight into the role of flt3 during hematopoiesis and establishes a zebrafish model of FLT3-ITD+ and FLT3-TKD+ AML that may facilitate high-throughput screening of novel and personalized agents. PMID:24591202

He, Bai-Liang; Shi, Xiangguo; Man, Cheuk Him; Ma, Alvin C. H.; Ekker, Stephen C.; Chow, Howard C. H.; So, Chi Wai Eric; Choi, William W. L.; Zhang, Wenqing; Zhang, Yiyue

2014-01-01

188

XIAP inhibitors induce differentiation and impair clonogenic capacity of acute myeloid leukemia stem cells.  

PubMed

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a neoplasia characterized by the rapid expansion of immature myeloid blasts in the bone marrow, and marked by poor prognosis and frequent relapse. As such, new therapeutic approaches are required for remission induction and prevention of relapse. Due to the higher chemotherapy sensitivity and limited life span of more differentiated AML blasts, differentiation-based therapies are a promising therapeutic approach. Based on public available gene expression profiles, a myeloid-specific differentiation-associated gene expression pattern was defined as the therapeutic target. A XIAP inhibitor (Dequalinium chloride, DQA) was identified in an in silico screening searching for small molecules that induce similar gene expression regulation. Treatment with DQA, similarly to Embelin (another XIAP inhibitor), induced cytotoxicity and differentiation in AML. XIAP inhibition differentially impaired cell viability of the most primitive AML blasts and reduced clonogenic capacity of AML cells, sparing healthy mature blood and hematopoietic stem cells. Taken together, these results suggest that XIAP constitutes a potential target for AML treatment and support the evaluation of XIAP inhibitors in clinical trials. PMID:24952669

Moreno-Martínez, Daniel; Nomdedeu, Meritxell; Lara-Castillo, María Carmen; Etxabe, Amaia; Pratcorona, Marta; Tesi, Niccolò; Díaz-Beyá, Marina; Rozman, María; Montserrat, Emili; Urbano-Ispizua, Alvaro; Esteve, Jordi; Risueño, Ruth M

2014-06-30

189

XIAP inhibitors induce differentiation and impair clonogenic capacity of acute myeloid leukemia stem cells  

PubMed Central

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a neoplasia characterized by the rapid expansion of immature myeloid blasts in the bone marrow, and marked by poor prognosis and frequent relapse. As such, new therapeutic approaches are required for remission induction and prevention of relapse. Due to the higher chemotherapy sensitivity and limited life span of more differentiated AML blasts, differentiation-based therapies are a promising therapeutic approach. Based on public available gene expression profiles, a myeloid-specific differentiation-associated gene expression pattern was defined as the therapeutic target. A XIAP inhibitor (Dequalinium chloride, DQA) was identified in an in silico screening searching for small molecules that induce similar gene expression regulation. Treatment with DQA, similarly to Embelin (another XIAP inhibitor), induced cytotoxicity and differentiation in AML. XIAP inhibition differentially impaired cell viability of the most primitive AML blasts and reduced clonogenic capacity of AML cells, sparing healthy mature blood and hematopoietic stem cells. Taken together, these results suggest that XIAP constitutes a potential target for AML treatment and support the evaluation of XIAP inhibitors in clinical trials. PMID:24952669

Moreno-Martínez, Daniel; Nomdedeu, Meritxell; Lara-Castillo, María Carmen; Etxabe, Amaia; Pratcorona, Marta; Tesi, Niccolò; Díaz-Beyá, Marina; Rozman, María; Montserrat, Emili; Urbano-Ispizua, Álvaro; Esteve, Jordi; Risueño, Ruth M.

2014-01-01

190

Targeted alpha-particle immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Because alpha-particles have a shorter range and a higher linear energy transfer (LET) compared with beta-particles, targeted alpha-particle immunotherapy offers the potential for more efficient tumor cell killing while sparing surrounding normal cells. To date, clinical studies of alpha-particle immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have focused on the myeloid cell surface antigen CD33 as a target using the humanized monoclonal antibody lintuzumab. An initial phase I study demonstrated the safety, feasibility, and antileukemic effects of bismuth-213 ((213)Bi)-labeled lintuzumab. In a subsequent study, (213)Bi-lintuzumab produced remissions in some patients with AML after partial cytoreduction with cytarabine, suggesting the utility of targeted alpha-particle therapy for small-volume disease. The widespread use of (213)Bi, however, is limited by its short half-life. Therefore, a second-generation construct containing actinium-225 ((225)Ac), a radiometal that generates four alpha-particle emissions, was developed. A phase I trial demonstrated that (225)Ac-lintuzumab is safe at doses of 3 ?Ci/kg or less and has antileukemic activity across all dose levels studied. Fractionated-dose (225)Ac-lintuzumab in combination with low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) is now under investigation for the management of older patients with untreated AML in a multicenter trial. Preclinical studies using (213)Bi- and astatine-211 ((211)At)-labeled anti-CD45 antibodies have shown that alpha-particle immunotherapy may be useful as part conditioning before hematopoietic cell transplantation. The use of novel pretargeting strategies may further improve target-to-normal organ dose ratios. PMID:24857092

Jurcic, Joseph G; Rosenblat, Todd L

2014-01-01

191

Jagged2 acts as a Delta-like Notch ligand during early hematopoietic cell fate decisions  

PubMed Central

Notch signaling critically mediates various hematopoietic lineage decisions and is induced in mammals by Notch ligands that are classified into 2 families, Delta-like (Delta-like-1, -3 and -4) and Jagged (Jagged1 and Jagged2), based on structural homology with both Drosophila ligands Delta and Serrate, respectively. Because the functional differences between mammalian Notch ligands were still unclear, we have investigated their influence on early human hematopoiesis and show that Jagged2 affects hematopoietic lineage decisions very similarly as Delta-like-1 and -4, but very different from Jagged1. OP9 coculture experiments revealed that Jagged2, like Delta-like ligands, induces T-lineage differentiation and inhibits B-cell and myeloid development. However, dose-dependent Notch activation studies, gene expression analysis, and promoter activation assays indicated that Jagged2 is a weaker Notch1-activator compared with the Delta-like ligands, revealing a Notch1 specific signal strength hierarchy for mammalian Notch ligands. Strikingly, Lunatic-Fringe– mediated glycosylation of Notch1 potentiated Notch signaling through Delta-like ligands and also Jagged2, in contrast to Jagged1. Thus, our results reveal a unique role for Jagged1 in preventing the induction of T-lineage differentiation in hematopoietic stem cells and show an unexpected functional similarity between Jagged2 and the Delta-like ligands. PMID:21372153

Van de Walle, Inge; De Smet, Greet; Gärtner, Martina; De Smedt, Magda; Waegemans, Els; Vandekerckhove, Bart; Leclercq, Georges; Plum, Jean; Aster, Jon C.; Bernstein, Irwin D.; Guidos, Cynthia J.; Kyewski, Bruno

2011-01-01

192

PRL-2 increases Epo and IL-3 responses in hematopoietic cells  

PubMed Central

Dual specificity protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL-2 is over-expressed in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and is located at human chromosome 1p35, a region often rearranged or amplified in malignant lymphoma and B cell-chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL). Little is known of the significance of PRL-2 expression in hematopoietic malignancies. Herein we demonstrated that ectopic expression of PRL-2 in murine pre-B cell line BaF3ER and mouse bone marrow cells induced key features associated with malignant progression and metastasis. PRL-2 transfected Baf3ER cells had augmented growth responses to hematopoietic growth factors Epo or IL-3 with shortened cell cycle, reduced requirement (5x) for Epo in cell survival, increased cell migration (3x), reduced cell adhesion (5x) and conversion to an immature cell morphology in association with increased expression (3x) of stem cell marker Bmi-1. When transduced into mouse bone marrow cells, PRL-2 increased Epo-induced colony formation (4x) and gave rise to larger colonies. These observations provide evidences implicating PRL-2 as a pathogenic molecule in hematopoietic malignancies and suggest its potential as a novel therapeutic target. PMID:20226699

Akiyama, Shoko; Yi, Taolin

2010-01-01

193

Transformation of Human Mesenchymal Cells and Skin Fibroblasts into Hematopoietic Cells  

PubMed Central

Patients with prolonged myelosuppression require frequent platelet and occasional granulocyte transfusions. Multi-donor transfusions induce alloimmunization, thereby increasing morbidity and mortality. Therefore, an autologous or HLA-matched allogeneic source of platelets and granulocytes is needed. To determine whether nonhematopoietic cells can be reprogrammed into hematopoietic cells, human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and skin fibroblasts were incubated with the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine (Aza) and the growth factors (GF) granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and stem cell factor. This treatment transformed MSCs to round, non-adherent cells expressing T-, B-, myeloid-, or stem/progenitor-cell markers. The transformed cells engrafted as hematopoietic cells in bone marrow of immunodeficient mice. DNA methylation and mRNA array analysis suggested that Aza and GF treatment demethylated and activated HOXB genes. Indeed, transfection of MSCs or skin fibroblasts with HOXB4, HOXB5, and HOXB2 genes transformed them into hematopoietic cells. Further studies are needed to determine whether transformed MSCs or skin fibroblasts are suitable for therapy. PMID:21731684

Harris, David M.; Hazan-Haley, Inbal; Coombes, Kevin; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Liu, Jie; Liu, Zhiming; Li, Ping; Ravoori, Murali; Abruzzo, Lynne; Han, Lin; Singh, Sheela; Sun, Michael; Kundra, Vikas; Kurzrock, Razelle; Estrov, Zeev

2011-01-01

194

Metabolic Regulation by the Mitochondrial Phosphatase PTPMT1 Is Required for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The regulation and coordination of mitochondrial metabolism with hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation is not fully understood. Here we report that depletion of PTPMT1, a PTEN-like mitochondrial phosphatase, in inducible or hematopoietic-cell-specific knockout mice resulted in hematopoietic failure due to changes in the cell cycle and a block in the differentiation of HSCs. Surprisingly, the HSC pool was increased by ~40-fold in PTPMT1 knockout mice. Reintroduction of wild-type PTPMT1, but not catalytically deficient PTPMT1 or truncated PTPMT1 lacking mitochondrial localization, restored differentiation capabilities of PTPMT1 knockout HSCs. Further analyses demonstrated that PTPMT1 deficiency altered mitochondrial metabolism and that phosphatidylinositol phosphate substrates of PTPMT1 directly enhanced fatty-acid-induced activation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2. Intriguingly, depletion of PTPMT1 from myeloid, T lymphoid, or B lymphoid progenitors did not cause any defects in lineage-specific knockout mice. This study establishes a crucial role of PTPMT1 in the metabolic regulation of HSC function. PMID:23290137

Yu, Wen-Mei; Liu, Xia; Shen, Jinhua; Jovanovic, Olga; Pohl, Elena E.; Gerson, Stanton L.; Finkel, Toren; Broxmeyer, Hal E.; Qu, Cheng-Kui

2013-01-01

195

Tipifarnib in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia With Excess Blasts in Transformation

2014-12-01

196

Coordinated regulation of myeloid cells by tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myeloid cells are the most abundant nucleated haematopoietic cells in the human body and are a collection of distinct cell populations with many diverse functions. The three groups of terminally differentiated myeloid cells — macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes — are essential for the normal function of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Mounting evidence indicates that the tumour

Dmitry I. Gabrilovich; Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg; Vincenzo Bronte

2012-01-01

197

Inherited predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Germline testing for familial predisposition to myeloid malignancies is becoming more common with the recognition of multiple familial syndromes. Currently, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-approved testing exists for the following: familial platelet disorder with propensity to acute myeloid leukemia, caused by mutations in RUNX1; familial myelodysplastic syndrome/acute myeloid leukemia with mutated GATA2; familial acute myeloid leukemia with mutated CEBPA; and the inherited bone marrow failure syndromes, including dyskeratosis congenita, a disease of abnormal telomere maintenance. With the recognition of additional families with a genetic component to their myeloid diseases, new predisposition alleles are likely to be identified. Awareness of the existence of these syndromes will facilitate proper genetic counseling, appropriate testing, and clinical management of these cases. PMID:25311743

Godley, Lucy A

2014-10-01

198

Interleukin 7-dependent B lymphocyte precursor cells are ultrasensitive to apoptosis  

PubMed Central

We have compared the sensitivity of clonogenic interleukin 7 (IL-7)- dependent murine B cell precursors with that of clonogenic mature B cells and myeloid precursors to alpha-particles from plutonium-238 and X radiation. All three populations are relatively sensitive, but B cell precursors are ultrasensitive. This differential sensitivity is also observed with corticosteroid, etoposide, and cisplatin, all apoptosis- inducing drugs used in the treatment of leukemia and other cancers. Further, we show that x-rays and drugs induce the bulk of the B cell precursor population to undergo rapid apoptosis, despite the continued presence of IL-7. B cell precursors were found to express very low levels of BCL-2 protein compared with mature splenic B cells and their resistance to x-rays and corticosteroid could be enhanced by expression of a BCL-2 transgene. These data have important implications for normal lymphopoiesis and for the behavior of leukemic lymphoid precursor cells. PMID:8195708

1994-01-01

199

Clinical and pathologic analysis of extramedullary tumors after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Clinical and pathologic analyses of 41 extramedullary biopsy/resection specimens of extramedullary tumors (EMTs) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) were performed. The 41 EMT specimens were from 28 patients, with 11 having more than 1 consecutive EMT in different anatomic locations at different times post-HSCT. The median age at EMT diagnosis was 45 years (range, 17-73 years), and the male/female ratio was 17:11. The most common initial diagnosis was acute myeloid leukemia (21), followed by chronic myeloid leukemia with myeloid blast phase (2), primary myelofibrosis with acute leukemic transformation (1), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (2), mixed lineage T/myeloid leukemia (1), and plasma cell myeloma (1). All initial presentations were limited to bone marrow-only disease. Twenty patients had abnormal chromosomal karyotypes, whereas 6 had normal cytogenetics with their original disease. All patients received standard chemotherapy followed by allogeneic (27) or autologous (1) HSCT. The EMTs occurred 2 to 177 months (median, 16.5 months) after HSCT and were diagnosed as solid mass lesions as follows: skin and soft tissue (10), central nervous system and paraspinal tissue (9), breast (7), gastrointestinal tract (4), lymph node (4), genitourinary system (4), and mediastinum (3). Interestingly, all but 3 patients had negative bone marrows at the time their EMT was diagnosed, indicating that most EMTs presented as sole lesion of relapsed disease. The overall outcome was dismal for patients with EMT, with 20 (71%) of 28 patients deceased at 1 to 26 months after EMT diagnosis, with a median overall survival of only 6.5 months. PMID:25294373

Huang, Qin; Reddi, Deepti; Chu, Peiguo; Snyder, David S; Weisenburger, Dennis D

2014-12-01

200

Cdc42 and aging of hematopoietic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) continuously provide mature blood cells during the lifespan of a mammal. The functional decline in hematopoiesis in the elderly, which involves a progressive reduction in the immune response and an increased incidence of myeloid malignancy, is partly linked to HSC aging. Molecular mechanisms of HSC aging remain unclear, hindering rational approaches to slow or reverse the decline of HSC function with age. Identifying conditions under which aged HSCs become equivalent to young stem cells might result in treatments for age-associated imbalances in lymphopoiesis and myelopoiesis and in blood regeneration. Recent findings Aging of HSCs has been for a long time thought to be an irreversible process imprinted in stem cells due to the intrinsic nature of HSC aging. Mouse model studies have found that aging is associated with elevated activity of the Rho GTPase Cdc42 in HSCs that is causative for loss of polarity, altered epigenetic modifications and functional deficits of aged HSCs. The work suggests that inhibition of Cdc42 activity in aged HSCs may reverse a number of phenotypes associated with HSC aging. Summary Maintaining the regenerative capacity of organs or organ systems may be a useful way to ensure healthy aging. A defined set of features phenotypically separate young from aged HSCs. Aging of HSCs has been thought to be irreversible. Recent findings support the hypothesis that functional decline of aged HSCs may be reversible by pharmacological intervention of age altered signaling pathways and epigenetic modifications. PMID:23615056

Geiger, Hartmut; Zheng, Yi

2014-01-01

201

A case of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Chronic myeloid leukemia is a clonal expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cells characterized by exaggerated proliferation of granulocytic lineage, with chronic phase, accelerated phase and blast crisis. Accelerated phase and blast crisis may be associated with extramedulary disease. Extramedullary transformation of CML can be determined both in nodal and extranodal sites. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is rare in chronic myeloid leukemia and may be misdiagnosed as an extramedullary lymphoid blast transformation; the majorities are T-cell lymphomas with an immature thymic phenotype, while peripheral B-cell lymphomas are rarer. We report the case of a 79-year-old woman carrier Ph+ chronic myeloid leukemia who developed at eight months of diagnosis an accelerated phase of CML associated simultaneous with a tumor of soft palate, which was initial considering an extramedullary disease. The patient was treated with specific chemotherapy for accelerated phase of CML (Cytosinarabinoside) + Anagrelide, and reversed to secondary chronic phase of CML, but soft palate tumor persists. The immunohistochemical findings of bone marrow trephine biopsy examination showed chronic phase of CML (negativity for immature cells such as CD34, Tdt) and the biopsy of soft palate tumor and immunohistochemical findings revealed a primitive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with medium B-cells (CD20, CD79a positive) and excluding an extramedullary blast crisis (CD34 negative, Tdt negative). Cytogenetic analysis in tumor revealed absence of Philadelphia chromosome. The patient was treated with local radiotherapy for NHL, with a favorable evolution and Hydroxyurea 1 g/day for CML with hematological remission. A localized lymphoid neoplasm may be an extramedullary localized blast crisis of CML or a distinct malignancy, with distinguished therapy and prognosis. A correct diagnosis based on a complex investigation: immunohistochemistry, conventional cytogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), molecular analysis (Southern blot and RT-PCR) is necessary. Further studies are required to clarify the pathogenetic relationship between chronic myeloid leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphomas. PMID:24399014

G?man, Amelia Maria; Dobrea, Camelia; Rotaru, Ionela

2013-01-01

202

Myeloperoxidase-dependent oxidation of etoposide in human myeloid progenitor CD34+ cells.  

PubMed

Etoposide is a widely used anticancer drug successfully used for the treatment of many types of cancer in children and adults. Its use, however, is associated with an increased risk of development of secondary acute myelogenous leukemia involving the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene (11q23) translocations. Previous studies demonstrated that the phenoxyl radical of etoposide can be produced by action of myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme found in developing myeloid progenitor cells, the likely origin for myeloid leukemias. We hypothesized, therefore, that one-electron oxidation of etoposide by MPO to its phenoxyl radical is important for converting this anticancer drug to genotoxic and carcinogenic species in human CD34(+) myeloid progenitor cells. In the present study, using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we provide conclusive evidence for MPO-dependent formation of etoposide phenoxyl radicals in growth factor-mobilized CD34(+) cells isolated from human umbilical cord blood and demonstrate that MPO-induced oxidation of etoposide is amplified in the presence of phenol. Formation of etoposide radicals resulted in the oxidation of endogenous thiols, thus providing evidence for etoposide-mediated MPO-catalyzed redox cycling that may play a role in enhanced etoposide genotoxicity. In separate studies, etoposide-induced DNA damage and MLL gene rearrangements were demonstrated to be dependent in part on MPO activity in CD34(+) cells. Together, our results are consistent with the idea that MPO-dependent oxidation of etoposide in human hematopoietic CD34(+) cells makes these cells especially prone to the induction of etoposide-related acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:21097707

Vlasova, Irina I; Feng, Wei-Hong; Goff, Julie P; Giorgianni, Angela; Do, Duc; Gollin, Susanne M; Lewis, Dale W; Kagan, Valerian E; Yalowich, Jack C

2011-03-01

203

Myeloperoxidase-Dependent Oxidation of Etoposide in Human Myeloid Progenitor CD34+ Cells  

PubMed Central

Etoposide is a widely used anticancer drug successfully used for the treatment of many types of cancer in children and adults. Its use, however, is associated with an increased risk of development of secondary acute myelogenous leukemia involving the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene (11q23) translocations. Previous studies demonstrated that the phenoxyl radical of etoposide can be produced by action of myeloperoxidase (MPO), an enzyme found in developing myeloid progenitor cells, the likely origin for myeloid leukemias. We hypothesized, therefore, that one-electron oxidation of etoposide by MPO to its phenoxyl radical is important for converting this anticancer drug to genotoxic and carcinogenic species in human CD34+ myeloid progenitor cells. In the present study, using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we provide conclusive evidence for MPO-dependent formation of etoposide phenoxyl radicals in growth factor-mobilized CD34+ cells isolated from human umbilical cord blood and demonstrate that MPO-induced oxidation of etoposide is amplified in the presence of phenol. Formation of etoposide radicals resulted in the oxidation of endogenous thiols, thus providing evidence for etoposide-mediated MPO-catalyzed redox cycling that may play a role in enhanced etoposide genotoxicity. In separate studies, etoposide-induced DNA damage and MLL gene rearrangements were demonstrated to be dependent in part on MPO activity in CD34+ cells. Together, our results are consistent with the idea that MPO-dependent oxidation of etoposide in human hematopoietic CD34+ cells makes these cells especially prone to the induction of etoposide-related acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:21097707

Vlasova, Irina I.; Feng, Wei-Hong; Goff, Julie P.; Giorgianni, Angela; Do, Duc; Gollin, Susanne M.; Lewis, Dale W.; Kagan, Valerian E.

2011-01-01

204

Acute Myeloid Leukemia with BCR/ABL Fusion Chimera.  

PubMed

Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome is most commonly associated with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML), a subset of precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute biphenotypic leukemia. In contrast only 1 % of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) show a consistent association with the Ph Chromosome. Before making a diagnosis of Ph + AML stringent criteria need to be applied in order to differentiate it from blast crisis stage of CML. It is important to identify this rare entity as patients who otherwise carry a poor prognosis with standard chemotherapy regimen, would benefit from therapy with imatinib mesylate. This article discusses the morphological, immunophenotype and clinical characteristics of a rare case of Ph + AML. PMID:25332597

Madashira Gopal, Manoj; Kotwal, Jyoti; Kapoor, Rajan

2014-09-01

205

Sexuality following hematopoietic cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a therapeutic modality used to treat a variety of malignant and nonmalignant disorders. Because HCT often involves the use of high-dose radiation and chemotherapy, it is associated with numerous toxicities and effects, including changes in sexuality and sexual functioning. These changes may include decreased libido, erectile and ejaculatory dysfunction, premature menopause, vaginal alterations, dyspareunia, and infertility. Psychosocial factors, such as anxiety, depression, and concurrent life stressors, also may affect sexuality and sexual functioning. Healthcare providers caring for patients undergoing HCT need to initiate discussions about the impact of HCT on sexuality pretransplant and continue those discussions throughout and following the treatment process. PMID:14983763

Tierney, D Kathryn

2004-02-01

206

Ion Channels in Hematopoietic and Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in bone marrow niches and give rise to hematopoietic precursor cells (HPCs). These have more restricted lineage potential and eventually differentiate into specific blood cell types. Bone marrow also contains mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), which present multilineage differentiation potential toward mesodermal cell types. In bone marrow niches, stem cell interaction with the extracellular matrix is mediated by integrin receptors. Ion channels regulate cell proliferation and differentiation by controlling intracellular Ca2+, cell volume, release of growth factors, and so forth. Although little evidence is available about the ion channel roles in true HSCs, increasing information is available about HPCs and MSCs, which present a complex pattern of K+ channel expression. K+ channels cooperate with Ca2+ and Cl? channels in regulating calcium entry and cell volume during mitosis. Other K+ channels modulate the integrin-dependent interaction between leukemic progenitor cells and the niche stroma. These channels can also regulate leukemia cell interaction with MSCs, which also involves integrin receptors and affects the MSC-mediated protection from chemotherapy. Ligand-gated channels are also implicated in these processes. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors regulate cell proliferation and migration in HSCs and MSCs and may be implicated in the harmful effects of smoking. PMID:22919401

Pillozzi, Serena; Becchetti, Andrea

2012-01-01

207

Nutritional status of patients submitted to transplantation of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells: a retrospective study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study aimed to describe and compare the nutritional status of adult patients submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at two different time points (admission and discharge). Methods A retrospective, descriptive and quantitative study was performed based on clinical, laboratory and nutritional data obtained from medical records of adult patients of both genders submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a bone marrow transplantation reference center in Rio de Janeiro in the period from 2010 to 2013. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS software (version 22.0). Results Sixty-four patients were evaluated. The mean age was 42.1 ± 3.2 years and the most prevalent disease was acute myeloid leukemia (39%). There was a high prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms including nausea (100%), vomiting (97%) and mucositis (93%). Between admission and discharge there was a significant decrease in the median weight (?2.5 kg; 71.5 vs. 68.75 kg; p-value < 0.001), body mass index (?0.9 kg/m2; 24.8 vs. 24.4 kg/m2; p-value < 0.001), and serum albumin levels (?0.2 g/dL; 3.7 vs. 3.6 g/dL; p-value = 0.024). The survival time after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation correlated negatively with C-reactive protein at discharge (CC = ?0.72; p-value < 0.001) and positively with serum albumin levels (CC = 0.56; p-value = 0.004) and with high total protein level at discharge (CC = 0.53; p-value = 0.006). Conclusion Our results suggest that patients submitted to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have compromised nutritional status during the hospital stay for transplantation. PMID:25453651

Ferreira, Érika Elias; Guerra, Daiane Cristina; Baluz, Kátia; de Resende Furtado, Wander; da Silva Bouzas, Luis Fernando

2014-01-01

208

Hematopoietic stem cell origin of BRAFV600E mutations in hairy cell leukemia.  

PubMed

Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by somatic BRAFV600E mutations. The malignant cell in HCL has immunophenotypic features of a mature B cell, but no normal counterpart along the continuum of developing B lymphocytes has been delineated as the cell of origin. We find that the BRAFV600E mutation is present in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in HCL patients, and that these patients exhibit marked alterations in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) frequencies. Quantitative sequencing analysis revealed a mean BRAFV600E-mutant allele frequency of 4.97% in HSCs from HCL patients. Moreover, transplantation of BRAFV600E-mutant HSCs from an HCL patient into immunodeficient mice resulted in stable engraftment of BRAFV600E-mutant human hematopoietic cells, revealing the functional self-renewal capacity of HCL HSCs. Consistent with the human genetic data, expression of BRafV600E in murine HSPCs resulted in a lethal hematopoietic disorder characterized by splenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, increased circulating soluble CD25, and increased clonogenic capacity of B lineage cells-all classic features of human HCL. In contrast, restricting expression of BRafV600E to the mature B cell compartment did not result in disease. Treatment of HCL patients with vemurafenib, an inhibitor of mutated BRAF, resulted in normalization of HSPC frequencies and increased myeloid and erythroid output from HSPCs. These findings link the pathogenesis of HCL to somatic mutations that arise in HSPCs and further suggest that chronic lymphoid malignancies may be initiated by aberrant HSCs. PMID:24871132

Chung, Stephen S; Kim, Eunhee; Park, Jae H; Chung, Young Rock; Lito, Piro; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Hu, Wenhuo; Beguelin, Wendy; Monette, Sebastien; Duy, Cihangir; Rampal, Raajit; Telis, Leon; Patel, Minal; Kim, Min Kyung; Huberman, Kety; Bouvier, Nancy; Berger, Michael F; Melnick, Ari M; Rosen, Neal; Tallman, Martin S; Park, Christopher Y; Abdel-Wahab, Omar

2014-05-28

209

Differential regulation of myeloid leukemias by the bone marrow microenvironment.  

PubMed

Like their normal hematopoietic stem cell counterparts, leukemia stem cells (LSCs) in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are presumed to reside in specific niches in the bone marrow microenvironment (BMM) and may be the cause of relapse following chemotherapy. Targeting the niche is a new strategy to eliminate persistent and drug-resistant LSCs. CD44 (refs. 3,4) and interleukin-6 (ref. 5) have been implicated previously in the LSC niche. Transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) is released during bone remodeling and plays a part in maintenance of CML LSCs, but a role for TGF-?1 from the BMM has not been defined. Here, we show that alteration of the BMM by osteoblastic cell-specific activation of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor attenuates BCR-ABL1 oncogene-induced CML-like myeloproliferative neoplasia (MPN) but enhances MLL-AF9 oncogene-induced AML in mouse transplantation models, possibly through opposing effects of increased TGF-?1 on the respective LSCs. PTH treatment caused a 15-fold decrease in LSCs in wild-type mice with CML-like MPN and reduced engraftment of immune-deficient mice with primary human CML cells. These results demonstrate that LSC niches in CML and AML are distinct and suggest that modulation of the BMM by PTH may be a feasible strategy to reduce LSCs, a prerequisite for the cure of CML. PMID:24162813

Krause, Daniela S; Fulzele, Keertik; Catic, André; Sun, Chia Chi; Dombkowski, David; Hurley, Michael P; Lezeau, Sanon; Attar, Eyal; Wu, Joy Y; Lin, Herbert Y; Divieti-Pajevic, Paola; Hasserjian, Robert P; Schipani, Ernestina; Van Etten, Richard A; Scadden, David T

2013-11-01

210

The variety of leukemic stem cells in myeloid malignancy.  

PubMed

Human acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) are sustained by leukemic stem cells (LSCs) that generate through aberrant differentiation the blast cells that make up the bulk of the malignant clone. LSCs were first identified as rare cells with an immunophenotype shared with normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, refinements of xenotransplantation assays, alternative methods of quantitation and syngeneic murine models have all led to an appreciation that LSCs display marked variability in frequency, immunophenotype and differentiation potential, both between and even within leukemias. Insights from next-generation sequencing efforts have dramatically extended understanding of the mutational landscape and clonal organization of AML and have added an additional layer of complexity to the biology of LSCs: a requirement to consider the effect of the various recurrently occurring genetic lesions in AML on the initiation and maintenance of leukemic subclones. Despite these advances, cure rates in AML remain substantially unchanged in recent years. A renewed focus on the biological properties of chemotherapy-resistant LSCs, a cellular entity of prime clinical importance, will be required to develop additional therapeutic strategies to enhance patient outcomes. PMID:23831573

Wiseman, D H; Greystoke, B F; Somervaille, T C P

2014-06-12

211

Azacitidine and Erismodegib in Treating Patients With Myeloid Malignancies  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); PML-RARA; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Essential Thrombocythemia; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2015-01-12

212

Leukemic Stem Cell Frequency: A Strong Biomarker for Clinical Outcome in Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Introduction Treatment failure in acute myeloid leukemia is probably caused by the presence of leukemia initiating cells, also referred to as leukemic stem cells, at diagnosis and their persistence after therapy. Specific identification of leukemia stem cells and their discrimination from normal hematopoietic stem cells would greatly contribute to risk stratification and could predict possible relapses. Results For identification of leukemic stem cells, we developed flow cytometric methods using leukemic stem cell associated markers and newly-defined (light scatter) aberrancies. The nature of the putative leukemic stem cells and normal hematopoietic stem cells, present in the same patient's bone marrow, was demonstrated in eight patients by the presence or absence of molecular aberrancies and/or leukemic engraftment in NOD-SCID IL-2R?-/- mice. At diagnosis (n?=?88), the frequency of the thus defined neoplastic part of CD34+CD38- putative stem cell compartment had a strong prognostic impact, while the neoplastic parts of the CD34+CD38+ and CD34- putative stem cell compartments had no prognostic impact at all. After different courses of therapy, higher percentages of neoplastic CD34+CD38- cells in complete remission strongly correlated with shorter patient survival (n?=?91). Moreover, combining neoplastic CD34+CD38- frequencies with frequencies of minimal residual disease cells (n?=?91), which reflect the total neoplastic burden, revealed four patient groups with different survival. Conclusion and Perspective Discrimination between putative leukemia stem cells and normal hematopoietic stem cells in this large-scale study allowed to demonstrate the clinical importance of putative CD34+CD38- leukemia stem cells in AML. Moreover, it offers new opportunities for the development of therapies directed against leukemia stem cells, that would spare normal hematopoietic stem cells, and, moreover, enables in vivo and ex vivo screening for potential efficacy and toxicity of new therapies. PMID:25244440

Terwijn, Monique; Zeijlemaker, Wendelien; Kelder, Angèle; Rutten, Arjo P.; Snel, Alexander N.; Scholten, Willemijn J.; Pabst, Thomas; Verhoef, Gregor; Löwenberg, Bob; Zweegman, Sonja; Ossenkoppele, Gert J.; Schuurhuis, Gerrit J.

2014-01-01

213

Hematopoietic stem cells: an overview.  

PubMed

Considerable efforts have been made in recent years in understanding the mechanisms that govern hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) origin, development, differentiation, self-renewal, aging, trafficking, plasticity and transdifferentiation. Hematopoiesis occurs in sequential waves in distinct anatomical locations during development and these shifts in location are accompanied by changes in the functional status of the stem cells and reflect the changing needs of the developing organism. HSCs make a choice of either self-renewal or committing to differentiation. The balance between self-renewal and differentiation is considered to be critical to the maintenance of stem cell numbers. It is still under debate if HSC can rejuvenate infinitely or if they do not possess ''true" self-renewal and undergo replicative senescence such as any other somatic cell. Gene therapy applications that target HSCs offer a great potential for the treatment of hematologic and immunologic diseases. However, the clinical success has been limited by many factors. This review is intended to summarize the recent advances made in the human HSC field, and will review the hematopoietic stem cell from definition through development to clinical applications. PMID:25457002

Mosaad, Youssef Mohamed

2014-12-01

214

Molecular pathways: myeloid complicity in cancer.  

PubMed

Cancer-induced inflammation results in accumulation of myeloid cells. These myeloid cells include progenitors and progeny of monocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. It has become increasingly evident that tumor-dependent factors can condition myeloid cells toward an immunosuppressive and protumorigenic phenotype. Thus, myeloid cells are not simply bystanders in malignancy or barometers of disease burden. Reflecting their dynamic and plastic nature, myeloid cells manifest a continuum of cellular differentiation and are intimately involved at all stages of neoplastic progression. They can promote tumorigenesis through both immune-dependent and -independent mechanisms and can dictate response to therapies. A greater understanding of the inherent plasticity and relationships among myeloid subsets is needed to inform therapeutic targeting. New clinical trials are being designed to modulate the activities of myeloid cells in cancer, which may be essential to maximize the efficacy of both conventional cytotoxic and immune-based therapies for solid tumors. Clin Cancer Res; 20(20); 5157-70. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25047706

Stromnes, Ingunn M; Greenberg, Philip D; Hingorani, Sunil R

2014-10-15

215

Alternative Sources of Hematopoietic CellsAlternative Sources of Hematopoietic Cells Ginna G. Laport, MDGinna G. Laport, MD  

E-print Network

-2006 Transplants,% Bone Marrow Peripheral Blood Cord Blood #12;Indications for Allogeneic HSCTIndications of Hematopoietic CellsAlternative Sources of Hematopoietic Cells OverviewOverview Peripheral Blood vs Bone Marrow Hematopoietic CellsPeripheral Blood vs Bone Marrow Hematopoietic Cells ­­ matched relatedmatched related

Ford, James

216

Hematopoietic toxicity of regional radiation therapy. Correlations for combined modality therapy with systemic chemotherapy  

SciTech Connect

Using circulating granulocyte-monocyte precursor colony-forming units in culture (CFUc) numbers as a probe along with standard blood count (CBC), the authors have quantitatively examined the hematopoietic toxicity of conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (RT) when combined with concurrent systemic chemotherapy or when used alone. Among 20 patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer receiving systemic chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, CCNU, and methotrexate, the addition of involved field chest RT resulted in increased hematopoietic toxicity as judged by increased need for platelet transfusion (P less than 0.05) and decreased frequency of measurable CFUc (P less than 0.04). Among 22 patients receiving regional radiotherapy alone consistent hematopoietic toxicity was also observed. This toxicity, although generally of only mild to moderate clinical significance, was detected earlier and to a greater degree in patients who required radiation to larger treatment volumes, who had significant amounts of bone marrow in the port, and who had a high percentage of cardiac output flowing through the port. These data suggest that the hematopoietic toxicity of regional radiotherapy may be additive to that of concurrent systemic chemotherapy and may occur more promptly and to a greater degree when treatment volumes are larger or incorporate increased amounts of marrow volume or cardiac output.

Abrams, R.A.; Lichter, A.S.; Bromer, R.H.; Minna, J.D.; Cohen, M.H.; Deisseroth, A.B.

1985-04-01

217

Thrombomucin, a Novel Cell Surface Protein that Defines Thrombocytes and Multipotent Hematopoietic Progenitors  

PubMed Central

MEP21 is an avian antigen specifically expressed on the surface of Myb-Ets–transformed multipotent hematopoietic precursors (MEPs) and of normal thrombocytes. Using nanoelectrospray tandem mass spectrometry, we have sequenced and subsequently cloned the MEP21 cDNA and named the gene thrombomucin as it encodes a 571–amino acid protein with an extracellular domain typical of the mucin family of proteoglycans. Thrombomucin is distantly related to CD34, the best characterized and most used human hematopoietic stem cell marker. It is also highly homologous in its transmembrane/intracellular domain to podocalyxinlike protein–1, a rabbit cell surface glycoprotein of kidney podocytes. Single cell analysis of yolk sac cells from 3-d-old chick embryos revealed that thrombomucin is expressed on the surface of both lineage-restricted and multipotent progenitors. In the bone marrow, thrombomucin is also expressed on mono- and multipotent progenitors, showing an overlapping but distinct expression pattern from that of the receptor-type stem cell marker c-kit. These observations strengthen the notion that the Myb-Ets oncoprotein can induce the proliferation of thrombomucin-positive hematopoietic progenitors that have retained the capacity to differentiate along multiple lineages. They also suggest that thrombomucin and CD34 form a family of stem cell–specific proteins with possibly overlapping functions in early hematopoietic progenitors. PMID:9298993

McNagny, Kelly M.; Pettersson, Inger; Rossi, Fabio; Flamme, Ingo; Shevchenko, Andrej; Mann, Matthias; Graf, Thomas

1997-01-01

218

Expansion in vitro of Transplantable Human Cord Blood Stem Cells Demonstrated Using a Quantitative Assay of their Lympho-Myeloid Repopulating Activity in Nonobese Diabetic-Scid\\/Scid Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human hematopoiesis originates in a population of stem cells with transplantable lympho-myeloid reconstituting potential, but a method for quantitating such cells has not been available. We now described a simple assay that meets this need. It is based on the ability of sublethally irradiated immunodeficient nonobese diabetic--scid\\/scid (NOD\\/SCID) mice to be engrafted by intravenously injected human hematopoietic cells and uses

E. Conneally; J. Cashman; A. Petzer; C. Eaves

1997-01-01

219

Homoharringtonine and omacetaxine for myeloid hematological malignancies  

PubMed Central

Homoharringtonine (HHT), a plant alkaloid with antitumor properties originally identified nearly 40 years ago, has a unique mechanism of action by preventing the initial elongation step of protein synthesis. HHT has been used widely in China for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Omacetaxine, a semisynthetic form of HHT, with excellent bioavailability by the subcutaneous route, has recently been approved by FDA of the United States for the treatment of CML refractory to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This review summarized preclinical and clinical development of HHT and omacetaxine for myeloid hematological malignancies. PMID:24387717

2014-01-01

220

Mathematical model of cellular kinetics in long term marrow culture with specific application to the effect of ionizing radiation on the hematopoietic microenvironment  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, an in vitro system for the culturing of hematopoietic stem cells and precursor cells over extended time periods has been developed. It has been clearly demonstrated that these cultures are supporting ongoing hematopoiesis, which makes them an ideal model system for investigating questions relating to both normal and abnormal hematopoiesis. The most easily measured aspect of this

1984-01-01

221

Potent antitumor activity of the Ad5/11 chimeric oncolytic adenovirus combined with interleukin-24 for acute myeloid leukemia via induction of apoptosis.  

PubMed

The Ad5/11 chimeric oncolytic adenovirus represents a promising new platform for anticancer therapy. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous clonal disorder of hematopoietic progenitor cells and is the most common malignant myeloid disorder in adults. Myeloid and other hematopoietic cell lineages are involved in the process of clonal proliferation and differentiation. In the present study, we aimed to ascertain whether chimeric oncolytic adenovirus-mediated transfer of the human interleukin-24 (IL-24) gene induces enhanced antitumor potency. Our results showed that the Ad5/11 chimeric oncolytic adenovirus carrying hIL-24 (AdCN205?11-IL-24) produced high levels of hIL-24 in AML cancer cells, as compared with the Ad5 oncolytic adenovirus expressing hIL-24 (AdCN205-IL-24). AdCN205-11-IL-24 specifically induced a cytotoxic effect on AML cancer cells, but had little or no effect on a normal cell line. AdCN205-11-IL-24 induced higher antitumor activity in AML cancer cells by inducing apoptosis in vitro. This study suggests that transfer of IL-24 by an Ad5/11 chimeric oncolytic adenovirus may be a potent antitumor approach for AML cancer therapy. PMID:25339149

Wei, Xubin; Liu, Li; Wang, Gang; Li, Wei; Xu, Ke; Qi, Hongyan; Liu, Hong; Shen, Jing; Li, Zhongjie; Shao, Jimin

2015-01-01

222

Reconstitution of the myeloid and lymphoid compartments after the transplantation of autologous and genetically modified CD34+ bone marrow cells, following gamma irradiation in cynomolgus macaques  

PubMed Central

Background Prolonged, altered hematopoietic reconstitution is commonly observed in patients undergoing myeloablative conditioning and bone marrow and/or mobilized peripheral blood-derived stem cell transplantation. We studied the reconstitution of myeloid and lymphoid compartments after the transplantation of autologous CD34+ bone marrow cells following gamma irradiation in cynomolgus macaques. Results The bone marrow cells were first transduced ex vivo with a lentiviral vector encoding eGFP, with a mean efficiency of 72% ± 4%. The vector used was derived from the simian immunodeficiency lentivirus SIVmac251, VSV-g pseudotyped and encoded eGFP under the control of the phosphoglycerate kinase promoter. After myeloid differentiation, GFP was detected in colony-forming cells (37% ± 10%). A previous study showed that transduction rates did not differ significantly between colony-forming cells and immature cells capable of initiating long-term cultures, indicating that progenitor cells and highly immature hematopoietic cells were transduced with similar efficiency. Blood cells producingeGFP were detected as early as three days after transplantation, and eGFP-producing granulocyte and mononuclear cells persisted for more than one year in the periphery. Conclusion The transplantation of CD34+ bone marrow cells had beneficial effects for the ex vivo proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors, favoring reconstitution of the T- and B-lymphocyte, thrombocyte and red blood cell compartments. PMID:18565229

Derdouch, Sonia; Gay, Wilfried; Nègre, Didier; Prost, Stéphane; Le Dantec, Mikael; Delache, Benoît; Auregan, Gwenaelle; Andrieu, Thibault; Leplat, Jean-Jacques; Cosset, François-Loïc; Le Grand, Roger

2008-01-01

223

Vorinostat in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Erythroid Leukemia (M6); Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Cytopenia With Multilineage Dysplasia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-04-30

224

Hematopoietic stem cell dysfunction underlies the progressive lymphocytopenia in XLF/Cernunnos deficiency  

PubMed Central

XRCC4-like factor (XLF/Cernunnos) is a component of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway of double-strand DNA break repair. XLF-deficient patients develop a severe progressive lymphocytopenia. Although NHEJ is required for V(D)J recombination and lymphocyte development, XLF-deficient mice have normal V(D)J recombination, highlighting the need for an alternative mechanism for the lymphocytopenia. Here, we report that XLF-deficient mice recapitulate the age-dependent lymphocytopenia of patients. We show that XLF deficiency leads to premature aging of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), measured by decreased functional capacity in transplantation assays, preferential myeloid reconstitution, and reduced self-renewal at a young age. We propose that premature aging of HSCs, together with previously reported defects in class-switch recombination and memory immune response, underlies the progressive and severe lymphocytopenia in XLF-deficient patients in the absence of measurable V(D)J recombination defects. PMID:25075129

Avagyan, Serine; Churchill, Michael; Yamamoto, Kenta; Crowe, Jennifer L.; Li, Chen; Lee, Brian J.; Zheng, Tian; Mukherjee, Siddhartha

2014-01-01

225

Hematopoietic stem cell dysfunction underlies the progressive lymphocytopenia in XLF/Cernunnos deficiency.  

PubMed

XRCC4-like factor (XLF/Cernunnos) is a component of the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway of double-strand DNA break repair. XLF-deficient patients develop a severe progressive lymphocytopenia. Although NHEJ is required for V(D)J recombination and lymphocyte development, XLF-deficient mice have normal V(D)J recombination, highlighting the need for an alternative mechanism for the lymphocytopenia. Here, we report that XLF-deficient mice recapitulate the age-dependent lymphocytopenia of patients. We show that XLF deficiency leads to premature aging of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), measured by decreased functional capacity in transplantation assays, preferential myeloid reconstitution, and reduced self-renewal at a young age. We propose that premature aging of HSCs, together with previously reported defects in class-switch recombination and memory immune response, underlies the progressive and severe lymphocytopenia in XLF-deficient patients in the absence of measurable V(D)J recombination defects. PMID:25075129

Avagyan, Serine; Churchill, Michael; Yamamoto, Kenta; Crowe, Jennifer L; Li, Chen; Lee, Brian J; Zheng, Tian; Mukherjee, Siddhartha; Zha, Shan

2014-09-01

226

Inflammatory signaling regulates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell emergence in vertebrates.  

PubMed

Inflammatory signaling has been shown to be essential for stress hematopoiesis in adult bone marrow, either through increasing proliferation or by directing differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) toward myeloid or lymphoid lineages. However, its role in embryonic normal hematopoiesis has been unknown. Here, we demonstrate that in both zebrafish and mouse embryos, inflammatory signaling is necessary and sufficient for HSPC emergence, in the absence of infection or pathological inflammation. Mechanistically, inflammatory signaling regulates hemogenic endothelium-derived HSPC development through a conserved Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-nuclear factor ?-light-chain enhancer of activated B core (NF-?B) signaling, which then promotes Notch activity, a well-known signal required for HSPC specification in vertebrates. Our findings establish a previously unrecognized link between inflammatory signaling and HSPC emergence, and provide new insights into regenerative medicine and novel therapies to treat innate immune-related diseases. PMID:25540193

He, Qiuping; Zhang, Chunxia; Wang, Lu; Zhang, Panpan; Ma, Dongyuan; Lv, Junhua; Liu, Feng

2015-02-12

227

C/EBPa controls acquisition and maintenance of adult hematopoietic stem cell quiescence  

PubMed Central

Summary In blood, transcription factor C/EBPa is essential for myeloid differentiation and has been implicated in regulating self-renewal of fetal liver (FL) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, its function in adult HSCs has remained unknown. Here, using an inducible knockout model we found that C/EBPa deficient adult HSCs underwent a pronounced expansion with enhanced proliferation, characteristics resembling FL HSCs. Consistently, transcription profiling of C/EBPa deficient HSCs revealed a gene expression programme similar to FL HSCs. Moreover we observed that age-specific C/EBPa expression correlated with its inhibitory effect on HSC cell cycle. Mechanistically we identified N-Myc as C/EBPa downstream target, and loss of C/EBPa resulted in de-repression of N-Myc. Our data establish C/EBPa as a central determinant in the switch from fetal to adult HSCs. PMID:23502316

Ye, Min; Zhang, Hong; Amabile, Giovanni; Yang, Henry; Staber, Philipp B.; Zhang, Pu; Levantini, Elena; Alberich-Jordà, Meritxell; Zhang, Junyan; Kawasaki, Akira; Tenen, Daniel G.

2013-01-01

228

FoxO3a Directs a Protective Autophagy Program in Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Blood production is ensured by rare self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). How HSCs accommodate the diverse cellular stresses associated with their life-long activity remains elusive. Here, we identify autophagy as an essential mechanism protecting HSCs from metabolic stress. We show that HSCs, in contrast to their short-lived myeloid progeny, robustly induce autophagy following ex vivo cytokine withdrawal and in vivo caloric restriction. We demonstrate that FoxO3a is critical to maintain a gene expression program that poise HSCs for rapid induction of autophagy upon starvation. Notably, we find that old HSCs retain an intact FoxO3a-driven pro-autophagy gene program, and that ongoing autophagy is needed to mitigate an energy crisis and allow their survival. Our results demonstrate that autophagy is essential for the life-long maintenance of the HSC compartment and for supporting an old, failing blood system. PMID:23389440

Warr, Matthew R.; Binnewies, Mikhail; Flach, Johanna; Reynaud, Damien; Garg, Trit; Malhotra, Ritu; Debnath, Jayanta; Passegué, Emmanuelle

2013-01-01

229

Myeloid cells in cancer-related inflammation.  

PubMed

Myeloid cells are key elements of the cancer-related inflammation with the potential to support not only tumor growth but also invasion and metastasis. Tumor-derived factors affect myeloid cell differentiation inducing a phenotype that supports tumor growth, inducing immunosuppression, angiogenesis and tissue remodeling. Soluble mediators, produced at primary tumor site, can also act in a remote mode inducing the release from bone marrow of myeloid cells that have immunosuppressive activities in tumor-draining lymphoid organs and can predispose to colonization when migrate to metastatic organs. We will here review current knowledge on the contribution of tumor-derived signals that affect polarized activation of myeloid cells, their bone marrow release and recruitment to metastatic sites with a particular focus on the role of chemokines. PMID:25454487

Caronni, Nicoletta; Savino, Benedetta; Bonecchi, Raffaella

2015-02-01

230

Recognizing familial myeloid leukemia in adults  

PubMed Central

Germline testing for familial cases of myeloid leukemia in adults is becoming more common with the recognition of multiple genetic syndromes predisposing people to bone marrow disease. Currently, Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments approved testing exists for several myeloid leukemia predisposition syndromes: familial platelet disorder with propensity to acute myeloid leukemia (FPD/AML), caused by mutations in RUNX1; familial AML with mutated CEBPA; familial myelodysplastic syndrome and acute leukemia with mutated GATA2; and the inherited bone marrow failure syndromes, including dyskeratosis congenita, a disease of abnormal telomere maintenance. With the recognition of additional families with a genetic component to their leukemia, new predisposition alleles will likely be identified. We highlight how to recognize and manage these cases as well as outline the characteristics of the major known syndromes. We look forward to future research increasing our understanding of the scope of inherited myeloid leukemia syndromes. PMID:23926458

Nickels, Eric M.; Soodalter, Jesse; Churpek, Jane E.

2013-01-01

231

Radioimmunotherapy for hematopoietic cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) represents an attractive strategy to deliver radiation selectively to tumor and other target organs while minimizing toxicity to normal tissues. RIT with ?-particle-emitting isotopes targeting CD33, CD45 and CD66 can potentially allow intensification of conditioning before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in leukemia. Similarly, RIT directed against CD20 has shown promise in the setting of autologous and allogeneic HCT for B-cell lymphomas. ?-particle immunotherapy with isotopes such as bismuth-213, actinium-225 and astatinine-211 offers the possibility of more selective and efficient killing of target cells while sparing the surrounding normal cells. Pretargeting strategies may further improve target:normal organ dose ratios. While RIT has demonstrated significant antitumor activity, ultimately, randomized studies will be required to determine if conditioning regimens that include this therapeutic modality can improve patient outcomes after HCT. PMID:23557421

Jurcic, Joseph G

2013-04-01

232

Hematopoietic microenvironment. Origin, lineage, and transplantability of the stromal cells in long-term bone marrow cultures from chimeric mice  

SciTech Connect

Studies of bone marrow transplant patients have suggested that the stromal cells of the in vitro hematopoietic microenvironment are transplantable into conditioned recipients. Moreover, in patients with myeloproliferative disorders, all of the stromal cells, which include presumptive endothelial cells, appear to be derived from hematopoietic precursors. To confirm these findings, we have constructed two chimeric mouse models: (a) traditional radiation chimeras, and (b) fetal chimeras, produced by placental injection of bone marrow into genetically anemic Wx/Wv fetuses, a technique that essentially precludes engraftment of nonhematopoietic cells. Using two-color indirect immunofluorescence, the stromal cells in long-term bone marrow culture derived from these chimeras were analyzed for donor or host origin by strain-specific H-2 antigens, and for cell lineage by a variety of other specific markers. 75-95% of the stromal cells were shown to be hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage, based upon donor origin, phagocytosis, and expression of specific hematopoietic surface antigens. The remaining 5-25% of the stromal cells were exclusively host in origin. Apart from occasional fat cells, these cells uniformly expressed collagen type IV, laminin, and a surface antigen associated with endothelial cells. Since these endothelial-like cells are not transplantable into radiation or fetal chimeras, they are not derived from hematopoietic stem cells. The contrast between our findings and human studies suggests either unexpected species differences in the origin of stromal lineages or limitations in the previous methodology used to detect nonhematopoietic stromal cells.

Perkins, S.; Fleischman, R.A.

1988-04-01

233

Progressive maturation toward hematopoietic stem cells in the mouse embryo aorta  

PubMed Central

Clusters of cells attached to the endothelium of the main embryonic arteries were first observed a century ago. Present in most vertebrate species, such clusters, or intraaortic hematopoietic clusters (IAHCs), derive from specialized hemogenic endothelial cells and contain the first few hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) generated during embryonic development. However, some discrepancies remained concerning the spatio-temporal appearance and the numbers of IAHCs and HSCs. Therefore, the exact cell composition and function of IAHCs remain unclear to date. We show here that IAHCs contain pre-HSCs (or HSC precursors) that can mature into HSCs in vivo (as shown by the successful long-term multilineage reconstitution of primary neonates and secondary adult recipients). Such IAHC pre-HSCs could contribute to the HSC pool increase observed at midgestation. The novel insights in pre-HSC to HSC transition represent an important step toward generating transplantable HSCs in vitro that are needed for autologous HSC transplantation therapies. PMID:25301706

Boisset, Jean-Charles; Clapes, Thomas; Klaus, Anna; Papazian, Natalie; Onderwater, Jos; Mommaas-Kienhuis, Mieke; Cupedo, Tom

2015-01-01

234

Progressive maturation toward hematopoietic stem cells in the mouse embryo aorta.  

PubMed

Clusters of cells attached to the endothelium of the main embryonic arteries were first observed a century ago. Present in most vertebrate species, such clusters, or intraaortic hematopoietic clusters (IAHCs), derive from specialized hemogenic endothelial cells and contain the first few hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) generated during embryonic development. However, some discrepancies remained concerning the spatio-temporal appearance and the numbers of IAHCs and HSCs. Therefore, the exact cell composition and function of IAHCs remain unclear to date. We show here that IAHCs contain pre-HSCs (or HSC precursors) that can mature into HSCs in vivo (as shown by the successful long-term multilineage reconstitution of primary neonates and secondary adult recipients). Such IAHC pre-HSCs could contribute to the HSC pool increase observed at midgestation. The novel insights in pre-HSC to HSC transition represent an important step toward generating transplantable HSCs in vitro that are needed for autologous HSC transplantation therapies. PMID:25301706

Boisset, Jean-Charles; Clapes, Thomas; Klaus, Anna; Papazian, Natalie; Onderwater, Jos; Mommaas-Kienhuis, Mieke; Cupedo, Tom; Robin, Catherine

2015-01-15

235

Early molecular diagnosis of aspergillosis in a patient with acute myeloid leukaemia.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of invasive fungal infection remains challenging. Here we report a case of early diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in a neutropenic patient affected by acute myeloid leukaemia, achieved through the detection of Aspergillus fumigatus species-specific ribonucleic acid sequences by a sensitive multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction-based molecular assay. Thanks to the early diagnosis, targeted therapy was promptly established and the severe fungal infection controlled, allowing the patient to subsequently receive allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a haploidentical donor, her only curative option. Also in this instance, targeted secondary antifungal prophylaxis with voriconazole avoided any other fungal infection afterwards. This report suggests how the implementation of molecular assays in combination with routine diagnostic procedures, can improve microbiological diagnosis in sepsis, particularly in case of fungal infection, difficult to detect with standard microbiological culture methods. PMID:25024994

Greco, R; Mancini, N; Peccatori, J; Cieri, N; Vago, L; Giglio, F; Morelli, M; Ghidoli, N; Carletti, S; Levati, G; Crucitti, L; Sala, E; Lupo Stanghellini, M T; Lorentino, F; Forcina, A; Pavesi, F; Carrabba, M; Marktel, S; Assanelli, A; Marcatti, M; Bernardi, M; Corti, C; Doglioni, C; Scarpellini, P; Burioni, R; Bonini, C; Clementi, M; Ciceri, F

2014-01-01

236

Engineering humanized mice for improved hematopoietic reconstitution  

E-print Network

Humanized mice are immunodeficient animals engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells that give rise to various lineages of human blood cells throughout the life of the mouse. This article reviews recent advances in the ...

Drake, Adam

237

Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (Bone marrow syndrome, Aplastic Anemia): Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation Toxicity.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Key Words: Aplastic Anemia (AA), Pluripotential Stem Cells (PSC) Introduction: Aplastic Anemia (AA) is a disorder of the pluripotential stem cells involve a decrease in the number of cells of myeloid, erythroid and megakaryotic lineage [Segel et al. 2000 ]. The etiology of AA include idiopathic cases and secondary aplastic anemia after exposure to drugs, toxins, chemicals, viral infections, lympho-proliferative diseases, radiation, genetic causes, myelodisplastic syndromes and hypoplastic anemias, thymomas, lymphomas. [Brodskyet al. 2005.,Modan et al. 1975., Szklo et al. 1975]. Hematopoietic Acute Radiation Syndrome (or Bone marrow syndrome, or Radiation-Acquired Aplastic Anemia) is the acute toxic syndrome which usually occurs with a dose of irradiation between 0.7 and 10 Gy (70- 1000 rads), depending on the species irradiated. [Waselenko et al., 2004]. The etiology of bone morrow damage from high-level radiation exposure results depends on the radiosensitivity of certain bone marrow cell lines. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Aplastic anemia after radiation exposure is a clinical syndrome that results from a marked disorder of bone marrow blood cell production. [Waselenko et al. 2004] Radiation hematotoxicity is mediated via genotoxic and other specific toxic mechanisms, leading to aplasia, cell apoptosis or necrosis, initiation via genetic mechanisms of clonal disorders, in cases such as the acute radiation-acquired form of AA. AA results from radiation injury to pluripotential and multipotential stem cells in the bone marrow. The clinical signs displayed in reticulocytopenia, anemia, granulocytopenia, monocytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. The number of marrow CD34+ cells (multipotential hematopoietic progenitors) and their derivative colony-forming unit{granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) and burst forming unit {erythroid (BFU{E) are reduced markedly in patients with AA. [Guinan 2011, Brodski et al. 2005, Beutler et al.,2000] Cells expressing CD34 (CD34+ cell) are normally found in the umbilical cord and bone marrow as hematopoietic cells, a subset of mesenchymal stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, endothelial cells of blood vessels, etc. [Beutler et al. 2000 ] Potential mechanisms responsible for radiation-acquired marrow cell failure include direct toxicity , direct damage of hematopoietic multipotential cells or cellular or humoral immune suppression of the marrow multipotential cells. [ Beutler et al. 2000] Methods: These studies were conducted at several different research institutions and laboratories listed as follows: Kazan All-Union Scientific Research Veterinary, Biotechnology Centre of Russian Academy of Science (North Osetia), Institute Belarussian Scientific and Research Institute for Radiobiology in Gomel, the St. Petersburg Veterinary Institute, the Advanced Medical Technology and Systems Inc., Ontario, Canada. The studies were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee for ethical animal research equivalent, at each institution. A critically important volume of purified Radiation Toxins (RT) was isolated from larger mammalian irradiated animals. Subsequently the RT were characterized chemically and biologically. The experimental design of later studies compared relative toxicity, potential for development of acute radiation hematopoietic syndrome, and potential cloning disorder of multipotential hematopoietic progenitors and their derivative and lethality after intravenous or intramuscular injections of SRD containing Hematopoietic Radiation Toxins. These experiments have employed a wide variety of experimental animals. The animals were irradiated in RUM-17, Puma, and Panorama devices. The dose varied from 0.7Gy to 100Gy. The methods of immune depletion, immuno-lympho plasmasabsorption, as well as direct extraction, were used to refine and purify the specific Radiation Toxins from the central lymph of animals with Hematopoietic forms of Radiation Toxins. Experiments include administration of Hematopoietic Radiation Toxins (SRD-4) to radiation naive animals in doses 0.1 mg/kg; 0,5 mg/kg; 1 mg/kg; 2 mg/kg;

Popov, Dmitri

238

Hematopoietic miR155 Deficiency Enhances Atherosclerosis and Decreases Plaque Stability in Hyperlipidemic Mice  

PubMed Central

microRNA-155 (miR155) is a central regulator of immune responses that is induced by inflammatory mediators. Although miR155 is considered to be a pro-inflammatory microRNA, in vitro reports show anti-inflammatory effects in lipid-loaded cells. In this study we examined the role of miR155 in atherosclerosis in vivo using bone marrow transplantation from miR155 deficient or wildtype mice to hyperlipidemic mice. Hematopoietic deficiency of miR155 enhanced atherosclerotic plaque development and decreased plaque stability, as evidenced by increased myeloid inflammatory cell recruitment to the plaque. The increased inflammatory state was mirrored by a decrease in circulating CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, and an increase in granulocytes (CD11b+Ly6G+) in blood of miR155?/? transplanted mice. Moreover, we show for the first time a crucial role of miR155 in monocyte subset differentiation, since hematopoietic deficiency of miR155 increases the ‘inflammatory’ monocyte subset (CD11b+Ly6G?Ly6Chi) and reduces ‘resident’ monocytes (CD11b+Ly6G?Ly6Clow) in the circulation. Furthermore, cytokine production by resident peritoneal macrophages of miR155?/? transplanted hyperlipidemic mice was skewed towards a more pro-inflammatory state since anti-inflammatory IL-10 production was reduced. In conclusion, in this hyperlipidemic mouse model miR155 acts as an anti-inflammatory, atheroprotective microRNA. Additionally, besides a known role in lymphoid cell development, we show a crucial role of miR155 in myeloid lineage differentiation. PMID:22558252

Donners, Marjo M. P. C.; Wolfs, Ine M. J.; Stöger, Lauran J.; van der Vorst, Emiel P. C.; Pöttgens, Chantal C. H.; Heymans, Stephane; Schroen, Blanche; Gijbels, Marion J. J.; de Winther, Menno P. J.

2012-01-01

239

Neurological Complications of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complications following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation have long been recognized. The causes are numerous, including\\u000a chemoradiotoxicity, medication toxicity, metabolic abnormalities, organ failure, graft versus host disease, infection, pancytopenia,\\u000a and platelet dysfunction. This chapter summarizes the disorders affecting the nervous system associated with hematopoietic\\u000a stem cell transplantation. As the number of transplants performed annually increases, potential neurologic complications are\\u000a being seen

Eudocia Quant; Patrick Y. Wen

240

Oblimersen, Cytarabine, and Daunorubicin in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-06-03

241

Decitabine, Cytarabine, and Daunorubicin Hydrochloride in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2015-01-09

242

Combination Chemotherapy and Dasatinib in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-07-21

243

Polyimide Precursor Solid Residuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polyimide precursor solid residuum is an admixture of an aromatic dianhydride or derivative thereof and an aromatic diamine or derivative thereof plus a complexing agent, which is complexed with the admixture by hydrogen bonding. The polyimide precursor solid residuum is effectively employed in the preparation of polyimide foam and the fabrication of polyimide foam structures.

Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St.Clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Echigo, Yoshiaki (Inventor); Kaneshiro, Hisayasu (Inventor)

2001-01-01

244

Nitric oxide-induced murine hematopoietic stem cell fate involves multiple signaling proteins, gene expression, and redox modulation.  

PubMed

There are a growing number of reports showing the influence of redox modulation in cellular signaling. Although the regulation of hematopoiesis by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) has been described, their direct participation in the differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) remains unclear. In this work, the direct role of nitric oxide (NO(•)), a RNS, in the modulation of hematopoiesis was investigated using two sources of NO(•) , one produced by endothelial cells stimulated with carbachol in vitro and another using the NO(•)-donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP) in vivo. Two main NO(•) effects were observed: proliferation of HSCs-especially of the short-term HSCs-and its commitment and terminal differentiation to the myeloid lineage. NO(•)-induced proliferation was characterized by the increase in the number of cycling HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells positive to BrdU and Ki-67, upregulation of Notch-1, Cx43, PECAM-1, CaR, ERK1/2, Akt, p38, PKC, and c-Myc. NO(•)-induced HSCs differentiation was characterized by the increase in granulocytic-macrophage progenitors, granulocyte-macrophage colony forming units, mature myeloid cells, upregulation of PU.1, and C/EBP? genes concomitantly to the downregulation of GATA-3 and Ikz-3 genes, activation of Stat5 and downregulation of the other analyzed proteins mentioned above. Also, redox status modulation differed between proliferation and differentiation responses, which is likely associated with the transition of the proliferative to differentiation status. Our findings provide evidence of the role of NO(•) in inducing HSCs proliferation and myeloid differentiation involving multiple signaling. PMID:24964894

Nogueira-Pedro, Amanda; Dias, Carolina C; Regina, Helena; Segreto, C; Addios, Priscilla C; Lungato, Lisandro; D'Almeida, Vania; Barros, Carlos C; Higa, Elisa M S; Buri, Marcus V; Ferreira, Alice T; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian

2014-11-01

245

Identification of CD68+lin- peripheral blood cells with dendritic precursor characteristics.  

PubMed

Expression of CD68 (macrosialin) in the absence of surface and lysosomal lineage marker molecules is a characteristic feature of T zone-associated plasmacytoid monocytes, which were recently shown to represent precursors of dendritic cells (DC). We demonstrate here a minor population of strongly CD68-positive (CD68bright) blood cells that lack all analyzed myeloid surface (CD14-, CD33-, CD13-, CD11b-, CD11c-) and lysosomal (myeloperoxidase, MPO- and lysozyme, LZ-) marker molecules (0.4 +/- 2% of the total mononuclear cells). These CD68bright, lineage marker-negative (lin-) cells can be induced to proliferate in the presence of IL-3. They do not acquire myeloid features even upon stimulation with granulocyte-macrophage CSF plus IL-1, IL-3, and IL-6. Instead, these cells develop typical DC characteristics upon culture. Furthermore, these CD68brightlin- DC precursors acquire mature DC characteristics (CD86+, CD83+, CD54bright) upon stimulation with CD40 ligand plus IL-3. A second subset of DC precursor-like blood cells was found to weakly express CD68 (0.3 +/- 0.2% of the total mononuclear cells) and to coexpress several myeloid lineage associated molecules (LZ+, CD11c+, CD33+, CD13+). Cells of this second subset resemble both previously described myeloid-related peripheral blood DC and germinal center DC. Analysis of peripheral blood leukocytes for CD68 thus revealed the existence of two cell subsets that phenotypically resemble lymphoid tissue-associated DC. The unique phenotype CD68brightlin- is highly reminiscent of T zone-associated plasmacytoid monocytes. CD68brightlin- blood leukocytes also functionally resemble plasmacytoid monocytes. The lack of all analyzed myeloid features by CD68brightlin- blood leukocytes suggests that these cells arise from a novel nonmyeloid human DC differentiation pathway. PMID:9670950

Strobl, H; Scheinecker, C; Riedl, E; Csmarits, B; Bello-Fernandez, C; Pickl, W F; Majdic, O; Knapp, W

1998-07-15

246

Genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells reveal overrepresentation of ETS transcription factor binding sites  

PubMed Central

DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic mark that is required for normal development. Knockout of the DNA methyltransferase enzymes in the mouse hematopoietic compartment reveals that methylation is critical for hematopoietic differentiation. To better understand the role of DNA methylation in hematopoiesis, we characterized genome-wide DNA methylation in primary mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), common myeloid progenitors (CMPs), and erythroblasts (ERYs). Methyl binding domain protein 2 (MBD) enrichment of DNA followed by massively parallel sequencing (MBD-seq) was used to map genome-wide DNA methylation. Globally, DNA methylation was most abundant in HSCs, with a 40% reduction in CMPs, and a 67% reduction in ERYs. Only 3% of peaks arise during differentiation, demonstrating a genome-wide decline in DNA methylation during erythroid development. Analysis of genomic features revealed that 98% of promoter CpG islands are hypomethylated, while 20%–25% of non-promoter CpG islands are methylated. Proximal promoter sequences of expressed genes are hypomethylated in all cell types, while gene body methylation positively correlates with gene expression in HSCs and CMPs. Elevated genome-wide DNA methylation in HSCs and the positive association between methylation and gene expression demonstrates that DNA methylation is a mark of cellular plasticity in HSCs. Using de novo motif discovery, we identified overrepresented transcription factor consensus binding motifs in methylated sequences. Motifs for several ETS transcription factors, including GABPA and ELF1, are overrepresented in methylated regions. Our genome-wide survey demonstrates that DNA methylation is markedly altered during myeloid differentiation and identifies critical regions of the genome and transcription factor programs that contribute to hematopoiesis. PMID:22684279

Hogart, Amber; Lichtenberg, Jens; Ajay, Subramanian S.; Anderson, Stacie; Margulies, Elliott H.; Bodine, David M.

2012-01-01

247

Acat1 Gene Ablation in Mice Increases Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Proliferation in Bone Marrow and Causes Leukocytosis  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the role of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 (ACAT1) in hematopoiesis. Approach and Results ACAT1 converts cellular cholesterol to cholesteryl esters for storage in multiple cell types and is a potential drug target for human diseases. In mouse models for atherosclerosis, global Acat1 knockout causes increased lesion size; bone marrow (BM) transplantation experiments suggest that the increased lesion size might be caused by ACAT1 deficiency in macrophages. However, BM contains hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) which give rise to cells in myeloid and lymphoid lineages; these cell types affect atherosclerosis at various stages. Here, we test the hypothesis that global Acat1-/- may affect hematopoiesis, rather than affecting macrophage function only, and show that Acat1-/- mice contain significantly higher numbers of myeloid cells and other cells than wild type mice. Detailed analysis of BM cells demonstrated that Acat1-/- causes a higher proportion of the stem cell-enriched LSK population (Lin-Sca1+ckit+) to proliferate, resulting in higher numbers of myeloid progenitor cells. In addition, we show that Acat1-/- causes higher monocytosis in Apoe-/- mouse during atherosclerosis development. Conclusion ACAT1 plays important roles in hematopoiesis in normal mouse and in Apoe-/- mouse during atherosclerosis development. PMID:23846496

Huang, Li-Hao; Gui, Jingang; Artinger, Erika; Craig, Ruth; Berwin, Brent L.; Ernst, Patricia A.; Chang, Catherine C.Y.; Chang, Ta-Yuan

2013-01-01

248

Clonal analysis reveals multiple functional defects of aged murine hematopoietic stem cells.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) populations change with aging, but the extent to which this is caused by qualitative versus quantitative alterations in HSC subtypes is unclear. Using clonal assays, in this study we show that the aging HSC compartment undergoes both quantitative and qualitative changes. We observed a variable increase of HSC pool size with age, accompanied by the accumulation of predominantly myeloid-biased HSCs that regenerate substantially fewer mature progeny than young myeloid-biased HSCs and exhibit reduced self-renewal activity as measured by long-term secondary transplantation. Old HSCs had a twofold reduction in marrow-homing efficiency and a similar decrease in functional frequency as measured using long-term transplantation assays. Similarly, old HSCs had a twofold reduced seeding efficiency and a significantly delayed proliferative response compared with young HSCs in long-term stromal cell co-cultures but were indistinguishable in suspension cultures. We show that these functional defects are characteristics of most or all old HSCs and are not indicative of a nonfunctional subset of cells that express HSC markers. Furthermore, we demonstrate that cells with functional properties of old HSCs can be generated directly from young HSCs by extended serial transplantation, which is consistent with the possibility that they arise through a process of cellular aging. PMID:22110168

Dykstra, Brad; Olthof, Sandra; Schreuder, Jaring; Ritsema, Martha; de Haan, Gerald

2011-12-19

249

A focused review of hematopoietic neoplasms occurring in the therapy-related setting  

PubMed Central

Hematological neoplasms developed in patients with a history of cytotoxic therapies comprise a group of diseases with a poor clinical outcome, and collectively categorized as “therapy-related myeloid neoplasms” (t-MN) in the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) Classification. In recent years, numerous publications have emerged, and these studies have greatly expanded the scope of our understanding in this field. We here focused our review on several selected areas including secondary malignancies occurring in patients with autoimmune diseases; radiation therapy alone as a causative agent; the similarity and differences between therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes (t-MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML); clinical behavior and treatment outcome of t-AML patients with favorable cytogenetics; the incidence and clinical features of myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasms, as well as acute lymphoblastic leukemia and myeloproliferative neoplasms in patients with prior cytotoxic exposure. These recent studies have shown that therapy-related hematopoietic neoplasms are heterogeneous, and may manifest in various forms, more complex than we have recognized previously. Cytogenetic abnormalities and underlying mutations are likely to be the major factors dictating prognosis. PMID:25120730

Zhang, Liping; Wang, Sa A

2014-01-01

250

Impaired hematopoietic differentiation of RUNX1-mutated induced pluripotent stem cells derived from FPD/AML patients.  

PubMed

Somatic mutation of RUNX1 is implicated in various hematological malignancies, including myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and previous studies using mouse models disclosed its critical roles in hematopoiesis. However, the role of RUNX1 in human hematopoiesis has never been tested in experimental settings. Familial platelet disorder (FPD)/AML is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by germline mutation of RUNX1, marked by thrombocytopenia and propensity to acute leukemia. To investigate the physiological function of RUNX1 in human hematopoiesis and pathophysiology of FPD/AML, we derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from three distinct FPD/AML pedigrees (FPD-iPSCs) and examined their defects in hematopoietic differentiation. By in vitro differentiation assays, FPD-iPSCs were clearly defective in the emergence of hematopoietic progenitors and differentiation of megakaryocytes, and overexpression of wild-type (WT)-RUNX1 reversed most of these phenotypes. We further demonstrated that overexpression of mutant-RUNX1 in WT-iPSCs did not recapitulate the phenotype of FPD-iPSCs, showing that the mutations were of loss-of-function type. Taken together, this study demonstrated that haploinsufficient RUNX1 allele imposed cell-intrinsic defects on hematopoietic differentiation in human experimental settings and revealed differential impacts of RUNX1 dosage on human and murine megakaryopoiesis. FPD-iPSCs will be a useful tool to investigate mutant RUNX1-mediated molecular processes in hematopoiesis and leukemogenesis. PMID:24732596

Sakurai, M; Kunimoto, H; Watanabe, N; Fukuchi, Y; Yuasa, S; Yamazaki, S; Nishimura, T; Sadahira, K; Fukuda, K; Okano, H; Nakauchi, H; Morita, Y; Matsumura, I; Kudo, K; Ito, E; Ebihara, Y; Tsuji, K; Harada, Y; Harada, H; Okamoto, S; Nakajima, H

2014-12-01

251

The zebrafish granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (Gcsfs): 2 paralogous cytokines and their roles in hematopoietic development and maintenance  

PubMed Central

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (Gcsf) drives the proliferation and differentiation of granulocytes, monocytes, and macrophages (m?s) from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). Analysis of the zebrafish genome indicates the presence of 2 Gcsf ligands, likely resulting from a duplication event in teleost evolution. Although Gcsfa and Gcsfb share low sequence conservation, they share significant similarity in their predicted ligand/receptor interaction sites and structure. Each ligand displays differential temporal expression patterns during embryogenesis and spatial expression patterns in adult animals. To determine the functions of each ligand, we performed loss- and gain-of-function experiments. Both ligands signal through the Gcsf receptor to expand primitive neutrophils and m?s, as well as definitive granulocytes. To further address their functions, we generated recombinant versions and tested them in clonal progenitor assays. These sensitive in vitro techniques indicated similar functional attributes in supporting HSPC growth and differentiation. Finally, in addition to supporting myeloid differentiation, zebrafish Gcsf is required for the specification and proliferation of hematopoietic stem cells, suggesting that Gcsf represents an ancestral cytokine responsible for the broad support of HSPCs. These findings may inform how hematopoietic cytokines evolved following the diversification of teleosts and mammals from a common ancestor. PMID:24128862

Stachura, David L.; Svoboda, Ond?ej; Campbell, Clyde A.; Espín-Palazón, Raquel; Lau, Ryan P.; Zon, Leonard I.; Bart?n?k, Petr

2013-01-01

252

Redefining endothelial progenitor cells via clonal analysis and hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell principals  

PubMed Central

The limited vessel-forming capacity of infused endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) into patients with cardiovascular dysfunction may be related to a misunderstanding of the biologic potential of the cells. EPCs are generally identified by cell surface antigen expression or counting in a commercially available kit that identifies “endothelial cell colony-forming units” (CFU-ECs). However, the origin, proliferative potential, and differentiation capacity of CFU-ECs is controversial. In contrast, other EPCs with blood vessel-forming ability, termed endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), have been isolated from human peripheral blood. We compared the function of CFU-ECs and ECFCs and determined that CFU-ECs are derived from the hematopoietic system using progenitor assays, and analysis of donor cells from polycythemia vera patients harboring a Janus kinase 2 V617F mutation in hematopoietic stem cell clones. Further, CFU-ECs possess myeloid progenitor cell activity, differentiate into phagocytic macrophages, and fail to form perfused vessels in vivo. In contrast, ECFCs are clonally distinct from CFU-ECs, display robust proliferative potential, and form perfused vessels in vivo. Thus, these studies establish that CFU-ECs are not EPCs and the role of these cells in angiogenesis must be re-examined prior to further clinical trials, whereas ECFCs may serve as a potential therapy for vascular regeneration. PMID:17053059

Mead, Laura E.; Prater, Daniel; Krier, Theresa R.; Mroueh, Karim N.; Li, Fang; Krasich, Rachel; Temm, Constance J.; Prchal, Josef T.

2007-01-01

253

The combination of valproic acid and lithium delays hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell differentiation.  

PubMed

Despite increasing knowledge on the regulation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) self-renewal and differentiation, in vitro control of stem cell fate decisions has been difficult. The ability to inhibit HSPC commitment in culture may be of benefit to cell therapy protocols. Small molecules can serve as tools to manipulate cell fate decisions. Here, we tested 2 small molecules, valproic acid (VPA) and lithium (Li), to inhibit differentiation. HSPCs exposed to VPA and Li during differentiation-inducing culture preserved an immature cell phenotype, provided radioprotection to lethally irradiated recipients, and enhanced in vivo repopulating potential. Anti-differentiation effects of VPA and Li were observed also at the level of committed progenitors, where VPA re-activated replating activity of common myeloid progenitor and granulocyte macrophage progenitor cells. Furthermore, VPA and Li synergistically preserved expression of stem cell-related genes and repressed genes involved in differentiation. Target genes were collectively co-regulated during normal hematopoietic differentiation. In addition, transcription factor networks were identified as possible primary regulators. Our results show that the combination of VPA and Li potently delays differentiation at the biologic and molecular levels and provide evidence to suggest that combinatorial screening of chemical compounds may uncover possible additive/synergistic effects to modulate stem cell fate decisions. PMID:22327222

Walasek, Marta A; Bystrykh, Leonid; van den Boom, Vincent; Olthof, Sandra; Ausema, Albertina; Ritsema, Martha; Huls, Gerwin; de Haan, Gerald; van Os, Ronald

2012-03-29

254

The role of PML in hematopoietic and leukemic stem cell maintenance  

PubMed Central

The tumor suppressor promyelocytic leukemia (PML) was first identified as a component of PML–RAR? fusion protein, one of the initiating cytogenetic abnormalities in acute promyelocytic leukemia. PML is now known to have diverse functions regulating the DNA-damage response, apoptosis, senescence, and angiogenesis. Recent investigations have identified PML as a regulator of metabolic pathways in stem cell compartments, including the hematopoietic system, and have provided researchers with new strategies for controlling stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Studies of PML in leukemia-initiating cells demonstrate that PML is also an essential component of their maintenance, which has drawn tremendous attention to PML from scientists in various stem cell fields. Here, we review research into PML and its associated pathways, including recent studies of PML as it relates to stem cell biology, as well as our finding that PML regulates fatty acid oxidation, which is essential to the maintenance of normal hematopoietic stem cells. We also discuss the therapeutic potential of controlling PML-associated pathways. In particular, we describe promising evidence for the use of arsenic trioxide in the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia. PMID:24488785

Nakahara, Fumio; Weiss, Cary N.

2014-01-01

255

Validation of the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index: a prospective, multicenter GITMO study.  

PubMed

The development of tools for the prediction of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) would offer a major guidance in the therapeutic decision. Recently, the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation-Specific Comorbidity Index (HCT-CI) has been associated with increased NRM risk in several retrospective studies, but its clinical utility has never been demonstrated prospectively in an adequately sized cohort. To this aim, we prospectively evaluated a consecutive cohort of 1937 patients receiving HSCT in Italy over 2 years. HCT-CI was strongly correlated with both 2-year NRM (14.7%, 21.3%, and 27.3% in patients having an HCT-CI score of 0, 1-2, and ? 3, respectively) and overall survival (56.4%, 54.5%, and 41.3%, respectively). There was an excellent calibration between the predicted and observed 2-year NRM in patients having an HCT-CI score of 0 and 1-2, whereas in the ? 3 group the predicted NRM overestimated the observed NRM (41% vs 27.3%). HCT-CI alone was the strongest predictor of NRM in patients with lymphoma, myelodysplastic syndrome, and acute myeloid leukemia in first remission (c-statistics 0.66, 064, and 0.59, respectively). We confirm the clinical utility of the HCT-CI score that could also identify patients at low NRM risk possibly benefiting from an HSCT-based treatment strategy. PMID:22740454

Raimondi, Roberto; Tosetto, Alberto; Oneto, Rosi; Cavazzina, Riccardo; Rodeghiero, Francesco; Bacigalupo, Andrea; Fanin, Renato; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Bosi, Alberto

2012-08-01

256

Ddx46 Is Required for Multi-Lineage Differentiation of Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Balanced and precisely controlled processes between self-renewal and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into all blood lineages are critical for vertebrate definitive hematopoiesis. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the maintenance and differentiation of HSCs have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that zebrafish Ddx46, encoding a DEAD-box RNA helicase, is expressed in HSCs of the caudal hematopoietic tissue (CHT). The number of HSCs expressing the molecular markers cmyb or T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia 1 (tal1) was markedly reduced in Ddx46 mutants. However, massive cell death of HSCs was not detected, and proliferation of HSCs was normal in the CHT of the mutants at 48?h postfertilization. We found that myelopoiesis occurred, but erythropoiesis and lymphopoiesis were suppressed, in Ddx46 mutants. Consistent with these results, the expression of spi1, encoding a regulator of myeloid development, was maintained, but the expression of gata1a, encoding a regulator of erythrocyte development, was downregulated in the mutants. Taken together, our results provide the first genetic evidence that zebrafish Ddx46 is required for the multilineage differentiation of HSCs during development, through the regulation of specific gene expressions. PMID:23635340

Hirabayashi, Ryo; Hozumi, Shunya; Higashijima, Shin-ichi

2013-01-01

257

Pathogenesis of Plexiform Neurofibroma: Tumor-Stromal/Hematopoietic Interactions in Tumor Progression  

PubMed Central

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disease that results from either heritable or spontaneous autosomal dominant mutations in the NF1 gene. A second-hit mutation precedes the predominant NF1 neoplasms, including myeloid leukemia, optic glioma, and plexiform neurofibroma formation. Despite this requisite NF1 loss of heterozygosity in the tumor cell of origin, non-tumorigenic cells contribute to both generalized and specific disease manifestations. In mouse models of plexiform neurofibroma formation, Nf1 haploinsufficient mast cells promote inflammation accelerating tumor formation and growth. These recruited mast cells, hematopoietic effector cells long known to permeate neurofibroma tissue, mediate key mitogenic signals promoting vascular in-growth, collagen deposition, and tumor growth. Thus, the plexiform neurofibroma microenvironment involves a tumor/stromal interaction with the hematopoietic system which depends, at the molecular level, on a stem cell factor/c-kit-mediated signaling axis. These observations parallel findings in other NF1 disease manifestations and have clear relevance toward medical neurofibroma management. PMID:22077553

Staser, Karl; Yang, Feng-Chun; Clapp, D Wade

2013-01-01

258

Concise review: hematopoietic stem cell aging and the prospects for rejuvenation.  

PubMed

Because of the continuous increases in lifetime expectancy, the incidence of age-related diseases will, unless counteracted, represent an increasing problem at both the individual and socioeconomic levels. Studies on the processes of blood cell formation have revealed several shortcomings as a consequence of chronological age. They include a reduced ability to mount adaptive immune responses and a blood cell composition skewed toward myeloid cells, with the latter coinciding with a dramatically increased incidence of myelogenous diseases, including cancer. Conversely, the dominant forms of acute leukemia affecting children associate with the lymphoid lineages. A growing body of evidence has suggested that aging of various organs and cellular systems, including the hematopoietic system, associates with a functional demise of tissue-resident stem cell populations. Mechanistically, DNA damage and/or altered transcriptional landscapes appear to be major drivers of the hematopoietic stem cell aging state, with recent data proposing that stem cell aging phenotypes are characterized by at least some degree of reversibility. These findings suggest the possibility of rejuvenating, or at least dampening, stem cell aging phenotypes in the elderly for therapeutic benefit. PMID:25548388

Wahlestedt, Martin; Pronk, Cornelis Jan; Bryder, David

2015-02-01

259

Csnk1a1 inhibition has p53-dependent therapeutic efficacy in acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Despite extensive insights into the underlying genetics and biology of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), overall survival remains poor and new therapies are needed. We found that casein kinase 1 ? (Csnk1a1), a serine-threonine kinase, is essential for AML cell survival in vivo. Normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) were relatively less affected by shRNA-mediated knockdown of Csnk1a1. To identify downstream mediators of Csnk1a1 critical for leukemia cells, we performed an in vivo pooled shRNA screen and gene expression profiling. We found that Csnk1a1 knockdown results in decreased Rps6 phosphorylation, increased p53 activity, and myeloid differentiation. Consistent with these observations, p53-null leukemias were insensitive to Csnk1a1 knockdown. We further evaluated whether D4476, a casein kinase 1 inhibitor, would exhibit selective antileukemic effects. Treatment of leukemia stem cells (LSCs) with D4476 showed highly selective killing of LSCs over normal HSPCs. In summary, these findings demonstrate that Csnk1a1 inhibition causes reduced Rps6 phosphorylation and activation of p53, resulting in selective elimination of leukemia cells, revealing Csnk1a1 as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of AML. PMID:24616378

Järås, Marcus; Miller, Peter G; Chu, Lisa P; Puram, Rishi V; Fink, Emma C; Schneider, Rebekka K; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; Peña, Pablo; Breyfogle, L Jordan; Hartwell, Kimberly A; McConkey, Marie E; Cowley, Glenn S; Root, David E; Kharas, Michael G; Mullally, Ann; Ebert, Benjamin L

2014-04-01

260

Myeloid leukemia factor is a conserved regulator of RUNX transcription factor activity involved in hematopoiesis.  

PubMed

Defining the function of the genes that, like RUNX1, are deregulated in blood cell malignancies represents an important challenge. Myeloid leukemia factors (MLFs) constitute a poorly characterized family of conserved proteins whose founding member, MLF1, has been associated with acute myeloid leukemia in humans. To gain insight into the functions of this family, we investigated the role of the Drosophila MLF homolog during blood cell development. Here we report that mlf controls the homeostasis of the Drosophila hematopoietic system. Notably, mlf participates in a positive feedback loop to fine tune the activity of the RUNX transcription factor Lozenge (LZ) during development of the crystal cells, one of the two main blood cell lineages in Drosophila. At the molecular level, our data in cell cultures and in vivo strongly suggest that MLF controls the number of crystal cells by protecting LZ from degradation. Remarkably, it appears that the human MLF1 protein can substitute for MLF in the crystal cell lineage. In addition, MLF stabilizes the human oncogenic fusion protein RUNX1-ETO and is required for RUNX1-ETO-induced blood cell disorders in a Drosophila model of leukemia. Finally, using the human leukemic blood cell line Kasumi-1, we show that MLF1 depletion impairs RUNX1-ETO accumulation and reduces RUNX1-ETO-dependent proliferation. Thus, we propose that the regulation of RUNX protein levels is a conserved feature of MLF family members that could be critical for normal and pathological blood cell development. PMID:22411814

Bras, Stéphanie; Martin-Lannerée, Séverine; Gobert, Vanessa; Augé, Benoît; Breig, Osman; Sanial, Matthieu; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu; Haenlin, Marc; Plessis, Anne; Waltzer, Lucas

2012-03-27

261

Impact of MLL5 expression on decitabine efficacy and DNA methylation in acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Hypomethylating agents are widely used in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes and unfit patients with acute myeloid leukemia. However, it is not well understood why only some patients respond to hypomethylating agents. We found previously that the effect of decitabine on hematopoietic stem cell viability differed between Mll5 wild-type and null cells. We, therefore, investigated the role of MLL5 expression levels on outcome of acute myeloid leukemia patients who were treated with decitabine. MLL5 above the median expression level predicted longer overall survival independent of DNMT3A mutation status in bivariate analysis (median overall survival for high vs. low MLL5 expression 292 vs. 167 days; P=0.026). In patients who received three or more courses decitabine, high MLL5 expression and wild-type DNMT3A independently predicted improved overall survival (median overall survival for high vs. low MLL5 expression 468 vs. 243 days; P=0.012). In transformed murine cells, loss of Mll5 was associated with resistance to low-dose decitabine, less global DNA methylation in promoter regions, and reduced DNA demethylation upon decitabine treatment. Together, these data support our clinical observation of improved outcome in decitabine-treated patients who express MLL5 at high levels, and suggest a mechanistic role of MLL5 in the regulation of DNA methylation. PMID:24895338

Yun, Haiyang; Damm, Frederik; Yap, Damian; Schwarzer, Adrian; Chaturvedi, Anuhar; Jyotsana, Nidhi; Lübbert, Michael; Bullinger, Lars; Döhner, Konstanze; Geffers, Robert; Aparicio, Samuel; Humphries, R Keith; Ganser, Arnold; Heuser, Michael

2014-09-01

262

Tipifarnib in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-11-15

263

Chemotherapy Plus Sargramostim in Treating Patients With Refractory Myeloid Cancer  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Refractory Anemia; Refractory Anemia With Ringed Sideroblasts; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Thrombocytopenia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-01-08

264

What Are the Key Statistics about Chronic Myeloid Leukemia?  

MedlinePLUS

... for chronic myeloid leukemia? What are the key statistics about chronic myeloid leukemia? The American Cancer Society's ... Symptoms of Cancer Treatments & Side Effects Cancer Facts & Statistics News About Cancer Expert Voices Blog Programs & Services ...

265

t(6;9)(p22;q34)/DEK-NUP214-rearranged pediatric myeloid leukemia: an international study of 62 patients  

PubMed Central

Acute myeloid leukemia with t(6;9)(p22;q34) is listed as a distinct entity in the 2008 World Health Organization classification, but little is known about the clinical implications of t(6;9)-positive myeloid leukemia in children. This international multicenter study presents the clinical and genetic characteristics of 62 pediatric patients with t(6;9)/DEK-NUP214-rearranged myeloid leukemia; 54 diagnosed as having acute myeloid leukemia, representing <1% of all childhood acute myeloid leukemia, and eight as having myelodysplastic syndrome. The t(6;9)/DEK-NUP214 was associated with relatively late onset (median age 10.4 years), male predominance (sex ratio 1.7), French-American-British M2 classification (54%), myelodysplasia (100%), and FLT3-ITD (42%). Outcome was substantially better than previously reported with a 5-year event-free survival of 32%, 5-year overall survival of 53%, and a 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse of 57%. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first complete remission improved the 5-year event-free survival compared with chemotherapy alone (68% versus 18%; P<0.01) but not the overall survival (68% versus 54%; P=0.48). The presence of FLT3-ITD had a non-significant negative effect on 5-year overall survival compared with non-mutated cases (22% versus 62%; P=0.13). Gene expression profiling showed a unique signature characterized by significantly higher expression of EYA3, SESN1, PRDM2/RIZ, and HIST2H4 genes. In conclusion, t(6;9)/DEK-NUP214 represents a unique subtype of acute myeloid leukemia with a high risk of relapse, high frequency of FLT3-ITD, and a specific gene expression signature. PMID:24441146

Sandahl, Julie Damgaard; Coenen, Eva A.; Forestier, Erik; Harbott, Jochen; Johansson, Bertil; Kerndrup, Gitte; Adachi, Souichi; Auvrignon, Anne; Beverloo, H. Berna; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Chilton, Lucy; Fornerod, Maarten; de Haas, Valérie; Harrison, Christine J.; Inaba, Hiroto; Kaspers, Gertjan J.L.; Liang, Der-Cherng; Locatelli, Franco; Masetti, Riccardo; Perot, Christine; Raimondi, Susana C.; Reinhardt, Katarina; Tomizawa, Daisuke; von Neuhoff, Nils; Zecca, Marco; Zwaan, C. Michel; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Hasle, Henrik

2014-01-01

266

Fate of patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia who fail primary induction therapy.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to describe the fate of patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who did not achieve an initial remission while being treated on a contemporary cooperative group trial. We analyzed the outcome of patients entered into S0106, a recently reported cooperative group trial for patients with newly diagnosed AML. A total of 589 eligible patients was treated, of whom 150 (25%) did not achieve a remission while on study and were available for further analysis. The 4-year survival rate for the entire cohort of 150 patients was 23%. Among the 64 patients who received an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant, the 4-year survival rate was 48% compared with 4% for the 86 patients who did not undergo transplantation. Among those transplanted, we could not detect a difference in outcome according to remission status, donor source, type of preparative regimen, or cytogenetic risk category. More than 20% of patients with newly diagnosed AML who fail induction therapy can still be cured, particularly if they are able to receive an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. These results suggest that early HLA typing and donor identification are important components of the initial therapy of AML. PMID:25536215

Othus, Megan; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Petersdorf, Stephen H; Kopecky, Kenneth J; Slovak, Marilyn; Nevill, Thomas; Brandwein, Joseph; Larson, Richard A; Stiff, Patrick J; Walter, Roland B; Tallman, Martin S; Stenke, Leif; Erba, Harry P

2015-03-01

267

Loss of prolyl hydroxylase-2 in myeloid cells and T-lymphocytes impairs tumor development.  

PubMed

The tumor microenvironment plays a pivotal role during cancer development and progression. The balance between suppressive and cytotoxic responses of the tumor immune microenvironment has been shown to have a direct effect on the final outcome in various human and experimental tumors. Recently, we demonstrated that the oxygen sensor HIF-prolyl hydroxylase-2 (PHD2) plays a detrimental role in tumor cells, stimulating systemic growth and metastasis in mice. In our current study, we show that the conditional ablation of PHD2 in the hematopoietic system also leads to reduced tumor volume, intriguingly generated by an imbalance between enhanced cell death and improved proliferation of tumor cells. This effect seems to rely on the overall downregulation of protumoral as well as antitumoral cytokines. Using different genetic approaches, we were able to confine this complex phenotype to the crosstalk of PHD2-deficient myeloid cells and T-lymphocytes. Taken together, our findings reveal a multifaceted role for PHD2 in several hematopoietic lineages during tumor development and might have important implications for the development of tumor therapies in the future. PMID:23913502

Mamlouk, Soulafa; Kalucka, Joanna; Singh, Rashim Pal; Franke, Kristin; Muschter, Antje; Langer, Anika; Jakob, Christiane; Gassmann, Max; Baretton, Gustavo B; Wielockx, Ben

2014-02-15

268

Loss of sex chromosomes in the hematopoietic disorders: Questions, concerns and data interpretation  

SciTech Connect

The significance of sex chromosome aberrations in the hematopoietic disorders has not yet been defined. Interpretive problems stem from (1) the loss of a sex chromosome associated with aging, (2) sex chromosome loss as the sole aberration in leukemia is rare, (3) random -(X or Y) is observed frequently in bone marrow samples, and (4) constitutional sex chromosome anomalies must be ruled out in cancer and follow-up may not be possible. The COH database identified 41 patients (pts) with sex chromosome loss. Loss of a sex chromosome was common in myeloid disorders (21/41). In t(8;21) leukemia (n=10), -(X or Y) was a common secondary karyotypic change. Additionally, -Y was associated with clonal evolution in 2 Ph + CML pts. In 2 elderly pts with myeloid disorders, -(X or Y) was observed in complex karyotypes with dmins; however, in the lymphoproliferative disorders -(X or Y) was noted in elderly pts without apparent pathogenetic significance. Three pts had constitutional sex chromosome aberrations: CML in 45,X; ALL in 47, XXY; and RAEB-IT in mos45,X/46,XX. In the mos45,X/46,XX pt, the leukemic clone was associated with the 45,X line without other karyotypic changes. Non-clonal aberrations were observed in 11 cases; in 3 cases these non-clonal losses were observed in serial samples. In a sex-mismatched BMT case, -(X or Y) in 4 cells was one of the first pathogenetic signs of leukemia relapse. These data suggest (1) interpretation of sex chromosome loss in leukemia must be made with caution and after a baseline sample, (2) non-clonal aberrations should be recorded, and (3) -(X or Y) appears to have pathogenetic significance in the myeloid disorders. Multi-institutional studies are needed to define (1) the incidence of leukemia in pts with constitutional sex chromosome anomalies and (2) the incidence and significance of sex chromosome aberrations as the primary (sole) cytogenetic aberration in leukemia.

Slovak, M.L. [City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)

1994-09-01

269

Precursors to pancreatic cancer.  

PubMed

Infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is believed to arise from morphologically distinct noninvasive precursor lesions. These precursors include the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm, the mucinous cystic neoplasm, and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are grossly visible mucin-producing epithelial neoplasms that arise in the main pancreatic duct or one of its branches. The cysts of mucinous cystic neoplasms do not communicate with the major pancreatic ducts, and these neoplasms are characterized by a distinct ovarian-type stroma. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia is a microscopic lesion. This article focuses on the clinical significance of these three important precursor lesions, with emphasis on their clinical manifestations, detection, and treatment. PMID:17996793

Hruban, Ralph H; Maitra, Anirban; Kern, Scott E; Goggins, Michael

2007-12-01

270

AR-42 and Decitabine in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-11-13

271

C/EBP? Deficiency Sensitizes Mice to Ionizing Radiation-Induced Hematopoietic and Intestinal Injury  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the radiation response is critical for developing interventions to mitigate radiation-induced injury to normal tissues. Exposure to radiation leads to increased oxidative stress, DNA-damage, genomic instability and inflammation. The transcription factor CCAAT/enhancer binding protein delta (Cebpd; C/EBP? is implicated in regulation of these same processes, but its role in radiation response is not known. We investigated the role of C/EBP? in radiation-induced hematopoietic and intestinal injury using a Cebpd knockout mouse model. Cebpd?/? mice showed increased lethality at 7.4 and 8.5 Gy total-body irradiation (TBI), compared to Cebpd+/+ mice. Two weeks after a 6 Gy dose of TBI, Cebpd?/? mice showed decreased recovery of white blood cells, neutrophils, platelets, myeloid cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells, decreased colony-forming ability of bone marrow progenitor cells, and increased apoptosis of hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells compared to Cebpd+/+ controls. Cebpd?/? mice exhibited a significant dose-dependent decrease in intestinal crypt survival and in plasma citrulline levels compared to Cebpd+/+ mice after exposure to radiation. This was accompanied by significantly decreased expression of ?-H2AX in Cebpd?/? intestinal crypts and villi at 1 h post-TBI, increased mitotic index at 24 h post-TBI, and increase in apoptosis in intestinal crypts and stromal cells of Cebpd?/? compared to Cebpd+/+ mice at 4 h post-irradiation. This study uncovers a novel biological function for C/EBP? in promoting the response to radiation-induced DNA-damage and in protecting hematopoietic and intestinal tissues from radiation-induced injury. PMID:24747529

Chang, Jianhui; Wang, Wenze; Pathak, Rupak; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Junru; Hendrickson, Howard; Boerma, Marjan; Sterneck, Esta; Zhou, Daohong; Hauer-Jensen, Martin

2014-01-01

272

The MYB proto-oncogene suppresses monocytic differentiation of acute myeloid leukemia cells via transcriptional activation of its target gene GFI1.  

PubMed

The MYB gene is a master regulator of hematopoiesis and contributes to leukemogenesis in several species including humans. Although it is clear that MYB can promote proliferation, suppress apoptosis and block differentiation, the identities of the MYB target genes that mediate these effects have only been partially elucidated. Several studies, including our own, have collectively identified substantial numbers of MYB target genes, including candidates for each of these activities; however, functional validation, particularly in the case of differentiation suppression, has lagged well behind. Here we show that GFI1, which encodes an important regulator of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) function and granulocytic differentiation, is a direct target of MYB in myeloid leukemia cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation and reporter studies identified a functional MYB-binding site in the promoter region of GFI, whereas ectopic expression and small hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of MYB resulted in concomitant increases and decreases, respectively, in GFI1 expression. We also demonstrate that GFI1, like MYB, can block the induced monocytic differentiation of a human acute myeloid leukemia cell line, and most importantly, that GFI1 is essential for MYB's ability to block monocytic differentiation. Thus, we have identified a target of MYB that is a likely mediator of its myeloid differentiation-blocking activity, and which may also be involved in MYB's activities in regulating normal HSC function and myeloid differentiation. PMID:24121275

Zhao, L; Ye, P; Gonda, T J

2014-08-28

273

Combination of vaccine-strain measles and mumps virus synergistically kills a wide range of human hematological cancer cells: Special focus on acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Through combining vaccine-derived measles and mumps viruses (MM), we efficiently targeted a wide range of hematopoietic cancer cell lines. MM synergistically killed many cell lines including acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines. Further investigation suggested that enhanced oncolytic effect of MM was due to increased apoptosis induction. In an U937 xenograft AML mouse model, MM displayed greater tumor suppression and prolonged survival. Furthermore, MM efficiently killed blasts from 16 out of 20 AML patients and elicited more efficient killing effect on 11 patients when co-administered with Ara-C. Our results demonstrate that MM is a promising therapeutic candidate for hematological malignancies. PMID:25193462

Zhang, Li Feng; Tan, Darren Qian Cheng; Jeyasekharan, Anand D; Hsieh, Wen Son; Ho, Anh Son; Ichiyama, Koji; Ye, Min; Pang, Brendan; Ohba, Kenji; Liu, Xin; de Mel, Sanjay; Cuong, Bui Khac; Chng, Wee Joo; Ryo, Akihide; Suzuki, Youichi; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Toan, Nguyen Linh; Yamamoto, Naoki

2014-11-28

274

Somatic SETBP1 mutations in myeloid malignancies.  

PubMed

Here we report whole-exome sequencing of individuals with various myeloid malignancies and identify recurrent somatic mutations in SETBP1, consistent with a recent report on atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML). Closely positioned somatic SETBP1 mutations encoding changes in Asp868, Ser869, Gly870, Ile871 and Asp880, which match germline mutations in Schinzel-Giedion syndrome (SGS), were detected in 17% of secondary acute myeloid leukemias (sAML) and 15% of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) cases. These results from deep sequencing demonstrate a higher mutational detection rate than reported with conventional sequencing methodology. Mutant cases were associated with advanced age and monosomy 7/deletion 7q (-7/del(7q)) constituting poor prognostic factors. Analysis of serially collected samples indicated that SETBP1 mutations were acquired during leukemic evolution. Transduction with mutant Setbp1 led to the immortalization of mouse myeloid progenitors that showed enhanced proliferative capacity compared to cells transduced with wild-type Setbp1. Somatic mutations of SETBP1 seem to cause gain of function, are associated with myeloid leukemic transformation and convey poor prognosis in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and CMML. PMID:23832012

Makishima, Hideki; Yoshida, Kenichi; Nguyen, Nhu; Przychodzen, Bartlomiej; Sanada, Masashi; Okuno, Yusuke; Ng, Kwok Peng; Gudmundsson, Kristbjorn O; Vishwakarma, Bandana A; Jerez, Andres; Gomez-Segui, Ines; Takahashi, Mariko; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Nagata, Yasunobu; Guinta, Kathryn; Mori, Hiraku; Sekeres, Mikkael A; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Muramatsu, Hideki; Sakaguchi, Hirotoshi; Paquette, Ronald L; McDevitt, Michael A; Kojima, Seiji; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Miyano, Satoru; Shih, Lee-Yung; Du, Yang; Ogawa, Seishi; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw P

2013-08-01

275

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Myeloid cell HIF-1 regulates asthma airway resistance  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Myeloid cell HIF-1 regulates asthma airway resistance and eosinophil function and macrophages. These studies examine the role of myeloid cell HIF-1 in regulating asthma induction of eosinophils, the myeloid cells most associated with asthma. Wild-type (WT) and my- eloid cell-specific HIF-1

Nizet, Victor

276

Immunotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with current chemotherapy regimens is still disappointing, with overall survival rates of ? 40% at 5 years. It is now well established that AML cells can evade the immune system through multiple mechanisms, including the expression of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase. Immunotherapeutic strategies, including both active, such as vaccination with leukemia-associated antigens, and passive, such as adoptive transfer of allogeneic natural killer cells, may overcome leukemia escape and lead to improved cure. Allogeneic hemopoeitic stem cell transplantation, the most effective treatment of AML, is the best known model of immunotherapy. Following transplant, recipient AML cells are eradicated by donor immune cells through the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. However, GVL is clinically associated with graft-versus-host disease, the major cause of mortality after transplant. GVL is mediated by donor T cells recognizing either leukemia-associated antigens or minor as well as major histocompatibility antigens. Several innovative strategies have been devised to generate leukemia reactive T cells so as to increase GVL responses with no or little graft-versus-host disease. PMID:24341888

Arpinati, Mario; Curti, Antonio

2014-01-01

277

Earthquakes: Hydrogeochemical precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Earthquake prediction is a long-sought goal. Changes in groundwater chemistry before earthquakes in Iceland highlight a potential hydrogeochemical precursor, but such signals must be evaluated in the context of long-term, multiparametric data sets.

Ingebritsen, S. E.; Manga, M.

2014-10-01

278

Stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia in children.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is the only proven cure for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a rare disease in childhood. We report outcomes of 314 children with Philadelphia-chromosome-positive (Ph+) CML undergoing SCT from HLA-matched siblings (n = 182) or volunteer-unrelated donors (VUD; n = 132). Three-year overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) rates were 66% and 55% (n = 314). For 156 children in first chronic phase (CP1) who underwent transplantation from HLA-identical siblings, OS and LFS rates were 75% and 63%. For 97 children who underwent SCT in CP1 from VUD, 3-year OS and LFS rates were 65% and 56%, reflecting higher transplantation-related mortality (TRM) after VUD SCT (35% vs 20%; multivariate hazard ratio [HR], 1.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-3.5; P =.05). In a multivariate model for OS and LFS, outcomes were superior in CP1 than in advanced phase (AP/CP1) (OS HR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3-3; P =.001; LFS HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.6; P =.003). For relapse, donor source (VUD/sibling) (HR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.19-0.76; P =.006) and disease stage (AP/CP1) (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.36-4.3; P =.003) were significant. This is the first large series to show that SCT confers long-term LFS in most children with CML and helps assess alternative therapy, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors. PMID:12714525

Cwynarski, Kate; Roberts, Irene A G; Iacobelli, Simona; van Biezen, Anja; Brand, Ronald; Devergie, Agnes; Vossen, Jaak M; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Arcese, William; Locatelli, Franco; Dini, Giorgio; Niethammer, Dietrich; Niederwieser, Dietger; Apperley, Jane F

2003-08-15

279

A modified busulfan and cyclophosphamide preparative regimen for allogeneic transplantation in myeloid malignancies.  

PubMed

Background Busulfan/cyclophosphamide (Bu/Cy) is commonly used as a standard conditioning regimen without total body irradiation for patients with hematological myeloid malignancies undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Objective To develop a new myeloablative conditioning regimen incorporating fludarabine (Flu) and cytarabine (Ara-c). Setting A tertiary blood disease hospital in Tianjin, China. Methods A Bu/Cy preparative regimen was used, modified by Flu 90 mg/m(2) and Ara-c 6 g/m(2) in 57 unselected patients (median age 37 years) with hematological myeloid malignancies. The patients were to receive allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Thirteen patients had high-risk leukemia, fifty patients had HLA matched sibling donors while seven patients had HLA mismatched sibling donors. Cy was given 50 mg/kg/day for 2 days while Bu was given 3.2 mg/kg/day intravenously for 3 days. Main outcome measure Post-transplant donor chimerism, relapse tendency and minimal residual disease. Results Extramedullar toxicity was relatively limited; the incidence of treatment-related mortality (TRM) within 100 days was 3.5 %. The incidence of grade II-IV, grade III-IV acute graft versus host disease (GVHD) and chronic GVHD of the evaluable patients were 21.1, 8.8 and 36.4 %, respectively. With a median follow up of 59 (13-96.5) months, TRM and relapse rate (RR) at eight years were 24.1 ± 5.8 and 14.7 ± 4.8 %, respectively. Disease free survival at eight years was 67.9 ± 6.2 % for the entire group, 60.0 ± 8.9 % for patients with AML, 77.3 ± 8.9 % for patients with CML, 70.0 ± 6.5 and 42.9 ± 18.7 % or matched sibling and mismatched sibling HSCT respectively. Conclusion The new regimen was associated with a low relapse rate, low incidence and severity of graft versus host disease and satisfactory survival for patients with myeloid malignancies. PMID:25432692

Cai, Xiaojin; Wei, Jialing; He, Yi; Yang, Dongling; Jiang, Erlie; Huang, Yong; Han, Mingzhe; Feng, Sizhou

2015-02-01

280

Daunorubicin Hydrochloride, Cytarabine and Oblimersen Sodium in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-06-04

281

Romidepsin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-04-11

282

Clofarabine, Cytarabine, and G-CSF in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-04-25

283

Decitabine With or Without Bortezomib in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2015-01-23

284

Clofarabine and Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Residual Disease  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-05-07

285

Vaccine Therapy and Basiliximab in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Complete Remission  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22)

2014-10-14

286

Decitabine With or Without Bortezomib in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2015-02-02

287

Targeted signal transduction therapies in myeloid malignancies.  

PubMed

The myeloid malignancies include the myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A growing body of evidence documents that these diseases are caused by genetic mutations that constitutively activate tyrosine kinases. They include the BCR/ABL in CML, the V617F JAK2 in Philadelphia chromosome-negative MPN, and the Flt3 ITD and TKD mutations in AML. Trials of the ABL kinase inhibitor, imatinib, have revolutionized the treatment of CML, and there are ongoing studies with other kinase inhibitors in MPN and AML. Here we review results of recent studies with first-generation JAK2 inhibitors in the treatment of MPN and second-generation ABL and Flt3 inhibitors in CML and AML, respectively. It is becoming apparent that although these kinase mutations have similar effects in vitro, each of the diseases has unique features that alter the use of kinase inhibitors in the clinic. PMID:20809224

Scott, Emma; Hexner, Elizabeth; Perl, Alexander; Carroll, Martin

2010-11-01

288

Labeling primitive myeloid progenitor cells in Xenopus.  

PubMed

In Xenopus the first blood cells to differentiate in the embryo are the primitive myeloid lineages, which arise from the anterior ventral blood islands during the neurula stages. Primitive myeloid cells (PMCs) will give rise to the embryonic pool of neutrophils and macrophages, a highly migratory population of cells with various functions during development and tissue repair. Understanding the development and behavior of PMCs depends on our ability to label, manipulate, and image these cells. Xenopus embryos have several advantages in the study of PMCs, including a well-established fate map and the possibility of performing transplants in order to label these cells. In addition, Xenopus embryos are easy to manipulate and their external development and transparency at the tadpole stages make them amenable to imaging techniques. Here we describe two methods for labeling primitive myeloid progenitor cells during early Xenopus development. PMID:22914938

Costa, Ricardo; Chen, Yaoyao; Paredes, Roberto; Amaya, Enrique

2012-01-01

289

Identification of Desirable Precursor Properties for Solution Precursor Plasma Spray  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In solution precursor plasma spray chemical precursor solutions are injected into a standard plasma torch and the final material is formed and deposited in a single step. This process has several attractive features, including the ability to rapidly explore new compositions and to form amorphous and metastable phases from molecularly mixed precursors. Challenges include: (a) moderate deposition rates due to the need to evaporate the precursor solvent, (b) dealing on a case by case basis with precursor characteristics that influence the spray process (viscosity, endothermic and exothermic reactions, the sequence of physical states through which the precursor passes before attaining the final state, etc.). Desirable precursor properties were identified by comparing an effective precursor for yttria-stabilized zirconia with four less effective candidate precursors for MgO:Y2O3. The critical parameters identified were a lack of major endothermic events during precursor decomposition and highly dense resultant particles.

Muoto, Chigozie K.; Jordan, Eric H.; Gell, Maurice; Aindow, Mark

2011-06-01

290

Frozen Cord Blood Hematopoietic Stem Cells Differentiate into Higher Numbers of Functional Natural Killer Cells In Vitro than Mobilized Hematopoietic Stem Cells or Freshly Isolated Cord Blood Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Adoptive natural killer (NK) cell therapy relies on the acquisition of large numbers of NK cells that are cytotoxic but not exhausted. NK cell differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) has become an alluring option for NK cell therapy, with umbilical cord blood (UCB) and mobilized peripheral blood (PBCD34+) being the most accessible HSC sources as collection procedures are less invasive. In this study we compared the capacity of frozen or freshly isolated UCB hematopoietic stem cells (CBCD34+) and frozen PBCD34+ to generate NK cells in vitro. By modifying a previously published protocol, we showed that frozen CBCD34+ cultures generated higher NK cell numbers without loss of function compared to fresh CBCD34+ cultures. NK cells generated from CBCD34+ and PBCD34+ expressed low levels of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors but high levels of activating receptors and of the myeloid marker CD33. However, blocking studies showed that CD33 expression did not impact on the functions of the generated cells. CBCD34+-NK cells exhibited increased capacity to secrete IFN-? and kill K562 in vitro and in vivo as compared to PBCD34+-NK cells. Moreover, K562 killing by the generated NK cells could be further enhanced by IL-12 stimulation. Our data indicate that the use of frozen CBCD34+ for the production of NK cells in vitro results in higher cell numbers than PBCD34+, without jeopardizing their functionality, rendering them suitable for NK cell immunotherapy. The results presented here provide an optimal strategy to generate NK cells in vitro for immunotherapy that exhibit enhanced effector function when compared to alternate sources of HSC. PMID:24489840

Luevano, Martha; Domogala, Anna; Blundell, Michael; Jackson, Nicola; Pedroza-Pacheco, Isabela; Derniame, Sophie; Escobedo-Cousin, Michelle; Querol, Sergio; Thrasher, Adrian; Madrigal, Alejandro; Saudemont, Aurore

2014-01-01

291

Primary oral myeloid sarcoma: Report of a case  

PubMed Central

Myeloid sarcoma is defined as a tumor mass of immature myeloid cells that may be observed in a variety of locations including bone, skin, lymph nodes and soft tissues. However, oral involvement of myeloid sarcoma is extremely rare. These tumors are considered as specific lesions of acute myeloid leukemia. We present a case of a myeloid sarcoma of the upper vestibular gingiva in a 29-year-old woman who has no hematologic disease history. Multiple metastases were found in floor of the nasal cavity, left breast, and left lacrimal gland 12 months after primary diagnosis. PMID:24574662

Kurdo?lu, Ba?ak; Öztemel, Ak?n; Bar??, Emre; Sengüven, Burcu

2013-01-01

292

Primary oral myeloid sarcoma: Report of a case.  

PubMed

Myeloid sarcoma is defined as a tumor mass of immature myeloid cells that may be observed in a variety of locations including bone, skin, lymph nodes and soft tissues. However, oral involvement of myeloid sarcoma is extremely rare. These tumors are considered as specific lesions of acute myeloid leukemia. We present a case of a myeloid sarcoma of the upper vestibular gingiva in a 29-year-old woman who has no hematologic disease history. Multiple metastases were found in floor of the nasal cavity, left breast, and left lacrimal gland 12 months after primary diagnosis. PMID:24574662

Kurdo?lu, Ba?ak; Oztemel, Ak?n; Bar??, Emre; Sengüven, Burcu

2013-09-01

293

Pulmonary presentation of relapsed acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Extramedullary manifestations of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), often referred to as myeloid sarcoma (MS), occur relatively commonly in children with newly diagnosed or relapsed AML and have been associated with certain French-American-British morphologies and gene/chromosomal rearrangements. The most common locations of MS include the skin, orbit, skeleton, central nervous system, skin, and gut. Pulmonary MS is uncommon in adults and is extremely rare in children. We report the case of a 19-year-old man with French-American-British M5 AML, who before bone marrow transplant, presented with fever, hypotension, and respiratory symptoms that were ultimately attributed to pulmonary MS. PMID:23619108

Hoffman, Lindsey M; Gore, Lia; Maloney, Kelly W

2014-04-01

294

The polyamine oxidase inhibitor MDL-72,527 selectively induces apoptosis of transformed hematopoietic cells through lysosomotropic effects.  

PubMed

Polyamine oxidase functions in the polyamine catabolic pathway, converting N1-acetyl-spermidine and -spermine into putrescine (Put) and spermidine (Spd), respectively, thereby facilitating homeostasis of intracellular polyamine pools. Inhibition of polyamine oxidase in hematopoietic cells by a specific inhibitor, N,N'-bis(2,3-butadienyl)-1,4-butanediamine (MDL-72,527), reduces the levels of Put and Spd and induces the accumulation of N1-acetylated Spd. Although previously thought to be relatively nontoxic, we now report that this inhibitor overrides survival factors to induce cell death of several immortal and malignant murine and human hematopoietic cells, but not of primary myeloid progenitors. Cells treated with MDL-72,527 displayed biochemical changes typical of apoptosis, and cell death was associated with the down-regulation of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-X(L). However, enforced overexpression of Bcl-X(L), or treatment with the universal caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk, failed to block MDL-72,527-induced apoptosis in these hematopoietic cells. Despite decreases in Put and Spd pools, MDL-72,527-induced apoptosis was not blocked by cotreatment with exogenous Put or Spd, nor was it influenced by overexpression or inhibition of the polyamine biosynthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase. Significantly, MDL-72,527-induced apoptosis was associated with the rapid formation of numerous lysosomally derived vacuoles. Malignant leukemia cells were variably sensitive to the lysosomotropic effects of MDL-72,527, yet pretreatment with the ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor L-alpha-difluoromethylornithine sensitized all of these leukemia cells to the deleterious effects of the inhibitor by stimulating its intracellular accumulation. The lysosomotropic nature of select polyamine analogues may, thus, provide a novel chemotherapeutic strategy to selectively induce apoptosis of malignant hematopoietic cells. PMID:10519408

Dai, H; Kramer, D L; Yang, C; Murti, K G; Porter, C W; Cleveland, J L

1999-10-01

295

Signal, Transduction, and the Hematopoietic Stem Cell  

PubMed Central

The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is a unique cell positioned highest in the hematopoietic hierarchical system. The HSC has the ability to stay in quiescence, to self-renew, or to differentiate and generate all lineages of blood cells. The path to be actualized is influenced by signals that derive from the cell’s microenvironment, which activate molecular pathways inside the cell. Signaling pathways are commonly organized through inducible protein–protein interactions, mediated by adaptor proteins that link activated receptors to cytoplasmic effectors. This review will focus on the signaling molecules and how they work in concert to determine the HSC’s fate. PMID:25386349

Louria-Hayon, Igal

2014-01-01

296

In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation for hemoglobinopathies  

PubMed Central

In utero hematopoietic cell transplantation (IUHCTx) is a promising strategy to circumvent the challenges of postnatal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation. The goal of IUHCTx is to introduce donor cells into a naïve host prior to immune maturation, thereby inducing donor–specific tolerance. Thus, this technique has the potential of avoiding host myeloablative conditioning with cytotoxic agents. Over the past two decades, several attempts at IUHCTx have been made to cure numerous underlying congenital anomalies with limited success. In this review, we will briefly review the history of IUHCTx and give a perspective on alpha thalassemia major, one target disease for its clinical application. PMID:25628564

Derderian, S. Christopher; Jeanty, Cerine; Walters, Mark C.; Vichinsky, Elliott; MacKenzie, Tippi C.

2014-01-01

297

Chronic intake of high fish oil diet induces myeloid-derived suppressor cells to promote tumor growth.  

PubMed

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enriched fish oil exerts beneficial anti-inflammatory effects in animal models with acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), comprised of myeloid progenitors and precursors of myeloid cells, play vital roles in cancer. How fish oil affects the generation of MDSCs and the tumor development remains largely unexplored. Here, we show that dietary intake of high fish oil diet suppresses CD8(+) T cells activation and proliferation in vivo via elevated levels of MDSCs. Mechanistically, high fish oil diet induces the expression of immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 and promotes myelopoiesis in the spleen as well as other peripheral tissues. The immature myeloid cells in the spleen exhibit morphological and functional characteristics of MDSCs with the capability to downregulate CD8(+) T cells activation. Depletion of MDSCs using anti-Gr-1 antibody decreases the growth of subcutaneously transferred B16 melanoma in mice on high fish oil diet. Interestingly, diet-induced production of MDSCs is not solely dependent of the spleen, as splenectomy has no effect on the tumor progress. Our data show that the liver functions as an alternative extramedullary hematopoiesis organ to support MDSCs differentiation and maintain tumor growth. Taken together, our study provides a novel insight into the physiological effects of fish oil and points to MDSCs as a possible mediator linking dietary fish oil intake and immunosuppression in cancer immunosurveillance. PMID:24691944

Xia, Sheng; Li, Xiaoping; Cheng, Lu; Han, Mutian; Zhang, Miaomiao; Liu, Xia; Xu, Huaxi; Zhang, Minghui; Shao, Qixiang; Qi, Ling

2014-07-01

298

A feeder-free differentiation system identifies autonomously proliferating B cell precursors in human bone marrow.  

PubMed

The peripheral B cell compartment is maintained by homeostatic proliferation and through replenishment by bone marrow precursors. Because hematopoietic stem cells cycle at a slow rate, replenishment must involve replication of precursor B cells. To study proliferation of early human B cell progenitors, we established a feeder cell-free in vitro system allowing the development of B cells from CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells up to the stage of immature IgM(+) B cells. We found that pro-B and pre-B cells generated in vitro can proliferate autonomously and persist up to 7 wk in culture in the absence of signals induced by exogenously added cytokines. Nevertheless, addition of IL-7 enhanced pre-B cell expansion and inhibited maturation into IgM(+) B cells. The B cell precursor subsets replicating in vitro were highly similar to the bone marrow B cell precursors cycling in vivo. The autonomous proliferation of B cell precursor subsets in vitro and their long-term persistence implies that proliferation during pro-B and pre-B cell stages plays an important role in the homeostasis of the peripheral B cell compartment. Our in vitro culture can be used to study defects in B cell development or in reconstitution of the B cell pool after depletion and chemotherapy. PMID:24379121

Kraus, Helene; Kaiser, Sandra; Aumann, Konrad; Bönelt, Peter; Salzer, Ulrich; Vestweber, Dietmar; Erlacher, Miriam; Kunze, Mirjam; Burger, Meike; Pieper, Kathrin; Sic, Heiko; Rolink, Antonius; Eibel, Hermann; Rizzi, Marta

2014-02-01

299

Lenalidomide in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-07-25

300

Azacitidine, Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride, and Etoposide in Treating Older Patients With Poor-Prognosis Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-12-19

301

Decitabine in Treating Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Atypical Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, BCR-ABL1 Negative; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-09-27

302

Hematopoietic cell differentiation from embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells  

PubMed Central

Pluripotent stem cells, both embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells, are undifferentiated cells that can self-renew and potentially differentiate into all hematopoietic lineages, such as hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), hematopoietic progenitor cells and mature hematopoietic cells in the presence of a suitable culture system. Establishment of pluripotent stem cells provides a comprehensive model to study early hematopoietic development and has emerged as a powerful research tool to explore regenerative medicine. Nowadays, HSC transplantation and hematopoietic cell transfusion have successfully cured some patients, especially in malignant hematological diseases. Owing to a shortage of donors and a limited number of the cells, hematopoietic cell induction from pluripotent stem cells has been regarded as an alternative source of HSCs and mature hematopoietic cells for intended therapeutic purposes. Pluripotent stem cells are therefore extensively utilized to facilitate better understanding in hematopoietic development by recapitulating embryonic development in vivo, in which efficient strategies can be easily designed and deployed for the generation of hematopoietic lineages in vitro. We hereby review the current progress of hematopoietic cell induction from embryonic stem/induced pluripotent stem cells. PMID:23796405

2013-01-01

303

Seismo-Ionospheric Precursors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large earthquakes are often preceded or accompanied by signals of a different nature: electric, electromagnetic, or luminous, although seismic waves are the most obvious manifestation. Recently, seismo-ionospheric phenomena have received considerable discussions. To investigate possible seismo-ionospheric precursors, we statistically examine the relationship between electron density variations at the ionospheric F2 peak observed by a local ionosonde and 184 earthquakes with magnitude 5.0 or larger, which occurred in 170 days during 1994~1999 in the Taiwan area. Results demonstrate that the electron density abnormally decreases during the afternoon period, 1200~1800 LT, within 5 days before the earthquakes. The odds of the earthquakes with the precursor increasing in the earthquake magnitude but decreasing in the range between the epicenter and the ionosonde confirm the existence of an imminent seismo-ionospheric precursor.

Liu, J.; Chen, Y.; Chuo, Y.

2003-12-01

304

Sorafenib Tosylate and Chemotherapy in Treating Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-11-03

305

Acute appendicitis caused by acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message A case of appendiceal involvement by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in an adult with recent history of AML transformed from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) was presented. Being aware of this rare presentation in particular in a patient with history of MDS and/or AML is important for prompt clinical diagnosis and management.

Zhang, Shanxiang; Chen, Shaoxiong

2014-01-01

306

Commitment and Differentiation of Osteoclast Precursor Cells by the Sequential Expression of C-Fms and Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor ?b (Rank) Receptors  

PubMed Central

Osteoclasts are terminally differentiated cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells. However, how their precursor cells diverge from macrophagic lineages is not known. We have identified early and late stages of osteoclastogenesis, in which precursor cells sequentially express c-Fms followed by receptor activator of nuclear factor ?B (RANK), and have demonstrated that RANK expression in early-stage of precursor cells (c-Fms+RANK?) was stimulated by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Although M-CSF and RANKL (ligand) induced commitment of late-stage precursor cells (c-Fms+RANK+) into osteoclasts, even late-stage precursors have the potential to differentiate into macrophages without RANKL. Pretreatment of precursors with M-CSF and delayed addition of RANKL showed that timing of RANK expression and subsequent binding of RANKL are critical for osteoclastogenesis. Thus, the RANK–RANKL system determines the osteoclast differentiation of bipotential precursors in the default pathway of macrophagic differentiation. PMID:10601350

Arai, Fumio; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Ohneda, Osamu; Inada, Tomohisa; Sudo, Tetsuo; Brasel, Kenneth; Miyata, Takashi; Anderson, Dirk M.; Suda, Toshio

1999-01-01

307

Engraftment syndrome following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

During neutrophil recovery following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, a constellation of symptoms and signs including fever, erythrodermatous skin rash, and noncardiogenic pulmonary edema often occur. These clinical findings have usually been referred to as engraftment syndrome, or, reflecting the manifestations of increased capillary permeability, capillary leak syndrome. While described most often following autologous stem cell transplantation, a similar clinical syndrome

TR Spitzer

2001-01-01

308

Avalanche precursors R. Delannay,  

E-print Network

Avalanche precursors R. Delannay, Institut de Physique de Rennes, Université de Rennes 1, CNRS UMR at the top of the tray after some avalanches. · 4 or 5 large avalanches then observed during the slow of small "avalanches" which are recorded by a camera.2mm diameter beads #12;N. Nérone et al. Physica A 283

Gruner, Daniel S.

309

OXIDANT-PRECURSOR RELATIONSHIPS  

EPA Science Inventory

New methods of ambient air analysis were used to define more clearly the relationships between oxidants and their precursors. Non-methane hydrocarbons, NOx, O2, and oxidants were measured at the same time and location (Riverside, California). The ambient air data presented in thi...

310

Lower phosphorylation of p38 MAPK blocks the oxidative stress-induced senescence in myeloid leukemic CD34(+)CD38 (-) cells.  

PubMed

Leukemia seems to depend on a small population of "leukemia stem cells (LSCs)" for its growth and metastasis. However, the precise surviving mechanisms of LSCs remain obscure. Cellular senescence is an important obstacle for production and surviving of tumor cells. In this study we investigated the activated state of a pathway, in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) induces cellular senescence through DNA damage and phophorylation of p38 MAPK (p38), in myeloid leukemic CD34(+)CD38(-) cells. Bone marrow samples were obtained from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, n=11) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, n=9). CD34(+)CD38(-) cells were isolated from mononuclear cells from these bone marrow samples, and K562 and KG1a cells (two kinds of myeloid leukemia cell lines) by mini-magnetic activated cell sorting. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from human cord blood served as controls. Intracellular ROS level was detected by flow cytometry. DNA damage defined as the ?H2AX level was measured by immunofluorescence staining. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect the expression of p21, a senescence-associated gene. Western blotting and immunofluorescence staining were employed to determine the p38 expression and activation. The proliferation and apoptosis of CD34(+)CD38(-) cells were detected by MTT assay and flow cytometry. Our results showed that ROS and DNA damage were substantially accumulated and p38 was less phosphorated in myeloid leukemic CD34(+)CD38(-) cells as compared with HSCs and H(2)O(2)-induced senescent HSCs. Furthermore, over-phosphorylation of p38 by anisomycin, a selective activator of p38, induced both the senescence-like growth arrest and apoptosis of CD34(+)CD38(-) cells from K562 and KG1a cell lines. These findings suggested that, although excessive accumulation of oxidative DNA damage was present in LSCs, the relatively decreased phosphorylation of p38 might help leukemic cells escape senescence and apoptosis. PMID:22684553

Xiao, Yin; Zou, Ping; Wang, Jie; Song, Hui; Zou, Jing; Liu, Lingbo

2012-06-01

311

Hierarchical organization of fetal and adult hematopoietic stem cells.  

PubMed

Mammalian hematopoiesis is a hierarchically organized process in which all types of mature blood cells are continuously generated from more primitive cells that lack any morphological evidence of differentiation. However, it is now accepted that this morphologically homogeneous precursor population consists of multiple distinct subsets of cells. The most primitive of these are defined by their ability to produce similarly undifferentiated progeny through many cell divisions, in addition to generating cells with activated differentiation programs. The term hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) is now conventionally restricted to cells with this long-term self-sustaining ability. Nevertheless, clonal tracking studies have revealed significant heterogeneity in the behavior of such stringently defined HSCs. Moreover, superimposed on the heterogeneous behavior that can be elicited from the HSCs present at any given time during development are additional differences that distinguish HSCs at different times both before and after birth. The latter include changes in the representation of HSCs that display specific differentiation programs, as well as changes in their turnover and self-renewal control. Here, we summarize recent studies characterizing these developmental changes, some of the mechanisms that control them, and their potential relevance to understanding age-associated differences in leukemia as well as normal hematopoiesis. PMID:25128815

Babovic, Sonja; Eaves, Connie J

2014-12-10

312

Modification of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells with CD19-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptors as a Novel Approach for Cancer Immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

Abstract Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) against CD19 have been shown to direct T-cells to specifically target B-lineage malignant cells in animal models and clinical trials, with efficient tumor cell lysis. However, in some cases, there has been insufficient persistence of effector cells, limiting clinical efficacy. We propose gene transfer to hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) as a novel approach to deliver the CD19-specific CAR, with potential for ensuring persistent production of effector cells of multiple lineages targeting B-lineage malignant cells. Assessments were performed using in vitro myeloid or natural killer (NK) cell differentiation of human HSPCs transduced with lentiviral vectors carrying first and second generations of CD19-specific CAR. Gene transfer did not impair hematopoietic differentiation and cell proliferation when transduced at 1–2 copies/cell. CAR-bearing myeloid and NK cells specifically lysed CD19-positive cells, with second-generation CAR including CD28 domains being more efficient in NK cells. Our results provide evidence for the feasibility and efficacy of the modification of HSPC with CAR as a strategy for generating multiple lineages of effector cells for immunotherapy against B-lineage malignancies to augment graft-versus-leukemia activity. PMID:23978226

Ryan, Christine; Giannoni, Francesca; Hardee, Cinnamon L.; Tremcinska, Irena; Katebian, Behrod; Wherley, Jennifer; Sahaghian, Arineh; Tu, Andy; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Cooper, Laurence J.N.; Hollis, Roger P.; Kohn, Donald B.

2013-01-01

313

VCAM-1 expression in adult hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells is controlled by tissue-inductive signals and reflects their developmental origin  

PubMed Central

Although expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) in endothelial cells and its functional implications have been previously appreciated, VCAM-1 expression in other than endothelial cells, especially hematopoietic cells, has been recently recognized and has not been explored in detail. Using normal mice and mice with a conditional ablation of VCAM-1 through a Tie2-driven cre transgene, we have studied the biodistribution and the pattern of VCAM-1 expression in circulating versus tissue-residing cells before and after their enforced mobilization. In the normal mouse, both at basal hematopoiesis or following mobilization, VCAM-1 expression is confined to myeloid cells residing in hematopoietic tissues, whereas free cells in circulation or in body cavities are devoid of VCAM-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein. However, following culture, proliferating myeloid cells, but not lymphoid cells, express VCAM-1. In the VCAM-1–ablated mouse, there is an increase in circulating progenitors as a consequence of their ongoing release from bone marrow, a process enhanced by splenectomy. We postulate that the main mechanism leading to their release is the ablation of VCAM-1 by fibroblastic and by endothelial cells. Ablation of VCAM-1 in fibroblasts by Tie2-driven cre is a novel finding and likely denotes their developmental ancestry by Tie2-expressing (mesenchymal?) progenitor cells during development. PMID:15769895

Ulyanova, Tatiana; Scott, Linda M.; Priestley, Gregory V.; Jiang, Yi; Nakamoto, Betty; Koni, Pandelakis A.; Papayannopoulou, Thalia

2005-01-01

314

The transcription factor PlagL2 activates Mpl transcription and signaling in hematopoietic progenitor and leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Cytokine signaling pathways are frequent targets of oncogenic mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), promoting proliferation and survival. We have previously shown that the transcription factor PLAGL2 promotes proliferation and cooperates with the leukemia fusion protein Cbf?-SMMHC in AML development. Here, we show that PLAGL2 upregulates expression of the thrombopoietin receptor Mpl, using two consensus sites in its proximal promoter. We also show that Mpl overexpression efficiently cooperates with Cbf?-SMMHC in development of leukemia in mice. Finally, we demonstrate that PlagL2-expressing leukemic cells show hyper-activation of Jak2 and downstream STAT5, Akt and Erk1/2 pathways in response to Thpo ligand. These results show that PlagL2 expression activates expression of Mpl in hematopoietic progenitors, and that upregulation of wild-type Mpl provides an oncogenic signal in cooperation with CBF?-SMMHC in mice. PMID:21263445

Landrette, S F; Madera, D; He, F; Castilla, L H

2011-04-01

315

Decitabine, Donor Natural Killer Cells, and Aldesleukin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-12-17

316

Selumetinib in Treating Patients With Recurrent or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-04-10

317

Exogenous endothelial cells as accelerators of hematopoietic reconstitution.  

PubMed

Despite the successes of recombinant hematopoietic-stimulatory factors at accelerating bone marrow reconstitution and shortening the neutropenic period post-transplantation, significant challenges remain such as cost, inability to reconstitute thrombocytic lineages, and lack of efficacy in conditions such as aplastic anemia. A possible means of accelerating hematopoietic reconstitution would be administration of cells capable of secreting hematopoietic growth factors. Advantages of this approach would include: a) ability to regulate secretion of cytokines based on biological need; b) long term, localized production of growth factors, alleviating need for systemic administration of factors that possess unintended adverse effects; and c) potential to actively repair the hematopoietic stem cell niche. Here we overview the field of hematopoietic growth factors, discuss previous experiences with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in accelerating hematopoiesis, and conclude by putting forth the rationale of utilizing exogenous endothelial cells as a novel cellular therapy for acceleration of hematopoietic recovery. PMID:23171397

Mizer, J Christopher; Ichim, Thomas E; Alexandrescu, Doru T; Dasanu, Constantin A; Ramos, Famela; Turner, Andrew; Woods, Erik J; Bogin, Vladimir; Murphy, Michael P; Koos, David; Patel, Amit N

2012-01-01

318

Exogenous endothelial cells as accelerators of hematopoietic reconstitution  

PubMed Central

Despite the successes of recombinant hematopoietic-stimulatory factors at accelerating bone marrow reconstitution and shortening the neutropenic period post-transplantation, significant challenges remain such as cost, inability to reconstitute thrombocytic lineages, and lack of efficacy in conditions such as aplastic anemia. A possible means of accelerating hematopoietic reconstitution would be administration of cells capable of secreting hematopoietic growth factors. Advantages of this approach would include: a) ability to regulate secretion of cytokines based on biological need; b) long term, localized production of growth factors, alleviating need for systemic administration of factors that possess unintended adverse effects; and c) potential to actively repair the hematopoietic stem cell niche. Here we overview the field of hematopoietic growth factors, discuss previous experiences with mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in accelerating hematopoiesis, and conclude by putting forth the rationale of utilizing exogenous endothelial cells as a novel cellular therapy for acceleration of hematopoietic recovery. PMID:23171397

2012-01-01

319

Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia or Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-08-18

320

Bortezomib in Treating Patients With High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Multilineage Dysplasia Following Myelodysplastic Syndrome; Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-10-30

321

Bortezomib, Sorafenib Tosylate, and Decitabine in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); PML-RARA; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2015-01-30

322

Cilengitide in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Basophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Eosinophilic Leukemia; Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b)

2013-01-23

323

Transformation of hematopoietic cells and activation of JAK2-V617F by IL-27R, a component of a heterodimeric type I cytokine receptor.  

PubMed

From a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we have identified IL-27Ra (also known as TCCR and WSX1) as a gene whose expression can induce the transformation of hematopoietic cells. IL-27Ra (IL-27R) is a type I cytokine receptor that functions as the ligand binding component of the receptor for IL-27 and functions with the glycoprotein 130 (gp130) coreceptor to induce signal transduction in response to IL-27. We show that IL-27R is expressed on the cell surface of the leukemic cells of AML patients. 32D myeloid cells transformed by IL-27R contain elevated levels of activated forms of various signaling proteins, including JAK1, JAK2, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, and ERK1/2. Inhibition of JAK family proteins induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in these cells, suggesting the transforming properties of IL-27R depend on the activity of JAK family members. IL-27R also transforms BaF3 cells to cytokine independence. Because BaF3 cells lack expression of gp130, this finding suggests that IL-27R-mediated transformation of hematopoietic cells is gp130-independent. Finally, we show that IL-27R can functionally replace a homodimeric type I cytokine receptor in the activation of JAK2-V617F, a critical JAK2 mutation in various myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs). Our data demonstrate that IL-27R possesses hematopoietic cell-transforming properties and suggest that, analogous to homodimeric type I cytokine receptors, single-chain components of heterodimeric receptors can also enhance the activation of JAK2-V617F. Therefore, such receptors may play unappreciated roles in MPDs. PMID:18003935

Pradhan, Anuradha; Lambert, Que T; Reuther, Gary W

2007-11-20

324

Hematopoietic stem cell development in the placenta  

PubMed Central

The placenta is a highly vascularized organ that mediates fetal-maternal exchange during pregnancy and is thereby vital for the survival and growth of the developing embryo. In addition to this well-established role, the placenta was recently unveiled as a major fetal hematopoietic organ. The placenta is unique among other fetal hematopoietic organs as it is capable of both generating HSCs/progenitors de novo and establishing a major HSC pool in the conceptus while protecting HSCs from premature differentiation. The mouse placenta contains two distinct vascular regions that support hematopoiesis: the large vessels in the chorionic plate where HSCs/progenitors emerge and the labyrinth vasculature where nascent HSCs/progenitors colonize for expansion and possible functional maturation. Defining how this cytokine- and growth factor rich organ supports HSC generation, maturation and expansion may ultimately help to establish culture protocols for HSC expansion or de novo generation from pluripotent cells. PMID:20711986

Gekas, Christos; Rhodes, Katrin E.; Van Handel, Ben; Chhabra, Akanksha; Ueno, Masaya; Mikkola, Hanna K.A.

2014-01-01

325

Deconvoluting the ontogeny of hematopoietic stem cells.  

PubMed

Two different models describe the development of definitive hematopoiesis and hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). In one of these, the visceral yolk sac serves as a starting point of relatively lengthy developmental process culminating in the fetal liver hematopoiesis. In another, the origin of adult hematopoiesis is split between the yolk sac and the dorsal aorta, which has a peculiar capacity to generate definitive HSCs. Despite a large amount of experimental data consistent with the latter view, it becomes increasingly unsustainable in the light of recent cell tracing studies. Moreover, analysis of the published studies supporting the aorta-centered version uncovers significant caveats in standard experimental approach and argumentation. As a result, the theory cannot offer feasible cellular mechanisms of the HSC emergence. This review summarizes key efforts to discern the developmental pathway of the adult-type HSCs and attempts to put forward a hypothesis on the inflammatory mechanisms of hematopoietic ontogenesis. PMID:23708646

Samokhvalov, Igor M

2014-03-01

326

Development of hematopoietic stem cell activity in the mouse embryo  

Microsoft Academic Search

The precise time of appearance of the first hematopoietic stem cell activity in the developing mouse embryo is unknown. Recently the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region of the developing mouse embryo has been shown to possess hematopoietic colony-forming activity (CFU-S) in irradiated recipient mice. To determine whether the mouse embryo possesses definitive hematopoietic stem cell activity in the analogous AGM region and to

A. M. Müller; Alexander Medvinsky; J. Strouboulis; Frank Grosveld; E. A. Dzierzak

1994-01-01

327

Involvement of peripheral benzodiazepine receptors in the protection of hematopoietic cells against oxygen radical damage.  

PubMed

Several putative functions have been attributed to the peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR), but its precise physiologic role has not been elucidated. In the present study, we investigated PBR function by quantifying this receptor in leukocyte subsets from healthy donors and in leukemic blasts from lymphoid and myeloid lineages. Using a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) directed against the human PBR and a quantitative flow cytometric assay, we found that phagocytic cells from healthy donors displayed a higher level of PBRs than lymphocytes or natural killer (NK) cells. Among the lymphoid lineage, thymocytes and IgD-negative B cells expressed the lowest levels. However, because of the wide heterogeneity of PBR levels among 42 acute or chronic lymphoid and myeloid leukemias, it was not possible to assign PBR expression to a stage of maturation or a cell lineage. Although the PBR displayed a mitochondrial subcellular localization, its expression was not correlated with the mitochondrial content, suggesting a modulation of PBR density at the level of the mitochondria. This modulation was confirmed when we studied in detail the PBR expression during T-cell development by both flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. We found that the PBR was expressed with a bimodal profile during T-cell development, identical to the one observed with the proto-oncogene, Bcl-2. The high similarity in the expression of both the PBR and the Bcl-2 proto-oncogene in T-cell and B-cell subsets, their common mitochondrial localization, and the observation of high quantities of PBR in phagocytic cells, which are known to produce high levels of radical oxygen species, suggested that PBRs may participate in an antioxidant pathway. Indeed, a strong correlation was established between the ability of hematopoietic cell lines to resist H202 cytotoxicity and their level of PBR expression. Demonstration of the role of PBR in the protection against H202 was obtained by transfecting JURKAT cells with the human PBR cDNA. Transfected cells exhibited increased resistance to H202 compared with wild-type cells, suggesting that PBR may prevent mitochondria from radical damages and thereby modulate apoptosis in the hematopoietic system. PMID:8605331

Carayon, P; Portier, M; Dussossoy, D; Bord, A; Petitprêtre, G; Canat, X; Le Fur, G; Casellas, P

1996-04-15

328

Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Version 2.2013  

PubMed Central

These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize several key updates to the NCCN Guidelines for Acute Myeloid Leukemia and discuss the clinical evidence that support the recommendations. The updates described in this article focus on the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) section, featuring recommendations for additional induction/consolidation regimens in patients with low- or intermediate-risk APL, and providing guidance on maintenance strategies for APL. PMID:24029121

O'Donnell, Margaret R.; Tallman, Martin S.; Abboud, Camille N.; Altman, Jessica K.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Arber, Daniel A.; Attar, Eyal; Borate, Uma; Coutre, Steven E.; Damon, Lloyd E.; Lancet, Jeffrey; Maness, Lori J.; Marcucci, Guido; Martin, Michael G.; Millenson, Michael M.; Moore, Joseph O.; Ravandi, Farhad; Shami, Paul J.; Smith, B. Douglas; Stone, Richard M.; Strickland, Stephen A.; Wang, Eunice S.; Gregory, Kristina M.; Naganuma, Maoko

2014-01-01

329

Mutation in TET2 in Myeloid Cancers  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a combination of molecular, cytogenetic, comparative-genomic-hybrid- ization, and single-nucleotide-polymorphism analyses to identify a candidate tu- mor-suppressor gene common to patients with myelodysplastic syndromes, myelo- proliferative disorders, and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The coding sequence of this gene, TET2, was determined in 320 patients. We analyzed the consequences of deletions or mutations in TET2 with the use of in

François Delhommeau; Sabrina Dupont; Véronique Della Valle; Chloé James; Severine Trannoy; Aline Massé; Olivier Kosmider; Fabienne Robert; Antonio Alberdi; Yann Lécluse; Isabelle Plo; François J. Dreyfus; Christophe Marzac; Nicole Casadevall; Catherine Lacombe; Serge P. Romana; Philippe Dessen; Jean Soulier; Franck Viguié; Michaela Fontenay; William Vainchenker; Olivier A. Bernard

2010-01-01

330

Acute myeloid leukaemia presenting as faecal incontinence  

PubMed Central

Epidural sacral nerve compression as an initial feature of leukaemia is a rare complication. The findings in a 16?year?old boy who presented to an emergency department with symptoms of faecal incontinence are reported herein. Radiological imaging demonstrated soft?tissue masses in the sacral epidural space. The diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia was confirmed on bone marrow aspirate. The characteristics and management of extramedullary leukaemia are discussed. PMID:17452690

Lim, Hoon; Cho, Young Soon; Jang, Pyung Moon; Kim, Ho Jung; Jang, Hye Young

2007-01-01

331

Acute myeloid leukaemia presenting as faecal incontinence  

PubMed Central

Epidural sacral nerve compression as an initial feature of leukaemia is a rare complication. The findings in a 16-year-old boy who presented to an emergency department with symptoms of faecal incontinence are reported herein. Radiological imaging demonstrated soft tissue masses in the sacral epidural space. The diagnosis of acute myeloid leukaemia was confirmed on bone marrow aspirate. The characteristics and management of extramedullary leukaemia are discussed. PMID:21686339

Lim, Hoon; Cho, Young Soon; Jang, Pyung Moon; Kim, Ho Jung; Jang, Hye Young

2009-01-01

332

New drugs in acute myeloid leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute myeloid leukemias (AML) are often fatal disorders with a range of clinical, morphologic, cytogenetic, and molecular\\u000a features and a consequent need for a diverse array of therapies. This need for tailored therapy for subsets of patients with\\u000a AML is exemplified in those with acute promyelocytic leukemia, the subject of a separate article in this issue (Tallman and\\u000a Nabhan).

Francis J. Giles

2002-01-01

333

Epo and non-hematopoietic cells: what do we know?  

PubMed

The hematopoietic growth factor erythropoietin (Epo) circulates in plasma and controls the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood (Fisher. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 228:1-14, 2003). Epo is produced primarily in the adult kidney and fetal liver and was originally believed to play a role restricted to stimulation of early erythroid precursor proliferation, inhibition of apoptosis, and differentiation of the erythroid lineage. Early studies showed that mice with targeted deletion of Epo or the Epo receptor (EpoR) show impaired erythropoiesis, lack mature erythrocytes, and die in utero around embryonic day 13.5 (Wu et al. Cell 83:59-67, 1995; Lin et al. Genes Dev. 10:154-164, 1996). These animals also exhibited heart defects, abnormal vascular development as well as increased apoptosis in the brain suggesting additional functions for Epo signaling in normal development of the central nervous system and heart. Now, in addition to its well-known role in erythropoiesis, a diverse array of cells have been identified that produce Epo and/or express the Epo-R including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and cells of the central nervous system (Masuda et al. J Biol Chem. 269:19488-19493, 1994; Marti et al. Eur J Neurosci. 8:666-676, 1996; Bernaudin et al. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 19:643-651, 1999; Li et al. Neurochem Res. 32:2132-2141, 2007). Endogenously produced Epo and/or expression of the EpoR gives rise to autocrine and paracrine signaling in different organs particularly during hypoxia, toxicity, and injury conditions. Epo has been shown to regulate a variety of cell functions such as calcium flux (Korbel et al. J Comp Physiol B. 174:121-128, 2004) neurotransmitter synthesis and cell survival (Velly et al. Pharmacol Ther. 128:445-459, 2010; Vogel et al. Blood. 102:2278-2284, 2003). Furthermore Epo has neurotrophic effects (Grimm et al. Nat Med. 8:718-724, 2002; Junk et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 99:10659-10664, 2002), can induce an angiogenic phenotype in cultured endothelial cells and is a potent angiogenic factor in vivo (Ribatti et al. Eur J Clin Invest. 33:891-896, 2003) and might enhance ventilation in hypoxic conditions (Soliz et al. J Physiol. 568:559-571, 2005; Soliz et al. J Physiol. 583, 329-336, 2007). Thus multiple functions have been identified breathing new life and exciting possibilities into what is really an old growth factor.This review will address the function of Epo in non-hematopoietic tissues with significant emphasis on the brain and heart. PMID:23456860

Ogunshola, Omolara O; Bogdanova, Anna Yu

2013-01-01

334

The EM Earthquake Precursor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many attempts have been made to determine a sound forecasting method regarding earthquakes and warn the public in turn. Presently, the animal kingdom leads the precursor list alluding to a transmission related source. By applying the animal-based model to an electromagnetic (EM) wave model, various hypotheses were formed, but the most interesting one required the use of a magnetometer with a differing design and geometry. To date, numerous, high-end magnetometers have been in use in close proximity to fault zones for potential earthquake forecasting; however, something is still amiss. The problem still resides with what exactly is forecastable and the investigating direction of EM. After the 1989 Loma Prieta Earthquake, American earthquake investigators predetermined magnetometer use and a minimum earthquake magnitude necessary for EM detection. This action was set in motion, due to the extensive damage incurred and public outrage concerning earthquake forecasting; however, the magnetometers employed, grounded or buried, are completely subject to static and electric fields and have yet to correlate to an identifiable precursor. Secondly, there is neither a networked array for finding any epicentral locations, nor have there been any attempts to find even one. This methodology needs dismissal, because it is overly complicated, subject to continuous change, and provides no response time. As for the minimum magnitude threshold, which was set at M5, this is simply higher than what modern technological advances have gained. Detection can now be achieved at approximately M1, which greatly improves forecasting chances. A propagating precursor has now been detected in both the field and laboratory. Field antenna testing conducted outside the NE Texas town of Timpson in February, 2013, detected three strong EM sources along with numerous weaker signals. The antenna had mobility, and observations were noted for recurrence, duration, and frequency response. Next, two directional techniques were employed, resulting in three mapped, potential epicenters. The remaining, weaker signals presented similar directionality results to more epicentral locations. In addition, the directional results of the Timpson field tests lead to the design and construction of a third prototype antenna. In a laboratory setting, experiments were created to fail igneous rock types within a custom-designed Faraday Cage. An antenna emplaced within the cage detected EM emissions, which were both reproducible and distinct, and the laboratory results paralleled field results. With a viable system and continuous monitoring, a fracture cycle could be established and observed in real-time. Sequentially, field data would be reviewed quickly for assessment; thus, leading to a much improved earthquake forecasting capability. The EM precursor determined by this method may surpass all prior precursor claims, and the general public will finally receive long overdue forecasting.

Jones, K. B., II; Saxton, P. T.

2013-12-01

335

Acquired radioresistance of hematopoietic progenitors (granulocyte/monocyte colony-forming units) during chronic radiation leukemogenesis.  

PubMed

Protracted exposure of dogs to low daily doses of whole-body gamma-radiation (7.5 cGy/day for duration of life) elicits a high incidence of myeloid leukemia or related myeloproliferative disorders. Under such exposure, vital hematopoietic progenitors [granulocyte/monocyte colony-forming units in agar (CFU-GM)] acquire increased radioresistance along with renewed proliferative capacity at an early phase of evolving myeloid leukemia. To further characterize the expression of acquired radioresistance by CFU-GM, we evaluated the effects of various exposure rates, cumulative radiation doses, and times of exposure and postexposure in several groups of long-lived dogs under two conditions of irradiation: (a) continuous, duration-of-life exposures at dose rates of 0.3-7.5 cGy/day; and (b) discontinuous, fraction-of-life exposures at dose rates of 3.8-26.3 cGy/day, with cumulative doses of 450-3458 cGy and postexposure times of 14-4702 days. Results indicated that (a) under protracted continuous irradiation, the degree of radioresistance expressed by CFU-GM in vitro increased markedly in a biphasic pattern with rising daily rates of exposure; (b) under discontinuous, fraction-of-life exposure regimens, elevated levels of radioresistance were expressed and stably maintained by CFU-GM only following large radiation doses accumulated at high dose rates; and (c) with extended postexposure times, the magnitude of expressed radioresistance appeared to wane. These results continue to support the hypothesis that the acquisition of radioresistance and associated repair functions by vital lineage-committed progenitors, under the strong selective and mutagenic pressure of chronic irradiation, is tied temporally and causally to leukemogenic transformation elicited by radiation exposure. PMID:1540954

Seed, T M; Kaspar, L V

1992-03-15

336

ARAP3 Functions in Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

ARAP3 is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that inactivates Arf6 and RhoA small GTPases. ARAP3 deficiency in mice causes a sprouting angiogenic defect resulting in embryonic lethality by E11. Mice with an ARAP3 R302,303A mutation (Arap3KI/KI) that prevents activation by phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) have a similar angiogenic phenotype, although some animals survive to adulthood. Here, we report that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from rare adult Arap3KI/KI bone marrow are compromised in their ability to reconstitute recipient mice and to self-renew. To elucidate the potential cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous roles of ARAP3 in hematopoiesis, we conditionally deleted Arap3 in hematopoietic cells and in several cell types within the HSC niche. Excision of Arap3 in hematopoietic cells using Vav1-Cre does not alter the ability of ARAP3-deficient progenitor cells to proliferate and differentiate in vitro or ARAP3-deficient HSCs to provide multi-lineage reconstitution and to undergo self-renewal in vivo. Thus, our data suggest that ARAP3 does not play a cell-autonomous role in HSPCs. Deletion of Arap3 in osteoblasts and mesenchymal stromal cells using Prx1-Cre resulted in no discernable phenotypes in hematopoietic development or HSC homeostasis in adult mice. In contrast, deletion of Arap3 using vascular endothelial cadherin (VEC or Cdh5)-driven Cre resulted in embryonic lethality, however HSCs from surviving adult mice were largely normal. Reverse transplantations into VEC-driven Arap3 conditional knockout mice revealed no discernable difference in HSC frequencies or function in comparison to control mice. Taken together, our investigation suggests that despite a critical role for ARAP3 in embryonic vascular development, its loss in endothelial cells minimally impacts HSCs in adult bone marrow. PMID:25542002

Song, Yiwen; Jiang, Jing; Vermeren, Sonja; Tong, Wei

2014-01-01

337

MicroRNAs Modulate Hematopoietic Lineage Differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of ~22-nucleotide regulatory RNAs found in plants and animals. Some miRNAs of plants, Caenorhabditis elegans, and Drosophila play important gene-regulatory roles during development by pairing to target mRNAs to specify posttranscriptional repression of these messages. We identify three miRNAs that are specifically expressed in hematopoietic cells and show that their expression is dynamically regulated

Chang-Zheng Chen; Ling Li; Harvey F. Lodish; David P. Bartel

2004-01-01

338

Emergent Complications in the Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patient  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic cell transplantation is the only potentially curative option for a variety of pediatric malignant and nonmalignant disorders. Despite advances in transplantation biology and immunology as well as in posttransplant management that have contributed to improved survival and decreased transplant-related mortality, hematopoietic cell transplantation does not come without significant risk of complications. When patients who have undergone hematopoietic cell transplantation present to the emergency department, it is important to consider a variety of therapy-related complications to optimize management and outcome. In this article, we use clinical cases to highlight some of the more common emergent complications after hematopoietic cell transplantation. PMID:25411564

Munchel, Ashley; Chen, Allen; Symons, Heather

2014-01-01

339

The Leukemia-associated Mll-Ell Oncoprotein Induces Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 (Fgf2)-dependent Cytokine Hypersensitivity in Myeloid Progenitor Cells*  

PubMed Central

The subset of acute myeloid leukemias (AML) with chromosomal translocations involving the MLL gene have a poor prognosis (referred to as 11q23-AML). The MLL fusion proteins that are expressed in 11q23-AML facilitate transcription of a set of HOX genes, including HOXA9 and HOXA10. Because Hox proteins are transcription factors, this suggests the possibility that Hox target genes mediate the adverse effects of MLL fusion proteins in leukemia. Identifying such Hox target genes might provide insights to the pathogenesis and treatment of 11q23-AML. In the current study we found that Mll-Ell (an MLL fusion protein) induced transcriptional activation of the FGF2 gene in a HoxA9- and HoxA10-dependent manner. FGF2 encodes fibroblast growth factor 2 (also referred to as basic fibroblast growth factor). Fgf2 influences proliferation and survival of hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitor cells, and increased Fgf2-expression has been described in AMLs. We determined that expression of Mll-Ell in myeloid progenitor cells resulted in autocrine production of Fgf2 and Fgf2-dependent cytokine hypersensitivity. Therefore, our results implicated increased Fgf2 expression in progenitor proliferation and expansion in 11q23-AML. Because small molecule inhibitors of Fgf-receptors are in human clinical trials, this suggested a potential therapeutic approach to this treatment refractory leukemia. PMID:24089521

Shah, Chirag A.; Bei, Ling; Wang, Hao; Platanias, Leonidas C.; Eklund, Elizabeth A.

2013-01-01

340

The Orphan Nuclear Receptor NR4A1 Specifies a Distinct Subpopulation of Quiescent Myeloid-Biased Long-Term HSCs.  

PubMed

Hematopoiesis is maintained throughout life by self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that differentiate to produce both myeloid and lymphoid cells. The NR4A family of orphan nuclear receptors, which regulates cell fate in many tissues, appears to play a key role in HSC proliferation and differentiation. Using a NR4A1(GFP) BAC transgenic reporter mouse we have investigated NR4A1 expression and its regulation in early hematopoiesis. We show that NR4A1 is most highly expressed in a subset of Lin(-) Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) CD48(-) CD150(+) long-term (LT) HSCs, and its expression is tightly associated with HSC quiescence. We also show that NR4A1 expression in HSCs is induced by PGE2 , a known enhancer of stem cell engraftment potential. Finally, we find that both NR4A1(GFP+) and NR4A1(GFP-) HSCs successfully engraft primary and secondary irradiated hosts; however, NR4A1(GFP+) HSCs are distinctly myeloid-biased. These results show that NR4A1 expression identifies a highly quiescent and distinct population of myeloid-biased LT-HSCs. Stem Cells 2015;33:278-288. PMID:25284014

Land, Ruben H; Rayne, Anna K; Vanderbeck, Ashley N; Barlowe, Trevor S; Manjunath, Shwetha; Gross, Matthew; Eiger, Sophie; Klein, Peter S; Cunningham, Nicole R; Huang, Jian; Emerson, Stephen G; Punt, Jennifer A

2015-01-01

341

Mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh) "Sash" mutant mice display aberrant myelopoiesis leading to the accumulation of splenocytes that act as myeloid-derived suppressor cells.  

PubMed

Mast cell-deficient Kit(W-sh) "sash" mice are widely used to investigate mast cell functions. However, mutations of c-Kit also affect additional cells of hematopoietic and nonimmune origin. In this study, we demonstrate that Kit(W-sh) causes aberrant extramedullary myelopoiesis characterized by the expansion of immature lineage-negative cells, common myeloid progenitors, and granulocyte/macrophage progenitors in the spleen. A consistent feature shared by these cell types is the reduced expression of c-Kit. Populations expressing intermediate and high levels of Ly6G, a component of the myeloid differentiation Ag Gr-1, are also highly expanded in the spleen of sash mice. These cells are able to suppress T cell responses in vitro and phenotypically and functionally resemble myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). MDSC typically accumulate in tumor-bearing hosts and are able to dampen immune responses. Consequently, transfer of MDSC from naive sash mice into line 1 alveolar cell carcinoma tumor-bearing wild-type littermates leads to enhanced tumor progression. However, although it can also be observed in sash mice, accelerated growth of transplanted line 1 alveolar cell carcinoma tumors is a mast cell-independent phenomenon. Thus, the Kit(W-sh) mutation broadly affects key steps in myelopoiesis that may have an impact on mast cell research. PMID:23636054

Michel, Anastasija; Schüler, Andrea; Friedrich, Pamela; Döner, Fatma; Bopp, Tobias; Radsak, Markus; Hoffmann, Markus; Relle, Manfred; Distler, Ute; Kuharev, Jörg; Tenzer, Stefan; Feyerabend, Thorsten B; Rodewald, Hans-Reimer; Schild, Hansjörg; Schmitt, Edgar; Becker, Marc; Stassen, Michael

2013-06-01

342

MicroRNAs in hematopoietic development  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of a wide range of biological processes. By binding to complementary sequences on target messenger RNAs, they trigger translational repression and degradation of the target, eventually resulting in reduced protein output. MiRNA-dependent regulation of protein translation is a very widespread and evolutionarily conserved mechanism of posttranscriptional control of gene expression. Accordingly, a high proportion of mammalian genes are likely to be regulated by miRNAs. In the hematopoietic system, both transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression ensure proper differentiation and function of stem cells, committed progenitors as well as mature cells. Results In recent years, miRNA expression profiling of various cell types in the hematopoietic system, as well as gene-targeting approaches to assess the function of individual miRNAs, revealed the importance of this type of regulation in the development of both innate and acquired immunity. Conclusions We discuss the general role of miRNA biogenesis in the development of hematopoietic cells, as well as specific functions of individual miRNAs in stem cells as well as in mature immune cells. PMID:24678908

2014-01-01

343

Chronic variable stress activates hematopoietic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Exposure to psychosocial stress is a risk factor for many diseases, including atherosclerosis1,2. While incompletely understood, interaction between the psyche and the immune system provides one potential mechanism linking stress and disease inception and progression. Known crosstalk between the brain and immune system includes the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, which centrally drives glucocorticoid production in the adrenal cortex, and the sympathetic–adrenal–medullary axis, which controls stress–induced catecholamine release in support of the fight–or–flight reflex3,4. It remains unknown however if chronic stress changes hematopoietic stem cell activity. Here we show that stress increases proliferation of these most primitive progenitors, giving rise to higher levels of disease–promoting inflammatory leukocytes. We found that chronic stress induced monocytosis and neutrophilia in humans. While investigating the source of leukocytosis in mice, we discovered that stress activates upstream hematopoietic stem cells. Sympathetic nerve fibers release surplus noradrenaline, which uses the ?3 adrenergic receptor to signal bone marrow niche cells to decrease CXCL12 levels. Consequently, elevated hematopoietic stem cell proliferation increases output of neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes. When atherosclerosis–prone ApoE?/? mice encounter chronic stress, accelerated hematopoiesis promotes plaque features associated with vulnerable lesions that cause myocardial infarction and stroke in humans. PMID:24952646

Courties, Gabriel; Dutta, Partha; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Zaltsman, Alex; von zur Muhlen, Constantin; Bode, Christoph; Fricchione, Gregory L.; Denninger, John; Lin, Charles P.; Vinegoni, Claudio; Libby, Peter; Swirski, Filip K.; Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias

2014-01-01

344

The N-terminal CEBPA mutant in acute myeloid leukemia impairs CXCR4 expression  

PubMed Central

CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is an essential regulator for homing and maintenance of hematopoietic stem cells within the bone marrow niches. Analysis of clinical implications of bone marrow CXCR4 expression in patients with acute myeloid leukemia showed not only higher CXCR4 expression was an independent poor prognostic factor, irrespective of age, white blood cell counts, cytogenetics, and mutation status of NPM1/FLT3-ITD and CEBPA, but also showed CXCR4 expression was inversely associated with mutations of CEBPA, a gene encoding transcription factor C/EBP?. Patients with wild-type CEBPA had significantly higher CXCR4 expression than those with mutated CEBPA. We hypothesized that CEBPA might influence the expression of CXCR4. To test this hypothesis, we first examined endogenous CXCR4 expression in 293T and K562 cells over-expressing wild-type C/EBP? p42 and demonstrated that CXCR4 levels were increased in these cells, whilst the expression of the N-terminal mutant, C/EBP? p30, diminished CXCR4 transcription. We further showed p42 was bound to the CXCR4 promoter by the chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. Induction of p42 in the inducible K562-C/EBP? cell lines increased the chemotactic migration. Moreover, decreased expression of C/EBP? by RNA interference decreased levels of CXCR4 protein expression in U937 cells, thereby abrogating CXCR4-mediated chemotaxis. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that C/EBP? indeed regulates the activation of CXCR4, which is critical for the homing and engraftment of acute myeloid leukemia cells, while p30 mutant impairs CXCR4 expression. PMID:25193961

Kuo, Yuan-Yeh; Hou, Hsin-An; Chen, Yin-Kai; Li, Li-Yu; Chen, Po-Hsuen; Tseng, Mei-Hsuan; Huang, Chi-Fei; Lee, Fen-Yu; Liu, Ming-Chih; Liu, Chia-Wen; Chou, Wen-Chien; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Tang, Jih-Luh; Yao, Ming; Tien, Hwei-Fang

2014-01-01

345

Modulatory Effects and Action Mechanisms of Tryptanthrin on Murine Myeloid Leukemia Cells  

PubMed Central

Leukemia is the disorder of hematopoietic cell development and is characterized by an uncoupling of cell proliferation and differentiation. There is a pressing need for the development of novel tactics for leukemia therapy as conventional treatments often have severe adverse side effects. Tryptanthrin (6,12-dihydro-6,12-dioxoindolo-(2,1-b)-quinazoline) is a naturally-occurring, weakly basic alkaloid isolated from the dried roots of medicinal indigo plants (Ban-Lan-Gen). It has been reported to have various biological and pharmacological activities, including anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-tumor effects. However, its modulatory effects and action mechanisms on myeloid cells remain poorly understood. In this study, tryptanthrin was shown to suppress the proliferation of the murine myeloid leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It also significantly reduced the growth of WEHI-3B JCS cells in vivo in syngeneic BALB/c mice. However, it exhibited no significant direct cytotoxicity on normal murine peritoneal macrophages. Flow cytometric analysis showed an obvious cell cycle arrest of the tryptanthrin-treated WEHI-3B JCS cells at the G0/G1 phase. The expression of cyclin D2, D3, Cdk 2, 4 and 6 genes in WEHI-3B JCS cells was found to be down-regulated at 24 h as measured by RT-PCR. Morphological and functional studies revealed that tryptanthrin could induce differentiation in WEHI-3B JCS cells, as shown by the increases in vacuolation, cellular granularity and NBT-reducing activity in tryptanthrin-treated cells. Collectively, our findings suggest that tryptanthrin might exert its anti-tumor effect on the murine myelomonocytic leukemia WEHI-3B JCS cells by causing cell cycle arrest and by triggering cell differentiation. PMID:19887046

Chan, Hoi-Ling; Yip, Hon-Yan; Mak, Nai-Ki; Leung, Kwok-Nam

2009-01-01

346

Regulation of surface expression of the granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor in normal human myeloid cells  

SciTech Connect

Recombinant human granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) exerts stimulatory effects on hematopoietic cells through binding to specific, high-affinity receptors. By using radiolabeled GM-CSF with high specific activity, the authors have investigated the factors and mechanisms that regulate GM-CSF receptor expression in normal human neutrophils, monocytes, and partially purified bone marrow myeloid progenitor cells. The neutrophil GM-CSF receptor was found to rapidly internalize in the presence of ligand through a mechanism that required endocytosis. Out of a large panel of naturally occurring humoral factors tested, only GM-CSF itself, tumor necrosis factor, and formyl-Met-Leu-Phe were found to down-regulate neutrophil GM-CSF receptor expression after a 2-hr exposure at biologically active concentrations. Since formyl-Met-Leu-Phe is known to stimulate neutrophil protein kinase C activity, they also tested the ability of protein kinase C agonists to modulate GM-CSF receptor expression. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, bryostatin-1, and 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol were found to induce rapid down-regulation of the GM-CSF receptor in neutrophils, monocytes, and partially purified myeloid progenitor cells, suggesting that this effect may be at least partially mediated by protein kinase C. These data suggest that certain activators of neutrophil function may negatively regulate their biological effects by inducing down-regulation of the GM-CSF receptor.

Cannistra, S.A.; Groshek, P.; Griffin, J.D. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (USA)); Garlick, R.; Miller, J. (DuPont/New England Nuclear, Boston, MA (USA))

1990-01-01

347

Presentation and outcomes among patients with isolated myeloid sarcoma: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database analysis.  

PubMed

Isolated myeloid sarcoma (MS) is a rare extramedullary presentation of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Little is known about MS outcomes due to its rarity. A population-based analysis of MS using the Survival, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was performed. We identified 345 patients, aged 15 or older, diagnosed with isolated MS between 1973 and 2010. Overall survival (OS) was calculated and compared between MS and non-MS AML using the log-rank test. Survival was also evaluated based upon the primary site of disease presentation. The 3-year survival rate for MS (0.319; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.267-0.371) was greater than for non-MS AML (0.172; 95% CI: 0.168-0.175). There was variation in survival based on the site of involvement. The survival rates for isolated MS involving the pelvis/genitourinary organs, eyes/gonads and gastrointestinal mucosa appeared to be slightly improved when compared to primary sites of soft tissues, lymphatic/hematopoietic tissues or nervous system. PMID:25213180

Movassaghian, Maryam; Brunner, Andrew M; Blonquist, Traci M; Sadrzadeh, Hossein; Bhatia, Ashmeet; Perry, Ashley M; Attar, Eyal C; Amrein, Philip C; Ballen, Karen K; Neuberg, Donna S; Fathi, Amir T

2014-10-01

348

NF-M (chicken C/EBP beta) induces eosinophilic differentiation and apoptosis in a hematopoietic progenitor cell line.  

PubMed Central

CAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBPs) are transcriptional activators implicated in the differentiation processes of various cell lineages. We have shown earlier that NF-M, the chicken homolog of C/EBP beta, is specifically expressed in myelomonocytic and eosinophilic cells of the hematopoietic system. To investigate the role of NF-M in hematopoietic cell lineage commitment, we constructed a conditional form of the protein by fusing it to the hormone binding domain of the human estrogen receptor. This construct was stably expressed in a multipotent progenitor cell line transformed by the Myb-Ets oncoprotein. We report here that both NF-M-dependent promoter constructs and resident genes could be activated by addition of beta-estradiol to the NF-M-estrogen receptor expressing progenitors. At the same time, we observed a down-regulation of progenitor-specific surface markers and the up-regulation of differentiation markers restricted to the eosinophil and myeloid lineages. In addition to the onset of differentiation, cell death was induced with typical apoptotic features. Our results suggest that NF-M plays an important role in commitment along the eosinophil lineage and in the induction of apoptosis. Images PMID:8557032

Müller, C; Kowenz-Leutz, E; Grieser-Ade, S; Graf, T; Leutz, A

1995-01-01

349

The Polycomb complex PRC2 supports aberrant self-renewal in a mouse model of MLL-AF9;NrasG12D acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

The Trithorax and Polycomb groups of chromatin regulators are critical for cell-lineage specification during normal development; functions that often become deregulated during tumorigenesis. As an example, oncogenic fusions of the Trithorax-related protein MLL can initiate aggressive leukemias by altering the transcriptional circuitry governing hematopoietic cell differentiation, a process that is known to require additional epigenetic pathways to implement. Here we used shRNA screening to identify chromatin regulators uniquely required in a mouse model of MLL-fusion acute myeloid leukemia, which revealed a role for the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) in maintenance of this disease. shRNA-mediated suppression of PRC2 subunits Eed, Suz12, or Ezh1/Ezh2 led to proliferation-arrest and differentiation of leukemia cells, with a minimal impact on growth of several non-transformed hematopoietic cell lines. The requirement for PRC2 in leukemia is partly due to its role in direct transcriptional repression of genes that limit the self-renewal potential of hematopoietic cells, including Cdkn2a. In addition to implicating a role for PRC2 in the pathogenesis of MLL-fusion leukemia, our results suggest, more generally, that Trithorax and Polycomb group proteins can cooperate with one another to maintain aberrant lineage programs in cancer. PMID:22469984

Shi, Junwei; Wang, Eric; Zuber, Johannes; Rappaport, Amy; Taylor, Meredith; Johns, Christopher

2014-01-01

350

The Polycomb complex PRC2 supports aberrant self-renewal in a mouse model of MLL-AF9;Nras(G12D) acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

The Trithorax and Polycomb groups of chromatin regulators are critical for cell-lineage specification during normal development; functions that often become deregulated during tumorigenesis. As an example, oncogenic fusions of the Trithorax-related protein mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) can initiate aggressive leukemias by altering the transcriptional circuitry governing hematopoietic cell differentiation, a process that requires multiple epigenetic pathways to implement. Here we used shRNA screening to identify chromatin regulators uniquely required in a mouse model of MLL-fusion acute myeloid leukemia, which revealed a role for the Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) in maintenance of this disease. shRNA-mediated suppression of PRC2 subunits Eed, Suz12 or Ezh1/Ezh2 led to proliferation arrest and differentiation of leukemia cells, with a minimal impact on growth of several non-transformed hematopoietic cell lines. The requirement for PRC2 in leukemia is partly because of its role in direct transcriptional repression of genes that limit the self-renewal potential of hematopoietic cells, including Cdkn2a. In addition to implicating a role for PRC2 in the pathogenesis of MLL-fusion leukemia, our results suggest, more generally, that Trithorax and Polycomb group proteins can cooperate with one another to maintain aberrant lineage programs in cancer. PMID:22469984

Shi, J; Wang, E; Zuber, J; Rappaport, A; Taylor, M; Johns, C; Lowe, S W; Vakoc, C R

2013-02-14

351

Bortezomib and Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Childhood Acute Erythroid Leukemia; Childhood Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Myeloid Neoplasm

2015-02-12

352

Establishment of bone marrow and hematopoietic niches in vivo by reversion of chondrocyte differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells.  

PubMed

Human bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs, also known as bone marrow-derived "mesenchymal stem cells") can establish the hematopoietic microenvironment within heterotopic ossicles generated by transplantation at non-skeletal sites. Here we show that non-mineralized cartilage pellets formed by hBMSCs ex vivo generate complete ossicles upon heterotopic transplantation in the absence of exogenous scaffolds. These ossicles display a remarkable degree of architectural fidelity, showing that an exogenous conductive scaffold is not an absolute requirement for bone formation by transplanted BMSCs. Marrow cavities within the ossicles include erythroid, myeloid and granulopoietic lineages, clonogenic hematopoietic progenitors and phenotypic HSCs, indicating that complete stem cell niches and hematopoiesis are established. hBMSCs (CD146(+) adventitial reticular cells) are established in the heterotopic chimeric bone marrow through a unique process of endochondral bone marrow formation, distinct from physiological endochondral bone formation. In this process, chondrocytes remain viable and proliferate within the pellet, are released from cartilage, and convert into bone marrow stromal cells. Once explanted in secondary culture, these cells retain phenotype and properties of skeletal stem cells ("MSCs"), including the ability to form secondary cartilage pellets and secondary ossicles upon serial transplantation. Ex vivo, hBMSCs initially induced to form cartilage pellets can be reestablished in adherent culture and can modulate gene expression between cartilage and stromal cell phenotypes. These data show that so-called "cartilage differentiation" of BMSCs in vitro is a reversible phenomenon, which is actually reverted, in vivo, to the effect of generating stromal cells supporting the homing of hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors. PMID:24675053

Serafini, Marta; Sacchetti, Benedetto; Pievani, Alice; Redaelli, Daniela; Remoli, Cristina; Biondi, Andrea; Riminucci, Mara; Bianco, Paolo

2014-05-01

353

Reassessing the definition of myeloid engraftment after autotransplantation: it is not necessary to see 0.5 x 10(9)/l neutrophils on 3 consecutive days to define myeloid recovery.  

PubMed

The time to myeloid recovery after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is usually defined as the first of 3 consecutive days with an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of >or=0.5 x 10(9)/l (ANC500). Universal documentation of ANC500 for 3 consecutive days, historically required to ensure robust myeloid recovery, has become difficult with a trend towards early discharge and outpatient HSCT. We studied 90 autografted patients to see how frequently ANC declined after having reached >or=0.5 x 10(9)/l. ANC500 was documented on 2 and 3 consecutive days in 14 and 63 patients, respectively. ANC increased by a median of 213% from the 1st to the 2nd day (rise in 75 and unchanged in two), and by a median of 142% from the 2nd day to the 3rd (rise in 60, unchanged in one, and decline in two; higher than the 1st day in the latter three). The increase from the 1st to the 3rd day was 13-3433% (median, 557%). Thus, in all 63 patients, no decline below ANC500 was seen, and the first day with ANC500 was also the first of 3 consecutive days with ANC500. The remaining 13 patients had repeat counts 2-7 days after the 1st day with ANC500 documenting further increase in ANC with no evidence of failed engraftment. These data show that the first day with ANC500 is also consistently the first of 3 consecutive days with ANC500 in autografted patients. Therefore, the traditional definition of myeloid engraftment should be changed to consider the first day with ANC500 as the day of engraftment without necessarily documenting ANC500 on the subsequent 1-2 days. This simple change in definition has significant implications for how data are reported to transplant registries and how peer-review organizations such as the Foundation for the Accreditation of Hematopoietic Cell Therapy (FAHCT) define completeness of data. PMID:12439697

Ali, M Y; Oyama, Y; Monreal, J; Winter, J; Tallman, M; Gordon, L I; Williams, S; Singhal, S; Mehta, J

2002-12-01

354

Response of human hematopoietic precursor cells (CFUc) to hyperthermia and radiation  

SciTech Connect

Currently, whole-body and local hyperthermia is being evaluated in clinical studies as a potential method of cancer treatment. Since the hyperthermic sensitivity of normal human bone marrow cells is not known, we have studied the in vitro response of these cells to two anticancer modalities when administered alone or in combination. Cell survival following various treatment schedules was determined by colony formation of bone marrow cells (CFUc) in soft agar suspensions. Within the survival range studied, a thermal tolerant plateau on the cell survival was not observed for temperatures of 42 degrees or less. However, thermotolerance induction could not be ruled out. In addition, when hyperthermia (42.5 degrees for 1 hr) and radiation (100 rads) were sequenced, the human CFUc survival remained the same regardless of whether the radiation was administered before, during, or after the hyperthermic exposure. Under our experimental conditions, we found the human CFUc to be more radiosensitive (D0 . 84 rads) than what has been reported previously. The radiation survival response of human CFUc was similar for cells irradiated either in vitro or in vivo. The possible clinical implications for these data are discussed.

Bromer, R.H.; Mitchell, J.B.; Soares, N.

1982-04-01

355

The Role of Polyamine Biosynthesis in Hematopoietic Precursor Cell Proliferation in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Under the influence of a selective irreversible inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). DL-a-difluoromethylorni- thine (DFMO). early hematopoiesis was enhanced. In the bone marrow. the absolute number of cells that give rise to spleen colonies in lethally irradiated mice (CFU-S), granulo- cytic colonies in diffusion chambers in mice (CFU-DG). and granulocyte-monocyte colonies in agar in vitro (CFU-C) was increased 2-4 fold.

E. Niskanen; A. KaIIio; P. P. McCann; D. G. Baker

1983-01-01

356

Genetics Home Reference: Cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia  

MedlinePLUS

... in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. These cases of CN-AML are referred to as familial acute myeloid ... myeloid leukemia? acute myelogenous leukemia with normal ... What does it mean if a disorder seems to run in my family? What are ...

357

HIF-1? Is Essential for Myeloid Cell-Mediated Inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Granulocytes and monocytes\\/macrophages of the myeloid lineage are the chief cellular agents of innate immunity. Here, we have examined the inflammatory response in mice with conditional knockouts of the hypoxia responsive transcription factor HIF-1?, its negative regulator VHL, and a known downstream target, VEGF. We find that activation of HIF-1? is essential for myeloid cell infiltration and activation in vivo

Thorsten Cramer; Yuji Yamanishi; Björn E. Clausen; Irmgard Förster; Rafal Pawlinski; Nigel Mackman; Volker H. Haase; Rudolf Jaenisch; Maripat Corr; Victor Nizet; Gary S. Firestein; Hans-Peter Gerber; Napoleone Ferrara; Randall S. Johnson

2003-01-01

358

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Molecular recognition of acute myeloid leukemia using aptamers  

E-print Network

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Molecular recognition of acute myeloid leukemia using aptamers K Sefah1,2 , ZW live acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells to select a group of DNA aptamers, which can recognize AML molecular analysis of leukemia and its subcategories. Leukemia (2009) 23, 235­244; doi:10.1038/leu.2008

Tan, Weihong

359

Fak Depletion in Both Hematopoietic and Non-hematopoietic Niche cells Leads to Hematopoietic Stem Cell Expansion  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in complex bone marrow (BM) microenvironments where niche-induced signals regulate hematopoiesis. Focal adhesion kinase (Fak) is a non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, which plays an essential role in many cell types, where its activation controls adhesion, motility and survival. Fak expression is relatively increased in HSCs compared to progenitors and mature blood cells. Therefore we explored its role in HSC homeostasis. We have used the Mx1-Cre inducible conditional knockout mouse model to investigate the effects of Fak deletion in bone marrow compartments. Results. The total number as well as the fraction of cycling Lin-Sca-1+c-kit+ (LSK) cells is increased in Fak?/? mice, compared to controls, while hematopoietic progenitors and mature blood cells are unaffected. BM cells from Fak?/? mice exhibit enhanced, long-term (i.e. 20 week duration) engraftment in competitive transplantation assays. Intrinsic Fak function was assessed in serial transplantation assays, which showed that HSCs (Lin-Sca-1+c-kit +CD34-Flk-2-cells) sorted from Fak?/? mice have similar self-renewal and engraftment ability on a per cell basis as wild type HSCs. When Fak deletion is induced following engraftment of Fakfl/flMx1-Cre+ BM cells into wild type recipient mice, the number of LSKs is unchanged. In conclusion, Fak inactivation does not intrinsically regulate HSC behavior and is not essential for steady-state hematopoiesis. However, widespread Fak inactivation in the hematopoietic system induces an increased and activated HSC pool size, potentially as a result of altered reciprocal interactions between HSCs and their microenvironment. PMID:22155722

Lu, Jiayun; Sun, Yan; Nombela-Arrieta, Cesar; Du, Karrie P.; Park, Shin-Young; Chai, Li; Walkley, Carl; Luo, Hongbo R.; Silberstein, Leslie E.

2012-01-01

360

Autologous Peripheral Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Restores Hematopoietic Function Following Marrow Ablative Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

From ten patients with advanced malignant disease involv- ing the bone marrow, autologous hematopoietic stem cells were collected from the peripheral blood during eight four-hour pheresis procedures and cryopreserved. No manipulations to increase the number of stem cells circu- lating in the blood were used during the collections. Follow- ing marrow ablative chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. the autologous cells were thawed

Anne Kessinger; James D. Landmark; Douglas M. Smith; Dennis D. Weisenburger

1988-01-01

361

Targeting iron homeostasis induces cellular differentiation and synergizes with differentiating agents in acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Differentiating agents have been proposed to overcome the impaired cellular differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, only the combinations of all-trans retinoic acid or arsenic trioxide with chemotherapy have been successful, and only in treating acute promyelocytic leukemia (also called AML3). We show that iron homeostasis is an effective target in the treatment of AML. Iron chelating therapy induces the differentiation of leukemia blasts and normal bone marrow precursors into monocytes/macrophages in a manner involving modulation of reactive oxygen species expression and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). 30% of the genes most strongly induced by iron deprivation are also targeted by vitamin D3 (VD), a well known differentiating agent. Iron chelating agents induce expression and phosphorylation of the VD receptor (VDR), and iron deprivation and VD act synergistically. VD magnifies activation of MAPK JNK and the induction of VDR target genes. When used to treat one AML patient refractory to chemotherapy, the combination of iron-chelating agents and VD resulted in reversal of pancytopenia and in blast differentiation. We propose that iron availability modulates myeloid cell commitment and that targeting this cellular differentiation pathway together with conventional differentiating agents provides new therapeutic modalities for AML. PMID:20368581

Callens, Celine; Coulon, Séverine; Naudin, Jerome; Radford-Weiss, Isabelle; Boissel, Nicolas; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Wang, Pamella Huey Mei; Agarwal, Saurabh; Tamouza, Houda; Paubelle, Etienne; Asnafi, Vahid; Ribeil, Jean-Antoine; Dessen, Philippe; Canioni, Danielle; Chandesris, Olivia; Rubio, Marie Therese; Beaumont, Carole; Benhamou, Marc; Dombret, Hervé; Macintyre, Elizabeth; Monteiro, Renato C.

2010-01-01

362

Directional DNA Methylation Changes and Complex Intermediate States Accompany Lineage Specificity in the Adult Hematopoietic Compartment  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY DNA methylation has been implicated as an epigenetic component of mechanisms that stabilize cell-fate decisions. Here, we have characterized the methylomes of human female hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and mature cells from the myeloid and lymphoid lineages. Hypomethylated regions (HMRs) associated with lineage-specific genes were often methylated in the opposing lineage. In HSPCs, these sites tended to show intermediate, complex patterns that resolve to uniformity upon differentiation, by increased or decreased methylation. Promoter HMRs shared across diverse cell types typically display a constitutive core that expands and contracts in a lineage-specific manner to fine-tune the expression of associated genes. Many newly identified intergenic HMRs, both constitutive and lineage specific, were enriched for factor binding sites with an implied role in genome organization and regulation of gene expression, respectively. Overall, our studies represent an important reference data set and provide insights into directional changes in DNA methylation as cells adopt terminal fates. PMID:21924933

Hodges, Emily; Molaro, Antoine; Dos Santos, Camila O.; Thekkat, Pramod; Song, Qiang; Uren, Philip J.; Park, Jin; Butler, Jason; Rafii, Shahin; McCombie, W. Richard; Smith, Andrew D.; Hannon, Gregory J.

2012-01-01

363

Inhibiting the palmitoylation/depalmitoylation cycle selectively reduces the growth of hematopoietic cells expressing oncogenic Nras.  

PubMed

The palmitoylation/depalmitoylation cycle of posttranslational processing is a potential therapeutic target for selectively inhibiting the growth of hematologic cancers with somatic NRAS mutations. To investigate this question at the single-cell level, we constructed murine stem cell virus vectors and assayed the growth of myeloid progenitors. Whereas cells expressing oncogenic N-Ras(G12D) formed cytokine-independent colonies and were hypersensitive to GM-CSF, mutations within the N-Ras hypervariable region induced N-Ras mislocalization and attenuated aberrant progenitor growth. Exposing transduced hematopoietic cells and bone marrow from Nras and Kras mutant mice to the acyl protein thioesterase inhibitor palmostatin B had similar effects on protein localization and colony growth. Importantly, palmostatin B-mediated inhibition was selective for Nras mutant cells, and we mapped this activity to the hypervariable region. These data support the clinical development of depalmitoylation inhibitors as a novel class of rational therapeutics in hematologic malignancies with NRAS mutations. PMID:22144181

Xu, Jin; Hedberg, Christian; Dekker, Frank J; Li, Qing; Haigis, Kevin M; Hwang, Eugene; Waldmann, Herbert; Shannon, Kevin

2012-01-26

364

Inhibiting the palmitoylation/depalmitoylation cycle selectively reduces the growth of hematopoietic cells expressing oncogenic Nras  

PubMed Central

The palmitoylation/depalmitoylation cycle of posttranslational processing is a potential therapeutic target for selectively inhibiting the growth of hematologic cancers with somatic NRAS mutations. To investigate this question at the single-cell level, we constructed murine stem cell virus vectors and assayed the growth of myeloid progenitors. Whereas cells expressing oncogenic N-RasG12D formed cytokine-independent colonies and were hypersensitive to GM-CSF, mutations within the N-Ras hypervariable region induced N-Ras mislocalization and attenuated aberrant progenitor growth. Exposing transduced hematopoietic cells and bone marrow from Nras and Kras mutant mice to the acyl protein thioesterase inhibitor palmostatin B had similar effects on protein localization and colony growth. Importantly, palmostatin B-mediated inhibition was selective for Nras mutant cells, and we mapped this activity to the hypervariable region. These data support the clinical development of depalmitoylation inhibitors as a novel class of rational therapeutics in hematologic malignancies with NRAS mutations. PMID:22144181

Xu, Jin; Hedberg, Christian; Dekker, Frank J.; Li, Qing; Haigis, Kevin M.; Hwang, Eugene; Waldmann, Herbert

2012-01-01

365

Probing altered hematopoietic progenitors of preleukemic dogs with JANUS fission neutrons  

SciTech Connect

Toward the goal of developing basic insights to mechanisms of radiation leukemogenesis, the authors have developed a canine model that responds to protracted courses of low-daily-dose gamma irradiation with high incidences of myeloproliferative disease (MPD), principally myeloid leukemia. Using this model system, the authors have identified and partially characterized a four-phase preclinical sequence in the induction of MPD, including (1) suppression, (2) recovery, (3) accommodation, and (4) preleukemic transition. Further, they have identified within this sequence, a critical early hematopoietic target cell event that appears to promote progression of the initial preclinical phase to the second preclinical phase. This key target cell event is characterized by the acquisition of increased radioresistance to low-LET gamma rays by granulocyte/monocyte-committed progenitors (CFU-GM). In order to gain further insight into the basis of this critical event, the acquired survival responses of preleukemic progenitors have been probed in vitro with high-LET fission neutrons. 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Seed, T.M.; Kaspar, L.V.

1990-01-01

366

Measurement of minimal residual disease before and after myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation for acute leukemia.  

PubMed

Multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) can identify leukemia-associated immunophenotypes in more than 90% of cases of acute leukemia with detection limits of 10(-3)-10(-4). In order to better understand the potential utility of MFC to measure minimal residual disease (MRD) in the setting of myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), we studied cohorts of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in complete remission (CR) both pre- and post-HCT. Among 253 patients with AML, the 3-year estimates of overall survival were 73% (CR1) and 73% (CR2) for those who were MRD(neg) and 32% (CR1) and 44% (CR2) for those who were MRD(pos), with relapse rates being more than doubled in those who were MRD(pos) pre-HCT (21% vs 58% for CR1 patients and 19% vs 68% for CR2 patients). The presence of MRD anytime during the first 100 days post-HCT predicted a 6-fold higher risk of subsequent relapse. In 157 patients with ALL, the 3-year overall survivals were 68% for the MRD(neg) cohort vs 40% for those who were MRD(pos) pre-HCT, with probabilities of relapse of 16% in those who were MRD(neg) vs 33% in the MRD(pos) group. As in AML, the presence of MRD in the post-transplant setting indicated that the risk of subsequent relapse was high, but not inevitable. PMID:24309531

Appelbaum, Frederick R

2013-09-01

367

Structural insights into the extracellular assembly of the hematopoietic Flt3 signaling complex.  

PubMed

The class III receptor tyrosine kinase (RTKIII) Fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 3 (Flt3) and its cytokine ligand (FL) play central roles in hematopoiesis and the immune system, by establishing signaling cascades crucial for the development and homeostasis of hematopoietic progenitors and antigen-presenting dendritic cells. However, Flt3 is also one of the most frequently mutated receptors in hematologic malignancies and is currently a major prognostic factor and clinical target for acute myeloid leukemia. Here, we report the structural basis for the Flt3 ligand-receptor complex and unveil an unanticipated extracellular assembly unlike any other RTKIII/V complex characterized to date. FL induces dimerization of Flt3 via a remarkably compact binding epitope localized at the tip of extracellular domain 3 of Flt3, and it invokes a ternary complex devoid of homotypic receptor interactions. Comparisons of Flt3 with homologous receptors and available mutagenesis data for FL have allowed us to rationalize the unique features of the Flt3 extracellular assembly. Furthermore, thermodynamic dissection of complex formation points to a pronounced enthalpically driven binding event coupled to an entropic penalty. Together, our data suggest that the high-affinity Flt3:FL complex is driven in part by a single preformed binding epitope on FL reminiscent of a "lock-and-key" binding mode, thereby setting the stage for antagonist design. PMID:21389326

Verstraete, Kenneth; Vandriessche, Gonzalez; Januar, Mariska; Elegheert, Jonathan; Shkumatov, Alexander V; Desfosses, Ambroise; Van Craenenbroeck, Kathleen; Svergun, Dmitri I; Gutsche, Irina; Vergauwen, Bjorn; Savvides, Savvas N

2011-07-01

368

Decitabine, Vorinostat, and Cytarabine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); PML-RARA; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-12-19

369

Pathology Case Study: Chronic Myeloid Leukemia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a case study presented by the University of Pittsburgh Department of Pathology in which a woman was diagnosed with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia, and became a candidate for a bone marrow transplant. Visitors can view both PB Count Chart and Flow Cytometry, including images, and have the opportunity to diagnose the patient. This is an excellent resource for students in the health sciences to familiarize themselves with using patient history and laboratory results to diagnose disease. It is also a helpful site for educators to introduce or test students of hematopathology.

Persad, Rajendra

370

Expansion of hematopoietic progenitor cell populations in stirred suspension bioreactors of normal human bone marrow cells.  

PubMed

We have investigated the potential of stirred suspension cultures to support hematopoiesis from starting innocula of normal human bone marrow cells. Initial studies showed that the short-term maintenance of both colony-forming cell (CFC) numbers and their precursors, detected as long-term culture-initiating cells (LTC-IC), could be achieved as well in stirred suspension cultures as in static cultures. Neither of these progenitor cell populations was affected in either type of culture when porous microcarriers were added to provide an increased surface for adherent cell attachment. Supplementation of the medium with 10 ng/ml of Steel factor (SF) and 2 ng/ml of interleukin-3 (IL-3) resulted in a significant expansion of LTC-IC, CFC and total cell numbers in stirred cultures. Both the duration and ultimate magnitude of these expansions were correlated with the initial cell density and after 4 weeks the number of LTC-IC and CFC present in stirred cultures initiated with the highest starting cell concentration tested reflected average increases of 7- and 22-fold, respectively, above input values. Stirred suspension cultures offer the combined advantages of homogeneity and lack of dependence on the formation and maintenance of an adherent cell layer. Our results suggest their applicability to the development of scaled-up bioreactor systems for clinical procedures requiring the production of primitive hematopoietic cell populations. In addition, stirred suspension cultures may offer a new tool for the analysis of hematopoietic regulatory mechanisms. PMID:7521647

Zandstra, P W; Eaves, C J; Piret, J M

1994-09-01

371

Hypercholesterolemia Induces Oxidant Stress That Accelerates the Ageing of Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Background Clinical studies suggest that hypercholesterolemia may cause ageing in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) because ageing?associated alterations were found in peripheral blood cells and their bone marrow residing precursors in patients with advanced atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that hypercholesterolemia induces oxidant stress in hematopoietic stems cells that accelerates their ageing. Methods and Results Here we show that HSCs from ApoE?/? mice, as well as HSCs from C57Bl/6 mice fed a high cholesterol diet (HCD) accumulated oxLDL and had greater ROS levels. In accordance, the expression pattern of the genes involved in ROS metabolism changed significantly in HSCs from ApoE?/? mice. Hypercholesterolemia caused a significant reduction in phenotypically defined long?term HSC compartment, telomere length, and repopulation capacity of KTLS cells, indicating accelerated ageing in these cells. Gene array analysis suggested abnormal cell cycle status, and the key cell cycle regulators including p19ARF, p27Kip1 and p21Waf1 were upregulated in KTLS cells from hypercholesterolemic mice. These effects were p38?dependent and reversed in vivo by treatment of hypercholesterolemic mice with antioxidant N?acetylcysteine. The oxidant stress also caused aberrant expression of Notch1 that caused loss of quiescence and proliferation leading to the expansion of KTLS compartment in hypercholesterolemic mice. Conclusion Taken together, we provide evidence that hypercholesterolemia can cause oxidant stress that accelerates the ageing and impairs the reconstitution capacity of HSCs. PMID:24470519

Tie, Guodong; Messina, Katharine E.; Yan, Jinglian; Messina, Julia A.; Messina, Louis M.

2014-01-01

372

A systems biology approach for defining the molecular framework of the hematopoietic stem cell niche.  

PubMed

Despite progress in identifying the cellular composition of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) niches, little is known about the molecular requirements of HSPC support. To address this issue, we used a panel of six recognized HSPC-supportive stromal lines and less-supportive counterparts originating from embryonic and adult hematopoietic sites. Through comprehensive transcriptomic meta-analyses, we identified 481 mRNAs and 17 microRNAs organized in a modular network implicated in paracrine signaling. Further inclusion of 18 additional cell strains demonstrated that this mRNA subset was predictive of HSPC support. Our gene set contains most known HSPC regulators as well as a number of unexpected ones, such as Pax9 and Ccdc80, as validated by functional studies in zebrafish embryos. In sum, our approach has identified the core molecular network required for HSPC support. These cues, along with a searchable web resource, will inform ongoing efforts to instruct HSPC ex vivo amplification and formation from pluripotent precursors. PMID:25042701

Charbord, Pierre; Pouget, Claire; Binder, Hans; Dumont, Florent; Stik, Grégoire; Levy, Pacifique; Allain, Fabrice; Marchal, Céline; Richter, Jenna; Uzan, Benjamin; Pflumio, Françoise; Letourneur, Franck; Wirth, Henry; Dzierzak, Elaine; Traver, David; Jaffredo, Thierry; Durand, Charles

2014-09-01

373

Age dependence of hematopoietic progenitor survival and chemokine family gene induction after gamma irradiation in bone marrow tissue in C3H/He mice.  

PubMed

Age at exposure is a critical factor that influences the risk of radiation-induced leukemia, which arises from hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. However, little is known about the effect of age on the radiation response of these cells. In this study, we examined the radiation response of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in infant (1-week-old), juvenile (3-week-old), and adult (8- and 14-week-old) C3H/He mice, which are susceptible to radiation-induced myeloid leukemia. We first observed an age-dependent increase in the radioresistance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells after in vivo irradiation. However, in vitro irradiation of progenitor cells did not show any age differences, suggesting that radiation sensitivity in vivo is dependent on the bone marrow microenvironment rather than to intrinsic properties of progenitors themselves. Expression profiles of bone marrow tissues identified chemokine and cytokine family genes, whose expression differed between infant and adult tissues at time points before and after irradiation. Among the selected thirteen cytokines reported to be radioprotective, we observed increased expression of Csf1, Csf2, Cxcl12, Fgf1, Fgf7, Il1a, Il1b and Kitl after irradiation, mostly in adult tissues. Specifically, Csf2, Fgf1 and Il1b expression, as revealed by qPCR, were significantly enhanced in adult bone marrow tissue after irradiation, but were unresponsive to irradiation in infant tissue. These results suggest that the higher susceptibility of infant hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to the cell killing effect of ionizing radiation may be attributed to a failure to induce a subset of radioprotective cytokines in the immature bone marrow microenvironment. PMID:24568129

Ariyoshi, Kentaro; Takabatake, Takashi; Shinagawa, Mayumi; Kadono, Kyoko; Daino, Kazuhiro; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Shimada, Yoshiya

2014-03-01

374

The Src homology 2 protein Shb promotes cell cycle progression in murine hematopoietic stem cells by regulation of focal adhesion kinase activity  

SciTech Connect

The widely expressed adaptor protein Shb has previously been reported to contribute to T cell function due to its association with the T cell receptor and furthermore, several of Shb's known interaction partners are established regulators of blood cell development and function. In addition, Shb deficient embryonic stem cells displayed reduced blood cell colony formation upon differentiation in vitro. The aim of the current study was therefore to explore hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell function in the Shb knockout mouse. Shb deficient bone marrow contained reduced relative numbers of long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) that exhibited lower proliferation rates. Despite this, Shb knockout LT-HSCs responded promptly by entering the cell cycle in response to genotoxic stress by 5-fluorouracil treatment. In competitive LT-HSC transplantations, Shb null cells initially engrafted as well as the wild-type cells but provided less myeloid expansion over time. Moreover, Shb knockout bone marrow cells exhibited elevated basal activities of focal adhesion kinase/Rac1/p21-activated kinase signaling and reduced responsiveness to Stem Cell Factor stimulation. Consequently, treatment with a focal adhesion kinase inhibitor increased Shb knockout LT-HSC proliferation. The altered signaling characteristics thus provide a plausible mechanistic explanation for the changes in LT-HSC proliferation since these signaling intermediates have all been shown to participate in LT-HSC cell cycle control. In summary, the loss of Shb dependent signaling in bone marrow cells, resulting in elevated focal adhesion kinase activity and reduced proliferative responses in LT-HSCs under steady state hematopoiesis, confers a disadvantage to the maintenance of LT-HSCs over time. -- Highlights: • Shb is an adaptor protein operating downstream of tyrosine kinase receptors. • Shb deficiency reduces hematopoietic stem cell proliferation. • The proliferative effect of Shb occurs via increased focal adhesion kinase activity. • Shb is critical for the long-term maintenance of the hematopoietic stem cell pool.

Gustafsson, Karin [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 23 (Sweden); Heffner, Garrett; Wenzel, Pamela L.; Curran, Matthew [HHMI, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, 02115 MA (United States); Grawé, Jan [Department of Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 75185 (Sweden); McKinney-Freeman, Shannon L. [Department of Hematology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States); Daley, George Q. [HHMI, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, 02115 MA (United States); Welsh, Michael, E-mail: michael.welsh@mcb.uu.se [Department of Medical Cell Biology, Uppsala University, Uppsala 751 23 (Sweden)

2013-07-15

375

Gene profiling reveals association between altered Wnt signaling and loss of T-cell potential with age in human hematopoietic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Functional decline of the hematopoietic system occurs during aging and contributes to clinical consequences, including reduced competence of adaptive immunity and increased incidence of myeloid diseases. This has been linked to aging of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment and has implications for clinical hematopoietic cell transplantation as prolonged periods of T-cell deficiency follow transplantation of adult mobilized peripheral blood (PB), the primary transplant source. Here, we examined the gene expression profiles of young and aged HSCs from human cord blood and adult mobilized PB, respectively, and found that Wnt signaling genes are differentially expressed between young and aged human HSCs, with less activation of Wnt signaling in aged HSCs. Utilizing the OP9-DL1 in vitro co-culture system to promote T-cell development under stable Notch signaling conditions, we found that Wnt signaling activity is important for T-lineage differentiation. Examination of Wnt signaling components and target gene activation in young and aged human HSCs during T-lineage differentiation revealed an association between reduced Wnt signal transduction, increasing age, and impaired or delayed T-cell differentiation. This defect in Wnt signal activation of aged HSCs appeared to occur in the early T-progenitor cell subset derived during in vitro T-lineage differentiation. Our results reveal that reduced Wnt signaling activity may play a role in the age-related intrinsic defects of aged HSCs and early hematopoietic progenitors and suggest that manipulation of this pathway could contribute to the end goal of improving T-cell generation and immune reconstitution following clinical transplantation. PMID:24889652

Khoo, Melissa L M; Carlin, Stephen M; Lutherborrow, Mark A; Jayaswal, Vivek; Ma, David D F; Moore, John J

2014-01-01

376

Identification and targeting leukemia stem cells: The path to the cure for acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence support the notion that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is organized in a hierarchical system, originating from a special proportion of leukemia stem cells (LSC). Similar to their normal counterpart, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), LSC possess self-renewal capacity and are responsible for the continued growth and proliferation of the bulk of leukemia cells in the blood and bone marrow. It is believed that LSC are also the root cause for the treatment failure and relapse of AML because LSC are often resistant to chemotherapy. In the past decade, we have made significant advancement in identification and understanding the molecular biology of LSC, but it remains a daunting task to specifically targeting LSC, while sparing normal HSC. In this review, we will first provide a historical overview of the discovery of LSC, followed by a summary of identification and separation of LSC by either cell surface markers or functional assays. Next, the review will focus on the current, various strategies for eradicating LSC. Finally, we will highlight future directions and challenges ahead of our ultimate goal for the cure of AML by targeting LSC. PMID:25258669

Zhou, Jianbiao; Chng, Wee-Joo

2014-01-01

377

Identification and targeting leukemia stem cells: The path to the cure for acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Accumulating evidence support the notion that acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is organized in a hierarchical system, originating from a special proportion of leukemia stem cells (LSC). Similar to their normal counterpart, hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), LSC possess self-renewal capacity and are responsible for the continued growth and proliferation of the bulk of leukemia cells in the blood and bone marrow. It is believed that LSC are also the root cause for the treatment failure and relapse of AML because LSC are often resistant to chemotherapy. In the past decade, we have made significant advancement in identification and understanding the molecular biology of LSC, but it remains a daunting task to specifically targeting LSC, while sparing normal HSC. In this review, we will first provide a historical overview of the discovery of LSC, followed by a summary of identification and separation of LSC by either cell surface markers or functional assays. Next, the review will focus on the current, various strategies for eradicating LSC. Finally, we will highlight future directions and challenges ahead of our ultimate goal for the cure of AML by targeting LSC. PMID:25258669

Zhou, Jianbiao; Chng, Wee-Joo

2014-09-26

378

Inhibition of autophagy augments the anticancer activity of ?-mangostin in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.  

PubMed

Natural products possessing anticancer activity have been extensively studied because of their low toxicity and potential effect. ?-Mangostin, a component of Garcinia mangostana Linn, is a xanthone derivative shown to have antioxidant and antitumor properties. This study was carried out to investigate how to improve the anticancer effects of ?-mangostin in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines bearing wild-type BCR-ABL or BCR-ABL-T315I mutation. We showed that ?-mangostin inhibited cell proliferation of K562, KBM5 and KBM5-T315I cells in both a time- and dose-dependent manner. Significantly, ?-mangostin increased the number of apoptotic cells and induced DNA fragmentation compared to control cells. Moreover, ?-mangostin selectively inhibited proliferation in primary CML cells, while showing limited lethality in normal hematopoietic progenitors. Additionally, ?-mangostin induced not only apoptosis but also autophagy in CML cells. ?-Mangostin dramatically increased the expression levels of LC-3II, an autophagosome marker in mammals, and the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles (AVs). Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine enhanced ?-mangostin-mediated cytotoxicity through increasing apoptosis. Taken together, our data suggest that targeting the autophagy pathway is a promising therapeutic strategy to enhance ?-mangostin-induced apoptosis. Our study provides an approach for future studies to explore this combination for the treatment of CML. PMID:23734655

Chen, Jia-Jie; Long, Zi-Jie; Xu, Dong-Fan; Xiao, Ruo-Zhi; Liu, Ling-Ling; Xu, Zhi-Fang; Qiu, Samuel X; Lin, Dong-Jun; Liu, Quentin

2014-03-01

379

p53 independent epigenetic-differentiation treatment in xenotransplant models of acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Suppression of apoptosis by TP53 mutation contributes to resistance of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to conventional cytotoxic treatment. Using differentiation to induce irreversible cell cycle exit in AML cells could be a p53-independent treatment alternative, however, this possibility requires evaluation. In vitro and in vivo regimens of the deoxycytidine analogue decitabine that deplete the chromatin modifying enzyme DNA methyl-transferase 1 (DNMT1) without phosphorylating p53 or inducing early apoptosis were determined. These decitabine regimens but not equimolar DNA-damaging cytarabine up regulated the key late differentiation factors CEBP? and p27/CDKN1B, induced cellular differentiation, and terminated AML cell-cycle, even in cytarabine-resistant p53- and p16/CDKN2A-null AML cells. Leukemia initiation by xeno-transplanted AML cells was abrogated but normal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) engraftment was preserved. In vivo, the low toxicity allowed frequent drug administration to increase exposure, an important consideration for S-phase specific decitabine therapy. In xeno-transplant models of p53-null and relapsed/refractory AML, the non-cytotoxic regimen significantly extended survival compared to conventional cytotoxic cytarabine. Modifying in vivo dose and schedule to emphasize this pathway of decitabine action can bypass a mechanism of resistance to standard therapy. PMID:21701495

Ng, Kwok Peng; Ebrahem, Quteba; Negrotto, Soledad; Mahfouz, Reda Z.; Link, Kevin A.; Hu, Zhenbo; Gu, Xiaorong; Advani, Anjali; Kalaycio, Matt; Sobecks, Ronald; Sekeres, Mikkael; Copelan, Edward; Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw; Mulloy, James C.; Saunthararajah, Yogen

2013-01-01

380

Clonal Architecture of Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia Defined by Single-Cell Sequencing  

PubMed Central

Next-generation sequencing has been used to infer the clonality of heterogeneous tumor samples. These analyses yield specific predictions—the population frequency of individual clones, their genetic composition, and their evolutionary relationships—which we set out to test by sequencing individual cells from three subjects diagnosed with secondary acute myeloid leukemia, each of whom had been previously characterized by whole genome sequencing of unfractionated tumor samples. Single-cell mutation profiling strongly supported the clonal architecture implied by the analysis of bulk material. In addition, it resolved the clonal assignment of single nucleotide variants that had been initially ambiguous and identified areas of previously unappreciated complexity. Accordingly, we find that many of the key assumptions underlying the analysis of tumor clonality by deep sequencing of unfractionated material are valid. Furthermore, we illustrate a single-cell sequencing strategy for interrogating the clonal relationships among known variants that is cost-effective, scalable, and adaptable to the analysis of both hematopoietic and solid tumors, or any heterogeneous population of cells. PMID:25010716

Hughes, Andrew E. O.; Magrini, Vincent; Demeter, Ryan; Miller, Christopher A.; Fulton, Robert; Fulton, Lucinda L.; Eades, William C.; Elliott, Kevin; Heath, Sharon; Westervelt, Peter; Ding, Li; Conrad, Donald F.; White, Brian S.; Shao, Jin; Link, Daniel C.; DiPersio, John F.; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.; Ley, Timothy J.; Walter, Matthew J.; Graubert, Timothy A.

2014-01-01

381

Mechanisms of resistance to high and low linear energy transfer radiation in myeloid leukemia cells  

PubMed Central

Low linear energy transfer (LET) ionizing radiation (IR) is an important form of therapy for acute leukemias administered externally or as radioimmunotherapy. IR is also a potential source of DNA damage. High LET IR produces structurally different forms of DNA damage and has emerged as potential treatment of metastatic and hematopoietic malignancies. Therefore, understanding mechanisms of resistance is valuable. We created stable myeloid leukemia HL60 cell clones radioresistant to either ?-rays or ?-particles to understand possible mechanisms in radioresistance. Cross-resistance to each type of IR was observed, but resistance to clustered, complex ?-particle damage was substantially lower than to equivalent doses of ?-rays. The resistant phenotype was driven by changes in: apoptosis; late G2/M checkpoint accumulation that was indicative of increased genomic instability; stronger dependence on homology-directed repair; and more robust repair of DNA double-strand breaks and sublethal-type damage induced by ?-rays, but not by ?-particles. The more potent cytotoxicity of ?-particles warrants their continued investigation as therapies for leukemia and other cancers. PMID:22829630

Haro, Kurtis J.; Scott, Andrew C.

2012-01-01

382

Cytotoxic T cells induce proliferation of chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells by secreting interferon-?  

PubMed Central

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative neoplasia arising from the oncogenic break point cluster region/Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 translocation in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), resulting in a leukemia stem cell (LSC). Curing CML depends on the eradication of LSCs. Unfortunately, LSCs are resistant to current treatment strategies. The host’s immune system is thought to contribute to disease control, and several immunotherapy strategies are under investigation. However, the interaction of the immune system with LSCs is poorly defined. In the present study, we use a murine CML model to show that LSCs express major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and co-stimulatory molecules and are recognized and killed by leukemia-specific CD8+ effector CTLs in vitro. In contrast, therapeutic infusions of effector CTLs into CML mice in vivo failed to eradicate LSCs but, paradoxically, increased LSC numbers. LSC proliferation and differentiation was induced by CTL-secreted IFN-?. Effector CTLs were only able to eliminate LSCs in a situation with minimal leukemia load where CTL-secreted IFN-? levels were low. In addition, IFN-? increased proliferation and colony formation of CD34+ stem/progenitor cells from CML patients in vitro. Our study reveals a novel mechanism by which the immune system contributes to leukemia progression and may be important to improve T cell–based immunotherapy against leukemia. PMID:23401488

Schürch, Christian; Riether, Carsten; Amrein, Michael A.

2013-01-01

383

Disruption of SIRP? signaling in macrophages eliminates human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells in xenografts  

PubMed Central

Although tumor surveillance by T and B lymphocytes is well studied, the role of innate immune cells, in particular macrophages, is less clear. Moreover, the existence of subclonal genetic and functional diversity in some human cancers such as leukemia underscores the importance of defining tumor surveillance mechanisms that effectively target the disease-sustaining cancer stem cells in addition to bulk cells. In this study, we report that leukemia stem cell function in xenotransplant models of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) depends on SIRP?-mediated inhibition of macrophages through engagement with its ligand CD47. We generated mice expressing SIRP? variants with differential ability to bind human CD47 and demonstrated that macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and clearance of AML stem cells depend on absent SIRP? signaling. We obtained independent confirmation of the genetic restriction observed in our mouse models by using SIRP?-Fc fusion protein to disrupt SIRP?–CD47 engagement. Treatment with SIRP?-Fc enhanced phagocytosis of AML cells by both mouse and human macrophages and impaired leukemic engraftment in mice. Importantly, SIRP?-Fc treatment did not significantly enhance phagocytosis of normal hematopoietic targets. These findings support the development of therapeutics that antagonize SIRP? signaling to enhance macrophage-mediated elimination of AML. PMID:22945919

Theocharides, Alexandre P.A.; Jin, Liqing; Cheng, Po-Yan; Prasolava, Tatiana K.; Malko, Andrei V.; Ho, Jenny M.; Poeppl, Armando G.; van Rooijen, Nico; Minden, Mark D.; Danska, Jayne S.; Dick, John E.

2012-01-01

384

SUMOylation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor, promotes proliferation in acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Current valid treatments for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) include chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, which are defective and limited respectively. The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) is up-regulated in many solid tumors; therefore, it may be a target for tumor therapy. Interestingly, IGF-1R is modified by SUMOylation, a type of reversible post-translational modification. In this study, we found that IGF-1R was increased in both cell lines and clinical samples of AML and was modified by SUMO-1. Furthermore, IGF-1, ligand of IGF-1R, induced the up-regulation of IGF-1R and increased the proliferation of leukemia cell line. After mutation of Lys(1025) and Lys(1100) in IGF-1R, the evolutionarily conserved lysine residues were identified as the SUMOylation sites of IGF-1R, because the SUMOylation of IGF-1R in these mutants was significantly inhibited. Furthermore, the cell proliferation mediated by IGF-1 was also reduced. After inhibition of UBC9, the activating enzyme of SUMOylation, co-expression of IGF-1R and SUMO-1 was down-regulated, and cell proliferation was also inhibited. However, cell apoptosis was not significantly affected. These results suggest that IGF-1R and its SUMOylation may be a new therapeutic target for strategy of AML. PMID:25448401

Zhang, Jian; Huang, Fang-Fang; Wu, Deng-Shu; Li, Wen-Jin; Zhan, Hui-En; Peng, Min-Yuan; Fang, Peng; Cao, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Meng-Meng; Zeng, Hui; Chen, Fang-Ping

2015-02-01

385

Disruption of SIRP? signaling in macrophages eliminates human acute myeloid leukemia stem cells in xenografts.  

PubMed

Although tumor surveillance by T and B lymphocytes is well studied, the role of innate immune cells, in particular macrophages, is less clear. Moreover, the existence of subclonal genetic and functional diversity in some human cancers such as leukemia underscores the importance of defining tumor surveillance mechanisms that effectively target the disease-sustaining cancer stem cells in addition to bulk cells. In this study, we report that leukemia stem cell function in xenotransplant models of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) depends on SIRP?-mediated inhibition of macrophages through engagement with its ligand CD47. We generated mice expressing SIRP? variants with differential ability to bind human CD47 and demonstrated that macrophage-mediated phagocytosis and clearance of AML stem cells depend on absent SIRP? signaling. We obtained independent confirmation of the genetic restriction observed in our mouse models by using SIRP?-Fc fusion protein to disrupt SIRP?-CD47 engagement. Treatment with SIRP?-Fc enhanced phagocytosis of AML cells by both mouse and human macrophages and impaired leukemic engraftment in mice. Importantly, SIRP?-Fc treatment did not significantly enhance phagocytosis of normal hematopoietic targets. These findings support the development of therapeutics that antagonize SIRP? signaling to enhance macrophage-mediated elimination of AML. PMID:22945919

Theocharides, Alexandre P A; Jin, Liqing; Cheng, Po-Yan; Prasolava, Tatiana K; Malko, Andrei V; Ho, Jenny M; Poeppl, Armando G; van Rooijen, Nico; Minden, Mark D; Danska, Jayne S; Dick, John E; Wang, Jean C Y

2012-09-24

386

p53 independent epigenetic-differentiation treatment in xenotransplant models of acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Suppression of apoptosis by TP53 mutation contributes to resistance of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) to conventional cytotoxic treatment. Using differentiation to induce irreversible cell cycle exit in AML cells could be a p53-independent treatment alternative, however, this possibility requires evaluation. In vitro and in vivo regimens of the deoxycytidine analogue decitabine that deplete the chromatin-modifying enzyme DNA methyl-transferase 1 without phosphorylating p53 or inducing early apoptosis were determined. These decitabine regimens but not equimolar DNA-damaging cytarabine upregulated the key late differentiation factors CCAAT enhancer-binding protein ? and p27/cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (CDKN1B), induced cellular differentiation and terminated AML cell cycle, even in cytarabine-resistant p53- and p16/CDKN2A-null AML cells. Leukemia initiation by xenotransplanted AML cells was abrogated but normal hematopoietic stem cell engraftment was preserved. In vivo, the low toxicity allowed frequent drug administration to increase exposure, an important consideration for S phase specific decitabine therapy. In xenotransplant models of p53-null and relapsed/refractory AML, the non-cytotoxic regimen significantly extended survival compared with conventional cytotoxic cytarabine. Modifying in vivo dose and schedule to emphasize this pathway of decitabine action can bypass a mechanism of resistance to standard therapy. PMID:21701495

Ng, K P; Ebrahem, Q; Negrotto, S; Mahfouz, R Z; Link, K A; Hu, Z; Gu, X; Advani, A; Kalaycio, M; Sobecks, R; Sekeres, M; Copelan, E; Radivoyevitch, T; Maciejewski, J; Mulloy, J C; Saunthararajah, Y

2011-11-01

387

Prognostic significance of karyotype in de novo adult acute myeloid leukemia. The BGMT group.  

PubMed

A group of 201 adult patients, 127 younger and 74 older than 55 years, with de novo acute myeloid leukemia were investigated to determine the prognostic significance of karyotype on early death (toxic or aplastic death occurring before hematopoietic recovery), drug resistance, continuous complete remission (CCR) and survival probabilities at 5 years. A good prognostic impact was found for t(8;21), t(15;17) and inv(16). The best factor proved to be t(8;21) (5-year survival probability: 50%), followed by t(15;17) (5-year survival probability: 39%) and by inv(16) (5-year survival probability: 43%). An intermediate outcome was found in patients with trisomy 8 (27% alive at 5 years) and in patients with numerical abnormalities other than -7 and +8 (33% in CCR and 62% alive at 5 years). Normal karyotypes had a different prognostic impact according to age: intermediate in young and good in older patients. A poor outcome was observed among patients with del(5q)/-5 (median survival: 1 month), with 11q23 rearrangements (median survival: 1.5 months) and with del(7q)/-7 (median survival: 10 months). The 'other structural change' group was also found to be a poor risk population (5-year survival probability: 5%) whereas complex karyotypes were predictive of short survivals only in older patients. Conversely, del(7q)/-7 and +8 as secondary changes, had no prognostic impact. PMID:7658718

Dastugue, N; Payen, C; Lafage-Pochitaloff, M; Bernard, P; Leroux, D; Huguet-Rigal, F; Stoppa, A M; Marit, G; Molina, L; Michallet, M

1995-09-01

388

Trametinib and Akt Inhibitor GSK2141795 in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2015-02-18

389

Trametinib and Akt Inhibitor GSK2141795 in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia; Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13.1q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Maturation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Minimal Differentiation; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13.1;q22); CBFB-MYH11; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); RUNX1-RUNX1T1; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(9;11)(p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia Without Maturation; Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia; Adult Erythroleukemia; Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia; Alkylating Agent-Related Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-12-24

390

Symptom-Adapted Physical Activity Intervention in Minimizing Physical Function Decline in Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Undergoing Chemotherapy  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-12-09

391

Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells in Sepsis  

PubMed Central

Sepsis is a systemic, deleterious host response to widespread infection. Patients with sepsis will have documented or suspected infection which can progress to a state of septic shock or acute organ dysfunction. Since sepsis is responsible for nearly 3 million cases per year in China and severe sepsis is a common, expensive fatal condition in America, developing new therapies becomes a significant and worthwhile challenge. Clinical research has shown that sepsis-associated immunosuppression plays a central role in patient mortality, and targeted immune-enhancing therapy may be an effective treatment approach in these patients. As part of the inflammatory response during sepsis, there are elevations in the number of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). MDSCs are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells that possess immunosuppressive activities via suppressing T-cell proliferation and activation. The role of MDSCs in sepsis remains uncertain. Some believe activated MDSCs are beneficial to the sepsis host by increasing innate immune responses and antimicrobial activities, while others think expansion of MDSCs leads to adaptive immune suppression and secondary infection. Herein, we discuss the complex role of MDSCs in immune regulation during sepsis, as well as the potential to target these cells for therapeutic benefit. PMID:24995313

Qin, Chaojin; Shu, Qiang

2014-01-01

392

[Chromosomal abnormalities in acute myeloid leukaemias].  

PubMed

Cytogenetic studies of acute myeloid leukaemias reveal non-random chromosomal abnormalities in 50-70% of karyotypes. Some are correlated with morphological and immunological parameters and constitute a prognostic factor independent of the other factors of risk: favourable for acute leukaemias myeloid with translocations t(8;21), t(15;17) and inversion or translocation of the chromosome 16, inv(16)/t(16;16), poor with deletion of the long arm of chromosome 5 del(5q), rearrangement of the 11q23 region and complex karyotypes. The distribution of the anomalies depends on the age: 11q23 and t(8;21) more frequent for the child, del(5q) and complex anomalies more frequent for the adult. The karyotypes are essential for the diagnosis, the follow-up of the patients and the evaluation of the relapse. It plays a fundamental part in the detection of new genes and their partners implied in the leucemogenese. The knowledge of their function is essential to open new therapeutic ways. PMID:12927889

Mugneret, F; Callier, P; Favre-Audry, B

2003-08-01

393

Hematopoietic stem cell mobilization: updated conceptual renditions  

PubMed Central

Despite its specific clinical relevance, the field of hematopoietic stem cell mobilization has received broad attention, owing mainly to the belief that pharmacologic stem cell mobilization might provide clues as to how stem cells are retained in their natural environment, the bone marrow ‘niche’. Inherent to this knowledge is also the desire to optimally engineer stem cells to interact with their target niche (such as after transplantation), or to lure malignant stem cells out of their protective niches (in order to kill them), and in general to decipher the niche’s structural components and its organization. Whereas, with the exception of the recent addition of CXCR4 antagonists to the armamentarium for mobilization of patients refractory to granulocyte colony-stimulating factor alone, clinical stem cell mobilization has not changed significantly over the last decade or so, much effort has been made trying to explain the complex mechanism(s) by which hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells leave the marrow. This brief review will report some of the more recent advances about mobilization, with an attempt to reconcile some of the seemingly inconsistent data in mobilization and to interject some commonalities among different mobilization regimes. PMID:22951944

Bonig, H; Papayannopoulou, T

2013-01-01

394

Lhx2 Expression Promotes Self-Renewal of a Distinct Multipotential Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell in Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Embryoid Bodies  

PubMed Central

The molecular mechanisms regulating the expansion of the hematopoietic system including hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the fetal liver during embryonic development are largely unknown. The LIM-homeobox gene Lhx2 is a candidate regulator of fetal hematopoiesis since it is expressed in the fetal liver and Lhx2?/? mice die in utero due to severe anemia. Moreover, expression of Lhx2 in embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived embryoid bodies (EBs) can lead to the generation of HSC-like cell lines. To further define the role of this transcription factor in hematopoietic regulation, we generated ES cell lines that enabled tet-inducible expression of Lhx2. Using this approach we observed that Lhx2 expression synergises with specific signalling pathways, resulting in increased frequency of colony forming cells in developing EB cells. The increase in growth factor-responsive progenitor cells directly correlates to the efficiency in generating HSC-like cell lines, suggesting that Lhx2 expression induce self-renewal of a distinct multipotential hematopoietic progenitor cell in EBs. Signalling via the c-kit tyrosine kinase receptor and the gp130 signal transducer by IL-6 is necessary and sufficient for the Lhx2 induced self-renewal. While inducing self-renewal of multipotential progenitor cells, expression of Lhx2 inhibited proliferation of primitive erythroid precursor cells and interfered with early ES cell commitment, indicating striking lineage specificity of this effect. PMID:18431502

Dahl, Lina; Richter, Karin; Hägglund, Anna-Carin; Carlsson, Leif

2008-01-01

395

PRECURSOR FLARES IN OJ 287  

SciTech Connect

We have studied three most recent precursor flares in the light curve of the blazar OJ 287 while invoking the presence of a precessing binary black hole in the system to explain the nature of these flares. Precursor flare timings from the historical light curves are compared with theoretical predictions from our model that incorporate effects of an accretion disk and post-Newtonian description for the binary black hole orbit. We find that the precursor flares coincide with the secondary black hole descending toward the accretion disk of the primary black hole from the observed side, with a mean z-component of approximately z{sub c} = 4000 AU. We use this model of precursor flares to predict that precursor flare of similar nature should happen around 2020.96 before the next major outburst in 2022.

Pihajoki, P.; Berdyugin, A.; Lindfors, E.; Reinthal, R.; Sillanpaeae, A.; Takalo, L. [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland)] [Tuorla Observatory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); Valtonen, M.; Nilsson, K. [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO, University of Turku, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland)] [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO, University of Turku, FI-21500 Piikkioe (Finland); Zola, S.; Koziel-Wierzbowska, D. [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, PL-30-244 Krakow (Poland)] [Astronomical Observatory, Jagiellonian University, ul. Orla 171, PL-30-244 Krakow (Poland); Liakos, A. [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, University of Athens, GR 157 84 Zografos, Athens, Hellas (Greece)] [Department of Astrophysics, Astronomy and Mechanics, University of Athens, GR 157 84 Zografos, Athens, Hellas (Greece); Drozdz, M.; Winiarski, M.; Ogloza, W. [Mount Suhora Observatory, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorazych 2, PL-30-084 Krakow (Poland)] [Mount Suhora Observatory, Pedagogical University, ul. Podchorazych 2, PL-30-084 Krakow (Poland); Provencal, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Santangelo, M. M. M. [O.A.C. Osservatorio Astronomico di Capannori, Via di Valle, I-55060 Vorno, Capannori (Italy)] [O.A.C. Osservatorio Astronomico di Capannori, Via di Valle, I-55060 Vorno, Capannori (Italy); Salo, H. [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland)] [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Ch