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1

CpG methylation patterns and decitabine treatment response in acute myeloid leukemia cells and normal hematopoietic precursors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The DNA hypomethylating drug decitabine maintains normal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal but induces terminal differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. The basis for these contrasting cell fates, and for selective CpG hypomethylation by decitabine, is poorly understood. Promoter CpGs, with methylation measured by microarray, were classified by the direction of methylation change with normal myeloid maturation. In AML

S Negrotto; K P Ng; A M Jankowska; J Bodo; B Gopalan; K Guinta; J C Mulloy; E Hsi; J Maciejewski; Y Saunthararajah

2012-01-01

2

Tfe3 expression is closely associated to macrophage terminal differentiation of human hematopoietic myeloid precursors  

SciTech Connect

The MItf-Tfe family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors encodes four family members: MItf, Tfe3, TfeB and TfeC. In vitro, each protein of the family binds DNA in a homo- or heterodimeric form with other family members. Tfe3 is involved in chromosomal translocations recurrent in different tumors and it has been demonstrated, by in vivo studies, that it plays, redundantly with MItf, an important role in the process of osteoclast formation, in particular during the transition from mono-nucleated to multi-nucleated osteoclasts. Since mono-nucleated osteoclasts derive from macrophages we investigated whether Tfe3 might play a role upstream during hematopoietic differentiation. Here we show that Tfe3 is able to induce mono-macrophagic differentiation of U937 cells, in association with a decrease of cell proliferation and an increase of apoptosis. We also show that Tfe3 does not act physiologically during commitment of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), since it is not able to direct HSCs toward a specific lineage as observed by clonogenic assay, but is a strong actor of terminal differentiation since it allows human primary myeloblasts' maturation toward the macrophage lineage.

Zanocco-Marani, Tommaso [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy); Vignudelli, Tatiana [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy); Gemelli, Claudia [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy); Pirondi, Sara [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy); Testa, Anna [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy); Montanari, Monica [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy); Parenti, Sandra [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy); Tenedini, Elena [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy); Grande, Alexis [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy); Ferrari, Sergio [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche, Sezione di Chimica Biologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via Campi 287, 41100, Modena (Italy)]. E-mail: sergio@unimo.it

2006-12-10

3

Involvement of primary mesenchymal precursors and hematopoietic bone marrow cells from chronic myeloid leukemia patients by BCR-ABL1 fusion gene.  

PubMed

For decades now, it is well established that chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic stem cell(HPC) disorder. However, it remains to be determined whether BCR-ABL1 gene rearrangement occurs in a HPC or at an earlier stem cell and whether the degree of involvement of hematopoiesis by the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene relates to the response to therapy. Here, we have investigated by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) the distribution of BCR-ABL1 fusion gene in FACS-sorted bone marrow (BM) populations of mesenchymal precursor cells (MPC) and other hematopoietic cell populations from 18 newly diagnosed CML patients. Overall, our results showed systematic involvement at relatively high percentages of BM maturing neutrophils (97%615%), basophils (95%612%), eosinophils (90%68%), CD341 precursors cells (90%67%),monocytes (84%630%), nucleated red blood cells (87%624%), and mast cells (77%633%). By contrast, MPC(30%634%), B-cells (15%627%), T-lymphocytes (50%626%), and NK-cells (35%634%) were involved at lower percentages. In 8/18 CML patients, 2 tumor BCR-ABL11 subclones were detected by iFISH. Of note, all tumor cell subclones were systematically detected in CD341 cells, whereas MPC were only involved by the ancestral tumor cell subclone. In summary, here we confirm the presence at diagnosis of the BCR-ABL1 fusion gene inMPC, CD341 precursors, and other different BM hematopoietic myeloid cell lineages from CML patients,including also in a significant fraction of cases, a smaller percentage of T, B, and NK lymphocytes.Interestingly, involvement of MPC was restricted to the ancestral BCR-ABL11 subclone. PMID:24779036

Chandia, Mauricio; Corrales, Alejandro; Castellanos, Marta; Matarraz, Sergio; Barrena, Susana; Orfao, Alberto

2014-03-01

4

CpG methylation patterns and decitabine treatment response in acute myeloid leukemia cells and normal hematopoietic precursors  

PubMed Central

The DNA hypomethylating drug decitabine maintains normal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal but induces terminal differentiation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. The basis for these contrasting cell-fates, and for selective CpG hypomethylation by decitabine, is poorly understood. Promoter CpGs, with methylation measured by microarray, were classified by the direction of methylation change with normal myeloid maturation. In AML cells, the methylation pattern at maturation-responsive CpG suggested at least partial maturation. Consistent with partial maturation, in gene expression analyses, AML cells expressed high levels of the key lineage-specifying factor CEBPA, but relatively low levels of the key late-differentiation driver CEBPE. In methylation analysis by mass-spectrometry, CEBPE promoter CpG that are usually hypomethylated during granulocyte maturation were significantly hypermethylated in AML cells. Decitabine treatment induced cellular differentiation of AML cells, and the largest methylation decreases were at CpG that are hypomethylated with myeloid maturation, including CEBPE promoter CpG. In contrast, decitabine-treated normal HSC retained immature morphology, and methylation significantly decreased at CpG that are less methylated in immature cells. High expression of lineage-specifying factor and aberrant epigenetic repression of some key late-differentiation genes distinguishes AML cells from normal HSC and could explain the contrasting differentiation and methylation responses to decitabine.

Negrotto, Soledad; Ng, Kwok Peng; Jankowska, Ania M.; Bodo, Juraj; Gopalan, Banu; Guinta, Kathryn; Mulloy, James C.; Hsi, Eric; Maciejewski, Jaroslaw; Saunthararajah, Yogen

2011-01-01

5

Imaging Hematopoietic Precursor Division in Real Time  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Stem cells are thought to balance self-renewal and differentiation through asymmetric and symmetric divisions, but whether such divisions occur during hematopoietic development remains unknown. Using a Notch reporter mouse, in which GFP acts as a sensor for differentiation, we image hematopoietic precursors and show that they undergo both symmetric and asymmetric divisions. In addition we show that the balance between these divisions is not hardwired but responsive to extrinsic and intrinsic cues. Precursors in a prodifferentiation environment preferentially divide asymmetrically, whereas those in a prorenewal environment primarily divide symmetrically. Oncoproteins can also influence division pattern: although BCR-ABL predominantly alters the rate of division and death, NUP98-HOXA9 promotes symmetric division, suggesting that distinct oncogenes subvert different aspects of cellular function. These studies establish a system for tracking division of hematopoietic precursors and show that the balance of symmetric and asymmetric division can be influenced by the microenvironment and subverted by oncogenes.

Wu, Mingfu; Kwon, Hyog Young; Rattis, Frederique; Blum, Jordan; Zhao, Chen; Ashkenazi, Rina; Jackson, Trachette L.; Gaiano, Nicholas; Oliver, Tim; Reya, Tannishtha

2008-01-01

6

Flk2/Flt3 promotes both myeloid and lymphoid development by expanding non-self-renewing multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cells.  

PubMed

Defining differentiation pathways is central to understanding the pathogenesis of hematopoietic disorders, including leukemia. The function of the receptor tyrosine kinase Flk2 (Flt3) in promoting myeloid development remains poorly defined, despite being commonly mutated in acute myeloid leukemia. We investigated the effect of Flk2 deficiency on myelopoiesis, focusing on specification of progenitors between HSC and mature cells. We provide evidence that Flk2 is critical for proliferative expansion of multipotent progenitors that are common precursors for all lymphoid and myeloid lineages, including megakaryocyte/erythroid (MegE) cells. Flk2 deficiency impaired the generation of both lymphoid and myeloid progenitors by abrogating propagation of their common upstream precursor. At steady state, downstream compensatory mechanisms masked the effect of Flk2 deficiency on mature myeloid output, whereas transplantation of purified progenitors revealed impaired generation of all mature lineages. Flk2 deficiency did not affect lineage choice, thus dissociating the role of Flk2 in promoting cell expansion and regulating cell fate. Surprisingly, despite impairing myeloid development, Flk2 deficiency afforded protection against myeloablative insult. This survival advantage was attributed to reduced cell cycling and proliferation of progenitors in Flk2-deficient mice. Our data support the existence of a common Flk2(+) intermediate for all hematopoietic lineages and provide insight into how activating Flk2 mutations promote hematopoietic malignancy by non-Flk2-expressing myeloid cells. PMID:24333663

Beaudin, Anna E; Boyer, Scott W; Forsberg, E Camilla

2014-03-01

7

Antibodies to Myeloid Precursor Cells in Autoimmune Neutropenia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Antibodies to mature blood neutrophils and to bone marrow myeloid cells have been described in the sera of some patients with apparent autoimmune neutropenia. To further explore the prevalence and specificities of antibodies to myeloid precursor cells, we...

K. R. Hartman V. F. LaRussa S. Rothwell T. O. Atolagbe F. T. Ward

1994-01-01

8

Combined effects of Notch signaling and cytokines induce a multiple log increase in precursors with lymphoid and myeloid reconstituting ability.  

PubMed

We investigated whether combined signaling induced by engineered Notch ligands and hematopoietic growth factors influences hematopoietic stem-cell differentiation. We show that incubation of murine marrow precursors with Delta1(ext-IgG), a Notch ligand consisting of the Delta1 extracellular domain fused to the Fc portion of human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), and growth factors stem cell factor (SCF), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-11, and Flt3-l inhibited myeloid differentiation and promoted a several-log increase in the number of precursors capable of short-term lymphoid and myeloid repopulation. Addition of IL7 promoted early T-cell development, whereas addition of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) led to terminal myeloid differentiation. These results support a role for combinatorial effects by Notch and cytokine-induced signaling pathways in regulating hematopoietic cell fate and suggest the usefulness of Notch ligand in increasing hematopoietic precursor numbers for clinical stem-cell transplantation. PMID:12411302

Varnum-Finney, Barbara; Brashem-Stein, Carolyn; Bernstein, Irwin D

2003-03-01

9

Myeloid skewing in murine autoimmune arthritis occurs in hematopoietic stem and primitive progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Skewing toward myeloid cell production is often observed in chronic inflammation and autoimmune diseases. Herein, we determined whether persistent myeloid activation and proinflammatory output occurring in pathologic conditions is at the level of hematopoietic stem and primitive progenitor cells (HSPPCs). By using a mouse arthritis model, we found that even though HSPPCs in arthritis still retained the capacity to differentiate into different lineages, they acquired enhanced in vitro and in vivo propensity in a disease-dependent manner to generate myeloid cells, the key perpetrators of tissue damage in arthritis. This myeloid skewing was cell intrinsic, as arthritic HSPPCs up-regulate myeloid-specific transcripts including S100a8. Exogenous S100a8 promoted myeloid cell output from wild-type HSPPCs, suggesting mechanistic involvement of this gene in the myeloid priming that occurs in arthritic HSPPCs. Therefore, our results indicate that in arthritic mice, HSPPCs adopt a pathologic state that favors disease persistence.

Oduro, Kwadwo A.; Liu, Fang; Tan, Qing; Kim, Chan-Kyu; Lubman, Olga; Fremont, Daved; Mills, Jason C.

2012-01-01

10

Inflammatory arthritis increases mouse osteoclast precursors with myeloid suppressor function  

PubMed Central

Increased osteoclastic bone resorption leads to periarticular erosions and systemic osteoporosis in RA patients. Although a great deal is known about how osteoclasts differentiate from precursors and resorb bone, the identity of an osteoclast precursor (OCP) population in vivo and its regulatory role in RA remains elusive. Here, we report the identification of a CD11b–/loLy6Chi BM population with OCP activity in vitro and in vivo. These cells, which can be distinguished from previously characterized precursors in the myeloid lineage, display features of both M1 and M2 monocytes and expand in inflammatory arthritis models. Surprisingly, in one mouse model of RA (adoptive transfer of SKG arthritis), cotransfer of OCP with SKG CD4+ T cells diminished inflammatory arthritis. Similar to monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs), OCPs suppressed CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation in vitro through the production of NO. This study identifies a BM myeloid precursor population with osteoclastic and T cell–suppressive activity that is expanded in inflammatory arthritis. Therapeutic strategies that prevent the development of OCPs into mature bone-resorbing cells could simultaneously prevent bone resorption and generate an antiinflammatory milieu in the RA joint.

Charles, Julia F.; Hsu, Lih-Yun; Niemi, Erene C.; Weiss, Arthur; Aliprantis, Antonios O.; Nakamura, Mary C.

2012-01-01

11

Vav promotes differentiation of human tumoral myeloid precursors  

SciTech Connect

Vav is one of the genetic markers that correlate with the differentiation of hematopoietic cells. In T and B cells, it appears crucial for both development and functions, while, in non-lymphoid hematopoietic cells, Vav seems not involved in cell maturation, but rather in the response of mature cells to agonist-dependent proliferation and phagocytosis. We have previously demonstrated that the amount and the tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav are up-regulated in both whole cells and nuclei of tumoral promyelocytes induced to granulocytic maturation by ATRA and that tyrosine-phosphorylated Vav does not display any ATRA-induced GEF activity but contributes to the regulation of PI 3-K activity. In this study, we report that Vav accumulates in nuclei of ATRA-treated APL-derived cells and that the down-modulation of Vav prevents differentiation of tumoral promyelocytes, indicating that it is a key molecule in ATRA-dependent myeloid maturation. On the other hand, the overexpression of Vav induces an increased expression of surface markers of granulocytic differentiation without affecting the maturation-related changes of the nuclear morphology. Consistent with an effect of Vav on the transcriptional machinery, array profiling shows that the inhibition of the Syk-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation of Vav reduces the number of ATRA-induced genes. Our data support the unprecedented notion that Vav plays crucial functions in the maturation process of myeloid cells, and suggest that Vav can be regarded as a potential target for the therapeutic treatment of myeloproliferative disorders.

Bertagnolo, Valeria [Signal Transduction Unit-Laboratory of Cell Biology, Section of Human Anatomy, Department of Morphology and Embryology, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara, 66, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Brugnoli, Federica [Signal Transduction Unit-Laboratory of Cell Biology, Section of Human Anatomy, Department of Morphology and Embryology, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara, 66, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Mischiati, Carlo [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ferrara (Italy); Sereni, Alessia [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Ferrara (Italy); Bavelloni, Alberto [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Electron Microscopy, IOR, Bologna (Italy); Carini, Cinzia [Signal Transduction Unit-Laboratory of Cell Biology, Section of Human Anatomy, Department of Morphology and Embryology, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara, 66, 44100 Ferrara (Italy); Capitani, Silvano [Signal Transduction Unit-Laboratory of Cell Biology, Section of Human Anatomy, Department of Morphology and Embryology, University of Ferrara, Via Fossato di Mortara, 66, 44100 Ferrara (Italy) and MIUR ICSI, Interdisciplinary Center for the Study of Inflammation, University of Ferrara (Italy)]. E-mail: cps@unife.it

2005-05-15

12

The histone acetyl transferase activity of monocytic leukemia zinc finger is critical for the proliferation of hematopoietic precursors  

PubMed Central

The monocytic leukemia zinc finger (MOZ) gene encodes a large multidomain protein that contains, besides other domains, 2 coactivation domains for the transcription factor Runx1/acute myeloid leukemia 1 and a histone acetyl transferase (HAT) catalytic domain. Recent studies have demonstrated the critical requirement for the complete MOZ protein in hematopoietic stem cell development and maintenance. However, the specific function of the HAT activity of MOZ remains unknown, as it has been shown that MOZ HAT activity is not required either for its role as Runx1 coactivator or for the leukemic transformation induced by MOZ transcriptional intermediary factor 2 (TIF2). To assess the specific requirement for this HAT activity during hematopoietic development, we have generated embryonic stem cells and mouse lines carrying a point mutation that renders the protein catalytically inactive. We report in this study that mice exclusively lacking the HAT activity of MOZ exhibit significant defects in the number of hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoietic committed precursors as well as a defect in B-cell development. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the failure to maintain a normal number of hematopoietic precursors is caused by the inability of HAT?/? cells to expand. These results indicate a specific role of MOZ-driven acetylation in controlling a desirable balance between proliferation and differentiation during hematopoiesis.

Perez-Campo, Flor M.; Borrow, Julian; Kouskoff, Valerie

2009-01-01

13

Use of the Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Parameter on the Sysmex SE9500TMas a Screening Tool for Circulating Hematopoietic Precursors in Pediatrics  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryIn the field of hematopoietic progenitor cell therapy there is the need for a rapid and inexpensive screening tool for quantification of hematopoietic precursors. Currently the surrogate measures of the hematopoietic stem cell that are used in clinical practice are the hematopoietic colony forming unit or quantitation of CD34+ cells. The hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) parameter that runs on the

D. A. Wall; D. A. Oliver

2001-01-01

14

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

Accumulating evidence suggests that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) underpin an immunological checkpoint that is activated during inflammation or “inflammatory-like” conditions like cancer. Here, we discuss the identification of MDSCs in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and their potential as therapeutic targets or tools for improving the efficacy of this treatment.

Le Blanc, Katarina; Jitschin, Regina; Mougiakakos, Dimitrios

2013-01-01

15

Single hematopoietic stem cells generate skeletal muscle through myeloid intermediates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that cells from the bone marrow can give rise to differentiated skeletal muscle fibers. However, the mechanisms and identities of the cell types involved have remained unknown, and the validity of the observation has been questioned. Here, we use transplantation of single CD45+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to demonstrate that the entire circulating myogenic activity in

Fernando D Camargo; Rahshaana Green; Yassemi Capetenaki; Kathyjo A Jackson; Margaret A Goodell

2003-01-01

16

Altered hematopoietic stem cell and osteoclast precursor frequency in cathepsin k null mice.  

PubMed

Cathepsin K (CatK) is a lysosomal cysteine protease necessary for bone resorption by osteoclasts (OCs), which originate from myeloid hematopoietic precursors. CatK-deficient (CatK(-/-) ) mice show osteopetrosis due to defective resorption by OCs, which are increased in number in these mice. We investigated whether genetic ablation of CatK altered the number of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and OC precursor cells (OCPs) using two mouse models: CatK(-/-) mice and a knock-in mouse model in which the CatK gene (ctsk) is replaced by cre recombinase. We found that CatK deletion in mice significantly increased the number of HSCs in the spleen and decreased their number in bone marrow. In contrast, the number of early OCPs was unchanged in the bone marrow. However, the number of committed CD11b(+) OCPs was increased in the bone marrow of CatK(-/-) compared to wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, the percentage but not the number of OCPs was decreased in the spleen of CatK(-/-) mice relative to WT. To understand whether increased commitment to OC lineage in CatK(-/-) mice is influenced by the bone marrow microenvironment, CatK(Cre/+) or CatK(Cre/Cre) red fluorescently labeled OCPs were injected into WT mice, which were also subjected to a mid-diaphyseal femoral fracture. The number of OCs derived from the intravenously injected CatK(Cre/Cre) OCPs was lower in the fracture callus compared to mice injected with CatK(+/Cre) OCPs. Hence, in addition to its other effects, the absence of CatK in OCP limits their ability to engraft in a repairing fracture callus compared to WT OCP. J. Cell. Biochem. 115: 1449-1457, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24590570

Jacome-Galarza, Christian; Soung, Do Yu; Adapala, Naga Suresh; Pickarski, Maureen; Sanjay, Archana; Duong, Le T; Lorenzo, Joseph A; Drissi, Hicham

2014-08-01

17

Rantes/Ccl5 influences hematopoietic stem cell subtypes and causes myeloid skewing  

PubMed Central

HSCs undergo dramatic changes with aging. An increase in absolute numbers of HSCs along with a functional deficit in reconstitution potential and a shift toward production of myeloid cells are the hallmarks of murine hematopoietic aging. Here, we show that high levels of the inflammatory cytokine Rantes are found in the aging stem cell milieu. Forced overproduction of Rantes by retroviral expression in BM progenitors resulted in a deficit of T-cell output, and brief ex vivo exposure of HSCs to Rantes resulted in a decrease in T-cell progeny concomitant with an increase in myeloid progenitors. In contrast, Rantes knockout (KO) animals exhibit a decrease in myeloid-biased HSCs and myeloid progenitors and an increase in T cells and lymphoid-biased HSCs. KO HSCs retained their HSC subtype distribution and they produced more lymphoid-biased HSCs in transplantations. Rantes deficiency also resulted in a decreased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity in KLS cells. In a heterochronic transplantation setting, we further show that aged HSCs placed in a young environment generate less myeloid cells. These data establish a critical role for environmental factors in the establishment of the aged-associated myeloid skewing phenotype, which may contribute to age-associated immune deficiency.

Ergen, Aysegul V.; Boles, Nathan C.

2012-01-01

18

Brief Report: Efficient Generation of Hematopoietic Precursors and Progenitors from Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

By mimicking embryonic development of the hematopoietic system, we have developed an optimized in vitro differentiation protocol for the generation of precursors of hematopoietic lineages and primitive hematopoietic cells from human embryonic stem cells (ESC) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Factors such as cytokines, extra cellular matrix components, and small molecules as well as the temporal association and concentration of these factors were tested on seven different human ESC and iPSC lines. We report the differentiation of up to 84% human CD45+ cells (average 41% ± 16%, from seven pluripotent lines) from the differentiation culture, including significant numbers of primitive CD45+/CD341 and CD45+/CD341/CD38? hematopoietic progenitors. Moreover, the numbers of hematopoietic progenitor cells generated, as measured by colony forming unit assays, were comparable to numbers obtained from fresh umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell isolates on a per CD45+ cell basis. Our approach demonstrates highly efficient generation of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors with among the highest efficiencies reported to date (CD45+/CD341) using a single standardized differentiation protocol on several human ESC and iPSC lines. Our data add to the cumulating evidence for the existence of an in vitro derived precursor to the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) with limited engrafting ability in transplanted mice but with multipotent hematopoietic potential. Because this protocol efficiently expands the preblood precursors and hematopoietic progenitors, it is ideal for testing novel factors for the generation and expansion of definitive HSCs with long-term repopulating ability.

Woods, Niels-Bjarne; Parker, Aaron S.; Moraghebi, Roksana; Lutz, Margaret K.; Firth, Amy L.; Brennand, Kristen J.; Berggren, W. Travis; Raya, Angel; Izpisua Belmonte, Juan Carlos; Gage, Fred H.; Verma, Inder M.

2012-01-01

19

Plasmacytoid precursor dendritic cells facilitate allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell engraftment  

PubMed Central

Bone marrow transplantation offers great promise for treating a number of disease states. However, the widespread application of this approach is dependent upon the development of less toxic methods to establish chimerism and avoid graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). CD8+/TCR? facilitating cells (FCs) have been shown to enhance engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in allogeneic recipients without causing GVHD. In the present studies, we have identified the main subpopulation of FCs as plasmacytoid precursor dendritic cells (p-preDCs). FCs and p-preDCs share many phenotypic, morphological, and functional features: both produce IFN-? and TNF-?, both are activated by toll-like receptor (TLR)-9 ligand (CpG ODN) stimulation, and both expand and mature after Flt3 ligand (FL) treatment. FL-mobilized FCs, most of which express a preDC phenotype, significantly enhance engraftment of HSCs and induce donor-specific tolerance to skin allografts. However, p-preDCs alone or p-preDCs from the FC population facilitate HSC engraftment less efficiently than total FCs. Moreover, FCs depleted of preDCs completely fail to facilitate HSC engraftment. These results are the first to define a direct functional role for p-preDCs in HSC engraftment, and also suggest that p-preDCs need to be in a certain state of maturation/activation to be fully functional.

Fugier-Vivier, Isabelle J.; Rezzoug, Francine; Huang, Yiming; Graul-Layman, Amanda J.; Schanie, Carrie L.; Xu, Hong; Chilton, Paula M.; Ildstad, Suzanne T.

2005-01-01

20

B-myb is an essential regulator of hematopoietic stem cell and myeloid progenitor cell development.  

PubMed

The B-myb (MYBL2) gene is a member of the MYB family of transcription factors and is involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, and maintenance of genomic integrity. However, its function during adult development and hematopoiesis is unknown. We show here that conditional inactivation of B-myb in vivo results in depletion of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool, leading to profound reductions in mature lymphoid, erythroid, and myeloid cells. This defect is autonomous to the bone marrow and is first evident in stem cells, which accumulate in the S and G2/M phases. B-myb inactivation also causes defects in the myeloid progenitor compartment, consisting of depletion of common myeloid progenitors but relative sparing of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors. Microarray studies indicate that B-myb-null LSK(+) cells differentially express genes that direct myeloid lineage development and commitment, suggesting that B-myb is a key player in controlling cell fate. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that B-myb is essential for HSC and progenitor maintenance and survival during hematopoiesis. PMID:24516162

Baker, Stacey J; Ma'ayan, Avi; Lieu, Yen K; John, Premila; Reddy, M V Ramana; Chen, Edward Y; Duan, Qiaonan; Snoeck, Hans-Willem; Reddy, E Premkumar

2014-02-25

21

Strategies to Reduce Relapse after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is expected to increase in conjunction with our ageing population. Although it is proving to be a heterogeneous disease process, the only treatment with proven survival benefit for poor risk AML remains allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. Although this is presumed to be a curative strategy, many patients relapse after transplant, prompting us to examine various ways that we can improve outcomes. These efforts involve every step of AML diagnostics and therapy, including the intricate processes of conditioning, graft manipulation and immunomodulation. The hope is that improvement in these steps will ultimately improve survival and decrease relapse rates for AML patients after transplant.

Mawad, Raya; Lionberger, Jack M.; Pagel, John M.

2013-01-01

22

Treatment of relapse of acute myeloid leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Disease relapse remains a major cause of mortality for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Historically, patients who experience disease relapse after HSCT have a dismal prognosis with very few long-term survivors. There is no standard treatment for patients in this situation given the variability in patient characteristics, disease biology, complications such as graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) and infections, donor availability, and patient choice. Here, we discuss the current options for treatment of relapsed AML after HSCT including conventional chemotherapy, novel agents, donor leukocyte infusion, second allogeneic HSCT, and emerging therapies. PMID:24643311

Fathi, Amir T; Chen, Yi-Bin

2014-06-01

23

Expression profiling of CD34+ hematopoietic stem\\/ progenitor cells reveals distinct subtypes of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most serious consequences of cytotoxic cancer therapy is the development of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML), a neoplastic disorder arising from a multipotential hematopoietic stem cell. To gain insights into the molecular basis of this disease, we performed gene expression profiling of CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor cells from t-AML patients. Our analysis revealed that there are distinct subtypes

Zhijian Qian; Anthony A. Fernald; Lucy A. Godley; Richard A. Larson; Michelle M. Le Beau

2002-01-01

24

Induction of multipotential hematopoietic progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells via re-specification of lineage-restricted precursors  

PubMed Central

Summary Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) represent a promising source of patient-specific cells for disease modeling, drug screens, and cellular therapies. However, the inability to derive engraftable human hematopoietic stem and progenitor (HSPCs) has limited their characterization to in vitro assays. We report a strategy to re-specify lineage-restricted CD34+CD45+ myeloid precursors derived from hPSCs into multilineage progenitors that can be expanded in vitro and engraft in vivo. HOXA9, ERG, and RORA conferred self-renewal and multilineage potential in vitro and maintained primitive CD34+CD38? cells. Screening cells via transplantation revealed that two additional factors, SOX4 and MYB, were required for engraftment. Progenitors specified with all five factors gave rise to reproducible short-term engraftment with myeloid and erythroid lineages. Erythroid precursors underwent hemoglobin switching in vivo, silencing embryonic and activating adult globin expression. Our combinatorial screening approach establishes a strategy for obtaining transcription factor-mediated engraftment of blood progenitors from human pluripotent cells.

Doulatov, Sergei; Vo, Linda T.; Chou, Stephanie S.; Kim, Peter G.; Arora, Natasha; Li, Hu; Hadland, Brandon K.; Bernstein, Irwin D.; Collins, James J.; Zon, Leonard I.; Daley, George Q.

2013-01-01

25

TREM2-Transduced Myeloid Precursors Mediate Nervous Tissue Debris Clearance and Facilitate Recovery in an Animal Model of Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn multiple sclerosis, inflammation can successfully be prevented, while promoting repair is still a major challenge. Microglial cells, the resident phagocytes of the central nervous system (CNS), are hematopoietic-derived myeloid cells and express the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), an innate immune receptor. Myeloid cells are an accessible source for ex vivo gene therapy. We investigated whether

Kazuya Takahashi; Marco Prinz; Massimiliano Stagi; Olga Chechneva; Harald Neumann

2007-01-01

26

The ecology in the hematopoietic stem cell niche determines the clinical outcome in chronic myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a blood disease that disrupts normal function of the hematopoietic system. Despite the great progress made in terms of molecular therapies for CML, there remain large gaps in our understanding. By comparing mathematical models that describe CML progression and etiology we sought to identify those models that provide the best description of disease dynamics and their underlying mechanisms. Data for two clinical outcomes--disease remission or relapse--are considered, and we investigate these using Bayesian inference techniques throughout. We find that it is not possible to choose between the models based on fits to the data alone; however, by studying model predictions we can discard models that fail to take niche effects into account. More detailed analysis of the remaining models reveals mechanistic differences: for one model, leukemia stem cell dynamics determine the disease outcome; and for the other model disease progression is determined at the stage of progenitor cells, in particular by differences in progenitor death rates. This analysis also reveals distinct transient dynamics that will be experimentally accessible, but are currently at the limits of what is possible to measure. To resolve these differences we need to be able to probe the hematopoietic stem cell niche directly. Our analysis highlights the importance of further mapping of the bone marrow hematopoietic niche microenvironment as the "ecological" interactions between cells in this niche appear to be intricately linked to disease outcome. PMID:24567385

MacLean, Adam L; Filippi, Sarah; Stumpf, Michael P H

2014-03-11

27

Enhanced Generation of Myeloid Lineages in Hematopoietic Differentiation from Embryonic Stem Cells by Silencing Transcriptional Repressor Twist-2  

PubMed Central

Abstract The self-renewal and multilineage differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESC) is largely governed by transcription factors or repressors. Extensive efforts have focused on elucidating critical factors that control the differentiation of specific cell lineages, for instance, myeloid lineages in hematopoietic development. In this study, we found that Twist-2, a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, plays a critical role in inhibiting the differentiation of ESC. Murine ES cells, in which Twist-2 expression is silenced by lentivirally delivered shRNA, exhibit an enhanced formation of primary embryoid bodies (EB) and enhanced differentiation into mesodermally derived hematopoietic colonies. Furthermore, Twist-2 silenced (LV-siTwist-2) ESC display significantly increased generation of myeloid lineages (Gr-1+ and F4/80+ cells) during in vitro hematopoietic differentiation. Treatment with the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 ligand synergistically stimulates the generation of primary EB formation as well as of hematopoietic progenitors differentiated from LV-siTwist-2 ES cells. Thus, this study reveals the critical role of the transcriptional repressor Twist-2 in regulating the development of myeloid lineage in hematopoietic differentiation from ESC. This study also suggests a potential strategy for directional differentiation of ESC by inhibiting a transcriptional repressor.

Sharabi, Andrew B.; Lee, Sung-Hyung; Goodell, Margaret A.; Huang, Xue F.

2009-01-01

28

Erythroid/myeloid progenitors and hematopoietic stem cells originate from distinct populations of endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and an earlier wave of definitive erythroid/myeloid progenitors (EMPs) differentiate from hemogenic endothelial cells in the conceptus. EMPs can be generated in vitro from embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells, but efforts to produce HSCs have largely failed. The formation of both EMPs and HSCs requires the transcription factor Runx1 and its non-DNA binding partner core binding factor ?(CBF?). Here we show that the requirements for CBF? in EMP and HSC formation in the conceptus are temporally and spatially distinct. Pan-endothelial expression of CBF? in Tek-expressing cells was sufficient for EMP formation, but was not adequate for HSC formation. Expression of CBF? in Ly6a-expressing cells, on the other hand, was sufficient for HSC but not EMP formation. The data indicate that EMPs and HSCs differentiate from distinct populations of hemogenic endothelial cells, with Ly6a expression specifically marking the HSC-generating hemogenic endothelium.

Chen, Michael J.; Li, Yan; De Obaldia, Maria Elena; Yang, Qi; Yzaguirre, Amanda D.; Yamada-Inagawa, Tomoko; Vink, Chris S.; Bhandoola, Avinash; Dzierzak, Elaine; Speck, Nancy A.

2011-01-01

29

Computational Modeling of the Hematopoietic Erythroid-Myeloid Switch Reveals Insights into Cooperativity, Priming, and Irreversibility  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cell lineage choices are decided by genetic networks that are turned ON/OFF in a switch-like manner. However, prior to lineage commitment, genes are primed at low expression levels. Understanding the underlying molecular circuitry in terms of how it governs both a primed state and, at the other extreme, a committed state is of relevance not only to hematopoiesis but also to developmental systems in general. We develop a computational model for the hematopoietic erythroid-myeloid lineage decision, which is determined by a genetic switch involving the genes PU.1 and GATA-1. Dynamical models based upon known interactions between these master genes, such as mutual antagonism and autoregulation, fail to make the system bistable, a desired feature for robust lineage determination. We therefore suggest a new mechanism involving a cofactor that is regulated as well as recruited by one of the master genes to bind to the antagonistic partner that is necessary for bistability and hence switch-like behavior. An interesting fallout from this architecture is that suppression of the cofactor through external means can lead to a loss of cooperativity, and hence to a primed state for PU.1 and GATA-1. The PU.1–GATA-1 switch also interacts with another mutually antagonistic pair, C/EBP?–FOG-1. The latter pair inherits the state of its upstream master genes and further reinforces the decision due to several feedback loops, thereby leading to irreversible commitment. The genetic switch, which handles the erythroid-myeloid lineage decision, is an example of a network that implements both a primed and a committed state by regulating cooperativity through recruitment of cofactors. Perturbing the feedback between the master regulators and downstream targets suggests potential reprogramming strategies. The approach points to a framework for lineage commitment studies in general and could aid the search for lineage-determining genes.

Chickarmane, Vijay; Enver, Tariq; Peterson, Carsten

2009-01-01

30

Azacitidine salvage therapy for relapse of myeloid malignancies following allogeneic hematopoietic SCT.  

PubMed

Patients with hematopoietic malignancies relapsing after allogeneic hematopoietic SCT (allo-HSCT) have a poor prognosis. We retrospectively analyzed the patients who received azacitidine in our center in the course of treatment of their post-transplant relapse. We identified 31 patients. Relapse occurred at a median of 3.7 (1.7-37.6) months following allo-HSCT. Patients received a median number of three cycles (1-12) of azacitidine (7 days, 75 mg/m(2) daily). Thirty-nine percent of patients had either a monosomal karyotype or a complex karyotype. Eleven patients (35%) received at least one DLI. Eleven patients responded to azacitidine, with four patients achieving a CR (13%). Median time to best response was 92 (35-247) days, with a median duration of 209 (64-751) days. One-year estimated survival rate was 14%. In conclusion, azacitidine may reinduce durable remissions in very few patients with AML or myelodysplastic syndrome. The toxicity related to azacitidine was high, although it may be difficult to distinguish between treatment-related side effects, namely due to cytopenia and toxicity due to the relapse or disease progression itself. Early administration of azacitidine after transplant followed by DLI should be considered as a pre-emptive therapy for potential relapse in patients with minimal residual disease or high-risk myeloid malignancies. PMID:24488048

Tessoulin, B; Delaunay, J; Chevallier, P; Loirat, M; Ayari, S; Peterlin, P; Le Gouill, S; Gastinne, T; Moreau, P; Mohty, M; Guillaume, T

2014-04-01

31

Hematopoietic cell crisis: An early stage of evolving myeloid leukemia following radiation exposure  

SciTech Connect

Under select radiological conditions, chronic radiation exposure elicits a high incidence of myeloproliferative disease, principally myeloid leukemia (ML), in beagles. Previously we demonstrated that for full ML expression, a four-stage preclinical sequence is required, namely (1) suppression, (2) recovery, (3) accommodation, and (4) preleukemic transition. Within this pathological sequence, a critical early event has been identified as the acquisition of radioresistance by hematopoietic progenitors that serves to mediate a newfound regenerative hematopoietic capacity. As such, this event sets the stage'' for preleukemic progression by initiating progression from preclinical phase 1 to 2. Due to the nature of target cell suppression, the induction of crisis, and the outgrowth of progenitors with altered phenotypes, this preleukemic event resembles the immortalization'' step of the in vitro transformation sequence following induction with either physical and chemical carcinogens. The radiological, temporal, and biological dictates governing this event have been extensively evaluated and will be discussed in light of their role in the induction and progression of chronic radiation leukemia. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

Seed, T.M.

1990-01-01

32

[Efficacy of adoptive immunotherapy after mixed hematopoietic stem cell transplantation on acute myeloid leukemia].  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of treatment with haploidentical donor's lymphocyte infusion(hiDLI) combined with interleukin-2 (IL-2) after transplantation of autologous peripheral blood stem cells mixed with haploidentical allogeneic bone marrow (mix-HSCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). 49 patients diagnosed as AML were enrolled in this study. After preconditioning with TBI plus VEMAC regimen, all patients received mix-HSCT. Autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cells were mobilized with chemotherapy-combined G-CSF, and haploidentical allogeneic bone marrow cells were not mobilized with G-CSF. 33 patients in test group were treated with hiDLI plus IL-2 for 1-8 times after hematopoietic reconstruction, 16 patients in control group received mix-HSCT only. All the patients were followed-up for more than 3 years. The results showed that all the patients obtained hematopoietic reconstruction, and no graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was found. In two groups, the median time of absolute neutrophil count (ANC) ? 0.5×10(9)/L was 14 (12 - 18) and 14 (11 - 16) days, and WBC count ? 4.0×10(9)/L was 17 (16 - 22) and 18(17 - 20) days, Plt count ? 50×10(8)/L were 25 (24 - 29) and 25 (23 - 26) days. 9 patients in test group formed mixed chimerism (46XX/46XY) and sustained about 3 - 12 months; disease-free survival (DFS) was 63.6%, 3 patients in control group formed mixed chimerism (46XX/46XY), persistent about 3-6 months; DFS was 50.0%. It is concluded that treatment with hiDLI plus IL-2 after mix-HSCT for AML patients may increase DFS efficiently. PMID:23114140

Wang, Cun-Bang; Bai, Hai; Xi, Rui; Pan, Yao-Zhu; Zhang, Qian; Zhou, Jin-Mao; Wu, Tao; Xu, Shu-Fen

2012-10-01

33

HoxB4 Confers Definitive Lymphoid-Myeloid Engraftment Potential on Embryonic Stem Cell and Yolk Sac Hematopoietic Progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extent to which primitive embryonic blood progenitors contribute to definitive lymphoid-myeloid hematopoiesis in the adult remains uncertain. In an effort to characterize factors that distinguish the definitive adult hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and primitive progenitors derived from yolk sac or embryonic stem (ES) cells, we examined the effect of ectopic expression of HoxB4, a homeotic selector gene implicated in

Michael Kyba; Rita C. R. Perlingeiro; George Q. Daley

2002-01-01

34

Infectious complications after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: comparison of patients with acute myeloid leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and multiple myeloma  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is yet undetermined whether patients with different hematological malignancies have different propensities to infectious complications after high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We retrospectively analyzed 136 cycles of HDC and autologous HSCT in 114 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML, 24 cycles), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma\\/Hodgkin's disease (NHL\\/HD, 55 cycles), and multiple myeloma (MM, 57 cycles) with

H. W. Auner; H. Sill; A. Mulabecirovic; W. Linkesch; R. Krause

2002-01-01

35

EVI1 and MDS1/EVI1 Expression During Primary Human Hematopoietic Progenitor Cell Differentiation into Various Myeloid Lineages  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim Overexpression of ecotropic viral integration site 1 (EVI1) is associated with aggressive disease in myeloid leukemia. We therefore studied its expression and function in cluster of differentiation 34 positive (CD 34+) primary human hematopoietic progenitor cells. Materials and Methods CD34+ cells were differentiated into various myeloid lineages using appropriate cytokines. EVI1 expression was measured by quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and intranuclear fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS). Experimental manipulation of EVI1 levels was achieved using retroviral infection. Results EVI1 mRNA and its variant myelodysplastic syndrome 1 (MDS1)/EVI1, which gives rise to a partially antagonistic protein, were detectable in CD34+ cells, but their levels declined rapidly during differentiation into the granulocytic, monocytic, dendritic, erythroid, and megakaryocytic lineages. Similarly, EVI1 protein levels decreased during myeloid differentiation. Attempts to experimentally express EVI1 in CD34+ and U937 cells indicated that ectopic expression of EVI1 may cause growth arrest, apoptosis and/or senescence of human hematopoietic cells. Conclusion EVI1 is expressed in human hematopoietic progenitor cells, but is down-regulated during differentiation. Ectopic expression of EVI1 may activate cellular safeguards against oncogene activation.

Steinleitner, Katarina; Rampetsreiter, Paulina; Koffel, Rene; Ramanathan, Gajalakshmi; Mannhalter, Christine; Strobl, Herbert; Wieser, Rotraud

2012-01-01

36

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant for acute myeloid leukemia: Current state in 2013 and future directions.  

PubMed

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) represents a heterogeneous group of high-grade myeloid neoplasms of the elderly with variable outcomes. Though remission-induction is an important first step in the management of AML, additional treatment strategies are essential to ensure long-term disease-free survival. Recent pivotal advances in understanding the genetics and molecular biology of AML have allowed for a risk-adapted approach in its management based on relapse-risk. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) represents an effective therapeutic strategy in AML providing the possibility of cure with potent graft-versus-leukemia reactions, with a demonstrable survival advantage in younger patients with intermediate- or poor-risk cytogenetics. Herein we review the published data regarding the role of allo-HCT in adults with AML. We searched MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE/Ovid. In addition, we searched reference lists of relevant articles, conference proceedings and ongoing trial databases. We discuss the role of allo-HCT in AML patients stratified by cytogenetic- and molecular-risk in first complete remission, as well as allo-HCT as an option in relapsed/refractory AML. Besides the conventional sibling and unrelated donor allografts, we review the available data and recent advances for alternative donor sources such as haploidentical grafts and umbilical cord blood. We also discuss conditioning regimens, including reduced intensity conditioning which has broadened the applicability of allo-HCT. Finally we explore recent advances and future possibilities and directions of allo-HCT in AML. Practical therapeutic recommendations have been made where possible based on available data and expert opinion. PMID:24772235

Kanate, Abraham S; Pasquini, Marcelo C; Hari, Parameswaran N; Hamadani, Mehdi

2014-04-26

37

Translocation Products in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Activate the Wnt Signaling Pathway in Hematopoietic Cells  

PubMed Central

The acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-associated translocation products AML1-ETO, PML-retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR?), and PLZF-RAR? encode aberrant transcription factors. Several lines of evidence suggest similar pathogenetic mechanisms for these fusion proteins. We used high-density oligonucleotide arrays to identify shared target genes in inducibly transfected U937 cells expressing AML1-ETO, PML-RAR?, or PLZF-RAR?. All three fusion proteins significantly repressed the expression of 38 genes and induced the expression of 14 genes. Several of the regulated genes were associated with Wnt signaling. One of these, plakoglobin (?-catenin), was induced on the mRNA and protein level by all three fusion proteins. In addition, primary AML blasts carrying one of the fusion proteins significantly overexpressed plakoglobin. The plakoglobin promoter was cloned and shown to be induced by AML1-ETO, with promoter activation depending on the corepressor and histone deacetylase binding domains. The induction of plakoglobin by AML fusion proteins led to downstream signaling and transactivation of TCF- and LEF-dependent promoters, including the c-myc promoter, which was found to be bound by plakoglobin in vivo after AML1-ETO expression. ?-Catenin protein levels and TCF and LEF target genes such as c-myc and cyclin D1 were found to be induced by the fusion proteins. On the functional level, a dominant negative TCF inhibited colony growth of AML1-ETO-positive Kasumi cells, whereas plakoglobin transfection into myeloid 32D cells enhanced proliferation and clonal growth. Injection of plakoglobin-expressing 32D cells into syngeneic mice accelerated the development of leukemia. Transduction of plakoglobin into primitive murine hematopoietic progenitor cells preserved the immature phenotype during colony growth, suggesting enhanced self-renewal. These data provide evidence that activation of Wnt signaling is a common feature of several balanced translocations in AML.

Muller-Tidow, Carsten; Steffen, Bjorn; Cauvet, Thomas; Tickenbrock, Lara; Ji, Ping; Diederichs, Sven; Sargin, Bulent; Kohler, Gabriele; Stelljes, Matthias; Puccetti, Elena; Ruthardt, Martin; deVos, Sven; Hiebert, Scott W.; Koeffler, H. Phillip; Berdel, Wolfgang E.; Serve, Hubert

2004-01-01

38

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant for acute myeloid leukemia: Current state in 2013 and future directions  

PubMed Central

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) represents a heterogeneous group of high-grade myeloid neoplasms of the elderly with variable outcomes. Though remission-induction is an important first step in the management of AML, additional treatment strategies are essential to ensure long-term disease-free survival. Recent pivotal advances in understanding the genetics and molecular biology of AML have allowed for a risk-adapted approach in its management based on relapse-risk. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) represents an effective therapeutic strategy in AML providing the possibility of cure with potent graft-versus-leukemia reactions, with a demonstrable survival advantage in younger patients with intermediate- or poor-risk cytogenetics. Herein we review the published data regarding the role of allo-HCT in adults with AML. We searched MEDLINE/PubMed and EMBASE/Ovid. In addition, we searched reference lists of relevant articles, conference proceedings and ongoing trial databases. We discuss the role of allo-HCT in AML patients stratified by cytogenetic- and molecular-risk in first complete remission, as well as allo-HCT as an option in relapsed/refractory AML. Besides the conventional sibling and unrelated donor allografts, we review the available data and recent advances for alternative donor sources such as haploidentical grafts and umbilical cord blood. We also discuss conditioning regimens, including reduced intensity conditioning which has broadened the applicability of allo-HCT. Finally we explore recent advances and future possibilities and directions of allo-HCT in AML. Practical therapeutic recommendations have been made where possible based on available data and expert opinion.

Kanate, Abraham S; Pasquini, Marcelo C; Hari, Parameswaran N; Hamadani, Mehdi

2014-01-01

39

Gpr171, a putative P2Y-like receptor, negatively regulates myeloid differentiation in murine hematopoietic progenitors  

PubMed Central

Gpr171 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor putatively related to the P2Y family of purinergic receptors (P2YRs) for extracellular nucleotides, a group of mediators previously shown to regulate hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). No information is currently available on the ligand responsible for Gpr171 activation and its biological role remains unknown. We reconstructed Gpr171 phylogenesis in mice and confirmed that Gpr171 is evolutionally related to members of a P2Y gene-cluster localized on mouse chromosome 3. As a first step towards unveiling a role for Gpr171, we investigated its expression profile in murine hematopoietic cells. As opposed to other P2YRs, we found that Gpr171 expression is downregulated in monocytes and granulocytes, suggesting a negative role in myeloid lineage-specification. To test Gpr171 functional role, we next enforced Gpr171 expression in a myeloblastic cell line (32D cells) and in primary Sca-1+ hematopoietic progenitors (HPCs), and observed a decreased expression of myeloid markers upon induction of Gpr171, as well as an increased generation of colonies in vitro. Conversely, Gpr171 silencing induced opposite results, diminishing the expression of myeloid markers and the clonogenic potential of 32D cells. In vivo, mice transplanted with HPCs over-expressing Gpr171 displayed a significant reduction in the percentage of Mac-1+Gr-1? cells. As a preliminary step in the investigation of Gpr171 role in murine hematopoiesis, our findings indicate that the orphan receptor Gpr171 negatively regulates myeloid differentiation. Together with phylogenic analyses, our data suggest that Gpr171 may have followed a separate evolutionary pathway as compared to other P2YRs belonging to the same gene-cluster.

Rossi, Lara; Lemoli, Roberto M.; Goodell, Margaret A.

2012-01-01

40

Clonal Evolution of Pre-Leukemic Hematopoietic Stem Cells Precedes Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Given that most bone marrow cells are short-lived, the accumulation of multiple leukemogenic mutations in a single clonal lineage has been difficult to explain. Here, we propose that serial acquisition of mutations occurs in self-renewing hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We investigated this model through genomic analysis of HSCs from six patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using exome sequencing, we identified mutations present in individual AML patients harboring the FLT3-ITD mutation. We then screened the residual HSCs and detected some of these mutations including mutations in the NPM1, TET2, and SMC1A genes. Finally, through single cell analysis, we determined that a clonal progression of multiple mutations occurred in the HSCs of some AML patients. These pre-leukemic HSCs suggest the clonal evolution of AML genomes from founder mutations, revealing a potential mechanism contributing to relapse. Such pre-leukemic HSCs may constitute a cellular reservoir that needs to be targeted therapeutically for more durable remissions.

Jan, Max; Snyder, Thomas M.; Corces-Zimmerman, M. Ryan; Vyas, Paresh; Weissman, Irving L.; Quake, Stephen R.; Majeti, Ravindra

2014-01-01

41

Outcome of patients with abnl(17p) acute myeloid leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and abnormalities of chromosome 17p (abnl(17p)) are at high-risk of treatment failure. Poor outcomes have been reported with conventional chemotherapy. To accurately define the outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with abnl(17p) AML, we analyzed the results of patients with this abnormality who received an allogeneic HSCT between January 2000 and December 2010 in 1 of 4 well-defined cohorts (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Haemato Oncology Foundation for Adults in the Netherlands, Study Alliance Leukemia, German Cooperative Transplant Study Group). Data of 201 patients with a median age of 54 years were evaluable. At the time of analysis, 30 patients were alive with a median follow-up of 30 months. The 3-year probability of overall survival (OS) was 15% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10-20). The cumulative incidence of relapse at 3 years was 49% (95% CI, 42-56). Notably, almost 70% of all relapses occurred within the first 6 months after HSCT. Patients who were transplanted in first complete remission (CR1) had superior OS compared with those with advanced disease (22% vs 9%, P < .001). Our findings confirm the high-risk of treatment failure in abnl(17p) AML even after allogeneic HSCT in CR1. Although allogeneic HSCT remains a valid option in CR1, alternative treatment strategies are needed for the remaining patients. PMID:24652988

Middeke, Jan M; Fang, Min; Cornelissen, Jan J; Mohr, Brigitte; Appelbaum, Frederick R; Stadler, Michael; Sanz, Jaime; Baurmann, Herrad; Bug, Gesine; Schäfer-Eckart, Kerstin; Hegenbart, Ute; Bochtler, Tilmann; Röllig, Christoph; Stölzel, Friedrich; Walter, Roland B; Ehninger, Gerhard; Bornhäuser, Martin; Löwenberg, Bob; Schetelig, Johannes

2014-05-01

42

CD117 expression in gammopathies is associated with an altered maturation of the myeloid and lymphoid hematopoietic cell compartments and favorable disease features.  

PubMed

Aberrant CD117 expression is associated with a favorable outcome in multiple myeloma. We analyzed 106 patients with symptomatic multiple myeloma (n=50), smoldering multiple myeloma (n=38) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (n=18) to elucidate biological features of CD117(+) versus CD117(-) monoclonal gammopathies. CD117(+) (mono)clonal plasma cells were detected in 30% symptomatic multiple myeloma, 45% smoldering multiple myeloma and 72% monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance patients. CD117 expression was associated with higher percentages of normal bone marrow plasma cells, CD117(+) myeloid precursors and CD38(+) B lymphocytes in all monoclonal gammopathies. Conversely, the number of bone marrow CD34(+) myeloid cells and peripheral blood neutrophils was reduced among CD117(+) multiple myeloma but not monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance patients. CD117 expression by (mono)clonal plasma cells is associated with uniquely altered patterns of production of hematopoietic bone marrow cells with decreased peripheral blood neutrophil counts and persistence of normal residual bone marrow plasma cells. PMID:20971816

Schmidt-Hieber, Martin; Pérez-Andrés, Martin; Paiva, Bruno; Flores-Montero, Juan; Perez, Jose J; Gutierrez, Norma C; Vidriales, Maria-Belen; Matarraz, Sergio; San Miguel, Jesus F; Orfao, Alberto

2011-02-01

43

Clonal analysis reveals a common progenitor for endothelial, myeloid, and lymphoid precursors in umbilical cord blood  

PubMed Central

Rationale Several studies demonstrate that hematopoietic tissues are a source of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which contribute to newly formed blood vessels during tissue repair in adults. However, it is not clear which cell type in these hematopoietic tissues gives rise to EPCs. Objective To identity the origin of endothelial progenitors within the hematopoietic hierarchy, and assess their in vivo revascularization potential. Methods and Results Using a single cell sorting approach and in vitro multi-lineage differentiation assays, here we show that individual CD34+CD45+CD133+CD38+ cells from cord blood uniquely have the ability to differentiate into T and B lymphoid, myeloid, and endothelial cells. The latter were characterized by the expression of VE-cadherin, KDR, vWF, eNOs, the lack of CD45, CD133 and c-fms. Unexpectedly when transplanted into hind-limb ischemic NOD-scid IL2Rgammanull mice, freshly-isolated CD34+CD45+CD133+CD38+ cells maintained their hematopoietic identity and were rarely found to integrate into host blood vessels. Nevertheless, they significantly improve perfusion, most likely through a paracrine mechanism. On the other hand, endothelial cells derived in vitro from this fraction, are able to form vessels in vivo in both Matrigel plug and hind-limb ischemia transplantation assays. Conclusions These findings indicate that the CD34+CD45+CD133+CD38+ cell fraction contains a common progenitor for the hematopoietic and vascular lineages, and may represent a valuable cell source for therapeutic applications.

Ramos, Aline Lisie; Darabi, Radbod; Akbarloo, Nasrin; Borges, Luciene; Catanese, Jacquelyn; Dineen, Sean P.; Brekken, Rolf A.; Perlingeiro, Rita C. R.

2010-01-01

44

Acute myeloid leukemia does not deplete normal hematopoietic stem cells but induces cytopenias by impeding their differentiation  

PubMed Central

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induces bone marrow (BM) failure in patients, predisposing them to life-threatening infections and bleeding. The mechanism by which AML mediates this complication is unknown but one widely accepted explanation is that AML depletes the BM of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) through displacement. We sought to investigate how AML affects hematopoiesis by quantifying residual normal hematopoietic subpopulations in the BM of immunodeficient mice transplanted with human AML cells with a range of genetic lesions. The numbers of normal mouse HSCs were preserved whereas normal progenitors and other downstream hematopoietic cells were reduced following transplantation of primary AMLs, findings consistent with a differentiation block at the HSC–progenitor transition, rather than displacement. Once removed from the leukemic environment, residual normal hematopoietic cells differentiated normally and outcompeted steady-state hematopoietic cells, indicating that this effect is reversible. We confirmed the clinical significance of this by ex vivo analysis of normal hematopoietic subpopulations from BM of 16 patients with AML. This analysis demonstrated that the numbers of normal CD34+CD38? stem-progenitor cells were similar in the BM of AML patients and controls, whereas normal CD34+CD38+ progenitors were reduced. Residual normal CD34+ cells from patients with AML were enriched in long-term culture, initiating cells and repopulating cells compared with controls. In conclusion the data do not support the idea that BM failure in AML is due to HSC depletion. Rather, AML inhibits production of downstream hematopoietic cells by impeding differentiation at the HSC–progenitor transition.

Miraki-Moud, Farideh; Anjos-Afonso, Fernando; Hodby, Katharine A.; Griessinger, Emmanuel; Rosignoli, Guglielmo; Lillington, Debra; Jia, Li; Davies, Jeff K.; Cavenagh, Jamie; Smith, Matthew; Oakervee, Heather; Agrawal, Samir; Gribben, John G.; Bonnet, Dominique; Taussig, David C.

2013-01-01

45

Acute myeloid leukemia does not deplete normal hematopoietic stem cells but induces cytopenias by impeding their differentiation.  

PubMed

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) induces bone marrow (BM) failure in patients, predisposing them to life-threatening infections and bleeding. The mechanism by which AML mediates this complication is unknown but one widely accepted explanation is that AML depletes the BM of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) through displacement. We sought to investigate how AML affects hematopoiesis by quantifying residual normal hematopoietic subpopulations in the BM of immunodeficient mice transplanted with human AML cells with a range of genetic lesions. The numbers of normal mouse HSCs were preserved whereas normal progenitors and other downstream hematopoietic cells were reduced following transplantation of primary AMLs, findings consistent with a differentiation block at the HSC-progenitor transition, rather than displacement. Once removed from the leukemic environment, residual normal hematopoietic cells differentiated normally and outcompeted steady-state hematopoietic cells, indicating that this effect is reversible. We confirmed the clinical significance of this by ex vivo analysis of normal hematopoietic subpopulations from BM of 16 patients with AML. This analysis demonstrated that the numbers of normal CD34(+)CD38(-) stem-progenitor cells were similar in the BM of AML patients and controls, whereas normal CD34(+)CD38(+) progenitors were reduced. Residual normal CD34(+) cells from patients with AML were enriched in long-term culture, initiating cells and repopulating cells compared with controls. In conclusion the data do not support the idea that BM failure in AML is due to HSC depletion. Rather, AML inhibits production of downstream hematopoietic cells by impeding differentiation at the HSC-progenitor transition. PMID:23901108

Miraki-Moud, Farideh; Anjos-Afonso, Fernando; Hodby, Katharine A; Griessinger, Emmanuel; Rosignoli, Guglielmo; Lillington, Debra; Jia, Li; Davies, Jeff K; Cavenagh, Jamie; Smith, Matthew; Oakervee, Heather; Agrawal, Samir; Gribben, John G; Bonnet, Dominique; Taussig, David C

2013-08-13

46

CpG oligodeoxynucleotide induces bone marrow precursor cells into myeloid-derived suppressor cells.  

PubMed

Dendritic cells (DCs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) perform a number of functions in different immunological settings. In standard in vitro experiments, DCs are produced from mouse bone marrow (BM) cells in the presence of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-4. Our previous study demonstrated that BM precursor cells could differentiate into MDSCs when co-cultured with poly (I:C). In the present study, BM precursor cells cultured in GM-CSF and IL-4 were treated with CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG ODN). We observed that Gr1+CD11b+ cells exhibiting MDSC functions accumulated in the co-culture system. A similar phenomenon was also observed in Listeria monocytogenes-infected mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that prolonged CpG ODN stimulation could inhibit the development of DCs and induce the differentiation of BM precursor cells into MDSCs. PMID:23982226

Chen, Jie; Deng, Chengyu; Shi, Qingmin; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Yongbo; Shan, Wei; Sun, Weimin

2013-10-01

47

The Role of Cytotoxic Therapy with Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in the Therapy of Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Children: An Evidence-Based Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical research examining the role of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in the therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in children is presented and critically evaluated in this systematic evidence-based review. Specific criteria were used for searching the published literature and for grading the quality and strength of the evidence and the strength of the treatment recommendations. Treatment recommendations based

Denise M. Oliansky; J. Douglas Rizzo; Peter D. Aplan; Robert J. Arceci; Louis Leone; Yaddanapudi Ravindranath; Jean E. Sanders; Franklin O. Smith; Fiona Wilmot; Philip L. McCarthy; Theresa Hahn

2007-01-01

48

Transcriptional dysregulation during myeloid transformation in AML  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current paradigm on leukemogenesis indicates that leukemias are propagated by leukemic stem cells. The genomic events and pathways involved in the transformation of hematopoietic precursors into leukemic stem cells are increasingly understood. This concept is based on genomic mutations or functional dysregulation of transcription factors in malignant cells of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Loss of the CCAAT\\/enhancer

T Pabst; B U Mueller

2007-01-01

49

Prevention of hematopoietic myeloid and megakaryocyte toxicity associated with zidovudine in vivo in mice with recombinant GM-CSF.  

PubMed

We studied the effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on the suppression of hematopoiesis associated with the use of the antiviral drug zidovudine (AZT) administered in vivo to normal mice, as determined by measuring peripheral blood indices, and assays of hematopoietic progenitors, i.e. erythroid (CFU-E/BFU-E), myeloid (CFU-GM), and megakaryocyte (CFU-Meg) from bone marrow and spleen. Previous studies from this laboratory have established that dose-escalation zidovudine induced a dose-dependent decrease in hematocrit, WBC, and platelets with altered populations of bone marrow and splenic erythroid, myeloid and megakaryocyte progenitors when administered to normal mice. Daily administration of GM-CSF (10 micrograms/kg/bw) was associated with altered peripheral blood indices and progenitor cells. Dose-escalation AZT, i.e. 0.1, 1.0 and 2.5 mg/ml, was associated with a comparable reduction in all indices, i.e. hematocrit, WBC, and platelets during the 6-week examination period. GM-CSF reduced zidovudine-induced myeloid toxicity (concentration < 2.5 mg/ml) which was associated with an increase in bone marrow and splenic CFU-GM. High concentration, i.e. 2.5 mg/ml still produced myelosuppression irreversible with GM-CSF. GM-CSF induced a reduction in circulating platelets following zidovudine treatment at weeks 2 and 4 with the 1.0 mg/ml and 2.5 mg/ml treatment groups respectively, compared to a persistent decrease in platelets in the presence of zidovudine alone. GM-CSF BFU-E were elevated indicating the restriction in erythoid differentiation was still present. These studies demonstrate GM-CSF influences myeloid and megakaryocyte recovery, but not the erythoid suppression associated with the antiviral drug zidovudine. PMID:7950902

Gallicchio, V S; Hughes, N K; Tse, K F

1994-06-01

50

Development of mature and functional human myeloid subsets in hematopoietic stem cell-engrafted NOD/SCID/IL2r?KO mice.  

PubMed

Although physiological development of human lymphoid subsets has become well documented in humanized mice, in vivo development of human myeloid subsets in a xenotransplantation setting has remained unevaluated. Therefore, we investigated in vivo differentiation and function of human myeloid subsets in NOD/SCID/IL2r?(null) (NSG) mouse recipients transplanted with purified lineage(-)CD34(+)CD38(-) cord blood hematopoietic stem cells. At 4-6 mo posttransplantation, we identified the development of human neutrophils, basophils, mast cells, monocytes, and conventional and plasmacytoid dendritic cells in the recipient hematopoietic organs. The tissue distribution and morphology of these human myeloid cells were similar to those identified in humans. After cytokine stimulation in vitro, phosphorylation of STAT molecules was observed in neutrophils and monocytes. In vivo administration of human G-CSF resulted in the recruitment of human myeloid cells into the recipient circulation. Flow cytometry and confocal imaging demonstrated that human bone marrow monocytes and alveolar macrophages in the recipients displayed intact phagocytic function. Human bone marrow-derived monocytes/macrophages were further confirmed to exhibit phagocytosis and killing of Salmonella typhimurium upon IFN-? stimulation. These findings demonstrate the development of mature and functionally intact human myeloid subsets in vivo in the NSG recipients. In vivo human myelopoiesis established in the NSG humanized mouse system may facilitate the investigation of human myeloid cell biology including in vivo analyses of infectious diseases and therapeutic interventions. PMID:22611244

Tanaka, Satoshi; Saito, Yoriko; Kunisawa, Jun; Kurashima, Yosuke; Wake, Taichi; Suzuki, Nahoko; Shultz, Leonard D; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Fumihiko

2012-06-15

51

An “Age” Structured Model of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Organization with Application to Chronic Myeloid Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously, we have modeled hematopoietic stem cell organization by a stochastic, single cell-based approach. Applications\\u000a to different experimental systems demonstrated that this model consistently explains a broad variety of in vivo and in vitro data. A major advantage of the agent-based model (ABM) is the representation of heterogeneity within the hematopoietic stem\\u000a cell population. However, this advantage comes at the price

Ingo Roeder; Maria Herberg; Matthias Horn

2009-01-01

52

Analysis of non-HLA genomic risk factors in HLA-matched unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Background Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation is the main curative therapy for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who do not respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. It has been proposed that non-human leukocyte antigen gene polymorphisms influence outcome after hematopoietic cell transplantation and could be used alongside traditional patient-donor and transplant characteristics to create a recipient risk profile associated with allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Design and Methods A previous study from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation showed that the absence of recipient tumor necrosis factor receptor II, absence of donor interleukin 10 ATA/ACC and presence of donor interleukin 1 receptor antagonist allele 2 genotypes were associated with decreased survival and increased non-relapse mortality in adult patients with chronic myeloid leukemia undergoing myeloablative human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling transplantation. To explore these associations in unrelated donor transplantation, these polymorphisms were genotyped in 383 adult patients with chronic myeloid leukemia who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation from unrelated donors matched for 10/10 human leukocyte antigens. Results The polymorphisms were not associated with overall survival, non-relapse mortality, relapse or acute graft-versus-host disease in the unrelated donor cohort. Comparison of the unrelated donor and human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling cohorts showed differences in survival and clinical characteristics. Conclusions We did not confirm that non-human leukocyte antigen polymorphisms were associated with outcomes in myeloablative unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia, possibly because of the strong association between clinical variables and outcome which masked more subtle genetic effects.

Pearce, Kim F.; Lee, Stephanie J.; Haagenson, Michael; Petersdorf, Effie W.; Norden, Jean; Collin, Matthew P.; Klein, John P.; Spellman, Stephen R.; Lowerson, Shelagh A.; Davies, Stella; Dickinson, Anne M.

2012-01-01

53

Daunorubicin, Cytarabine, and Cladribine Regimen Plus Radiotherapy and Donor Lymphocyte Infusion for Extramedullary Relapse of Acute Myeloid Leukemia after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Myeloid sarcoma is a rare tumor consisting of myeloid blasts that involve anatomic sites outside the bone marrow. Fatal prognosis is inevitable in patients with extramedullary relapse after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and no standard treatments are available yet. We report the first case of extramedullary relapse after HSCT treated with a combination of daunorubicin, cytarabine, and cladribine (DAC) regimen plus radiotherapy and donor lymphocyte infusion (DLI). This treatment induced a new and durable remission in our patient. The favorable toxicity profile and the reduced cost make this combination worthy of further investigations.

Sanna, Marco; Caocci, Giovanni; Vacca, Adriana; Piras, Eugenia; Orru, Federica; La Nasa, Giorgio

2013-01-01

54

PSTPIP2 deficiency in mice causes osteopenia and increased differentiation of multipotent myeloid precursors into osteoclasts.  

PubMed

Missense mutations that reduce or abrogate myeloid cell expression of the F-BAR domain protein, proline serine threonine phosphatase-interacting protein 2 (PSTPIP2), lead to autoinflammatory disease involving extramedullary hematopoiesis, skin and bone lesions. However, little is known about how PSTPIP2 regulates osteoclast development. Here we examined how PSTPIP2 deficiency causes osteopenia and bone lesions, using the mouse PSTPIP2 mutations, cmo, which fails to express PSTPIP2 and Lupo, in which PSTPIP2 is dysfunctional. In both models, serum levels of the pro-osteoclastogenic factor, MIP-1?, were elevated and CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R)-dependent production of MIP-1? by macrophages was increased. Treatment of cmo mice with a dual specificity CSF-1R and c-Kit inhibitor, PLX3397, decreased circulating MIP-1? and ameliorated the extramedullary hematopoiesis, inflammation, and osteopenia, demonstrating that aberrant myelopoiesis drives disease. Purified osteoclast precursors from PSTPIP2-deficient mice exhibit increased osteoclastogenesis in vitro and were used to probe the structural requirements for PSTPIP2 suppression of osteoclast development. PSTPIP2 tyrosine phosphorylation and a functional F-BAR domain were essential for PSTPIP2 inhibition of TRAP expression and osteoclast precursor fusion, whereas interaction with PEST-type phosphatases was only required for suppression of TRAP expression. Thus, PSTPIP2 acts as a negative feedback regulator of CSF-1R signaling to suppress inflammation and osteoclastogenesis. PMID:22923495

Chitu, Violeta; Nacu, Viorel; Charles, Julia F; Henne, William M; McMahon, Harvey T; Nandi, Sayan; Ketchum, Halley; Harris, Renee; Nakamura, Mary C; Stanley, E Richard

2012-10-11

55

Lentinan: Hematopoietic, Immunological, and Efficacy Studies in a Syngeneic Model of Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lentinan, a ?-glucan nutritional supplement isolated from the shitake mushroom (Lentula edodes), is a biological response modifier with immunostimulatory properties. Concomitantly, the role of ?-glucans as chemoimmunotherapeutic in a number of solid cancers has been widely documented. We investigated the effects of nutritional grade lentinan upon BN rats and in a preclinical syngeneic model of acute myeloid leukemia. BN rats

Emmet McCormack; Jørn Skavland; Maja Muji?; Øystein Bruserud; Bjørn Tore Gjertsen

2010-01-01

56

Hematopoietic transplantation from adult unrelated donors as treatment for acute myeloid leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transplantation from unrelated donors (URD) is increasingly being used as treatment for hematological malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This increase is the consequence of the availability of more than 11 million URD volunteers and the more efficient donor search process in the recent years. Median time to identify a suitable URD is now 2 months. More than 50% of

J Sierra; R Martino; B Sánchez; J L Piñana; D Valcárcel; S Brunet

2008-01-01

57

The use of isobaric tag peptide labeling (iTRAQ) and mass spectrometry to examine rare, primitive hematopoietic cells from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic stem cell disease, associated with a t(9, 22) chromosomal translocation\\u000a leading to formation of the BCR\\/ABL chimeric protein, which has an intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. Recently, the BCR\\/ABL\\u000a tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate (imatinib) has been successfully used clinically, although, disease relapse can\\u000a still occur. The precise detail of the mechanism by which

Stephen D. Griffiths; John Burthem; Richard D. Unwin; Tessa L. Holyoake; Junia V. Melo; Guy S. Lucas; Anthony D. Whetton

2007-01-01

58

High CD4\\/CD8 ratio in allografts predicts adverse outcomes in unmanipulated HLA-mismatched\\/haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

HLA-mismatched\\/haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-mismatched HSCT) has improved the outcome of\\u000a chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in patients without an HLA-matched donor. To further improve the treatment outcome of haplo-mismatched\\u000a HSCT in CML, a modifiable prognostic factor needs to be found. The cellular composition of grafts obtained from 75 HLA-mismatched\\/haploidentical\\u000a related donors was prospectively correlated with the outcome of patients

Lan-Ping Xu; Xiao-Hua Luo; Ying-Jun Chang; Dai-Hong Liu; Kai-Yan Liu; Yu-Hong Chen; Xiao-Jun Huang

2009-01-01

59

Reduced intensity conditioning for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with acute myeloid leukemia: disease status by marrow blasts is the strongest prognostic factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We analyzed predictive factors for the outcome of 113 acute myeloid leukemia patients receiving reduced-intensity conditioning prior to allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients were ineligible for conventional-intensity HSCT. Conditioning consisted of fludarabine and 50% of the conventional dose of busulfan (n=93) or total body irradiation (n=20). The source of stem cells was blood in 102 patients, marrow in

H G Sayer; M Kröger; J Beyer; M Kiehl; S A Klein; K Schaefer-Eckart; R Schwerdtfeger; W Siegert; V Runde; C Theuser; H Martin; J Schetelig; D W Beelen; A Fauser; J Kienast; K Höffken; G Ehninger; M Bornhäuser

2003-01-01

60

High-dose melphalan with autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia: results of a retrospective analysis of the Italian Pediatric Group for Bone Marrow Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This retrospective study from the Italian Association of Pediatric Hematology Oncology-Bone Marrow Transplant Group (AIEOP-TMO) reports the results of consolidation with high-dose melphalan and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1). From October 1994 to July 1999, 20 patients (median age 9.9 years, range 0.11–16.2) were treated in six

S Cesaro; G Meloni; C Messina; M Pillon; A Proglia; E Lanino; M Caniggia; S Bagnulo; A Pession; F Locatelli

2001-01-01

61

Molecular analysis of hematopoietic colonies derived from chronic myeloid leukemia patients: interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization compared with RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we compared interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (I-FISH) with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the molecular analysis of hematopoietic colonies derived from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Molecular analysis of individual colonies is often performed to monitor purging efficacy in CML. We harvested individual colony-forming unit granulocyte–macrophage (CFU-GM) colonies. One half was analyzed with

SFT Thijsen; GJ Schuurhuis; JW van Oostveen; AP Theijsmeijer; MMAC Langenhuijsen; GJ Ossenkoppele

1997-01-01

62

Reduced intensity conditioning allows for up-front allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation after cytoreductive induction therapy in newly-diagnosed high-risk acute myeloid leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is substantial need to improve the outcome of patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The clinical trial reported here investigated a new approach of up-front allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), provided a median of 40 days (range 22–74) after diagnosis, in twenty-six consecutive patients with newly-diagnosed high-risk AML characterized by poor-risk cytogenetics (n=19) or inadequate blast clearance

U Platzbecker; C Thiede; M Füssel; G Geissler; T Illmer; B Mohr; M Hänel; R Mahlberg; U Krümpelmann; F Weissinger; M Schaich; C Theuser; G Ehninger; M Bornhäuser

2006-01-01

63

Translocation Products in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Activate the Wnt Signaling Pathway in Hematopoietic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acute myeloid leukemia (AML)-associated translocation products AML1-ETO, PML-retinoic acid re- ceptor alpha (RAR), and PLZF-RAR encode aberrant transcription factors. Several lines of evidence suggest similar pathogenetic mechanisms for these fusion proteins. We used high-density oligonucleotide arrays to identify shared target genes in inducibly transfected U937 cells expressing AML1-ETO, PML-RAR, or PLZF-RAR. All three fusion proteins significantly repressed the expression

Carsten Muller-Tidow; Bjorn Steffen; Thomas Cauvet; Lara Tickenbrock; Ping Ji; Sven Diederichs; Bulent Sargin; Gabriele Kohler; Matthias Stelljes; Elena Puccetti; Martin Ruthardt; S. deVos; S. W. Hiebert; H. P. Koeffler; W. E. Berdel; H. Serve

2004-01-01

64

Role of gadd45 in myeloid cells in response to hematopoietic stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gadd45 family of genes is rapidly induced by different stressors, including differentiation-inducing cytokines, and there is a large body of evidence that their cognate proteins are key players in cellular stress responses. Induction of gadd45 genes at the onset of myeloid differentiation suggested that Gadd45 protein(s) play a role in hematopoiesis, yet no apparent abnormalities were observed in either

Barbara Hoffman; Dan A. Liebermann

2007-01-01

65

Enforced expression of HOXB7 promotes hematopoietic stem cell proliferation and myeloid-restricted progenitor differentiation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematopoietic progenitor\\/stem cells (HPCs\\/HSCs) purified from human adult peripheral blood (PB) were triggered into cycling, retrovirally transduced with HOXB7 and then functionally assayed in vitro. HPCs were assayed in multi- and unilineage differentiation cultures in either liquid phase or semisolid medium, primitive HPCs in the high proliferative potential colony-forming cell (HPP – CFC) evaluation system and putative HSCs in Dexter

Alessandra Carè; Mauro Valtieri; Gianfranco Mattia; Ettore Meccia; Barbara Masella; Luisella Luchetti; Federica Felicetti; Mario P Colombo; Cesare Peschle

1999-01-01

66

Busulfan and melphalan as conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission  

PubMed Central

Background Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with HLA-identical donors has been established for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia patients for over 30 years with a cure rate of 50% to 60%. Objectives To analyze the overall survival of patients and identify factors that influence the outcomes of this type of transplant in patients in 1st complete remission who received a busulfan and melphalan combination as conditioning regimen. Methods Twenty-five consecutive patients with acute myeloid leukemia were enrolled between 2003 and 2008. The median age was 34 years old (Range: 16 - 57 years). All patients received cyclosporine and methotrexate for prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease. Median neutrophil engraftment time was 16 days (Range: 7 - 22 days) and 17 days (Range: 7 - 46 days) for platelets. Sinusoidal obstructive syndrome was observed in three patients, seven had grade II acute graft-versus-host disease and one extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease. Results The overall survival by the Kaplan-Meier method was 48% after 36 months with a plateau at 36 months after transplantation. Intensive consolidation with high-dose arabinoside resulted in an improved survival (p-value = 0.0001), as did grade II acute graft-versus-host disease (p-value = 0.0377) and mild chronic graft-versus-host disease (p-value < 0.0001). Thirteen patients died, five due to infection within 100 days of transplant, two due to hemorrhages, one to infection and graftversus-host disease and three relapses followed by renal failure (one) and infection (two). The cause of death could not be determined for two patients. Conclusion The busulfan and melphalan conditioning regimen is as good as other conditioning regimens providing an excellent survival rate.

Bueno, Nadjanara Dorna; Dulley, Frederico Luiz; Saboya, Rosaura; Amigo Filho, Jose Ulysses; Coracin, Fabio Luiz; Chamone, Dalton de Alencar Fischer

2011-01-01

67

Acute myeloid leukemia: Therapeutic impact of epigenetic drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is not a single disease but a group of malignancies in which the clonal expansion of various types of hematopoietic precursor cells in the bone marrow leads to perturbation of the delicate balance between self-renewal and differentiation that is characteristic of normal hematopoiesis. An increasing number of genetic aberrations, such as chromosomal translocations that alter the

Lucia Altucci; Nicole Clarke; Angela Nebbioso; Annamaria Scognamiglio; Hinrich Gronemeyer

2005-01-01

68

Generation of Valpha14 NKT cells in vitro from hematopoietic precursors residing in bone marrow and peripheral blood.  

PubMed

We previously reported the generation of Valpha14 invariant TCR+ (Valpha14i) NK1.1+ natural killer T (NKT) cells in the cytokine-activated suspension culture of murine fetal liver cells. In this study, we attempted to apply this finding to the induction of Valpha14i NKT cell differentiation in the culture of hematopoietic precursors residing in bone marrow or peripheral blood. Preferential generation of NKT cells was found in the culture of Thy-1(+)-depleted bone marrow cells in the presence of culture supernatant from Con A-stimulated spleen T cells and a combination of recombinant IL-3, IL-4, IL-7 and GM-CSF. NKT cell development from peripheral blood hematopoietic precursors was induced when they were cultured on stromal cell monolayers prepared from Thy-1(+)-depleted bone marrow or fetal liver cells, suggesting that certain environments derived from hematopoietic organs are required for the induction of NKT cells from precursors in vitro. A significant fraction of NKT cells generated in the culture were positive for staining with CD1-alpha-galactosylceramide tetramer, indicating that Valpha14i NKT cells were the major subset among the NKT cells. The present methods for obtaining NKT cells in the culture of bone marrow or peripheral blood cells are applicable to the treatment of patients suffering from diseases with numerical and functional disorders of NKT cells. PMID:14991603

Shimamura, Michio; Kobayashi, Kumi; Watanabe, Hiroko; Huang, Yi-Ying; Okamoto, Naoki; Kanie, Osamu; Goji, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masumi

2004-03-01

69

Adoptive transfer of T-cell precursors enhances T-cell reconstitution after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Immunoincompetence after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) affects in particular the T-cell lineage and is associated with an increased risk for infections, graft failure and malignant relapse. To generate large numbers of T-cell precursors for adoptive therapy, we cultured mouse hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in vitro on OP9 mouse stromal cells expressing the Notch-1 ligand Delta-like-1 (OP9-DL1). We infused these cells, together with T-cell-depleted mouse bone marrow or purified HSCs, into lethally irradiated allogeneic recipients and determined their effect on T-cell reconstitution after transplantation. Recipients of OP9-DL1-derived T-cell precursors showed increased thymic cellularity and substantially improved donor T-cell chimerism (versus recipients of bone marrow or HSCs only). OP9-DL1-derived T-cell precursors gave rise to host-tolerant CD4+ and CD8+ populations with normal T-cell antigen receptor repertoires, cytokine secretion and proliferative responses to antigen. Administration of OP9-DL1-derived T-cell precursors increased resistance to infection with Listeria monocytogenes and mediated significant graft-versus-tumor (GVT) activity but not graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). We conclude that the adoptive transfer of OP9-DL1-derived T-cell precursors markedly enhances T-cell reconstitution after transplantation, resulting in GVT activity without GVHD. PMID:16936725

Zakrzewski, Johannes L; Kochman, Adam A; Lu, Sydney X; Terwey, Theis H; Kim, Theo D; Hubbard, Vanessa M; Muriglan, Stephanie J; Suh, David; Smith, Odette M; Grubin, Jeremy; Patel, Neel; Chow, Andrew; Cabrera-Perez, Javier; Radhakrishnan, Radhika; Diab, Adi; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Rizzuto, Gabrielle; Menet, Ewa; Pamer, Eric G; Heller, Glen; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan Carlos; Alpdogan, Onder; van den Brink, Marcel R M

2006-09-01

70

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in first remission abrogates poor outcomes associated with high-risk pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Despite remission rates of approximately 85% for children diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), greater than 40% will die from relapsed disease. Patients with poor-risk molecular/cytogenetics and/or inadequate response to up-front therapy are typically considered high-risk (HR) and historically have poor outcomes with chemotherapy alone. We investigated whether allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) with best available donor in first remission (CR1) would abrogate the poor outcomes associated with HR AML in children and young adults treated with chemotherapy. We reviewed the outcomes of 50 consecutive children and young adults (ages 0 to 30 years) with AML who received a myeloablative allo-HCT between 2001 and 2010. Thirty-six patients (72%) were HR, defined as having FLT3-ITD mutations, 11q23 MLL rearrangements, chromosome 5 or 7 abnormalities, induction failure, and/or having persistent disease. The majority of patients received cyclophosphamide and total body irradiation conditioning, and graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) prophylaxis was cyclosporine based. Transplantation outcomes for HR patients were compared to standard-risk patients, with no significant differences observed in overall survival (72% versus 78%, P = .72), leukemia-free survival (69% versus 79%, P = .62), relapse (11% versus 7%, P = .71), or treatment-related mortality (17% versus 14%, P = .89). Children and young adults with HR-AML have comparable outcomes to standard-risk patients following allo-HCT in CR1. PMID:23567175

Burke, Michael J; Wagner, John E; Cao, Qing; Ustun, Celalettin; Verneris, Michael R

2013-07-01

71

HIF-2? protects human hematopoietic stem/progenitors and acute myeloid leukemic cells from apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are exposed to low levels of oxygen in the bone marrow niche, and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are the main regulators of cellular responses to oxygen variation. Recent studies using conditional knockout mouse models have unveiled a major role for HIF-1? in the maintenance of murine HSCs; however, the role of HIF-2? is still unclear. Here, we show that knockdown of HIF-2?, and to a much lesser extent HIF-1?, impedes the long-term repopulating ability of human CD34(+) umbilical cord blood cells. HIF-2?-deficient HSPCs display increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which subsequently stimulates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and triggers apoptosis by activation of the unfolded-protein-response (UPR) pathway. HIF-2? deregulation also significantly decreased engraftment ability of human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Overall, our data demonstrate a key role for HIF-2? in the maintenance of human HSPCs and in the survival of primary AML cells. PMID:24095676

Rouault-Pierre, Kevin; Lopez-Onieva, Lourdes; Foster, Katie; Anjos-Afonso, Fernando; Lamrissi-Garcia, Isabelle; Serrano-Sanchez, Martin; Mitter, Richard; Ivanovic, Zoran; de Verneuil, Hubert; Gribben, John; Taussig, David; Rezvani, Hamid Reza; Mazurier, Frédéric; Bonnet, Dominique

2013-11-01

72

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with reduced-intensity conditioning following FLAMSA for primary refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Patients with primary refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have a dismal prognosis. We report a retrospective single center analysis of aplasia-inducing chemotherapy using fludarabine, cytarabine, and amsacrine (FLAMSA) followed by reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in 62 consecutive primary refractory or relapsed AML patients. Two-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) were 26 and 39%, respectively. Risk stratification according to cytogenetic and molecular genetic markers showed superior survival in patients in the intermediate-1 risk group (2-year OS 70%) compared to the intermediate-2 risk (2-year OS 34%, p = 0.03) and adverse risk (2-year OS 38%, p = 0.06) group. The use of HLA-matched versus HLA-mismatched donors had no significant influence on survival (p = 0.98). Two-year OS in the elderly subgroup defined by age ?60 years was 31% compared to 46% in the group of younger patients <60 years (p = 0.19). Cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality at 2 years adjusted for relapse as competing risk was 20% for patients <60 years and 26% for older patients (p = 0.55). Chronic graft-versus-host disease was associated with a statistically significant superior survival (p < 0.01). FLAMSA-RIC followed by allogeneic HCT enables long-term disease-free survival in primary refractory or relapsed AML even in the elderly patient population. PMID:23652585

Schneidawind, Dominik; Federmann, Birgit; Faul, Christoph; Vogel, Wichard; Kanz, Lothar; Bethge, Wolfgang Andreas

2013-10-01

73

Reduced-intensity conditioning for unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as treatment for myeloid malignancies in patients older than 55 years.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from unrelated donors is an effective treatment for myeloid malignancies, but its use is usually restricted to young patients without comorbidities. The development of reduced-intensity preparative regimens has allowed the extension of this form of treatment to older and medically infirm patients. We assessed the outcomes of patients older than 54 years who received unrelated donor transplants for the treatment of myeloid malignancies in our institution. There were 29 patients (median age, 59 years) with advanced acute myeloid leukemia (n = 13), myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 7), and chronic myeloid leukemia (n = 9) included. With a median follow-up of 27 months, the probability of overall and event-free survival, and nonrelapse mortality at one year were 44%, 37%, and 55%, respectively. Grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurred in 41% of patients and chronic GVHD developed in 63% of patients surviving more than 100 days. Of the 11 survivors, 9 were interviewed and reported good quality of life after transplantation using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Bone Marrow Transplant Scale (FACT-BMT) questionnaire, with high scores in all dimensions. Unrelated donor transplantation is a treatment option for older patients with myeloid malignancies. The results in this cohort of patients are comparable with those reported in younger patients with similarly advanced disease. PMID:12842990

Wong, Raymond; Giralt, Sergio A; Martin, Thomas; Couriel, Daniel R; Anagnostopoulos, Athanasios; Hosing, Chitra; Andersson, Borje S; Cano, Pedro; Shahjahan, Munir; Ippoliti, Cindy; Estey, Elihu H; McMannis, John; Gajewski, James L; Champlin, Richard E; de Lima, Marcos

2003-10-15

74

Response of newly established mouse myeloid leukemic cell lines to MC3T3-G2/PA6 preadipocytes and hematopoietic factors  

SciTech Connect

Some mouse myeloid leukemias induced by X-irradiation and serially transplanted into syngenic mice do not proliferate in vitro even in the presence of hematopoietic factors. To examine whether such leukemic cells can proliferate in response to stromal cells, we cocultured them with MC3T3-G2/PA6 (PA6) preadipocytes, cells that can support the growth of hematopoietic stem cells. All leukemias developed into in vitro cell lines, showing a dependence on contact with the PA6 cells. Two cell lines responded to none of the known hematopoietic factors including interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, GM-CSF, G-CSF, M-CSF, and Epo. These results demonstrate that the mechanism of the action of PA6 cells is different from that of any of the known hematopoietic factors, and that, because these two leukemic cell lines retained the ability to grow in vivo, responsiveness to the known hematopoietic factors is not essential for the leukemic cell growth in vivo. Furthermore, all leukemic cell lines could respond also to the preadipocytes fixed with formalin, paraformaldehyde, or glutaraldehyde, suggesting that some molecule(s) associated with the surface of PA6 cells or with extracellular matrix secreted by the preadipocytes is responsible for the leukemic cell growth.

Kodama, H.; Iizuka, M.; Tomiyama, T.; Yoshida, K.; Seki, M.; Suda, T.; Nishikawa, S. (Ohu Univ. School of Dentistry, Koriyama (Japan))

1991-01-01

75

Correlated miR-mRNA Expression Signatures of Mouse Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Subsets Predict "Stemness" and "Myeloid" Interaction Networks  

PubMed Central

Several individual miRNAs (miRs) have been implicated as potent regulators of important processes during normal and malignant hematopoiesis. In addition, many miRs have been shown to fine-tune intricate molecular networks, in concert with other regulatory elements. In order to study hematopoietic networks as a whole, we first created a map of global miR expression during early murine hematopoiesis. Next, we determined the copy number per cell for each miR in each of the examined stem and progenitor cell types. As data is emerging indicating that miRs function robustly mainly when they are expressed above a certain threshold (?100 copies per cell), our database provides a resource for determining which miRs are expressed at a potentially functional level in each cell type. Finally, we combine our miR expression map with matched mRNA expression data and external prediction algorithms, using a Bayesian modeling approach to create a global landscape of predicted miR-mRNA interactions within each of these hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell subsets. This approach implicates several interaction networks comprising a “stemness” signature in the most primitive hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) populations, as well as “myeloid” patterns associated with two branches of myeloid development.

Heiser, Diane; Tan, Yee Sun; Kaplan, Ian; Godsey, Brian; Morisot, Sebastien; Cheng, Wen-Chih; Small, Donald; Civin, Curt I.

2014-01-01

76

Recruitment of myeloid but not endothelial precursor cells facilitates tumor re-growth after local irradiation  

PubMed Central

Tumor neovascularization and growth may be promoted by recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs), which include endothelial precursor cells (EPCs) and “vascular modulatory” myelomonocytic (CD11b+) cells. BMDCs may also drive tumor re-growth after certain chemotherapeutic and vascular disruption treatments. In this study, we evaluated the role of BMDC recruitment in breast and lung carcinoma xenograft models after local irradiation (LI). We depleted the bone marrow by including whole body irradiation (WBI) of 6Gy as part of a total tumor dose of 21Gy, and compared the growth delay with the one achieved after LI of 21Gy. In both models, including WBI induced longer tumor growth delays. Moreover, including WBI increased lung tumor control probability by LI. Exogenous delivery of BMDCs from radiation-naïve donors partially abrogated the WBI effect. Myeloid BMDCs, primarily macrophages, rapidly accumulated in tumors after LI. Intratumoral expression of SDF-1?, a chemokine that promotes tissue retention of BMDCs, was noted 2 days after LI. Conversely, treatment with an inhibitor of SDF-1? receptor CXCR4 (AMD3100) with LI significantly delayed tumor re-growth. However, when administered starting from 5 days post-LI, AMD3100 treatment was ineffective. Lastly, with restorative bone marrow transplantation of Tie2-GFP-labeled BMDC population we observed an increased number of monocytes but not EPCs in tumors that recurred following LI. Our results suggest that an increase in intratumoral SDF-1? triggered by local irradiation recruits myelomonocyte/macrophage which promote tumor re-growth.

Kozin, Sergey V.; Kamoun, Walid S.; Huang, Yuhui; Dawson, Michelle R.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Duda, Dan G.

2010-01-01

77

A Human Myeloid Cell Line Producing Stem Cell Growth Factor, KPB-M15, Secretes Another Growth Factor Active on Murine Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human stem cell growth factor (SCGF) produced by a myeloid cell line, KPB-M15, exhibits species-specific hematopoietic activities. However, KPB-M15-conditioned medium induced colony formation of mouse bone marrow cells. KPB-M15-derived colony-stimulating activity (CSA) was purified through Butyl-Toyopearl 650c and Cu2+ chelating-Sepharose 6B chromatography. TSK-G3000SW gel filtration of the purified preparation presented 3 distinct peaks around Vo, 150 kD and 85 kD.

Atsunobu Hiraoka; Tetsuji Nagasawa; Naomi Ohta; Atsushi Sugimura; Norihide Shimizu; Kiyomoto Ooi; Shin Shimizu

1998-01-01

78

Chronic graft versus host disease with small bowel obstruction after unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) is a frequent complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but simultaneous small bowel obstruction is rare. Here, we report a child with acute myeloid leukemia who received an allogeneic HSCT from an unrelated matched donor. After HSCT, the patient developed severe chronic GVHD involving the small intestine, leading to obstruction of the terminal ileum. Small bowel resection was performed, and the symptoms improved without severe complications. Bowel obstruction should be considered as a possible complication of chronic GVHD; surgery may be a valuable corrective measure.

Yoon, Ju Young; Kim, Hyery; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Park, Kyung Duk; Ahn, Hyo Seop

2012-01-01

79

Flt3 signaling regulates the proliferation, survival, and maintenance of multipotent hematopoietic progenitors that generate B cell precursors  

PubMed Central

Flt3 signaling plays a crucial role in regulating the survival and differentiation of lymphoid progenitors into B cell precursors (BCPs) in bone marrow. To define further the role of Flt3 signaling in lymphoid progenitor survival, mice deficient in Flt3 ligand that also expressed a Bcl2 transgene (E?-bcl2tg flt3l?/?) were generated. Intracellular flow cytometry established transgene expression in primitive hematopoietic progenitors, including lineage-negative Sca-1+ c-kit+ (LSK+) CD27? cells enriched for functional hematopoietic stem cells. Compared with flt3l?/? mice, E?-bcl2tg flt3l?/? mice had significantly increased multipotential progenitors (MPPs), IL-7R+ common lymphoid progenitors, and B cell precursors. To determine whether forced expression of Bcl2 was sufficient to restore lymphoid priming in the absence of Flt3 signaling E?-bcl2tg flt3l?/? rag1-gfp+ mice were generated. Analysis of E?-bcl2tg flt3l?/? rag1-gfp+ mice revealed that the Bcl2 transgene had no effect on lymphoid priming before CD19 expression. Thus, forced expression of a survival gene can bypass the requirement for threshold levels of Flt3 signaling requisite for lymphoid priming. Temporal Flt3 ligand (FL) replacement therapy in flt3l?/? mice revealed specific requirements for Flt3 signaling in the expansion and maintenance of Flt3+hi MPP and Flt3+ all lymphoid progenitors, but not Flt3+ B lymphoid progenitors (BLPs), the immediate precursors of BCPs. BCPs were restored after temporal in vivo FL treatment, albeit with delayed kinetics. Together, these results show that Flt3 regulates the proliferation, and survival, and maintenance of developmental stage–specific hematopoietic progenitors that give rise to BCPs.

Dolence, Joseph J.; Gwin, Kimberly A.; Shapiro, Mariya B.; Medina, Kay L.

2014-01-01

80

New experimental and theoretical investigations of hematopoietic stem cells and chronic myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

We report on a focused workshop of The Leukemia and Lymphoma Society that was held at Goldsmiths, University of London in 2008. During this workshop we discussed new clinical and experimental data in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) research, particularly focusing on the validity (or otherwise) of corresponding mathematical models and simulations. We were specifically interested in whether the models could shed light on any of the fundamental mechanisms underlying this disease. Moreover, we were aiming to form a new community of clinicians and modelers looking at this disease and to define a common language and theoretical framework within which collaboration could flourish. The workshop showed the role that models can play, not just in trying to fit to existing data or predicting what individual mechanisms or system behaviors might occur, but also in challenging the orthodoxy of the concept of a stem cell and concepts such as "differentiation" and "determination". For years the prevailing view of a stem cell has been an entity (object) with a fixed set of behaviors and with a pre-determined fate. New perspectives in modeling, coupled with the new data that are being accumulated in the genesis of CML and its treatment, questions these assumptions. We propose how we can reach a consensus about a functional view of stem cells in a more continuous and flexible way and how, within this context, we can investigate the significance of modeling results and how they might impact on our interpretation of experimental observations and the development of new clinical strategies. This paper reports on the workshop and the state-of-the-art models and data from experimental and clinical trials, and sets out a roadmap for more interdisciplinary collaboration between modelers, wet-lab experimentalists, and clinicians interested in CML. It is our strong belief that a more integrated and coherent interdisciplinary approach will further advance the treatment of CML in future years. PMID:19411181

Roeder, Ingo; d'Inverno, Mark

2009-01-01

81

Induced pluripotent stem cells from GMP-grade hematopoietic progenitor cells and mononuclear myeloid cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction The induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology allows generation of patient-specific pluripotent stem cells, thereby providing a novel cell-therapy platform for severe degenerative diseases. One of the key issues for clinical-grade iPSC derivation is the accessibility of donor cells used for reprogramming. Methods We examined the feasibility of reprogramming mobilized GMP-grade hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and tested the pluripotency of derived iPS clones. Results Ectopic expression of OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and c-MYC in HPCs and PBMCs resulted in rapid iPSC derivation. Long-term time-lapse imaging revealed efficient iPSC growth under serum- and feeder-free conditions with frequent mitotic events. HPC- and PBMC-derived iPS cells expressed pluripotency-associated markers, including SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, and NANOG. The global gene-expression profiles demonstrated the induction of endogenous pluripotent genes, such as LIN28, TERT, DPPA4, and PODXL, in derived iPSCs. iPSC clones from blood and other cell sources showed similar ultrastructural morphologies and genome-wide gene-expression profiles. On spontaneous and guided differentiation, HPC- and PBMC-derived iPSCs were differentiated into cells of three germ layers, including insulin-producing cells through endodermal lineage, verifying the pluripotency of the blood-derived iPSC clones. Conclusions Because the use of blood cells allows minimally invasive tissue procurement under GMP conditions and rapid cellular reprogramming, mobilized HPCs and unmobilized PBMCs would be ideal somatic cell sources for clinical-grade iPSC derivation, especially from diabetes patients complicated by slow-healing wounds.

2011-01-01

82

Epigenetic changes during hematopoietic cell granulocytic differentiation - comparative analysis of primary CD34+ cells, KG1 myeloid cells and mature neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Background Epigenetic regulation is known to affect gene expression, and recent research shows that aberrant DNA methylation patterning and histone modifications may play a role in leukemogenesis. In order to highlight the co-operation of epigenetic mechanisms acting during the latter process it is important to clarify their potential as biomarkers of granulocytic differentiation. Results In this study we investigated epigenetic alterations in human hematopoietic cells at a distinct differentiation stages: primary hematopoietic CD34+ cells, KG1 myeloid leukemic cells, whose development is stopped at early stage of differentiation, and mature neutrophils. We focused on the epigenetic status of cell cycle regulating (p15, p16) and differentiation related (E-cadherin and RAR?) genes. We found that the methylation level in promoter regions of some of these genes was considerably higher in KG1 cells and lower in CD34+ cells and human neutrophils. As examined and evaluated by computer-assisted methods, histone H3 and H4 modifications, i.e. H3K4Me3, H3K9Ac, H3K9Ac/S10Ph and H4 hyperAc, were similar in CD34+ cells and human mature neutrophils. By contrast, in the KG1 cells, histone H3 and H4 modifications were quite high and increased after induction of granulocytic differentiation with the HDAC inhibitor phenyl butyrate. Conclusions We found the methylation status of the examined gene promoters and histone modifications to be characteristically associated with the hematopoietic cell progenitor state, induced to differentiate myeloid KG1 cells and normal blood neutrophils. This could be achieved through epigenetic regulation of E-cadherin, p15, p16 and RAR? genes expression caused by DNA methylation/demethylation, core and linker histones distribution in stem hematopoietic cells, induced to differentiation KG1 cells and mature human neutrophils, as well as the histone modifications H3K4Me3, H3K9Ac, H3K9Ac/S10Ph and H4 hyperAc in relation to hematopoietic cell differentiation to granulocyte. These findings also suggest them as potentially important biomarkers of hematopoietic cell granulocytic differentiation and could be valuable for leukemia induced differentiation therapy.

2014-01-01

83

Consequences of irradiation on bone and marrow phenotypes, and its relation to disruption of hematopoietic precursors.  

PubMed

The rising levels of radiation exposure, specifically for medical treatments and accidental exposures, have added great concern for the long term risks of bone fractures. Both the bone marrow and bone architecture are devastated following radiation exposure. Even sub-lethal doses cause a deficit to the bone marrow microenvironment, including a decline in hematopoietic cells, and this deficit occurs in a dose dependent fashion. Certain cell phenotypes though are more susceptible to radiation damage, with mesenchymal stem cells being more resilient than the hematopoietic stem cells. The decline in total bone marrow hematopoietic cells is accompanied with elevated adipocytes into the marrow cavity, thereby inhibiting hematopoiesis and recovery of the bone marrow microenvironment. Poor bone marrow is also associated with a decline in bone architectural quality. Therefore, the ability to maintain the bone marrow microenvironment would hinder much of the trabecular bone loss caused by radiation exposure, ultimately decreasing some comorbidities in patients exposed to radiation. PMID:24607941

Green, Danielle E; Rubin, Clinton T

2014-06-01

84

The hematopoietic stem cell in chronic phase CML is characterized by a transcriptional profile resembling normal myeloid progenitor cells and reflecting loss of quiescence.  

PubMed

We found that composition of cell subsets within the CD34+ cell population is markedly altered in chronic phase (CP) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Specifically, proportions and absolute cell counts of common myeloid progenitors (CMP) and megakaryocyte-erythrocyte progenitors (MEP) are significantly greater in comparison to normal bone marrow whereas absolute numbers of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) are equal. To understand the basis for this, we performed gene expression profiling (Affymetrix HU-133A 2.0) of the distinct CD34+ cell subsets from six patients with CP CML and five healthy donors. Euclidean distance analysis revealed a remarkable transcriptional similarity between the CML patients' HSC and normal progenitors, especially CMP. CP CML HSC were transcriptionally more similar to their progeny than normal HSC to theirs, suggesting a more mature phenotype. Hence, the greatest differences between CP CML patients and normal donors were apparent in HSC including downregulation of genes encoding adhesion molecules, transcription factors, regulators of stem-cell fate and inhibitors of cell proliferation in CP CML. Impaired adhesive and migratory capacities were functionally corroborated by fibronectin detachment analysis and transwell assays, respectively. Based on our findings we propose a loss of quiescence of the CML HSC on detachment from the niche leading to expansion of myeloid progenitors. PMID:19158832

Bruns, I; Czibere, A; Fischer, J C; Roels, F; Cadeddu, R-P; Buest, S; Bruennert, D; Huenerlituerkoglu, A N; Stoecklein, N H; Singh, R; Zerbini, L F; Jäger, M; Kobbe, G; Gattermann, N; Kronenwett, R; Brors, B; Haas, R

2009-05-01

85

Stress hematopoiesis reveals abnormal control of self-renewal, lineage bias, and myeloid differentiation in Mll partial tandem duplication (Mll-PTD) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells.  

PubMed

One mechanism for disrupting the MLL gene in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is through partial tandem duplication (MLL-PTD); however, the mechanism by which MLL-PTD contributes to MDS and AML development and maintenance is currently unknown. Herein, we investigated hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) phenotypes of Mll-PTD knock-in mice. Although HSPCs (Lin(-)Sca1(+)Kit(+) (LSK)/SLAM(+) and LSK) in Mll(PTD/WT) mice are reduced in absolute number in steady state because of increased apoptosis, they have a proliferative advantage in colony replating assays, CFU-spleen assays, and competitive transplantation assays over wild-type HSPCs. The Mll(PTD/WT)-derived phenotypic short-term (ST)-HSCs/multipotent progenitors and granulocyte/macrophage progenitors have self-renewal capability, rescuing hematopoiesis by giving rise to long-term repopulating cells in recipient mice with an unexpected myeloid differentiation blockade and lymphoid-lineage bias. However, Mll(PTD/WT) HSPCs never develop leukemia in primary or recipient mice, suggesting that additional genetic and/or epigenetic defects are necessary for full leukemogenic transformation. Thus, the Mll-PTD aberrantly alters HSPCs, enhances self-renewal, causes lineage bias, and blocks myeloid differentiation. These findings provide a framework by which we can ascertain the underlying pathogenic role of MLL-PTD in the clonal evolution of human leukemia, which should facilitate improved therapies and patient outcomes. PMID:22740449

Zhang, Yue; Yan, Xiaomei; Sashida, Goro; Zhao, Xinghui; Rao, Yalan; Goyama, Susumu; Whitman, Susan P; Zorko, Nicholas; Bernot, Kelsie; Conway, Rajeana M; Witte, David; Wang, Qian-Fei; Tenen, Daniel G; Xiao, Zhijian; Marcucci, Guido; Mulloy, James C; Grimes, H Leighton; Caligiuri, Michael A; Huang, Gang

2012-08-01

86

Stress hematopoiesis reveals abnormal control of self-renewal, lineage bias, and myeloid differentiation in Mll partial tandem duplication (Mll-PTD) hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

One mechanism for disrupting the MLL gene in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is through partial tandem duplication (MLL-PTD); however, the mechanism by which MLL-PTD contributes to MDS and AML development and maintenance is currently unknown. Herein, we investigated hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) phenotypes of Mll-PTD knock-in mice. Although HSPCs (Lin?Sca1+Kit+ (LSK)/SLAM+ and LSK) in MllPTD/WT mice are reduced in absolute number in steady state because of increased apoptosis, they have a proliferative advantage in colony replating assays, CFU-spleen assays, and competitive transplantation assays over wild-type HSPCs. The MllPTD/WT-derived phenotypic short-term (ST)–HSCs/multipotent progenitors and granulocyte/macrophage progenitors have self-renewal capability, rescuing hematopoiesis by giving rise to long-term repopulating cells in recipient mice with an unexpected myeloid differentiation blockade and lymphoid-lineage bias. However, MllPTD/WT HSPCs never develop leukemia in primary or recipient mice, suggesting that additional genetic and/or epigenetic defects are necessary for full leukemogenic transformation. Thus, the Mll-PTD aberrantly alters HSPCs, enhances self-renewal, causes lineage bias, and blocks myeloid differentiation. These findings provide a framework by which we can ascertain the underlying pathogenic role of MLL-PTD in the clonal evolution of human leukemia, which should facilitate improved therapies and patient outcomes.

Zhang, Yue; Yan, Xiaomei; Sashida, Goro; Zhao, Xinghui; Rao, Yalan; Goyama, Susumu; Whitman, Susan P.; Zorko, Nicholas; Bernot, Kelsie; Conway, Rajeana M.; Witte, David; Wang, Qian-fei; Tenen, Daniel G.; Xiao, Zhijian; Marcucci, Guido; Mulloy, James C.; Grimes, H. Leighton; Caligiuri, Michael A.

2012-01-01

87

Long term follow-up of Asian patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from HLA-identical sibling—evaluation of risks and benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only known curative therapy for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The recent introduction of imatinib mesylate (STI-571) and reduced intensity transplant regimens has made the choice of primary treatment for patients with CML increasingly difficult. We have evaluated the outcome of 53 patients

L. P. Koh; W. Y. K. Hwang; C. H. Tan; Y. C. Linn; Y. T. Goh; C. T. H. Chuah; H. J. Ng; S. M. C. Fook-Chong; P. H. C. Tan

2004-01-01

88

Identification of precursors of leukemic dendritic cells differentiated from patients with acute myeloid leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dendritic cells (DC) can facilitate immune responses that might help in the induction of effective antitumor T cell responses. We reported previously that leukemic blasts from selected patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were able to differentiate in vitro into cells with mature DC features. However, despite the use of a wide variety of cytokine combinations, leukemic DC could not

M Mohty; D Isnardon; D Blaise; M-J Mozziconacci; M Lafage-Pochitaloff; F Brière; J-A Gastaut; D Olive; B Gaugler

2002-01-01

89

Circulating Ly-6C+ myeloid precursors migrate to the CNS and play a pathogenic role during autoimmune demyelinating disease  

PubMed Central

Mature myeloid cells (macrophages and CD11b+ dendritic cells) form a prominent component of neuroinflammatory infiltrates in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The mechanism by which these cells are replenished during relapsing and chronic neuroinflammation is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that CD11b+CD62L+Ly6Chi monocytes with colony-forming potential are mobilized into the bloodstream by a granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-dependent pathway immediately before EAE relapses. Circulating Ly6Chi monocytes traffic across the blood-brain barrier, up-regulate proinflammatory molecules, and differentiate into central nervous system dendritic cells and macrophages. Enrichment of Ly6Chi monocytes in the circulating pool is associated with an earlier onset and increased severity of clinical EAE. Our studies indicate that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor–driven release of Ly6Chi precursors from the bone marrow prevents exhaustion of central nervous system myeloid populations during relapsing or chronic autoimmune demyelination, suggesting a novel pathway for therapeutic targeting.

King, Irah L.; Dickendesher, Travis L.

2009-01-01

90

Successful intensive chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia and hepatosplenic candidiasis: case report and review of literature.  

PubMed

Hepatosplenic candidiasis (HSC) in patients with acute leukemia poses management challenges because the therapeutic limitations of the present antifungal armamentarium may adversely impact on treatment outcomes of the underlying leukemia. We report a patient with acute myeloid leukemia who developed HSC during post-remission consolidation chemotherapy and was treated with a prolonged course of caspofungin followed by fluconazole. The stabilization of infection permitted further chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) without breakthrough fungemia and further dissemination of candidiasis. The favorable outcome provides further evidence that with optimal treatment, the presence of stable or non-progressive HSC is not an absolute contraindication for HCT. The use of caspofungin in the primary treatment of HSC appears to be a promising approach. The favorable outcome seen in this case is encouraging, although further study on its efficacy is warranted. PMID:19228346

Poon, L-M; Chia, H-Y; Tan, L-K; Liu, T-C; Koh, L-P

2009-04-01

91

Innovative cell therapy in the treatment of serious adverse events related to both chemo-radiotherapy protocol and acute myeloid leukemia syndrome: the infusion of mesenchymal stem cells post-treatment reduces hematopoietic toxicity and promotes hematopoietic reconstitution.  

PubMed

Bone marrow stroma is damaged by chemotherapy and irradiation protocol. Bone marrow microenvironment supports haematopoiesis and comprises Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs). Coinfusion of MSCs with hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) improves engraftment and accelerates haematopoietic recovery. Stroma-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) is a chemotactic factor which plays a crucial role in stem cell transplantation by enhancing the ability of HSC to engraft. In this study expression of SDF-1 in bone marrow MSCs and the level of Colony Forming Unit Fibroblast (CFU-F) were evaluated in 8 patients with Acute Myeloid leukemia (AML). Evaluation was done at diagnosis and after induction/consolidation chemotherapy before the onset of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). CFU-F frequency increases from diagnosis to remission. Nevertheless level of stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) transcripts in bone marrow MSCs of patients with AML stays low. Considering the role of SDF-1 in the homing of HSC, the consequences of SDF-1 deficiency observed in this study might be deleterious on the engraftment after HSCT and haematopoietic recovery. The whole result of this clinical study is an argument for MSC infusion to restore a normal level of SDF1 in the bone marrow microenvironment that could reduce hematopoietic toxicity of chemotherapy and improve HSC engraftment after HSCT. PMID:24372262

Fouillard, Loic; Francois, Sabine; Bouchet, Sandrine; Bensidhoum, Morad; Elm'selmi, Abdelatif; Chapel, Alain

2014-10-01

92

Treatment of a Child With Myeloid\\/NK Cell Precursor Acute Leukemia With L-Asparaginase and Unrelated Cord Blood Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-year-old Japanese boy who presented with multiple cervical, axillary, and inguinal lymphadenopathy was diagnosed by immunocytochemical\\u000a analysis as having myeloid\\/natural killer (NK) cell precursor acute leukemia. Leukemic blasts in the bone marrow were positive\\u000a for CD56 (NK marker), CD7 (T-cell marker), CD33 (myeloid marker), CD34, and HLA-DR. Tumor cells in a lymph node were also\\u000a positive for CD2, cytoplasmic

Kayo Tezuka; Hideki Nakayama; Keiko Honda; Junji Suzumiya; Kouichi Oshima; Toshiyuki Kitoh; Eiichi Ishiia

2002-01-01

93

ABL1 Promoter Methylation Can Exist Independently of BCR-ABL Transcription in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Hematopoietic Progenitors1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Formation of the hybrid BCR-ABL gene is responsible for >95% of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The alternative, downstream ABL pro- moter (Pa), which is usually retained in this chimeric oncogene, was reported to be methylated in many CML patients, but there has been controversy as to whether this methylation is a frequent change in bone marrow (BM) in early chronic

Baodong Sun; Guanchao Jiang; Muhammad-Ali A. Zaydan; Vincent F. La Russa; Hana Safah; Melanie Ehrlich

2001-01-01

94

Methods of inhibiting hematopoietic stem cells using human myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor-1 (MPIF-1) (Ckbeta-8/MIP-3)  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

There are disclosed therapeutic compositions and methods using isolated nucleic acid molecules encoding a human myeloid progenitor inhibitory factor-1 (MPIF-1) polypeptide (previously termed MIP-3 and chemokine .beta.8 (CK.beta.8 or ckb-8)), as well as MPIF-1 polypeptide itself, as are vectors, host cells and recombinant methods for producing the same.

2002-12-17

95

miR-363-5p regulates endothelial cell properties and their communication with hematopoietic precursor cells.  

PubMed

Recent findings have shown that the blood vessels of different organs exert an active role in regulating organ function. In detail, the endothelium that aligns the vasculature of most organs is fundamental in maintaining organ homeostasis and in promoting organ recovery following injury. Mechanistically, endothelial cells (EC) of tissues such as the liver, lungs or the bone marrow (BM) have been shown to produce "angiocrine" factors that promote organ recovery and restore normal organ function. Controlled production of angiocrine factors following organ injury is therefore essential to promote organ regeneration and to restore organ function. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the coordinated production and function of such "angiocrine" factors are largely undisclosed and were the subject of the present study. In detail, we identified for the first time a microRNA (miRNA) expressed by BM EC that regulates the expression of angiocrine genes involved in BM recovery following irradiation. Using a microarray-based approach, we identified several miRNA expressed by irradiated BMEC. After validating the variations in miRNA expression by semi-quantitative PCR, we chose to study further the ones showing consistent variations between experiments, and those predicted to regulate (directly or indirectly) angiogenic and angiocrine factors. Of the mi-RNA that were chosen, miR-363-5p (previously termed miR-363*) was subsequently shown to modulate the expression of numerous EC-specific genes including some angiocrine factors. By luciferase reporter assays, miR-363-5p is shown to regulate the expression of angiocrine factors tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (Timp-1) and thrombospondin 3 (THBS3) at post-transcriptional level. Moreover, miR-363-5p reduction using anti-miR is shown to affect EC angiogenic properties (such as the response to angiogenic factors stimulation) and the interaction between EC and hematopoietic precursors (particularly relevant in a BM setting). miR-363-5p reduction resulted in a significant decrease in EC tube formation on matrigel, but increased hematopoietic precursor cells adhesion onto EC, a mechanism that is shown to involve kit ligand-mediated cell adhesion. Taken together, we have identified a miRNA induced by irradiation that regulates angiocrine factors expression on EC and as such modulates EC properties. Further studies on the importance of miR-363-5p on normal BM function and in disease are warranted. PMID:24257019

Costa, Ana; Afonso, Joana; Osório, Catarina; Gomes, Ana L; Caiado, Francisco; Valente, Joana; Aguiar, Sandra I; Pinto, Francisco; Ramirez, Mário; Dias, Sérgio

2013-01-01

96

miR-363-5p regulates endothelial cell properties and their communication with hematopoietic precursor cells  

PubMed Central

Recent findings have shown that the blood vessels of different organs exert an active role in regulating organ function. In detail, the endothelium that aligns the vasculature of most organs is fundamental in maintaining organ homeostasis and in promoting organ recovery following injury. Mechanistically, endothelial cells (EC) of tissues such as the liver, lungs or the bone marrow (BM) have been shown to produce “angiocrine” factors that promote organ recovery and restore normal organ function. Controlled production of angiocrine factors following organ injury is therefore essential to promote organ regeneration and to restore organ function. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the coordinated production and function of such “angiocrine” factors are largely undisclosed and were the subject of the present study. In detail, we identified for the first time a microRNA (miRNA) expressed by BM EC that regulates the expression of angiocrine genes involved in BM recovery following irradiation. Using a microarray-based approach, we identified several miRNA expressed by irradiated BMEC. After validating the variations in miRNA expression by semi-quantitative PCR, we chose to study further the ones showing consistent variations between experiments, and those predicted to regulate (directly or indirectly) angiogenic and angiocrine factors. Of the mi-RNA that were chosen, miR-363-5p (previously termed miR-363*) was subsequently shown to modulate the expression of numerous EC-specific genes including some angiocrine factors. By luciferase reporter assays, miR-363-5p is shown to regulate the expression of angiocrine factors tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (Timp-1) and thrombospondin 3 (THBS3) at post-transcriptional level. Moreover, miR-363-5p reduction using anti-miR is shown to affect EC angiogenic properties (such as the response to angiogenic factors stimulation) and the interaction between EC and hematopoietic precursors (particularly relevant in a BM setting). miR-363-5p reduction resulted in a significant decrease in EC tube formation on matrigel, but increased hematopoietic precursor cells adhesion onto EC, a mechanism that is shown to involve kit ligand-mediated cell adhesion. Taken together, we have identified a miRNA induced by irradiation that regulates angiocrine factors expression on EC and as such modulates EC properties. Further studies on the importance of miR-363-5p on normal BM function and in disease are warranted.

2013-01-01

97

Errata 2 - Hematopoietic Diseases Coding Guide  

Cancer.gov

Page Diagnosis Change ICD-9-CM code to 23 Acute panmyelosis with myelofibrosis 238.79 Other lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues 30 Chronic myeloproliferative disease 238.79 Other lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues 31 Myelosclerosis with myeloid metaplasia

98

Antithymocyte globulin for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease after unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia: results from the multicenter German cooperative study group  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 155 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) received hematopoietic stem cell transplants from unrelated donors after standard conditioning. Clinical outcome after the use of two different antithymocyte globulins for the prevention of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) was analyzed in a retrospective study as follows: rabbit ATG (Thymoglobulin Sangstat\\/Genzyme, n=49, median age 42 years, 53% in CR, further ATG-S);

N Basara; H Baurmann; K Kolbe; A Yaman; M Labopin; A Burchardt; C Huber; A A Fauser; R Schwerdtfeger

2005-01-01

99

Inhibition of Mnk kinase activity by cercosporamide and suppressive effects on acute myeloid leukemia precursors.  

PubMed

Mnk kinases regulate the phosphorylation and activation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), a protein that plays key roles in the initiation of messenger RNA translation and whose activity is critical for various cellular functions. eIF4E is deregulated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and its aberrant activity contributes to leukemogenesis. We determined whether cercosporamide, an antifungal agent that was recently shown to act as a unique Mnk inhibitor, exhibits antileukemic properties. Treatment of AML cells with cercosporamide resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of eIF4E phosphorylation. Such suppression of Mnk kinase activity and eIF4E phosphorylation by cercosporamide resulted in dose-dependent suppressive effects on primitive leukemic progenitors (CFU-L) from AML patients and enhanced the antileukemic properties of cytarabine (Ara-C) or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 inhibition. Similarly, the combination of cercosporamide with cytarabine resulted in enhanced antileukemic responses in a xenograft mouse model in vivo. Altogether, this work demonstrates that the unique Mnk inhibitor cercosporamide suppresses phosphorylation of eIF4E and exhibits antileukemic effects, in support of future clinical-translational efforts involving combinations of Mnk inhibitors with cytarabine and/or mTOR inhibitors for the treatment of AML. PMID:23509154

Altman, Jessica K; Szilard, Amy; Konicek, Bruce W; Iversen, Philip W; Kroczynska, Barbara; Glaser, Heather; Sassano, Antonella; Vakana, Eliza; Graff, Jeremy R; Platanias, Leonidas C

2013-05-01

100

Inhibition of Mnk kinase activity by cercosporamide and suppressive effects on acute myeloid leukemia precursors  

PubMed Central

Mnk kinases regulate the phosphorylation and activation of the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), a protein that plays key roles in the initiation of messenger RNA translation and whose activity is critical for various cellular functions. eIF4E is deregulated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and its aberrant activity contributes to leukemogenesis. We determined whether cercosporamide, an antifungal agent that was recently shown to act as a unique Mnk inhibitor, exhibits antileukemic properties. Treatment of AML cells with cercosporamide resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of eIF4E phosphorylation. Such suppression of Mnk kinase activity and eIF4E phosphorylation by cercosporamide resulted in dose-dependent suppressive effects on primitive leukemic progenitors (CFU-L) from AML patients and enhanced the antileukemic properties of cytarabine (Ara-C) or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 inhibition. Similarly, the combination of cercosporamide with cytarabine resulted in enhanced antileukemic responses in a xenograft mouse model in vivo. Altogether, this work demonstrates that the unique Mnk inhibitor cercosporamide suppresses phosphorylation of eIF4E and exhibits antileukemic effects, in support of future clinical-translational efforts involving combinations of Mnk inhibitors with cytarabine and/or mTOR inhibitors for the treatment of AML.

Altman, Jessica K.; Szilard, Amy; Konicek, Bruce W.; Iversen, Philip W.; Kroczynska, Barbara; Glaser, Heather; Sassano, Antonella; Vakana, Eliza; Graff, Jeremy R.

2013-01-01

101

Manganese superoxide dismutase depletion in murine hematopoietic stem cells perturbs iron homeostasis, globin switching, and epigenetic control in erythrocyte precursor cells.  

PubMed

Heme synthesis partially occurs in the mitochondrial matrix; thus there is a high probability that enzymes and intermediates important in the production of heme will be exposed to metabolic by-products including reactive oxygen species. In addition, the need for ferrous iron for heme production, Fe/S coordination, and other processes occurring in the mitochondrial matrix suggests that aberrant fluxes of reactive oxygen species in this compartment might perturb normal iron homeostasis. Manganese superoxide dismutase (Sod2) is an antioxidant enzyme that governs steady-state levels of the superoxide in the mitochondrial matrix. Using hematopoietic stem cell-specific conditional Sod2 knockout mice we observed increased superoxide concentrations in red cell progeny, which caused significant pathologies including impaired erythrocytes and decreased ferrochelatase activity. Animals lacking Sod2 expression in erythroid precursors also displayed extramedullary hematopoiesis and systemic iron redistribution. Additionally, the increase in superoxide flux in erythroid precursors caused abnormal gene regulation of hematopoietic transcription factors, globins, and iron-response genes. Moreover, the erythroid precursors also displayed evidence of global changes in histone posttranslational modifications, a likely cause of at least some of the aberrant gene expression noted. From a therapeutic translational perspective, mitochondrially targeted superoxide-scavenging antioxidants partially rescued the observed phenotype. Taken together, our findings illuminate the superoxide sensitivity of normal iron homeostasis in erythrocyte precursors and suggest a probable link between mitochondrial redox metabolism and epigenetic control of nuclear gene regulation during mammalian erythropoiesis. PMID:23219873

Case, Adam J; Madsen, Joshua M; Motto, David G; Meyerholz, David K; Domann, Frederick E

2013-03-01

102

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation may alleviate the negative prognostic impact of monosomal and complex karyotypes on patients with acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Monosomal karyotype (MK) and complex karyotype (CK) are well known to be associated with a very poor clinical outcome in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, whether or not the prognostic impact of MK and CK remains relevant for patients who have undergone allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is still unclear. We retrospectively analyzed the status of MK and CK, as well as other clinical laboratory features, in 148 allo-HCT AML patients at our institution and correlated with their event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) after transplantation. MK and CK were identified in 14 (9%) and 19 (13%) cases, respectively. On univariate analysis, only age (?60 years) and WBC count (?15 × 10(9)/L) were significant adverse predictors for EFS (P < .001 and P = .017, respectively) and OS (P = .002 and P = .021, respectively). MK, CK, and other relevant parameters analyzed did not affect the clinical outcome. Multivariable analysis confirmed that both older age and high WBC count were independent prognostic factors for a shorter OS (P = .001 and P = .003, respectively) and a shorter EFS (P < .001 and P = .001, respectively). Our results indicate that neither MK nor CK are high-risk factors in AML patients undergoing allo-HCT. PMID:24492143

Guo, Robert J; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Craddock, Ken; Chang, Hong

2014-05-01

103

Acute myeloid leukemia arising from a donor derived premalignant hematopoietic clone: A possible mechanism for the origin of leukemia in donor cells  

PubMed Central

During recent years, it has become increasingly evident that donor leukemia following allogeneic transplant may be more common then realized in the past. We identified five cases of potential donor leukemia cases during past five years. The precise mechanism of the origin of such leukemias, however, remains poorly defined. In this short communication, we report a well documented case of donor-derived de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that developed fourteen years after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for treatment induced AML for his primary malignancy Immunoblastic lymphoma. This case allows us to postulate a possible mechanism of the origin of donor leukemia. The de novo AML clone contained a distinct cytogenetic abnormality, trisomy 11, which was simultaneously detected in preserved peripheral blood obtained at the time of transplantation as well as in the current bone marrow from an otherwise clinically and phenotypically normal donor. The findings from this unique case, provides insight into the process of leukemogenesis, and suggests that the sequence of events leading to leukemogenesis in this patient involved the senescence/apoptosis of normal donor hematopoietic cells due to telomere shortening resulting in the selective proliferation and transformation of this clone with MLL (mixed-lineage leukemia) gene amplification.

Dickson, Mark A.; Papadopoulos, Esperanza B.; Hedvat, Cyrus V.; Jhanwar, Suresh C.; Brentjens, Renier J.

2014-01-01

104

HIGH PROBABILITY OF LONG-TERM SURVIVAL IN 2-YEAR SURVIVORS OF AUTOLOGOUS HEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANTATION FOR ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA IN FIRST OR SECOND COMPLETE REMISSION  

PubMed Central

We describe long-term outcomes of autologous hematopoietic-cell transplantation (HCT) for 315 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients in first or second complete remission (CR). All patients were in continuous CR for ?2-years post-HCT. Patients were predominantly transplanted in CR1 (78%) and had good or intermediate cytogenetic risk disease (74%). Median followup of survivors was 106 (range, 24-192) months. Overall survival at 10-years post-HCT was 94% (95% confidence intervals, 89-97%) and 80% (67-91%) for patients receiving HCT in CR1 and CR2, respectively. The cumulative incidence of relapse at 10-years post-HCT was 6% (3-10%) and 10% (3-20%) and that of non-relapse mortality was 5% (2-9%) and 11% (4-21%), respectively. On multivariate analysis, HCT in CR2 (vs. CR1), older age at transplantation and poor cytogenetic risk disease were independent predictors of late mortality and adverse disease-free survival. The use of growth factors to promote engraftment following HCT was the only risk factor for relapse. Relative-mortality of these 2-year survivors was comparable to that of age-, race- and gender-matched normal population. Patients who receive an autologous HCT for AML in CR1 or CR2 and remain in remission for ?2-years have very favorable long-term survival. Their mortality rates are similar to that of the general population.

Majhail, Navneet S.; Bajorunaite, Ruta; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Wang, Zhiwei; Klein, John P.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Rizzo, J. Douglas

2010-01-01

105

In vitro differentiation of murine hematopoietic progenitor cells toward the myeloid lineage occurs in response to Staphylococcus aureus and yeast species.  

PubMed

We have studied the effect of inactivated microbial stimuli (Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Saccharomyces boulardii, and Staphylococcus aureus) on the in vitro differentiation of lineage negative (Lin(-)) hematopoietic progenitor mouse cells. Purified Lin(-) progenitors were co-cultured for 7 days with the stimuli, and cell differentiation was determined by flow cytometry analysis. All the stimuli assayed caused differentiation toward the myeloid lineage. S. boulardii and particularly C. glabrata were the stimuli that induced in a minor extent differentiation of Lin(-) cells, as the major population of differentiated cells corresponded to monocytes, whereas C. albicans and S. aureus induced differentiation beyond monocytes: to monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages, respectively. Interestingly, signaling through TLR2 by its pure ligand Pam3CSK4 directed differentiation of Lin(-) cells almost exclusively to macrophages. These data support the notion that hematopoiesis can be modulated in response to microbial stimuli in a pathogen-dependent manner, being determined by the pathogen-associated molecular patterns and the pattern-recognition receptors involved, in order to generate the populations of mature cells required to deal with the pathogen. PMID:24650426

Maneu, Victoria; Estévez, Miguel Ángel; de Dios, Sara; Gozalbo, Daniel; Gil, María Luisa; Megías, Javier

2014-01-01

106

Hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors of chronic myeloid leukemia express leukemia-associated antigens: implications for the graft-versus-leukemia effect and peptide vaccine-based immunotherapy  

PubMed Central

The cure of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients following allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is attributed to graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effects targeting alloantigens and/or leukemia-associated antigens (LAA) on leukemia cells. To assess the potential of LAA-peptide vaccines in eliminating leukemia in CML patients, we measured WT1, PR3, ELA2 and PRAME expression in CD34+ progenitor subpopulations in CML patients and compared them with minor histocompatibility antigens (mHAgs) HA1 and SMCY. All CD34+ subpopulations expressed similar levels of mHAgs irrespective of disease phase, suggesting that in the SCT setting, mHAgs are the best target for GVL. Furthermore, WT1 was consistently overexpressed in advanced phase (AdP) CML in all CD34+ subpopulations, and mature progenitors of chronic phase (CP) CML compared to healthy individuals. PRAME overexpression was limited to more mature AdP-CML progenitors only. Conversely, only CP-CML progenitors had PR3 overexpression, suggesting that PR1-peptide vaccines are only appropriate in CP-CML. Surface expression of WT1 protein in the most primitive hematopoietic stem cells in AdP-CML suggest that they could be targets for WT1 peptide-based vaccines, which in combination with PRAME, could additionally improve targeting differentiated progeny, and benefit patients responding suboptimally to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, or enhance GVL effects in SCT patients.

Yong, Agnes S. M.; Keyvanfar, Keyvan; Eniafe, Rhoda; Savani, Bipin N.; Rezvani, Katayoun; Sloand, Elaine M.; Goldman, John M.; Barrett, A. John

2008-01-01

107

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia: t(8;21) and inv(16) represent different clinical outcomes.  

PubMed

We analyzed 338 adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with t(8;21) and inv(16) undergoing stem cell transplantation (SCT) who were registered in the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation database. At 3 years, overall survival (OS) of patients with t(8;21) and inv(16) was 50% and 72%, respectively (P= .002). Although no difference was observed when restricted to allogeneic SCT in first complete remission (CR; 84% and 74%), OS of patients with t(8;21) and inv(16) undergoing allogeneic SCT in second or third CR (45% and 86% at 3 years; P= .008) was different. OS was not different between patients in first CR who received allogeneic SCT and those who received autologous SCT for both t(8;21) AML (84% vs 77%; P= .49) and inv(16) AML (74% vs 59%; P= .86). Patients with inv(16) not in CR did better after allogeneic SCT than those with t(8;21) (70% and 18%; P= .03). Patients with t(8;21) and inv(16) should be managed differently as to the application of SCT. SCT in first CR is not necessarily recommended for inv(16). For t(8;21) patients in first CR, a prospective trial is needed to clarify the significance of autologous SCT and allogeneic SCT over chemotherapy. PMID:19126873

Kuwatsuka, Yachiyo; Miyamura, Koichi; Suzuki, Ritsuro; Kasai, Masaharu; Maruta, Atsuo; Ogawa, Hiroyasu; Tanosaki, Ryuji; Takahashi, Satoshi; Koda, Kyuhei; Yago, Kazuhiro; Atsuta, Yoshiko; Yoshida, Takashi; Sakamaki, Hisashi; Kodera, Yoshihisa

2009-02-26

108

Survival Differences between Adolescent / Young Adults and Children with B-Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Risk adapted therapy has been the cornerstone of treatment for pediatric B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Recently, age (>13 years at diagnosis) has been identified as a very high-risk feature for chemotherapy treated pediatric B-ALL patients. Whether age at time of transplant is associated with poor outcomes in adolescents and young adults (AYA) is unknown. We hypothesized AYA receiving allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) would have greater relapse and inferior survival. We reviewed the outcomes in 136 consecutive patients (ages 0 to 30 years) with B-ALL who received myeloablative allo-HCT at our institution. Fifty-eight percent (n=79) were children <13 years of age and 42% (n=57) were AYA 13 to 30 years of age. Overall survival at 5-years was significantly lower in the AYA group [HR 1.74, 95% CI: 1.04–2.95; p=0.03]. In addition, AYA patients had a greater risk of transplant related mortality (TRM) at 1-year [HR 2.23, 95% CI: 1.01–4.90, p=0.05] but no difference in relapse [RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.41–1.76; p=0.66]. Based on this analysis, AYA patients undergoing allo-HCT for B-ALL have significantly inferior survival and greater TRM compared to children <13 years but no difference in relapse suggesting allo-HCT may overcome relapse in AYA. Further improvements in peri-transplant care are needed to limit complications in AYA patients.

Burke, Michael J.; Gossai, Nathan; Wagner, John E.; Smith, Angela R.; Bachanova, Veronika; Cao, Qing; MacMillan, Margaret L.; Stefanski, Heather S.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Verneris, Michael R.

2012-01-01

109

Brain conditioning is instrumental for successful microglia reconstitution following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

The recent hypothesis that postnatal microglia are maintained independently of circulating monocytes by local precursors that colonize the brain before birth has relevant implications for the treatment of various neurological diseases, including lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs), for which hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is applied to repopulate the recipient myeloid compartment, including microglia, with cells expressing the defective functional hydrolase. By studying wild-type and LSD mice at diverse time-points after HCT, we showed the occurrence of a short-term wave of brain infiltration by a fraction of the transplanted hematopoietic progenitors, independently from the administration of a preparatory regimen and from the presence of a disease state in the brain. However, only the use of a conditioning regimen capable of ablating functionally defined brain-resident myeloid precursors allowed turnover of microglia with the donor, mediated by local proliferation of early immigrants rather than entrance of mature cells from the circulation.

Capotondo, Alessia; Milazzo, Rita; Politi, Letterio Salvatore; Quattrini, Angelo; Palini, Alessio; Plati, Tiziana; Merella, Stefania; Nonis, Alessandro; di Serio, Clelia; Montini, Eugenio; Naldini, Luigi; Biffi, Alessandra

2012-01-01

110

The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Antagonist StemRegenin 1 Promotes Human Plasmacytoid and Myeloid Dendritic Cell Development from CD34(+) Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells.  

PubMed

The superiority of dendritic cells (DCs) as antigen-presenting cells has been exploited in numerous clinical trials, where generally monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs) are injected to induce immunity in patients with cancer or infectious diseases. Despite promising expansion of antigen-specific T cells, the clinical responses following vaccination have been limited, indicating that further improvements of DC vaccine potency are necessary. Pre-clinical studies suggest that vaccination with combination of primary DC subsets, such as myeloid and plasmacytoid blood DCs (mDCs and pDCs, respectively), may result in stronger clinical responses. However, it is a challenge to obtain high enough numbers of primary DCs for immunotherapy, since their frequency in blood is very low. We therefore explored the possibility to generate them from hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Here, we show that by inhibiting the aryl hydrocarbon receptor with its antagonist StemRegenin 1 (SR1), clinical-scale numbers of functional BDCA2(+)BDCA4(+) pDCs, BDCA1(+) mDCs, and BDCA3(+)DNGR1(+) mDCs can be efficiently generated from human CD34(+) HPCs. The ex vivo-generated DCs were phenotypically and functionally comparable to peripheral blood DCs. They secreted high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interferon (IFN)-?, interleukin (IL)-12, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? and upregulated co-stimulatory molecules and maturation markers following stimulation with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. Further, they induced potent allogeneic T-cell responses and activated antigen-experienced T cells. These findings demonstrate that SR1 can be exploited to generate high numbers of functional pDCs and mDCs from CD34(+) HPCs, providing an alternative option to Mo-DCs for immunotherapy of patients with cancer or infections. PMID:24325394

Thordardottir, Soley; Hangalapura, Basav N; Hutten, Tim; Cossu, Marta; Spanholtz, Jan; Schaap, Nicolaas; Radstake, Timothy R D J; van der Voort, Robbert; Dolstra, Harry

2014-05-01

111

Comparison of Matched Unrelated and Matched Related Donor Myeloablative Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Adults with Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Remission  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from a matched related donor (MRD) benefits many adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR1). The majority of patients do not have such a donor, however, requiring use of an alternative donor if HCT is undertaken. We retrospectively analyzed 226 adult AML CR1 patients undergoing myeloablative unrelated donor (URD) (10/10 match, n=62; ?9/10, n=29) or MRD (n=135) HCT from 1996–2007. Five-year estimates of overall survival (OS), relapse, and non-relapse mortality (NRM) were 57.9%, 29.7%, and 16.0%, respectively. Failure for each of these outcomes was slightly higher for 10/10 URD than MRD HCT, although statistical significance was not reached for any endpoint. The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were 1.43 (0.89–2.30, p=0.14) for overall mortality, 1.17 (0.66–2.08, p=0.60) for relapse, and 1.79 (0.86–3.74, p=0.12) for NRM, respectively, and the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for grades 2–4 acute graft-versus-host disease was 1.50 (0.70–3.24, p=0.30). Overall mortality among 9/10 and 10/10 URD recipients was similar (adjusted HR=1.16 [0.52–2.61], p=0.71). These data indicate that URD HCT can provide long-term survival for CR1 AML; outcomes for 10/10 URD HCT, and possibly 9/10 URD HCT, suggest that this modality should be considered in the absence of a suitable MRD.

Walter, Roland B.; Pagel, John M.; Gooley, Ted A.; Petersdorf, Effie W.; Sorror, Mohamed L.; Woolfrey, Ann E.; Hansen, John A.; Salter, Alexander I.; Lansverk, Emily; Stewart, F. Marc; O'Donnell, Paul V.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.

2010-01-01

112

Impact of Pretransplantation Minimal Residual Disease, As Detected by Multiparametric Flow Cytometry, on Outcome of Myeloablative Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Purpose Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) benefits many patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first remission. Hitherto, little attention has been given to the prognostic impact of pretransplantation minimal residual disease (MRD). Patients and Methods We retrospectively studied 99 consecutive patients receiving myeloablative HCT for AML in first morphologic remission. Ten-color multiparametric flow cytometry (MFC) was performed on bone marrow aspirates before HCT. MRD was identified as a cell population showing deviation from normal antigen expression patterns compared with normal or regenerating marrow. Any level of residual disease was considered MRD positive. Results Before HCT, 88 patients met morphologic criteria for complete remission (CR), whereas 11 had CR with incomplete blood count recovery (CRi). Twenty-four had MRD before HCT as determined by MFC. Two-year estimates of overall survival were 30.2% (range, 13.1% to 49.3%) and 76.6% (range, 64.4% to 85.1%) for MRD-positive and MRD-negative patients; 2-year estimates of relapse were 64.9% (range, 42.0% to 80.6%) and 17.6% (range, 9.5% to 27.9%). After adjustment for all or a subset of cytogenetic risk, secondary disease, incomplete blood count recovery, and abnormal karyotype pre-HCT, MRD-positive HCT was associated with increased overall mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 4.05; 95% CI, 1.90 to 8.62; P < .001) and relapse (HR, 8.49; 95% CI, 3.67 to 19.65; P < .001) relative to MRD-negative HCT. Conclusion These data suggest that pre-HCT MRD is associated with increased risk of relapse and death after myeloablative HCT for AML in first morphologic CR, even after controlling for other risk factors.

Walter, Roland B.; Gooley, Ted A.; Wood, Brent L.; Milano, Filippo; Fang, Min; Sorror, Mohamed L.; Estey, Elihu H.; Salter, Alexander I.; Lansverk, Emily; Chien, Jason W.; Gopal, Ajay K.; Appelbaum, Frederick R.; Pagel, John M.

2011-01-01

113

CBFB and MYH11 in inv(16)(p13q22) of acute myeloid leukemia displaying close spatial proximity in interphase nuclei of human hematopoietic stem cells.  

PubMed

To gain a better understanding of the mechanism of chromosomal translocations in cancer, we investigated the spatial proximity between CBFB and MYH11 genes involved in inv(16)(p13q22) found in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Previous studies have demonstrated a role for spatial genome organization in the formation of tumorigenic abnormalities. The nonrandom localization of chromosomes and, more specifically, of genes appears to play a role in the mechanism of chromosomal translocations. Here, two-color fluorescence in situ hybridization and confocal microscopy were used to measure the interphase distance between CBFB and MYH11 in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), where inv(16)(p13q22) is believed to occur, leading to leukemia development. The measured distances in HSCs were compared with mesenchymal stem cells, peripheral blood lymphocytes, and fibroblasts, as spatial genome organization is determined to be cell-type specific. Results indicate that CBFB and MYH11 are significantly closer in HSCs compared with all other cell types examined. Furthermore, the CBFB-MYH11 distance is significantly reduced compared with CBFB and a control locus in HSCs, although separation between CBFB and the control is ?70% of that between CBFB and MYH11 on metaphase chromosomes. HSCs were also treated with fragile site-inducing chemicals because both the genes contain translocation breakpoints within these regions. However, treatment with fragile site-inducing chemicals did not significantly affect the interphase distance. Consistent with previous studies, our results suggest that gene proximity may play a role in the formation of cancer-causing rearrangements, providing insight into the mechanism of chromosomal abnormalities in human tumors. PMID:21638519

Weckerle, Allison B; Santra, Madhumita; Ng, Maggie C Y; Koty, Patrick P; Wang, Yuh-Hwa

2011-09-01

114

CD133 is a modifier of hematopoietic progenitor frequencies but is dispensable for the maintenance of mouse hematopoietic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Pentatransmembrane glycoprotein prominin-1 (CD133) is expressed at the cell surface of multiple somatic stem cells, and it is widely used as a cell surface marker for the isolation and characterization of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and cancer stem cells. CD133 has been linked on a cell biological basis to stem cell-fate decisions in human HSCs and emerges as an important physiological regulator of stem cell maintenance and expansion. Its expression and physiological relevance in the murine hematopoietic system is nevertheless elusive. We show here that CD133 is expressed by bone marrow-resident murine HSCs and myeloid precursor cells with the developmental propensity to give rise to granulocytes and monocytes. However, CD133 is dispensable for the pool size and function of HSCs during steady-state hematopoiesis and after transplantation, demonstrating a substantial species difference between mouse and man. Blood cell numbers in the periphery are normal; however, CD133 appears to be a modifier for the development of growth-factor responsive myeloerythroid precursor cells in the bone marrow under steady state and mature red blood cells after hematopoietic stress. Taken together, these studies show that CD133 is not a critical regulator of hematopoietic stem cell function in mouse but that it modifies frequencies of growth-factor responsive hematopoietic progenitor cells during steady state and after myelotoxic stress in vivo.

Arndt, Kathrin; Grinenko, Tatyana; Mende, Nicole; Reichert, Doreen; Portz, Melanie; Ripich, Tatsiana; Carmeliet, Peter; Corbeil, Denis; Waskow, Claudia

2013-01-01

115

NUP98 gene fusions and hematopoietic malignancies: common themes and new biologic insights  

PubMed Central

Structural chromosomal rearrangements of the Nucleoporin 98 gene (NUP98), primarily balanced translocations and inversions, are associated with a wide array of hematopoietic malignancies. NUP98 is known to be fused to at least 28 different partner genes in patients with hematopoietic malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia in blast crisis, myelodysplastic syndrome, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and bilineage/biphenotypic leukemia. NUP98 gene fusions typically encode a fusion protein that retains the amino terminus of NUP98; in this context, it is important to note that several recent studies have demonstrated that the amino-terminal portion of NUP98 exhibits transcription activation potential. Approximately half of the NUP98 fusion partners encode homeodomain proteins, and at least 5 NUP98 fusions involve known histone-modifying genes. Several of the NUP98 fusions, including NUP98-homeobox (HOX)A9, NUP98-HOXD13, and NUP98-JARID1A, have been used to generate animal models of both lymphoid and myeloid malignancy; these models typically up-regulate HOXA cluster genes, including HOXA5, HOXA7, HOXA9, and HOXA10. In addition, several of the NUP98 fusion proteins have been shown to inhibit differentiation of hematopoietic precursors and to increase self-renewal of hematopoietic stem or progenitor cells, providing a potential mechanism for malignant transformation.

Gough, Sheryl M.; Slape, Christopher I.

2011-01-01

116

Focal adhesion kinase is required for CXCL12-induced chemotactic and pro-adhesive responses in hematopoietic precursor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hematopoietic stem\\/progenitor cells (HSC\\/P) reside in the bone marrow in distinct anatomic locations (niches) to receive growth, survival and differentiation signals. HSC\\/P localization and migration between niches depend on cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions, which result from the cooperation of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. The CXCL12-CXCR4 pathway, in particular, is essential for myelopoiesis and B lymphopoiesis but the molecular mechanisms

A M Glodek; Y Le; D M Dykxhoorn; S-Y Park; G Mostoslavsky; R Mulligan; J Lieberman; H E Beggs; M Honczarenko; L E Silberstein

2007-01-01

117

Generation of dendritic cells expressing bcr-abl from CD34-positive chronic myeloid leukemia precursor cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with a relapse of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation can be successfully treated with blood mononuclear cells from the original bone marrow donor. However, the antileukemic effect of this treatment is often accompanied by graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Treatment with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) lines or clones that are specifically generated against leukemic antigen-presenting cells from the

Willem M. Smit; Marion Rijnbeek; Cornelis A. M. van Bergen; Roelof A. de Paus; Henricus A. W. Vervenne; Maarten van de Keur; Roel Willemze; J. H. Frederik Falkenburg

1997-01-01

118

CBFB-MYH11/RUNX1 together with a compendium of hematopoietic regulators, chromatin modifiers and basal transcription factors occupies self-renewal genes in inv(16) acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Different mechanisms for CBF?-MYH11 function in acute myeloid leukemia with inv(16) have been proposed such as tethering of RUNX1 outside the nucleus, interference with transcription factor complex assembly and recruitment of histone deacetylases, all resulting in transcriptional repression of RUNX1 target genes. Here, through genome-wide CBF?-MYH11-binding site analysis and quantitative interaction proteomics, we found that CBF?-MYH11 localizes to RUNX1 occupied promoters, where it interacts with TAL1, FLI1 and TBP-associated factors (TAFs) in the context of the hematopoietic transcription factors ERG, GATA2 and PU.1/SPI1 and the coregulators EP300 and HDAC1. Transcriptional analysis revealed that upon fusion protein knockdown, a small subset of the CBF?-MYH11 target genes show increased expression, confirming a role in transcriptional repression. However, the majority of CBF?-MYH11 target genes, including genes implicated in hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal such as ID1, LMO1 and JAG1, are actively transcribed and repressed upon fusion protein knockdown. Together these results suggest an essential role for CBF?-MYH11 in regulating the expression of genes involved in maintaining a stem cell phenotype. PMID:24002588

Mandoli, A; Singh, A A; Jansen, P W T C; Wierenga, A T J; Riahi, H; Franci, G; Prange, K; Saeed, S; Vellenga, E; Vermeulen, M; Stunnenberg, H G; Martens, J H A

2014-04-01

119

The HIF-1 transcription complex is essential for translational control of myeloid hematopoietic cell function by maintaining mTOR phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Mammalian myeloid cells are crucial effectors of host innate immune defense. Normal and pathological responses of these cells require adaptation to signaling stress through the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) transcription complex. Adapted cells activate the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), via S2448 phosphorylation, which induces de novo translation of vital signaling proteins. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this signaling dogma remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that inactivation of HIF-1, by silencing its inducible alpha subunit, significantly decreases mTOR S2448 phosphorylation caused by ligand-dependent activation of human myeloid leukemia cells. This shows that HIF-1 is essential for the activation of mTOR and serves at a crucial juncture of myeloid cell function in both in vitro and in vivo systems. PMID:23872956

Yasinska, Inna M; Gibbs, Bernhard F; Lall, Gurprit S; Sumbayev, Vadim V

2014-02-01

120

Coordinated regulation of myeloid cells by tumours  

PubMed Central

Myeloid cells are the most abundant nucleated hematopoietic cells in the human body and are a collection of distinct cell populations with many diverse functions. The three groups of terminally differentiated myeloid cells — macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes — are essential for the normal function of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Mounting evidence indicates that the tumour microenvironment alters myeloid cells and can convert them into potent immune suppressive cells. Here, we consider myeloid cells as an intricately connected, complex, single system and we focus on how tumours manipulate the myeloid system to evade the host immune response.

Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne; Bronte, Vincenzo

2013-01-01

121

Absence of the transcription factor CCAAT enhancer binding protein ? results in loss of myeloid identity in bcr/abl-induced malignancy  

PubMed Central

The lineage-determining transcription factor CCAAT enhancer binding protein ? (C/EBP?) is required for myeloid differentiation. Decreased function or expression of C/EBP? is often found in human acute myeloid leukemia. However, the precise impact of C/EBP? deficiency on the maturation arrest in leukemogenesis is not well understood. To address this question, we used a murine transplantation model of a bcr/abl-induced myeloproliferative disease. The expression of bcr/abl in C/EBP?pos fetal liver cells led to a chronic myeloid leukemia-like disease. Surprisingly, bcr/abl-expressing C/EBP??/? fetal liver cells failed to induce a myeloid disease in transplanted mice, but caused a fatal, transplantable erythroleukemia instead. Accordingly, increased expression of the transcription factors SCL and GATA-1 in hematopoietic precursor cells of C/EBP??/? fetal livers was found. The mechanism for the lineage shift from myeloid to erythroid leukemia was studied in a bcr/abl-positive cell line. Consistent with findings of the transplant model, expression of C/EBP? and GATA-1 was inversely correlated. Id1, an inhibitor of erythroid differentiation, was identified as a critical direct target of C/EBP?. Down-regulation of Id1 by RNA interference impaired C/EBP?-induced granulocytic differentiation. Taken together, our study provides evidence that myeloid lineage identity of malignant hematopoietic progenitor cells requires the residual expression of C/EBP?.

Wagner, Katharina; Zhang, Pu; Rosenbauer, Frank; Drescher, Bettina; Kobayashi, Susumu; Radomska, Hanna S.; Kutok, Jeffery L.; Gilliland, D. Gary; Krauter, Jurgen; Tenen, Daniel G.

2006-01-01

122

Homeostatic action of adenosine A3 and A1 receptor agonists on proliferation of hematopoietic precursor cells.  

PubMed

Two adenosine receptor agonists, N6-(3-iodobenzyl)adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (IB-MECA) and N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA), which selectively activate adenosine A3 and A1 receptors, respectively, were tested for their ability to influence proliferation of granulocytic and erythroid cells in femoral bone marrow of mice using morphological criteria. Agonists were given intraperitoneally to mice in repeated isomolar doses of 200 nmol/kg. Three variants of experiments were performed to investigate the action of the agonists under normal resting state of mice and in phases of cell depletion and subsequent regeneration after treatment with the cytotoxic drug 5-fluorouracil. In the case of granulopoiesis, IB-MECA 1) increased by a moderate but significant level proliferation of cells under normal resting state; 2) strongly increased proliferation of cells in the cell depletion phase; but 3) did not influence cell proliferation in the regeneration phase. CPA did not influence cell proliferation under normal resting state and in the cell depletion phase, but strongly suppressed the overshooting cell proliferation in the regeneration phase. The stimulatory effect of IB-MECA on cell proliferation of erythroid cells was observed only when this agonist was administered during the cell depletion phase. CPA did not modulate erythroid proliferation in any of the functional states investigated, probably due to the lower demand for cell production as compared with granulopoiesis. The results indicate opposite effects of the two adenosine receptor agonists on proliferation of hematopoietic cells and suggest the plasticity and homeostatic role of the adenosine receptor expression. PMID:18445770

Hofer, Michal; Pospísil, Milan; Znojil, Vladimír; Holá, Jirina; Streitová, Denisa; Vacek, Antonín

2008-07-01

123

Baccatin III, a precursor for the semisynthesis of paclitaxel, inhibits the accumulation and suppressive activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells in tumor-bearing mice.  

PubMed

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) mediate tumor-associated immune suppression in both cancer patients and tumor-bearing animals. Reduction or elimination of MDSCs reduces the rate of tumor progression and improves cancer therapies that employ mechanisms of immunity. Here we show that baccatin III, which is the precursor for the semisynthesis of paclitaxel, exerts anti-tumor immunomodulatory activity in very low doses (0.05-0.5mg/kg), although it is regarded as an inactive derivative of paclitaxel. Oral administration of baccatin III significantly reduced the growth of tumors induced by engrafting BALB/c mice with either 4 T1 mammary carcinoma or CT26 colon cancer cells. Baccatin III (0.5mg/kg) did not exert anti-tumor activity in athymic nude mice. Baccatin III decreased the accumulation of MDSCs in the spleens of the tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, MDSCs isolated from baccatin III-treated mice, compared with those isolated from vehicle-treated mice, had a significantly reduced suppressive effect on T cells treated with the anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 monoclonal antibodies. Moreover, these cells produced significantly reduced amounts of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. These results suggest that baccatin III reduced tumor progression by inhibiting the accumulation and suppressive function of MDSCs. PMID:24957690

Lee, Young-Hee; Lee, Young-Ran; Park, Chan-Su; Im, Sun-A; Song, Sukgil; Hong, Jin Tae; Whang, Bang Yeon; Kim, Kyungjae; Lee, Chong-Kil

2014-08-01

124

Myeloid Cells and Lymphangiogenesis  

PubMed Central

The lymphatic vascular system and the hematopoietic system are intimately connected in ontogeny and in physiology. During embryonic development, mammalian species derive a first lymphatic vascular plexus from the previously formed anterior cardinal vein, whereas birds and amphibians have a lymphatic vascular system of dual origin, composed of lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) of venous origin combined with LECs derived from mesenchymal lymphangioblasts. The contribution of hematopoietic cells as building blocks of nascent lymphatic structures in mammals is still under debate. In contrast, the importance of myeloid cells to direct lymphatic vessel growth and function postnatally has been experimentally shown. For example, myeloid cells communicate with LECs via paracrine factors or cell–cell contacts, and they also can acquire lymphatic endothelial morphology and marker gene expression, a process reminiscent of developmental vasculogenesis. Here, we present an overview of the current understanding of how lymphatic vessels and the hematopoietic system, in particular myeloid cells, interact during embryonic development, in normal organ physiology, and in disease.

Zumsteg, Adrian; Christofori, Gerhard

2012-01-01

125

Outcomes of patients with myeloid malignancies treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from matched unrelated donors compared with one human leukocyte antigen mismatched related donors using HLA typing at 10 loci.  

PubMed

Most candidates for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) lack a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donor. Some patients may have a related donor with whom they are mismatched at 1 antigen/allele. It is not known whether such a match is preferable to a matched unrelated donor (MUD). We evaluated the outcomes (survival, relapse, nonrelapse mortality [NRM]) of all 28 patients with a single HLA antigen/allele mismatch identified through high-resolution HLA typing at HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1, and all 318 patients with myeloid malignancies who received transplants from a 10/10 MUD treated during the same period of time at a single institution. Overall, outcomes for patients treated from a 1-antigen/allele mismatch related donor were significantly worse than from a MUD, primarily because of increased NRM. Overall survival (OS) rates at 3 years for 1-antigen/allele mismatched related donor and MUD transplant recipients were 19% and 45% (P = .007), and NRM rates were 40% and 26% (P = .05), respectively. Patients with class I mismatches appeared to have poorer OS than did patients with class II mismatches. A higher incidence of graft rejection was identified in the mismatched related donor group (P = .02). These results indicate that transplant outcomes are better with a MUD than with a 1 antigen/allele-mismatched related donor. PMID:20969970

Ciurea, Stefan O; Saliba, Rima M; Rondon, Gabriela; Patah, Poliana A; Aung, Fleur; Cano, Pedro; Andersson, Borje S; Kebriaei, Partow; Popat, Uday; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Champlin, Richard E; de Lima, Marcos

2011-06-01

126

Outcomes of Patients with Myeloid Malignancies Treated with Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation from Matched Unrelated Donors Compared with One Human Leukocyte Antigen Mismatched Related Donors Using HLA Typing at 10 Loci  

PubMed Central

Most candidates for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) lack a human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donor. Some patients may have a related donor with whom they are mismatched at 1 antigen/allele. It is not known whether such a match is preferable to a matched unrelated donor (MUD). We evaluated the outcomes (survival, relapse, nonrelapse mortality [NRM]) of all 28 patients with a single HLA antigen/allele mismatch identified through high-resolution HLA typing at HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1, and all 318 patients with myeloid malignancies who received transplants from a 10/10 MUD treated during the same period of time at a single institution. Overall, outcomes for patients treated from a 1-antigen/allele mismatch related donor were significantly worse than from a MUD, primarily because of increased NRM. Overall survival (OS) rates at 3 years for 1-antigen/allele mismatched related donor and MUD transplant recipients were 19% and 45% (P =.007), and NRM rates were 40% and 26% (P =.05), respectively. Patients with class I mismatches appeared to have poorer OS than did patients with class II mismatches. A higher incidence of graft rejection was identified in the mismatched related donor group (P =.02). These results indicate that transplant outcomes are better with a MUD than with a 1 antigen/allele-mismatched related donor.

Ciurea, Stefan O.; Saliba, Rima M.; Rondon, Gabriela; Patah, Poliana A.; Aung, Fleur; Cano, Pedro; Andersson, Borje S.; Kebriaei, Partow; Popat, Uday; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo; Champlin, Richard E.; de Lima, Marcos

2014-01-01

127

VEGFR2+PDGFR?+ circulating precursor cells participate in capillary restoration after hyperoxia acute lung injury (HALI)  

PubMed Central

The in vivo morphology and phenotype of circulating cells that spontaneously contribute to new vessel formation in adults remain unclear. Here, we use high-resolution imaging and flow cytometry to characterize the morphology and phenotype of a distinct population of circulating mononuclear cells contributing to spontaneous new vessel formation after hyperoxic acute lung injury (HALI). We identify a subpopulation of myeloid (CD11b/Mac1+) hematopoietic cells co-expressing vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFR?). Moreover, we show that these CD11b+VEGFR2+PDGFR?+ circulating precursor cells (CPCs) contribute structurally to the luminal surface of capillaries reforming two weeks post-HALI. This indicates that these myeloid CPCs may function, at least transiently, as putative vascular precursors, and has important implications for capillary growth and repair in injury and in pathologies of the lung and other organs.

Jones, Rosemary; Capen, Diane E.; Jacobson, Margaretha; Cohen, Kenneth S.; Scadden, David T.; Duda, Dan G.

2010-01-01

128

Hematopoietic stem cells in Drosophila.  

PubMed

The Drosophila lymph gland, the source of adult hemocytes, is established by mid-embryogenesis. During larval stages, a pool of pluripotent hemocyte precursors differentiate into hemocytes that are released into circulation upon metamorphosis or in response to immune challenge. This process is controlled by the posterior signaling center (PSC), which is reminiscent of the vertebrate hematopoietic stem cell niche. Using lineage analysis, we identified bona fide hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in the lymph glands of embryos and young larvae, which give rise to a hematopoietic lineage. These lymph glands also contain pluripotent precursor cells that undergo a limited number of mitotic divisions and differentiate. We further find that the conserved factor Zfrp8/PDCD2 is essential for the maintenance of the HSCs, but dispensable for their daughter cells, the pluripotent precursors. Zfrp8/PDCD2 is likely to have similar functions in hematopoietic stem cell maintenance in vertebrates. PMID:20023157

Minakhina, Svetlana; Steward, Ruth

2010-01-01

129

Autotaxin is expressed in FLT3-ITD positive acute myeloid leukemia and hematopoietic stem cells and promotes cell migration and proliferation.  

PubMed

Autotaxin (ATX) has been reported to act as a motility and growth factor in a variety of cancer cells. The ATX protein acts as a secreted lysophospholipase D by converting lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), which signals via G-protein-coupled receptors and has important functions in cell migration and proliferation. This study demonstrates that ATX expression is specifically upregulated and functionally active in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) harboring an internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutation of the FLT3 receptor gene. Moreover, ATX expression was also found in normal human CD34+ progenitor cells and selected myeloid and lymphoid subpopulations. Enforced expression of mutant FLT3-ITD by retroviral vector transduction increased ATX mRNA in selected cell lines, whereas inhibition of FLT3-ITD signaling by sublethal doses of PKC412 or SU5614 led to a significant downregulation of ATX mRNA and protein levels. In the presence of LPC, ATX expression significantly increased proliferation. LPA induced proliferation, regardless of ATX expression, and induced chemotaxis in all tested human leukemic cell lines and human CD34(+) progenitors. LPC increased chemotaxis only in cells with high expression of endogenous ATX by at least 80%, demonstrating the autocrine action of ATX. Inhibition of ATX using a small molecule inhibitor selectively induced killing of ATX-expressing cell lines and reduced motility in these cells. Our data suggest that the production of bioactive LPA through ATX is involved in controlling proliferation and migration during hematopoiesis and that deregulation of ATX contributes to the pathogenesis of AML. PMID:23377000

Ortlepp, Claudia; Steudel, Christine; Heiderich, Caroline; Koch, Sina; Jacobi, Angela; Ryser, Martin; Brenner, Sebastian; Bornhäuser, Martin; Brors, Benedikt; Hofmann, Wolf-Karsten; Ehninger, Gerhard; Thiede, Christian

2013-05-01

130

[Fine structure of megakaryocyte precursor cells (promegakaryoblasts) derived from smears and sections of bone marrow tissue in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia and so-called primary osteomyelofibrosis with accompanying thrombocythemia].  

PubMed

An immunomorphometric study (antiglycoprotein III a - Y2/51) was performed on routinely processed trephine biopsies in 24 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) as well as so-called primary osteomyelofibrosis (OMF) to determine the frequency and fine structure of promegakaryoblasts (PMB). With respect to controls, there was a significant increase in megakaryocytes in both entities with an orderly expansion of the precursor subpopulation in CML, but a relative decrease in OMF. In comparison with smears of aspirates, sizes of PMB were reduced by about 25% (factor 1.4) in the corresponding bone marrow sections. PMID:1708570

Thiele, J; Wagner, S; Sander, C; Dienemann, D; Weuste, R; Bertsch, H P; Fischer, R; Stein, H

1990-01-01

131

Effects of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Age on CML Disease Progression.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

CML results from a chromosomal translocation in hematopoietic stem cells (HSC), yet the disease primarily presents as a myeloid hyperplasia with relatively infrequent lymphoid involvement. We proposed that age-associated defects in the potential of HSC to...

K. Dorshkind

2006-01-01

132

Linkage between Dendritic and T Cell Commitments in Human Circulating Hematopoietic Progenitors.  

PubMed

The relationships between commitments of dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells in human hematopoietic stem cells are not well understood. In this study, we enumerate and characterize conventional DC and plasmacytoid DC precursors in association with T cell and thymus-derived types of NK cell precursors among CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) circulating in human peripheral blood. By limiting-dilution analyses using coculture with stroma cells expressing Notch1 ligand, the precursor frequencies (PFs) of DCs in HPCs were found to significantly correlate with T cell PFs, but not with NK cell PFs, among healthy donors. Clonal analyses showed that the majority of T/NK dual- and T single-lineage precursors-but only a minority of NK single-lineage precursors-were associated with the generation of DC progenies. All clones producing both DC and T cell progenies were found with monocyte and/or granulocyte progenies, suggesting DC differentiation via myeloid DC pathways. Analyses of peripheral blood HPC subpopulations revealed that the lineage split between DC and T/NK cell progenitor occurs at the stage prior to bifurcation into T and NK cell lineages. The findings suggest a strong linkage between DC and T cell commitments, which may be imprinted in circulating lymphoid-primed multipotent progenitors or in more upstream HPCs. PMID:24835400

Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Kajimura, Junko; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Nakachi, Kei; Young, Lauren F; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

2014-06-15

133

[Classification of myeloid leukemias].  

PubMed

Myeloid leukemia in this series corresponds to the myeloid neoplasms of the 4th WHO classification of pathology and genetics of tumor of haematopoietic and lymphoid tissue. The myeloid neoplasms are composed of six categories, which are 1) myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), a new category of 2) myeloid and lymphoid neoplasms with eosinophilia and abnormalities of PDGFRA, PDGFRB or FGFR1, 3) myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/MPN, 4) MDS, 5) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and related precursor neoplasms, and 6) acute leukemias of ambiguous lineage. In MPNs without chronic myelogenous leukemia, the genetic marker of JAK2 V617F is added to the diagnostic criteria for polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis. MDS has the new subtype of refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia composed of refractory anemia, refractory neutropenia and refractory thrombocytopenia. AML with t(9; 11) (p22;q23); MLLT3-MLL, AML with t(6;9) (p23; q34); DEK-NUP214, AML with inv(3) (q21q26.2) or t(3; 3) (q21 ; q26.2); RPN1-EVI1 and AML (megakaryoblastic) with t(1; 22) (p13; q13); RBM15-MKL1 are added to the subtype of AML with recurrent genetic abnormalities, and AML with gene mutations of NPM1 and CEBPA are also added as provisional entities of it. The myeloid neoplasms of the 4th WHO classification are comprehensive and seem to be dynamic by incorporating the results of leukemia researches. PMID:19860179

Kuriyama, Kazutaka

2009-10-01

134

Myeloid Translocation Gene 16 (MTG16) Interacts with Notch Transcription Complex Components To Integrate Notch Signaling in Hematopoietic Cell Fate Specification? †  

PubMed Central

The Notch signaling pathway regulates gene expression programs to influence the specification of cell fate in diverse tissues. In response to ligand binding, the intracellular domain of the Notch receptor is cleaved by the ?-secretase complex and then translocates to the nucleus. There, it binds the transcriptional repressor CSL, triggering its conversion to an activator of Notch target gene expression. The events that control this conversion are poorly understood. We show that the transcriptional corepressor, MTG16, interacts with both CSL and the intracellular domains of Notch receptors, suggesting a pivotal role in regulation of the Notch transcription complex. The Notch1 intracellular domain disrupts the MTG16-CSL interaction. Ex vivo fate specification in response to Notch signal activation is impaired in Mtg16?/? hematopoietic progenitors, and restored by MTG16 expression. An MTG16 derivative lacking the binding site for the intracellular domain of Notch1 fails to restore Notch-dependent cell fate. These data suggest that MTG16 interfaces with critical components of the Notch transcription complex to affect Notch-dependent lineage allocation in hematopoiesis.

Engel, Michael E.; Nguyen, Hong N.; Mariotti, Jolene; Hunt, Aubrey; Hiebert, Scott W.

2010-01-01

135

Mast cells are an essential hematopoietic component for polyp development  

PubMed Central

It is generally agreed that most colon cancers develop from adenomatous polyps, and it is this fact on which screening strategies are based. Although there is overwhelming evidence to link intrinsic genetic lesions with the formation of these preneoplastic lesions, recent data suggest that the tumor stromal environment also plays an essential role in this disease. In particular, it has been suggested that CD34+ immature myeloid precursor cells are required for tumor development and invasion. Here we have used mice conditional for the stabilization of ?-catenin or defective for the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene to reinvestigated the identity and importance of tumor-infiltrating hematopoietic cells in polyposis. We show that, from the onset, polyps are infiltrated with proinflammatory mast cells (MC) and their precursors. Depletion of MC either pharmacologically or through the generation of chimeric mice with genetic lesions in MC development leads to a profound remission of existing polyps. Our data suggest that MC are an essential hematopoietic component for preneoplastic polyp development and are a novel target for therapeutic intervention.

Gounaris, Elias; Erdman, Susan E.; Restaino, Clifford; Gurish, Michael F.; Friend, Daniel S.; Gounari, Fotini; Lee, David M.; Zhang, Guoying; Glickman, Jonathan N.; Shin, Kichul; Rao, Varada P.; Poutahidis, Theofilos; Weissleder, Ralph; McNagny, Kelly M.; Khazaie, Khashayarsha

2007-01-01

136

Combination of fludarabine, amsacrine, and cytarabine followed by reduced-intensity conditioning and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Sequential use of chemotherapy and reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) with allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) has been proposed to improve the treatment outcomes in patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here, we present our experience with this procedure in a cohort of 60 AML patients with primary induction failure (n = 9); early, refractory, or ? second relapse (n = 41); or unfavorable cytogenetics (n = 10). A combination of fludarabine (30 mg/m²/day), cytarabine (2 g/m²/day), and amsacrine (100 mg/m²/day) for 4 days was used. After 3 days of rest, RIC was carried out, consisting of 4 Gy total body irradiation, antithymocyte globulin (ATG-Fresenius), and cyclophosphamide (fludarabine, amsacrine, and cytarabine (FLAMSA)-RIC protocol). Prophylactic donor lymphocyte infusions (pDLIs) were given in patients with complete remission (CR) and without evidence of graft-versus-host disease ?120 days after SCT. The median time of neutrophil engraftment was 17 days. CR was achieved in 47 of 60 patients (78%). Eleven patients received pDLIs resulting in long-term CR in eight of them. Non-relapse mortality after 1 and 3 years was 25 and 28%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 37 months (range, 10-69), 3-year overall survival and 3-year progression-free survival were 42 and 33%, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, dose of CD34(+) cells >5 × 10?/kg (p = 0.005; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.276), remission of AML before SCT (p = 0.044; HR = 0.421), and achievement of complete chimerism after SCT (p = 0.001; HR = 0.205) were significant factors of better overall survival. The use of the FLAMSA-RIC protocol in suitable high-risk AML patients results in a long-term survival rate of over 40%. PMID:23728608

Krejci, Marta; Doubek, Michael; Dusek, Jaroslav; Brychtova, Yvona; Racil, Zdenek; Navratil, Milan; Tomiska, Miroslav; Horky, Ondrej; Pospisilova, Sarka; Mayer, Jiri

2013-10-01

137

Effect of Age on Outcome of Reduced-Intensity Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Older Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia in First Complete Remission or With Myelodysplastic Syndrome  

PubMed Central

Purpose Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) primarily afflict older individuals. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is generally not offered because of concerns of excess morbidity and mortality. Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens allow increased use of allogeneic HCT for older patients. To define prognostic factors impacting long-term outcomes of RIC regimens in patients older than age 40 years with AML in first complete remission or MDS and to determine the impact of age, we analyzed data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). Patients and Methods We reviewed data reported to the CIBMTR (1995 to 2005) on 1,080 patients undergoing RIC HCT. Outcomes analyzed included neutrophil recovery, incidence of acute or chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). Results Univariate analyses demonstrated no age group differences in NRM, grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, or relapse. Patients age 40 to 54, 55 to 59, 60 to 64, and ? 65 years had 2-year survival rates as follows: 44% (95% CI, 37% to 52%), 50% (95% CI, 41% to 59%), 34% (95% CI, 25% to 43%), and 36% (95% CI, 24% to 49%), respectively, for patients with AML (P = .06); and 42% (95% CI, 35% to 49%), 35% (95% CI, 27% to 43%), 45% (95% CI, 36% to 54%), and 38% (95% CI, 25% to 51%), respectively, for patients with MDS (P = .37). Multivariate analysis revealed no significant impact of age on NRM, relapse, DFS, or OS (all P > .3). Greater HLA disparity adversely affected 2-year NRM, DFS, and OS. Unfavorable cytogenetics adversely impacted relapse, DFS, and OS. Better pre-HCT performance status predicted improved 2-year OS. Conclusion With these similar outcomes observed in older patients, we conclude that older age alone should not be considered a contraindication to HCT.

McClune, Brian L.; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Pedersen, Tanya L.; Tunes da Silva, Gisela; Tallman, Martin S.; Sierra, Jorge; DiPersio, John; Keating, Armand; Gale, Robert P.; George, Biju; Gupta, Vikas; Hahn, Theresa; Isola, Luis; Jagasia, Madan; Lazarus, Hillard; Marks, David; Maziarz, Richard; Waller, Edmund K.; Bredeson, Chris; Giralt, Sergio

2010-01-01

138

Hematopoietic cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia in developing countries: perspectives from Latin America in the post-tyrosine kinase inhibitor era.  

PubMed

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are currently the first line treatment for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in countries with high and intermediate-high gross national income. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in these countries is considered salvage therapy for eligible patients who failed TKI or progress to advanced disease stages. In Latin America, treatment for CML also changed with availability of TKI in the region. However, many challenges remain, as the cost of this class of medication and recommended monitoring is high. CML treatment practices in Latin America demonstrate that the majority of patients are treated with TKI at some point after diagnosis, most commonly imatinib mesylate, but still TKI can only be used after interferon failure in some countries. Other treatment practices are different from established international guidelines, outlying the importance of continuing medical education. Allogeneic HCT is a treatment option for CML in this region and could be considered a cost-effective approach in a small subset of young patients with available donors, as the overall cost of long-term non-transplant treatment may surpass the cost of transplantation. However, there are many challenges with HCT in Latin America such as access to experienced transplant centers, donor availability, and cost of essential drugs used after transplant, which further impacts expansion of this treatment approach in patients in need. In conclusion, Latin American patients with CML have access to state of the art CML treatment. Yet, drug costs have a tremendous impact on developing health systems. Optimization of CML treatment in the region with appropriate monitoring, recognizing patients who would be transplant candidates, and expanding access to transplantation for eligible patients may curtail these costs and further improve patient care. PMID:22507787

Pasquini, Marcelo C

2012-04-01

139

Molecular Pathology of Acute Myeloid Leukemias  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a family of hematopoietic neoplasms characterized by proliferation of myeloid-lineage blast\\u000a cells in the bone marrow, peripheral blood, and\\/or extramedullary sites. Appropriate classification and subclassification\\u000a of these neoplasms is necessary to ensure appropriate therapy. This classification is increasingly based upon the underlying\\u000a genetic abnormalities of these diseases, and evaluation for these abnormalities has become standard

Karen P. Mann; Debra F. Saxe

140

Defining incidence, risk factors, and impact on survival of central line-associated blood stream infections following hematopoietic cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.  

PubMed

Central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI) commonly complicate the care of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HCT). We developed a modified CLABSI (MCLABSI) definition that attempts to exclude pathogens usually acquired because of disruption of mucosal barriers during the vulnerable neutropenic period following HCT that are generally included under the original definition (OCLABSI). We conducted a retrospective study of all AML and MDS patients undergoing HCT between August 2009 and December 2011 at the Cleveland Clinic (N = 73), identifying both OCLABSI and MCLABSI incidence. The median age at transplantation was 52 years (range, 16 to 70); 34 had a high (?3) HCT comorbidity index (HCT-CI); 34 received bone marrow (BM), 24 received peripheral stem cells (PSC), and 15 received umbilical cord blood cells (UCB). Among these 73 patients, 23 (31.5%) developed OCLABSI, of whom 16 (69.6%) died, and 8 (11%) developed MCLABSI, of whom 7 (87.5%) died. OCLABSI was diagnosed a median of 9 days from HCT: 5 days (range, 2 to 12) for UCB and 78 days (range, 7 to 211) for BM/PSC (P < .001). MCLABSI occurred a median of 12 days from HCT, with similar earlier UCB and later BM/PSC diagnosis (P = .030). Risk factors for OCLABSI in univariate analysis included CBC (P < .001), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatch (P = .005), low CD34(+) count (P = .007), low total nucleated cell dose (P = .016), and non-Caucasian race (P = .017). Risk factors for OCLABSI in multivariable analysis were UCB (P < .001) and high HCT-CI (P = .002). There was a significant increase in mortality for both OCLABSI (hazard ratio, 7.14; CI, 3.31 to 15.37; P < .001) and MCLABSI (hazard ratio, 6.44; CI, 2.28 to 18.18; P < .001). CLABSI is common and associated with high mortality in AML and MDS patients undergoing HCT, especially in UCB recipients and those with high HCT-CI. We propose the MCLABSI definition to replace the OCLABSI definition, given its greater precision for identifying preventable infection in HCT patients. PMID:23380342

Lukenbill, Joshua; Rybicki, Lisa; Sekeres, Mikkael A; Zaman, Muhammad Omer; Copelan, Alexander; Haddad, Housam; Fraser, Thomas; DiGiorgio, Megan J; Hanna, Rabi; Duong, Hien; Hill, Brian; Kalaycio, Matt; Sobecks, Ronald; Bolwell, Brian; Copelan, Edward

2013-05-01

141

Cell intrinsic alterations underlie hematopoietic stem cell aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Loss of immune function and an increased incidence of myeloid leukemia are two of the most clinically significant consequences of aging of the hematopoietic system. To better understand the mechanisms underlying hematopoietic aging, we evaluated the cell intrinsic functional and molecular properties of highly purified long-term hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) from young and old mice. We found that LT-HSC aging

Derrick J. Rossi; David Bryder; Jacob M. Zahn; Henrik Ahlenius; Rebecca Sonu; Amy J. Wagers; Irving L. Weissman

2005-01-01

142

Proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells in long- term cultures of adult hamster spleen  

PubMed Central

We have found that in liquid cultures of spleen cells of adult Syrian hamsters of the F1D strain, the hematopoietic microenvironment is adequate to sustain proliferation of splenic stem cells for periods of greater than 4 mo, and permits granulocytic, monocytic, and megakaryocytic differentiation without secondary repopulation or addition of exogenous growth factors to the basic medium of RPMI 1640 plus 20% horse serum. Intimate topographical relations are established between spleen stromal cells and hematopoietic cell components of the culture is adherent "cell-producing" islets. Some of these islets are associated with multiple hematopoietic cell types such as myeloid, monocytic, and megakaryocytic cells. Other islets are associated with a single cell type such as megakaryocytes, which suggests a limited potential of some adherent stromal cells to direct the differentiation of precursor cells. Cultures of this type provide a simple and convenient model for investigation of the mechanisms controlling differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells, not only for granulocytic and monocytic cells, but for megakaryocytic cells as well.

1982-01-01

143

Treatment of Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The acute myeloid leukemias (AML) represent a heterogeneous group of malignancies derived from the pluripotent hematopoietic\\u000a stem cell. These leukemias are generally characterized by genetic lesions that result in a combination of defects causing\\u000a unregulated proliferation of cells and defects in cellular maturation (Gilliland and Griffin 2002). AML accounts for approximately\\u000a 15–20% of acute leukemia in children. In contrast to

Brenda Gibson; John Perentesis; Todd A. Alonzo; Gertjan J. L. Kaspers

144

Leukosialin (CD43) defines hematopoietic progenitors in human embryonic stem cell differentiation cultures  

PubMed Central

During hematopoietic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), early hematopoietic progenitors arise along with endothelial cells within the CD34+ population. Although hESC-derived hematopoietic progenitors have been previously identified by functional assays, their phenotype has not been defined. Here, using hESC differentiation in coculture with OP9 stromal cells, we demonstrate that early progenitors committed to hematopoietic development could be identified by surface expression of leukosialin (CD43). CD43 was detected on all types of emerging clonogenic progenitors before expression of CD45, persisted on differentiating hematopoietic cells, and reliably separated the hematopoietic CD34+ population from CD34+CD43–CD31+KDR+ endothelial and CD34+CD43–CD31–KDR– mesenchymal cells. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the first-appearing CD34+CD43+CD235a+CD41a+/–CD45– cells represent precommitted erythro-megakaryocytic progenitors. Multipotent lymphohematopoietic progenitors were generated later as CD34+CD43+CD41a–CD235a–CD45– cells. These cells were negative for lineage-specific markers (Lin–), expressed KDR, VE-cadherin, and CD105 endothelial proteins, and expressed GATA-2, GATA-3, RUNX1, C-MYB transcription factors that typify initial stages of definitive hematopoiesis originating from endothelial-like precursors. Acquisition of CD45 expression by CD34+CD43+CD45–Lin– cells was associated with progressive myeloid commitment and a decrease of B-lymphoid potential. CD34+CD43+CD45+Lin– cells were largely devoid of VE-cadherin and KDR expression and had a distinct FLT3highGATA3lowRUNX1lowPU1highMPOhighIL7RAhigh gene expression profile.

Vodyanik, Maxim A.; Thomson, James A.; Slukvin, Igor I.

2006-01-01

145

Cytokine induction of proliferation and expression of CDC2 and cyclin A in FDC-P1 myeloid hematopoietic progenitor cells: regulation of ubiquitous and cell cycle-dependent histone gene transcription factors.  

PubMed

To evaluate transcriptional mechanisms during cytokine induction of myeloid progenitor cell proliferation, we examined the expression and activity of transcription factors that control cell cycle-dependent histone genes in interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent FDC-P1 cells. Histone genes are transcriptionally upregulated in response to a series of cellular regulatory signals that mediate competency for cell cycle progression of the G1/S-phase transition. We therefore focused on factors that are functionally related to activity of the principal cell cycle regulatory element of the histone H4 promoter: CDC2, cyclin A, as well as RB- and IRF-related proteins. Comparisons were made with activities of ubiquitous transcription factors that influence a broad spectrum of promoters independent of proliferation or expression of tissue-specific phenotypic properties. Northern blot analysis indicates that cellular levels of cyclin A and CDC2 mRNAs increase when DNA synthesis and H4 gene expression are initiated, supporting involvement in cell cycle progression. Using gel-shift assays, incorporating factor-specific antibody and oligonucleotide competition controls, we define three sequential period following cytokine stimulation of FDC-P1 cells when selective upregulation of a subset of transcription factors is observed. In the initial period, the levels of SP1 and HiNF-P are moderately elevated; ATF, AP-1, and HiNF-M/IRF-2 are maximal during the second period; while E2F and HiNF-D, which contain cyclin A as a component, predominate during the third period, coinciding with maximal H4 gene expression and DNA synthesis. Differential regulation of H4 gene transcription factors following growth stimulation is consistent with a principal role of histone gene promoter elements in integrating cues from multiple signaling pathways that control cell cycle induction and progression. Regulation of transcription factors controlling histone gene promoter activity within the context of a staged cascade of responsiveness to cyclins and other physiological mediators of proliferation in FDC-P1 cells provides a paradigm for experimentally addressing interdependent cell cycle and cell growth parameters that are operative in hematopoietic stem cells. PMID:8567748

Shakoori, A R; van Wijnen, A J; Cooper, C; Aziz, F; Birnbaum, M; Reddy, G P; Grana, X; De Luca, A; Giordano, A; Lian, J B

1995-11-01

146

Type I interferon limits the capacity of bluetongue virus to infect hematopoietic precursors and dendritic cells in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to progenitors with potential to produce multiple cell types, including dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are the principal antigen-presenting cells and represent the crucial link between innate and adaptive immune responses. Bluetongue virus (BTV), an economically important Orbivirus of the Reoviridae family, causes a hemorrhagic disease mainly in sheep and occasionally in other species of ruminants. BTV is transmitted between its mammalian hosts by certain species of biting midges (Culicoides spp.) and is a potent alpha interferon (IFN-?) inducer. In the present report, we show that BTV infects cells of hematopoietic origin but not HSCs in immunocompetent sheep. However, BTV infects HSCs in the absence of type I IFN (IFN-I) signaling in vitro and in vivo. Infection of HSCs in vitro results in cellular death by apoptosis. Furthermore, BTV infects bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs), interfering with their development to mature DCs in the absence of type I IFN signaling. Costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 and costimulatory molecules CD40 and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) are affected by BTV infection, suggesting that BTV interferes with DC antigen-presenting capacity. In vivo, different DC populations are also affected during the course of infection, probably as a result of a direct effect of BTV replication in DCs and the production of infectious virus. These new findings suggest that BTV infection of HSCs and DCs can impair the immune response, leading to persistence or animal death, and that this relies on IFN-I. PMID:24173228

Rodríguez-Calvo, Teresa; Rojas, José-Manuel; Martín, Verónica; Sevilla, Noemí

2014-01-01

147

Type I Interferon Limits the Capacity of Bluetongue Virus To Infect Hematopoietic Precursors and Dendritic Cells In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) give rise to progenitors with potential to produce multiple cell types, including dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are the principal antigen-presenting cells and represent the crucial link between innate and adaptive immune responses. Bluetongue virus (BTV), an economically important Orbivirus of the Reoviridae family, causes a hemorrhagic disease mainly in sheep and occasionally in other species of ruminants. BTV is transmitted between its mammalian hosts by certain species of biting midges (Culicoides spp.) and is a potent alpha interferon (IFN-?) inducer. In the present report, we show that BTV infects cells of hematopoietic origin but not HSCs in immunocompetent sheep. However, BTV infects HSCs in the absence of type I IFN (IFN-I) signaling in vitro and in vivo. Infection of HSCs in vitro results in cellular death by apoptosis. Furthermore, BTV infects bone marrow-derived DCs (BM-DCs), interfering with their development to mature DCs in the absence of type I IFN signaling. Costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86 and costimulatory molecules CD40 and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) are affected by BTV infection, suggesting that BTV interferes with DC antigen-presenting capacity. In vivo, different DC populations are also affected during the course of infection, probably as a result of a direct effect of BTV replication in DCs and the production of infectious virus. These new findings suggest that BTV infection of HSCs and DCs can impair the immune response, leading to persistence or animal death, and that this relies on IFN-I.

Rodriguez-Calvo, Teresa; Rojas, Jose-Manuel; Martin, Veronica

2014-01-01

148

Parvovirus Infection Suppresses Long-Term Repopulating Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

The functional disturbance of self-renewing and multipotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in viral diseases is poorly understood. In this report, we have assessed the susceptibility of mouse HSCs to strain i of the autonomous parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVMi) in vitro and during persistent infection of an immunodeficient host. Purified 5FUr Lin? Sca-1+ primitive hematopoietic precursors were permissive for MVMi genome replication and the expression of viral gene products. The lymphoid and myeloid repopulating capacity of bone marrow (BM) cells was significantly impaired after in vitro infection, although the degree of functional effect proportionally decreased with the posttransplantation time. This indicated that MVMi targets the heterogeneous compartment of repopulating cells with differential affinity and suggests that the virus may persist in some primitive HSCs in the quiescent stage, killing those eventually recruited for proliferative activity. Immunodeficient SCID mice oronasally infected with MVMi were cured of the characteristic virus-induced lethal leukopenia by transplantation of immunocompetent BM grafts. However, two double-stranded viral DNA species, probably uncommon replicative intermediates, remained in the marrow of every transplanted mouse months after infectious virus clearance. Genetic analysis of the rescued mice showed that the infection ensured a stable engraftment of donor hematopoiesis by markedly depleting the pool of endogenous HSCs. The MVMi-induced suppression of HSC functions illustrates the accessibility of this compartment to infection during a natural viral hematological disease. These results may provide clues to understanding delayed hematopoietic syndromes associated with persistent viral infections and to prospective gene delivery to HSCs in vivo.

Segovia, Jose C.; Guenechea, Guillermo; Gallego, Jesus M.; Almendral, Jose M.; Bueren, Juan A.

2003-01-01

149

Detection of a Functional Hybrid Receptor ?c/GM-CSFR? in Human Hematopoietic CD34+ Cells  

PubMed Central

A functional hybrid receptor associating the common ? chain (?c) with the granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor ? (GM-CSFR?) chain is found in mobilized human peripheral blood (MPB) CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors, SCF/Flt3-L primed cord blood (CB) precursors (CBPr CD34+/CD56?), and CD34+ myeloid cell lines, but not in normal natural killer (NK) cells, the cytolytic NK-L cell line or nonhematopoietic cells. We demonstrated, using CD34+ TF1? cells, which express an interleukin (IL)-15R?/?/?c receptor, that within the hybrid receptor, the GM-CSFR? chain inhibits the IL-15–triggered ?c/JAK3-specific signaling controlling TF1? cell proliferation. However, the ?c chain is part of a functional GM-CSFR, activating GM-CSF–dependent STAT5 nuclear translocation and the proliferation of TF1? cells. The hybrid receptor is functional in normal hematopoietic progenitors in which both subunits control STAT5 activation. Finally, the parental TF1 cell line, which lacks the IL-15R? chain, nevertheless expresses both a functional hybrid receptor that controls JAK3 phosphorylation and a novel IL-15?/?c/TRAF2 complex that triggers nuclear factor ?B activation. The lineage-dependent distribution and function of these receptors suggest that they are involved in hematopoiesis because they modify transduction pathways that play a major role in the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors.

Giron-Michel, J.; Fogli, M.; Gaggero, A.; Ferrini, S.; Caignard, A.; Brouty-Boye, D.; Baouz, S.; Le Bousse-Kerdiles, M.-C.; Peault, B.; van Dijk, M.; Bulfone-Paus, S.; Durali, D.; Chouaib, S.; Azzarone, B.

2003-01-01

150

Detection of a functional hybrid receptor gammac/GM-CSFRbeta in human hematopoietic CD34+ cells.  

PubMed

A functional hybrid receptor associating the common gamma chain (gammac) with the granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor receptor beta (GM-CSFRbeta) chain is found in mobilized human peripheral blood (MPB) CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors, SCF/Flt3-L primed cord blood (CB) precursors (CBPr CD34+/CD56-), and CD34+ myeloid cell lines, but not in normal natural killer (NK) cells, the cytolytic NK-L cell line or nonhematopoietic cells. We demonstrated, using CD34+ TF1beta cells, which express an interleukin (IL)-15Ralpha/beta/gammac receptor, that within the hybrid receptor, the GM-CSFRbeta chain inhibits the IL-15-triggered gammac/JAK3-specific signaling controlling TF1beta cell proliferation. However, the gammac chain is part of a functional GM-CSFR, activating GM-CSF-dependent STAT5 nuclear translocation and the proliferation of TF1beta cells. The hybrid receptor is functional in normal hematopoietic progenitors in which both subunits control STAT5 activation. Finally, the parental TF1 cell line, which lacks the IL-15Rbeta chain, nevertheless expresses both a functional hybrid receptor that controls JAK3 phosphorylation and a novel IL-15alpha/gammac/TRAF2 complex that triggers nuclear factor kappaB activation. The lineage-dependent distribution and function of these receptors suggest that they are involved in hematopoiesis because they modify transduction pathways that play a major role in the differentiation of hematopoietic progenitors. PMID:12642604

Giron-Michel, J; Fogli, M; Gaggero, A; Ferrini, S; Caignard, A; Brouty-Boye, D; Baouz, S; Le Bousse-Kerdiles, M-C; Peault, B; van Dijk, M; Bulfone-Paus, S; Durali, D; Chouaib, S; Azzarone, B

2003-03-17

151

Colony-stimulating factor-1-responsive macrophage precursors reside in the amphibian (Xenopus laevis) bone marrow rather than the hematopoietic subcapsular liver.  

PubMed

Macrophage precursors originate from and undergo lineage commitment within designated sites of hematopoiesis, such as the mammalian bone marrow. These cells subsequently differentiate in response to stimulation with macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1). The amphibian bone marrow, unlike that of mammals, has been overlooked as a source of leukocyte precursors in favor of the liver subcapsular region, where hematopoiesis occurs in anurans. Here we report that the bone marrow rather than the liver periphery provides macrophage progenitors to the amphibian Xenopus laevis. We identified the amphibian CSF-1, examined its gene expression in developing and virally infected X. lae vis and produced it in recombinant form (rXlCSF-1). This rXlCSF-1 did not bind or elicit proliferation/differentiation of subcapsular liver cells. Surprisingly, a subpopulation of bone marrow cells engaged this growth factor and formed rXlCSF-1 concentration-dependent colonies in semisolid medium. Furthermore, rXlCSF-1-treated bone marrow (but not liver) cultures comprised of cells with characteristic macrophage morphology and high gene expression of the macrophage marker CSF-1 receptor. Together, our findings indicate that in contrast to all other vertebrates studied to date, committed Xenopus macrophage precursor populations are not present at the central site of hematopoiesis, but reside in the bone marrow. PMID:23485675

Grayfer, Leon; Robert, Jacques

2013-01-01

152

Adenosine A(1), A(2a), A(2b), and A(3) receptors in hematopoiesis. 1. Expression of receptor mRNA in four mouse hematopoietic precursor cells.  

PubMed

Four mouse bone marrow or thymus cell populations, namely granulopoietic/monocytopoietic, erythropoietic, B-lymphopoietic, and T-lymphopoietic precursor cells have been assayed by RT-PCR technique for the presence and relative amounts of adenosine A(1), A(2a), A(2b), and A(3) receptor mRNA. It has been found that (i) all four populations studied express all four adenosine receptor subtypes, (ii) the A(1), receptor is the least expressed in all populations studied, (iii) the A(3) receptor is markedly expressed in the populations of granulopoietic/monocytopoietic and erythropoietic cells, (iv) the A(2a) receptor is markedly expressed in the populations of B-lymphopoietic and T-lymphopoietic cells, and v) the A(2b) receptor does not predominate in any of the precursor cells studied. Our data offer a new possibility for the assessment of the readiness of these cells to respond, by receptor-mediated mechanisms, to adenosine or its analogs present in the tissues as a result of endogenous processes and/or following their administration. PMID:19249907

Streitová, D; Sefc, L; Savvulidi, F; Pospísil, M; Holá, J; Hofer, M

2010-01-01

153

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M2) with translocation (8;21) (q22;q22) and abnormal eosinophilic precursors in the bone marrow--a case report.  

PubMed

The translocation (8;21)(q22;q22) is frequently associated with M2 subtype of AML. The authors herein present a case of AML-M2 in a nine-year-old boy without hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy or any bleeding diathesis. Bone marrow examination revealed high number of eosinophilic precursors (60%) among the total nucleated bone marrow cells. Cytogenetic study with G- banding method showed 46, XY, t (8;21)(q22;q22). The morphological abnormalities in eosinophils observed in AML suggested that eosinophils may be a part of leukemic process. PMID:21630067

Gupta, Oneal; Aggarwal, Roopak; Prasad, Rajni

2012-02-01

154

Acute Fibrinous and Organizing Pneumonia Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

A 60-year-old man presented with cough, sputum, and dyspnea. He had a history of acute myeloid leukemia and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with chronic renal failure. Chest CT scans showed miliary nodules and patchy consolidations. Histological examination revealed numerous fibrin balls within the alveoli and thickening of the alveolar septum, both of which are typical pathological features of acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia (AFOP). We report the first case of AFOP following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Lee, Sang Min; Park, Jae-Jung; Sung, Sun Hee; Kim, Yookyung; Lee, Kyoung Eun; Lee, Soon Nam; Seong, Chu Myong

2009-01-01

155

Further Phenotypic Characterization and Isolation of Human Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells Using a Monoclonal Antibody to the c-kit Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

UMAN BONE MARROW (BM) is composed of a H heterogenous population of hematopoietic precursor and progenitor cells. This broad array of cells, with differing phenotypic and functional properties, is thought to ulti- mately originate from primitive hematopoietic cells termed stem Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) have not only the ability to supply mature hematopoietic cells for prolonged periods of time, but

Robert A. Briddell; Virginia C. Broudy; Edward Bruno; John E. Brandt; Edward F. Srour; Ronald Hoffman

1992-01-01

156

Hematopoietic cytokines  

PubMed Central

The production of hematopoietic cells is under the tight control of a group of hematopoietic cytokines. Each cytokine has multiple actions mediated by receptors whose cytoplasmic domains contain specialized regions initiating the various responses—survival, proliferation, differentiation commitment, maturation, and functional activation. Individual cytokines can be lineage specific or can regulate cells in multiple lineages, and for some cell types, such as stem cells or megakaryocyte progenitors, the simultaneous action of multiple cytokines is required for proliferative responses. The same cytokines control basal and emergency hematopoietic cell proliferation. Three cytokines, erythropoietin, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, have now been in routine clinical use to stimulate cell production and in total have been used in the management of many millions of patients. In this little review, discussion will be restricted to those cytokines well established as influencing the production of hematopoietic cells and will exclude newer candidate regulators and those active on lymphoid cells. As requested, this account will describe the cytokines in a historical manner, using a sequential format of discovery, understanding, validation, and puzzlement, a sequence that reflects the evolving views on these cytokines over the past 50 years.

2008-01-01

157

Hematopoietic cells from primate embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

Embryonic stem (ES) cells, derived from early stage embryos, are pluripotent precursors of all of the tissues and organs of the body. ES cells from the mouse have been shown to undergo differentiation in vitro to form a variety of different cell types, including the differentiated progeny of hematopoietic precursors. These hematopoietic cells, however, exhibit numerous differences from those of human cells, and it has become increasingly clear that mouse ES cell differentiation has significant limitations as a model of human developmental biology. The more recent isolation and characterization of nonhuman primate ES cell lines have made available an experimental model with characteristics considerably more close to human biology. We have developed experimental conditions that promote efficient differentiation of these cells to produce progeny cells with considerable similarity to hematopoietic precursors harvested from bone marrow of adult animals. PMID:17141039

Li, Fei; Lu, Shi-Jiang; Honig, George R

2006-01-01

158

Fludarabine Phosphate, Busulfan, and Anti-Thymocyte Globulin Followed By Donor Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplant, Tacrolimus, and Methotrexate in Treating Patients With Myeloid Malignancies  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Accelerated Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Blastic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Chronic Phase Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Hematopoietic/Lymphoid Cancer; Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Neoplasm, Unclassifiable; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Relapsing Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

2014-05-27

159

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm: evolving insights in an aggressive hematopoietic malignancy with a predilection of skin involvement.  

PubMed

Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) derived from precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells is a very rare, unique, and highly aggressive immature hematopoietic malignancy, more frequently occurring among healthy elderly adults. BPDCN can be characterized by a striking predilection for cutaneous involvement, which is often detected incidentally by dermatologists and is difficult to clinically distinguish it from other primary skin lesions and histologically from leukemia/lymphoma cutis. Thus, histological diagnosis of cutaneous biopsies is crucial to correctly classify this entity. Most patients eventually progress to acute myeloid leukemia and are generally not curable. Here, we present 2 cases of classic BPDCN and discuss the origin of tumor and literature-based characteristic clinical and morphological features, evolving immunomarkers, and molecular genetic aspects of this neoplasm. PMID:24247574

Gera, Shweta; Dekmezian, Mhair S; Duvic, Madeleine; Tschen, Jaime A; Vega, Francisco; Cho-Vega, Jeong Hee

2014-03-01

160

Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Receptor Mutations in Myeloid Malignancy  

PubMed Central

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor is a cytokine able to stimulate both myelopoiesis and hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, which has seen it used extensively in the clinic to aid hematopoietic recovery. It acts specifically via the homodimeric granulocyte colony-stimulating factor receptor (G-CSFR), which is principally expressed on the surface of myeloid and hematopoietic progenitor cells. A number of pathogenic mutations have now been identified in CSF3R, the gene encoding G-CSFR. These fall into distinct classes, each of which is associated with a particular spectrum of myeloid disorders, including malignancy. This review details the various CSF3R mutations, their mechanisms of action, and contribution to disease, as well as discussing the clinical implications of such mutations.

Liongue, Clifford; Ward, Alister Curtis

2014-01-01

161

The Zinc Finger Transcription Factor Egr1 Potentiates Macrophage Differentiation of Hematopoietic Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previously we have shown that the zinc finger transcription factor Egr-1 is essential for and restricts differentiation of hematopoietic cells along the macrophage lineage, raising the possibility thatEgr-1 actually plays a deterministic role in governing the development of hematopoietic precursor cells along the monocytic lineage. To test this hypothesis, we have taken advantage of interleukin-3-dependent 32Dcl3 hematopoietic precursor cells which,

KANDASAMY KRISHNARAJU; HUNG Q. NGUYEN; DAN A. LIEBERMANN

1995-01-01

162

Isolation and characterization of c-fos-expressing murine bone marrow stromal cell lines supporting myeloid differentiation.  

PubMed

We have previously reported that constitutive expression of c-fos oncogene allows long-term proliferation of primary mouse bone marrow stromal cells favoring the granulocytic differentiation of myeloid precursors in an in vitro assay. Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer of the human c-fos gene was used here for immortalizing nine mouse bone marrow cell lines which were studied in detail. However, due to low expression of the ectopic c-fos gene, none of them showed characteristics of transformation as assayed by dependence upon serum for growth, the inability to form colonies in agar and contact inhibition. All of them displayed a fibroblastoid phenotype, as deduced from morphological observation and analysis of several differentiation markers. They mostly supported the granulocytic differentiation of bone marrow myeloid precursors in a GM-assay, as did c-fos-expressing primary stromal cells. Their potential for supporting myeloid progenitor proliferation was however significantly lower than that of the whole adherent layer of the Dexter-type long-term bone marrow culture they derived from (STNT cells). They showed significant variations with respect to their cytokine gene expression analyzed at the RNA level in keeping with the notion of stromal cell heterogeneity in the bone marrow. Interestingly, none of them secreted GM-CSF, SCF or IL-3, which are cytokines reputed for their ability to stimulate hematopoietic progenitors, and strikingly, only two of them were able to produce detectable levels of G-CSF in culture supernatants despite the propensity of all of them to favor granulocyte differentiation. Finally, in coculture assay, bone marrow cells were able to diminish the expression of several cytokine genes albeit at a much lower degree than in the original STNT cells. PMID:8642870

Steff, A M; Bouaboula, M; Mouchiroud, G; Arnaud, S; Roux, P; Cassellas, P; Piechaczyk, M

1996-03-01

163

Musashi-2 regulates normal hematopoiesis and promotes aggressive myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

RNA-binding proteins of the Musashi (Msi) family are expressed in stem cell compartments and in aggressive tumors, but they have not yet been widely explored in the blood. Here we demonstrate that Msi2 is the predominant form expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), and its knockdown leads to reduced engraftment and depletion of HSCs in vivo. Overexpression of human MSI2 in a mouse model increases HSC cell cycle progression and cooperates with the chronic myeloid leukemia–associated BCR-ABL1 oncoprotein to induce an aggressive leukemia. MSI2 is overexpressed in human myeloid leukemia cell lines, and its depletion leads to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Expression levels in human myeloid leukemia directly correlate with decreased survival in patients with the disease, thereby defining MSI2 expression as a new prognostic marker and as a new target for therapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Kharas, Michael G; Lengner, Christopher J; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; Bullinger, Lars; Ball, Brian; Zaidi, Samir; Morgan, Kelly; Tam, Winnie; Paktinat, Mahnaz; Okabe, Rachel; Gozo, Maricel; Einhorn, William; Lane, Steven W; Scholl, Claudia; Frohling, Stefan; Fleming, Mark; Ebert, Benjamin L; Gilliland, D Gary; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Daley, George Q

2011-01-01

164

Innate immune cells as homeostatic regulators of the hematopoietic niche.  

PubMed

Two cellular systems of paramount importance for mammalian physiology, the myeloid and the hematopoietic, have received a great deal of attention in the past decade. Myeloid leukocytes, classically involved in mediating innate immune responses, are now known to regulate other important aspects of the organism's physiology, from development to regulation of metabolic functions. In parallel, many diverse cellular and molecular components have been identified in the bone marrow (BM) that are required for the regulation and lifelong preservation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC). Since the production of blood and immune elements by these multipotent cells responds to environmental signals, it is not entirely surprising that the hematopoietic niches in which HSPC are located can in turn be regulated by the immune system. We review here recent evidence demonstrating that two components of the innate immune system, macrophages and neutrophils, regulate the function of the hematopoietic niche in ways that may favor both the retention and the release of HSPC from the BM. We propose that the highly migratory nature of neutrophils, the presence of a network of tissue-resident macrophages in the BM and possibly in other tissues, and the superb capacity of these innate immune cells to respond to stress endow them with regulatory functions that are ultimately relayed to the hematopoietic niche. PMID:24634109

Casanova-Acebes, María; A-González, Noelia; Weiss, Linnea A; Hidalgo, Andrés

2014-06-01

165

PTPIP51-a myeloid lineage specific protein interacts with PTP1B in neutrophil granulocytes.  

PubMed

Protein tyrosine phosphatase interacting protein 51 (PTPIP51) was identified as an in vitro interacting partner of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) and T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP). The full-length form of PTPIP51 encompasses 470aas and has a molecular weight of 52kDa. The physiological function is poorly understood but an involvement in differentiation processes and apoptosis has been suggested. Preliminary observations suggested differences in PTPIP51 expression in blood cells. To analyze a possible involvement of PTPIP51 in hematopoietic processes, we studied its expression in samples of peripheral venous blood (PVB), umbilical cord blood (UCB) and human bone marrow (HBM). In both, PVB and UCB PTPIP51 expression was restricted to neutrophil granulocytes. In HBM samples, besides in mature neutrophil ganulocytes PTPIP51 protein and mRNA was present in myeloid precursor cells of neutrophils. The expression of PTPIP51 in neutrophil granulocytes was corroborated by immunoblot analysis exhibiting different molecular weight forms of PTPIP51 protein. Anti-peptide antibodies, identifying specific regions of the PTPIP51 protein (C-terminus, N-terminus and aas114-129) revealed a distinct isoform expression pattern in neutrophil granulocytes of different sources. In PVB and UCB neutrophil granulocytes reacted positive for all three peptide antibodies. In contrast, neutrophils of HBM express solely an N-terminal variant of PTPIP51 protein, lacking the C-terminal and aas114-129 sequence. Immunocytochemical results displayed a strict co-localization of PTPIP51 and PTP1B in PVB and UCB. The interaction of both proteins was verified by a proximity ligation assay. Neither proliferating cells, as identified by PCNA immunostaining, nor apoptotic cells, labeled by TUNEL assay, displayed an immunoreactivity for PTPIP51 in HBM. In fact, PTPIP51 expression was restricted to myeloid precursor cells undergoing differentiation. In blood cells therefore, PTPIP51 expression is restricted to differentiating and mature neutrophil granulocytes. PMID:20627780

Brobeil, Alexander; Graf, Michaela; Oeschger, Sabine; Steger, Klaus; Wimmer, Monika

2010-08-15

166

Differential gene expression in human hematopoietic stem cells specified toward erythroid, megakaryocytic, and granulocytic lineage  

Microsoft Academic Search

To better understand the transcrip- tional program that accompanies orderly lineage- specific hematopoietic differentiation, we analyzed expression changes during the lineage-specific dif- ferentiation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSC; CD34\\/CD38-\\/CD33-); HSC and multipo- tent myeloid progenitors (MMP; CD34\\/CD38-\\/ CD33) were isolated from the bone marrow of healthy individuals by MACS. CD34 cells in semi- solid culture were stimulated with the

Xiao-Ling Liu; Jin-Yun Yuan; Jun-Wu Zhang; Xin-Hua Zhang; Rong-Xin Wang

2007-01-01

167

Cell-autonomous regulation of hematopoietic stem cell cycling activity by ATP  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extracellular nucleotides regulate many cellular functions through activation of purinergic receptors in the plasma membrane. Here, we show that in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), ATP is stored in vesicles and released in a calcium-sensitive manner. HSC expresses ATP responsive P2X receptors and in vitro pharmacological P2X antagonism restrained hematopoietic progenitors proliferation, but not myeloid differentiation. In mice suffering from chronic

A Casati; M Frascoli; E Traggiai; M Proietti; U Schenk; F Grassi

2011-01-01

168

Translocation (8;21) acute myeloid leukemia presenting as severe aplastic anemia  

PubMed Central

We report a case of t(8;21) acute myeloid leukemia presenting as severe aplastic anemia. While initial bone marrow biopsy lacked any cytogenetic abnormalities in 20 analyzed metaphases, repeat bone marrow biopsy eight days later demonstrated this translocation. Initial cytogenetic analysis of 20 metaphases was therefore insufficient to make the diagnosis of hypocellular acute myeloid leukemia. We discuss that further complementary molecular tests, such as CGH, would likely provide a more robust diagnosis of hematopoietic diseases.

Purev, Enkhtsetseg; Dumitriu, Bogdan; Hourigan, Christopher S.; Young, Neal S.; Townsley, Danielle M.

2014-01-01

169

IGFBP2 Supports ex vivo Expansion of Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), through proliferation and differentiation, gives rise to all lymphoid, myeloid, and erythroid\\u000a cells. Successful HSC transplantation is often limited by the numbers of HSCs, and robust methods to expand HSCs ex vivo are\\u000a needed (Bryder et al. 2006; Tse et al. 2008). We demonstrated that insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2),\\u000a secreted by a

HoangDinh Huynh; Megan Kaba; Sonali Rudra; Junke Zheng; Catherine J. Wu; Harvey F. Lodish; Cheng Cheng Zhang

170

Leukemia in donor cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of leukemia in donor cells after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant is an extremely rare event. We report here the case of a patient who developed myelodysplastic syndrome\\/acute myeloid leukemia, in cells of donor origin 3.5 years after related donor HSCT for refractory chronic lymphocytic leukemia and therapy-induced myelodysplastic syndrome. The origin of the leukemia was determined by

CG Brunstein; BA Hirsch; D Hammerschmidt; RC McGlennen; PL Nguyen; CM Verfaillie

2002-01-01

171

The Hematopoietic Growth Factors in Acute Leukemia: A European Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are malignant clonal disorders of the blood system requiring\\u000a intensive and long-term cytotoxic treatment. Current chemotherapy protocols not only target the malignant cell, but are also\\u000a highly toxic to normal hematopoietic cells as well. Leukemia patients thus experience prolonged times of neutropenia, thrombocytopenia,\\u000a and anemia, which increase the risk for secondary

Michael Heuser; Arnold Ganser; Dieter Hoelzer

172

Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). In our laboratory we have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3-26.3 cGy d^-1). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific (three major responding subgroups identified) and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup 1), the failure to augment basic repair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments (particularly marked within erythroid compartments) that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccommodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3) appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high-tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity. The kinetics of these repair-mediated, regenerative hematopoietic responses within the major subgroups are under study and should provide useful insights into the nature of hematopoietic accommodation (or its failure) under greatly extended periods of chronic, low-daily-dose ionizing radiation exposure.

Seed, T. M.

173

Localization of serglycin in human neutrophil granulocytes and their precursors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serglycin is a major proteoglycan of hematopoietic cells. It is thought to play a role in the packaging of granule proteins in human neu- trophil granulocytes. The presence of serglycin in myeloid cells has been demonstrated only at the transcriptional level. We generated a polyclonal antibody against recombinant human serglycin. Here, we show the localization of serglycin in hu- mans

Carsten Utoft Niemann; Jack Bernard Cowland; Pia Klausen; Jon Askaa; Jero Calafat; Niels Borregaard

2004-01-01

174

Early T-cell Precursor Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ETP T-ALL)  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review Early T-cell Precursor (ETP) leukemias have been recently recognized as a form of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) with poor prognosis. The purpose of this review is to outline the most recent advances in the biology, genetics and prognostic significance of this aggressive disease. Recent findings Detailed immunophenotypic analyses have defined ETP T-ALLs as a distinct group of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) with poor prognosis. Transcriptionally, ETP T-ALLs and early immature T-ALLs, a broader group of tumors characterized by very early arrest in T-cell differentiation, are most related to hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid progenitors. Consistently these leukemias show lower frequencies of prototypical T-ALL lesions such as CDKN2A/B deletions and activating mutations in NOTCH1 and show a higher prevalence of mutations typically associated with the pathogenesis of acute myeloid leukemias (AML). Summary ETP and early immature T-ALLs are characterized by a very early differentiation arrest and show unique genetic and transcriptional features that overlap both with T-ALL and AML. Given the unique biology and poor prognosis associated with the ETP T-ALL group there is an urgent need of new tailored therapeutic strategies for the treatment of this disease.

Haydu, J. Erika; Ferrando, Adolfo A.

2013-01-01

175

BCR/ABL-negative clonogenic hematopoietic cells do not accumulate in the plastic-adherent fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in stable chronic phase.  

PubMed

PBMNC from patients with CML and healthy control persons were separated into plastic-adherent and nonadherent cell fractions. A colony assay in semi-solid medium was used to estimate the number and lineage commitment of CFC in each of the fractions. The CML blood-derived colonies were isolated and analyzed by FISH for BCR/ABL sequences. Thus, we were able to test the hypothesis whether a selective enrichment is possible of normal progenitor cells in the blood of CML patients in stable chronic phase after HU and/or IFN. Although the number of leukocytes differed considerably between patients at diagnosis and in stable chronic phase, the proportion of adherent and nonadherent cells was about the same in all preparations tested. There were also only minor differences of adherence between MNC of CML and normal origin. Furthermore, BCR/ABL-positive and negative colonies were equally distributed among unseparated, adherent, and nonadherent PBMNC fractions. In conclusion, an accumulation of BCR/ABL-negative CFC was not found in any of the PBMNC fractions. CFC from PBMNC of the same lineage commitment were simultaneously present in plastic-adherent and nonadherent cell fractions, indicating that their surface charges might be different and, on the other hand, that different lineage commitment precursors can be present in either of the fractions irrespective of CML or blood origin. PMID:11140859

Schultheis, B; Pasternak, G; Hehlmann, R

2000-01-01

176

Mapping of MN1 Sequences Necessary for Myeloid Transformation  

PubMed Central

The MN1 oncogene is deregulated in human acute myeloid leukemia and its overexpression induces proliferation and represses myeloid differentiation of primitive human and mouse hematopoietic cells, leading to myeloid leukemia in mouse models. To delineate the sequences within MN1 necessary for MN1-induced leukemia, we tested the transforming capacity of in-frame deletion mutants, using retroviral transduction of mouse bone marrow. We found that integrity of the regions between amino acids 12 to 458 and 1119 to 1273 are required for MN1’s in vivo transforming activity, generating myeloid leukemia with some mutants also producing T-cell lympho-leukemia and megakaryocytic leukemia. Although both full length MN1 and a mutant that lacks the residues between 12–228 (?12–228 mutant) repressed myeloid differentiation and increased myeloproliferative activity in vitro, the mutant lost its transforming activity in vivo. Both MN1 and ?12–228 increased the frequency of common myeloid progentiors (CMP) in vitro and microarray comparisons of purified MN1-CMP and ?12–228-CMP cells showed many differentially expressed genes including Hoxa9, Meis1, Myb, Runx2, Cebpa, Cebpb and Cebpd. This collection of immediate MN1-responsive candidate genes distinguishes the leukemic activity from the in vitro myeloproliferative capacity of this oncoprotein.

Kandilci, Ayten; Surtel, Jacqueline; Janke, Laura; Neale, Geoffrey; Terranova, Sabrina; Grosveld, Gerard C.

2013-01-01

177

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The purpose of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is to replace diseased, damaged, or absent hematopoietic stem\\u000a cells (HSCs) with healthy HSCs. In general, allogeneic transplants are used when the hematopoietic stem cells are diseased\\u000a (e.g., leukemia), damaged (e.g., sickle cell disease), or absent (e.g., severe immunodeficiency disease). Autologous transplants\\u000a are used to provide stem cell rescue after higher doses

Robbie Norville; Deborah Tomlinson

178

Sox4 cooperates with CREB in myeloid transformation  

PubMed Central

The cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is a nuclear transcription factor that is critical for normal and neoplastic hematopoiesis. Previous studies have demonstrated that CREB is a proto-oncogene whose overexpression promotes cellular proliferation in hematopoietic cells. Transgenic mice that overexpress CREB in myeloid cells develop a myeloproliferative disease with splenomegaly and aberrant myelopoiesis. However, CREB overexpressing mice do not spontaneously develop acute myeloid leukemia. In this study, we used retroviral insertional mutagenesis to identify genes that accelerate leukemia in CREB transgenic mice. Our mutagenesis screen identified several integration sites, including oncogenes Gfi1, Myb, and Ras. The Sox4 transcription factor was identified by our screen as a gene that cooperates with CREB in myeloid leukemogenesis. We show that the transduction of CREB transgenic mouse bone marrow cells with a Sox4 retrovirus increases survival and self-renewal of cells in vitro. Furthermore, leukemic blasts from the majority of acute myeloid leukemia patients have higher CREB, phosphorylated CREB, and Sox 4 protein expression. Sox4 transduction of mouse bone marrow cells results in increased expression of CREB target genes. We also demonstrate that CREB is a direct target of Sox4 by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. These results indicate that Sox4 and CREB cooperate and contribute to increased proliferation of hematopoietic progenitor cells.

Sandoval, Salemiz; Kraus, Christina; Cho, Er-Chieh; Cho, Michelle; Bies, Juraj; Manara, Elena; Accordi, Benedetta; Landaw, Elliot M.; Wolff, Linda; Pigazzi, Martina

2012-01-01

179

Wilms tumor gene expression in acute myeloid leukemias.  

PubMed

The Wilms' tumor gene product (WT-1) is suggested to act as a tumor suppressor in childhood malignancies of the kidney and as a transcription factor with regulating activity on a number of growth and differentiation factors. Wt-1 has been shown to be expressed in blast cells of the vast majority of patients with acute myeloid and lymphoblastic leukemias (AL) by a number of workers. High levels of wt-1 mRNA expression in blast cells of newly diagnosed AML patients predict worse prognosis when compared to patients with no or low wt-1 mRNA expression. Patients achieving complete responses after chemotherapy usually lose detectable signals of wt-1. In relapse of the disease reoccurrence of wt-1 mRNA can be determined in almost all patients with initially detectable wt-1 mRNA. Using sensitive techniques such as reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) relapses are preceded by wt-1 expression in some cases. Although a subpopulation of normal hematopoietic precursor cells has also been shown to express message for wt-1, detectable levels of wt-1 during follow-ups in AML patients have been shown to be useful as a marker for residual blast populations or even to predict relapse of AML. Whether the high level of wt- expression is a non-specific phenomenon resulting from malignant transformation or whether it has an impact on the pathophysiology of AML or the uncontrolled growth of AML blasts is still controversial. However, there are indicators for an involvement of wt-1 in malignant events of AML blasts such as the downregulation of wt-1 in chemically induced differentiation of AML blast cell lines or the interactions of wt-1 with the protooncogene bcl-2 and the tumor suppressor gene p53. In conclusion, its possible relevance as an AML marker and its role in pathophysiological mechanisms in AML will still have to be defined in the future. PMID:9250813

Bergmann, L; Maurer, U; Weidmann, E

1997-05-01

180

Molecular signatures in childhood acute leukemia and their correlations to expression patterns in normal hematopoietic subpopulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Global expression profiles of a consecutive series of 121 childhood acute leukemias (87 B lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemias, 11 T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias, and 23 acute myeloid leukemias), six normal bone marrows, and 10 normal hematopoietic subpopulations of different lineages and maturations were ascertained by using 27K cDNA microarrays. Unsupervised analyses revealed segregation according to lineages and primary genetic

Anna Andersson; Tor Olofsson; David Lindgren; Björn Nilsson; Cecilia Ritz; Patrik Edén; Carin Lassen; Johan Råde; Magnus Fontes; Helena Mörse; Jesper Heldrup; Mikael Behrendtz; Felix Mitelman; Mattias Höglund; Bertil Johansson; Thoas Fioretos

2005-01-01

181

Elucidating critical mechanisms of deregulated stem cell turnover in the chronic phase of chronic myeloid leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has been studied intensively for many years; yet its treatment remains problematic and its biology remains elusive. In chronic phase, the leukemic clone appears to be maintained by a small number of BCR-ABL-positive hematopoietic stem cells that differentiate normally and amplify slowly. In contrast, as these cells enter the intermediate stages of lineage restriction, their progeny

TL Holyoake; X Jiang; MW Drummond; AC Eaves; CJ Eaves

2002-01-01

182

Hematopoietic commitment during embryonic stem cell differentiation in culture.  

PubMed Central

We report that embryonic stem cells efficiently undergo differentiation in vitro to mesoderm and hematopoietic cells and that this in vitro system recapitulates days 6.5 to 7.5 of mouse hematopoietic development. Embryonic stem cells differentiated as embryoid bodies (EBs) develop erythroid precursors by day 4 of differentiation, and by day 6, more than 85% of EBs contain such cells. A comparative reverse transcriptase-mediated polymerase chain reaction profile of marker genes for primitive endoderm (collagen alpha IV) and mesoderm (Brachyury) indicates that both cell types are present in the developing EBs as well in normal embryos prior to the onset of hematopoiesis. GATA-1, GATA-3, and vav are expressed in both the EBs and embryos just prior to and/or during the early onset of hematopoiesis, indicating that they could play a role in the early stages of hematopoietic development both in vivo and in vitro. The initial stages of hematopoietic development within the EBs occur in the absence of added growth factors and are not significantly influenced by the addition of a broad spectrum of factors, including interleukin-3 (IL-3), IL-1, IL-6, IL-11, erythropoietin, and Kit ligand. At days 10 and 14 of differentiation, EB hematopoiesis is significantly enhanced by the addition of both Kit ligand and IL-11 to the cultures. Kinetic analysis indicates that hematopoietic precursors develop within the EBs in an ordered pattern. Precursors of the primitive erythroid lineage appear first, approximately 24 h before precursors of the macrophage and definitive erythroid lineages. Bipotential neutrophil/macrophage and multilineage precursors appear next, and precursors of the mast cell lineage develop last. The kinetics of precursor development, as well as the growth factor responsiveness of these early cells, is similar to that found in the yolk sac and early fetal liver, indicating that the onset of hematopoiesis within the EBs parallels that found in the embryo. Images

Keller, G; Kennedy, M; Papayannopoulou, T; Wiles, M V

1993-01-01

183

Aldehyde dehydrogenases in acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) affects approximately 15,000 persons per year in the United States and is the sixth leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The treatment of AML has advanced little in the past thirty years, in part because of the biologic heterogeneity of the disease and the difficulty in targeting AML cells while sparing normal hematopoietic cells. Advances in preventing and treating AML are likely to occur once the cellular and molecular differences between leukemia and normal hematopoietic cells are better understood. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity is highly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), while, in contrast, a subset of AMLs are lacking this activity. This difference may be relevant to the development of AML and may also provide a better avenue for treating this disease. In this review, we summarize what is known about the ALDHs in normal HSCs and AML and propose strategies for capitalizing on these differences in the treatment of acute leukemia, and possibly other cancers as well. PMID:24641679

Smith, Clay; Gasparetto, Maura; Humphries, Keith; Pollyea, Daniel A; Vasiliou, Vasilis; Jordan, Craig T

2014-03-01

184

Redefining the Hematopoietic Microenvironment.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and their progeny reside in specialized niches of the microenvironment (ME) in the bone marrow. The ME niches control HSC self-renewal, differentiation and maturation. The ME niche cells were derived from non-hematopoietic c...

M. Iwata

2012-01-01

185

Overexpression of primary microRNA 221/222 in acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Background Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematopoietic malignancy with a dismal outcome in the majority of cases. A detailed understanding of the genetic alterations and gene expression changes that contribute to its pathogenesis is important to improve prognostication, disease monitoring, and therapy. In this context, leukemia-associated misexpression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been studied, but no coherent picture has emerged yet, thus warranting further investigations. Methods The expression of 636 human miRNAs was compared between samples from 52 patients with AML and 13 healthy individuals by highly specific locked nucleic acid (LNA) based microarray technology. The levels of individual mature miRNAs and of primary miRNAs (pri-miRs) were determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase (qRT) PCR. Transfections and infections of human cell lines were performed using standard procedures. Results 64 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed between AML and controls. Further studies on the clustered miRNAs 221 and 222, already known to act as oncogenes in other tumor types, revealed a deficiency of human myeloid cell lines to process vector derived precursor transcripts. Moreover, endogenous pri-miR-221/222 was overexpressed to a substantially higher extent than its mature products in most primary AML samples, indicating that its transcription was enhanced, but processing was rate limiting, in these cells. Comparison of samples from the times of diagnosis, remission, and relapse of AML demonstrated that pri-miR-221/222 levels faithfully reflected the stage of disease. Conclusions Expression of some miRNAs is strongly regulated at the posttranscriptional level in AML. Pri-miR-221/222 represents a novel molecular marker and putative oncogene in this disease.

2013-01-01

186

Id1 immortalizes hematopoietic progenitors in vitro and promotes a myeloproliferative disease in vivo  

PubMed Central

Id1 is frequently overexpressed in many cancer cells, but the functional significance of these findings is not known. To determine if Id1 could contribute to the development of hematopoietic malignancy, we reconstituted mice with hematopoietic cells overexpressing Id1. We showed for the first time that deregulated expression of Id1 leads to a myeloproliferative disease in mice, and immortalizes myeloid progenitors in vitro. In human cells, we demonstrate that Id genes are expressed in human acute myelogenous leukemia cells, and that knock down of Id1 expression inhibits leukemic cell line growth, suggesting that Id1 is required for leukemic cell proliferation. These findings established a causal relationship between Id1 overexpression and hematologic malignancy. Thus, deregulated expression of Id1 may contribute to the initiation of myeloid malignancy, and Id1 may represent a potential therapeutic target for early stage intervention in the treatment of hematopoietic malignancy.

Suh, HC; Leeanansaksiri, W; Ji, M; Klarmann, KD; Renn, K; Gooya, J; Smith, D; McNiece, I; Lugthart, S; Valk, PJM; Delwel, R; Keller, JR

2011-01-01

187

Myelodysplastic Syndrome with Myelofibrosis Transformed to a Precursor B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Case Report with Review of the Literature  

PubMed Central

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a group of heterogeneous clonal hematopoietic cell disorders characterized by cytopenias, bone marrow hypercellularity, and increased risk of transformation to acute leukemias. MDS usually transformed to acute myeloid leukemia, and transformation to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is rare. Herein, we report a unique patient who presented with MDS with myelofibrosis. Two months after the initial diagnosis, she progressed to a precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. She was treated with induction therapy followed by allogenic stem cell transplantation. She was alive and doing well upon last followup. We have also reviewed the literature and discussed the clinicopathologic features of 36 MDS patients who progressed to ALL reported in the literature.

Algarni, Ayed A.; Akhtari, Mojtaba; Fu, Kai

2012-01-01

188

Myelodysplastic syndrome with myelofibrosis transformed to a precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report with review of the literature.  

PubMed

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) comprise a group of heterogeneous clonal hematopoietic cell disorders characterized by cytopenias, bone marrow hypercellularity, and increased risk of transformation to acute leukemias. MDS usually transformed to acute myeloid leukemia, and transformation to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is rare. Herein, we report a unique patient who presented with MDS with myelofibrosis. Two months after the initial diagnosis, she progressed to a precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. She was treated with induction therapy followed by allogenic stem cell transplantation. She was alive and doing well upon last followup. We have also reviewed the literature and discussed the clinicopathologic features of 36 MDS patients who progressed to ALL reported in the literature. PMID:22937321

Algarni, Ayed A; Akhtari, Mojtaba; Fu, Kai

2012-01-01

189

Multilineage Priming of Enhancer Repertoires Precedes Commitment to the B and Myeloid Cell Lineages in Hematopoeitic Progenitors  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY Recent studies have documented genome-wide binding patterns of transcriptional regulators and their associated epigenetic marks in hematopoietic cell lineages. In order to determine how epigenetic marks are established and maintained during developmental progression, we have generated long-term cultures of hematopoietic progenitors by enforcing the expression of the E-protein antagonist Id2. Hematopoietic progenitors that express Id2 are multipotent and readily differentiate upon withdrawal of Id2 expression into committed B lineage cells, thus indicating a causative role for E2A (Tcf3) in promoting the B cell fate. Genome-wide analyses revealed that a substantial fraction of lymphoid and myeloid enhancers are pre-marked by the poised or active enhancer mark H3K4Me1 in multipotent progenitors. Thus, in hematopoietic progenitors, multilineage priming of enhancer elements precedes commitment to the lymphoid or myeloid cell lineages.

Mercer, Elinore M.; Lin, Yin C.; Benner, Christopher; Jhunjhunwala, Suchit; Dutkowski, Janusz; Flores, Martha; Sigvardsson, Mikael; Ideker, Trey; Glass, Christopher K.; Murre, Cornelis

2011-01-01

190

[Chronic myeloid leukemia stem cells: cross-talk with the niche].  

PubMed

The physiological hematopoietic niche located in bone marrow is a pluricellular structure whose components are now well identified. Within this microenvironment, hematopoietic stem cells are in direct contact with mesenchymal stromal cells, osteoblasts and sinusoidal endothelial cells. These close relationships drive specialized cellular functions (proliferation/quiescence, differentiation/self-renewal) ensuring an efficient hematopoiesis. Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a major model of leukemic hematopoiesis. The BCR-ABL1 tyrosine kinase, constitutively activated in CML, plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of the disease. An intensive cross-talk between CML progenitors and the components of the hematopoietic niche has recently been demonstrated. Consequently, the occurrence of the so-called leukemic niche promotes both the proliferation of myeloid cells and the maintenance of quiescent leukemic stem cells. This bone marrow niche could also protect CML stem cells from tyrosine kinase inhibitors and probably contribute to their resistance towards targeted therapies. PMID:24801043

Chomel, Jean-Claude; Aggoune, Djamel; Sorel, Nathalie; Turhan, Ali G

2014-04-01

191

Shared and Distinct Functions of the Transcription Factors IRF4 and IRF8 in Myeloid Cell Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 8 and IRF4 are structurally-related, hematopoietic cell-specific transcription factors that cooperatively regulate the differentiation of dendritic cells and B cells. Whilst in myeloid cells IRF8 is known to modulate growth and differentiation, the role of IRF4 is poorly understood. In this study, we show that IRF4 has activities similar to IRF8 in regulating myeloid cell development.

Michio Yamamoto; Takayuki Kato; Chie Hotta; Akira Nishiyama; Daisuke Kurotaki; Masahiro Yoshinari; Masamichi Takami; Motohide Ichino; Masatoshi Nakazawa; Toshifumi Matsuyama; Ryutaro Kamijo; Seiichi Kitagawa; Keiko Ozato; Tomohiko Tamura; Kevin D. Bunting

2011-01-01

192

Growth factor independence 1 (Gfi1) regulates cell-fate decision of a bipotential granulocytic-monocytic precursor defined by expression of Gfi1 and CD48  

PubMed Central

The transcriptional repressor Gfi1 regulates the expression of genes important for survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Gfi1 deficient mice are severely neutropenic and accumulate ill-defined CD11b+GR1int myeloid cells. Here we show that Gfi1 expression levels determine mono- or granulocytic lineage choice in precursor cells. In addition, we identify CD48 as a cell surface marker which enables a better definition of monocytes and granulocytes in mouse bone marrow. Using the CD48/Gr1/Gfi1 marker combination we can show that the CD11b+GR1int cells accumulating in Gfi1 deficient mice are monocytes and not granulocyte precursors. Expression of CD48, Gr1 and Gfi1 define different bone marrow subpopulations that are either committed to the granulocytic lineage, or bipotential precursors of granulocytes or monocytes. Finally, a comparison of genes differentially expressed between murine Gfi1 high granulocytic precursors and mature granulocytes with gene expression changes from human myeloblasts versus neutrophils show a strong resemblance of human and mouse differentiation pathways. This underlines the value of the markers CD48 and Gfi1 identified here to study human and murine granulo-monocytic differentiation.

Vassen, Lothar; Duhrsen, Ulrich; Kosan, Christian; Zeng, Hui; Moroy, Tarik

2012-01-01

193

Epo and other hematopoietic factors  

PubMed Central

The growth factors erythropoietin and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor have hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic functions. Both are used clinically in their recombinant forms. Both also have interesting tissue-protective effects in other organs, which are unrelated to their hematopoietic functions. They have clinical hematopoietic uses in neonatal populations and in experimental non-hematopoietic research, and clinical potential as neuroprotective or tissue-protective agents.

Juul, Sandra; Felderhoff-Mueser, Ursula

2007-01-01

194

Interleukin-7 receptor mutants initiate early T cell precursor leukemia in murine thymocyte progenitors with multipotent potential.  

PubMed

Early T cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ETP-ALL) exhibits lymphoid, myeloid, and stem cell features and is associated with a poor prognosis. Whole genome sequencing of human ETP-ALL cases has identified recurrent mutations in signaling, histone modification, and hematopoietic development genes but it remains to be determined which of these abnormalities are sufficient to initiate leukemia. We show that activating mutations in the interleukin-7 receptor identified in human pediatric ETP-ALL cases are sufficient to generate ETP-ALL in mice transplanted with primitive transduced thymocytes from p19(Arf-/-) mice. The cellular mechanism by which these mutant receptors induce ETP-ALL is the block of thymocyte differentiation at the double negative 2 stage at which myeloid lineage and T lymphocyte developmental potential coexist. Analyses of samples from pediatric ETP-ALL cases and our murine ETP-ALL model show uniformly high levels of LMO2 expression, very low to undetectable levels of BCL11B expression, and a relative lack of activating NOTCH1 mutations. We report that pharmacological blockade of Jak-Stat signaling with ruxolitinib has significant antileukemic activity in this ETP-ALL model. This new murine model recapitulates several important cellular and molecular features of ETP-ALL and should be useful to further define novel therapeutic approaches for this aggressive leukemia. PMID:24687960

Treanor, Louise M; Zhou, Sheng; Janke, Laura; Churchman, Michelle L; Ma, Zhijun; Lu, Taihe; Chen, Shann-Ching; Mullighan, Charles G; Sorrentino, Brian P

2014-04-01

195

BRAF-V600E expression in precursor versus differentiated dendritic cells defines clinically distinct LCH risk groups.  

PubMed

Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a clonal disorder with elusive etiology, characterized by the accumulation of CD207(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in inflammatory lesions. Recurrent BRAF-V600E mutations have been reported in LCH. In this study, lesions from 100 patients were genotyped, and 64% carried the BRAF-V600E mutation within infiltrating CD207(+) DCs. BRAF-V600E expression in tissue DCs did not define specific clinical risk groups but was associated with increased risk of recurrence. Strikingly, we found that patients with active, high-risk LCH also carried BRAF-V600E in circulating CD11c(+) and CD14(+) fractions and in bone marrow (BM) CD34(+) hematopoietic cell progenitors, whereas the mutation was restricted to lesional CD207(+) DC in low-risk LCH patients. Importantly, BRAF-V600E expression in DCs was sufficient to drive LCH-like disease in mice. Consistent with our findings in humans, expression of BRAF-V600E in BM DC progenitors recapitulated many features of the human high-risk LCH, whereas BRAF-V600E expression in differentiated DCs more closely resembled low-risk LCH. We therefore propose classification of LCH as a myeloid neoplasia and hypothesize that high-risk LCH arises from somatic mutation of a hematopoietic progenitor, whereas low-risk disease arises from somatic mutation of tissue-restricted precursor DCs. PMID:24638167

Berres, Marie-Luise; Lim, Karen Phaik Har; Peters, Tricia; Price, Jeremy; Takizawa, Hitoshi; Salmon, Hélène; Idoyaga, Juliana; Ruzo, Albert; Lupo, Philip J; Hicks, M John; Shih, Albert; Simko, Stephen J; Abhyankar, Harshal; Chakraborty, Rikhia; Leboeuf, Marylene; Beltrão, Monique; Lira, Sérgio A; Heym, Kenneth M; Bigley, Venetia; Collin, Matthew; Manz, Markus G; McClain, Kenneth; Merad, Miriam; Allen, Carl E

2014-04-01

196

Hematopoietic tissue repair under chronic low daily dose irradiation  

SciTech Connect

The capacity of the hematopoietic system to repair constantly accruing cellular damage under chronic, low daily dose gamma irradiation is essential for the maintenance of a functional hematopoietic system, and, in turn, long term survival. In certain individuals, however, such continuous cycles of damage and repair provide an essential inductive environment for selected types of hematopathologies, e.g., myeloid leukemia (ML). We have been studying temporal and causal relationships between hematopoietic capacity, associated repair functions, and propensities for hematologic disease in canines under variable levels of chronic radiation stress (0.3{minus}26.3 cGy d{sup {minus}1}). Results indicate that the maximum exposure rate tolerated by the hematopoietic system is highly individual-specific and is based largely on the degree to which repair capacity, and, in turn, hematopoietic restoration, is augmented under chronic exposure. In low-tolerance individuals (prone to aplastic anemia, subgroup (1), the failure to augment basic m-pair functions seemingly results in a progressive accumulation of genetic and cellular damage within vital progenitorial marrow compartments particularly marked within erythroid compartments. that results in loss of reproductive capacity and ultimately in collapse of the hematopoietic system. The high-tolerance individuals (radioaccomodated and either prone- or not prone to ML, subgroup 2 & 3 appear to minimize the accumulating damage effect of daily exposures by extending repair functions, which preserves reproductive integrity and fosters regenerative hematopoietic responses. As the strength of the regenerative response manifests the extent of repair augmentation, the relatively strong response of high- tolerance individuals progressing to patent ML suggests an insufficiency of repair quality rather than repair quantity.

Seed, T.M.

1994-12-01

197

Enhanced hematopoietic differentiation of embryonic stem cells conditionally expressing Stat5  

PubMed Central

The signal transducer Stat5 plays a key role in the regulation of hematopoietic differentiation and hematopoietic stem cell function. To evaluate the effects of Stat5 signaling in the earliest hematopoietic progenitors, we have generated an embryonic stem cell line in which Stat5 signaling can be induced with doxycycline. Ectopic Stat5 activation at the point of origin of the hematopoietic lineage (from day 4 to day 6 of embryoid body differentiation) significantly enhances the number of hematopoietic progenitors with colony-forming potential. It does so without significantly altering total numbers or apoptosis of hematopoietic cells, suggesting a cell-intrinsic effect of Stat5 on either the developmental potential or clonogenicity of this population. From day-6 embryoid bodies, under the influence of Stat5 signaling, a population of semiadherent cells can be expanded on OP9 stromal cells that is comprised of primitive hematopoietic blast cells with ongoing, mainly myeloid, differentiation. When these cells are injected into lethally irradiated mice, they engraft transiently in a doxycycline-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that the hematopoietic commitment of embryonic stem cells may be augmented by a Stat5-mediated signal, and highlight the utility of manipulating individual components of signaling pathways for engineering tissue-specific differentiation of stem cells.

Kyba, Michael; Perlingeiro, Rita C. R.; Hoover, Russell R.; Lu, Chi-Wei; Pierce, Jonathan; Daley, George Q.

2003-01-01

198

An undiagnosed case of acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Leukemia is a neoplastic disease characterized by an excessive proliferation of immature white blood cells and their precursors. Oral lesions may be the presenting feature of acute leukemia, which can be rapidly fatal if left untreated. Although many cases of gingival enlargement in patients with acute myeloid leukemia's have been reported in the literature, cases diagnosed by the oral manifestations in India are very few. This report describes the case of a 43-year-old female who presented with gingival bleeding and gingival enlargement. Within a month she developed signs and symptoms of systemic disease such as, and splenomegaly, and upon further investigation, she was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia to which she succumbed within 10 days after diagnosis. The need for early diagnosis and referral of this fatal disease are also underline. PMID:24744555

Babu, S P K Kennedy; Kashyap, Vineet; Sivaranjani, P; Agila, S

2014-01-01

199

Donor Cell Myeloid Sarcoma  

PubMed Central

Donor cell derived malignancies are a rare and interesting complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. We present a case of a 56-year-old male with donor cell myeloid sarcoma of the stomach and myocardium.

Walshauser, Mark A.; Sojitra, Payal

2014-01-01

200

Hematopoietic Cytokine-Induced Transcriptional Regulation and Notch Signaling as Modulators of MDSC Expansion  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) differentiate into mature lineage restricted blood cells under the influence of a complex network of hematopoietic cytokines, cytokine-mediated transcriptional regulators, and manifold intercellular signaling pathways. The classical model of hematopoiesis proposes that progenitor cells undergo a dichotomous branching into myelo-erythroid and lymphoid lineages. Nonetheless, erythroid and lymphoid restricted progenitors retain their myeloid potential, supporting the existence of an alternative ‘myeloid-based’ mechanism of hematopoiesis. In this case, abnormal pathology is capable of dysregulating hematopoiesis in favor of myelopoiesis. The accumulation of immature CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) has been shown to correlate with the presence of several hematopoietic cytokines, transcription factors and signaling pathways, lending support to this hypothesis. Although the negative role of MDSCs in cancer development is firmly established, it is now understood that MDSCs can exert a paradoxical, positive effect on transplantation, autoimmunity, and sepsis. Our conflicted understanding of MDSC function and the complexity of hematopoietic cytokine signaling underscores the need to elucidate molecular pathways of MDSC expansion for the development of novel MDSC-based therapeutics.

Saleem, Sheinei J.; Conrad, Daniel H.

2011-01-01

201

Remission induction in acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Inducing a complete remission (CR) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia is a prerequisite to long-term disease control with subsequent post-remission consolidation chemotherapy or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The use of 7 days of infusional cytarabine and 3 days of daunorubicin or idarubicin (7 + 3) has become the standard of care to induce CR, based on clinical trials conducted in the 1980s. Efforts to improve on the CR rate seen with the 7 + 3 regimen that translates into better overall patient survival have been disappointing. Here we review recent phase III studies of novel induction strategies that show promise in increasing the rate of CR and improving disease outcome.

Stein, Eytan M.

2014-01-01

202

How I treat pediatric acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Acute myeloid leukemia is a heterogeneous disease that accounts for approximately 20% of acute leukemias in children and adolescents. Despite the lack of targeted therapy for most subtypes and a dearth of new agents, survival rates have reached approximately 60% for children treated on clinical trials in developed countries. Most of the advances have been accomplished by better risk classification, the implementation of excellent supportive care measures, adaptation of therapy on the basis of each patient's response to therapy, and improvements in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, it is unlikely that further gains can be made through these measures alone. In this regard, high-resolution, genome-wide analyses have led to greater understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease and the identification of molecular abnormalities that are potential targets of new therapies. The development of molecularly targeted agents, some of which are already in clinical trials, holds great promise for the future.

2012-01-01

203

Hematopoietic stem cell and progenitor cell mechanisms in myelodysplastic syndromes.  

PubMed

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of disorders characterized by variable cytopenias and ineffective hematopoiesis. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and myeloid progenitors in MDS have not been extensively characterized. We transplanted purified human HSCs from MDS samples into immunodeficient mice and show that HSCs are the disease-initiating cells in MDS. We identify a recurrent loss of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors (GMPs) in the bone marrow of low risk MDS patients that can distinguish low risk MDS from clinical mimics, thus providing a simple diagnostic tool. The loss of GMPs is likely due to increased apoptosis and increased phagocytosis, the latter due to the up-regulation of cell surface calreticulin, a prophagocytic marker. Blocking calreticulin on low risk MDS myeloid progenitors rescues them from phagocytosis in vitro. However, in the high-risk refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) stages of MDS, the GMP population is increased in frequency compared with normal, and myeloid progenitors evade phagocytosis due to up-regulation of CD47, an antiphagocytic marker. Blocking CD47 leads to the selective phagocytosis of this population. We propose that MDS HSCs compete with normal HSCs in the patients by increasing their frequency at the expense of normal hematopoiesis, that the loss of MDS myeloid progenitors by programmed cell death and programmed cell removal are, in part, responsible for the cytopenias, and that up-regulation of the "don't eat me" signal CD47 on MDS myeloid progenitors is an important transition step leading from low risk MDS to high risk MDS and, possibly, to acute myeloid leukemia. PMID:23388639

Pang, Wendy W; Pluvinage, John V; Price, Elizabeth A; Sridhar, Kunju; Arber, Daniel A; Greenberg, Peter L; Schrier, Stanley L; Park, Christopher Y; Weissman, Irving L

2013-02-19

204

Molecular profiling reveals myeloid leukemia cell lines to be faithful model systems characterized by distinct genomic aberrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

To model and investigate different facets of leukemia pathogenesis, a widely accepted approach is to use immortalized leukemia cell lines. Although these provide powerful tools to our knowledge, few studies have addressed the question whether hematopoietic cell lines represent accurate and reliable model systems. To improve the molecular characterization of these model systems, we analyzed 17 myeloid leukemia cell lines

F G Rücker; S Sander; K Döhner; H Döhner; J R Pollack; L Bullinger

2006-01-01

205

Interferons Regulate the in vitro Differentiation of Multilineage Lympho-Myeloid Stem Cells in Hairy Cell Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In vitro 14-day cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from hairy cell leukemia patients consistently showed the presence of hematopoietic stem cells giving rise to multilineage colonies containing a high proportion of lymphoid cells associated with the myeloid and erythroid progenitors. These stem cells are not the hairy cells but appear to be pluripotent lymphomyeloid primitive stem cells persisting in

Rita Michalevicz; Michel Revel

1987-01-01

206

The SKI proto-oncogene enhances the in vivo repopulation of hematopoietic stem cells and causes myeloproliferative disease.  

PubMed

The proto-oncogene SKI is highly expressed in human myeloid leukemia and also in murine hematopoietic stem cells. However, its operative relevance in these cells remains elusive. We have over-expressed SKI to define its intrinsic role in hematopoiesis and myeloid neoplasms, which resulted in a robust competitive advantage upon transplantation, a complete dominance of the stem and progenitor compartments, and a marked enhancement of myeloid differentiation at the expense of other lineages. Accordingly, enforced expression of SKI induced a gene signature associated with hematopoietic stem cells and myeloid differentiation, as well as hepatocyte growth factor signaling. Here we demonstrate that, in contrast to what has generally been assumed, the significant impact of SKI on hematopoiesis is independent of its ability to inhibit TGF-beta signaling. Instead, myeloid progenitors expressing SKI are partially dependent on functional hepatocyte growth factor signaling. Collectively our results demonstrate that SKI is an important regulator of hematopoietic stem cell activity and its overexpression leads to myeloproliferative disease. PMID:24415629

Singbrant, Sofie; Wall, Meaghan; Moody, Jennifer; Karlsson, Göran; Chalk, Alistair M; Liddicoat, Brian; Russell, Megan R; Walkley, Carl R; Karlsson, Stefan

2014-04-01

207

Changes in the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a model for diffusion of medical technology  

PubMed Central

Background Innovations in hematology spread rapidly. Factors affecting the speed of introduction, international diffusion, and durability of use of innovations are, however, poorly understood. Design and Methods We used data on 251,106 hematopoietic stem cell transplants from 591 teams in 36 European countries to analyze the increase and decrease in such transplants for breast cancer and chronic myeloid leukemia and the replacement of bone marrow by peripheral blood as the source of stem cells as processes of diffusion. Regression analyses were used to measure the quantitative impact of defined macro- and microeconomic factors, to look for significant associations (t-test), and to describe the coefficient of determination or explanatory content (R2). Results Gross national income per capita, World Bank category, team density, team distribution, team size, team experience and, team innovator status were all significantly associated with some or all of the changes. The analyses revealed different patterns of associations and a wide range of explanatory content. Macro- and micro-economic factors were sufficient to explain the increase of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants in general (R2 = 78.41%) and for chronic myeloid leukemia in particular (R2 = 79.39%). They were insufficient to explain the changes in stem cell source (R2 =26.79% autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplants; R2 = 9.67% allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants) or the decreases in hematopoietic stem cell transplants (R2 =10.22% breast cancer; R2=33.17% chronic myeloid leukemia). Conclusions The diffusion of hematopoietic stem cell transplants is more complex than previously thought. Availability of resources, evidence, external regulations and, expectations were identified as key determinants. These data might serve as a model for diffusion of medical technology in general.

Gratwohl, Alois; Schwendener, Alvin; Baldomero, Helen; Gratwohl, Michael; Apperley, Jane; Niederwieser, Dietger; Frauendorfer, Karl

2010-01-01

208

CDC42 ACTIVITY REGULATES HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL AGING AND REJUVENATION  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The functional decline in hematopoietic function seen during aging involves a progressive reduction in the immune response and an increased incidence of myeloid malignancy, and has been linked to aging of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The molecular mechanisms underlying HSC aging remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that elevated activity of the small RhoGTPase Cdc42 in aged HSCs is causally linked to HSC aging and correlates with a loss of polarity in aged HSCs. Pharmacological inhibition of Cdc42 activity functionally rejuvenates aged HSCs, increases the percentage of polarized cells in an aged HSC population, and restores the level and spatial distribution of histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation to a similar status as seen in young HSCs. Our data therefore suggest a mechanistic role for Cdc42 activity in HSC biology and epigenetic regulation, and identify Cdc42 activity as a pharmacological target for ameliorating stem cell aging.

Florian, Maria Carolina; Dorr, Karin; Niebel, Anja; Daria, Deidre; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Rojewski, Markus; Filippi, Marie-Dominique; Hasenberg, Anja; Gunzer, Matthias; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; Zheng, Yi; Geiger, Hartmut

2012-01-01

209

Minimal Residual Disease Following Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation  

PubMed Central

Minimal residual disease (MRD), both before and after transplant, is a clinically important yet relatively poorly defined aspect of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT). The clinical relevance of MRD in the context of alloHSCT has been demonstrated by its association with the development of clinical relapse. However, with the possible exception of chronic myeloid leukemia, the specific techniques, timing, frequency and clinical utility, relative to improvement in patient outcomes, for monitoring MRD in the setting of alloHSCT has yet to be clearly defined. A concise overview of monitoring techniques for detecting MRD, as well as treatment strategies and biologic and clinical research initiatives for MRD suggested by the National Cancer Institute 1st International Workshop on the Biology, Prevention, and Treatment of Relapse after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, is covered in this paper.

Kroger, Nicolaus; Miyamura, Koichi; Bishop, Michael R.

2010-01-01

210

Hematopoietic and endothelial differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells.  

PubMed

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide an unprecedented opportunity for modeling of human diseases in vitro, as well as for developing novel approaches for regenerative therapy based on immunologically compatible cells. In this study, we employed an OP9 differentiation system to characterize the hematopoietic and endothelial differentiation potential of seven human iPSC lines obtained from human fetal, neonatal, and adult fibroblasts through reprogramming with POU5F1, SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28 and compared it with the differentiation potential of five human embryonic stem cell lines (hESC, H1, H7, H9, H13, and H14). Similar to hESCs, all iPSCs generated CD34(+)CD43(+) hematopoietic progenitors and CD31(+)CD43(-) endothelial cells in coculture with OP9. When cultured in semisolid media in the presence of hematopoietic growth factors, iPSC-derived primitive blood cells formed all types of hematopoietic colonies, including GEMM colony-forming cells. Human induced pluripotent cells (hiPSCs)-derived CD43(+) cells could be separated into the following phenotypically defined subsets of primitive hematopoietic cells: CD43(+)CD235a(+)CD41a(+/-) (erythro-megakaryopoietic), lin(-)CD34(+)CD43(+)CD45(-) (multipotent), and lin(-)CD34(+)CD43(+)CD45(+) (myeloid-skewed) cells. Although we observed some variations in the efficiency of hematopoietic differentiation between different hiPSCs, the pattern of differentiation was very similar in all seven tested lines obtained through reprogramming of human fetal, neonatal, or adult fibroblasts with three or four genes. Although several issues remain to be resolved before iPSC-derived blood cells can be administered to humans for therapeutic purposes, patient-specific iPSCs can already be used for characterization of mechanisms of blood diseases and for identification of molecules that can correct affected genetic networks. PMID:19259936

Choi, Kyung-Dal; Yu, Junying; Smuga-Otto, Kim; Salvagiotto, Giorgia; Rehrauer, William; Vodyanik, Maxim; Thomson, James; Slukvin, Igor

2009-03-01

211

STAT5 in hematopoietic stem cell biology and transplantation  

PubMed Central

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) regulates normal lympho-myeloid development through activation downstream of early-acting cytokines, their receptors, and Janus kinases (JAKs). Despite a general understanding of the role of STAT5 in hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) proliferation, survival, and self-renewal, the transcriptional targets and mechanisms of gene regulation that control multi-lineage engraftment following transplantation for the most part remain to be understood. In this review, we focus on the role of STAT5 in HSC transplantation and recent developments toward identifying the relevant downstream target genes and their role as part of a pleiotropic STAT5 mediated signaling response.

Wang, Zhengqi; Bunting, Kevin D

2013-01-01

212

E-Cadherin Is a Specific Marker for Erythroid Differentiation and Has Utility, in Combination With CD117 and CD34, for Enumerating Myeloblasts in Hematopoietic Neoplasms.  

PubMed

Objectives E-cadherin, epithelial calcium-dependent cell adhesion protein, has been identified as a marker of immature erythroid precursors in recent years. However, the specificity of E-cadherin in bone marrow specimens for erythroblasts vs myeloblasts or other early hematopoietic precursors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) has not been fully elucidated. Methods We analyzed 105 cases of AML and MDS to evaluate the specificity of E-cadherin. Results Of 84 cases of AML, including cases with megakaryocytic, erythroid, monocytic, and granulocytic differentiation, all five acute erythroleukemia cases were positive, as well as one case of megakaryoblastic leukemia that showed coexpression of glycophorin A. In addition, we demonstrate that a panel of three markers, E-cadherin, CD117, and CD34, is effective in identifying lineage-specific myeloblasts in cases of MDS where left-shifted erythroid hyperplasia may complicate morphologic assessment of myeloblasts. Conclusions In marrow specimens, E-cadherin is a useful marker for erythroid differentation. PMID:24713736

Ohgami, Robert S; Chisholm, Karen M; Ma, Lisa; Arber, Daniel A

2014-05-01

213

Twist and miR-34a Are Involved in the Generation of Tumor-Educated Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells  

PubMed Central

Tumors can induce the generation and accumulation of immunosuppressive cells such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells in the tumor microenvironment, contributing to tumor immunological escapes. Many studies have demonstrated that multiple factors could induce myeloid precursor cells into myeloid-derived suppressor cells, not dendritic cells. In our study, we found that tumor supernatants could induce the generation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells by disturbing the development of dendritic cells. Twist and miR-34a may regulate the effect of tumor cells inducing myeloid-derived suppressor cells via TGF-? and/or IL-10.

Wang, Xin; Chang, Xusheng; Zhuo, Guangzuan; Sun, Mingjuan; Yin, Kai

2013-01-01

214

NUP98 dysregulation in myeloid leukemogenesis.  

PubMed

Nucleoporin 98 (NUP98) is a component of the nuclear pore complex that facilitates mRNA export from the nucleus. It is mapped to 11p15.5 and is fused to a number of distinct partners, including nine members of the homeobox family as a consequence of leukemia-associated chromosomal translocations. NUP98-HOXA9 is associated with the t(7;11)(p15;p15) translocation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome, and blastic crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia. Expression of NUP98-HOXA9 in murine bone marrow resulted in a myeloproliferative disease progressing to AML by 7-8 months. Transduction of NUP98 fusion genes into human CD34(+) cells confers a proliferative advantage in long-term cytokine-stimulated and stromal cocultures and in NOD-SCID engrafted mice, associated with a five- to eight-fold increase in hematopoietic stem cells. NUP98-HOXA9 expression inhibited erythroid and myeloid differentiation but enhanced serial progenitor replating. NUP98-HOXA9 upregulated a number of homeobox genes of the A and B cluster as well as MEIS1 and Pim-1, and downmodulated globin genes and C/EBPalpha. The HOXA9 component of the NUP98-HOXA9 fusion protein was protected from cullin-4A-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation. In NUP98-HOX-transduced CD34(+) cells and cells from AML patients with t(7;11)(p15;p15) NUP98 was no longer associated with the nuclear pore complex but formed intranuclear aggregation bodies. Analysis of NUP98 allelic expression in AML and myelodysplastic syndrome showed loss of heterozygosity observed in 29% of the former and 8% of the latter. This was associated with poor prognosis. PMID:17442773

Moore, M A S; Chung, K Y; Plasilova, M; Schuringa, J J; Shieh, J-H; Zhou, P; Morrone, G

2007-06-01

215

Leukomogenic factors downregulate heparanase expression in acute myeloid leukemia cells  

SciTech Connect

Heparanase is a heparan sulfate-degrading endoglycosidase expressed by mature monocytes and myeloid cells, but not by immature hematopoietic progenitors. Heparanase gene expression is upregulated during differentiation of immature myeloid cells. PML-RAR{alpha} and PLZF-RAR{alpha} fusion gene products associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia abrogate myeloid differentiation and heparanase expression. AML-Eto, a translocation product associated with AML FAB M2, also downregulates heparanase gene expression. The common mechanism that underlines the activity of these three fusion gene products involves the recruitment of histone deacetylase complexes to specific locations within the DNA. We found that retinoic acid that dissociates PML-RAR{alpha} from the DNA, and which is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia patients, restores heparanase expression to normal levels in an acute promyelocytic leukemia cell line. The retinoic acid effects were also observed in primary acute promyelocytic leukemia cells and in a retinoic acid-treated acute promyelocytic leukemia patient. Histone deacetylase inhibitor reverses the downregulation of heparanase expression induced by the AML-Eto fusion gene product in M2 type AML. In summary, we have characterized a link between leukomogenic factors and the downregulation of heparanase in myeloid leukemic cells.

Eshel, Rinat [Hematology Institute, Sourasky Medical Center, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Ben-Zaken, Olga [Department of Oncology, Hadassah-Hebrew University hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Vainas, Oded [The Hematology Institute, Sourasky Medical Center, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Nadir, Yona [Department of Hematology, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa (Israel); Minucci, Saverio [European Institute of Oncology, Milan (Italy); Polliack, Aaron [Department of Hematology, Hadassah-Hebrew University hospital, Jerusalem (Israel); Naparstek, Ella [Hematology Institute, Sourasky Medical Center, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Vlodavsky, Israel [Cancer and Vascular Biology Research Center, Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion, Haifa (Israel); Katz, Ben-Zion [Hematology Institute, Sourasky Medical Center, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); E-mail: bkatz@tasmc.healt.gov.il

2005-10-07

216

BCL2A1a Over-Expression in Murine Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells Decreases Apoptosis and Results in Hematopoietic Transformation  

PubMed Central

We previously reported the development of a lethal myeloid sarcoma in a non-human primate model utilizing retroviral vectors to genetically modify hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. This leukemia was characterized by insertion of the vector provirus into the BCL2A1 gene, with resultant BCL2A1 over-expression. There is little information on the role of this anti-apoptotic member of the BCL2 family in hematopoiesis or leukemia induction. Therefore we studied the impact of Bcl2a1a lentiviral over-expression on murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. We demonstrated the anti-apoptotic function of this protein in hematopoietic cells, but did not detect any impact of Bcl2a1a on in vitro cell growth or cell cycle kinetics. In vivo, we showed a higher propensity of HSCs over-expressing Bcl2a1a to engraft and contribute to hematopoiesis. Mice over-expressing Bcl2a1a in the hematologic compartment eventually developed an aggressive malignant disease characterized as a leukemia/lymphoma of B-cell origin. Secondary transplants carried out to investigate the primitive origin of the disease revealed the leukemia was transplantable. Thus, Bcl2a1 should be considered as a proto-oncogene with a potential role in both lymphoid and myeloid leukemogenesis, and a concerning site for insertional activation by integrating retroviral vectors utilized in hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy.

Geyer, Julia T.; Calado, Rodrigo T.; Aplan, Peter D.; Eckhaus, Michael A.; Dunbar, Cynthia E.

2012-01-01

217

Hematopoietic growth factors.  

PubMed

Hematopoiesis is a complex process that underlines the production of multiple highly specialized cells. The intricate mechanisms involved in this process include both positive and negative feedback by humoral activities, pluripotent stem cell selfrenewal and differentiation, and local interactions between stromal components of the hematopoietic microenvironment and various stem and progenitor cells. A group of hematopoietic growth factors, as well as their genes and chromosomal locations, have been identified. Advances in biochemistry and molecular biology led to the purification, genetic sequencing and molecular cloning of these glycoproteins. They include interleukin-3 (IL-3), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and erythropoietin (EPO). The biologic specificity of these substances is defined by their ability to support proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells in a semisolid clonal assay system. These factors share certain characteristics, including their ability to stimulate the function of mature cells, their overlapping activity affecting progenitor cells of several lineages, and their direct and indirect actions on nonhematopoietic cells. Trials using hematopoietic growth factors demonstrated their remarkable efficacy in a variety of clinical settings. PMID:1708221

Tabbara, I A; Robinson, B E

1991-01-01

218

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia transformed to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the MPN Subcommittee of the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.  

PubMed

The clinical course of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia is potentially associated with long-term severe complications, such as evolution to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is currently the only potentially curative treatment for advanced polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia. We analyzed 250 consecutive patients with an initial diagnosis of polycythemia vera (n=120) or essential thrombocythemia (n=130), who underwent transplantation due to progression to myelofibrosis (n=193) or acute myeloid leukemia (n=57) and who were reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry between 1994 and 2010. Their median age was 56 years (range, 22-75) and in 52% of cases the interval between diagnosis and transplantation was 10 years or more. With a median follow-up from transplantation of 13 months, the 3-year overall survival rate and relapse incidence were 55% and 32%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the main parameters that negatively affected post-transplantation outcomes were older age (>55 years), a diagnosis at transplant of acute myeloid leukemia and the use of an unrelated donor. The overall 3-year cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality was 28%, but was significantly higher in older patients than in younger ones (>55 years, 35% versus 20%, P=0.032), in those transplanted from an unrelated donor rather than a related donor (34% versus 18%, P=0.034) and in patients with a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia compared to myelofibrosis (29% versus 27%, P=0.045). This large retrospective study confirms that transplantation is potentially curative for patients with end-stage polycythemia vera/essential thrombocythemia progressing to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia. Relapse and non-relapse mortality remain unsolved problems for which innovative treatment approaches need to be assessed. PMID:24389309

Lussana, Federico; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Finazzi, Maria Chiara; van Biezen, Anja; Scholten, Marijke; Oldani, Elena; Carobbio, Alessandra; Iacobelli, Simona; Finke, Jurgen; Nagler, Arnon; Volin, Liisa; Lamy, Thierry; Arnold, Renate; Mohty, Mohamad; Michallet, Mauricette; de Witte, Theo; Olavarria, Eduardo; Kröger, Nicolaus

2014-05-01

219

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia transformed to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia: a report from the MPN Subcommittee of the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation  

PubMed Central

The clinical course of polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia is potentially associated with long-term severe complications, such as evolution to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation is currently the only potentially curative treatment for advanced polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia. We analyzed 250 consecutive patients with an initial diagnosis of polycythemia vera (n=120) or essential thrombocythemia (n=130), who underwent transplantation due to progression to myelofibrosis (n=193) or acute myeloid leukemia (n=57) and who were reported to the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry between 1994 and 2010. Their median age was 56 years (range, 22–75) and in 52% of cases the interval between diagnosis and transplantation was 10 years or more. With a median follow-up from transplantation of 13 months, the 3-year overall survival rate and relapse incidence were 55% and 32%, respectively. In univariate analysis, the main parameters that negatively affected post-transplantation outcomes were older age (>55 years), a diagnosis at transplant of acute myeloid leukemia and the use of an unrelated donor. The overall 3-year cumulative incidence of non-relapse mortality was 28%, but was significantly higher in older patients than in younger ones (>55 years, 35% versus 20%, P=0.032), in those transplanted from an unrelated donor rather than a related donor (34% versus 18%, P=0.034) and in patients with a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia compared to myelofibrosis (29% versus 27%, P=0.045). This large retrospective study confirms that transplantation is potentially curative for patients with end-stage polycythemia vera/essential thrombocythemia progressing to myelofibrosis or acute myeloid leukemia. Relapse and non-relapse mortality remain unsolved problems for which innovative treatment approaches need to be assessed.

Lussana, Federico; Rambaldi, Alessandro; Finazzi, Maria Chiara; van Biezen, Anja; Scholten, Marijke; Oldani, Elena; Carobbio, Alessandra; Iacobelli, Simona; Finke, Jurgen; Nagler, Arnon; Volin, Liisa; Lamy, Thierry; Arnold, Renate; Mohty, Mohamad; Michallet, Mauricette; de Witte, Theo; Olavarria, Eduardo; Kroger, Nicolaus

2014-01-01

220

Human dendritic cell subsets in NOD\\/SCID mice engrafted with CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distinct human dendritic cell (DC) sub- sets differentially control immunity. Thus, insights into their in vivo functions are important to understand the launching and modulation of immune responses. We show that nonobese diabetic\\/LtSz- scid\\/scid (NOD\\/SCID) mice engrafted with human CD34 hematopoietic progenitors develop human myeloid and plasmacy- toid DCs. The skin displays immature DCs expressing Langerin, while other tis- sues

A. Karolina Palucka; Joel Gatlin; Jean Philippe Blanck; Michael W. Melkus; Sandra Clayton; Hideki Ueno; Elizabeth T. Kraus; Petra Cravens; Lynda Bennett; Angela Padgett-Thomas; Florentina Marches; Miguel Islas-Ohlmayer; J. Victor Garcia; Jacques Banchereau

2003-01-01

221

Leukemia - Chronic Myeloid - CML  

MedlinePLUS

... 9;22) causes two genes called BCR and ABL to become one fusion gene called BCR-ABL . It is found only in the blood-forming ... in other organs of the body. The BCR-ABL gene causes myeloid cells to make an abnormal ...

222

Immature MEF2C-dysregulated T-cell leukemia patients have an early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia gene signature and typically have non-rearranged T-cell receptors  

PubMed Central

Three distinct immature T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia entities have been described including cases that express an early T-cell precursor immunophenotype or expression profile, immature MEF2C-dysregulated T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cluster cases based on gene expression analysis (immature cluster) and cases that retain non-rearranged TRG@ loci. Early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases exclusively overlap with immature cluster samples based on the expression of early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia signature genes, indicating that both are featuring a single disease entity. Patients lacking TRG@ rearrangements represent only 40% of immature cluster cases, but no further evidence was found to suggest that cases with absence of bi-allelic TRG@ deletions reflect a distinct and even more immature disease entity. Immature cluster/early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases are strongly enriched for genes expressed in hematopoietic stem cells as well as genes expressed in normal early thymocyte progenitor or double negative-2A T-cell subsets. Identification of early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia cases solely by defined immunophenotypic criteria strongly underestimates the number of cases that have a corresponding gene signature. However, early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia samples correlate best with a CD1 negative, CD4 and CD8 double negative immunophenotype with expression of CD34 and/or myeloid markers CD13 or CD33. Unlike various other studies, immature cluster/early T-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients treated on the COALL-97 protocol did not have an overall inferior outcome, and demonstrated equal sensitivity levels to most conventional therapeutic drugs compared to other pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients.

Zuurbier, Linda; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Mullighan, Charles G.; Cante-Barrett, Kirsten; Gevaert, A. Olivier; de Rooi, Johan; Li, Yunlei; Smits, Willem K.; Buijs-Gladdines, Jessica G.C.A.M.; Sonneveld, Edwin; Look, A. Thomas; Horstmann, Martin; Pieters, Rob; Meijerink, Jules P.P.

2014-01-01

223

NDRG1\\/2 expression is inhibited in primary acute myeloid leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of N-myc downregulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is associated with growth arrest and differentiation of tumor cells. In hematopoietic cells, NDRG1 was identified in a screen for differentiation-related genes in human myelomonocytic leukemic U937 cells. In the present study, we found significantly higher NDRG1 mRNA levels in granulocytes of healthy donors than in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. Another

Mario P. Tschan; Deborah Shan; Judith Laedrach; Marianne Eyholzer; Elisabeth Oppliger Leibundgut; Gabriela M. Baerlocher; Andreas Tobler; Deborah Stroka; Martin F. Fey

2010-01-01

224

Knockout of myeloid cell leukemia-1 induces liver damage and increases apoptosis susceptibility of murine hepatocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) is an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 protein family. It interacts with proapoptotic Bcl-2 family members, thereby inhibiting mitochondrial activa- tion and induction of apoptosis. Mcl-1 is essential for embryonal development and the maintenance of B cells, T cells, and hematopoietic stem cells. We have recently shown that induction of Mcl-1 by growth factors rescues primary

Binje Vick; Achim Weber; Toni Urbanik; Thorsten Maass; Andreas Teufel; Peter H. Krammer; Joseph T. Opferman; Marcus Schuchmann; Peter R. Galle; Henning Schulze-Bergkamen

2009-01-01

225

Importance of MEK-1\\/-2 signaling in monocytic and granulocytic differentiation of myeloid cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation of the MEK\\/ERK\\/MAP kinase signaling pathway promotes the proliferation and survival of hematopoietic cells. The kinases MEK-1, MEK-2, ERK-1\\/MAPK and ERK-2\\/MAPK are activated by phosphorylation at specific sites, and these events can be monitored using phospho-specific antibodies. In this report we examined the importance of the MEK\\/ERK\\/MAP kinase pathway in the monocytic and granulocytic differentiation of myeloid cell lines.

MB Miranda; TF McGuire; DE Johnson

2002-01-01

226

Spleens of myelofibrosis patients contain malignant hematopoietic stem cells  

PubMed Central

Cancer stem cell behavior is thought to be largely determined by intrinsic properties and by regulatory signals provided by the microenvironment. Myelofibrosis (MF) is characterized by hematopoiesis occurring not only in the marrow but also in extramedullary sites such as the spleen. In order to study the effects of these different microenvironments on primitive malignant hematopoietic cells, we phenotypically and functionally characterized splenic and peripheral blood (PB) MF CD34+ cells from patients with MF. MF spleens contained greater numbers of malignant primitive HPCs than PB. Transplantation of PB MF CD34+ cells into immunodeficient (NOD/SCID/IL2R?null) mice resulted in a limited degree of donor cell chimerism and a differentiation program skewed toward myeloid lineages. By contrast, transplanted splenic MF CD34+ cells achieved a higher level of chimerism and generated both myeloid and lymphoid cells that contained molecular or cytogenetic abnormalities indicating their malignant nature. Only splenic MF CD34+ cells were able to sustain hematopoiesis for prolonged periods (9 months) and were able to engraft secondary recipients. These data document the existence of MF stem cells (MF-SCs) that reside in the spleens of MF patients and demonstrate that these MF-SCs retain a differentiation program identical to that of normal hematopoietic stem cells.

Wang, Xiaoli; Prakash, Sonam; Lu, Min; Tripodi, Joseph; Ye, Fei; Najfeld, Vesna; Li, Yan; Schwartz, Myron; Weinberg, Rona; Roda, Paul; Orazi, Attilio; Hoffman, Ronald

2012-01-01

227

Loss of SIMPL Compromises TNF? Dependent Survival of Hematopoietic Progenitors  

PubMed Central

Objective Emerging work has revealed an integral role of the TNF?-NF-?B pathway in the regulation of hematopoiesis. TNF? inhibition of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell growth involves the type I TNF? receptor (TNF RI) and the type II TNF? receptor (TNF RII). However the role of TNF RI versus TNF RII in mediating this response is less clear. Full induction of NF-?B dependent gene expression through TNF RI requires the transcriptional co-activator SIMPL. To address the role of SIMPL in TNF? dependent signaling in hematopoiesis, endothelial cells and hematopoietic progenitors expressing SIMPL shRNA were characterized. Material and Methods In vitro gene expression and progenitor assays employing SIMPL shRNA were used to examine the requirement for SIMPL in TNF? dependent effects upon cytokine gene expression and hematopoietic progenitor cell growth. Competitive repopulation studies were used to extend these studies in vivo. Results SIMPL is required for full TNF RI dependent expression of NF-?B controlled cytokines in endothelial cells. Hematopoietic progenitor cell expansion is not affected if progenitors lacked SIMPL or if progenitors are treated with human TNF? which signals through TNF RI. In the absence of SIMPL, human TNF? leads to a dramatic decrease in progenitor cell expansion that is not due to apoptosis. Loss of SIMPL does not affect the activity of TGF-?1 and IFN?, other known suppressors of hematopoiesis. Conclusions The suppression of myeloid progenitor cell expansion requires signaling through TNF RI and TNF RII. Signals transduced through the TNF?-TNF RI-SIMPL pathway support hematopoietic progenitor cell survival, growth and differentiation.

Benson, Eric A.; Goebl, Mark G.; Yang, Feng-chun; Kapur, Reuben; McClintick, Jeanette; Sanghani, Sonal; Clapp, D. Wade; Harrington, Maureen A.

2009-01-01

228

The normal flora may contribute to the quantitative preponderance of myeloid cells under physiological conditions.  

PubMed

Under physiological conditions, the innate immune cells derived from myeloid lineage absolutely outnumber the lymphoid cells. At present, two theories are attributed to the maintenance of haemopoiesis: the asymmetric cell division and the bone marrow hematopoietic microenvironment or "niche". However, the former only explains the self-renewal of haemopoietic stem cell (HSC) and the start of haemopoietic differentiation but fails to address the inducers of cell fate decisions; the latter has to admit that the hematopoietic cytokines, despite their significance in the maintenance of haemopoiesis, have no specific effect on lineage commitment. Given these flaws, the advantageous mechanism of myeloid haemopoiesis has not yet been uncovered in the current theories. The discoveries that bacterial components (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) and intestinal decontamination affect the mobilization of HSC trigger the interest in normal flora, which together with their components may have an effect on haemopoiesis. In the experiments in dogs and mice, researchers documented that the generation of myeloid cells has undergone changes in the bone marrow and periphery when antibiotics are used to regulate the normal intestinal flora and the concentration of its components. However, the same changes are not involved in lymphoid cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that in human body normal flora and its components are a driving force to maintain myeloid haemopoiesis under physiological conditions. To account for the selectiveness in haemopoiesis, these facts should be taken into consideration, such as HSC and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) functionally expressed pattern recognition receptors (PRR), and both of them can self-migrate or be recruited by normal flora or its components into periphery. Dynamically monitoring the myeloid haemopoiesis may provide an important complementary program that precludes the abuse of antibiotics, which prevents diseases triggered by the imbalance of normal flora. Meanwhile, the regulation of normal flora and the use of purified microecological modulator may serve as valuable auxiliary treatments to mobilize HSC prior to the HSC transplantation as well as to promote hematopoietic recovery after transplantation or chemotherapy in the blood diseases. PMID:20889261

Liang, Shi; LiHua, Hu

2011-01-01

229

Impaired maturation of myeloid progenitors in mice lacking novel Polycomb group protein MBT-1.  

PubMed

Polycomb group (PcG) proteins participate in DNA-binding complexes with gene-repressing activity, many of which have been highlighted for their involvement in hematopoiesis. We have identified a putative PcG protein, termed MBT-1, that is associated with Rnf2, an in vivo interactor of PcG proteins. MBT-1 structurally resembles the H-L(3)MBT protein, whose deletion is predicted to be responsible for myeloid hematopoietic malignancies. The human MBT-1 gene is located on chromosome 6q23, a region frequently deleted in leukemia cells, and shows a transient expression spike in response to maturation-inducing stimuli in myeloid leukemia cells. MBT-1(-/-) myeloid progenitor cells exhibit a maturational deficiency but maintain normal proliferative activities. This results in the accumulation of immature myeloid progenitors and hence, a marked decrease of mature myeloid blood cells, causing the MBT-1(-/-) mice to die of anemia during a late embryonic stage. Together, we conclude that MBT-1 specifically regulates the maturational advancement of myeloid progenitor cells during transitions between two developmental stages. We also show that MBT-1 appears to influence myelopoiesis by transiently enhancing p57(KIP2) expression levels. PMID:15889154

Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

2005-05-18

230

Differential niche and Wnt requirements during acute myeloid leukemia progression  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) engage in complex bidirectional signals with the hematopoietic microenvironment (HM), and there is emerging evidence that leukemia stem cells (LSCs) may use similar interactions. Using a syngeneic retroviral model of MLL-AF9 induced acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we have identified 2 different stages of leukemia progression, propagated by “pre-LSCs” and established leukemia (LSCs) and compared the homing properties of these distinctive entities to that of normal HSCs. The homing and microlocalization of pre-LSCs was most similar to long-term HSCs and was dependent on cell-intrinsic Wnt signaling. In contrast, the homing of established LSCs was most similar to that of committed myeloid progenitors and distinct from HSCs. Although osteoblast-derived Dickkopf-1, a potent Wnt inhibitor known to impair HSC function, dramatically impaired normal HSC localization within the bone marrow, it did not affect pre-LSCs, LSC homing, or AML development. Mechanistically, cell-intrinsic Wnt activation was observed in human and murine AML samples, explaining the independence of MLL-AF9 LSCs from niche-derived Wnt signals. These data identify differential engagement of HM associated with leukemic progression and identify an LSC niche that is physically distinct and independent of the constraints of Wnt signaling that apply to normal HSCs.

Lane, Steven W.; Wang, Yingzi J.; Lo Celso, Cristina; Ragu, Christine; Bullinger, Lars; Sykes, Stephen M.; Ferraro, Francesca; Shterental, Sebastian; Lin, Charles P.; Gilliland, D. Gary

2011-01-01

231

NrasG12D/+ promotes leukemogenesis by aberrantly regulating hematopoietic stem cell functions  

PubMed Central

Oncogenic NRAS mutations are frequently identified in human myeloid leukemias. In mice, expression of endogenous oncogenic Nras (NrasG12D/+) in hematopoietic cells leads to expansion of myeloid progenitors, increased long-term reconstitution of bone marrow cells, and a chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). However, acute expression of NrasG12D/+ in a pure C57BL/6 background does not induce hyperactivated granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor signaling or increased proliferation in myeloid progenitors. It is thus unclear how NrasG12D/+ signaling promotes leukemogenesis. Here, we show that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) expressing NrasG12D/+ serve as MPN-initiating cells. They undergo moderate hyperproliferation with increased self-renewal. The aberrant NrasG12D/+ HSC function is associated with hyperactivation of ERK1/2 in HSCs. Conversely, downregulation of MEK/ERK by pharmacologic and genetic approaches attenuates the cycling of NrasG12D/+ HSCs and prevents the expansion of NrasG12D/+ HSCs and myeloid progenitors. Our data delineate critical mechanisms of oncogenic Nras signaling in HSC function and leukemogenesis.

Wang, Jinyong; Kong, Guangyao; Liu, Yangang; Du, Juan; Chang, Yuan-I; Tey, Sin Ruow; Zhang, Xinmin; Ranheim, Erik A.; Saba-El-Leil, Marc K.; Meloche, Sylvain; Damnernsawad, Alisa; Zhang, Jingfang; Zhang, Jing

2013-01-01

232

The transcriptome of the leukemogenic homeoprotein HOXA9 in human hematopoietic cells.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic defects in HOXA9(-/-) mice demonstrate a key role for this homeoprotein in blood cell development. Conversely, enforced HOXA9 expression is leukemogenic in mice, and HOXA9 is frequently activated in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Although HOXA9 is thought to function as a transcription factor, few downstream targets have been identified. We searched for early HOXA9 target genes by using a transient overexpression strategy in 3 hematopoietic cell lines (2 myeloid, 1 lymphoid). cDNA microarray analyses identified 220 genes whose expression was modulated at least 2-fold. Expression signatures in myeloid and lymphoid cells demonstrated that HOXA9 functions as both an activator and repressor of a variety of genes in cell-specific patterns suggesting that the transcriptional effects of HOXA9 are largely dependent on the cell context. Transient transcription assays and target gene expression patterns in HOXA9(-/-) marrow cells imply that we have identified direct physiologic targets. Many target genes are expressed in CD34+ stem cells or are members of gene families involved in proliferation or myeloid differentiation. Expression of 14 HOXA9 target genes correlated with high-level HOXA9 expression in primary AML. These data suggest that many genes identified in this survey may mediate the biologic effects of HOXA9 in normal and leukemic hematopoiesis. PMID:14604967

Dorsam, Sheri Tinnell; Ferrell, Christina M; Dorsam, Glenn P; Derynck, Mika Kakefuda; Vijapurkar, Ulka; Khodabakhsh, Daniel; Pau, Bonnie; Bernstein, Hillary; Haqq, Christopher M; Largman, Corey; Lawrence, H Jeffrey

2004-03-01

233

cDNA sequences of three sheep myeloid cathelicidins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several myeloid antimicrobial peptide precursors have been shown to consist of a N-terminal proregion similar to a protein named cathelin and a structurally varied C-terminal antimicrobial domain. Proteins with these features have been named cathelicidins. In this paper we report the cDNA sequences of three ovine cathelicidins of 155, 160 and 190 residues, respectively, with cationic C-terminal sequences corresponding to

Luigi Bagella; Marco Scocchi; Margherita Zanetti

1995-01-01

234

Defective proliferative capacity and accelerated telomeric loss of hematopoietic progenitor cells in rheumatoid arthritis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), telomeres of lymphoid and myeloid cells are age-inappropriately shortened, suggesting excessive turnover of hematopoietic precursor cells (HPC). We have examined functional competence (proliferative capacity, maintenance of telomeric reserve) of CD34+ HPC in RA. METHODS Frequencies of peripheral blood CD34+CD45+ HPC of 63 rheumatoid factor positive RA patients and 48 matched controls were measured by flow cytometry. Proliferative burst, cell cycle dynamics, and induction of lineage-restricted receptors were tested in purified CD34+ HPC after stimulating with early hematopoietins. Telomeric sequences were quantified by real-time PCR. HPC functions were correlated with disease duration, activity, severity, and treatment. RESULTS In healthy donors, CD34+ HPC accounted for 0.05% of nucleated cells; their numbers were strictly age-dependent and declined at a rate of 1.3%/year. In RA patients, CD34+ HPC frequencies were age-independently reduced to 0.03%. Upon growth factor stimulation, control HPC passed through 5 replication cycles over 4 days. In contrast, RA-derived HPC completed only 3 generations. Telomeres of RA CD34+ HPC were age-inappropriately shortened by 1,600 bp. All HPC defects were independent from disease duration, disease activity, and smoking status; and were present to the same degree in untreated patients. CONCLUSIONS In RA, circulating bone marrow-derived progenitor cells are diminished, with concentrations stagnated at levels typical for old control individuals. HPC from RA patients display growth factor non-responsiveness and sluggish cell cycle progression; marked telomere shortening indicates proliferative stress-induced senescence. Defective HPC function independent from disease activity markers suggests bone marrow failure as a potential pathogenic factor in RA.

Colmegna, Ines; Diaz-Borjon, Alejandro; Fujii, Hiroshi; Schaefer, Linda; Goronzy, Jorg J.; Weyand, Cornelia M.

2010-01-01

235

T cell development requires constraint of the myeloid regulator C/EBPa by the Notch target and transcriptional repressor Hes1  

PubMed Central

Notch signaling induces gene expression of the T cell lineage and discourages alternative fate outcomes. Hematopoietic deficiency in the Notch target Hes1 results in severe T cell lineage defects; however, the underlying mechanism is unknown. We found here that Hes1 constrained myeloid gene-expression programs in T cell progenitor cells, as deletion of the myeloid regulator C/EBPa restored the development of T cells from Hes1-deficient progenitor cells. Repression of Cebpa by Hes1 required its DNA-binding and Groucho-recruitment domains. Hes1-deficient multipotent progenitor cells showed a developmental bias toward myeloid and dendritic cells after Notch signaling, whereas Hes1-deficient lymphoid progenitor cells required additional cytokine signaling for diversion into the myeloid lineage. Our findings establish the importance of constraining developmental programs of the myeloid lineage early in T cell development.

De Obaldia, Maria Elena; Bell, J Jeremiah; Wang, Xinxin; Harly, Christelle; Yashiro-Ohtani, Yumi; DeLong, Jonathan H; Zlotoff, Daniel A; Sultana, Dil Afroz; Pear, Warren S; Bhandoola, Avinash

2014-01-01

236

Lysophosphatidic acid mediates myeloid differentiation within the human bone marrow microenvironment.  

PubMed

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a pleiotropic phospholipid present in the blood and certain tissues at high concentrations; its diverse effects are mediated through differential, tissue specific expression of LPA receptors. Our goal was to determine if LPA exerts lineage-specific effects during normal human hematopoiesis. In vitro stimulation of CD34+ human hematopoietic progenitors by LPA induced myeloid differentiation but had no effect on lymphoid differentiation. LPA receptors were expressed at significantly higher levels on Common Myeloid Progenitors (CMP) than either multipotent Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells (HSPC) or Common Lymphoid Progenitors (CLP) suggesting that LPA acts on committed myeloid progenitors. Functional studies demonstrated that LPA enhanced migration, induced cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis of isolated CMP, but had no effect on either HSPC or CLP. Analysis of adult and fetal human bone marrow sections showed that PPAP2A, (the enzyme which degrades LPA) was highly expressed in the osteoblastic niche but not in the perivascular regions, whereas Autotaxin (the enzyme that synthesizes LPA) was expressed in perivascular regions of the marrow. We propose that a gradient of LPA with the highest levels in peri-sinusoidal regions and lowest near the endosteal zone, regulates the localization, proliferation and differentiation of myeloid progenitors within the bone marrow marrow. PMID:23696850

Evseenko, Denis; Latour, Brooke; Richardson, Wade; Corselli, Mirko; Sahaghian, Arineh; Cardinal, Sofie; Zhu, Yuhua; Chan, Rebecca; Dunn, Bruce; Crooks, Gay M

2013-01-01

237

Lysophosphatidic Acid Mediates Myeloid Differentiation within the Human Bone Marrow Microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a pleiotropic phospholipid present in the blood and certain tissues at high concentrations; its diverse effects are mediated through differential, tissue specific expression of LPA receptors. Our goal was to determine if LPA exerts lineage-specific effects during normal human hematopoiesis. In vitro stimulation of CD34+ human hematopoietic progenitors by LPA induced myeloid differentiation but had no effect on lymphoid differentiation. LPA receptors were expressed at significantly higher levels on Common Myeloid Progenitors (CMP) than either multipotent Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells (HSPC) or Common Lymphoid Progenitors (CLP) suggesting that LPA acts on committed myeloid progenitors. Functional studies demonstrated that LPA enhanced migration, induced cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis of isolated CMP, but had no effect on either HSPC or CLP. Analysis of adult and fetal human bone marrow sections showed that PPAP2A, (the enzyme which degrades LPA) was highly expressed in the osteoblastic niche but not in the perivascular regions, whereas Autotaxin (the enzyme that synthesizes LPA) was expressed in perivascular regions of the marrow. We propose that a gradient of LPA with the highest levels in peri-sinusoidal regions and lowest near the endosteal zone, regulates the localization, proliferation and differentiation of myeloid progenitors within the bone marrow marrow.

Richardson, Wade; Corselli, Mirko; Sahaghian, Arineh; Cardinal, Sofie; Zhu, Yuhua; Chan, Rebecca; Dunn, Bruce; Crooks, Gay M.

2013-01-01

238

Hematopoietic Stem Cells with High Proliferative Potential  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to approach two primary questions concerning hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in mice: what is the concentration of HSC with extensive proliferative potential in marrow, and how long can an HSC continue to function in an intact animal? The assay system was the W/Wv mouse, a mouse with an inherited HSC defect, reflected in a reduction in all myeloid tissue and most particularly in a macrocytic anemia. A single chromosomally marked HSC will reconstitute the defective hematopoietic system of the W/Wv. The concentration of HSC in normal littermate (+/+) marrow was assayed by limiting dilution calculation using cure of W/Wv as an end point (correction of anemia and erythrocytes' macrocytosis) and found to be ?10/105. This is significantly less than spleen colony forming cell (CFU-S) concentration: ?220/105 in +/+ and ranging from 50 to 270/105 in various other studies. Blood values were studied at selected intervals for as long as 26 mo. Of 24 initially cured mice, which were observed for at least 2 yr, 75% remained cured. However, of all cured mice, 17 lost the cure, returning to a macrocytic anemic state. Cured mice had normal numbers of nucleated and granulocytic cells per humerus and a normal concentration of CFU-S. However, cure of secondary W/Wv recipients by this marrow was inefficient compared with the original +/+ marrow. These studies suggest the CFU-S assay over-estimates extensively proliferating HSC or perhaps does not assay such a cell. A single such HSC can not only cure a W/Wv, but can sustain the cure for 2 yr or more, despite a relative deficit of cells capable of curing other W/Wv. However, the duration of sustained cure may be finite.

Boggs, Dane R.; Boggs, Sallie S.; Saxe, Debra F.; Gress, Lora A.; Canfield, Don R.

1982-01-01

239

IL12B expression is sustained by a heterogenous population of myeloid lineages during tuberculosis.  

PubMed

IL12B is required for resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, promoting the initiation and maintenance of Mtb-specific effector responses. While this makes the IL12-pathway an attractive target for experimental tuberculosis (TB) therapies, data regarding what lineages express IL12B after infection is established are limited. This is not obvious in the lung, an organ in which both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic lineages produce IL12p40 upon pathogen encounter. Here, we use radiation bone marrow chimeras and Yet40 reporter mice to determine what lineages produce IL12p40 during experimental TB. We observed that hematopoietic IL12p40-production was sufficient to control Mtb, with no contribution by non-hematopoietic lineages. Furthermore, rather than being produced by a single subset, IL12p40 was produced by cells that were heterogenous in their size, granularity, autofluorescence and expression of CD11c, CD11b and CD8?. While depending on the timepoint and tissue examined, the surface phenotype of IL12p40-producers most closely resembled macrophages based on previous surveys of lung myeloid lineages. Importantly, depletion of CD11c(hi) cells during infection had no affect on lung IL12p40-concentrations. Collectively, our data demonstrate that IL12p40 production is sustained by a heterogenous population of myeloid lineages during experimental TB, and that redundant mechanisms of IL12p40-production exist when CD11c(hi) lineages are absent. PMID:23491716

Reeme, Allison E; Miller, Halli E; Robinson, Richard T

2013-05-01

240

Immunotherapy of myeloid leukaemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The treatment of myeloid leukaemia has progressed in recent years with the advent of donor leukocyte infusions (DLI), haemopoietic\\u000a stem cell transplants (HSCTs) and targeted therapies. However, relapse has a high associated morbidity rate and a method for\\u000a removing diseased cells in first remission, when a minimal residual disease state is achieved and tumour load is low, has\\u000a the potential

Barbara-Ann Guinn; Azim Mohamedali; N. Shaun B. Thomas; Ken I. Mills

2007-01-01

241

Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells from chronic myeloid leukemia t(9;22) patients are devoid of Philadelphia chromosome and support cord blood stem cell expansion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of hematopoietic stem cells. It is characterized at cytogenetic level by the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome and at the molecular level by the BCR\\/ABL gene rearrangement. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are also pluripotent stem cells that can differentiate into several mesenchymal tissues. To date, no study has been performed

Saengsuree Jootar; Nida Pornprasertsud; Sawang Petvises; Busaba Rerkamnuaychoke; Sinee Disthabanchong; Samart Pakakasama; Artit Ungkanont; Suradej Hongeng

2006-01-01

242

TIM-family molecules in embryonic hematopoiesis: fetal liver TIM-4(lo) cells have myeloid potential.  

PubMed

Trans-membrane (or T cell) immunoglobulin and mucin (TIM) molecules are known regulators of immune response whose function in hematopoiesis is unknown. Earlier, we found that tim-1 and tim-4 are expressed by CD45(+) cells in the para-aortic region of chicken embryo. Because the para-aortic region is a known site for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) differentiation and expansion, we hypothesize that TIM molecules have a role in hematopoiesis. To study this role further, we analyzed TIM expression more precisely in chicken para-aortic region and mouse fetal liver hematopoietic cells. Additionally, we examined the hematopoietic potential of TIM-4(+) mouse fetal liver cells with a colony-forming assay. tim-1 gene expression was detected in chicken and mouse embryos in the aorta-gonads-mesonephros-region at the time of HSC emergence, whereas tim-3 mRNA was widely expressed in different tissues. tim-4 expression was restricted to fetal liver CD45(+)F4/80(+) cells. Moreover, two TIM-4(+) populations were distinguished: F4/80(hi)TIM-4(hi) and F4/80(lo)TIM-4(lo). F4/80(hi)TIM-4(hi) cells had no hematopoietic potential and were morphologically similar to mature macrophages, suggesting that they are yolk sac-derived macrophages. Instead, many of the F4/80(lo)TIM-4(lo) cells were c-kit(+) and Sca-1(+) and had primitive morphology and multilineage colony-forming ability. In addition, F4/80(lo)TIM-4(lo) cells included a considerable population expressing ER-MP12, a known marker for macrophage colony-forming cells and other myeloid progenitors. We conclude that TIM molecules are expressed in embryonic hematopoietic tissues in chicken and mouse and that in fetal liver, TIM-4 is expressed by myeloid progenitor cells. PMID:24316337

Syrjänen, Riikka; Petrov, Petar; Glumoff, Virpi; Fang, Shentong; Salven, Petri; Savolainen, Eeva-Riitta; Vainio, Olli; Uchida, Tatsuya

2014-03-01

243

C/EBP? and DEK coordinately regulate myeloid differentiation.  

PubMed

The transcription factor C/EBP? is a critical mediator of myeloid differentiation and is often functionally impaired in acute myeloid leukemia. Recent studies have suggested that oncogenic FLT3 activity disrupts wild-type C/EBP? function via phosphorylation on serine 21 (S21). Despite the apparent role of pS21 as a negative regulator of C/EBP? transcription activity, the mechanism by which phosphorylation tips the balance between transcriptionally competent and inhibited forms remains unresolved. In the present study, we used immuno-affinity purification combined with quantitative mass spectrometry to delineate the proteins associated with C/EBP? on chromatin. We identified DEK, a protein with genetic links to leukemia, as a member of the C/EBP? complexes, and demonstrate that this association is disrupted by S21 phosphorylation. We confirmed that DEK is recruited specifically to chromatin with C/EBP? to enhance GCSFR3 promoter activation. In addition, we demonstrated that genetic depletion of DEK reduces the ability of C/EBP? to drive the expression of granulocytic target genes in vitro and disrupts G-CSF-mediated granulocytic differentiation of fresh human BM-derived CD34(+) cells. Our data suggest that C/EBP? and DEK coordinately activate myeloid gene expression and that S21 phosphorylation on wild-type C/EBP? mediates protein interactions that regulate the differentiation capacity of hematopoietic progenitors. PMID:22474248

Koleva, Rositsa I; Ficarro, Scott B; Radomska, Hanna S; Carrasco-Alfonso, Marlene J; Alberta, John A; Webber, James T; Luckey, C John; Marcucci, Guido; Tenen, Daniel G; Marto, Jarrod A

2012-05-24

244

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) induces leukemic but not normal hematopoietic cell death in a dose-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Over the last few years, studies have suggested that oxidative stress plays a role in the regulation of hematopoietic cell homeostasis. In particular, the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) range from hematopoietic cell proliferation to cell death, depending on its concentration in the intracellular milieu. In this work, we evaluated the effects of an oxidative environment on normal and leukemic hematopoietic cells by stimulating normal human (umbilical cord blood) and murine (bone marrow) hematopoietic cells, as well as human myeloid leukemic cells (HL-60 lineage), upon H2O2 stimulus. Total cell populations and primitive subsets were evaluated for each cell type. H2O2 stimulus induces HL-60 cell death, whereas the viability of human and murine normal cells was not affected. The effects of H2O2 stimulus on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell subsets were examined and the normal primitive cells were found to be unaffected; however, the percentage of leukemic stem cells (LSC) increased in response to H2O2, while clonogenic ability of these cells to generate myeloid clones was inhibited. In addition, H2O2 stimulus caused a decrease in the levels of p-AKT in HL-60 cells, which most likely mediates the observed decrease of viability. In summary, we found that at low concentrations, H2O2 preferentially affects both the LSC subset and total HL-60 cells without damage normal cells. PMID:24365069

Nogueira-Pedro, Amanda; Cesário, Thalyta Aparecida Munhoz; Dias, Carolina Carvalho; Origassa, Clarice Silvia Taemi; Eça, Lilian Piñero Marcolin; Paredes-Gamero, Edgar Julian; Ferreira, Alice Teixeira

2013-01-01

245

Hes repressors are essential regulators of hematopoietic stem cell development downstream of Notch signaling.  

PubMed

Previous studies have identified Notch as a key regulator of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) development, but the underlying downstream mechanisms remain unknown. The Notch target Hes1 is widely expressed in the aortic endothelium and hematopoietic clusters, though Hes1-deficient mice show no overt hematopoietic abnormalities. We now demonstrate that Hes is required for the development of HSC in the mouse embryo, a function previously undetected as the result of functional compensation by de novo expression of Hes5 in the aorta/gonad/mesonephros (AGM) region of Hes1 mutants. Analysis of embryos deficient for Hes1 and Hes5 reveals an intact arterial program with overproduction of nonfunctional hematopoietic precursors and total absence of HSC activity. These alterations were associated with increased expression of the hematopoietic regulators Runx1, c-myb, and the previously identified Notch target Gata2. By analyzing the Gata2 locus, we have identified functional RBPJ-binding sites, which mutation results in loss of Gata2 reporter expression in transgenic embryos, and functional Hes-binding sites, which mutation leads to specific Gata2 up-regulation in the hematopoietic precursors. Together, our findings show that Notch activation in the AGM triggers Gata2 and Hes1 transcription, and next HES-1 protein represses Gata2, creating an incoherent feed-forward loop required to restrict Gata2 expression in the emerging HSCs. PMID:23267012

Guiu, Jordi; Shimizu, Ritsuko; D'Altri, Teresa; Fraser, Stuart T; Hatakeyama, Jun; Bresnick, Emery H; Kageyama, Ryoichiro; Dzierzak, Elaine; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Espinosa, Lluis; Bigas, Anna

2013-01-14

246

Reactive oxygen species produced in mitochondria are involved in age-dependent changes of hematopoietic and mesenchymal progenitor cells in mice. A study with the novel mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lifelong treatment of mice with the effective mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 [10-(6?-plastoquinonyl) decyltriphenylphosphonium] does not affect hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and more differentiated hematopoietic progenitors but significantly decelerates age-dependent changes in peripheral blood. During the first 13 months, SkQ1 (0.9 or 28.8nmol\\/kgday) prevents age-dependent myeloid shift (increase in the proportion of granulocytes and decrease in the proportion of lymphocytes). During the

I. N. Shipounova; D. A. Svinareva; T. V. Petrova; K. G. Lyamzaev; B. V. Chernyak; N. I. Drize; V. P. Skulachev

2010-01-01

247

Myeloid Progenitor Cell Proliferation and Mobilization Effects of BB10010, a Genetically Engineered Variant of Human Macrophage Inflammatory Protein1, in a Phase I Clinical Trial in Patients with Relapsed\\/Refractory Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macrophage Inflammatory Protein (MIP)-1 is myelosuppressive in vitro and in vivo for hematopoietic stem and immature subsets of myeloid progenitor cells, demonstrates some myeloprotective effects in mice treated with Ara-C and hydroxyurea, and has stem\\/progenitor cell mobilizing activity in mice. Based on these observations, BB10010, a genetic variant of MIP-1 , was assessed for effects on marrow and blood myeloid

Hal E. Broxmeyer; Attilio Orazi; Nancy L. Hague; George W. Sledge; Henrik Rasmussen; Michael S. Gordon

248

Myeloid Progenitor Cell Proliferation and Mobilization Effects of BB10010, a Genetically Engineered Variant of Human Macrophage Inflammatory Protein1?, in a Phase I Clinical Trial in Patients with Relapsed\\/Refractory Breast Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: Macrophage Inflammatory Protein (MIP)-1? is myelosuppressivein vitroandin vivofor hematopoietic stem and immature subsets of myeloid progenitor cells, demonstrates some myeloprotective effects in mice treated with Ara-C and hydroxyurea, and has stem\\/progenitor cell mobilizing activity in mice. Based on these observations, BB10010, a genetic variant of MIP-1?, was assessed for effects on marrow and blood myeloid progenitor cells in patients

Hal E Broxmeyer; Attilio Orazi; Nancy L Hague; George W Sledge; Henrik Rasmussen; Michael S Gordon

1998-01-01

249

Childhood and adolescent lymphoid and myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Remarkable progress has been made in the past decade in the treatment and in the understanding of the biology of childhood lymphoid and myeloid leukemias. With contemporary improved risk assessment, chemotherapy, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and supportive care, approximately 80% of children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 50% of those with myeloid neoplasm can be cured to date. Current emphasis is placed not only on increased cure rate but also on improved quality of life. In Section I, Dr. Ching-Hon Pui describes certain clinical and biologic features that still have prognostic and therapeutic relevance in the context of contemporary treatment programs. He emphasizes that treatment failure in some patients is not due to intrinsic drug resistance of leukemic cells but is rather caused by suboptimal drug dosing due to host compliance, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacogenetics. Hence, measurement of minimal residual disease, which accounts for both the genetic (primary and secondary) features of leukemic lymphoblasts and pharmacogenomic variables of the host, is the most reliable prognostic indicator. Finally, he contends that with optimal risk-directed systemic and intrathecal therapy, cranial irradiation may be omitted in all patients, regardless of the presenting features. In Section II, Dr. Martin Schrappe performs detailed analyses of the prognostic impact of presenting age, leukocyte count, sex, immunophenotype, genetic abnormality, early treatment response, and in vitro drug sensitivity/resistance in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, based on the large database of the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster consortium. He also succinctly summarizes the important treatment components resulting in the improved outcome of children and young adolescents with this disease. He describes the treatment approach that led to the improved outcome of adolescent patients, a finding that may be applied to young adults in the second and third decade of life. Finally, he believes that treatment reduction under well-controlled clinical trials is feasible in a subgroup of patients with excellent early treatment response as evidenced by minimal residual disease measurement during induction and consolidation therapy. In Section III, Dr. Raul Ribeiro describes distinct morphologic and genetic subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia. The finding of essentially identical gene expression profiling by DNA microarray in certain specific genetic subtypes of childhood and adult acute myeloid leukemia suggests a shared leukemogenesis. He then describes the principles of treatment as well as the efficacy and toxicity of various forms of postremission therapy, emphasizing the need of tailoring therapy to both the disease and the age of the patient. Early results suggest that minimal residual disease measurement can also improve the risk assessment in acute myeloid leukemia, and that cranial irradiation can be omitted even in those with central-nervous-system leukemia at diagnosis. In Section IV, Dr. Charlotte Niemeyer describes a new classification of myelodysplastic and myeloproliferative diseases in childhood, which has greatly facilitated the diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndromes and juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. The recent discovery of somatic mutations in PTPN11 has improved the understanding of the pathobiology and the diagnosis of juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia. Together with the findings of mutations in RAS and NF1 in the other patients, she suggests that pathological activation of RAS-dependent pathways plays a central role in the leukemogenesis of this disease. She then describes the various treatment approaches for both juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes in the US and Europe, emphasizing the differences between childhood and adult cases for the latter group of diseases. She also raises some controversial issues regarding treatment that will require well-controlled international clinical trials to address. PMID:15561680

Pui, Ching-Hon; Schrappe, Martin; Ribeiro, Raul C; Niemeyer, Charlotte M

2004-01-01

250

Hematopoietic stem cell donation.  

PubMed

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is now an important treatment for numerous diseases. Donation of hematopoietic stem cells, either through bone marrow (BM) harvesting or peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection, is a well-established and generally accepted procedure. The BM is aspirated from the posterior iliac crest under spinal or general anesthesia, and common side effects include fatigue and local pain. PBSC collection requires 4-6 days of G-CSF injections and leukapheresis 1-2 times. Common side effects of these procedures include bone pain, fatigue, and headache. The side effects of BM and PBSC collections are mostly transient and well tolerated. Severe adverse events are uncommon in healthy donors. At present, there is no definitive evidence to show that the stem cell donation increases the risk of marrow failure or cancer development. Nevertheless, all donors must be carefully evaluated and fully informed before donation. Donors must be able to provide informed consent without being coerced or pressured. Donors and graft products must be examined for potential agents to avoid transmitting infections and other diseases that may jeopardize donor's health during stem cell collection or recipient's well being after transplantation. Understanding the potential physical and psychological complications of stem cell donation and factors that may increase risks is very important to ensure that transplantation physicians maintain positive attitude in conducting this benevolent practice. PMID:23420184

Chen, Shu-Huey; Wang, Tso-Fu; Yang, Kuo-Liang

2013-04-01

251

Myeloid derived suppressor cells  

PubMed Central

The goal of achieving measurable response with cancer immunotherapy requires counteracting the immunosuppressive characteristics of tumors. One of the mechanisms that tumors utilize to escape immunosurveillance is the activation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Upon activation by tumor-derived signals, MDSCs inhibit the ability of the host to mount an anti-tumor immune response via their capacity to suppress both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Despite their relatively recent discovery and characterization, anti-MDSC agents have been identified, which may improve immunotherapy efficacy.

Waldron, Todd J.; Quatromoni, Jon G.; Karakasheva, Tatiana A.; Singhal, Sunil; Rustgi, Anil K.

2013-01-01

252

LIX: a chemokine with a role in hematopoietic stem cells maintenance.  

PubMed

LIX is a chemokine usually associated with cell migration and activation in neutrophil. While using a microarray approach to dissect the hematopoietic microenvironment, we have discovered that LIX is also expressed in the hematopoietic stromal cells and its expression is associated with hematopoietic supportive phenotypes. LIX microarray profiles were verified using reverse transcription and semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. We subsequently tested the effects of LIX on the primary bone marrow derived lineage depleted (Lin(-)) cells. LIX was found to increase the number of long-term culture-initiating cells by 34% (from 1 in 342 to 1 in 255 of Lin(-) cells). LIX also increased the clonogenicity of the long-term culture Lin(-) cells by 2-fold (p=0.029 ). When compared to untreated EML hematopoietic progenitor cell line, LIX was found to increase the level of DNA synthesis in EML cells significantly (1.63-fold; 0.010p=), with a corresponding increase in viable cell number by 1.11-fold 96 h after seeding. Similar effect was not observed with the M1 mature myeloid leukemia cell line or with the MS5.1 and AFT024 stromal cell lines. This suggested that the proliferative effect of LIX is specific towards the primitive hematopoietic cells. PMID:15036238

Choong, Meng Ling; Yong, Yoke Peng; Tan, Amabel C L; Luo, Biao; Lodish, Harvey F

2004-03-21

253

LAPTM5: A novel lysosomal-associated multispanning membrane protein preferentially expressed in hematopoietic cells  

SciTech Connect

While a large body of knowledge about cell membrane proteins exists, much less is known about the repertoire and function of integral membrane proteins of intracellular organelles. In looking for novel classes of genes that are functionally important to hematopoietic cells, we have cloned the cDNA for a gene preferentially expressed in adult hematopoietic tissues. During embryonic development the gene is expressed in both hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic tissues. In cell lines the gene is expressed specifically in hematopoietic lineages, whereas in normal adult tissues the mRNA is preferentially detected at high levels in lymphoid and myeloid tissues. The predicted protein is a pentaspanner with no homology to known genes and conserved across evolution. Immunocytological and cell fractionation studies with a specific antibody revealed a protein localizing in lysosomes. The gene, provisionally named LAPTM5, maps to chromosome 1p34. The expression pattern of the gene together with preliminary evidence that the protein interacts with ubiquitin indicates that the protein may have a special functional role during embryogenesis and in adult hematopoietic cells. 53 refs., 9 figs.

Adra, C.N.; Zhu, Shaochun; Ko, Jone-Long [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others] [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); and others

1996-07-15

254

Lis1 regulates asymmetric division in hematopoietic stem cells and in leukemia.  

PubMed

Cell fate can be controlled through asymmetric division and segregation of protein determinants, but the regulation of this process in the hematopoietic system is poorly understood. Here we show that the dynein-binding protein Lis1 is critically required for hematopoietic stem cell function and leukemogenesis. Conditional deletion of Lis1 (also known as Pafah1b1) in the hematopoietic system led to a severe bloodless phenotype, depletion of the stem cell pool and embryonic lethality. Further, real-time imaging revealed that loss of Lis1 caused defects in spindle positioning and inheritance of cell fate determinants, triggering accelerated differentiation. Finally, deletion of Lis1 blocked the propagation of myeloid leukemia and led to a marked improvement in survival, suggesting that Lis1 is also required for oncogenic growth. These data identify a key role for Lis1 in hematopoietic stem cells and mark its directed control of asymmetric division as a critical regulator of normal and malignant hematopoietic development. PMID:24487275

Zimdahl, Bryan; Ito, Takahiro; Blevins, Allen; Bajaj, Jeevisha; Konuma, Takaaki; Weeks, Joi; Koechlein, Claire S; Kwon, Hyog Young; Arami, Omead; Rizzieri, David; Broome, H Elizabeth; Chuah, Charles; Oehler, Vivian G; Sasik, Roman; Hardiman, Gary; Reya, Tannishtha

2014-03-01

255

An In Vivo Functional Screen Uncovers miR-150-Mediated Regulation of Hematopoietic Injury Response  

PubMed Central

Summary Hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are often undesired targets of chemotherapies, leading to hematopoietic suppression requiring careful clinical management. Whether microRNAs control hematopoietic-injury response is largely unknown. We report a novel in vivo gain-of-function screen and identification of miR-150 as an inhibitor of hematopoietic recovery upon 5-fluorouracil-induced injury. Utilizing a bone marrow transplant model with a barcoded microRNA-library, we screened for barcode abundance in peripheral blood of recipient mice before and after 5-fluorouracil treatment. Overexpression of screen-candidate miR-150 resulted in significantly slowed recovery rates across major blood lineages, with associated impairment of bone marrow clonogenic potential. Conversely, platelets and myeloid cells from miR-150-null marrow recovered faster after 5-fluorouracil treatment. Heterozygous knockout of c-myb, a conserved target of miR-150, partially phenocopied miR-150 forced expression. Our data highlight the role of microRNAs in controlling hematopoietic-injury response, and demonstrate the power of in vivo functional screens for studying microRNAs in normal tissue physiology.

Adams, Brian D.; Guo, Shangqin; Bai, Haitao; Guo, Yanwen; Megyola, Cynthia; Cheng, Jijun; Heydari, Kartoosh; Xiao, Changchun; Reddy, E. Premkumar; Lu, Jun

2012-01-01

256

Hypoxia-inducible factors in human pulmonary arterial hypertension: a link to the intrinsic myeloid abnormalities  

PubMed Central

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a proliferative vasculopathy characterized by high circulating CD34+CD133+ proangiogenic progenitors, and endothelial cells that have pathologic expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 ? (HIF-1?). Here, CD34+CD133+ progenitor cell numbers are shown to be higher in PAH bone marrow, blood, and pulmonary arteries than in healthy controls. The HIF-inducible myeloid-activating factors erythropoietin, stem cell factor (SCF), and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are also present at higher than normal levels in PAH blood, and related to disease severity. Primary endothelial cells harvested from human PAH lungs produce greater HGF and progenitor recruitment factor stromal-derived factor 1 ? (SDF-1?) than control lung endothelial cells, and thus may contribute to bone marrow activation. Even though PAH patients had normal numbers of circulating blood elements, hematopoietic alterations in myeloid and erythroid lineages and reticulin fibrosis identified a subclinical myeloproliferative process. Unexpectedly, evaluation of bone marrow progenitors and reticulin in nonaffected family members of patients with familial PAH revealed similar myeloid abnormalities. Altogether, the results show that PAH is linked to myeloid abnormalities, some of which may be related to increased production of HIF-inducible factors by diseased pulmonary vasculature, but findings in nonaffected family suggest myeloid abnormalities may be intrinsic to the disease process.

Asosingh, Kewal; Xu, Weiling; Sharp, Jacqueline; George, Deepa; Comhair, Suzy; Park, Margaret; Tang, W. H. Wilson; Loyd, James E.; Theil, Karl; Tubbs, Raymond; Hsi, Eric; Lichtin, Alan

2011-01-01

257

Sequential azacitidine plus lenalidomide combination for elderly patients with untreated acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

There are limited treatment options for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia and prognosis of these patients remains poor, thereby warranting development of novel therapies. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of azacitidine in combination with lenalidomide as front-line therapy for older patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Patients ?60 years of age with untreated acute myeloid leukemia received azacitidine 75 mg/m2 for 7 days followed by escalating doses of lenalidomide daily for 21 days starting on day 8 of each cycle every 6 weeks. Patients received continued therapy until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, or completion of 12 cycles. Forty-two patients (median age, 74 years) were enrolled with equal distribution according to European LeukemiaNet risk. The overall response rate was 40% (rate of complete remission with or without complete recovery of blood counts = 28%). The median time to complete remission with or without complete recovery of blood counts was 12 weeks, and duration of this status was 28 weeks (range, 4 - >104 weeks). Therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia and a high score on the Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Comorbidity Index were negative predictors of response. Early death was noted in 17% of patients. Grades ? 3 toxicities were uncommon and most adverse events were gastrointestinal, fatigue and myelosuppression. In conclusion, a sequential combination of azacitidine plus lenalidomide has clinical activity in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia, and further studies of this combination are underway. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as # NCT00890929.

Pollyea, Daniel A.; Zehnder, James; Coutre, Steve; Gotlib, Jason R.; Gallegos, Leonel; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Greenberg, Peter; Zhang, Bing; Liedtke, Michaela; Berube, Caroline; Levine, Ross; Mitchell, Beverly S.; Medeiros, Bruno C.

2013-01-01

258

Effects of notch signaling on regulation of myeloid cell differentiation in cancer.  

PubMed

Functionally altered myeloid cells play an important role in immune suppression in cancer, in angiogenesis, and in tumor cells' invasion and metastases. Here, we report that inhibition of Notch signaling in hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and dendritic cells is directly involved in abnormal myeloid cell differentiation in cancer. Inhibition of Notch signaling was caused by the disruption of the interaction between Notch receptor and transcriptional repressor CSL, which is normally required for efficient transcription of target genes. This disruption was the result of serine phosphorylation of Notch. We demonstrated that increased activity of casein kinase 2 (CK2) observed in HPC and in MDSC could be responsible for the phosphorylation of Notch and downregulation of Notch signaling. Inhibition of CK2 by siRNA or by pharmacological inhibitor restored Notch signaling in myeloid cells and substantially improved their differentiation, both in vitro and in vivo. This study demonstrates a novel mechanism regulation of Notch signaling in cancer. This may suggest a new perspective for pharmacological regulation of differentiation of myeloid cells in cancer. PMID:24220241

Cheng, Pingyan; Kumar, Vinit; Liu, Hao; Youn, Je-In; Fishman, Mayer; Sherman, Simon; Gabrilovich, Dmitry

2014-01-01

259

Conversion of danger signals into cytokine signals by hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells for regulation of stress-induced hematopoiesis.  

PubMed

During an infection, the body increases the output of mature immune cells in order to fight off the pathogen. Despite convincing evidence that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) can sense pathogens directly, how this contributes to hematopoietic cell output remains unknown. Here, we have combined mouse models with a single-cell proteomics platform to show that, in response to Toll-like receptor stimulation, short-term HSCs and multipotent progenitor cells produce copious amounts of diverse cytokines through nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) signaling. Interestingly, the cytokine production ability of HSPCs trumps mature immune cells in both magnitude and breadth. Among cytokines produced by HSPCs, IL-6 is a particularly important regulator of myeloid differentiation and HSPC proliferation in a paracrine manner and in mediating rapid myeloid cell recovery during neutropenia. This study has uncovered an important property of HSPCs that enables them to convert danger signals into versatile cytokine signals for the regulation of stress hematopoiesis. PMID:24561084

Zhao, Jimmy L; Ma, Chao; O'Connell, Ryan M; Mehta, Arnav; DiLoreto, Race; Heath, James R; Baltimore, David

2014-04-01

260

The hematopoietic stem cell niche  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) possess the ability to self-renew and to differentiate to mature progeny along multiple different hematopoietic lineages. The function of HSCs depends upon the signals from surrounding cells found within the highly specialized microenvironment termed the hematopoietic stem cell niche. Understanding and exploiting the HSC niche is a goal of basic scientists and clinicians alike. Recent studies have focused on defining the cellular components and molecular factors critical to this microenvironment. Here we review recent findings, discuss unresolved questions, and examine the clinical implications of our current knowledge of the HSC niche.

Park, Dongsu; Sykes, David B.; Scadden, David T.

2014-01-01

261

Antitumor Activity of Bortezomib Alone and in Combination with Trail in Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignant disease characterized by abnormal proliferation of clonal precursor cells. Although different strategies have been adopted to obtain complete remission, the disease actually progresses in about 60–70% of patients. Bortezomib has been used in multiple myeloma and other lymphoid malignancies because of its antitumor activity. Here we examined the sensitivity of bone marrow cells

Concetta Conticello; Luana Adamo; Luisa Vicari; Raffaella Giuffrida; Gioacchin Iannolo; Gabriele Anastasi; Laura Caruso; Gaetano Moschetti; Alessandra Cupri; Giuseppe Antonio Palumbo; Massimo Gulisano; Ruggero De Maria; Rosario Giustolisi; Francesco Di Raimondo

2008-01-01

262

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in a Very High Risk Group of Patients with the Support of Granulocyte Transfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

High risk patients with active fungal infection who had undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with the\\u000a support of granulocyte transfusions (GTX) as an adjunct to antifungal agents are reviewed retrospectively. Patients requiring\\u000a immediate allogeneic HSCT for their primary hematological disorders (two severe aplastic anemia, one T cell acute lymphoblastic\\u000a leukemia (ALL) in second complete remission, one acute myeloid leukemia

Idil YenicesuGulsan; Gülsan Sucak; Günter Dilsiz; ?ahika Zeynep Ak?; Zeynep Arzu Ye?in

263

DNA Damage Signaling in Hematopoietic Cells: A Role for Mre11 Complex Repair of Topoisomerase Lesions  

PubMed Central

The Mre11 complex promotes DNA double-strand break repair and regulates DNA damage signaling via activation of the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. The hypermorphic Rad50S allele encodes a variant of Rad50, a member of the Mre11 complex. Cells expressing Rad50S experience constitutive ATM activation, which leads to precipitous apoptotic attrition in hematopoietic cells. In this study, we show that ATM activation by the Rad50S-containing Mre11 complex enhances the proliferation of LSK cells, a population consisting of hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent progenitor cells. In Rad50S/S mice, enhanced LSK proliferation triggers apoptotic attrition. This phenotype is mitigated when Rad50S/S is combined with mutations that alter either LSK cell quiescence (myeloid elf-1–like factor/ELF4–deficient mice) or hematopoietic differentiation (p21- and p27-deficient mice), indicating that the LSK population is a primary target of Rad50S pathology. We show that cells from Rad50S/S mice are hypersensitive to camptothecin, a topoisomerase I inhibitor that causes DNA damage primarily during DNA replication. On this basis, we propose that apoptotic attrition of Rad50S/S hematopoietic cells results from enhanced proliferation in the context of topoisomerase-associated DNA damage. Impairment of apoptosis in Rad50S/S mice promotes hematopoietic malignancy, suggesting that primitive hematopoietic cells serve as a reservoir of potentially oncogenic lesions in Rad50S/S mice. These data provide compelling evidence that the Mre11 complex plays a role in the metabolism of topoisomerase lesions in mammals, and further suggest that such lesions can accumulate in primitive hematopoietic cells and confer significant oncogenic potential.

Morales, Monica; Liu, Yan; Laiakis, Evagelia C.; Morgan, William F.; Nimer, Stephen D.; Petrini, John H.J.

2010-01-01

264

The role of tumor suppressor p15Ink4b in the regulation of hematopoietic progenitor cell fate  

PubMed Central

Epigenetic silencing of the tumor suppressor gene p15Ink4b (CDKN2B) is a frequent event in blood disorders like acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. The molecular function of p15Ink4b in hematopoietic differentiation still remains to be elucidated. Our previous study demonstrated that loss of p15Ink4b in mice results in skewing of the differentiation pattern of the common myeloid progenitor towards the myeloid lineage. Here, we investigated a function of p15Ink4b tumor suppressor gene in driving erythroid lineage commitment in hematopoietic progenitors. It was found that p15Ink4b is expressed more highly in committed megakaryocyte–erythroid progenitors than granulocyte–macrophage progenitors. More importantly, mice lacking p15Ink4b have lower numbers of primitive red cell progenitors and a severely impaired response to 5-fluorouracil- and phenylhydrazine-induced hematopoietic stress. Introduction of p15Ink4b into multipotential progenitors produced changes at the molecular level, including activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase\\extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MEK/ERK) signaling, increase GATA-1, erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) and decrease Pu1, GATA-2 expression. These changes rendered cells more permissive to erythroid commitment and less permissive to myeloid commitment, as demonstrated by an increase in early burst-forming unit-erythroid formation with concomitant decrease in myeloid colonies. Our results indicate that p15Ink4b functions in hematopoiesis, by maintaining proper lineage commitment of progenitors and assisting in rapid red blood cells replenishment following stress.

Humeniuk, R; Rosu-Myles, M; Fares, J; Koller, R; Bies, J; Wolff, L

2013-01-01

265

Activating mutation in the tyrosine kinase JAK2 in polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia, and myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Polycythemia vera (PV), essential thrombocythemia (ET), and myeloid metaplasia with myelofibrosis (MMM) are clonal disorders arising from hematopoietic progenitors. An internet-based protocol was used to collect clinical information and biological specimens from patients with these diseases. High-throughput DNA resequencing identified a recurrent somatic missense mutation JAK2V617F in granulocyte DNA samples of 121 of 164 PV patients, of which 41

Ross L. Levine; Martha Wadleigh; Jan Cools; Benjamin L. Ebert; Gerlinde Wernig; Brian J. P. Huntly; Titus J. Boggon; Iwona Wlodarska; Jennifer J. Clark; Sandra Moore; Jennifer Adelsperger; Sumin Koo; Jeffrey C. Lee; Stacey Gabriel; Thomas Mercher; Alan D’Andrea; Stefan Fröhling; Konstanze Döhner; Peter Marynen; Peter Vandenberghe; Ruben A. Mesa; Ayalew Tefferi; James D. Griffin; Michael J. Eck; William R. Sellers; Matthew Meyerson; Todd R. Golub; Stephanie J. Lee; D. Gary Gilliland

2005-01-01

266

TC1(C8orf4) Regulates Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells and Hematopoiesis  

PubMed Central

Hematopoiesis is a complex process requiring multiple regulators for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) and differentiation to multi-lineage blood cells. TC1(C8orf4) is implicated in cancers, hematological malignancies and inflammatory activation. Here, we report that Tc1 regulates hematopoiesis in mice. Myeloid and lymphoid cells are increased markedly in peripheral blood of Tc1–deleted mice compared to wild type controls. Red blood cells are small-sized but increased in number. The bone marrow of Tc1?/? mice is normocellular histologically. However, Lin?Sca-1+c-Kit+ (LSK) cells are expanded in Tc1?/? mice compared to wild type controls. The expanded population mostly consists of CD150?CD48+ cells, suggesting the expansion of lineage-restricted hematopoietic progenitor cells. Colony forming units (CFU) are increased in Tc1?/? mice bone marrow cells compared to controls. In wild type mice bone marrow, Tc1 is expressed in a limited population of HSPC but not in differentiated cells. Major myeloid transcriptional regulators such as Pu.1 and Cebp? are not up-regulated in Tc1?/? mice bone marrow. Our findings indicate that TC1 is a novel hematopoietic regulator. The mechanisms of TC1-dependent HSPC regulation and lineage determination are unknown.

Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Jungtae; Park, Surim; Song, Kyuyoung; Lee, Inchul

2014-01-01

267

A Reporter Mouse Reveals Lineage-Specific and Heterogeneous Expression of IRF8 during Lymphoid and Myeloid Cell Differentiation.  

PubMed

The IFN regulatory factor family member 8 (IRF8) regulates differentiation of lymphoid and myeloid lineage cells by promoting or suppressing lineage-specific genes. How IRF8 promotes hematopoietic progenitors to commit to one lineage while preventing the development of alternative lineages is not known. In this study, we report an IRF8-EGFP fusion protein reporter mouse that revealed previously unrecognized patterns of IRF8 expression. Differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells into oligopotent progenitors is associated with progressive increases in IRF8-EGFP expression. However, significant induction of IRF8-EGFP is found in granulocyte-myeloid progenitors and the common lymphoid progenitors but not the megakaryocytic-erythroid progenitors. Surprisingly, IRF8-EGFP identifies three subsets of the seemingly homogeneous granulocyte-myeloid progenitors with an intermediate level of expression of EGFP defining bipotent progenitors that differentiation into either EGFP(hi) monocytic progenitors or EGFP(lo) granulocytic progenitors. Also surprisingly, IRF8-EGFP revealed a highly heterogeneous pre-pro-B population with a fluorescence intensity ranging from background to 4 orders above background. Interestingly, IRF8-EGFP readily distinguishes true B cell committed (EGFP(int)) from those that are noncommitted. Moreover, dendritic cell progenitors expressed extremely high levels of IRF8-EGFP. Taken together, the IRF8-EGFP reporter revealed previously unrecognized subsets with distinct developmental potentials in phenotypically well-defined oligopotent progenitors, providing new insights into the dynamic heterogeneity of developing hematopoietic progenitors. PMID:25024380

Wang, Hongsheng; Yan, Ming; Sun, Jiafang; Jain, Shweta; Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Abolfath, Sanaz Momben; Ozato, Keiko; Coleman, William G; Ng, Ashley P; Metcalf, Donald; DiRago, Ladina; Nutt, Stephen L; Morse, Herbert C

2014-08-15

268

Curing chronic myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeted against the BCR-ABL1 oncoprotein has proven remarkably successful in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and long-term survival has become a reality. Despite this outstanding progress, detection of minimal residual disease precludes therapy termination in most TKI-receiving patients. CML has thus turned into a chronic illness, raising concerns about long-term safety, medication adherence, and health care costs. Although treatment cessation may be feasible in few selected patients achieving deep molecular responses, a definitive cure remains elusive owing to the discovery that TKIs spare quiescent leukemic stem cells (LSC). Understanding mechanisms underlying LSC behavior in TKI-treated patients may provide important clues to develop an array of strategies that ensure the complete destruction of LSC reservoirs and thereby offer CML patients a definitive cure. PMID:22410764

Rea, Delphine; Rousselot, Philippe; Guilhot, Joelle; Guilhot, François; Mahon, François-Xavier

2012-06-01

269

Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukaemia  

PubMed Central

Summary Although acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) has long been recognized for its morphological and cytogenetic heterogeneity, recent high-resolution genomic profiling has demonstrated a complexity even greater than previously imagined. This complexity can be seen in the number and diversity of genetic alterations, epigenetic modifications, and characteristics of the leukaemic stem cells. The broad range of abnormalities across different AML subtypes suggests that improvements in clinical outcome will require the development of targeted therapies for each subtype of disease and the design of novel clinical trials to test these strategies. It is highly unlikely that further gains in long-term survival rates will be possible by mere intensification of conventional chemotherapy. In this review, we summarize recent studies that provide new insight into the genetics and biology of AML, discuss risk stratification and therapy for this disease, and profile some of the therapeutic agents currently under investigation.

Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Inaba, Hiroto

2012-01-01

270

Occupational exposure to formaldehyde, hematotoxicity and leukemia-specific chromosome changes in cultured myeloid progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

There are concerns about the health effects of formaldehyde exposure, including carcinogenicity, in light of elevated indoor air levels in new homes and occupational exposures experienced by workers in health care, embalming, manufacturing and other industries. Epidemiological studies suggest that formaldehyde exposure is associated with an increased risk of leukemia. However, the biological plausibility of these findings has been questioned because limited information is available on formaldehyde’s ability to disrupt hematopoietic function. Our objective was to determine if formaldehyde exposure disrupts hematopoietic function and produces leukemia-related chromosome changes in exposed humans. We examined the ability of formaldehyde to disrupt hematopoiesis in a study of 94 workers in China (43 exposed to formaldehyde and 51 frequency-matched controls) by measuring complete blood counts and peripheral stem/progenitor cell colony formation. Further, myeloid progenitor cells, the target for leukemogenesis, were cultured from the workers to quantify the level of leukemia-specific chromosome changes, including monosomy 7 and trisomy 8, in metaphase spreads of these cells. Among exposed workers, peripheral blood cell counts were significantly lowered in a manner consistent with toxic effects on the bone marrow and leukemia-specific chromosome changes were significantly elevated in myeloid blood progenitor cells. These findings suggest that formaldehyde exposure can have an adverse impact on the hematopoietic system and that leukemia induction by formaldehyde is biologically plausible, which heightens concerns about its leukemogenic potential from occupational and environmental exposures.

Zhang, Luoping; Tang, Xiaojiang; Rothman, Nathaniel; Vermeulen, Roel; Ji, Zhiying; Shen, Min; Qiu, Chuangyi; Guo, Weihong; Liu, Songwang; Reiss, Boris; Laura Beane, Freeman; Ge, Yichen; Hubbard, Alan E.; Hua, Ming; Blair, Aaron; Galvan, Noe; Ruan, Xiaolin; Alter, Blanche P.; Xin, Kerry X.; Li, Senhua; Moore, Lee E.; Kim, Sungkyoon; Xie, Yuxuan; Hayes, Richard B.; Azuma, Mariko; Hauptmann, Michael; Xiong, Jun; Stewart, Patricia; Li, Laiyu; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Huang, Hanlin; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Smith, Martyn T.; Lan, Qing

2010-01-01

271

PXD101 in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-06-03

272

Decitabine and Bortezomib in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-03-19

273

Decitabine in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-02-25

274

[Bilateral facial palsy and acute myeloid leukemia: an unusual association].  

PubMed

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a malignant disease of the hematopoietic tissue. The disease presentation may be related to the loss of bone marrow function or with general symptoms of neoplastic diseases. Extramedullary involvement is responsible for less frequent presentations that may hinder early diagnosis. Gingival enlargement is not uncommon in AML but cases of bilateral facial palsy are rare. In this article the authors present the case of a man of 70 who comes up with gingival hypertrophy that initially was not valued and that developed after three weeks, a bilateral facial palsy. The myelogram revealed an AML. With directed chemotherapy the patient reached complete remission but kept the symptoms of disease presentation. PMID:23079253

Pereira, Marta Sofia; Faria, Frederica; Menezes Falcão, Luiz

2012-01-01

275

The origin and evolution of mutations in Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Summary Most mutations in cancer genomes are thought to be acquired after the initiating event, which may cause genomic instability, driving clonal evolution. However, for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), normal karyotypes are common, and genomic instability is unusual. To better understand clonal evolution in AML, we sequenced the genomes of AML samples with a known initiating event (PML-RARA) vs. normal karyotype AML samples, and the exomes of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) from healthy people. Collectively, the data suggest that most of the mutations found in AML genomes are actually random events that occurred in HSPCs before they acquired the initiating mutation; the mutational history of that cell is “captured” as the clone expands. In many cases, only one or two additional, cooperating mutations are needed to generate the malignant founding clone. Cells from the founding clone can acquire additional cooperating mutations, yielding subclones that can contribute to disease progression and/or relapse.

Welch, John S.; Ley, Timothy J.; Link, Daniel C.; Miller, Christopher A.; Larson, David E.; Koboldt, Daniel C.; Wartman, Lukas D.; Lamprecht, Tamara L.; Liu, Fulu; Xia, Jun; Kandoth, Cyriac; Fulton, Robert S.; McLellan, Michael D.; Dooling, David J.; Wallis, John W.; Chen, Ken; Harris, Christopher C.; Schmidt, Heather K.; Kalicki-Veizer, Joelle M.; Lu, Charles; Zhang, Qunyuan; Lin, Ling; O'Laughlin, Michelle D.; McMichael, Joshua F.; Delehaunty, Kim D.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Magrini, Vincent J.; McGrath, Sean D.; Demeter, Ryan T.; Vickery, Tammi L.; Hundal, Jasreet; Cook, Lisa L.; Swift, Gary W.; Reed, Jerry P.; Alldredge, Patricia A.; Wylie, Todd N.; Walker, Jason R.; Watson, Mark A.; Heath, Sharon E.; Shannon, William D.; Varghese, Nobish; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Payton, Jacqueline E.; Baty, Jack D.; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Klco, Jeffery M.; Tomasson, Michael H.; Westervelt, Peter; Walter, Matthew J.; Graubert, Timothy A.; DiPersio, John F.; Ding, Li; Mardis, Elaine R.; Wilson, Richard K.

2012-01-01

276

Genetic Pathways Leading to Therapy-Related Myeloid Neoplasms  

PubMed Central

Therapy-related myeloid neoplasm (t-MN) is a distinctive clinical syndrome occurring after exposure to chemotherapy or radiotherapy. t-MN arises in most cases from a multipotential hematopoietic stem cell or, less commonly, in a lineage committed progenitor cell. The prognosis for patients with t-MN is poor, as current forms of therapy are largely ineffective. Cytogenetic analysis, molecular analysis and gene expression profiling analysis of t-MN has revealed that there are distinct subtypes of the disease; however, our understanding of the genetic basis of t-MN is incomplete. Elucidating the genetic pathways and molecular networks that are perturbed in t-MNs, may facilitate the identification of therapeutic targets that can be exploited for the development of urgently-needed targeted therapies.

Stoddart, Angela; McNerney, Megan E.; Bartom, Elizabeth; Bergerson, Rachel; Young, David J.; Qian, Zhijian; Wang, Jianghong; Fernald, Anthony A.; Davis, Elizabeth M.; Larson, Richard A.; White, Kevin P.; Le Beau, Michelle M.

2011-01-01

277

Targeting self-renewal pathways in myeloid malignancies  

PubMed Central

A fundamental property of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is the ability to self-renew. This is a complex process involving multiple signal transduction cascades which control the fine balance between self-renewal and differentiation through transcriptional networks. Key activators/regulators of self-renewal include chemokines, cytokines and morphogens which are expressed in the bone marrow niche, either in a paracrine or autocrine fashion, and modulate stem cell behaviour. Increasing evidence suggests that the downstream signaling pathways induced by these ligands converge at multiple levels providing a degree of redundancy in steady state hematopoiesis. Here we will focus on how these pathways cross-talk to regulate HSC self-renewal highlighting potential therapeutic windows which could be targeted to prevent leukemic stem cell self-renewal in myeloid malignancies.

2013-01-01

278

Utilization of the AAVS1 safe harbor locus for hematopoietic specific transgene expression and gene knockdown in human ES cells.  

PubMed

Human pluripotent stem cells offer a powerful system to study human biology and disease. Here, we report a system to both express transgenes specifically in ES cell derived hematopoietic cells and knockdown gene expression stably throughout the differentiation of ES cells. We characterize a CD43 promoter construct that when inserted into the AAVS1 "safe harbor" locus utilizing a zinc finger nuclease specifically drives GFP expression in hematopoietic cells derived from a transgenic ES cell line and faithfully recapitulates endogenous CD43 expression. In addition, using the same gene targeting strategy we demonstrate that constitutive expression of short hairpin RNAs within a microRNA backbone can suppress expression of PU.1, an important regulator of myeloid cell development. We show that PU.1 knockdown cell lines display an inhibition in myeloid cell formation and skewing towards erythroid development. Overall, we have generated a powerful system to track hematopoietic development from pluripotent stem cells and study gene function through hematopoietic specific gene expression and constitutive gene knockdown. PMID:24631742

Tiyaboonchai, Amita; Mac, Helen; Shamsedeen, Razveen; Mills, Jason A; Kishore, Siddarth; French, Deborah L; Gadue, Paul

2014-05-01

279

Growth Factor-Activated Stem Cell Circuits and Stromal Signals Cooperatively Accelerate Non-Integrated iPSC Reprogramming of Human Myeloid Progenitors  

PubMed Central

Nonviral conversion of skin or blood cells into clinically useful human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC) occurs in only rare fractions (?0.001%–0.5%) of donor cells transfected with non-integrating reprogramming factors. Pluripotency induction of developmentally immature stem-progenitors is generally more efficient than differentiated somatic cell targets. However, the nature of augmented progenitor reprogramming remains obscure, and its potential has not been fully explored for improving the extremely slow pace of non-integrated reprogramming. Here, we report highly optimized four-factor reprogramming of lineage-committed cord blood (CB) myeloid progenitors with bulk efficiencies of ?50% in purified episome-expressing cells. Lineage-committed CD33+CD45+CD34? myeloid cells and not primitive hematopoietic stem-progenitors were the main targets of a rapid and nearly complete non-integrated reprogramming. The efficient conversion of mature myeloid populations into NANOG+TRA-1-81+ hiPSC was mediated by synergies between hematopoietic growth factor (GF), stromal activation signals, and episomal Yamanaka factor expression. Using a modular bioinformatics approach, we demonstrated that efficient myeloid reprogramming correlated not to increased proliferation or endogenous Core factor expressions, but to poised expression of GF-activated transcriptional circuits that commonly regulate plasticity in both hematopoietic progenitors and embryonic stem cells (ESC). Factor-driven conversion of myeloid progenitors to a high-fidelity pluripotent state was further accelerated by soluble and contact-dependent stromal signals that included an implied and unexpected role for Toll receptor-NF?B signaling. These data provide a paradigm for understanding the augmented reprogramming capacity of somatic progenitors, and reveal that efficient induced pluripotency in other cell types may also require extrinsic activation of a molecular framework that commonly regulates self-renewal and differentiation in both hematopoietic progenitors and ESC.

Park, Tea Soon; Huo, Jeffrey S.; Peters, Ann; Talbot, C. Conover; Verma, Karan; Zimmerlin, Ludovic; Kaplan, Ian M.; Zambidis, Elias T.

2012-01-01

280

Hematopoietic Neoplasias in Horses: Myeloproliferative and Lymphoproliferative Disorders  

PubMed Central

Leukemia, i.e., the neoplasia of one or more cell lines of the bone marrow, although less common than in other species, it is also reported in horses. Leukemia can be classified according to the affected cells (myeloproliferative or lymphoproliferative disorders), evolution of clinical signs (acute or chronic) and the presence or lack of abnormal cells in peripheral blood (leukemic, subleukemic and aleukemic leukemia). The main myeloproliferative disorders in horses are malignant histiocytosis and myeloid leukemia, the latter being classified as monocytic and myelomonocytic, granulocytic, primary erythrocytosis or polycythemia vera and megakaryocytic leukemia. The most common lymphoproliferative disorders in horses are lymphoid leukemia, plasma cell or multiple myeloma and lymphoma. Lymphoma is the most common hematopoietic neoplasia in horses and usually involves lymphoid organs, without leukemia, although bone marrow may be affected after metastasis. Lymphoma could be classified according to the organs involved and four main clinical categories have been established: generalized-multicentric, alimentary-gastrointestinal, mediastinal-thymic-thoracic and cutaneous. The clinical signs, hematological and clinical pathological findings, results of bone marrow aspirates, involvement of other organs, prognosis and treatment, if applicable, are presented for each type of neoplasia. This paper aims to provide a guide for equine practitioners when approaching to clinical cases with suspicion of hematopoietic neoplasia.

MUNOZ, Ana; RIBER, Cristina; TRIGO, Pablo; CASTEJON, Francisco

2010-01-01

281

Oncogenic Kras Initiates Leukemia in Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

How oncogenes modulate the self-renewal properties of cancer-initiating cells is incompletely understood. Activating KRAS and NRAS mutations are among the most common oncogenic lesions detected in human cancer, and occur in myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs) and leukemias. We investigated the effects of expressing oncogenic KrasG12D from its endogenous locus on the proliferation and tumor-initiating properties of murine hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. MPD could be initiated by KrasG12D expression in a highly restricted population enriched for hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but not in common myeloid progenitors. KrasG12D HSCs demonstrated a marked in vivo competitive advantage over wild-type cells. KrasG12D expression also increased the fraction of proliferating HSCs and reduced the overall size of this compartment. Transplanted KrasG12D HSCs efficiently initiated acute T-lineage leukemia/lymphoma, which was associated with secondary Notch1 mutations in thymocytes. We conclude that MPD-initiating activity is restricted to the HSC compartment in KrasG12D mice, and that distinct self-renewing populations with cooperating mutations emerge during cancer progression.

Sabnis, Amit J; Cheung, Laurene S; Dail, Monique; Kang, Hio Chung; Santaguida, Marianne; Hermiston, Michelle L; Passegue, Emmanuelle; Shannon, Kevin; Braun, Benjamin S

2009-01-01

282

Hematopoietic bone marrow recovery after radiation therapy: MRI evaluation  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is able to detect the increase of adipocytes in the hematopoietic bone marrow that occurs as a consequence of radiotherapy and is indicative of the loss of myeloid tissue. By monitoring this process, it is also possible to determine the recovery of the bone marrow. The amount of viable hematopoietic tissue plays a fundamental role in determining whether the patient is able to undergo further antineoplastic therapy, particularly chemotherapy. We examined 35 patients who had been treated with radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma (12), uterine cervix carcinoma (nine), ovarian dysgerminoma (six), testicular seminoma (four), and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (four). We observed that radiation-induced modifications of the MRI pattern in the bone marrow are tightly linked to two parameters; the administered radiation dose and the length of time passed after the treatment. Bone marrow recovery was observed only when patients were treated with doses lower than 50 Gy. The earlier radiation-induced modifications of the bone marrow MRI pattern occurred 6 to 12 months after irradiation, and they were most evident 5 to 6 years after the treatment. From 2 to 9 years after radiotherapy, we observed partial recovery. Complete recovery, when it occurred, was observed only 10 to 23 years after the treatment. Our results indicate that MRI studies are likely to be useful in the assessment of radiation-induced injuries.

Casamassima, F.; Ruggiero, C.; Caramella, D.; Tinacci, E.; Villari, N.; Ruggiero, M. (Univ. of Firenze (Italy))

1989-05-01

283

NAŠE IZKUŠNJE PRI ZDRAVLJENJU KRONI?NE MIELOI?NE LEVKEMIJE Z IMATINIB MESILATOM OUR EXPERIENCE IN TREATMENT OF CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA WITH IMATINIB MESYLATE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Chronic myeloid leukemia is a clonal disease of hematopoietic stem cell which progresses through three phases. During progression, leukemic cells become therapy resistant and patients die of acute leukemia. Disease specific is the presence of Philadelphia chromosome, the result of reciprocal translocation between the chromosomes 9 and 22. The molecular consequence of this translocation is the BCR-ABL fusion protein

Marjana Glaser; Tatjana Grmek-Zemlji?; Peter Borin

284

Improved prognostic significance of cytokine-induced proliferation in vitro in patients with de novo acute myeloid leukemia of intermediate risk: impact of internal tandem duplications in the Flt3 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heterogeneity of acute myeloid leukemia is reflected in many clinical, biological and genetic features that are used to predict the response to therapy. On the basis of chromosome aberrations patients can be stratified in groups reflecting either good or poor prognosis. However, the majority of patients fall in an ‘intermediate risk’ group. Internal tandem duplications in the hematopoietic growth

WJC Rombouts; B Löwenberg; WLJ van Putten; RE Ploemacher

2001-01-01

285

Lymphomyeloid contribution of an immune-restricted progenitor emerging prior to definitive hematopoietic stem cells.  

PubMed

In jawed vertebrates, development of an adaptive immune-system is essential for protection of the born organism against otherwise life-threatening pathogens. Myeloid cells of the innate immune system are formed early in development, whereas lymphopoiesis has been suggested to initiate much later, following emergence of definitive hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Herein, we demonstrate that the embryonic lymphoid commitment process initiates earlier than previously appreciated, prior to emergence of definitive HSCs, through establishment of a previously unrecognized entirely immune-restricted and lymphoid-primed progenitor. Notably, this immune-restricted progenitor appears to first emerge in the yolk sac and contributes physiologically to the establishment of lymphoid and some myeloid components of the immune-system, establishing the lymphomyeloid lineage restriction process as an early and physiologically important lineage-commitment step in mammalian hematopoiesis. PMID:24054998

Böiers, Charlotta; Carrelha, Joana; Lutteropp, Michael; Luc, Sidinh; Green, Joanna C A; Azzoni, Emanuele; Woll, Petter S; Mead, Adam J; Hultquist, Anne; Swiers, Gemma; Perdiguero, Elisa Gomez; Macaulay, Iain C; Melchiori, Luca; Luis, Tiago C; Kharazi, Shabnam; Bouriez-Jones, Tiphaine; Deng, Qiaolin; Pontén, Annica; Atkinson, Deborah; Jensen, Christina T; Sitnicka, Ewa; Geissmann, Frederic; Godin, Isabelle; Sandberg, Rickard; de Bruijn, Marella F T R; Jacobsen, Sten Eirik W

2013-11-01

286

Acute myeloid leukemia associated with FGFR1 abnormalities.  

PubMed

Hematologic malignancies associated with FGFR1 abnormalities present in heterogeneous forms, including myeloproliferative neoplasm, acute myeloid leukemia (AML), T- or B-lineage lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma, and even mixed phenotype acute leukemia. In the present report, we describe three new cases of AML associated with FGFR1 abnormalities: AML with minimal differentiation with 45,XY,-7,t(8;13)(p11.2;q12), acute myelomonocytic leukemia with eosinophilia with 48,XY,t(8;9)(p11.2;q33),+19,+21, and AML with minimal differentiation with 46,XX,add(8)(p11.2). FGFR1 abnormalities were confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. We reviewed the records of 19 patients reported from Asian countries, and found that approximately 40 % of cases manifested as acute leukemia associated with myeloid lineage, and 47 % were not accompanied with eosinophilia. These findings highlight the need for detection of FGFR1 abnormalities, not only in myeloproliferative disorder, but also in AML patients even without eosinophilia. The prognosis for this group of neoplasms is poor, and there is no recognized effective targeted treatment. Two patients, including our case, who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) survived. Accumulation of long-term follow-up data can help determine the allo-HSCT protocol or the need for new therapeutic trials to improve the survival rate of patients with FGFR1 abnormalities. PMID:23609419

Lee, Hyeyoung; Kim, Myungshin; Lim, Jihyang; Kim, Yonggoo; Han, Kyungja; Cho, Byung-Sik; Kim, Hee-Je

2013-06-01

287

Differential regulation of myeloid leukemias by the bone marrow microenvironment  

PubMed Central

Like their normal hematopoietic stem cell counterparts, leukemia stem cells (LSC) in chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are presumed to reside in specific niches in the bone marrow microenvironment (BMM)1, and may be the cause of relapse following chemotherapy.2 Targeting the niche is a novel strategy to eliminate persistent and drug-resistant LSC. CD443,4 and IL-65 have been implicated previously in the LSC niche. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 is released during bone remodeling6 and plays a role in maintenance of CML LSCs7, but a role for TGF-?1 from the BMM has not been defined. Here, we show that alteration of the BMM by osteoblastic cell-specific activation of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptor8,9 attenuates BCR-ABL1-induced CML-like myeloproliferative neoplasia (MPN)10 but enhances MLL-AF9-induced AML11 in mouse transplantation models, possibly through opposing effects of increased TGF-?1 on the respective LSC. PTH treatment caused a 15-fold decrease in LSCs in wildtype mice with CML-like MPN, and reduced engraftment of immune deficient mice with primary human CML cells. These results demonstrate that LSC niches in chronic and acute myeloid leukemias are distinct, and suggest that modulation of the BMM by PTH may be a feasible strategy to reduce LSC, a prerequisite for the cure of CML.

Krause, Daniela S.; Fulzele, Keertik; Catic, Andre; Sun, Chia Chi; Dombkowski, David; Hurley, Michael P.; Lezeau, Sanon; Attar, Eyal; Wu, Joy Y.; Lin, Herbert Y.; Divieti-Pajevic, Paola; Hasserjian, Robert P.; Schipani, Ernestina; Van Etten, Richard A.; Scadden, David T.

2013-01-01

288

Unique and independent roles for MLL in adult hematopoietic stem cells and progenitors  

PubMed Central

Summary The Mixed Lineage Leukemia (Mll) gene is essential for embryonic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) development but its role during adult hematopoiesis is unknown. Using an inducible knockout model, we demonstrate that Mll is essential for the maintenance of adult HSCs and progenitors, with fatal bone marrow failure occurring within 3 weeks of Mll deletion. Mll-deficient cells are selectively lost from mixed bone marrow chimeras demonstrating their failure to self-renew even in an intact bone marrow environment. Surprisingly, HSCs lacking Mll exhibit ectopic cell cycle entry resulting in the depletion of quiescent HSCs. In contrast, Mll deletion in myelo-erythroid progenitors results in reduced proliferation and reduced response to cytokine-induced cell cycle entry. Committed lymphoid and myeloid cells no longer require Mll, defining the early multipotent stages of hematopoiesis as Mll-dependent. These studies demonstrate that Mll plays selective and independent roles within the hematopoietic system, maintaining quiescence in HSCs and promoting proliferation in progenitors.

Jude, Craig D.; Climer, Leslie; Xu, Diyong; Artinger, Erika; Fisher, Jill; Ernst, Patricia

2007-01-01

289

Human adenylate kinase 2 deficiency causes a profound hematopoietic defect associated with sensorineural deafness.  

PubMed

Reticular dysgenesis is an autosomal recessive form of human severe combined immunodeficiency characterized by an early differentiation arrest in the myeloid lineage and impaired lymphoid maturation. In addition, affected newborns have bilateral sensorineural deafness. Here we identify biallelic mutations in AK2 (adenylate kinase 2) in seven individuals affected with reticular dysgenesis. These mutations result in absent or strongly decreased protein expression. We then demonstrate that restoration of AK2 expression in the bone marrow cells of individuals with reticular dysgenesis overcomes the neutrophil differentiation arrest, underlining its specific requirement in the development of a restricted set of hematopoietic lineages. Last, we establish that AK2 is specifically expressed in the stria vascularis region of the inner ear, which provides an explanation of the sensorineural deafness in these individuals. These results identify a previously unknown mechanism involved in regulation of hematopoietic cell differentiation and in one of the most severe human immunodeficiency syndromes. PMID:19043416

Lagresle-Peyrou, Chantal; Six, Emmanuelle M; Picard, Capucine; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Michel, Vincent; Ditadi, Andrea; Demerens-de Chappedelaine, Corinne; Morillon, Estelle; Valensi, Françoise; Simon-Stoos, Karen L; Mullikin, James C; Noroski, Lenora M; Besse, Céline; Wulffraat, Nicolas M; Ferster, Alina; Abecasis, Manuel M; Calvo, Fabien; Petit, Christine; Candotti, Fabio; Abel, Laurent; Fischer, Alain; Cavazzana-Calvo, Marina

2009-01-01

290

Septic shock caused by Sphingomonas paucimobilis bacteremia in a patient with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Sphingomonas paucimobilis is an aerobic gram-negative bacillus that causes a variety of infections in healthy as well as in immunocompromised individuals. The organism is usually susceptible to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, aminoglycosides, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and carbapenems. However, resistance to penicillins and the first-generation cephalosporins is commonly encountered. Reported here is a patient with acute myeloid leukemia who developed S. paucimobilis bacteremia complicated by septic shock just before receiving an autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (SCT) at King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre in Riyadh. The septic episode was successfully treated in the intensive care unit. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of septic shock caused by S. paucimobilis bacteremia in a hematopoietic SCT recipient. PMID:17605729

Al-Anazi, K A; Abu Jafar, S; Al-Jasser, A M; Al-Shangeeti, A; Chaudri, N A; Al Jurf, M D; Al-Mohareb, F I

2008-04-01

291

Secondary solid cancers after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation using busulfan-cyclophosphamide conditioning  

PubMed Central

Risks of secondary solid cancers among allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients who receive conditioning without total body irradiation are not well known. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors for solid cancers after HCT using high-dose busulfan-cyclophosphamide conditioning in 4318 recipients of first allogeneic HCT for acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission (N = 1742) and chronic myeloid leukemia in first chronic phase (N = 2576). Our cohort represented 22 041 person-years at risk. Sixty-six solid cancers were reported at a median of 6 years after HCT. The cumulative-incidence of solid cancers at 5 and 10 years after HCT was 0.6% and 1.2% among acute myeloid leukemia and 0.9% and 2.4% among chronic myeloid leukemia patients. In comparison to general population incidence rates, HCT recipients had 1.4× higher than expected rate of invasive solid cancers (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.79, P = .01). Significantly elevated risks were observed for tumors of the oral cavity, esophagus, lung, soft tissue, and brain. Chronic graft-versus-host disease was an independent risk factor for all solid cancers, and especially cancers of the oral cavity. Recipients of allogeneic HCT using busulfan-cyclophosphamide conditioning are at risk for developing solid cancers. Their incidence continues to increase with time, and lifelong cancer surveillance is warranted in this population.

Brazauskas, Ruta; Rizzo, J. Douglas; Sobecks, Ronald M.; Wang, Zhiwei; Horowitz, Mary M.; Bolwell, Brian; Wingard, John R.; Socie, Gerard

2011-01-01

292

MLL-AF9-mediated immortalization of human hematopoietic cells along different lineages changes during ontogeny.  

PubMed

The MLL-AF9 fusion gene is associated with aggressive leukemias of both the myeloid and lymphoid lineage in infants, whereas in adults, this translocation is mainly associated with acute myeloid leukemia. These observations suggest that differences exist between fetal and adult tissues in terms of the 'cell of origin' from which the leukemia develops. Here we show that depending on extrinsic cues, human neonatal CD34(+) cells are readily immortalized along either the myeloid or lymphoid lineage upon MLL-AF9 expression and give rise to mainly lymphoid leukemia in immunocompromised mice. In contrast, immortalization of adult bone marrow CD34(+) cells is more difficult to achieve and is myeloid-biased, even when MLL-AF9 is expressed in purified hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Transcriptome analysis identified enrichment of HSC but not progenitor gene signatures in MLL-AF9-expressing cells. Although not observed in adult cells, neonatal cells expressing MLL-AF9 were enriched for gene signatures associated with poor prognosis, resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and MYC signaling. These results indicate that neonatal cells are inherently more prone to MLL-AF9-mediated immortalization than adult cells and suggest that intrinsic properties of the cell of origin, in addition to extrinsic cues, dictate lineage of the immortalized cell. PMID:23178754

Horton, S J; Jaques, J; Woolthuis, C; van Dijk, J; Mesuraca, M; Huls, G; Morrone, G; Vellenga, E; Schuringa, J J

2013-04-01

293

Emerging immunotherapies in older adults with acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Purpose of review We summarize recent advances for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in older patients, with a focus on immunotherapeutics. Although the recently updated US SEER data still show that the majority of older AML patients do not receive any therapy, this reality is slowly changing. Advances in our understanding of the biology of AML and in the field of immunology are facilitating the development of alternative therapeutic options for patients, affording more and novel opportunities for potentially curative treatment. Recent findings Data from multiple cooperative groups show that older patients benefit from the incorporation of gemtuzumab ozogamicin, an anti-CD33 mAb toxin, into induction regimens. The first prospective study for Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in older AML patients was reported at ASH 2012; the approach was feasible and improved Disease-Free Survival over conventional chemotherapy. Proof-of-concept trials targeting specific antigens such as WT1 or novel unique leukemia-associated antigens are currently underway, as well as other trials using chimeric antigen receptor T cells or (Natural Killer NK/effector cells in nontransplantation settings. Summary Wider application of immunotherapies such as allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with RIC have altered the landscape and offer potential for cure of an increasing number of older AML patients.

Vasu, Sumithira; Blum, William

2014-01-01

294

Effects of Stem Cell Factor on Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1 Alpha Accumulation in Human Acute Myeloid Leukaemia and LAD2 Mast Cells  

PubMed Central

Stem cell factor (SCF) is a hematopoietic growth factor that exerts its activity by signalling through the tyrosine kinase receptor known as Kit or CD117. SCF-Kit signalling is crucial for the survival, proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of myeloid lineage. Furthermore, since myeloid leukaemia cells express the Kit receptor, SCF may play an important role in myeloid leukaemia progression too. However, the mechanisms of this pathophysiological effect remain unclear. Recent evidence shows that SCF triggers accumulation of the inducible alpha subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in hematopoietic cells—a transcription complex that plays a pivotal role in cellular adaptation to low oxygen availability. However, it is unknown how SCF impacts on HIF-1? accumulation in human myeloid leukaemia and mast cells. Here we show that SCF induces HIF-1? accumulation in THP-1 human myeloid leukaemia cells but not in LAD2 mast cells. We demonstrated that LAD2 cells have a more robust glutathione (GSH)-dependent antioxidative system compared to THP-1 cells and are therefore protected against the actions of ROS generated in an SCF-dependent manner. BSO-induced GSH depletion led to a significant decrease in HIF-1? prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) activity in THP-1 cells and to near attenuation of it in LAD2 cells. In THP-1 cells, SCF-induced HIF-1? accumulation is controlled via ERK, PI3 kinase/PKC-?/mTOR-dependent and to a certain extent by redox-dependent mechanisms. These results demonstrate for the first time an important cross-talk of signalling pathways associated with HIF-1 activation—an important stage of the myeloid leukaemia cell life cycle.

Oniku, Abraham E.; Sumbayev, Vadim V.

2011-01-01

295

Molecular involvement and prognostic importance of fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 in acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

AML (Acute myeloid leukemia) is a form of blood cancer where growth of myeloid cells occurs in the bone marrow. The prognosis is poor in general for many reasons. One is the presence of leukaemia-specific recognition markers such as FLT3 (fms-like tyrosine kinase 3). Another name of FLT3 is stem cell tyrosine kinase-1 (STK1), which is known to take part in proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of hematopoietic cells, usually being present on haemopoietic progenitor cells in the bone marrow. FLT3 act as an independent prognostic factor for AML. Although a vast literature is available about the association of FLT3 with AML there still is a need of a brief up to date overview which draw a clear picture about this association and their effect on overall survival. PMID:23167317

Shahab, Sadaf; Shamsi, Tahirs; Ahmed, Nuzhat

2012-01-01

296

The past and future of CD33 as therapeutic target in acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

CD33 is a myeloid differentiation antigen with endocytic properties. It is broadly expressed on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts and, possibly, some leukemic stem cells and has therefore been exploited as target for therapeutic antibodies for many years. The improved survival seen in many patients when the antibody-drug conjugate, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, is added to conventional chemotherapy validates this approach. However, many attempts with unconjugated or conjugated antibodies have been unsuccessful, highlighting the challenges of targeting CD33 in AML. With the development of improved immunoconjugates and CD33-directed strategies that harness immune effector cells, therapeutics with enhanced efficacy may soon become available. Toxic effects on normal hematopoietic cells may increase in parallel with this increased efficacy and demand new supportive care measures, including possibly rescue with donor cells, to minimize morbidity and mortality from drug-induced cytopenias and to optimize treatment outcomes with these agents in patients with AML. PMID:24809231

Laszlo, George S; Estey, Elihu H; Walter, Roland B

2014-07-01

297

Dual actions of Meis1 inhibit erythroid progenitor development and sustain general hematopoietic cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

Myeloid ecotropic viral integration site 1 (Meis1) forms a heterodimer with Pbx1 that augments Hox-dependent gene expression and is associated with leukemogenesis and HSC self-renewal. Here we identified 2 independent actions of Meis1 in hematopoietic development: one regulating cellular proliferation and the other involved in megakaryocyte lineage development. First, we found that endogenous Mesp1 indirectly induces Meis1 and Meis2 in endothelial cells derived from embryonic stem cells. Overexpression of Meis1 and Meis2 greatly enhanced the formation of hematopoietic colonies from embryonic stem cells, with the exception of erythroid colonies, by maintaining hematopoietic progenitor cells in a state of proliferation. Second, overexpression of Meis1 repressed the development of early erythroid progenitors, acting in vivo at the megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor stage to skew development away from erythroid generation and toward megakaryocyte development. This previously unrecognized action of Meis1 may explain the embryonic lethality observed in Meis1?/? mice that arises from failure of lymphatic-venous separation and can result as a consequence of defective platelet generation. These results show that Meis1 exerts 2 independent functions, with its role in proliferation of hematopoietic progenitors acting earlier in development from its influence on the fate choice at the megakaryocyte-erythroid progenitor between megakaryocytic and erythroid development.

Cai, Mi; Langer, Ellen M.; Gill, Jennifer G.; Satpathy, Ansuman T.; Albring, Jorn C.; KC, Wumesh; Murphy, Theresa L.

2012-01-01

298

Molecular Biology of Hematopoietic Stem Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are capable of maintaining a life-long supply of the entire spectrum of blood cells dependent on systemic needs. Recent studies suggest that hematopoietic stem cells are, beyond their hematopoietic potential, able to differentiate into nonhematopoietic cell types, which could open novel avenues in the field of cellular therapy. Here, we concentrate on the

Ulrich Steidl; Ralf Kronenwett; Simona Martin; Rainer Haas

2003-01-01

299

H2.0-like homeobox (HLX) regulates early hematopoiesis and promotes acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Summary Homeobox domain-containing transcription factors are important regulators of hematopoiesis. Here we report that increased levels of non-clustered H2.0-like homeobox (HLX) lead to loss of functional hematopoietic stem cells and formation of aberrant progenitors with unlimited serial clonogenicity and blocked differentiation. Inhibition of HLX reduces proliferation and clonogenicity of leukemia cells, overcomes the differentiation block, and leads to prolonged survival. HLX regulates a transcriptional program, including PAK1 and BTG1, that controls cellular differentiation and proliferation. HLX is overexpressed in 87% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and independently correlates with inferior overall survival (N=601, p=2.3×10?6). Our study identifies HLX as a key regulator in immature hematopoietic and leukemia cells, and a prognostic marker and therapeutic target in AML.

Kawahara, Masahiro; Pandolfi, Ashley; Bartholdy, Boris; Barreyro, Laura; Will, Britta; Roth, Michael; Okoye-Okafor, Ujunwa C.; Todorova, Tihomira I.; Figueroa, Maria E.; Melnick, Ari; Mitsiades, Constantine S.; Steidl, Ulrich

2012-01-01

300

C/EBP? deregulation results in differentiation arrest in acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

C/EBPs are a family of transcription factors that regulate growth control and differentiation of various tissues. We found that C/EBP? is highly upregulated in a subset of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) samples characterized by C/EBP? hypermethylation/silencing. Similarly, C/EBP? was upregulated in murine hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells lacking C/EBP?, as C/EBP? mediates C/EBP? suppression. Studies in myeloid cells demonstrated that CEBPG overexpression blocked neutrophilic differentiation. Further, downregulation of Cebpg in murine Cebpa-deficient stem/progenitor cells or in human CEBPA-silenced AML samples restored granulocytic differentiation. In addition, treatment of these leukemias with demethylating agents restored the C/EBP?-C/EBP? balance and upregulated the expression of myeloid differentiation markers. Our results indicate that C/EBP? mediates the myeloid differentiation arrest induced by C/EBP? deficiency and that targeting the C/EBP?-C/EBP? axis rescues neutrophilic differentiation in this unique subset of AMLs.

Alberich-Jorda, Meritxell; Wouters, Bas; Balastik, Martin; Shapiro-Koss, Clara; Zhang, Hong; DiRuscio, Annalisa; Radomska, Hanna S.; Ebralidze, Alexander K.; Amabile, Giovanni; Ye, Min; Zhang, Junyan; Lowers, Irene; Avellino, Roberto; Melnick, Ari; Figueroa, Maria E.; Valk, Peter J.M.; Delwel, Ruud; Tenen, Daniel G.

2012-01-01

301

BMP signaling balances murine myeloid potential through SMAD-independent p38MAPK and NOTCH pathways.  

PubMed

Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling regulates early hematopoietic development, proceeding from mesoderm patterning through the progressive commitment and differentiation of progenitor cells. The BMP pathway signals largely through receptor-mediated activation of Mothers Against Decapentaplegic homolog (SMAD) proteins, although alternate pathways are modulated through various components of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Using a conditional, short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-based knockdown system in the context of differentiating embryonic stem cells (ESCs), we demonstrated previously that Smad1 promotes hemangioblast specification, but then subsequently restricts primitive progenitor potential. Here we show that co-knockdown of Smad5 restores normal progenitor potential of Smad1-depleted cells, suggesting opposing functions for Smad1 and Smad5. This balance was confirmed by cotargeting Smad1/5 with a specific chemical antagonist, LDN193189 (LDN). However, we discovered that LDN treatment after hemangioblast commitment enhanced primitive myeloid potential. Moreover, inhibition with LDN (but not SMAD depletion) increased expression of Delta-like ligands Dll1 and Dll3 and NOTCH activity; abrogation of NOTCH activity restored LDN-enhanced myeloid potential back to normal, corresponding with expression levels of the myeloid master regulator, C/EBP?. LDN but not SMAD activity was also associated with activation of the p38MAPK pathway, and blocking this pathway was sufficient to enhance myelopoiesis. Therefore, NOTCH and p38MAPK pathways balance primitive myeloid progenitor output downstream of the BMP pathway. PMID:24894772

Cook, Brandoch D; Evans, Todd

2014-07-17

302

Targeting cathepsin G in myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Cathepsin G (CG) is a serine protease normally found within the azurophil granules of neutrophils. CG is expressed during the early stages of normal myeloid differentiation and—aberrantly—by myeloid leukemia cells. We have recently identified CG-derived HLA-A*0201-binding peptides that constitute promising targets for the immunotherapy of myeloid leukemia.

Alatrash, Gheath

2013-01-01

303

A new player SETs in myeloid malignancy.  

PubMed

Recent studies have identified recurrent mutations in SETBP1, the gene that encodes SET-binding protein 1, in several types of myeloid malignancies, including chronic myeloid and acute myeloid leukemias. The identified mutations frequently target the SKI-homologous domain, although the exact pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. PMID:23892662

Trimarchi, Thomas; Ntziachristos, Panagiotis; Aifantis, Iannis

2013-08-01

304

Glucopsychosine increases cytosolic calcium to induce calpain-mediated apoptosis of acute myeloid leukemia cells.  

PubMed

To identify novel anti-cancer agents, we created and screened a unique nutraceutical library for activity against acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells. From this screen, we determined that glucopsychosine was selectively toxic toward AML cell lines and primary AML patient samples with no effect toward normal hematopoietic cells. It delayed tumor growth and reduced tumor weights in mouse xenograft models without imparting toxicity. Glucopsychosine increased cytosolic calcium and induced apoptosis through calpain enzymes. Extracellular calcium was functionally important for glucopsychosine-induced AML cell death and surface calcium channel expression is altered in AML cells highlighting a unique mechanism of glucopsychosine's selectivity. PMID:24631520

Angka, Leonard; Lee, Eric A; Rota, Sarah G; Hanlon, Thomas; Sukhai, Mahadeo; Minden, Mark; McMillan, Elliott M; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spagnuolo, Paul A

2014-06-28

305

Cutaneous and pericardial extramedullary hematopoiesis with cardiac tamponade in chronic myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

A 48-year-old woman with Philadelphia chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia developed skin and pericardial extramedullary hematopoiesis. The echocardiogram revealed massive pericardial effusion with signs of tamponade. The cytocentrifuge preparation of pericardial fluid demonstrated all three hematopoietic components. Assays for the granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells and erythroid progenitors on her pericardial fluid gave rise to colony numbers comparable to those of normal bone marrow cells. The patient was successfully treated with pericardiocentesis followed by short-term indwelling catheter drainage and administration of hydroxy-urea. There was no reaccumulation of fluid at ten months. PMID:3282429

Shih, L Y; Lin, F C; Kuo, T T

1988-05-01

306

Concise review: hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: targeting the thymus.  

PubMed

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation can cure patients suffering from diverse genetic and acquired diseases as well as cancers. Nevertheless, under conditions where T-cell reconstitution is critical, the entry of donor progenitors into the thymus remains a major bottleneck. It is assumed that following the intravenous injection of HSC, they first home to the BM. More committed progenitors can then be exported to the thymus in response to a myriad of signals regulating thymus seeding. Notably although, the thymus is not continually receptive to the import of hematopoietic progenitors. Furthermore, as stem cells with self-renewing capacity do not take up residence in the thymus under physiological conditions, the periodic colonization of the thymus is essential for the sustained differentiation of T lymphocytes. As such, we and others have invested significant efforts into exploring avenues that might foster a long-term thymus-autonomous differentiation. Here, we review strategic approaches that have resulted in long-term T-cell differentiation in immunodeficient (SCID) mice, even across histocompatibility barriers. These include the forced thymic entry of BM precursors by their direct intrathymic injection as well as the transplantation of neonatal thymi. The capacity of the thymus to support hematopoietic progenitors with renewal potential will hopefully promote the development of new therapeutic strategies aimed at enhancing T-cell differentiation in patients undergoing HSC transplantation. PMID:23554173

De Barros, Stéphanie C; Zimmermann, Valérie S; Taylor, Naomi

2013-07-01

307

Gemtuzumab Ozogamicin in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (M3); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2013-09-23

308

Novel role of interleukin 7 in myelopoiesis: stimulation of primitive murine hematopoietic progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Interleukin 7 (IL-7) has been demonstrated to be an important regulator of the growth of B and T cell precursors as well as mature T cells, whereas IL-7 has been reported to have no direct myeloproliferative effects. Here we show that IL-7 potently and directly enhances colony stimulating factor-induced myeloid colony formation from Lin-Sca-1+ murine bone marrow progenitor cells, increasing the cloning frequency up to ninefold and cell numbers up to 50-fold, without affecting their ability to differentiate along the myeloid lineages In contrast, IL-7 has no effect on proliferation of committed Lin- myeloid progenitors. Thus, in addition to its established lymphopoietic potential, this study implicates a novel role of IL-7 in early myelopoiesis.

1993-01-01

309

Protection against lethal Aspergillus fumigatus infection in mice by allogeneic myeloid progenitors is not major histocompatibility complex restricted.  

PubMed

Invasive fungal infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality after myelotoxic chemotherapy or radiation exposure. The resulting depletion of myeloid precursors under these conditions appears to be the factor that limits approaches to accelerate immune reconstitution. In a murine model of myeloablation after radiation exposure, we demonstrated that highly purified common myeloid and granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (CMPs/GMPs) accelerated myeloid recovery and, thus, enhanced innate immunity as measured by survival after a lethal challenge with Aspergillus fumigatus. Of greatest significance was the demonstration that the protection afforded by CMPs/GMPs was not major histocompatibility complex restricted. Furthermore, the effect of CMP/GMP cellular therapy was additive with that of liposomal amphotericin B treatment. These observations greatly expand the potential donor pool and, thus, the clinical utility of CMP/GMP cellular therapy in patients with myeloid depletion. PMID:16206084

Arber, Caroline; Bitmansour, Andrew; Shashidhar, Sumana; Wang, Sophia; Tseng, Benjamin; Brown, Janice M Y

2005-11-01

310

BAALC and ERG expression levels are associated with outcome and distinct gene and microRNA expression profiles in older patients with de novo cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia: a Cancer and Leukemia Group B study  

PubMed Central

BAALC and ERG expression levels are prognostic markers in younger (< 60 years) cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) adults; their prognostic impact in older (? 60 years) patients requires further investigation. We evaluated pretreatment expression of BAALC and ERG in 158 de novo patients treated on cytarabine/daunorubicin-based protocols. The patients were also characterized for other established molecular prognosticators. Low BAALC and ERG expression levels were associated with better outcome in univariable and multivariable analyses. Expression levels of both BAALC and ERG were the only factors significantly associated with overall survival upon multivariable analysis. To gain biological insights, we derived gene expression signatures associated with BAALC and ERG expression in older CN-AML patients. Furthermore, we derived the first microRNA expression signatures associated with the expression of these 2 genes. In low BAALC expressers, genes associated with undifferentiated hematopoietic precursors and unfavorable outcome predictors were down-regulated, whereas HOX genes and HOX-gene–embedded microRNAs were up-regulated. Low ERG expressers presented with down-regulation of genes involved in the DNA-methylation machinery, and up-regulation of miR-148a, which targets DNMT3B. We conclude that in older CN-AML patients, low BAALC and ERG expression associates with better outcome and distinct gene and microRNA expression signatures that could aid in identifying new targets and novel therapeutic strategies for older patients.

Schwind, Sebastian; Maharry, Kati; Radmacher, Michael D.; Mrozek, Krzysztof; Holland, Kelsi B.; Margeson, Dean; Becker, Heiko; Whitman, Susan P.; Wu, Yue-Zhong; Metzeler, Klaus H.; Powell, Bayard L.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Carter, Thomas H.; Moore, Joseph O.; Baer, Maria R.; Carroll, Andrew J.; Caligiuri, Michael A.; Larson, Richard A.

2010-01-01

311

Acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Through the hard work of a large number of investigators, the biology of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is becoming increasingly well understood, and as a consequence, new therapeutic targets have been identified and new model systems have been developed for testing novel therapies. How these new therapies can be most effectively studied in the clinic and whether they will ultimately improve cure rates are questions of enormous importance. In this article, Dr. Jacob Rowe presents a summary of the current state-of-the-art therapy for adult AML. His contribution emphasizes the fact that AML is not a single disease, but a number of related diseases each distinguished by unique cytogenetic markers which in turn help determine the most appropriate treatment. Dr. Jerald Radich continues on this theme, emphasizing how these cytogenetic abnormalities, as well as other mutations, give rise to abnormal signal transduction and how these abnormal pathways may represent ideal targets for the development of new therapeutics. A third contribution by Dr. Frederick Appelbaum describes how AML might be made the target of immunologic attack. Specifically, strategies using antibody-based or cell-based immunotherapies are described including the use of unmodified antibodies, drug conjugates, radioimmunoconjugates, non-ablative allogeneic transplantation, T cell adoptive immunotherapy and AML vaccines. Finally, Dr. John Dick provides a review of the development of the NOD/SCID mouse model of human AML emphasizing both what it has taught us about the biology of the disease as well as how it can be used to test new therapies. Taken together, these reviews are meant to help us understand more about where we are in the treatment of AML, where we can go and how we might get there. PMID:11722979

Appelbaum, F R; Rowe, J M; Radich, J; Dick, J E

2001-01-01

312

CUX1 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 7 frequently inactivated in acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Loss of chromosome 7 and del(7q) [-7/del(7q)] are recurring cytogenetic abnormalities in hematologic malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia and therapy-related myeloid neoplasms, and associated with an adverse prognosis. Despite intensive effort by many laboratories, the putative myeloid tumor suppressor(s) on chromosome 7 has not yet been identified.We performed transcriptome sequencing and SNP array analysis on de novo and therapy-related myeloid neoplasms, half with -7/del(7q). We identified a 2.17-Mb commonly deleted segment on chromosome band 7q22.1 containing CUX1, a gene encoding a homeodomain-containing transcription factor. In 1 case, CUX1 was disrupted by a translocation, resulting in a loss-of-function RNA fusion transcript. CUX1 was the most significantly differentially expressed gene within the commonly deleted segment and was expressed at haploinsufficient levels in -7/del(7q) leukemias. Haploinsufficiency of the highly conserved ortholog, cut, led to hemocyte overgrowth and tumor formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Similarly, haploinsufficiency of CUX1 gave human hematopoietic cells a significant engraftment advantage on transplantation into immunodeficient mice. Within the RNA-sequencing data, we identified a CUX1-associated cell cycle transcriptional gene signature, suggesting that CUX1 exerts tumor suppressor activity by regulating proliferative genes. These data identify CUX1 as a conserved, haploinsufficient tumor suppressor frequently deleted in myeloid neoplasms. PMID:23212519

McNerney, Megan E; Brown, Christopher D; Wang, Xiaoyue; Bartom, Elizabeth T; Karmakar, Subhradip; Bandlamudi, Chaitanya; Yu, Shan; Ko, Jinkyung; Sandall, Barry P; Stricker, Thomas; Anastasi, John; Grossman, Robert L; Cunningham, John M; Le Beau, Michelle M; White, Kevin P

2013-02-01

313

CUX1 is a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor gene on chromosome 7 frequently inactivated in acute myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Loss of chromosome 7 and del(7q) [?7/del(7q)] are recurring cytogenetic abnormalities in hematologic malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia and therapy-related myeloid neoplasms, and associated with an adverse prognosis. Despite intensive effort by many laboratories, the putative myeloid tumor suppressor(s) on chromosome 7 has not yet been identified. We performed transcriptome sequencing and SNP array analysis on de novo and therapy-related myeloid neoplasms, half with ?7/del(7q). We identified a 2.17-Mb commonly deleted segment on chromosome band 7q22.1 containing CUX1, a gene encoding a homeodomain-containing transcription factor. In 1 case, CUX1 was disrupted by a translocation, resulting in a loss-of-function RNA fusion transcript. CUX1 was the most significantly differentially expressed gene within the commonly deleted segment and was expressed at haploinsufficient levels in ?7/del(7q) leukemias. Haploinsufficiency of the highly conserved ortholog, cut, led to hemocyte overgrowth and tumor formation in Drosophila melanogaster. Similarly, haploinsufficiency of CUX1 gave human hematopoietic cells a significant engraftment advantage on transplantation into immunodeficient mice. Within the RNA-sequencing data, we identified a CUX1-associated cell cycle transcriptional gene signature, suggesting that CUX1 exerts tumor suppressor activity by regulating proliferative genes. These data identify CUX1 as a conserved, haploinsufficient tumor suppressor frequently deleted in myeloid neoplasms.

Brown, Christopher D.; Wang, Xiaoyue; Bartom, Elizabeth T.; Karmakar, Subhradip; Bandlamudi, Chaitanya; Yu, Shan; Ko, Jinkyung; Sandall, Barry P.; Stricker, Thomas; Anastasi, John; Grossman, Robert L.; Cunningham, John M.; Le Beau, Michelle M.

2013-01-01

314

Acquired ASXL1 mutations are common in patients with inherited GATA2 mutations and correlate with myeloid transformation.  

PubMed

Inherited or sporadic heterozygous mutations in the transcription factor GATA2 lead to a clinical syndrome characterized by non-tuberculous mycobacterial and other opportunistic infections, a severe deficiency in monocytes, B cells and natural killer cells, and progression from a hypocellular myelodysplastic syndrome to myeloid leukemias. To identify acquired somatic mutations associated with myeloid transformation in patients with GATA2 mutations, we sequenced the region of the ASXL1 gene previously associated with transformation from myelodysplasia to myeloid leukemia. Somatic, heterozygous ASXL1 mutations were identified in 14/48 (29%) of patients with GATA2 deficiency, including four out of five patients who developed a proliferative chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. Although patients with GATA2 mutations had a similarly high incidence of myeloid transformation when compared to previously described patients with ASXL1 mutations, GATA2 deficiency patients with acquired ASXL1 mutation were considerably younger, almost exclusively female, and had a high incidence of transformation to a proliferative chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. These patients may benefit from allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation before the development of acute myeloid leukemia or chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00018044, NCT00404560, NCT00001467, NCT00923364.). PMID:24077845

West, Robert R; Hsu, Amy P; Holland, Steven M; Cuellar-Rodriguez, Jennifer; Hickstein, Dennis D

2014-02-01

315

GTPase regulator associated with the focal adhesion kinase (GRAF) transcript was down-regulated in patients with myeloid malignancies  

PubMed Central

Background GTPase regulator associated with the focal adhesion kinase (GRAF), a putative tumor suppressor gene, is found inactivated in hematopoietic malignancies by either genetic or epigenetic abnormalities. However, the expression level of GRAF gene has not yet been studied in leukemia. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression level of GRAF gene in those patients with myeloid malignancies including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Methods The expression levels of GRAF transcript were determined in 94 patients using real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR). Clinical and laboratory data of these patients were collected and analyzed. Results The significantly decreased level of GRAF transcript was observed in three myeloid malignancies compared to controls. Within AML, there was no difference in the level of GRAF transcript among different FAB subtypes (P > 0.05). Difference was not observed in the amount of GRAF mRNA between CML at chronic phase and controls. As CML progressed, GRAF transcript significantly decreased. In MDS, three cases with 5q deletion had lower GRAF transcript than four without 5q deletion (median 0.76 vs 2.99) (P > 0.05). Conclusion our results demonstrate that the GRAF transcript is decreased in myeloid malignancies.

2010-01-01

316

A fast and simple approach for the simultaneous detection of hematopoietic chimerism, NPM1, and FLT3-ITD mutations after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic chimerism can be used as a tool for patient management after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). An increase in the proportion of recipient cells after transplantation is strongly associated with relapse in chronic myeloid leukemia. However, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) the significance of increasing mixed chimerism (MC) as a predictive marker for relapse is less clear. Several mutations frequently found in AML have been employed for minimal residual disease detection and relapse prediction. Therefore, a combined analysis of hematopoietic chimerism and of the molecular aberrations found in AML could be used to improve MC characterization. We developed a multiplex PCR for use in the simultaneous detection of hematopoietic chimerism and mutations in nucleophosmin (NPM1) and fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD). A total of 303 samples from 20 AML patients were analyzed after HSCT. The microsatellite markers used for hematopoietic chimerism detection were D1S80, D7S1517, D4S2366, THO1, and SE33. A total of 149 samples from 18 patients showed MC with a mean detection time of 9.7 months. From the 18 patients with MC, in 6 of the patients, no FLT3-ITD or NPM1 mutation was found at any time point tested, and these patients remained in complete hematological remission. In 12 patients with MC, FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutations were found, and these patients showed signs of hematological relapse. Our combined analysis of NPM1/FLT3-ITD mutations and hematopoietic chimerism improved the characterization of patients with MC after HSCT. The present approach may be further expanded by combining additional mutations found in AML with hematopoietic chimerism detection. PMID:23907410

Waterhouse, Miguel; Bertz, Hartmut; Finke, Juergen

2014-02-01

317

Assessment of Human Multi-Potent Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cell Potential Using a Single In Vitro Screening System  

PubMed Central

Hematopoietic stem cells are responsible for the generation of the entire blood system through life. This characteristic relies on their ability to self renew and on their multi-potentiality. Thus quantification of the number of hematopoietic stem cells in a given cell population requires to show both properties in the studied cell populations. Although xenografts models that support human hematopoietic stem cells have been described, such in vivo experimental systems remain restrictive for high throughput screening purposes for example. In this work we developed a conditional tetracycline inducible system controlling the expression of the human NOTCH ligand Delta-like 1 in the murine stromal MS5 cells. We cultured hematopoietic immature cells enriched in progenitor/stem cells in contact with MS5 cells that conditionally express Delta-like 1, in conditions designed to generate multipotential lineage differentiation. We show that upon induction or repression of DL1 expression during co-culture, human immature CD34+CD38?/low(CD45RA?CD90+) cells can express their B, T, NK, granulo/monocytic and erythroid potentials in a single well, and at the single cell level. We also document the interference of low NOTCH activation with human B and myelo/erythroid lymphoid differentiation. This system represents a novel tool to precisely quantify human hematopoietic immature cells with both lymphoid and myeloid potentials.

Calvo, Julien; BenYoucef, Aissa; Baijer, Jan; Rouyez, Marie-Christine; Pflumio, Francoise

2012-01-01

318

Assessment of human multi-potent hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell potential using a single in vitro screening system.  

PubMed

Hematopoietic stem cells are responsible for the generation of the entire blood system through life. This characteristic relies on their ability to self renew and on their multi-potentiality. Thus quantification of the number of hematopoietic stem cells in a given cell population requires to show both properties in the studied cell populations. Although xenografts models that support human hematopoietic stem cells have been described, such in vivo experimental systems remain restrictive for high throughput screening purposes for example. In this work we developed a conditional tetracycline inducible system controlling the expression of the human NOTCH ligand Delta-like 1 in the murine stromal MS5 cells. We cultured hematopoietic immature cells enriched in progenitor/stem cells in contact with MS5 cells that conditionally express Delta-like 1, in conditions designed to generate multipotential lineage differentiation. We show that upon induction or repression of DL1 expression during co-culture, human immature CD34(+)CD38(-/low)(CD45RA(-)CD90(+)) cells can express their B, T, NK, granulo/monocytic and erythroid potentials in a single well, and at the single cell level. We also document the interference of low NOTCH activation with human B and myelo/erythroid lymphoid differentiation. This system represents a novel tool to precisely quantify human hematopoietic immature cells with both lymphoid and myeloid potentials. PMID:23209758

Calvo, Julien; BenYoucef, Aissa; Baijer, Jan; Rouyez, Marie-Christine; Pflumio, Francoise

2012-01-01

319

Myelodysplastic syndromes/neoplasms: recent classification system based on World Health Organization Classification of Tumors - International Agency for Research on Cancer for Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues.  

PubMed

The myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) are a group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell diseases characterized by cytopenia(s), dysplasia in one or more of the major myeloid cell lines, ineffective hematopoiesis, and increased risk of development of acute myeloid leukemia. The classification and the diagnostic criteria have been redefined by the recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumors - International Agency for Research on Cancer for Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. The myelodysplastic syndromes are now classified into the following categories - refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts, refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, refractory anemia with excess blasts, myelodysplastic syndrome associated with isolated del (5q), myelodysplastic syndrome - unclassifiable, and childhood myelodysplastic syndrome. The clinicopathologic features, morphology, differential diagnosis, immunophenotyping, cytogenetics, prognosis and predictive factors are presented in the light of recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumors - International Agency for Research on Cancer. PMID:22282696

Gupta, Geetanjali; Singh, Reecha; Kotasthane, Dhananjay S; Kotasthane, Vaishali D

2010-01-01

320

Myelodysplastic syndromes/neoplasms: recent classification system based on World Health Organization Classification of Tumors - International Agency for Research on Cancer for Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues  

PubMed Central

The myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS) are a group of clonal hematopoietic stem cell diseases characterized by cytopenia(s), dysplasia in one or more of the major myeloid cell lines, ineffective hematopoiesis, and increased risk of development of acute myeloid leukemia. The classification and the diagnostic criteria have been redefined by the recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumors – International Agency for Research on Cancer for Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. The myelodysplastic syndromes are now classified into the following categories – refractory cytopenia with unilineage dysplasia, refractory anemia with ring sideroblasts, refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, refractory anemia with excess blasts, myelodysplastic syndrome associated with isolated del (5q), myelodysplastic syndrome – unclassifiable, and childhood myelodysplastic syndrome. The clinicopathologic features, morphology, differential diagnosis, immunophenotyping, cytogenetics, prognosis and predictive factors are presented in the light of recent World Health Organization Classification of Tumors – International Agency for Research on Cancer.

Gupta, Geetanjali; Singh, Reecha; Kotasthane, Dhananjay S; Kotasthane, Vaishali D

2010-01-01

321

Adult neurogenesis in the decapod crustacean brain: A hematopoietic connection?  

PubMed Central

New neurons are produced and integrated into circuits in the adult brains of many organisms, including crustaceans. In some crustacean species, the 1st- generation neuronal precursors reside in a niche exhibiting characteristics analogous to mammalian neurogenic niches. However, unlike mammalian niches where several generations of neuronal precursors coexist, the lineage of precursor cells in crayfish is spatially separated allowing the influence of environmental and endogenous regulators on specific generations in the neuronal precursor lineage to be defined. Experiments also demonstrate that the 1st-generation neuronal precursors in the crayfish Procambarus clarkii are not self-renewing. A source external to the neurogenic niche must therefore provide cells that replenish the 1st-generation precursor pool, because although these cells divide and produce a continuous efflux of 2nd-generation cells from the niche, the population of 1st-generation niche precursors is not diminished with growth and aging. In vitro studies show that cells extracted from the hemolymph, but not other tissues, are attracted to and incorporated into the neurogenic niche, a phenomenon that appears to involve serotonergic mechanisms. We propose that in crayfish, the hematopoietic system may be a source of cells that replenish the niche cell pool. These and other studies reviewed here establish decapod crustaceans as model systems in which the processes underlying adult neurogenesis, such as stem cell origins and transformation, can be readily explored. Studies in diverse species where adult neurogenesis occurs will result in a broader understanding of fundamental mechanisms and how evolutionary processes may have shaped the vertebrate/mammalian condition.

Beltz, Barbara S.; Zhang, Yi; Benton, Jeanne L.; Sandeman, David C.

2011-01-01

322

MIP-1?/CCL3-mediated maintenance of leukemia-initiating cells in the initiation process of chronic myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

In the initiation process of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a small number of transformed leukemia-initiating cells (LICs) coexist with a large number of normal hematopoietic cells, gradually increasing thereafter and eventually predominating in the hematopoietic space. However, the interaction between LICs and normal hematopoietic cells at the early phase has not been clearly delineated because of the lack of a suitable experimental model. In this study, we succeeded in causing a marked leukocytosis resembling CML from restricted foci of LICs in the normal hematopoietic system by direct transplantation of BCR-ABL gene–transduced LICs into the bone marrow (BM) cavity of nonirradiated mice. Herein, we observed that BCR-ABL+lineage?c-kit? immature leukemia cells produced high levels of an inflammatory chemokine, MIP-1?/CCL3, which promoted the development of CML. Conversely, ablation of the CCL3 gene in LICs dramatically inhibited the development of CML and concomitantly reduced recurrence after the cessation of a short-term tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Finally, normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells can directly impede the maintenance of LICs in BM in the absence of CCL3 signal.

Naka, Kazuhito; Morishita, Soji; Komatsu, Norio; Hirao, Atsushi; Mukaida, Naofumi

2013-01-01

323

Expression of Thy-1 on human hematopoietic progenitor cells  

PubMed Central

Expression of Thy-1 on hematopoietic cells from human fetal liver (FL), cord blood (CB), and bone marrow (BM) was studied with a novel anti-Thy- 1 antibody, 5E10. Specificity of 5E10 for human Thy-1 was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation of a 25-35-kD molecule, and the sequence of a cDNA that was cloned by immunoselection of COS cells transfected with a cDNA library derived from a 5E10+ cell line. Two- and three-color immunofluorescence staining experiments revealed that the Thy-1 expression is restricted to, an average, 1-4% of FL, CB, and BM cells, and binding to these cell types is essentially restricted to a very small subset of lymphoid cells and approximately 25% of CD34+ cells. Thy-1+ CD34+ cells were further characterized as CD38lo/CD45RO+/CD45RA- /CD71lo/c-kit(lo) and rhodamine 123dull. When CD34+ cells were sorted on the basis of Thy-1 expression, the majority of clonogenic cells were recovered in the CD34+Thy-1- fraction, whereas the majority of cells capable of producing myeloid colonies after 5-8 wk of long-term culture (long-term culture initiating cells) were recovered in the Thy-1+CD34+ fraction. In addition to CD34+ cells, Thy-1 was found to be expressed on a variable, very small number (< 1%) of CD34- mononuclear cells in BM, CB, and peripheral blood that were further characterized as CD3+ CD4+ lymphocytes. The restricted expression of Thy-1 on primitive hematopoietic cells is in agreement with a previous report (Baum et al., 1992. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 89:2804) in which Thy-1 expression was used to enrich for primitive hematopoietic cells from fetal tissue. Compared with those previous studies, we found Thy-1 expression on a larger proportion of CD34+ cells (25% in our study vs. 5% in Baum et al.) and furthermore performed studies on Thy-1 expression on CD34+ cells from CB, FL, and BM in relation to markers that are known to be differentially expressed on hematopoietic cells. Taken together our results indicate that Thy-1-specific antibody 5E10 is an attractive tool for further studies on the biology and purification of human stem cells.

1993-01-01

324

Human Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: Biologic Activities and Receptor Characterization on Hematopoietic Cells and Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a regulatory glycoprotein that stimulates the production of neutrophilic granulocytes from committed hematopoietic progenitor cells both in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we show that biosynthetic (recombinant) human G-CSF en- hances colony formation by normal human bone marrow and the human myeloid leukemic cell lines, HL-60 and KG-1, as well as nonhematopoietic

Belinda R. Avalos; Judith C. Gasson; Cyrus Hedvat; Shirley G. Quan; Gayle C. Baldwin; Richard H. Weisbart; Robert E. Williams; David W. Golde; John F. DiPersio

1990-01-01

325

The t(8;21) fusion protein, AML1–ETO, specifically represses the transcription of the p14ARF tumor suppressor in acute myeloid leukemia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The t(8;21) is one of the most frequent chromosomal translocations associated with acute leukemia. This translocation creates a fusion protein consisting of the acute myeloid leukemia-1 transcription factor and the eight-twenty-one corepressor (AML1–ETO), which represses transcription through AML1 (RUNX1) DNA binding sites and immortalizes hematopoietic progenitor cells. We have identified the p14ARF tumor suppressor, a mediator of the p53 oncogene

Bryan Linggi; Carsten Müller-Tidow; Louis van de Locht; Ming Hu; John Nip; Hubert Serve; Wolfgang E. Berdel; Bert van der Reijden; Dawn E. Quelle; Janet D. Rowley; John Cleveland; Joop H. Jansen; Pier Paolo Pandolfi; Scott W. Hiebert

2002-01-01

326

Reconstitution of the myeloid and lymphoid compartments after the transplantation of autologous and genetically modified CD34+ bone marrow cells, following gamma irradiation in cynomolgus macaques  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Prolonged, altered hematopoietic reconstitution is commonly observed in patients undergoing myeloablative conditioning and bone marrow and\\/or mobilized peripheral blood-derived stem cell transplantation. We studied the reconstitution of myeloid and lymphoid compartments after the transplantation of autologous CD34+ bone marrow cells following gamma irradiation in cynomolgus macaques. RESULTS: The bone marrow cells were first transduced ex vivo with a lentiviral

Sonia Derdouch; Wilfried Gay; Didier Nègre; Stéphane Prost; Mikael Le Dantec; Benoît Delache; Gwenaelle Auregan; Thibault Andrieu; Jean-Jacques Leplat; François-Loïc Cosset; Roger Le Grand

2008-01-01

327

Enhancing and Suppressing Effects of Recombinant Murine Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins on Colony Formation In Vitro by Bone Marrow Myeloid Progenitor Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

YELOID BLOOD CELL production is a dynamic M process regulated by cell-derived cytokines.' In addi- tion to the hematopoietic colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), which directly stimulate the proliferation of myeloid progenitors,',' other cytokines enhance or suppress CSF- stimulated progenitor cell proliferation.' Such cytokines include the heparin-binding murine macrophage inflamma- tory proteins (MIP- 1, MIP-2),3'6 which enhance prolifera- tion of granulocyte macrophage

Hal E. Broxmeyer; Barbara Sherry; Li Lu; Scott Cooper; Kwi-Ok Oh; Patricia Tekamp-Olson; Byoung S. Kwon; Anthony Cerami

1990-01-01

328

Incidence and prognostic impact of c-Kit, FLT3, and Ras gene mutations in core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF-AML)  

Microsoft Academic Search

In core binding factors (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the disruption of CBF?\\/? genes impairs normal hematopoietic differentiation and is supposed to cooperate with additional mutations promoting proliferation. The incidence and the prognosis of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) c-Kit and FLT3 mutations and Ras mutations were evaluated in 103 pediatric and adult patients with CBF-AML. c-Kit mutations were present in

N Boissel; H Leroy; B Brethon; N Philippe; S de Botton; A Auvrignon; E Raffoux; T Leblanc; X Thomas; O Hermine; B Quesnel; A Baruchel; G Leverger; H Dombret; C Preudhomme

2006-01-01

329

[Serum factors in chronic myeloid leukemia].  

PubMed

Mononuclear cells from the peripheral blood of healthy test persons were cultivated in a methylcellulose medium with serum samples taken from 13 patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and with osteomyelosclerosis (OMS) as well as with serum samples of 6 healthy test persons. From evaluating the proliferation of granulopoietic cells quantitatively, conclusions were made concerning the concentrations of granulopoietic stimulating substances in these sera. In all cultures with the serum of patients the number of granulopoietic cell colonies was greater than that in cultures with the serum of normal persons. The stronger proliferation of granulopoietic precursor cells in cultures with serum of patients is seen to be due to an enhanced production of the granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) by leukemic cells. The differential hemograms and curves indicating the course of leukocytes in patients are compared with the corresponding results of cultures. In patients with CML an increased output of GM-CSF will apparently influence the increase in size of the granulopoietic stem cell pool, which is evident in the steep increase of those curves indicating the course of leukocytes. In patients with OMS, however, there is a discrepancy between granulopoietic serum activity and proliferation in vivo. From these investigations the hypothesis is derived that an increased synthesis of GM-CSF in patients with CML may be one of the causes underlying hyperplastic granulopoiesis. A direct advantage of leukemic cells in proliferation cannot be derived from it.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2419218

Heilmann, E; Eitemöller, H

1985-01-01

330

Enhanced reconstitution of hematopoietic organs in irradiated mice, following their transplantation with bone marrow cells pretreated with recombinant interleukin 3  

SciTech Connect

Lethally irradiated C3H/eb mice were injected with syngeneic bone marrow cells that had been exposed for 4 h in vitro to purified bacterially synthesized interleukin 3 (rIL-3). Control mice were injected with cells exposed to incubation medium only. Mice injected with rIL-3-treated cells exhibited, on day 10 after transplantation an 8.2-fold and 2.7-fold increase in number of myeloid progenitors in their spleen and bone marrow, respectively, but the in vitro differentiation pattern of the myeloid progenitors was not affected. There was, however, an increase in the number of cells per individual in vitro myeloid colony (CFU-C) of the rIL-3-treated mice. The latter mice also showed a 1.6-fold increase in the number of splenic colony-forming units (CFU-S), a higher self-renewal capacity of hematopoietic progenitors, and a higher number of leukocytes in the peripheral blood. These results indicate that the injection into lethally irradiated recipients of bone marrow cells briefly pretreated in vitro with rIL-3 significantly enhances the reconstitution of their hematopoietic organs, and suggest that the in vitro pretreatment of bone marrow cells with appropriate stimulating factors could be useful in bone marrow transplantation.

Fabian, I.; Bleiberg, I.; Riklis, I.; Kletter, Y.

1987-12-01

331

Pharmacologic modulation of niche accessibility via tyrosine kinase inhibition enhances marrow and thymic engraftment after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation  

PubMed Central

Essential survival signals within hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) and thymic niches are mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases, which can be reversibly inhibited using clinically available drugs. We studied whether sunitinib, a multityrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibits KIT, enhances engraftment after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in mice. Sunitinib diminished hematopoietic progenitor cell numbers, and sunitinib enhanced marrow, peripheral myeloid, and lymphoid engraftment after BMT in Rag1?/? mice. Sunitinib augmented HSC engraftment because recipients displayed increased myeloid and lymphoid engraftment and because sunitinib-treated recipients of purified HSCs showed enhanced engraftment of secondary hosts. However, sunitinib preferentially augmented T-cell engraftment with lesser effects on myeloid and HSC engraftment. Consistent with this, sunitinib preferentially depleted the early thymic progenitor subset in the thymus. Sunitinib did not increase engraftment in mice with deficient KIT signaling, and the pattern of more potent effects on T cell compared with HSC engraftment observed in sunitinib-treated hosts was also observed after BMT into KITW/Wv mice. These results implicate KIT as a critical modulator of thymic niches. We conclude that transient, pharmacologic inhibition of KIT enhances accessibility of marrow and thymic niches, and provides a novel, noncytotoxic approach to accomplish engraftment after stem cell transplantation.

Krauss, Aviva C.; Guimond, Martin; Meadors, Joanna L.; Dobre, Stefania; Mackall, Crystal L.

2010-01-01

332

Use of monoclonal antibody against human neutrophil elastase in normal and leukaemic myeloid cells.  

PubMed Central

A monoclonal antibody, NP57, was produced and used against the neutrophil granule protein elastase, which selectively stain neutrophils in cryostat and paraffin wax sections. The antibody stains neutrophils and a subpopulation of monocytes in blood smears and neutrophil precursors in bone marrow smears, and gives positive reactions with the cell lines HL60 and U-937. It labelled the blast cells in 68% of cases of acute myeloid leukaemia (M1-M5) but was unreactive with all cases of lymphoid leukaemias. Most of the elastase negative myeloid leukaemias were labelled by monoclonal anti-myeloperoxidase (antibody MPO-7) as were cells from the promyelocytic line HL60. No cases of myeloid leukaemia showed the opposite pattern--that is elastase positive, myeloperoxidase negative, suggesting that the production of myeloperoxidase precedes the onset of elastase synthesis during myeloid maturation. The anti-elastase antibody NP57 is a useful addition to the range of monoclonal antibodies available for the differential diagnosis of acute leukaemia by alkaline phosphatase-antialkaline phosphatase (APAAP) labelling of cell smears; it may also be of value for the histopathological diagnosis of tumour deposits in myeloid leukaemia and for the detection of neutrophils in paraffin sections. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10

Pulford, K A; Erber, W N; Crick, J A; Olsson, I; Micklem, K J; Gatter, K C; Mason, D Y

1988-01-01

333

Functional characterization of a novel FGFR1OP-RET rearrangement in hematopoietic malignancies.  

PubMed

The RET (REarranged during Transfection) receptor tyrosine kinase is targeted by oncogenic rearrangements in thyroid and lung adenocarcinoma. Recently, a RET (exon 12) rearrangement with FGFR1OP [fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) oncogene partner] (exon 12) was identified in one chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML) patient. We report the molecular cloning and functional characterization of a novel FGFR1OP (exon 11)-RET (exon 11) gene fusion event (named FGFR1OP-RET), mediated by a reciprocal translocation t(6; 10)(q27; q11), in a patient affected by primary myelofibrosis (PMF) with secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The FGFR1OP-RET fusion protein displayed constitutive tyrosine kinase and transforming activity in NIH3T3 fibroblasts, and induced IL3-independent growth and activation of PI3K/STAT signaling in hematopoietic Ba/F3 cells. FGFR1OP-RET supported cytokine-independent growth, protection from stress and enhanced self-renewal of primary murine hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells in vitro. In vivo, FGFR1OP-RET caused a spectrum of disease phenotypes, with >50% of mice showing a fatal myeloproliferative disorder (MPD). Other phenotypes were leukemia transplantable in secondary recipients, dramatic expansion of the mast cell lineage, and reduction of repopulating activity upon lethal irradiation. In conclusion, FGFR1OP-RET chimeric oncogenes are endowed with leukemogenic potential and associated to myeloid neoplasms (CMML and PMF/AML). PMID:24315414

Bossi, Daniela; Carlomagno, Francesca; Pallavicini, Isabella; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Trubia, Maurizio; Raviele, Paola Rafaniello; Marinelli, Alessandra; Anaganti, Suresh; Cox, Maria Christina; Viale, Giuseppe; Santoro, Massimo; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Minucci, Saverio

2014-03-01

334

Enhanced polyamine catabolism disturbs hematopoietic lineage commitment and leads to a myeloproliferative disease in mice overexpressing spermidine/spermine N¹-acetyltransferase.  

PubMed

Spermidine/spermine N(1)-acetyltransferase (SSAT) regulates intracellular polyamine levels by catabolizing spermidine and spermine which are essential for cell proliferation and differentiation. Hematological characterization of SSAT overexpressing mice (SSAT mice) revealed enhanced myelopoiesis and thrombocytopoiesis leading to increased amounts of myeloid cells in bone marrow, peripheral blood, and spleen compared to wild-type animals. The level of SSAT activity in the bone marrow cells was associated with the bone marrow cellularity and spleen weight which both were significantly increased in SSAT mice. The result of bone marrow transplantations indicated that both the intrinsic SSAT overexpression of bone marrow cells and bone marrow microenvironment had an impact on the observed hematopoietic phenotype. The Lineage-negative Sca-1(+) c-Kit(+) hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) compartment in SSAT mice, showed enhanced proliferation, increased proportion of long-term HSCs and affected expression of transcription factors associated with lineage priming and myeloid differentiation. The proportions of common myeloid and megakaryocytic/erythroid progenitors were decreased and the proportion of granulocyte-macrophage progenitors was increased in SSAT bone marrow. The data suggest that SSAT overexpression and the concomitantly accelerated polyamine metabolism in hematopoietic cells and bone marrow microenvironment affect lineage commitment and lead to the development of a mouse myeloproliferative disease in SSAT mice. PMID:23836421

Pirnes-Karhu, Sini; Mäntymaa, Pentti; Sironen, Reijo; Mäkinen, Petri I; Wojciechowski, Sara; Juutinen, Sisko; Koistinaho, Jari; Hörkkö, Sohvi; Jantunen, Esa; Alhonen, Leena; Uimari, Anne

2014-03-01

335

Live imaging of emerging hematopoietic stem cells and early thymus colonization.  

PubMed

We recently demonstrated in zebrafish the developmental migration of emerging hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) that is thought to occur in mammalian embryos, from the aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) area to the successive hematopoietic organs. CD41 is the earliest known molecular marker of nascent HSCs in mammalian development. In this study, we show that in CD41-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic zebrafish embryos, the transgene is expressed by emerging HSCs in the AGM, allowing us for the first time to image their behavior and trace them in real time. We find that the zebrafish AGM contains no intra-aortic cell clusters, so far considered a hallmark of HSC emergence. CD41GFP(low) HSCs emerge in the subaortic mesenchyme and enter the circulation not through the dorsal aorta but through the axial vein, the peculiar structure of which facilitates their intravasation. The rise in CD41-gfp expression among c-myb(+) HSC precursors is asynchronous and marks their competence to leave the AGM and immediately seed the caudal hematopoietic tissue (which has a hematopoietic function analogous to that of the mammalian fetal liver). Imaging the later migration of CD41-GFP(+) precursors to the nascent thymus reveals that although some reach the thymus by extravasating from the nearest vein, most travel for hours through the mesenchyme from surprisingly diverse and remote sites of extravasation. PMID:17934068

Kissa, Karima; Murayama, Emi; Zapata, Agustin; Cortés, Alfonso; Perret, Emmanuelle; Machu, Christophe; Herbomel, Philippe

2008-02-01

336

Functional Analysis of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Expression Using Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

Although several reports have characterized the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transcriptome, the roles of HSC-specific genes in hematopoiesis remain elusive. To identify candidate regulators of HSC fate decisions, we compared the transcriptome of human umbilical cord blood and bone marrow CD34+CD33?CD38?Rholoc-kit+ cells, enriched for hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells with CD34+CD33?CD38?Rhohi cells, enriched in committed progenitors. We identified 277 differentially expressed transcripts conserved in these ontogenically distinct cell sources. We next performed a morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (MO)-based functional screen in zebrafish to determine the hematopoietic function of 61 genes that had no previously known function in HSC biology and for which a likely zebrafish ortholog could be identified. MO knock down of 14/61 (23%) of the differentially expressed transcripts resulted in hematopoietic defects in developing zebrafish embryos, as demonstrated by altered levels of circulating blood cells at 30 and 48 h postfertilization and subsequently confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR for erythroid-specific hbae1 and myeloid-specific lcp1 transcripts. Recapitulating the knockdown phenotype using a second MO of independent sequence, absence of the phenotype using a mismatched MO sequence, and rescue of the phenotype by cDNA-based overexpression of the targeted transcript for zebrafish spry4 confirmed the specificity of MO targeting in this system. Further characterization of the spry4-deficient zebrafish embryos demonstrated that hematopoietic defects were not due to more widespread defects in the mesodermal development, and therefore represented primary defects in HSC specification, proliferation, and/or differentiation. Overall, this high-throughput screen for the functional validation of differentially expressed genes using a zebrafish model of hematopoiesis represents a major step toward obtaining meaningful information from global gene profiling of HSCs.

2005-01-01

337

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for natural killer-cell lineage neoplasms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neoplasms of natural killer (NK)-lineage are rare. Their prognosis is generally poor except for cases of solitary nasal NK-cell lymphoma. The NK-cell Tumor Study Group performed a survey in Japan on patients diagnosed between 1994 and 1998. Of 228 patients selected for analysis, 40 underwent HSCT (15 allografts and 25 autografts). The underlying diseases were myeloid\\/NK cell precursor acute leukemia

R Suzuki; J Suzumiya; S Nakamura; Y Kagami; J-I Kameoka; C Sakai; H Mukai; K Takenaka; T Yoshino; T Tsuzuki; H Sugimori; K Kawa; Y Kodera; K Oshimi

2006-01-01

338

p53 expression in myeloid cells of myelodysplastic syndromes. Association with evolution of overt leukemia.  

PubMed Central

To assess p53 expression in the hematopoietic cells of the bone marrow in premalignant as well as malignant conditions, we examined immunohistochemically bone marrow biopsies from patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS, n = 51), acute myeloid leukemia (n = 42) and as a nonneoplastic condition, aplastic anemia (n = 20) and samples from individuals who had no hematological disorder (control, n = 12). Nuclear accumulation of p53 protein was found in seven of 51 patients with MDS (14%) and two of 42 acute myeloid leukemia patients (5%), whereas patients with aplastic anemia and control subjects were uniformly negative for p53 protein. In the bone marrow of patient with MDS, p53-positive cells constituted about 5 to 30% of the total bone marrow cells. Two-color immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the p53-positive cells were also positive for the myeloid cell marker. Half of the MDS cases that evolved to overt leukemia (seven of 14) exhibited positive p53 reaction in the bone marrow at the time of initial diagnosis. This frequency (50%) was significantly higher than that in de novo acute myeloid leukemia cases. All of the seven MDS cases that exhibited p53 expression at the time of initial diagnosis developed overt leukemia later, and p53 expression was maintained throughout the progression of MDS. The results suggest that p53 mutations that occur in the myeloid cells in MDS may confer a growth advantage to these cells resulting in the progression to overt leukemia. Thus, immunohistochemical examination for p53 is very useful for predicting the evolution to overt leukemia from MDS. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Kitagawa, M.; Yoshida, S.; Kuwata, T.; Tanizawa, T.; Kamiyama, R.

1994-01-01

339

Integrated genome-wide chromatin occupancy and expression analyses identify key myeloid pro-differentiation transcription factors repressed by Myb  

PubMed Central

To gain insight into the mechanisms by which the Myb transcription factor controls normal hematopoiesis and particularly, how it contributes to leukemogenesis, we mapped the genome-wide occupancy of Myb by chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-Seq) in ERMYB myeloid progenitor cells. By integrating the genome occupancy data with whole genome expression profiling data, we identified a Myb-regulated transcriptional program. Gene signatures for leukemia stem cells, normal hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and myeloid development were overrepresented in 2368 Myb regulated genes. Of these, Myb bound directly near or within 793 genes. Myb directly activates some genes known critical in maintaining hematopoietic stem cells, such as Gfi1 and Cited2. Importantly, we also show that, despite being usually considered as a transactivator, Myb also functions to repress approximately half of its direct targets, including several key regulators of myeloid differentiation, such as Sfpi1 (also known as Pu.1), Runx1, Junb and Cebpb. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that interaction with p300, an established coactivator for Myb, is unexpectedly required for Myb-mediated transcriptional repression. We propose that the repression of the above mentioned key pro-differentiation factors may contribute essentially to Myb’s ability to suppress differentiation and promote self-renewal, thus maintaining progenitor cells in an undifferentiated state and promoting leukemic transformation.

Zhao, Liang; Glazov, Evgeny A.; Pattabiraman, Diwakar R.; Al-Owaidi, Faisal; Zhang, Ping; Brown, Matthew A.; Leo, Paul J.; Gonda, Thomas J.

2011-01-01

340

The role of lipotropins as hematopoietic factors and their potential therapeutic use.  

PubMed

Lipotropins are peptides that act as hormones that are released from a common precursor together with other physiologically important peptides; their function is to mobilize the lipids that are stored in adipocytes as an energy reserve. This review will explain the existing scientific evidence on the action of lipotropins in adipocytes and, specifically, when these lipotropins activate bone marrow adipocytes to function as hematopoietic factors and suggest the potential therapeutic use of lipotropins based on these effects. PMID:18358591

Halabe Bucay, Alberto

2008-06-01

341

Enrichment of IL-12-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells in donor bone marrow grafts enhances graft-versus-leukemia activity in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

A critical question in the field of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is how to enhance graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity while limiting graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD). We have previously reported that donor bone marrow (BM) precursors of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pre-pDCs) can polarize donor T cells toward Th1 immunity and augment the GVL activity of donor T cells while attenuating their GVHD activity in a murine model of allogeneic HSCT. Clinical data on the role of donor pre-pDCs and conventional DCs (cDCs) on transplantation outcomes has been conflicting. To test the effect of increasing the proportion of pre-pDCs versus cDCs in a BM graft, we enriched CD11b(-) pDCs by selectively depleting the CD11b(+) myeloid DC (mDC) population from BM using FACS sorting in a murine model of allogeneic BM transplantation. Donor T cell expansion and GVL activity were greater in mice that received BM depleted of mDCs compared with mice that received undepleted BM. GVHD was not increased by depleting mDCs. To examine the mechanism through which mDC depletion enhances the GVL activity of donor T cells, we used BM and pDCs from IL-12p40KO mice, and found that the increased GVL activity of mDC-depleted BM was IL-12-dependent. This study indicates that a clinically translatable strategy of engineering the DC content of grafts can improve clinical outcomes in allogeneic HSCT through the regulation of donor T cell activation and GVL activity. PMID:23810844

Darlak, Katarzyna A; Wang, Ying; Li, Jian-Ming; Harris, Wayne A C; Owens, Lauren M; Waller, Edmund K

2013-09-01

342

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gene therapy applications that target hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) offer great potential for the treatment of hematologic\\u000a disease. Despite this promise, clinical success has been limited by poor rates of gene transfer, poor engraftment of modified\\u000a cells, and poor levels of gene expression. We describe here the basic approach used for HSC gene therapy, briefly review some\\u000a of the seminal

David W. Emery; Tamon Nishino; Ken Murata; Michalis Fragkos; George Stamatoyannopoulos

2002-01-01

343

Knockdown of Hnrnpa0, a del(5q) gene, alters myeloid cell fate in murine cells through regulation of AU-rich transcripts  

PubMed Central

The control of mRNA stability plays a central role in orchestrating gene-regulatory networks in hematopoietic cell growth, differentiation and tumorigenesis. HNRNPA0, which encodes an RNA-binding protein shown to regulate transcript stability via binding to the AU-rich elements of mRNAs, is located within the commonly deleted segment of 5q31.2 in myeloid neoplasms with a del(5q), and is expressed at haploinsufficient levels in these patients. We show that HNRNPA0 is normally highly expressed in hematopoietic stem cells and exhibits dynamic changes in expression during the course of differentiation. To model HNRNPA0 haploinsufficiency, we used RNAi interference in primary murine cells and an experimental cell system, and found that reduced Hnrnpa0 expression leads to a shift from monocytic towards granulocytic differentiation. Microarray-based global expression profiling revealed that Hnrnpa0 knockdown disproportionally impacts AU-rich containing transcripts and alters expression of myeloid specification genes. In therapy-related myeloid neoplasms with a del(5q), AU-rich containing mRNAs are enriched in transcripts that encode proteins associated with increased growth and proliferation. Our findings implicate haploinsufficiency of HNRNPA0 as one of the key initiating mutations in the pathogenesis of myeloid neoplasms with a del(5q), and suggest that therapies that target AU-rich elements warrant consideration in efforts to develop new mechanism-based treatment strategies.

Young, David J.; Stoddart, Angela; Nakitandwe, Joy; Chen, Shann-Ching; Qian, Zhijian; Downing, James R.; Le Beau, Michelle M.

2014-01-01

344

Cohesin mutations in myeloid malignancies: underlying mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Recently, whole genome sequencing approaches have pinpointed mutations in genes that were previously not associated with cancer. For Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML), and other myeloid disorders, these approaches revealed a high prevalence of mutations in genes encoding the chromosome cohesion complex, cohesin. Cohesin mutations represent a novel genetic pathway for AML, but how AML arises from these mutations is unknown. This review will explore the potential mechanisms by which cohesin mutations contribute to AML and other myeloid malignancies.

2014-01-01

345

In vitro and in vivo effects of a farnesyltransferase inhibitor on Nf1-deficient hematopoietic cells.  

PubMed

Oncogenic RAS alleles encode proteins that accumulate in the guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-bound state. Because post-translational processing of Ras by farnesyltransferase is essential for biologic function, inhibitors of this enzyme have been developed as rational cancer therapeutics. We have investigated farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI) L-744,832 in an in vivo murine model of myeloid leukemia that is associated with inactivation of the Nf1 tumor suppressor gene. Nf1 encodes a GTPase activating protein for Ras, and Nf1-deficient (Nf1-/-) hematopoietic cells show hyperactive Ras signaling through the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway. L-744,832 inhibited H-Ras prenylation in cell lines and in primary hematopoietic cells and abrogated the in vitro growth of myeloid progenitor colonies in response to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). This FTI also partially blocked GM-CSF-induced MAP kinase activation, but did not reduce constitutively elevated levels of MAP kinase activity in primary Nf1-/- cells. Injection of a single dose of 40 or 80 mg/kg of L-744, 832 increased the amount of unprocessed H-Ras in bone marrow cells, but had no detectable effect on N-Ras. Adoptive transfer of Nf1-/- hematopoietic cells into irradiated mice induces a myeloproliferative disorder that did not respond to L-744,832 treatment. We speculate that the lack of efficacy in this model is due to the resistance of N-Ras and K-Ras processing to inhibition by this FTI. PMID:10498620

Mahgoub, N; Taylor, B R; Gratiot, M; Kohl, N E; Gibbs, J B; Jacks, T; Shannon, K M

1999-10-01

346

Azacitidine and Sonidegib in Treating Patients With Myeloid Malignancies  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Chronic Myelomonocytic Leukemia; de Novo Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Essential Thrombocythemia; Polycythemia Vera; Previously Treated Myelodysplastic Syndromes; Primary Myelofibrosis; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-05-22

347

NUP98 rearrangements in hematopoietic malignancies: a study of the Groupe Francophone de Cytogénétique Hématologique.  

PubMed

The NUP98 gene is fused with 19 different partner genes in various human hematopoietic malignancies. In order to gain additional clinico-hematological data and to identify new partners of NUP98, the Groupe Francophone de Cytogénétique Hématologique (GFCH) collected cases of hematological malignancies where a 11p15 rearrangement was detected. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed that 35% of these patients (23/66) carried a rearrangement of the NUP98 locus. Genes of the HOXA cluster and the nuclear-receptor set domain (NSD) genes were frequently fused to NUP98, mainly in de novo myeloid malignancies whereas the DDX10 and TOP1 genes were equally rearranged in de novo and in therapy-related myeloid proliferations. Involvement of ADD3 and C6ORF80 genes were detected, respectively, in myeloid disorders and in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), whereas the RAP1GDS1 gene was fused to NUP98 in T-ALL. Three new chromosomal breakpoints: 3q22.1, 7p15 (in a localization distinct from the HOXA locus) and Xq28 were detected in rearrangements with the NUP98 gene locus. The present study as well as a review of the 73 cases previously reported in the literature allowed us to delineate some chromosomal, clinical and molecular features of patients carrying a NUP98 gene rearrangements. PMID:16467868

Romana, S P; Radford-Weiss, I; Ben Abdelali, R; Schluth, C; Petit, A; Dastugue, N; Talmant, P; Bilhou-Nabera, C; Mugneret, F; Lafage-Pochitaloff, M; Mozziconacci, M-J; Andrieu, J; Lai, J-L; Terre, C; Rack, K; Cornillet-Lefebvre, P; Luquet, I; Nadal, N; Nguyen-Khac, F; Perot, C; Van den Akker, J; Fert-Ferrer, S; Cabrol, C; Charrin, C; Tigaud, I; Poirel, H; Vekemans, M; Bernard, O A; Berger, R

2006-04-01

348

Myeloid Toxicity of Cancer Treatment  

PubMed Central

Myelotoxicity is one of the most common treatment-related adverse events for patients receiving systemic antineoplastic therapy or radiotherapy to bone marrow–producing regions. Myeloid cytopenias, including neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, and anemia, are the most common manifestations of treatment-related myelotoxicity and one of the most common reasons for dose modifications, dose delays, or discontinuation of therapy, potentially limiting therapeutic benefit. Risk factors for myelotoxicity can be broadly categorized into three types: disease-related, host-related, and treatment- related. Familiarity with factors predictive of high-risk febrile neutropenia, bleeding due to thrombocytopenia, and cardiopulmonary compromise due to anemia will provide the advanced practitioner (AP) in oncology with critical tools for rapid identification of patients at risk, prompt implementation of established guidelines for management, and avoidance of clinical deterioration. The AP in oncology is often the primary point of contact for management of cytopenias, including administration of myeloid growth factors, transfusion of blood products, and management of acute events such as neutropenic fevers. Each of these interventions requires familiarity with the risk and benefits of treatment. This article will review the physiology of the bone marrow, risk factors for cytopenias, and current guidelines and recommendations for prevention and treatment of myeloid toxicity of cancer treatment.

Kurtin, Sandra

2012-01-01

349

Clinical proteomics of myeloid leukemia  

PubMed Central

Myeloid leukemias are a heterogeneous group of diseases originating from bone marrow myeloid progenitor cells. Patients with myeloid leukemias can achieve long-term survival through targeted therapy, cure after intensive chemotherapy or short-term survival because of highly chemoresistant disease. Therefore, despite the development of advanced molecular diagnostics, there is an unmet need for efficient therapy that reflects the advanced diagnostics. Although the molecular design of therapeutic agents is aimed at interacting with specific proteins identified through molecular diagnostics, the majority of therapeutic agents act on multiple protein targets. Ongoing studies on the leukemic cell proteome will probably identify a large number of new biomarkers, and the prediction of response to therapy through these markers is an interesting avenue for future personalized medicine. Mass spectrometric protein detection is a fundamental technique in clinical proteomics, and selected tools are presented, including stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), as well as single cell determination. We suggest that protein analysis will play not only a supplementary, but also a prominent role in future molecular diagnostics, and we outline how accurate knowledge of the molecular therapeutic targets can be used to monitor therapy response.

2010-01-01

350

Genistein Protects Hematopoietic Stem Cells against G-CSF-Induced DNA Damage.  

PubMed

Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has been used to treat neutropenia in various clinical settings. Although clearly beneficial, there are concerns that the chronic use of G-CSF in certain conditions increases the risk of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and/or acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The most striking example is in severe congenital neutropenia (SCN). Patients with SCN develop MDS/AML at a high rate that is directly correlated to the cumulative lifetime dosage of G-CSF. Myelodysplastic syndrome and AML that arise in these settings are commonly associated with chromosomal deletions. We have demonstrated in this study that chronic G-CSF treatment in mice results in expansion of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) population. In addition, primitive hematopoietic progenitors from G-CSF-treated mice show evidence of DNA damage as demonstrated by an increase in double-strand breaks and recurrent chromosomal deletions. Concurrent treatment with genistein, a natural soy isoflavone, limits DNA damage in this population. The protective effect of genistein seems to be related to its preferential inhibition of G-CSF-induced proliferation of HSCs. Importantly, genistein does not impair G-CSF-induced proliferation of committed hematopoietic progenitors, nor diminishes neutrophil production. The protective effect of genistein was accomplished with plasma levels that are attainable through dietary supplementation. Cancer Prev Res; 7(5); 534-44. ©2014 AACR. PMID:24614013

Souza, Liliana R; Silva, Erica; Calloway, Elissa; Kucuk, Omer; Rossi, Michael; McLemore, Morgan L

2014-05-01

351

Replication of B19 parvovirus in highly enriched hematopoietic progenitor cells from normal human bone marrow.  

PubMed Central

The target cell specificity of the B19 parvovirus infection was examined by isolating highly enriched hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells from normal human bone marrow. The efficiency of the B19 parvovirus replication in enriched erythroid progenitor cells was approximately 100-fold greater than that in unseparated bone marrow cells. The more-primitive progenitor cells identical to or closely related to the human pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells, on the other hand, did not support viral replication. The B19 progeny virus produced by the enriched erythroid progenitor cells was infectious and strongly suppressed erythropoiesis in vitro. The susceptibility of both the more-primitive erythroid progenitors (burst-forming units-erythroid) and the more-mature erythroid progenitors (CFU-erythroid) to the cytolytic response of the virus and the lack of effect on the myeloid progenitors (CFU-granulocyte-macrophage) further give evidence to the remarkable tropism of the B19 parvovirus for human hematopoietic cells of erythroid lineage. Images

Srivastava, A; Lu, L

1988-01-01

352

Transformation of Human Mesenchymal Cells and Skin Fibroblasts into Hematopoietic Cells  

PubMed Central

Patients with prolonged myelosuppression require frequent platelet and occasional granulocyte transfusions. Multi-donor transfusions induce alloimmunization, thereby increasing morbidity and mortality. Therefore, an autologous or HLA-matched allogeneic source of platelets and granulocytes is needed. To determine whether nonhematopoietic cells can be reprogrammed into hematopoietic cells, human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and skin fibroblasts were incubated with the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine (Aza) and the growth factors (GF) granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and stem cell factor. This treatment transformed MSCs to round, non-adherent cells expressing T-, B-, myeloid-, or stem/progenitor-cell markers. The transformed cells engrafted as hematopoietic cells in bone marrow of immunodeficient mice. DNA methylation and mRNA array analysis suggested that Aza and GF treatment demethylated and activated HOXB genes. Indeed, transfection of MSCs or skin fibroblasts with HOXB4, HOXB5, and HOXB2 genes transformed them into hematopoietic cells. Further studies are needed to determine whether transformed MSCs or skin fibroblasts are suitable for therapy.

Harris, David M.; Hazan-Haley, Inbal; Coombes, Kevin; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Liu, Jie; Liu, Zhiming; Li, Ping; Ravoori, Murali; Abruzzo, Lynne; Han, Lin; Singh, Sheela; Sun, Michael; Kundra, Vikas; Kurzrock, Razelle; Estrov, Zeev

2011-01-01

353

Effects of Mobilization Regimens in Donors on Outcomes of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Miniature Swine  

PubMed Central

Toxicities and complications associated with hematopoietic cell transplantation currently limit this potentially curative therapy for malignant and nonmalignant blood disorders. Miniature swine provide a clinically relevant model for studies to improve posttransplantation outcomes. Miniature swine recipients of high-dose haploidentical hepatopoietic cell transplantation after reduced-intensity conditioning consisting of low-dose (100 cGy) total-body irradiation, partial T-cell depletion by using a CD3 immunotoxin, and a 45-d course of cyclosporine A typically successfully engraft without graft-versus-host disease. We recently observed broad variability in engraftment outcomes that correlates with the occurrence of adverse reactions in donors after cytokine treatment to mobilize hematopoietic progenitor cells from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood for collection. Haploidentical recipients (n = 16) of cells from donors remaining healthy during cytokine treatment engrafted with multilineage chimerism, did not develop graft-versus-host disease, and did not require any blood products. In comparison, identically conditioned recipients of cells from donors that had severe reactions during cytokine treatment had adverse outcomes, including the development of clinically significant thrombocytopenia requiring blood product support in 8 of 11 swine. Furthermore, all 11 recipients lost peripheral blood myeloid chimerism (indicating lack of engraftment of donor stem cells). These data suggest that posttransplantation complications in swine are influenced by the health status of the donor before and during the collection of hematopoietic cells by leukapheresis.

Matar, Abraham J; Crepeau, Rebecca L; Pathiraja, Vimukthi; Robson, Simon; Fishman, Jay A; Spitzer, Thomas R; Sachs, David H; Huang, Christene A; Duran-Struuck, Raimon

2012-01-01

354

Metabolic Regulation by the Mitochondrial Phosphatase PTPMT1 Is Required for Hematopoietic Stem Cell Differentiation  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The regulation and coordination of mitochondrial metabolism with hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation is not fully understood. Here we report that depletion of PTPMT1, a PTEN-like mitochondrial phosphatase, in inducible or hematopoietic-cell-specific knockout mice resulted in hematopoietic failure due to changes in the cell cycle and a block in the differentiation of HSCs. Surprisingly, the HSC pool was increased by ~40-fold in PTPMT1 knockout mice. Reintroduction of wild-type PTPMT1, but not catalytically deficient PTPMT1 or truncated PTPMT1 lacking mitochondrial localization, restored differentiation capabilities of PTPMT1 knockout HSCs. Further analyses demonstrated that PTPMT1 deficiency altered mitochondrial metabolism and that phosphatidylinositol phosphate substrates of PTPMT1 directly enhanced fatty-acid-induced activation of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2. Intriguingly, depletion of PTPMT1 from myeloid, T lymphoid, or B lymphoid progenitors did not cause any defects in lineage-specific knockout mice. This study establishes a crucial role of PTPMT1 in the metabolic regulation of HSC function.

Yu, Wen-Mei; Liu, Xia; Shen, Jinhua; Jovanovic, Olga; Pohl, Elena E.; Gerson, Stanton L.; Finkel, Toren; Broxmeyer, Hal E.; Qu, Cheng-Kui

2013-01-01

355

Functions of flt3 in zebrafish hematopoiesis and its relevance to human acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

FMS-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) is expressed in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) but its role during embryogenesis is unclear. In acute myeloid leukemia (AML), internal tandem duplication (ITD) of FLT3 at the juxtamembrane (JMD) and tyrosine kinase (TKD) domains (FLT3-ITD(+)) occurs in 30% of patients and is associated with inferior clinical prognosis. TKD mutations (FLT3-TKD(+)) occur in 5% of cases. We made use of zebrafish to examine the role of flt3 in developmental hematopoiesis and model human FLT3-ITD(+) and FLT3-TKD(+) AML. Zebrafish flt3 JMD and TKD were remarkably similar to their mammalian orthologs. Morpholino knockdown significantly reduced the expression of l-plastin (pan-leukocyte), csf1r, and mpeg1 (macrophage) as well as that of c-myb (definitive HSPCs), lck, and rag1 (T-lymphocyte). Expressing human FLT3-ITD in zebrafish embryos resulted in expansion and clustering of myeloid cells (pu.1(+), mpo(+), and cebp?(+)) which were ameliorated by AC220 and associated with stat5, erk1/2, and akt phosphorylation. Human FLT3-TKD (D835Y) induced significant, albeit modest, myeloid expansion resistant to AC220. This study provides novel insight into the role of flt3 during hematopoiesis and establishes a zebrafish model of FLT3-ITD(+) and FLT3-TKD(+) AML that may facilitate high-throughput screening of novel and personalized agents. PMID:24591202

He, Bai-Liang; Shi, Xiangguo; Man, Cheuk Him; Ma, Alvin C H; Ekker, Stephen C; Chow, Howard C H; So, Chi Wai Eric; Choi, William W L; Zhang, Wenqing; Zhang, Yiyue; Leung, Anskar Y H

2014-04-17

356

[Donor lymphocyte infusions as adoptive immunotherapy in patients with relapsed hematologic neoplasms post-allogenic transplant of hematopoietic progenitor cells].  

PubMed

An increasing body of literature has documented the usefulness of donor lymphocyte infusions in inducing remissions in patients relapsing post allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation. Efficacy was shown to depend on the disease entity; the best results have been reported in chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase, where the remission rate varied between 60 and 80%. In acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes the remission rate ranged between 20 and 40% and in multiple myeloma the response rate was approximately 40%. In contrast, results have been poor in acute lymphoid leukemia with only 10-20% and even lower reported responses. Considering the efficacy of donor lymphocyte infusions in inducing responses in several hematologic neoplasias post allogeneic transplantation, as will be described in detail in this review, it is justified to anticipate an increasing role for this modality of treatment in relapsed non transplanted patients and as maintenance of the responses achieved with chemotherapy at conventional or high doses. PMID:10962823

Riera, L; Koziner, B

2000-01-01

357

Aging-like Phenotype and Defective Lineage Specification in SIRT1-Deleted Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells  

PubMed Central

Summary Aging hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) exhibit defective lineage specification that is thought to be central to increased incidence of myeloid malignancies and compromised immune competence in the elderly. Mechanisms underlying these age-related defects remain largely unknown. We show that the deacetylase Sirtuin (SIRT)1 is required for homeostatic HSC maintenance. Differentiation of young SIRT1-deleted HSCs is skewed toward myeloid lineage associated with a significant decline in the lymphoid compartment, anemia, and altered expression of associated genes. Combined with HSC accumulation of damaged DNA and expression patterns of age-linked molecules, these have striking overlaps with aged HSCs. We further show that SIRT1 controls HSC homeostasis via the longevity transcription factor FOXO3. These findings suggest that SIRT1 is essential for HSC homeostasis and lineage specification. They also indicate that SIRT1 might contribute to delaying HSC aging.

Rimmele, Pauline; Bigarella, Carolina L.; Liang, Raymond; Izac, Brigitte; Dieguez-Gonzalez, Rebeca; Barbet, Gaetan; Donovan, Michael; Brugnara, Carlo; Blander, Julie M.; Sinclair, David A.; Ghaffari, Saghi

2014-01-01

358

Monochromatic precursor starts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whistler precursors are discrete emissions that precede two-hop whistlers, starting shortly after the one-hop delay. More evidence is presented that the precursor and associated whistler propagate through the same duct, and observations of a new type of precursor are presented. This new precursor has a monochromatic precursor start (MPS) which may or may not trigger a riser. Although MPS's may be emissions entrained by power line radiation (PLR), phase analysis of the starting frequencies shows that they are not simply related to harmonics of the power line frequencies in the two conjugate regions (50 Hz in New Zealand, 60 Hz in Alaska). If the MPS is due to entrainment by PLR, then previous theories of precursor generation need not be discarded. Forward triggering of a precursor at a power line harmonic by a hybrid whistler may occur.

Rietveld, M. T.

1980-05-01

359

The role of the chromatin remodeler Mi-2? in hematopoietic stem cell self-renewal and multilineage differentiation  

PubMed Central

The ability of somatic stem cells to self-renew and differentiate into downstream lineages is dependent on specialized chromatin environments that keep stem cell-specific genes active and key differentiation factors repressed but poised for activation. The epigenetic factors that provide this type of regulation remain ill-defined. Here we provide the first evidence that the SNF2-like ATPase Mi-2? of the Nucleosome Remodeling Deacetylase (NuRD) complex is required for maintenance of and multilineage differentiation in the early hematopoietic hierarchy. Shortly after conditional inactivation of Mi-2?, there is an increase in cycling and a decrease in quiescence in an HSC (hematopoietic stem cell)-enriched bone marrow population. These cycling mutant cells readily differentiate into the erythroid lineage but not into the myeloid and lymphoid lineages. Together, these effects result in an initial expansion of mutant HSC and erythroid progenitors that are later depleted as more differentiated proerythroblasts accumulate at hematopoietic sites exhibiting features of erythroid leukemia. Examination of gene expression in the mutant HSC reveals changes in the expression of genes associated with self-renewal and lineage priming and a pivotal role of Mi-2? in their regulation. Thus, Mi-2? provides the hematopoietic system with immune cell capabilities as well as with an extensive regenerative capacity.

Yoshida, Toshimi; Hazan, Idit; Zhang, Jiangwen; Ng, Samuel Y.; Naito, Taku; Snippert, Hugo J.; Heller, Elizabeth J.; Qi, Xiaoqing; Lawton, Lee N.; Williams, Christine J.; Georgopoulos, Katia

2008-01-01

360

Hematopoietic augmentation by a beta-(1,4)-linked mannan.  

PubMed

CARN 750 (injectable acemannan) is a polydispersed beta-(1,4)-linked acetylated mannan isolated from the Aloe barbadensis plant. It has multiple therapeutic properties including activity in wound repair and as a biological agent for the treatment of neoplasia in animals as well as the ability to activate macrophages. We report herein that CARN 750 directly or indirectly has significant hematoaugmenting properties. We observed that the subcutaneous administration of CARN 750 significantly increases splenic and peripheral blood cellularity, as well as hematopoietic progenitors in the spleen and bone marrow as determined by the interleukin-3-responsive colony-forming unit culture assay and the high-proliferative-potential colony-forming-cell (HPP-CFC) assay (a measure of primitive hematopoietic precursors) in myelosuppressed (7 Gy) C57BL/6 mice. The greatest hematopoietic effect was observed following sublethal irradiation in mice receiving 1 mg CARN 750/ animal, with less activity observed at higher or lower doses. Further, CARN 750, following daily injection, has activity equal to or greater than the injection of an optimal dose of granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in myelosuppressed mice. In this comparison, significantly greater activity was observed in the splenic and peripheral blood cellularity, and in the frequency and absolute number of splenic HPP-CFC as compared to the mice receiving G-CSF at 3 micrograms/animal. CARN 750, when administered to myelosuppressed animals, decreased the frequency of lymphocytes with a concomitant significant increase in the frequency of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). However, owing to the increased cellularity, a significant increase in the absolute number of PMN, lymphocytes, monocytes and platelets was observed, suggesting activity on multiple cell lineages. The latter is the primary difference in activity as compared to G-CSF which has activity predominantly on PMN. PMID:9003464

Egger, S F; Brown, G S; Kelsey, L S; Yates, K M; Rosenberg, L J; Talmadge, J E

1996-12-01

361

Coordinated regulation of myeloid cells by tumours  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myeloid cells are the most abundant nucleated haematopoietic cells in the human body and are a collection of distinct cell populations with many diverse functions. The three groups of terminally differentiated myeloid cells — macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes — are essential for the normal function of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Mounting evidence indicates that the tumour

Dmitry I. Gabrilovich; Suzanne Ostrand-Rosenberg; Vincenzo Bronte

2012-01-01

362

Acquisition of formyl peptide receptors during normal human myeloid differentiation.  

PubMed

By using a newly developed immune rosetting technique to isolate highly purified populations of myeloid precursor cells from normal human bone marrow and then inducing their differentiation with granulocyte and macrophage colony-stimulating factors (G/M-CSFs) in vitro, we studied the surface expression of chemotactic peptide receptors as the cells matured from the stage of the myeloblast to that of the mature, segmented neutrophil. We used ethylene glycol bis(succinimidyl succinate) to link N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-[125I]iodo-Tyr-Lys to chemotactic peptide receptors on the surface of myeloid cells at sequential stages of maturation and then determined the density of receptor-radioligand complexes by autoradiography after sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Specific, saturable formyl peptide receptors were not detectable at the level of the myeloblast but gradually emerged through progressive stages of neutrophil maturation. The specific receptors for formyl peptide that appeared during cellular maturation had a mol wt of 55 to 70 kiloDalton (kD), corresponding to those present on the surface of peripheral blood neutrophils, and binding of the radioligand was highly specific in that it was completely inhibited by a 1,000-fold excess of F-Met Leu Phe. These data correlate with and provide insight into our recent observation that F-Met Leu Phe-induced membrane depolarization and transient increases in cytosolic free calcium are gradually acquired as neutrophils mature. This report represents to our knowledge the first description of the maturational development of chemotactic peptide receptor expression in normal human myeloid cells. PMID:3651605

Sullivan, R; Griffin, J D; Malech, H L

1987-10-01

363

Histocompatibility and Hematopoietic Transplantation in the Zebrafish  

PubMed Central

The zebrafish has proven to be an excellent model for human disease, particularly hematopoietic diseases, since these fish make similar types of blood cells as humans and other mammals. The genetic program that regulates the development and differentiation of hematopoietic cells is highly conserved. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are the source of all the blood cells needed by an organism during its lifetime. Identifying an HSC requires a functional assay, namely, a transplantation assay consisting of multilineage engraftment of a recipient and subsequent serial transplant recipients. In the past decade, several types of hematopoietic transplant assays have been developed in the zebrafish. An understanding of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes in the zebrafish has lagged behind transplantation experiments, limiting the ability to perform unbiased competitive transplantation assays. This paper summarizes the different hematopoietic transplantation experiments performed in the zebrafish, both with and without immunologic matching, and discusses future directions for this powerful experimental model of human blood diseases.

de Jong, Jill L. O.; Zon, Leonard I.

2012-01-01

364

Productive persistent infection of hematopoietic cells by human foamy virus.  

PubMed Central

Human foamy virus can establish persistent infections in human hematopoietic cell lines, such as H92.1.7 (erythroblastoid cells), Jurkat (CD4+ T cells), and U937 (myeloid-monocytic cells). The infection is characterized by constant production of infectious viruses (for > 2 1/2 years) with no cytopathic effects on the host cells. Electron microscopy of the infected cells showed a viral morphology similar to that observed for particles produced after acute infection. We have detected, in addition to the full-length form of bel1, a previously described deletion in the bel1 gene of the proviral DNA in these cells. RNA containing this 301-bp deletion, which mapped to the splice donor and acceptor sites of the intron of the bet gene, was also found in encapsidated virion RNA. However, the presence of this defective provirus harboring the deletion in bel1 does not prevent productive persistence in these chronically infected cells, since the virus titer does not decrease during cultivation.

Yu, S F; Stone, J; Linial, M L

1996-01-01

365

[Anticipated grieving in patients requiring Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation].  

PubMed

The scope of this study was to understand how the process of anticipated grieving is imbued in patients undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT). A cross-sectional clinical-qualitative study was conducted on a sample of 17 patients, mostly women, married, aged between 20 and 42 years and diagnosed with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. Data was collected by semi-structured interviews applied individually and subjected to thematic content analysis. The results indicate that the loss of health imposes a new challenge in a life history already permeated by great hardships and premature losses. It was found that the expected reactions faced with normal grieving were expressed by the participants and that the most prevalent coping strategy was holding steadfast to their faith. Future plans involved being healed, returning to normality and vocational rehabilitation. The results may help the multidisciplinary teams to understand the emotional implications of the illness/treatment for implementing both preventive and intervention strategies. The critical aspect is that staff must be attentive as to how to communicate the diagnosis and the possibility of outlining a therapeutic plan, in order to augment the fighting spirit of the patient and strengthen the bond of trust with health professionals. PMID:23989563

de Oliveira Cardoso, Érika Arantes; dos Santos, Manoel Antônio

2013-09-01

366

Fatal human metapneumovirus infection following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.  

PubMed

Respiratory viruses are an important yet underestimated cause of infectious morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised children and adolescents. Here, we report the occurrence of fatal lower respiratory tract disease associated with human metapneumovirus (HMPV) infection in a 10-year-old girl with chronic graft-versus-host disease following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for secondary chronic myeloid leukemia. Symptoms occurred 8 months after HSCT while on immunosuppression with 0.2 mg/kg/day of prednisone, and presented as dry cough, bilateral pneumonitis, and progressive respiratory distress. Non-invasive and invasive microbiological investigations revealed HMPV type B as the sole pathogen. Histopathological findings showed interstitial and intra-alveolar pneumonitis with profound alveolar cell damage. The patient was treated with intravenous and oral ribavirin and polyvalent immunoglobulins, but ultimately died from respiratory failure. The case reflects the potentially fatal impact of infections by respiratory viruses in immunocompromised patients and the need for effective approaches to their prevention and treatment. PMID:23551689

Dokos, C; Masjosthusmann, K; Rellensmann, G; Werner, C; Schuler-Lüttmann, S; Müller, K-M; Schiborr, M; Ehlert, K; Groll, A H

2013-06-01

367

Proteomic strategies for individualizing therapy of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).  

PubMed

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive hematological malignancy characterized by accumulating myeloid precursor cells in the bone marrow, with approximately 2-3 months 50% survival if left untreated. With current treatment modalities the five years overall survival hardly exceeds 50%. Cytogenetics and molecular diagnostics guide the clinician to select individualized therapy in certain subsets of AML, achieving long-term survival above 70% of these cases. However, approximately half of the AML patients have no risk stratifying features, and early reports indicate that proteomic approaches may be utilized for disease classification as well as development of novel biomarkers related to prognosis, diagnosis, and choice of therapeutic regimen. Proteomics, here defined as the analysis of all proteins in a cell, in a cell compartment or in a signaling pathway, has probably its greatest potential in investigating pathways that are easily targeted by small molecules or therapeutic antibodies. The major methodological challenges include detection sensitivity in a limited clinical material, a problem that in some cases can be solved through designated multiplexed protein assays based on single cells or cell extracts. In this review we will discuss pharmacoproteomic studies of drugs regulating leukemia specific targets like all-trans retinoic acid, histone deacetylase inhibitors, proteasome inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors, as well as studies on drug resistance and graft-versus-host studies during stem cell transplantations. These studies indicate new avenues in AML diagnostics, individualized therapy design and therapy response surveillance for the clinician. PMID:16789901

Sjøholt, Gry; Bedringaas, Siv Lise; Døskeland, Anne P; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore

2006-06-01

368

The evolving landscape in the therapy of acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous clonal disorder of myeloid precursors arrested in their maturation, creating a diverse disease entity with a wide range of responses to historically standard treatment approaches. While significant progress has been made in characterizing and individualizing the disease at diagnosis to optimally inform those affected, progress in treatment to reduce relapse and induce remission has been limited thus far. In addition to a brief summary of the factors that shape prognostication at diagnosis, this review attempts to expand on the current therapies under investigation that have shown promise in treating AML, including hypomethylating agents, gemtuzumab ozogamicin, FLT3 tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antisense oligonucleotides, and other novel therapies, including aurora kinases, mTOR and PI3 kinase inhibitors, PIM kinase inhibitors, HDAC inhibitors, and IDH targeted therapies. With these, and undoubtedly many others in the future, it is the hope that by combining more accurate prognostication with more effective therapies, patients will begin to have a different, and more complete, outlook on their disease that allows for safer and more successful treatment strategies. PMID:23982740

Peloquin, Grace L; Chen, Yi-Bin; Fathi, Amir T

2013-10-01

369

Dasatinib, Cytarabine, and Idarubicin in Treating Patients With High-Risk Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-06-06

370

Bortezomib, Sorafenib Tosylate, and Decitabine in Treating Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia  

ClinicalTrials.gov

Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(15;17)(q22;q12); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia

2014-07-28

371

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Origin of BRAFV600E Mutations in Hairy Cell Leukemia.  

PubMed

Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a chronic lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by somatic BRAFV600E mutations. The malignant cell in HCL has immunophenotypic features of a mature B cell, but no normal counterpart along the continuum of developing B lymphocytes has been delineated as the cell of origin. We find that the BRAFV600E mutation is present in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in HCL patients, and that these patients exhibit marked alterations in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cell (HSPC) frequencies. Quantitative sequencing analysis revealed a mean BRAFV600E-mutant allele frequency of 4.97% in HSCs from HCL patients. Moreover, transplantation of BRAFV600E-mutant HSCs from an HCL patient into immunodeficient mice resulted in stable engraftment of BRAFV600E-mutant human hematopoietic cells, revealing the functional self-renewal capacity of HCL HSCs. Consistent with the human genetic data, expression of BRafV600E in murine HSPCs resulted in a lethal hematopoietic disorder characterized by splenomegaly, anemia, thrombocytopenia, increased circulating soluble CD25, and increased clonogenic capacity of B lineage cells-all classic features of human HCL. In contrast, restricting expression of BRafV600E to the mature B cell compartment did not result in disease. Treatment of HCL patients with vemurafenib, an inhibitor of mutated BRAF, resulted in normalization of HSPC frequencies and increased myeloid and erythroid output from HSPCs. These findings link the pathogenesis of HCL to somatic mutations that arise in HSPCs and further suggest that chronic lymphoid malignancies may be initiated by aberrant HSCs. PMID:24871132

Chung, Stephen S; Kim, Eunhee; Park, Jae H; Chung, Young Rock; Lito, Piro; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Hu, Wenhuo; Beguelin, Wendy; Monette, Sebastien; Duy, Cihangir; Rampal, Raajit; Telis, Leon; Patel, Minal; Kim, Min Kyung; Huberman, Kety; Bouvier, Nancy; Berger, Michael F; Melnick, Ari M; Rosen, Neal; Tallman, Martin S; Park, Christopher Y; Abdel-Wahab, Omar

2014-05-28

372

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells  

PubMed Central

While conventional anticancer therapies, including surgical resection, radiotherapy, and/or chemotherapy, are relatively efficient at eliminating primary tumors, these treatment modalities are largely ineffective against metastases. At least in part, this reflects the rather inefficient delivery of conventional anticancer agents to metastatic lesions. We have recently demonstrated that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) can be used as cellular missiles to selectively deliver a radioisotope-coupled attenuated variant of Listeria monocytogenes to both primary and metastatic neoplastic lesions in mice with pancreatic cancer. This novel immunotherapeutic intervention robustly inhibited tumor growth while promoting a dramatic decrease in the number of metastases.

Chandra, Dinesh; Gravekamp, Claudia

2013-01-01

373

Myeloid expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme facilitates myeloid maturation and inhibits the development of myeloid-derived suppressor cells.  

PubMed

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells which accumulate in cancer, infection and chronic inflammation. These cells suppress T-cell function and the immune response. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is a peptidase that is now known to regulate aspects of myelopoiesis. Here, we show that ACE expression correlates with myeloid maturation in vitro. Forced ACE overexpression in monocytic cells reduces the generation of MDSCs. In vivo, mice with a genetic change resulting in myeloid cell ACE overexpression have reduced numbers of blood and splenic MDSCs in a tumor model and in a model of chronic inflammation induced by complete Freund's adjuvant. In contrast, ACE-null mice produce large numbers of MDSCs during chronic inflammation. Macrophages from mice with myeloid ACE overexpressing are more pro-inflammatory and have more tumor-killing activity than cells from wild-type mice. Thus, manipulating myeloid ACE activity can interfere with MDSC development and the maturation of myeloid cells. PMID:24614194

Shen, Xiao Z; Okwan-Duodu, Derick; Blackwell, Wendell-Lamar; Ong, Frank S; Janjulia, Tea; Bernstein, Ellen A; Fuchs, Sebastien; Alkan, Serhan; Bernstein, Kenneth E

2014-05-01

374

The origin and evolution of mutations in acute myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

Most mutations in cancer genomes are thought to be acquired after the initiating event, which may cause genomic instability and drive clonal evolution. However, for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), normal karyotypes are common, and genomic instability is unusual. To better understand clonal evolution in AML, we sequenced the genomes of M3-AML samples with a known initiating event (PML-RARA) versus the genomes of normal karyotype M1-AML samples and the exomes of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) from healthy people. Collectively, the data suggest that most of the mutations found in AML genomes are actually random events that occurred in HSPCs before they acquired the initiating mutation; the mutational history of that cell is "captured" as the clone expands. In many cases, only one or two additional, cooperating mutations are needed to generate the malignant founding clone. Cells from the founding clone can acquire additional cooperating mutations, yielding subclones that can contribute to disease progression and/or relapse. PMID:22817890

Welch, John S; Ley, Timothy J; Link, Daniel C; Miller, Christopher A; Larson, David E; Koboldt, Daniel C; Wartman, Lukas D; Lamprecht, Tamara L; Liu, Fulu; Xia, Jun; Kandoth, Cyriac; Fulton, Robert S; McLellan, Michael D; Dooling, David J; Wallis, John W; Chen, Ken; Harris, Christopher C; Schmidt, Heather K; Kalicki-Veizer, Joelle M; Lu, Charles; Zhang, Qunyuan; Lin, Ling; O'Laughlin, Michelle D; McMichael, Joshua F; Delehaunty, Kim D; Fulton, Lucinda A; Magrini, Vincent J; McGrath, Sean D; Demeter, Ryan T; Vickery, Tammi L; Hundal, Jasreet; Cook, Lisa L; Swift, Gary W; Reed, Jerry P; Alldredge, Patricia A; Wylie, Todd N; Walker, Jason R; Watson, Mark A; Heath, Sharon E; Shannon, William D; Varghese, Nobish; Nagarajan, Rakesh; Payton, Jacqueline E; Baty, Jack D; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Klco, Jeffery M; Tomasson, Michael H; Westervelt, Peter; Walter, Matthew J; Graubert, Timothy A; DiPersio, John F; Ding, Li; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K

2012-07-20

375

Sex differences in the incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia.  

PubMed

The incidence of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), which is caused by BCR/ABL chimeric oncogene formation in a pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), increases with age and exposure to ionizing radiation. CML is a comparatively well-characterized neoplasm, important for its own sake and useful for insights into other neoplasms. Here, Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) CML data are analyzed after considering possible misclassification of chronic myelo-monocytic leukemia as CML. For people older than 25 years, plots of male and female CML log incidences versus age at diagnosis are approximately parallel straight lines with males either above or to the left of females. This is consistent with males having a higher risk of developing CML or a shorter latency from initiation to diagnosis of CML. These distinct mechanisms cannot be distinguished using SEER data alone. Therefore, CML risks among male and female Japanese A-bomb survivors are also analyzed. The present analyses suggest that sex differences in CML incidence more likely result from differences in risk than in latency. The simplest but not the sole interpretation of this is that males have more target cells at risk to develop CML. Comprehensive mathematical models of CML could lead to a better understanding of the role of HSCs in CML and other preleukemias that can progress to acute leukemia. PMID:24337217

Radivoyevitch, Tomas; Jankovic, Gradimir M; Tiu, Ramon V; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Jackson, Robert C; Hlatky, Lynn R; Gale, Robert Peter; Sachs, Rainer K

2014-03-01

376

The variety of leukemic stem cells in myeloid malignancy.  

PubMed

Human acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs) are sustained by leukemic stem cells (LSCs) that generate through aberrant differentiation the blast cells that make up the bulk of the malignant clone. LSCs were first identified as rare cells with an immunophenotype shared with normal hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). However, refinements of xenotransplantation assays, alternative methods of quantitation and syngeneic murine models have all led to an appreciation that LSCs display marked variability in frequency, immunophenotype and differentiation potential, both between and even within leukemias. Insights from next-generation sequencing efforts have dramatically extended understanding of the mutational landscape and clonal organization of AML and have added an additional layer of complexity to the biology of LSCs: a requirement to consider the effect of the various recurrently occurring genetic lesions in AML on the initiation and maintenance of leukemic subclones. Despite these advances, cure rates in AML remain substantially unchanged in recent years. A renewed focus on the biological properties of chemotherapy-resistant LSCs, a cellular entity of prime clinical importance, will be required to develop additional therapeutic strategies to enhance patient outcomes. PMID:23831573

Wiseman, D H; Greystoke, B F; Somervaille, T C P

2014-06-12

377

Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Presenting with Visual and Auditory Impairment in an Adolescent: An Insight to Management Strategies  

PubMed Central

A 15-year-old girl presented with progressive deterioration in vision and hearing over 1 week. A huge spleen was palpated below the left costal margin laying down to inguinal region. Blood count showed hyperleukocytosis with a white blood cell count of 455 × 109/l. Peripheral smear yielded myeloid precursor cells with basophilia. Bone marrow aspiration revealed a blast count of 5% morphologically and 4% by flow cytometry. Fundoscopic examination revealed bilateral retinal exudates, edema and hemorhages. Partial sensorioneural hearing loss was also detected on the right ear. The diagnosis of chronic myeloid leukemia was confirmed by positive t(9;22) by RT-PCR. After commencing on hydroxyurea and intrathecal methotrexate-prednisolone, progressive improvement in hearing and vision was obtained. In our brief report, we aimed to emphasize rare presentation with visual and hearing impairment of chronic myeloid leukemia during childhood, especially in “chronic phase”.

Unal, Sule; Bayrakc?, Benan; Tuncer, Murat

2010-01-01

378

Impaired adult myeloid progenitor CMP and GMP cell function in conditional c-myb-knockout mice  

PubMed Central

The differentiation of myeloid progenitors to mature, terminally differentiated cells is a highly regulated process. Here, we showed that conditional disruption of the c-myb proto-oncogene in adult mice resulted in dramatic reductions in CMP, GMP and MEP myeloid progenitors, leading to a reduction of neutrophils, basophils, monocytes and platelets in peripheral blood. In addition, c-myb plays a critical role at multiple stages of myeloid development, from multipotent CMP and bipotent GMP to unipotent CFU-G and CFU-M progenitor cells. c-myb controls the differentiation of these cells and is required for the proper commitment, maturation and normal differentiation of CMPs and GMPs. Specifically, c-myb regulates the precise commitment to the megakaryocytic and granulo-monocytic pathways and governs the granulocytic-monocytic lineage choice. c-myb is also required for the commitment along the granulocytic pathway for early myeloid progenitor cells and for the maturation of committed precursor cells along this pathway. On the other hand, disruption of the c-myb gene favors the commitment to the monocytic lineage, although monocytic development was abnormal with cells appearing more mature with atypical CD41 surface markers. These results demonstrate that c-myb plays a pivotal role in the regulation of multiple stages in adult myelogenesis.

Lieu, Yen K.; Reddy, E. Premkumar

2012-01-01

379

Hematopoietic Stem Cells Are Pluripotent and Not Just "Hematopoietic"  

PubMed Central

Over a decade ago, several preclinical transplantation studies suggested the striking concept of the tissue-reconstituting ability (often referred to as HSC plasticity) of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). While this heralded an exciting time of radically new therapies for disorders of many organs and tissues, the concept was soon mired in controversy and remained dormant for almost a decade. This commentary provides a concise review of evidence for HSC plasticity, including more recent findings based on single HSC transplantation in mouse and clinical transplantation studies. There is strong evidence for the concept that HSCs are pluripotent and are the source for the majority, if not all, of the cell types in our body. Also discussed are some biological and experimental issues that need to be considered in the future investigation of HSC plasticity.

Ogawa, Makio; LaRue, Amanda C.; Mehrotra, Meenal

2013-01-01

380

Therapy-related Myeloid Leukemia  

PubMed Central

Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia (t-MDS/t-AML) are thought to be the direct consequence of mutational events induced by chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunosuppressive therapy, or a combination of these modalities, given for a pre-existing condition. The outcomes for these patients have been poor historically compared to people who develop de novo AML. The spectrum of cytogenetic abnormalities in t-AML is similar to de novo AML, but the frequency of unfavorable cytogenetics, such as a complex karyotype or deletion or loss of chromosomes 5 and/or 7, is considerably higher in t-AML. Survival varies according to cytogenetic risk group in t-AML patients, with better outcomes being observed in those with favorable-risk karyotypes. Treatment recommendations should be based on performance status and karyotype. A deeper understanding of the factors that predispose patients to the development of therapy-related myeloid leukemia would help clinicians monitor patients more carefully after treatment for a primary condition. Ultimately, this knowledge could influence initial treatment strategies with the goal of decreasing the incidence of this serious complication.

Godley, Lucy A.; Larson, Richard A.

2008-01-01

381

Long-term outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for advanced stage acute myeloblastic leukemia: a retrospective study of 379 patients reported to the Société Française de Greffe de Moelle (SFGM)  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the place of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in the advanced stage of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we retrospectively analyzed 379 consecutive patients who underwent allogeneic HSCT for advanced AML. The median follow-up of the entire cohort was 7.5 years. Sixty-nine patients (18%) were transplanted with primary resistant disease. Three hundred and ten (82%) were relapsed patients,

M Michallet; X Thomas; JP Vernant; M Kuentz; G Socié; H Espérou-Bourdeau; N Milpied; D Blaise; B Rio; J Reiffers; JP Jouet; JY Cahn; JH Bourhis; B Lioure; M Leporrier; JJ Sotto; G Souillet; L Sutton; P Bordigoni; F Dreyfus; H Tilly; N Gratecos; M Attal; PY Leprise; F Déméocq; G Michel; A Buzyn; B Delmas-Marsalet; F Bernaudin; N Ifrah; A Sadoun; D Guyotat; M Cavazzana-Cavo; D Caillot; T De Revel; JP Vannier; A Baruchel; N Fegueux; ML Tanguy; A Thiébaut; A Belhabri; E Archimbaud

2000-01-01

382

Polyimide Precursor Solid Residuum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A polyimide precursor solid residuum is an admixture of an aromatic dianhydride or derivative thereof and an aromatic diamine or derivative thereof plus a complexing agent, which is complexed with the admixture by hydrogen bonding. The polyimide precursor solid res