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Sample records for hemiptera triatominae desde

  1. Molecular phylogeny of Triatomini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Triatomini and Rhodniini (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) tribes include the most diverse Chagas disease vectors; however, the phylogenetic relationships within the tribes remain obscure. This study provides the most comprehensive phylogeny of Triatomini reported to date. Methods The relationships between all of the Triatomini genera and representatives of the three Rhodniini species groups were examined in a novel molecular phylogenetic analysis based on the following six molecular markers: the mitochondrial 16S; Cytochrome Oxidase I and II (COI and COII) and Cytochrome B (Cyt B); and the nuclear 18S and 28S. Results Our results show that the Rhodnius prolixus and R. pictipes groups are more closely related to each other than to the R. pallescens group. For Triatomini, we demonstrate that the large complexes within the paraphyletic Triatoma genus are closely associated with their geographical distribution. Additionally, we observe that the divergence within the spinolai and flavida complex clades are higher than in the other Triatoma complexes. Conclusions We propose that the spinolai and flavida complexes should be ranked under the genera Mepraia and Nesotriatoma. Finally, we conclude that a thorough morphological investigation of the paraphyletic genera Triatoma and Panstrongylus is required to accurately assign queries to natural genera. PMID:24685273

  2. Geological Changes of the Americas and their Influence on the Diversification of the Neotropical Kissing Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Justi, Silvia A.; Galvão, Cleber; Schrago, Carlos G.

    2016-01-01

    Background The family Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), or assassin bugs, is among the most diverse families of the true bugs, with more than 6,000 species. The subfamily Triatominae (kissing bugs) is noteworthy not simply because it is the only subfamily of the Reduviidae whose members feed on vertebrate blood but particularly because all 147 known members of the subfamily are potential Chagas disease vectors. Due to the epidemiological relevance of these species and the lack of an efficient treatment and vaccine for Chagas disease, it is more common to find evolutionary studies focusing on the most relevant vectors than it is to find studies aiming to understand the evolution of the group as a whole. We present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study aiming to understand the events that led to the diversification of the Triatominae. Methodology/Principal Findings We gathered the most diverse samples of Reduviidae and Triatominae (a total of 229 Reduviidae samples, including 70 Triatominae species) and reconstructed a robust dated phylogeny with several fossil (Reduviidae and Triatominae) calibrations. Based on this information, the possible role of geological events in several of the major cladogenetic events within Triatominae was tested for the first time. We were able to not only correlate the geological changes in the Neotropics with Triatominae evolution but also add to an old discussion: Triatominae monophyly vs. paraphyly. Conclusions/Significance We found that most of the diversification events observed within the Rhodniini and Triatomini tribes are closely linked to the climatic and geological changes caused by the Andean uplift in South America and that variations in sea levels in North America also played a role in the diversification of the species of Triatoma in that region. PMID:27058599

  3. Phylogeny and Niche Conservatism in North and Central American Triatomine Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), Vectors of Chagas' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N.; Zaldívar-Riverón, Alejandro; Peterson, A. Townsend; Sánchez-Cordero, Víctor; Ramsey, Janine M.

    2014-01-01

    The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios. PMID:25356550

  4. Comparative bionomics of four populations of Meccus longipennis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Licón-Trillo, Ángel; Villagrán-Herrera, María Elena; de Diego-Cabrera, José Antonio; Montañez-Valdez, Oziel Dante; Rocha-Chávez, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    The values of biological parameters related to the life cycles of four populations of Meccus longipennis (Reduviidae: Triatominae) were evaluated. Cohorts of each of the four studied populations from different geographical areas of Mexico were maintained under similar laboratory conditions and then compared. The population from El Saucito de Araujo was different from the other three studied populations, which could help explain the secondary importance of M. longipennis in the state of Chihuahua. This paper also supports the proposition that biological traits are important criteria for determining relationships between populations. PMID:23579806

  5. Atlas of Mexican Triatominae (Reduviidae: Hemiptera) and vector transmission of Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Janine M; Peterson, A Townsend; Carmona-Castro, Oscar; Moo-Llanes, David A; Nakazawa, Yoshinori; Butrick, Morgan; Tun-Ku, Ezequiel; de la Cruz-Félix, Keynes; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos N

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is one of the most important yet neglected parasitic diseases in Mexico and is transmitted by Triatominae. Nineteen of the 31 Mexican triatomine species have been consistently found to invade human houses and all have been found to be naturally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The present paper aims to produce a state-of-knowledge atlas of Mexican triatomines and analyse their geographic associations with T. cruzi, human demographics and landscape modification. Ecological niche models (ENMs) were constructed for the 19 species with more than 10 records in North America, as well as for T. cruzi. The 2010 Mexican national census and the 2007 National Forestry Inventory were used to analyse overlap patterns with ENMs. Niche breadth was greatest in species from the semiarid Nearctic Region, whereas species richness was associated with topographic heterogeneity in the Neotropical Region, particularly along the Pacific Coast. Three species, Triatoma longipennis, Triatoma mexicana and Triatoma barberi, overlapped with the greatest numbers of human communities, but these communities had the lowest rural/urban population ratios. Triatomine vectors have urbanised in most regions, demonstrating a high tolerance to human-modified habitats and broadened historical ranges, exposing more than 88% of the Mexican population and leaving few areas in Mexico without the potential for T. cruzi transmission. PMID:25993505

  6. The sialotranscriptome of the blood-sucking bug Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Adriana; Ribeiro, José Marcos C.; Lehane, Michael J.; Gontijo, Nelder Figueiredo; Veloso, Artur Botelho; Sant'Anna, Mauricio R.V.; Araujo, Ricardo Nascimento; Grisard, Edmundo C.; Pereira, Marcos Horácio

    2007-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is the most important autochthon vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in Brazil, where it is widely distributed in the semiarid areas of the Northeast. In order to advance the knowledge of the salivary biomolecules of Triatominae, a salivary gland cDNA library of T. brasiliensis was mass sequenced and analyzed. Polypeptides were sequenced by HPLC/Edman degradation experiments. 1,712 cDNA sequences were obtained and grouped in 786 clusters. The housekeeping category had 24.4% and 17.8% of the clusters and sequences, respectively. The putatively secreted category contained 47.1% of the clusters and 68.2% of the sequences. Finally, 28.5% of the clusters, containing 14% of all sequences, were classified as unknown. The sialoma of T. brasiliensis showed a high amount and great variety of different lipocalins (93.8% of secreted proteins). Remarkably, a great number of serine proteases that were not observed in previous blood-sucking sialotranscriptomes were found. Nine Kazal peptides were identified, among them one with high homology to the tabanid vasodilator vasotab, suggesting that the Triatoma vasodilator could be a Kazal protein. PMID:17550826

  7. Demographic fitness of Belminus ferroae (Hemiptera: Triatominae) on three different hosts under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Claudia Magaly; Medone, Paula; Nieves, Elsa Evelia; Jaimes, Diego Alexander; Ortiz, Nelcy; Rabinovich, Jorge Eduardo

    2013-11-01

    Triatominae are widely recognised for their role as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi. One of the main biological characteristics of this subfamily is their obligate haematophagous condition. However, previous studies on Belminus herreri and Belminus ferroae suggested that cockroaches are their principal hosts in domiciles. Due to this peculiar behaviour, the aim of this study was to analyse several demographic and reproductive parameters of B. ferroae fed on three different hosts (mice, cockroaches and Rhodnius prolixus) and relate B. ferroae fitness to these alternative hosts. The cohorts were reared under constant conditions. The egg hatching rate was similar for cohorts fed on cockroaches (69.4%) and R. prolixus (63.8%), but was much lower for the cohort fed on mice (16%). The development time from the nymph to adult stage and the average age of first reproduction (α) presented lower values in the cohort fed on cockroaches, which is consistent with the higher population growth rate associated with this host. Demographic parameters [intrinsic rate of natural increase, finite rate of population growth, net reproductive rate and damping ratio] showed statistically significant differences between the cohorts. Analysis of the life history of B. ferroae revealed a higher fitness related to the cockroach. The implications of these results for the origin of the subfamily are discussed. PMID:24141961

  8. Demographic fitness of Belminus ferroae (Hemiptera: Triatominae) on three different hosts under laboratory conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sandoval, Claudia Magaly; Medone, Paula; Nieves, Elsa Evelia; Jaimes, Diego Alexander; Ortiz, Nelcy; Rabinovich, Jorge Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Triatominae are widely recognised for their role as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi. One of the main biological characteristics of this subfamily is their obligate haematophagous condition. However, previous studies on Belminus herreri and Belminus ferroae suggested that cockroaches are their principal hosts in domiciles. Due to this peculiar behaviour, the aim of this study was to analyse several demographic and reproductive parameters of B. ferroae fed on three different hosts (mice, cockroaches and Rhodnius prolixus) and relate B. ferroae fitness to these alternative hosts. The cohorts were reared under constant conditions. The egg hatching rate was similar for cohorts fed on cockroaches (69.4%) and R. prolixus (63.8%), but was much lower for the cohort fed on mice (16%). The development time from the nymph to adult stage and the average age of first reproduction (α) presented lower values in the cohort fed on cockroaches, which is consistent with the higher population growth rate associated with this host. Demographic parameters [intrinsic rate of natural increase, finite rate of population growth, net reproductive rate and damping ratio] showed statistically significant differences between the cohorts. Analysis of the life history of B. ferroae revealed a higher fitness related to the cockroach. The implications of these results for the origin of the subfamily are discussed. PMID:24141961

  9. Karyosystematics of Triatoma rubrofasciata (De Geer, 1773) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Borsatto, Kelly Cristine; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Jurberg, José; Azeredo-Oliveir, Maria Tercília Vilela De

    2015-01-01

    Triatoma rubrofasciata (De Geer) is the first species of triatomine described, and little is known on its vector biology. Studies are restricted to starvation resistance, interspecific morphometric variability, morphometry of testis follicles, coloration of the testicular peritoneal sheath, ultrastructure of the male accessory glands, phylogeny and cytogenetics. Thus, this study aims to address the karyosystematics of T. rubrofasciata and the possible events related to karyotype evolution of this species. Four adult males were analyzed cytogenetically. The analysis of meiotic metaphases of T. rubrofasciata allowed to confirm the karyotype of species, out more, 2n = 25 (22A + X1X2Y). This number is very important for taxonomic and evolutionary inferences on the species, because of the 88 triatomine species with described karyotype, only T. rubrofasciata exhibits 25 chromosomes. Based on the hypothesis of the karyotype 2n = 22 (20A + XY) as ancestral for triatomines, we propose three evolutionary hypotheses for the emergence of the karyotype of T rubrofasciata, all supported by agmatoploidy events (fission). Basically the hypotheses are 1) fission for a pair of autosomes, resulting in 22 autosomes and later fission of sex chromosome X; 2) fission of pair of autosomes and the sex chromosome X concomitantly; 3) fission of sex chromosome X and subsequently fission of pair of autosomes. Thus, this study highlights for the first time the importance of the number of chromosomes of T. rubrofasciata as characteristic diagnosis in Triatominae subfamily and describes three evolutionary hypotheses that possibly led the emergence of karyotype of this insect of global importance. PMID:26250283

  10. The nuclear elongation factor-1α gene: a promising marker for phylogenetic studies of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Díaz, Sebastián; Triana-Chávez, Omar; Gómez-Palacio, Andrés

    2016-09-01

    Molecular systematics is a remarkable approach for understanding the taxonomic traits and allows the exploration of the inter-population dynamics of several species in the Triatominae subfamily that are involved in Trypanosoma cruzi transmission. Compared to other relevant species that transmit vector-borne diseases, such as some species of the Diptera, there are relatively few nuclear genetic markers available for systematic studies in the Triatominae subfamily. Molecular systematic studies performed on Triatominae are based on mitochondrial gene fragments and, less frequently, on nuclear ribosomal genes or spacers. Due to the fact that these markers can occasionally present problems such as nuclear mitochondrial genes (NUMTs) or intra-genomic variation for high gene copy numbers, it is necessary to use additional nuclear markers to more reliably address the molecular evolution of Triatominae. In this study, we performed phylogenetic analysis using the nuclear elongation factor-1 alpha (EF-1α) gene in individuals from 12 species belonging to the Triatomini and Rhodniini tribes. Genetic diversities and phylogenetic topologies were compared with those obtained for the mitochondrial 16S rRNA and Cytochrome b (cyt b) genes, as well as for the D2 variable region of the ribosomal 28S rRNA gene. These results indicate that the EF-1α marker exhibits an intermediate level of diversity compared to mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal genes, and that phylogenetic analysis based on EF-1α is highly informative for resolving deep phylogenetic relationships in Triatominae, such as tribe or genera. PMID:27268149

  11. Biological aspects of crosses between Triatoma recurva (Stål), 1868 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) and other members of the Phyllosoma complex.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Licón-Trillo, Ángel; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María; Vences-Blanco, Mauro Omar

    2015-06-01

    The degree of reproductive isolation between Triatoma recurva (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) and the six species of the genus Meccus plus T. mexicana (Herrich-Schaeffer) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was examined. Fertility and the segregation of morphological characteristics were examined in two generations of hybrids from crosses between these species. The percentage of couples with offspring (fertile) was low in the vast majority of sets of crosses, with the exception of that between T. recurva female and M. phyllosomus male. In all studied sets of crosses, no first- (F1) or second- (F2) generation individuals were morphologically similar to T. recurva but instead shared the morphology of the other parental species. A similar phenomenon was observed in the three successful sets of backcrosses. These results indicated that different recorded levels of reproductive fitness among T. recurva and the species of Meccus involved in this study, plus T. mexicana, are present and that they were apparently influenced by differing mechanisms of isolation. The presence of some degree of reproductive compatibility between studied triatomines of distinct genera (Meccus spp. and Triatoma spp.) reinforces the need for generic revision of the tribe Triatomini. PMID:26047191

  12. Insects found in birds' nests from Argentina. Pseudoseisura lophotes Reichenbach, 1853 and Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817) (Aves: Furnariidae), hosts of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Paola, Turienzo

    2014-01-01

    The insect fauna of the nests of Pseudoseisura lophotes (Reichenbach, 1853) (Aves: Furnariidae) from Argentina was investigated. A total of 110 species (68 identified to species, 22 identified to genus, 20 identified to family) in 40 families of 10 orders of insects was found in these nests. Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) was found again in nests of P. lophotes, corroborating after 73 years the first observations made by Mazza in 1936. The occurrence of the insects in nests of P. lophotes is compared with the previously known insect fauna in nests of A. annumbi, Furnarius rufus (Furnariidae), and Myiopsitta monachus (Psittacidae). The insect fauna in additional nests of Anumbius annumbi from the same and/or different localities is given, and used in comparisons. The first occurrence of Cuterebridae (Diptera) in birds' nests, their pupae as the overwintering stage, and the second simultaneous infestation by two species of Philornis (Diptera: Muscidae) on the same nestlings are presented. Other simultaneous infestations of different hematophagous arthropods (Hemiptera: Cimidae; Reduviidae: Triatominae, and Acari: Argasidae) are remarked and discussed. PMID:24871037

  13. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae) with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Arthur da Silva; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Ferreira, Jéssica da Silva; Fontes, Amanda Nogueira Brum; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Macedo, Rafael Enrique; Oliveira, José Henrique; Teixeira, Raquel Lima de Figueiredo; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Suffys, Philip Noel; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy. PMID:27203082

  14. Distribution and Evolution of Repeated Sequences in Genomes of Triatominae (Hemiptera-Reduviidae) Inferred from Genomic In Situ Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Pita, Sebastian; Panzera, Francisco; Sánchez, Antonio; Panzera, Yanina; Palomeque, Teresa; Lorite, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The subfamily Triatominae, vectors of Chagas disease, comprises 140 species characterized by a highly homogeneous chromosome number. We analyzed the chromosomal distribution and evolution of repeated sequences in Triatominae genomes by Genomic in situ Hybridization using Triatoma delpontei and Triatoma infestans genomic DNAs as probes. Hybridizations were performed on their own chromosomes and on nine species included in six genera from the two main tribes: Triatomini and Rhodniini. Genomic probes clearly generate two different hybridization patterns, dispersed or accumulated in specific regions or chromosomes. The three used probes generate the same hybridization pattern in each species. However, these patterns are species-specific. In closely related species, the probes strongly hybridized in the autosomal heterochromatic regions, resembling C-banding and DAPI patterns. However, in more distant species these co-localizations are not observed. The heterochromatic Y chromosome is constituted by highly repeated sequences, which is conserved among 10 species of Triatomini tribe suggesting be an ancestral character for this group. However, the Y chromosome in Rhodniini tribe is markedly different, supporting the early evolutionary dichotomy between both tribes. In some species, sex chromosomes and autosomes shared repeated sequences, suggesting meiotic chromatin exchanges among these heterologous chromosomes. Our GISH analyses enabled us to acquire not only reliable information about autosomal repeated sequences distribution but also an insight into sex chromosome evolution in Triatominae. Furthermore, the differentiation obtained by GISH might be a valuable marker to establish phylogenetic relationships and to test the controversial origin of the Triatominae subfamily. PMID:25478792

  15. Triatoma dominicana sp. n. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae), and Trypanosoma antiquus sp. n. (Stercoraria: Trypanosomatidae), the first fossil evidence of a triatomine-trypanosomatid vector association.

    PubMed

    Poinar, George

    2005-01-01

    Triatoma dominicana sp.n. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) is described from a fifth instar nymph exuvia in Dominican amber and represents the first fossil representative of this subfamily. The new species is placed in the tribe Triatomini and tentatively in the genus Triatoma on the basis of the following characters; body length of 19.5 mm, body and appendages without long hairs, antenniferous tubercles without conspicuous apicolateral projections; abdomen with a series of five median tubercles; only fourth antennal segment annulated; lateral postocular callosities absent; stridulatory sulcus present and pronotum with discal and lateral tubercles. Trypanosoma antiquus sp. n. is described from two fecal droplets adjacent to Triatoma dominicana, thus providing the first fossil evidence of a triatomine-trypanosomatid vector association. The metatrypanosome stages of the fossil are similar in size to those of T. cruzi and could be a progenitor of this species. Mammalian hairs adjacent to the fecal droplets suggest that the vertebrate host for both the triatomine and trypanosomatid was a bat. Based on these findings, it is possible that bats were the original vertebrate hosts of T. cruzi-like trypanosomes. PMID:15815152

  16. Anatomy of the spermatophore in triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) and its applications to the study of Chagas disease vector biology.

    PubMed

    Pereira-Lourenço, Ariane S; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir R; Freitas, Simone P C

    2013-10-01

    The present study focused on spermatophore structure, transfer, and subsequent destination inside bloodfeeding females of the species Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius neglectus. The morphology of the spermatophore differed between the species studied, such that in T. infestans, the shape was ovaloid, whereas in R. neglectus, the shape resembled a rod. Structures' spine-like cuticulars distributed across the inner surface of the vagina of both species were observed; however, the role of these cuticulars is unknown in Triatominae. In both species, there was an opening in the spermatophore exactly where the common oviduct is connected, thereby making it possible to confirm that the process of spermatozoid migration takes place through this opening. The results obtained show that the spermatophores of T. infestans and R. neglectus differ in size, shape, and structure. Therefore, they can be used as taxonomic markers and may provide information regarding physiology and evolution. PMID:23958911

  17. Anatomy of the Spermatophore in Triatomines (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) and Its Applications to the Study of Chagas Disease Vector Biology

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-Lourenço, Ariane S.; Santos-Mallet, Jacenir R.; Freitas, Simone P. C.

    2013-01-01

    The present study focused on spermatophore structure, transfer, and subsequent destination inside bloodfeeding females of the species Triatoma infestans and Rhodnius neglectus. The morphology of the spermatophore differed between the species studied, such that in T. infestans, the shape was ovaloid, whereas in R. neglectus, the shape resembled a rod. Structures' spine-like cuticulars distributed across the inner surface of the vagina of both species were observed; however, the role of these cuticulars is unknown in Triatominae. In both species, there was an opening in the spermatophore exactly where the common oviduct is connected, thereby making it possible to confirm that the process of spermatozoid migration takes place through this opening. The results obtained show that the spermatophores of T. infestans and R. neglectus differ in size, shape, and structure. Therefore, they can be used as taxonomic markers and may provide information regarding physiology and evolution. PMID:23958911

  18. New arrangements on several species subcomplexes of Triatoma genus based on the chromosomal position of ribosomal genes (Hemiptera - Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Pita, Sebastián; Lorite, Pedro; Nattero, Julieta; Galvão, Cleber; Alevi, Kaio C C; Teves, Simone C; Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria T V; Panzera, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    The hemipteran subfamily Triatominae includes 150 blood-sucking species, vectors of Chagas disease. By far the most specious genus is Triatoma, assembled in groups, complexes and subcomplexes based on morphological similarities, geographic distribution and genetic data. However, many molecular studies questioned the species integration of several subcomplexes as monophyletic units. In triatomines, chromosomal position of major ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci is extremely variable but seems to be species-specific and an evolutionary conserved genetic trait, so that closely related species tend to have ribosomal clusters in the same chromosomal location. Considering that the autosomal position as the ancestral character for all heteropteran species, including triatomines, we suggest that the movement of rDNA loci from autosomes to sex chromosomes rapidly established reproductive barriers between divergent lineages. We proposed that the rDNA translocation from the autosomes to the sex chromosomes restrict reproductive compatibility and eventually promote speciation processes. We analyzed the chromosomal position of 45S rDNA clusters in almost all species of the matogrossensis, rubrovaria, maculata and sordida subcomplexes. The fluorescent in situ hybridization results are discussed considering the available genetic data and we proposed new arrangements in the species that constitute each one of these subcomplexes. PMID:27245153

  19. Changes associated with laboratory rearing in antennal sensilla patterns of Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and Rhodnius pallescens (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Catalá, S S; Maida, D M; Caro-Riaño, H; Jaramillo, N; Moreno, J

    2004-02-01

    We examined changes in the array of antennal sensilla of three species of Triatominae (Triatoma infestans, Rhodnius prolixus, and R. pallescens) following their establishment for different periods in laboratory culture. In each case, the laboratory colonies were compared with conspecific samples taken directly from the field, by quantitative analysis of the sensilla arrays on the three distal segments of the antenna in terms of the densities of three types of chemoreceptors (basiconics and thick and thin walled trichoids) and one type of mechanoreceptor (bristles). Sensilla densities were compared by ANOVA or non-parametric tests, and by multivariate discriminant analysis. Strains of the same species reared in different laboratories showed significant differences in their sensilla arrays, especially when compared to field-collected material from the same geographic origin. A Bolivian strain of T. infestans reared in the laboratory for 15 years and fed at monthly intervals, showed greatest differences from its conspecific wild forms, especially in terms of reductions in the number of chemoreceptors. By contrast, an Argentine strain of T. infestans reared for 25 years in the laboratory and fed weekly, showed a relative increase in the density of mechanoreceptors. A Colombian strain of R. prolixus reared for 20 years and fed weekly or fortnightly, showed only modest differences in the sensilla array when compared to its wild populations from the same area. However, a Colombian strain of R. pallescens reared for 12 years and fed fortnightly, did show highly significant reductions in one form of chemoreceptor compared to its conspecific wild populations. For all populations, multivariate analysis clearly discriminated between laboratory and field collected specimens, suggesting that artificial rearing can lead to modifications in the sensory array. This not only supports the idea of morphological plasticity in these species, but also suggests caution in the use of long

  20. Spermiotaxonomy of the tribe Rhodniini (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Ravazi, A; Oliveira, J; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Alevi, K C C

    2016-01-01

    The tribe Rhodniini is a monophyletic group composed of 22 species, with 19 in the Rhodnius genus and three in the Psammolestes genus. These insects are morphologically very similar (cryptic species), and new tools are important for investigating the taxonomy of these vectors. Spermiotaxonomy is an important tool in differentiating between related species, and this study analyzed the spermatids of Rhodniini species to elucidate their spermiotaxonomy. All of the Rhodniini species contained two heteropyknotic filaments in the extremities of their cells. Although spermiotaxonomy has been an important tool in differentiating between species of the Triatoma genus, all of the species in the Rhodnius genus exhibited the same characteristics in their male gametes. However, spermatid analysis made it possible to confirm the monophyly of the Rhodniini tribe, because Psammolestes tertius had the same pattern as that described for Rhodnius. The results of this study demonstrate that spermiotaxonomy, in addition to being an important tool for differentiating between related species of Triatoma, can be used as an optimization tool in phylogenetic analyses. PMID:27050980

  1. First cytogenetic study of Cavernicola pilosa Barber, 1937 (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Souza, E S; Alevi, K C C; Ribeiro, A R; Furtado, M B; Atzingen, N C B V; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; Rosa, J A

    2015-01-01

    Cavernicola pilosa is a triatomine species that lives in caves and feeds on bat blood. This vector has a wide geographical distribution, and is found in Brazil, Colombia, Panama, Peru, and Venezuela. Little is known about the reproductive biology of this species, because most previous studies have only characterized its morphology, morphometry, ecology, and epidemiology. Therefore, this study aimed to obtain preliminary data related to spermatogenesis in C. pilosa by conducting cytogenetic analysis. Analysis of the heterochromatic pattern of C. pilosa during the initial prophases revealed that heterochromatic blocks are only present in the sex chromosomes. Based on the analyses of the meiotic metaphase and prophases, we found that the sex determination system of C. pilosa is XY and the chromosomes are holocentric. C. pilosa spermatids are filamentous and have long flagella. It was not possible to detect corpuscle or filament heteropycnosis in spermatids of this species. The initial cytogenetic data presented in this study are important in characterizing the spermatogenesis and heterochromatic patterns of C. pilosa. Our results suggest that adaptation to troglodytism did not result in differences in spermatogenesis in this vector. PMID:26535704

  2. Distribution of constitutive heterochromatin in Triatoma melanocephala (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, K C C; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2014-01-01

    In principle, Triatoma melanocephala was included in the Brasiliensis subcomplex on the basis of morphological parameters and geographical layout, since there were no other relevant data available in the literature. On the basis of karyotype, it has been proposed to exclude T. melanocephala, as well as of T. vitticeps and T. tibiamaculata, from the subcomplex, which shows fragmentation of the X sex chromosomes, thereby approaching the species of North America. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the pattern of constitutive heterochromatin of T. melanocephala to provide new data on the cytotaxonomy of this vector of Chagas disease and especially to try to relate this species to some group, complex or subcomplex of triatomine species, aiding in their classification. This species showed no constitutive heterochromatin in the autosomes or X sex chromosome, but only the Y sex chromosome. The number of chromosomes and heterochromatin pattern of T. melanocephala proved to be identical to that described for Panstrongylus lutzi. Thus, the present study demonstrated a tentative relationship between T. melanocephala and P. lutzi. However, we emphasize that other comparative studies should be conducted between these species, such as experimental crosses and molecular, enzymatic, morphological, and morphometric analyses to determine whether these species are actually evolutionarily related or if the number of chromosomes and the heterochromatin pattern emerged as homoplasies in T. melanocephala and P. lutzi. PMID:25299104

  3. Differentiation between Triatoma arthurneivai and Triatoma wygodzinskyi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) using cytotaxonomy.

    PubMed

    Alevi, K C C; Imperador, C H L; Moreira, F F F; Jurberg, J; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-01-01

    Using classic morphometric techniques to examine the head and thorax of Triatoma specimens, researchers identified a possible taxonomic problem involving T. arthurneivai (Lent & Martins) and T. wygodzinskyi (Lent). A recent geometric morphometric study indicated that the insects captured outside the Serra do Cipó region, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, were T. wygodzinskyi. The misidentification of T. arthurneivai as T. wygodzinskyi could result in several problems associated with entoepidemiological lifting, the biological characterization of the species, and phylogenetic reconstruction. For the first time, we describe the use of cytogenetic analysis as a tool for differentiation between T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi. The results indicated that both species had the same number of chromosomes 2n = 22 (20A + XY). However, analyses of spermatocytes during early prophase indicated that it was possible to differentiate T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi, because only T. arthurneivai exhibited heteropycnotic blocks distributed in the chromatin. Therefore, we highlight the analysis of spermatocytes as a taxonomic tool for the characterization of T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi, and suggest that the technique can be used for entoepidemiological lifting in vector control programs. Thus, the results presented here, in conjunction with morphometric analyses, are of utmost taxonomic and epidemiological importance for the identification of T. arthurneivai and T. wygodzinskyi specimens. PMID:27420940

  4. Alkaline phosphatase activity in salivary gland cells of Rhodnius neglectus and R. prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Lima-Oliveira, A P M; Alevi, K C C; Anhê, A C B; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-01-01

    Alkaline phosphatase activity was detected in salivary gland cells of the Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954, and R. prolixus Stal, 1859, vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 (etiological agent of Chagas disease) and T. rangeli Tejera, 1920 (pathogenic to insect). The Gomori technique was used to demonstrate alkaline phosphatase activity. Alkaline phosphatase activity was observed throughout the entire gland, with an increased activity in the posterior region of the principal gland. In particular, phosphatase activity was found in the nucleolar corpuscles, suggesting a relationship with the rRNA transcription and ribosomal biogenesis. Alkaline phosphatase was also detected in the nuclear membrane and nuclear matrix, suggesting an association with the nucleo-cytoplasmic transport of ribonucleoproteins and the mechanisms of cell cycle and DNA replication, respectively. This study highlights the importance of alkaline phosphatase in the salivary gland of R. prolixus and R. neglectus and emphasizes its importance in secretory activity. Secretory activity is directly involved in hematophagy and, consequently, in development during metamorphosis. The observed presence of alkaline phosphatase suggests its involvement in the production of saliva allowing feeding of these insects that are important vectors of Chagas disease. PMID:27525888

  5. Triatoma sordida Stål 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae: Triatominae) in palms of northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bar, M E; Wisnivesky-Colli, C

    2001-10-01

    Several palms species provide an important habitat for triatomines and associate vertebrates in tropical America. The objective of this work is to identify the triatomine species living in the palms of rural areas in the Province of Corrientes, and to estimate the potential epidemiological risk they represent for the residents of nearby houses. The survey was carried out in a palm community in Colonia Laurel, Department San Roque, Province of Corrientes, Argentina. Samplings were performed in October, November and December 1998; January, February and March 1999; May and June 1999. Thirty palms: 27 (90%) Butia yatay (Mart.) Becc. and 3 Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd ex Mart. were dissected. Triatoma sordida Stål 1859 was found in 96.2% of B. yatay and in all the A. aculeata palms. A total of 272 live T. sordida was collected; 36 of them (13.2%) were found in bird nests in the frond and the remainder in other locations of the tree. The mean number of triatomines per palm was 9.6 (range 1-60, mode 2). T. sordida was collected during all the sampling months and all stages were present at all seasons. The highest population density was reached in spring and the lowest in autumn. Trypanosoma cruzi was detected in 38.5% in feces of 174 examined insects and identified as such, both by microscopical examination and PCR. This is the first finding of T. sordida populations in B. yatay, an endemic palm of South America distributed in southern Brazil, Uruguay and northeastern Argentina. The high infection prevalence found in this work suggests that T. sordida plays an essential role in the maintenance of the wild T. cruzi transmission cycle in northeastern Argentina. PMID:11685251

  6. Description of the diploid chromosome set of Triatoma pintodiasi (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, K C C; Moreira, F F F; Jurberg, J; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma pintodiasi has been described and recently grouped in the Rubrovaria subcomplex. T. pintodiasi was initially compared to T. carcavalloi by staining and subsequently identified as T. circummaculata. However, after thorough examination, it was observed to be a cryptic species of T. circummaculata, and was described based on morphological features, morphometric data, and biochemical patterns of hemolymph. Thus, this paper aims to describe the karyotype of, and spermatogenesis in, T. pintodiasi, in order to elucidate the reproductive biology and taxonomy of the species. Sex chromosomes of T. pintodiasi formed a heteropyknotic chromocenter, and compaction of chromatin was observed during prophase. However, in contrast to observations in T. carcavalloi and T. circummaculata, in T. pintodiasi it was observed individualization of the sex chromosomes. The diploid chromosome set of the species 2n = 22 (20A + XY) is described through analysis of metaphases I and II. Initial cytogenetic characteristics of T. pintodiasi are described and the observed differences in the chromocenter are suggested as a possible cytotaxonomic tool. To gain a better understanding of the specific status of this cryptic species, however, we emphasize the need for further cytogenetic, molecular, biological, and biogeographical analysis, in addition to experimental hybrid crosses with other species of the Rubrovaria subcomplex. PMID:27173222

  7. Rhodnius barretti, a new species of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) from western Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Pavan, Márcio G; Jaramillo-O, Nicolás; Palomeque, Francisco S; Dale, Carolina; Chaverra, Duverney; Monteiro, Fernando A

    2013-01-01

    Rhodnius barretti , a new triatomine species, is described based on adult specimens collected in rainforest environments within the Napo ecoregion of western Amazonia (Colombia and Ecuador). R. barretti resembles Rhodnius robustus s.l. , but mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal that it is a strongly divergent member of the “robustus lineage”, i.e., basal to the clade encompassing Rhodnius nasutus , Rhodnius neglectus , Rhodnius prolixus and five members of the R. robustus species complex. Morphometric analyses also reveal consistent divergence from R. robustus s.l. , including head and, as previously shown, wing shape and the length ratios of some anatomical structures. R. barretti occurs, often at high densities, in Attalea butyracea and Oenocarpus bataua palms. It is strikingly aggressive and adults may invade houses flying from peridomestic palms. R. barretti must therefore be regarded as a potential Trypanosoma cruzi vector in the Napo ecoregion, where Chagas disease is endemic. PMID:24473808

  8. Vital Statistics of Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Under Laboratory Conditions: IV. Panstrongylus geniculatus.

    PubMed

    Rabinovich, Jorge Eduardo; Feliciangeli, M Dora

    2015-09-01

    A cohort of 100 eggs of Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille) was reared in the laboratory under constant conditions (temperature 26 ± 1°C, 60 ± 10% RH), with mortality and fecundity data recorded weekly. We calculated stage-specific development times, age-specific mortality and fecundity (18.4 eggs/♀/wk), and stage-specific and total preadult mortality (31.6%), and the weekly intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(o) = 0.096), the finite population growth rate (λ = 1.109), the net reproductive rate (R(0) = 60.45), and the generation time (T = 46.34 wk). Elasticity analysis showed that the dominant life-history trait determining λ was survival (particularly the adult female's survival). Adult females dominated the stage-specific reproductive value, and the egg stage dominated the stable stage distribution (SSD). The damping ratio (ρ = 1.096) suggests a relatively rapid period of recovery to a disturbed SSD. Results were compared with one previous study and conform relatively well, considering that environmental conditions were not the same. We estimated the colonizing ability of P. geniculatus, using as a criterion the ro/b index, and obtained the value of 0.74, an indicator of a good colonizer, and similar to well-known invasive species such as Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma infestans. The life history traits and demographic parameters here presented for P. geniculatus are discussed in terms of their usefulness for evolutionary studies and vector control activities. PMID:26336251

  9. Triatoma jatai sp. nov. in the state of Tocantins, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Teves-Neves, Simone Caldas; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; Carbajal-de-la-Fuente, Ana Laura; Lopes, Catarina Macedo

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma jatai sp. nov. is the first new species of triatomine to be described in the state of Tocantins, in the northern region of Brazil. It was caught on rock outcrops in the wild environment and, more recently, invading homes. While T. jatai sp. nov. is morphologically similar to Triatoma costalimai, it is distinguished by its general colouring, differences in the blotches on the connexivum, wing size in females and external structures of the male genitalia. The type series has been deposited in the Entomological Collection and Herman Lent Collection, Oswaldo Cruz Institute-Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. PMID:23828010

  10. Reproductive Biology of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Triatominae) During the Imaginal Molt.

    PubMed

    Alevi, Kaio Cesar Chaboli; Guerra, Ana Letícia; Imperador, Carlos Henrique Lima; da Rosa, João Aristeu; de Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília Vilela

    2016-03-01

    The triatomines are vectors of the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease. These insects are sexually active after the imaginal molt. Some aspects have been studied in Triatoma brasiliensis during the imaginal molt, such as autogeny in virgin females and the relationship between blood ingestion by fifth instar nymph and the realization of the imaginal molt. Thus, to aid in the understanding of reproductive biology and developmental physiology of these vectors, this article analyzes the spermatogenesis of T. brasiliensis during the imaginal molt. The analysis of the seminiferous tubules from males in the fifth instar during imaginal molt has demonstrated that T. brasiliensis has only a few spermatids and a plentiful quantity of sperm. Thus, we suggest that during imaginal molt the cell division is disrupted aiming to reduce energy costs and the differentiation into sperm is stimulated to ensure the paternity of the adult male. PMID:26787143

  11. Repellency of DEET, picaridin, and three essential oils to Triatoma rubida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Terriquez, J A; Klotz, S A; Meister, E A; Klotz, J H; Schmidt, J O

    2013-05-01

    The kissing bug, Triatoma rubida (Uhler) is a common hematophagous bug in Tucson, AZ, and is responsible for causing severe allergic reactions in some bitten individuals. DEET, picaridin, tea tree oil, peppermint oil, and citronella oil were tested for repellency to T. rubida and its ability to probe and feed on a small restrained rat. No long range repellency was observed with any of the test materials. The lowest repellent concentrations observed were: 10% DEET, 7% picaridin; 30% tea tree oil, 3.3% peppermint oil, and 0.165% citronella oil. Only citronella oil was able to stop all probing and feeding by T. rubida. Citronella oil appears to be a promising potential repellent to prevent sleeping people from being bitten by kissing bugs. PMID:23802464

  12. Cytotaxonomy of the Brasiliensis subcomplex and the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Alevi, Kaio C C; Rosa, João A; Azeredo-Oliveira, Maria Tercília V

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the classical cytotaxonomy of the Brasiliensis subcomplex (Triatoma brasiliensis Neiva, T. juazeirensis Costa & Felix, T. melanica Costa, Argolo & Felix, T. melanocephala Neiva & Pinto, T. petrochiae Pinto & Barreto, T. lenti Sherlock & Serafim, T. sherlocki Papa, Jurberg, Carcavallo, Cerqueira & Barata, T. tibiamaculata Pinto and T. vitticeps Stal) and the T. brasiliensis complex (T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma Neiva & Lent, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica and T. sherlocki). The five members of the T. brasiliensis complex share the same cytogenetic characteristics. Merely T. sherlocki show differences in spermatids, which confirms the status of more differentiated member of the complex. T. lenti also presented the same cytogenetic characteristics described for the species of the T. brasiliensis complex, which supports possible grouping of the species as sixth member of the complex, although further analysis as molecular and experimental crosses are needed to corroborate this hypothesis. T. petrochiae, T. vitticeps, T. tibiamaculata and T. melanocephala presented one or more characteristics that allow questioning grouping in the proposed Brasiliensis subcomplex. Thus, we suggested that Brasiliensis subcomplex and T. brasiliensis complex should be constituted by the same triatomines (T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, T. juazeirensis, T. melanica and T. sherlocki). However, we draw attention to T. lenti and suggest that although new analyzes should be performed, possibly this species is the sixth member of the T. brasiliensis complex.  PMID:25081800

  13. Ecotopes, natural infection and trophic resources of Triatoma brasiliensis (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Costa, J; de Almeida, J R; Britto, C; Duarte, R; Marchon-Silva, V; Pacheco, R da S

    1998-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis is considered as one of the most important Chagas disease vectors in the northeastern Brazil. This species presents chromatic variations which led to descriptions of subspecies, synonymized by Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979). In order to broaden bionomic knowledge of these distinct colour patterns of T. brasiliensis, captures were performed at different sites, where the chromatic patterns were described: Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte (T. brasiliensis brasiliensis Neiva, 1911), it will be called the "brasiliensis population"; Espinosa, Minas Gerais (T. brasiliensis melanica Neiva & Lent 1941), the "melanica population" and Petrolina, Pernambuco (T. brasiliensis macromelasoma, Galvão 1956), the "macromelasoma population". A fourth chromatic pattern was collected in Juazeiro, Bahia the darker one in overall cuticle coloration, the "Juazeiro population". At the sites of Caicó, Petrolina and Juazeiro, specimens were captured in peridomiciliar ecotopes and in wilderness. In Espinosa the specimens were collected only in wilderness, even though several exhaustive captures have been performed in peridomicile at different sites of this municipality. A total of 298 specimens were captured. The average registered infection rate was 15% for "brasiliensis population" and of 6.6% for "melanica population". Specimens of "macromelasoma" and of "Juazeiro populations" did not present natural infection. Concerning trophic resources, evaluated by the precipitin test, feeding eclecticism for the different colour patterns studied was observed, with dominance of goat blood in household surroundings as well as in wilderness. PMID:9698835

  14. Structures and properties of vitellin isolated from Triatominae species.

    PubMed

    Fichera, L E; Salomón, O D; Stoka, A M

    1991-01-01

    A comparative study was conducted on the molecular weight, chemical composition, and immunological identity of vitellin (VN) from Triatominae species. VN is a lipoglycophosprotein: 12.76% carbohydrates, 12.53% lipids, and 0.6% phosphorus of the protein mass. Native VN shows one band of 310 kDa by gel filtration. VN shows a main band of 175 kDa by SDS-PAGE coincident with a vitellogenin (VG) band. Amino acid composition was very similar in the four species tested: T.infestans, T.pallidipennis, R.prolixus and D.maximus. T.infestans VN-VG has a total immunological identity with D.maximus female haemolymph and egg homogenates. PMID:1844146

  15. Triatominae Survey (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in the South-Central Region of the State of Bahia, Brazil between 2008 and 2013

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Vagner José; de Oliveira, Jader; Rimoldi, Aline; Filho, Júlio C. R. Ferreira; de Araújo, Renato Freitas; da Rosa, JoãoAristeu

    2015-01-01

    Triatomine surveillance in rural areas, artificial ecotypes, and natural ecotopes of the cities of Caturama, Ibipitanga, Macaúbas, and Seabra in the south-central region of the Brazilian state of Bahia was carried out between 2008 and 2013. Natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated in the specimens collected to monitor vectors of Chagas disease. A total of 1,357 specimens were collected, and four species were identified: Triatoma sordida (83%), Triatoma lenti (16.4%), Triatoma pseudomaculata (0.5%), and Panstrongylus geniculatus (0.1%). Triatoma sordida was found in four cities, only 0.7% in intradomiciliary environments. Triatoma lenti was found only in Macaúbas; 8.5% were found in intradomiciliary environments, 88.3% in peridomiciliary environments, and 3.1% in sylvatic environments. Natural infection by T. cruzi was 0.5% for T. sordida and 3.1% T. lenti. All of these cases were found in peridomiciliary environments of Macaúbas. As the results show, triatomines were found in intradomiciliary environments in three cities that were surveyed in the south-central region of the state of Bahia. Thus, an epidemiologic survey should be performed to avoid the risk of transmission to the population. PMID:25802433

  16. Large-scale patterns in morphological diversity and species assemblages in Neotropical Triatominae (Heteroptera: Reduviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Fergnani, Paula Nilda; Ruggiero, Adriana; Ceccarelli, Soledad; Menu, Frédéric; Rabinovich, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    We analysed the spatial variation in morphological diversity (MDiv) and species richness (SR) for 91 species of Neotropical Triatominae to determine the ecological relationships between SR and MDiv and to explore the roles that climate, productivity, environmental heterogeneity and the presence of biomes and rivers may play in the structuring of species assemblages. For each 110 km x 110 km-cell on a grid map of America, we determined the number of species (SR) and estimated the mean Gower index (MDiv) based on 12 morphological attributes. We performed bootstrapping analyses of species assemblages to identify whether those assemblages were more similar or dissimilar in their morphology than expected by chance. We applied a multi-model selection procedure and spatial explicit analyses to account for the association of diversity-environment relationships. MDiv and SR both showed a latitudinal gradient, although each peaked at different locations and were thus not strictly spatially congruent. SR decreased with temperature variability and MDiv increased with mean temperature, suggesting a predominant role for ambient energy in determining Triatominae diversity. Species that were more similar than expected by chance co-occurred near the limits of the Triatominae distribution in association with changes in environmental variables. Environmental filtering may underlie the structuring of species assemblages near their distributional limits. PMID:24402152

  17. Triatominae Biochemistry Goes to School: Evaluation of a Novel Tool for Teaching Basic Biochemical Concepts of Chagas Disease Vectors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; de Oliveria Cudischevitch, Cecília; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; da Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of "Trypanosoma cruzi," the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information…

  18. Molecular Evidence of Demographic Expansion of the Chagas Disease Vector Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Palacio, Andrés; Triana, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Background Triatoma dimidiata is one of the most significant vectors of Chagas disease in Central America and Colombia, and, as in most species, its pattern of genetic variation within and among populations is strongly affected by its phylogeographic history. A putative origin from Central America has been proposed for Colombian populations, and high genetic differentiation among three biographically different population groups has recently been evidenced. Analyses based on putatively neutral markers provide data from which past events, such as population expansions and colonization, can be inferred. We analyzed the genealogies of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 4 (ND4) and the cytochrome oxidase subunit 1-mitochondrial genes, as well as partial nuclear ITS-2 DNA sequences obtained across most of the eco-geographical range in Colombia, to assess the population structure and demographic factors that may explain the geographical distribution of T. dimidiata in this country. Results The population structure results support a significant association between genetic divergence and the eco-geographical location of population groups, suggesting that clear signals of demographic expansion can explain the geographical distribution of haplotypes of population groups. Additionally, empirical date estimation of the event suggests that the population's expansion can be placed after the emergence of the Panama Isthmus, and that it was possibly followed by a population fragmentation process, perhaps resulting from local adaptation accomplished by orographic factors such as geographical isolation. Conclusion Inferences about the historical population processes in Colombian T. dimidiata populations are generally in accordance with population expansions that may have been accomplished by two important biotic and orographic events such as the Great American Interchange and the uplift of the eastern range of the Andes mountains in central Colombia. PMID:24625572

  19. Influence of the palm tree species on the variability of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Paula, Alexandre Silva de; Belisário, Carlota Josefovicz; Lorenzo, Marcelo Gustavo; Bezerra, Cláudia Mendonça; Harry, Myriam; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2011-07-01

    This work evaluated the occurrence and genetic structure of Rhodnius nasutus sampled in two sites using morphometry and microsatellites. These sites, presented distinct abiotic features and palm trees: (i) nine Attalea speciosa palm trees, so called babaçu, were sampled from the Meruoca Mountain Ridge, a sloping region of reminiscent forest in the state of Ceará, Brazil, and (ii) 17 Copernicia prunifera palm trees, so called carnaúba, were sampled in the scrub savanna region (Sobral district) that surrounds the mountain ridge. Of the twenty-six palm trees dissected, 70.6% of carnauba and 88.9% of babaçu were infested by R. nasutus. The micro-climatic data where R. nasutus were sheltered demonstrated that the babaçu and carnaúba palm trees presented significant differences (p < 0.05) in relation to the external environment, except for temperature and relative humidity regulation, suggesting that the architecture of the babaçu crown keeps a more stable micro-environment. The morphometric studies of the F1 generation demonstrated that insects from the babaçu (A. speciosa) were significantly larger (p = 0.000) than those collected in carnaúba (C. prunifera) palm trees. Also, microsatellite analysis demonstrated a high genetic differentiation between the two groups of R. nasutus (R(st) = -0.77). Our results suggest that the difference in size between the populations is probably related to an incipient process of genetic drift in populations associated to each palm tree, probably also driven by the different climatic features observed in these micro-environments. PMID:21335104

  20. New record and cytogenetic analysis of Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from Bahia State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J; Alevi, K C C; Fonseca, E O L; Souza, O M F; Santos, C G S; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V; da Rosa, J A

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the first occurrence of Psammolestes tertius in the Chapada Diamantina region, located in the city of Seabra, Bahia State, in northeastern Brazil. Following an active search, 24 P. tertius specimens were collected from Phacellodomus rufifrons (rufous-fronted thornbird) nests. The insects did not present any symptoms of infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. P. tertius males were cytogenetically analyzed, and the results were compared with those of other specimens from the Brazilian State of Ceará. Triatomines from both locations presented the same cytogenetic characteristics: 22 chromosomes, little variation in the size of the autosomes, Y chromosomes that were larger than the X chromosomes, a chromocenter formed only by the sex chromosomes during prophase, and autosomes lacking constitutive heterochromatin. However, it is important to note that this species shows intraspecific chromosomal variation. In light of the results obtained, it is recommended that more studies be performed to characterize P. tertius. These studies will be particularly helpful in understanding this species in ecological, biological, biogeographical, and phylogenetic terms. PMID:27420943

  1. Repellency of the Components of the Essential Oil, Citronella, to Triatoma rubida, Triatoma protracta, and Triatoma recurva (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae).

    PubMed

    Zamora, D; Klotz, S A; Meister, E A; Schmidt, J O

    2015-07-01

    The kissing bugs--Triatoma rubida (Uhler), Triatoma protracta (Uhler), and Triatoma recurva (Stal)--are common hematophagous bugs in southeastern Arizona and responsible for severe allergic reactions in some individuals who are bitten. They also possess the potential to transmit the blood parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi. We previously found the essential oil, citronella, to be an excellent deterrent of feeding of T. rubida on a restrained mouse. In this work, we tested major components--alcohols, aldehydes, and monoterpenes--of citronella oil for repellency against the three common triatome species endemic in southern Arizona. The following citronella oil components--geraniol, citronellol, limonene, and citronellal--in different concentrations and combinations were tested. All components of citronella oil demonstrated some inhibition of feeding, ranging from very weak inhibition (limonene) to significant inhibition (geraniol and citronellol). A mixture of geraniol and citronellol was found to be repellant at concentrations of .165 and .165 vol%, respectively, for all three triatome species. Citronellal and limonene had no significant repellent activity. The repellent activity of citronella oil appears to be acting through direct contact with the bugs rather than diffusion of vapors. PMID:26335480

  2. Triatominae species of Suriname (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) and their role as vectors of Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Hiwat, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Nine species of Triatominae, representing three tribes and five genera, are currently known in Suriname. An annotated list of the species based on the collections of the Bureau of Public Health (Suriname), the National Zoological Collection Suriname and the National History Museum Leiden (the Netherlands) is provided. Additionally, the results of several years of opportunistic collection in two domestic environments are presented. The most common species are Rhodnius pictipes Stål, 1972, Rhodnius robustus Larrouse, 1972 and Panstrongylus geniculatus (Latreille, 1811). The significance of the species as vectors of Chagas disease in Suriname is discussed. PMID:25004146

  3. Minute pirate bugs (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pirate bugs (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) are important sources of biological control of pests in orchards, vegetable crops, forests, on ornamental plants, and in greenhouses. The systematics and biology of the Anthocoridae is briefly reviewed, and information on life history, systematics and taxon...

  4. Insecticidal activity of cerrado plant extracts on Rhodnius milesi Carcavallo, Rocha, Galvão & Jurberg (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Coelho, André A M; de Paula, José E; Espíndola, Laila S

    2006-01-01

    Chagas' disease is chiefly transmitted by feces of haematophagous bugs (Triatominae) that ingested Trypanosoma cruzi from blood of infected people or animals. Pyrethroids have been the main insecticides used against these insects. However, some populations of insects have shown significant levels of resistance to several pyrethroids, indicating the need of new insecticides for the control of triatomines. Insecticidal activity of 24 Cerrado plant extracts belonging to five species of four families were assayed on fourth instar nymphs of Rhodnius milesi Carcavallo, Rocha, Galvão & Jurberg (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), under laboratory conditions. For the extract application on triatomines, 50 microg of the extract were topically applied in duplicate on dorsal tergites of ten insects. Insects topically treated with acetone, ethanol, as well as insects with no treatment were used as controls. Triatomines were observed over a 28-day period. Hexanic and ethanolic extracts of Simarouba versicolor, Guarea kunthiana, Guarea guidonia and Talauma ovata caused mortality between 20% and 95% of R. milesi in comparison with the controls, which showed no insect mortality. These preliminary data suggest that the ethanolic extract of the root bark of S. versicolor and the hexanic extract of the root of G. guidonia, responsible for a 95% and 75% insect mortality, respectively, should be chemically investigated and monitored through biological assays in order to determine their insecticidal components, that could be used as a molecular model or as biorational compounds for use in insect control programmes. PMID:17352079

  5. Gender- and species-specific characteristics of bacteriomes from three psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psyllids (Hemiptera: Pyslloidea) harbor bacterial symbionts in specialized organs called bacteriomes. Bacteriomes may be subject to manipulation to control psyllid pests including Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) if the bi...

  6. Triatominae biochemistry goes to school: evaluation of a novel tool for teaching basic biochemical concepts of Chagas disease vectors.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Leonardo Rodrigues; Cudischevitch, Cecília de Oliveira; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Macedo, Gustavo Bartholomeu; Lannes, Denise; Silva-Neto, Mário Alberto Cardoso da

    2014-01-01

    We evaluate a new approach to teaching the basic biochemistry mechanisms that regulate the biology of Triatominae, major vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. We have designed and used a comic book, "Carlos Chagas: 100 years after a hero's discovery" containing scientific information obtained by seven distinguished contemporary Brazilian researchers working with Triatominaes. Students (22) in the seventh grade of a public elementary school received the comic book. The study was then followed up by the use of Concept Maps elaborated by the students. Six Concept Maps elaborated by the students before the introduction of the comic book received an average score of 7. Scores rose to an average of 45 after the introduction of the comic book. This result suggests that a more attractive content can greatly improve the knowledge and conceptual understanding among students not previously exposed to insect biochemistry. In conclusion, this study illustrates an alternative to current strategies of teaching about the transmission of neglected diseases. It also promotes the diffusion of the scientific knowledge produced by Brazilian researchers that may stimulate students to choose a scientific career. PMID:24687369

  7. Abundance and nightly activity behavior of a sylvan population of Triatoma dimidiata (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) from the Yucatan, México.

    PubMed

    Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Reyes-Villanueva, Filiberto; Escobedo-Ortegón, Javier; Balam-Briceño, Paola; May-Concha, Irving

    2009-12-01

    Triatoma dimidiata is the vector of Trypanosoma cruzi in the Yucatan Peninsula (YP). Earlier studies have shown that domestic and peri-domestic populations of the vector originated from the sylvan stock and that effectiveness of insecticide-spraying was affected by re-infestations of houses from the sylvan T. dimidiata population. In addition, in the YP most previously published reports have focused on domestic and peri-domestic populations and very little is known about the nocturnal behavior of the sylvan populations. The main aim of our study was to determine the nightly activity patterns of adult T. dimidiata in a selected location in the YP. Secondly, we sought to document the reproductive status and infection rate of active females. During eight sampling nights spaced from late March to late July, 2007, we collected 544 adult T. dimidiata. We found that square-cloth illuminated white traps were effective to attract the sylvan individuals and that T. dimidiata adults exhibited a unimodal activity pattern throughout the night. The accumulated mean of captured bugs also showed a non-linear distribution for females and males. Furthermore, we found that male and female catches were significantly correlated with the means of temperature and humidity recorded during the sampling period. Out of 46 dissected females, we observed that 43.5% of females had fully-formed eggs in their abdomens, and only two females (4.4%) had sperm within the spermatheca. The infection rate of T. dimidiata harboring T. cruzi was found to be 3.7%. The implications of the light attraction to bugs and potential dispersal capabilities are discussed in the paper in the context of infestation/re-infestation of rural houses by sylvan T. dimidiata flying adults. PMID:20836833

  8. Ecological aspects of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) in palms of the Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Bezerra, Cláudia Mendonça; Machado, Evandro Marques de Menezes; Casanova, Cláudio; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this work is to present aspects related to the ecology of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 in palms from Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil. The following five species of palms were investigated: babaçu (Attalea speciosa), buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), carnaúba (Copernicia prunifera), catolé (Syagrus oleracea) and macaúba-barriguda (Acrocomia intumescens). Fifth palms were dissected (10 specimens for each species). The overall infestation index was 86%, with a total of 521 triatomines collected. The Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 Index was 16.8% and two insects presented mixed infection with Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920. A precipitin test showed that R. nasutus from palms of Chapada do Araripe are associated with opossum and bird although other possible bloodmeals were observed. Our results showing a high index of infestation of the palms as well as T. cruzi infection, the association of R. nasutus with the most diverse species of palms and proximity of these palms to houses demonstrate the importance of this area for sylvatic T. cruzi transmission and suggest the need for epidemiological surveillance in the region of the Chapada do Araripe. PMID:19148424

  9. Ecology of Rhodnius robustus Larrousse, 1927 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in Attalea palm trees of the Tapajós River Region (Pará State, Brazilian Amazon)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The rising number of acute cases of Chagas disease in the State of Pará, reported in the past two decades, has been associated, in part, with the ingestion of juice of local palm tree fruits, mainly açaí berry and bacaba. Near the study area, in Santarém, Pará State, an outbreak of Chagas disease has been notified and investigations suggest the consumption of bacaba juice as the main source of infection with T. cruzi. The purpose of this study is to assess the aspects associated to the ecology of Rhodnius robustus in palm trees of three communities of the Tapajós region, in the State of Pará, Brazil. Methods Palm trees were cut down and dissected to search for triatomines. DNA from triatomines was extracted to investigate natural infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. rangeli. For statistical analyzes, data from infestation of palm trees, as well as the rates of natural infection by T. cruzi and T. rangeli were compared by Chi-square test. Triatomine density values were analyzed by the nonparametric Kruskal Wallis test and then comparisons between each pair of variables were made by the Mann–Whitney test assuming a confidence interval of 95%. Results We dissected 136 palm trees, 60 at the end of the rainy period and 76 at the end of the dry period. Seventy-three of them (53.7%) were infested with triatomines and three species were found, namely: Rhodnius robustus, Rhodnius pictipes and Panstrongylus lignarius. We collected 743 triatomines, and R. robustus was predominant (n = 739). The identification of natural infection of the insects by trypanosomatids revealed that 125 triatomines were infected by T. cruzi, 69 by T. rangeli and 14 presented both parasites, indicating the presence of mixed infection in the same vector. Conclusion The results suggest that São Tomé is the community with greater density of triatomines and infestation of palm trees; also, it demonstrates the existence of an intense sylvatic cycle in the region, which demands intensive surveillance to prevent human transmission. PMID:24690302

  10. Phylogenetic and phenotypic relationships among Triatoma carcavalloi (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) and related species collected in domiciles in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Marcet, Paula L; Gumiel, Marcia; Takiya, Daniela Maeda; Cardozo-de-Almeida, Margareth; Pacheco, Raquel S; Lopes, Catarina Macedo; Dotson, Ellen M; Costa, Jane

    2009-12-01

    Triatoma carcavalloi is considered a rare Chagas disease vector often collected inside domiciles in Rio Grande do Sul State. In this Brazilian state, T. carcavalloi has been collected in the same ecotope (rock piles) with two other species (T. rubrovaria and T. circummaculata), with which it also shares morphological characteristics. Previous morphological studies placed T. carcavalloi in the same species complex ("infestans complex") and subcomplex ("rubrovaria subcomplex") as T. rubrovaria, whereas T. circummaculata was placed in the "circummaculata complex." The phylogeny of a group composed of 16 species of triatomines was reevaluated with the inclusion of T. carcavalloi by Bayesian analysis using mtDNA sequences of subunits 12S and 16S of the ribosomal RNA, and the cytochrome oxidase I (COI) genes. The phenotypic relationship among T. carcavalloi and related triatomines was also inferred from morphometrics. Phylogenetic results indicate that T. carcavalloi is a sister species of T. rubrovaria, and both were recovered as closely related to T. circummaculata. Morphometric studies confirmed the closeness among T. carcavalloi, T. rubrovaria, and T. circummaculata, prompting the placement of the latter species in the "infestans complex" and "rubrovaria subcomplex." PMID:20836820

  11. Revalidation and redescription of Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma Galvão, 1956 and an identification key for the Triatoma brasiliensis complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Jane; Correia, Nathália Cordeiro; Neiva, Vanessa Lima; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina Monte; Felix, Márcio

    2013-01-01

    Triatoma brasiliensis macromelasoma is revalidated based on the results of previous multidisciplinary studies on the Triatoma brasiliensis complex, consisting of crossing experiments and morphological, biological, ecological and molecular analyses. These taxonomic tools showed the closest relationship between T. b. macromelasoma and Triatoma brasiliensis brasiliensis. T. b. macromelasoma is redescribed based on specimens collected in the type locality and specimens from a F1 colony. The complex now comprises T. b. brasiliensis, T. b. macromelasoma, Triatoma melanica, Triatoma juazeirensis and Triatoma sherlocki. An identification key for all members of the complex is presented. This detailed comparative study of the morphological features of T. b. macromelasoma and the remaining members of the complex corroborates results from multidisciplinary analyses, suggesting that the subspecific status is applicable. This subspecies can be distinguished by the following combination of features: a pronotum with 1+1 narrow brownish-yellow stripes on the submedian carinae, not attaining its apex, hemelytra with membrane cells darkened on the central portion and legs with an incomplete brownish-yellow ring on the apical half of the femora. Because the T. brasiliensis complex is of distinct epidemiological importance throughout its geographic distribution, a precise identification of its five members is important for monitoring and controlling actions against Chagas disease transmission. PMID:24037202

  12. Sex Attraction in Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera (= Paratrioza) cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potato. We examined the role of chemical signals in sex attraction, assessing male and female response to male- and female-produced volatile chemicals. In laboratory olfactometer assays, pot...

  13. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  14. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) in Argentina

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, and Platygastridae) of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Argentina are reviewed and keyed. Newly described are Anagrus (Anagrus) empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. n. (Mymaridae, parasitoid of M. scutellaris Berg on water hyacinth, Eichhornia cras...

  15. The Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) as a pest in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) has many common names including sweetpotato whitefly, silverleaf whitefly, tobacco whitefly, tomato whitefly, and cassava whitefly. It is an important global pest of numerous field and greenhouse agricultural crops. It damages plants from its fee...

  16. Metagenomics of Glassy-winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three new insect-infecting viruses, three endosymbiotic bacteria, a fungus, and a bacterial phage were discovered using a metagenomics approach to identify unknown organisms that live in association with the sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The genetic composition of ...

  17. Metagenomics of Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Metagenomics approach was used to identify unknown organisms which live in association with the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Metagenomics combines molecular biology and genetics to identify, and characterize genetic material from unique biological ...

  18. Molecular phylogeny of the assassin bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), based on mitochondrial and nuclear ribosomal genes.

    PubMed

    Weirauch, Christiane; Munro, James B

    2009-10-01

    The first comprehensive cladistic analysis of Reduviidae, the assassin bugs, based on molecular data is presented and discussed in the context of a recently-published morphological analysis. Assassin bugs are essential components of ecosystems, but also important in agriculture and medicine. Sampling included 94 taxa (89 Reduviidae, 5 outgroups) in 15 subfamilies and 24 tribes of Reduviidae and is based on approximately 3300 base pairs of mitochondrial (16S) and nuclear (18S, 28SD2, 28SD3-5) ribosomal DNA. Partitions of the dataset were aligned using different algorithms implemented in MAFFT and the combined dataset was analyzed using parsimony, partitioned maximum likelihood and partitioned Bayesian criteria. Clades recovered in all analyses, independent of alignment and analytical method, comprise: Cimicomorpha and Reduviidae; Hammacerinae; Harpactorinae; Apiomerini; Peiratinae; Phymatinae; Salyavatinae; Triatominae; Phymatinae+Holoptilinae; the higher Reduviidae (Reduviidae excluding Hammacerinae and the Phymatine Complex); Ectrichodiinae+Tribelocephalinae; (Triatominae+Zelurus)+Stenopodainae. Hammacerinae are rejected as sister group to all remaining Reduviidae in all analyses, as is the monophyly of Reduviinae, Emesinae and Harpactorini. High support values for Triatominae imply that blood-feeding has evolved only once within Reduviidae. Stenopodainae and part of Reduviinae are discussed as close relatives to Triatominae. PMID:19531379

  19. A Molecular Phylogeny of Hemiptera Inferred from Mitochondrial Genome Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Song, Nan; Liang, Ai-Ping; Bu, Cui-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha),Cicadomorpha),Heteroptera), and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes) demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses. PMID:23144967

  20. Actividad Solar Desde EL Espacio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. Se describen los principales descubrimientos realizados por los arti+iciales con instrumentos dedicados a la observaci6n del Sol, durante los dos ultimos ciclos de su acti vi dad. La observaci6n el espacio ha permitido cubrir todas las zonas del espectro no observables desde tierra1 desde el ultravioleta hasta la radiaci6n gamma. Se hace referencia, en particular, a los resultados producidos por los dos grandes observatorios: el Skylab y el SMM. Este ultimo incluy6 un conjunto de instrumentos especialmente coordinados para observar en detalle las fulguraciones solares. Es un resumen para astr6nomos no especializados en la fisica solar, en el que se muestra que la gran riqueza del material observacional acumulado ha resuelto problemas preexistentes y, al mismo tiempo, ha abierto numerosos interrogantes a los que se buscar respuesta con la instrumentaci6n en desarrollo. Finalmente, se mencionan las caracteristicas de los proyectados para la pr6xima decada. : The main discoveries performed by artificial satellites instrumented for the observation of the Sun, during the last two cycles of its activity, are described. The space observations allowed of almost all the spectral regions which are not observable from the ground, from the ultraviolet to the gamma radiation. In particular, we ref er' to the two large solar space observatories: the Skylab and the SMM. The last one included a set 0+ coordinated instruments to observe in detail the solar flares. This is a summary for astronomers not dedicated to solar physics, where we show that the of observational material have solv# d many of the preexistent problems but, at the ame time, it opened many new questions to which the improved instrumentation will try to answer. , the characteristics of the satellites planned the next decade are mentioned. Key : SUN-ACTIVITY - SUN-CORONA - SUN-X-RAYS

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from Guangzhou, China is presented. The circular mitogenome is 14,996 bp in length with an A+T content of 74.5%, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes ...

  2. Redescription of Dardjilingia Yang (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Salini, S

    2016-01-01

    The genus Dardjilingia Yang, 1936 (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Lestonocorini), comprising a single species, Dardjilingia nigriventris Yang, 1936, is redescribed and illustrated, including the descriptions of male and female genitalia for the first time. The genus Dardjilingia is removed from the present tribe Lestonocorini. PMID:27470843

  3. Essential oils as fumigants for bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Petri dish assays, fumigation of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) with various essential oils resulted in mortality that approached or equaled 100%, after 5 days. However, when bed bugs were exposed to the same essential oils in sealed, comme...

  4. Pan trapping soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) using attractants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since it’s introduction into the United States in the past ten years, the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has been a damaging pest to soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Predicting their arrival in a soybean field on a year-by-year basis has been difficult as little is ...

  5. Megamelus bellicus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae): immature stages and biology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The immature stages of Megamelus bellicus Remes Lenicov & Sosa (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) are described, keyed and illustrated. The descritpion of each stage was based on 24-h hatched nymphs from the laboratory colony. The main characters that distinguish the various stages are body size, color, number...

  6. Developing resistance for watermelon against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Host plant resistance is a fundamental component of crop sustainability. The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a key pest of many crops around the world. It is adaptive to its environment and feeds on an impressive (over 1,000) number of plant species. Watermelon (Cit...

  7. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Corn Farmscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of cotton across the southeastern U.S., however, little is known concerning its spatial distribution in corn fields of this region. It is likely that the proximity of other adjacent row crops, i.e., cotton an...

  8. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. ...

  9. Development of DNA barcodes of genus Lygus Hahn (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an important group of insects that contains 43 known species worldwide. Some species within this genus are important agricultural pests in North America. Annual economic impacts in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L., from Lygus spp. due to yield losses and control ...

  10. Release and establishment of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megamelus scutellaris (Berg) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) was recently developed as a classical biological control agent for waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. Solms, and released in Florida. Releases were conducted at 10 sites around the state every 4-6 weeks until late fall then halted until t...

  11. Vibrational communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the substrate-borne vibrational signals used in communication between the sexes in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a vector of huanglongbing (an economically devastating disease of citrus), in an anechoic chamber and an olfactometer. Males and females both primarily pro...

  12. DNA Barcodes for Nearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    PubMed Central

    Foottit, Robert G.; Maw, Eric; Hebert, P. D. N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5′ region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. Methodology/Principal Findings Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. Conclusions/Significance This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage. PMID:25004106

  13. Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Culik, Mark P.; Martins, David S.; Ventura, José A.; Wolff, Vera S.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-seven species of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are newly recorded from Espírito Santo, Brazil, and information on the host plants and geographic distribution of the 31 species of Diaspididae that have been identified in the State is provided. New plant host records are reported for 11 of the diaspidid species studied and results are discussed with respect to development of agriculture in this and similar areas with objectives of modernization and diversification. PMID:20337558

  14. Photosharing websites may improve Hemiptera biodiversity knowledge and conservation

    PubMed Central

    Goula, Marta; Sesma, José-Manuel; Vivas, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Internet photosharing websites is a very recent and powerful tool for the study of biodiversity, and a meeting point of general public fond of nature and professional naturalists. The article discusses when an uploaded picture is scientifically valuable, and the benefits of structured hosting websites for the most fruitful information retrieval. Examples are given of faunistic, biological, ecological and conservation results concerning Hemiptera provided by information download from photosharing websites. PMID:24003310

  15. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera, Adelgidae)

    PubMed Central

    Favret, Colin; Havill, Nathan P.; Miller, Gary L.; Sano, Masakazu; Victor, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic and nomenclatural Catalogue of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are subjectively valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. One hundred and six species-group names are listed, of which 70 are considered subjectively valid. PMID:26668546

  16. Highlights on DESD Progress to Date

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This brief report, delivered after the completion of the 1st year of the United Nations (UN) Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) (2005-2014), highlights the recent developments regarding the Decade (2005). It reports on the documents prepared, the regional and national launches of the Decade held so far and presents relevant…

  17. Jumping performance of planthoppers (Hemiptera, Issidae).

    PubMed

    Burrows, Malcolm

    2009-09-01

    The structure of the hind limbs and the kinematics of their movements that propel jumping in planthopper insects (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoroidea, Issidae) were analysed. The propulsion for a jump was delivered by rapid movements of the hind legs that both move in the same plane beneath the body and parallel to its longitudinal axis, as revealed in high-speed sequences of images captured at rates up to 7500 images s(-1). The first and key movement was the depression of both trochantera about their coxae, powered by large depressor muscles in the thorax, accompanied by rapid extension of the tibiae about their femora. The initial movements of the two trochantera of the hind legs were synchronised to within 0.03 ms. The hind legs are only 20% longer than the front and middle legs, represent 65% of the body length, and have a ratio of 1.8 relative to the cube root of the body mass. The two hind coxae have a different structure to those in frog- and leafhoppers. They are fused at the mid-line, covered ventrally by transparent cuticle, and each is fixed laterally to a part of the internal skeleton called the pleural arch that extends to the articulation of a hind wing. A small and pointed, ventral coxal protrusion covered in microtrichia engages with a raised, smooth, white patch on a dorsal femur when a hind leg is levated (cocked) in preparation for a jump. In the best jumps by a male Issus, the body was accelerated in 0.8 ms to a take-off velocity of 5.5 m s(-1), was subjected to a force of 719 g and was displaced a horizontal distance of 1.1 m. This performance required an energy output of 303 microJ, a power output of 388 mW and exerted a force of 141 mN, or more than 700 times its body mass. This performance implies that a catapult mechanism must be used, and that Issus ranks alongside the froghopper Philaenus as one of the best insect jumpers. PMID:19684220

  18. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Aphids (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare aphid specimens on microscope slides for examination and indentification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen clear...

  19. Casuarinacola, a new genus of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae) from Casuarina (Casuarinaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new genus, Casuarinacola comprising four new species, namely C. equisetifoliae, C. acutialata, C. melanomaculata and C. warrigalensis, of jumping plant lice (Hemiptera: Triozidae), specific to the host genus Casuarina sensu stricto (Casuarinaceae) from Australia, are described. They are characteri...

  20. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Whiteflies (Insecta: Hemiptera: Alyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of whiteflies (Hemiptera:Alyrodidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare whitefly specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, specimen...

  1. Preparing sternorrhynchous insects (Insecta: Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) for microscope examination: Hoyer’s mounting medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of aphids, scale insects, psyllids, and whitefles (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare sternorrhynchous specimens on microscope slides for examination and identi...

  2. Young citrus leaves decrease dispersal distance of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To manage citrus Huanglongbing, understanding factors that affect dispersal behavior of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is required to answer questions related to disease epidemiology and to improve management tactics. Currently, little is known about cues medi...

  3. Application of plant growth regulators mitigates chlorotic foliar injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chlorotic feeding injury by the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), to pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch) foliage can result in leaf senescence and abscission. The plant growth regulators chlorforfenuron (CPPU), gibberellic acid (GA3) and aminoet...

  4. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mealybugs (Insects: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mealybug specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, spec...

  5. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Armored Scales (Insects: Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of armored scales (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare armored scales specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collect...

  6. Variation in male and female genitalia among ten species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We compared morphology of internal reproductive anatomy and genitalia among 10 species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Reproductive structures of males, including internal reproductive organs (testes, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory bulb, phallus), the left parame...

  7. Susceptibility of immature stages of Homalodisca coagulata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) to selected insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Susceptibility of immatures of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), to 10 insecticides that included chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, endosulfan, bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, esfenvalerate, fenpropathrin, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam was evaluated...

  8. Egg parasitoids of Taosa spp. (Hemiptera:Dictyopharidae)in Formosa Argentina with descriptions of new species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Egg parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae and Platygastridae) of Taosa (Cuernavaca) longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) are reviewed and keyed. This planthopper feeds on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach, and was collected in Formosa, Argentina, where some of ...

  9. Evolutionary history of assassin bugs (insecta: hemiptera: Reduviidae): insights from divergence dating and ancestral state reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Wei Song; Weirauch, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp.) and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies) to date based on molecular data (5 markers). This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11-14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma), but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma). The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of reduviids and clears

  10. Evolutionary History of Assassin Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): Insights from Divergence Dating and Ancestral State Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Wei Song; Weirauch, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Assassin bugs are one of the most successful clades of predatory animals based on their species numbers (∼6,800 spp.) and wide distribution in terrestrial ecosystems. Various novel prey capture strategies and remarkable prey specializations contribute to their appeal as a model to study evolutionary pathways involved in predation. Here, we reconstruct the most comprehensive reduviid phylogeny (178 taxa, 18 subfamilies) to date based on molecular data (5 markers). This phylogeny tests current hypotheses on reduviid relationships emphasizing the polyphyletic Reduviinae and the blood-feeding, disease-vectoring Triatominae, and allows us, for the first time in assassin bugs, to reconstruct ancestral states of prey associations and microhabitats. Using a fossil-calibrated molecular tree, we estimated divergence times for key events in the evolutionary history of Reduviidae. Our results indicate that the polyphyletic Reduviinae fall into 11–14 separate clades. Triatominae are paraphyletic with respect to the reduviine genus Opisthacidius in the maximum likelihood analyses; this result is in contrast to prior hypotheses that found Triatominae to be monophyletic or polyphyletic and may be due to the more comprehensive taxon and character sampling in this study. The evolution of blood-feeding may thus have occurred once or twice independently among predatory assassin bugs. All prey specialists evolved from generalist ancestors, with multiple evolutionary origins of termite and ant specializations. A bark-associated life style on tree trunks is ancestral for most of the lineages of Higher Reduviidae; living on foliage has evolved at least six times independently. Reduviidae originated in the Middle Jurassic (178 Ma), but significant lineage diversification only began in the Late Cretaceous (97 Ma). The integration of molecular phylogenetics with fossil and life history data as presented in this paper provides insights into the evolutionary history of reduviids and clears

  11. New Midwestern state records of aquatic Hemiptera (Corixidae: Notonectidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chordas, Stephen W., III; Chapman, Eric G.; Hudson, Patrick L.; Chriscinske, Margret A.; Stewart, Richard L., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Recent aquatic Hemiptera collections have yielded 15 new state records distributed among four midwestern States. These records include two species of water boatmen (Palmacorixa gillettei and Sigara mathesoni) new for Indiana, four water boatmen species (Cenocorixa utahensis, Corisella inscripta, Hesperocorixa laevigata, S. decorata), including one genus (Cenocorixa) new for Michigan, four water boatmen species (Corisella edulis, Trichocorixa macroceps, S. decoratella, S. mathesoni) and one backswimmer species (Notonecta indica) new for Ohio, and four water boatmen species (H. kennicotti, H. semilucida, S. compressoidea, S. variabilis) new for Pennsylvania.

  12. Educational Ethics and the DESD: Considering Trade-Offs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The United Nation's Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) aims to prepare students for pressing economic and environmental problems. In this article, I argue that an exclusive emphasis on an ambiguous goal, sustainable development, raises important questions for educational ethics. Specifically, I argue that DESD mission…

  13. Complete mitochondrial genome of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunfei; Dai, Renhuai; Zhan, Hongping; Qu, Ling

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was sequenced. It is 15 309 bp in length with 75.62% (A + T) content and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding region (GenBank accession no. KR349344). Gene order is identical to that of the inferred ancestral insect genome. All PCGs start with an ATN codon and terminate with TAA except ND4, which has an incomplete stop codon (T). The anticodons are identical to those of Drosophila yakuba. The phylogenetic tree confirms D. nuchalis and two Cicadellidae species are clustered into a clade, and Cicadellidae is a monophyletic group and provides support for the sister relationship of leafhopper and treehopper. PMID:26436567

  14. Three new Asiatic species of Hyadaphis (Hemiptera, Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Nafría, Juan M Nieto; Hidalgo, Nicolas Pérez; Brown, Paul A

    2016-01-01

    Three new species of Hyadaphis Kirkaldy, 1904 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Macrosiphini) are established: Hyadaphis levantina sp. n. from specimens caught on Lonicera nummulariifolia from Lebanon and Israel, and Hyadaphis anethi sp. n. plus Hyadaphis parva sp. n. from specimens respectively caught on Anethum sp. and Andrachne (?) cordifolia from Pakistan. Apterous viviparous females of all three species, alate viviparae of the first two and males of H. anethi are described. Known and new species of Hyadaphis are grouped for two relevant characters: (1) size and shape of siphunculi, and (2) host plant and life cycle; and the discriminant features of apterous viviparous females of the new species are compared with the already described species of the same group and a key for the Hyadaphis species is provided. PMID:27394868

  15. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host. PMID:26957084

  16. Review of the family Veliidae in Romania (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha).

    PubMed

    Berchi, Gavril Marius; Kment, Petr

    2015-01-01

    A critical review of the family Veliidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerromorpha) in Romania is provided. In total, two genera and eight species (Microvelia Westwood, 1834-3 species, Velia Latreille, 1804-5 species) are known from the country. Microvelia buenoi Drake, 1920 and Velia serbica Tamanini, 1951 are recorded for the first time from Romania. The occurrence of V. affinis filippii Tamanini, 1947 and V. mancinii mancinii Tamanini, 1947 is confirmed by additional records. Based on proven or suspected misidentifications, V. currens (Fabricius, 1794) and V. rivulorum (Fabricius, 1775) are excluded from the Romanian fauna. A checklist of the Veliidae of Romania and updated distribution maps are provided. Biogeographical aspects of the fauna are summarized. PMID:26249393

  17. Do Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs use vibrational communication?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuche, Julien; Thiéry, Denis; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2011-07-01

    Small Auchenorrhyncha use substrate-borne vibrations to communicate. Although this behaviour is well known in adult leafhoppers, so far no studies have been published on nymphs. Here we checked the occurrence of vibrational communication in Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs as a possible explanation of their aggregative distributions on host plants. We studied possible vibratory emissions of isolated and grouped nymphs, as well as their behavioural responses to vibration stimuli that simulated presence of conspecifics, to disturbance noise, white noise and predator spiders. None of our synthetic stimuli or pre-recorded substrate vibrations from nymphs elicited specific vibration responses and only those due to grooming or mechanical contacts of the insect with the leaf were recorded. Thus, S. titanus nymphs showed to not use species-specific vibrations neither for intra- nor interspecific communication and also did not produce alarm vibrations when facing potential predators. We conclude that their aggregative behaviour is independent from a vibrational communication.

  18. Efficacy of insecticide residues on adult Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) mortality and injury in apple and peach orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary threat from Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) originates from populations continuously dispersing from and among wild and cultivated hosts. Many individuals may not come in contact with freshly applied insecticides, but only dried, aged residues. Limited information e...

  19. Optimal Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter) (Hemiptera:Anthocoridae) density and time of introduction for suppression of bruchid progeny in stored legumes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The influence of both predator density and elapsed time between initial infestation and introduction of predators were determined for suppression of bruchids infesting stored grain legumes by Xylocoris flavipes (Reuter)(Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). Suppression of Acanthoscelides obtectus approached er...

  20. Novel delivery of the fungi Paecilomyces formosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for managing the Asian citrus psyllid (Psyllidae: Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method was developed to increase efficacy and reduce grower costs when using the biological control fungal agent Paecilomyces fumosoroseus blastospores (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) to infect adult Asian citrus psyllids, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera). We analyzed the efficacy of this A...

  1. Heated controlled atmosphere postharvest treatments for Macchiademus diplopterus (Distant)(Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) and Phlyctinus callosus (Schoenherr)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Non-chemical, environmentally-friendly quarantine treatments are preferred for use in postharvest control of insect pests. Combined high temperature and controlled atmosphere quarantine treatments for phytosanitary fruit pests, Macchiademus diplopterus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) and Phlyctinus callosus ...

  2. Effect of insect density and host plant quality on wing-form in Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a South American species that feeds on waterhyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes Mart. (Solms). This species exhibits significant wing dimorphism whereby fully winged adults (macropters) are capable of flight while those with reduced wings (brachtypt...

  3. Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) infection and dissemination of the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae)under laboratory conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method was developed to increase efficacy and reduce grower costs when using the biological control fungal agent Paecilomyces fumosoroseus blastospores (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) to infect adult Asian citrus psyllids, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera). We analyzed the efficacy of this ‘...

  4. Novel delivery of the fungi Paecilomyces formosoroseus (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) for managing the Asian citrus psyllid (Psyllidae: Hemiptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method was developed to increase efficacy and reduce grower costs when using the biological control fungal agent Paecilomyces fumosoroseus blastospores (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) to infect adult Asian citrus psyllids, Diaphorina citri (Psyllidae: Hemiptera). We analyzed the efficacy of this ‘...

  5. Life table analysis and development of Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae) under different constant temperatures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a newly-invasive pest of ficus plants in the United States. Very little is known about its biology and life history. Here, we studied development and reproduction at 15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C. No immatures survived the 35°...

  6. Response of summerform pear psylla (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) to male- and female-produced odors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the role of chemical signals in sex attraction of pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), assessing response of summerform male and female psyllids to both male- and female-produced volatile chemicals. Male psyllids were attracted to odors from live females an...

  7. BAYESIAN PHYLOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF MITOCHONDRIAL COI DNA SEQUENCE FROM GLOBAL SAMPLES OF BEMISIA TABACI (HEMIPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gen.)(Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most devastating agricultural pests worldwide and affects the yield of a broad range of agricultural, fiber, vegetable and ornamental crops. Global phylogenetic relationships of the major races of B. tabaci remain unresolved thus a Bayesi...

  8. Use of pheromones for monitoring phytophagous stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophagous native stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), including Euschistus spp., Nezara viridula (L.), Chinavia hilaris (Say), Plautia stali Scott, Chlorochroa spp., and Thyanta spp., are primary pests responsible for millions of dollars in losses and cost of control in most fruit, vegetable, gr...

  9. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  10. Comparisons of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) populations from two distinct geographical regions of Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a major pest of cotton in the state of Mississippi. Economic data indicates that L. lineolaris is a more serious pest of cotton in the Delta region of Mississippi than in the Hills region, however, little data exists comparing the two populations. Two experim...

  11. Evaluation of trap designs and deployment strategies for capturing Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an invasive pest that attacks numerous tree fruit crops season-long. For growers to make informed management decisions against H. halys throughout the growing season, an effective monitoring tool must be in place....

  12. Genes expressed in field-caught pink hibiscus mealybugs, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We advanced the understanding of the biology of an invasive pest, the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by using a genomics approach to identify genes expressed within field collected PHM. The information produced provides valuable, new and unique info...

  13. Proteins expressed in the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We produced a dataset of 315 protein sequences which we isolated from the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The dataset was published under accession numbers: EF070444-EF070605 and EF092085-EF091933, in the National Center for Biotechnology Informatio...

  14. Field and laboratory evaluations of soybean lines against the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of soybean that significantly reduces yield in northern production areas of North America. Insecticides are widely used to control soybean aphid outbreaks, but efforts are underway to develop host-plant resistance a...

  15. Internal extracellular bacteria of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal bacteria were isolated and cultured from the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), the insect which transmits the plant-infecting bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter, known to infect and kill citrus trees, known as citrus greening disease. The bacteria from Di...

  16. A phagostimulant blend for T1 the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical cues that condition orientation by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), are of great interest because it is the primary vector of the causal pathogen of citrus greening disease. Previous work in our lab identified a blend of formic and acetic acids as s...

  17. A new species of Taosa (Hemiptera:Dictyopharide) from South America associated with Water Hyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new species of Taosa (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) is described. All the stages were collected on the aquatic weed Eichhornia crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae) at several localities on the Paraguay River in Argentina, and the upper Amazon River in Perú. Taosa impictifrons Remes Leni...

  18. A remarkable fossil leptosaldine bug from Mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Leptopodomorpha: Leptopodidae).

    PubMed

    Popov, Yuri A; Heiss, Ernst

    2016-01-01

    A new genus and species of leptosaldine bugs, Leptosaldinea cobbeni gen. et sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Leptopodidae) is described and illustrated from Burmese Middle Cretaceous (Albian-Cenomanian) amber found in Kachin State, northern Myanmar. This is the third record of a leptosaldine bug from Burmese amber. A brief analysis of the characters and systematic relationships of Leptosaldinae is provided. PMID:27470718

  19. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for microscope examination: Soft Scales (Insecta: Hemiptera: Coccidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper identification of soft scales (Hemiptera:Coccidae) requires preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare soft scale specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, speci...

  20. Production of Anagrus epos Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) on Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anagrus epos Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) is a natural enemy candidate for a classical biological control program targeting the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), in California. Little is known about A. epos biology or ecology when usi...

  1. Hyperspectral spectrometry as a means to differentiate uninfested and infested winter wheat by greenbug (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although spectral remote sensing techniques have been used to study many ecological variables and biotic and abiotic stresses to agricultural crops over decades, the potential use of these techniques for greenbug, Schizaphis graminum (Rondani) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) infestations and damage to wheat,...

  2. The assassin bug genera Nagustoides and Stenolemus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae) newly recorded from Japan.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tadashi; Naka, Takeru

    2016-01-01

    Two assassin bug genera, Nagustoides Miller, 1954 of Harpactorinae and Stenolemus Signoret, 1858 of Emesinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae), are recorded from Japan for the first time, with the presence of the representative species N. lii Zhao, Cai & Ren, 2006 and S. alikakay Rédei & Tsai, 2010. Distribution ranges of the two species are revised by the present finding. PMID:27615956

  3. Pseudowuiessa, a new genus of brachypterous Mezirinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae) from China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Kai; Bai, Xiaoshuan; Wu, Zhiyi; Heiss, Ernst; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-01-01

    A new brachypterous flat bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae) genus and species, Pseudowuiessa producta Bai, Heiss & Cai, gen. nov. & sp. nov., is described from Yunnan, China. A key to related genera is given and the diagnostic characters of the new taxon are illustrated. PMID:27615877

  4. Two new planthopper species (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Caliscelidae) collected in pitfall traps in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chmurova, Lucia; Webb, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of planthoppers in the family Caliscelidae (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) are described from Zambia, i.e., Afronaso spinosa sp. n. and Calampocus zambiaensis sp. n. All specimens are flightless males and nearly all were collected from baited pitfall traps (except for one specimen collected from a yellow pan trap), suggesting that they live near to or on the ground. PMID:27615842

  5. Epidaus wangi (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae), a new assassin bug from Tibet, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhuo; Zhu, Guangxiang; Wang, Jianyun; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-01-01

    Epidaus wangi Chen, Zhu, Wang & Cai, sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) from Tibet, China, is described and illustrated based on male and female specimens. The new species is morphologically similar to E. tuberosus Yang, 1940. The new species represents the first record of Epidaus species from Tibet. PMID:27615827

  6. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  7. Risk to native Uroleucon aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) from non-native lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aphids in the genus Uroleucon Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are native herbivores that feed on goldenrod (Solidago spp.) and other Asteraceae in North America. The aphids are potential prey for a wide variety of natural enemies, including native and non-native species of lady beetles (Coleoptera...

  8. Host plant effects on Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphal development and survivorship

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Halyomorpha halys Stål (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a highly polyphagous invasive species and an important pest of orchard crops in the US. In the Mid-Atlantic region, wild hosts of H. halys are common in woodlands that often border orchards, and H. halys movement from them into orchards poses ongo...

  9. Review of the planthopper genus Neodurium Fennah, 1956 (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Issidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Zhi-Min; Chen, Xiang-Sheng; Webb, Mick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The planthopper genus Neodurium Fennah is reviewed and Neodurium fennahi Chang & Chen, sp. n. (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Issidae) from China (Yunnan), is described and illustrated. A checklist of the species of Neodurium is given and a key provided for their separation. The female genitalia of Neodurium species are described for the first time. PMID:26312028

  10. A new species of Neophyllaphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) with keys to species on Podocarpus (Pinales: Podocarpaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An adventive, previously undescribed species of Neophyllaphis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is described and illustrated. Both COI and EF-1a sequences are presented for Neophyllaphis n.sp. Modified keys to Neophyllaphis spp. found on Podocarpus spp. Podocarpaceae) are provided for identification....

  11. Spatial distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae) in peanut-cotton farmscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The peanut-cotton farmscapes in this study were composed of peanut and cotton fields whose edges interface with each other and woodland habitats. The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an economic pest of cotton, but little is known concerning its spatial distribu...

  12. Detection and characterization of a novel reovirus in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We successfully used a genomics approach to discover viral pathogens in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). These psyllids are vectors of the devastating disease, Huanglongbing, now affecting citrus in the USA, and world wide. Discovery of viral pathogens of psyllids m...

  13. Effect of plant barriers and citrus leaf age on dispersal of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Studies designed to measure dispersal capacity of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) are needed to provide epidemiological knowledge necessary to improve management of citrus Huanglongbing. In the present study, a mark-release-recapture technique was used to investigate whet...

  14. First Record of the Hawaiian Endemic Scale, Colobopyga pritchardiae (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), on the Big Island

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Colobopyga pritchardiae (Stickney 1934) (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), an endemic Hawaiian scale insect associated with Pritchardia sp. was recorded for the first time on the Big Island. We began searching for palm scales on the Big Island to include in a host range testing program in quarantine for E...

  15. Phylogeographic analysis of Harrisia cactus mealybug, Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) populations: work in progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Harrisia cactus mealybug (HCM), Hypogeococcus pungens (Hemiptera: Pseudoccidae) Granara de Willink (1981) is infesting and killing cacti in the southern coast of Puerto Rico, covering an area of about 1,400 km2. The 13 species of cacti occurring in Puerto Rico are threatened by this new pest; three...

  16. FIRST RECORD OF ACIZZIA JAMATONICA (KUWAYAMA) (HEMIPTERA: PSYLLIDAE) IN NORTH AMERICA: FRIEND OR FOE?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acizzia jamatonica (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae) is reported for the first time in North America. Because the species is thought to feed exclusively on Albizia, it may prove to be an effective biocontrol agent against the invasive Albizia julibrissin Durazzini in the southeaster...

  17. Virus entry and replication in the Glassy-winged sharpshhoter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently discovered leafhopper viral pathogen was examined to determine the route of virus entry and sites of replication in the glassy-winged sharpshooter, GWSS, (Homalodisca vitripennis, Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The virus, HoCV-1, has been associated with increased nymphal mortality and is a co...

  18. Use of video assays to assess feeding behavior by Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key cotton pest in the western United States that injures and induces abscission of squares and small bolls. Feeding behavior varies among individual lygus, and this variation complicates interpretation of studies to elucidate lygus/cotton interactions...

  19. A visual guide to identification of Euschistus spp. (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in central Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stink bugs have become pests in cotton following successful eradication efforts for the boll weevil. Species of the genus Euschistus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are common in cotton and other commodities, and species within the genus are commonly grouped as the brown stink bug complex. This generic ...

  20. Survey of natural enemies of whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Egypt with new local and world records

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are some of the most problematic global pests of agricultural crops. Natural enemies serve an effective role in controlling populations of different whitefly species. A survey was conducted to identify and record the natural enemies associated with whiteflies in...

  1. Injury to cotton by adult Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) of different gender and reproductive states

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in the western United States that injures floral buds (squares) and developing fruit (bolls). However, no clear relationship between Lygus population level and plant injury has been established. Age-dependent feedi...

  2. Variation in susceptibility to potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae),among Solanum verrucosum germplasm accessions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a key pest of potato and the vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. Development of potato cultivars with genetic resistance to potato psyllid would enable cost-effecti...

  3. Gut content analysis of a phloem-feeding insect, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanales: Solanaceae) and a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. In addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the p...

  4. Diversity of stink bug (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae) egg parasitoids in woodland and crop habitats in Georgia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. They move within and between closely associated crop and non-crop habitats throughout the growing season in response to deteriorating suitability of their current host plant...

  5. GENE EXPRESSION IN THE ASIAN CITRUS PSYLLID: VECTOR OF CITRUS GREENING (HEMIPTERA: PSYLLIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of a unigene set identified the putative functions of over 500 transcripts from the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). D. citri is the primary vector of Huanglongbing, HLB, which is a severe plant pathogenic bacterium that causes severe economic losses...

  6. FK506-binding protein from adult Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We successfully identified a new member of the FK-binding proteins from the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). FK-binding proteins (FKBP) function in many critical pathways needed for psyllid survival. The full length mRNA transcript provides us a new genetic target for ...

  7. Behavioral evidence for a female-produced sex attractant in Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important world-wide pest of citrus. It vectors three phloem-restricted bacteria in the genus Candidatus Liberibacter that cause huanglongbing (citrus greening disease). Studies were conducted to examine the behavioral responses of male and fema...

  8. Midgut gene expression in Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Diaphorina citri

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We produced a gene expression dataset from the midgut tissues of the Asian citrus psyllid (AsCP), Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). The AsCP is the primary vector of the bacterium associated with a devastating citrus disease known as huanglongbing (HLB). The occurrence and spread of the AsCP ...

  9. Transfer of the assassin bug Nitornus fuliginosus to the genus Apronius
    (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Stenopodainae).

    PubMed

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R; Webb, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Based on examination of its lectotype (here designated), the assassin bug Nitornus fuliginosus Distant, 1902 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Stenopodainae) is transferred to the genus Apronius Stål, 1865, with the resulting new combination: Apronius fuliginosus (Distant, 1902), comb. nov. PMID:27395164

  10. Preparation of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for genetic characterization and morphological examination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on a wide range of crops. Due to their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide...

  11. Micro-CT study of the anatomy of the Leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Digital Anatomy Library, DAL, was produced to the anatomy of the glassy-winged sharpshooter adult, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), vector of bacteria which cause Pierce’s disease of grapevines. The insect anatomy was elucidated using a high resolution Bruker Skyscan 1172 micro t...

  12. Resistance of selected potato genotypes to the potato psyllid (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The characterization of resistance of selected potato, Solanum tuberosum L., breeding clones to the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) was investigated. Antixenosis was assessed in choice tests in which a single plant of each genotype was placed inside a rearing cag...

  13. Movement of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) adults between huanglongbing-affected and healthy citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is a vector transmitting the pathogen of citrus huanglongbing (HLB, also called yellow shoot disease or citrus greening disease). A typical symptom of citrus HLB is leaf yellowing. ACP adults behaved differently on HLB-affe...

  14. Predation of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by a complex of predators in soybean habitats adjoining cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular gut-content analysis was used to examine predation on stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by arthropod predators in habitats of soybean with and without buckwheat and adjoining cotton. Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), Chinavia hilaris (Say), and Euschistus quadrator Rolston,...

  15. Sharpshooter Leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellinae). An Illustrated Checklist. Part 1: Old World Cicadellini

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The leafhoppers comprise by far the largest family within the Hemiptera, with approximately 19,500 described species in over 40 subfamilies (Oman et al. 1990a) of which the subfamily Cicadellinae comprises around 2,400 species in around 330 genera. The name “sharpshooter” for this group of xylem-fe...

  16. Morphological and genetic reappraisal of the Orius fauna of the western United States (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Examination of minute pirate bugs, Orius spp. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) from a broad geographic range in the western U.S. prompted a reappraisal of the taxonomic composition and geographic distribution of the fauna native to the western U.S. and Canada. Collecting efforts led to the di...

  17. Global relationships of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) revealed using Bayesian analysis of mitochondrial COI DNA sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gen.)(Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a species complex that is one of the most devastating agricultural pests worldwide and affects a broad range of food, fiber and ornamental crops. Unfortunately, using parsimony and neighbor joining methods, global phylogenetic relationships of the ma...

  18. Relationships between adult abdominal color and reproductive potential in Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), a vector of huanglongbing (citrus greening disease), exhibits three more or less distinct abdominal colors in the adult stage: gray/brown, blue/green, and orange/yellow. A previous report showed that—relative to blue/green individuals—gray/brown indi...

  19. Proteins expressed in the blue-green sharpshooter, Graphocephala atropunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular markers are playing a bigger role in biological control programs. We sequenced 44 cDNA’s from the blue-green sharpshooter, BGSS, Graphocephala atropunctata (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) as a potential source for new marker development. The BGSS is a leafhopper which is endemic to California, a...

  20. DNA markers to disentangle complexes of cryptic taxa in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are major pests of a wide range of crops and ornamental plants worldwide. Their high degree of morphological similarity makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. We aimed to identify a set of markers for the genetic characterization...

  1. Effect of papaya trunk angle on infestation by white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Hemiptera: Diaspididae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two papaya (Carica papaya L.) seedlings growing in one planting hole often results in angular or non-vertical growth of the trees. Data on trunk angularity, or leaning, (deviation from the vertical line of reference) and white peach scale, Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Targioni-Tozzetti (Hemiptera: Dias...

  2. Interceptions of Anthocoridae, Lasiochilidae, and Lyctocoridae at the Miami Plant Inspection Station (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specimens of pirate bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)) intercepted at Animal and Plant Health Inspection Services inspection stations and housed at the Miami Inspection Station were examined and identified to species or genus. The 127 specimens were distributed among 14 genera and 26 identified species...

  3. Neostusakia, a new name for preoccupied Stusakia Kment and Henry, 2008 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Berytidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A case of homonymy in the heteropteran family Berytidae is addressed. The genus Stusakia Kment and Henry, 2008 (Hemiptera) is preoccupied by Stusakia Frýda, 1998 (Mollusca: Gastropoda). As a consequence, the replacement name Neostusakia, new name, is proposed. In addition, the only two included s...

  4. Stridulation by Jadera haematoloma (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae): Production mechanism and associated behaviors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Hemiptera displays a notable diversity of vibratory communication signals across its various families. Here we describe the substrate and airborne vibrations (sounds), the mechanism of production, and associated behaviors of Jadera haematoloma Herrich-Schaeffer, a member of the family, Rhopalida...

  5. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on ...

  6. Nutritional manipulation of adult female Orius pumilio (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) enhances initial predatory performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Commercial shipments of Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera:Anthocoridae) commonly include water and protein, the latter typically supplied by eggs from a moth such as Ephestia kuehniella Zeller. To determine whether alternative dietary conditions for young adult females might improve predation, O. in...

  7. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Virla, Eduardo G; Melo, Cecilia M; Speranza, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults. PMID:26463200

  8. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Virla, Eduardo G.; Melo, Cecilia M.; Speranza, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults. PMID:26463200

  9. Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Affects Soybean Spectral Reflectance.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tavvs M; Macrae, Ian V; Koch, Robert L

    2015-12-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays. PMID:26470392

  10. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the Maltese Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Mifsud, David; Mazzeo, Gaetana; Russo, Agatino; Watson, Gillian W

    2014-01-01

    Past works on scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the Maltese Archipelago are reviewed. Based on the literature and contemporary collections, a total of 93 species of scale insects belonging to 12 scale insect families are here reported (Aclerdidae 1 species; Asterolecaniidae 4; Coccidae 17; Diaspididae 46; Eriococcidae 5; Kermesidae 1; Margarodidae 1; Micrococcidae 1; Monophlebidae 2; Pseudoccocidae 11; Putoidae 2 and Rhizoecidae 2). Of these, 17 species represent new distribution records. Ten species are excluded from the scale insect fauna of the Maltese Islands. Of the 93 species present, only 29 (31.18%) are probably indigenous and the rest (68.82%) represent established introductions from elsewhere. More than 65% of the indigenous species are typical Mediterranean in distribution, with a few species having a mainly European chorotype. A quarter of the established aliens originate from Eurasia, followed by an East Asian/ Oriental component (20.31%); European (14.06%); Neotropical (14.06%); cryptogenic (14.06%); African (7.81%) and Australasian (4.70%). Movement of live fruit trees and ornamental plants into the Maltese Archipelago from nearby countries is probably the main route for entry of alien scale insects into the country. Some possible future introductions are discussed. PMID:25283672

  11. Spatiotemporal distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in corn farmscapes.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Ted E; Tillman, P Glynn

    2015-01-01

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of cotton in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning its spatiotemporal distribution in corn cropping systems. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution of C. hilaris in farmscapes, when corn was adjacent to cotton, peanut, or both, was examined weekly. The spatial patterns of C. hilaris counts were analyzed using Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices methodology. Interpolated maps of C. hilaris density were used to visualize abundance and distribution of C. hilaris in crops in corn-peanut-cotton farmscapes. This stink bug was detected in six of seven corn-cotton farmscapes, four of six corn-peanut farmscapes, and in both corn-peanut-cotton farmscapes. The frequency of C. hilaris in cotton (89.47%) was significantly higher than in peanut (7.02%) or corn (3.51%). This stink bug fed on noncrop hosts that grew in field borders adjacent to crops. The spatial distribution of C. hilaris in crops and the capture of C. hilaris adults and nymphs in pheromone-baited traps near noncrop hosts indicated that these hosts were sources of this stink bug dispersing into crops, primarily cotton. Significant aggregated spatial distributions were detected in cotton on some dates within corn-peanut-cotton farmscapes. Maps of local clustering indices depicted small patches of C. hilaris in cotton or cotton-sorghum at the peanut-cotton interface. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal dynamics of C. hilaris in corn farmscapes are discussed. PMID:25843581

  12. Effect of temperature on immatures of Stiretrus decastigmus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Poncio, S; Dequech, S T B; Bolzan, A; Güths, C; Walker, M P; Sturza, V S; Nava, D E

    2016-06-01

    Stiretrus decastigmus (Herrich-Schaeffer) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is an important predator of the insect pest Microtheca ochroloma Stal (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The present study investigated the pre-imaginal development of S. decastigmus at different temperatures. The temperatures were: 20, 25, and 30 °C, with a relative humidity of 70 ± 10% and a photofase of 12 h, and the nymphs were fed larvae of M. ochroloma. We evaluated the duration and viability of the egg and nymphal stages, the duration of each instar, and the predation potential. The incubation time decreased with increasing temperature, and the viability was highest at 25 °C. The duration of the nymphal stage was inversely proportional to the temperature, ranging from 18 days at 30 °C to 40.6 days at 20 °C. The highest S. decastigmus predation rates were found at 20 °C (90.4 larvae) and 30 °C (72.5 larvae). S. decastigmus showed the highest viability and lowest consumption of larvae of M. ochroloma at 25 °C. PMID:26983086

  13. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Chinavia hilaris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Corn Farmscapes

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Ted E.; Tillman, P. Glynn

    2015-01-01

    The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of cotton in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning its spatiotemporal distribution in corn cropping systems. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution of C. hilaris in farmscapes, when corn was adjacent to cotton, peanut, or both, was examined weekly. The spatial patterns of C. hilaris counts were analyzed using Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices methodology. Interpolated maps of C. hilaris density were used to visualize abundance and distribution of C. hilaris in crops in corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. This stink bug was detected in six of seven corn–cotton farmscapes, four of six corn–peanut farmscapes, and in both corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. The frequency of C. hilaris in cotton (89.47%) was significantly higher than in peanut (7.02%) or corn (3.51%). This stink bug fed on noncrop hosts that grew in field borders adjacent to crops. The spatial distribution of C. hilaris in crops and the capture of C. hilaris adults and nymphs in pheromone-baited traps near noncrop hosts indicated that these hosts were sources of this stink bug dispersing into crops, primarily cotton. Significant aggregated spatial distributions were detected in cotton on some dates within corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. Maps of local clustering indices depicted small patches of C. hilaris in cotton or cotton–sorghum at the peanut–cotton interface. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal dynamics of C. hilaris in corn farmscapes are discussed. PMID:25843581

  14. How will Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Respond to Global Warming?

    PubMed

    Fonseca, M G; Auad, A M; Resende, T T; Hott, M C; Borges, C A V

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the favorable constant temperature range for Mahanarva spectabilis(Distant) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) development as well as to generate geographic distribution maps of this insect pest for future climate scenarios. M. spectabilis eggs were reared on two host plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis(Germain and Edvard) and Pennisetum purpureum(Schumach)), with individual plants kept at temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32 °C. Nymphal stage duration, nymphal survival, adult longevity, and egg production were recorded for each temperature*host plant combination. Using the favorable temperature ranges for M. spectabilis development, it was possible to generate geographic distribution. Nymphal survival was highest at 24.4 °C, with estimates of 44 and 8% on Pennisetum and Brachiaria, respectively. Nymphal stage duration was greater on Brachiaria than on Pennisetum at 20 and 24 °C but equal at 28 °C. Egg production was higher on Pennisetum at 24 and 28 °C than at 20 °C, and adult longevity on Pennisetum was higher at 28 °C than at 20 °C, whereas adult longevity at 24 °C did not differ from that at 20 and 28 °C. With these results, it was possible to predict a reduction in M. spectabilis densities in most regions of Brazil in future climate scenarios. PMID:27012869

  15. Novel Rickettsiella Bacterium in the Leafhopper Orosius albicinctus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Iasur-Kruh, Lilach; Weintraub, Phyllis G.; Mozes-Daube, Netta; Robinson, Wyatt E.; Perlman, Steve J.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria in the genus Rickettsiella (Coxiellaceae), which are mainly known as arthropod pathogens, are emerging as excellent models to study transitions between mutualism and pathogenicity. The current report characterizes a novel Rickettsiella found in the leafhopper Orosius albicinctus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a major vector of phytoplasma diseases in Europe and Asia. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing were used to survey the main symbionts of O. albicinctus, revealing the obligate symbionts Sulcia and Nasuia, and the facultative symbionts Arsenophonus and Wolbachia, in addition to Rickettsiella. The leafhopper Rickettsiella is allied with bacteria found in ticks. Screening O. albicinctus from the field showed that Rickettsiella is highly prevalent, with over 60% of individuals infected. A stable Rickettsiella infection was maintained in a leafhopper laboratory colony for at least 10 generations, and fluorescence microscopy localized bacteria to accessory glands of the female reproductive tract, suggesting that the bacterium is vertically transmitted. Future studies will be needed to examine how Rickettsiella affects host fitess and its ability to vector phytopathogens. PMID:23645190

  16. Exploration for facultative endosymbionts of glassy-wingedsharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Montllor-Curley, C.; Brodie, E.L.; Lechner, M.G.; Purcell, A.H.

    2006-07-01

    Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae),glassy-winged sharpshooter, was collected in California and severalstates in the southeastern United States in 2002 and 2003 and analyzedfor endosymbiotic bacteria. Hemolymph, eggs, and bacteriomes wereexamined for the presence of bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. Asubset of hemolymph and egg samples had their 16S rRNA gene ampliconscloned and sequenced or analyzed by restriction digest patterns ofsamples compared with known bacterial DNA. Baumannia cicadellinicola, oneof the primary symbionts of glassy-winged sharpshooter, was found in themajority of hemolymph samples, although it has been considered until nowto reside primarily inside the specialized host bacteriocytes. Wolbachiasp., a common secondary symbiont in many insect taxa investigated todate, was the second most frequently detected bacterium in hemolymphsamples. In addition, we detected bacteria that were most closely related(by 16S rRNA gene sequence) to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, andAcinetobacter in hemolymph samples of one and/or two glassy-wingedsharpshooters, but their origin is uncertain.

  17. Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Affects Soybean Spectral Reflectance

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Tavvs M.; Macrae, Ian V.; Koch, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is the most economically important insect pest of soybean in the north central United States. Scouting-based integrated pest management (IPM) programs could become more efficient and more widely adopted by using plant spectral reflectance to estimate soybean aphid injury. Our objective was to determine whether plant spectral reflectance is affected by soybean aphid feeding. Field trials were conducted in 2013 and 2014 using caged plots. Early-, late-, and noninfested treatments were established to create a gradient of soybean aphid pressure. Whole-plant soybean aphid densities were recorded weekly. Measurements of plant spectral reflectance occurred on two sample dates per year. Simple linear regression models were used to test the effect of cumulative aphid-days (CAD) on plant spectral reflectance at 680 nm (RED) and 800 nm (NIR), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), and relative chlorophyll content. Data indicated that CAD had no effect on canopy-level RED reflectance, but CAD decreased canopy-level NIR reflectance and NDVI. Canopy- and leaf-level measurements typically indicated similar plant spectral response to increasing CAD. CAD generally had no effect on relative chlorophyll content. The present study provides the first documentation that remote sensing holds potential for detecting changes in plant spectral reflectance induced by soybean aphid. The use of plant spectral reflectance in soybean aphid management may assist future IPM programs to reduce sampling costs and prevent prophylactic insecticide sprays. PMID:26470392

  18. Climbing Ability of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Hottel, B A; Pereira, R M; Gezan, S A; Qing, R; Sigmund, W M; Koehler, P G

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about what factors influence the climbing ability of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), in relation to the various surfaces they encounter. We examined how sex, time since last fed, and what surfaces the bed bugs were in contact with affected their climbing performance. The effects of sex and time since fed were tested by counting the number of bed bugs able to climb a 45° slope. The pulling force was recorded using an analytical balance technique that captured the sequential vertical pulling force output of bed bugs attached to various surfaces. Recently fed female bed bugs were found to have the most difficulty in climbing smooth surfaces in comparison with males. This difference can be explained by the larger weight gained from bloodmeals by female bed bugs. A variety of vertical pulling forces were observed on surfaces ranging from sandpaper to talc powder-covered glass. For surfaces not treated with talc powder, bed bugs generated the least amount of vertical pulling force from synthetically created 0.6-µm plastron surfaces. This vast range in the ability of bed bugs to grip onto various surfaces may have implications on limiting bed bugs dispersal and hitchhiking behaviors. PMID:26334801

  19. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments. PMID:26470083

  20. How will Mahanarva spectabilis (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) Respond to Global Warming?

    PubMed Central

    Auad, A. M.; Resende, T. T.; Hott, M. C.; Borges, C.A.V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the favorable constant temperature range for Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae) development as well as to generate geographic distribution maps of this insect pest for future climate scenarios. M. spectabilis eggs were reared on two host plants (Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain and Edvard) and Pennisetum purpureum (Schumach)), with individual plants kept at temperatures of 16, 20, 24, 28, and 32°C. Nymphal stage duration, nymphal survival, adult longevity, and egg production were recorded for each temperature*host plant combination. Using the favorable temperature ranges for M. spectabilis development, it was possible to generate geographic distribution. Nymphal survival was highest at 24.4°C, with estimates of 44 and 8% on Pennisetum and Brachiaria, respectively. Nymphal stage duration was greater on Brachiaria than on Pennisetum at 20 and 24°C but equal at 28°C. Egg production was higher on Pennisetum at 24 and 28°C than at 20°C, and adult longevity on Pennisetum was higher at 28°C than at 20°C, whereas adult longevity at 24°C did not differ from that at 20 and 28°C. With these results, it was possible to predict a reduction in M. spectabilis densities in most regions of Brazil in future climate scenarios. PMID:27012869

  1. Plant growth stage-specific injury and economic injury level for verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae), on cotton: Effect of bloom period of infestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The verde plant bug, Creontiades signatus Distant (Hemiptera: Miridae), has emerged as a threat to cotton in South Texas, causing boll damage similar to boll-feeding stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Verde plant bugs were released into caged cotton for a one-week period to characterize the effec...

  2. Repellency of selected chemicals against the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Changlu; Lü, Lihua; Zhang, Aijun; Liu, Chaofeng

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), became a major public health concern in urban communities. Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to control, and their bites are not tolerated by most people. The public has an urgent need for materials and methods to reduce bed bug introduction and bites during work, travel, or sleep. A repellent product will help achieve these goals by discouraging and preventing bed bugs from moving to a protected area. We evaluated the repellency of three commercially available insect repellent or control materials and five nonregistered materials with the goal of identifying safe and effective bed bug repellents. The two commercial repellent products that contained 7% picaridin or 0.5% permethrin had little repellency against bed bugs. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), the most commonly used insect repellent, provided a high level of repellency against bed bugs. When a host cue (carbon dioxide) was present, the minimum DEET concentration to repel > or = 94% of the bed bugs for a9-h period was 10%. The longevity of repellency of DEET was concentration dependent. At 25% concentration, DEET-treated fabric surface remained highly repellent to bed bugs for a 14-d period. However, DEET has a strong smell and dissolves certain plastic materials. Therefore, we evaluated several odorless, noncorrosive, and potentially effective repellents. Isolongifolenone and isolongifolanone, two natural products and recently reported insect repellents, exhibited strong repellent property against bed bugs but at significantly lower levels than DEET. Three novel potential repellent compounds discovered by Bedoukian Research Inc. (Danbury, CT) exhibited similar level of repellency and longevity as DEET for repelling bed bugs. These nonirritant and odorless compounds are promising candidates as alternatives to DEET for reducing the spread of bed bugs and bed bug bites. PMID:24498754

  3. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  4. Temperature-Dependent Survival of Adult Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, W Rodney; Spurgeon, Dale W

    2015-06-01

    The western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae), is a key pest of many horticultural and agronomic crops in the western United States. Despite its well documented pest status, many aspects of the basic biology, including overwintering ecology, of L. hesperus are poorly understood. We examined the influence of eight constant temperatures from 10 to 35°C on survival of nondiapausing adult L. hesperus held with or without food, and the consequences of exposure to an extended period at 10°C on subsequent reproduction. Survival analyses indicated that, on average, fed insects tended to live longer than unfed insects, females lived longer than males, and the survival time decreased with increasing temperature. Nonlinear regressions indicated that median survival for insects grouped by gender and feeding status declined exponentially with increasing temperature. Survival functions for combinations of insect class (gender and feeding status) and temperature were adequately described by the respective two-parameter logistic functions. When adults were held for 9 d at 27°C with food after a 33-d period at 10°C either with or without food, no deleterious effects of prior starvation on propensity to mate or fecundity were demonstrated. These findings indicate that when temperatures are low, nondiapausing L. hesperus adults are capable of extended host-free survival with little or no impact on subsequent reproduction. Our findings suggest the current understanding of L. hesperus overwintering dynamics is incomplete. In addition, our results provide quantitative baseline information to facilitate more comprehensive investigation of the ecology of L. hesperus overwintering. PMID:26313987

  5. Identity of two sympatric species of Orius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae).

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jeffrey P; Shirk, Paul D; Kelley, Karen; Lewis, Tamera M; Horton, David R

    2010-01-01

    The minute pirate bugs, Orius insidiosus (Say) and Orius pumilio (Champion) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae), are closely related species known to be sympatric in north Florida. Here, male and female genitalia, DNA sequences, and the effects of within- and between-species pairings on egg production and egg development were examined to develop a better understanding of the relationship between these two species. Interspecific matings between the two species did not result in viable progeny. Although there were gross similarities in the morphology of the male parameres (external genitalia) between the two species, the cone in O. pumilio was much broader with a greater spiral twist and the flagellum was longer than in O. insidiosus. Correspondingly, there were differences in the morphology of the copulatory tubes of the females of the two species. In O. insidiosus, the organ was somewhat longer than in O. pumilio and oriented parallel to the abdominal midline, while the copulatory tube in O. pumilio tilted slightly towards the midline. Additionally, the copulatory tube for O. pumilio included a sclerotized basal mound that was not present in O. insidiosus. These morphological differences suggest that successful copulation between these species could be difficult. In contrast to conspecific matings, interspecific matings resulted in few or no eggs laid over a period of two weeks and no viable progeny. Comparison of the 18S ribosomal gene ITS-1 sequences between the two species demonstrated only 91% homology. When yolk protein contents were examined to determine whether reproductive physiology had shifted to full egg production, interspecifically mated females contained amounts of yolk protein comparable to that in fed, but unmated females; this was less than 10% of the yolk protein previously found in fed and conspecifically mated females. These findings together confirm that O. insidiosus and O. pumilio are indeed two separate species. PMID:21265614

  6. Elevational gradient of Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha) on a tropical mountain in Papua New Guinea

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen W.; Soulier-Perkins, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    Malaise trap sampling of Hemiptera (Heteroptera; Auchenorrhyncha) was conducted at 500 m intervals along an elevational gradient from 200 m to 3,700 m on the east slope of Mount Wilhelm, Madang Province, Papua New Guinea. Hemiptera had a decrease in morphospecies richness and overall abundance with increasing elevation, however, the Heteroptera did not exhibit either pattern. A few species were relatively abundant at each elevation, whereas the majority of species were represented by ≤5 specimens. Morphospecies richness of Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha, Cicadellidae, Cixiidae, and Derbidae also decreased with increasing elevation but abundance decline was not significant due to the large number of specimens captured at 200 m relative to those captured at higher elevations. The percentage of Cicadomorpha specimens decreased with increasing elevation relative to that of the Fulgoromorpha which increased with increasing elevation. Environmental factors that may influence patterns of species richness along the elevational gradient are discussed. PMID:26056617

  7. A Mid-DESD Review: Key Findings and Ways Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wals, Arjen E. J.

    2009-01-01

    This article lists the key outcomes and recommendations of Phase I of the monitoring and evaluation of the DESD. Phase I focused on a review of the structures, provisions and conditions countries and regions have put in place in order to facilitate the development and implementation of ESD. The author also touches upon the constraints and…

  8. First report of Ricania speculum (Walker, 1851) in Europe (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Ricaniidae).

    PubMed

    Mazza, Giuseppe; Pennacchio, Fabrizio; Gargani, Elisabetta; Franceschini, Italo; Roversi, Pio Federico; Cianferoni, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Ricania speculum (Walker, 1851) (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Ricaniidae) is reported for the first time in Europe. Both nymphs and adults were observed from 2009 in several municipalities of Liguria (Italy). Since the species is extremely polyphagous and is a real pest for several crops in tropical and subtropical areas, the presence of this alien insect is noteworthy, representing a new possible threat for native species and human activities.  PMID:25283410

  9. The identity and distribution of Fiorinia phantasma (Cockerell & Robinson) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae), with a new synonym.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gillian W; Williams, Douglas J; Miller, Douglass R

    2015-01-01

    The morphologies of Fiorinia phantasma (Cockerell & Robinson) (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Diaspididae) and F. coronata Williams & Watson are reviewed, and the name F. coronata is placed as a junior synonym of the name F. phantasma syn. n. The known geographical distribution and host range of F. phantasma is documented and discussed. An identification key to 12 of the 16 species of Fiorinia known from the Australasian, Nearctic and Neotropical Regions is provided. PMID:26624751

  10. Identification and impact of natural enemies of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Butler, Casey D; Trumble, John T

    2012-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest of potato, (Solanum tuberosum L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and peppers (Capsicum spp.). The purpose of our research was to identify and determine the impact of natural enemies on B. cockerelli population dynamics. Through 2 yr of field studies (2009-2010) at four different sites and laboratory feeding tests, we identified minute pirate bug, Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae); western bigeyed bug, Geocoris pallens Stål (Hemiptera:Geocoridae), and convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as key natural enemies of B. cockerelli in southern California potatoes, tomatoes, and bell peppers. In natural enemy exclusion cage experiments in the potato crop and in American nightshade, Solanum americanum Miller, the number of B. cockerelli surviving was significantly greater in the closed cage treatments, thus confirming the affect natural enemies can have on B. cockerelli. We discuss how this information can be used in an integrated pest management program for B. cockerelli. PMID:23156144

  11. Jumping mechanisms of treehopper insects (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Membracidae).

    PubMed

    Burrows, M

    2013-03-01

    The kinematics and jumping performance of treehoppers (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Membracidae) were analysed from high speed images. The eight species analysed had an 11-fold range of body mass (3.8-41 mg) and a 2-fold range of body length (4.1-8.4 mm). Body shape was dominated by a prothoracic helmet that projected dorsally and posteriorly over the body, and in some species forwards to form a protruding horn. Jumping was propelled by rapid depression of the trochantera of the hindlegs. The hindlegs were only 30-60% longer than the front and middle legs, and 47-94% the length of the body in different species. They were slung beneath the body and moved together in the same plane. In preparation for a jump, the hindlegs were initially levated and rotated forwards so that the femora were pressed into indentations of the coxae. The tibiae were flexed about the femora and the tarsi were placed on the ground directly beneath the lateral edges of the abdomen. Movements of the front and middle legs adjusted the angle of the body relative to the ground, but for most treehoppers this angle was small, so that the body was almost parallel to the ground. The rapid depression of the hindlegs accelerated the body to take-off in 1.2 ms in the lighter treehoppers and 3.7 ms in the heavier ones. Take-off velocities of 2.1-2.7 m s(-1) were achieved and were not correlated with body mass. In the best jumps, these performances involved accelerations of 560-2450 m s(-2) (g forces of 47-250), an energy expenditure of 13.5-101 μJ, a power output of 12-32 mW and exerted a force of 9.5-29 mN. The power output per mass of muscle far exceeds the maximum active contractile limit of normal muscle. Such requirements indicate that treehoppers must be using a power amplification mechanism in a catapult-like action. Some jumps were preceded by flapping movements of the wings, but the propulsive movements of the hindlegs were crucial in achieving take-off. PMID:23155084

  12. Assessing the mitochondrial DNA diversity of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Grasielle Caldas D'Ávila; Sousa, Tais Nóbrega de; Sonoda, Ivan Vieira; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2016-05-01

    Triatoma sordida is a species that transmits Trypanosoma cruzi to humans. In Brazil, T. sordida currently deserves special attention because of its wide distribution, tendency to invade domestic environments and vectorial competence. For the planning and execution of control protocols to be effective against Triatominae, they must consider its population structure. In this context, this study aimed to characterise the genetic variability of T. sordida populations collected in areas with persistent infestations from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Levels of genetic variation and population structure were determined in peridomestic T. sordida by sequencing a polymorphic region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Low nucleotide and haplotype diversity were observed for all 14 sampled areas; π values ranged from 0.002-0.006. Most obtained haplotypes occurred at low frequencies, and some were exclusive to only one of the studied populations. Interpopulation genetic diversity analysis revealed strong genetic structuring. Furthermore, the genetic variability of Brazilian populations is small compared to that of Argentinean and Bolivian specimens. The possible factors related to the reduced genetic variability and strong genetic structuring obtained for studied populations are discussed in this paper. PMID:27143491

  13. The architecture and complete sequence of mitochondrial genome of an assassin bug Agriosphodrus dohrni (Hemiptera: Reduviidae).

    PubMed

    Li, Hu; Gao, Jianyu; Liu, Haiyu; Liu, Hui; Liang, Aiping; Zhou, Xuguo; Cai, Wanzhi

    2011-01-01

    The 16, 470 bp nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of an assassin bug from the reduviid subfamily Harpactorinae, Agriosphodrus dohrni, has been revealed. The entire genome encodes for two ribosomal RNA genes (rrnL and rrnS), 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, 13 protein-coding genes, and a control region. The nucleotide composition is biased toward adenine and thymine (A+T = 72.2%). Comparative analysis with two other reduviid species Triatoma dimidiata and Valentia hoffmanni, exhibited highly conserved genome architectures including genome contents, gene order, nucleotide composition, codon usage, amino acid composition, as well as genome asymmetry. All protein-coding genes use standard mitochondrial initiation codons (methionine and isoleucine), except that nad1 starts with GTG. All tRNAs have the classic clover-leaf structure, except that the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of tRNA(Ser(AGN)) forms a simple loop. Secondary structure comparisons of the two mitochondrial ribosomal subunits among sequenced assassin bugs show that the sequence and structure of rrnL is more conservative than that of rrnS. The presence of structural elements in the control region is also discussed, with emphasis on their implications in the regulation of replication and/or transcription of the reduviid mitogenome. The phylogenetic analyses indicated that within Reduviidae, Harpactorinae is a sister group to the Salyavatinae + Triatominae clade. PMID:21750648

  14. Assessing the mitochondrial DNA diversity of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pessoa, Grasielle Caldas D‘Ávila; de Sousa, Tais Nóbrega; Sonoda, Ivan Vieira; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2016-01-01

    Triatoma sordida is a species that transmits Trypanosoma cruzi to humans. In Brazil, T. sordida currently deserves special attention because of its wide distribution, tendency to invade domestic environments and vectorial competence. For the planning and execution of control protocols to be effective against Triatominae, they must consider its population structure. In this context, this study aimed to characterise the genetic variability of T. sordida populations collected in areas with persistent infestations from Minas Gerais, Brazil. Levels of genetic variation and population structure were determined in peridomestic T. sordida by sequencing a polymorphic region of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Low nucleotide and haplotype diversity were observed for all 14 sampled areas; π values ranged from 0.002-0.006. Most obtained haplotypes occurred at low frequencies, and some were exclusive to only one of the studied populations. Interpopulation genetic diversity analysis revealed strong genetic structuring. Furthermore, the genetic variability of Brazilian populations is small compared to that of Argentinean and Bolivian specimens. The possible factors related to the reduced genetic variability and strong genetic structuring obtained for studied populations are discussed in this paper. PMID:27143491

  15. Genetic Variation of North American Triatomines (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): Initial Divergence between Species and Populations of Chagas Disease Vector

    PubMed Central

    Espinoza, Bertha; Martínez-Ibarra, Jose Alejandro; Villalobos, Guiehdani; De La Torre, Patricia; Laclette, Juan Pedro; Martínez-Hernández, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    The triatomines vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi are principal factors in acquiring Chagas disease. For this reason, increased knowledge of domestic transmission of T. cruzi and control of its insect vectors is necessary. To contribute to genetic knowledge of North America Triatominae species, we studied genetic variations and conducted phylogenetic analysis of different triatomines species of epidemiologic importance. Our analysis showed high genetic variations between different geographic populations of Triatoma mexicana, Meccus longipennis, M. mazzottii, M. picturatus, and T. dimidiata species, suggested initial divergence, hybridation, or classifications problems. In contrast, T. gerstaeckeri, T. bolivari, and M. pallidipennis populations showed few genetics variations. Analysis using cytochrome B and internal transcribed spacer 2 gene sequences indicated that T. bolivari is closely related to the Rubrofasciata complex and not to T. dimidiata. Triatoma brailovskyi and T. gerstaeckeri showed a close relationship with Dimidiata and Phyllosoma complexes. PMID:23249692

  16. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  17. Incidence of invasive Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its introduced parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of Huanglongbing or citrus greening, a devastating disease of citrus. A eulophid parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterson, was imported ...

  18. Morphology of the female reproductive system and physiological age-grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphology of the female reproductive system in Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), a biocontrol agent of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined using standard light microscopy techniques. Ovaries extracted from individuals dissected in phosphate buffered saline were ex...

  19. Morphology of the first-instar nymph and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky, with a comparison to K. vermilio Planchon (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae)

    PubMed Central

    Spodek, Malkie; Ben-Dov, Yair

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Thefirst-instar nymph and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated. This species is compared with Kermes vermilio Planchon, a morphologically similar species known in the Palaeractic region. PMID:23275748

  20. GENE EXPRESSION IN TWO LEAFHOPPER VECTORS OF PIERCES DISEASE OF GRAPES, GLASSY-WINGED SHARPSHOOTER AND BLUE-GREEN SHARPSHOOTER (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Production of a unigene set identified the putative functions of over 350 transcripts from two leafhopper species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) which vector the plant infecting bacterium, Xylella fastidiosa. Genetic similarities between the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca coagulata, and the blue...

  1. Complete mitochondrial genome of brown marmorated stink bug Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and phylogenetic relationships of Hemipteran suborders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The newly sequenced complete mitochondrial genome of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a circular molecule of 16,518 bp with a total A+T content of 76.4% and two extensive repeat regions in A+T rich region. Nucleotide composition and codon usage ...

  2. A laboratory study of sex- and stage-related mortality and morbidity in bed bugs (hemiptera: cimicidae) exposed to deltamethrin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of a pyrethroid-susceptible strain of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) to varying concentrations of deltamethrin for 24h indicated there was no significant difference in mortality between males, females, and nymphs at 24h or 168h post-exposure. Most bed bugs classified ...

  3. Review of the biology, ecology, and management of Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in China, Japan and Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Native to China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), was accidently introduced into the United States in the mid-1990s. Since establishing in the United States, this invasive species has caused significant economic losses in...

  4. Populations of predators and parasitoids of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) after the application of eight biorational insecticides in vegetable crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an important pest of vegetables and many other crops worldwide. Some insecticides may be more compatible with natural enemies for whitefly management than others. Nine biorational insecticides (based on oil, plant deri...

  5. Biology and host preference of the planthopper Taosa longula (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) a candidate for biological control of water hyacinth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Taosa longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) is a planthopper from the South American tropics that feeds on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The biology of T. longula was studied in the laboratory and field to evaluate it as a potential biologic...

  6. Introduction and Recovery of Delphastus catalinae (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as a predator of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Egypt

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Alyerodidae) is an important pest of many crops on a global scale. The use of biological control organisms such as coccinelid predators can help manage this pest. Delphastus catalinae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) is an obligate predator of whiteflies, in...

  7. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J. Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  8. Molecular profiling of proteolytic and lectin transcripts in Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae) feeding on sunflower and cowpea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Homalodisca vitripennis Germar 1821 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) (Takiya et al. 2006, syn. H. coagulata (Say)) gut and salivary gland EST libraries were used to isolate cDNA fragments of the genes encoding for cathepsin L, asparaginyl endopeptidase, cathepsin B, metalloendopeptidase, cathepsin D, multi...

  9. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  10. Eriosomatine aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae) associated with moss and roots of conifer and willow in forests of the Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apterous adult morphs of eriosomatine aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Eriosomatinae) associated with moss and/or roots of conifer or willow in forests of the Pacific Northwest including Alaska are described, illustrated, and keyed. In total, seven species (Clydesmithia canadensis Danielsson, Melaphis ...

  11. A chemical lure for stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is used as a kairomone by Astata occidentalis (Hymenoptera: sphecidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The digger wasp Astata occidentalis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) is a predator of pentatomid stink bugs (Hemiptera). In the states of Washington and Georgia, adult females were consistently captured in the field in traps baited with lures that included methyl (E,E,Z)-2,4,6-decatrienoate, a comp...

  12. Changes in behavioral responses of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) from various applied signal voltages during EPG recordings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 3rd-generation AC-DC electrical penetration graph (EPG) monitor was used to study feeding behaviors of pre-reproductive adult Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) on pinhead (<3mm) cotton squares, applying different signal voltages at several input impedances. The AC-DC monitor allows a user to s...

  13. A revision of the Australian genus Trachylestes with the description of two new species (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae).

    PubMed

    Malipatil, M B; Kwak, M L; Gunawardene, N

    2016-01-01

    Two new species, Trachylestes barrowensis sp. nov. from Barrow Island, Western Australia and T. queenslandensis sp. nov. from southeastern Queensland are described, and a key for their separation from other known species of the Australian endemic genus Trachylestes Stål, 1868 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) is given. PMID:27394766

  14. Previous exposure to other males leads to prolonged copulation by a predatory true bug (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mating pairs of Anthocoris whitei Reuter (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae) irregularly exhibit prolonged copulations exceeding 5 hrs in duration. Atypically long copulations may act as a form of post-insemination mate guarding to prevent insemination of a guarded female by other males. In many...

  15. Laboratory studies of variations in feeding behaviors among Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) of different gender and reproductive states

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key pest of cotton (Gossypium spp.) in the western United States that injures floral buds (squares) and developing fruit (bolls). Levels of lygus-induced damage to cotton can vary among lygus stages or gender, and these variations complicate interpreta...

  16. Diversity of stink bug (Hemiptera:Pentatomidae) egg parasitoids in woodland and crop habitats in southwest Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nezara viridula (L.) and Euschistus servus (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. They move within and between closely associated crop and non-crop habitats throughout the growing season in response to deteriorating suitability of their current host plant...

  17. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  18. Predation of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by a complex of predators and adjoining soybean habitats in Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular gut-content analysis was used to examine predation on stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by arthropod predators in habitats of soybean with and without buckwheat and adjoining cotton. Nezara viridula (L.), Euschistus servus (Say), Chinavia hilaris (Say), and Euschistus quadrator Rolston,...

  19. Potential transmission of Pantoea spp. and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) to plants by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key agricultural pest in the western United States. In a recent study, proteins from Pantoea ananatis and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) were identified in diet that was stylet-probed and fed upon by L. hesperus adults. P...

  20. Impact of insecticide residue exposure on the invasive pest, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae): analysis of adult mobility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-eight insecticides were evaluated in the laboratory to characterize the impact of specific compounds on locomotory behavior and mobility of adult Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Horizontal distance and angular velocity were measured for individuals exposed to dry insecti...

  1. 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' titer over time in Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) after acquisition from infected potato and tomato plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a serious pest of potato and other solanaceous crops. Recently, B. cockerelli has been associated with the bacterium “Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum” (Lso), the causal agent of zebra chip, a new and economically import...

  2. Behavioral responses of adult potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae), to potato germplasm and transmission of Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a major pest of potatoes that can cause yield loss by direct feeding on crop plants and by vectoring a bacterial pathogen, Candidatus Liberibacter psyllaurous (a.k.a. Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum). In recent years, ...

  3. Effects of host plant on development and body size of three haplotypes of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera:Triozidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is an economic pest of solanaceous crops in North and Central America, and (as an introduction) in New Zealand. Four genetic haplotypes of the psyllid have been identified in North America. Three of these haplotypes (Central, West...

  4. Parasitism of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in organic soybean plots in Georgia, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic pest of soybean in the southeastern US. In 2013, the exotic egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) (Dodd) was discovered parasitizing eggs of this pest in kudzu and soybean in...

  5. Antifeedant activity and high mortality in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae) induced by biostable insect kinin analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insect kinins are multifunctional neuropeptides found in a variety of arthropod species, including the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae). A series of biostable insect kinin analogs based on the shared C-terminal pentapeptide core region were fed in solutions of artificial diet t...

  6. Chlorotic feeding injury by the black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to pecan foliage promotes aphid settling and nymphal development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The nature of the interaction between the black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and the chlorosis it causes to foliage of its pecan [Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch)] host is poorly understood. Laboratory experiments were conducted on the settling behavior of t...

  7. Changes of oxidase and hydrolase activities in pecan leaves elicited by black pecan aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) feeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The black pecan aphid, Melanocallis caryaefoliae (Davis) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a foliar feeder of pecan, Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch (Juglandaceae). The pest causes chlorosis of leaflet lamina, physiological damage to foliage and trees, and commonly limits the profitability of comme...

  8. Dispersal capacity and behavior of nymphal stages of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) evaluated under laboratory and field conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a highly polyphagous and mobile pest causing perimeter-driven crop damage over the growing season. Understanding the dispersal biology of H. halys is critical for the development of reliable monitoring ...

  9. Mestus cruciatus, a new delphacid species from southwest China with some remarks on the genus (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Delphacidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Feng-juan; Xie, Qi; Qin, Dao-zheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new delphacid (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Delphacidae) species, Mestus cruciatus sp. n. is described based on specimens from Yunnan Province, China. Habitus photos and illustrations of male genitalia are provided. The Mestus species and phylogenetic arrangement of this genus is discussed. A key to the species of Mestus is also provided. PMID:26798294

  10. Evaluation of a method to quantify glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg maturation during a feeding assay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to improve an assay relating adult feeding to egg maturation by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were evaluated. The assay consisted of confining adult females to cowpea stems in parafilm enclosures and quantifying adult feeding and egg maturation. Adult feeding was...

  11. Effects of atmospheric pressure trends on calling, mate-seeking, and phototaxis of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insects and other animals sometimes modify behavior in response to changes in atmospheric pressure, an environmental cue that can provide warning of potentially injurious windy and rainy weather. To determine if Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) calling, mate-seeking, and phototaxis behaviors w...

  12. Survey of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrot crops affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Norway

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis Förster (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a serious insect pest of carrot (Daucus carota L.) in northern Europe, where it can cause up to 100% crop loss. Although it was long believed that T. apicalis causes damage to carrot by injection of toxins into the plant, it was re...

  13. Care and feeding of Orius insidiosus (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae): Assessing the impact of diet on predation following adult female eclosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reproduction in female Orius insidiosus Say (Hemiptera, Anthocoridae) is a stringent process, and requires a source of nutrition high in quantity and quality of protein and lipid for optimal production of eggs. Adults can survive solely on a source of carbohydrates, but at the cost of suspending th...

  14. First record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.

    PubMed

    Cornejo, J F; Chica, E J

    2014-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine (Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America. PMID:25527601

  15. Does cycad aulacaspis scale (Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) play a direct role in causing soil phytotoxicity?

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Gillian; Marler, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Cycad aulacaspis scale (CAS, Aulacaspis yasumatsui, Hemiptera: Diaspididae) was accidentally introduced to Guam in 2003, and has caused acute mortality of the dominant, endemic forest tree Cycas micronesica. A phytotoxic legacy in the soils beneath cycad trees killed by CAS over a period of about three years has been demonstrated. The origin of the toxicity may be large quantities of CAS-encrusted cycad leaf litter. We explore the possibility that a major contribution to this toxic legacy may come from the scale insects, not just from the plant material. PMID:25083170

  16. The Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Damaging Vineyards in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pacheco da Silva, V C; Galzer, E C W; Malausa, T; Germain, J F; Kaydan, M B; Botton, M

    2016-08-01

    In the last decade, the incidence of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards has increased, especially on crops grown under plastic covering, in the Serra Gaúcha region of southern Brazil where the major Brazilian wineries are concentrated. Eggs, nymphs, and female adults were collected in two highly infested vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mealybugs were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). This is a principal mealybug pest of vineyards worldwide, and this is the first record of damage from this species in Brazil. PMID:27143143

  17. A new species of Acyrthosiphon (Hemiptera, Aphididae) from France and Spain.

    PubMed

    Nafría, Juan M Nieto; Aldea, Marta; Castro, Marta

    2015-01-01

    A new species in one of the largest genera of Macrosiphini (Hemiptera, Aphididae), Acyrthosiphon pilosum sp. n., is described from apterous and alate viviparous females and oviparous females from French and Spanish Mediterranean localities, living on species of Ononis (Fabaceae), mainly O. natrix. The new species is characterized by the presence of many accessory setae on the ultimate rostral segment, and usually five setae on the first tarsal segments, a combination that is not present in any other known Acyrthosiphon species; in addition marginal tubercles are present on prothorax and several of abdominal segments 2-5. PMID:25781131

  18. An annotated checklist of the planthoppers of Iran (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoromorpha) with distribution data

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Fariba; Wilson, Michael R

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A list of Hemiptera Fulgoromorpha (planthoppers) of Iran is provided, based primarily on literature records from 1902 to the present. In total 15 families and 235 species are recorded, with taxonomic details. Distribution data in Iran are given. Iranissus ephedrinus Dlabola, 1980 is transferred from Issidae to Nogodinidae. To resolve nomenclatural difficulty the following new combinations in Issidae are given: Iranodus dumetorus (Dlabola, 1981), Iranodus khatunus (Dlabola, 1981) and Iranodus repandus (Dlabola, 1981). Due to published generic synonomy the following are new combinations: Duilius seticulosus (Lethierry, 1874), Duilius tamaricis (Puton & Lethierry, 1887), Duilius tamaricicola (Dubovsky, 1966) and Duilius v-atrum (Dlabola, 1985). PMID:22287883

  19. The genus Arctorthezia Cockerell (Hemiptera, Ortheziidae) with the description of a new species

    PubMed Central

    Szita, Éva; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Fetykó, Kinga; Kozár, Ferenc

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper describes a new species of Arctorthezia Cockerell (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Ortheziidae) from the Palaearctic region. The specimens were extracted from forest litter in the collections of Muséum d’histoire Naturelle de Genève, Switzerland, using Berlese funnels. Three further species, Arctorthezia cataphracta (Olafsen), Arctorthezia occidentalis (Douglas) and Arctorthezia pseudoccidentalis Morrison, are redescribed and re-illustrated. The genus Arctorthezia now contains five species. An identification key, diagnostic illustrations, photographs of unmounted females and new locality records of the Arctorthezia species currently known are provided. PMID:25632249

  20. Relative Abundance of Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) in Females and Males of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    PubMed

    Cooper, W Rodney; Garczynski, Stephen F; Horton, David R

    2015-01-01

    Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) is an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of psyllids that produces essential amino acids that are lacking in the insect's diet. Accurate estimations of Carsonella populations are important to studies of Carsonella-psyllid interactions and to developing ways to target Carsonella for control of psyllid pests including pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). We used two methods, namely fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to estimate relative abundance of Carsonella in bacteriocytes and whole bodies of psyllids, respectively. Using these two methods, we compared Carsonella populations between female and male insects. Estimations using fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that Carsonella was more abundant in bacteriocytes of female C. pyricola than in those of males, but Carsonella abundance in bacteriocytes did not differ between sexes of B. cockerelli. Analyses by qPCR using whole-body specimens indicated Carsonella was more abundant in females than in males of both psyllids. Neither fluorescence in situ hybridization nor qPCR indicated that Carsonella populations differed in abundance among adults of different ages (0-3 wk after adult eclosion). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, Carsonella was observed in ovarioles of newly emerged females and formed an aggregation in the posterior end of mature oocytes. Results of our study indicate that female psyllids harbor greater populations of Carsonella than do males and that sex should be controlled for in studies which require estimations of Carsonella populations. PMID:26056318

  1. Relative Abundance of Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) in Females and Males of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, W. Rodney; Garczynski, Stephen F.; Horton, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Carsonella ruddii (Gamma Proteobacterium) is an obligate bacterial endosymbiont of psyllids that produces essential amino acids that are lacking in the insect’s diet. Accurate estimations of Carsonella populations are important to studies of Carsonella-psyllid interactions and to developing ways to target Carsonella for control of psyllid pests including pear psylla, Cacopsylla pyricola (Förster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae). We used two methods, namely fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), to estimate relative abundance of Carsonella in bacteriocytes and whole bodies of psyllids, respectively. Using these two methods, we compared Carsonella populations between female and male insects. Estimations using fluorescence in situ hybridization indicated that Carsonella was more abundant in bacteriocytes of female C. pyricola than in those of males, but Carsonella abundance in bacteriocytes did not differ between sexes of B. cockerelli. Analyses by qPCR using whole-body specimens indicated Carsonella was more abundant in females than in males of both psyllids. Neither fluorescence in situ hybridization nor qPCR indicated that Carsonella populations differed in abundance among adults of different ages (0–3 wk after adult eclosion). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization, Carsonella was observed in ovarioles of newly emerged females and formed an aggregation in the posterior end of mature oocytes. Results of our study indicate that female psyllids harbor greater populations of Carsonella than do males and that sex should be controlled for in studies which require estimations of Carsonella populations. PMID:26056318

  2. Preparation of Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for Genetic Characterization and Morphological Examination.

    PubMed

    Bahder, B W; Bollinger, M L; Sudarshana, M R; Zalom, F G

    2015-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on many different crops. Because of their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide-mounted specimen. The standard mounting technique does not allow for analysis of the genome of the specimen. Conversely, preparatory techniques for genetic analysis of mealybugs cause either loss of the entire individual or physical damage that can make morphology-based identification difficult. This study describes a simple protocol that does not impact physical integrity of the specimen for fixation and microscopic examination yet enables simultaneous DNA extraction for DNA-based identification of four mealybug species. All species prepared yielded high quality slide mounts, identified as Planococcus citri Risso, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Rhizoecus kondonis Kuwana, or Rhizoecus californicus Ferris. DNA extracted in this manner had higher purity and yield in the final eluate than in samples extracted using standard methods. DNA extracted was successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers for the cytochrome oxidase I gene and subsequently sequenced for all specimens. This protocol is likely to be applicable to other Hemiptera taxa that are preserved by slide mounting, allowing for both the preparation of a high-quality voucher specimen for morphological identification and simultaneous analysis of DNA for the same specimen. The methods used are technically less challenging than current standard procedures. PMID:26198869

  3. Complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the treehopper Leptobelus gazella (Membracoidea: Hemiptera).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xing; Liang, Ai-Ping

    2016-09-01

    The first complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Leptobelus gazelle (Membracoidea: Hemiptera) is determined in this study. The circular molecule is 16,007 bp in its full length, which encodes a set of 37 genes, including 13 proteins, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and contains an A + T-rich region (CR). The gene numbers, content, and organization of L. gazelle are similar to other typical metazoan mitogenomes. Twelve of the 13 PCGs are initiated with ATR methionine or ATT isoleucine codons, except the atp8 gene that uses the ATC isoleucine as start signal. Ten of the 13 PCGs have complete termination codons, either TAA (nine genes) or TAG (cytb). The remaining 3 PCGs (cox1, cox2 and nad5) have incomplete termination codons T (AA). All of the 22 tRNAs can be folded in the form of a typical clover-leaf structure. The complete mitogenome sequence data of L. gazelle is useful for the phylogenetic and biogeographic studies of the Membracoidea and Hemiptera. PMID:25714149

  4. Tracking Our Progress: A Global Monitoring and Evaluation Framework for the UN DESD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilbury, Daniella

    2009-01-01

    The sustainability agenda is a concern of several UN agencies that appreciate how well-being, social justice, human development and the health of our planet are inextricably linked. This remit underpinned the launch of the UN Decade in Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) in 2005. As the DESD reaches its mid-point, mechanisms for assessing…

  5. Review of the planthopper genus Neohemisphaerius (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Issidae) with description of one new species from China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zheng-Guang; Chang, Zhi-Min; Chen, Xiang-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The planthopper genus Neohemisphaerius Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014 (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea: Issidae) is reviewed to include 3 species: Neohemisphaerius wugangensis Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014 (China: Hunan), Neohemisphaerius yangi Chen, Zhang & Chang, 2014 (China: Guangdong) and Neohemisphaerius guangxiensis sp. n. (China: Guangxi). A revised generic diagnosis is given. The new species is described and all species illustrated. A key to these three species is also given. The species Neohemisphaerius signifer (Walker) is transferred back to Hemisphaerius as Hemisphaerius signifer Walker, comb. revived. PMID:27103871

  6. Two more new species of Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae), and a note on variation in Aphidura bozhkoae Narzikulov

    PubMed Central

    Nieto Nafría, Juan M.; Blackman, Roger L.; Martin, Jon H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Aphidura Hille Ris Lambers, 1956 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Macrosiphini) are described; Aphidura libanensis sp. n. from Prunus prostrata in Lebanon, and Aphidura corsicensis sp. n. from Cerastium soleirolii in Corsica (France). Studies of Aphidura bozhkoae specimens from different localities have revealed that this species varies in its pattern of dorsal sclerotisation and other morphological characters, within and between populations. An updated key for identifying the world’s species of Aphidura is presented. PMID:25147453

  7. Two more new species of Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae), and a note on variation in Aphidura bozhkoae Narzikulov.

    PubMed

    Nieto Nafría, Juan M; Blackman, Roger L; Martin, Jon H

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Aphidura Hille Ris Lambers, 1956 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, Macrosiphini) are described; Aphidura libanensis sp. n. from Prunus prostrata in Lebanon, and Aphidura corsicensis sp. n. from Cerastium soleirolii in Corsica (France). Studies of Aphidura bozhkoae specimens from different localities have revealed that this species varies in its pattern of dorsal sclerotisation and other morphological characters, within and between populations. An updated key for identifying the world's species of Aphidura is presented. PMID:25147453

  8. Revision of the Afrotropical genus Fernandea Melichar, 1912 (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Dictyopharidae), with description of a new species from Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Song, Zhi-Shun; Malenovský, Igor; Liang, Ai-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The Afrotropical planthopper genus Fernandea Melichar, 1912 (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Dictyopharidae: Dictyopharinae: Orthopagini) is revised to include two species: F. conradti Melichar, 1912 (the type species), with material studied from Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (Bioko island) and Togo, and F. latifemorata sp. nov., described as new from mainland Equatorial Guinea. A lectotype is designated and a redescription is provided for F. conradti together with habitus photographs and detailed illustrations of the male and female terminalia which are published for the first time. PMID:27470788

  9. The identity of the Brachyplatys species recently introduced to Panama, with a review of bionomics (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae).

    PubMed

    Rédei, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    A recent report of a population of Brachyplatys vahlii (Fabricius, 1787) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae) introduced to Panama is considered as misidentification, the species in concern is recognized as B. subaeneus (Westwood, 1837). Syntypes of B. subaeneus and diagnostic characters of the species are illustrated, published information on its distribution, bionomics and economic importance is reviewed. Syntypes of B. vahlii are illustrated, taxonomic problems in connection with the species are highlighted. PMID:27395708

  10. A new species in the genus Crisicoccus Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), with a key to Chinese species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang-Tao; Wu, San-An

    2016-01-01

    A new mealybug, Crisicoccus ziziphus sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), collected on the leaves and twigs of Ziziphus jujuba (Rhamnaceae), is described from China. All the female developmental stages (adult, third-instar, second-instar and first-instar nymphs) are described and illustrated. Keys are provided to separate the female instars and to identify adult females of Crisicoccus species from China. PMID:27395186